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Sample records for defense preparedness association

  1. Teaching Activities for Defensive Living and Emergency Preparedness. Education Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Grit, Ed.; And Others

    Designed for teaching a generalized program in emergency preparedness education, the eight units of the manual can be used together or alone in any course that teaches human response to emergency preparedness or in physical education, recreation, health, biology, physiology, or science classes. The guide includes an introduction and seven major…

  2. 3 CFR 13603 - Executive Order 13603 of March 16, 2012. National Defense Resources Preparedness

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... production increases in national emergencies; and (2) perform industry analyses to assess capabilities of the... international competitiveness of specific domestic industries and their abilities to meet national defense..., use of petroleum and gas pipelines, and coal slurry pipelines used only to supply energy...

  3. Emergency Preparedness Education: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoffel, Robert, Ed.; LaValla, Patrick, Ed.

    The book is a collection of emergency preparedness instruction materials. It starts with the first chapter of "Living Life's Emergencies" by Robert Stoffel and Patrick LaValla which introduces emergency preparedness education, focusing on six major components (human body management, defensive living, time lag, disaster and civil preparedness,…

  4. Plant defense associations in the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littler, Mark M.; Taylor, Phillip R.; Littler, Diane S.

    1986-10-01

    In contrast to terrestrial systems, few positive plant-plant associations have been recorded in tropical reef environments. This study, conducted at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize during 28 March 10 April 1984, provides the first documentation of herbivore escapes for natural combinations of palatable and unpalatable marine plants. For example, there was a highly significant association of several macrophyte taxa ( Laurencia poitei, Dictyota spp., Amphiroa fragilissima, Cladophoropsis macromeres, Galaxaura cylindrica, rhodophycean turf) within a 2.0-cm radius of the herbivore-resistant brown alga Stypopodium zonale. Almost twice as many taxa occurred within 10 cm of S. zonale as within 10 cm of an equal number of random Stypopodium-free points, and there were no algal species negatively associated with S. zonale. The association of A. tribulus, L. poitei, Digenia simplex, rhodophycean turf, and Jania adherens with S. zonale provided them a fourfold greater survivorship per 48 h in the presence of grazing activity by fishes (mainly Acanthuridae and Scaridae). Reduced herbivory by fishes on macroalgae associated with S. zonale was not solely a consequence of its structural aspect. Losses of the palatable alga Acanthophora spicifera were significantly greater for thalli spatially remote (30 and 60 cm) from either a real or simulated Stypopodium; however, losses of A. spicifera adjacent to actual Stypopodium plants were significantly less than the losses next to models. The inter-relationships studied here, where an abundant and well-defended plant provides a significant refuge habitat for at least five relatively edible macroalgae, clearly facilitates the survival of certain taxa in the reef system and concomitantly enhances the within habitat diversity. Our findings also suggest an interaction counter to the process of competitive exclusion, since the single predominant plant has a positive rather than negative net effect on the abundances of other species that utilize the

  5. Disaster Preparedness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Constance

    Most librarians know the importance of disaster preparedness. Many disasters could have been prevented altogether or have had reduced impact if institutions had been better prepared. This resource guide suggests how disaster preparedness can be achieved at cultural institutions. Twenty-three basic resource articles are presented to introduce…

  6. Influences of Preparedness Knowledge and Beliefs on Household Disaster Preparedness.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Tracy N; Leander-Griffith, Michelle; Harp, Victoria; Cioffi, Joan P

    2015-01-01

    In response to concern about strengthening the nation's ability to protect its population and way of life (i.e., security) and ability to adapt and recover from emergencies (i.e., resilience), the President of the United States issued Presidential Policy Directive 8: National Preparedness (PPD-8) (1). Signed on March 30, 2011, PPD-8 is a directive for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security to coordinate a comprehensive campaign across government, private and nonprofit sectors, and individuals to build and sustain national preparedness. Despite efforts by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and other organizations to educate U.S. residents on becoming prepared, growth in specific preparedness behaviors, including actions taken in advance of a disaster to be better prepared to respond to and recover, has been limited (2). In 2012, only 52% of U.S. residents surveyed by FEMA reported having supplies for a disaster (2), a decline from 57% who reported having such supplies in 2009 (3). It is believed that knowledge influences behavior, and that attitudes and beliefs, which are correlated with knowledge, might also influence behavior (4). To determine the association between knowledge and beliefs and household preparedness, CDC analyzed baseline data from Ready CDC, a personal disaster preparedness intervention piloted among Atlanta- and Morgantown-based CDC staff members during 2013–2015. Compared with persons with basic preparedness knowledge, persons with advanced knowledge were more likely to have assembled an emergency kit (44% versus 17%), developed a written household disaster plan (9% versus 4%), and received county emergency alert notifications (63% versus 41%). Similarly, differences in household preparedness behaviors were correlated with beliefs about preparedness. Persons identified as having strong beliefs in the effectiveness of disaster preparedness engaged in preparedness behaviors at levels 7%–30% higher than those with weaker

  7. Emergency preparedness

    SciTech Connect

    Yanev, P.I.; Hom, S.; Kircher, C.A.; Bailey, N.D.

    1985-01-01

    These lecture notes include the following subject areas: (1) earthquake mitigation planning - general approach and in-house program; (2) seismic protection of equipment and non-structural systems; and (3) disaster preparedness and self help program. (ACR)

  8. Preparedness 101: Zombie Pandemic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Preparedness and Response Activities Public Health Preparedness Capabilities Cities Readiness Initiative Funding and Technical Assistance Healthcare Preparedness Subscribe to Receive Updates Planning Resources Communities Community Planning Framework for Healthcare Preparedness ...

  9. Disaster Preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Achora, Susan; Kamanyire, Joy K.

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing global frequency of disasters, the call for disaster preparedness training needs to be reinforced. Nurses form the largest group of the healthcare workforce and are often on the frontline in disaster management. Therefore, nurses should be adequately equipped with the knowledge and skills to respond to disasters, starting from their pre-service training to their in-service professional training. However, the inclusion of disaster preparedness education in undergraduate nursing curricula is minimal in most countries. The purpose of this article is to highlight the current state of nursing education and training in disaster management, both generally and in Oman. The significance of disaster preparedness training and recommendations for its inclusion in nursing practice and education are also discussed. PMID:26909207

  10. Radiological Defense. Textbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Washington, DC.

    This textbook has been prepared under the direction of the Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DCPA) Staff College for use as a student reference manual in radiological defense (RADEF) courses. It provides much of the basic technical information necessary for a proper understanding of radiological defense and summarizes RADEF planning and expected…

  11. The role of public health nurses in emergency preparedness and response: a position paper of the Association of State and Territorial Directors of Nursing.

    PubMed

    Jakeway, Carole C; LaRosa, Glynnis; Cary, Ann; Schoenfisch, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    The Association of State and Territorial Directors of Nursing vision for emergency preparedness is that every community, family, and individual will have a comprehensive emergency preparedness plan that minimizes the consequences of disasters and emergencies, and enables communities, families, and individuals to respond and recover. This position paper provides national and state policy guidance during emergencies to all public health nurses in the United States and its Territories. Public health nurses bring critical experience to each phase of a disaster: mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. Public health nurses strive to achieve individual competencies so that they may better collaborate with others and contribute to emergency preparedness and response. Twelve Emergency Preparedness Competencies are listed in this position paper that will assist public health nurses with disaster prevention, planning, response, recovery, drills, exercises, and training. This position paper will be useful in clarifying the expertise that public health nurses can contribute to teams that serve to protect the health and safety of communities against disaster threats and realities. PMID:18666941

  12. Hurricane Preparedness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Edit Zip Code Edit Zip Code Shop the Red Cross Store Home Get Help Types of Emergencies Hurricane Preparedness Download the FREE Emergency App Find our Emergency App in the Apple Store or Google Play Aplicación de Emergencias - ahora ...

  13. Hurricane Preparedness

    MedlinePlus

    ... one app. Text GETEMERGENCY to 90999 or search "Red Cross Emergency" in the Apple App Store or Google Play Store . Prepare for Hurricanes Are You Ready for a Hurricane? Ruben Brown of the American Red Cross helps a family assemble a preparedness kit ...

  14. Energy emergency preparedness

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, B.K.; Rothkopf, M.H.

    1988-06-01

    Energy emergency preparedness is the special responsibility of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Energy Emergencies within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for International Affairs and Energy Emergencies; though other Department of Energy (DOE) offices manage some aspects and DOE also coordinates emergency management with other federal departments. There are two basic objectives for energy emergency preparedness. The first of these, the economic stabilization objective, seeks to ease the impact of an energy supply disruption by facilitating a quick recovery and minimizing the disruption's economic consequences. The second is the mobilization support objective to ensure that there is adequate energy and fuel to support defense, defense industrial and critical civilian needs for energy and fuel. While all energy systems are vulnerable they vary in the degree of seriousness and the probability of a disruption. Oil is the most vulnerable, and will become increasingly so in the 1990's, as domestic and reliable foreign sources diminish and the United States relies more on imports from volatile Persian Gulf countries. Electric power is the next most vulnerable system, being open particularly to multi-site terrorist attack. This overview examines two highly connected organizations: the Office of Energy Emergencies (OEE) itself and the actual response organization, centering on the Energy Emergency Management System (EEMS). 38 refs., 10 figs.

  15. Legal Preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Courtney, Brooke; Hodge, James G.; Toner, Eric S.; Roxland, Beth E.; Penn, Matthew S.; Devereaux, Asha V.; Dichter, Jeffrey R.; Kissoon, Niranjan; Christian, Michael D.; Powell, Tia

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Significant legal challenges arise when health-care resources become scarce and population-based approaches to care are implemented during severe disasters and pandemics. Recent emergencies highlight the serious legal, economic, and health impacts that can be associated with responding in austere conditions and the critical importance of comprehensive, collaborative health response system planning. This article discusses legal suggestions developed by the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) Task Force for Mass Critical Care to support planning and response efforts for mass casualty incidents involving critically ill or injured patients. The suggestions in this chapter are important for all of those involved in a pandemic or disaster with multiple critically ill or injured patients, including front-line clinicians, hospital administrators, and public health or government officials. METHODS Following the CHEST Guidelines Oversight Committee’s methodology, the Legal Panel developed 35 key questions for which specific literature searches were then conducted. The literature in this field is not suitable to provide support for evidence-based recommendations. Therefore, the panel developed expert opinion-based suggestions using a modified Delphi process resulting in seven final suggestions. RESULTS Acceptance is widespread for the health-care community’s duty to appropriately plan for and respond to severe disasters and pandemics. Hospitals, public health entities, and clinicians have an obligation to develop comprehensive, vetted plans for mass casualty incidents involving critically ill or injured patients. Such plans should address processes for evacuation and limited appeals and reviews of care decisions. To legitimize responses, deter independent actions, and trigger liability protections, mass critical care (MCC) plans should be formally activated when facilities and practitioners shift to providing MCC. Adherence to official MCC plans should

  16. Neurophysiological evidence of an association between cognitive control and defensive reactivity processes in young children

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Sharon L.; Schroder, Hans S.; Moran, Tim P.; Durbin, C. Emily; Moser, Jason S.

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between cognitive control and affective processes, such as defensive reactivity, are intimately involved in healthy and unhealthy human development. However, cognitive control and defensive reactivity processes are often studied in isolation and rarely examined in early childhood. To address these gaps, we examined the relationships between multiple neurophysiological measures of cognitive control and defensive reactivity in young children. Specifically, we assessed two event-related potentials thought to index cognitive control processes – the error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe) – measured across two tasks, and two markers of defensive reactivity processes – startle reflex and resting parietal asymmetry – in a sample of 3- to 7-year old children. Results revealed that measures of cognitive control and defensive reactivity were related such that evidence of poor cognitive control (smaller ERN) was associated with high defensive reactivity (larger startle and greater right relative to left parietal activity). The strength of associations between the ERN and measures of defensive reactivity did not vary by age, providing evidence that poor cognitive control relates to greater defensive reactivity across early childhood years. PMID:26386550

  17. 33 CFR 203.21 - Disaster preparedness responsibilities of non-Federal interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disaster preparedness..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT OF ARMY AND OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Disaster Preparedness § 203.21 Disaster preparedness responsibilities of...

  18. The Japan Medical Association's disaster preparedness: lessons from the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Masami; Nagata, Takashi

    2013-10-01

    A complex disaster, the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011, consisted of a large-scale earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear accident, resulting in more than 15 000 fatalities, injuries, and missing persons and damage over a 500-km area. The entire Japanese public was profoundly affected by "3/11." The risk of radiation exposure initially delayed the medical response, prolonging the recovery efforts. Japan's representative medical organization, the Japan Medical Association (JMA), began dispatching Japan Medical Association Teams (JMATs) to affected areas beginning March 15, 2011. About 1400 JMATs comprising nearly 5500 health workers were launched. The JMA coordinated JMAT operations and cooperated in conducting postmortem examination, transporting large quantities of medical supplies, and establishing a multiorganizational council to provide health assistance to disaster survivors. Importantly, these response efforts contributed to the complete recovery of the health care system in affected areas within 3 months, and by July 15, 2011, JMATs were withdrawn. Subsequently, JMATs II have been providing long-term continuing medical support to disaster-affected areas. However, Japan is at great risk for future natural disasters because of its Pacific Rim location. Also, its rapidly aging population, uneven distribution of and shortage of medical resources in regional communities, and an overburdened public health insurance system highlight the need for a highly prepared and effective disaster response system. PMID:24274130

  19. Allocation Costs Associated with Induced Defense in Phaeocystis globosa (Prymnesiophyceae): the Effects of Nutrient Availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Wang, Yan; Ou, Linjian; He, Xuejia; Chen, Da

    2015-06-01

    Colony enlargement in Phaeocystis globosa has been considered as an induced defense strategy that reduces its susceptibility to grazers, but allocation costs inflicted by this plastic morphological defense are poorly understood. We conducted experiments in which P. globosa cultures were exposed to chemical cues from copepods, ciliates and heterotrophic dinoflagellates, respectively, under nutrient sufficient and deficient conditions to evaluate allocation costs associated with induced defense. Phaeocystis globosa responded to chemical cues from grazers by increasing colony diameter irrespective of nutrient conditions. We did not find trade-offs between induced defense and growth rate under nutrient sufficient conditions. Instead, induced defensive P. globosa had higher growth rates than non-induced P. globosa. When nutrient became limited, P. globosa exposed to grazing cues from copepods and dinoflagellates had significantly decreased growth rates when compared with non-induced P. globosa. We suggested that the decreased growth revealed allocation costs associated with induced defense that may influence on the trophic interactions between Phaeocystis and consumers.

  20. Allocation Costs Associated with Induced Defense in Phaeocystis globosa (Prymnesiophyceae): the Effects of Nutrient Availability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaodong; Wang, Yan; Ou, Linjian; He, Xuejia; Chen, Da

    2015-01-01

    Colony enlargement in Phaeocystis globosa has been considered as an induced defense strategy that reduces its susceptibility to grazers, but allocation costs inflicted by this plastic morphological defense are poorly understood. We conducted experiments in which P. globosa cultures were exposed to chemical cues from copepods, ciliates and heterotrophic dinoflagellates, respectively, under nutrient sufficient and deficient conditions to evaluate allocation costs associated with induced defense. Phaeocystis globosa responded to chemical cues from grazers by increasing colony diameter irrespective of nutrient conditions. We did not find trade-offs between induced defense and growth rate under nutrient sufficient conditions. Instead, induced defensive P. globosa had higher growth rates than non-induced P. globosa. When nutrient became limited, P. globosa exposed to grazing cues from copepods and dinoflagellates had significantly decreased growth rates when compared with non-induced P. globosa. We suggested that the decreased growth revealed allocation costs associated with induced defense that may influence on the trophic interactions between Phaeocystis and consumers. PMID:26040243

  1. Rural Hospital Preparedness for Neonatal Resuscitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jukkala, Angela; Henly, Susan J.; Lindeke, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Context: Neonatal resuscitation is a critical component of perinatal services in all settings. Purpose: To systematically describe preparedness of rural hospitals for neonatal resuscitation, and to determine whether delivery volume and level of perinatal care were associated with overall preparedness or its indicators. Methods: We developed the…

  2. Hyperleptinemia is associated with impaired pulmonary host defense

    PubMed Central

    Ubags, Niki D.J.; Stapleton, Renee D.; Vernooy, Juanita H.J.; Burg, Elianne; Bement, Jenna; Hayes, Catherine M.; Ventrone, Sebastian; Zabeau, Lennart; Tavernier, Jan; Poynter, Matthew E.; Parsons, Polly E.; Dixon, Anne E.; Wargo, Matthew J.; Littenberg, Benjamin; Wouters, Emiel F.M.; Suratt, Benjamin T.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously reported that obesity attenuates pulmonary inflammation in both patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and in mouse models of the disease. We hypothesized that obesity-associated hyperleptinemia, and not body mass per se, drives attenuation of the pulmonary inflammatory response and that this e_ect could also impair the host response to pneumonia. We examined the correlation between circulating leptin levels and risk, severity, and outcome of pneumonia in 2 patient cohorts (NHANES III and ARDSNet-ALVEOLI) and in mouse models of diet-induced obesity and lean hyperleptinemia. Plasma leptin levels in ambulatory subjects (NHANES) correlated positively with annual risk of respiratory infection independent of BMI. In patients with severe pneumonia resulting in ARDS (ARDSNet-ALVEOLI), plasma leptin levels were found to correlate positively with subsequent mortality. In obese mice with pneumonia, plasma leptin levels were associated with pneumonia severity, and in obese mice with sterile lung injury, leptin levels were inversely related to bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophilia, as well as to plasma IL-6 and G-CSF levels. These results were recapitulated in lean mice with experimentally induced hyperleptinemia. Our findings suggest that the association between obesity and elevated risk of pulmonary infection may be driven by hyperleptinemia. PMID:27347561

  3. American Bar Association Supplementary Guidelines for the Mitigation Function of Defense Teams in Death Penalty Cases: Implications for Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Arlene Bowers

    2012-01-01

    When a client faces a penalty of death, defense attorneys may call on social workers in many capacities: mitigation specialist, expert witness, consulting specialist, direct witness, or defense-initiated victim outreach worker. The American Bar Association set forth standards for capital defense attorneys, which led an interdisciplinary team to…

  4. Host differentially expressed genes during association with its defensive endosymbiont.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Meril; Lopanik, Nicole B

    2014-04-01

    Mutualism, a beneficial relationship between two species, often requires intimate interaction between the host and symbiont to establish and maintain the partnership. The colonial marine bryozoan Bugula neritina harbors an as yet uncultured endosymbiont, "Candidatus Endobugula sertula," throughout its life stages. The bacterial symbiont is the putative source of bioactive complex polyketide metabolites, the bryostatins, which chemically defend B. neritina larvae from predation. Despite the presence of "Ca. Endobugula sertula" in all life stages of the host, deterrent bryostatins appear to be concentrated in reproductive portions of the host colony, suggesting an interaction between the two partners to coordinate production and distribution of the metabolites within the colony. In this study, we identified host genes that were differentially expressed in control colonies and in colonies cured of the symbiont. Genes that code for products similar to glycosyl hydrolase family 9 and family 20 proteins, actin, and a Rho-GDP dissociation inhibitor were significantly downregulated (more than twice) in antibiotic-cured non-reproductive zooids compared to control symbiotic ones. Differential expression of these genes leads us to hypothesize that the host B. neritina may regulate the distribution of the symbiont within the colony via mechanisms of biofilm degradation and actin rearrangement, and consequently, influences bryostatin localization to bestow symbiont-associated protection to larvae developing in the reproductive zooids. PMID:24797097

  5. Exploring the association of ego defense mechanisms with problematic internet use in a Pakistani medical school.

    PubMed

    Waqas, Ahmed; Rehman, Abdul; Malik, Aamenah; Aftab, Ramsha; Allah Yar, Aroosa; Allah Yar, Arooj; Rai, Aitzaz Bin Sultan

    2016-09-30

    The present study was designed to analyze association between problematic internet use and use of ego defense mechanisms in medical students. This cross-sectional study was undertaken at CMH Lahore Medical College (CMH LMC) in Lahore, Pakistan from 1st March, 2015 to 30th May, 2015. 522 medical and dental students were included in the study. The questionnaire consisted of three sections: a) demographic characteristics of respondent b) the Defense Style Questionnaire-40 (DSQ-40) and c) the Internet Addiction Test (IAT). All data were analyzed in SPSS v20. Chi square, Independent sample t test and One Way ANOVA were run to analyze association of different variables with scores on IAT. Multiple regression analysis was used to delineate ego defenses as predictors of problematic internet use. A total of 32 (6.1%) students reported severe problems with internet usage. Males had higher scores on IAT i.e had more problematic use of internet. Scores on internet addiction test (IAT) were negatively associated with sublimation and positively associated with projection, denial, autistic fantasy, passive aggression and displacement. There was a high prevalence of problematic use of internet among medical and dental students. It had significant associations with several defense mechanisms. PMID:27504797

  6. Computational identification of genetic subnetwork modules associated with maize defense response to Fusarium verticillioides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Maize, a crop of global significance, is vulnerable to a variety of biotic stresses resulting in economic losses. Fusarium verticillioides (teleomorph Gibberella moniliformis) is one of the key fungal pathogens of maize, causing ear rots and stalk rots. To better understand the genetic mechanisms involved in maize defense as well as F. verticillioides virulence, a systematic investigation of the host-pathogen interaction is needed. The aim of this study was to computationally identify potential maize subnetwork modules associated with its defense response against F. verticillioides. Results We obtained time-course RNA-seq data from B73 maize inoculated with wild type F. verticillioides and a loss-of-virulence mutant, and subsequently established a computational pipeline for network-based comparative analysis. Specifically, we first analyzed the RNA-seq data by a cointegration-correlation-expression approach, where maize genes were jointly analyzed with known F. verticillioides virulence genes to find candidate maize genes likely associated with the defense mechanism. We predicted maize co-expression networks around the selected maize candidate genes based on partial correlation, and subsequently searched for subnetwork modules that were differentially activated when inoculated with two different fungal strains. Based on our analysis pipeline, we identified four potential maize defense subnetwork modules. Two were directly associated with maize defense response and were associated with significant GO terms such as GO:0009817 (defense response to fungus) and GO:0009620 (response to fungus). The other two predicted modules were indirectly involved in the defense response, where the most significant GO terms associated with these modules were GO:0046914 (transition metal ion binding) and GO:0046686 (response to cadmium ion). Conclusion Through our RNA-seq data analysis, we have shown that a network-based approach can enhance our understanding of the

  7. Nutritional and pathogenic fungi associated with the pine engraver beetle trigger comparable defenses in Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Villari, Caterina; Battisti, Andrea; Chakraborty, Sourav; Michelozzi, Marco; Bonello, Pierluigi; Faccoli, Massimo

    2012-07-01

    Conifer bark beetles are often associated with fungal complexes whose components have different ecological roles. Some associated species are nutritionally obligate fungi, serving as nourishment to the larvae, whereas others are pathogenic blue-stain fungi known to be involved in the interaction with host defenses. In this study we characterized the local and systemic defense responses of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) against Ophiostoma brunneo-ciliatum Math. (a blue-stain pathogen) and Hyalorhinocladiella macrospora (Franke-Grosm.) Harr. (a nutritional fungus). These fungi are the principal associates of the pine engraver beetle, Ips acuminatus (Gyll.). Host responses were studied following inoculation with the fungi, singly and as a fungal complex, and by identifying and quantifying terpenoids, phenolic compounds and lignin. Although the length of the necrotic lesions differed between control (wound) and fungal treatments, only two compounds (pinosylvin monomethyl ether and (+)-α-pinene) were significantly affected by the presence of the fungi, indicating that Scots pine has a generic, rather than specific, induced response. The fact that both nutritional and blue-stain fungi triggered comparable induced defense responses suggests that even a non-pathogenic fungus may participate in exhausting host plant defenses, indirectly assisting in the beetle establishment process. Our findings contribute to the further development of current theory on the role of associated fungal complexes in bark beetle ecology. PMID:22718525

  8. Assessing public health emergency preparedness: concepts, tools, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Christopher; Lurie, Nicole; Wasserman, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    Policymakers are increasingly seeking to determine whether the federal government's recent investments in public health preparedness have left the public health system better prepared to respond to large-scale public health emergencies. Yet, there remain questions about how to define "public health emergency preparedness," how much preparedness is enough, and how preparedness can be measured and assessed. This chapter identifies the key challenges associated with measuring public health preparedness and reviews approaches currently in use. We also identify some emerging measurement techniques that might help address some of these challenges. PMID:17129174

  9. Financing hospital disaster preparedness.

    PubMed

    De Lorenzo, Robert A

    2007-01-01

    Disaster preparedness and response have gained increased attention in the United States as a result of terrorism and disaster threats. However, funding of hospital preparedness, especially surge capacity, has lagged behind other preparedness priorities. Only a small portion of the money allocated for national preparedness is directed toward health care, and hospitals receive very little of that. Under current policy, virtually the entire funding stream for hospital preparedness comes from general tax revenues. Medical payers (e.g., Medicare, Medicaid, and private insurance) directly fund little, if any, of the current bill. Funding options to improve preparedness include increasing the current federal grants allocated to hospitals, using payer fees or a tax to subsidize preparedness, and financing other forms of expansion capability, such as mobile hospitals. Alternatively, the status quo of marginal preparedness can be maintained. In any event, achieving higher levels of preparedness likely will take the combined commitment of the hospital industry, public and private payers, and federal, state, and local governments. Ultimately, the costs of preparedness will be borne by the public in the form of taxes, higher healthcare costs, or through the acceptance of greater risk. PMID:18087914

  10. 77 FR 16651 - National Defense Resources Preparedness

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... person. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, March 16, 2012. [FR Doc. 2012-7019 Filed 3-21-12; 8:45 am... commercial fertilizer; (2) the Secretary of Energy with respect to all forms of energy; (3) the Secretary of... for market use of food resources. (d) ``Fertilizer'' means any product or combination of products...

  11. 47 CFR 0.181 - The Defense Commissioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false The Defense Commissioner. 0.181 Section 0.181..., Defense and Emergency Preparedness Functions § 0.181 The Defense Commissioner. The Defense Commissioner is designated by the Commission. The Defense Commissioner directs the homeland security, national security...

  12. Enhanced Agrobacterium-mediated transformation efficiencies in monocot cells is associated with attenuated defense responses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wan-Jun; Dewey, Ralph E; Boss, Wendy; Phillippy, Brian Q; Qu, Rongda

    2013-02-01

    Plant defense responses can lead to altered metabolism and even cell death at the sites of Agrobacterium infection, and thus lower transformation frequencies. In this report, we demonstrate that the utilization of culture conditions associated with an attenuation of defense responses in monocot plant cells led to highly improved Agrobacterium-mediated transformation efficiencies in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The removal of myo-inositol from the callus culture media in combination with a cold shock pretreatment and the addition of L-Gln prior to and during Agrobacterium-infection resulted in about 84 % of the treated calluses being stably transformed. The omission of myo-inositol from the callus culture media was associated with the failure of certain pathogenesis related genes to be induced after Agrobacterium infection. The addition of a cold shock and supplemental Gln appeared to have synergistic effects on infection and transformation efficiencies. Nearly 60 % of the stably transformed calluses regenerated into green plantlets. Calluses cultured on media lacking myo-inositol also displayed profound physiological and biochemical changes compared to ones cultured on standard growth media, such as reduced lignin within the cell walls, increased starch and inositol hexaphosphate accumulation, enhanced Agrobacterium binding to the cell surface, and less H(2)O(2) production after Agrobacterium infection. Furthermore, the cold treatment greatly reduced callus browning after infection. The simple modifications described in this report may have broad application for improving genetic transformation of recalcitrant monocot species. PMID:23242917

  13. Vested interest, disaster preparedness, and strategic campaign message design.

    PubMed

    Adame, Bradley J; Miller, Claude H

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the United States has recognized an increasing need for individual-level disaster preparedness, with federal, state, and local government agencies finding only limited success in instituting campaign-based disaster preparedness programs. Extant research indicates Americans generally remain poorly informed and badly unprepared for imminent disasters. Vested interest theory (Crano, 1997) is presented as a framework for designing and testing the effectiveness of television-based disaster preparedness campaign messages. High- and low-vested versions of an extant control message are compared to assess message efficacy as indicated by behavioral intentions, message acceptance, and preparedness related attitudes. Results indicate television-based video public service announcements manipulated with subtle message variations can be effective at influencing critical preparedness-related attitudes. The high-vested condition performed significantly better than the low-vested and control conditions for both behavioral intentions and perceptions of self-efficacy, two vitally important outcome variables associated with disaster preparedness. PMID:24837442

  14. 47 CFR 0.181 - The Defense Commissioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false The Defense Commissioner. 0.181 Section 0.181 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION Organization Homeland Security, Defense and Emergency Preparedness Functions § 0.181 The Defense Commissioner. The Defense Commissioner is designated by the...

  15. 47 CFR 0.181 - The Defense Commissioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false The Defense Commissioner. 0.181 Section 0.181 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION Organization Homeland Security, Defense and Emergency Preparedness Functions § 0.181 The Defense Commissioner. The Defense Commissioner is designated by the...

  16. 17. Introduction to preparedness.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    Preparedness is the aggregate of all measures and policies adopted before an event occurs that promotes mitigation of the damage caused by an event and minimises the dysfunction that could result from the damage. More specifically, it includes all planning and resources that are devoted to preventing deaths and morbidity and, thus, to the alleviation of human (individual and collective) suffering during and after the event has taken place. It consists of measures that individuals, a family, a community, locale, country, region, institution, and states maintain, at a particular time, to combat the potential deleterious effects of hazards. Preparedness includes the absorbing, buffering, and response capacities; it also has been called the resilience of the society at risk, to a hazard(s). As the level of preparedness increases, the vulnerability of the community at risk decreases. Preparedness is difficult to measure. The impact of preparedness measures cannot be realised until the next event occurs or it has been shown to be of benefit during disaster drills and exercises. Hence, investments in preparedness have been relatively meager worldwide. PMID:24785814

  17. Assessment of the fiscal year 1997 Department of Defense budget and program activities for domestic defense against weapons of mass destruction. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Guenther, G.R.

    1997-12-01

    This thesis examines Department of Defense involvement in U.S. preparedness to manage the consequences of a nuclear, radiological, biological, or chemical terrorist attack against its cities. It analyzes the establishment and implementation of the Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act of 1996 which directed the Department of Defense to assist in the training of state and local emergency response agencies involved in consequence management activities. The historical analysis focuses on the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, major terrorist incidents since 1993, international standards, and legislative and executive efforts undertaken to combat terrorism up to 1996. The $150 million Nunn Lugar Domenici amendment to the FY-97 National Defense Authorization Bill is examined in detail from introduction on the Senate floor to eventual passage and enactment. Problems and policy issues associated with resourcing and implementing the resulting Domestic Preparedness Program are treated. Although the DoD was given responsibility for implementing city training, an interagency effort ensued involving the Public Health Service, Environmental Protection Agency, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Energy, and others. Potential weaknesses may materialize due to several characteristics of the Domestic Preparedness Program, including its novelty and uniqueness, the unorthodox legislative process by which it was established, and its complex organizational structure and temporary nature.

  18. Association of Ego Defense Mechanisms with Academic Performance, Anxiety and Depression in Medical Students: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Waqas, Ahmed; Malik, Aamenah; Muhammad, Umer; Khan, Sarah; Mahmood, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ego defense mechanisms are unconscious psychological processes that help an individual to prevent anxiety when exposed to a stressful situation. These mechanisms are important in psychiatric practice to assess an individual’s personality dynamics, psychopathologies, and modes of coping with stressful situations, and hence, to design appropriate individualized treatment. Our study delineates the relationship of ego defense mechanisms with anxiety, depression, and academic performance of Pakistani medical students. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done at CMH Lahore Medical College and Fatima Memorial Hospital Medical and Dental College, both in Lahore, Pakistan, from December 1, 2014 to January 15, 2015. Convenience sampling was used and only students who agreed to take part in this study were included. The questionnaire consisted of three sections: 1) Demographics, documenting demographic data and academic scores on participants’ most recent exams; 2) Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); and 3) Defense Style Questionnaire-40 (DSQ-40). The data were analyzed with SPSS v. 20. Mean scores and frequencies were calculated for demographic variables and ego defense mechanisms. Bivariate correlations, one-way ANOVA, and multiple linear regression were used to identify associations between academic scores, demographics, ego defense mechanisms, anxiety, and depression. Results: A total of 409 medical students participated, of whom 286 (70%) were females and 123 (30%) were males. Mean percentage score on the most recent exams was 75.6% in medical students. Bivariate correlation revealed a direct association between mature and neurotic ego defense mechanisms and academic performance, and an indirect association between immature mechanisms and academic performance. One-way ANOVA showed that moderate levels of anxiety (P < .05) and low levels of depression (P < .05) were associated with higher academic performance. Conclusion: There was a

  19. Academic-community partnerships for sustainable preparedness and response systems.

    PubMed

    Isakov, Alexander; O'Neal, Patrick; Prescott, John; Stanley, Joan; Herrmann, Jack; Dunlop, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Academic institutions possess tremendous resources that could be important for community disaster response and preparedness activities. In-depth exploration of the role of academic institutions in community disaster response has elicited information about particular academic resources leveraged for and essential to community preparedness and response; factors that contribute to the decision-making process for partner engagement; and facilitators of and barriers to sustainable collaborations from the perspectives of academic institutions, public health and emergency management agencies, and national association and agency leaders. The Academic-Community Partnership Project of the Emory University Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Center in collaboration with the Association of Schools of Public Health convened an invitational summit which included leadership from the National Association of County and City Health Officials, Association of State and Territorial Health Officials, Directors of Public Health Preparedness, Department of Health and Human Services Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, CDC Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response, Association of Schools of Public Health, Association of American Medical Colleges, Association of Academic Health Centers, American Association of Colleges of Nursing, Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, and American Association of Poison Control Centers. From this convention, emerged recommendations for building and sustaining academic-public health-community collaborations for preparedness locally and regionally. PMID:25068939

  20. How does the foraging behavior of large herbivores cause different associational plant defenses?

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yue; Wang, Ling; Wang, Deli; Zeng, De-Hui; Liu, Chen

    2016-01-01

    The attractant-decoy hypothesis predicts that focal plants can defend against herbivory by neighboring with preferred plant species when herbivores make decisions at the plant species scale. The repellent-plant hypothesis assumes that focal plants will gain protection by associating with nonpreferred neighbors when herbivores are selective at the patch scale. However, herbivores usually make foraging decisions at these scales simultaneously. The net outcomes of the focal plant vulnerability could depend on the spatial scale at which the magnitude of selectivity by the herbivores is stronger. We quantified and compared the within- and between-patch overall selectivity index (OSI) of sheep to examine the relationships between associational plant effects and herbivore foraging selectivity. We found that the sheep OSI was stronger at the within- than the between-patch scale, but focal plant vulnerability followed both hypotheses. Focal plants defended herbivory with preferred neighbors when the OSI difference between the two scales was large. Focal plants gained protection with nonpreferred neighbors when the OSI difference was narrowed. Therefore, the difference in selectivity by the herbivores between the relevant scales results in different associational plant defenses. Our study suggests important implications for understanding plant-herbivore interactions and grassland management. PMID:26847834

  1. Oxidative Stress Is Associated with an Increased Antioxidant Defense in Elderly Subjects: A Multilevel Approach

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Mateo, Gemma; Elosua, Roberto; Rodriguez-Blanco, Teresa; Basora-Gallisà, Josep; Bulló, Mònica; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Estruch, Ramon; Corella, Dolores; Fitó, Montserrat; Fiol, Miquel; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Subirana, Isaac; Lapetra, José; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Sáez, Guillermo T.; Covas, Maria-Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies of associations between plasma GSH-Px activity and cardiovascular risk factors have been done in humans, and contradictory results have been reported. The aim of our study was to assess the association between the scavenger antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in plasma and the presence of novel and classical cardiovascular risk factors in elderly patients. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study with baseline data from a subsample of the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea) study in Spain. Participants were 1,060 asymptomatic subjects at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), aged 55 to 80, selected from 8 primary health care centers (PHCCs). We assessed classical CVD risk factors, plasma oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) using multilevel statistical procedures. Results Mean GSH-Px value was 612 U/L (SE: 12 U/L), with variation between PHCCs ranging from 549 to 674 U/L (Variance = 1013.5; P<0.001). Between-participants variability within a PHCC accounted for 89% of the total variation. Both glucose and oxidized LDL were positively associated with GSH-Px activity after adjustment for possible confounder variables (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01, respectively). Conclusion In a population at high cardiovascular risk, a positive linear association was observed between plasma GSH-Px activity and both glucose and ox-LDL levels. The high GSH-Px activity observed when an oxidative stress situation occurred, such as hyperglycemia and lipid oxidative damage, could be interpreted as a healthy defensive response against oxidative injury in our cardiovascular risk population. PMID:25269026

  2. Genome Wide Association Mapping in Arabidopsis thaliana Identifies Novel Genes Involved in Linking Allyl Glucosinolate to Altered Biomass and Defense

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, Marta; Joseph, Bindu; Caligagan, Hart; Li, Baohua; Corwin, Jason A.; Lin, Catherine; Kerwin, Rachel E.; Burow, Meike; Kliebenstein, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    A key limitation in modern biology is the ability to rapidly identify genes underlying newly identified complex phenotypes. Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have become an increasingly important approach for dissecting natural variation by associating phenotypes with genotypes at a genome wide level. Recent work is showing that the Arabidopsis thaliana defense metabolite, allyl glucosinolate (GSL), may provide direct feedback regulation, linking defense metabolism outputs to the growth, and defense responses of the plant. However, there is still a need to identify genes that underlie this process. To start developing a deeper understanding of the mechanism(s) that modulate the ability of exogenous allyl GSL to alter growth and defense, we measured changes in plant biomass and defense metabolites in a collection of natural 96 A. thaliana accessions fed with 50 μM of allyl GSL. Exogenous allyl GSL was introduced exclusively to the roots and the compound transported to the leaf leading to a wide range of heritable effects upon plant biomass and endogenous GSL accumulation. Using natural variation we conducted GWAS to identify a number of new genes which potentially control allyl responses in various plant processes. This is one of the first instances in which this approach has been successfully utilized to begin dissecting a novel phenotype to the underlying molecular/polygenic basis. PMID:27462337

  3. Working Together for Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Daniel W. Sutherland, Officer for Civil Rights & Civil Liberties, Department of Homeland Security, to discuss some of the Department's future goals related to emergency preparedness for people with special needs and to find out how citizens can help in that quest. This article also focuses on topics such as:…

  4. Tornado Preparedness Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Rockville, MD. National Weather Service.

    This pamphlet contains a set of guidelines for community leaders interested in developing preparedness plans for tornadoes and severe thunderstorms. Included in the guide is a list of the types of officials and agencies which should be involved in planning meetings. A set of suggestions for developing a community communications network and…

  5. Modulation of plant defense responses to herbivores by simultaneous recognition of different herbivore-associated elicitors in rice

    PubMed Central

    Shinya, Tomonori; Hojo, Yuko; Desaki, Yoshitake; Christeller, John T.; Okada, Kazunori; Shibuya, Naoto; Galis, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Induced plant defense responses against insect herbivores are triggered by wounding and/or perception of herbivore elicitors from their oral secretions (OS) and/or saliva. In this study, we analyzed OS isolated from two rice chewing herbivores, Mythimna loreyi and Parnara guttata. Both types of crude OS had substantial elicitor activity in rice cell system that allowed rapid detection of early and late defense responses, i.e. accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and defense secondary metabolites, respectively. While the OS from M. loreyi contained large amounts of previously reported insect elicitors, fatty acid-amino acid conjugates (FACs), the elicitor-active P. guttata’s OS contained no detectable FACs. Subsequently, elicitor activity associated with the high molecular mass fraction in OS of both herbivores was identified, and shown to promote ROS and metabolite accumulations in rice cells. Notably, the application of N-linolenoyl-Gln (FAC) alone had only negligible elicitor activity in rice cells; however, the activity of isolated elicitor fraction was substantially promoted by this FAC. Our results reveal that plants integrate various independent signals associated with their insect attackers to modulate their defense responses and reach maximal fitness in nature. PMID:27581373

  6. Modulation of plant defense responses to herbivores by simultaneous recognition of different herbivore-associated elicitors in rice.

    PubMed

    Shinya, Tomonori; Hojo, Yuko; Desaki, Yoshitake; Christeller, John T; Okada, Kazunori; Shibuya, Naoto; Galis, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Induced plant defense responses against insect herbivores are triggered by wounding and/or perception of herbivore elicitors from their oral secretions (OS) and/or saliva. In this study, we analyzed OS isolated from two rice chewing herbivores, Mythimna loreyi and Parnara guttata. Both types of crude OS had substantial elicitor activity in rice cell system that allowed rapid detection of early and late defense responses, i.e. accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and defense secondary metabolites, respectively. While the OS from M. loreyi contained large amounts of previously reported insect elicitors, fatty acid-amino acid conjugates (FACs), the elicitor-active P. guttata's OS contained no detectable FACs. Subsequently, elicitor activity associated with the high molecular mass fraction in OS of both herbivores was identified, and shown to promote ROS and metabolite accumulations in rice cells. Notably, the application of N-linolenoyl-Gln (FAC) alone had only negligible elicitor activity in rice cells; however, the activity of isolated elicitor fraction was substantially promoted by this FAC. Our results reveal that plants integrate various independent signals associated with their insect attackers to modulate their defense responses and reach maximal fitness in nature. PMID:27581373

  7. Emergency preparedness in obstetrics.

    PubMed

    Haeri, Sina; Marcozzi, David

    2015-04-01

    During and after disasters, focus is directed toward meeting the immediate needs of the general population. As a result, the routine health care and the special needs of some vulnerable populations such as pregnant and postpartum women may be overlooked within a resource-limited setting. In the event of hazards such as natural disasters, manmade disasters, and terrorism, knowledge of emergency preparedness strategies is imperative for the pregnant woman and her family, obstetric providers, and hospitals. Individualized plans for the pregnant woman and her family should include knowledge of shelter in place, birth at home, and evacuation. Obstetric providers need to have a personal disaster plan in place that accounts for work responsibilities in case of an emergency and business continuity strategies to continue to provide care to their communities. Hospitals should have a comprehensive emergency preparedness program utilizing an "all hazards" approach to meet the needs of pregnant and postpartum women and other vulnerable populations during disasters. With lessons learned in recent tragedies such as Hurricane Katrina in mind, we hope this review will stimulate emergency preparedness discussions and actions among obstetric providers and attenuate adverse outcomes related to catastrophes in the future. PMID:25751222

  8. The associations between objective numeracy and colorectal cancer screening knowledge, attitudes and defensive processing in a deprived community sample.

    PubMed

    Smith, Samuel G; Kobayashi, Lindsay C; Wolf, Michael S; Raine, Rosalind; Wardle, Jane; von Wagner, Christian

    2016-08-01

    We examined associations between numeracy and sociocognitive factors associated with colorectal cancer screening uptake (n = 964). Nearly half (45.7%) of the respondents incorrectly answered a numeracy question (low numeracy). Low numeracy respondents were less knowledgeable about colorectal cancer (p < .001), less positive towards screening (emotional, p < .001 and practical, p = .001) and less likely to intend to participate in screening (p = .001). They also reported greater defensive processing of cancer information (p = .001). Sociocognitive factors fully mediated the relationship between numeracy and screening intention. Addressing numeracy issues may reduce inequalities in CRC screening participation, but communication strategies could be limited by the tendency process cancer information defensively. PMID:25512199

  9. Transcriptome changes specifically associated with apple (Malus domestica) root defense response during Pythium ultimum infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The defense response of apple rootstocks to necrotrophic soilborne pathogens that incite apple replant disease (ARD) has not been investigated. In this study, root tissues of apple seedlings inoculated with Pythium ultimum, were sampled at 0, 1, 4, 8, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours post inoculation (hpi) a...

  10. Arthropod-associated plant effectors (AAPEs):elicitors and suppressors of crop defense

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In response to insect attack, many plants undergo a suite of rapid biochemical changes that serve to directly reduce subsequent feeding damage and also promote the attraction of predators and parasitoids, the natural enemies of crop pests. In many cases, these insect-induced plant defense responses ...

  11. Identification of defense-related genes newly-associated with tomato flower abscission

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current abscission model suggests the formation of a post-abscission trans-differentiation of a protective layer as the last step of the process. The present report expands the repertoire of genes activated in the tomato flower abscission zone (AZ), which are likely to be involved in defense res...

  12. Choose Your Weapon: Defensive Behavior Is Associated with Morphology and Performance in Scorpions

    PubMed Central

    van der Meijden, Arie; Lobo Coelho, Pedro; Sousa, Pedro; Herrel, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Morphology can be adaptive through its effect on performance of an organism. The effect of performance may, however, be modulated by behavior; an organism may choose a behavioral option that does not fully utilize its maximum performance. Behavior may therefore be decoupled from morphology and performance. To gain insight into the relationships between these levels of organization, we combined morphological data on defensive structures with measures of defensive performance, and their utilization in defensive behavior. Scorpion species show significant variation in the morphology and performance of their main defensive structures; their chelae (pincers) and the metasoma (“tail”) carrying the stinger. Our data show that size-corrected pinch force varies to almost two orders of magnitude among species, and is correlated with chela morphology. Chela and metasoma morphology are also correlated to the LD50 of the venom, corroborating the anecdotal rule that dangerously venomous scorpions can be recognized by their chelae and metasoma. Analyses of phylogenetic independent contrasts show that correlations between several aspects of chela and metasoma morphology, performance and behavior are present. These correlations suggest co-evolution of behavior with morphology and performance. Path analysis found a performance variable (pinch force) to partially mediate the relationship between morphology (chela aspect ratio) and behavior (defensive stinger usage). We also found a correlation between two aspects of morphology: pincer finger length correlates with the relative “thickness” (aspect ratio) of the metasoma. This suggests scorpions show a trade-off between their two main weapon complexes: the metasoma carrying the stinger, and the pedipalps carrying the chelae. PMID:24236075

  13. Brief Report: Self-Harm Is Associated with Immature Defense Mechanisms but Not Substance Use in a Nonclinical Scottish Adolescent Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Stuart; Carson, Carron Maryjane

    2012-01-01

    It has been unclear whether adolescent deliberate self-harm (DSH) is more associated with substance use or with characterological impairments. Multivariate determination of (N = 114 Scottish adolescents) ever engaging in DSH (Youth Risk Behavior Survey) from alcohol use, other substance use, and immature defense mechanism use (Defense Style…

  14. Classifying Korean Adolescents' Career Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, In Heok; Rojewski, Jay W.; Hill, Roger B.

