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Sample records for defense preparedness association

  1. Teaching Activities for Defensive Living and Emergency Preparedness. Education Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Grit, Ed.; And Others

    Designed for teaching a generalized program in emergency preparedness education, the eight units of the manual can be used together or alone in any course that teaches human response to emergency preparedness or in physical education, recreation, health, biology, physiology, or science classes. The guide includes an introduction and seven major…

  2. 3 CFR 13603 - Executive Order 13603 of March 16, 2012. National Defense Resources Preparedness

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... production increases in national emergencies; and (2) perform industry analyses to assess capabilities of the... international competitiveness of specific domestic industries and their abilities to meet national defense..., use of petroleum and gas pipelines, and coal slurry pipelines used only to supply energy...

  3. Emergency Preparedness Education: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoffel, Robert, Ed.; LaValla, Patrick, Ed.

    The book is a collection of emergency preparedness instruction materials. It starts with the first chapter of "Living Life's Emergencies" by Robert Stoffel and Patrick LaValla which introduces emergency preparedness education, focusing on six major components (human body management, defensive living, time lag, disaster and civil preparedness,…

  4. Plant defense associations in the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littler, Mark M.; Taylor, Phillip R.; Littler, Diane S.

    1986-10-01

    In contrast to terrestrial systems, few positive plant-plant associations have been recorded in tropical reef environments. This study, conducted at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize during 28 March 10 April 1984, provides the first documentation of herbivore escapes for natural combinations of palatable and unpalatable marine plants. For example, there was a highly significant association of several macrophyte taxa ( Laurencia poitei, Dictyota spp., Amphiroa fragilissima, Cladophoropsis macromeres, Galaxaura cylindrica, rhodophycean turf) within a 2.0-cm radius of the herbivore-resistant brown alga Stypopodium zonale. Almost twice as many taxa occurred within 10 cm of S. zonale as within 10 cm of an equal number of random Stypopodium-free points, and there were no algal species negatively associated with S. zonale. The association of A. tribulus, L. poitei, Digenia simplex, rhodophycean turf, and Jania adherens with S. zonale provided them a fourfold greater survivorship per 48 h in the presence of grazing activity by fishes (mainly Acanthuridae and Scaridae). Reduced herbivory by fishes on macroalgae associated with S. zonale was not solely a consequence of its structural aspect. Losses of the palatable alga Acanthophora spicifera were significantly greater for thalli spatially remote (30 and 60 cm) from either a real or simulated Stypopodium; however, losses of A. spicifera adjacent to actual Stypopodium plants were significantly less than the losses next to models. The inter-relationships studied here, where an abundant and well-defended plant provides a significant refuge habitat for at least five relatively edible macroalgae, clearly facilitates the survival of certain taxa in the reef system and concomitantly enhances the within habitat diversity. Our findings also suggest an interaction counter to the process of competitive exclusion, since the single predominant plant has a positive rather than negative net effect on the abundances of other species that utilize the

  5. Disaster Preparedness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Constance

    Most librarians know the importance of disaster preparedness. Many disasters could have been prevented altogether or have had reduced impact if institutions had been better prepared. This resource guide suggests how disaster preparedness can be achieved at cultural institutions. Twenty-three basic resource articles are presented to introduce…

  6. Influences of Preparedness Knowledge and Beliefs on Household Disaster Preparedness.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Tracy N; Leander-Griffith, Michelle; Harp, Victoria; Cioffi, Joan P

    2015-01-01

    In response to concern about strengthening the nation's ability to protect its population and way of life (i.e., security) and ability to adapt and recover from emergencies (i.e., resilience), the President of the United States issued Presidential Policy Directive 8: National Preparedness (PPD-8) (1). Signed on March 30, 2011, PPD-8 is a directive for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security to coordinate a comprehensive campaign across government, private and nonprofit sectors, and individuals to build and sustain national preparedness. Despite efforts by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and other organizations to educate U.S. residents on becoming prepared, growth in specific preparedness behaviors, including actions taken in advance of a disaster to be better prepared to respond to and recover, has been limited (2). In 2012, only 52% of U.S. residents surveyed by FEMA reported having supplies for a disaster (2), a decline from 57% who reported having such supplies in 2009 (3). It is believed that knowledge influences behavior, and that attitudes and beliefs, which are correlated with knowledge, might also influence behavior (4). To determine the association between knowledge and beliefs and household preparedness, CDC analyzed baseline data from Ready CDC, a personal disaster preparedness intervention piloted among Atlanta- and Morgantown-based CDC staff members during 2013–2015. Compared with persons with basic preparedness knowledge, persons with advanced knowledge were more likely to have assembled an emergency kit (44% versus 17%), developed a written household disaster plan (9% versus 4%), and received county emergency alert notifications (63% versus 41%). Similarly, differences in household preparedness behaviors were correlated with beliefs about preparedness. Persons identified as having strong beliefs in the effectiveness of disaster preparedness engaged in preparedness behaviors at levels 7%–30% higher than those with weaker

  7. Emergency preparedness

    SciTech Connect

    Yanev, P.I.; Hom, S.; Kircher, C.A.; Bailey, N.D.

    1985-01-01

    These lecture notes include the following subject areas: (1) earthquake mitigation planning - general approach and in-house program; (2) seismic protection of equipment and non-structural systems; and (3) disaster preparedness and self help program. (ACR)

  8. Preparedness 101: Zombie Pandemic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Preparedness and Response Activities Public Health Preparedness Capabilities Cities Readiness Initiative Funding and Technical Assistance Healthcare Preparedness Subscribe to Receive Updates Planning Resources Communities Community Planning Framework for Healthcare Preparedness ...

  9. Disaster Preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Achora, Susan; Kamanyire, Joy K.

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing global frequency of disasters, the call for disaster preparedness training needs to be reinforced. Nurses form the largest group of the healthcare workforce and are often on the frontline in disaster management. Therefore, nurses should be adequately equipped with the knowledge and skills to respond to disasters, starting from their pre-service training to their in-service professional training. However, the inclusion of disaster preparedness education in undergraduate nursing curricula is minimal in most countries. The purpose of this article is to highlight the current state of nursing education and training in disaster management, both generally and in Oman. The significance of disaster preparedness training and recommendations for its inclusion in nursing practice and education are also discussed. PMID:26909207

  10. Radiological Defense. Textbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Washington, DC.

    This textbook has been prepared under the direction of the Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DCPA) Staff College for use as a student reference manual in radiological defense (RADEF) courses. It provides much of the basic technical information necessary for a proper understanding of radiological defense and summarizes RADEF planning and expected…

  11. The role of public health nurses in emergency preparedness and response: a position paper of the Association of State and Territorial Directors of Nursing.

    PubMed

    Jakeway, Carole C; LaRosa, Glynnis; Cary, Ann; Schoenfisch, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    The Association of State and Territorial Directors of Nursing vision for emergency preparedness is that every community, family, and individual will have a comprehensive emergency preparedness plan that minimizes the consequences of disasters and emergencies, and enables communities, families, and individuals to respond and recover. This position paper provides national and state policy guidance during emergencies to all public health nurses in the United States and its Territories. Public health nurses bring critical experience to each phase of a disaster: mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. Public health nurses strive to achieve individual competencies so that they may better collaborate with others and contribute to emergency preparedness and response. Twelve Emergency Preparedness Competencies are listed in this position paper that will assist public health nurses with disaster prevention, planning, response, recovery, drills, exercises, and training. This position paper will be useful in clarifying the expertise that public health nurses can contribute to teams that serve to protect the health and safety of communities against disaster threats and realities. PMID:18666941

  12. Hurricane Preparedness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Edit Zip Code Edit Zip Code Shop the Red Cross Store Home Get Help Types of Emergencies Hurricane Preparedness Download the FREE Emergency App Find our Emergency App in the Apple Store or Google Play Aplicación de Emergencias - ahora ...

  13. Hurricane Preparedness

    MedlinePlus

    ... one app. Text GETEMERGENCY to 90999 or search "Red Cross Emergency" in the Apple App Store or Google Play Store . Prepare for Hurricanes Are You Ready for a Hurricane? Ruben Brown of the American Red Cross helps a family assemble a preparedness kit ...

  14. Energy emergency preparedness

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, B.K.; Rothkopf, M.H.

    1988-06-01

    Energy emergency preparedness is the special responsibility of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Energy Emergencies within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for International Affairs and Energy Emergencies; though other Department of Energy (DOE) offices manage some aspects and DOE also coordinates emergency management with other federal departments. There are two basic objectives for energy emergency preparedness. The first of these, the economic stabilization objective, seeks to ease the impact of an energy supply disruption by facilitating a quick recovery and minimizing the disruption's economic consequences. The second is the mobilization support objective to ensure that there is adequate energy and fuel to support defense, defense industrial and critical civilian needs for energy and fuel. While all energy systems are vulnerable they vary in the degree of seriousness and the probability of a disruption. Oil is the most vulnerable, and will become increasingly so in the 1990's, as domestic and reliable foreign sources diminish and the United States relies more on imports from volatile Persian Gulf countries. Electric power is the next most vulnerable system, being open particularly to multi-site terrorist attack. This overview examines two highly connected organizations: the Office of Energy Emergencies (OEE) itself and the actual response organization, centering on the Energy Emergency Management System (EEMS). 38 refs., 10 figs.

  15. Legal Preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Courtney, Brooke; Hodge, James G.; Toner, Eric S.; Roxland, Beth E.; Penn, Matthew S.; Devereaux, Asha V.; Dichter, Jeffrey R.; Kissoon, Niranjan; Christian, Michael D.; Powell, Tia

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Significant legal challenges arise when health-care resources become scarce and population-based approaches to care are implemented during severe disasters and pandemics. Recent emergencies highlight the serious legal, economic, and health impacts that can be associated with responding in austere conditions and the critical importance of comprehensive, collaborative health response system planning. This article discusses legal suggestions developed by the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) Task Force for Mass Critical Care to support planning and response efforts for mass casualty incidents involving critically ill or injured patients. The suggestions in this chapter are important for all of those involved in a pandemic or disaster with multiple critically ill or injured patients, including front-line clinicians, hospital administrators, and public health or government officials. METHODS Following the CHEST Guidelines Oversight Committee’s methodology, the Legal Panel developed 35 key questions for which specific literature searches were then conducted. The literature in this field is not suitable to provide support for evidence-based recommendations. Therefore, the panel developed expert opinion-based suggestions using a modified Delphi process resulting in seven final suggestions. RESULTS Acceptance is widespread for the health-care community’s duty to appropriately plan for and respond to severe disasters and pandemics. Hospitals, public health entities, and clinicians have an obligation to develop comprehensive, vetted plans for mass casualty incidents involving critically ill or injured patients. Such plans should address processes for evacuation and limited appeals and reviews of care decisions. To legitimize responses, deter independent actions, and trigger liability protections, mass critical care (MCC) plans should be formally activated when facilities and practitioners shift to providing MCC. Adherence to official MCC plans should

  16. Neurophysiological evidence of an association between cognitive control and defensive reactivity processes in young children

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Sharon L.; Schroder, Hans S.; Moran, Tim P.; Durbin, C. Emily; Moser, Jason S.

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between cognitive control and affective processes, such as defensive reactivity, are intimately involved in healthy and unhealthy human development. However, cognitive control and defensive reactivity processes are often studied in isolation and rarely examined in early childhood. To address these gaps, we examined the relationships between multiple neurophysiological measures of cognitive control and defensive reactivity in young children. Specifically, we assessed two event-related potentials thought to index cognitive control processes – the error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe) – measured across two tasks, and two markers of defensive reactivity processes – startle reflex and resting parietal asymmetry – in a sample of 3- to 7-year old children. Results revealed that measures of cognitive control and defensive reactivity were related such that evidence of poor cognitive control (smaller ERN) was associated with high defensive reactivity (larger startle and greater right relative to left parietal activity). The strength of associations between the ERN and measures of defensive reactivity did not vary by age, providing evidence that poor cognitive control relates to greater defensive reactivity across early childhood years. PMID:26386550

  17. The Japan Medical Association's disaster preparedness: lessons from the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Masami; Nagata, Takashi

    2013-10-01

    A complex disaster, the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011, consisted of a large-scale earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear accident, resulting in more than 15 000 fatalities, injuries, and missing persons and damage over a 500-km area. The entire Japanese public was profoundly affected by "3/11." The risk of radiation exposure initially delayed the medical response, prolonging the recovery efforts. Japan's representative medical organization, the Japan Medical Association (JMA), began dispatching Japan Medical Association Teams (JMATs) to affected areas beginning March 15, 2011. About 1400 JMATs comprising nearly 5500 health workers were launched. The JMA coordinated JMAT operations and cooperated in conducting postmortem examination, transporting large quantities of medical supplies, and establishing a multiorganizational council to provide health assistance to disaster survivors. Importantly, these response efforts contributed to the complete recovery of the health care system in affected areas within 3 months, and by July 15, 2011, JMATs were withdrawn. Subsequently, JMATs II have been providing long-term continuing medical support to disaster-affected areas. However, Japan is at great risk for future natural disasters because of its Pacific Rim location. Also, its rapidly aging population, uneven distribution of and shortage of medical resources in regional communities, and an overburdened public health insurance system highlight the need for a highly prepared and effective disaster response system. PMID:24274130

  18. 33 CFR 203.21 - Disaster preparedness responsibilities of non-Federal interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disaster preparedness..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT OF ARMY AND OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Disaster Preparedness § 203.21 Disaster preparedness responsibilities of...

  19. Allocation Costs Associated with Induced Defense in Phaeocystis globosa (Prymnesiophyceae): the Effects of Nutrient Availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Wang, Yan; Ou, Linjian; He, Xuejia; Chen, Da

    2015-06-01

    Colony enlargement in Phaeocystis globosa has been considered as an induced defense strategy that reduces its susceptibility to grazers, but allocation costs inflicted by this plastic morphological defense are poorly understood. We conducted experiments in which P. globosa cultures were exposed to chemical cues from copepods, ciliates and heterotrophic dinoflagellates, respectively, under nutrient sufficient and deficient conditions to evaluate allocation costs associated with induced defense. Phaeocystis globosa responded to chemical cues from grazers by increasing colony diameter irrespective of nutrient conditions. We did not find trade-offs between induced defense and growth rate under nutrient sufficient conditions. Instead, induced defensive P. globosa had higher growth rates than non-induced P. globosa. When nutrient became limited, P. globosa exposed to grazing cues from copepods and dinoflagellates had significantly decreased growth rates when compared with non-induced P. globosa. We suggested that the decreased growth revealed allocation costs associated with induced defense that may influence on the trophic interactions between Phaeocystis and consumers.

  20. Allocation Costs Associated with Induced Defense in Phaeocystis globosa (Prymnesiophyceae): the Effects of Nutrient Availability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaodong; Wang, Yan; Ou, Linjian; He, Xuejia; Chen, Da

    2015-01-01

    Colony enlargement in Phaeocystis globosa has been considered as an induced defense strategy that reduces its susceptibility to grazers, but allocation costs inflicted by this plastic morphological defense are poorly understood. We conducted experiments in which P. globosa cultures were exposed to chemical cues from copepods, ciliates and heterotrophic dinoflagellates, respectively, under nutrient sufficient and deficient conditions to evaluate allocation costs associated with induced defense. Phaeocystis globosa responded to chemical cues from grazers by increasing colony diameter irrespective of nutrient conditions. We did not find trade-offs between induced defense and growth rate under nutrient sufficient conditions. Instead, induced defensive P. globosa had higher growth rates than non-induced P. globosa. When nutrient became limited, P. globosa exposed to grazing cues from copepods and dinoflagellates had significantly decreased growth rates when compared with non-induced P. globosa. We suggested that the decreased growth revealed allocation costs associated with induced defense that may influence on the trophic interactions between Phaeocystis and consumers. PMID:26040243

  1. Rural Hospital Preparedness for Neonatal Resuscitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jukkala, Angela; Henly, Susan J.; Lindeke, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Context: Neonatal resuscitation is a critical component of perinatal services in all settings. Purpose: To systematically describe preparedness of rural hospitals for neonatal resuscitation, and to determine whether delivery volume and level of perinatal care were associated with overall preparedness or its indicators. Methods: We developed the…

  2. Hyperleptinemia is associated with impaired pulmonary host defense

    PubMed Central

    Ubags, Niki D.J.; Stapleton, Renee D.; Vernooy, Juanita H.J.; Burg, Elianne; Bement, Jenna; Hayes, Catherine M.; Ventrone, Sebastian; Zabeau, Lennart; Tavernier, Jan; Poynter, Matthew E.; Parsons, Polly E.; Dixon, Anne E.; Wargo, Matthew J.; Littenberg, Benjamin; Wouters, Emiel F.M.; Suratt, Benjamin T.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously reported that obesity attenuates pulmonary inflammation in both patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and in mouse models of the disease. We hypothesized that obesity-associated hyperleptinemia, and not body mass per se, drives attenuation of the pulmonary inflammatory response and that this e_ect could also impair the host response to pneumonia. We examined the correlation between circulating leptin levels and risk, severity, and outcome of pneumonia in 2 patient cohorts (NHANES III and ARDSNet-ALVEOLI) and in mouse models of diet-induced obesity and lean hyperleptinemia. Plasma leptin levels in ambulatory subjects (NHANES) correlated positively with annual risk of respiratory infection independent of BMI. In patients with severe pneumonia resulting in ARDS (ARDSNet-ALVEOLI), plasma leptin levels were found to correlate positively with subsequent mortality. In obese mice with pneumonia, plasma leptin levels were associated with pneumonia severity, and in obese mice with sterile lung injury, leptin levels were inversely related to bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophilia, as well as to plasma IL-6 and G-CSF levels. These results were recapitulated in lean mice with experimentally induced hyperleptinemia. Our findings suggest that the association between obesity and elevated risk of pulmonary infection may be driven by hyperleptinemia. PMID:27347561

  3. American Bar Association Supplementary Guidelines for the Mitigation Function of Defense Teams in Death Penalty Cases: Implications for Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Arlene Bowers

    2012-01-01

    When a client faces a penalty of death, defense attorneys may call on social workers in many capacities: mitigation specialist, expert witness, consulting specialist, direct witness, or defense-initiated victim outreach worker. The American Bar Association set forth standards for capital defense attorneys, which led an interdisciplinary team to…

  4. Host differentially expressed genes during association with its defensive endosymbiont.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Meril; Lopanik, Nicole B

    2014-04-01

    Mutualism, a beneficial relationship between two species, often requires intimate interaction between the host and symbiont to establish and maintain the partnership. The colonial marine bryozoan Bugula neritina harbors an as yet uncultured endosymbiont, "Candidatus Endobugula sertula," throughout its life stages. The bacterial symbiont is the putative source of bioactive complex polyketide metabolites, the bryostatins, which chemically defend B. neritina larvae from predation. Despite the presence of "Ca. Endobugula sertula" in all life stages of the host, deterrent bryostatins appear to be concentrated in reproductive portions of the host colony, suggesting an interaction between the two partners to coordinate production and distribution of the metabolites within the colony. In this study, we identified host genes that were differentially expressed in control colonies and in colonies cured of the symbiont. Genes that code for products similar to glycosyl hydrolase family 9 and family 20 proteins, actin, and a Rho-GDP dissociation inhibitor were significantly downregulated (more than twice) in antibiotic-cured non-reproductive zooids compared to control symbiotic ones. Differential expression of these genes leads us to hypothesize that the host B. neritina may regulate the distribution of the symbiont within the colony via mechanisms of biofilm degradation and actin rearrangement, and consequently, influences bryostatin localization to bestow symbiont-associated protection to larvae developing in the reproductive zooids. PMID:24797097

  5. Exploring the association of ego defense mechanisms with problematic internet use in a Pakistani medical school.

    PubMed

    Waqas, Ahmed; Rehman, Abdul; Malik, Aamenah; Aftab, Ramsha; Allah Yar, Aroosa; Allah Yar, Arooj; Rai, Aitzaz Bin Sultan

    2016-09-30

    The present study was designed to analyze association between problematic internet use and use of ego defense mechanisms in medical students. This cross-sectional study was undertaken at CMH Lahore Medical College (CMH LMC) in Lahore, Pakistan from 1st March, 2015 to 30th May, 2015. 522 medical and dental students were included in the study. The questionnaire consisted of three sections: a) demographic characteristics of respondent b) the Defense Style Questionnaire-40 (DSQ-40) and c) the Internet Addiction Test (IAT). All data were analyzed in SPSS v20. Chi square, Independent sample t test and One Way ANOVA were run to analyze association of different variables with scores on IAT. Multiple regression analysis was used to delineate ego defenses as predictors of problematic internet use. A total of 32 (6.1%) students reported severe problems with internet usage. Males had higher scores on IAT i.e had more problematic use of internet. Scores on internet addiction test (IAT) were negatively associated with sublimation and positively associated with projection, denial, autistic fantasy, passive aggression and displacement. There was a high prevalence of problematic use of internet among medical and dental students. It had significant associations with several defense mechanisms. PMID:27504797

  6. Computational identification of genetic subnetwork modules associated with maize defense response to Fusarium verticillioides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Maize, a crop of global significance, is vulnerable to a variety of biotic stresses resulting in economic losses. Fusarium verticillioides (teleomorph Gibberella moniliformis) is one of the key fungal pathogens of maize, causing ear rots and stalk rots. To better understand the genetic mechanisms involved in maize defense as well as F. verticillioides virulence, a systematic investigation of the host-pathogen interaction is needed. The aim of this study was to computationally identify potential maize subnetwork modules associated with its defense response against F. verticillioides. Results We obtained time-course RNA-seq data from B73 maize inoculated with wild type F. verticillioides and a loss-of-virulence mutant, and subsequently established a computational pipeline for network-based comparative analysis. Specifically, we first analyzed the RNA-seq data by a cointegration-correlation-expression approach, where maize genes were jointly analyzed with known F. verticillioides virulence genes to find candidate maize genes likely associated with the defense mechanism. We predicted maize co-expression networks around the selected maize candidate genes based on partial correlation, and subsequently searched for subnetwork modules that were differentially activated when inoculated with two different fungal strains. Based on our analysis pipeline, we identified four potential maize defense subnetwork modules. Two were directly associated with maize defense response and were associated with significant GO terms such as GO:0009817 (defense response to fungus) and GO:0009620 (response to fungus). The other two predicted modules were indirectly involved in the defense response, where the most significant GO terms associated with these modules were GO:0046914 (transition metal ion binding) and GO:0046686 (response to cadmium ion). Conclusion Through our RNA-seq data analysis, we have shown that a network-based approach can enhance our understanding of the

  7. Nutritional and pathogenic fungi associated with the pine engraver beetle trigger comparable defenses in Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Villari, Caterina; Battisti, Andrea; Chakraborty, Sourav; Michelozzi, Marco; Bonello, Pierluigi; Faccoli, Massimo

    2012-07-01

    Conifer bark beetles are often associated with fungal complexes whose components have different ecological roles. Some associated species are nutritionally obligate fungi, serving as nourishment to the larvae, whereas others are pathogenic blue-stain fungi known to be involved in the interaction with host defenses. In this study we characterized the local and systemic defense responses of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) against Ophiostoma brunneo-ciliatum Math. (a blue-stain pathogen) and Hyalorhinocladiella macrospora (Franke-Grosm.) Harr. (a nutritional fungus). These fungi are the principal associates of the pine engraver beetle, Ips acuminatus (Gyll.). Host responses were studied following inoculation with the fungi, singly and as a fungal complex, and by identifying and quantifying terpenoids, phenolic compounds and lignin. Although the length of the necrotic lesions differed between control (wound) and fungal treatments, only two compounds (pinosylvin monomethyl ether and (+)-α-pinene) were significantly affected by the presence of the fungi, indicating that Scots pine has a generic, rather than specific, induced response. The fact that both nutritional and blue-stain fungi triggered comparable induced defense responses suggests that even a non-pathogenic fungus may participate in exhausting host plant defenses, indirectly assisting in the beetle establishment process. Our findings contribute to the further development of current theory on the role of associated fungal complexes in bark beetle ecology. PMID:22718525

  8. Assessing public health emergency preparedness: concepts, tools, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Christopher; Lurie, Nicole; Wasserman, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    Policymakers are increasingly seeking to determine whether the federal government's recent investments in public health preparedness have left the public health system better prepared to respond to large-scale public health emergencies. Yet, there remain questions about how to define "public health emergency preparedness," how much preparedness is enough, and how preparedness can be measured and assessed. This chapter identifies the key challenges associated with measuring public health preparedness and reviews approaches currently in use. We also identify some emerging measurement techniques that might help address some of these challenges. PMID:17129174

  9. Financing hospital disaster preparedness.

    PubMed

    De Lorenzo, Robert A

    2007-01-01

    Disaster preparedness and response have gained increased attention in the United States as a result of terrorism and disaster threats. However, funding of hospital preparedness, especially surge capacity, has lagged behind other preparedness priorities. Only a small portion of the money allocated for national preparedness is directed toward health care, and hospitals receive very little of that. Under current policy, virtually the entire funding stream for hospital preparedness comes from general tax revenues. Medical payers (e.g., Medicare, Medicaid, and private insurance) directly fund little, if any, of the current bill. Funding options to improve preparedness include increasing the current federal grants allocated to hospitals, using payer fees or a tax to subsidize preparedness, and financing other forms of expansion capability, such as mobile hospitals. Alternatively, the status quo of marginal preparedness can be maintained. In any event, achieving higher levels of preparedness likely will take the combined commitment of the hospital industry, public and private payers, and federal, state, and local governments. Ultimately, the costs of preparedness will be borne by the public in the form of taxes, higher healthcare costs, or through the acceptance of greater risk. PMID:18087914

  10. 77 FR 16651 - National Defense Resources Preparedness

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... person. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, March 16, 2012. [FR Doc. 2012-7019 Filed 3-21-12; 8:45 am... commercial fertilizer; (2) the Secretary of Energy with respect to all forms of energy; (3) the Secretary of... for market use of food resources. (d) ``Fertilizer'' means any product or combination of products...