    2013-01-01

    Latent class analysis was used to examine the career preparation of 5,227 11th-grade Korean adolescents taken from the Korean Education Longitudinal Study of 2005 (KELS:2005). Three career preparedness groups were identified, to reflecting Skorikov's ("J Vocat Behav" 70:8-24, 2007) conceptualization of career preparedness: prepared, confused, and…

  15. Bacillus cereus AR156-Induced Resistance to Colletotrichum acutatum Is Associated with Priming of Defense Responses in Loquat Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoli; Wang, Lei; Wang, Jing; Jin, Peng; Liu, Hongxia; Zheng, Yonghua

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of a biocontrol agent Bacillus cereus AR156 for control of anthracnose rot caused by Colletotrichum acutatum in harvested loquat fruit and the possible mechanisms of its action have been investigated. Treatment of fruit with B. cereus AR156 resulted in lower disease incidence and smaller lesion diameters compared with that of untreated fruit. The treatment enhanced activities of defense-related enzymes including chitinase, β-1, 3-glucanase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase, and promoted accumulation of H2O2. Total phenolic content and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity were also increased by treatment. Transcripts of three defense-related genes were enhanced only in fruit undergoing both B. cereus AR156 treatment and C. acutatum inoculation compared with those receiving either intervention alone. These results suggest that the disease resistance against C. acutatum in loquat fruit is enhanced by B. cereus AR156 and that the induced resistance is associated with induction and priming of defense responses in the fruit. PMID:25386680

  16. Bacillus cereus AR156-induced resistance to Colletotrichum acutatum is associated with priming of defense responses in loquat fruit.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoli; Wang, Lei; Wang, Jing; Jin, Peng; Liu, Hongxia; Zheng, Yonghua

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of a biocontrol agent Bacillus cereus AR156 for control of anthracnose rot caused by Colletotrichum acutatum in harvested loquat fruit and the possible mechanisms of its action have been investigated. Treatment of fruit with B. cereus AR156 resulted in lower disease incidence and smaller lesion diameters compared with that of untreated fruit. The treatment enhanced activities of defense-related enzymes including chitinase, β-1, 3-glucanase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase, and promoted accumulation of H2O2. Total phenolic content and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity were also increased by treatment. Transcripts of three defense-related genes were enhanced only in fruit undergoing both B. cereus AR156 treatment and C. acutatum inoculation compared with those receiving either intervention alone. These results suggest that the disease resistance against C. acutatum in loquat fruit is enhanced by B. cereus AR156 and that the induced resistance is associated with induction and priming of defense responses in the fruit. PMID:25386680

  17. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons/Society of Military Orthopaedic Surgeons/Orthopaedic Trauma Associations/Pediatric Orthopaedic Association Disaster Response and Preparedness Course.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Anthony E; Gerlinger, Tad L; Born, Christopher T

    2015-10-01

    A disaster is a catastrophic event that disrupts normal infrastructure to such a degree that normal response mechanisms and capabilities cannot manage what is required to respond appropriately to the event. Launched after the largest urban disaster in modern history--the 2010 Haiti Earthquake--the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons/Society of Military Orthopaedic Surgeons/Orthopaedic Trauma Association/Pediatric Orthopaedic Association of North America (AAOS/SOMOS/OTA/POSNA) Disaster Response Course (DRC) is designed to prepare orthopaedic surgeons for service in disaster response and humanitarian assistance efforts in both the acute phases as well as in the recovery and reconstructions phases. To date, 395 orthopaedic surgeons have completed the DRC and 286 (72.4%) have opted to become registered disaster responders. PMID:26356210

  18. Plant-associated bacteria degrade defense chemicals and reduce their adverse effects on an insect defoliator.

    PubMed

    Mason, Charles J; Couture, John J; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2014-07-01

    Phytophagous insects must contend with numerous secondary defense compounds that can adversely affect their growth and development. The gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) is a polyphagous herbivore that encounters an extensive range of hosts and chemicals. We used this folivore and a primary component of aspen chemical defenses, namely, phenolic glycosides, to investigate if bacteria detoxify phytochemicals and benefit larvae. We conducted insect bioassays using bacteria enriched from environmental samples, analyses of the microbial community in the midguts of bioassay larvae, and in vitro phenolic glycoside metabolism assays. Inoculation with bacteria enhanced larval growth in the presence, but not absence, of phenolic glycosides in the artificial diet. This effect of bacteria on growth was observed only in larvae administered bacteria from aspen foliage. The resulting midgut community composition varied among the bacterial treatments. When phenolic glycosides were included in diet, the composition of midguts in larvae fed aspen bacteria was significantly altered. Phenolic glycosides increased population responses by bacteria that we found able to metabolize these compounds in liquid growth cultures. Several aspects of these results suggest that vectoring or pairwise symbiosis models are inadequate for understanding microbial mediation of plant-herbivore interactions in some systems. First, bacteria that most benefitted larvae were initially foliar residents, suggesting that toxin-degrading abilities of phyllosphere inhabitants indirectly benefit herbivores upon ingestion. Second, assays with single bacteria did not confer the benefits to larvae obtained with consortia, suggesting multi- and inter-microbial interactions are also involved. Our results show that bacteria mediate insect interactions with plant defenses but that these interactions are community specific and highly complex. PMID:24798201

  19. Hydroxychloroquine-inhibited dengue virus is associated with host defense machinery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Fong; Lin, You-Sheng; Huang, Nan-Chieh; Yu, Chia-Yi; Tsai, Wei-Lun; Chen, Jih-Jung; Kubota, Toru; Matsuoka, Mayumi; Chen, Siang-Ru; Yang, Chih-Shiang; Lu, Ruo-Wei; Lin, Yi-Ling; Chang, Tsung-Hsien

    2015-03-01

    Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is an antimalarial drug also used in treating autoimmune diseases. Its antiviral activity was demonstrated in restricting HIV infection in vitro; however, the clinical implications remain controversial. Infection with dengue virus (DENV) is a global public health problem, and we lack an antiviral drug for DENV. Here, we evaluated the anti-DENV potential of treatment with HCQ. Immunofluorescence assays demonstrated that HCQ could inhibit DENV serotype 1-4 infection in vitro. RT-qPCR analysis of HCQ-treated cells showed induced expression of interferon (IFN)-related antiviral proteins and certain inflammatory cytokines. Mechanistic study suggested that HCQ activated the innate immune signaling pathways of IFN-β, AP-1, and NFκB. Knocking down mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS), inhibiting TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1)/inhibitor-κB kinase ɛ (IKKɛ), and blocking type I IFN receptor reduced the efficiency of HCQ against DENV-2 infection. Furthermore, HCQ significantly induced cellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which was involved in the host defense system. Suppression of ROS production attenuated the innate immune activation and anti-DENV-2 effect of HCQ. In summary, HCQ triggers the host defense machinery by inducing ROS- and MAVS-mediated innate immune activation against DENV infection and may be a candidate drug for DENV infection. PMID:25321315

  20. Emergency preparedness: one community's response.

    PubMed

    Glick, Doris F; Jerome-D'Emilia, Bonnie; Nolan, Mary Anne; Burke, Pamela

    2004-01-01

    Since 2001, our nations' leaders, the press, and the general public have looked to the health sector for leadership in addressing acts of terrorism. It has become urgent for health agencies and related public services to collaborate and for all health professionals to become knowledgeable about disaster preparedness. This article describes collaboration between the public health department, local hospitals and the school of nursing in one community, Charlottesville, Virginia, to address disaster preparedness. In this story about our community's emergency preparedness, the focus is both on preparation and the hope we will never need to utilize this knowledge. PMID:15596974

  1. Resistance to Hemi-Biotrophic F. graminearum Infection Is Associated with Coordinated and Ordered Expression of Diverse Defense Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Hongying; Yang, Liming; Kong, Zhongxin; Zhang, Lixia; Xue, Shulin; Jia, Haiyan; Ma, Zhengqiang

    2011-01-01

    Fusarium species cause serious diseases in cereal staple food crops such as wheat and maize. Currently, the mechanisms underlying resistance to Fusarium-caused diseases are still largely unknown. In the present study, we employed a combined proteomic and transcriptomic approach to investigate wheat genes responding to F. graminearum infection that causes Fusarium head blight (FHB). We found a total of 163 genes and 37 proteins that were induced by infection. These genes and proteins were associated with signaling pathways mediated by salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), ethylene (ET), calcium ions, phosphatidic acid (PA), as well as with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and scavenging, antimicrobial compound synthesis, detoxification, and cell wall fortification. We compared the time-course expression profiles between FHB-resistant Wangshuibai plants and susceptible Meh0106 mutant plants of a selected set of genes that are critical to the plants' resistance and defense reactions. A biphasic phenomenon was observed during the first 24 h after inoculation (hai) in the resistant plants. The SA and Ca2+ signaling pathways were activated within 6 hai followed by the JA mediated defense signaling activated around 12 hai. ET signaling was activated between these two phases. Genes for PA and ROS synthesis were induced during the SA and JA phases, respectively. The delayed activation of the SA defense pathway in the mutant was associated with its susceptibility. After F. graminearum infection, the endogenous contents of SA and JA in Wangshuibai and the mutant changed in a manner similar to the investigated genes corresponding to the individual pathways. A few genes for resistance-related cell modification and phytoalexin production were also identified. This study provided important clues for designing strategies to curb diseases caused by Fusarium. PMID:21533105

  2. Theory-based approaches to understanding public emergency preparedness: implications for effective health and risk communication.

    PubMed

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Hilyard, Karen; Freimuth, Vicki; Barge, J Kevin; Mindlin, Michele

    2010-06-01

    Recent natural and human-caused disasters have awakened public health officials to the importance of emergency preparedness. Guided by health behavior and media effects theories, the analysis of a statewide survey in Georgia reveals that self-efficacy, subjective norm, and emergency news exposure are positively associated with the respondents' possession of emergency items and their stages of emergency preparedness. Practical implications suggest less focus on demographics as the sole predictor of emergency preparedness and more comprehensive measures of preparedness, including both a person's cognitive stage of preparedness and checklists of emergency items on hand. We highlight the utility of theory-based approaches for understanding and predicting public emergency preparedness as a way to enable more effective health and risk communication. PMID:20574880

  3. Cyber Security Domestic Preparedness Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Rodriguez, Ciro D. [D-TX-23

    2010-01-26

    01/28/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Emergency Communications, Preparedness, and Response. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. Characterization of stored defense production spent nulcear fuel and associated materials at Hanford Site, Richland Washington: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    There are about 2,100 tonnes (2,300 tons) of defense production spent nuclear fuel stored in the 100-K Area Basins located along the south shore of the Columbia River in the northern part of the Hanford Site. Some of the fuel which has been in storage for a number of years is in poor condition and continues to deteriorate. The basins also contain fuel fragments and radioactively contaminated sludge. The DOE needs to characterize defense production spent nuclear fuel and associated materials stored on the Hanford Site. In order to satisfy that need, the Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to select, collect and transport samples of spent nuclear fuel and associated materials to the 327 Building for characterization. As a result of that characterization, modes of interim storage can be determined that would be compatible with the material in its present state and alternative treatment processes could be developed to permit a broader selection of storage modes. Environmental impacts of the proposed action were determined to be limited principally to radiation exposure of workers, which, however, were found to be small. No health effects among workers or the general public would be expected under routine operations. Implementation of the proposed action would not result in any impacts on cultural resources, threatened, endangered and candidate species, air or water quality, socioeconomic conditions, or waste management.

  5. MEDICAL PREPAREDNESS FOR DISASTER

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Justin J.

    1959-01-01

    The Federal Civil Defense Administration has been consolidated under the President's Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1958 with the Office of Defense Mobilization. The new organization, the Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization, should be able to deal more efficiently with the problem of mobilization and management of all resources and production of the nation in time of disaster. As preparation for possible enemy attack, organized plans entailing training, supplies, equipment and communications for use in major peacetime disasters—floods, earthquakes, tornado damage—should be carried forward vigorously. Apathy must be overcome. From the local to the highest level all civil defense and disaster plans must be developed and kept flexible enough to be operable during any kind of emergency. Physicians must learn as much as they can about the mass care of casualties, how to survive under the most trying of circumstances. Drills in dealing with simulated disaster are of utmost importance for finding out ahead of time what must be done and the personnel and supplies needed for doing it. PMID:13651962

  6. A Genome-Wide Association Study of the Maize Hypersensitive Defense Response Identifies Genes That Cluster in Related Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Venkata, Bala P.; Marla, Sandeep; Ji, Jiabing; Gachomo, Emma; Chu, Kevin; Negeri, Adisu; Benson, Jacqueline; Nelson, Rebecca; Bradbury, Peter; Nielsen, Dahlia; Holland, James B.; Balint-Kurti, Peter J.; Johal, Gurmukh

    2014-01-01

    Much remains unknown of molecular events controlling the plant hypersensitive defense response (HR), a rapid localized cell death that limits pathogen spread and is mediated by resistance (R-) genes. Genetic control of the HR is hard to quantify due to its microscopic and rapid nature. Natural modifiers of the ectopic HR phenotype induced by an aberrant auto-active R-gene (Rp1-D21), were mapped in a population of 3,381 recombinant inbred lines from the maize nested association mapping population. Joint linkage analysis was conducted to identify 32 additive but no epistatic quantitative trait loci (QTL) using a linkage map based on more than 7000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Genome-wide association (GWA) analysis of 26.5 million SNPs was conducted after adjusting for background QTL. GWA identified associated SNPs that colocalized with 44 candidate genes. Thirty-six of these genes colocalized within 23 of the 32 QTL identified by joint linkage analysis. The candidate genes included genes predicted to be in involved programmed cell death, defense response, ubiquitination, redox homeostasis, autophagy, calcium signalling, lignin biosynthesis and cell wall modification. Twelve of the candidate genes showed significant differential expression between isogenic lines differing for the presence of Rp1-D21. Low but significant correlations between HR-related traits and several previously-measured disease resistance traits suggested that the genetic control of these traits was substantially, though not entirely, independent. This study provides the first system-wide analysis of natural variation that modulates the HR response in plants. PMID:25166276

  7. Lead toxicity, defense strategies and associated indicative biomarkers in Talinum triangulare grown hydroponically.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Abhay; Prasad, M N V; Sytar, Oksana

    2012-11-01

    Talinum species have been used to investigate a variety of environmental problems for e.g. determination of metal pollution index and total petroleum hydrocarbons in roadside soils, stabilization and reclamation of heavy metals (HMs) in dump sites, removal of HMs from storm water-runoff and green roof leachates. Species of Talinum are popular leaf vegetables having nutrient antinutrient properties. In this study, Talinum triangulare (Jacq.) Willd (Ceylon spinach) grown hydroponically were exposed to different concentrations of lead (Pb) (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.25 mM) to investigate the biomarkers of toxicity and tolerance mechanisms. Relative water content, cell death, photosynthetic pigments, sulphoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG), anthocyanins, α-tocopherol, malondialdehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS) glutathione (GSH and GSSG) and elemental analysis have been investigated. The results showed that Pb in roots and shoots gradually increased as the function of Pb exposure; however Pb concentration in leaves was below detectable level. Chlorophylls and SQDG contents increased at 0.25 mM of Pb treatment in comparison to control at all treated durations, thereafter decreased. Levels of carotenoid, anthocyanins, α-tocopherol, and lipid peroxidation increased in Pb treated plants compared to control. Water content, cells death and elemental analysis suggested the damage of transport system interfering with nutrient transport causing cell death. The present study also explained that Pb imposed indirect oxidative stress in leaves is characterized by decreases in GSH/GSSG ratio with increased doses of Pb treatment. Lead-induced oxidative stress was alleviated by carotenoids, anthocyanins, α-tocopherol and glutathione suggesting that these defense responses as potential biomarkers for detecting Pb toxicity. PMID:22722003

  8. Natural Hazard Preparedness in an Auckland Community: Child and Community Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Patricia; Dirks, Kim; Neuwelt, Pat

    2014-01-01

    Community engagement in natural hazard preparedness is crucial to ensure sustainable initiatives. Children are important members of communities, and can actively contribute to community preparedness. This article presents research undertaken with 11- to 12-year-old students from a school in Auckland, New Zealand, and leaders associated with the…

  9. Preparedness Perceptions, Sociodemographic Characteristics, and Level of Household Preparedness for Public Health Emergencies: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2006-2010.

    PubMed

    DeBastiani, Summer D; Strine, Tara W; Vagi, Sara J; Barnett, Daniel J; Kahn, Emily B

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to inform state and community interventions focused on increasing household preparedness by examining the association between self-reported possession of household disaster preparedness items (ie, a 3-day supply of food and water, a written evacuation plan, and a working radio and flashlight) and perceptions of household preparedness on a 3-point scale from "well prepared" to "not at all prepared." Data were analyzed from 14 states participating in a large state-based telephone survey: the 2006-2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) (n = 104,654). Only 25.3% of the population felt they were well prepared, and only 12.3% had all 5 of the recommended items. Fewer than half the households surveyed had 4 or more of the recommended preparedness items (34.1%). Respondents were more likely to report their households were well prepared as the number of preparedness items possessed by their household increased. Risk factors for having no preparedness items were: younger age, being female, lower levels of education, and requesting the survey to be conducted in Spanish. To increase household disaster preparedness, more community-based preparedness education campaigns targeting vulnerable populations, such as those with limited English abilities and lower reading levels, are needed. PMID:26348094

  10. Civil Defense, U. S. A.: A Programmed Orientation to Civil Defense. Unit 3. Natural Disasters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Battle Creek, MI.

    The effects of natural disasters and the implications which those effects have for community emergency preparedness are discussed. Major topics include: (1) Similarities and differences in types of responses required by a nuclear and natural disasters, (2) The civil defense function in natural disasters, (3) Vulnerability analysis, (4) Warning…

  11. The Bark-Beetle-Associated Fungus, Endoconidiophora polonica, Utilizes the Phenolic Defense Compounds of Its Host as a Carbon Source.

    PubMed

    Wadke, Namita; Kandasamy, Dineshkumar; Vogel, Heiko; Lah, Ljerka; Wingfield, Brenda D; Paetz, Christian; Wright, Louwrance P; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Hammerbacher, Almuth

    2016-06-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies) is periodically attacked by the bark beetle Ips typographus and its fungal associate, Endoconidiophora polonica, whose infection is thought to be required for successful beetle attack. Norway spruce produces terpenoid resins and phenolics in response to fungal and bark beetle invasion. However, how the fungal associate copes with these chemical defenses is still unclear. In this study, we investigated changes in the phenolic content of Norway spruce bark upon E. polonica infection and the biochemical factors mediating these changes. Although genes encoding the rate-limiting enzymes in Norway spruce stilbene and flavonoid biosynthesis were actively transcribed during fungal infection, there was a significant time-dependent decline of the corresponding metabolites in fungal lesions. In vitro feeding experiments with pure phenolics revealed that E. polonica transforms both stilbenes and flavonoids to muconoid-type ring-cleavage products, which are likely the first steps in the degradation of spruce defenses to substrates that can enter the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Four genes were identified in E. polonica that encode catechol dioxygenases carrying out these reactions. These enzymes catalyze the cleavage of phenolic rings with a vicinal dihydroxyl group to muconoid products accepting a wide range of Norway spruce-produced phenolics as substrates. The expression of these genes and E. polonica utilization of the most abundant spruce phenolics as carbon sources both correlated positively with fungal virulence in several strains. Thus, the pathways for the degradation of phenolic compounds in E. polonica, initiated by catechol dioxygenase action, are important to the infection, growth, and survival of this bark beetle-vectored fungus and may play a major role in the ability of I. typographus to colonize spruce trees. PMID:27208235

  12. 7 CFR 330.206 - Permits for plant pest movement associated with National Defense projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.206... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permits for plant pest movement associated...

  13. 7 CFR 330.206 - Permits for plant pest movement associated with National Defense projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.206... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Permits for plant pest movement associated...

  14. 7 CFR 330.206 - Permits for plant pest movement associated with National Defense projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.206... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Permits for plant pest movement associated...

  15. 7 CFR 330.206 - Permits for plant pest movement associated with National Defense projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.206... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Permits for plant pest movement associated...

  16. 7 CFR 330.206 - Permits for plant pest movement associated with National Defense projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.206... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Permits for plant pest movement associated...

  17. 33 CFR 203.21 - Disaster preparedness responsibilities of non-Federal interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disaster preparedness responsibilities of non-Federal interests. 203.21 Section 203.21 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT OF ARMY AND OTHER RESOURCES,...

  18. Targeted deletion of tumor suppressor PTEN augments neutrophil function and enhances host defense in neutropenia-associated pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yitang; Jia, Yonghui; Pichavant, Muriel; Loison, Fabien; Sarraj, Bara; Kasorn, Anongnard; You, Jian; Robson, Bryanne E.; Umetsu, Dale T.; Mizgerd, Joseph P.; Ye, Keqiang

    2009-01-01

    Neutropenia and related infections are the most important dose-limiting toxicities in anticancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In this study, we explored a new strategy for augmenting host defense in neutropenia-related pneumonia. Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3) signaling in neutrophils was elevated by depleting PTEN, a phosphatidylinositol 3′-phosphatase that hydrolyzes PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. In myeloid-specific PTEN knockout mice, significantly more neutrophils were recruited to the inflamed lungs during neutropenia-associated pneumonia. Using an adoptive transfer technique, we demonstrated that this enhancement could be caused directly by PTEN depletion in neutrophils. In addition, disruption of PTEN increased the recruitment of macrophages and elevated proinflammatory cytokines/chemokine levels in the inflamed lungs, which could also be responsible for the enhanced neutrophil recruitment. Depleting PTEN also significantly delayed apoptosis and enhanced the bacteria-killing capability of the recruited neutrophils. Finally, we provide direct evidence that enhancement of neutrophil function by elevating PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 signaling can alleviate pneumonia-associated lung damage and decrease pneumonia-elicited mortality. Collectively, these results not only provide insight into the mechanism of action of PTEN and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 signaling pathway in modulating neutrophil function during lung infection and inflammation, but they also establish PTEN and related pathways as potential therapeutic targets for treating neutropenia-associated pneumonia. PMID:19286998

  19. Design of the national health security preparedness index.

    PubMed

    Uzun Jacobson, Evin; Inglesby, Tom; Khan, Ali S; Rajotte, James C; Burhans, Robert L; Slemp, Catherine C; Links, Jonathan M

    2014-01-01

    The importance of health security in the United States has been highlighted by recent emergencies such as the H1N1 influenza pandemic, Superstorm Sandy, and the Boston Marathon bombing. The nation's health security remains a high priority today, with federal, state, territorial, tribal, and local governments, as well as nongovernment organizations and the private sector, engaging in activities that prevent, protect, mitigate, respond to, and recover from health threats. The Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO), through a cooperative agreement with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR), led an effort to create an annual measure of health security preparedness at the national level. The collaborative released the National Health Security Preparedness Index (NHSPI(™)) in December 2013 and provided composite results for the 50 states and for the nation as a whole. The Index results represent current levels of health security preparedness in a consistent format and provide actionable information to drive decision making for continuous improvement of the nation's health security. The overall 2013 National Index result was 7.2 on the reported base-10 scale, with areas of greater strength in the domains of health surveillance, incident and information management, and countermeasure management. The strength of the Index relies on the interdependencies of the many elements in health security preparedness, making the sum greater than its parts. Moving forward, additional health security-related disciplines and measures will be included alongside continued validation efforts. PMID:24896305

  20. Genome-Wide Association Study of a Varroa-Specific Defense Behavior in Honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Spötter, Andreas; Gupta, Pooja; Mayer, Manfred; Reinsch, Norbert; Bienefeld, Kaspar

    2016-05-01

    Honey bees are exposed to many damaging pathogens and parasites. The most devastating is Varroa destructor, which mainly affects the brood. A promising approach for preventing its spread is to breed Varroa-resistant honey bees. One trait that has been shown to provide significant resistance against the Varroa mite is hygienic behavior, which is a behavioral response of honeybee workers to brood diseases in general. Here, we report the use of an Affymetrix 44K SNP array to analyze SNPs associated with detection and uncapping of Varroa-parasitized brood by individual worker bees (Apis mellifera). For this study, 22 000 individually labeled bees were video-monitored and a sample of 122 cases and 122 controls was collected and analyzed to determine the dependence/independence of SNP genotypes from hygienic and nonhygienic behavior on a genome-wide scale. After false-discovery rate correction of the P values, 6 SNP markers had highly significant associations with the trait investigated (α < 0.01). Inspection of the genomic regions around these SNPs led to the discovery of putative candidate genes. PMID:26774061

  1. Perceived coping & concern predict terrorism preparedness in Australia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the aftermath of major terrorist incidents research shows population shifts towards protective behaviours, including specific preparedness and avoidance responses. Less is known about individual preparedness in populations with high assumed threat but limited direct exposure, such as Australia. In this study we aimed to determine whether individuals with high perceived coping and higher concern would show greater preparedness to respond to terrorism threats. Methods Adults in New South Wales (NSW) completed terrorism perception and response questions as part of computer assisted telephone interviews (CATI) in 2010 (N=2038). Responses were weighted against the NSW population. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the relationship between personal coping/concern factors and terrorism-related preparedness and avoidance behaviours, and to control for potential confounders such as socio-demographic and threat perception factors. Results Increased vigilance for suspicious behaviours was the most commonly reported behavioural response to perceived terrorism threat. Multivariate analyses showed that the factor combination of high perceived coping and higher concern was the most consistent predictor of terrorism preparedness behaviours and evacuation intentions, including increased vigilance (Adjusted Odd Ratios (AOR)=2.07, p=0.001) learning evacuation plans (AOR=1.61, p=0.05), establishing emergency contact plans (AOR=2.73, p<0.001), willingness to evacuate homes (AOR=2.20, p=0.039), and willingness to evacuate workplaces or public facilities (AOR=6.19, p=0.015) during potential future incidents. Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that terrorism preparedness behaviours are strongly associated with perceived high coping but that this relationship is also mediated by personal concerns relating to this threat. Cognitive variables such as coping self-efficacy are increasingly targeted as part of natural hazard preparedness

  2. Neutrophil antimicrobial defense against Staphylococcus aureus is mediated by phagolysosomal but not extracellular trap-associated cathelicidin

    PubMed Central

    Jann, Naja J.; Schmaler, Mathias; Kristian, Sascha A.; Radek, Katherine A.; Gallo, Richard L.; Nizet, Victor; Peschel, Andreas; Landmann, Regine

    2009-01-01

    Neutrophils kill invading pathogens by AMPs, including cathelicidins, ROS, and NETs. The human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus exhibits enhanced resistance to neutrophil AMPs, including the murine cathelicidin CRAMP, in part, as a result of alanylation of teichoic acids by the dlt operon. In this study, we took advantage of the hypersusceptible phenotype of S. aureus ΔdltA against cationic AMPs to study the impact of the murine cathelicidin CRAMP on staphylococcal killing and to identify its key site of action in murine neutrophils. We demonstrate that CRAMP remained intracellular during PMN exudation from blood and was secreted upon PMA stimulation. We show first evidence that CRAMP was recruited to phagolysosomes in infected neutrophils and exhibited intracellular activity against S. aureus. Later in infection, neutrophils produced NETs, and immunofluorescence revealed association of CRAMP with S. aureus in NETs, which similarly killed S. aureus wt and ΔdltA, indicating that CRAMP activity was reduced when associated with NETs. Indeed, the presence of DNA reduced the antimicrobial activity of CRAMP, and CRAMP localization in response to S. aureus was independent of the NADPH oxidase, whereas killing was partially dependent on a functional NADPH oxidase. Our study indicates that neutrophils use CRAMP in a timed and locally coordinated manner in defense against S. aureus. PMID:19638500

  3. Assessing School Emergency Care Preparedness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Charles; Varnes, Jill

    A study assessed the emergency health care preparedness of a north central Florida public school district in light of seven criteria: (1) school policies regarding delivery of emergency health care; (2) identification of school personnel responsible for rendering emergency care; (3) training levels of emergency health care providers (first aid and…

  4. One Health and emergency preparedness.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, Kendra E; Conti, Lisa

    2014-11-01

    Emergencies such as hurricanes, floods and nuclear disasters do not just affect people and the environment; they also affect domestic animals. In this latest article in Veterinary Record's One Health series, Kendra Stauffer and Lisa Conti discuss how One Health considerations are being incorporated into emergency preparedness planning in the USA. PMID:25359746

  5. Earthquake Preparedness Checklist for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    A brochure provides a checklist highlighting the important questions and activities that should be addressed and undertaken as part of a school safety and preparedness program for earthquakes. It reminds administrators and other interested parties on what not to forget in preparing schools for earthquakes, such as staff knowledge needs, evacuation…

  6. Emergency Preparedness: Are You Ready?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harley, Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    Most Americans who consider emergency preparedness think of someone or another country attacking the United States. Most newspaper and televised accounts involve community leaders and policymakers preparing for a terrorist attack. However, anyone who operates a child care center, family child care home, or has children of her own, knows that…

  7. Principles of Emergency Preparedness Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindman, R. Eugene, Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Steps and considerations in developing an institutional plan for emergency preparedness are discussed, including delineation of internal and external responsibilities, warning systems, a means for activating the plan, a command headquarters, medical facilities, housing and food, internal and external communications, transportation, and testing and…

  8. Pathogenicity of Penicillium digitatum is associated with the suppression of the defense-related hydrogen peroxide burst in citrus fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The high susceptibility of citrus fruit to green mold disease and lack of resistance responses suggest that P. digitatum has the ability to suppress host defenses. The current study demonstrated that during infection, P. digitatum suppresses the defense-related oxidative burst in host cells. In co...

  9. Tsunami Preparedness in Washington (video)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2010-01-01

    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. This video about tsunami preparedness in Washington distinguishes between a local tsunami and a distant event and focus on the specific needs of this region. It offers guidelines for correct tsunami response and community preparedness from local emergency managers, first-responders, and leading experts on tsunami hazards and warnings, who have been working on ways of making the tsunami affected regions safer for the people and communities on a long-term basis. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with Washington Emergency Management Division (EMD) and with funding by the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program.

  10. Tsunami Preparedness in Oregon (video)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Filmed and edited by: Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine

    2010-01-01

    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. This video about tsunami preparedness in Oregon distinguishes between a local tsunami and a distant event and focus on the specific needs of this region. It offers guidelines for correct tsunami response and community preparedness from local emergency managers, first-responders, and leading experts on tsunami hazards and warnings, who have been working on ways of making the tsunami affected regions safer for the people and communities on a long-term basis. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI).

  11. Hurricane Preparedness and Control Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This plan establishes policy and sets forth guidance, responsibilities and procedures utilized by Federal Electric Corp., communications department in support of the KSC Emergency Preparedness Plan, Annex A, Hurricane Control Plan (GP-355) dated 27 May 1971. This plan covers all FEC communications department personnel, facilities, and equipment situated at the Kennedy Space Center that are the responsibility of FEC contract NAS 10-4967.

  12. Health Informatics for Pediatric Disaster Preparedness Planning

    PubMed Central

    Burke, R.V.; Ryutov, T.; Neches, R.; Upperman, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective 1. To conduct a review of the role of informatics in pediatric disaster preparedness using all medical databases. 2. To provide recommendations to improve pediatric disaster preparedness by the application of informatics. Methods A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, CINHL and the Cochrane Library using the key words “children” AND “disaster preparedness and disaster” AND “informatics”. Results A total of 314 papers were initially produced by the search and eight that met the selection criteria were included in the review. Four themes emerged: tools for disaster preparedness, education, reunification and planning and response. Conclusion The literature pertaining to informatics and pediatric disaster preparedness is sparse and many gaps still persist. Current disaster preparedness tools focus on the general population and do not specifically address children. The most progress has been achieved in family reunification; however, the recommendations delineated are yet to be completed. PMID:23616840

  13. Coping With Client Death: How Prepared Are Home Health Aides and What Characterized Preparedness?

    PubMed Central

    van Riesenbeck, Isabelle; Boerner, Kathrin; Barooah, Adrita; Burack, Orah R.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the experiences of 80 home health aides (HHAs) whose client died within the last two months. Data collection involved comprehensive semi-structured in-person interviews to try to better understand characteristics of HHAs and their clients associated with preparedness for death. Among those, personal end-of-life (EOL) care preferences of HHAs and having knowledge of preferences and decisions regarding client’s EOL care showed significant links to preparedness. Findings suggest that HHAs’ preparedness for client death could be enhanced both by addressing their personal views on EOL care and by providing more information about the client’s EOL care plans. PMID:26496432

  14. The importance of establishing a national health security preparedness index.

    PubMed

    Lumpkin, John R; Miller, Yoon K; Inglesby, Tom; Links, Jonathan M; Schwartz, Angela T; Slemp, Catherine C; Burhans, Robert L; Blumenstock, James; Khan, Ali S

    2013-03-01

    Natural disasters, infectious disease epidemics, terrorism, and major events like the nuclear incident at Fukushima all pose major potential challenges to public health and security. Events such as the anthrax letters of 2001, Hurricanes Katrina, Irene, and Sandy, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and West Nile virus outbreaks, and the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic have demonstrated that public health, emergency management, and national security efforts are interconnected. These and other events have increased the national resolve and the resources committed to improving the national health security infrastructure. However, as fiscal pressures force federal, state, and local governments to examine spending, there is a growing need to demonstrate both what the investment in public health preparedness has bought and where gaps remain in our nation's health security. To address these needs, the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO), through a cooperative agreement with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (PHPR), is creating an annual measure of health security and preparedness at the national and state levels: the National Health Security Preparedness Index (NHSPI). PMID:23506403

  15. Emergency preparedness: addressing a residency training gap.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Sayeedha Ghori; Barnett, Daniel J; Parker, Cindy L; Links, Jonathan M; Alexander, Miriam

    2008-03-01

    As the importance of physician involvement and leadership in crisis preparedness is recognized, the literature suggests that few physicians are adequately trained to practice effectively in a large-scale crisis situation. A logical method for addressing the emergency preparedness training deficiency identified across several medical specialties is to include disaster and emergency preparedness training in residency curricula. In this article, the authors outline the development and implementation of an emergency preparedness curriculum for the Johns Hopkins General Preventive Medicine Residency (JHGPMR) from 2004 to 2006. The curriculum consists of two components. The first was developed for the academic year in the JHGPMR and includes didactic lectures, practical exercises to apply new knowledge, and an opportunity to integrate the knowledge and skills in a real-world exercise. The second, developed for the practicum year of the residency, includes Web-based lectures and online content and culminates in a tabletop preparedness exercise. Topics for both components include weapons of mass destruction, risk communication and personal preparedness, aspects of local emergency response planning, and mental health and psychological aspects of terrorism. On the basis of the emergency preparedness training gap that has been identified in the literature, and the success of the three-year experience in implementing a preparedness training curriculum in the JHGPMR, the authors recommend incorporation of competency-based emergency preparedness training for residencies of all specialties, and offer insights into how the described curriculum could be adapted for use in other residency settings. PMID:18316882

  16. Hospital Disaster Preparedness Tools: a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Heidaranlu, Esmail; Ebadi, Abbas; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Ardalan, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Evaluating hospital disaster preparedness is one the best ways for hospital accreditation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of outcome measure that offer the level of measurement, reliability and validity that are known as the ‘ psychometric properties’ of the current hospital disaster preparedness tools. Methods: In total, 140 studies were retrieved. Studies which had been published from 2000 to 2014 and had used hospital disaster preparedness tools were appraised by using the PRISMA guideline. The content quality and the quality of the psychometric properties of the retrieved tools were assessed by using the World Health Organization Criteria for Hospital Preparedness as well as the COSMIN criteria. Findings: Only 33 studies met the inclusion criteria. In total, eleven hospital disaster preparedness tools had been used in these 33 studies. These tools mainly focused on evaluating structural and non-structural aspects of hospital preparedness and paid little attention, if any, to the key functional aspect. Conclusion: Given the paramount importance of evaluating hospital disaster preparedness and the weaknesses of current preparedness evaluation tools, valid and reliable tools should be developed by using experts’ knowledge and experience through the processes of tool development and psychometric evaluation. Keywords: Hospital preparedness, Measurement tool, Disaster, Systematic review PMID:26425401

  17. 76 FR 64960 - Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee... Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee (FRPCC) is holding a public meeting on November 1, 2011 in... INFORMATION: The role and functions of the Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee...

  18. 77 FR 24213 - Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee... Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee (FRPCC) is holding a public meeting on May 3, 2012 in... role and functions of the Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee (FRPCC)...

  19. 75 FR 27563 - Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee... Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee (FRPCC) is holding a public meeting on June 3, 2010 in... the Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee (FRPCC) are described in 44 CFR...

  20. 75 FR 56127 - Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee... Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee is holding a public meeting on September 28, 2010 in Arlington... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The role and functions of the Federal Radiological Preparedness...

  1. 77 FR 7597 - Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee... Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee (FRPCC) is holding a public meeting on February 24, 2012 in... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The role and functions of the Federal Radiological Preparedness...

  2. WHAT PEOPLE CAN DO ABOUT RURAL CIVIL DEFENSE, NOTES FOR SPEAKERS AND WRITERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    CIVIL DEFENSE PREPAREDNESS IS A FACTOR RURAL PEOPLE NEED TO CONSIDER IN ALL THEIR FARM, HOME, AND BUSINESS PLANNING. NUCLEAR WEAPONS AND THE POSSIBILITY OF NUCLEAR ATTACK ARE FACTS THAT AMERICANS CANNOT IGNORE. THIS DOCUMENT PRESENTS THE BASIC ELEMENTS OF A CIVIL DEFENSE PROGRAM FOR PEOPLE IN RURAL AREAS WHICH INCLUDE--(1) THE DANGERS OF FALLOUT,…

  3. The Earthquake Preparedness Task Force Report. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roybal-Allard, Lucille

    A report on Earthquake Preparedness presents California school districts with direction for complying with existing earthquake preparedness planning laws. It first contains two sets of recommendations. The first set requires state action and is presented to the Legislature for consideration. The second set consists of policy statements and…

  4. 78 FR 54743 - National Preparedness Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... hundred and thirty- eighth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-21822 Filed 9-5-13; 8:45 am] Billing code... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 9009 of August 30, 2013 National Preparedness Month, 2013 By the President of... communities' resilience. During National Preparedness Month, we refocus our efforts on readying ourselves,...

  5. 77 FR 55097 - National Preparedness Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... the two hundred and thirty-seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-22149 Filed 9-5-12; 11:15 am... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8854 of August 31, 2012 National Preparedness Month, 2012 By the President of..., emergencies and natural disasters have tested the fabric of our country. During National Preparedness...

  6. 76 FR 54917 - National Preparedness Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-22768 Filed 9-1-11; 11:15 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P ... September 2, 2011 Part IV The President Proclamation 8700--National Preparedness Month, 2011 #0; #0; #0... Preparedness Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Whenever our...

  7. 75 FR 53563 - National Preparedness Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... Preparedness Month, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation During National Preparedness Month, we stress the importance of strengthening the security and resiliency of our Nation...

  8. Promoting Regional Disaster Preparedness among Rural Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Janine C.; Kang, JungEun; Silenas, Rasa

    2008-01-01

    Context and Purpose: Rural communities face substantial risks of natural disasters but rural hospitals face multiple obstacles to preparedness. The objective was to create and implement a simple and effective training and planning exercise to assist individual rural hospitals to improve disaster preparedness, as well as to enhance regional…

  9. Rhode Island School Terrorist Attack Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Michael W. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the state of safety and terrorist attack preparedness in Rhode Island Schools as determined by Rhode Island school leader perceptions. The study is descriptive in nature as it gathers data to describe a particular event or situation. Using a researcher generated survey based on terrorist preparedness guidelines and suggestions…

  10. Impact of emergency preparedness exercise on performance.

    PubMed

    Agboola, Foluso; McCarthy, Tara; Biddinger, Paul D

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether prior participation in preparedness exercises was predictive of better performance on objective measures of response. We conducted a statewide tabletop exercise that focused on a hazardous materials (HAZMAT) scenario and assessed performance using our developed evaluation tool. The evaluative score was analyzed in relation to the number of HAZMAT exercises in the past 3 years, participation in prior CHEMPACK-specific exercise, hospital size, teaching status of the hospital, preparedness training experience, and participants years of experience in preparedness activities. Hospitals that had participated in more exercises in the past 3 years performed significantly better than hospitals that had participated in fewer exercises. No significant differences were found between the performance of hospitals in relation to size, teaching status, preparedness training experience, and participants' years of experience in preparedness activities. Our results suggest that more frequent participation in exercises may result in improved overall response. PMID:23903400

  11. Guidelines to improve airport preparedness against chemical and biological terrorism.

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Donna M.; Price, Phillip N.; Gordon, Susanna P.; Gadgil, Ashok

    2005-05-01

    Guidelines to Improve Airport Preparedness Against Chemical and Biological Terrorism is a 100-page document that makes concrete recommendations on improving security and assessing vulnerable areas and helps its readers understand the nature of chemical and biological attacks. The report has been turned over to Airports Council International (ACI) and the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), two organizations that together represent the interests of thousands of airport personnel and facilities in the U.S. and around the world.

  12. Tsunami Preparedness in California (videos)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Filmed and edited by: Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine

    2010-01-01

    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. These videos about tsunami preparedness in California distinguish between a local tsunami and a distant event and focus on the specific needs of each region. They offer guidelines for correct tsunami response and community preparedness from local emergency managers, first-responders, and leading experts on tsunami hazards and warnings, who have been working on ways of making the tsunami affected regions safer for the people and communities on a long-term basis. These videos were produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California Emergency Management Agency (CalEMA) and Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E).

  13. Cross-cultural comparisons between the earthquake preparedness models of Taiwan and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Jang, Li-Ju; Wang, Jieh-Jiuh; Paton, Douglas; Tsai, Ning-Yu

    2016-04-01

    Taiwan and New Zealand are both located in the Pacific Rim where 81 per cent of the world's largest earthquakes occur. Effective programmes for increasing people's preparedness for these hazards are essential. This paper tests the applicability of the community engagement theory of hazard preparedness in two distinct cultural contexts. Structural equation modelling analysis provides support for this theory. The paper suggests that the close fit between theory and data that is achieved by excluding trust supports the theoretical prediction that familiarity with a hazard negates the need to trust external sources. The results demonstrate that the hazard preparedness theory is applicable to communities that have previously experienced earthquakes and are therefore familiar with the associated hazards and the need for earthquake preparedness. The paper also argues that cross-cultural comparisons provide opportunities for collaborative research and learning as well as access to a wider range of potential earthquake risk management strategies. PMID:26282331

  14. Manipulation of Plant Defense Responses by the Tomato Psyllid (Bactericerca cockerelli) and Its Associated Endosymbiont Candidatus Liberibacter Psyllaurous

    PubMed Central

    Walling, Linda L.; Paine, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    Some plant pathogens form obligate relationships with their insect vector and are vertically transmitted via eggs analogous to insect endosymbionts. Whether insect endosymbionts manipulate plant defenses to benefit their insect host remains unclear. The tomato psyllid, Bactericerca cockerelli (Sulc), vectors the endosymbiont “Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous” (Lps) during feeding on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). Lps titer in psyllids varied relative to the psyllid developmental stage with younger psyllids harboring smaller Lps populations compared to older psyllids. In the present study, feeding by different life stages of B. cockerelli infected with Lps, resulted in distinct tomato transcript profiles. Feeding by young psyllid nymphs, with lower Lps levels, induced tomato genes regulated by jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) (Allene oxide synthase, Proteinase inhibitor 2, Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 5, Pathogenesis-related protein 1) compared to feeding by older nymphs and adults, where higher Lps titers were found. In addition, inoculation of Lps without insect hosts suppressed accumulation of these defense transcripts. Collectively, these data suggest that the endosymbiont-like pathogen Lps manipulates plant signaling and defensive responses to benefit themselves and the success of their obligate insect vector on their host plant. PMID:22539959

  15. Co-Evolution of Social Learning and Evolutionary Preparedness in Dangerous Environments.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Björn; Selbing, Ida; Olsson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Danger is a fundamental aspect of the lives of most animals. Adaptive behavior therefore requires avoiding actions, objects, and environments associated with danger. Previous research has shown that humans and non-human animals can avoid such dangers through two types of behavioral adaptions, (i) genetic preparedness to avoid certain stimuli or actions, and (ii) social learning. These adaptive mechanisms reduce the fitness costs associated with danger but still allow flexible behavior. Despite the empirical prevalence and importance of both these mechanisms, it is unclear when they evolve and how they interact. We used evolutionary agent-based simulations, incorporating empirically based learning mechanisms, to clarify if preparedness and social learning typically both evolve in dangerous environments, and if these mechanisms generally interact synergistically or antagonistically. Our simulations showed that preparedness and social learning often co-evolve because they provide complimentary benefits: genetic preparedness reduced foraging efficiency, but resulted in a higher rate of survival in dangerous environments, while social learning generally came to dominate the population, especially when the environment was stochastic. However, even in this case, genetic preparedness reliably evolved. Broadly, our results indicate that the relationship between preparedness and social learning is important as it can result in trade-offs between behavioral flexibility and safety, which can lead to seemingly suboptimal behavior if the evolutionary environment of the organism is not taken into account. PMID:27487079

  16. Co-Evolution of Social Learning and Evolutionary Preparedness in Dangerous Environments

    PubMed Central

    Lindström, Björn; Selbing, Ida; Olsson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Danger is a fundamental aspect of the lives of most animals. Adaptive behavior therefore requires avoiding actions, objects, and environments associated with danger. Previous research has shown that humans and non-human animals can avoid such dangers through two types of behavioral adaptions, (i) genetic preparedness to avoid certain stimuli or actions, and (ii) social learning. These adaptive mechanisms reduce the fitness costs associated with danger but still allow flexible behavior. Despite the empirical prevalence and importance of both these mechanisms, it is unclear when they evolve and how they interact. We used evolutionary agent-based simulations, incorporating empirically based learning mechanisms, to clarify if preparedness and social learning typically both evolve in dangerous environments, and if these mechanisms generally interact synergistically or antagonistically. Our simulations showed that preparedness and social learning often co-evolve because they provide complimentary benefits: genetic preparedness reduced foraging efficiency, but resulted in a higher rate of survival in dangerous environments, while social learning generally came to dominate the population, especially when the environment was stochastic. However, even in this case, genetic preparedness reliably evolved. Broadly, our results indicate that the relationship between preparedness and social learning is important as it can result in trade-offs between behavioral flexibility and safety, which can lead to seemingly suboptimal behavior if the evolutionary environment of the organism is not taken into account. PMID:27487079

  17. Domestic preparedness: the grand illusion.

    PubMed

    Maniscalco, P M

    2001-04-01

    The problems posed by terrorism to not only the emergency response community, but to national security at large can be overwhelming. Adoption of what would be considered prudent and effective business practices by implementing a disciplined and effectively structured central strategy cannot be overencouraged. The emerging strategy must take into account the existing emergency response infrastructures and build upon existing capacity in an effort to achieve greater readiness. This technique is no different than the training and issuance of radiological response equipment to emergency responders in the 1950s by the then Civil Defense Agency. The training that is offered, especially to EMS providers, needs to be institutionalized to ensure that our peers, on a regular basis, revisit curriculum content. Incorporating a training module within the existing DOT NHTSA initial and refresher EMT and paramedic educational curricula could easily achieve this goal. Implementing fiscal support to the local emergency response agencies in a sustainable manner is a must. The costs associated with training, equipping and servicing the equipment and medication stores are budget-busters. This is a threat to national security and, as such, the federal government needs to rise to the challenge of supporting the local response organizations that will meet this threat head-on during the aftermath of an attack. As previously mentioned, when the U.S. faced its last large national security threat (Soviet nuclear missiles), we witnessed the materialization of a comprehensive agenda that provided most of the attributes we desire with the contemporary problem of terrorism. There is no single solution to the problem of terrorism. In fact, it will take many individuals and functional areas to come together and stop viewing the threat as a "cash cow." The improved response capacity for acts of terrorism will have an inevitable "spillover benefit" of better trained and equipped emergency responders

  18. Exposure to trauma-relevant pictures is associated with tachycardia in victims who had experienced an intense peritraumatic defensive response: the tonic immobility

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Rita de Cassia S.; Portugal, Liana C. L.; Fernandes Jr, Orlando; Mocaiber, Izabela; Souza, Gabriela G. L.; David, Isabel de Paula A.; Volchan, Eliane; de Oliveira, Leticia; Pereira, Mirtes G.