  11. 47 CFR 0.181 - The Defense Commissioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false The Defense Commissioner. 0.181 Section 0.181..., Defense and Emergency Preparedness Functions § 0.181 The Defense Commissioner. The Defense Commissioner is designated by the Commission. The Defense Commissioner directs the homeland security, national security...

  12. Enhanced Agrobacterium-mediated transformation efficiencies in monocot cells is associated with attenuated defense responses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wan-Jun; Dewey, Ralph E; Boss, Wendy; Phillippy, Brian Q; Qu, Rongda

    2013-02-01

    Plant defense responses can lead to altered metabolism and even cell death at the sites of Agrobacterium infection, and thus lower transformation frequencies. In this report, we demonstrate that the utilization of culture conditions associated with an attenuation of defense responses in monocot plant cells led to highly improved Agrobacterium-mediated transformation efficiencies in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The removal of myo-inositol from the callus culture media in combination with a cold shock pretreatment and the addition of L-Gln prior to and during Agrobacterium-infection resulted in about 84 % of the treated calluses being stably transformed. The omission of myo-inositol from the callus culture media was associated with the failure of certain pathogenesis related genes to be induced after Agrobacterium infection. The addition of a cold shock and supplemental Gln appeared to have synergistic effects on infection and transformation efficiencies. Nearly 60 % of the stably transformed calluses regenerated into green plantlets. Calluses cultured on media lacking myo-inositol also displayed profound physiological and biochemical changes compared to ones cultured on standard growth media, such as reduced lignin within the cell walls, increased starch and inositol hexaphosphate accumulation, enhanced Agrobacterium binding to the cell surface, and less H(2)O(2) production after Agrobacterium infection. Furthermore, the cold treatment greatly reduced callus browning after infection. The simple modifications described in this report may have broad application for improving genetic transformation of recalcitrant monocot species. PMID:23242917

  13. Vested interest, disaster preparedness, and strategic campaign message design.

    PubMed

    Adame, Bradley J; Miller, Claude H

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the United States has recognized an increasing need for individual-level disaster preparedness, with federal, state, and local government agencies finding only limited success in instituting campaign-based disaster preparedness programs. Extant research indicates Americans generally remain poorly informed and badly unprepared for imminent disasters. Vested interest theory (Crano, 1997) is presented as a framework for designing and testing the effectiveness of television-based disaster preparedness campaign messages. High- and low-vested versions of an extant control message are compared to assess message efficacy as indicated by behavioral intentions, message acceptance, and preparedness related attitudes. Results indicate television-based video public service announcements manipulated with subtle message variations can be effective at influencing critical preparedness-related attitudes. The high-vested condition performed significantly better than the low-vested and control conditions for both behavioral intentions and perceptions of self-efficacy, two vitally important outcome variables associated with disaster preparedness. PMID:24837442

  14. 47 CFR 0.181 - The Defense Commissioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false The Defense Commissioner. 0.181 Section 0.181 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION Organization Homeland Security, Defense and Emergency Preparedness Functions § 0.181 The Defense Commissioner. The Defense Commissioner is designated by the...

  15. 47 CFR 0.181 - The Defense Commissioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false The Defense Commissioner. 0.181 Section 0.181 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION Organization Homeland Security, Defense and Emergency Preparedness Functions § 0.181 The Defense Commissioner. The Defense Commissioner is designated by the...

  16. 17. Introduction to preparedness.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    Preparedness is the aggregate of all measures and policies adopted before an event occurs that promotes mitigation of the damage caused by an event and minimises the dysfunction that could result from the damage. More specifically, it includes all planning and resources that are devoted to preventing deaths and morbidity and, thus, to the alleviation of human (individual and collective) suffering during and after the event has taken place. It consists of measures that individuals, a family, a community, locale, country, region, institution, and states maintain, at a particular time, to combat the potential deleterious effects of hazards. Preparedness includes the absorbing, buffering, and response capacities; it also has been called the resilience of the society at risk, to a hazard(s). As the level of preparedness increases, the vulnerability of the community at risk decreases. Preparedness is difficult to measure. The impact of preparedness measures cannot be realised until the next event occurs or it has been shown to be of benefit during disaster drills and exercises. Hence, investments in preparedness have been relatively meager worldwide. PMID:24785814

  17. Assessment of the fiscal year 1997 Department of Defense budget and program activities for domestic defense against weapons of mass destruction. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Guenther, G.R.

    1997-12-01

    This thesis examines Department of Defense involvement in U.S. preparedness to manage the consequences of a nuclear, radiological, biological, or chemical terrorist attack against its cities. It analyzes the establishment and implementation of the Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act of 1996 which directed the Department of Defense to assist in the training of state and local emergency response agencies involved in consequence management activities. The historical analysis focuses on the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, major terrorist incidents since 1993, international standards, and legislative and executive efforts undertaken to combat terrorism up to 1996. The $150 million Nunn Lugar Domenici amendment to the FY-97 National Defense Authorization Bill is examined in detail from introduction on the Senate floor to eventual passage and enactment. Problems and policy issues associated with resourcing and implementing the resulting Domestic Preparedness Program are treated. Although the DoD was given responsibility for implementing city training, an interagency effort ensued involving the Public Health Service, Environmental Protection Agency, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Energy, and others. Potential weaknesses may materialize due to several characteristics of the Domestic Preparedness Program, including its novelty and uniqueness, the unorthodox legislative process by which it was established, and its complex organizational structure and temporary nature.

  18. Association of Ego Defense Mechanisms with Academic Performance, Anxiety and Depression in Medical Students: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Waqas, Ahmed; Malik, Aamenah; Muhammad, Umer; Khan, Sarah; Mahmood, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ego defense mechanisms are unconscious psychological processes that help an individual to prevent anxiety when exposed to a stressful situation. These mechanisms are important in psychiatric practice to assess an individual’s personality dynamics, psychopathologies, and modes of coping with stressful situations, and hence, to design appropriate individualized treatment. Our study delineates the relationship of ego defense mechanisms with anxiety, depression, and academic performance of Pakistani medical students. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done at CMH Lahore Medical College and Fatima Memorial Hospital Medical and Dental College, both in Lahore, Pakistan, from December 1, 2014 to January 15, 2015. Convenience sampling was used and only students who agreed to take part in this study were included. The questionnaire consisted of three sections: 1) Demographics, documenting demographic data and academic scores on participants’ most recent exams; 2) Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); and 3) Defense Style Questionnaire-40 (DSQ-40). The data were analyzed with SPSS v. 20. Mean scores and frequencies were calculated for demographic variables and ego defense mechanisms. Bivariate correlations, one-way ANOVA, and multiple linear regression were used to identify associations between academic scores, demographics, ego defense mechanisms, anxiety, and depression. Results: A total of 409 medical students participated, of whom 286 (70%) were females and 123 (30%) were males. Mean percentage score on the most recent exams was 75.6% in medical students. Bivariate correlation revealed a direct association between mature and neurotic ego defense mechanisms and academic performance, and an indirect association between immature mechanisms and academic performance. One-way ANOVA showed that moderate levels of anxiety (P < .05) and low levels of depression (P < .05) were associated with higher academic performance. Conclusion: There was a

  19. Academic-community partnerships for sustainable preparedness and response systems.

    PubMed

    Isakov, Alexander; O'Neal, Patrick; Prescott, John; Stanley, Joan; Herrmann, Jack; Dunlop, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Academic institutions possess tremendous resources that could be important for community disaster response and preparedness activities. In-depth exploration of the role of academic institutions in community disaster response has elicited information about particular academic resources leveraged for and essential to community preparedness and response; factors that contribute to the decision-making process for partner engagement; and facilitators of and barriers to sustainable collaborations from the perspectives of academic institutions, public health and emergency management agencies, and national association and agency leaders. The Academic-Community Partnership Project of the Emory University Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Center in collaboration with the Association of Schools of Public Health convened an invitational summit which included leadership from the National Association of County and City Health Officials, Association of State and Territorial Health Officials, Directors of Public Health Preparedness, Department of Health and Human Services Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, CDC Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response, Association of Schools of Public Health, Association of American Medical Colleges, Association of Academic Health Centers, American Association of Colleges of Nursing, Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, and American Association of Poison Control Centers. From this convention, emerged recommendations for building and sustaining academic-public health-community collaborations for preparedness locally and regionally. PMID:25068939

  20. How does the foraging behavior of large herbivores cause different associational plant defenses?

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yue; Wang, Ling; Wang, Deli; Zeng, De-Hui; Liu, Chen

    2016-01-01

    The attractant-decoy hypothesis predicts that focal plants can defend against herbivory by neighboring with preferred plant species when herbivores make decisions at the plant species scale. The repellent-plant hypothesis assumes that focal plants will gain protection by associating with nonpreferred neighbors when herbivores are selective at the patch scale. However, herbivores usually make foraging decisions at these scales simultaneously. The net outcomes of the focal plant vulnerability could depend on the spatial scale at which the magnitude of selectivity by the herbivores is stronger. We quantified and compared the within- and between-patch overall selectivity index (OSI) of sheep to examine the relationships between associational plant effects and herbivore foraging selectivity. We found that the sheep OSI was stronger at the within- than the between-patch scale, but focal plant vulnerability followed both hypotheses. Focal plants defended herbivory with preferred neighbors when the OSI difference between the two scales was large. Focal plants gained protection with nonpreferred neighbors when the OSI difference was narrowed. Therefore, the difference in selectivity by the herbivores between the relevant scales results in different associational plant defenses. Our study suggests important implications for understanding plant-herbivore interactions and grassland management. PMID:26847834

  1. Oxidative Stress Is Associated with an Increased Antioxidant Defense in Elderly Subjects: A Multilevel Approach

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Mateo, Gemma; Elosua, Roberto; Rodriguez-Blanco, Teresa; Basora-Gallisà, Josep; Bulló, Mònica; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Estruch, Ramon; Corella, Dolores; Fitó, Montserrat; Fiol, Miquel; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Subirana, Isaac; Lapetra, José; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Sáez, Guillermo T.; Covas, Maria-Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies of associations between plasma GSH-Px activity and cardiovascular risk factors have been done in humans, and contradictory results have been reported. The aim of our study was to assess the association between the scavenger antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in plasma and the presence of novel and classical cardiovascular risk factors in elderly patients. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study with baseline data from a subsample of the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea) study in Spain. Participants were 1,060 asymptomatic subjects at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), aged 55 to 80, selected from 8 primary health care centers (PHCCs). We assessed classical CVD risk factors, plasma oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) using multilevel statistical procedures. Results Mean GSH-Px value was 612 U/L (SE: 12 U/L), with variation between PHCCs ranging from 549 to 674 U/L (Variance = 1013.5; P<0.001). Between-participants variability within a PHCC accounted for 89% of the total variation. Both glucose and oxidized LDL were positively associated with GSH-Px activity after adjustment for possible confounder variables (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01, respectively). Conclusion In a population at high cardiovascular risk, a positive linear association was observed between plasma GSH-Px activity and both glucose and ox-LDL levels. The high GSH-Px activity observed when an oxidative stress situation occurred, such as hyperglycemia and lipid oxidative damage, could be interpreted as a healthy defensive response against oxidative injury in our cardiovascular risk population. PMID:25269026

  2. Genome Wide Association Mapping in Arabidopsis thaliana Identifies Novel Genes Involved in Linking Allyl Glucosinolate to Altered Biomass and Defense

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, Marta; Joseph, Bindu; Caligagan, Hart; Li, Baohua; Corwin, Jason A.; Lin, Catherine; Kerwin, Rachel E.; Burow, Meike; Kliebenstein, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    A key limitation in modern biology is the ability to rapidly identify genes underlying newly identified complex phenotypes. Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have become an increasingly important approach for dissecting natural variation by associating phenotypes with genotypes at a genome wide level. Recent work is showing that the Arabidopsis thaliana defense metabolite, allyl glucosinolate (GSL), may provide direct feedback regulation, linking defense metabolism outputs to the growth, and defense responses of the plant. However, there is still a need to identify genes that underlie this process. To start developing a deeper understanding of the mechanism(s) that modulate the ability of exogenous allyl GSL to alter growth and defense, we measured changes in plant biomass and defense metabolites in a collection of natural 96 A. thaliana accessions fed with 50 μM of allyl GSL. Exogenous allyl GSL was introduced exclusively to the roots and the compound transported to the leaf leading to a wide range of heritable effects upon plant biomass and endogenous GSL accumulation. Using natural variation we conducted GWAS to identify a number of new genes which potentially control allyl responses in various plant processes. This is one of the first instances in which this approach has been successfully utilized to begin dissecting a novel phenotype to the underlying molecular/polygenic basis. PMID:27462337

  3. Working Together for Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Daniel W. Sutherland, Officer for Civil Rights & Civil Liberties, Department of Homeland Security, to discuss some of the Department's future goals related to emergency preparedness for people with special needs and to find out how citizens can help in that quest. This article also focuses on topics such as:…

  4. Tornado Preparedness Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Rockville, MD. National Weather Service.

    This pamphlet contains a set of guidelines for community leaders interested in developing preparedness plans for tornadoes and severe thunderstorms. Included in the guide is a list of the types of officials and agencies which should be involved in planning meetings. A set of suggestions for developing a community communications network and…

  5. Modulation of plant defense responses to herbivores by simultaneous recognition of different herbivore-associated elicitors in rice

    PubMed Central

    Shinya, Tomonori; Hojo, Yuko; Desaki, Yoshitake; Christeller, John T.; Okada, Kazunori; Shibuya, Naoto; Galis, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Induced plant defense responses against insect herbivores are triggered by wounding and/or perception of herbivore elicitors from their oral secretions (OS) and/or saliva. In this study, we analyzed OS isolated from two rice chewing herbivores, Mythimna loreyi and Parnara guttata. Both types of crude OS had substantial elicitor activity in rice cell system that allowed rapid detection of early and late defense responses, i.e. accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and defense secondary metabolites, respectively. While the OS from M. loreyi contained large amounts of previously reported insect elicitors, fatty acid-amino acid conjugates (FACs), the elicitor-active P. guttata’s OS contained no detectable FACs. Subsequently, elicitor activity associated with the high molecular mass fraction in OS of both herbivores was identified, and shown to promote ROS and metabolite accumulations in rice cells. Notably, the application of N-linolenoyl-Gln (FAC) alone had only negligible elicitor activity in rice cells; however, the activity of isolated elicitor fraction was substantially promoted by this FAC. Our results reveal that plants integrate various independent signals associated with their insect attackers to modulate their defense responses and reach maximal fitness in nature. PMID:27581373

  6. Modulation of plant defense responses to herbivores by simultaneous recognition of different herbivore-associated elicitors in rice.

    PubMed

    Shinya, Tomonori; Hojo, Yuko; Desaki, Yoshitake; Christeller, John T; Okada, Kazunori; Shibuya, Naoto; Galis, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Induced plant defense responses against insect herbivores are triggered by wounding and/or perception of herbivore elicitors from their oral secretions (OS) and/or saliva. In this study, we analyzed OS isolated from two rice chewing herbivores, Mythimna loreyi and Parnara guttata. Both types of crude OS had substantial elicitor activity in rice cell system that allowed rapid detection of early and late defense responses, i.e. accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and defense secondary metabolites, respectively. While the OS from M. loreyi contained large amounts of previously reported insect elicitors, fatty acid-amino acid conjugates (FACs), the elicitor-active P. guttata's OS contained no detectable FACs. Subsequently, elicitor activity associated with the high molecular mass fraction in OS of both herbivores was identified, and shown to promote ROS and metabolite accumulations in rice cells. Notably, the application of N-linolenoyl-Gln (FAC) alone had only negligible elicitor activity in rice cells; however, the activity of isolated elicitor fraction was substantially promoted by this FAC. Our results reveal that plants integrate various independent signals associated with their insect attackers to modulate their defense responses and reach maximal fitness in nature. PMID:27581373

  7. Emergency preparedness in obstetrics.

    PubMed

    Haeri, Sina; Marcozzi, David

    2015-04-01

    During and after disasters, focus is directed toward meeting the immediate needs of the general population. As a result, the routine health care and the special needs of some vulnerable populations such as pregnant and postpartum women may be overlooked within a resource-limited setting. In the event of hazards such as natural disasters, manmade disasters, and terrorism, knowledge of emergency preparedness strategies is imperative for the pregnant woman and her family, obstetric providers, and hospitals. Individualized plans for the pregnant woman and her family should include knowledge of shelter in place, birth at home, and evacuation. Obstetric providers need to have a personal disaster plan in place that accounts for work responsibilities in case of an emergency and business continuity strategies to continue to provide care to their communities. Hospitals should have a comprehensive emergency preparedness program utilizing an "all hazards" approach to meet the needs of pregnant and postpartum women and other vulnerable populations during disasters. With lessons learned in recent tragedies such as Hurricane Katrina in mind, we hope this review will stimulate emergency preparedness discussions and actions among obstetric providers and attenuate adverse outcomes related to catastrophes in the future. PMID:25751222

  8. The associations between objective numeracy and colorectal cancer screening knowledge, attitudes and defensive processing in a deprived community sample.

    PubMed

    Smith, Samuel G; Kobayashi, Lindsay C; Wolf, Michael S; Raine, Rosalind; Wardle, Jane; von Wagner, Christian

    2016-08-01

    We examined associations between numeracy and sociocognitive factors associated with colorectal cancer screening uptake (n = 964). Nearly half (45.7%) of the respondents incorrectly answered a numeracy question (low numeracy). Low numeracy respondents were less knowledgeable about colorectal cancer (p < .001), less positive towards screening (emotional, p < .001 and practical, p = .001) and less likely to intend to participate in screening (p = .001). They also reported greater defensive processing of cancer information (p = .001). Sociocognitive factors fully mediated the relationship between numeracy and screening intention. Addressing numeracy issues may reduce inequalities in CRC screening participation, but communication strategies could be limited by the tendency process cancer information defensively. PMID:25512199

  9. Transcriptome changes specifically associated with apple (Malus domestica) root defense response during Pythium ultimum infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The defense response of apple rootstocks to necrotrophic soilborne pathogens that incite apple replant disease (ARD) has not been investigated. In this study, root tissues of apple seedlings inoculated with Pythium ultimum, were sampled at 0, 1, 4, 8, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours post inoculation (hpi) a...

  10. Arthropod-associated plant effectors (AAPEs):elicitors and suppressors of crop defense

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In response to insect attack, many plants undergo a suite of rapid biochemical changes that serve to directly reduce subsequent feeding damage and also promote the attraction of predators and parasitoids, the natural enemies of crop pests. In many cases, these insect-induced plant defense responses ...

  11. Identification of defense-related genes newly-associated with tomato flower abscission

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current abscission model suggests the formation of a post-abscission trans-differentiation of a protective layer as the last step of the process. The present report expands the repertoire of genes activated in the tomato flower abscission zone (AZ), which are likely to be involved in defense res...

  12. Choose Your Weapon: Defensive Behavior Is Associated with Morphology and Performance in Scorpions

    PubMed Central

    van der Meijden, Arie; Lobo Coelho, Pedro; Sousa, Pedro; Herrel, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Morphology can be adaptive through its effect on performance of an organism. The effect of performance may, however, be modulated by behavior; an organism may choose a behavioral option that does not fully utilize its maximum performance. Behavior may therefore be decoupled from morphology and performance. To gain insight into the relationships between these levels of organization, we combined morphological data on defensive structures with measures of defensive performance, and their utilization in defensive behavior. Scorpion species show significant variation in the morphology and performance of their main defensive structures; their chelae (pincers) and the metasoma (“tail”) carrying the stinger. Our data show that size-corrected pinch force varies to almost two orders of magnitude among species, and is correlated with chela morphology. Chela and metasoma morphology are also correlated to the LD50 of the venom, corroborating the anecdotal rule that dangerously venomous scorpions can be recognized by their chelae and metasoma. Analyses of phylogenetic independent contrasts show that correlations between several aspects of chela and metasoma morphology, performance and behavior are present. These correlations suggest co-evolution of behavior with morphology and performance. Path analysis found a performance variable (pinch force) to partially mediate the relationship between morphology (chela aspect ratio) and behavior (defensive stinger usage). We also found a correlation between two aspects of morphology: pincer finger length correlates with the relative “thickness” (aspect ratio) of the metasoma. This suggests scorpions show a trade-off between their two main weapon complexes: the metasoma carrying the stinger, and the pedipalps carrying the chelae. PMID:24236075

  13. Brief Report: Self-Harm Is Associated with Immature Defense Mechanisms but Not Substance Use in a Nonclinical Scottish Adolescent Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Stuart; Carson, Carron Maryjane

    2012-01-01

    It has been unclear whether adolescent deliberate self-harm (DSH) is more associated with substance use or with characterological impairments. Multivariate determination of (N = 114 Scottish adolescents) ever engaging in DSH (Youth Risk Behavior Survey) from alcohol use, other substance use, and immature defense mechanism use (Defense Style…

  14. Classifying Korean Adolescents' Career Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, In Heok; Rojewski, Jay W.; Hill, Roger B.

    2013-01-01

    Latent class analysis was used to examine the career preparation of 5,227 11th-grade Korean adolescents taken from the Korean Education Longitudinal Study of 2005 (KELS:2005). Three career preparedness groups were identified, to reflecting Skorikov's ("J Vocat Behav" 70:8-24, 2007) conceptualization of career preparedness: prepared, confused, and…

  15. Bacillus cereus AR156-induced resistance to Colletotrichum acutatum is associated with priming of defense responses in loquat fruit.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoli; Wang, Lei; Wang, Jing; Jin, Peng; Liu, Hongxia; Zheng, Yonghua

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of a biocontrol agent Bacillus cereus AR156 for control of anthracnose rot caused by Colletotrichum acutatum in harvested loquat fruit and the possible mechanisms of its action have been investigated. Treatment of fruit with B. cereus AR156 resulted in lower disease incidence and smaller lesion diameters compared with that of untreated fruit. The treatment enhanced activities of defense-related enzymes including chitinase, β-1, 3-glucanase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase, and promoted accumulation of H2O2. Total phenolic content and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity were also increased by treatment. Transcripts of three defense-related genes were enhanced only in fruit undergoing both B. cereus AR156 treatment and C. acutatum inoculation compared with those receiving either intervention alone. These results suggest that the disease resistance against C. acutatum in loquat fruit is enhanced by B. cereus AR156 and that the induced resistance is associated with induction and priming of defense responses in the fruit. PMID:25386680

  16. Bacillus cereus AR156-Induced Resistance to Colletotrichum acutatum Is Associated with Priming of Defense Responses in Loquat Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoli; Wang, Lei; Wang, Jing; Jin, Peng; Liu, Hongxia; Zheng, Yonghua

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of a biocontrol agent Bacillus cereus AR156 for control of anthracnose rot caused by Colletotrichum acutatum in harvested loquat fruit and the possible mechanisms of its action have been investigated. Treatment of fruit with B. cereus AR156 resulted in lower disease incidence and smaller lesion diameters compared with that of untreated fruit. The treatment enhanced activities of defense-related enzymes including chitinase, β-1, 3-glucanase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase, and promoted accumulation of H2O2. Total phenolic content and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity were also increased by treatment. Transcripts of three defense-related genes were enhanced only in fruit undergoing both B. cereus AR156 treatment and C. acutatum inoculation compared with those receiving either intervention alone. These results suggest that the disease resistance against C. acutatum in loquat fruit is enhanced by B. cereus AR156 and that the induced resistance is associated with induction and priming of defense responses in the fruit. PMID:25386680

  17. Plant-associated bacteria degrade defense chemicals and reduce their adverse effects on an insect defoliator.

    PubMed

    Mason, Charles J; Couture, John J; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2014-07-01

    Phytophagous insects must contend with numerous secondary defense compounds that can adversely affect their growth and development. The gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) is a polyphagous herbivore that encounters an extensive range of hosts and chemicals. We used this folivore and a primary component of aspen chemical defenses, namely, phenolic glycosides, to investigate if bacteria detoxify phytochemicals and benefit larvae. We conducted insect bioassays using bacteria enriched from environmental samples, analyses of the microbial community in the midguts of bioassay larvae, and in vitro phenolic glycoside metabolism assays. Inoculation with bacteria enhanced larval growth in the presence, but not absence, of phenolic glycosides in the artificial diet. This effect of bacteria on growth was observed only in larvae administered bacteria from aspen foliage. The resulting midgut community composition varied among the bacterial treatments. When phenolic glycosides were included in diet, the composition of midguts in larvae fed aspen bacteria was significantly altered. Phenolic glycosides increased population responses by bacteria that we found able to metabolize these compounds in liquid growth cultures. Several aspects of these results suggest that vectoring or pairwise symbiosis models are inadequate for understanding microbial mediation of plant-herbivore interactions in some systems. First, bacteria that most benefitted larvae were initially foliar residents, suggesting that toxin-degrading abilities of phyllosphere inhabitants indirectly benefit herbivores upon ingestion. Second, assays with single bacteria did not confer the benefits to larvae obtained with consortia, suggesting multi- and inter-microbial interactions are also involved. Our results show that bacteria mediate insect interactions with plant defenses but that these interactions are community specific and highly complex. PMID:24798201

  18. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons/Society of Military Orthopaedic Surgeons/Orthopaedic Trauma Associations/Pediatric Orthopaedic Association Disaster Response and Preparedness Course.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Anthony E; Gerlinger, Tad L; Born, Christopher T