    2014-01-01

    Tonic immobility is an involuntary, last-ditch defensive reaction characterized by physical inactivity in a context of inescapable threat that has been described in many species, including humans. The occurrence of this defensive response is a predictor of the severity of psychiatric disorders and may be considered as an index of an intense reaction to a traumatic event. Here, we investigated whether the retrospective reports of peritraumatic tonic immobility reaction in participants exposed to a traumatic event would modify their cardiac responses to pictures related to their trauma. Using a questionnaire of life-threating events, we selected students who experienced violent crime as their most intense trauma and students who had never experienced a violent crime trauma, but experienced other traumatic events. All participants completed a questionnaire that estimated the intensity of tonic immobility during their most intense trauma. Electrocardiographic recordings were collected during exposure to pictures. Participants viewed emotional pictures (human attack with guns) and neutral pictures. These emotional stimuli were selected to be trauma-relevant to the violent crime group and non trauma-relevant to the no violent crime trauma group. Violent crime group showed a positive correlation between heart rate changes after viewing trauma-related pictures and tonic immobility scores. We observed that low tonic immobility scores were associated with bradycardia and high scores with tachycardia in response to trauma-relevant pictures. For the no violent crime group, no significant correlation was detected. These results suggest that the relevance of the stimuli and the magnitude of the defensive response during a previous trauma event were important factors triggering more intense defensive responses. PMID:25566169

  19. Citizen preparedness for disasters: are current assumptions valid?

    PubMed

    Uscher-Pines, Lori; Chandra, Anita; Acosta, Joie; Kellermann, Arthur

    2012-06-01

    US government programs and communications regarding citizen preparedness for disasters rest on several untested, and therefore unverified, assumptions. We explore the assumptions related to citizen preparedness promotion and argue that in spite of extensive messaging about the importance of citizen preparedness and countless household surveys purporting to track the preparedness activities of individuals and households, the role individual Americans are being asked to play is largely based on conventional wisdom. Recommendations for conceptualizing and measuring citizen preparedness are discussed. PMID:22700027

  20. Preparedness for Natural Disasters Among Older US Adults: A Nationwide Survey

    PubMed Central

    Rubenstein, Linda M.; Wallace, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine natural disaster preparedness levels among older US adults and assess factors that may adversely affect health and safety during such incidents. Methods. We sampled adults aged 50 years or older (n = 1304) from the 2010 interview survey of the Health and Retirement Study. The survey gathered data on general demographic characteristics, disability status or functional limitations, and preparedness-related factors and behaviors. We calculated a general disaster preparedness score by using individual indicators to assess overall preparedness. Results. Participant (n = 1304) mean age was 70 years (SD = 9.3). Only 34.3% reported participating in an educational program or reading materials about disaster preparation. Nearly 15% reported using electrically powered medical devices that might be at risk in a power outage. The preparedness score indicated that increasing age, physical disability, and lower educational attainment and income were independently and significantly associated with worse overall preparedness. Conclusions. Despite both greater vulnerability to disasters and continuous growth in the number of older US adults, many of the substantial problems discovered are remediable and require attention in the clinical, public health, and emergency management sectors of society. PMID:26313052

  1. Preparedness for Natural Disasters Among Older US Adults: A Nationwide Survey

    PubMed Central

    Rubenstein, Linda M.; Wallace, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine natural disaster preparedness levels among older US adults and assess factors that may adversely affect health and safety during such incidents. Methods. We sampled adults aged 50 years or older (n = 1304) from the 2010 interview survey of the Health and Retirement Study. The survey gathered data on general demographic characteristics, disability status or functional limitations, and preparedness-related factors and behaviors. We calculated a general disaster preparedness score by using individual indicators to assess overall preparedness. Results. Participant (n = 1304) mean age was 70 years (SD = 9.3). Only 34.3% reported participating in an educational program or reading materials about disaster preparation. Nearly 15% reported using electrically powered medical devices that might be at risk in a power outage. The preparedness score indicated that increasing age, physical disability, and lower educational attainment and income were independently and significantly associated with worse overall preparedness. Conclusions. Despite both greater vulnerability to disasters and continuous growth in the number of older US adults, many of the substantial problems discovered are remediable and require attention in the clinical, public health, and emergency management sectors of society. PMID:24432877

  2. Dual and Opposing Roles of Xanthine Dehydrogenase in Defense-Associated Reactive Oxygen Species Metabolism in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xianfeng; Wang, Wenming; Bittner, Florian; Schmidt, Nadine; Berkey, Robert; Zhang, Lingli; King, Harlan; Zhang, Yi; Feng, Jiayue; Wen, Yinqiang; Tan, Liqiang; Li, Yue; Zhang, Qiong; Deng, Ziniu; Xiong, Xingyao; Xiao, Shunyuan

    2016-05-01

    While plants produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) for stress signaling and pathogen defense, they need to remove excessive ROS induced during stress responses in order to minimize oxidative damage. How can plants fine-tune this balance and meet such conflicting needs? Here, we show that XANTHINE DEHYDROGENASE1 (XDH1) in Arabidopsis thaliana appears to play spatially opposite roles to serve this purpose. Through a large-scale genetic screen, we identified three missense mutations in XDH1 that impair XDH1's enzymatic functions and consequently affect the powdery mildew resistance mediated by RESISTANCE TO POWDERY MILDEW8 (RPW8) in epidermal cells and formation of xanthine-enriched autofluorescent objects in mesophyll cells. Further analyses revealed that in leaf epidermal cells, XDH1 likely functions as an oxidase, along with the NADPH oxidases RbohD and RbohF, to generate superoxide, which is dismutated into H2O2 The resulting enrichment of H2O2 in the fungal haustorial complex within infected epidermal cells helps to constrain the haustorium, thereby contributing to RPW8-dependent and RPW8-independent powdery mildew resistance. By contrast, in leaf mesophyll cells, XDH1 carries out xanthine dehydrogenase activity to produce uric acid in local and systemic tissues to scavenge H2O2 from stressed chloroplasts, thereby protecting plants from stress-induced oxidative damage. Thus, XDH1 plays spatially specified dual and opposing roles in modulation of ROS metabolism during defense responses in Arabidopsis. PMID:27152019

  3. Coenzyme Q regulates the expression of essential genes of the pathogen- and xenobiotic-associated defense pathway in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Alexandra; Niklowitz, Petra; Menke, Thomas; Döring, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is necessary for mitochondrial energy production and modulates the expression of genes that are important for inflammatory processes, growth and detoxification reactions. A cellular surveillance-activated detoxification and defenses (cSADDs) pathway has been recently identified in C. elegans. The down-regulation of the components of the cSADDs pathway initiates an aversion behavior of the nematode. Here we hypothesized that CoQ regulates genes of the cSADDs pathway. To verify this we generated CoQ-deficient worms (“CoQ-free”) and performed whole-genome expression profiling. We found about 30% (120 genes) of the cSADDs pathway genes were differentially regulated under CoQ-deficient condition. Remarkably, 83% of these genes were down-regulated. The majority of the CoQ-sensitive cSADDs pathway genes encode for proteins involved in larval development (enrichment score (ES) = 38.0, p = 5.0E−37), aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, proteasome function (ES 8.2, p = 5.9E−31) and mitochondria function (ES 3.4, p = 1.7E−5). 67% (80 genes) of these genes are categorized as lethal. Thus it is shown for the first time that CoQ regulates a substantial number of essential genes that function in the evolutionary conserved cellular surveillance-activated detoxification and defenses pathway in C. elegans. PMID:26566301

  4. Coenzyme Q regulates the expression of essential genes of the pathogen- and xenobiotic-associated defense pathway in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Alexandra; Niklowitz, Petra; Menke, Thomas; Döring, Frank

    2015-11-01

    Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is necessary for mitochondrial energy production and modulates the expression of genes that are important for inflammatory processes, growth and detoxification reactions. A cellular surveillance-activated detoxification and defenses (cSADDs) pathway has been recently identified in C. elegans. The down-regulation of the components of the cSADDs pathway initiates an aversion behavior of the nematode. Here we hypothesized that CoQ regulates genes of the cSADDs pathway. To verify this we generated CoQ-deficient worms ("CoQ-free") and performed whole-genome expression profiling. We found about 30% (120 genes) of the cSADDs pathway genes were differentially regulated under CoQ-deficient condition. Remarkably, 83% of these genes were down-regulated. The majority of the CoQ-sensitive cSADDs pathway genes encode for proteins involved in larval development (enrichment score (ES) = 38.0, p = 5.0E(-37)), aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, proteasome function (ES 8.2, p = 5.9E(-31)) and mitochondria function (ES 3.4, p = 1.7E(-5)). 67% (80 genes) of these genes are categorized as lethal. Thus it is shown for the first time that CoQ regulates a substantial number of essential genes that function in the evolutionary conserved cellular surveillance-activated detoxification and defenses pathway in C. elegans. PMID:26566301

  5. Trait rejection sensitivity is associated with vigilance and defensive response rather than detection of social rejection cues

    PubMed Central

    Kawamoto, Taishi; Nittono, Hiroshi; Ura, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies suggest that psychological difficulties arise from higher trait Rejection Sensitivity (RS)—heightened vigilance and differential detection of social rejection cues and defensive response to. On the other hand, from an evolutionary perspective, rapid and efficient detection of social rejection cues can be considered beneficial. We conducted a survey and an electrophysiological experiment to reconcile this seeming contradiction. We compared the effects of RS and Rejection Detection Capability (RDC) on perceived interpersonal experiences (Study 1) and on neurocognitive processes in response to cues of social rejection (disgusted faces; Study 2). We found that RS and RDC were not significantly related, although RS was positively related to perceived social rejection experiences and RDC was positively related to perceived social inclusion experiences. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) revealed that higher RS was related to cognitive avoidance (i.e., P1) and heightened motivated attention (i.e., late positive potential: LPP), but not to facial expression encoding (i.e., N170) toward disgusted faces. On the other hand, higher RDC was related to heightened N170 amplitude, but not to P1 and LPP amplitudes. These findings imply that sensitivity to rejection is apparently distinct from the ability to detect social rejection cues and instead reflects intense vigilance and defensive response to those cues. We discussed an alternative explanation of the relationship between RS and RDC from a signal detection perspective. PMID:26483750

  6. Eosinophil-Derived Neurotoxin (EDN/RNase 2) and the Mouse Eosinophil-Associated RNases (mEars): Expanding Roles in Promoting Host Defense

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Helene F.

    2015-01-01

    The eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN/RNase2) and its divergent orthologs, the mouse eosinophil-associated RNases (mEars), are prominent secretory proteins of eosinophilic leukocytes and are all members of the larger family of RNase A-type ribonucleases. While EDN has broad antiviral activity, targeting RNA viruses via mechanisms that may require enzymatic activity, more recent studies have elucidated how these RNases may generate host defense via roles in promoting leukocyte activation, maturation, and chemotaxis. This review provides an update on recent discoveries, and highlights the versatility of this family in promoting innate immunity. PMID:26184157

  7. Nuclear plant emergency preparedness in Russia.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Randolph L

    2009-11-01

    An international team of experts conducted a detailed operational review at the Volgodonsk nuclear power plant. The review was the first mission by an International Atomic Energy Agency Operational Safety Review Team to Russia in over a decade. The author reviewed the emergency preparedness program in detail. Emergency preparedness professionals in the West are largely unfamiliar with Russian nuclear plant emergency preparedness programs, and the legacy of Chernobyl may leave some doubt as to their efficacy. This article describes the program in some detail and compares some elements to programs in the United States. The author was favorably impressed with the state of nuclear plant emergency preparedness in the Russian Federation and identified program elements that should be considered for implementation elsewhere. PMID:19820472

  8. Vested Interest theory and disaster preparedness.

    PubMed

    Miller, Claude H; Adame, Bradley J; Moore, Scott D

    2013-01-01

    Three studies were designed to extend a combination of vested interest theory (VI) and the extended parallel process model of fear appeals (EPPM) to provide formative research for creating more effective disaster preparedness social action campaigns. The aim was to develop an effective VI scale for assessing individual awareness and 'vestedness' relevant to disaster preparedness. Typical preparedness behaviours are discussed with emphasis on earthquakes and tornados in particular. Brief overviews of VI and the EPPM are offered, and findings are presented from three studies (one dealing with earthquakes, and two with tornados) conducted to determine the factor structure of the key VI components involved, and to develop and test subscales derived from the two theories. The paper finishes with a discussion of future research needs and suggestions on how the new subscales may be applied in the design and execution of more effective disaster preparedness campaigns. PMID:23050780

  9. Nursing leadership in disaster preparedness and response.

    PubMed

    Knebel, Ann R; Toomey, Lauren; Libby, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Nurses serve as leaders in disaster preparedness and response at multiple levels: within their own homes and neighborhoods, at disaster scenes, and the workplace, which can vary from a health care facility, in the community, or at the state, national, or international level. This chapter provides an overview on theories of leadership with a historical context for nursing leadership; setting the context for nursing leadership in disaster preparedness and response. Although few research studies exist, there are numerous examples of nurses who provide leadership for disaster preparedness and response. To define the current state of the science, the research studies cited in this chapter are supplemented with case studies from particular disasters. The major finding of this review is that nursing leadership in disaster preparedness and response is a field of study that needs to be developed. PMID:24894051

  10. Segregated Anatomical Input to Sub-Regions of the Rodent Superior Colliculus Associated with Approach and Defense

    PubMed Central

    Comoli, Eliane; Das Neves Favaro, Plínio; Vautrelle, Nicolas; Leriche, Mariana; Overton, Paul G.; Redgrave, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The superior colliculus (SC) is responsible for sensorimotor transformations required to direct gaze toward or away from unexpected, biologically salient events. Significant changes in the external world are signaled to SC through primary multisensory afferents, spatially organized according to a retinotopic topography. For animals, where an unexpected event could indicate the presence of either predator or prey, early decisions to approach or avoid are particularly important. Rodents’ ecology dictates predators are most often detected initially as movements in upper visual field (mapped in medial SC), while appetitive stimuli are normally found in lower visual field (mapped in lateral SC). Our purpose was to exploit this functional segregation to reveal neural sites that can bias or modulate initial approach or avoidance responses. Small injections of Fluoro-Gold were made into medial or lateral sub-regions of intermediate and deep layers of SC (SCm/SCl). A remarkable segregation of input to these two functionally defined areas was found. (i) There were structures that projected only to SCm (e.g., specific cortical areas, lateral geniculate and suprageniculate thalamic nuclei, ventromedial and premammillary hypothalamic nuclei, and several brainstem areas) or SCl (e.g., primary somatosensory cortex representing upper body parts and vibrissae and parvicellular reticular nucleus in the brainstem). (ii) Other structures projected to both SCm and SCl but from topographically segregated populations of neurons (e.g., zona incerta and substantia nigra pars reticulata). (iii) There were a few brainstem areas in which retrogradely labeled neurons were spatially overlapping (e.g., pedunculopontine nucleus and locus coeruleus). These results indicate significantly more structures across the rat neuraxis are in a position to modulate defense responses evoked from SCm, and that neural mechanisms modulating SC-mediated defense or appetitive behavior are almost entirely

  11. A Common Fungal Associate of the Spruce Bark Beetle Metabolizes the Stilbene Defenses of Norway Spruce1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Hammerbacher, Almuth; Schmidt, Axel; Wadke, Namita; Wright, Louwrance P.; Schneider, Bernd; Bohlmann, Joerg; Brand, Willi A.; Fenning, Trevor M.; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Paetz, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies) forests suffer periodic fatal attacks by the bark beetle Ips typographus and its fungal associate, Ceratocystis polonica. Norway spruce protects itself against fungal and bark beetle invasion by the production of terpenoid resins, but it is unclear whether resins or other defenses are effective against the fungus. We investigated stilbenes, a group of phenolic compounds found in Norway spruce bark with a diaryl-ethene skeleton with known antifungal properties. During C. polonica infection, stilbene biosynthesis was up-regulated, as evidenced by elevated transcript levels of stilbene synthase genes. However, stilbene concentrations actually declined during infection, and this was due to fungal metabolism. C. polonica converted stilbenes to ring-opened, deglycosylated, and dimeric products. Chromatographic separation of C. polonica protein extracts confirmed that these metabolites arose from specific fungal enzyme activities. Comparison of C. polonica strains showed that rapid conversion of host phenolics is associated with higher virulence. C. polonica is so well adapted to its host’s chemical defenses that it is even able to use host phenolic compounds as its sole carbon source. PMID:23729780

  12. Preparedness for Death and Adjustment to Bereavement among Caregivers of Recently Placed Nursing Home Residents

    PubMed Central

    Boerner, Kathrin; Klinger, Julie; Rosen, Jules

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Preparedness for death as a predictor of post-bereavement adjustment has not been studied prospectively. Little is known about pre-death factors associated with feeling prepared prior to the death of a loved one. Objective: Our aim was to prospectively assess the role of preparedness for death as a predictor of post-bereavement adjustment in informal caregivers (CGs) who experienced the death of their loved one and to identify predictors and correlates of complicated grief, depression, and preparedness for death among informal CGs. Methods: We conducted a prospective, longitudinal study using data collected for a randomized trial testing the efficacy of an intervention for CGs of recently placed care recipients (CRs). Subjects were 217 informal CGs of care recipients recently placed in nursing homes, and they were followed for 18 months. CGs were assessed in person by certified interviewers at 6-month intervals. Eighty-nine CGs experienced the death of their loved one in the course of the study. Measurements used included preparedness for death, advance care planning (ACP), complicated grief, depression, and sociodemographic characteristics. Results: CGs who reported feeling more prepared for the death experienced lower levels of complicated grief post-bereavement. A multivariate ordinal logistic regression model showed that spouses as opposed to adult child CGs were less prepared for the death, depressed CGs were less prepared, and patients who engaged in ACP had CGs who felt more prepared. CR overt expressions about wanting to die was also related to higher levels of preparedness in the CG. Conclusions: We show prospectively that preparedness for death facilitates post-bereavement adjustment and identify factors associated with preparedness. ACP can be an effective means for preparing informal CGs for the death of their CRs. PMID:25469737

  13. Preparedness and response to bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    Spencer, R C; Lightfoot, N F

    2001-08-01

    As we enter the 21st century the threats of biological warfare and bioterrorism (so called asymmetric threats) appear to be more real than ever before. Historical evidence suggests that biological weapons have been used, with varying degrees of success, for many centuries. Despite the international agreements to ban such weapons, namely the 1925 Geneva Protocol and the 1975 Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, there is no effective international mechanism for challenging either the development of biological weapons or their use. Advances in technology and the rise of fundamentalist terror groups combine to present a significant threat to western democracies. A timely and definitive response to this threat will require co-operation between governments on a scale never seen before. There is a need for proper planning, good communication between various health, home office, defence and intelligence agencies and sufficient financial support for a realistic state of preparedness. The Department of Health has produced guidelines for responding to real or suspected incidents and the Public Health Laboratory Service (PHLS) has produced detailed protocols to inform the actions required by microbiologists and consultants in communicable disease control. These protocols will be published on the Department of Health and PHLS web sites. PMID:11676515

  14. Conceptualizing and measuring community preparedness within public health preparedness and response: complexities and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Kun, Karen E; Rose, Dale A; Morris, Thomas; Salter, Monique; Lamia, Tamara; Bhalakia, Amee; McLees, Anita W

    2014-01-01

    Since 2001, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Public Health Emergency Preparedness cooperative agreement has supported state, territorial, and local public health departments in preparing for and responding to public health emergencies. This conceptual article describes complexities identified and lessons learned in developing community preparedness performance measures for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's public health preparedness program. Challenges arose in (a) defining community; (b) measuring meaningful community engagement; and (c) determining a strategy for collecting, aggregating, and analyzing data from diverse state, territorial, and local health departments. This article contributes to prior work describing conceptual challenges in developing standardized measures of performance at the federal level and suggests ways to potentially mitigate general performance measurement challenges as well as measurement complexities specific to community preparedness. It may be informative for those state, territorial, and local health departments currently implementing (or contemplating implementing) community preparedness activities and for individuals more generally engaged in performance measurement. PMID:24322842

  15. Decreased emergence of emerald ash borer from ash treated with methyl jasmonate is associated with induction of general defense traits and the toxic phenolic compound verbascoside.

    PubMed

    Whitehill, Justin G A; Rigsby, Chad; Cipollini, Don; Herms, Daniel A; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2014-12-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is causing widespread mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. To date, no mechanisms of host resistance have been identified against this pest. Methyl jasmonate was applied to susceptible North American and resistant Asian ash species to determine if it can elicit induced responses in bark that enhance resistance to EAB. In particular, phenolic compounds, lignin, and defense-related proteins were quantified, and compounds associated with resistance were subsequently tested directly against EAB larvae in bioassays with artificial diet. MeJA application decreased adult emergence in susceptible ash species, comparable to levels achieved by insecticide application. Concentration of the phenolic compound verbascoside sharply increased after MeJA application to green and white ash. When incorporated in an artificial diet, verbascoside decreased survival and growth of EAB neonates in a dose-dependent fashion. Lignin and trypsin inhibitors were also induced by MeJA, and analogs of both compounds reduced growth of EAB larvae in artificial diets. We conclude that the application of MeJA prior to EAB attack has the ability to enhance resistance of susceptible ash trees by inducing endogenous plant defenses, and report evidence that induction of verbascoside is a mechanism of resistance to EAB. PMID:25231373

  16. Community preparedness for emergency: a cross-sectional survey of residents in Heilongjiang of China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weilan; Hao, Yanhua; Wu, Qunhong; Ning, Ning; You, Jia; Liu, Chaojie; Jiao, Mingli; Gao, Lijun; Kang, Zheng; Liang, Libo; Sun, Hong; Cui, Yu; Li, Ye; Han, Xiaonan; Fang, Xin; Zhao, Xiyan; Hu, Man; Ding, Ding; Gao, Hao; Lu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Objective This article aims to identify factors that shape the knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of community residents in China's Heilongjiang province towards emergency preparedness. Findings of such a study may provide evidence to support the development of effective public risk communication strategies and education campaigns. Design A cross-sectional household questionnaire survey was conducted in Heilongjiang province in 2014. A stratified cluster sampling strategy was employed to select study participants. The questionnaires were administered using face-to-face interviews. 2800 questionnaires were completed, among which 2686 (95.9%) were considered valid for data analyses. A multivariate logistic regression model was adopted to identify the extent to which the independent variables were associated with emergency preparedness. Results Fewer than 5% respondents were well prepared for emergency. Over half (52%) of poorly prepared respondents did not know what to do in emergency; women (OR=1.691), higher household income (OR ranging from 1.666 to 2.117), previous experience with emergency (OR=1.552), higher levels of knowledge about emergency (OR=2.192), risk awareness (OR=1.531), self-efficacy (OR=1.796), as well as positive attitudes towards emergency preparedness (OR=2.265) were significant predictors for emergency preparedness. Neither educational attainment nor exposure to awareness-raising entered into the logic regression model as a significant predictor for emergency preparedness. Conclusions The level of emergency preparedness in Heilongjiang residents is very low, which is linked with poor knowledge and attitudes of the residents towards emergency preparedness. Future emergency awareness campaigns should be more focused and tailored to the needs of intended audience, taking into consideration of their usual source of information and knowledge in relation to emergency. PMID:26553829

  17. Antipredator defenses predict diversification rates

    PubMed Central

    Arbuckle, Kevin; Speed, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    The “escape-and-radiate” hypothesis predicts that antipredator defenses facilitate adaptive radiations by enabling escape from constraints of predation, diversified habitat use, and subsequently speciation. Animals have evolved diverse strategies to reduce the direct costs of predation, including cryptic coloration and behavior, chemical defenses, mimicry, and advertisement of unprofitability (conspicuous warning coloration). Whereas the survival consequences of these alternative defenses for individuals are well-studied, little attention has been given to the macroevolutionary consequences of alternative forms of defense. Here we show, using amphibians as the first, to our knowledge, large-scale empirical test in animals, that there are important macroevolutionary consequences of alternative defenses. However, the escape-and-radiate hypothesis does not adequately describe them, due to its exclusive focus on speciation. We examined how rates of speciation and extinction vary across defensive traits throughout amphibians. Lineages that use chemical defenses show higher rates of speciation as predicted by escape-and-radiate but also show higher rates of extinction compared with those without chemical defense. The effect of chemical defense is a net reduction in diversification compared with lineages without chemical defense. In contrast, acquisition of conspicuous coloration (often used as warning signals or in mimicry) is associated with heightened speciation rates but unchanged extinction rates. We conclude that predictions based on the escape-and-radiate hypothesis must incorporate the effect of traits on both speciation and extinction, which is rarely considered in such studies. Our results also suggest that knowledge of defensive traits could have a bearing on the predictability of extinction, perhaps especially important in globally threatened taxa such as amphibians. PMID:26483488

  18. Antipredator defenses predict diversification rates.

    PubMed

    Arbuckle, Kevin; Speed, Michael P

    2015-11-01

    The "escape-and-radiate" hypothesis predicts that antipredator defenses facilitate adaptive radiations by enabling escape from constraints of predation, diversified habitat use, and subsequently speciation. Animals have evolved diverse strategies to reduce the direct costs of predation, including cryptic coloration and behavior, chemical defenses, mimicry, and advertisement of unprofitability (conspicuous warning coloration). Whereas the survival consequences of these alternative defenses for individuals are well-studied, little attention has been given to the macroevolutionary consequences of alternative forms of defense. Here we show, using amphibians as the first, to our knowledge, large-scale empirical test in animals, that there are important macroevolutionary consequences of alternative defenses. However, the escape-and-radiate hypothesis does not adequately describe them, due to its exclusive focus on speciation. We examined how rates of speciation and extinction vary across defensive traits throughout amphibians. Lineages that use chemical defenses show higher rates of speciation as predicted by escape-and-radiate but also show higher rates of extinction compared with those without chemical defense. The effect of chemical defense is a net reduction in diversification compared with lineages without chemical defense. In contrast, acquisition of conspicuous coloration (often used as warning signals or in mimicry) is associated with heightened speciation rates but unchanged extinction rates. We conclude that predictions based on the escape-and-radiate hypothesis must incorporate the effect of traits on both speciation and extinction, which is rarely considered in such studies. Our results also suggest that knowledge of defensive traits could have a bearing on the predictability of extinction, perhaps especially important in globally threatened taxa such as amphibians. PMID:26483488

  19. 75 FR 67807 - Pipeline Safety: Emergency Preparedness Communications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... Communications AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); DOT. ACTION: Notice... Hazardous Liquid and Gas Pipeline Systems. Subject: Emergency Preparedness Communications. Advisory: To... preparedness communications between pipeline operators and emergency responders. To ensure a prompt,...

  20. 76 FR 2131 - Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee... Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee (FRPCC) is holding a public meeting on January 20, 2011 in....greten@dhs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The role and functions of the Federal...

  1. 77 FR 64562 - Draft Emergency Preparedness Frequently Asked Questions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Draft Emergency Preparedness Frequently Asked Questions AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... Commission (NRC) is making available for comment Emergency Preparedness (EP) frequently asked...

  2. 78 FR 52570 - Draft Emergency Preparedness Frequently Asked Questions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Draft Emergency Preparedness Frequently Asked Questions AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... Commission (NRC) is making available for comment Emergency Preparedness (EP) frequently asked...

  3. 78 FR 33862 - Draft Emergency Preparedness Frequently Asked Questions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Draft Emergency Preparedness Frequently Asked Questions AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... Commission (NRC) is making available for comment Emergency Preparedness (EP) frequently asked...

  4. Some ecological contexts of attitudes concerning issues of civil defense. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nehnevajsa, J.

    1983-03-01

    The examination of six clusters of major issues bearing public credibility and acceptance of national civil defense preparedness are examined in terms of the geo-ecological context of the residential area. They include public perception of threat, survivability, civil defense costs, the implementation of crisis relocation programs, general attitudes toward crisis relocation, and claims regarding willingness to act. The key differences among respondents from counties characterized as more and less well-to-do may be summarized as: Less well-to-do counties estimate the likelihood of war, the chances of survival both in fallout and blast shelters, the current and desirable investment in civil defense, the intention to evacuate spontaneously and relocate upon recommendation by the President, and compliance with instructions where to go at higher levels than do more well-to-do counties. On the other hand, more well-to-do counties find the target and fallout danger, likelihood of Presidential decision to relocate and the associated increment to spontaneous evacuation, and likelihood of adaptive spontaneous evacuation higher than those respondents in less well-to-do counties. Residents of high risk areas (TR-82) tend to recognize this as they perceive the target danger at higher levels than do residents of low risk areas.

  5. The Bark-Beetle-Associated Fungus, Endoconidiophora polonica, Utilizes the Phenolic Defense Compounds of Its Host as a Carbon Source1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wadke, Namita; Kandasamy, Dineshkumar; Vogel, Heiko; Wingfield, Brenda D.; Paetz, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies) is periodically attacked by the bark beetle Ips typographus and its fungal associate, Endoconidiophora polonica, whose infection is thought to be required for successful beetle attack. Norway spruce produces terpenoid resins and phenolics in response to fungal and bark beetle invasion. However, how the fungal associate copes with these chemical defenses is still unclear. In this study, we investigated changes in the phenolic content of Norway spruce bark upon E. polonica infection and the biochemical factors mediating these changes. Although genes encoding the rate-limiting enzymes in Norway spruce stilbene and flavonoid biosynthesis were actively transcribed during fungal infection, there was a significant time-dependent decline of the corresponding metabolites in fungal lesions. In vitro feeding experiments with pure phenolics revealed that E. polonica transforms both stilbenes and flavonoids to muconoid-type ring-cleavage products, which are likely the first steps in the degradation of spruce defenses to substrates that can enter the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Four genes were identified in E. polonica that encode catechol dioxygenases carrying out these reactions. These enzymes catalyze the cleavage of phenolic rings with a vicinal dihydroxyl group to muconoid products accepting a wide range of Norway spruce-produced phenolics as substrates. The expression of these genes and E. polonica utilization of the most abundant spruce phenolics as carbon sources both correlated positively with fungal virulence in several strains. Thus, the pathways for the degradation of phenolic compounds in E. polonica, initiated by catechol dioxygenase action, are important to the infection, growth, and survival of this bark beetle-vectored fungus and may play a major role in the ability of I. typographus to colonize spruce trees. PMID:27208235

  6. Quarterly report on Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 90-7 for the period ending December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Cash, R.J.; Dukelow, G.T.; Forbes, C.J.

    1993-03-01

    This is the seventh quarterly report on the progress of activities addressing safety issues associated with Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tanks that contain ferrocyanide compounds. In the presence of oxidizing materials, such as nitrates or nitrites, ferrocyanide can be made to explode in the laboratory by heating it to high temperatures [above 285{degrees}C (545{degrees}F)]. In the mid 1950s approximately 140 metric tons of ferrocyanide were added to 24 underground high-level radioactive waste tanks. An implementation plan (Cash 1991) responding to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 90-7 (FR 1990) was issued in March 1991 describing the activities that were planned and underway to address each of the six parts of Recommendation 90-7. A revision to the original plan was transmitted to US Department of Energy by Westinghouse Hanford Company in December 1992. Milestones completed this quarter are described in this report. Contents of this report include: Introduction; Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Implementation Plan Task Activities (Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation for enhanced temperature measurement, Recommendation for continuous temperature monitoring, Recommendation for cover gas monitoring, Recommendation for ferrocyanide waste characterization, Recommendation for chemical reaction studies, and Recommendation for emergency response planning); Schedules; and References. All actions recommended by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board for emergency planning by Hanford Site emergency preparedness organizations have been completed.

  7. Reducing losses from earthquakes through personal preparedness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kockelman, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    A prerequisite to personal preparedness is familiarity with and concern about the other hazard-reduction phases. Strengthening the structure of the home, storing water, and showing family members how to shut off utility-supply lines are only a part of personal preparedness. Equally important are other phases such as picking up children from an evacuated school, securing heavy objects at the work palce as well as in the home, and retrofitting the commuter-highway overpasses needed to reunite a family. 

  8. Characterization of temperature and light effects on the defense response phenotypes associated with the maize Rp1-D21 gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rp1 is a complex locus of maize controlling race-specific resistance to the common rust fungus, Puccinia sorghi. The resistance response includes the “Hypersensitive response” (HR) – a rapid localized cell death at the point of pathogen penetration - and the induction of pathogenesis associated gene...

  9. 48 CFR 5152.208-9001 - Industrial preparedness planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Industrial preparedness... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SOLICITATIONS PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES 5152.208-9001 Industrial preparedness... contractor is designated a Limited Fee Planned Producer. Industrial Preparedness Planning (XXX 1989) (DEV)...

  10. 48 CFR 5152.208-9001 - Industrial preparedness planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Industrial preparedness... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SOLICITATIONS PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES 5152.208-9001 Industrial preparedness... contractor is designated a Limited Fee Planned Producer. Industrial Preparedness Planning (XXX 1989) (DEV)...

  11. 48 CFR 5152.208-9001 - Industrial preparedness planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Industrial preparedness... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SOLICITATIONS PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES 5152.208-9001 Industrial preparedness... contractor is designated a Limited Fee Planned Producer. Industrial Preparedness Planning (XXX 1989) (DEV)...

  12. 48 CFR 5152.208-9001 - Industrial preparedness planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Industrial preparedness... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SOLICITATIONS PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES 5152.208-9001 Industrial preparedness... contractor is designated a Limited Fee Planned Producer. Industrial Preparedness Planning (XXX 1989) (DEV)...

  13. 48 CFR 5152.208-9001 - Industrial preparedness planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Industrial preparedness... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SOLICITATIONS PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES 5152.208-9001 Industrial preparedness... contractor is designated a Limited Fee Planned Producer. Industrial Preparedness Planning (XXX 1989) (DEV)...

  14. 76 FR 35902 - Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee... Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee (FRPCC) is holding a public meeting on July 11, 2011 in... Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee (FRPCC) are described in 44 CFR parts 351.10(a) and...

  15. 49 CFR 239.101 - Emergency preparedness plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Emergency preparedness plan. 239.101 Section 239.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER TRAIN EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS Specific Requirements § 239.101 Emergency preparedness plan. (a)...

  16. 49 CFR 239.101 - Emergency preparedness plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency preparedness plan. 239.101 Section 239.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER TRAIN EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS Specific Requirements § 239.101 Emergency preparedness plan. (a)...

  17. Amino Acid Homeostasis Modulates Salicylic Acid–Associated Redox Status and Defense Responses in Arabidopsis[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guosheng; Ji, Yuanyuan; Bhuiyan, Nazmul H.; Pilot, Guillaume; Selvaraj, Gopalan; Zou, Jitao; Wei, Yangdou

    2010-01-01

    The tight association between nitrogen status and pathogenesis has been broadly documented in plant–pathogen interactions. However, the interface between primary metabolism and disease responses remains largely unclear. Here, we show that knockout of a single amino acid transporter, LYSINE HISTIDINE TRANSPORTER1 (LHT1), is sufficient for Arabidopsis thaliana plants to confer a broad spectrum of disease resistance in a salicylic acid–dependent manner. We found that redox fine-tuning in photosynthetic cells was causally linked to the lht1 mutant-associated phenotypes. Furthermore, the enhanced resistance in lht1 could be attributed to a specific deficiency of its main physiological substrate, Gln, and not to a general nitrogen deficiency. Thus, by enabling nitrogen metabolism to moderate the cellular redox status, a plant primary metabolite, Gln, plays a crucial role in plant disease resistance. PMID:21097712

  18. Limb-body wall defect. Is there a defensible hypothesis and can it explain all the associated anomalies?

    PubMed

    Hunter, Alasdair G W; Seaver, Laurie H; Stevenson, Roger E

    2011-09-01

    Aside from gastroschisis and omphalocele, major defects of the ventral body (thoracoabdominal) wall are relatively uncommon and almost universally lethal. They are most often associated with other anomalies including those of the limbs that may range from amelia to mild positional deformations, unusual craniofacial malformations, and a variety of visceral abnormalities that include the heart, lungs, genitourinary system, and gut. This complex of ventral wall anomalies has been discussed under a broad and changing nomenclature that has included amniotic band disruption complex, amnion rupture sequence, limb-body wall defect (or complex), and simply body wall complex. Three major theories have been suggested to explain this complex: early amnion rupture (operating through uterine pressure and/or disruption by amniotic bands), vascular compromise (primarily hypoperfusion), and an early intrinsic defect of the developing embryo. We present four patients that illustrate the spectrum of ventral body wall defects, and from there critique the current hypotheses of pathogenesis. We conclude that this association of malformations originates as early as the embryonic disc stage, and that some of the observed associated anomalies are secondary complications of the primary disturbance in embryogenesis. We propose a new explanation for the atypical facial clefts and cranial malformations that are often observed. PMID:21815262

  19. Bioterrorism with zoonotic disease: public health preparedness lessons from a multiagency exercise.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Brian A; Buehler, James W; Cole, Dana; Cookson, Susan; Dausey, David J; Honess-Morreale, Lauren; Lance, Susan; Molander, Roger C; O'Neal, Patrick; Lurie, Nicole

    2006-01-01

    Responding to agricultural bioterrorism with pathogenic agents that are communicable from animals to humans (zoonotic diseases) requires effective coordination of many organizations, both inside and outside of government. Action must be simultaneously taken to address public health concerns, respond to the agricultural dimensions of the event, and carry out the necessary law enforcement investigation. As part of a project focused on examining public health preparedness in Georgia, an exercise was carried out in July 2005 examining the intentional introduction of avian influenza (H5N1) in commercial poultry operations. The attack scenario, which was written to occur during an already severe human influenza season, enabled exploration of a range of issues associated with public health preparedness for major disease outbreaks including pandemic influenza, coordination of a multiagency response operation at multiple levels of government, and effective management of interdisciplinary response activities. The exercise is described and broader policy lessons regarding preparedness planning are discussed. PMID:16999589

  20. Hospitals respond to water loss during the Midwest floods of 1993: preparedness and improvisation.

    PubMed

    Peters, M S

    1996-01-01

    The Midwest floods of 1993 presented multiple emergency preparedness challenges to the six metropolitan medical centers in Des Moines, Iowa. As floodwaters overcame the Des Moines Water Treatment Plant, medical centers were faced with the task of responding to imminent water loss and its associated impact on patient care services and facility operations. Many clinical services were cancelled or diverted to alternate facilities. Ancillary resources were identified and implemented to maintain essential operations. Through effective emergency preparedness and creative improvisation, medical centers were able to overcome the initial crisis, sustain primary services, and ensure continued quality patient care. The article describes how sudden and prolonged water loss affected Des Moines hospitals. It also discusses aspects of hospital emergency preparedness that contributed to successful response. PMID:8782032

  1. Defensive function of persecutory delusion and discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem in schizophrenia: study using the Brief Implicit Association Test

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Mitsuo; Hayakawa, Tomomi; Okamura, Aiko; Kohigashi, Mutsumi; Fukui, Kenji; Narumoto, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Background If delusions serve as a defense mechanism in schizophrenia patients with paranoia, then they should show normal or high explicit self-esteem and low implicit self-esteem. However, the results of previous studies are inconsistent. One possible explanation for this inconsistency is that there are two types of paranoia, “bad me” (self-blaming) paranoia and “poor me” (non-self-blaming) paranoia. We thus examined implicit and explicit self-esteem and self-blaming tendency in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. We hypothesized that patients with paranoia would show lower implicit self-esteem and only those with non-self-blaming paranoia would experience a discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem. Methods Participants consisted of patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder recruited from a day hospital (N=71). Participants were assessed for psychotic symptoms, using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), and self-blaming tendency, using the brief COPE. We also assessed explicit self-esteem, using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), implicit self-esteem, using Brief Implicit Association Test (BIAT), and discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem. Results Contrary to our hypothesis, implicit self-esteem in paranoia and nonparanoia showed no statistical difference. As expected, only patients with non-self-blaming paranoia experienced a discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem; other groups showed no such discrepancy. Conclusion These results suggest that persecutory delusion plays a defensive role in non-self-blaming paranoia. PMID:25565849

  2. Polyamine regulates tolerance to water stress in leaves of white clover associated with antioxidant defense and dehydrin genes via involvement in calcium messenger system and hydrogen peroxide signaling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhou; Zhang, Yan; Peng, Dandan; Wang, Xiaojuan; Peng, Yan; He, Xiaoshuang; Zhang, Xinquan; Ma, Xiao; Huang, Linkai; Yan, Yanhong

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous polyamine (PA) may play a critical role in tolerance to water stress in plants acting as a signaling molecule activator. Water stress caused increases in endogenous PA content in leaves, including putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), and spermine (Spm). Exogenous application of Spd could induce the instantaneous H2O2 burst and accumulation of cytosolic free Ca2+, and activate NADPH oxidase and CDPK gene expression in cells. To a great extent, PA biosynthetic inhibitor reduced the water stress-induced H2O2 accumulation, free cytosolic Ca2+ release, antioxidant enzyme activities and genes expression leading to aggravate water stress-induced oxidative damage, while these suppressing effects were alleviated by the addition of exogenous Spd, indicating PA was involved in water stress-induced H2O2 and cytosolic free Ca2+ production as well as stress tolerance. Dehydrin genes (Y2SK, Y2K, and SK2) were showed to be highly responsive to exogenous Spd. PA-induced antioxidant defense and dehydrin genes expression could be blocked by the scavenger of H2O2 and the inhibitors of H2O2 generation or Ca2+ channels blockers, a calmodulin antagonist, as well as the inhibitor of CDPK. These findings suggested that PA regulated tolerance to water stress in white clover associated with antioxidant defenses and dehydrins via involvement in the calcium messenger system and H2O2 signaling pathways. PA-induced H2O2 production required Ca2+ release, while PA-induced Ca2+ release was also essential for H2O2 production, suggesting an interaction between PA-induced H2O2 and Ca2+ signaling. PMID:26528187

  3. Communications in Public Health Emergency Preparedness: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Savoia, Elena; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2013-01-01

    During a public health crisis, public health agencies engage in a variety of public communication efforts to inform the population, encourage the adoption of preventive behaviors, and limit the impact of adverse events. Given the importance of communication to the public in public health emergency preparedness, it is critical to examine the extent to which this field of study has received attention from the scientific community. We conducted a systematic literature review to describe current research in the area of communication to the public in public health emergency preparedness, focusing on the association between sociodemographic and behavioral factors and communication as well as preparedness outcomes. Articles were searched in PubMed and Embase and reviewed by 2 independent reviewers. A total of 131 articles were included for final review. Fifty-three percent of the articles were empirical, of which 74% were population-based studies, and 26% used information environment analysis techniques. None had an experimental study design. Population-based studies were rarely supported by theoretical models and mostly relied on a cross-sectional study design. Consistent results were reported on the association between population socioeconomic factors and public health emergency preparedness communication and preparedness outcomes. Our findings show the need for empirical research to determine what type of communication messages can be effective in achieving preparedness outcomes across various population groups. They suggest that a real-time analysis of the information environment is valuable in knowing what is being communicated to the public and could be used for course correction of public health messages during a crisis. PMID:24041193

  4. Learning Environment, Preparedness and Satisfaction in Osteopathy in Europe: The PreSS Study

    PubMed Central

    Luciani, Emanuele; van Dun, Patrick L. S.; Esteves, Jorge Eduardo; Lunghi, Christian; Petracca, Marco; Papa, Liria; Merdy, Olivier; Jäkel, Anne; Cerritelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Objective 1) to assess the preparedness to practice and satisfaction in learning environment amongst new graduates from European osteopathic institutions; 2) to compare the results of preparedness to practice and satisfaction in learning environment between and within countries where osteopathy is regulated and where regulation is still to be achieved; 3) to identify possible correlations between learning environment and preparedness to practice. Method Osteopathic education providers of full-time education located in Europe were enrolled, and their final year students were contacted to complete a survey. Measures used were: Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM), the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) and a demographic questionnaire. Scores were compared across institutions using one-way ANOVA and generalised linear model. Results Nine European osteopathic education institutions participated in the study (4 located in Italy, 2 in the UK, 1 in France, 1 in Belgium and 1 in the Netherlands) and 243 (77%) of their final-year students completed the survey. The DREEM total score mean was 121.4 (SEM: 1.66) whilst the AAMC was 17.58 (SEM:0.35). A generalised linear model found a significant association between not-regulated countries and total score as well as subscales DREEM scores (p<0.001). Learning environment and preparedness to practice were significantly positively correlated (r=0.76; p<0.01). Discussion A perceived higher level of preparedness and satisfaction was found amongst students from osteopathic institutions located in countries without regulation compared to those located in countries where osteopathy is regulated; however, all institutions obtained a ‘more positive than negative’ result. Moreover, in general, cohorts with fewer than 20 students scored significantly higher compared to larger student cohorts. Finally, an overall positive correlation between students’ preparedness and satisfaction were found across all

  5. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 50 - Emergency Planning and Preparedness for Production and Utilization Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... under 10 CFR parts 50 and 70 involve considerations different than those associated with nuclear power... December 31, 2013. Notwithstanding any Commission finding under 10 CFR 52.103(g) regarding the combined... provisions of 10 CFR 50.47 and 10 CFR part 50, appendix E, within the scope of emergency preparedness...

  6. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 50 - Emergency Planning and Preparedness for Production and Utilization Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... under 10 CFR parts 50 and 70 involve considerations different than those associated with nuclear power... provisions of 10 CFR 50.47 and 10 CFR part 50, appendix E, within the scope of emergency preparedness matters.... The four-month period in 10 CFR 50.54(s)(2) for the correction of emergency plan deficiencies...

  7. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 50 - Emergency Planning and Preparedness for Production and Utilization Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... under 10 CFR parts 50 and 70 involve considerations different than those associated with nuclear power... provisions of 10 CFR 50.47 and 10 CFR part 50, appendix E, within the scope of emergency preparedness matters.... The four-month period in 10 CFR 50.54(s)(2) for the correction of emergency plan deficiencies...

  8. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 50 - Emergency Planning and Preparedness for Production and Utilization Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... under 10 CFR parts 50 and 70 involve considerations different than those associated with nuclear power... December 31, 2013. Notwithstanding any Commission finding under 10 CFR 52.103(g) regarding the combined... provisions of 10 CFR 50.47 and 10 CFR part 50, appendix E, within the scope of emergency preparedness...

  9. Emergency Preparedness--The Role of the School Nurse. Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cagginello, Joan B.; Clark, Sandra; Compton, Linda; Davis, Catherine; Healy, Marilyn; Hoffmann, Susan; Tuck, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that school nurses provide leadership in all phases of emergency preparedness and management and are a vital part of the school team that develops emergency response procedures for the school setting, using an all-hazards approach. The school nurse is a vital school…

  10. Work Scope for Developing Standards for Emergency Preparedness and Response: Fiscal Year 2004 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Stenner, Robert D.

    2005-09-28

    Summarizes the fiscal year 2004 work completed on PNNL's Department of Homeland Security Emergency Preparedness and Response Standards Development Project. Also, the report includes key draft standards, in various stages of development and publication, that were associated with various tasks of the fiscal year 2004 scope of the project.

  11. Perceptions of High-School Principals' Preparedness for Their Financial Resposibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoskopf, Jack E., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined high-school principals' perceptions of their preparedness for their financial responsibilities. The participants were high-school principals from the state of Wisconsin. Surveys were sent to 150 high-school principals who were members of the Association of Wisconsin School Administrators (AWSA), Wisconsin's…

  12. Emergency Preparedness: Balancing Electrical Supply and Demand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Mary Annette

    2006-01-01

    Integrating technology learning goals and activities with recent experiences created by natural disasters is a valuable motivational strategy. The newfound appreciation that exists for personal emergency preparedness generates unique and sustained interest in alternative energy technologies and conservation. As described in this article, an ice…

  13. Examining Preservice Teachers' Preparedness for Teaching Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Peter; Hudson, Sue

    2007-01-01

    The Australian Federal Government's call for another teacher education inquiry aims to investigate preservice teacher preparedness for teaching. Art education was selected for this study as the teaching of art education in primary schools occurs in less than ideal conditions and may often be avoided by generalist primary teachers (Russell-Bowie,…

  14. Emergency Health Preparedness: Expectations for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkelman, Jack L.

    Specific issues relevant to the emergency health preparedness of schools and the key roles and expectations applicable to teachers are outlined. It is noted that, while issues of legal liability relevant to teachers are complex, teachers are expected to: (1) anticipate possible risk or harm involved in activities; (2) give adequate warning of…

  15. Disaster Preparedness: Guidelines for School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Janice; Loyacono, Thomas R.

    2007-01-01

    These guidelines help school nurses understand their role in preparing for disasters and major emergencies. The guidelines are suitable for planning for a variety of emergency and disaster situations. Disaster Preparedness Guidelines for School Nurses is based on the four phases of disaster management as defined by the Federal Emergency Management…

  16. MBA Students' Preparedness for Enterpreneurial Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thandi, Harch; Sharma, Raj

    2004-01-01

    This is a survey of MBA students' preparedness for launching new business initiatives or other entrepreneurial activities. It explores the readiness of the MBA students, estimated on dimensions comprising knowledge, attitude, skills,experience, opportunity and networks. The variation of the postgraduate students' perceptions along these six…

  17. 77 FR 38248 - Passenger Train Emergency Preparedness

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... rule on passenger train emergency preparedness that was codified at 49 CFR part 239. See 63 FR 24629... evacuate passengers. See 73 FR 6369 (February 1, 2008). While this final rule did not make any changes to... existing requirements as well as create new requirements for passenger train emergency systems. See 77...

  18. Disaster Preparedness and the Cooperative Extension Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Lynette

    2012-01-01

    This past decade has recorded an increase in catastrophic events that have led to dramatic changes for Americans. The wake of these disasters has resulted in many lessons being learned. These lessons have been captured by Homeland Security in the First Edition of the National Preparedness Goal. Extension is uniquely positioned to assist with…

  19. Teaching Disaster Preparedness in Geographic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhrmann, Sven; Stone, Lee D.; Casey, Melinda C.; Curtis, Mary D.; Doyle, Amber L.; Earle, Brian D.; Jones, Douglas D.; Rodriguez, Philip; Schermerhorn, Steven M.

    2008-01-01

    Extreme natural and human-made disasters can affect the lives of thousands of citizens. The only way we can prepare ourselves for such situations is to learn and establish basic survival strategies within our families and communities. This article explores how K-12 teachers could help educating children about disaster preparedness by utilizing…

  20. 33 CFR 101.300 - Preparedness communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the AMS Plan. (b) Communication of threats. When the COTP is made aware of a threat that may cause a... MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: GENERAL Communication (Port-Facility-Vessel) § 101.300 Preparedness... plan under parts 104 or 105 of this subchapter affected by a change in the MARSEC Level must...

  1. Defensive Behavior against Noxious Heat Stimuli Is Declined with Aging Due to Decreased Pain-Associated Gene Expression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Ghimire, Saurav; Kim, Man Su

    2015-01-01

    Aging is defined as a collective process that alters organism’s functional capacity and appearance over the course of life. Apart from an increase in susceptibility to many diseases, aging affects the cellular system that is responsible for decoding painful stimuli. Yet, aging-associated molecular mechanisms of pain perception remains elusive. Using Drosophila, we showed a decrease in temperature tolerance and a reduction in high temperature thermal avoidance with aging. Locomotor activity assay demonstrated that the age-dependent changes in heat nociception did not stem from the general decline in muscular activity. However, we identified pain-related gene expression alteration with aging. We anticipate that our findings would help opening a new window onto developing the optimal pain treatment for the elderly. PMID:25995829

  2. Differences Between US and UK Adults in Stroke Preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Gary A.; Morgenstern, Lewis B.; White, Martin; Sniehotta, Falko F.; Mackintosh, Joan E.; Gellert, Paul; Skolarus, Lesli E.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose— Although time-dependent treatment is available, most people delay contacting emergency medical services for stroke. Given differences in the healthcare system and public health campaigns, exploring between-country differences in stroke preparedness may identify novel ways to increase acute stroke treatment. Methods— A survey was mailed to population-based samples in Ingham County, Michigan, US (n=2500), and Newcastle upon Tyne, UK (n=2500). Surveys included stroke perceptions and stroke/nonstroke scenarios to assess recognition and response to stroke. Between-country differences and associations with stroke preparedness were examined using t tests and linear mixed models. Results— Overall response rate was 27.4%. The mean age of participants was 55 years, and 58% were female. US participants were better in recognizing stroke (70% versus 63%, d=0.27) and were more likely to call emergency medical services (55% versus 52%, d=0.11). After controlling for demographics and comorbidities, US participants remained more likely to recognize stroke but were not more likely to respond appropriately. A greater belief that medical treatment can help with stroke and understanding of stroke was associated with improved stroke recognition and response. Conclusions— Overall, stroke recognition and response were moderate. US participants were modestly better at recognizing stroke, although there was little difference in response to stroke. Future stroke awareness interventions could focus more on stroke outcome expectations and developing a greater understanding of stroke among the public. PMID:26419968

  3. Leaf-mining by Phyllonorycter blancardella reprograms the host-leaf transcriptome to modulate phytohormones associated with nutrient mobilization and plant defense.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Dugé de Bernonville, Thomas; Body, Mélanie; Glevarec, Gaëlle; Reichelt, Michael; Unsicker, Sybille; Bruneau, Maryline; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Huguet, Elisabeth; Dubreuil, Géraldine; Giron, David

    2016-01-01

    Phytohormones have long been hypothesized to play a key role in the interactions between plant-manipulating organisms and their host-plants such as insect-plant interactions that lead to gall or 'green-islands' induction. However, mechanistic understanding of how phytohormones operate in these plant reconfigurations is lacking due to limited information on the molecular and biochemical phytohormonal modulation following attack by plant-manipulating insects. In an attempt to fill this gap, the present study provides an extensive characterization of how the leaf-miner Phyllonorycter blancardella modulates the major phytohormones and the transcriptional activity of plant cells in leaves of Malus domestica. We show here, that cytokinins strongly accumulate in mined tissues despite a weak expression of plant cytokinin-related genes. Leaf-mining is also associated with enhanced biosynthesis of jasmonic acid precursors but not the active form, a weak alteration of the salicylic acid pathway and a clear inhibition of the abscisic acid pathway. Our study consolidates previous results suggesting that insects may produce and deliver cytokinins to the plant as a strategy to manipulate the physiology of the leaf to create a favorable nutritional environment. We also demonstrate that leaf-mining by P. blancardella leads to a strong reprogramming of the plant phytohormonal balance associated with increased nutrient mobilization, inhibition of leaf senescence and mitigation of plant direct and indirect defense. PMID:26068004

  4. Quantitative and qualitative stem rust resistance factors in barley are associated with transcriptional suppression of defense regulons.

    PubMed

    Moscou, Matthew J; Lauter, Nick; Steffenson, Brian; Wise, Roger P

    2011-07-01

    Stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici; Pgt) is a devastating fungal disease of wheat and barley. Pgt race TTKSK (isolate Ug99) is a serious threat to these Triticeae grain crops because resistance is rare. In barley, the complex Rpg-TTKSK locus on chromosome 5H is presently the only known source of qualitative resistance to this aggressive Pgt race. Segregation for resistance observed on seedlings of the Q21861 × SM89010 (QSM) doubled-haploid (DH) population was found to be predominantly qualitative, with little of the remaining variance explained by loci other than Rpg-TTKSK. In contrast, analysis of adult QSM DH plants infected by field inoculum of Pgt race TTKSK in Njoro, Kenya, revealed several additional quantitative trait loci that contribute to resistance. To molecularly characterize these loci, Barley1 GeneChips were used to measure the expression of 22,792 genes in the QSM population after inoculation with Pgt race TTKSK or mock-inoculation. Comparison of expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTL) between treatments revealed an inoculation-dependent expression polymorphism implicating Actin depolymerizing factor3 (within the Rpg-TTKSK locus) as a candidate susceptibility gene. In parallel, we identified a chromosome 2H trans-eQTL hotspot that co-segregates with an enhancer of Rpg-TTKSK-mediated, adult plant resistance discovered through the Njoro field trials. Our genome-wide eQTL studies demonstrate that transcript accumulation of 25% of barley genes is altered following challenge by Pgt race TTKSK, but that few of these genes are regulated by the qualitative Rpg-TTKSK on chromosome 5H. It is instead the chromosome 2H trans-eQTL hotspot that orchestrates the largest inoculation-specific responses, where enhanced resistance is associated with transcriptional suppression of hundreds of genes scattered throughout the genome. Hence, the present study associates the early suppression of genes expressed in this host-pathogen interaction with enhancement

  5. Building resiliency: a cross-sectional study examining relationships among health-related quality of life, well-being, and disaster preparedness

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Worldwide, disaster exposure and consequences are rising. Disaster risk in New Zealand is amplified by island geography, isolation, and ubiquitous natural hazards. Wellington, the capital city, has vital needs for evacuation preparedness and resilience to the devastating impacts and increasing uncertainties of earthquake and tsunami disasters. While poor quality of life (QoL) is widely-associated with low levels of engagement in many health-protective behaviors, the relationships among health-related quality of life (HrQoL), well-being, and preparedness are virtually unknown. Methods We hypothesized that QoL and well-being affect household evacuation preparedness. We performed a quantitative epidemiologic survey (cross-sectional design) of Wellington adults. Our investigation assessed health-promoting attributes that build resiliency, conceptualized as health-protective attitudes and behaviors. Multidimensional QoL variables were measured using validated psychometric scales and analyzed for associations with evacuation preparedness, and we determined whether age and gender affected these relationships. Results We received 695 survey responses (28.5% response rate; margin of error ±3.8%; 80% statistical power to detect true correlations of 0.11 or greater). Correlational analyses showed statistically significant positive associations with evacuation preparedness for spiritual well-being, emotional well-being, and life satisfaction. No associations were found for mental health, social well-being, or gender; physical health was weakly negatively associated. Evacuation preparedness increased with age. Regression analyses showed that overall health and well-being explained 4.6-6.8% of the variance in evacuation preparedness. Spiritual well-being was the only QoL variable that significantly and uniquely explained variance in preparedness. Conclusions How well-being influences preparedness is complex and deeply personal. The data indicate that multidimensional

  6. Characterization of temperature and light effects on the defense response phenotypes associated with the maize Rp1-D21 autoactive resistance gene

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rp1 is a complex locus of maize, which carries a set of genes controlling race-specific resistance to the common rust fungus, Puccinia sorghi. The resistance response includes the “Hypersensitive response” (HR), a rapid response triggered by a pathogen recognition event that includes localized cell death at the point of pathogen penetration and the induction of pathogenesis associated genes. The Rp1-D21gene is an autoactive allelic variant at the Rp1 locus, causing spontaneous activation of the HR response, in the absence of pathogenesis. Previously we have shown that the severity of the phenotype conferred by Rp1-D21 is highly dependent on genetic background. Results In this study we show that the phenotype conferred by Rp1-D21 is highly dependent on temperature, with lower temperatures favoring the expression of the HR lesion phenotype. This temperature effect was observed in all the 14 genetic backgrounds tested. Significant interactions between the temperature effects and genetic background were observed. When plants were grown at temperatures above 30°C, the spontaneous HR phenotype conferred by Rp1-D21 was entirely suppressed. Furthermore, this phenotype could be restored or suppressed by alternately reducing and increasing the temperature appropriately. Light was also required for the expression of this phenotype. By examining the expression of genes associated with the defense response we showed that, at temperatures above 30°C, the Rp1-D21 phenotype was suppressed at both the phenotypic and molecular level. Conclusions We have shown that the lesion phenotype conferred by maize autoactive resistance gene Rp1-D21 is temperature sensitive in a reversible manner, that the temperature-sensitivity phenotype interacts with genetic background and that the phenotype is light sensitive. This is the first detailed demonstration of this phenomenon in monocots and also the first demonstration of the interaction of this effect with genetic background

  7. Values as Defenses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hultman, Kenneth E.

    1976-01-01

    The author outlines a cognitive approach for explaining how and why people use values as defenses. He examines the relationship between defensive values and irrational beliefs, suggests a number of criteria for diagnosing the presence of defensive values, and proposes some strategies for dealing with defensive values in counseling. (Author)

  8. State of Virtual Reality Based Disaster Preparedness and Response Training

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Edbert B.; Li, Yang; Bayram, Jamil D.; Levinson, David; Yang, Samuel; Monahan, Colleen

    2013-01-01

    The advent of technologically-based approaches to disaster response training through Virtual Reality (VR) environments appears promising in its ability to bridge the gaps of other commonly established training formats. Specifically, the immersive and participatory nature of VR training offers a unique realistic quality that is not generally present in classroom-based or web-based training, yet retains considerable cost advantages over large-scale real-life exercises and other modalities and is gaining increasing acceptance. Currently, numerous government departments and agencies including the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as well as academic institutions are exploring the unique advantages of VR-based training for disaster preparedness and response. Growing implementation of VR-based training for disaster preparedness and response, conducted either independently or combined with other training formats, is anticipated. This paper reviews several applications of VR-based training in the United States, and reveals advantages as well as potential drawbacks and challenges associated with the implementation of such training platform. PMID:23653102

  9. Barriers to Disaster Preparedness among Medical Special Needs Populations

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Leslie; Vatcheva, Kristina; Castellanos, Stephanie; Reininger, Belinda

    2015-01-01

    A medical special needs (MSN) assessment was conducted among 3088 respondents in a hurricane prone area. The sample was female (51.7%), Hispanic (92.9%), aged >45 years (51%), not insured for health (59.2%), and with an MSN (33.2%). Barriers to preparedness were characterized for all households, including those with inhabitants reporting MSN ranging from level 0 (mild) to level 4 (most severe). Multivariable logistic regression tested associations between hurricane preparedness and barriers to evacuation by level of MSN. A significant interaction effect between number of evacuation barriers and MSN was found. Among households that reported individuals with level 0 MSN, the odds of being unprepared increased 18% for each additional evacuation barrier [OR = 1.18, 95% CI (1.08, 1.30)]. Among households that reported individuals with level 1 MSN, the odds of being unprepared increased 29% for each additional evacuation barrier [OR = 1.29, 95% CI (1.11, 1.51)]. Among households that reported individuals with level 3 MSN, the odds of being unprepared increased 68% for each additional evacuation barrier [OR = 1.68, 95% CI (1.21, 1.32)]. MSN alone did not explain the probability of unpreparedness, but rather MSN in the presence of barriers helped explain unpreparedness. PMID:26389107

  10. Excess Secretion of Gel-Forming Mucins and Associated Innate Defense Proteins with Defective Mucin Un-Packaging Underpin Gallbladder Mucocele Formation in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Kesimer, Mehmet; Cullen, John; Cao, Rui; Radicioni, Giorgia; Mathews, Kyle G; Seiler, Gabriela; Gookin, Jody L

    2015-01-01

    Mucosal protection of the gallbladder is vital yet we know very little about the mechanisms involved. In domestic dogs, an emergent syndrome referred to as gallbladder mucocele formation is characterized by excessive secretion of abnormal mucus that results in obstruction and rupture of the gallbladder. The cause of gallbladder mucocele formation is unknown. In these first mechanistic studies of this disease, we investigated normal and mucocele-forming dog gallbladders to determine the source, identity, biophysical properties, and protein associates of the culprit mucins with aim to identify causes for abnormal mucus behavior. We established that mucocele formation involves an adoptive excess secretion of gel forming mucins with abnormal properties by the gallbladder epithelium. The mucus is characterized by a disproportionally significant increase in Muc5ac relative to Muc5b, defective mucin un-packaging, and mucin-interacting innate defense proteins that are capable of dramatically altering the physical and functional properties of mucus. These findings provide an explanation for abnormal mucus behavior and based on similarity to mucus observed in the airways of people with cystic fibrosis, suggest that abnormal mechanisms for maintenance of gallbladder epithelial hydration may be an instigating factor for mucocele formation in dogs. PMID:26414376

  11. Microarray analysis shows that recessive resistance to Watermelon mosaic virus in melon is associated with the induction of defense response genes.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Ibeas, Daniel; Cañizares, Joaquin; Aranda, Miguel A

    2012-01-01

    Resistance to Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) in melon (Cucumis melo L.) accession TGR-1551 is characterized by a significant reduction in virus titer, and is inherited as a recessive, loss-of-susceptibility allele. We measured virus RNA accumulation in TGR-1551 plants and a susceptible control ('Tendral') by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and also profiled the expression of 17,443 unigenes represented on a melon microarray over a 15-day time course. The virus accumulated to higher levels in cotyledons of the resistant variety up to 9 days postinoculation (dpi) but, thereafter, levels increased in the susceptible variety while those in the resistant variety declined. Microarray experiments looking at the early response to infection (1 and 3 dpi), as well as responses after 7 and 15 dpi, revealed more profound transcriptomic changes in resistant plants than susceptible ones. The gene expression profiles revealed deep and extensive transcriptome remodeling in TGR-1551 plants, often involving genes with pathogen response functions. Overall, our data suggested that resistance to WMV in TGR-1551 melon plants is associated with a defense response, which contrasts with the recessive nature of the resistance trait. PMID:21970693

  12. Excess Secretion of Gel-Forming Mucins and Associated Innate Defense Proteins with Defective Mucin Un-Packaging Underpin Gallbladder Mucocele Formation in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Kesimer, Mehmet; Cullen, John; Cao, Rui; Radicioni, Giorgia; Mathews, Kyle G.; Seiler, Gabriela; Gookin, Jody L.

    2015-01-01

    Mucosal protection of the gallbladder is vital yet we know very little about the mechanisms involved. In domestic dogs, an emergent syndrome referred to as gallbladder mucocele formation is characterized by excessive secretion of abnormal mucus that results in obstruction and rupture of the gallbladder. The cause of gallbladder mucocele formation is unknown. In these first mechanistic studies of this disease, we investigated normal and mucocele-forming dog gallbladders to determine the source, identity, biophysical properties, and protein associates of the culprit mucins with aim to identify causes for abnormal mucus behavior. We established that mucocele formation involves an adoptive excess secretion of gel forming mucins with abnormal properties by the gallbladder epithelium. The mucus is characterized by a disproportionally significant increase in Muc5ac relative to Muc5b, defective mucin un-packaging, and mucin-interacting innate defense proteins that are capable of dramatically altering the physical and functional properties of mucus. These findings provide an explanation for abnormal mucus behavior and based on similarity to mucus observed in the airways of people with cystic fibrosis, suggest that abnormal mechanisms for maintenance of gallbladder epithelial hydration may be an instigating factor for mucocele formation in dogs. PMID:26414376

  13. Emergency mitigation and preparedness in healthcare facilities.

    PubMed

    Paras, Emma; Schwartz, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    The city of Akron, Ohio, has four major healthcare facilities: Akron General Medical Center, Summa Akron City Hospital, Summa St. Thomas, and Akron Children's Hospital. These institutions have implemented the preparedness and mitigative strategies to prepare for hazards affecting the community. Because of the wide population these facilities serve, it is crucial that an effective emergency management (EM) system be in place at each hospital. Archival research and interviews with the emergency managers of each hospital examine the preparedness of these establishments for disasters. Strengths and weaknesses of the EM systems are also discussed and include recommendations on ways to improve shortcomings. This research demonstrates how EM is evolving and improving in one of the most important critical infrastructure of a community. PMID:24623110

  14. Emergency preparedness for home healthcare providers.

    PubMed

    Ruder, Shirley

    2012-06-01

    Unfortunately, disasters occur. We cannot always know the effects ahead of time, but we do know that lives can be lost, property damaged, and public health and home care agencies may not be able to provide the normal standard of care. Studies have shown that disaster preparedness content is limited in U.S. nursing programs (). Given the magnitude of recent natural disasters, such as the Japanese earthquake and tsunami in 2011, these findings are alarming. The increasing demands on healthcare providers in response to emergencies force home healthcare clinicians to identify their roles and responsibilities in emergency preparedness. This article discusses 1 model of disaster response and the role of the home healthcare provider at each stage. It further guides home healthcare nurses in creating a personal and professional plan, enabling them to understand how to minimize the impact of disasters and address the needs of their patients and those close to them. PMID:21987023

  15. Progress of vaccine and drug development for Ebola preparedness

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Since the first case of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Guinea was reported in March 2014 by World Health Organization (WHO), the outbreak has continued through the year and the total number of 19,065 patients was reported as the confirmed or suspected in the EVD-affected countries. Among the cases, 7,388 patients were reported death by 19 December. Currently, available therapeutics to treat the infected patients or vaccines to prevent people from infection is not developed yet while viral diagnostic methods were already developed and firmly established in a lot of countries as a first step for the preparedness of Ebola outbreak. Some potential therapeutic materials including ZMapp were supplied and the treated people got over the EVD. Several candidates of vaccines also were investigated their efficacy in animal models by National Institute of Health (NIH) and Department of Defense, and they are processing of clinical tests in West Africa aiming to finish the development by the 2015. Vaccine and therapeutic development is essential to stop the EVD outbreak in West Africa, also to protect the world from the risk which can be generated by potential spread of Ebola virus. PMID:25648233

  16. Raising risk preparedness through flood risk communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maidl, E.; Buchecker, M.

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, most European countries have produced risk maps of natural hazards, but little is known about how to communicate these maps most effectively to the public. In October 2011, Zurich's local authorities informed owners of buildings located in the urban flood hazard area about potential flood damage, the probability of flood events and protection measures. The campaign was based on the assumptions that informing citizens increases their risk awareness and that citizens who are aware of risks are more likely to undertake appropriate actions to protect themselves and their property. This study is intended as a contribution to a better understanding the factors influencing flood risk preparedness, with a special focus on the effects of such a one-way risk communication strategy. We conducted a standardized mail survey of 1500 property owners in the hazard areas in Zurich. The questionnaire comprised items measuring respondents' risk awareness, risk preparedness, flood experience, information seeking behaviour, knowledge about flood risk, evaluation of the information material, risk acceptance, kind of property owned, attachment to the property, trust in local authorities, and socio-demographic variables. Multivariate data analysis revealed that the average level of risk awareness and preparedness was low, but our results confirmed that the campaign had a statistically significant effect on the level of preparedness. The main factors influencing the respondents' intention to prepare for a flood were the extent to which they evaluated the information material positively and their risk awareness. Those who had never taken any interest in floods previously were less likely to read the material. For future campaigns, we therefore recommend repeated communication of relevant information tailored to the needs of the target population.

  17. Raising risk preparedness by flood risk communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maidl, E.; Buchecker, M.

    2015-07-01

    During the last decade, most European countries have produced hazard maps of natural hazards, but little is known about how to communicate these maps most efficiently to the public. In October 2011, Zurich's local authorities informed owners of buildings located in the urban flood hazard zone about potential flood damage, the probability of flood events and protection measures. The campaign was based on the assumptions that informing citizens increases their risk awareness and that citizens who are aware of risks are more likely to undertake actions to protect themselves and their property. This study is intended as a contribution to better understand the factors that influence flood risk preparedness, with a special focus on the effects of such a one-way risk communication strategy. We conducted a standardized mail survey of 1500 property owners in the hazard zones in Zurich (response rate main survey: 34 %). The questionnaire included items to measure respondents' risk awareness, risk preparedness, flood experience, information-seeking behaviour, knowledge about flood risk, evaluation of the information material, risk acceptance, attachment to the property and trust in local authorities. Data about the type of property and socio-demographic variables were also collected. Multivariate data analysis revealed that the average level of risk awareness and preparedness was low, but the results confirmed that the campaign had a statistically significant effect on the level of preparedness. The main influencing factors on the intention to prepare for a flood were the extent to which respondents evaluated the information material positively as well as their risk awareness. Respondents who had never taken any previous interest in floods were less likely to read the material. For future campaigns, we therefore recommend repeated communication that is tailored to the information needs of the target population.

  18. South Carolina Area Health Education Consortium Disaster Preparedness and Response Training Network: an emerging partner in preparedness training.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Beth; Carson, Deborah Stier; Garr, David

    2009-03-01

    The South Carolina Area Health Education Consortium (SC AHEC) was funded in 2003 to train healthcare professionals in disaster preparedness and response. During the 5 years of funding, its Disaster Preparedness and Response Training Network evolved from disaster awareness training to competency-based instruction and performance assessment. With funding from the assistant secretary for preparedness and response (ASPR), a project with implications for national dissemination was developed to evaluate 2 aspects of preparedness training for community-based healthcare professionals. The SC AHEC designed disaster preparedness curricula and lesson plans, using a consensus-building technique, and then (1) distributed sample curricula and resources through the national Area Health Education Center system to assess an approach for providing preparedness training and (2) delivered a standardized preparedness curriculum to key influential thought leaders from 4 states to evaluate the effectiveness and acceptability of the curriculum. As a result of this project, the SC AHEC recommends that preparedness training for community-based practitioners needs to be concise and professionally relevant. It should be integrated into existing healthcare professions education programs and continuing education offerings. The project also demonstrated that although AHECs may be interested and well suited to incorporate preparedness training as part of their mission, more work needs to be done if they are to assume a prominent role in disaster preparedness training. PMID:19202395

  19. Exploring the Predictors of Organizational Preparedness for Natural Disasters.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Abdul-Akeem; Graham, John D

    2016-05-01

    There is an extensive body of research on the determinants of disaster preparedness at the individual and household levels. The same cannot be said for the organizational level. Hence, the purpose of this study is to shed light on the predictors of organizational preparedness for natural disasters. Since leaders of organizations have an incentive to overstate their level of preparedness and because surveys of organizational leaders suffer from selection bias and low response rates, we take the novel approach of interviewing employees about the organizations that employ them. Using an online survey, we collected information from a national sample of 2,008 U.S. employees and estimated the predictors of preparedness at the organizational level. We find, among other results, that organization size (facility level) is a consistent predictor of preparedness at the organizational level. We conclude with policy recommendations and outline an agenda for future research on organizational preparedness for natural disasters. PMID:26332326

  20. Emergency preparedness in high school-based athletics: a review of the literature and recommendations for sport health professionals.

    PubMed

    Olympia, Robert P; Brady, Jodi

    2013-05-01

    Approximately 7.6 million high school students in the United States participate in sports. Although most sport-related injuries in adolescents are considered minor emergencies, life-threatening illnesses or injuries may occur, such as sudden cardiac arrest, heat stroke, status asthmaticus and exercise-induced asthma, catastrophic brain injuries, cervical spine injuries, heat- and cold-related illness, blunt chest/abdominal injuries, and extremity fractures resulting in compartment syndrome. Emergency preparedness in athletics involves the identification of and planning for medical services to promote the safety of the athlete, to limit injury, and to provide medical care at the site of practice or competition. Several national organizations have published guidelines for emergency preparedness in school-based athletics. Our article reviews guidelines for emergency preparedness put forth by the Sideline Preparedness collaboration (comprised of 6 major professional associations, including the American Academy of Family Physicians, American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, American College of Sports Medicine, American Medical Society for Sports Medicine, American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine, and American Osteopathic Academy of Sports Medicine), the National Athletic Trainers' Association, the American Academy of Pediatrics' Committee on School Health, and the American Heart Association. Additionally, we review published data examining compliance of US high schools with these recommendations for emergency preparedness in school-based athletics, determine deficiencies, and provide recommendations for improvement based on these deficiencies. PMID:23703513

  1. Malaria-associated L-arginine deficiency induces mast cell-associated disruption to intestinal barrier defenses against nontyphoidal Salmonella bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Chau, Jennifer Y; Tiffany, Caitlin M; Nimishakavi, Shilpa; Lawrence, Jessica A; Pakpour, Nazzy; Mooney, Jason P; Lokken, Kristen L; Caughey, George H; Tsolis, Renee M; Luckhart, Shirley

    2013-10-01

    Coinfection with malaria and nontyphoidal Salmonella serotypes (NTS) can cause life-threatening bacteremia in humans. Coinfection with malaria is a recognized risk factor for invasive NTS, suggesting that malaria impairs intestinal barrier function. Here, we investigated mechanisms and strategies for prevention of coinfection pathology in a mouse model. Our findings reveal that malarial-parasite-infected mice, like humans, develop L-arginine deficiency, which is associated with intestinal mastocytosis, elevated levels of histamine, and enhanced intestinal permeability. Prevention or reversal of L-arginine deficiency blunts mastocytosis in ileal villi as well as bacterial translocation, measured as numbers of mesenteric lymph node CFU of noninvasive Escherichia coli Nissle and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, the latter of which is naturally invasive in mice. Dietary supplementation of malarial-parasite-infected mice with L-arginine or L-citrulline reduced levels of ileal transcripts encoding interleukin-4 (IL-4), a key mediator of intestinal mastocytosis and macromolecular permeability. Supplementation with L-citrulline also enhanced epithelial adherens and tight junctions in the ilea of coinfected mice. These data suggest that increasing L-arginine bioavailability via oral supplementation can ameliorate malaria-induced intestinal pathology, providing a basis for testing nutritional interventions to reduce malaria-associated mortality in humans. PMID:23690397

  2. Malaria-Associated l-Arginine Deficiency Induces Mast Cell-Associated Disruption to Intestinal Barrier Defenses against Nontyphoidal Salmonella Bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Chau, Jennifer Y.; Tiffany, Caitlin M.; Nimishakavi, Shilpa; Lawrence, Jessica A.; Pakpour, Nazzy; Mooney, Jason P.; Lokken, Kristen L.; Caughey, George H.; Tsolis, Renee M.

    2013-01-01

    Coinfection with malaria and nontyphoidal Salmonella serotypes (NTS) can cause life-threatening bacteremia in humans. Coinfection with malaria is a recognized risk factor for invasive NTS, suggesting that malaria impairs intestinal barrier function. Here, we investigated mechanisms and strategies for prevention of coinfection pathology in a mouse model. Our findings reveal that malarial-parasite-infected mice, like humans, develop l-arginine deficiency, which is associated with intestinal mastocytosis, elevated levels of histamine, and enhanced intestinal permeability. Prevention or reversal of l-arginine deficiency blunts mastocytosis in ileal villi as well as bacterial translocation, measured as numbers of mesenteric lymph node CFU of noninvasive Escherichia coli Nissle and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, the latter of which is naturally invasive in mice. Dietary supplementation of malarial-parasite-infected mice with l-arginine or l-citrulline reduced levels of ileal transcripts encoding interleukin-4 (IL-4), a key mediator of intestinal mastocytosis and macromolecular permeability. Supplementation with l-citrulline also enhanced epithelial adherens and tight junctions in the ilea of coinfected mice. These data suggest that increasing l-arginine bioavailability via oral supplementation can ameliorate malaria-induced intestinal pathology, providing a basis for testing nutritional interventions to reduce malaria-associated mortality in humans. PMID:23690397

  3. Application of Behavioral Theories to Disaster and Emergency Health Preparedness: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ejeta, Luche Tadesse; Ardalan, Ali; Paton, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    ), Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM), Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Social Cognitive Theories were most commonly applied to influenza (H1N1 and H5N1), floods, and earthquake hazards. Studies were predominantly conducted in USA (13 studies). In Asia, where the annual number of disasters and victims exceeds those in other continents, only three studies were identified. Overall, the main constructs of HBM (perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers), EPPM (higher threat and higher efficacy), TPB (attitude and subjective norm), and the majority of the constructs utilized in Social Cognitive Theories were associated with preparedness for diverse hazards. However, while all the theories described above describe the relationships between constituent variables, with the exception of research on Social Cognitive Theories, few studies of other theories and models used path analysis to identify the interdependence relationships between the constructs described in the respective theories/models. Similarly, few identified how other mediating  variables could influence disaster and emergency preparedness.  Conclusions: The existing evidence on the application of behavioral theories and models to disaster and emergency preparedness is chiefly from developed countries. This raises issues regarding their utility in countries, particularly in Asisa and the Middle East, where cultural characteristics are very different to those prevailing in the Western countries in which theories have been developed and tested. The theories and models discussed here have been applied predominantly to disease outbreaks and natural hazards, and information on their utility as guides to preparedness for man-made hazards is lacking. Hence, future studies related to behavioral theories and models addressing preparedness need to target developing countries where disaster risk  and the consequent need for preparedness is high. A need for additional work on demonstrating the

  4. Synthetic plant defense elicitors

    PubMed Central

    Bektas, Yasemin; Eulgem, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    To defend themselves against invading pathogens plants utilize a complex regulatory network that coordinates extensive transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming. Although many of the key players of this immunity-associated network are known, the details of its topology and dynamics are still poorly understood. As an alternative to forward and reverse genetic studies, chemical genetics-related approaches based on bioactive small molecules have gained substantial popularity in the analysis of biological pathways and networks. Use of such molecular probes can allow researchers to access biological space that was previously inaccessible to genetic analyses due to gene redundancy or lethality of mutations. Synthetic elicitors are small drug-like molecules that induce plant defense responses, but are distinct from known natural elicitors of plant immunity. While the discovery of some synthetic elicitors had already been reported in the 1970s, recent breakthroughs in combinatorial chemical synthesis now allow for inexpensive high-throughput screens for bioactive plant defense-inducing compounds. Along with powerful reverse genetics tools and resources available for model plants and crop systems, comprehensive collections of new synthetic elicitors will likely allow plant scientists to study the intricacies of plant defense signaling pathways and networks in an unparalleled fashion. As synthetic elicitors can protect crops from diseases, without the need to be directly toxic for pathogenic organisms, they may also serve as promising alternatives to conventional biocidal pesticides, which often are harmful for the environment, farmers and consumers. Here we are discussing various types of synthetic elicitors that have been used for studies on the plant immune system, their modes-of-action as well as their application in crop protection. PMID:25674095

  5. Directions for Defense Digital Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Ronald L.

    1998-01-01

    Describes directions, challenges, and objectives of the information management program of the United States Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The program envisions the rigor and organization normally associated with a research library to be virtually rendered and extended in the networked world of distributed information. (AEF)

  6. Dealing with Natural Disasters: Preparedness versus Post-Event Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitar, N.

    2015-12-01

    Management or mitigation of natural disasters is comprised of two distinct elements: disaster preparedness and disaster response. Fundamentally disasters fall into two categories: 1) those whose timing can be predicted and evaluated in advance, such as hurricanes, floods, tsunamis, or even sea level rise; and 2) those that can be anticipated based on analysis, but their exact timing is unknown, such as earthquakes and landslides. Consequently, the type of response and options available for scientific and engineering consultation are fundamentally different. The common aspects of all natural disasters is that there is evidence of past events either historical or geologic, or both. Thus, given past evidence, scientists and engineers have an opportunity to recommend and guide development and implementation of long term or permanent mitigation measures, such as improving the resiliency of the infrastructure and emergency preparedness. However, the appropriate mitigation measures are very much a function of the type of event. Severe atmospheric events, such as hurricanes, typically can be predicted several days in advance and scientists and engineers have a role in guiding preparation of specific additional, temporary, mitigation measures and selective evacuation, as appropriate. In contrast, while earthquake potential of a given region may be well recognized, the actual timing of the event is an unknown and, consequently, the primary defense is in developing sufficiently resilient infrastructure which can be enhanced with early warning systems. Similarly, the type of damage caused by flooding, e.g. hurricane and tsunami, is significantly different from the type of damage caused by an earthquake in that flooding damage is pervasive affecting large contiguous areas wiping out all infrastructure whereas earthquake or landslide damage tends to be clustered with many elements of infrastructure remaining fully or somewhat operable. This distinction is very important when it

  7. Mining whole genomes and transcriptomes of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) and Castor bean (Ricinus communis) for NBS-LRR genes and defense response associated transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Sood, Archit; Jaiswal, Varun; Chanumolu, Sree Krishna; Malhotra, Nikhil; Pal, Tarun; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

    2014-11-01

    Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) and Castor bean (Ricinus communis) are oilseed crops of family Euphorbiaceae with the potential of producing high quality biodiesel and having industrial value. Both the bioenergy plants are becoming susceptible to various biotic stresses directly affecting the oil quality and content. No report exists as of today on analysis of Nucleotide Binding Site-Leucine Rich Repeat (NBS-LRR) gene repertoire and defense response transcription factors in both the plant species. In silico analysis of whole genomes and transcriptomes identified 47 new NBS-LRR genes in both the species and 122 and 318 defense response related transcription factors in Jatropha and Castor bean, respectively. The identified NBS-LRR genes and defense response transcription factors were mapped onto the respective genomes. Common and unique NBS-LRR genes and defense related transcription factors were identified in both the plant species. All NBS-LRR genes in both the species were characterized into Toll/interleukin-1 receptor NBS-LRRs (TNLs) and coiled-coil NBS-LRRs (CNLs), position on contigs, gene clusters and motifs and domains distribution. Transcript abundance or expression values were measured for all NBS-LRR genes and defense response transcription factors, suggesting their functional role. The current study provides a repertoire of NBS-LRR genes and transcription factors which can be used in not only dissecting the molecular basis of disease resistance phenotype but also in developing disease resistant genotypes in Jatropha and Castor bean through transgenic or molecular breeding approaches. PMID:25106526

  8. Updates on disaster preparedness and progress in disaster relief.

    PubMed

    Pollak, Andrew N; Born, Christopher T; Kamal, Robin N; Adashi, Eli Y

    2012-01-01

    Immediately after the January 2010 earthquake in Haiti, many private citizens, governmental and nongovernmental organizations, and medical associations struggled to mount an effective humanitarian aid response. The experiences of these groups have led to changes at their institutions regarding disaster preparedness and response to future events. One of the main challenges in a humanitarian medical response to a disaster is determining when to end response efforts and return responsibility for delivery of medical care back to the host nation. For such a transition to occur, the host nation must have the capacity to deliver medical care. In Haiti, minimal capacity to deliver such care existed before the earthquake, making subsequent transition difficult. If successful, several initiatives proposed to improve disaster response and increase surgical capacity in Haiti could be deployed to other low- and middle-income countries. PMID:22865138

  9. 75 FR 42448 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Coordinating Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency Response; Notice of Charter Amendment This gives notice... Scientific Counselors, Coordinating Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency Response, Department...

  10. Sandia National Laboratories approach to emergency preparedness

    SciTech Connect

    Galegar, F.H.; Yourick, P.D.; Ross, S.A.

    1997-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories is located on Kirtland AFB on Albuquerque, NM. The Air Force Base proper covers about 74 square miles in which SNL maintains 5 technical areas and the Coyote Test Field. These SNL areas add up to about 18,000 acres. However, SNL has other locations where we conduct corporate emergency planning: Kauai Test Facility (at Pacific Missile Range Facility in Kauai, Hawaii), and the Tonopah Test Range (Nevada). SNL/California located in Livermore has an independent emergency preparedness organization for their emergency planning activities.

  11. Preparedness 3.0: Addressing the Future.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Georges C

    2015-12-01

    The last 14 years has taught us that that we are facing a new reality; a reality in which public health emergencies are a common occurrence. Today, we live in a world with dangerous people without state sponsorship who are an enormous threat to our safety; one where emerging and reemerging infectious diseases are waiting to break out; a world where the benefits of globalization in trade, transportation, and social media brings threats to our communities faster and with a greater risk than ever before. Even climate change has entered into the preparedness equation, bringing with it the forces of nature in the form of extreme weather and its complications. PMID:26545197

  12. An Incident Management Preparedness and Coordination Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Daniel B; Payne, Patricia W

    2012-01-01

    Although the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) by centrally-located operations staff is well established in the area of emergency response, utilization by first responders in the field is uneven. Cost, complexity, and connectivity are often the deciding factors preventing wider adoption. For the past several years, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developing a mobile GIS solution using free and open-source software targeting the needs of front-line personnel. Termed IMPACT, for Incident Management Preparedness and Coordination Toolkit, this ORNL application can complement existing GIS infrastructure and extend its power and capabilities to responders first on the scene of a natural or man-made disaster.

  13. State Health Policy for Terrorism Preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Ziskin, Leah Z.; Harris, Drew A.

    2007-01-01

    State health policy for terrorism preparedness began before the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, but was accelerated after that day. In a crisis atmosphere after September 11, the states found their policies changing rapidly, greatly influenced by federal policies and federal dollars. In the 5 years since September 11, these state health policies have been refined. This refinement has included a restatement of the goals and objectives of state programs, the modernization of emergency powers statutes, the education and training of the public health workforce, and a preparation of the health care system to better care for victims of disasters, including acts of terrorism. PMID:17666689

  14. 44 CFR 208.22 - Preparedness Cooperative Agreement process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preparedness Cooperative Agreement process. 208.22 Section 208.22 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN SEARCH AND RESCUE RESPONSE SYSTEM Preparedness Cooperative Agreements...

  15. Towards Coordination Preparedness of Soft-Target Organisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uddin, Mohammed Shahadat; Hossain, Liaquat

    In this paper, we introduce a network enabled coordination model to examine the coordination preparedness of soft-target organisations such as common public access areas including transit hubs, schools, parks, and sports areas. It is apparent that little attention is given in recent research focusing on the use of network analysis as a way to explore coordination preparedness for this type of organisation. In this study, we emphasise this type of soft-target organisation and propose a model to examine the coordination preparedness to any disasters by testing hypothesis related to network relationship and coordination preparedness. We analyse the dataset entitled Preparedness of Large Retail Malls to Prevent and Respond to Terrorist Attack, 2004, which contains a total of 120 completed surveys of security directors of retail malls. The following questions form the basis of this study: What do soft-target organisations need to be better prepared to respond to disaster? How does network relationship between soft-target organisation and emergency agencies affect the coordination preparedness of soft-target organisation for disaster recovery? Which degree of centrality measure needs to be followed to measure network variables in order to analyse the coordination preparedness? Result shows that soft-target organisation with high level of network relationship with other emergency agencies are better prepared to disaster response. Using this result, the preparedness of a soft-target organisation might be judged for successfully participation in an actual emergency.

  16. Public health preparedness: a systems‐level approach

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Spencer; Mawji, Al; Shiell, Alan; Noseworthy, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Public health and emergency preparedness have become central concepts in the current restructuring of various regional‐, national‐ and global‐level public health and emergency management agencies and systems. In this article, a glossary of the most important terms and concepts currently pertaining to public health preparedness is provided with a focus on systems‐level and organisational issues. PMID:17372286

  17. Making Connections: A Network Approach to University Disaster Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Catherine H.; Vickio, Craig J.; Fogo, Wendy R.; Abraham, Kristen M.

    2007-01-01

    A network approach to disaster preparedness in university settings is described. Basic network concepts relevant for disaster preparedness and methods for analyzing network data without complex mathematics are presented. A case study of campus mental health and academic units at a midwestern university is presented to illustrate the practical…

  18. Confidence and Preparedness to Teach: Conflicting Perspectives from Multiple Stakeholders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Pamala J.; Cowan, Kay W.