    2015-10-01

    A disaster is a catastrophic event that disrupts normal infrastructure to such a degree that normal response mechanisms and capabilities cannot manage what is required to respond appropriately to the event. Launched after the largest urban disaster in modern history--the 2010 Haiti Earthquake--the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons/Society of Military Orthopaedic Surgeons/Orthopaedic Trauma Association/Pediatric Orthopaedic Association of North America (AAOS/SOMOS/OTA/POSNA) Disaster Response Course (DRC) is designed to prepare orthopaedic surgeons for service in disaster response and humanitarian assistance efforts in both the acute phases as well as in the recovery and reconstructions phases. To date, 395 orthopaedic surgeons have completed the DRC and 286 (72.4%) have opted to become registered disaster responders. PMID:26356210

  19. Hydroxychloroquine-inhibited dengue virus is associated with host defense machinery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Fong; Lin, You-Sheng; Huang, Nan-Chieh; Yu, Chia-Yi; Tsai, Wei-Lun; Chen, Jih-Jung; Kubota, Toru; Matsuoka, Mayumi; Chen, Siang-Ru; Yang, Chih-Shiang; Lu, Ruo-Wei; Lin, Yi-Ling; Chang, Tsung-Hsien

    2015-03-01

    Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is an antimalarial drug also used in treating autoimmune diseases. Its antiviral activity was demonstrated in restricting HIV infection in vitro; however, the clinical implications remain controversial. Infection with dengue virus (DENV) is a global public health problem, and we lack an antiviral drug for DENV. Here, we evaluated the anti-DENV potential of treatment with HCQ. Immunofluorescence assays demonstrated that HCQ could inhibit DENV serotype 1-4 infection in vitro. RT-qPCR analysis of HCQ-treated cells showed induced expression of interferon (IFN)-related antiviral proteins and certain inflammatory cytokines. Mechanistic study suggested that HCQ activated the innate immune signaling pathways of IFN-β, AP-1, and NFκB. Knocking down mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS), inhibiting TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1)/inhibitor-κB kinase ɛ (IKKɛ), and blocking type I IFN receptor reduced the efficiency of HCQ against DENV-2 infection. Furthermore, HCQ significantly induced cellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which was involved in the host defense system. Suppression of ROS production attenuated the innate immune activation and anti-DENV-2 effect of HCQ. In summary, HCQ triggers the host defense machinery by inducing ROS- and MAVS-mediated innate immune activation against DENV infection and may be a candidate drug for DENV infection. PMID:25321315

  20. Emergency preparedness: one community's response.

    PubMed

    Glick, Doris F; Jerome-D'Emilia, Bonnie; Nolan, Mary Anne; Burke, Pamela

    2004-01-01

    Since 2001, our nations' leaders, the press, and the general public have looked to the health sector for leadership in addressing acts of terrorism. It has become urgent for health agencies and related public services to collaborate and for all health professionals to become knowledgeable about disaster preparedness. This article describes collaboration between the public health department, local hospitals and the school of nursing in one community, Charlottesville, Virginia, to address disaster preparedness. In this story about our community's emergency preparedness, the focus is both on preparation and the hope we will never need to utilize this knowledge. PMID:15596974

  1. Resistance to Hemi-Biotrophic F. graminearum Infection Is Associated with Coordinated and Ordered Expression of Diverse Defense Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Hongying; Yang, Liming; Kong, Zhongxin; Zhang, Lixia; Xue, Shulin; Jia, Haiyan; Ma, Zhengqiang

    2011-01-01

    Fusarium species cause serious diseases in cereal staple food crops such as wheat and maize. Currently, the mechanisms underlying resistance to Fusarium-caused diseases are still largely unknown. In the present study, we employed a combined proteomic and transcriptomic approach to investigate wheat genes responding to F. graminearum infection that causes Fusarium head blight (FHB). We found a total of 163 genes and 37 proteins that were induced by infection. These genes and proteins were associated with signaling pathways mediated by salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), ethylene (ET), calcium ions, phosphatidic acid (PA), as well as with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and scavenging, antimicrobial compound synthesis, detoxification, and cell wall fortification. We compared the time-course expression profiles between FHB-resistant Wangshuibai plants and susceptible Meh0106 mutant plants of a selected set of genes that are critical to the plants' resistance and defense reactions. A biphasic phenomenon was observed during the first 24 h after inoculation (hai) in the resistant plants. The SA and Ca2+ signaling pathways were activated within 6 hai followed by the JA mediated defense signaling activated around 12 hai. ET signaling was activated between these two phases. Genes for PA and ROS synthesis were induced during the SA and JA phases, respectively. The delayed activation of the SA defense pathway in the mutant was associated with its susceptibility. After F. graminearum infection, the endogenous contents of SA and JA in Wangshuibai and the mutant changed in a manner similar to the investigated genes corresponding to the individual pathways. A few genes for resistance-related cell modification and phytoalexin production were also identified. This study provided important clues for designing strategies to curb diseases caused by Fusarium. PMID:21533105

  2. Theory-based approaches to understanding public emergency preparedness: implications for effective health and risk communication.

    PubMed

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Hilyard, Karen; Freimuth, Vicki; Barge, J Kevin; Mindlin, Michele

    2010-06-01

    Recent natural and human-caused disasters have awakened public health officials to the importance of emergency preparedness. Guided by health behavior and media effects theories, the analysis of a statewide survey in Georgia reveals that self-efficacy, subjective norm, and emergency news exposure are positively associated with the respondents' possession of emergency items and their stages of emergency preparedness. Practical implications suggest less focus on demographics as the sole predictor of emergency preparedness and more comprehensive measures of preparedness, including both a person's cognitive stage of preparedness and checklists of emergency items on hand. We highlight the utility of theory-based approaches for understanding and predicting public emergency preparedness as a way to enable more effective health and risk communication. PMID:20574880

  3. Cyber Security Domestic Preparedness Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Rodriguez, Ciro D. [D-TX-23

    2010-01-26

    01/28/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Emergency Communications, Preparedness, and Response. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. Characterization of stored defense production spent nulcear fuel and associated materials at Hanford Site, Richland Washington: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    There are about 2,100 tonnes (2,300 tons) of defense production spent nuclear fuel stored in the 100-K Area Basins located along the south shore of the Columbia River in the northern part of the Hanford Site. Some of the fuel which has been in storage for a number of years is in poor condition and continues to deteriorate. The basins also contain fuel fragments and radioactively contaminated sludge. The DOE needs to characterize defense production spent nuclear fuel and associated materials stored on the Hanford Site. In order to satisfy that need, the Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to select, collect and transport samples of spent nuclear fuel and associated materials to the 327 Building for characterization. As a result of that characterization, modes of interim storage can be determined that would be compatible with the material in its present state and alternative treatment processes could be developed to permit a broader selection of storage modes. Environmental impacts of the proposed action were determined to be limited principally to radiation exposure of workers, which, however, were found to be small. No health effects among workers or the general public would be expected under routine operations. Implementation of the proposed action would not result in any impacts on cultural resources, threatened, endangered and candidate species, air or water quality, socioeconomic conditions, or waste management.

  5. MEDICAL PREPAREDNESS FOR DISASTER

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Justin J.

    1959-01-01

    The Federal Civil Defense Administration has been consolidated under the President's Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1958 with the Office of Defense Mobilization. The new organization, the Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization, should be able to deal more efficiently with the problem of mobilization and management of all resources and production of the nation in time of disaster. As preparation for possible enemy attack, organized plans entailing training, supplies, equipment and communications for use in major peacetime disasters—floods, earthquakes, tornado damage—should be carried forward vigorously. Apathy must be overcome. From the local to the highest level all civil defense and disaster plans must be developed and kept flexible enough to be operable during any kind of emergency. Physicians must learn as much as they can about the mass care of casualties, how to survive under the most trying of circumstances. Drills in dealing with simulated disaster are of utmost importance for finding out ahead of time what must be done and the personnel and supplies needed for doing it. PMID:13651962

  6. A Genome-Wide Association Study of the Maize Hypersensitive Defense Response Identifies Genes That Cluster in Related Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Venkata, Bala P.; Marla, Sandeep; Ji, Jiabing; Gachomo, Emma; Chu, Kevin; Negeri, Adisu; Benson, Jacqueline; Nelson, Rebecca; Bradbury, Peter; Nielsen, Dahlia; Holland, James B.; Balint-Kurti, Peter J.; Johal, Gurmukh

    2014-01-01

    Much remains unknown of molecular events controlling the plant hypersensitive defense response (HR), a rapid localized cell death that limits pathogen spread and is mediated by resistance (R-) genes. Genetic control of the HR is hard to quantify due to its microscopic and rapid nature. Natural modifiers of the ectopic HR phenotype induced by an aberrant auto-active R-gene (Rp1-D21), were mapped in a population of 3,381 recombinant inbred lines from the maize nested association mapping population. Joint linkage analysis was conducted to identify 32 additive but no epistatic quantitative trait loci (QTL) using a linkage map based on more than 7000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Genome-wide association (GWA) analysis of 26.5 million SNPs was conducted after adjusting for background QTL. GWA identified associated SNPs that colocalized with 44 candidate genes. Thirty-six of these genes colocalized within 23 of the 32 QTL identified by joint linkage analysis. The candidate genes included genes predicted to be in involved programmed cell death, defense response, ubiquitination, redox homeostasis, autophagy, calcium signalling, lignin biosynthesis and cell wall modification. Twelve of the candidate genes showed significant differential expression between isogenic lines differing for the presence of Rp1-D21. Low but significant correlations between HR-related traits and several previously-measured disease resistance traits suggested that the genetic control of these traits was substantially, though not entirely, independent. This study provides the first system-wide analysis of natural variation that modulates the HR response in plants. PMID:25166276

  7. Lead toxicity, defense strategies and associated indicative biomarkers in Talinum triangulare grown hydroponically.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Abhay; Prasad, M N V; Sytar, Oksana

    2012-11-01

    Talinum species have been used to investigate a variety of environmental problems for e.g. determination of metal pollution index and total petroleum hydrocarbons in roadside soils, stabilization and reclamation of heavy metals (HMs) in dump sites, removal of HMs from storm water-runoff and green roof leachates. Species of Talinum are popular leaf vegetables having nutrient antinutrient properties. In this study, Talinum triangulare (Jacq.) Willd (Ceylon spinach) grown hydroponically were exposed to different concentrations of lead (Pb) (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.25 mM) to investigate the biomarkers of toxicity and tolerance mechanisms. Relative water content, cell death, photosynthetic pigments, sulphoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG), anthocyanins, α-tocopherol, malondialdehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS) glutathione (GSH and GSSG) and elemental analysis have been investigated. The results showed that Pb in roots and shoots gradually increased as the function of Pb exposure; however Pb concentration in leaves was below detectable level. Chlorophylls and SQDG contents increased at 0.25 mM of Pb treatment in comparison to control at all treated durations, thereafter decreased. Levels of carotenoid, anthocyanins, α-tocopherol, and lipid peroxidation increased in Pb treated plants compared to control. Water content, cells death and elemental analysis suggested the damage of transport system interfering with nutrient transport causing cell death. The present study also explained that Pb imposed indirect oxidative stress in leaves is characterized by decreases in GSH/GSSG ratio with increased doses of Pb treatment. Lead-induced oxidative stress was alleviated by carotenoids, anthocyanins, α-tocopherol and glutathione suggesting that these defense responses as potential biomarkers for detecting Pb toxicity. PMID:22722003

  8. Natural Hazard Preparedness in an Auckland Community: Child and Community Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Patricia; Dirks, Kim; Neuwelt, Pat

    2014-01-01

    Community engagement in natural hazard preparedness is crucial to ensure sustainable initiatives. Children are important members of communities, and can actively contribute to community preparedness. This article presents research undertaken with 11- to 12-year-old students from a school in Auckland, New Zealand, and leaders associated with the…

  9. Preparedness Perceptions, Sociodemographic Characteristics, and Level of Household Preparedness for Public Health Emergencies: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2006-2010.

    PubMed

    DeBastiani, Summer D; Strine, Tara W; Vagi, Sara J; Barnett, Daniel J; Kahn, Emily B

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to inform state and community interventions focused on increasing household preparedness by examining the association between self-reported possession of household disaster preparedness items (ie, a 3-day supply of food and water, a written evacuation plan, and a working radio and flashlight) and perceptions of household preparedness on a 3-point scale from "well prepared" to "not at all prepared." Data were analyzed from 14 states participating in a large state-based telephone survey: the 2006-2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) (n = 104,654). Only 25.3% of the population felt they were well prepared, and only 12.3% had all 5 of the recommended items. Fewer than half the households surveyed had 4 or more of the recommended preparedness items (34.1%). Respondents were more likely to report their households were well prepared as the number of preparedness items possessed by their household increased. Risk factors for having no preparedness items were: younger age, being female, lower levels of education, and requesting the survey to be conducted in Spanish. To increase household disaster preparedness, more community-based preparedness education campaigns targeting vulnerable populations, such as those with limited English abilities and lower reading levels, are needed. PMID:26348094

  10. Civil Defense, U. S. A.: A Programmed Orientation to Civil Defense. Unit 3. Natural Disasters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Battle Creek, MI.

    The effects of natural disasters and the implications which those effects have for community emergency preparedness are discussed. Major topics include: (1) Similarities and differences in types of responses required by a nuclear and natural disasters, (2) The civil defense function in natural disasters, (3) Vulnerability analysis, (4) Warning…

  11. The Bark-Beetle-Associated Fungus, Endoconidiophora polonica, Utilizes the Phenolic Defense Compounds of Its Host as a Carbon Source.

    PubMed

    Wadke, Namita; Kandasamy, Dineshkumar; Vogel, Heiko; Lah, Ljerka; Wingfield, Brenda D; Paetz, Christian; Wright, Louwrance P; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Hammerbacher, Almuth

    2016-06-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies) is periodically attacked by the bark beetle Ips typographus and its fungal associate, Endoconidiophora polonica, whose infection is thought to be required for successful beetle attack. Norway spruce produces terpenoid resins and phenolics in response to fungal and bark beetle invasion. However, how the fungal associate copes with these chemical defenses is still unclear. In this study, we investigated changes in the phenolic content of Norway spruce bark upon E. polonica infection and the biochemical factors mediating these changes. Although genes encoding the rate-limiting enzymes in Norway spruce stilbene and flavonoid biosynthesis were actively transcribed during fungal infection, there was a significant time-dependent decline of the corresponding metabolites in fungal lesions. In vitro feeding experiments with pure phenolics revealed that E. polonica transforms both stilbenes and flavonoids to muconoid-type ring-cleavage products, which are likely the first steps in the degradation of spruce defenses to substrates that can enter the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Four genes were identified in E. polonica that encode catechol dioxygenases carrying out these reactions. These enzymes catalyze the cleavage of phenolic rings with a vicinal dihydroxyl group to muconoid products accepting a wide range of Norway spruce-produced phenolics as substrates. The expression of these genes and E. polonica utilization of the most abundant spruce phenolics as carbon sources both correlated positively with fungal virulence in several strains. Thus, the pathways for the degradation of phenolic compounds in E. polonica, initiated by catechol dioxygenase action, are important to the infection, growth, and survival of this bark beetle-vectored fungus and may play a major role in the ability of I. typographus to colonize spruce trees. PMID:27208235

  12. 7 CFR 330.206 - Permits for plant pest movement associated with National Defense projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.206... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permits for plant pest movement associated...

  13. 7 CFR 330.206 - Permits for plant pest movement associated with National Defense projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.206... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Permits for plant pest movement associated...

  14. 7 CFR 330.206 - Permits for plant pest movement associated with National Defense projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.206... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Permits for plant pest movement associated...

  15. 7 CFR 330.206 - Permits for plant pest movement associated with National Defense projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.206... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Permits for plant pest movement associated...

  16. 7 CFR 330.206 - Permits for plant pest movement associated with National Defense projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.206... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Permits for plant pest movement associated...

  17. 33 CFR 203.21 - Disaster preparedness responsibilities of non-Federal interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disaster preparedness responsibilities of non-Federal interests. 203.21 Section 203.21 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT OF ARMY AND OTHER RESOURCES,...

  18. Targeted deletion of tumor suppressor PTEN augments neutrophil function and enhances host defense in neutropenia-associated pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yitang; Jia, Yonghui; Pichavant, Muriel; Loison, Fabien; Sarraj, Bara; Kasorn, Anongnard; You, Jian; Robson, Bryanne E.; Umetsu, Dale T.; Mizgerd, Joseph P.; Ye, Keqiang

    2009-01-01

    Neutropenia and related infections are the most important dose-limiting toxicities in anticancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In this study, we explored a new strategy for augmenting host defense in neutropenia-related pneumonia. Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3) signaling in neutrophils was elevated by depleting PTEN, a phosphatidylinositol 3′-phosphatase that hydrolyzes PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. In myeloid-specific PTEN knockout mice, significantly more neutrophils were recruited to the inflamed lungs during neutropenia-associated pneumonia. Using an adoptive transfer technique, we demonstrated that this enhancement could be caused directly by PTEN depletion in neutrophils. In addition, disruption of PTEN increased the recruitment of macrophages and elevated proinflammatory cytokines/chemokine levels in the inflamed lungs, which could also be responsible for the enhanced neutrophil recruitment. Depleting PTEN also significantly delayed apoptosis and enhanced the bacteria-killing capability of the recruited neutrophils. Finally, we provide direct evidence that enhancement of neutrophil function by elevating PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 signaling can alleviate pneumonia-associated lung damage and decrease pneumonia-elicited mortality. Collectively, these results not only provide insight into the mechanism of action of PTEN and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 signaling pathway in modulating neutrophil function during lung infection and inflammation, but they also establish PTEN and related pathways as potential therapeutic targets for treating neutropenia-associated pneumonia. PMID:19286998

  19. Design of the national health security preparedness index.

    PubMed

    Uzun Jacobson, Evin; Inglesby, Tom; Khan, Ali S; Rajotte, James C; Burhans, Robert L; Slemp, Catherine C; Links, Jonathan M

    2014-01-01

    The importance of health security in the United States has been highlighted by recent emergencies such as the H1N1 influenza pandemic, Superstorm Sandy, and the Boston Marathon bombing. The nation's health security remains a high priority today, with federal, state, territorial, tribal, and local governments, as well as nongovernment organizations and the private sector, engaging in activities that prevent, protect, mitigate, respond to, and recover from health threats. The Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO), through a cooperative agreement with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR), led an effort to create an annual measure of health security preparedness at the national level. The collaborative released the National Health Security Preparedness Index (NHSPI(™)) in December 2013 and provided composite results for the 50 states and for the nation as a whole. The Index results represent current levels of health security preparedness in a consistent format and provide actionable information to drive decision making for continuous improvement of the nation's health security. The overall 2013 National Index result was 7.2 on the reported base-10 scale, with areas of greater strength in the domains of health surveillance, incident and information management, and countermeasure management. The strength of the Index relies on the interdependencies of the many elements in health security preparedness, making the sum greater than its parts. Moving forward, additional health security-related disciplines and measures will be included alongside continued validation efforts. PMID:24896305

  20. Genome-Wide Association Study of a Varroa-Specific Defense Behavior in Honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Spötter, Andreas; Gupta, Pooja; Mayer, Manfred; Reinsch, Norbert; Bienefeld, Kaspar

    2016-05-01

    Honey bees are exposed to many damaging pathogens and parasites. The most devastating is Varroa destructor, which mainly affects the brood. A promising approach for preventing its spread is to breed Varroa-resistant honey bees. One trait that has been shown to provide significant resistance against the Varroa mite is hygienic behavior, which is a behavioral response of honeybee workers to brood diseases in general. Here, we report the use of an Affymetrix 44K SNP array to analyze SNPs associated with detection and uncapping of Varroa-parasitized brood by individual worker bees (Apis mellifera). For this study, 22 000 individually labeled bees were video-monitored and a sample of 122 cases and 122 controls was collected and analyzed to determine the dependence/independence of SNP genotypes from hygienic and nonhygienic behavior on a genome-wide scale. After false-discovery rate correction of the P values, 6 SNP markers had highly significant associations with the trait investigated (α < 0.01). Inspection of the genomic regions around these SNPs led to the discovery of putative candidate genes. PMID:26774061

  1. Perceived coping & concern predict terrorism preparedness in Australia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the aftermath of major terrorist incidents research shows population shifts towards protective behaviours, including specific preparedness and avoidance responses. Less is known about individual preparedness in populations with high assumed threat but limited direct exposure, such as Australia. In this study we aimed to determine whether individuals with high perceived coping and higher concern would show greater preparedness to respond to terrorism threats. Methods Adults in New South Wales (NSW) completed terrorism perception and response questions as part of computer assisted telephone interviews (CATI) in 2010 (N=2038). Responses were weighted against the NSW population. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the relationship between personal coping/concern factors and terrorism-related preparedness and avoidance behaviours, and to control for potential confounders such as socio-demographic and threat perception factors. Results Increased vigilance for suspicious behaviours was the most commonly reported behavioural response to perceived terrorism threat. Multivariate analyses showed that the factor combination of high perceived coping and higher concern was the most consistent predictor of terrorism preparedness behaviours and evacuation intentions, including increased vigilance (Adjusted Odd Ratios (AOR)=2.07, p=0.001) learning evacuation plans (AOR=1.61, p=0.05), establishing emergency contact plans (AOR=2.73, p<0.001), willingness to evacuate homes (AOR=2.20, p=0.039), and willingness to evacuate workplaces or public facilities (AOR=6.19, p=0.015) during potential future incidents. Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that terrorism preparedness behaviours are strongly associated with perceived high coping but that this relationship is also mediated by personal concerns relating to this threat. Cognitive variables such as coping self-efficacy are increasingly targeted as part of natural hazard preparedness

  2. Neutrophil antimicrobial defense against Staphylococcus aureus is mediated by phagolysosomal but not extracellular trap-associated cathelicidin

    PubMed Central

    Jann, Naja J.; Schmaler, Mathias; Kristian, Sascha A.; Radek, Katherine A.; Gallo, Richard L.; Nizet, Victor; Peschel, Andreas; Landmann, Regine

    2009-01-01

    Neutrophils kill invading pathogens by AMPs, including cathelicidins, ROS, and NETs. The human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus exhibits enhanced resistance to neutrophil AMPs, including the murine cathelicidin CRAMP, in part, as a result of alanylation of teichoic acids by the dlt operon. In this study, we took advantage of the hypersusceptible phenotype of S. aureus ΔdltA against cationic AMPs to study the impact of the murine cathelicidin CRAMP on staphylococcal killing and to identify its key site of action in murine neutrophils. We demonstrate that CRAMP remained intracellular during PMN exudation from blood and was secreted upon PMA stimulation. We show first evidence that CRAMP was recruited to phagolysosomes in infected neutrophils and exhibited intracellular activity against S. aureus. Later in infection, neutrophils produced NETs, and immunofluorescence revealed association of CRAMP with S. aureus in NETs, which similarly killed S. aureus wt and ΔdltA, indicating that CRAMP activity was reduced when associated with NETs. Indeed, the presence of DNA reduced the antimicrobial activity of CRAMP, and CRAMP localization in response to S. aureus was independent of the NADPH oxidase, whereas killing was partially dependent on a functional NADPH oxidase. Our study indicates that neutrophils use CRAMP in a timed and locally coordinated manner in defense against S. aureus. PMID:19638500

  3. Pathogenicity of Penicillium digitatum is associated with the suppression of the defense-related hydrogen peroxide burst in citrus fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The high susceptibility of citrus fruit to green mold disease and lack of resistance responses suggest that P. digitatum has the ability to suppress host defenses. The current study demonstrated that during infection, P. digitatum suppresses the defense-related oxidative burst in host cells. In co...

  4. Earthquake Preparedness Checklist for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    A brochure provides a checklist highlighting the important questions and activities that should be addressed and undertaken as part of a school safety and preparedness program for earthquakes. It reminds administrators and other interested parties on what not to forget in preparing schools for earthquakes, such as staff knowledge needs, evacuation…

  5. Assessing School Emergency Care Preparedness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Charles; Varnes, Jill

    A study assessed the emergency health care preparedness of a north central Florida public school district in light of seven criteria: (1) school policies regarding delivery of emergency health care; (2) identification of school personnel responsible for rendering emergency care; (3) training levels of emergency health care providers (first aid and…

  6. One Health and emergency preparedness.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, Kendra E; Conti, Lisa

    2014-11-01

    Emergencies such as hurricanes, floods and nuclear disasters do not just affect people and the environment; they also affect domestic animals. In this latest article in Veterinary Record's One Health series, Kendra Stauffer and Lisa Conti discuss how One Health considerations are being incorporated into emergency preparedness planning in the USA. PMID:25359746

  7. Emergency Preparedness: Are You Ready?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harley, Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    Most Americans who consider emergency preparedness think of someone or another country attacking the United States. Most newspaper and televised accounts involve community leaders and policymakers preparing for a terrorist attack. However, anyone who operates a child care center, family child care home, or has children of her own, knows that…

  8. Principles of Emergency Preparedness Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindman, R. Eugene, Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Steps and considerations in developing an institutional plan for emergency preparedness are discussed, including delineation of internal and external responsibilities, warning systems, a means for activating the plan, a command headquarters, medical facilities, housing and food, internal and external communications, transportation, and testing and…

  9. Tsunami Preparedness in Washington (video)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2010-01-01

    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. This video about tsunami preparedness in Washington distinguishes between a local tsunami and a distant event and focus on the specific needs of this region. It offers guidelines for correct tsunami response and community preparedness from local emergency managers, first-responders, and leading experts on tsunami hazards and warnings, who have been working on ways of making the tsunami affected regions safer for the people and communities on a long-term basis. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with Washington Emergency Management Division (EMD) and with funding by the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program.

  10. Tsunami Preparedness in Oregon (video)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Filmed and edited by: Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine

    2010-01-01

    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. This video about tsunami preparedness in Oregon distinguishes between a local tsunami and a distant event and focus on the specific needs of this region. It offers guidelines for correct tsunami response and community preparedness from local emergency managers, first-responders, and leading experts on tsunami hazards and warnings, who have been working on ways of making the tsunami affected regions safer for the people and communities on a long-term basis. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI).

  11. Hurricane Preparedness and Control Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This plan establishes policy and sets forth guidance, responsibilities and procedures utilized by Federal Electric Corp., communications department in support of the KSC Emergency Preparedness Plan, Annex A, Hurricane Control Plan (GP-355) dated 27 May 1971. This plan covers all FEC communications department personnel, facilities, and equipment situated at the Kennedy Space Center that are the responsibility of FEC contract NAS 10-4967.

  12. Health Informatics for Pediatric Disaster Preparedness Planning

    PubMed Central

    Burke, R.V.; Ryutov, T.; Neches, R.; Upperman, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective 1. To conduct a review of the role of informatics in pediatric disaster preparedness using all medical databases. 2. To provide recommendations to improve pediatric disaster preparedness by the application of informatics. Methods A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, CINHL and the Cochrane Library using the key words “children” AND “disaster preparedness and disaster” AND “informatics”. Results A total of 314 papers were initially produced by the search and eight that met the selection criteria were included in the review. Four themes emerged: tools for disaster preparedness, education, reunification and planning and response. Conclusion The literature pertaining to informatics and pediatric disaster preparedness is sparse and many gaps still persist. Current disaster preparedness tools focus on the general population and do not specifically address children. The most progress has been achieved in family reunification; however, the recommendations delineated are yet to be completed. PMID:23616840

  13. Coping With Client Death: How Prepared Are Home Health Aides and What Characterized Preparedness?

    PubMed Central

    van Riesenbeck, Isabelle; Boerner, Kathrin; Barooah, Adrita; Burack, Orah R.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the experiences of 80 home health aides (HHAs) whose client died within the last two months. Data collection involved comprehensive semi-structured in-person interviews to try to better understand characteristics of HHAs and their clients associated with preparedness for death. Among those, personal end-of-life (EOL) care preferences of HHAs and having knowledge of preferences and decisions regarding client’s EOL care showed significant links to preparedness. Findings suggest that HHAs’ preparedness for client death could be enhanced both by addressing their personal views on EOL care and by providing more information about the client’s EOL care plans. PMID:26496432

  14. The importance of establishing a national health security preparedness index.

    PubMed

    Lumpkin, John R; Miller, Yoon K; Inglesby, Tom; Links, Jonathan M; Schwartz, Angela T; Slemp, Catherine C; Burhans, Robert L; Blumenstock, James; Khan, Ali S

    2013-03-01

    Natural disasters, infectious disease epidemics, terrorism, and major events like the nuclear incident at Fukushima all pose major potential challenges to public health and security. Events such as the anthrax letters of 2001, Hurricanes Katrina, Irene, and Sandy, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and West Nile virus outbreaks, and the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic have demonstrated that public health, emergency management, and national security efforts are interconnected. These and other events have increased the national resolve and the resources committed to improving the national health security infrastructure. However, as fiscal pressures force federal, state, and local governments to examine spending, there is a growing need to demonstrate both what the investment in public health preparedness has bought and where gaps remain in our nation's health security. To address these needs, the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO), through a cooperative agreement with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (PHPR), is creating an annual measure of health security and preparedness at the national and state levels: the National Health Security Preparedness Index (NHSPI). PMID:23506403

  15. Emergency preparedness: addressing a residency training gap.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Sayeedha Ghori; Barnett, Daniel J; Parker, Cindy L; Links, Jonathan M; Alexander, Miriam

    2008-03-01

    As the importance of physician involvement and leadership in crisis preparedness is recognized, the literature suggests that few physicians are adequately trained to practice effectively in a large-scale crisis situation. A logical method for addressing the emergency preparedness training deficiency identified across several medical specialties is to include disaster and emergency preparedness training in residency curricula. In this article, the authors outline the development and implementation of an emergency preparedness curriculum for the Johns Hopkins General Preventive Medicine Residency (JHGPMR) from 2004 to 2006. The curriculum consists of two components. The first was developed for the academic year in the JHGPMR and includes didactic lectures, practical exercises to apply new knowledge, and an opportunity to integrate the knowledge and skills in a real-world exercise. The second, developed for the practicum year of the residency, includes Web-based lectures and online content and culminates in a tabletop preparedness exercise. Topics for both components include weapons of mass destruction, risk communication and personal preparedness, aspects of local emergency response planning, and mental health and psychological aspects of terrorism. On the basis of the emergency preparedness training gap that has been identified in the literature, and the success of the three-year experience in implementing a preparedness training curriculum in the JHGPMR, the authors recommend incorporation of competency-based emergency preparedness training for residencies of all specialties, and offer insights into how the described curriculum could be adapted for use in other residency settings. PMID:18316882

  16. Hospital Disaster Preparedness Tools: a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Heidaranlu, Esmail; Ebadi, Abbas; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Ardalan, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Evaluating hospital disaster preparedness is one the best ways for hospital accreditation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of outcome measure that offer the level of measurement, reliability and validity that are known as the ‘ psychometric properties’ of the current hospital disaster preparedness tools. Methods: In total, 140 studies were retrieved. Studies which had been published from 2000 to 2014 and had used hospital disaster preparedness tools were appraised by using the PRISMA guideline. The content quality and the quality of the psychometric properties of the retrieved tools were assessed by using the World Health Organization Criteria for Hospital Preparedness as well as the COSMIN criteria. Findings: Only 33 studies met the inclusion criteria. In total, eleven hospital disaster preparedness tools had been used in these 33 studies. These tools mainly focused on evaluating structural and non-structural aspects of hospital preparedness and paid little attention, if any, to the key functional aspect. Conclusion: Given the paramount importance of evaluating hospital disaster preparedness and the weaknesses of current preparedness evaluation tools, valid and reliable tools should be developed by using experts’ knowledge and experience through the processes of tool development and psychometric evaluation. Keywords: Hospital preparedness, Measurement tool, Disaster, Systematic review PMID:26425401

  17. 76 FR 64960 - Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee... Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee (FRPCC) is holding a public meeting on November 1, 2011 in... INFORMATION: The role and functions of the Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee...

  18. 77 FR 24213 - Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee... Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee (FRPCC) is holding a public meeting on May 3, 2012 in... role and functions of the Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee (FRPCC)...

  19. 75 FR 27563 - Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee... Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee (FRPCC) is holding a public meeting on June 3, 2010 in... the Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee (FRPCC) are described in 44 CFR...

  20. 75 FR 56127 - Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee... Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee is holding a public meeting on September 28, 2010 in Arlington... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The role and functions of the Federal Radiological Preparedness...

  1. 77 FR 7597 - Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee... Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee (FRPCC) is holding a public meeting on February 24, 2012 in... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The role and functions of the Federal Radiological Preparedness...

  2. WHAT PEOPLE CAN DO ABOUT RURAL CIVIL DEFENSE, NOTES FOR SPEAKERS AND WRITERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    CIVIL DEFENSE PREPAREDNESS IS A FACTOR RURAL PEOPLE NEED TO CONSIDER IN ALL THEIR FARM, HOME, AND BUSINESS PLANNING. NUCLEAR WEAPONS AND THE POSSIBILITY OF NUCLEAR ATTACK ARE FACTS THAT AMERICANS CANNOT IGNORE. THIS DOCUMENT PRESENTS THE BASIC ELEMENTS OF A CIVIL DEFENSE PROGRAM FOR PEOPLE IN RURAL AREAS WHICH INCLUDE--(1) THE DANGERS OF FALLOUT,…

  3. 78 FR 54743 - National Preparedness Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... hundred and thirty- eighth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-21822 Filed 9-5-13; 8:45 am] Billing code... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 9009 of August 30, 2013 National Preparedness Month, 2013 By the President of... communities' resilience. During National Preparedness Month, we refocus our efforts on readying ourselves,...

  4. 77 FR 55097 - National Preparedness Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... the two hundred and thirty-seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-22149 Filed 9-5-12; 11:15 am... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8854 of August 31, 2012 National Preparedness Month, 2012 By the President of..., emergencies and natural disasters have tested the fabric of our country. During National Preparedness...

  5. 76 FR 54917 - National Preparedness Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-22768 Filed 9-1-11; 11:15 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P ... September 2, 2011 Part IV The President Proclamation 8700--National Preparedness Month, 2011 #0; #0; #0... Preparedness Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Whenever our...

  6. 75 FR 53563 - National Preparedness Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... Preparedness Month, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation During National Preparedness Month, we stress the importance of strengthening the security and resiliency of our Nation...

  7. Promoting Regional Disaster Preparedness among Rural Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Janine C.; Kang, JungEun; Silenas, Rasa

    2008-01-01

    Context and Purpose: Rural communities face substantial risks of natural disasters but rural hospitals face multiple obstacles to preparedness. The objective was to create and implement a simple and effective training and planning exercise to assist individual rural hospitals to improve disaster preparedness, as well as to enhance regional…

  8. The Earthquake Preparedness Task Force Report. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roybal-Allard, Lucille

    A report on Earthquake Preparedness presents California school districts with direction for complying with existing earthquake preparedness planning laws. It first contains two sets of recommendations. The first set requires state action and is presented to the Legislature for consideration. The second set consists of policy statements and…

  9. Rhode Island School Terrorist Attack Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Michael W. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the state of safety and terrorist attack preparedness in Rhode Island Schools as determined by Rhode Island school leader perceptions. The study is descriptive in nature as it gathers data to describe a particular event or situation. Using a researcher generated survey based on terrorist preparedness guidelines and suggestions…

  10. Impact of emergency preparedness exercise on performance.

    PubMed

    Agboola, Foluso; McCarthy, Tara; Biddinger, Paul D

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether prior participation in preparedness exercises was predictive of better performance on objective measures of response. We conducted a statewide tabletop exercise that focused on a hazardous materials (HAZMAT) scenario and assessed performance using our developed evaluation tool. The evaluative score was analyzed in relation to the number of HAZMAT exercises in the past 3 years, participation in prior CHEMPACK-specific exercise, hospital size, teaching status of the hospital, preparedness training experience, and participants years of experience in preparedness activities. Hospitals that had participated in more exercises in the past 3 years performed significantly better than hospitals that had participated in fewer exercises. No significant differences were found between the performance of hospitals in relation to size, teaching status, preparedness training experience, and participants' years of experience in preparedness activities. Our results suggest that more frequent participation in exercises may result in improved overall response. PMID:23903400

  11. Guidelines to improve airport preparedness against chemical and biological terrorism.

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Donna M.; Price, Phillip N.; Gordon, Susanna P.; Gadgil, Ashok

    2005-05-01

    Guidelines to Improve Airport Preparedness Against Chemical and Biological Terrorism is a 100-page document that makes concrete recommendations on improving security and assessing vulnerable areas and helps its readers understand the nature of chemical and biological attacks. The report has been turned over to Airports Council International (ACI) and the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), two organizations that together represent the interests of thousands of airport personnel and facilities in the U.S. and around the world.

  12. Tsunami Preparedness in California (videos)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Filmed and edited by: Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine

    2010-01-01

    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. These videos about tsunami preparedness in California distinguish between a local tsunami and a distant event and focus on the specific needs of each region. They offer guidelines for correct tsunami response and community preparedness from local emergency managers, first-responders, and leading experts on tsunami hazards and warnings, who have been working on ways of making the tsunami affected regions safer for the people and communities on a long-term basis. These videos were produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California Emergency Management Agency (CalEMA) and Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E).

  13. Manipulation of Plant Defense Responses by the Tomato Psyllid (Bactericerca cockerelli) and Its Associated Endosymbiont Candidatus Liberibacter Psyllaurous

    PubMed Central

    Walling, Linda L.; Paine, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    Some plant pathogens form obligate relationships with their insect vector and are vertically transmitted via eggs analogous to insect endosymbionts. Whether insect endosymbionts manipulate plant defenses to benefit their insect host remains unclear. The tomato psyllid, Bactericerca cockerelli (Sulc), vectors the endosymbiont “Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous” (Lps) during feeding on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). Lps titer in psyllids varied relative to the psyllid developmental stage with younger psyllids harboring smaller Lps populations compared to older psyllids. In the present study, feeding by different life stages of B. cockerelli infected with Lps, resulted in distinct tomato transcript profiles. Feeding by young psyllid nymphs, with lower Lps levels, induced tomato genes regulated by jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) (Allene oxide synthase, Proteinase inhibitor 2, Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 5, Pathogenesis-related protein 1) compared to feeding by older nymphs and adults, where higher Lps titers were found. In addition, inoculation of Lps without insect hosts suppressed accumulation of these defense transcripts. Collectively, these data suggest that the endosymbiont-like pathogen Lps manipulates plant signaling and defensive responses to benefit themselves and the success of their obligate insect vector on their host plant. PMID:22539959

  14. Cross-cultural comparisons between the earthquake preparedness models of Taiwan and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Jang, Li-Ju; Wang, Jieh-Jiuh; Paton, Douglas; Tsai, Ning-Yu

    2016-04-01

    Taiwan and New Zealand are both located in the Pacific Rim where 81 per cent of the world's largest earthquakes occur. Effective programmes for increasing people's preparedness for these hazards are essential. This paper tests the applicability of the community engagement theory of hazard preparedness in two distinct cultural contexts. Structural equation modelling analysis provides support for this theory. The paper suggests that the close fit between theory and data that is achieved by excluding trust supports the theoretical prediction that familiarity with a hazard negates the need to trust external sources. The results demonstrate that the hazard preparedness theory is applicable to communities that have previously experienced earthquakes and are therefore familiar with the associated hazards and the need for earthquake preparedness. The paper also argues that cross-cultural comparisons provide opportunities for collaborative research and learning as well as access to a wider range of potential earthquake risk management strategies. PMID:26282331

  15. Co-Evolution of Social Learning and Evolutionary Preparedness in Dangerous Environments.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Björn; Selbing, Ida; Olsson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Danger is a fundamental aspect of the lives of most animals. Adaptive behavior therefore requires avoiding actions, objects, and environments associated with danger. Previous research has shown that humans and non-human animals can avoid such dangers through two types of behavioral adaptions, (i) genetic preparedness to avoid certain stimuli or actions, and (ii) social learning. These adaptive mechanisms reduce the fitness costs associated with danger but still allow flexible behavior. Despite the empirical prevalence and importance of both these mechanisms, it is unclear when they evolve and how they interact. We used evolutionary agent-based simulations, incorporating empirically based learning mechanisms, to clarify if preparedness and social learning typically both evolve in dangerous environments, and if these mechanisms generally interact synergistically or antagonistically. Our simulations showed that preparedness and social learning often co-evolve because they provide complimentary benefits: genetic preparedness reduced foraging efficiency, but resulted in a higher rate of survival in dangerous environments, while social learning generally came to dominate the population, especially when the environment was stochastic. However, even in this case, genetic preparedness reliably evolved. Broadly, our results indicate that the relationship between preparedness and social learning is important as it can result in trade-offs between behavioral flexibility and safety, which can lead to seemingly suboptimal behavior if the evolutionary environment of the organism is not taken into account. PMID:27487079

  16. Co-Evolution of Social Learning and Evolutionary Preparedness in Dangerous Environments

    PubMed Central

    Lindström, Björn; Selbing, Ida; Olsson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Danger is a fundamental aspect of the lives of most animals. Adaptive behavior therefore requires avoiding actions, objects, and environments associated with danger. Previous research has shown that humans and non-human animals can avoid such dangers through two types of behavioral adaptions, (i) genetic preparedness to avoid certain stimuli or actions, and (ii) social learning. These adaptive mechanisms reduce the fitness costs associated with danger but still allow flexible behavior. Despite the empirical prevalence and importance of both these mechanisms, it is unclear when they evolve and how they interact. We used evolutionary agent-based simulations, incorporating empirically based learning mechanisms, to clarify if preparedness and social learning typically both evolve in dangerous environments, and if these mechanisms generally interact synergistically or antagonistically. Our simulations showed that preparedness and social learning often co-evolve because they provide complimentary benefits: genetic preparedness reduced foraging efficiency, but resulted in a higher rate of survival in dangerous environments, while social learning generally came to dominate the population, especially when the environment was stochastic. However, even in this case, genetic preparedness reliably evolved. Broadly, our results indicate that the relationship between preparedness and social learning is important as it can result in trade-offs between behavioral flexibility and safety, which can lead to seemingly suboptimal behavior if the evolutionary environment of the organism is not taken into account. PMID:27487079

  17. Exposure to trauma-relevant pictures is associated with tachycardia in victims who had experienced an intense peritraumatic defensive response: the tonic immobility

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Rita de Cassia S.; Portugal, Liana C. L.; Fernandes Jr, Orlando; Mocaiber, Izabela; Souza, Gabriela G. L.; David, Isabel de Paula A.; Volchan, Eliane; de Oliveira, Leticia; Pereira, Mirtes G.

    2014-01-01

    Tonic immobility is an involuntary, last-ditch defensive reaction characterized by physical inactivity in a context of inescapable threat that has been described in many species, including humans. The occurrence of this defensive response is a predictor of the severity of psychiatric disorders and may be considered as an index of an intense reaction to a traumatic event. Here, we investigated whether the retrospective reports of peritraumatic tonic immobility reaction in participants exposed to a traumatic event would modify their cardiac responses to pictures related to their trauma. Using a questionnaire of life-threating events, we selected students who experienced violent crime as their most intense trauma and students who had never experienced a violent crime trauma, but experienced other traumatic events. All participants completed a questionnaire that estimated the intensity of tonic immobility during their most intense trauma. Electrocardiographic recordings were collected during exposure to pictures. Participants viewed emotional pictures (human attack with guns) and neutral pictures. These emotional stimuli were selected to be trauma-relevant to the violent crime group and non trauma-relevant to the no violent crime trauma group. Violent crime group showed a positive correlation between heart rate changes after viewing trauma-related pictures and tonic immobility scores. We observed that low tonic immobility scores were associated with bradycardia and high scores with tachycardia in response to trauma-relevant pictures. For the no violent crime group, no significant correlation was detected. These results suggest that the relevance of the stimuli and the magnitude of the defensive response during a previous trauma event were important factors triggering more intense defensive responses. PMID:25566169

  18. Domestic preparedness: the grand illusion.

    PubMed

    Maniscalco, P M

    2001-04-01

    The problems posed by terrorism to not only the emergency response community, but to national security at large can be overwhelming. Adoption of what would be considered prudent and effective business practices by implementing a disciplined and effectively structured central strategy cannot be overencouraged. The emerging strategy must take into account the existing emergency response infrastructures and build upon existing capacity in an effort to achieve greater readiness. This technique is no different than the training and issuance of radiological response equipment to emergency responders in the 1950s by the then Civil Defense Agency. The training that is offered, especially to EMS providers, needs to be institutionalized to ensure that our peers, on a regular basis, revisit curriculum content. Incorporating a training module within the existing DOT NHTSA initial and refresher EMT and paramedic educational curricula could easily achieve this goal. Implementing fiscal support to the local emergency response agencies in a sustainable manner is a must. The costs associated with training, equipping and servicing the equipment and medication stores are budget-busters. This is a threat to national security and, as such, the federal government needs to rise to the challenge of supporting the local response organizations that will meet this threat head-on during the aftermath of an attack. As previously mentioned, when the U.S. faced its last large national security threat (Soviet nuclear missiles), we witnessed the materialization of a comprehensive agenda that provided most of the attributes we desire with the contemporary problem of terrorism. There is no single solution to the problem of terrorism. In fact, it will take many individuals and functional areas to come together and stop viewing the threat as a "cash cow." The improved response capacity for acts of terrorism will have an inevitable "spillover benefit" of better trained and equipped emergency responders

  19. Coenzyme Q regulates the expression of essential genes of the pathogen- and xenobiotic-associated defense pathway in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Alexandra; Niklowitz, Petra; Menke, Thomas; Döring, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is necessary for mitochondrial energy production and modulates the expression of genes that are important for inflammatory processes, growth and detoxification reactions. A cellular surveillance-activated detoxification and defenses (cSADDs) pathway has been recently identified in C. elegans. The down-regulation of the components of the cSADDs pathway initiates an aversion behavior of the nematode. Here we hypothesized that CoQ regulates genes of the cSADDs pathway. To verify this we generated CoQ-deficient worms (“CoQ-free”) and performed whole-genome expression profiling. We found about 30% (120 genes) of the cSADDs pathway genes were differentially regulated under CoQ-deficient condition. Remarkably, 83% of these genes were down-regulated. The majority of the CoQ-sensitive cSADDs pathway genes encode for proteins involved in larval development (enrichment score (ES) = 38.0, p = 5.0E−37), aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, proteasome function (ES 8.2, p = 5.9E−31) and mitochondria function (ES 3.4, p = 1.7E−5). 67% (80 genes) of these genes are categorized as lethal. Thus it is shown for the first time that CoQ regulates a substantial number of essential genes that function in the evolutionary conserved cellular surveillance-activated detoxification and defenses pathway in C. elegans. PMID:26566301

  20. Coenzyme Q regulates the expression of essential genes of the pathogen- and xenobiotic-associated defense pathway in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Alexandra; Niklowitz, Petra; Menke, Thomas; Döring, Frank

    2015-11-01

    Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is necessary for mitochondrial energy production and modulates the expression of genes that are important for inflammatory processes, growth and detoxification reactions. A cellular surveillance-activated detoxification and defenses (cSADDs) pathway has been recently identified in C. elegans. The down-regulation of the components of the cSADDs pathway initiates an aversion behavior of the nematode. Here we hypothesized that CoQ regulates genes of the cSADDs pathway. To verify this we generated CoQ-deficient worms ("CoQ-free") and performed whole-genome expression profiling. We found about 30% (120 genes) of the cSADDs pathway genes were differentially regulated under CoQ-deficient condition. Remarkably, 83% of these genes were down-regulated. The majority of the CoQ-sensitive cSADDs pathway genes encode for proteins involved in larval development (enrichment score (ES) = 38.0, p = 5.0E(-37)), aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, proteasome function (ES 8.2, p = 5.9E(-31)) and mitochondria function (ES 3.4, p = 1.7E(-5)). 67% (80 genes) of these genes are categorized as lethal. Thus it is shown for the first time that CoQ regulates a substantial number of essential genes that function in the evolutionary conserved cellular surveillance-activated detoxification and defenses pathway in C. elegans. PMID:26566301

  1. Dual and Opposing Roles of Xanthine Dehydrogenase in Defense-Associated Reactive Oxygen Species Metabolism in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xianfeng; Wang, Wenming; Bittner, Florian; Schmidt, Nadine; Berkey, Robert; Zhang, Lingli; King, Harlan; Zhang, Yi; Feng, Jiayue; Wen, Yinqiang; Tan, Liqiang; Li, Yue; Zhang, Qiong; Deng, Ziniu; Xiong, Xingyao; Xiao, Shunyuan

    2016-05-01

    While plants produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) for stress signaling and pathogen defense, they need to remove excessive ROS induced during stress responses in order to minimize oxidative damage. How can plants fine-tune this balance and meet such conflicting needs? Here, we show that XANTHINE DEHYDROGENASE1 (XDH1) in Arabidopsis thaliana appears to play spatially opposite roles to serve this purpose. Through a large-scale genetic screen, we identified three missense mutations in XDH1 that impair XDH1's enzymatic functions and consequently affect the powdery mildew resistance mediated by RESISTANCE TO POWDERY MILDEW8 (RPW8) in epidermal cells and formation of xanthine-enriched autofluorescent objects in mesophyll cells. Further analyses revealed that in leaf epidermal cells, XDH1 likely functions as an oxidase, along with the NADPH oxidases RbohD and RbohF, to generate superoxide, which is dismutated into H2O2 The resulting enrichment of H2O2 in the fungal haustorial complex within infected epidermal cells helps to constrain the haustorium, thereby contributing to RPW8-dependent and RPW8-independent powdery mildew resistance. By contrast, in leaf mesophyll cells, XDH1 carries out xanthine dehydrogenase activity to produce uric acid in local and systemic tissues to scavenge H2O2 from stressed chloroplasts, thereby protecting plants from stress-induced oxidative damage. Thus, XDH1 plays spatially specified dual and opposing roles in modulation of ROS metabolism during defense responses in Arabidopsis. PMID:27152019

  2. Trait rejection sensitivity is associated with vigilance and defensive response rather than detection of social rejection cues

    PubMed Central

    Kawamoto, Taishi; Nittono, Hiroshi; Ura, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies suggest that psychological difficulties arise from higher trait Rejection Sensitivity (RS)—heightened vigilance and differential detection of social rejection cues and defensive response to. On the other hand, from an evolutionary perspective, rapid and efficient detection of social rejection cues can be considered beneficial. We conducted a survey and an electrophysiological experiment to reconcile this seeming contradiction. We compared the effects of RS and Rejection Detection Capability (RDC) on perceived interpersonal experiences (Study 1) and on neurocognitive processes in response to cues of social rejection (disgusted faces; Study 2). We found that RS and RDC were not significantly related, although RS was positively related to perceived social rejection experiences and RDC was positively related to perceived social inclusion experiences. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) revealed that higher RS was related to cognitive avoidance (i.e., P1) and heightened motivated attention (i.e., late positive potential: LPP), but not to facial expression encoding (i.e., N170) toward disgusted faces. On the other hand, higher RDC was related to heightened N170 amplitude, but not to P1 and LPP amplitudes. These findings imply that sensitivity to rejection is apparently distinct from the ability to detect social rejection cues and instead reflects intense vigilance and defensive response to those cues. We discussed an alternative explanation of the relationship between RS and RDC from a signal detection perspective. PMID:26483750

  3. Citizen preparedness for disasters: are current assumptions valid?

    PubMed

    Uscher-Pines, Lori; Chandra, Anita; Acosta, Joie; Kellermann, Arthur

    2012-06-01

    US government programs and communications regarding citizen preparedness for disasters rest on several untested, and therefore unverified, assumptions. We explore the assumptions related to citizen preparedness promotion and argue that in spite of extensive messaging about the importance of citizen preparedness and countless household surveys purporting to track the preparedness activities of individuals and households, the role individual Americans are being asked to play is largely based on conventional wisdom. Recommendations for conceptualizing and measuring citizen preparedness are discussed. PMID:22700027

  4. Eosinophil-Derived Neurotoxin (EDN/RNase 2) and the Mouse Eosinophil-Associated RNases (mEars): Expanding Roles in Promoting Host Defense

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Helene F.