    2013-01-01

    This article, "Confidence and Preparedness to Teach" is a quantitative study that examines the level of preparedness for the classroom of fifty-seven student teachers. The student teachers, their cooperating teachers, and the professor-in-residence who monitored the placement completed a twenty-four item survey that rated the prospective…

  19. Presidential Perspectives of Crisis Preparedness at Christian Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrell, Stacy M.; Heiselt, April K.

    2012-01-01

    Crises, whether human or natural, occur on all college campuses. Extensive research has been conducted on crisis preparedness at four-year, nondenominational institutions. This study examined crisis preparedness at Christian institutions of higher education. The study examined the perspectives of presidents of Christian institutions of higher…

  20. 78 FR 32535 - National Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... May 30, 2013 Part II The President Proclamation 8986--National Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2013... 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8986 of May 24, 2013 National Hurricane Preparedness Week,...

  1. 77 FR 32877 - National Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... United States of America the two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-13515 Filed...#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8830 of May 25, 2012 National Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2012 By the... Preparedness Week, we rededicate ourselves to preventing loss of life and damage to property by...

  2. 75 FR 29389 - National Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... of America the two hundred and thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-12753 Filed 5-25-10... Preparedness Week, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Each year during... National Hurricane Preparedness Week, I urge individuals, families, communities, and businesses to...

  3. Public Health Emergency Preparedness at the Local Level: Results of a National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Savoia, Elena; Rodday, Angie Mae; Stoto, Michael A

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between elements of public health infrastructure and local public health emergency preparedness (PHEP). Data Sources/Study Setting National Association of County and City Health Officials 2005 National Profile of Local Health Departments (LHDs). Study Design Cross-sectional. Principal Findings LHDs serving larger populations are more likely to have staff, capacities, and activities in place for an emergency. Adjusting for population size, the presence of a local board of health and the LHDs' experience in organizing PHEP coalitions were associated with better outcomes. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that more research should be conducted to investigate the benefit of merging small health departments into coalitions to overcome the inverse relationship between preparedness and population size of the jurisdiction served by the LHD. PMID:19686254

  4. Identification and analysis of obstacles in bioterrorism preparedness and response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sincavage, Suzanne Michele

    The focus of this study was to identify and analyze the obstacles to bioterrorism preparedness and response facing emergency management agencies and public authorities. In order to establish the limits of this discussion, the obstacles will examine a combined conceptual framework of public health, environmental security and social response. The interdisciplinary characteristics of this framework are ideal for addressing the issue of bioterrorism because of its simultaneous impact, which encompasses the complex interrelationships that pertain to public health and national security and social response. Based on a review of literature, the obstacles presented range from the absence of an effective surveillance system for biological terrorism related diseases to the inadequate training of first responders in bioterrorism preparedness and the difficult challenges of a mass casualty situation and the intense pressures associated with the crisis response. Furthermore, the impending reality of bioterrorism will further illustrate a close examination of the characteristics and management of three major biowarfare agents---anthrax, plague and smallpox. Finally, to provide a realistic understanding of the impact of bioterrorism, three case studies of actual events and two hypothetical scenarios will be discussed. Specifically, the discussion will provide the following three unconventional terrorist attacks: the recent anthrax attacks of 2001, the Aum Shinrikyo's attack of the Tokyo subway in 1995, and the Rajneeshees' use of salmonella poisoning in 1994. The inclusion of the hypothetical scenarios of two massive outbreaks of smallpox and anthrax will be presented to illuminate the seriousness and magnitude of the threat of bioterrorism and the probable consequences of failing to overcome the obstacles presented in this study. The importance of this research cannot be overemphasized, the threat is undeniably serious, and the potential for biological agents to cause devastating

  5. Cross-sector leadership development for preparedness.

    PubMed

    Potter, Margaret A; Burns, Helen K; Barron, Gerald; Grofebert, Alice; Bednarz, G Daniel

    2005-01-01

    After fall 2001, scientists and professionals recognized the importance of integrating public health with traditional first-response professions in planning and training for disasters. However, operationalizing this approach among professionals in the field confronted barriers that were both inter-cultural and jurisdictional. The Pennsylvania Preparedness Leadership Institute (PPLI) is a collaboration of the Pennsylvania Department of Health and the University of Pittsburgh Center for Public Health Preparedness. Team members are recruited from public health, emergency medicine, emergency management, hospitals, and public safety agencies from each of nine multi-county regions in Pennsylvania. Each team takes on a year-long project that addresses a strategic problem as a focus for capacity-building within its region. Unexpectedly during PPLI's first year in operation, a hepatitis-A outbreak tested whether one regional team could successfully mount the necessary integrated response. This experience, as well as the planned evaluation for PPLI, demonstrated both the successful processes and the positive impact of this integrated leadership training initiative. PMID:16025714

  6. Preparedness for AIDS vaccine trials in India.

    PubMed

    Excler, Jean-Louis; Kochhar, Sonali; Kapoor, Sushma; Das, Sweta; Bahri, Jyoti; Ghosh, Meenakshi Datta; Ganguly, N K; Nayyar, Anjali; Chataway, Mark

    2008-06-01

    India bears a heavy disease burden of HIV/AIDS infected and affected people. A safe, effective and accessible preventive AIDS vaccine, used along with other preventive interventions, is urgently needed to stem the epidemic. This review highlights the extensive preparedness activities undertaken from 2002 by the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI), its Indian government and non government partners with the Indian scientific, political, media and community stakeholders and the capacity building process, before the conduct of the first ever AIDS vaccine trials in India in early 2005. Issues addressed included mistrust of clinical research due to past history of some unethical trials, transparency, community involvement, stigma and discrimination, provision for care and treatment of participants, informed consent, gender considerations, approval process, and operational aspects. The strong political support along with preparedness activities led to the successful conduct of AIDS vaccine trials enrolling equitably healthy women and men from all sections of society. This has paved the way for future vaccine trials in the country. PMID:18765870

  7. Bulgy tadpoles: inducible defense morph.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Osamu; Nishimura, Kinya

    2004-08-01

    Predator induced morphological defenses are marked morphological shifts induced directly by cues associated with a predator. Generally, remote cues, i.e., chemical substances emitted from predators or injured conspecifics, are considered to be ideal signals to induce morphological change in aquatic environments rather than close cues, i.e., close chemical or tactile cues, since chemical substances that can propagate over relatively long distances and persist for a long period may allow organisms to keep safe and to deliberately change their morph. In fact, most organisms adopting an inducible morphological defense utilize remote chemical cues to detect predation risk and to produce morphological defenses. In this paper, we report a unique and functionally well designed inducible morphological defense strategy where the induction process requires close cues from a predator. The tadpoles of Rana pirica exhibited a bulgy bodied morphology when threatened with predation by larval salamanders, Hynobius retardatus, in close proximity. Predation trials and a function experiment showed that the induced bulgy morph is an adaptive defense phenotype against the gape-limited predator larval H. retardatus. Furthermore, R. pirica tadpoles use two adaptive strategies in terms of cost saving, i.e., adjustment of the extent of bulginess according to predation risk and reversibility by actual shrink of bulgy body after removing the predation threat. In general, R. pirica hatch earlier than H. retardatus. In natural ponds, during the early developmental stage R. pirica tadpoles live in close proximity to young H. retardatus larvae. As they grow, the salamanders gradually become serious predators and the predator-prey interaction becomes intimate. After a while, predation, cannibalism and metamorphosis decrease the number of salamanders in the ponds, and the predator-prey interaction weakens. Such a phenology in the predator-prey interaction allows the evolution of a close

  8. Technologies for Distributed Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Seiders, Barbara AB; Rybka, Anthony J.

    2002-07-01

    For Americans, the nature of warfare changed on September 11, 2001. Our national security henceforth will require distributed defense. One extreme of distributed defense is represented by fully deployed military troops responding to a threat from a hostile nation state. At the other extreme is a country of "citizen soldiers," with families and communities securing their common defense through heightened awareness, engagement as good neighbors, and local support of and cooperation with local law enforcement, emergency and health care providers. Technologies - for information exploitation, biological agent detection, health care surveillance, and security - will be critical to ensuring success in distributed defense.

  9. Emergency Preparedness and Response in the School Setting--The Role of the School Nurse. Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuck, Christine M.; Haynie, Kathey; Davis, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) provides leadership in all phases of emergency preparedness and response. School nurses are a vital part of the school team responsible for developing emergency response procedures for the…

  10. 33 CFR 203.21 - Disaster preparedness responsibilities of non-Federal interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disaster preparedness... DISASTER PROCEDURES Disaster Preparedness § 203.21 Disaster preparedness responsibilities of non-Federal interests. Disaster preparedness is a basic tenet of State and local responsibility. Assistance...

  11. 33 CFR 203.21 - Disaster preparedness responsibilities of non-Federal interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disaster preparedness... DISASTER PROCEDURES Disaster Preparedness § 203.21 Disaster preparedness responsibilities of non-Federal interests. Disaster preparedness is a basic tenet of State and local responsibility. Assistance...

  12. 33 CFR 203.21 - Disaster preparedness responsibilities of non-Federal interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disaster preparedness... DISASTER PROCEDURES Disaster Preparedness § 203.21 Disaster preparedness responsibilities of non-Federal interests. Disaster preparedness is a basic tenet of State and local responsibility. Assistance...

  13. The Common Ground Preparedness Framework: A Comprehensive Description of Public Health Emergency Preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Theadore, Fred; Jellison, James B.

    2012-01-01

    Currently, public health emergency preparedness (PHEP) is not well defined. Discussions about public health preparedness often make little progress, for lack of a shared understanding of the topic. We present a concise yet comprehensive framework describing PHEP activities. The framework, which was refined for 3 years by state and local health departments, uses terms easily recognized by the public health workforce within an information flow consistent with the National Incident Management System. To assess the framework's completeness, strengths, and weaknesses, we compare it to 4 other frameworks: the RAND Corporation's PREPARE Pandemic Influenza Quality Improvement Toolkit, the National Response Framework's Public Health and Medical Services Functional Areas, the National Health Security Strategy Capabilities List, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's PHEP Capabilities. PMID:22397343

  14. The common ground preparedness framework: a comprehensive description of public health emergency preparedness.

    PubMed

    Gibson, P Joseph; Theadore, Fred; Jellison, James B

    2012-04-01

    Currently, public health emergency preparedness (PHEP) is not well defined. Discussions about public health preparedness often make little progress, for lack of a shared understanding of the topic. We present a concise yet comprehensive framework describing PHEP activities. The framework, which was refined for 3 years by state and local health departments, uses terms easily recognized by the public health workforce within an information flow consistent with the National Incident Management System. To assess the framework's completeness, strengths, and weaknesses, we compare it to 4 other frameworks: the RAND Corporation's PREPARE Pandemic Influenza Quality Improvement Toolkit, the National Response Framework's Public Health and Medical Services Functional Areas, the National Health Security Strategy Capabilities List, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's PHEP Capabilities. PMID:22397343

  15. Salient beliefs about earthquake hazards and household preparedness.

    PubMed

    Becker, Julia S; Paton, Douglas; Johnston, David M; Ronan, Kevin R

    2013-09-01

    Prior research has found little or no direct link between beliefs about earthquake risk and household preparedness. Furthermore, only limited work has been conducted on how people's beliefs influence the nature and number of preparedness measures adopted. To address this gap, 48 qualitative interviews were undertaken with residents in three urban locations in New Zealand subject to seismic risk. The study aimed to identify the diverse hazard and preparedness-related beliefs people hold and to articulate how these are influenced by public education to encourage preparedness. The study also explored how beliefs and competencies at personal, social, and environmental levels interact to influence people's risk management choices. Three main categories of beliefs were found: hazard beliefs; preparedness beliefs; and personal beliefs. Several salient beliefs found previously to influence the preparedness process were confirmed by this study, including beliefs related to earthquakes being an inevitable and imminent threat, self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, personal responsibility, responsibility for others, and beliefs related to denial, fatalism, normalization bias, and optimistic bias. New salient beliefs were also identified (e.g., preparedness being a "way of life"), as well as insight into how some of these beliefs interact within the wider informational and societal context. PMID:23339741

  16. Investigating factors for disaster preparedness among residents of Kuala Lumpur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad-pajooh, E.; Aziz, K. Ab.

    2014-05-01

    The review of past researches discussed that factors such as climate change and movement toward urbanization will result in more frequent and severe disasters in the near future (Yasuhara et al., 2011). Flash flood is the most common type of disaster that residents of Kuala Lumpur (KL) come across, thus in this study, it was desired to discover the factors affecting preparedness among residents of KL as well as assessing the variation of individual preparedness among residents. With the aid of SPSS analysis, the reliability of data, correlation and regression analysis between the investigated factors and disaster preparedness were obtained. According to this research it was found that level of preparedness of residents of KL is still below average; majority of social demographic indicators such as income, education, age, and property ownership showed significant contribution to the variation of disaster preparedness among the residents. For instance men were much more prepared in comparison to women; residents with high level of income and education had also significantly higher preparedness compared to those with low level of income and education. Race was the only factor that differs from the findings of previous studies; since race does not affect the preparedness.

  17. Preparedness of orthopaedic surgeons for modern battlefield surgery.

    PubMed

    Kearney, Sean P; Bluman, Eric M; Lonergan, Keith T; Arrington, Edward D; Ficke, James R

    2012-09-01

    Over 220 U.S. Army orthopaedic surgeons have deployed during the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT). This study documents the orthopaedic procedures performed during the GWOT and identifies training that prepared surgeons for deployment. It reveals deficiencies in surgeons' preparedness and intends to improve predeployment training. All surgeons deployed during the GWOT from 2001 to 2007 were surveyed. Questions fit 4 general categories: deployment demographics, medical and surgical experiences, predeployment preparation, and self-perceived preparedness during deployment. Response rate was 70%. Surgeons averaged 138 adult operative cases and 26 pediatric cases per deployment. All surgeons performed irrigation and debridement, 94% external fixation, 93% amputations, 89% arthrotomies, 86% open reduction and internal fixation, and 76% soft-tissue coverage procedures. Residency and fellowship contributed most to surgeon preparedness for deployment. Surgeons generally reported high levels of preparedness, but nearly 1 in 6 reported low levels of medical, surgical and physical preparedness. More reported low levels of mental preparedness. Soft-tissue coverage was the most frequently reported surgical deficiency. This study documents the number and types of orthopaedic procedures performed during the GWOT and identifies the self-perceived preparedness deficiencies of surgeons in a combat environment. Improvements in predeployment training are needed to better prepare surgeons for managing battlefield causalities. PMID:23025135

  18. 76 FR 25 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 252 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement... Supplement (DFARS) to correct the clause list and associated clause dates in the clause ``Contract Terms and... making technical amendments to the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to...

  19. Theoretical perspectives on public communication preparedness for terrorist attacks.

    PubMed

    Wray, Ricardo J; Kreuter, Matthew W; Jacobsen, Heather; Clements, Bruce; Evans, R Gregory

    2004-01-01

    The experience of federal health authorities in responding to the mailed anthrax attacks in the Fall of 2001 sheds light on the challenges of public information dissemination in emergencies. Lessons learned from the Fall of 2001 have guided more recent efforts related to crisis communication and preparedness goals. This article applies theories and evidence from the field of communication to provide an orientation to how public health communication can best contribute to the preparedness effort. This theoretical orientation provides a framework to systematically assess current recommendations for preparedness communication. PMID:15596970

  20. LONG-TERM EARTHQUAKE PREPAREDNESS IN CHARLESTON, SOUTH CAROLINA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gori, P.L.; Greene, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Charleston, South Carolina, area offers a unique opportunity to conduct studies that give insight into the implementation of policy for long-term earthquake preparedness at the local level. Research by Greene and Gori documented the low state of preparedness in 1981. Recent studies show that earthquake preparedness activities are now occurring in Charleston. Since 1981, increased national attention has been used by local citizens in Charleston to overcome political, informational, social, organizational, and economic barriers which tend to retard the adoption and implementation of earthquake mitigation policies.

  1. Emergency preparedness: school nurses leading the way.

    PubMed

    Flaherty, Elizabeth A

    2013-07-01

    Nurses are trained to think in terms of the nursing process, which encompasses the five steps of assessment, diagnosis, outcomes/planning, implementation, and evaluation. Cities and towns have developed emergency plans based on the "all-hazards" approach. School district plans are also formulated based on the all-hazards approach of hazard mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery, which mirrors the nursing process. Individual school efforts focus on thesefourprinciples to facilitate development of a comprehensive plan for each school. Utilizing the principles of education, collaboration, resource utilization, leadership, and advocacy throughout the evolution of an updated and functional plan allows for an inclusive and adaptable plan. Like the nursing process, these steps are not separate and distinct, but a continuous process. PMID:23937000

  2. Undergraduate nursing students' preparedness to "go rural".

    PubMed

    Sedgwick, Monique G; Yonge, Olive

    2008-07-01

    This article reports on a theme emerging from a focused ethnography examining the professional socialization of undergraduate fourth year nursing students during a rural hospital preceptored clinical experience. Nursing students and preceptors geographically dispersed over a 640,000 square kilometer rural area participated in this study. Students report student preparedness for the rural hospital setting means to "know what you are getting into". Assisting nursing students to prepare for the rural hospital preceptorship facilitates a positive experience thus increasing the effectiveness of the preceptorship model of clinical teaching. Having a positive rural-based experience also has the potential for recruiting new staff. These preliminary findings suggest that student preparation for the rural hospital preceptorship includes cognitive and psychological preparation, as well as the acquisition of common advanced clinical skills. PMID:18031871

  3. Radiological emergency: Malaysian preparedness and response.

    PubMed

    Yusof, Mohd Abd Wahab; Ali, Hamrah Mohd

    2011-07-01

    Planning and preparation in advance for radiological emergencies can help to minimise potential public health and environmental threats if and when an actual emergency occurs. During the planning process, emergency response organisations think through how they would respond to each type of incident and the resources that will be needed. In Malaysia, planning, preparation for and response to radiological emergencies involve many parties. In the event of a radiological emergency and if it is considered a disaster, the National Security Council, the Atomic Energy Licensing Board and the Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) will work together with other federal agencies, state and local governments, first responders and international organisations to monitor the situation, contain the release, and clean up the contaminated site. Throughout the response, these agencies use their protective action guidelines. This paper discusses Malaysian preparedness for, and response to, any potential radiological emergency. PMID:21729940

  4. 22 CFR 130.4 - Defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Defense articles and defense services. 130.4 Section 130.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.4 Defense articles and defense services. Defense articles and...

  5. 22 CFR 130.4 - Defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Defense articles and defense services. 130.4 Section 130.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.4 Defense articles and defense services. Defense articles and...

  6. 22 CFR 130.4 - Defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Defense articles and defense services. 130.4 Section 130.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.4 Defense articles and defense services. Defense articles and...

  7. 22 CFR 130.4 - Defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Defense articles and defense services. 130.4 Section 130.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.4 Defense articles and defense services. Defense articles and...

  8. 22 CFR 130.4 - Defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Defense articles and defense services. 130.4 Section 130.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.4 Defense articles and defense services. Defense articles and...

  9. Schools and Civil Defense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.

    Civil defense is a planned, coordinated action to protect the population during any emergency whether arising from thermonuclear attack or natural disaster. The Federal Government has assumed four responsibilities--(1) to keep track of the nature of the threat which the civil defense program must meet, (2) to prepare and disseminate information…

  10. Forgiveness and Defense Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maltby, John; Day, Liz

    2004-01-01

    Within the literature on the psychology of forgiveness, researchers have hypothesized that the 1st stage in the process of being able to forgive is the role of psychological defense. To examine such a hypothesis, the authors explored the relationship between forgiveness and defense style. The 304 respondents (151 men, 153 women) completed measures…

  11. Defense Mechanisms: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    This bibliography includes studies of defense mechanisms, in general, and studies of multiple mechanisms. Defense mechanisms, briefly and simply defined, are the unconscious ego defendants against unpleasure, threat, or anxiety. Sigmund Freud deserves the clinical credit for studying many mechanisms and introducing them in professional literature.…

  12. States at Risk: America's Preparedness Report Card

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, R. M. S.; Strauss, B.; Kulp, S. A.; Bronzan, J.; Rodehorst, B.; Bhat, C.; Dix, B.; Savonis, M.; Wiles, R.

    2015-12-01

    Many states are already experiencing the costly impacts of extreme climate and weather events. The occurrence, frequency and intensity of these events may change under future climates. Preparing for these changes takes time, and state government agencies and communities need to recognize the risks they could potentially face and the response actions already undertaken. The States at Risk: America's Preparedness Report Card project is the first-ever study that quantifies five climate-change-driven hazards, and the relevant state government response actions in each of the 50 states. The changing characteristics of extreme heat, drought, wildfires, inland and coastal flooding were assessed for the baseline period (around year 2000) through the years 2030 and 2050 across all 50 states. Bias-corrected statistically-downscaled (BCSD) climate projections (Reclamation, 2013) and hydrology projections (Reclamation, 2014) from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) under RCP8.5 were used. The climate change response action analysis covers five critical sectors: Transportation, Energy, Water, Human Health and Communities. It examined whether there is evidence that the state is taking action to (1) reduce current risks, (2) raise its awareness of future risks, (3) plan for adaptation to the future risks, and (4) implement specific actions to reduce future risks for each applicable hazards. Results from the two analyses were aggregated and translated into a rating system that standardizes assessments across states, which can be easily understood by both technical and non-technical audiences. The findings in this study not only serve as a screening tool for states to recognize the hazards they could potentially face as climate changes, but also serve as a roadmap for states to address the gaps in response actions, and to improve climate preparedness and resilience.

  13. Emergency preparedness at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Skipper, M.N.

    1990-03-01

    Emergency preparedness for industry was commonly believed to be an essential responsibility on the part of management. Therefore, this study was conducted to research and accumulate information and data on emergency preparedness at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The objective of this study was to conduct a thorough evaluation of emergency preparedness knowledge among employees to determine if they were properly informed or if they needed more training. Also, this study was conducted to provide insight to management as to what their responsibility was concerning this training. To assess employee emergency preparedness knowledge, a questionnaire was developed and administered to 100 employees at ORNL. The data was analyzed using frequencies and percentages of response and was displayed through the use of graphs within the report. 22 refs., 22 figs.

  14. 78 FR 72122 - Draft Emergency Preparedness Frequently Asked Questions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... Commission (NRC) is making available for comment Emergency Preparedness Frequently Asked Question (EPFAQ) No... Library at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/adams.html . To begin the search, select ``ADAMS Public...

  15. Identification and Expression Analysis of Candidate Genes Associated with Defense Responses to Phytophthora capsici in Pepper Line “PI 201234”

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pingyong; Liu, Xiaodan; Guo, Jinju; Liu, Chen; Fu, Nan; Shen, Huolin

    2015-01-01

    Phytophthora capsici (Leonian), classified as an oomycete, seriously threatens the production of pepper (Capsicum annuum). Current understanding of the defense responses in pepper to P. capsici is limited. In this study, RNA-sequencing analysis was utilized to identify differentially expressed genes in the resistant line “PI 201234”, with 1220 differentially expressed genes detected. Of those genes, 480 were up-regulated and 740 were down-regulated, with 211 candidate genes found to be involved in defense responses based on the gene annotations. Furthermore, the expression patterns of 12 candidate genes were further validated via quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). These genes were found to be significantly up-regulated at different time points post-inoculation (6 hpi, 24 hpi, and 5 dpi) in the resistant line “PI 201234” and susceptible line “Qiemen”. Seven genes were found to be involved in cell wall modification, phytoalexin biosynthesis, symptom development, and phytohormone signaling pathways, thus possibly playing important roles in combating exogenous pathogens. The genes identified herein will provide a basis for further gene cloning and functional verification studies and will aid in an understanding of the regulatory mechanism of pepper resistance to P. capsici. PMID:25993303

  16. Disaster preparedness: institutional capacity building in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Poncelet, J L; de Ville de Goyet, C

    1996-01-01

    Latin American and Caribbean countries are prone to natural, technological and "complex" disasters. This vulnerability to catastrophic events led the region to undertake the long journey away from an ad hoc response towards institutional preparedness and, more recently, to disaster prevention and mitigation. This article attempts to outline the definitions and basic principles of institutional emergency preparedness, including reliance on the more effective use of existing resources, rather than establishment of special stockpiles and equipment; the critical importance of general participation and awareness; and the interrelationship of the health sector with others and the potential for leadership. How to assess the level of preparedness is discussed. Stress is placed on the fact that preparedness is traditionally confused with the existence of a written disaster plan. Preparedness should be seen as a never-ending, complex process that can only be assessed through an in-depth review of coordination, planning, training and logistic elements. There is also a fundamental distinction between preparedness, i.e., "getting ready to respond" and disaster prevention/mitigation, which aims to reduce the health impact. The latter calls for the collaboration of engineers, architects, planners and economists with the health sector. It is illustrated by the regional initiative in the Americas to reduce the physical vulnerability of hospitals to earthquakes and hurricanes. In spite of the encouraging achievements, much remains to be done. Weak areas include preparedness for technological disasters, and a true inter-country preventive approach to common disasters across borders. Electronic communications through the Internet will also help to suppress borders and boundaries, contributing to a truly collective approach to emergency preparedness and disaster relief coordination. PMID:9170234

  17. Two systems and defenses.

    PubMed

    Novick, Jack; Novick, Kerry Kelly

    2013-02-01

    The authors suggest that Freud's concept of defense differentiated psychoanalysis from other medical and psychological theories of personality development and functioning then and now. Reclaiming the concept's centrality and linking it with interdisciplinary research findings, they illustrate their extension of defense into a two-system model of self-protection and self-regulation with a clinical example. The authors suggest that the two-system model allows for the reintegration of defense into a multidimensional psychoanalytic theory and multimodal therapeutic technique. PMID:23421665

  18. Emotional exhaustion and defense mechanisms in intensive therapy unit nurses.

    PubMed

    Regan, Anna; Howard, Ruth A; Oyebode, Jan R

    2009-05-01

    Contrary to its original conceptualization, research has found that emotional demands do not lead to burnout in nurses. According to psychoanalytic theory, unconscious defense mechanisms may protect nurses from conscious awareness of work-related anxiety. This prevents self-report and may explain research findings. The maturity of defense style influences how anxiety is managed. Immature defenses prevent the conscious processing necessary for resolution of anxiety. Therefore, it is hypothesized that the use of immature defenses will lead to emotional exhaustion. This cross-sectional study used questionnaires to explore the defense mechanisms of 87 Intensive Therapy Unit nurses. Although the sample endorsed a predominantly mature defense style, the use of immature defenses predicted emotional exhaustion. Also, lower levels of reported stress associated with emotional demands predicted emotional exhaustion. Although this strongly implies the mediating role of immature defense mechanisms, the results were not statistically significant. PMID:19440106

  19. Hope, defense mechanisms, and adjustment: implications for false hope and defensive hopelessness.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Paul

    2002-04-01

    Two studies replicated and expanded an earlier finding that defense style plays a crucial role in the relation between hope and dysphoria (Kwon, 2000). Lower hope and higher defense style immaturity were each associated with greater dysphoria, depression proneness, and maladjustment. Individuals with low hope and low defense immaturity did not have poor outcomes, supporting the existence of a subtype of low hope (defensive hopelessness) that may have adaptive value. The combination of high hope and high defense immaturity was not associated with maladaptive outcomes, arguing against the false hope construct. Additionally, the findings remained after controlling for levels of anxiety. Thus, it appears that the results are not attributable to general distress or negative affectivity. Finally, domain-specific hope was shown to correlate most strongly with matching areas of adjustment, providing evidence for the validity of the construct. PMID:11908846

  20. The danger of declining funds: Public Health Preparedness in NYC.

    PubMed

    Marquez, Monica; Patel, Prachee; Raphael, Marisa; Morgenthau, Beth Maldin

    2009-09-01

    Since 2001, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (NYC DOHMH) has built a strong public health preparedness foundation, made possible in large part by funding from the Public Health Emergency Preparedness (PHEP) Cooperative Agreement provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. While this funding has allowed NYC DOHMH to make great progress in areas such as all-hazards planning, risk communication, disease surveillance, and lab capacity, the erosion of federal preparedness dollars for all-hazards preparedness has the potential to reverse these gains. Since the initiation of the PHEP grant in 2002, PHEP funding has steadily declined nationwide. Specifically, the total federal allocation has decreased approximately 20%, from $862,777,000 in 2005 to $688,914,546 in 2009. With city and state budgets at an all-time low, federal funding cuts will have a significant impact on public health preparedness programs nationwide. In this time of strict budgetary constraints, the nation would be better served by strategically awarding federal preparedness funds to areas at greatest risk. The absence of risk-based funding in determining PHEP grant awards leaves the nation's highest-risk areas, like New York City, with insufficient resources to prepare for and respond to public health emergencies. This article examines the progress New York City has made and what is at stake as federal funding continues to wane. PMID:19821753

  1. Peer-mentored preparedness (PM-Prep): a new disaster preparedness program for adults living independently in the community.

    PubMed

    Eisenman, David Paul; Bazzano, Alicia; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Lewis, Mary-Ann; Lamb, Kerry; Lehrer, Danise

    2014-02-01

    The authors studied a health promotion program called PM-Prep (Peer-Mentored Prep), which was designed to improve disaster preparedness among adults living independently in the community. PM-Prep consists of four 2-hour classes co-taught by a health educator and peer-mentors. Adults were randomly assigned to an experimental arm or a wait-list control arm. Earthquake safety knowledge and preparedness supplies were assessed prior to the intervention and at 1 month after the intervention (N  =  82). Adults in the experimental arm significantly increased preparedness by 19 percentage points, from 56% to 75% completed (p < .0001), and improved their knowledge by 8 percentage points, from 79% to 87% correct (p  =  .001). This is the first peer-mentored, targeted, and tailored disaster preparedness program tested with this population. PMID:24635691

  2. (Geo)Ethics. Step 1: Preparedness.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marone, Eduardo

    2015-04-01

    Natural hazards have been defined in several ways in recent decades. Whatever your choice, it will be fine provided you consider that they are complex physical phenomena that expose a natural area to risk of loss of life, environmental degradation and property damages. In a time-line, one may divide the hazards, particularly those considered extremes, in a pre-event phase, the event itself and a post-event period. At this moment, I would like to promote an initial reflection by focusing in the geoethical behaviour scientists have to bear in mind accordingly to the particular characteristics of the pre-event phase, considering ethics as a way of systematizing, defending and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct. In an accelerated world, where the pressure of the every day life gives us little room to exercise our mind to think in such apparent démodé issues as ethics, society, nature, responsibilities and duties, I would like to invite you to stop few minutes and reflect on the ethical implications of being a geoscientists dealing with natural hazards in the XXI century. The most dangerous hazards are those extreme events with a rapid onset (earthquakes, tsunamis, etc.). Thus far, science has not found effective ways to predict and reduce most natural hazards. If we are not capable to forecast or minimize the effect of an extreme event, geosciences, and scientists, are responsible of in deep risk assessments for areas that might be subject to natural hazards also contributing to preparedness of society. However, we have been working on that issues, but it seems we are not being as efficient as needed. On the risk analysis, which includes forecast models, we use to be too Cartesians, taking too much time in arriving to conclusions when a non clear cause-effect chain can be identified. It is our ethical duty to evaluate when to stop searching for causes when dealing with complex systems. The search for a specific cause for a given extreme natural event

  3. Real-Time Quantitative RT-PCR of Defense-Associated Gene Transcripts of Rhizoctonia solani-Infected Bean Seedlings in Response to Inoculation with a Nonpathogenic Binucleate Rhizoctonia Isolate.

    PubMed

    Wen, Kui; Seguin, Philippe; St-Arnaud, Marc; Jabaji-Hare, Suha

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT Certain isolates of nonpathogenic binucleate Rhizoctonia spp. (np-BNR) are effective biocontrol agents against seedling root rot and damping-off. Inoculation of bean seed with np-BNR strain 232-CG at sowing reduced disease symptoms in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seedlings caused by R. solani. Molecular analyses of the spatial expression of three defense-associated genes were carried out using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) assays. This method allowed accurate quantitative evaluation of transcript levels of pG101 encoding for 1,3-beta-D-glucanase, gPAL1 encoding for phenylalanine ammonia lyase, and CHS17 encoding for chalcone synthase in 1- and 2-week-old bean seedlings that were inoculated simultaneously with np-BNR and infected with R. solani, and in seedlings that were singly inoculated with either fungi or not inoculated. In the seedlings that were infected with R. solani only, results revealed that, following infection, activation of all defense-associated gene transcripts was achieved with significant increases ranging from 7- to 40-fold greater than the control, depending on the defense gene and tissue analyzed. Seedlings that were treated with np-BNR and infected with R. solani had expression similar to those that were treated with np-BNR only, but the levels were significantly down-regulated compared with those that were infected with R. solani only. These findings indicate that disease suppression by np-BNR isolate is not correlated to pG101, gPAL1, and CHS17 gene activation. PMID:18943035

  4. Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Centers: Using a Public Health Systems Approach to Improve All-Hazards Preparedness and Response

    PubMed Central

    Leinhos, Mary; Williams-Johnson, Mildred

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, at the request of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Institute of Medicine (IOM) prepared a report identifying knowledge gaps in public health systems preparedness and emergency response and recommending near-term priority research areas. In accordance with the Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Act mandating new public health systems research for preparedness and emergency response, CDC provided competitive awards establishing nine Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Centers (PERRCs) in accredited U.S. schools of public health. The PERRCs conducted research in four IOM-recommended priority areas: (1) enhancing the usefulness of public health preparedness and response (PHPR) training, (2) creating and maintaining sustainable preparedness and response systems, (3) improving PHPR communications, and (4) identifying evaluation criteria and metrics to improve PHPR for all hazards. The PERRCs worked closely with state and local public health, community partners, and advisory committees to produce practice-relevant research findings. PERRC research has generated more than 130 peer-reviewed publications and nearly 80 practice and policy tools and recommendations with the potential to significantly enhance our nation's PHPR to all hazards and that highlight the need for further improvements in public health systems. PMID:25355970

  5. Defenses and disincentives to proliferation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Snipes, F.S.; Scesney, P.E.

    1992-03-02

    The proliferation of ballistic missiles and their associated technologies through the Third World has become a chief security concern for the United States and its allies. To meet this threat, the U.S. and other industrial nations have attempted to impose export controls on critical missile technologies in order to prohibit certain regimes from acquiring ballistic missile systems. Unfortunately, the controls have largely been ineffective as not only have ballistic missiles been acquired by dangerous Third World regimes, but often the technology and engineering expertise to indigenously produce these weapons have been obtained as well. Two major instances of ballistic missile use in the Third World--the Iran-Iraq War of the Cities and Desert Storm--have brought home the realization that arms control measures alone are not going to be successful in stopping proliferation of these weapons. Other responses to these systems are needed to enhance current arms control efforts. One of these responses is active ballistic missile defense. Desert Storm demonstrated the utility of defense as a response to the products of proliferation. Less obvious, but of great interest to SDI and U.S. foreign policy is how this demonstration of defensive prowess and subsequent development in defensive technologies will affect ballistic missile proliferation. The presence of defenses reduces the value of ballistic missiles that is determined by a potential proliferator. By doing so, defenses provide disincentives for regional countries to proliferate. Examining these disincentives is an integral part of determining the net value of defensive deployments.

  6. Risk communications and the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, B.M.

    1995-12-31

    One of the greater challenges the Army faces is effectively dealing with the concerns of the public, local officials and the news media on the disposal of aging chemical agents. This paper describes the method developed for the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP). The purpose was to provide a fairly comprehensive document on risk communication research and recommended practices as they related to the CSEPP. Using the communications perspective suggested by Covello and colleagues, the existing practices of communicating risk information about chemical weapons and the associated efforts in emergency planning, storage and eventual disposal are described. Risk communication problems specific to the CSEPP are then examined and described via scenarios. A framework is developed that distinguishes between the major components of risk communication, flow and intent. Within this framework, the research and recommendations are summarized as to direction of flow -- dialogue, or two-way interaction, versus monologue, or one-way communication -- and that of intent -- exchange versus persuasion. The findings and recommendations are synthesized and related to risk events for the CSEPP as posited in the scenarios.

  7. Forecasting disease risk for increased epidemic preparedness in public health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, M. F.; Rogers, D. J.; Cox, J.; Flahault, A.; Hay, S. I.

    2000-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases pose a growing threat to human populations. Many of the world's epidemic diseases (particularly those transmitted by intermediate hosts) are known to be highly sensitive to long-term changes in climate and short-term fluctuations in the weather. The application of environmental data to the study of disease offers the capability to demonstrate vector-environment relationships and potentially forecast the risk of disease outbreaks or epidemics. Accurate disease forecasting models would markedly improve epidemic prevention and control capabilities. This chapter examines the potential for epidemic forecasting and discusses the issues associated with the development of global networks for surveillance and prediction. Existing global systems for epidemic preparedness focus on disease surveillance using either expert knowledge or statistical modelling of disease activity and thresholds to identify times and areas of risk. Predictive health information systems would use monitored environmental variables, linked to a disease system, to be observed and provide prior information of outbreaks. The components and varieties of forecasting systems are discussed with selected examples, along with issues relating to further development.

  8. Forecasting Disease Risk for Increased Epidemic Preparedness in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Myers, M.F.; Rogers, D.J.; Cox, J.; Flahault, A.; Hay, S.I.

    2011-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases pose a growing threat to human populations. Many of the world’s epidemic diseases (particularly those transmitted by intermediate hosts) are known to be highly sensitive to long-term changes in climate and short-term fluctuations in the weather. The application of environmental data to the study of disease offers the capability to demonstrate vector–environment relationships and potentially forecast the risk of disease outbreaks or epidemics. Accurate disease forecasting models would markedly improve epidemic prevention and control capabilities. This chapter examines the potential for epidemic forecasting and discusses the issues associated with the development of global networks for surveillance and prediction. Existing global systems for epidemic preparedness focus on disease surveillance using either expert knowledge or statistical modelling of disease activity and thresholds to identify times and areas of risk. Predictive health information systems would use monitored environmental variables, linked to a disease system, to be observed and provide prior information of outbreaks. The components and varieties of forecasting systems are discussed with selected examples, along with issues relating to further development. PMID:10997211

  9. Risk management of international trade: emergency preparedness.

    PubMed

    Torres, A; David, M J; Bowman, Q P

    2002-12-01

    Emergency preparedness and management are among the most important and critical issues facing animal health in the world today. The goals of a country for an animal health emergency management (AHEM) system should include the following: --being prepared to detect and manage an outbreak of a foreign animal disease --preventing the introduction of foreign and emerging animal pathogens --having an appropriate response system for control and eradication of the disease --having a system for recovery from animal health emergencies, including natural disasters. An AHEM system can no longer be limited to a single organisation within a country. In the event of a serious threat to the animal agriculture of a country, broader and more comprehensive participation is required. If not properly planned for, animal health emergencies can rapidly become national disasters. Therefore, it is essential that the central government of a country work towards these goals through partnerships with other Federal and State/Provincial/District organisations, academic institutions and national animal industries. PMID:12523689

  10. Emergency Nurses’ Requirements for Disaster Preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Seyedin, Hesam; Abbasi Dolatabadi, Zahra; Rajabifard, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Natural and man-made disasters affect people, communities, and health systems. Nurses play a key role in the health system and must be prepared for appropriate response in disasters. Objectives: This study was done to assess the current knowledge of nurses in emergency departments for disaster preparedness. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 110 emergency nurses working in teaching hospitals affiliated to Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. A questionnaire was used to collect data and the data were then analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics with SPSS software version 16.0. Results: Based on the findings, most of the participants (64.5%) were aged 30 - 39 years old. 84% of the cases were female and 97.3% had a bachelor’s degree. The average perceived knowledge of nurses was 2.43 ± 1.01. The nurses had the highest familiarity with triage and lowest knowledge in epidemiology and decision-making. Conclusions: Lack knowledge of nurses regarding response to disaster situations indicates inefficiencies in the current system. Therefore, it is recommended to organize more workshops, annual training courses, and maneuvers based on staff needs and formulate continuous education courses for nurses. PMID:26839868

  11. InaSAFE applications in disaster preparedness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pranantyo, Ignatius Ryan; Fadmastuti, Mahardika; Chandra, Fredy

    2015-04-01

    Disaster preparedness activities aim to reduce the impact of disasters by being better prepared to respond when a disaster occurs. In order to better anticipate requirements during a disaster, contingency planning activities can be undertaken prior to a disaster based on a realistic disaster scenario. InaSAFE is a tool that can inform this process. InaSAFE is a free and open source software that estimates the impact to people and infrastructure from potential hazard scenarios. By using InaSAFE, disaster managers can develop scenarios of disaster impacts (people and infrastructures affected) to inform their contingency plan and emergency response operation plan. While InaSAFE provides the software framework exposure data and hazard data are needed as inputs to run this software. Then InaSAFE can be used to forecast the impact of the hazard scenario to the exposure data. InaSAFE outputs include estimates of the number of people, buildings and roads are affected, list of minimum needs (rice and clean water), and response checklist. InaSAFE is developed by Indonesia's National Disaster Management Agency (BNPB) and the Australian Government, through the Australia-Indonesia Facility for Disaster Reduction (AIFDR), in partnership with the World Bank - Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR). This software has been used in many parts of Indonesia, including Padang, Maumere, Jakarta, and Slamet Mountain for emergency response and contingency planning.

  12. Situational awareness in public health preparedness settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirhaji, Parsa; Michea, Yanko F.; Zhang, Jiajie; Casscells, Samuel W.

    2005-05-01

    September 11 2001 attacks and following Anthrax mailings introduced emergent need for developing technologies that can distinguish between man made and natural incidents in the public health level. With this objective in mind, government agencies started a funding effort to foster the design, development and implementation of such systems on a wide scale. But the outcomes have not met the expectations set by the resources invested. Multiple elements explain this phenomenon: As it has been frequent with technology, introduction of new surveillance systems to the workflow equation has occurred without taking into consideration the need for understanding and inclusion of deeper personal, psychosocial, organizational and methodological concepts. The environment, in which these systems are operating, is complex, highly dynamic, uncertain, risky, and subject to intense time pressures. Such 'difficult' environments are very challenging to the human as a decision maker. In this paper we will challenge these systems from the perspective of human factors design. We will propose employment of systematic situational awareness research for design and implementation of the next generation public health preparedness infrastructures. We believe that systems designed based on results of such analytical definition of the domain enable public health practitioners to effectively collect the most important cues from the environment, process, interpret and understand the information in the context of organizational objectives and immediate tasks at hand, and use that understanding to forecast the short term and long term impact of the events in the safety and well being of the community.

  13. MERS coronavirus: data gaps for laboratory preparedness.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Rita; Reusken, Chantal; Koopmans, Marion

    2014-01-01

    Since the emergence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012, many questions remain on modes of transmission and sources of virus. In outbreak situations, especially with emerging organisms causing severe human disease, it is important to understand the full spectrum of disease, and shedding kinetics in relation to infectivity and the ability to transmit the microorganism. Laboratory response capacity during the early stages of an outbreak focuses on development of virological and immunological methods for patient diagnosis, for contact tracing, and for epidemiological studies into sources, modes of transmission, identification of risk groups, and animal reservoirs. However, optimal use of this core public health laboratory capacity requires a fundamental understanding of kinetics of viral shedding and antibody response, of assay validation and of interpretation of test outcomes. We reviewed available data from MERS-CoV case reports, and compared this with data on kinetics of shedding and immune response from published literature on other human coronaviruses (hCoVs). We identify and discuss important data gaps, and biases that limit the laboratory preparedness to this novel disease. Public health management will benefit from standardised reporting of methods used, details of test outcomes by sample type, sampling date, in relation to symptoms and risk factors, along with the currently reported demographic, clinical and epidemiological findings. PMID:24286807

  14. Household Emergency Preparedness by Housing Type from a Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER), Michigan

    PubMed Central

    Murti, M; Bayleyegn, T; Stanbury, M; Bies, S; Flanders, WD; Yard, E; Nyaku, M; Schnall, A; Wolkin, A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined the association between housing type and household emergency preparedness among households in Oakland County, Michigan. Methods We used interview data on household emergency preparedness from a cluster design survey in Oakland County, Michigan, in 2012. We compared survey-weighted frequencies of household demographics, medical conditions, and preparedness measures in single-detached homes versus multi-unit dwellings, and determined the unadjusted odds ratios (OR) and the income-level adjusted OR for each preparedness measure. Results Households had similar demographics and medical conditions between housing types. Unadjusted ORs were statistically significant for single-detached homes having a generator (11.1), back-up heat source (10.9), way to cook without utilities (5.8), carbon monoxide (CO) detector (3.8), copies of important documents (3.4), evacuation routes (3.1), and three-day supply of water (2.5). Income level adjusted ORs remained statistically significant except for owning a CO detector. Conclusions Households in multi-unit dwellings were less likely to have certain recommended emergency plans and supplies compared to those in single-detached homes. Further research is required to explore the feasibility, barriers, and alternatives for households in multi-unit dwellings in terms of complying with these measures. PMID:24524350

  15. Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness among Pregnant Women in Duguna Fango District, Wolayta Zone, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness is a strategy to promote the timely use of skilled maternal and neonatal care, especially during childbirth, based on the theory that preparing for childbirth and being ready for complications reduces delays in obtaining this care. Objective This study was conducted to assess birth preparedness and complication readiness and its associated factors among pregnant woman in Duguna Fango District in Wolayta Zone, South Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013, on a sample of 578 pregnant women. Data were collected using pre-tested and structured questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS for windows version 16.0. The women were asked whether they followed the desired five steps while pregnant: identified a trained birth attendant, identified a health facility, arranged for transport, identified blood donor and saved money for emergency. Taking at least three steps was considered being well-prepared. Results Among 578 pregnant women only one tenth (10.7%) of pregnant women identified skilled provider. Only 103 (18.1%) arranged transportation to health facility. Two hundred forty eight (43.6%) identified health facility for delivery and/or for obstetric emergencies. more than half (54.1%) of families saved money for incurred costs of delivery and emergency if needed. only few 17(3%) identified potential blood donor in case of emergency. Two hundred sixty four (46.4%) of the respondents reported that they intended to deliver at home, and more than half (53.6) planned to deliver at health facilities. Overall less than one fifth 18.3% of pregnant women were well prepared. The adjusted multivariate model showed that significant predictors for being well-prepared were maternal availing of antenatal services (AOR = 2.95, 95% CI: 1.62–5.37), being pregnant for the first time (AOR = 3.37, 95% CI: 1.45–7.82), having knowledge of at least two danger signs during

  16. Herbivore exploits orally secreted bacteria to suppress plant defenses

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Seung Ho; Rosa, Cristina; Scully, Erin D.; Peiffer, Michelle; Tooker, John F.; Hoover, Kelli; Luthe, Dawn S.; Felton, Gary W.