    2015-01-01

    The eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN/RNase2) and its divergent orthologs, the mouse eosinophil-associated RNases (mEars), are prominent secretory proteins of eosinophilic leukocytes and are all members of the larger family of RNase A-type ribonucleases. While EDN has broad antiviral activity, targeting RNA viruses via mechanisms that may require enzymatic activity, more recent studies have elucidated how these RNases may generate host defense via roles in promoting leukocyte activation, maturation, and chemotaxis. This review provides an update on recent discoveries, and highlights the versatility of this family in promoting innate immunity. PMID:26184157

  5. Preparedness for Natural Disasters Among Older US Adults: A Nationwide Survey

    PubMed Central

    Rubenstein, Linda M.; Wallace, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine natural disaster preparedness levels among older US adults and assess factors that may adversely affect health and safety during such incidents. Methods. We sampled adults aged 50 years or older (n = 1304) from the 2010 interview survey of the Health and Retirement Study. The survey gathered data on general demographic characteristics, disability status or functional limitations, and preparedness-related factors and behaviors. We calculated a general disaster preparedness score by using individual indicators to assess overall preparedness. Results. Participant (n = 1304) mean age was 70 years (SD = 9.3). Only 34.3% reported participating in an educational program or reading materials about disaster preparation. Nearly 15% reported using electrically powered medical devices that might be at risk in a power outage. The preparedness score indicated that increasing age, physical disability, and lower educational attainment and income were independently and significantly associated with worse overall preparedness. Conclusions. Despite both greater vulnerability to disasters and continuous growth in the number of older US adults, many of the substantial problems discovered are remediable and require attention in the clinical, public health, and emergency management sectors of society. PMID:26313052

  6. Preparedness for Natural Disasters Among Older US Adults: A Nationwide Survey

    PubMed Central

    Rubenstein, Linda M.; Wallace, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine natural disaster preparedness levels among older US adults and assess factors that may adversely affect health and safety during such incidents. Methods. We sampled adults aged 50 years or older (n = 1304) from the 2010 interview survey of the Health and Retirement Study. The survey gathered data on general demographic characteristics, disability status or functional limitations, and preparedness-related factors and behaviors. We calculated a general disaster preparedness score by using individual indicators to assess overall preparedness. Results. Participant (n = 1304) mean age was 70 years (SD = 9.3). Only 34.3% reported participating in an educational program or reading materials about disaster preparation. Nearly 15% reported using electrically powered medical devices that might be at risk in a power outage. The preparedness score indicated that increasing age, physical disability, and lower educational attainment and income were independently and significantly associated with worse overall preparedness. Conclusions. Despite both greater vulnerability to disasters and continuous growth in the number of older US adults, many of the substantial problems discovered are remediable and require attention in the clinical, public health, and emergency management sectors of society. PMID:24432877

  7. Nuclear plant emergency preparedness in Russia.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Randolph L

    2009-11-01

    An international team of experts conducted a detailed operational review at the Volgodonsk nuclear power plant. The review was the first mission by an International Atomic Energy Agency Operational Safety Review Team to Russia in over a decade. The author reviewed the emergency preparedness program in detail. Emergency preparedness professionals in the West are largely unfamiliar with Russian nuclear plant emergency preparedness programs, and the legacy of Chernobyl may leave some doubt as to their efficacy. This article describes the program in some detail and compares some elements to programs in the United States. The author was favorably impressed with the state of nuclear plant emergency preparedness in the Russian Federation and identified program elements that should be considered for implementation elsewhere. PMID:19820472

  8. Nursing leadership in disaster preparedness and response.

    PubMed

    Knebel, Ann R; Toomey, Lauren; Libby, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Nurses serve as leaders in disaster preparedness and response at multiple levels: within their own homes and neighborhoods, at disaster scenes, and the workplace, which can vary from a health care facility, in the community, or at the state, national, or international level. This chapter provides an overview on theories of leadership with a historical context for nursing leadership; setting the context for nursing leadership in disaster preparedness and response. Although few research studies exist, there are numerous examples of nurses who provide leadership for disaster preparedness and response. To define the current state of the science, the research studies cited in this chapter are supplemented with case studies from particular disasters. The major finding of this review is that nursing leadership in disaster preparedness and response is a field of study that needs to be developed. PMID:24894051

  9. Vested Interest theory and disaster preparedness.

    PubMed

    Miller, Claude H; Adame, Bradley J; Moore, Scott D

    2013-01-01

    Three studies were designed to extend a combination of vested interest theory (VI) and the extended parallel process model of fear appeals (EPPM) to provide formative research for creating more effective disaster preparedness social action campaigns. The aim was to develop an effective VI scale for assessing individual awareness and 'vestedness' relevant to disaster preparedness. Typical preparedness behaviours are discussed with emphasis on earthquakes and tornados in particular. Brief overviews of VI and the EPPM are offered, and findings are presented from three studies (one dealing with earthquakes, and two with tornados) conducted to determine the factor structure of the key VI components involved, and to develop and test subscales derived from the two theories. The paper finishes with a discussion of future research needs and suggestions on how the new subscales may be applied in the design and execution of more effective disaster preparedness campaigns. PMID:23050780

  10. Segregated Anatomical Input to Sub-Regions of the Rodent Superior Colliculus Associated with Approach and Defense

    PubMed Central

    Comoli, Eliane; Das Neves Favaro, Plínio; Vautrelle, Nicolas; Leriche, Mariana; Overton, Paul G.; Redgrave, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The superior colliculus (SC) is responsible for sensorimotor transformations required to direct gaze toward or away from unexpected, biologically salient events. Significant changes in the external world are signaled to SC through primary multisensory afferents, spatially organized according to a retinotopic topography. For animals, where an unexpected event could indicate the presence of either predator or prey, early decisions to approach or avoid are particularly important. Rodents’ ecology dictates predators are most often detected initially as movements in upper visual field (mapped in medial SC), while appetitive stimuli are normally found in lower visual field (mapped in lateral SC). Our purpose was to exploit this functional segregation to reveal neural sites that can bias or modulate initial approach or avoidance responses. Small injections of Fluoro-Gold were made into medial or lateral sub-regions of intermediate and deep layers of SC (SCm/SCl). A remarkable segregation of input to these two functionally defined areas was found. (i) There were structures that projected only to SCm (e.g., specific cortical areas, lateral geniculate and suprageniculate thalamic nuclei, ventromedial and premammillary hypothalamic nuclei, and several brainstem areas) or SCl (e.g., primary somatosensory cortex representing upper body parts and vibrissae and parvicellular reticular nucleus in the brainstem). (ii) Other structures projected to both SCm and SCl but from topographically segregated populations of neurons (e.g., zona incerta and substantia nigra pars reticulata). (iii) There were a few brainstem areas in which retrogradely labeled neurons were spatially overlapping (e.g., pedunculopontine nucleus and locus coeruleus). These results indicate significantly more structures across the rat neuraxis are in a position to modulate defense responses evoked from SCm, and that neural mechanisms modulating SC-mediated defense or appetitive behavior are almost entirely

  11. A Common Fungal Associate of the Spruce Bark Beetle Metabolizes the Stilbene Defenses of Norway Spruce1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Hammerbacher, Almuth; Schmidt, Axel; Wadke, Namita; Wright, Louwrance P.; Schneider, Bernd; Bohlmann, Joerg; Brand, Willi A.; Fenning, Trevor M.; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Paetz, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies) forests suffer periodic fatal attacks by the bark beetle Ips typographus and its fungal associate, Ceratocystis polonica. Norway spruce protects itself against fungal and bark beetle invasion by the production of terpenoid resins, but it is unclear whether resins or other defenses are effective against the fungus. We investigated stilbenes, a group of phenolic compounds found in Norway spruce bark with a diaryl-ethene skeleton with known antifungal properties. During C. polonica infection, stilbene biosynthesis was up-regulated, as evidenced by elevated transcript levels of stilbene synthase genes. However, stilbene concentrations actually declined during infection, and this was due to fungal metabolism. C. polonica converted stilbenes to ring-opened, deglycosylated, and dimeric products. Chromatographic separation of C. polonica protein extracts confirmed that these metabolites arose from specific fungal enzyme activities. Comparison of C. polonica strains showed that rapid conversion of host phenolics is associated with higher virulence. C. polonica is so well adapted to its host’s chemical defenses that it is even able to use host phenolic compounds as its sole carbon source. PMID:23729780

  12. Preparedness for Death and Adjustment to Bereavement among Caregivers of Recently Placed Nursing Home Residents

    PubMed Central

    Boerner, Kathrin; Klinger, Julie; Rosen, Jules

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Preparedness for death as a predictor of post-bereavement adjustment has not been studied prospectively. Little is known about pre-death factors associated with feeling prepared prior to the death of a loved one. Objective: Our aim was to prospectively assess the role of preparedness for death as a predictor of post-bereavement adjustment in informal caregivers (CGs) who experienced the death of their loved one and to identify predictors and correlates of complicated grief, depression, and preparedness for death among informal CGs. Methods: We conducted a prospective, longitudinal study using data collected for a randomized trial testing the efficacy of an intervention for CGs of recently placed care recipients (CRs). Subjects were 217 informal CGs of care recipients recently placed in nursing homes, and they were followed for 18 months. CGs were assessed in person by certified interviewers at 6-month intervals. Eighty-nine CGs experienced the death of their loved one in the course of the study. Measurements used included preparedness for death, advance care planning (ACP), complicated grief, depression, and sociodemographic characteristics. Results: CGs who reported feeling more prepared for the death experienced lower levels of complicated grief post-bereavement. A multivariate ordinal logistic regression model showed that spouses as opposed to adult child CGs were less prepared for the death, depressed CGs were less prepared, and patients who engaged in ACP had CGs who felt more prepared. CR overt expressions about wanting to die was also related to higher levels of preparedness in the CG. Conclusions: We show prospectively that preparedness for death facilitates post-bereavement adjustment and identify factors associated with preparedness. ACP can be an effective means for preparing informal CGs for the death of their CRs. PMID:25469737

  13. Preparedness and response to bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    Spencer, R C; Lightfoot, N F

    2001-08-01

    As we enter the 21st century the threats of biological warfare and bioterrorism (so called asymmetric threats) appear to be more real than ever before. Historical evidence suggests that biological weapons have been used, with varying degrees of success, for many centuries. Despite the international agreements to ban such weapons, namely the 1925 Geneva Protocol and the 1975 Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, there is no effective international mechanism for challenging either the development of biological weapons or their use. Advances in technology and the rise of fundamentalist terror groups combine to present a significant threat to western democracies. A timely and definitive response to this threat will require co-operation between governments on a scale never seen before. There is a need for proper planning, good communication between various health, home office, defence and intelligence agencies and sufficient financial support for a realistic state of preparedness. The Department of Health has produced guidelines for responding to real or suspected incidents and the Public Health Laboratory Service (PHLS) has produced detailed protocols to inform the actions required by microbiologists and consultants in communicable disease control. These protocols will be published on the Department of Health and PHLS web sites. PMID:11676515

  14. Conceptualizing and measuring community preparedness within public health preparedness and response: complexities and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Kun, Karen E; Rose, Dale A; Morris, Thomas; Salter, Monique; Lamia, Tamara; Bhalakia, Amee; McLees, Anita W

    2014-01-01

    Since 2001, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Public Health Emergency Preparedness cooperative agreement has supported state, territorial, and local public health departments in preparing for and responding to public health emergencies. This conceptual article describes complexities identified and lessons learned in developing community preparedness performance measures for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's public health preparedness program. Challenges arose in (a) defining community; (b) measuring meaningful community engagement; and (c) determining a strategy for collecting, aggregating, and analyzing data from diverse state, territorial, and local health departments. This article contributes to prior work describing conceptual challenges in developing standardized measures of performance at the federal level and suggests ways to potentially mitigate general performance measurement challenges as well as measurement complexities specific to community preparedness. It may be informative for those state, territorial, and local health departments currently implementing (or contemplating implementing) community preparedness activities and for individuals more generally engaged in performance measurement. PMID:24322842

  15. Decreased emergence of emerald ash borer from ash treated with methyl jasmonate is associated with induction of general defense traits and the toxic phenolic compound verbascoside.

    PubMed

    Whitehill, Justin G A; Rigsby, Chad; Cipollini, Don; Herms, Daniel A; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2014-12-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is causing widespread mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. To date, no mechanisms of host resistance have been identified against this pest. Methyl jasmonate was applied to susceptible North American and resistant Asian ash species to determine if it can elicit induced responses in bark that enhance resistance to EAB. In particular, phenolic compounds, lignin, and defense-related proteins were quantified, and compounds associated with resistance were subsequently tested directly against EAB larvae in bioassays with artificial diet. MeJA application decreased adult emergence in susceptible ash species, comparable to levels achieved by insecticide application. Concentration of the phenolic compound verbascoside sharply increased after MeJA application to green and white ash. When incorporated in an artificial diet, verbascoside decreased survival and growth of EAB neonates in a dose-dependent fashion. Lignin and trypsin inhibitors were also induced by MeJA, and analogs of both compounds reduced growth of EAB larvae in artificial diets. We conclude that the application of MeJA prior to EAB attack has the ability to enhance resistance of susceptible ash trees by inducing endogenous plant defenses, and report evidence that induction of verbascoside is a mechanism of resistance to EAB. PMID:25231373

  16. Community preparedness for emergency: a cross-sectional survey of residents in Heilongjiang of China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weilan; Hao, Yanhua; Wu, Qunhong; Ning, Ning; You, Jia; Liu, Chaojie; Jiao, Mingli; Gao, Lijun; Kang, Zheng; Liang, Libo; Sun, Hong; Cui, Yu; Li, Ye; Han, Xiaonan; Fang, Xin; Zhao, Xiyan; Hu, Man; Ding, Ding; Gao, Hao; Lu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Objective This article aims to identify factors that shape the knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of community residents in China's Heilongjiang province towards emergency preparedness. Findings of such a study may provide evidence to support the development of effective public risk communication strategies and education campaigns. Design A cross-sectional household questionnaire survey was conducted in Heilongjiang province in 2014. A stratified cluster sampling strategy was employed to select study participants. The questionnaires were administered using face-to-face interviews. 2800 questionnaires were completed, among which 2686 (95.9%) were considered valid for data analyses. A multivariate logistic regression model was adopted to identify the extent to which the independent variables were associated with emergency preparedness. Results Fewer than 5% respondents were well prepared for emergency. Over half (52%) of poorly prepared respondents did not know what to do in emergency; women (OR=1.691), higher household income (OR ranging from 1.666 to 2.117), previous experience with emergency (OR=1.552), higher levels of knowledge about emergency (OR=2.192), risk awareness (OR=1.531), self-efficacy (OR=1.796), as well as positive attitudes towards emergency preparedness (OR=2.265) were significant predictors for emergency preparedness. Neither educational attainment nor exposure to awareness-raising entered into the logic regression model as a significant predictor for emergency preparedness. Conclusions The level of emergency preparedness in Heilongjiang residents is very low, which is linked with poor knowledge and attitudes of the residents towards emergency preparedness. Future emergency awareness campaigns should be more focused and tailored to the needs of intended audience, taking into consideration of their usual source of information and knowledge in relation to emergency. PMID:26553829

  17. Antipredator defenses predict diversification rates

    PubMed Central

    Arbuckle, Kevin; Speed, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    The “escape-and-radiate” hypothesis predicts that antipredator defenses facilitate adaptive radiations by enabling escape from constraints of predation, diversified habitat use, and subsequently speciation. Animals have evolved diverse strategies to reduce the direct costs of predation, including cryptic coloration and behavior, chemical defenses, mimicry, and advertisement of unprofitability (conspicuous warning coloration). Whereas the survival consequences of these alternative defenses for individuals are well-studied, little attention has been given to the macroevolutionary consequences of alternative forms of defense. Here we show, using amphibians as the first, to our knowledge, large-scale empirical test in animals, that there are important macroevolutionary consequences of alternative defenses. However, the escape-and-radiate hypothesis does not adequately describe them, due to its exclusive focus on speciation. We examined how rates of speciation and extinction vary across defensive traits throughout amphibians. Lineages that use chemical defenses show higher rates of speciation as predicted by escape-and-radiate but also show higher rates of extinction compared with those without chemical defense. The effect of chemical defense is a net reduction in diversification compared with lineages without chemical defense. In contrast, acquisition of conspicuous coloration (often used as warning signals or in mimicry) is associated with heightened speciation rates but unchanged extinction rates. We conclude that predictions based on the escape-and-radiate hypothesis must incorporate the effect of traits on both speciation and extinction, which is rarely considered in such studies. Our results also suggest that knowledge of defensive traits could have a bearing on the predictability of extinction, perhaps especially important in globally threatened taxa such as amphibians. PMID:26483488

  18. Antipredator defenses predict diversification rates.

    PubMed

    Arbuckle, Kevin; Speed, Michael P

    2015-11-01

    The "escape-and-radiate" hypothesis predicts that antipredator defenses facilitate adaptive radiations by enabling escape from constraints of predation, diversified habitat use, and subsequently speciation. Animals have evolved diverse strategies to reduce the direct costs of predation, including cryptic coloration and behavior, chemical defenses, mimicry, and advertisement of unprofitability (conspicuous warning coloration). Whereas the survival consequences of these alternative defenses for individuals are well-studied, little attention has been given to the macroevolutionary consequences of alternative forms of defense. Here we show, using amphibians as the first, to our knowledge, large-scale empirical test in animals, that there are important macroevolutionary consequences of alternative defenses. However, the escape-and-radiate hypothesis does not adequately describe them, due to its exclusive focus on speciation. We examined how rates of speciation and extinction vary across defensive traits throughout amphibians. Lineages that use chemical defenses show higher rates of speciation as predicted by escape-and-radiate but also show higher rates of extinction compared with those without chemical defense. The effect of chemical defense is a net reduction in diversification compared with lineages without chemical defense. In contrast, acquisition of conspicuous coloration (often used as warning signals or in mimicry) is associated with heightened speciation rates but unchanged extinction rates. We conclude that predictions based on the escape-and-radiate hypothesis must incorporate the effect of traits on both speciation and extinction, which is rarely considered in such studies. Our results also suggest that knowledge of defensive traits could have a bearing on the predictability of extinction, perhaps especially important in globally threatened taxa such as amphibians. PMID:26483488

  19. Some ecological contexts of attitudes concerning issues of civil defense. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nehnevajsa, J.

    1983-03-01

    The examination of six clusters of major issues bearing public credibility and acceptance of national civil defense preparedness are examined in terms of the geo-ecological context of the residential area. They include public perception of threat, survivability, civil defense costs, the implementation of crisis relocation programs, general attitudes toward crisis relocation, and claims regarding willingness to act. The key differences among respondents from counties characterized as more and less well-to-do may be summarized as: Less well-to-do counties estimate the likelihood of war, the chances of survival both in fallout and blast shelters, the current and desirable investment in civil defense, the intention to evacuate spontaneously and relocate upon recommendation by the President, and compliance with instructions where to go at higher levels than do more well-to-do counties. On the other hand, more well-to-do counties find the target and fallout danger, likelihood of Presidential decision to relocate and the associated increment to spontaneous evacuation, and likelihood of adaptive spontaneous evacuation higher than those respondents in less well-to-do counties. Residents of high risk areas (TR-82) tend to recognize this as they perceive the target danger at higher levels than do residents of low risk areas.

  20. 77 FR 64562 - Draft Emergency Preparedness Frequently Asked Questions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Draft Emergency Preparedness Frequently Asked Questions AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... Commission (NRC) is making available for comment Emergency Preparedness (EP) frequently asked...

  1. 78 FR 52570 - Draft Emergency Preparedness Frequently Asked Questions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Draft Emergency Preparedness Frequently Asked Questions AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... Commission (NRC) is making available for comment Emergency Preparedness (EP) frequently asked...

  2. 78 FR 33862 - Draft Emergency Preparedness Frequently Asked Questions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Draft Emergency Preparedness Frequently Asked Questions AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... Commission (NRC) is making available for comment Emergency Preparedness (EP) frequently asked...

  3. 75 FR 67807 - Pipeline Safety: Emergency Preparedness Communications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... Communications AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); DOT. ACTION: Notice... Hazardous Liquid and Gas Pipeline Systems. Subject: Emergency Preparedness Communications. Advisory: To... preparedness communications between pipeline operators and emergency responders. To ensure a prompt,...

  4. 76 FR 2131 - Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee... Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee (FRPCC) is holding a public meeting on January 20, 2011 in....greten@dhs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The role and functions of the Federal...

  5. The Bark-Beetle-Associated Fungus, Endoconidiophora polonica, Utilizes the Phenolic Defense Compounds of Its Host as a Carbon Source1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wadke, Namita; Kandasamy, Dineshkumar; Vogel, Heiko; Wingfield, Brenda D.; Paetz, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies) is periodically attacked by the bark beetle Ips typographus and its fungal associate, Endoconidiophora polonica, whose infection is thought to be required for successful beetle attack. Norway spruce produces terpenoid resins and phenolics in response to fungal and bark beetle invasion. However, how the fungal associate copes with these chemical defenses is still unclear. In this study, we investigated changes in the phenolic content of Norway spruce bark upon E. polonica infection and the biochemical factors mediating these changes. Although genes encoding the rate-limiting enzymes in Norway spruce stilbene and flavonoid biosynthesis were actively transcribed during fungal infection, there was a significant time-dependent decline of the corresponding metabolites in fungal lesions. In vitro feeding experiments with pure phenolics revealed that E. polonica transforms both stilbenes and flavonoids to muconoid-type ring-cleavage products, which are likely the first steps in the degradation of spruce defenses to substrates that can enter the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Four genes were identified in E. polonica that encode catechol dioxygenases carrying out these reactions. These enzymes catalyze the cleavage of phenolic rings with a vicinal dihydroxyl group to muconoid products accepting a wide range of Norway spruce-produced phenolics as substrates. The expression of these genes and E. polonica utilization of the most abundant spruce phenolics as carbon sources both correlated positively with fungal virulence in several strains. Thus, the pathways for the degradation of phenolic compounds in E. polonica, initiated by catechol dioxygenase action, are important to the infection, growth, and survival of this bark beetle-vectored fungus and may play a major role in the ability of I. typographus to colonize spruce trees. PMID:27208235

  6. Quarterly report on Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 90-7 for the period ending December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Cash, R.J.; Dukelow, G.T.; Forbes, C.J.

    1993-03-01

    This is the seventh quarterly report on the progress of activities addressing safety issues associated with Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tanks that contain ferrocyanide compounds. In the presence of oxidizing materials, such as nitrates or nitrites, ferrocyanide can be made to explode in the laboratory by heating it to high temperatures [above 285{degrees}C (545{degrees}F)]. In the mid 1950s approximately 140 metric tons of ferrocyanide were added to 24 underground high-level radioactive waste tanks. An implementation plan (Cash 1991) responding to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 90-7 (FR 1990) was issued in March 1991 describing the activities that were planned and underway to address each of the six parts of Recommendation 90-7. A revision to the original plan was transmitted to US Department of Energy by Westinghouse Hanford Company in December 1992. Milestones completed this quarter are described in this report. Contents of this report include: Introduction; Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Implementation Plan Task Activities (Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation for enhanced temperature measurement, Recommendation for continuous temperature monitoring, Recommendation for cover gas monitoring, Recommendation for ferrocyanide waste characterization, Recommendation for chemical reaction studies, and Recommendation for emergency response planning); Schedules; and References. All actions recommended by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board for emergency planning by Hanford Site emergency preparedness organizations have been completed.

  7. Characterization of temperature and light effects on the defense response phenotypes associated with the maize Rp1-D21 gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rp1 is a complex locus of maize controlling race-specific resistance to the common rust fungus, Puccinia sorghi. The resistance response includes the “Hypersensitive response” (HR) – a rapid localized cell death at the point of pathogen penetration - and the induction of pathogenesis associated gene...

  8. Reducing losses from earthquakes through personal preparedness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kockelman, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    A prerequisite to personal preparedness is familiarity with and concern about the other hazard-reduction phases. Strengthening the structure of the home, storing water, and showing family members how to shut off utility-supply lines are only a part of personal preparedness. Equally important are other phases such as picking up children from an evacuated school, securing heavy objects at the work palce as well as in the home, and retrofitting the commuter-highway overpasses needed to reunite a family. 

  9. 49 CFR 239.101 - Emergency preparedness plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency preparedness plan. 239.101 Section 239.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER TRAIN EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS Specific Requirements § 239.101 Emergency preparedness plan. (a)...

  10. 49 CFR 239.101 - Emergency preparedness plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Emergency preparedness plan. 239.101 Section 239.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER TRAIN EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS Specific Requirements § 239.101 Emergency preparedness plan. (a)...

  11. 48 CFR 5152.208-9001 - Industrial preparedness planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Industrial preparedness... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SOLICITATIONS PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES 5152.208-9001 Industrial preparedness... contractor is designated a Limited Fee Planned Producer. Industrial Preparedness Planning (XXX 1989) (DEV)...

  12. 48 CFR 5152.208-9001 - Industrial preparedness planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Industrial preparedness... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SOLICITATIONS PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES 5152.208-9001 Industrial preparedness... contractor is designated a Limited Fee Planned Producer. Industrial Preparedness Planning (XXX 1989) (DEV)...