    2013-01-01

    Induced plant defenses in response to herbivore attack are modulated by cross-talk between jasmonic acid (JA)- and salicylic acid (SA)-signaling pathways. Oral secretions from some insect herbivores contain effectors that overcome these antiherbivore defenses. Herbivores possess diverse microbes in their digestive systems and these microbial symbionts can modify plant–insect interactions; however, the specific role of herbivore-associated microbes in manipulating plant defenses remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) larvae exploit bacteria in their oral secretions to suppress antiherbivore defenses in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). We found that antibiotic-untreated larvae decreased production of JA and JA-responsive antiherbivore defenses, but increased SA accumulation and SA-responsive gene expression. Beetles benefit from down-regulating plant defenses by exhibiting enhanced larval growth. In SA-deficient plants, suppression was not observed, indicating that suppression of JA-regulated defenses depends on the SA-signaling pathway. Applying bacteria isolated from larval oral secretions to wounded plants confirmed that three microbial symbionts belonging to the genera Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, and Enterobacter are responsible for defense suppression. Additionally, reinoculation of these bacteria to antibiotic-treated larvae restored their ability to suppress defenses. Flagellin isolated from Pseudomonas sp. was associated with defense suppression. Our findings show that the herbivore exploits symbiotic bacteria as a decoy to deceive plants into incorrectly perceiving the threat as microbial. By interfering with the normal perception of herbivory, beetles can evade antiherbivore defenses of its host. PMID:24019469

  17. Herbivore exploits orally secreted bacteria to suppress plant defenses.

    PubMed

    Chung, Seung Ho; Rosa, Cristina; Scully, Erin D; Peiffer, Michelle; Tooker, John F; Hoover, Kelli; Luthe, Dawn S; Felton, Gary W

    2013-09-24

    Induced plant defenses in response to herbivore attack are modulated by cross-talk between jasmonic acid (JA)- and salicylic acid (SA)-signaling pathways. Oral secretions from some insect herbivores contain effectors that overcome these antiherbivore defenses. Herbivores possess diverse microbes in their digestive systems and these microbial symbionts can modify plant-insect interactions; however, the specific role of herbivore-associated microbes in manipulating plant defenses remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) larvae exploit bacteria in their oral secretions to suppress antiherbivore defenses in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). We found that antibiotic-untreated larvae decreased production of JA and JA-responsive antiherbivore defenses, but increased SA accumulation and SA-responsive gene expression. Beetles benefit from down-regulating plant defenses by exhibiting enhanced larval growth. In SA-deficient plants, suppression was not observed, indicating that suppression of JA-regulated defenses depends on the SA-signaling pathway. Applying bacteria isolated from larval oral secretions to wounded plants confirmed that three microbial symbionts belonging to the genera Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, and Enterobacter are responsible for defense suppression. Additionally, reinoculation of these bacteria to antibiotic-treated larvae restored their ability to suppress defenses. Flagellin isolated from Pseudomonas sp. was associated with defense suppression. Our findings show that the herbivore exploits symbiotic bacteria as a decoy to deceive plants into incorrectly perceiving the threat as microbial. By interfering with the normal perception of herbivory, beetles can evade antiherbivore defenses of its host. PMID:24019469

  18. Moscow's defense intellectuals

    SciTech Connect

    Lambeth, B.S.

    1990-01-01

    This essay was originally written two decades ago as a seminar paper. A substantial portion of it addresses what were then only the first steps toward the establishment of a community of professional civilian defense analysts in the Soviet Union. Throughout most of the intervening period, that community found itself mired in immobilism as jurisdiction over such key Soviet national security inputs as military doctrine, force requirements, resource needs, and to a considerable degree, arms negotiating positions remained an exclusive prerogative of the Defense Ministry and the General Staff. Today, this former military monopoly has come to be challenged with increasing success by a host of newcomers to the Soviet defense scene, including the Foreign Ministry, the Supreme Soviet, and an ambitious cadre of civilian analysts attached to the social science research institutes of the Academy of Sciences. These individuals are making a determined bid for greater influence over Soviet defense policy, with the express encouragement of President Gorbachev and his supporters. The result has been an unprecedented infusion of pluralism into Soviet defense politics and a significant change in the content and goals of Soviet military policy.

  19. Ebola preparedness in the Western Pacific Region, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Pavlin, Boris; Squires, Raynal C.; Chinnayah, Thilaka; Konings, Frank; Lee, Chin-Kei; Ailan, Li

    2015-01-01

    West Africa is currently experiencing the largest outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in history with intense transmission in several affected countries. For non-affected countries, the best protective measures are adequate levels of preparedness including vigilant surveillance to detect cases early and well prepared health systems to ensure rapid containment of the virus and to avoid further spread. The World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific recently conducted two activities: a web-based EVD preparedness survey and an EVD simulation exercise to determine the overall level of EVD preparedness in the Region. The survey and exercise together demonstrate there is a good overall level of preparedness for a potential imported case of EVD in the Western Pacific Region. However, several areas still require further strengthening before the Region can efficiently and effectively respond to potential EVD events, including laboratory testing arrangements; clinical management and infection prevention and control; and public health intervention measures, particularly at points of entry. Importantly, the survey and exercise also highlight the unique situation in Pacific island countries and emphasize that special considerations are needed to better support these countries in EVD preparedness. PMID:25960926

  20. Disaster preparedness: an investigation on motivation and barriers.

    PubMed

    Dorasamy, Magiswary; Raman, Murali; Marimuthu, Maran; Kaliannan, Maniam

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a preliminary investigation on the motivations for and the barriers that hinder preparedness toward disasters in a community. Survey questionnaires were distributed to local individuals in the nine districts of Selangor state in Malaysia. A total of 402 usable questionnaires were analyzed. The initial findings revealed that community members are motivated for disaster preparedness mainly for family safety reason. However, generally they do not know how to be prepared. This article concludes by highlighting the importance of knowledge and information in community preparedness. This research is limited to one state in Malaysia. However, the chosen state has a large effect on the Malaysian gross domestic product; hence, lack of preparedness poses a critical risk to its large population. This study on motivation and barriers for disaster preparedness is intended to increase the effectiveness of community readiness as a whole toward major disasters such as landslide and flood. The result of this study is valuable to the scientific community within the disaster management domain, the government agencies for policy and strategy formulations, and the local community to preempt, deal with, and ultimately survive disasters. This research aims to ensure that the community is continuously prepared and able to meet the evolving needs of the individual citizen as the nation strives toward promoting a knowledgeable society. PMID:24623112

  1. Ebola preparedness in the Western Pacific Region, 2014.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Xu; Pavlin, Boris; Squires, Raynal C; Chinnayah, Thilaka; Konings, Frank; Lee, Chin-Kei; Ailan, Li

    2015-01-01

    West Africa is currently experiencing the largest outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in history with intense transmission in several affected countries. For non-affected countries, the best protective measures are adequate levels of preparedness including vigilant surveillance to detect cases early and well prepared health systems to ensure rapid containment of the virus and to avoid further spread. The World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific recently conducted two activities: a web-based EVD preparedness survey and an EVD simulation exercise to determine the overall level of EVD preparedness in the Region. The survey and exercise together demonstrate there is a good overall level of preparedness for a potential imported case of EVD in the Western Pacific Region. However, several areas still require further strengthening before the Region can efficiently and effectively respond to potential EVD events, including laboratory testing arrangements; clinical management and infection prevention and control; and public health intervention measures, particularly at points of entry. Importantly, the survey and exercise also highlight the unique situation in Pacific island countries and emphasize that special considerations are needed to better support these countries in EVD preparedness. PMID:25960926

  2. Evaluation of a Tabletop Emergency Preparedness Exercise for Pharmacy Students.

    PubMed

    Pate, Adam; Bratberg, Jeffrey P; Robertson, Courtney; Smith, Gregory

    2016-04-25

    Objective. To describe the implementation and effect of an emergency preparedness laboratory activity on student knowledge, willingness to participate in emergency preparedness training, current level of preparedness, and the importance of a pharmacist's role in disaster response. Design. Second-year pharmacy students in the infectious disease module participated in a laboratory activity based on a basic disaster response tabletop exercise format. Three case-based scenarios involving infectious diseases were created by participating faculty members. Assessment. Surveys before and after the laboratory were used to assess the activity's effect on student knowledge, willingness to participate in emergency preparedness training, current level of preparedness, and the importance of a pharmacist's role in disaster response. In addition, the postsurvey assessed student perceptions of the activity's success at accomplishing faculty-specified outcomes from Appendix B of the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education's (ACPE) Standards. Conclusion. Implementation of an emergency response laboratory activity may improve overall students' knowledge of, confidence in, and understanding of their role as pharmacists in an emergency response, while incorporating a variety of skills and knowledge outcomes. PMID:27170821

  3. Evaluation of a Tabletop Emergency Preparedness Exercise for Pharmacy Students

    PubMed Central

    Bratberg, Jeffrey P.; Robertson, Courtney; Smith, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To describe the implementation and effect of an emergency preparedness laboratory activity on student knowledge, willingness to participate in emergency preparedness training, current level of preparedness, and the importance of a pharmacist’s role in disaster response. Design. Second-year pharmacy students in the infectious disease module participated in a laboratory activity based on a basic disaster response tabletop exercise format. Three case-based scenarios involving infectious diseases were created by participating faculty members. Assessment. Surveys before and after the laboratory were used to assess the activity’s effect on student knowledge, willingness to participate in emergency preparedness training, current level of preparedness, and the importance of a pharmacist’s role in disaster response. In addition, the postsurvey assessed student perceptions of the activity’s success at accomplishing faculty-specified outcomes from Appendix B of the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education’s (ACPE) Standards. Conclusion. Implementation of an emergency response laboratory activity may improve overall students’ knowledge of, confidence in, and understanding of their role as pharmacists in an emergency response, while incorporating a variety of skills and knowledge outcomes. PMID:27170821

  4. Financial burden of emergency preparedness on an urban, academic hospital.

    PubMed

    Petinaux, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the direct human resource costs of a hospital's emergency preparedness planning (in 2005) by surveying participants retrospectively. Forty participants (74% of the identified population) were surveyed. Using the self-reported hourly salary of the participant, a direct salary cost was calculated for each participant. The population was 40% male and 60% female; 65% had a graduate degree or higher; 65% were administrators; 35% were clinicians; and 50% reported that their job description included a reference to emergency planning activities. All participants spent a combined total of 3,654.25 hours on emergency preparedness activities, including 20.1% on personal education/training; 11.6% on educating other people; 39.3% on paperwork or equipment maintenance; 22.2% on attendance at meetings; 5.6% on drill participation; and <1% on other activities. Considering the participants' hourly salary, direct personal costs spent on emergency preparedness activities at the institution totaled US$232,417.Ten percent, all of whom were physicians, reported no compensation for their emergency preparedness efforts at the hospital level. As much as these results illustrate the strong commitment of the institution to its community, they represent a heavy burden in light of the often unfunded mandate of emergency preparedness planning that a hospital may incur. Such responsibility is carried to some extent by all hospitals. PMID:20066636

  5. Near-misses and future disaster preparedness.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Robin L; Tinsley, Catherine H; Burns, William J

    2014-10-01

    Disasters garner attention when they occur, and organizations commonly extract valuable lessons from visible failures, adopting new behaviors in response. For example, the United States saw numerous security policy changes following the September 11 terrorist attacks and emergency management and shelter policy changes following Hurricane Katrina. But what about those events that occur that fall short of disaster? Research that examines prior hazard experience shows that this experience can be a mixed blessing. Prior experience can stimulate protective measures, but sometimes prior experience can deceive people into feeling an unwarranted sense of safety. This research focuses on how people interpret near-miss experiences. We demonstrate that when near-misses are interpreted as disasters that did not occur and thus provide the perception that the system is resilient to the hazard, people illegitimately underestimate the danger of subsequent hazardous situations and make riskier decisions. On the other hand, if near-misses can be recognized and interpreted as disasters that almost happened and thus provide the perception that the system is vulnerable to the hazard, this will counter the basic "near-miss" effect and encourage mitigation. In this article, we use these distinctions between resilient and vulnerable near-misses to examine how people come to define an event as either a resilient or vulnerable near-miss, as well as how this interpretation influences their perceptions of risk and their future preparedness behavior. Our contribution is in highlighting the critical role that people's interpretation of the prior experience has on their subsequent behavior and in measuring what shapes this interpretation. PMID:24773610

  6. Restaurant industry preparedness against intentional food contamination: results of a South Carolina survey.

    PubMed

    Xirasagar, Sudha; Kanwat, C P; Smith, Lillian U; Li, Yi-Jhen; Sros, Lekhena; Shewchuk, Richard M

    2010-01-01

    Food safety and food defense are both responsibilities of public health agencies. Food safety practices within restaurants are regulated by state and local public health laws based on the US Food and Drug Administration Model Food Code. However, little is known about preemptive practices against intentional food-borne outbreaks within restaurants. The researchers administered a survey to a 50 percent random sample of South Carolina's restaurants, a state that relies heavily on tourism and the restaurant industry for its economic well-being. The survey received a response rate of 15 percent. The food defense practice items fall under three functional categories: employee management and training practices; vendor and delivery-related practices; and physical facilities and operational security practices. This study presents the results, classified by geographic region. Findings indicate some key areas of vulnerability that need attention to protect the public from mass food outbreaks due to intentional contamination. Of concern, there is much variation in practices by geographic region. On the basis of the survey, recommendations are made to improve restaurant preparedness against food-borne outbreaks from terrorism and malevolent contamination. PMID:20520362

  7. Value of space defenses

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1992-10-29

    This report discusses the economic value of defenses against Near-Earth Object (NEO) impacts is bounded by calculating expected losses in their absence, which illustrates the contributions from NEOs of different sizes and the sensitivity of total expected losses to impact frequencies. For typical size distributions and damage of only a few decades duration, losses are most sensitive to small NEOs, and lead to defenses worth a few $M/yr. When the persistence of damage with NEO size is taken into account, that shifts the loss to the largest NEOs and greatly increases expected loss and values.

  8. 3 CFR 8854 - Proclamation 8854 of August 31, 2012. National Preparedness Month, 2012

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... our preparedness for disasters of all types—from cyber incidents and acts of terrorism to tornadoes... preparedness and observe this month by working together to enhance our national security, resilience,...

  9. 75 FR 18214 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Coordinating Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency Response (BSC, COTPER) \\1\\ \\1\\ The Coordinating Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency Response has been renamed and is now the Office of...

  10. 76 FR 58466 - Request for Comments on World Health Organization Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... influenza preparedness via the Federal Register on September 14, 2010; 75 FR 55776-55777. The Department of... International Trade Administration Request for Comments on World Health Organization Pandemic Influenza... the World Health Organization Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework (...

  11. 44 CFR 352.22 - Functions of the Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee (FRPCC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS PLANNING Federal Participation § 352.22 Functions of the Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee (FRPCC). Under 44 CFR part 351, the role of...

  12. 44 CFR 352.22 - Functions of the Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee (FRPCC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS PLANNING Federal Participation § 352.22 Functions of the Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee (FRPCC). Under 44 CFR part 351, the role of...

  13. Practical considerations for disaster preparedness and continuity management in research facilities.

    PubMed

    Mortell, Norman; Nicholls, Sam

    2013-10-01

    Many research facility managers, veterinarians and directors are familiar with the principles of Good Laboratory Practice, requirements of the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International, tenets of biosecurity and standards of animal welfare and housing but may be less familiar with the ideas of business continuity. But business continuity considerations are as applicable to research facilities as they are to other institutions. The authors discuss how business continuity principles can be applied in the research context and propose that such application, or 'research continuity management,' enables a focused but wide-reaching approach to disaster preparedness. PMID:24051650

  14. Superstorm Sandy's forgotten patient: a lesson in emergency preparedness in severe obesity.

    PubMed

    Ramme, Austin J; Vira, Shaleen; McLaurin, Toni M

    2015-02-01

    Superstorm Sandy gained national attention in late 2012 after its impact on the Northeastern US. In New York City, thousands of residents lost power, and multiple hospitals were forced to evacuate. Bellevue Hospital Center (BHC), the nation's oldest public hospital, was forced to close for the first time in over 275 years. Two patients remained in BHC three days after the primary evacuation without water service and minimal power. Herein, we describe the challenges associated with evacuating a severely obese patient. Obesity management is challenging and at an institutional level must be addressed in emergency preparedness plans. PMID:25627622

  15. The meta-leadership summit for preparedness initiative: an innovative model to advance public health preparedness and response.

    PubMed

    Sobelson, Robyn K; Young, Andrea C; Marcus, Leonard J; Dorn, Barry C; Neslund, Verla S; McNulty, Eric J

    2013-12-01

    This article reports on the design, evaluation framework, and results from the Meta-Leadership Summit for Preparedness Initiative. The Meta-Leadership Summit for Preparedness was a 5-year initiative based on the premise that national preparedness and emergency response is not solely the responsibility of government. From 2006 to 2011, 36 Meta-Leadership Summits were delivered in communities across the country. Summits were customized, 10-hour leadership development, networking, and community action planning events. They included participation from targeted federal, state, local, nonprofit/philanthropic, and private sector leaders who are directly involved in decision making during a major community or state-wide emergency. A total of 4,971 government, nonprofit, and business leaders attended Meta-Leadership Summits; distribution of attendees by sector was balanced. Ninety-three percent of respondents reported the summit was a valuable use of time, 91% reported the overall quality as "good" or "outstanding," and 91% would recommend the summit to their colleagues. In addition, approximately 6 months after attending a summit, 80% of respondents reported that they had used meta-leadership concepts or principles. Of these, 93% reported that using meta-leadership concepts or principles had made a positive difference for them and their organizations. The Meta-Leadership Summit for Preparedness Initiative was a value-added opportunity for communities, providing the venue for learning the concepts and practice of meta-leadership, multisector collaboration, and resource sharing with the intent of substantively improving preparedness, response, and recovery efforts. PMID:24251597

  16. The pitfalls of bioterrorism preparedness: the anthrax and smallpox experiences.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Hillel W; Gould, Robert M; Sidel, Victor W

    2004-10-01

    Bioterrorism preparedness programs have contributed to death, illness, and waste of public health resources without evidence of benefit. Several deaths and many serious illnesses have resulted from the smallpox vaccination program; yet there is no clear evidence that a threat of smallpox exposure ever existed. The anthrax spores released in 2001 have been linked to secret US military laboratories-the resultant illnesses and deaths might not have occurred if those laboratories were not in operation. The present expansion of bioterrorism preparedness programs will continue to squander health resources, increase the dangers of accidental or purposeful release of dangerous pathogens, and further undermine efforts to enforce international treaties to ban biological and chemical weapons. The public health community should acknowledge the substantial harm that bioterrorism preparedness has already caused and develop mechanisms to increase our public health resources and to allocate them to address the world's real health needs. PMID:15451727

  17. 75 FR 76423 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board...

  18. 76 FR 28960 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board...

  19. 76 FR 28757 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... of the Secretary Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of Availability (NOA) of Revised Defense Logistics Agency Regulation. SUMMARY: The Defense...

  20. Radiological Defense Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Washington, DC.

    Originally prepared for use as a student textbook in Radiological Defense (RADEF) courses, this manual provides the basic technical information necessary for an understanding of RADEF. It also briefly discusses the need for RADEF planning and expected postattack emergency operations. There are 14 chapters covering these major topics: introduction…

  1. Censorship: Tactics for Defense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowery, Skip

    1998-01-01

    Book banners are generally successful because they have a wide network of support, including national coalitions with sophisticated organizational methods--such as electing certain people to school boards. School officials should get organized and devise defensive strategies, such as inviting critics to class, asking what they would like to…

  2. Defense Language Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    Discussed in this Defense Language Institute (DLI) brochure are its intensive language programs' history, and its four schools, which are located in Monterey, California, Washington, D.C., Lackland Air Force Base, and Fort Bliss, Texas. Proficiency levels determined by the DLI and utilization of the audiolingual method are also described.…

  3. Landscape Variation in Plant Defense Syndromes across a Tropical Rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McManus, K. M.; Asner, G. P.; Martin, R.; Field, C. B.

    2014-12-01

    Plant defenses against herbivores shape tropical rainforest biodiversity, yet community- and landscape-scale patterns of plant defense and the phylogenetic and environmental factors that may shape them are poorly known. We measured foliar defense, growth, and longevity traits for 345 canopy trees across 84 species in a tropical rainforest and examined whether patterns of trait co-variation indicated the existence of plant defense syndromes. Using a DNA-barcode phylogeny and remote sensing and land-use data, we investigated how phylogeny and topo-edaphic properties influenced the distribution of syndromes. We found evidence for three distinct defense syndromes, characterized by rapid growth, growth compensated by defense, or limited palatability/low nutrition. Phylogenetic signal was generally lower for defense traits than traits related to growth or longevity. Individual defense syndromes were organized at different taxonomic levels and responded to different spatial-environmental gradients. The results suggest that a diverse set of tropical canopy trees converge on a limited number of strategies to secure resources and mitigate fitness losses due to herbivory, with patterns of distribution mediated by evolutionary histories and local habitat associations. Plant defense syndromes are multidimensional plant strategies, and thus are a useful means of discerning ecologically-relevant variation in highly diverse tropical rainforest communities. Scaling this approach to the landscape level, if plant defense syndromes can be distinguished in remotely-sensed data, they may yield new insights into the role of plant defense in structuring diverse tropical rainforest communities.

  4. 44 CFR 352.22 - Functions of the Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee (FRPCC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee (FRPCC). Under 44 CFR part 351, the role of the... Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee (FRPCC). 352.22 Section 352.22 Emergency Management and... and local governments in their radiological emergency planning and preparedness activities. Under...

  5. 44 CFR 352.22 - Functions of the Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee (FRPCC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee (FRPCC). Under 44 CFR part 351, the role of the... Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee (FRPCC). 352.22 Section 352.22 Emergency Management and... and local governments in their radiological emergency planning and preparedness activities. Under...

  6. 44 CFR 352.22 - Functions of the Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee (FRPCC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee (FRPCC). Under 44 CFR part 351, the role of the... Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee (FRPCC). 352.22 Section 352.22 Emergency Management and... and local governments in their radiological emergency planning and preparedness activities. Under...

  7. 76 FR 77235 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... Public Health Preparedness and Response: Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice under the Federal... of Public Health Preparedness and Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC... Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response, CDC, HHS, 1600 Clifton Road...

  8. 78 FR 69682 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... Public Health Preparedness and Response: Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice under the Federal... of Public Health Preparedness and Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC... Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response, CDC, HHS, 1600 Clifton Road,...

  9. 78 FR 15369 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (BSC, OPHPR)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ... Public Health Preparedness and Response (BSC, OPHPR) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal..., Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR), concerning strategies and goals for the... following topics: Public Health Preparedness and Response Policy Updates; improving critical...

  10. Critical Event Preparedness and Response: Keynote Address to the 2006 Sloan Research Workshop by Jon Links

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Janet C.

    2008-01-01

    At the intersection of online education and preparedness, Johns Hopkins University's (JHU) Center for Public Health Preparedness provides all-hazards preparedness and response training for public health and public safety professionals. This report comes from Jonathan Links' keynote address to the Sloan Summer Research Workshop in Baltimore,…

  11. 3 CFR 8679 - Proclamation 8679 of May 20, 2011. National Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2011 8679 Proclamation 8679 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8679 of May 20, 2011 Proc. 8679 National Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2011By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation National Hurricane Preparedness Week highlights the importance...

  12. Incident Management Preparedness and Coordination Toolkit

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-04-01

    As with many professions, safety planners and first responders tend to be specialists in certain areas. To be truly useful, tools should be tailored to meet their specific needs. Thus, general software suites aimed at the professional geographic information system (GIS) community might not be the best solution for a first responder with little training in GIS terminology and techniques. On the other hand, commonly used web-based map viewers may not have the capability tomore » be customized for the planning, response, and recovery (PR&R) mission. Data formats should be open and foster easy information flow among local, state, and federal partners. Tools should be free or low-cost to address real-world budget constraints at the local level. They also need to work both with and without a network connection to be robust. The Incident Management Preparedness and Coordination Toolkit (IMPACT) can satisfy many of these needs while working in harmony with established systems at the local, state, and federal levels. The IMPACT software framework, termed the Geospatial Integrated Problem Solving Environment (GIPSE), organizes tasks, tools, and resources for the end user. It uses the concept of software wizards to both customize and extend its functionality. On the Tasks panel are a number of buttons used to initiate various operations. Similar to macros, these task buttons launch scripts that utilize the full functionality of the underlying foundational components such as the SQL spatial database and ORNL-developed map editor. The user is presented with a series of instruction pages which are implemented with HTML for interactivity. On each page are links which initiate specific actions such as creating a map showing various features. Additional tasks may be quickly programmed and added to the panel. The end user can customize the graphical interface to faciltate its use during an emergency. One of the major components of IMPACT is the ORNL Geospatial Viewer (OGV). It is

  13. Incident Management Preparedness and Coordination Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Daniel B.

    2013-04-01

    As with many professions, safety planners and first responders tend to be specialists in certain areas. To be truly useful, tools should be tailored to meet their specific needs. Thus, general software suites aimed at the professional geographic information system (GIS) community might not be the best solution for a first responder with little training in GIS terminology and techniques. On the other hand, commonly used web-based map viewers may not have the capability to be customized for the planning, response, and recovery (PR&R) mission. Data formats should be open and foster easy information flow among local, state, and federal partners. Tools should be free or low-cost to address real-world budget constraints at the local level. They also need to work both with and without a network connection to be robust. The Incident Management Preparedness and Coordination Toolkit (IMPACT) can satisfy many of these needs while working in harmony with established systems at the local, state, and federal levels. The IMPACT software framework, termed the Geospatial Integrated Problem Solving Environment (GIPSE), organizes tasks, tools, and resources for the end user. It uses the concept of software wizards to both customize and extend its functionality. On the Tasks panel are a number of buttons used to initiate various operations. Similar to macros, these task buttons launch scripts that utilize the full functionality of the underlying foundational components such as the SQL spatial database and ORNL-developed map editor. The user is presented with a series of instruction pages which are implemented with HTML for interactivity. On each page are links which initiate specific actions such as creating a map showing various features. Additional tasks may be quickly programmed and added to the panel. The end user can customize the graphical interface to faciltate its use during an emergency. One of the major components of IMPACT is the ORNL Geospatial Viewer (OGV). It is used to

  14. Defense styles of pedophilic offenders.

    PubMed

    Drapeau, Martin; Beretta, Véronique; de Roten, Yves; Koerner, Annett; Despland, Jean-Nicolas

    2008-04-01

    This pilot study investigated the defense styles of pedophile sexual offenders. Interviews with 20 pedophiles and 20 controls were scored using the Defense Mechanisms Rating Scales. Results showed that pedophiles had a significantly lower overall defensive functioning score than the controls. Pedophiles used significantly fewer obsessional-level defenses but more major image-distorting and action-level defenses. Results also suggested differences in the prevalence of individual defenses where pedophiles used more dissociation, displacement, denial, autistic fantasy, splitting of object, projective identification, acting out, and passive aggressive behavior but less intellectualization and rationalization. PMID:17875603

  15. 9. BASRELIEF DECORATION, 'DEFENSE', MURAL COMMEMORATING THE DEFENSE OF FORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. BAS-RELIEF DECORATION, 'DEFENSE', MURAL COMMEMORATING THE DEFENSE OF FORT DEARBORN - Chicago River Bascule Bridge, Michigan Avenue, Spanning Chicago River at North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  16. Disaster Response and Preparedness Application: Emergency Environmental Response Tool (EERT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smoot, James; Carr, Hugh; Jester, Keith

    2003-01-01

    In 2000, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Environmental Office at the John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) developed an Environmental Geographic Information Systems (EGIS) database. NASA had previously developed a GIS database at SSC to assist in the NASA Environmental Office's management of the Center. This GIS became the basis for the NASA-wide EGIS project, which was proposed after the applicability of the SSC database was demonstrated. Since its completion, the SSC EGIS has aided the Environmental Office with noise pollution modeling, land cover assessment, wetlands delineation, environmental hazards mapping, and critical habitat delineation for protected species. At SSC, facility management and safety officers are responsible for ensuring the physical security of the facilities, staff, and equipment as well as for responding to environmental emergencies, such as accidental releases of hazardous materials. All phases of emergency management (planning, mitigation, preparedness, and response) depend on data reliability and system interoperability from a variety of sources to determine the size and scope of the emergency operation. Because geospatial data are now available for all NASA facilities, it was suggested that this data could be incorporated into a computerized management information program to assist facility managers. The idea was that the information system could improve both the effectiveness and the efficiency of managing and controlling actions associated with disaster, homeland security, and other activities. It was decided to use SSC as a pilot site to demonstrate the efficacy of having a baseline, computerized management information system that ultimately was referred to as the Emergency Environmental Response Tool (EERT).

  17. Spatial mosaic evolution of snail defensive traits

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Steven G; Hulsey, C Darrin; de León, Francisco J García

    2007-01-01

    Background Recent models suggest that escalating reciprocal selection among antagonistically interacting species is predicted to occur in areas of higher resource productivity. In a putatively coevolved interaction between a freshwater snail (Mexipyrgus churinceanus) and a molluscivorous cichlid (Herichthys minckleyi), we examined three components of this interaction: 1) spatial variation in two putative defensive traits, crushing resistance and shell pigmentation; 2) whether abiotic variables or frequency of molariform cichlids are associated with spatial patterns of crushing resistance and shell pigmentation and 3) whether variation in primary productivity accounted for small-scale variation in these defensive traits. Results Using spatial autocorrelation to account for genetic and geographic divergence among populations, we found no autocorrelation among populations at small geographic and genetic distances for the two defensive traits. There was also no correlation between abiotic variables (temperature and conductivity) and snail defensive traits. However, crushing resistance and frequency of pigmented shells were negatively correlated with molariform frequency. Crushing resistance and levels of pigmentation were significantly higher in habitats dominated by aquatic macrophytes, and both traits are phenotypically correlated. Conclusion Crushing resistance and pigmentation of M. churinceanus exhibit striking variation at small spatial scales often associated with differences in primary productivity, substrate coloration and the frequency of molariform cichlids. These local geographic differences may result from among-habitat variation in how resource productivity interacts to promote escalation in prey defenses. PMID:17397540

  18. Disaster Preparedness and Awareness of Patients on Hemodialysis after Hurricane Sandy

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Naoka; Siktel, Hira Babu; Lucido, David; Harbord, Nikolas B.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Patients with ESRD on dialysis live in a complex sociomedical situation and are dependent on technology and infrastructure, such as transportation, electricity, and water, to sustain their lives. Interruptions of this infrastructure by natural disasters can result in devastating outcomes. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Between November of 2013 and April of 2014, a cross-sectional survey was conducted of patients who received maintenance hemodialysis before and after the landfall of Hurricane Sandy on October 29, 2012 in lower Manhattan, New York. The primary outcome was the number of missed dialysis sessions after the storm. Dialysis-specific and general disaster preparedness were assessed using checklists prepared by the National Kidney Foundation and US Homeland Security, respectively. Results In total, 598 patients were approached, and 357 (59.7%) patients completed the survey. Participants were 60.2% men and 30.0% black, with a median age of 60 years old; 94 (26.3%) participants missed dialysis (median of two sessions [quartile 1 to quartile 3 =1–3]), and 236 (66.1%) participants received dialysis at nonregular dialysis unit(s): 209 (58.5%) at affiliated dialysis unit(s) and 27 (7.6%) at emergency rooms. The percentages of participants who carried their insurance information and detailed medication list were 75.9% and 44.3%, respectively. Enhancement of the dialysis emergency packet after the hurricane was associated with a significantly higher cache of medical records at home at follow-up survey (P<0.001, Fisher’s exact test). Multivariate Poisson regression analysis showed that dialysis-specific preparedness (incidence rate ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.87 to 0.98), other racial ethnicity (incidence rate ratio, 0.34; 95% confidence interval, 0.20 to 0.57), dialysis treatment in affiliated units (incidence rate ratio, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.51 to 0.94), and older age (incidence rate ratio, 0

  19. Macroevolutionary patterns of glucosinolate defense and tests of defense-escalation and resource availability hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Cacho, N Ivalú; Kliebenstein, Daniel J; Strauss, Sharon Y

    2015-11-01

    We explored macroevolutionary patterns of plant chemical defense in Streptanthus (Brassicaceae), tested for evolutionary escalation of defense, as predicted by Ehrlich and Raven's plant-herbivore coevolutionary arms-race hypothesis, and tested whether species inhabiting low-resource or harsh environments invest more in defense, as predicted by the resource availability hypothesis (RAH). We conducted phylogenetically explicit analyses using glucosinolate profiles, soil nutrient analyses, and microhabitat bareness estimates across 30 species of Streptanthus inhabiting varied environments and soils. We found weak to moderate phylogenetic signal in glucosinolate classes and no signal in total glucosinolate production; a trend toward evolutionary de-escalation in the numbers and diversity of glucosinolates, accompanied by an evolutionary increase in the proportion of aliphatic glucosinolates; some support for the RAH relative to soil macronutrients, but not relative to serpentine soil use; and that the number of glucosinolates increases with microhabitat bareness, which is associated with increased herbivory and drought. Weak phylogenetic signal in chemical defense has been observed in other plant systems. A more holistic approach incorporating other forms of defense might be necessary to confidently reject escalation of defense. That defense increases with microhabitat bareness supports the hypothesis that habitat bareness is an underappreciated selective force on plants in harsh environments. PMID:26192213

  20. Elements of Terrorism Preparedness in Local Police Agencies, 2003-2007: Impact of Vulnerability, Organizational Characteristics, and Contagion in the Post-9/11 Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Aki; Roberts, John M., Jr.; Liedka, Raymond V.

    2012-01-01

    Different elements of local police agencies' terrorism preparedness may be associated with different organizational/environmental variables. We use 2003-2007 data (showing considerable adoption and desistance of practices) on medium-to-large-sized local agencies to examine relationships between contingency (vulnerability, organizational…

  1. Transportation radiological emergency preparedness: STAR 95 Exercise final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-12

    Emergency response for a transportation accident involving radiological materials, while not inherently difficult, presents a challenge for several reasons. These accidents, although they can occur anywhere, are rare. Also, although the health consequences are usually slight, accidents involving radioactive materials generally cause a great deal of concern, both for the emergency responders and the general public. How can communities be prepared for an event that requires some technical knowledge, but is so rare that it will never occur in most areas, without expending an effort disproportionate to the actual risk? How can one appropriately deal with an event that may cause excessive public concern? These questions are at the heart of the preparedness issues this program addressed. The overall goal of the Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program was to establish the framework for a coordinated response by all levels of government to a transportation accident involving radioactive material. The Program involved both preparedness activities and the development, conduct and evaluation of a field exercise in Saratoga County, New York. This Report concentrates on the functional activities, lessons learned, recommendations, and action plans for improving preparedness and response to a transportation accident involving radioactive materials.

  2. Green paper on bio-preparedness--general comments.

    PubMed

    Sirbu, Manuela

    2010-01-01

    The Commission's Green Paper on Bio-preparedness represents an important signal that the European Commission is actively involved in, working on issues related to bio-preparedness across all Member States and the international Community. In 2006, the Commission held two seminars on European Bio Preparedness and a workshop on Transport and Traceability of Bio materials. The results and recommendations emerging from these discussions have been inserted in this Green Paper. The document intends to stimulate a debate within and between the Member States and to launch a process of consultation on how to reduce biological risks and to enhance preparedness and response. All the national authorities responsible for risk prevention and response, human, animal and plant health, customs, civil protection, law enforcement authorities, the military, bio-industry, epidemiological and health communities, academic institutions and bioresearch institutes are therefore called to be involved, to contribute and to improve the ability of the EU to prevent, respond to and recover from a biological incident or deliberate criminal activity. PMID:21254743

  3. Earthquake Preparedness 101: Planning Guidelines for Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Governor's Office, Sacramento.

    This publication is a guide for California colleges and universities wishing to prepare for earthquakes. An introduction aimed at institutional leaders emphasizes that earthquake preparedness is required by law and argues that there is much that can be done to prepare for earthquakes. The second section, addressed to the disaster planner, offers…

  4. Disaster Preparedness Resource Guide for Child Welfare Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berne, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    This guide offers best practices for disaster management at child welfare agencies. Its recommendations are firmly rooted in published disaster-related research and the advice of human service and preparedness experts. It is not a reinvention of disaster management--much quality work has been done in this field--but a synthesis of experts'…

  5. Multicultural Education Knowledgebase, Attitudes and Preparedness for Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasonga, Teresa A.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to investigate the effect of multicultural knowledgebase on attitudes and feelings of preparedness to teach children from diverse backgrounds among pre-service teachers. Currently issues of multicultural education have been heightened by the academic achievement gap and emphasis on standardized test-scores as the indicator…

  6. Disaster Preparedness for University/Community Transit Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Geary Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Public transportation, with its open access, creates an opportunity for masses of people to be hurt while using transit services during human-made or natural disasters. This dissertation reviews the body of academic and professional literature and recent disaster events to characterize the current state of preparedness for disasters affecting…

  7. Transportation of Hazardous Materials Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-02-28

    This report documents the Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials (THM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those transportation hazards significant enough to warrant consideration in the SRS Emergency Management Program.

  8. Characterization of emergency preparedness at DOE contractor facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Gillings, J.C.; Murphy, B.L.; Corbit, C.D.; MacLellan, J.A.; Essig, T.H.; Higby, D.P.; Hooker, C.D.; Laughlin, G.J.; Stoetzel, G.A.; Swinth, K.L.

    1984-07-01

    A study of emergency preparedness capabilities at DOE facilities was initiated following the incident at the Three Mile Island (TMI) Nuclear Power Station. It was designed to parallel but expand on a study on emergency preparedness instrumentation that was conducted in 1970 by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The 1970 survey findings led to the publication of four reports on performance criteria for radiological emergency instrumentation. Three of these reports - BNWL-1635 (Selby et al. 1972), BNWL-1742 (Anderson et al. 1974) and BNWL-1857 (Andersen et al. 1976) - addressed the criteria for emergency instrumentation at reactors, mixed oxide fuel fabrication plants, and fuel reprocessing plants, respectively. The fourth report, BNWL-1991 (Bramson et al. 1976), addressed evaluation testing and calibration methodology for these instruments. This report is presented in three parts. Part One is a review of the BNWL documents to determine whether they are applicable to state-of-the-art instrument capabilities. The Appendix to Part One provides a comparison between the instrument performance criteria established in BNWL-1991 to applicable American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards for portable survey and contamination meters, installed radiation and area monitors, effluent monitors, calibration techniques, criticality detection systems, alarm systems, and direct reading dosimeters. Part Two compares the 1970 survey results with the 1980 survey results to identify trends in emergency preparedness. Part Three is a discussion of the results of the 1980 emergency preparedness survey and the supporting data for each of the 15 modules. 8 references. (ACR)

  9. Assessing Student Teaching Experiences: Teacher Candidates' Perceptions of Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joohi; Tice, Kathleen; Collins, Denise; Brown, Amber; Smith, Cleta; Fox, Jill

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of student teaching experiences by measuring teacher candidates' perceptions of their preparedness. The participants were 130 teacher candidates who had completed their student teaching as part of a program preparing them to teach children in pre-K through grade 4. Teacher candidates…

  10. College Students' Perceptions of College Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matteson, Star

    2013-01-01

    As educational leaders struggle to meet state and federal mandates, many students graduate from high school without the skills necessary to meet the demands of a college education. Guided by the tenets of constructivism, this qualitative case study explored college students' perceptions of their college preparedness through math, science, and…

  11. Perceived Academic Preparedness of First-Generation Latino College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boden, Karen

    2011-01-01

    First-generation Latino college students may be characterized as underprepared for college. Research points to low performance on placement tests. However, students may not perceive themselves as academically underprepared for college. This study explored first-generation Latino students' perceptions of their academic preparedness. Seven students…

  12. Does Gender Matter? University Library Access and Career Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Daniella

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine how the gender of distance learning students related to variables such as the perception of the availability of library resources, technology available at home and work, technology provided by a university for distance learning, and career preparedness. A total of 166 master's students in the…

  13. Preparedness to Implement Wellness Strategies: Perceptions of School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Tena

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to survey school counselors to determine their knowledge and perceived preparedness to implement wellness strategies in school counseling programs. Wellness plans are a requirement for thousands of public school districts in the United States. There are no established standards for the training of school counselors in…

  14. Teachers, Schools and Using Evidence: Considerations of Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parr, Judy M.; Timperley, Helen S.

    2008-01-01

    Despite assessment being viewed as integral to practice, there are questions about schools' preparedness to engage in this process. Data from three studies conducted in New Zealand primary schools explore whether use of student achievement data is part of the professional canon or skill set. (1) When implementing new literacy materials, evidence…

  15. Disaster Preparedness Manual and Workbook for Pennsylvania Libraries and Archives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Elizabeth, Ed.; And Others

    This document suggests components for a sound disaster plan for libraries and archives. The planning process includes four steps which are covered in this manual: educating the staff about disaster preparedness literature; planning to prevent disasters; preparing to respond to an emergency and minimize its effects; and planning how to restore…

  16. 77 FR 25504 - Draft Emergency Preparedness Frequently Asked Questions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ... COMMISSION Draft Emergency Preparedness Frequently Asked Questions AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... asked questions (EPFAQs). These EPFAQs will be used to provide clarification of guidance documents... Frequently Asked Questions is available electronically under ADAMS Accession Number ML12108A151, and it...

  17. Novice Teachers' Perceptions of Preparedness to Teach by Certification Route

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooten, Karen E.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of certification route (traditional versus non-traditional) on second-year, core content area (English, mathematics, science, and social studies) high school teachers' perceptions of their preparedness to teach. The curricular model for teacher preparation proposed by Feiman-Nemser (2001) served…

  18. Alternative Certification Programs & Pre-Service Teacher Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, Adrie; Feldhaus, Charles Robert; Fernandez, Eugenia; Hundley, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This explanatory sequential mixed methods research study investigated motives and purpose exhibited by professionals transitioning from careers in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) to secondary education. The study also analyzed personal perceptions of teaching preparedness, and explored barriers to successful teaching. STEM career…

  19. A Disaster Preparedness Plan for Small Public Libraries, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Jan, Comp.

    The State Library of Ohio designed this disaster preparedness plan to assist small libraries in gathering information that will be invaluable in the event of an emergency. This plan, which focuses on fire and water disaster prevention, is devoted to using simple and inexpensive measures to prevent a disaster or to lessen its effect. The plan…

  20. 42 CFR 485.727 - Condition of participation: Disaster preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition of participation: Disaster preparedness. 485.727 Section 485.727 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION CONDITIONS OF PARTICIPATION: SPECIALIZED PROVIDERS Conditions of Participation for...

  1. Academic Preparedness of First-Generation College Students: Different Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atherton, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    As student populations continue to become more diversified, institutions must understand students' academic preparedness to better serve them. A significant amount of research and literature focuses on experiences of students whose parents had little or no college education. Although these first-generation students have much in common with…

  2. Primary Teacher Trainees Preparedness to Teach Science: A Gender Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutisya, Sammy M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine Primary Teacher Education (PTE) Trainees' perceptions regarding their preparedness to teach science in primary schools. A descriptive survey research design was used and stratified proportionate random sampling techniques used to select 177 males and 172 females. The study found out that more male trainee…

  3. A Study of Terrorism Emergency Preparedness Policies in School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umoh, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The threat of terrorism is a concern in public facilities including schools. This study focused on school districts in a southwestern state. Terrorism emergency preparedness policies are well-documented as measures to protect students and staff in school districts from terrorism threats and vulnerabilities. However, those threats and…

  4. The Culturally Responsive Teacher Preparedness Scale: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Yun-Ju

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the competencies of culturally responsive teaching and construct a Culturally Responsive Teacher Preparedness Scale (CRTPS) for the use of teacher preparation programs and preservice teachers. Competencies listed in the scale were identified through literature reviews and input from experts. The…

  5. 76 FR 30491 - National Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-13166 Filed 5-24-11; 11:15 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P ... May 25, 2011 Part III The President Proclamation 8679--National Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2011 Proclamation 8680--National Safe Boating Week, 2011 Proclamation 8681--Armed Forces Day, 2011 Proclamation...

  6. School Security and Crisis Preparedness: Make It Your Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trump, Kenneth S.

    1999-01-01

    The top five security risks in today's schools include aggressive behavior, weapons possession or use, drug trafficking, gangs, and "stranger danger." Home-made bomb threats are common. This article also discusses security system costs, risk-reduction frameworks, security assessments, crisis-preparedness guidelines, and security-related staffing.…

  7. Public School Nurses' Preparedness for a Hearing Aid Monitoring Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carole E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This investigation surveyed public school nurses' (n=30) preparedness to participate in a hearing aid monitoring program. Results indicated some deficiencies in nurses' exposure to, knowledge of, and basic skill level with hearing aids, hearing aid batteries, and ear molds. (Author/DB)

  8. [Thoughts on "defensive" medicine].

    PubMed

    Csiba, László

    2007-03-25

    "Defensive" medicine is called medical behaviour characterized by deformation of diagnostic and therapeutic activities due to fears endangering existence and work, thus some interventions are omitted or, on the contrary, superfluous examinations are proposed on account of internal uncertainty, the patient's distrust or hostile social environment. Trust relation between patient and physician is the most gravely damaged because of aggravation and distortion of some conscienceless physicians' abuses by the media; patient-physician relations may not be degraded to contractual legal relations. Young physicians must get acquainted with the joy of success in diagnostics that enriches the personality. They shall have healthy self-esteem and be ready to take diagnostic and therapeutic challenges on themselves. All of us have to fight against social atmosphere hostile to physicians, against causes inducing and augmenting practice of defensive medicine. PMID:17444017

  9. Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Haselow, J.S.; Wilhite, E.L.; Stieve, A.L.

    1990-05-01

    The information contained in this report is intended to supplement the original Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Since the original EIS in 1982, alterations have been made to he conceptual process that reduce the impact to the groundwater. This reduced impact is documented in this report along with an update of the understanding of seismology and geology of the Savannah River Site. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Knowledge, awareness, and preparedness unlinked in layperson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oki, S.; Nakayachi, K.