  13. 48 CFR 5152.208-9001 - Industrial preparedness planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Industrial preparedness... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SOLICITATIONS PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES 5152.208-9001 Industrial preparedness... contractor is designated a Limited Fee Planned Producer. Industrial Preparedness Planning (XXX 1989) (DEV)...

  14. 48 CFR 5152.208-9001 - Industrial preparedness planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Industrial preparedness... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SOLICITATIONS PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES 5152.208-9001 Industrial preparedness... contractor is designated a Limited Fee Planned Producer. Industrial Preparedness Planning (XXX 1989) (DEV)...

  15. 48 CFR 5152.208-9001 - Industrial preparedness planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Industrial preparedness... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SOLICITATIONS PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES 5152.208-9001 Industrial preparedness... contractor is designated a Limited Fee Planned Producer. Industrial Preparedness Planning (XXX 1989) (DEV)...

  16. 76 FR 35902 - Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee... Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee (FRPCC) is holding a public meeting on July 11, 2011 in... Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee (FRPCC) are described in 44 CFR parts 351.10(a) and...

  17. Amino Acid Homeostasis Modulates Salicylic Acid–Associated Redox Status and Defense Responses in Arabidopsis[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guosheng; Ji, Yuanyuan; Bhuiyan, Nazmul H.; Pilot, Guillaume; Selvaraj, Gopalan; Zou, Jitao; Wei, Yangdou

    2010-01-01

    The tight association between nitrogen status and pathogenesis has been broadly documented in plant–pathogen interactions. However, the interface between primary metabolism and disease responses remains largely unclear. Here, we show that knockout of a single amino acid transporter, LYSINE HISTIDINE TRANSPORTER1 (LHT1), is sufficient for Arabidopsis thaliana plants to confer a broad spectrum of disease resistance in a salicylic acid–dependent manner. We found that redox fine-tuning in photosynthetic cells was causally linked to the lht1 mutant-associated phenotypes. Furthermore, the enhanced resistance in lht1 could be attributed to a specific deficiency of its main physiological substrate, Gln, and not to a general nitrogen deficiency. Thus, by enabling nitrogen metabolism to moderate the cellular redox status, a plant primary metabolite, Gln, plays a crucial role in plant disease resistance. PMID:21097712

  18. Limb-body wall defect. Is there a defensible hypothesis and can it explain all the associated anomalies?

    PubMed

    Hunter, Alasdair G W; Seaver, Laurie H; Stevenson, Roger E

    2011-09-01

    Aside from gastroschisis and omphalocele, major defects of the ventral body (thoracoabdominal) wall are relatively uncommon and almost universally lethal. They are most often associated with other anomalies including those of the limbs that may range from amelia to mild positional deformations, unusual craniofacial malformations, and a variety of visceral abnormalities that include the heart, lungs, genitourinary system, and gut. This complex of ventral wall anomalies has been discussed under a broad and changing nomenclature that has included amniotic band disruption complex, amnion rupture sequence, limb-body wall defect (or complex), and simply body wall complex. Three major theories have been suggested to explain this complex: early amnion rupture (operating through uterine pressure and/or disruption by amniotic bands), vascular compromise (primarily hypoperfusion), and an early intrinsic defect of the developing embryo. We present four patients that illustrate the spectrum of ventral body wall defects, and from there critique the current hypotheses of pathogenesis. We conclude that this association of malformations originates as early as the embryonic disc stage, and that some of the observed associated anomalies are secondary complications of the primary disturbance in embryogenesis. We propose a new explanation for the atypical facial clefts and cranial malformations that are often observed. PMID:21815262

  19. Hospitals respond to water loss during the Midwest floods of 1993: preparedness and improvisation.

    PubMed

    Peters, M S

    1996-01-01

    The Midwest floods of 1993 presented multiple emergency preparedness challenges to the six metropolitan medical centers in Des Moines, Iowa. As floodwaters overcame the Des Moines Water Treatment Plant, medical centers were faced with the task of responding to imminent water loss and its associated impact on patient care services and facility operations. Many clinical services were cancelled or diverted to alternate facilities. Ancillary resources were identified and implemented to maintain essential operations. Through effective emergency preparedness and creative improvisation, medical centers were able to overcome the initial crisis, sustain primary services, and ensure continued quality patient care. The article describes how sudden and prolonged water loss affected Des Moines hospitals. It also discusses aspects of hospital emergency preparedness that contributed to successful response. PMID:8782032

  20. Bioterrorism with zoonotic disease: public health preparedness lessons from a multiagency exercise.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Brian A; Buehler, James W; Cole, Dana; Cookson, Susan; Dausey, David J; Honess-Morreale, Lauren; Lance, Susan; Molander, Roger C; O'Neal, Patrick; Lurie, Nicole

    2006-01-01

    Responding to agricultural bioterrorism with pathogenic agents that are communicable from animals to humans (zoonotic diseases) requires effective coordination of many organizations, both inside and outside of government. Action must be simultaneously taken to address public health concerns, respond to the agricultural dimensions of the event, and carry out the necessary law enforcement investigation. As part of a project focused on examining public health preparedness in Georgia, an exercise was carried out in July 2005 examining the intentional introduction of avian influenza (H5N1) in commercial poultry operations. The attack scenario, which was written to occur during an already severe human influenza season, enabled exploration of a range of issues associated with public health preparedness for major disease outbreaks including pandemic influenza, coordination of a multiagency response operation at multiple levels of government, and effective management of interdisciplinary response activities. The exercise is described and broader policy lessons regarding preparedness planning are discussed. PMID:16999589

  1. Defensive function of persecutory delusion and discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem in schizophrenia: study using the Brief Implicit Association Test

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Mitsuo; Hayakawa, Tomomi; Okamura, Aiko; Kohigashi, Mutsumi; Fukui, Kenji; Narumoto, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Background If delusions serve as a defense mechanism in schizophrenia patients with paranoia, then they should show normal or high explicit self-esteem and low implicit self-esteem. However, the results of previous studies are inconsistent. One possible explanation for this inconsistency is that there are two types of paranoia, “bad me” (self-blaming) paranoia and “poor me” (non-self-blaming) paranoia. We thus examined implicit and explicit self-esteem and self-blaming tendency in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. We hypothesized that patients with paranoia would show lower implicit self-esteem and only those with non-self-blaming paranoia would experience a discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem. Methods Participants consisted of patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder recruited from a day hospital (N=71). Participants were assessed for psychotic symptoms, using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), and self-blaming tendency, using the brief COPE. We also assessed explicit self-esteem, using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), implicit self-esteem, using Brief Implicit Association Test (BIAT), and discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem. Results Contrary to our hypothesis, implicit self-esteem in paranoia and nonparanoia showed no statistical difference. As expected, only patients with non-self-blaming paranoia experienced a discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem; other groups showed no such discrepancy. Conclusion These results suggest that persecutory delusion plays a defensive role in non-self-blaming paranoia. PMID:25565849

  2. Polyamine regulates tolerance to water stress in leaves of white clover associated with antioxidant defense and dehydrin genes via involvement in calcium messenger system and hydrogen peroxide signaling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhou; Zhang, Yan; Peng, Dandan; Wang, Xiaojuan; Peng, Yan; He, Xiaoshuang; Zhang, Xinquan; Ma, Xiao; Huang, Linkai; Yan, Yanhong

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous polyamine (PA) may play a critical role in tolerance to water stress in plants acting as a signaling molecule activator. Water stress caused increases in endogenous PA content in leaves, including putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), and spermine (Spm). Exogenous application of Spd could induce the instantaneous H2O2 burst and accumulation of cytosolic free Ca2+, and activate NADPH oxidase and CDPK gene expression in cells. To a great extent, PA biosynthetic inhibitor reduced the water stress-induced H2O2 accumulation, free cytosolic Ca2+ release, antioxidant enzyme activities and genes expression leading to aggravate water stress-induced oxidative damage, while these suppressing effects were alleviated by the addition of exogenous Spd, indicating PA was involved in water stress-induced H2O2 and cytosolic free Ca2+ production as well as stress tolerance. Dehydrin genes (Y2SK, Y2K, and SK2) were showed to be highly responsive to exogenous Spd. PA-induced antioxidant defense and dehydrin genes expression could be blocked by the scavenger of H2O2 and the inhibitors of H2O2 generation or Ca2+ channels blockers, a calmodulin antagonist, as well as the inhibitor of CDPK. These findings suggested that PA regulated tolerance to water stress in white clover associated with antioxidant defenses and dehydrins via involvement in the calcium messenger system and H2O2 signaling pathways. PA-induced H2O2 production required Ca2+ release, while PA-induced Ca2+ release was also essential for H2O2 production, suggesting an interaction between PA-induced H2O2 and Ca2+ signaling. PMID:26528187

  3. Learning Environment, Preparedness and Satisfaction in Osteopathy in Europe: The PreSS Study

    PubMed Central

    Luciani, Emanuele; van Dun, Patrick L. S.; Esteves, Jorge Eduardo; Lunghi, Christian; Petracca, Marco; Papa, Liria; Merdy, Olivier; Jäkel, Anne; Cerritelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Objective 1) to assess the preparedness to practice and satisfaction in learning environment amongst new graduates from European osteopathic institutions; 2) to compare the results of preparedness to practice and satisfaction in learning environment between and within countries where osteopathy is regulated and where regulation is still to be achieved; 3) to identify possible correlations between learning environment and preparedness to practice. Method Osteopathic education providers of full-time education located in Europe were enrolled, and their final year students were contacted to complete a survey. Measures used were: Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM), the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) and a demographic questionnaire. Scores were compared across institutions using one-way ANOVA and generalised linear model. Results Nine European osteopathic education institutions participated in the study (4 located in Italy, 2 in the UK, 1 in France, 1 in Belgium and 1 in the Netherlands) and 243 (77%) of their final-year students completed the survey. The DREEM total score mean was 121.4 (SEM: 1.66) whilst the AAMC was 17.58 (SEM:0.35). A generalised linear model found a significant association between not-regulated countries and total score as well as subscales DREEM scores (p<0.001). Learning environment and preparedness to practice were significantly positively correlated (r=0.76; p<0.01). Discussion A perceived higher level of preparedness and satisfaction was found amongst students from osteopathic institutions located in countries without regulation compared to those located in countries where osteopathy is regulated; however, all institutions obtained a ‘more positive than negative’ result. Moreover, in general, cohorts with fewer than 20 students scored significantly higher compared to larger student cohorts. Finally, an overall positive correlation between students’ preparedness and satisfaction were found across all

  4. Communications in Public Health Emergency Preparedness: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Savoia, Elena; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2013-01-01

    During a public health crisis, public health agencies engage in a variety of public communication efforts to inform the population, encourage the adoption of preventive behaviors, and limit the impact of adverse events. Given the importance of communication to the public in public health emergency preparedness, it is critical to examine the extent to which this field of study has received attention from the scientific community. We conducted a systematic literature review to describe current research in the area of communication to the public in public health emergency preparedness, focusing on the association between sociodemographic and behavioral factors and communication as well as preparedness outcomes. Articles were searched in PubMed and Embase and reviewed by 2 independent reviewers. A total of 131 articles were included for final review. Fifty-three percent of the articles were empirical, of which 74% were population-based studies, and 26% used information environment analysis techniques. None had an experimental study design. Population-based studies were rarely supported by theoretical models and mostly relied on a cross-sectional study design. Consistent results were reported on the association between population socioeconomic factors and public health emergency preparedness communication and preparedness outcomes. Our findings show the need for empirical research to determine what type of communication messages can be effective in achieving preparedness outcomes across various population groups. They suggest that a real-time analysis of the information environment is valuable in knowing what is being communicated to the public and could be used for course correction of public health messages during a crisis. PMID:24041193

  5. Defensive Behavior against Noxious Heat Stimuli Is Declined with Aging Due to Decreased Pain-Associated Gene Expression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Ghimire, Saurav; Kim, Man Su

    2015-01-01

    Aging is defined as a collective process that alters organism’s functional capacity and appearance over the course of life. Apart from an increase in susceptibility to many diseases, aging affects the cellular system that is responsible for decoding painful stimuli. Yet, aging-associated molecular mechanisms of pain perception remains elusive. Using Drosophila, we showed a decrease in temperature tolerance and a reduction in high temperature thermal avoidance with aging. Locomotor activity assay demonstrated that the age-dependent changes in heat nociception did not stem from the general decline in muscular activity. However, we identified pain-related gene expression alteration with aging. We anticipate that our findings would help opening a new window onto developing the optimal pain treatment for the elderly. PMID:25995829

  6. Emergency Preparedness--The Role of the School Nurse. Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cagginello, Joan B.; Clark, Sandra; Compton, Linda; Davis, Catherine; Healy, Marilyn; Hoffmann, Susan; Tuck, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that school nurses provide leadership in all phases of emergency preparedness and management and are a vital part of the school team that develops emergency response procedures for the school setting, using an all-hazards approach. The school nurse is a vital school…

  7. Work Scope for Developing Standards for Emergency Preparedness and Response: Fiscal Year 2004 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Stenner, Robert D.

    2005-09-28

    Summarizes the fiscal year 2004 work completed on PNNL's Department of Homeland Security Emergency Preparedness and Response Standards Development Project. Also, the report includes key draft standards, in various stages of development and publication, that were associated with various tasks of the fiscal year 2004 scope of the project.

  8. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 50 - Emergency Planning and Preparedness for Production and Utilization Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... under 10 CFR parts 50 and 70 involve considerations different than those associated with nuclear power... December 31, 2013. Notwithstanding any Commission finding under 10 CFR 52.103(g) regarding the combined... provisions of 10 CFR 50.47 and 10 CFR part 50, appendix E, within the scope of emergency preparedness...

  9. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 50 - Emergency Planning and Preparedness for Production and Utilization Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... under 10 CFR parts 50 and 70 involve considerations different than those associated with nuclear power... provisions of 10 CFR 50.47 and 10 CFR part 50, appendix E, within the scope of emergency preparedness matters.... The four-month period in 10 CFR 50.54(s)(2) for the correction of emergency plan deficiencies...

  10. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 50 - Emergency Planning and Preparedness for Production and Utilization Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... under 10 CFR parts 50 and 70 involve considerations different than those associated with nuclear power... provisions of 10 CFR 50.47 and 10 CFR part 50, appendix E, within the scope of emergency preparedness matters.... The four-month period in 10 CFR 50.54(s)(2) for the correction of emergency plan deficiencies...

  11. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 50 - Emergency Planning and Preparedness for Production and Utilization Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... under 10 CFR parts 50 and 70 involve considerations different than those associated with nuclear power... December 31, 2013. Notwithstanding any Commission finding under 10 CFR 52.103(g) regarding the combined... provisions of 10 CFR 50.47 and 10 CFR part 50, appendix E, within the scope of emergency preparedness...

  12. Perceptions of High-School Principals' Preparedness for Their Financial Resposibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoskopf, Jack E., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined high-school principals' perceptions of their preparedness for their financial responsibilities. The participants were high-school principals from the state of Wisconsin. Surveys were sent to 150 high-school principals who were members of the Association of Wisconsin School Administrators (AWSA), Wisconsin's…

  13. 33 CFR 101.300 - Preparedness communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the AMS Plan. (b) Communication of threats. When the COTP is made aware of a threat that may cause a... MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: GENERAL Communication (Port-Facility-Vessel) § 101.300 Preparedness... plan under parts 104 or 105 of this subchapter affected by a change in the MARSEC Level must...

  14. Teaching Disaster Preparedness in Geographic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhrmann, Sven; Stone, Lee D.; Casey, Melinda C.; Curtis, Mary D.; Doyle, Amber L.; Earle, Brian D.; Jones, Douglas D.; Rodriguez, Philip; Schermerhorn, Steven M.

    2008-01-01

    Extreme natural and human-made disasters can affect the lives of thousands of citizens. The only way we can prepare ourselves for such situations is to learn and establish basic survival strategies within our families and communities. This article explores how K-12 teachers could help educating children about disaster preparedness by utilizing…

  15. Emergency Preparedness: Balancing Electrical Supply and Demand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Mary Annette

    2006-01-01

    Integrating technology learning goals and activities with recent experiences created by natural disasters is a valuable motivational strategy. The newfound appreciation that exists for personal emergency preparedness generates unique and sustained interest in alternative energy technologies and conservation. As described in this article, an ice…

  16. Examining Preservice Teachers' Preparedness for Teaching Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Peter; Hudson, Sue

    2007-01-01

    The Australian Federal Government's call for another teacher education inquiry aims to investigate preservice teacher preparedness for teaching. Art education was selected for this study as the teaching of art education in primary schools occurs in less than ideal conditions and may often be avoided by generalist primary teachers (Russell-Bowie,…

  17. Emergency Health Preparedness: Expectations for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkelman, Jack L.

    Specific issues relevant to the emergency health preparedness of schools and the key roles and expectations applicable to teachers are outlined. It is noted that, while issues of legal liability relevant to teachers are complex, teachers are expected to: (1) anticipate possible risk or harm involved in activities; (2) give adequate warning of…

  18. Disaster Preparedness: Guidelines for School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Janice; Loyacono, Thomas R.

    2007-01-01

    These guidelines help school nurses understand their role in preparing for disasters and major emergencies. The guidelines are suitable for planning for a variety of emergency and disaster situations. Disaster Preparedness Guidelines for School Nurses is based on the four phases of disaster management as defined by the Federal Emergency Management…

  19. MBA Students' Preparedness for Enterpreneurial Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thandi, Harch; Sharma, Raj

    2004-01-01

    This is a survey of MBA students' preparedness for launching new business initiatives or other entrepreneurial activities. It explores the readiness of the MBA students, estimated on dimensions comprising knowledge, attitude, skills,experience, opportunity and networks. The variation of the postgraduate students' perceptions along these six…

  20. Disaster Preparedness and the Cooperative Extension Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Lynette

    2012-01-01

    This past decade has recorded an increase in catastrophic events that have led to dramatic changes for Americans. The wake of these disasters has resulted in many lessons being learned. These lessons have been captured by Homeland Security in the First Edition of the National Preparedness Goal. Extension is uniquely positioned to assist with…

  1. 77 FR 38248 - Passenger Train Emergency Preparedness

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... rule on passenger train emergency preparedness that was codified at 49 CFR part 239. See 63 FR 24629... evacuate passengers. See 73 FR 6369 (February 1, 2008). While this final rule did not make any changes to... existing requirements as well as create new requirements for passenger train emergency systems. See 77...

  2. Leaf-mining by Phyllonorycter blancardella reprograms the host-leaf transcriptome to modulate phytohormones associated with nutrient mobilization and plant defense.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Dugé de Bernonville, Thomas; Body, Mélanie; Glevarec, Gaëlle; Reichelt, Michael; Unsicker, Sybille; Bruneau, Maryline; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Huguet, Elisabeth; Dubreuil, Géraldine; Giron, David

    2016-01-01

    Phytohormones have long been hypothesized to play a key role in the interactions between plant-manipulating organisms and their host-plants such as insect-plant interactions that lead to gall or 'green-islands' induction. However, mechanistic understanding of how phytohormones operate in these plant reconfigurations is lacking due to limited information on the molecular and biochemical phytohormonal modulation following attack by plant-manipulating insects. In an attempt to fill this gap, the present study provides an extensive characterization of how the leaf-miner Phyllonorycter blancardella modulates the major phytohormones and the transcriptional activity of plant cells in leaves of Malus domestica. We show here, that cytokinins strongly accumulate in mined tissues despite a weak expression of plant cytokinin-related genes. Leaf-mining is also associated with enhanced biosynthesis of jasmonic acid precursors but not the active form, a weak alteration of the salicylic acid pathway and a clear inhibition of the abscisic acid pathway. Our study consolidates previous results suggesting that insects may produce and deliver cytokinins to the plant as a strategy to manipulate the physiology of the leaf to create a favorable nutritional environment. We also demonstrate that leaf-mining by P. blancardella leads to a strong reprogramming of the plant phytohormonal balance associated with increased nutrient mobilization, inhibition of leaf senescence and mitigation of plant direct and indirect defense. PMID:26068004

  3. Differences Between US and UK Adults in Stroke Preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Gary A.; Morgenstern, Lewis B.; White, Martin; Sniehotta, Falko F.; Mackintosh, Joan E.; Gellert, Paul; Skolarus, Lesli E.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose— Although time-dependent treatment is available, most people delay contacting emergency medical services for stroke. Given differences in the healthcare system and public health campaigns, exploring between-country differences in stroke preparedness may identify novel ways to increase acute stroke treatment. Methods— A survey was mailed to population-based samples in Ingham County, Michigan, US (n=2500), and Newcastle upon Tyne, UK (n=2500). Surveys included stroke perceptions and stroke/nonstroke scenarios to assess recognition and response to stroke. Between-country differences and associations with stroke preparedness were examined using t tests and linear mixed models. Results— Overall response rate was 27.4%. The mean age of participants was 55 years, and 58% were female. US participants were better in recognizing stroke (70% versus 63%, d=0.27) and were more likely to call emergency medical services (55% versus 52%, d=0.11). After controlling for demographics and comorbidities, US participants remained more likely to recognize stroke but were not more likely to respond appropriately. A greater belief that medical treatment can help with stroke and understanding of stroke was associated with improved stroke recognition and response. Conclusions— Overall, stroke recognition and response were moderate. US participants were modestly better at recognizing stroke, although there was little difference in response to stroke. Future stroke awareness interventions could focus more on stroke outcome expectations and developing a greater understanding of stroke among the public. PMID:26419968

  4. Quantitative and qualitative stem rust resistance factors in barley are associated with transcriptional suppression of defense regulons.

    PubMed

    Moscou, Matthew J; Lauter, Nick; Steffenson, Brian; Wise, Roger P

    2011-07-01

    Stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici; Pgt) is a devastating fungal disease of wheat and barley. Pgt race TTKSK (isolate Ug99) is a serious threat to these Triticeae grain crops because resistance is rare. In barley, the complex Rpg-TTKSK locus on chromosome 5H is presently the only known source of qualitative resistance to this aggressive Pgt race. Segregation for resistance observed on seedlings of the Q21861 × SM89010 (QSM) doubled-haploid (DH) population was found to be predominantly qualitative, with little of the remaining variance explained by loci other than Rpg-TTKSK. In contrast, analysis of adult QSM DH plants infected by field inoculum of Pgt race TTKSK in Njoro, Kenya, revealed several additional quantitative trait loci that contribute to resistance. To molecularly characterize these loci, Barley1 GeneChips were used to measure the expression of 22,792 genes in the QSM population after inoculation with Pgt race TTKSK or mock-inoculation. Comparison of expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTL) between treatments revealed an inoculation-dependent expression polymorphism implicating Actin depolymerizing factor3 (within the Rpg-TTKSK locus) as a candidate susceptibility gene. In parallel, we identified a chromosome 2H trans-eQTL hotspot that co-segregates with an enhancer of Rpg-TTKSK-mediated, adult plant resistance discovered through the Njoro field trials. Our genome-wide eQTL studies demonstrate that transcript accumulation of 25% of barley genes is altered following challenge by Pgt race TTKSK, but that few of these genes are regulated by the qualitative Rpg-TTKSK on chromosome 5H. It is instead the chromosome 2H trans-eQTL hotspot that orchestrates the largest inoculation-specific responses, where enhanced resistance is associated with transcriptional suppression of hundreds of genes scattered throughout the genome. Hence, the present study associates the early suppression of genes expressed in this host-pathogen interaction with enhancement

  5. Building resiliency: a cross-sectional study examining relationships among health-related quality of life, well-being, and disaster preparedness

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Worldwide, disaster exposure and consequences are rising. Disaster risk in New Zealand is amplified by island geography, isolation, and ubiquitous natural hazards. Wellington, the capital city, has vital needs for evacuation preparedness and resilience to the devastating impacts and increasing uncertainties of earthquake and tsunami disasters. While poor quality of life (QoL) is widely-associated with low levels of engagement in many health-protective behaviors, the relationships among health-related quality of life (HrQoL), well-being, and preparedness are virtually unknown. Methods We hypothesized that QoL and well-being affect household evacuation preparedness. We performed a quantitative epidemiologic survey (cross-sectional design) of Wellington adults. Our investigation assessed health-promoting attributes that build resiliency, conceptualized as health-protective attitudes and behaviors. Multidimensional QoL variables were measured using validated psychometric scales and analyzed for associations with evacuation preparedness, and we determined whether age and gender affected these relationships. Results We received 695 survey responses (28.5% response rate; margin of error ±3.8%; 80% statistical power to detect true correlations of 0.11 or greater). Correlational analyses showed statistically significant positive associations with evacuation preparedness for spiritual well-being, emotional well-being, and life satisfaction. No associations were found for mental health, social well-being, or gender; physical health was weakly negatively associated. Evacuation preparedness increased with age. Regression analyses showed that overall health and well-being explained 4.6-6.8% of the variance in evacuation preparedness. Spiritual well-being was the only QoL variable that significantly and uniquely explained variance in preparedness. Conclusions How well-being influences preparedness is complex and deeply personal. The data indicate that multidimensional

  6. Characterization of temperature and light effects on the defense response phenotypes associated with the maize Rp1-D21 autoactive resistance gene