    2012-12-01

    take action for disaster prevention. Examinees are 200 high school and undergraduate students who do not major in Earth science. We first gave them information of basic knowledge such as tectonic backgrounds of Japan and the latest research outcomes such as long-term evaluation of large earthquake occurrence or the strong ground motion, and then asked what they felt. The results show that neither the basic knowledge nor the latest research outcomes motivate examinees to take action for the disaster prevention or even to give awareness. We then showed them the movies of the past earthquake disasters and some episodes who had lost their loved ones from the recent earthquakes, and asked the same question. As psychology implies, this information made examinees feel dread and they became aware of the risks lie ahead. But still, they did not mention what to do to prevent the tragedy. In the presentation, we would like to show the difficulty to make people take action to protect their lives from earthquake disasters. We also show peoples' preparedness/unpreparedness with the information released by a Japanese research group in the late January saying the possibility of metropolitan Tokyo earthquake being 70% in this coming 4-year.

  11. Biogeography of a defensive symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Kaltenpoth, Martin; Roeser-Mueller, Kerstin; Stubblefield, J. William; Seger, Jon; Strohm, Erhard

    2014-01-01

    Mutualistic microorganisms play important roles in nutrition, reproduction and defense of many insects, yet the factors contributing to their maintenance and dispersal remain unknown in most cases. Theory suggests that collaboration can be maintained by repeated interaction of the same partners (partner fidelity) or by selective discrimination against non-cooperative partners (partner choice). In the defensive mutualism between solitary beewolf wasps and their antibiotic-producing Streptomyces bacteria, partner choice by host control of vertical symbiont transmission reinforces partner fidelity and has helped to maintain this highly specific association since it originated in the late Cretaceous. However, co-phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses suggest that there has also been considerable horizontal transmission of the symbionts. While the beewolves clearly have a paleotropic or palearctic origin, with later colonization of the nearctic and neotropics via Beringia and the Aves ridge, respectively, the bacteria show only weak geographical clustering, implying global dispersal or vicariance within the confines of an otherwise apparently exclusive symbiotic relationship. We discuss several hypotheses that may explain these patterns. Future studies investigating the occurrence of beewolf symbionts in the environment could yield broadly applicable insights into the relative impact of animal-vectored and free-living dispersal on the distribution of microorganisms in nature. PMID:26479018

  12. Assessment of Hospital Pharmacy Preparedness for Mass Casualty Events

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Nadia I.; Cocchio, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the preparedness of hospital pharmacies in New Jersey to provide pharmaceutical services in mass casualty scenarios. Methods: An electronic cross-sectional survey was developed to assess the general knowledge of available resources and attitudes toward the preparedness of the pharmacy department. Results: Out of 60 invitations to participate, 18 surveys (30%) were completed. Respondents practiced at community hospitals (12, 66.6%) with no trauma center designation (11, 67.4%) that served more than 500 licensed beds (five, 29.4%). Six respondents (35.3%) indicated that 75,000 to 100,000 patients visited their emergency departments annually. Seventeen sites (94.4%) reported the existence of an institutional disaster preparedness protocol; 10 (55.5%) indicated that there is a specific plan for the pharmacy department. Most respondents (10, 55.5%) were unsure whether their hospitals had an adequate supply of analgesics, rapid sequence intubation agents, vasopressors, antiemetics, respiratory medications, ophthalmics, oral antimicrobials, and chemical-weapon-specific antidotes. Five (27.7%) agreed that the pharmacy disaster plan included processes to ensure care for patients already hospitalized, and four (22.2%) agreed that the quantity of medication was adequate to treat patients and hospital employees if necessary. Medication stock and quantities were determined based on national or international guidelines at three (16.6%) institutions surveyed. Conclusion: This survey demonstrates a lack of general consensus regarding hospital pharmacy preparedness for mass casualty scenarios despite individualized institutional protocols for disaster preparedness. Standardized recommendations from government and/or professional pharmacy organizations should be developed to guide the preparation of hospital pharmacy departments for mass casualty scenarios. PMID:25859121

  13. Defense on the Move: Ant-Based Cyber Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, Glenn A.; Haack, Jereme N.; McKinnon, Archibald D.; Fulp, Errin W.

    2014-04-15

    Many common cyber defenses (like firewalls and IDS) are as static as trench warfare allowing the attacker freedom to probe them at will. The concept of Moving Target Defense (MTD) adds dynamism to the defender side, but puts the systems to be defended themselves in motion, potentially at great cost to the defender. An alternative approach is a mobile resilient defense that removes attackers’ ability to rely on prior experience without requiring motion in the protected infrastructure itself. The defensive technology absorbs most of the cost of motion, is resilient to attack, and is unpredictable to attackers. The Ant-Based Cyber Defense (ABCD) is a mobile resilient defense providing a set of roaming, bio-inspired, digital-ant agents working with stationary agents in a hierarchy headed by a human supervisor. The ABCD approach provides a resilient, extensible, and flexible defense that can scale to large, multi-enterprise infrastructures like the smart electric grid.

  14. 76 FR 11361 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Preservation of Tooling for Major Defense...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... proposed rule in the Federal Register (75 FR 25159) on May ] 7, 2010, to address the new statutory... storage of unique tooling associated with the production of hardware for a major defense acquisition... plan for the preservation and storage of the tooling associated with the production of hardware for...

  15. Peer-Mentored Preparedness (PM-Prep): A New Disaster Preparedness Program for Adults Living Independently in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenman, David Paul; Bazzano, Alicia; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah; Tseng, Chi-hong; Lewis, Mary-Ann; Lamb, Kerry; Lehrer, Danise

    2014-01-01

    The authors studied a health promotion program called PM-Prep (Peer-Mentored Prep), which was designed to improve disaster preparedness among adults living independently in the community. PM-Prep consists of four 2-hour classes co-taught by a health educator and peer-mentors. Adults were randomly assigned to an experimental arm or a wait-list…

  16. Influence of Organisational Defensive Patterns on Learning ICT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Hon Keung; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the IT professionals in a Hong Kong public transport company have a general perception of influence of the organisational defensive patterns on learning of ICT; and whether skilled incompetence, organisational defensive routines and fancy footwork are positively associated with each…

  17. Impairment of enzymatic antioxidant defenses is associated with bilirubin-induced neuronal cell death in the cerebellum of Ugt1 KO mice

    PubMed Central

    Bortolussi, G; Codarin, E; Antoniali, G; Vascotto, C; Vodret, S; Arena, S; Cesaratto, L; Scaloni, A; Tell, G; Muro, A F

    2015-01-01

    Severe hyperbilirubinemia is toxic during central nervous system development. Prolonged and uncontrolled high levels of unconjugated bilirubin lead to bilirubin-induced encephalopathy and eventually death by kernicterus. Despite extensive studies, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of bilirubin toxicity are still poorly defined. To fill this gap, we investigated the molecular processes underlying neuronal injury in a mouse model of severe neonatal jaundice, which develops hyperbilirubinemia as a consequence of a null mutation in the Ugt1 gene. These mutant mice show cerebellar abnormalities and hypoplasia, neuronal cell death and die shortly after birth because of bilirubin neurotoxicity. To identify protein changes associated with bilirubin-induced cell death, we performed proteomic analysis of cerebella from Ugt1 mutant and wild-type mice. Proteomic data pointed-out to oxidoreductase activities or antioxidant processes as important intracellular mechanisms altered during bilirubin-induced neurotoxicity. In particular, they revealed that down-representation of DJ-1, superoxide dismutase, peroxiredoxins 2 and 6 was associated with hyperbilirubinemia in the cerebellum of mutant mice. Interestingly, the reduction in protein levels seems to result from post-translational mechanisms because we did not detect significant quantitative differences in the corresponding mRNAs. We also observed an increase in neuro-specific enolase 2 both in the cerebellum and in the serum of mutant mice, supporting its potential use as a biomarker of bilirubin-induced neurological damage. In conclusion, our data show that different protective mechanisms fail to contrast oxidative burst in bilirubin-affected brain regions, ultimately leading to neurodegeneration. PMID:25950469

  18. Co-designing communication and hazard preparedness strategies at Turrialba volcano, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Manen, Saskia; Avard, Geoffroy; Martinez, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Globally volcanic activity results in huge human, social, environmental and economic losses. Disaster risk reduction (DRR) is the concept and systematic practice of reducing disaster risks and associated losses through a wide range of strategies, including efforts to increase knowledge through education and outreach. However, recent studies have shown a substantial gap between risk reduction actions taken at national and local levels, with national policies showing little change at the community level. Yet it is at local levels are where DRR efforts can have the biggest impact. This research focuses on communicating hazard preparedness strategies at Turrialba volcano, Costa Rica. Located in the Central Cordillera just 35 km northeast of Costa Rica's capital city San Jose this 3,340 m high active stratovolcano looms over Costa Rica's Central Valley, the social and economic hub of the country. Following progressive increases in degassing and seismic activity Turrialba resumed activity in 1996 after more than 100 years of quiescence. Since 2007 it has continuously emitted gas and since 2010 intermittent phreatic explosions accompanied by ash emissions have occurred. Despite high levels of hazard salience individuals and communities are not or under-prepared to deal with a volcanic eruption. In light of Turrialba's continued activity engaging local communities with disaster risk management is key. At the local levels culture (collective behaviours, interactions, cognitive constructs, and affective understanding) is an important factor in shaping peoples' views, understanding and response to natural phenomena. As such an increasing number of academic studies and intergovernmental organisations advocate for the incorporation of cultural context into disaster risk reduction strategies, which firstly requires documenting people's perception. Therefore approaching community disaster preparedness from a user-centred perspective, through an iterative and collaborative

  19. Antiviral Defense Mechanisms in Honey Bees

    PubMed Central

    Brutscher, Laura M.; Daughenbaugh, Katie F.; Flenniken, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees are significant pollinators of agricultural crops and other important plant species. High annual losses of honey bee colonies in North America and in some parts of Europe have profound ecological and economic implications. Colony losses have been attributed to multiple factors including RNA viruses, thus understanding bee antiviral defense mechanisms may result in the development of strategies that mitigate colony losses. Honey bee antiviral defense mechanisms include RNA-interference, pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) triggered signal transduction cascades, and reactive oxygen species generation. However, the relative importance of these and other pathways is largely uncharacterized. Herein we review the current understanding of honey bee antiviral defense mechanisms and suggest important avenues for future investigation. PMID:26273564

  20. Autophagy and checkpoints for intracellular pathogen defense

    PubMed Central

    Paulus, Geraldine L.C.; Xavier, Ramnik J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Autophagy plays a crucial role in intracellular defense against various pathogens. Xenophagy is a form of selective autophagy that targets intracellular pathogens for degradation. In addition, several related yet distinct intracellular defense responses depend on autophagy-related (ATG) genes. This review gives an overview of these processes, pathogen strategies to subvert them, and their crosstalk with various cell death programs. Recent findings The recruitment of ATG proteins plays a key role in multiple intracellular defense programs, specifically xenophagy, LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP), and the IFNγ-mediated elimination of pathogens such as Toxoplasma gondii and murine norovirus. Recent progress has revealed methods employed by pathogens to resist these intracellular defense mechanisms and/or persist in spite of them. The intracellular pathogen load can tip the balance between cell survival and cell death. Further, it was recently observed that LAP is indispensable for the efficient clearance of dying cells. Summary Autophagy-dependent and ATG gene-dependent pathways are essential in intracellular defense against a broad range of pathogens. PMID:25394238

  1. [What is important in disaster relief missions associated with the Great East Japan Earthquake: lessons from disaster relief missions to the Japan Self-Defense Forces Sendai Hospital and Haiti peacekeeping deployments].

    PubMed

    Tanichi, Masaaki; Tatsuki, Toshitaka; Saito, Taku; Wakizono, Tomoki; Shigemura, Jun

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the core factors necessary for mental health of disaster workers according to the following experiences: 1) the Japan Self-Defense Force (JSDF) disaster relief missions associated with the Great East Japan Earthquake and the Haiti peacekeeping deployment associated with the Great Haiti Earthquake, 2) conformations of the peacekeeping mission units of various countries deployed to Haiti, and 3) JSDF assistance activities to the Japanese earthquake victims. We learned that the basic life needs were the major premises for maintaining the mental health of the disaster workers. Food, drinking supplies, medical supplies were particularly crucial, yet overlooked in Japanese worker settings compared with forces of other countries. Conversely, the workers tend to feel guilty (moushi wake nai) for the victims when their basic life infrastructures are better than those of the victims. The Japanese workers and disaster victims both tend to find comfort in styles based on their culture, in particular, open-air baths and music performances. When planning workers' environments in disaster settings, provision of basic infrastructure should be prioritized, yet a sense of balance based on cultural background may be useful to enhance the workers' comfort and minimize their guilt. PMID:23367839

  2. Analysis of Th17 and Tc17 Frequencies and Antiviral Defenses in Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue of Chronic HIV-1 Positive Patients.

    PubMed

    d'Ettorre, Gabriella; Ceccarelli, Giancarlo; Andreotti, Mauro; Selvaggi, Carla; Giustini, Noemi; Serafino, Sara; Schietroma, Ivan; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Antonelli, Guido; Vullo, Vincenzo; Scagnolari, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    The complex relationship between both the Th1/Th17 and Tc1/Tc17 axis and innate defences in the intestinal mucosa during HIV-1 infection has not been well characterized. This study examined the frequency, phenotype, and functional status of T cell populations in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and peripheral blood of virologically suppressed HIV-1-infected patients on therapy, focusing on the Th1, Th17, Tc1, and Tc17 cell subsets. We found a persistent immune cell activation (CD38 and HLADR expression) into the GALT despite the higher levels of Th17 and Tc17 in respect to peripheral blood. An upregulation of type I IFN response in GALT compared to the peripheral blood compartment was also recorded. Furthermore, IFN-α/β levels were negatively related to the frequencies of Th1 naïve cells and Tc1 cell subsets (naïve, central memory, and effector memory) in the GALT. In contrast, no relationships between type I IFN response and Th1 or Tc1 cell subsets in peripheral blood compartment and between IFN-α/β and Th17/Tc17 in both GALT and peripheral blood district were recorded. These data indicate that prolonged antiretroviral treatment improves GALT immune function despite the persistence of immune activation and type I IFN response in chronic HIV-1 positive patients. PMID:26221062

  3. Analysis of Th17 and Tc17 Frequencies and Antiviral Defenses in Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue of Chronic HIV-1 Positive Patients

    PubMed Central

    d'Ettorre, Gabriella; Ceccarelli, Giancarlo; Andreotti, Mauro; Selvaggi, Carla; Giustini, Noemi; Serafino, Sara; Schietroma, Ivan; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Antonelli, Guido; Vullo, Vincenzo; Scagnolari, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    The complex relationship between both the Th1/Th17 and Tc1/Tc17 axis and innate defences in the intestinal mucosa during HIV-1 infection has not been well characterized. This study examined the frequency, phenotype, and functional status of T cell populations in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and peripheral blood of virologically suppressed HIV-1-infected patients on therapy, focusing on the Th1, Th17, Tc1, and Tc17 cell subsets. We found a persistent immune cell activation (CD38 and HLADR expression) into the GALT despite the higher levels of Th17 and Tc17 in respect to peripheral blood. An upregulation of type I IFN response in GALT compared to the peripheral blood compartment was also recorded. Furthermore, IFN-α/β levels were negatively related to the frequencies of Th1 naïve cells and Tc1 cell subsets (naïve, central memory, and effector memory) in the GALT. In contrast, no relationships between type I IFN response and Th1 or Tc1 cell subsets in peripheral blood compartment and between IFN-α/β and Th17/Tc17 in both GALT and peripheral blood district were recorded. These data indicate that prolonged antiretroviral treatment improves GALT immune function despite the persistence of immune activation and type I IFN response in chronic HIV-1 positive patients. PMID:26221062

  4. Plant Defense against Insect Herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar. Insect herbivory induce several internal signals from the wounded tissues, including calcium ion fluxes, phosphorylation cascades and systemic- and jasmonate signaling. These are perceived in undamaged tissues, which thereafter reinforce their defense by producing different, mostly low molecular weight, defense compounds. These bioactive specialized plant defense compounds may repel or intoxicate insects, while defense proteins often interfere with their digestion. Volatiles are released upon herbivory to repel herbivores, attract predators or for communication between leaves or plants, and to induce defense responses. Plants also apply morphological features like waxes, trichomes and latices to make the feeding more difficult for the insects. Extrafloral nectar, food bodies and nesting or refuge sites are produced to accommodate and feed the predators of the herbivores. Meanwhile, herbivorous insects have adapted to resist plant defenses, and in some cases even sequester the compounds and reuse them in their own defense. Both plant defense and insect adaptation involve metabolic costs, so most plant-insect interactions reach a stand-off, where both host and herbivore survive although their development is suboptimal. PMID:23681010

  5. Interactive effects of supplemental UV-B and temperature in European aspen seedlings: Implications for growth, leaf traits, phenolic defense and associated organisms.

    PubMed

    Randriamanana, Tendry R; Lavola, Anu; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta

    2015-08-01

    Past studies reveal opposite effects of elevated UV-B and temperature on plant growth and concentrations of UV-B absorbing compounds, yet few studies have dealt with the combined and interactive effects of these two climate change factors on woody dioecious plants. We investigated the interactive effects of UV-B and temperature treatments on growth, leaf traits and phenolic concentrations in Populus tremula L. (European aspen) seedlings. We also considered the consequences of these effects on their associated organisms: herbivorous insects, rust pathogens, the presence of endophytic fungi and whether or not the responses differ between genders and genotypes. Supplemental temperature and UV-B were modulated to +2 °C and +30.77% above ambient conditions, respectively. Warming increased growth, photosynthesis and foliar nitrogen concentration but reduced leaf thickness and phenolic concentrations. On the other hand, supplemental UV-B increased total phenolic glycosides, mainly flavonols and phenolic acids, and partially counteracted the positive effects of warming on growth. Fast growing genotypes were less susceptible to the growth-reducing effect of combined UVB + T, less infected with rust disease and less prone to insect damage probably due to their higher salicylate and lower nitrogen concentrations. Under ambient temperature, the males of European aspen were taller and had bigger leaves than the females, while under elevated temperature, females grew bigger and, under UV-B, had more tremulacin than males. The multiple interactive effects of UV-B and temperature on growth, leaf traits and phenolic compounds, highlight the importance of multifactor experiments as a realistic predictor of plant responses to climate change. PMID:25766888

  6. Blood cell gene expression associated with cellular stress defense is modulated by antioxidant-rich food in a randomised controlled clinical trial of male smokers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Plant-based diets rich in fruit and vegetables can prevent development of several chronic age-related diseases. However, the mechanisms behind this protective effect are not elucidated. We have tested the hypothesis that intake of antioxidant-rich foods can affect groups of genes associated with cellular stress defence in human blood cells. Trial registration number: NCT00520819 http://clinicaltrials.gov. Methods In an 8-week dietary intervention study, 102 healthy male smokers were randomised to either a diet rich in various antioxidant-rich foods, a kiwifruit diet (three kiwifruits/d added to the regular diet) or a control group. Blood cell gene expression profiles were obtained from 10 randomly selected individuals of each group. Diet-induced changes on gene expression were compared to controls using a novel application of the gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) on transcription profiles obtained using Affymetrix HG-U133-Plus 2.0 whole genome arrays. Results Changes were observed in the blood cell gene expression profiles in both intervention groups when compared to the control group. Groups of genes involved in regulation of cellular stress defence, such as DNA repair, apoptosis and hypoxia, were significantly upregulated (GSEA, FDR q-values < 5%) by both diets compared to the control group. Genes with common regulatory motifs for aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and AhR nuclear translocator (AhR/ARNT) were upregulated by both interventions (FDR q-values < 5%). Plasma antioxidant biomarkers (polyphenols/carotenoids) increased in both groups. Conclusions The observed changes in the blood cell gene expression profiles suggest that the beneficial effects of a plant-based diet on human health may be mediated through optimization of defence processes. PMID:20846424

  7. Nanomaterials for Defense Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turaga, Uday; Singh, Vinitkumar; Lalagiri, Muralidhar; Kiekens, Paul; Ramkumar, Seshadri S.

    Nanotechnology has found a number of applications in electronics and healthcare. Within the textile field, applications of nanotechnology have been limited to filters, protective liners for chemical and biological clothing and nanocoatings. This chapter presents an overview of the applications of nanomaterials such as nanofibers and nanoparticles that are of use to military and industrial sectors. An effort has been made to categorize nanofibers based on the method of production. This chapter particularly focuses on a few latest developments that have taken place with regard to the application of nanomaterials such as metal oxides in the defense arena.

  8. State of the art in risk analysis of workforce criticality influencing disaster preparedness for interdependent systems.

    PubMed

    Santos, Joost R; Herrera, Lucia Castro; Yu, Krista Danielle S; Pagsuyoin, Sheree Ann T; Tan, Raymond R

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this article is to discuss a needed paradigm shift in disaster risk analysis to emphasize the role of the workforce in managing the recovery of interdependent infrastructure and economic systems. Much of the work that has been done on disaster risk analysis has focused primarily on preparedness and recovery strategies for disrupted infrastructure systems. The reliability of systems such as transportation, electric power, and telecommunications is crucial in sustaining business processes, supply chains, and regional livelihoods, as well as ensuring the availability of vital services in the aftermath of disasters. There has been a growing momentum in recognizing workforce criticality in the aftermath of disasters; nevertheless, significant gaps still remain in modeling, assessing, and managing workforce disruptions and their associated ripple effects to other interdependent systems. The workforce plays a pivotal role in ensuring that a disrupted region continues to function and subsequently recover from the adverse effects of disasters. With this in mind, this article presents a review of recent studies that have underscored the criticality of workforce sectors in formulating synergistic preparedness and recovery policies for interdependent infrastructure and regional economic systems. PMID:24593287

  9. Assessment of State- and Territorial-Level Preparedness Capacity for Serving Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Populations in Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Winston; Dahrouge, Donna; Engelman, Alina; Neuhauser, Linda; Huang, Debbie; Gurung, Sidhanta

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Substantial evidence exists that emergency preparedness and response efforts are not effectively reaching populations with functional and access needs, especially barriers related to literacy, language, culture, or disabilities. More than 36 million Americans are Deaf or hard of hearing (Deaf/HH). These groups experienced higher risks of injury, death, and property loss in recent disasters than the general public. We conducted a participatory research study to examine national recommendations on preparedness communication for the Deaf/HH. Methods We assessed whether previous recommendations regarding the Deaf/HH have been incorporated into state- and territorial-level emergency operations plans (EOPs), interviewed state- and territorial-level preparedness directors about capacity to serve the Deaf/HH, and proposed strategies to benefit Deaf/HH populations during emergencies. We analyzed 55 EOPs and 50 key informant (KI) interviews with state directors. Results Fifty-five percent of EOPs mentioned vulnerable populations; however, only 31% specifically mentioned Deaf/HH populations in their plan. Study findings indicated significant relationships among the following factors: a state-level KI's familiarity with communication issues for the Deaf/HH, making relay calls (i.e., calls to services to relay communication between Deaf and hearing people), and whether the KI's department provides trainings about serving Deaf/HH populations in emergencies. We found significant associations between a state's percentage of Deaf/HH individuals and a KI's familiarity with Deaf/HH communication issues and provision by government of any disability services to Deaf/HH populations in emergencies. Further, we found significant relationships between KIs attending training on serving the Deaf/HH and familiarity with Deaf/HH communication issues, including how to make relay calls. Conclusion This study provides new knowledge that can help emergency agencies improve their

  10. Assessment of Emergency Preparedness Modules in Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experiences

    PubMed Central

    von Waldner, Trina; McEwen, Deanna W.; White, Catherine A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine the impact of emergency preparedness simulations in mass triage and mass dispensing on student pharmacist performance and perceived competency when assuming pharmacist roles in disaster situations. Design. Second-year student pharmacists (144) completed two 3-hour simulations focusing on mass triage and mass dispensing. The mass triage simulation consisted of virtual and live victims to be triaged and assigned a transport order. In the mass dispensing simulation, students assumed patient and pharmacist roles in a point-of-dispensing exercise for influenza. Assessment. For the mass triage simulation, students were challenged most by determining which patients could wait for emergency care but did well assessing those who required immediate or minimal care (83% and 64% correct, respectively). During the mass dispensing simulation, students performed screening and dispensing functions with accuracy rates of 88% and 90%, respectively. Conclusion. Student pharmacists performed well in screening and dispensing functions, but struggled with mass casualty triage during emergency preparedness simulations. PMID:27073276

  11. Assessment of Emergency Preparedness Modules in Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experiences.

    PubMed

    Hannings, Ashley N; von Waldner, Trina; McEwen, Deanna W; White, Catherine A

    2016-03-25

    Objective. To determine the impact of emergency preparedness simulations in mass triage and mass dispensing on student pharmacist performance and perceived competency when assuming pharmacist roles in disaster situations. Design. Second-year student pharmacists (144) completed two 3-hour simulations focusing on mass triage and mass dispensing. The mass triage simulation consisted of virtual and live victims to be triaged and assigned a transport order. In the mass dispensing simulation, students assumed patient and pharmacist roles in a point-of-dispensing exercise for influenza. Assessment. For the mass triage simulation, students were challenged most by determining which patients could wait for emergency care but did well assessing those who required immediate or minimal care (83% and 64% correct, respectively). During the mass dispensing simulation, students performed screening and dispensing functions with accuracy rates of 88% and 90%, respectively. Conclusion. Student pharmacists performed well in screening and dispensing functions, but struggled with mass casualty triage during emergency preparedness simulations. PMID:27073276

  12. Exploring nursing students' level of preparedness for disaster response.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Cheryl K; Davis, Jennifer M; Sanders, Jenna L; Chapman, Laura A; Cisco, Mary Catherine; Hady, Arlene R

    2011-01-01

    This descriptive study explores students' perceptions of personal and program preparedness for disasters. Participants in this online survey included 1,348 nursing students from every state plus Guam, Puerto Rico, and theVirgin Islands. The study explored three questions: a) the level of preparedness, including learning about different types of disasters, preparing disaster plans, creating disaster kits, and participating in community disaster response efforts; b) the impact of disasters on nursing students; and c) strategies to assist nursing students during disasters. Results indicated that nursing students throughout the country are generally not well prepared for disasters. Nurse educators need to develop strategies to prepare their students for disasters. The American Red Cross provides templates for organizations, including colleges and universities, to prepare their campuses for emergencies. Faculty need to collaborate with staff and students to develop and implement plans appropriate for their programs. PMID:22235694

  13. An academic approach to climate change emergency preparedness.

    PubMed

    Trask, Jeffrey A

    To achieve effective emergency management and business continuity, all hazards should be considered during the planning and preparedness process. In recent years, several new hazards have attracted the attention of Emergency Management and Business Continuity practitioners. Climate change presents a unique challenge. Practitioners must rely on historical data combined with scientific projections to guide their planning and preparedness efforts. This article examines how an academic institution's emergency management programme can plan successfully for this hazard by focusing on best practices in the area of building cross-departmental and cross-jurisdictional relationships. Examples of scientific data related to the hazard of climate change will be presented along with the latest guidance from the Federal Emergency Management Agency encouraging the planning for future hazards. The article presents a functional exercise in which this hazard was prominently featured, and presents testimony from subject matter experts. Recommendations for emergency management and business continuity programmes are so provided. PMID:26642169

  14. From pandemic preparedness to biofuel production: Tobacco finds its biotechnology niche in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Joshua D.

    2015-09-25

    As part of my NSD Innovation awarded funds (95470 Powell Innovation: charge code N38540) one my deliverables was a review article for journal submission summarizing my work on this project. My NSD Innovation project is expressing Ebola antibodies in tobacco plants. I've attached abstract below Title: From pandemic preparedness to biofuel production: tobacco finds its biotechnology niche in North America Abstract: Abstract: In 2012 scientists funded by the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) produced 10 million doses of influenza vaccine in tobacco in a milestone deadline of one month. Recently the experimental antibody cocktail Zmapp™, also produced in tobacco, has shown promise as an emergency intervention therapeutic against Ebola. These two examples showcase how collaborative efforts between government, private industry and academia are applying plant biotechnology to combat pathogenic agents. Opportunities now exist repurposing tobacco expression systems for exciting new applications in synthetic biology, biofuels production and industrial enzyme production. Lastly, as plant-produced biotherapeutics become more mainstream, government funding agencies need to be cognizant of the idea that many plant-produced biologicals are often safer, cheaper and just as efficacious as their counterparts that are produced using traditional expression systems.

  15. From pandemic preparedness to biofuel production: Tobacco finds its biotechnology niche in North America

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Powell, Joshua D.

    2015-09-25

    As part of my NSD Innovation awarded funds (95470 Powell Innovation: charge code N38540) one my deliverables was a review article for journal submission summarizing my work on this project. My NSD Innovation project is expressing Ebola antibodies in tobacco plants. I've attached abstract below Title: From pandemic preparedness to biofuel production: tobacco finds its biotechnology niche in North America Abstract: Abstract: In 2012 scientists funded by the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) produced 10 million doses of influenza vaccine in tobacco in a milestone deadline of one month. Recently the experimental antibody cocktail Zmapp™, also produced inmore » tobacco, has shown promise as an emergency intervention therapeutic against Ebola. These two examples showcase how collaborative efforts between government, private industry and academia are applying plant biotechnology to combat pathogenic agents. Opportunities now exist repurposing tobacco expression systems for exciting new applications in synthetic biology, biofuels production and industrial enzyme production. Lastly, as plant-produced biotherapeutics become more mainstream, government funding agencies need to be cognizant of the idea that many plant-produced biologicals are often safer, cheaper and just as efficacious as their counterparts that are produced using traditional expression systems.« less

  16. Light regulation of plant defense.

    PubMed

    Ballaré, Carlos L

    2014-01-01

    Precise allocation of limited resources between growth and defense is critical for plant survival. In shade-intolerant species, perception of competition signals by informational photoreceptors activates shade-avoidance responses and reduces the expression of defenses against pathogens and insects. The main mechanism underlying defense suppression is the simultaneous downregulation of jasmonate and salicylic acid signaling by low ratios of red:far-red radiation. Inactivation of phytochrome B by low red:far-red ratios appears to suppress jasmonate responses by altering the balance between DELLA and JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins in favor of the latter. Solar UVB radiation is a positive modulator of plant defense, signaling through jasmonate-dependent and jasmonate-independent pathways. Light, perceived by phytochrome B and presumably other photoreceptors, helps plants concentrate their defensive arsenals in photosynthetically valuable leaves. The discovery of connections between photoreceptors and defense signaling is revealing novel mechanisms that control key resource allocation decisions in plant canopies. PMID:24471835

  17. Roles of defense response genes in plant-microbe interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microarray technology was used to identify genes associated with disease defense responses in the model legume Medicago truncatula. We compared transcript profiles from leaves inoculated with Colletotrichum trifolii and Erysiphe pisi and roots infected with Phytophthora medicaginis to identify genes...

  18. PRIORITIZATION OF PEDIATRIC CBRNE DISASTER PREPAREDNESS EDUCATION AND TRAINING NEEDS

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, David; Strauss-Riggs, Kandra; Needle, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Children are the members of our population who are most vulnerable to the effects of a chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear or explosive (CBRNE) attack. It has been over 12 years since 9/11 and the majority of clinicians who would be providing care to children in the event of another attack still lack the requisite disaster preparedness training. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the recent developments that will enable the affordable creation of key CBRNE educational and just in time material. In 2011, the National Center for Disaster Medicine and Public Health (NCDMPH) convened a pediatric disaster preparedness conference. Much of the initial groundwork for development of a pediatric disaster preparedness curriculum, including the identification of target audiences and requisite role specific CBRNE curriculum content, was the product of this conference. Much of the needed pediatric education and training content for the diagnosis and treatment of the injurious effects of CBRNE has recently been both developed and well vetted. Bringing together these efforts in an educational program will result in a workforce that is better trained and prepared to address the needs of children impacted by these types of disasters. PMID:25587241

  19. Perceptions of older people on disaster response and preparedness.

    PubMed

    Duggan, Seana; Deeny, Pat; Spelman, Ruth; Vitale, Catherine T

    2010-03-01

    Most disasters occur in developing countries but in the last decade due to the increasing threat of floods, air disasters and terrorist threat, disaster response and preparedness is a growing global concern. Due to an ageing population across the world, older people now constitute a significant proportion of those at risk from disasters. This paper reports on a qualitative study carried out in Sri Lanka and in the United States where a group of older people were asked about aspects of disaster response and preparedness. The group from Sri Lanka (n=9) who had direct experience of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami were asked how they perceived international aid relief and a group of white Caucasians from East Coast USA (n=8) were asked about disaster preparedness. Findings indicate that both groups had similar issues albeit that they were looking at different phases of the disaster cycle and from different cultural perspectives. Both groups identified issues related to, protecting the rights of the older person and preventing loss of independence in responding and preparing for a disaster, mistrust of government and access to resources and all expressed strong feelings of self-responsibility. PMID:20925760

  20. Demographic Determinants of Disaster Preparedness Behaviors Amongst Tehran Inhabitants, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, Mehdi; Ardalan, Ali; Akbarisari, Ali; Noorbala, Ahmad Ali; Jabbari, Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tehran is vulnerable to natural hazards, especially earthquakes. Disaster preparedness behaviors (DPB) are measures that can mitigate the adverse consequences of disasters. Demographic factors affect DPB, however, the role of some of these factors is not still clear. By understanding these effects, disaster specialists could design interventions toward specific demographics. In the present study, we aimed to investigate demographic determinants of DPB. Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted in August 2014. The target population included inhabitants of Tehran who were 18 years or older. A total of 1250 participants were selected randomly and interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Results: Results of our study showed that monthly income level, previous disaster experience, residential district and occupation are demographic factors that influence DPB significantly. However, disaster preparedness was not affected by gender, educational level, number of household members, home type, home ownership and being the head of household. Conclusion: To promote DPB in Tehran, disaster specialists should focus on improving DPB in low-income and unemployed people, and individuals who live in high risk districts, especially in those who have not experienced disasters. Key words: Disaster, Preparedness behavior, Demographic determinants.     PMID:26767148

  1. Raising Awareness and Preparedness to Earthquake and Tsunami Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custódio, Susana; Mata, Isabel; Silveira, Graça; Matias, Luis

    2014-05-01

    In the field of natural risks, awareness and preparedness are deeply rooted on education and outreach (EO). In this presentation we will review of a series of EO activities carried out in Portugal over the last years with the goals of increasing the awareness and preparedness of the population to earthquake and tsunami risk. Portugal is a country with a long history of destructive earthquakes, which includes the largest historical earthquake of Europe: the 1755 great Lisbon earthquake, a landmark in the history of seismology. However, recurrence times between large earthquakes are long, resulting on widespread unconsciousness of earthquake and tsunami risk, most noticeable on younger people who never experienced strong earthquakes. Over the past years we developed a series of EO activities with the aims of increasing the scientific understanding of solid Earth dynamics and promoting risk adequate behaviors. These activities have been extremely well received by the public, encouraging us to pursue efforts in this field. Different activities were devised for students in 1) kindergarten and primary school; 2) highschool; 3) pre-university; 4) university. Specific activities were developed for teachers. Other activities aimed at reaching the general public. We found that the balance between preparedness and scientific contents of the activities had to very adaptable to the specific public. In this presentation we will summarize the activities developed for each type of public, their rationale, the public's reaction, and we will share the lessons learned from our rewarding experience.

  2. A framework for assessing e-health preparedness.

    PubMed

    Wickramasinghe, Nilmini S; Fadlalla, Adam M A; Geisler, Elie; Schaffer, Jonathan L

    2005-01-01

    Whilst healthcare is the biggest service industry on the globe, it has yet to realise the full potential of the e-business revolution in the form of e-health. This is due to many reasons including the fact that the healthcare industry is faced with many complex challenges in trying to deliver cost-effective, high-value, accessible healthcare and has traditionally been slow to embrace new business techniques and technologies. Given that e-health, to a great extent, is a macro level concern that has far reaching micro level implications, this paper firstly develops a framework to assess a country's preparedness with respect to embracing e-health (the application of e-commerce to healthcare) and from this an e-health preparedness grid to facilitate the assessment of any e-health initiative. Taken together, the integrative framework and preparedness grid provide useful and necessary tools to enable successful e-health initiatives to ensue by helping country and/or an organisation within a country to identify and thus address areas that require further attention in order for it to undertake a successful e-health initiative. PMID:18048213

  3. National Alliance for Radiation Readiness: Leveraging Partnerships to Increase Preparedness.

    PubMed

    Blumenstock, James S; Allen, Meredith

    2016-02-01

    The National Alliance for Radiation Readiness (NARR) is an alliance of 16 national member organizations that have banded together to serve as the collective "voice of health" in radiological preparedness through: • participation in national dialogues on radiological emergency issues; • provision of thoughtful feedback on documents, policies, and guidelines; and • convening of partners to raise awareness of and resolve radiological emergency issues. NARR benefits from the intersection and interaction of public health, radiation control, healthcare, and emergency management professionals--all with an interest in bolstering the nation's preparedness for a radiological or nuclear incident. NARR is able to provide a unique perspective on radiological and nuclear preparedness by creating multi-disciplinary workgroups to develop guidance, recommendations, and provide subject matter feedback. NARR aims to build response and recovery capacity and capabilities by supporting the sharing of resources and tools, including technical methods and information through the development of an online clearinghouse. NARR also aims to identify and disseminate best practices, as well as define and educate on the roles and responsibilities of local, state, and federal government and the numerous agencies involved with the response to a radiological emergency. PMID:26717184

  4. US Civilian Smallpox Preparedness and Response Program, 2003.

    PubMed

    Strikas, Raymond A; Neff, Linda J; Rotz, Lisa; Cono, Joanne; Knutson, Donna; Henderson, Joseph; Orenstein, Walter A

    2008-03-15

    Variola virus, the cause of smallpox disease, has been deemed a possible bioterrorism agent. Since November 2001, federal, state, and local public health partners implemented activities to prepare for a possible smallpox outbreak. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) produced and delivered training and educational materials for smallpox preparedness in many formats, developed detailed smallpox vaccine information statements about vaccine contraindications and vaccination site care, and established mechanisms to monitor and respond to adverse events after smallpox vaccination. The last included enhancements to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System, a pregnancy registry for inadvertently vaccinated pregnant women, and a Clinician Telephone Information Line to collect reports about adverse events. The civilian responder vaccination program was conducted with rigorous safety procedures, and few historically recognized adverse events were observed. However, myocarditis and/or pericarditis was newly recognized as an adverse event caused by the New York City Board of Health vaccinia vaccine strain. This smallpox preparedness program put into place a number of measures to advance the United States' readiness for a smallpox outbreak that have assisted in preparedness for other threats. PMID:18284355

  5. Evidence of the effectiveness of health sector preparedness in disaster response: the example of four earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Bissell, Richard A; Pinet, Luis; Nelson, Matthew; Levy, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    In this article, evidence that health sector preparedness improves response performance in disasters was examined. Case fatality and survival data were compared for four earthquakes, in relation to health sector emergency preparedness levels. Vast differences in performance were found. The two California systems, with a high preparedness index, had low case fatality rates (about one death per 100 injuries). Kobe, Japan, with mixed levels of preparedness, had 31 deaths per 100 injuries, and Armenia (low preparedness index) had 167. Public health and health sector preparedness made a significant difference in the ability to respond effectively to meet patient needs in disasters, although it is only one of several factors that determine the health outcome of disaster victims. PMID:15596966

  6. Disaster preparedness: what training do our interns receive during medical school?

    PubMed

    Jasper, Edward; Berg, Katherine; Reid, Matthew; Gomella, Patrick; Weber, Danielle; Schaeffer, Arielle; Crawford, Albert; Mealey, Kathleen; Berg, Dale

    2013-01-01

    Disaster preparedness training is a critical component of medical student education. Despite recent natural and man-made disasters, there is no national consensus on a disaster preparedness curriculum. The authors designed a survey to assess prior disaster preparedness training among incoming interns at an academic teaching hospital. In 2010, the authors surveyed incoming interns (n = 130) regarding the number of hours of training in disaster preparedness received during medical school, including formal didactic sessions and simulation, and their level of self-perceived proficiency in disaster management. Survey respondents represented 42 medical schools located in 20 states. Results demonstrated that 47% of interns received formal training in disaster preparedness in medical school; 64% of these training programs included some type of simulation. There is a need to improve the level of disaster preparedness training in medical school. A national curriculum should be developed with aspects that promote knowledge retention. PMID:23341470

  7. Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program Plan, U.S. Department of Energy Region 6

    SciTech Connect

    Marsha Keister

    2010-04-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Region 6 Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program Plan (TEPP Plan) operates within the framework of the DOE emergency management system for developing, coordinating, and directing emergency planning, preparedness, and readiness assurance activities for radiological transportation incidents. The DOE Region 6 TEPP Plan is a narrative description of the DOE Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program activities, training and technical assistance provided to states and tribes along DOE's transportation corridors in DOE Region 6.

  8. Building performance-based accountability with limited empirical evidence: performance measurement for public health preparedness.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Shoshana R; Nelson, Christopher D; McLees, Anita W; Mumford, Karen; Thomas, Craig

    2013-08-01

    Efforts to respond to performance-based accountability mandates for public health emergency preparedness have been hindered by a weak evidence base linking preparedness activities with response outcomes. We describe an approach to measure development that was successfully implemented in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Public Health Emergency Preparedness Cooperative Agreement. The approach leverages insights from process mapping and experts to guide measure selection, and provides mechanisms for reducing performance-irrelevant variation in measurement data. Also, issues are identified that need to be addressed to advance the science of measurement in public health emergency preparedness. PMID:24229520

  9. 44 CFR 351.27 - The Department of Defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS RADIOLOGICAL EMERGENCY PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS Interagency... weapon storage sites) including distances, time and radiological characteristics. (b) Develop, with FEMA... for use in testing and exercising radiological emergency plans. (c) Assist State and local...

  10. 44 CFR 351.27 - The Department of Defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS RADIOLOGICAL EMERGENCY PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS Interagency... weapon storage sites) including distances, time and radiological characteristics. (b) Develop, with FEMA... for use in testing and exercising radiological emergency plans. (c) Assist State and local...

  11. 44 CFR 351.27 - The Department of Defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS RADIOLOGICAL EMERGENCY PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS Interagency... weapon storage sites) including distances, time and radiological characteristics. (b) Develop, with FEMA... for use in testing and exercising radiological emergency plans. (c) Assist State and local...

  12. 44 CFR 351.27 - The Department of Defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS RADIOLOGICAL EMERGENCY PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS Interagency... weapon storage sites) including distances, time and radiological characteristics. (b) Develop, with FEMA... for use in testing and exercising radiological emergency plans. (c) Assist State and local...

  13. 44 CFR 351.27 - The Department of Defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS RADIOLOGICAL EMERGENCY PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS Interagency... weapon storage sites) including distances, time and radiological characteristics. (b) Develop, with FEMA... for use in testing and exercising radiological emergency plans. (c) Assist State and local...

  14. The First Line of Defense

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Adam M.; Morris, Niya L.; Earley, Zachary M.; Choudhry, Mashkoor A.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol (ethanol) is one of the most globally abused substances, and is one of the leading causes of premature death in the world. As a result of its complexity and direct contact with ingested alcohol, the intestine represents the primary source from which alcohol-associated pathologies stem. The gut is the largest reservoir of bacteria in the body, and under healthy conditions, it maintains a barrier preventing bacteria from translocating out of the intestinal lumen. The intestinal barrier is compromised following alcohol exposure, which can lead to life-threatening systemic complications including sepsis and multiple organ failure. Furthermore, alcohol is a major confounding factor in pathology associated with trauma. Experimental data from both human and animal studies suggest that alcohol perturbs the intestinal barrier and its function, which is exacerbated by a “second hit” from traumatic injury. This article highlights the role of alcohol-mediated alterations of the intestinal epithelia and its defense against bacteria within the gut, and the impact of alcohol on intestinal immunity, specifically on T cells and neutrophils. Finally, it discusses how the gut microbiome both contributes to and protects the intestines from dysbiosis after alcohol exposure and trauma. PMID:26695746

  15. The equal effectiveness of different defensive strategies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuang; Zhang, Yuxin; Ma, Keming

    2015-01-01

    Plants have evolved a variety of defensive strategies to resist herbivory, but at the interspecific level, the relative effectiveness of these strategies has been poorly evaluated. In this study, we compared the level of herbivory between species that depend on ants as indirect defenders and species that rely primarily on their own direct defenses. Using a dataset of 871 species and 1,405 data points, we found that in general, ant-associated species had levels of herbivory equal to those of species that are unattractive to ants; the pattern was unaffected by plant life form, climate and phylogenetic relationships between species. Interestingly, species that offer both food and nesting spaces for ants suffered significantly lower herbivory compared to species that offer either food or nesting spaces only or no reward for ants. A negative relationship between herbivory and latitude was detected, but the pattern can be changed by ants. These findings suggest that, at the interspecific level, the effectiveness of different defensive strategies may be equal. Considering the effects of herbivory on plant performance and fitness, the equal effectiveness of different defensive strategies may play an important role in the coexistence of various species at the community scale. PMID:26267426

  16. Defensive pride and consensus: strength in imaginary numbers.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Ian; Nail, Paul R; Marigold, Denise C; Kang, So-Jin

    2005-12-01

    Failure (Study 1) and attachment separation thoughts (Study 2) caused exaggerated consensus estimates for personal beliefs about unrelated social issues. This compensatory consensus effect was most pronounced among defensively proud individuals, that is, among those with the combination of high explicit and low implicit self-esteem (Study 1) and the combination of high attachment avoidance and low attachment anxiety (Study 2). In Study 3, another form of defensive pride, narcissism, was associated with exaggerated consensual worldview defense after a system-injustice threat. In Study 4, imagined consensus reduced subjective salience of proud individuals' troubling thoughts. Compensatory consensus is seen as a kind of defensive self-affirmation that defensively proud people turn to for insulation from distressing thoughts. PMID:16393029

  17. Self-Defense for Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Givler, Jill I.

    2005-01-01

    Resources for self-defense training programs have become more popular and available over the last few years. Introducing a self-defense unit as part of a school physical education program is a wonderful way to address a number of psychosocial issues that prevail among teenagers today. The physical skills learned in this type of program allow…

  18. Nursing education for disaster preparedness and response.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Anne M; Matzo, Marianne

    2015-02-01

    Catastrophic mass casualty events (MCEs), such as pandemic influenza outbreaks, earthquakes, or large-scale terrorism-related events, quickly and suddenly yield thousands of victims whose needs overwhelm local and regional health care systems, personnel, and resources. Such conditions require deploying scarce resources in a manner that is different from the more common multiple casualty event. This article presents issues associated with providing nursing care under MCE circumstances of scarce resources and the educational needs of nurses to prepare them to effectively respond in these emergencies. PMID:25633303

  19. An Assessment of State Board of Pharmacy Legal Documents for Public Health Emergency Preparedness.

    PubMed

    Ford, Heath; Trent, Shane; Wickizer, Stephen

    2016-03-25

    Objective. To estimate pharmaceutical emergency preparedness of US states and commonwealth territories. Methods. A quantitative content analysis was performed to evaluate board of pharmacy legal documents (ie, statutes, rules, and regulations) for the presence of the 2006 Rules for Public Health Emergencies (RPHE) from the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy's (NABP) Model Pharmacy Practice Act. Results. The median number of state-adopted RPHE was one, which was significantly less than the hypothesized value of four. Rule Two, which recommended policies and procedures for reporting disasters, was adopted significantly more than other RPHE. Ten states incorporated language specific to public health emergency refill dispensing, and among these, only six allowed 30-day refill quantities. Conclusion. Based on the 2006 NABP model rules, it does not appear that states are prepared to expedite an effective pharmaceutical response during a public health emergency. Boards of pharmacy should consider adding the eight RPHE to their state pharmacy practice acts. PMID:27073273

  20. Prevalence of Respiratory Protective Devices in U.S. Health Care Facilities: Implications for Emergency Preparedness.