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rp1 is a complex locus of maize, which carries a set of genes controlling race-specific resistance to the common rust fungus, Puccinia sorghi. The resistance response includes the “Hypersensitive response” (HR), a rapid response triggered by a pathogen recognition event that includes localized cell death at the point of pathogen penetration and the induction of pathogenesis associated genes. The Rp1-D21gene is an autoactive allelic variant at the Rp1 locus, causing spontaneous activation of the HR response, in the absence of pathogenesis. Previously we have shown that the severity of the phenotype conferred by Rp1-D21 is highly dependent on genetic background. Results In this study we show that the phenotype conferred by Rp1-D21 is highly dependent on temperature, with lower temperatures favoring the expression of the HR lesion phenotype. This temperature effect was observed in all the 14 genetic backgrounds tested. Significant interactions between the temperature effects and genetic background were observed. When plants were grown at temperatures above 30°C, the spontaneous HR phenotype conferred by Rp1-D21 was entirely suppressed. Furthermore, this phenotype could be restored or suppressed by alternately reducing and increasing the temperature appropriately. Light was also required for the expression of this phenotype. By examining the expression of genes associated with the defense response we showed that, at temperatures above 30°C, the Rp1-D21 phenotype was suppressed at both the phenotypic and molecular level. Conclusions We have shown that the lesion phenotype conferred by maize autoactive resistance gene Rp1-D21 is temperature sensitive in a reversible manner, that the temperature-sensitivity phenotype interacts with genetic background and that the phenotype is light sensitive. This is the first detailed demonstration of this phenomenon in monocots and also the first demonstration of the interaction of this effect with genetic background

  7. Values as Defenses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hultman, Kenneth E.

    1976-01-01

    The author outlines a cognitive approach for explaining how and why people use values as defenses. He examines the relationship between defensive values and irrational beliefs, suggests a number of criteria for diagnosing the presence of defensive values, and proposes some strategies for dealing with defensive values in counseling. (Author)

  8. Excess Secretion of Gel-Forming Mucins and Associated Innate Defense Proteins with Defective Mucin Un-Packaging Underpin Gallbladder Mucocele Formation in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Kesimer, Mehmet; Cullen, John; Cao, Rui; Radicioni, Giorgia; Mathews, Kyle G; Seiler, Gabriela; Gookin, Jody L

    2015-01-01

    Mucosal protection of the gallbladder is vital yet we know very little about the mechanisms involved. In domestic dogs, an emergent syndrome referred to as gallbladder mucocele formation is characterized by excessive secretion of abnormal mucus that results in obstruction and rupture of the gallbladder. The cause of gallbladder mucocele formation is unknown. In these first mechanistic studies of this disease, we investigated normal and mucocele-forming dog gallbladders to determine the source, identity, biophysical properties, and protein associates of the culprit mucins with aim to identify causes for abnormal mucus behavior. We established that mucocele formation involves an adoptive excess secretion of gel forming mucins with abnormal properties by the gallbladder epithelium. The mucus is characterized by a disproportionally significant increase in Muc5ac relative to Muc5b, defective mucin un-packaging, and mucin-interacting innate defense proteins that are capable of dramatically altering the physical and functional properties of mucus. These findings provide an explanation for abnormal mucus behavior and based on similarity to mucus observed in the airways of people with cystic fibrosis, suggest that abnormal mechanisms for maintenance of gallbladder epithelial hydration may be an instigating factor for mucocele formation in dogs. PMID:26414376

  9. Microarray analysis shows that recessive resistance to Watermelon mosaic virus in melon is associated with the induction of defense response genes.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Ibeas, Daniel; Cañizares, Joaquin; Aranda, Miguel A

    2012-01-01

    Resistance to Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) in melon (Cucumis melo L.) accession TGR-1551 is characterized by a significant reduction in virus titer, and is inherited as a recessive, loss-of-susceptibility allele. We measured virus RNA accumulation in TGR-1551 plants and a susceptible control ('Tendral') by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and also profiled the expression of 17,443 unigenes represented on a melon microarray over a 15-day time course. The virus accumulated to higher levels in cotyledons of the resistant variety up to 9 days postinoculation (dpi) but, thereafter, levels increased in the susceptible variety while those in the resistant variety declined. Microarray experiments looking at the early response to infection (1 and 3 dpi), as well as responses after 7 and 15 dpi, revealed more profound transcriptomic changes in resistant plants than susceptible ones. The gene expression profiles revealed deep and extensive transcriptome remodeling in TGR-1551 plants, often involving genes with pathogen response functions. Overall, our data suggested that resistance to WMV in TGR-1551 melon plants is associated with a defense response, which contrasts with the recessive nature of the resistance trait. PMID:21970693

  10. Excess Secretion of Gel-Forming Mucins and Associated Innate Defense Proteins with Defective Mucin Un-Packaging Underpin Gallbladder Mucocele Formation in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Kesimer, Mehmet; Cullen, John; Cao, Rui; Radicioni, Giorgia; Mathews, Kyle G.; Seiler, Gabriela; Gookin, Jody L.

    2015-01-01

    Mucosal protection of the gallbladder is vital yet we know very little about the mechanisms involved. In domestic dogs, an emergent syndrome referred to as gallbladder mucocele formation is characterized by excessive secretion of abnormal mucus that results in obstruction and rupture of the gallbladder. The cause of gallbladder mucocele formation is unknown. In these first mechanistic studies of this disease, we investigated normal and mucocele-forming dog gallbladders to determine the source, identity, biophysical properties, and protein associates of the culprit mucins with aim to identify causes for abnormal mucus behavior. We established that mucocele formation involves an adoptive excess secretion of gel forming mucins with abnormal properties by the gallbladder epithelium. The mucus is characterized by a disproportionally significant increase in Muc5ac relative to Muc5b, defective mucin un-packaging, and mucin-interacting innate defense proteins that are capable of dramatically altering the physical and functional properties of mucus. These findings provide an explanation for abnormal mucus behavior and based on similarity to mucus observed in the airways of people with cystic fibrosis, suggest that abnormal mechanisms for maintenance of gallbladder epithelial hydration may be an instigating factor for mucocele formation in dogs. PMID:26414376

  11. State of Virtual Reality Based Disaster Preparedness and Response Training

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Edbert B.; Li, Yang; Bayram, Jamil D.; Levinson, David; Yang, Samuel; Monahan, Colleen

    2013-01-01

    The advent of technologically-based approaches to disaster response training through Virtual Reality (VR) environments appears promising in its ability to bridge the gaps of other commonly established training formats. Specifically, the immersive and participatory nature of VR training offers a unique realistic quality that is not generally present in classroom-based or web-based training, yet retains considerable cost advantages over large-scale real-life exercises and other modalities and is gaining increasing acceptance. Currently, numerous government departments and agencies including the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as well as academic institutions are exploring the unique advantages of VR-based training for disaster preparedness and response. Growing implementation of VR-based training for disaster preparedness and response, conducted either independently or combined with other training formats, is anticipated. This paper reviews several applications of VR-based training in the United States, and reveals advantages as well as potential drawbacks and challenges associated with the implementation of such training platform. PMID:23653102

  12. Barriers to Disaster Preparedness among Medical Special Needs Populations

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Leslie; Vatcheva, Kristina; Castellanos, Stephanie; Reininger, Belinda

    2015-01-01

    A medical special needs (MSN) assessment was conducted among 3088 respondents in a hurricane prone area. The sample was female (51.7%), Hispanic (92.9%), aged >45 years (51%), not insured for health (59.2%), and with an MSN (33.2%). Barriers to preparedness were characterized for all households, including those with inhabitants reporting MSN ranging from level 0 (mild) to level 4 (most severe). Multivariable logistic regression tested associations between hurricane preparedness and barriers to evacuation by level of MSN. A significant interaction effect between number of evacuation barriers and MSN was found. Among households that reported individuals with level 0 MSN, the odds of being unprepared increased 18% for each additional evacuation barrier [OR = 1.18, 95% CI (1.08, 1.30)]. Among households that reported individuals with level 1 MSN, the odds of being unprepared increased 29% for each additional evacuation barrier [OR = 1.29, 95% CI (1.11, 1.51)]. Among households that reported individuals with level 3 MSN, the odds of being unprepared increased 68% for each additional evacuation barrier [OR = 1.68, 95% CI (1.21, 1.32)]. MSN alone did not explain the probability of unpreparedness, but rather MSN in the presence of barriers helped explain unpreparedness. PMID:26389107

  13. Emergency mitigation and preparedness in healthcare facilities.

    PubMed

    Paras, Emma; Schwartz, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    The city of Akron, Ohio, has four major healthcare facilities: Akron General Medical Center, Summa Akron City Hospital, Summa St. Thomas, and Akron Children's Hospital. These institutions have implemented the preparedness and mitigative strategies to prepare for hazards affecting the community. Because of the wide population these facilities serve, it is crucial that an effective emergency management (EM) system be in place at each hospital. Archival research and interviews with the emergency managers of each hospital examine the preparedness of these establishments for disasters. Strengths and weaknesses of the EM systems are also discussed and include recommendations on ways to improve shortcomings. This research demonstrates how EM is evolving and improving in one of the most important critical infrastructure of a community. PMID:24623110

  14. Emergency preparedness for home healthcare providers.

    PubMed

    Ruder, Shirley

    2012-06-01

    Unfortunately, disasters occur. We cannot always know the effects ahead of time, but we do know that lives can be lost, property damaged, and public health and home care agencies may not be able to provide the normal standard of care. Studies have shown that disaster preparedness content is limited in U.S. nursing programs (). Given the magnitude of recent natural disasters, such as the Japanese earthquake and tsunami in 2011, these findings are alarming. The increasing demands on healthcare providers in response to emergencies force home healthcare clinicians to identify their roles and responsibilities in emergency preparedness. This article discusses 1 model of disaster response and the role of the home healthcare provider at each stage. It further guides home healthcare nurses in creating a personal and professional plan, enabling them to understand how to minimize the impact of disasters and address the needs of their patients and those close to them. PMID:21987023

  15. Progress of vaccine and drug development for Ebola preparedness

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Since the first case of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Guinea was reported in March 2014 by World Health Organization (WHO), the outbreak has continued through the year and the total number of 19,065 patients was reported as the confirmed or suspected in the EVD-affected countries. Among the cases, 7,388 patients were reported death by 19 December. Currently, available therapeutics to treat the infected patients or vaccines to prevent people from infection is not developed yet while viral diagnostic methods were already developed and firmly established in a lot of countries as a first step for the preparedness of Ebola outbreak. Some potential therapeutic materials including ZMapp were supplied and the treated people got over the EVD. Several candidates of vaccines also were investigated their efficacy in animal models by National Institute of Health (NIH) and Department of Defense, and they are processing of clinical tests in West Africa aiming to finish the development by the 2015. Vaccine and therapeutic development is essential to stop the EVD outbreak in West Africa, also to protect the world from the risk which can be generated by potential spread of Ebola virus. PMID:25648233

  16. South Carolina Area Health Education Consortium Disaster Preparedness and Response Training Network: an emerging partner in preparedness training.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Beth; Carson, Deborah Stier; Garr, David

    2009-03-01

    The South Carolina Area Health Education Consortium (SC AHEC) was funded in 2003 to train healthcare professionals in disaster preparedness and response. During the 5 years of funding, its Disaster Preparedness and Response Training Network evolved from disaster awareness training to competency-based instruction and performance assessment. With funding from the assistant secretary for preparedness and response (ASPR), a project with implications for national dissemination was developed to evaluate 2 aspects of preparedness training for community-based healthcare professionals. The SC AHEC designed disaster preparedness curricula and lesson plans, using a consensus-building technique, and then (1) distributed sample curricula and resources through the national Area Health Education Center system to assess an approach for providing preparedness training and (2) delivered a standardized preparedness curriculum to key influential thought leaders from 4 states to evaluate the effectiveness and acceptability of the curriculum. As a result of this project, the SC AHEC recommends that preparedness training for community-based practitioners needs to be concise and professionally relevant. It should be integrated into existing healthcare professions education programs and continuing education offerings. The project also demonstrated that although AHECs may be interested and well suited to incorporate preparedness training as part of their mission, more work needs to be done if they are to assume a prominent role in disaster preparedness training. PMID:19202395

  17. Raising risk preparedness through flood risk communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maidl, E.; Buchecker, M.

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, most European countries have produced risk maps of natural hazards, but little is known about how to communicate these maps most effectively to the public. In October 2011, Zurich's local authorities informed owners of buildings located in the urban flood hazard area about potential flood damage, the probability of flood events and protection measures. The campaign was based on the assumptions that informing citizens increases their risk awareness and that citizens who are aware of risks are more likely to undertake appropriate actions to protect themselves and their property. This study is intended as a contribution to a better understanding the factors influencing flood risk preparedness, with a special focus on the effects of such a one-way risk communication strategy. We conducted a standardized mail survey of 1500 property owners in the hazard areas in Zurich. The questionnaire comprised items measuring respondents' risk awareness, risk preparedness, flood experience, information seeking behaviour, knowledge about flood risk, evaluation of the information material, risk acceptance, kind of property owned, attachment to the property, trust in local authorities, and socio-demographic variables. Multivariate data analysis revealed that the average level of risk awareness and preparedness was low, but our results confirmed that the campaign had a statistically significant effect on the level of preparedness. The main factors influencing the respondents' intention to prepare for a flood were the extent to which they evaluated the information material positively and their risk awareness. Those who had never taken any interest in floods previously were less likely to read the material. For future campaigns, we therefore recommend repeated communication of relevant information tailored to the needs of the target population.

  18. Raising risk preparedness by flood risk communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maidl, E.; Buchecker, M.

    2015-07-01

    During the last decade, most European countries have produced hazard maps of natural hazards, but little is known about how to communicate these maps most efficiently to the public. In October 2011, Zurich's local authorities informed owners of buildings located in the urban flood hazard zone about potential flood damage, the probability of flood events and protection measures. The campaign was based on the assumptions that informing citizens increases their risk awareness and that citizens who are aware of risks are more likely to undertake actions to protect themselves and their property. This study is intended as a contribution to better understand the factors that influence flood risk preparedness, with a special focus on the effects of such a one-way risk communication strategy. We conducted a standardized mail survey of 1500 property owners in the hazard zones in Zurich (response rate main survey: 34 %). The questionnaire included items to measure respondents' risk awareness, risk preparedness, flood experience, information-seeking behaviour, knowledge about flood risk, evaluation of the information material, risk acceptance, attachment to the property and trust in local authorities. Data about the type of property and socio-demographic variables were also collected. Multivariate data analysis revealed that the average level of risk awareness and preparedness was low, but the results confirmed that the campaign had a statistically significant effect on the level of preparedness. The main influencing factors on the intention to prepare for a flood were the extent to which respondents evaluated the information material positively as well as their risk awareness. Respondents who had never taken any previous interest in floods were less likely to read the material. For future campaigns, we therefore recommend repeated communication that is tailored to the information needs of the target population.

  19. Malaria-Associated l-Arginine Deficiency Induces Mast Cell-Associated Disruption to Intestinal Barrier Defenses against Nontyphoidal Salmonella Bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Chau, Jennifer Y.; Tiffany, Caitlin M.; Nimishakavi, Shilpa; Lawrence, Jessica A.; Pakpour, Nazzy; Mooney, Jason P.; Lokken, Kristen L.; Caughey, George H.; Tsolis, Renee M.

    2013-01-01

    Coinfection with malaria and nontyphoidal Salmonella serotypes (NTS) can cause life-threatening bacteremia in humans. Coinfection with malaria is a recognized risk factor for invasive NTS, suggesting that malaria impairs intestinal barrier function. Here, we investigated mechanisms and strategies for prevention of coinfection pathology in a mouse model. Our findings reveal that malarial-parasite-infected mice, like humans, develop l-arginine deficiency, which is associated with intestinal mastocytosis, elevated levels of histamine, and enhanced intestinal permeability. Prevention or reversal of l-arginine deficiency blunts mastocytosis in ileal villi as well as bacterial translocation, measured as numbers of mesenteric lymph node CFU of noninvasive Escherichia coli Nissle and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, the latter of which is naturally invasive in mice. Dietary supplementation of malarial-parasite-infected mice with l-arginine or l-citrulline reduced levels of ileal transcripts encoding interleukin-4 (IL-4), a key mediator of intestinal mastocytosis and macromolecular permeability. Supplementation with l-citrulline also enhanced epithelial adherens and tight junctions in the ilea of coinfected mice. These data suggest that increasing l-arginine bioavailability via oral supplementation can ameliorate malaria-induced intestinal pathology, providing a basis for testing nutritional interventions to reduce malaria-associated mortality in humans. PMID:23690397

  20. Malaria-associated L-arginine deficiency induces mast cell-associated disruption to intestinal barrier defenses against nontyphoidal Salmonella bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Chau, Jennifer Y; Tiffany, Caitlin M; Nimishakavi, Shilpa; Lawrence, Jessica A; Pakpour, Nazzy; Mooney, Jason P; Lokken, Kristen L; Caughey, George H; Tsolis, Renee M; Luckhart, Shirley

    2013-10-01

    Coinfection with malaria and nontyphoidal Salmonella serotypes (NTS) can cause life-threatening bacteremia in humans. Coinfection with malaria is a recognized risk factor for invasive NTS, suggesting that malaria impairs intestinal barrier function. Here, we investigated mechanisms and strategies for prevention of coinfection pathology in a mouse model. Our findings reveal that malarial-parasite-infected mice, like humans, develop L-arginine deficiency, which is associated with intestinal mastocytosis, elevated levels of histamine, and enhanced intestinal permeability. Prevention or reversal of L-arginine deficiency blunts mastocytosis in ileal villi as well as bacterial translocation, measured as numbers of mesenteric lymph node CFU of noninvasive Escherichia coli Nissle and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, the latter of which is naturally invasive in mice. Dietary supplementation of malarial-parasite-infected mice with L-arginine or L-citrulline reduced levels of ileal transcripts encoding interleukin-4 (IL-4), a key mediator of intestinal mastocytosis and macromolecular permeability. Supplementation with L-citrulline also enhanced epithelial adherens and tight junctions in the ilea of coinfected mice. These data suggest that increasing L-arginine bioavailability via oral supplementation can ameliorate malaria-induced intestinal pathology, providing a basis for testing nutritional interventions to reduce malaria-associated mortality in humans. PMID:23690397

  1. Exploring the Predictors of Organizational Preparedness for Natural Disasters.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Abdul-Akeem; Graham, John D

    2016-05-01

    There is an extensive body of research on the determinants of disaster preparedness at the individual and household levels. The same cannot be said for the organizational level. Hence, the purpose of this study is to shed light on the predictors of organizational preparedness for natural disasters. Since leaders of organizations have an incentive to overstate their level of preparedness and because surveys of organizational leaders suffer from selection bias and low response rates, we take the novel approach of interviewing employees about the organizations that employ them. Using an online survey, we collected information from a national sample of 2,008 U.S. employees and estimated the predictors of preparedness at the organizational level. We find, among other results, that organization size (facility level) is a consistent predictor of preparedness at the organizational level. We conclude with policy recommendations and outline an agenda for future research on organizational preparedness for natural disasters. PMID:26332326

  2. Emergency preparedness in high school-based athletics: a review of the literature and recommendations for sport health professionals.

    PubMed

    Olympia, Robert P; Brady, Jodi

    2013-05-01

    Approximately 7.6 million high school students in the United States participate in sports. Although most sport-related injuries in adolescents are considered minor emergencies, life-threatening illnesses or injuries may occur, such as sudden cardiac arrest, heat stroke, status asthmaticus and exercise-induced asthma, catastrophic brain injuries, cervical spine injuries, heat- and cold-related illness, blunt chest/abdominal injuries, and extremity fractures resulting in compartment syndrome. Emergency preparedness in athletics involves the identification of and planning for medical services to promote the safety of the athlete, to limit injury, and to provide medical care at the site of practice or competition. Several national organizations have published guidelines for emergency preparedness in school-based athletics. Our article reviews guidelines for emergency preparedness put forth by the Sideline Preparedness collaboration (comprised of 6 major professional associations, including the American Academy of Family Physicians, American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, American College of Sports Medicine, American Medical Society for Sports Medicine, American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine, and American Osteopathic Academy of Sports Medicine), the National Athletic Trainers' Association, the American Academy of Pediatrics' Committee on School Health, and the American Heart Association. Additionally, we review published data examining compliance of US high schools with these recommendations for emergency preparedness in school-based athletics, determine deficiencies, and provide recommendations for improvement based on these deficiencies. PMID:23703513

  3. Application of Behavioral Theories to Disaster and Emergency Health Preparedness: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ejeta, Luche Tadesse; Ardalan, Ali; Paton, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    ), Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM), Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Social Cognitive Theories were most commonly applied to influenza (H1N1 and H5N1), floods, and earthquake hazards. Studies were predominantly conducted in USA (13 studies). In Asia, where the annual number of disasters and victims exceeds those in other continents, only three studies were identified. Overall, the main constructs of HBM (perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers), EPPM (higher threat and higher efficacy), TPB (attitude and subjective norm), and the majority of the constructs utilized in Social Cognitive Theories were associated with preparedness for diverse hazards. However, while all the theories described above describe the relationships between constituent variables, with the exception of research on Social Cognitive Theories, few studies of other theories and models used path analysis to identify the interdependence relationships between the constructs described in the respective theories/models. Similarly, few identified how other mediating  variables could influence disaster and emergency preparedness.  Conclusions: The existing evidence on the application of behavioral theories and models to disaster and emergency preparedness is chiefly from developed countries. This raises issues regarding their utility in countries, particularly in Asisa and the Middle East, where cultural characteristics are very different to those prevailing in the Western countries in which theories have been developed and tested. The theories and models discussed here have been applied predominantly to disease outbreaks and natural hazards, and information on their utility as guides to preparedness for man-made hazards is lacking. Hence, future studies related to behavioral theories and models addressing preparedness need to target developing countries where disaster risk  and the consequent need for preparedness is high. A need for additional work on demonstrating the

  4. Synthetic plant defense elicitors

    PubMed Central

    Bektas, Yasemin; Eulgem, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    To defend themselves against invading pathogens plants utilize a complex regulatory network that coordinates extensive transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming. Although many of the key players of this immunity-associated network are known, the details of its topology and dynamics are still poorly understood. As an alternative to forward and reverse genetic studies, chemical genetics-related approaches based on bioactive small molecules have gained substantial popularity in the analysis of biological pathways and networks. Use of such molecular probes can allow researchers to access biological space that was previously inaccessible to genetic analyses due to gene redundancy or lethality of mutations. Synthetic elicitors are small drug-like molecules that induce plant defense responses, but are distinct from known natural elicitors of plant immunity. While the discovery of some synthetic elicitors had already been reported in the 1970s, recent breakthroughs in combinatorial chemical synthesis now allow for inexpensive high-throughput screens for bioactive plant defense-inducing compounds. Along with powerful reverse genetics tools and resources available for model plants and crop systems, comprehensive collections of new synthetic elicitors will likely allow plant scientists to study the intricacies of plant defense signaling pathways and networks in an unparalleled fashion. As synthetic elicitors can protect crops from diseases, without the need to be directly toxic for pathogenic organisms, they may also serve as promising alternatives to conventional biocidal pesticides, which often are harmful for the environment, farmers and consumers. Here we are discussing various types of synthetic elicitors that have been used for studies on the plant immune system, their modes-of-action as well as their application in crop protection. PMID:25674095

  5. Directions for Defense Digital Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Ronald L.

    1998-01-01

    Describes directions, challenges, and objectives of the information management program of the United States Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The program envisions the rigor and organization normally associated with a research library to be virtually rendered and extended in the networked world of distributed information. (AEF)

  6. Mining whole genomes and transcriptomes of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) and Castor bean (Ricinus communis) for NBS-LRR genes and defense response associated transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Sood, Archit; Jaiswal, Varun; Chanumolu, Sree Krishna; Malhotra, Nikhil; Pal, Tarun; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

    2014-11-01

    Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) and Castor bean (Ricinus communis) are oilseed crops of family Euphorbiaceae with the potential of producing high quality biodiesel and having industrial value. Both the bioenergy plants are becoming susceptible to various biotic stresses directly affecting the oil quality and content. No report exists as of today on analysis of Nucleotide Binding Site-Leucine Rich Repeat (NBS-LRR) gene repertoire and defense response transcription factors in both the plant species. In silico analysis of whole genomes and transcriptomes identified 47 new NBS-LRR genes in both the species and 122 and 318 defense response related transcription factors in Jatropha and Castor bean, respectively. The identified NBS-LRR genes and defense response transcription factors were mapped onto the respective genomes. Common and unique NBS-LRR genes and defense related transcription factors were identified in both the plant species. All NBS-LRR genes in both the species were characterized into Toll/interleukin-1 receptor NBS-LRRs (TNLs) and coiled-coil NBS-LRRs (CNLs), position on contigs, gene clusters and motifs and domains distribution. Transcript abundance or expression values were measured for all NBS-LRR genes and defense response transcription factors, suggesting their functional role. The current study provides a repertoire of NBS-LRR genes and transcription factors which can be used in not only dissecting the molecular basis of disease resistance phenotype but also in developing disease resistant genotypes in Jatropha and Castor bean through transgenic or molecular breeding approaches. PMID:25106526

  7. Dealing with Natural Disasters: Preparedness versus Post-Event Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitar, N.

    2015-12-01

    Management or mitigation of natural disasters is comprised of two distinct elements: disaster preparedness and disaster response. Fundamentally disasters fall into two categories: 1) those whose timing can be predicted and evaluated in advance, such as hurricanes, floods, tsunamis, or even sea level rise; and 2) those that can be anticipated based on analysis, but their exact timing is unknown, such as earthquakes and landslides. Consequently, the type of response and options available for scientific and engineering consultation are fundamentally different. The common aspects of all natural disasters is that there is evidence of past events either historical or geologic, or both. Thus, given past evidence, scientists and engineers have an opportunity to recommend and guide development and implementation of long term or permanent mitigation measures, such as improving the resiliency of the infrastructure and emergency preparedness. However, the appropriate mitigation measures are very much a function of the type of event. Severe atmospheric events, such as hurricanes, typically can be predicted several days in advance and scientists and engineers have a role in guiding preparation of specific additional, temporary, mitigation measures and selective evacuation, as appropriate. In contrast, while earthquake potential of a given region may be well recognized, the actual timing of the event is an unknown and, consequently, the primary defense is in developing sufficiently resilient infrastructure which can be enhanced with early warning systems. Similarly, the type of damage caused by flooding, e.g. hurricane and tsunami, is significantly different from the type of damage caused by an earthquake in that flooding damage is pervasive affecting large contiguous areas wiping out all infrastructure whereas earthquake or landslide damage tends to be clustered with many elements of infrastructure remaining fully or somewhat operable. This distinction is very important when it

  8. Updates on disaster preparedness and progress in disaster relief.

    PubMed

    Pollak, Andrew N; Born, Christopher T; Kamal, Robin N; Adashi, Eli Y

    2012-01-01

    Immediately after the January 2010 earthquake in Haiti, many private citizens, governmental and nongovernmental organizations, and medical associations struggled to mount an effective humanitarian aid response. The experiences of these groups have led to changes at their institutions regarding disaster preparedness and response to future events. One of the main challenges in a humanitarian medical response to a disaster is determining when to end response efforts and return responsibility for delivery of medical care back to the host nation. For such a transition to occur, the host nation must have the capacity to deliver medical care. In Haiti, minimal capacity to deliver such care existed before the earthquake, making subsequent transition difficult. If successful, several initiatives proposed to improve disaster response and increase surgical capacity in Haiti could be deployed to other low- and middle-income countries. PMID:22865138

  9. 75 FR 42448 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Coordinating Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency Response; Notice of Charter Amendment This gives notice... Scientific Counselors, Coordinating Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency Response, Department...

  10. An Incident Management Preparedness and Coordination Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Daniel B; Payne, Patricia W

    2012-01-01

    Although the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) by centrally-located operations staff is well established in the area of emergency response, utilization by first responders in the field is uneven. Cost, complexity, and connectivity are often the deciding factors preventing wider adoption. For the past several years, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developing a mobile GIS solution using free and open-source software targeting the needs of front-line personnel. Termed IMPACT, for Incident Management Preparedness and Coordination Toolkit, this ORNL application can complement existing GIS infrastructure and extend its power and capabilities to responders first on the scene of a natural or man-made disaster.

  11. Preparedness 3.0: Addressing the Future.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Georges C

    2015-12-01

    The last 14 years has taught us that that we are facing a new reality; a reality in which public health emergencies are a common occurrence. Today, we live in a world with dangerous people without state sponsorship who are an enormous threat to our safety; one where emerging and reemerging infectious diseases are waiting to break out; a world where the benefits of globalization in trade, transportation, and social media brings threats to our communities faster and with a greater risk than ever before. Even climate change has entered into the preparedness equation, bringing with it the forces of nature in the form of extreme weather and its complications. PMID:26545197

  12. Sandia National Laboratories approach to emergency preparedness

    SciTech Connect

    Galegar, F.H.; Yourick, P.D.; Ross, S.A.

    1997-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories is located on Kirtland AFB on Albuquerque, NM. The Air Force Base proper covers about 74 square miles in which SNL maintains 5 technical areas and the Coyote Test Field. These SNL areas add up to about 18,000 acres. However, SNL has other locations where we conduct corporate emergency planning: Kauai Test Facility (at Pacific Missile Range Facility in Kauai, Hawaii), and the Tonopah Test Range (Nevada). SNL/California located in Livermore has an independent emergency preparedness organization for their emergency planning activities.

  13. State Health Policy for Terrorism Preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Ziskin, Leah Z.; Harris, Drew A.

    2007-01-01

    State health policy for terrorism preparedness began before the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, but was accelerated after that day. In a crisis atmosphere after September 11, the states found their policies changing rapidly, greatly influenced by federal policies and federal dollars. In the 5 years since September 11, these state health policies have been refined. This refinement has included a restatement of the goals and objectives of state programs, the modernization of emergency powers statutes, the education and training of the public health workforce, and a preparation of the health care system to better care for victims of disasters, including acts of terrorism. PMID:17666689

  14. Making Connections: A Network Approach to University Disaster Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Catherine H.; Vickio, Craig J.; Fogo, Wendy R.; Abraham, Kristen M.

    2007-01-01

    A network approach to disaster preparedness in university settings is described. Basic network concepts relevant for disaster preparedness and methods for analyzing network data without complex mathematics are presented. A case study of campus mental health and academic units at a midwestern university is presented to illustrate the practical…

  15. Confidence and Preparedness to Teach: Conflicting Perspectives from Multiple Stakeholders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Pamala J.; Cowan, Kay W.

    2013-01-01

    This article, "Confidence and Preparedness to Teach" is a quantitative study that examines the level of preparedness for the classroom of fifty-seven student teachers. The student teachers, their cooperating teachers, and the professor-in-residence who monitored the placement completed a twenty-four item survey that rated the prospective…

  16. 44 CFR 208.22 - Preparedness Cooperative Agreement process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preparedness Cooperative Agreement process. 208.22 Section 208.22 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN SEARCH AND RESCUE RESPONSE SYSTEM Preparedness Cooperative Agreements...

  17. Towards Coordination Preparedness of Soft-Target Organisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uddin, Mohammed Shahadat; Hossain, Liaquat

    In this paper, we introduce a network enabled coordination model to examine the coordination preparedness of soft-target organisations such as common public access areas including transit hubs, schools, parks, and sports areas. It is apparent that little attention is given in recent research focusing on the use of network analysis as a way to explore coordination preparedness for this type of organisation. In this study, we emphasise this type of soft-target organisation and propose a model to examine the coordination preparedness to any disasters by testing hypothesis related to network relationship and coordination preparedness. We analyse the dataset entitled Preparedness of Large Retail Malls to Prevent and Respond to Terrorist Attack, 2004, which contains a total of 120 completed surveys of security directors of retail malls. The following questions form the basis of this study: What do soft-target organisations need to be better prepared to respond to disaster? How does network relationship between soft-target organisation and emergency agencies affect the coordination preparedness of soft-target organisation for disaster recovery? Which degree of centrality measure needs to be followed to measure network variables in order to analyse the coordination preparedness? Result shows that soft-target organisation with high level of network relationship with other emergency agencies are better prepared to disaster response. Using this result, the preparedness of a soft-target organisation might be judged for successfully participation in an actual emergency.

  18. Public health preparedness: a systems‐level approach

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Spencer; Mawji, Al; Shiell, Alan; Noseworthy, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Public health and emergency preparedness have become central concepts in the current restructuring of various regional‐, national‐ and global‐level public health and emergency management agencies and systems. In this article, a glossary of the most important terms and concepts currently pertaining to public health preparedness is provided with a focus on systems‐level and organisational issues. PMID:17372286

  19. 78 FR 32535 - National Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... May 30, 2013 Part II The President Proclamation 8986--National Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2013... 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8986 of May 24, 2013 National Hurricane Preparedness Week,...

  20. 77 FR 32877 - National Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... United States of America the two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-13515 Filed...#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8830 of May 25, 2012 National Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2012 By the... Preparedness Week, we rededicate ourselves to preventing loss of life and damage to property by...

  1. 75 FR 29389 - National Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... of America the two hundred and thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-12753 Filed 5-25-10... Preparedness Week, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Each year during... National Hurricane Preparedness Week, I urge individuals, families, communities, and businesses to...

  2. Presidential Perspectives of Crisis Preparedness at Christian Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrell, Stacy M.; Heiselt, April K.

    2012-01-01

    Crises, whether human or natural, occur on all college campuses. Extensive research has been conducted on crisis preparedness at four-year, nondenominational institutions. This study examined crisis preparedness at Christian institutions of higher education. The study examined the perspectives of presidents of Christian institutions of higher…

  3. Public Health Emergency Preparedness at the Local Level: Results of a National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Savoia, Elena; Rodday, Angie Mae; Stoto, Michael A

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between elements of public health infrastructure and local public health emergency preparedness (PHEP). Data Sources/Study Setting National Association of County and City Health Officials 2005 National Profile of Local Health Departments (LHDs). Study Design Cross-sectional. Principal Findings LHDs serving larger populations are more likely to have staff, capacities, and activities in place for an emergency. Adjusting for population size, the presence of a local board of health and the LHDs' experience in organizing PHEP coalitions were associated with better outcomes. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that more research should be conducted to investigate the benefit of merging small health departments into coalitions to overcome the inverse relationship between preparedness and population size of the jurisdiction served by the LHD. PMID:19686254

  4. Identification and analysis of obstacles in bioterrorism preparedness and response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sincavage, Suzanne Michele

    The focus of this study was to identify and analyze the obstacles to bioterrorism preparedness and response facing emergency management agencies and public authorities. In order to establish the limits of this discussion, the obstacles will examine a combined conceptual framework of public health, environmental security and social response. The interdisciplinary characteristics of this framework are ideal for addressing the issue of bioterrorism because of its simultaneous impact, which encompasses the complex interrelationships that pertain to public health and national security and social response. Based on a review of literature, the obstacles presented range from the absence of an effective surveillance system for biological terrorism related diseases to the inadequate training of first responders in bioterrorism preparedness and the difficult challenges of a mass casualty situation and the intense pressures associated with the crisis response. Furthermore, the impending reality of bioterrorism will further illustrate a close examination of the characteristics and management of three major biowarfare agents---anthrax, plague and smallpox. Finally, to provide a realistic understanding of the impact of bioterrorism, three case studies of actual events and two hypothetical scenarios will be discussed. Specifically, the discussion will provide the following three unconventional terrorist attacks: the recent anthrax attacks of 2001, the Aum Shinrikyo's attack of the Tokyo subway in 1995, and the Rajneeshees' use of salmonella poisoning in 1994. The inclusion of the hypothetical scenarios of two massive outbreaks of smallpox and anthrax will be presented to illuminate the seriousness and magnitude of the threat of bioterrorism and the probable consequences of failing to overcome the obstacles presented in this study. The importance of this research cannot be overemphasized, the threat is undeniably serious, and the potential for biological agents to cause devastating

  5. Cross-sector leadership development for preparedness.

    PubMed

    Potter, Margaret A; Burns, Helen K; Barron, Gerald; Grofebert, Alice; Bednarz, G Daniel

    2005-01-01

    After fall 2001, scientists and professionals recognized the importance of integrating public health with traditional first-response professions in planning and training for disasters. However, operationalizing this approach among professionals in the field confronted barriers that were both inter-cultural and jurisdictional. The Pennsylvania Preparedness Leadership Institute (PPLI) is a collaboration of the Pennsylvania Department of Health and the University of Pittsburgh Center for Public Health Preparedness. Team members are recruited from public health, emergency medicine, emergency management, hospitals, and public safety agencies from each of nine multi-county regions in Pennsylvania. Each team takes on a year-long project that addresses a strategic problem as a focus for capacity-building within its region. Unexpectedly during PPLI's first year in operation, a hepatitis-A outbreak tested whether one regional team could successfully mount the necessary integrated response. This experience, as well as the planned evaluation for PPLI, demonstrated both the successful processes and the positive impact of this integrated leadership training initiative. PMID:16025714

  6. Preparedness for AIDS vaccine trials in India.

    PubMed

    Excler, Jean-Louis; Kochhar, Sonali; Kapoor, Sushma; Das, Sweta; Bahri, Jyoti; Ghosh, Meenakshi Datta; Ganguly, N K; Nayyar, Anjali; Chataway, Mark

    2008-06-01

    India bears a heavy disease burden of HIV/AIDS infected and affected people. A safe, effective and accessible preventive AIDS vaccine, used along with other preventive interventions, is urgently needed to stem the epidemic. This review highlights the extensive preparedness activities undertaken from 2002 by the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI), its Indian government and non government partners with the Indian scientific, political, media and community stakeholders and the capacity building process, before the conduct of the first ever AIDS vaccine trials in India in early 2005. Issues addressed included mistrust of clinical research due to past history of some unethical trials, transparency, community involvement, stigma and discrimination, provision for care and treatment of participants, informed consent, gender considerations, approval process, and operational aspects. The strong political support along with preparedness activities led to the successful conduct of AIDS vaccine trials enrolling equitably healthy women and men from all sections of society. This has paved the way for future vaccine trials in the country. PMID:18765870

  7. Bulgy tadpoles: inducible defense morph.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Osamu; Nishimura, Kinya

    2004-08-01

    Predator induced morphological defenses are marked morphological shifts induced directly by cues associated with a predator. Generally, remote cues, i.e., chemical substances emitted from predators or injured conspecifics, are considered to be ideal signals to induce morphological change in aquatic environments rather than close cues, i.e., close chemical or tactile cues, since chemical substances that can propagate over relatively long distances and persist for a long period may allow organisms to keep safe and to deliberately change their morph. In fact, most organisms adopting an inducible morphological defense utilize remote chemical cues to detect predation risk and to produce morphological defenses. In this paper, we report a unique and functionally well designed inducible morphological defense strategy where the induction process requires close cues from a predator. The tadpoles of Rana pirica exhibited a bulgy bodied morphology when threatened with predation by larval salamanders, Hynobius retardatus, in close proximity. Predation trials and a function experiment showed that the induced bulgy morph is an adaptive defense phenotype against the gape-limited predator larval H. retardatus. Furthermore, R. pirica tadpoles use two adaptive strategies in terms of cost saving, i.e., adjustment of the extent of bulginess according to predation risk and reversibility by actual shrink of bulgy body after removing the predation threat. In general, R. pirica hatch earlier than H. retardatus. In natural ponds, during the early developmental stage R. pirica tadpoles live in close proximity to young H. retardatus larvae. As they grow, the salamanders gradually become serious predators and the predator-prey interaction becomes intimate. After a while, predation, cannibalism and metamorphosis decrease the number of salamanders in the ponds, and the predator-prey interaction weakens. Such a phenology in the predator-prey interaction allows the evolution of a close

  8. Technologies for Distributed Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Seiders, Barbara AB; Rybka, Anthony J.

    2002-07-01

    For Americans, the nature of warfare changed on September 11, 2001. Our national security henceforth will require distributed defense. One extreme of distributed defense is represented by fully deployed military troops responding to a threat from a hostile nation state. At the other extreme is a country of "citizen soldiers," with families and communities securing their common defense through heightened awareness, engagement as good neighbors, and local support of and cooperation with local law enforcement, emergency and health care providers. Technologies - for information exploitation, biological agent detection, health care surveillance, and security - will be critical to ensuring success in distributed defense.

  9. Emergency Preparedness and Response in the School Setting--The Role of the School Nurse. Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuck, Christine M.; Haynie, Kathey; Davis, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) provides leadership in all phases of emergency preparedness and response. School nurses are a vital part of the school team responsible for developing emergency response procedures for the…

  10. 33 CFR 203.21 - Disaster preparedness responsibilities of non-Federal interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disaster preparedness... DISASTER PROCEDURES Disaster Preparedness § 203.21 Disaster preparedness responsibilities of non-Federal interests. Disaster preparedness is a basic tenet of State and local responsibility. Assistance...

  11. 33 CFR 203.21 - Disaster preparedness responsibilities of non-Federal interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disaster preparedness... DISASTER PROCEDURES Disaster Preparedness § 203.21 Disaster preparedness responsibilities of non-Federal interests. Disaster preparedness is a basic tenet of State and local responsibility. Assistance...

  12. 33 CFR 203.21 - Disaster preparedness responsibilities of non-Federal interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disaster preparedness... DISASTER PROCEDURES Disaster Preparedness § 203.21 Disaster preparedness responsibilities of non-Federal interests. Disaster preparedness is a basic tenet of State and local responsibility. Assistance...

  13. The Common Ground Preparedness Framework: A Comprehensive Description of Public Health Emergency Preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Theadore, Fred; Jellison, James B.

    2012-01-01

    Currently, public health emergency preparedness (PHEP) is not well defined. Discussions about public health preparedness often make little progress, for lack of a shared understanding of the topic. We present a concise yet comprehensive framework describing PHEP activities. The framework, which was refined for 3 years by state and local health departments, uses terms easily recognized by the public health workforce within an information flow consistent with the National Incident Management System. To assess the framework's completeness, strengths, and weaknesses, we compare it to 4 other frameworks: the RAND Corporation's PREPARE Pandemic Influenza Quality Improvement Toolkit, the National Response Framework's Public Health and Medical Services Functional Areas, the National Health Security Strategy Capabilities List, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's PHEP Capabilities. PMID:22397343

  14. The common ground preparedness framework: a comprehensive description of public health emergency preparedness.

    PubMed

    Gibson, P Joseph; Theadore, Fred; Jellison, James B

    2012-04-01

    Currently, public health emergency preparedness (PHEP) is not well defined. Discussions about public health preparedness often make little progress, for lack of a shared understanding of the topic. We present a concise yet comprehensive framework describing PHEP activities. The framework, which was refined for 3 years by state and local health departments, uses terms easily recognized by the public health workforce within an information flow consistent with the National Incident Management System. To assess the framework's completeness, strengths, and weaknesses, we compare it to 4 other frameworks: the RAND Corporation's PREPARE Pandemic Influenza Quality Improvement Toolkit, the National Response Framework's Public Health and Medical Services Functional Areas, the National Health Security Strategy Capabilities List, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's PHEP Capabilities. PMID:22397343

  15. Preparedness of orthopaedic surgeons for modern battlefield surgery.

    PubMed

    Kearney, Sean P; Bluman, Eric M; Lonergan, Keith T; Arrington, Edward D; Ficke, James R

    2012-09-01

    Over 220 U.S. Army orthopaedic surgeons have deployed during the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT). This study documents the orthopaedic procedures performed during the GWOT and identifies training that prepared surgeons for deployment. It reveals deficiencies in surgeons' preparedness and intends to improve predeployment training. All surgeons deployed during the GWOT from 2001 to 2007 were surveyed. Questions fit 4 general categories: deployment demographics, medical and surgical experiences, predeployment preparation, and self-perceived preparedness during deployment. Response rate was 70%. Surgeons averaged 138 adult operative cases and 26 pediatric cases per deployment. All surgeons performed irrigation and debridement, 94% external fixation, 93% amputations, 89% arthrotomies, 86% open reduction and internal fixation, and 76% soft-tissue coverage procedures. Residency and fellowship contributed most to surgeon preparedness for deployment. Surgeons generally reported high levels of preparedness, but nearly 1 in 6 reported low levels of medical, surgical and physical preparedness. More reported low levels of mental preparedness. Soft-tissue coverage was the most frequently reported surgical deficiency. This study documents the number and types of orthopaedic procedures performed during the GWOT and identifies the self-perceived preparedness deficiencies of surgeons in a combat environment. Improvements in predeployment training are needed to better prepare surgeons for managing battlefield causalities. PMID:23025135

  16. Salient beliefs about earthquake hazards and household preparedness.

    PubMed

    Becker, Julia S; Paton, Douglas; Johnston, David M; Ronan, Kevin R

    2013-09-01

    Prior research has found little or no direct link between beliefs about earthquake risk and household preparedness. Furthermore, only limited work has been conducted on how people's beliefs influence the nature and number of preparedness measures adopted. To address this gap, 48 qualitative interviews were undertaken with residents in three urban locations in New Zealand subject to seismic risk. The study aimed to identify the diverse hazard and preparedness-related beliefs people hold and to articulate how these are influenced by public education to encourage preparedness. The study also explored how beliefs and competencies at personal, social, and environmental levels interact to influence people's risk management choices. Three main categories of beliefs were found: hazard beliefs; preparedness beliefs; and personal beliefs. Several salient beliefs found previously to influence the preparedness process were confirmed by this study, including beliefs related to earthquakes being an inevitable and imminent threat, self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, personal responsibility, responsibility for others, and beliefs related to denial, fatalism, normalization bias, and optimistic bias. New salient beliefs were also identified (e.g., preparedness being a "way of life"), as well as insight into how some of these beliefs interact within the wider informational and societal context. PMID:23339741

  17. Investigating factors for disaster preparedness among residents of Kuala Lumpur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad-pajooh, E.; Aziz, K. Ab.

    2014-05-01

    The review of past researches discussed that factors such as climate change and movement toward urbanization will result in more frequent and severe disasters in the near future (Yasuhara et al., 2011). Flash flood is the most common type of disaster that residents of Kuala Lumpur (KL) come across, thus in this study, it was desired to discover the factors affecting preparedness among residents of KL as well as assessing the variation of individual preparedness among residents. With the aid of SPSS analysis, the reliability of data, correlation and regression analysis between the investigated factors and disaster preparedness were obtained. According to this research it was found that level of preparedness of residents of KL is still below average; majority of social demographic indicators such as income, education, age, and property ownership showed significant contribution to the variation of disaster preparedness among the residents. For instance men were much more prepared in comparison to women; residents with high level of income and education had also significantly higher preparedness compared to those with low level of income and education. Race was the only factor that differs from the findings of previous studies; since race does not affect the preparedness.

  18. 76 FR 25 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 252 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement... Supplement (DFARS) to correct the clause list and associated clause dates in the clause ``Contract Terms and... making technical amendments to the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to...

  19. 22 CFR 130.4 - Defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Defense articles and defense services. 130.4 Section 130.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.4 Defense articles and defense services. Defense articles and...

  20. 22 CFR 130.4 - Defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Defense articles and defense services. 130.4 Section 130.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.4 Defense articles and defense services. Defense articles and...

  1. 22 CFR 130.4 - Defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Defense articles and defense services. 130.4 Section 130.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.4 Defense articles and defense services. Defense articles and...

  2. 22 CFR 130.4 - Defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Defense articles and defense services. 130.4 Section 130.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.4 Defense articles and defense services. Defense articles and...

  3. 22 CFR 130.4 - Defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Defense articles and defense services. 130.4 Section 130.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.4 Defense articles and defense services. Defense articles and...

  4. Theoretical perspectives on public communication preparedness for terrorist attacks.

    PubMed

    Wray, Ricardo J; Kreuter, Matthew W; Jacobsen, Heather; Clements, Bruce; Evans, R Gregory

    2004-01-01

    The experience of federal health authorities in responding to the mailed anthrax attacks in the Fall of 2001 sheds light on the challenges of public information dissemination in emergencies. Lessons learned from the Fall of 2001 have guided more recent efforts related to crisis communication and preparedness goals. This article applies theories and evidence from the field of communication to provide an orientation to how public health communication can best contribute to the preparedness effort. This theoretical orientation provides a framework to systematically assess current recommendations for preparedness communication. PMID:15596970

  5. LONG-TERM EARTHQUAKE PREPAREDNESS IN CHARLESTON, SOUTH CAROLINA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gori, P.L.; Greene, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Charleston, South Carolina, area offers a unique opportunity to conduct studies that give insight into the implementation of policy for long-term earthquake preparedness at the local level. Research by Greene and Gori documented the low state of preparedness in 1981. Recent studies show that earthquake preparedness activities are now occurring in Charleston. Since 1981, increased national attention has been used by local citizens in Charleston to overcome political, informational, social, organizational, and economic barriers which tend to retard the adoption and implementation of earthquake mitigation policies.

  6. Undergraduate nursing students' preparedness to "go rural".

    PubMed

    Sedgwick, Monique G; Yonge, Olive

    2008-07-01

    This article reports on a theme emerging from a focused ethnography examining the professional socialization of undergraduate fourth year nursing students during a rural hospital preceptored clinical experience. Nursing students and preceptors geographically dispersed over a 640,000 square kilometer rural area participated in this study. Students report student preparedness for the rural hospital setting means to "know what you are getting into". Assisting nursing students to prepare for the rural hospital preceptorship facilitates a positive experience thus increasing the effectiveness of the preceptorship model of clinical teaching. Having a positive rural-based experience also has the potential for recruiting new staff. These preliminary findings suggest that student preparation for the rural hospital preceptorship includes cognitive and psychological preparation, as well as the acquisition of common advanced clinical skills. PMID:18031871

  7. Radiological emergency: Malaysian preparedness and response.

    PubMed

    Yusof, Mohd Abd Wahab; Ali, Hamrah Mohd

    2011-07-01

    Planning and preparation in advance for radiological emergencies can help to minimise potential public health and environmental threats if and when an actual emergency occurs. During the planning process, emergency response organisations think through how they would respond to each type of incident and the resources that will be needed. In Malaysia, planning, preparation for and response to radiological emergencies involve many parties. In the event of a radiological emergency and if it is considered a disaster, the National Security Council, the Atomic Energy Licensing Board and the Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) will work together with other federal agencies, state and local governments, first responders and international organisations to monitor the situation, contain the release, and clean up the contaminated site. Throughout the response, these agencies use their protective action guidelines. This paper discusses Malaysian preparedness for, and response to, any potential radiological emergency. PMID:21729940

  8. Emergency preparedness: school nurses leading the way.

    PubMed

    Flaherty, Elizabeth A

    2013-07-01

    Nurses are trained to think in terms of the nursing process, which encompasses the five steps of assessment, diagnosis, outcomes/planning, implementation, and evaluation. Cities and towns have developed emergency plans based on the "all-hazards" approach. School district plans are also formulated based on the all-hazards approach of hazard mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery, which mirrors the nursing process. Individual school efforts focus on thesefourprinciples to facilitate development of a comprehensive plan for each school. Utilizing the principles of education, collaboration, resource utilization, leadership, and advocacy throughout the evolution of an updated and functional plan allows for an inclusive and adaptable plan. Like the nursing process, these steps are not separate and distinct, but a continuous process. PMID:23937000

  9. Schools and Civil Defense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.

    Civil defense is a planned, coordinated action to protect the population during any emergency whether arising from thermonuclear attack or natural disaster. The Federal Government has assumed four responsibilities--(1) to keep track of the nature of the threat which the civil defense program must meet, (2) to prepare and disseminate information…

  10. Forgiveness and Defense Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maltby, John; Day, Liz

    2004-01-01

    Within the literature on the psychology of forgiveness, researchers have hypothesized that the 1st stage in the process of being able to forgive is the role of psychological defense. To examine such a hypothesis, the authors explored the relationship between forgiveness and defense style. The 304 respondents (151 men, 153 women) completed measures…