    PubMed

    Wizner, Kerri; Stradtman, Lindsay; Novak, Debra; Shaffer, Ronald

    2016-08-01

    An online questionnaire was developed to explore respiratory protective device (RPD) prevalence in U.S. health care facilities. The survey was distributed to professional nursing society members in 2014 and again in 2015 receiving 322 and 232 participant responses, respectively. The purpose of this study was to explore if the emergency preparedness climate associated with Ebola virus disease changed the landscape of RPD use and awareness. Comparing response percentages from the two sampling time frames using bivariate analysis, no significant changes were found in types of RPDs used in health care settings. N95 filtering facepiece respirators continue to be the most prevalent RPD used in health care facilities, but powered air-purifying respirators are also popular, with regional use highest in the West and Midwest. Understanding RPD use prevalence could ensure that health care workers receive appropriate device trainings as well as improve supply matching for emergency RPD stockpiling. PMID:27462029

  1. An Assessment of State Board of Pharmacy Legal Documents for Public Health Emergency Preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Trent, Shane; Wickizer, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To estimate pharmaceutical emergency preparedness of US states and commonwealth territories. Methods. A quantitative content analysis was performed to evaluate board of pharmacy legal documents (ie, statutes, rules, and regulations) for the presence of the 2006 Rules for Public Health Emergencies (RPHE) from the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy’s (NABP) Model Pharmacy Practice Act. Results. The median number of state-adopted RPHE was one, which was significantly less than the hypothesized value of four. Rule Two, which recommended policies and procedures for reporting disasters, was adopted significantly more than other RPHE. Ten states incorporated language specific to public health emergency refill dispensing, and among these, only six allowed 30-day refill quantities. Conclusion. Based on the 2006 NABP model rules, it does not appear that states are prepared to expedite an effective pharmaceutical response during a public health emergency. Boards of pharmacy should consider adding the eight RPHE to their state pharmacy practice acts. PMID:27073273

  2. The LeATL6-associated ubiquitin/proteasome system may contribute to fungal elicitor-activated defense response via the jasmonic acid-dependent signaling pathway in tomato.

    PubMed

    Hondo, Daisuke; Hase, Shu; Kanayama, Yoshinori; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki; Takenaka, Shigehito; Takahashi, Hideki

    2007-01-01

    The expression of LeATL6, an ortholog of Arabidopsis ATL6 that encodes a RING-H2 finger protein, was induced in tomato roots treated with a cell wall protein fraction (CWP) elicitor of the biocontrol agent Pythium oligandrum. The LeATL6 protein was expressed as a fusion protein with a maltose-binding protein (MBP) in Escherichia coli, and it catalyzed the transfer of ubiquitin to the MBP moiety on incubation with ubiquitin, the ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1, and the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2; this indicated that LeATL6 represents ubiquitin ligase E3. LeATL6 expression also was induced by elicitor treatment of jail-1 mutant tomato cells in which the jasmonic acid (JA)-mediated signaling pathway was impaired; however, JA-dependent expression of the basic PR-6 and TPI-1 genes that encode proteinase inhibitor II and I, respectively, was not induced in elicitor-treated jail-1 mutants. Furthermore, transient overexpression of LeATL6 under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter induced the basic PR6 and TPI-1 expression in wild tomato but not in the jail-1 mutant. In contrast, LeATL6 overexpression did not activate salicylic acid-responsive acidic PR-1 and PR-2 promoters in wild tomato. These results indicated that elicitor-responsive LeATL6 probably regulates JA-dependent basic PR6 and TPI-1 gene expression in tomato. The LeATL6-associated ubiquitin/proteasome system may contribute to elicitor-activated defense responses via a JA-dependent signaling pathway in plants. PMID:17249424

  3. The National Data Centre Preparedness Exercise NPE 2012 - Waveform data analysis results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gestermann, Nicolai; Hartmann, Gernot; Ross, Ole; Ceranna, Lars; Bönnemann, Christian

    2013-04-01

    The National Data Centre Preparedness Exercises simulate a fictitious violation of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) and are conducted by NDCs (National Data Centres) for NDCs with the aim to increase the awareness and preparedness of their duties. These exercises are regularly performed with different scenarios and key aspects. They help to evaluate the effectiveness of procedures applied at NDCs, as well as the quality, completeness, and usefulness of IDC (International Data Centre) products. The NPE 2012 has been organized and coordinated by the control team at the German NDC on behalf of the remaining NDCs and with support from the CTBT- Organization. A seismic event from REB (Reviewed Event Bulletin) was selected as an internal source of a fictitious release of iodine and radioxenon. Additionally, xenon releases at two background sources were included. The exercise started with the notification of hypothetical radionuclide concentrations detected at IMS stations (International Monitoring System. The internal release scenario was kept undisclosed for participants during the exercise. Therefore one main task of the exercise was the identification of the seismic source event. Atmospheric Transport Modeling in backward mode was required to confine the possible source region and find candidate waveform events from REB. The analysis of xenon isotopic ratios gives additional information about the source characteristics and the event timing. Seismological characteristics of the remaining candidate events was investigated in detail and combined with associated infrasound detections to discriminate between natural seismic events and explosions. Spectral behaviors and source characteristics derived from seismic recordings at IMS stations were compared with events from various clusters associated with mining activities. Individual analysis steps are presented and challenges towards possible source identification for the NPE 2012 as well.

  4. [Defensive Medicine: Defensive Medicine: Overview of the literature].

    PubMed

    Panella, Massimiliano; Leigheb, Fabrizio; Rinaldi, Carmela; Donnarumma, Chiara; Tozzi, Quinto; Di Stanislao, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    A literature review was performed on the subject of defensive medicine, in order to gather information and evidence for identifying a shared definition of this phenomenon, identify its causes, quantify its frequency and its economic impact.Results show that defensive medicine is primarily the result of medical professionals adapting to the pressure of litigation risks, and whose behaviour is motivated by fear of malpractice claims rather than by the patient's health. Defensive medicine seems to have become a diffuse phenomenon, afflicting all diagnostic-therapeutic areas and some disciplines to a greater degree, and leading to a large waste of human, organizational and economic resources. PMID:26241515

  5. Ebola virus disease surveillance and response preparedness in northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Adokiya, Martin N.; Awoonor-Williams, John K.

    2016-01-01

    Background The recent Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak has been described as unprecedented in terms of morbidity, mortality, and geographical extension. It also revealed many weaknesses and inadequacies for disease surveillance and response systems in Africa due to underqualified staff, cultural beliefs, and lack of trust for the formal health care sector. In 2014, Ghana had high risk of importation of EVD cases. Objective The objective of this study was to assess the EVD surveillance and response system in northern Ghana. Design This was an observational study conducted among 47 health workers (district directors, medical, disease control, and laboratory officers) in all 13 districts of the Upper East Region representing public, mission, and private health services. A semi-structured questionnaire with focus on core and support functions (e.g. detection, confirmation) was administered to the informants. Their responses were recorded according to specific themes. In addition, 34 weekly Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response reports (August 2014 to March 2015) were collated from each district. Results In 2014 and 2015, a total of 10 suspected Ebola cases were clinically diagnosed from four districts. Out of the suspected cases, eight died and the cause of death was unexplained. All the 10 suspected cases were reported, none was confirmed. The informants had knowledge on EVD surveillance and data reporting. However, there were gaps such as delayed reporting, low quality protective equipment (e.g. gloves, aprons), inadequate staff, and lack of laboratory capacity. The majority (38/47) of the respondents were not satisfied with EVD surveillance system and response preparedness due to lack of infrared thermometers, ineffective screening, and lack of isolation centres. Conclusion EVD surveillance and response preparedness is insufficient and the epidemic is a wake-up call for early detection and response preparedness. Ebola surveillance remains a neglected public

  6. Toxicological aspects of preparedness and aftercare for chemical-incidents.

    PubMed

    Schwenk, Michael; Kluge, Stefan; Jaroni, Hanswerner

    2005-10-30

    The threat of using chemical warfare agents still exists despite the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention. Preparedness for attacks with chemical agents has become an important issue of national security programs. It can be anticipated that toxicologists will be increasingly involved in preparedness programs of their institutions and of the government, no matter whether they work in agencies, industry or universities. Toxicologists must get prepared to give fast and reliable advice in the case of an attack, a sabotage or an accident with release of toxic chemicals. They should be familiar with the principles of hazard management and with incident command structures and cooperate with first responders of other organizations involved such as fire department and medical emergency teams already in the planning phase. In the emergency planning phase, toxicologists are expected to help identifying possible hazards. Moreover, they consult public health services with regard to toxicosurveillance and advice hospitals regarding antidotes, decontamination procedures and shelters. They may be involved in the procurement of antidotes and of protective equipment and will support qualified analytical laboratories. In the response phase, toxicologists must be ready to gain and to interpret analytical data, to support the medical care of poisoned victims and to provide repeated risk assessment reports. This requires an on-scene access to databases and registries. The aftercare phase includes the identification of exposed persons, mapping of contaminated areas, organization of decontamination measures and the release of areas. A medical study may be initiated to observe long-term health effects. Good cooperation between regulatory and clinical toxicologists, specific education of toxicologist in the field of chemical emergencies and regular trainings are essential elements of good preparedness. PMID:16118031

  7. Directed energy planetary defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubin, Philip; Hughes, Gary B.; Bible, Johanna; Bublitz, Jesse; Arriola, Josh; Motta, Caio; Suen, Jon; Johansson, Isabella; Riley, Jordan; Sarvian, Nilou; Clayton-Warwick, Deborah; Wu, Jane; Milich, Andrew; Oleson, Mitch; Pryor, Mark; Krogen, Peter; Kangas, Miikka

    2013-09-01

    Asteroids and comets that cross Earth's orbit pose a credible risk of impact, with potentially severe disturbances to Earth and society. Numerous risk mitigation strategies have been described, most involving dedicated missions to a threatening object. We propose an orbital planetary defense system capable of heating the surface of potentially hazardous objects to the vaporization point as a feasible approach to impact risk mitigation. We call the system DE-STAR for Directed Energy System for Targeting of Asteroids and exploRation. DE-STAR is a modular phased array of kilowatt class lasers powered by photovoltaic's. Modular design allows for incremental development, test, and initial deployment, lowering cost, minimizing risk, and allowing for technological co-development, leading eventually to an orbiting structure that would be developed in stages with both technological and target milestones. The main objective of DE-STAR is to use the focused directed energy to raise the surface spot temperature to ~3,000K, allowing direct vaporization of all known substances. In the process of heating the surface ejecting evaporated material a large reaction force would alter the asteroid's orbit. The baseline system is a DE-STAR 3 or 4 (1-10km array) depending on the degree of protection desired. A DE-STAR 4 allows for asteroid engagement starting beyond 1AU with a spot temperature sufficient to completely evaporate up to 500-m diameter asteroids in one year. Small asteroids and comets can be diverted/evaporated with a DESTAR 2 (100m) while space debris is vaporized with a DE-STAR 1 (10m).

  8. Immune modulation by multifaceted cationic host defense (antimicrobial) peptides.

    PubMed

    Hilchie, Ashley L; Wuerth, Kelli; Hancock, Robert E W

    2013-12-01

    Cationic host defense (antimicrobial) peptides were originally studied for their direct antimicrobial activities. They have since been found to exhibit multifaceted immunomodulatory activities, including profound anti-infective and selective anti-inflammatory properties, as well as adjuvant and wound-healing activities in animal models. These biological properties suggest that host defense peptides, and synthetic derivatives thereof, possess clinical potential beyond the treatment of antibiotic-resistant infections. In this Review, we provide an overview of the biological activities of host defense and synthetic peptides, their mechanism(s) of action and new therapeutic applications and challenges that are associated with their clinical use. PMID:24231617

  9. Partnered disaster preparedness: lessons learned from international events.

    PubMed

    Born, Christopher T; Cullison, Thomas R; Dean, Jeffrey A; Hayda, Roman A; McSwain, Norman; Riddles, Lawrence M; Shimkus, Albert J

    2011-01-01

    Military, governmental, and civilian agencies routinely respond to disasters around the world, including large-scale mass casualty events such as the earthquake in Pakistan in 2005, Hurricane Katrina in the United States in 2005, and the earthquake in Haiti in 2010. Potential exists for improved coordination of medical response between civilian and military sectors and for the creation of a planned and practiced interface. Disaster preparedness could be enhanced with more robust disaster education for civilian responders; creation of a database of precredentialed, precertified medical specialists; implementation of a communication bridge; and the establishment of agreements between military and civilian medical/surgical groups in advance of major catastrophic events. PMID:21304048

  10. General Household Emergency Preparedness: A Comparison Between Veterans and Nonveterans

    PubMed Central

    Der-Martirosian, Claudia; Strine, Tara; Atia, Mangwi; Chu, Karen; Mitchell, Michael N.; Dobalian, Aram

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite federal and local efforts to educate the public to prepare for major emergencies, many US households remain unprepared for such occurrences. United States Armed Forces veterans are at particular risk during public health emergencies as they are more likely than the general population to have multiple health conditions. Methods This study compares general levels of household emergency preparedness between veterans and nonveterans by focusing on seven surrogate measures of household emergency preparedness (a 3-day supply of food, water, and prescription medications, a battery-operated radio and flashlight, a written evacuation plan, and an expressed willingness to leave the community during a mandatory evacuation). This study used data from the 2006 through 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), a state representative, random sample of adults aged 18 and older living in 14 states. Results The majority of veteran and nonveteran households had a 3-day supply of food (88% vs 82%, respectively) and prescription medications (95% vs 89%, respectively), access to a working, battery-operated radio (82% vs 77%, respectively) and flashlight (97% vs 95%, respectively), and were willing to leave the community during a mandatory evacuation (91% vs 96%, respectively). These populations were far less likely to have a 3-day supply of water (61% vs 52%, respectively) and a written evacuation plan (24% vs 21%, respectively). After adjusting for various sociodemographic covariates, general health status, and disability status, households with veterans were significantly more likely than households without veterans to have 3-day supplies of food, water, and prescription medications, and a written evacuation plan; less likely to indicate that they would leave their community during a mandatory evacuation; and equally likely to have a working, battery-operated radio and fiashlight. Conclusion These findings suggest that veteran households appear to be

  11. Teaching Disaster Preparedness to Rural Communities in El Salvador.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, T.

    2014-12-01

    Natural disasters are becoming more common around the world, and it is widely accepted that developing nations show the highest rates of vulnerability. It makes sense to focus preparedness and mitigation efforts in these countries. However, it is important to realize that different teaching styles are required for different cultures with varying education systems and classroom atmospheres. The pedagogical models we use in the US can't be directly exported. A realistic assessment of the situation seen during two years living and working in rural El Salvador is presented, along with methods used and lessons learned.

  12. Addressing Society's Preparedness for the Approaching Solar Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    2010-07-01

    As the next solar maximum approaches, increased solar activity could damage technology on which society relies, with potentially serious consequences for national security, aviation, emergency response, communications, navigation, spacecraft, and electric power grids. To discuss the state of preparedness, describe recent progress, and address future needs, approximately 200 researchers and stakeholders from government agencies, academia, and industry, including international participants, met in June at the 2010 Space Weather Enterprise Forum in Washington, D. C. The conference's theme was "Building an informed and resilient society—The decade ahead."

  13. Tuberculosis control: lessons for outbreak preparedness in correctional facilities.

    PubMed

    Parvez, Farah M; Lobato, Mark N; Greifinger, Robert B

    2010-07-01

    Correctional facilities typically house large numbers of persons in close and crowded conditions for long periods. Clusters of communicable diseases ranging from simple viral upper respiratory infections to more serious threats, such as tuberculosis (TB), infections with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and influenza, often emerge in these surroundings. The recent H1N1 influenza pandemic highlights the importance of outbreak prevention and containment preparedness, particularly in congregate settings. In this commentary, the authors propose that the TB control model can provide valuable lessons for infection control practitioners to prepare for, identify, investigate, and control outbreaks of communicable diseases to prevent transmission in correctional facilities and to the surrounding community. PMID:20466700

  14. Personality and defensive reactions: fear, trait anxiety, and threat magnification.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Adam M; Cooper, Andrew; Abdelall, Maura; Smillie, Luke D; Corr, Philip J

    2010-06-01

    The revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (rRST) of personality (Gray & McNaughton, 2000) maintains that trait individual differences in the operation of defensive systems relate to facets of human personality, most notably anxiety and fear. We investigated this theory in 2 separate studies (total N=270) using a threat scenario research strategy (Blanchard, Hynd, Minke, Minemoto, & Blanchard, 2001). Consistent with rRST, results showed that individuals with high fear questionnaire scores tended to select defensive responses entailing orientation away from threat (e.g., run away) and that fear-prone individuals also tended to perceive threats as magnified. The extent of this threat magnification mediated the positive association observed between fear and orientation away from threat. Overall, results suggest that interindividual variance in defensive reactions is associated with a variety of existing personality constructs but that further research is required to determine the precise relationship between personality and defensive reactions. PMID:20573136

  15. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 50 - Emergency Planning and Preparedness for Production and Utilization Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Emergency Planning and Preparedness for Production and Utilization Facilities E Appendix E to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. E Appendix E to Part 50—Emergency Planning and Preparedness for Production and...

  16. Saudi EMS Students' Perception of and Attitudes toward Their Preparedness for Disaster Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alrazeeni, Daifallah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Disasters led not only to the loss of life and destruction of public infrastructures, but also resulted in consequent healthcare delivery concerns. Disaster preparedness is considered one of the key steps in emergency management. EMS students had very scanty knowledge, attitude and practices about disaster preparedness and mitigation.…

  17. 3 CFR 9009 - Proclamation 9009 of August 30, 2013. National Preparedness Month, 2013

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Proclamation 9009 of August 30, 2013. National Preparedness Month, 2013 9009 Proclamation 9009 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 9009 of August 30, 2013 Proc. 9009 National Preparedness Month, 2013By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Time and again,...

  18. 3 CFR 8986 - Proclamation 8986 of May 24, 2013. National Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2013

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Proclamation 8986 of May 24, 2013. National Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2013 8986 Proclamation 8986 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8986 of May 24, 2013 Proc. 8986 National Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2013By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Last...

  19. 78 FR 79081 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Emergency Preparedness Requirements for Medicare and Medicaid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ...This proposed rule would establish national emergency preparedness requirements for Medicare- and Medicaid-participating providers and suppliers to ensure that they adequately plan for both natural and man-made disasters, and coordinate with federal, state, tribal, regional, and local emergency preparedness systems. It would also ensure that these providers and suppliers are adequately......

  20. Ready for University? A Cross-National Study of Students' Perceived Preparedness for University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Ellen P. W. A.; van der Meer, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Students' preparedness for higher education is seen as one of the main factors affecting first-year attrition or study success. In this paper we report on a cross-national study in which students' preparedness for university was measured "before" students commenced their study at a university in New Zealand or in the Netherlands. This…

  1. The "Uncanny" Character of Race: An Exploration of UK Preparedness through Youth Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakrabarty, Namita

    2011-01-01

    Performance is a key tool in emergency preparedness and the rehearsal of professional response, simultaneously raising questions about the practice of cultural assumptions in this context. Usually the actors in preparedness exercises are civil servants who perform the work of the nihilistic imagination in often-apocalyptic fictional scenarios,…

  2. Comparison of School Counselors and School Social Workers: Performance of Tasks and Perceived Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    This study compares the professional roles of school counselors and school social workers in terms of the frequency of performing various practice tasks, feelings of preparedness to perform various practice tasks, discrepancies between frequency of task performance and feelings of preparedness to perform said tasks, and factors that may affect…

  3. 76 FR 18221 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (BSC, OPHPR)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... Public Health Preparedness and Response (BSC, OPHPR) In accordance with section 10 (a) (2) of the Federal... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Director, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  4. 77 FR 37410 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... Public Health Preparedness and Response; Meeting In accordance with section 10 (a) (2) of the Federal... Prevention (CDC), and the Director, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR), concerning... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  5. 77 FR 20823 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (BSC, OPHPR)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... Public Health Preparedness and Response (BSC, OPHPR) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Director, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  6. 78 FR 40743 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response, Board of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... Public Health Preparedness and Response, Board of Scientific Counselors (BSC OPHPR) In accordance with... Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Director, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR... Address Contact Person for More Information: Marquita Black, Office of Science and Public Health...

  7. 76 FR 76416 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (BSC, OPHPR)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... Public Health Preparedness and Response (BSC, OPHPR) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Director, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  8. 76 FR 53474 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (BSC, OPHPR)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... Public Health Preparedness and Response (BSC, OPHPR) In accordance with section 10 (a)(2) of the Federal..., Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR), concerning strategies and goals for the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  9. The Difficult Transition? Teaching, Research, Service: Examining the Preparedness of Communication Faculty Entering the Academe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, Toni Selena; Hickerson, Corey

    2013-01-01

    This study, based on a survey of graduate students seeking employment, examines the categories and levels of preparedness of new professors/instructors as they enter academe. Preparedness was examined in several ways--specifically knowledge about higher education requirements and their preparation for teaching, advising, and service in the field…

  10. Practitioners' & LIS Students' Perceptions on Preparedness in the New York Metropolitan Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creel, Stacy L.; Pollicino, Elizabeth B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of a study that focused on the perceived preparedness of recent graduates. Fifty-five St. John's University MLS students surveyed 348 practitioners in public libraries (181) and school libraries (167) concerning perceived preparedness of recent MLS graduates for the realities of working in libraries. The overriding…

  11. Emergency Preparedness as Public Pedagogy: The Absent-Presence of Race in "Preparing for Emergencies"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, John; Avery, Barry; Chakrabarty, Namita; Edmonds, Casey

    2011-01-01

    Emergency preparedness can be considered to be a form of lifelong learning and public pedagogy with implications for race equality. The paper is based on an ESRC project "Preparedness pedagogies and race: an interdisciplinary approach" considering the policy process around the construction of the "Preparing for Emergencies" (PFE) campaign. This…

  12. Does Classroom Management Coursework Influence Pre-service Teachers' Perceived Preparedness or Confidence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Sue; Stephenson, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    There has been conjecture that completing focused coursework units on classroom management during pre-service teacher preparation might lead to increased feelings of preparedness and confidence. This study reports the preparedness in managing specific problem behaviours, familiarity, and confidence in using management strategies and models of…

  13. 3 CFR 8830 - Proclamation 8830 of May 25, 2012. National Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2012

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2012 8830 Proclamation 8830 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8830 of May 25, 2012 Proc. 8830 National Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2012By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Every year, hurricanes put communities at risk of...

  14. 3 CFR 8523 - Proclamation 8523 of May 20, 2010. National Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2010

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2010 8523 Proclamation 8523 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8523 of May 20, 2010 Proc. 8523 National Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2010By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Each year during hurricane season, Americans living in...

  15. 3 CFR 8700 - Proclamation 8700 of August 31, 2011. National Preparedness Month, 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Proclamation 8700 of August 31, 2011. National... August 31, 2011 Proc. 8700 National Preparedness Month, 2011By the President of the United States of... sectors. Individuals also play a vital role in securing our country. The National Preparedness...

  16. A Study of Emergency Preparedness of U.S. Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    This study provides a framework for institutions of higher education to measure to what extent their emergency preparedness plans align with the National Response Framework (NRF). The author used alignment with the five principles of the NRF as a proxy to measure emergency preparedness at colleges and universities and to answer the following…

  17. Situated Preparedness: The Negotiation of a Future Catastrophic Earthquake in a California University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Natalie Danielle

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines disaster preparedness as engaged at a large university in southern California using inductive research and grounded theory data collection and analysis methods. The thesis consists of three parts, all addressing the problem of disaster preparedness as enacted in this at-risk context. I use in-depth interviews, archival…

  18. Evaluating Birth Preparedness and Pregnancy Complications Readiness Knowledge and Skills of Accredited Social Health Activists in India

    PubMed Central

    Kochukuttan, Smitha; Ravindran, TK Sundari; Krishnan, Suneeta

    2013-01-01

    Background: The National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) in India relies on Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) to act as a link between pregnant women and health facilities. All ASHAs are required to have a birth preparedness plan and be aware of danger signs of complications to initiate appropriate and timely referral to obstetric care. Objectives: To examine the extent to which Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) are equipped with necessary knowledge and skills and the adequacy of support they get from supervisors to carry out their assigned tasks in a rural district in Karnataka, (South) India. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among 225 ASHAs between June – July 2011. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected using pre-tested semi-structured interview schedule. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 17. Chi-square test was used to determine associations between categorical variables. Results: The response rate was 207(92%). In terms of knowledge of all key danger signs (Complication Readiness), 2(1%), 10(4.8%), and 15(7.2%) ASHAs were aware of key danger signs for labor and child birth, postpartum period and pregnancy period, respectively. Knowledge of key danger signs was associated with repeated, recent and practical training (p <0.05). A majority (71%) scored 4-7 of the maximum score out of 8 for knowledge regarding Birth Preparedness. Conclusions and Public Health Implications: ASHAs in rural Karnataka, India, are poorly equipped to identify obstetric complications and to help expectant mothers prepare a birth preparedness plan. There is critical need for the implementation of appropriate training and follow-up supervision of ASHAs within a supportive, functioning and responsive health care system.

  19. Defenseive Structuring and Environmental Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Bernard J.

    1970-01-01

    This essay explores a kind of adaptation, referred to as defenseive structuring, that recurs with great regularity among groups that perceive themselves as exposed to environmental stress of long duration with which they cannot cope directly and aggressively." (Author)

  20. DEFENSE MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (DMSS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    AMSA operates the Defense Medical Surveillance System (DMSS), an executive information system whose database contains up-to-date and historical data on diseases and medical events (e.g., hospitalizations, ambulatory visits, reportable diseases, HIV tests, acute respiratory diseas...

  1. Strategic Defense Initiative - an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Abrahamson, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    A general framework for developing the concept and implementing options for strategic ballistic missile defense systems is emerging. The objective of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) program is to conduct research on those technologies for defensive system which could intercept ballistic missiles after they have been launched and prevent them from hitting their targets. Its goal is to acquire the technical knowledge as a basis for a later decision on deployment, not a program for deployment or star wars. Abrahamson reviews the basic technological questions facing researchers, outlines the multi-layered defense possibilities and summarizes the status of technology to date. He argues for a continuity of resources to conduct the program. 4 figures.

  2. The zombie thermographer apocalypse preparedness 101: zombie thermographer pandemic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colbert, Fred

    2013-05-01

    Fact: The U.S Government Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response, rather remarkably has dedicated part of their web site to" Zombie Preparedness". See: http://www.cdc.gov/phpr/zombies.htm for more information. This is a tongue-incheek campaign with messages to engage audiences with the hazards of unpreparedness. The CDC director, U.S. Assistant Surgeon General Ali S. Khan (RET), MD, MPH notes, "If you are generally well equipped to deal with a zombie apocalypse you will be prepared for a hurricane, pandemic, earthquake, or terrorist attack. Make a plan, and be prepared!" (CDC Website, April 26th, 2013). Today we can make an easy comparison between the humor that the CDC is bringing to light, and what is actually happening in the Thermographic Industry. It must be acknowledge there are "Zombie Thermographers" out there. At times, it can be observed from the sidelines as a pandemic apocalypse attacking the credibility and legitimacy of the science and the industry that so many have been working to advance for over 30 years. This paper outlines and explores the trends currently taking place, the very real risks to facility plant, property, and human life as a result, and the strategies to overcome these problems.

  3. Tabletop scenarios for realism in bioterrorism and threat preparedness.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Rachel T; Walls, Richard T; Fischer, Mark; Markovic-Reed, Sandra; Solovieva, Tatiana I; Russell, Floyd K; Ducatman, Alan M

    2012-01-01

    Five realistic tabletop scenarios were designed to facilitate threat preparedness training of Medical, Public Health, Nursing, Emergency Services, Mental Health, Allied Health, and Pharmacy personnel. Training scenarios were (1) student contaminates lettuce (Act) in a state university with Shigella sonnei (Agent), (2) dismissed athlete contaminates ice (Act) at the basketball tournament with Escherichia coli (Agent), (3) workers fail to report abandoned backpacks (Act) at a state fair that contain smallpox virus (Agent), (4) terrorists expose county residents (Act) to Pneumonic plague bacterium (Agent), and (5) infected birds expose field-trip participants (Act) to Avian influenza virus (Agent). Evaluation of the tabletops yielded positive ratings of educational outcomes in these domains: well-structured, organized, plausible, realistic, engaging, on-target, useful, and multidisciplinary. Attendees with previous blended-learning courses on bioterrorism and threat preparedness enhanced performance in the tabletop exercises. Evaluative data indicated a new level of competence and self-confidence about being part of a coordinated, local-level, interdisciplinary response. PMID:23472535

  4. Perceptions of disaster preparedness among older people in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Myoungran; Lee, Mijung; Tullmann, Dorothy

    2016-03-01

    Older people are a major vulnerable population. During disasters, given their physical frailty, lower social status, loss of medications and medical care, the vulnerability of older people increases. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of older people in Korea on various aspects of disaster preparedness to better understand their special needs and to facilitate appropriate disaster planning. The study was qualitative and used focus group interviews with 12 older people in one major city and one rural area of South Korea. Four themes were identified by the analysis of the interviews: defenceless state, reality of accepting limitations, strong will to live, importance of disaster preparedness governmental efforts for the older people. Findings indicated that preparation of shelters and transportation was critical to help older people survive in times of disasters and suggested that there should be active involvement of the government in terms of disaster planning, managing and preparing older people for disasters. In addition, healthy older people can be assets to disaster relief efforts by providing practical and emotional support for the most fragile older people. Older people can also provide knowledge of their special needs to the government to improve their disaster response policy. PMID:26179452

  5. A Counter-IED Preparedness Methodology for Large Event Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, Patricia W; Koch, Daniel B

    2011-01-01

    Since 2009, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in a project sponsored by the Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate aimed at improving preparedness against Improvised Explosive Devices (IED) at large sporting events. Led by the University of Southern Mississippi (USM) as part of the Southeast Region Research Initiative, the project partners have been developing tools and methodologies for use by security personnel and first responders at sports stadiums. ORNL s contribution has been to develop an automated process to gather and organize disparate data that is usually part of an organization s security plan. The organized data informs a table-top exercise (TTX) conducted by USM using additional tools developed by them and their subcontractors. After participating in several pilot TTXs, patterns are beginning to emerge that would enable improvements to be formulated to increase the level of counter-IED preparedness. This paper focuses on the data collection and analysis process and shares insights gained to date.

  6. Public health preparedness and response capacity inventory validity study.

    PubMed

    Costich, Julia Field; Scutchfield, F Douglas

    2004-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Public Health Practice Program Office has issued a Public Health Preparedness and Response Capacity Inventory to help state and local public health systems assess their progress towards achievement of the critical capacities and benchmarks specified in the federal Supplemental Funds for Public Health Preparedness and Response for Bioterrorism. The criterion validity of the capacity inventory was assessed by comparing selected state and local agency responses with documentation provided by the agencies to corroborate their answers. Content validity assessment took the form of a mailed survey that also identified the most important questions from the perspective of a separate set of state and local officials. Responses generally upheld the validity of the capacity inventory, although circumstantial threats to validity were identified in the testing process. The instrument's use has been reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention by approximately half the states and over 800 local public health entities. An interactive electronic version includes a scoring mechanism that allows agencies to judge progress towards the critical capacities and benchmarks over time. PMID:15253518

  7. Mental health and psychosocial support aspects in disaster preparedness: Nepal.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Lumeshor; Upadhya, Kapil Dev; Kortmann, Frank

    2006-12-01

    To improve mental health care in Nepal, a National Mental Health Policy, Strategy and Plan of Action was approved by the Government in 1997. Nepal has high vulnerability to natural disasters compounded by a prolonged violent civil conflict affecting almost all districts of the country. Floods, landslides and earthquakes are the most regularly occurring disasters in Nepal. There is a Health Sector Emergency and Disaster Response Plan of the Ministry of Health, but mental health and psychosocial relief is not adequately addressed in this plan. In 2003 guidelines on best public health practices in emergencies for district health workers was developed in which the minimum standard and indicators include aspects of mental and social aspects of health. The experience of the complex emergency in April 2005 showed that in general the emergency preparedness plan has not been prepared well enough, but on the other hand the health system was able to cope quite well because of past training. Further strengthening of the mental health and psychosocial aspects of disaster preparedness is strongly recommended. PMID:17162702

  8. Bioterrorism preparedness and response in European public health institutes.

    PubMed

    Coignard, B

    2001-11-01

    The terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001 and the deliberate release of anthrax in the United States had consequences for public health not only there, but also in Europe. Europe's public health systems had to manage numerous postal materials possibly contaminated with anthrax. Our survey aimed to document the response of European public health institutes to recent bioterrorist events to identify the gaps that need to be addressed; 18 institutes from 16 countries participated in this Euroroundup. Bioterrorist threats in Europe were hoaxes only, and should be considered as a "preparedness exercise" from which three lessons can be drawn. Firstly, because of inadequate preparedness planning and funding arrangements, Europe was not ready in October 2001 to respond to bioterrorism. Secondly, although European institutes reacted quickly and adapted their priorities to a new type of threat, they need adequate and sustained support from national governments to maintain their overall capacity. Thirdly, the recent crisis demonstrated the need for increased investment in epidemiology training programmes and the establishment of a technical coordination unit for international surveillance and outbreak response in the European Union. PMID:11891386

  9. Preparedness for a smallpox pandemic in Japan: public health perspectives.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Yasumasa; Matsukuma, Susumu; Matsumura, Takuya; Kanatani, Yasuhiro; Saito, Tomoya

    2015-04-01

    Smallpox is an acute, febrile, contagious disease caused by the Variola virus, which is a member of the Poxviridae family. Until the 1970s, smallpox had been a pandemic disease for more than 3000 years, endemic in tropical and developing areas and periodically epidemic worldwide. The World Health Organization declared smallpox to be completely eradicated in 1980 as the result of global vaccination efforts. At that time, all routine vaccination programs were terminated, given the success of thismonumental eradication. Although smallpox remains fully eradicated, uncertainty exists regarding the possibility of recurrent smallpox outbreaks. At the end of the Cold War, concerns regarding unstable international security and the feasibility of terrorism with weapons of mass destruction have been highlighted. The potential threat of intentional release of smallpox has forced regional health authorities to reconsider their political landscape and create preparedness plans to protect the community in the event of biological attacks. Here we present current countermeasures to this biological threat in Japan and discuss methods for strengthening public health preparedness both domestically and internationally. These methods include infection control, vaccination policy, and international partnerships to help deter or contain a contagious smallpox pandemic. PMID:26060873

  10. Tsunami Preparedness Along the U.S. West Coast (video)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Filmed and edited by: Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine

    2010-01-01

    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. This video about tsunami preparedness along the West coast distinguishes between a local tsunami and a distant event and focuses on the specific needs of each region. It offers guidelines for correct tsunami response and community preparedness from local emergency managers, first-responders, and leading experts on tsunami hazards and warnings, who have been working on ways of making the tsunami affected regions safer for the people and communities on a long-term basis. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California Emergency Management Agency (CalEMA), Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI), Washington Emergency Management Division (EMD), Marin Office of Emergency Services, and Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E).

  11. [Preparedness of health system in Israel for mass emergencies].

    PubMed

    Navrátil, Václav; Navrátil, Leoš

    2015-01-01

    The vast number of outbreaks of tension on the planet shows that it is impossible to underestimate the preparation level of population protection in emergencies. The possibility of a terrorist attack, including the use of particularly toxic or biological substances cannot be excluded or totally prevented at this point. In fact, there may not only be a terrorist attack. Rampant population migration increases the risk of the transmission of infectious diseases, even to considerable distances from the states where the epidemiological situation might not be completely under control. The current state of the Czech healthcare system in terms of preparedness for mass emergencies is insufficient and requires prompt correction, though not through hastily adopted measures. Ideally, looking into the success of the Israeli preparedness system, where the public has been exposed to high levels of threat from a variety of causes for decades, could greatly aid the Czech Republic in moving forward effectively. The number of victims of terrorist attacks there outpaces 10000, a fact that shows Israel is experienced in responding to emergency incidents. PMID:26311029

  12. Revisiting blood transfusion preparedness: experience from the Bam earthquake response.

    PubMed

    Abolghasemi, Hassan; Radfar, Mohammad H; Tabatabaee, Morteza; Hosseini-Divkolayee, Nasim S; Burkle, Frederick M

    2008-01-01

    Blood transfusion plays a critical role in the provision of medical care for disasters due to man-made and natural hazards. Although the short-term increase in blood donations following national disasters is well-documented, some aspects of blood transfusion during disasters remain under study. The 2003 earthquake in Bam, Iran resulted in the death of >29,000 people and injured 23,000. In total, 108,985 blood units were donated, but only 21,347 units (23%) actually were distributed to hospitals around the country. Kerman Province, the site of the disaster, received 1,231 (1.3%) of the donated units in the first four days after the disaster. The Bam experience revealed crucial missteps in the development of a post-event strategy for blood product management, and led to the development of a detailed disaster preparedness and response plan that addresses issues of donation, distribution, communication, transportation, and coordination. The current plan requires the Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization to convene a disaster task force immediately as the main coordinator of all disaster preparedness and response activities. PMID:19189607

  13. Avian influenza and pandemic influenza preparedness in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lam, Ping Yan

    2008-06-01

    Avian influenza A H5N1 continues to be a major threat to global public health as it is a likely candidate for the next influenza pandemic. To protect public health and avert potential disruption to the economy, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government has committed substantial effort in preparedness for avian and pandemic influenza. Public health infrastructures for emerging infectious diseases have been developed to enhance command, control and coordination of emergency response. Strategies against avian and pandemic influenza are formulated to reduce opportunities for human infection, detect pandemic influenza timely, and enhance emergency preparedness and response capacity. Key components of the pandemic response include strengthening disease surveillance systems, updating legislation on infectious disease prevention and control, enhancing traveller health measures, building surge capacity, maintaining adequate pharmaceutical stockpiles, and ensuring business continuity during crisis. Challenges from avian and pandemic influenza are not to be underestimated. Implementing quarantine and social distancing measures to contain or mitigate the spread of pandemic influenza is problematic in a highly urbanised city like Hong Kong as they involved complex operational and ethical issues. Sustaining effective risk communication campaigns during interpandemic times is another challenge. Being a member of the global village, Hong Kong is committed to contributing its share of efforts and collaborating with health authorities internationally in combating our common public health enemy. PMID:18618061

  14. Strategic defense initiative: critical issues

    SciTech Connect

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1985-06-01

    The objectives of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) as outlined by President Reagan are discussed. The principal objective for SDI is as a defense against ballistic missiles. Soviet objections and a summary of US-USSR dialogue on the subject are reviewed. Most US studies have been critical of SDI. Four critical issues are addressed in depth: are defense weapons technologically feasible which have high economic leverage relative to offensive ballistic missiles; would the defense feasibility and leverage be degraded or enhanced in the technological race between weapons innovation and countermeasures; could stability be achieved during and after the transition to the defense dominated world envisioned by SDI proponents; would the deployment of high leverage defensive weapons increase or decrease the security of NATO Europe, and the probability of major conventional or nuclear wars. The issue of SDI may lead to a paradox that contains the seeds of catastrophe. The author concludes by warning that nuclear disarmament may eliminate the highly successful deterrent mechanism for avoiding another major world war. In a world made safe for major conventional wars by the apparent ''elimination'' of nuclear weapons, the leaders in a conventional World War III - involving unimaginable suffering, hatred, terror, and death - would be strongly motivated to introduce nuclear weapons in the crucial decisive battles. Even if diplomacy could ''eliminate'' nuclear weapons, man's knowledge of nuclear weapons can never be eliminated. The paradox is the attempt to eliminate nuclear weapons may maximize the probability of their use. (DMC)

  15. A Solutions Network for Disaster Preparedness and Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaduri, B.; Tuttle, M.; Fernandez, S.

    2008-05-01

    Careful planning and management strategies are essential for disaster preparedness and prevention and to the implementation of responses strategies when emergencies do occur. Disasters related to climate and weather extremes, such as hurricanes, floods, wildfires, blizzards, droughts, and tornadoes may have a period for watching and warning within which emergency preparedness measures can be taken to reduce risk to population and critical infrastructures. The ability to effectively address emergency preparedness and response operations is dependent upon a strong global spatial data infrastructure, and geospatial modeling and simulation capabilities that can complement the decision making process at various stages of disaster preparedness, response, and recovery. It is well understood that a strong linkage between data and analytical capabilities are nucleus to effective decision making ability and that disaster consequence management organizations should have access to the best available geospatial technical expertise, global and regional data sets, and modeling and analytical tools. However, such optimal combination of data assets and modeling expertise are often beyond the resources available internally within a single organization but can be accessed through external collaboration with other "Earth science community-of-practice" organizations. This provides an opportunity to develop a solutions network for disaster preparedness and response. However, our current capability and state of general practice in disaster consequence management is, for the most part, built around such networks that are not very well defined, often formed on an ad-hoc basis soon after a disaster, loosely coupled, and functions at less than desirable pace. We will illustrate this concept of a solutions network through the current functions of the Visualization and Modeling Working Group (VMWG) of the Department of Energy, to which multiple national laboratories and other federal agencies

  16. Increasing awareness and preparedness by an exhibition and studying the effect of visuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charrière, Marie; Bogaard, Thom; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Mostert, Erik

    2013-04-01

    Damages caused by natural hazards can be reduced not only by protection, management and intervention activities, but also by information and communication to improve awareness and preparedness of local communities and tourists. Risk communication is particularly crucial for mountainous areas, such as the Ubaye Valley (France), as they are affected by multiple hazards and are particularly sensitive to the potential effects of climate and socio-economic changes which may increase the risk associated with natural hazards significantly. An exhibition is a powerful tool to communicate with the general public. It allows1: (1) targeting specific audiences, (2) transmitting technical and scientific knowledge using a suitable language, (3) anchoring the collective memory of past events, (4) visualize and emotionalize the topic of natural hazards, (5) strengthening the communication between peers, and (6) highlighting local resources and knowledge. In addition to these theoretical advantages, an exhibition may fulfill the requirements of a community. In the Ubaye Valley (France), this tool was proposed by the stakeholders themselves to increase awareness and preparedness of the general public. To meet this demand, the exhibition was designed following three general topics: (1) the natural phenomena and their potential consequences on the elements at risk, (2) the management and protection measures (individual and collective) and (3) the evolution of events and knowledge throughout past up to the present and the anticipation of the future situations. Besides being a real risk communication practice, this exhibition will be the setting for an extensive research project studying the effect of the use of visualization tools on the awareness and preparedness of a community. A wide range of visuals (photos, videos, maps, models, animations, multimedia, etc.) will present many dimensions of locally occurring natural hazards and risk problems. The aim of the research is (1) to

  17. Compilation of demographic data for the chemical stockpile emergency preparedness program

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, B.; Sorensen, J.; Coomer, C.; Shumpert, B.; Hardee, H.

    1998-01-01

    There are eight installations in the continental US where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions have been stored since the late 1950`s. In December, 1985, Congress directed the Department of Defense (DOD) to destroy these stockpiles of aging chemical warfare weapons. The destruction was to take place in such a manner as to provide: (1) maximum protection of the environment, the general public, and the personnel involved in the destruction, (2) adequate and safe facilities designed solely for the destruction of the stockpile, and (3) clean-up dismantling, and disposal of the facilities when the disposal program was complete. To help communities develop emergency response capabilities, the Army established the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program or CSEPP based on principals established in the Emergency Response Concept Plan (ERCP). The Army and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) jointly oversee the CSEPP. An important part of the ERCP guidance was establishing cooperative interaction between local, state, and federal agencies and the development of emergency planning zones (EPZs) to support the emergency response concept. The purpose of this document is to describe how the population figures were derived for the population estimates for both the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program and the CSEPP analyses. Most of the data is derived from the US Census 1990 population figures. However, the Census only counts residential populations and does not attempt to document daytime populations within commercial or residential facilities. One conclusion from this review is that there is a need for better and more consistent population data in the Emergency Planning Guides.

  18. Arsenal of democracy in the face of change: Issues and policy options in industrial preparedness planning

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornstad, D.J.; Hardy, B.H.

    1990-03-01

    This paper is one of a set of working papers that serves as a background material to a FEMA-sponsored study of Industrial Mobilization planning. It identifies issues that will lead to policy alternatives in support of industrial preparedness. To do this, a simple framework cross classifying types of economic interaction between the DOD and the private sector, given peacetime, surge, and mobilization requirements. Next, policy recommendations from ten recent studies are examined. These came from a variety of different groups and focused on potential actions by DOD, FEMA, Congress, the Navy, and others. These are summarized and restated to match the cross classification framework. The planning framework is then used to organize a set of recommendations around three themes --- acquisition and public/private sector relationships technology and factor input enhancing activities, and offshore sourcing and international competitiveness. The DOD has already addressed the acquisition issue at great length and has implemented the bulk of its findings. These will undoubtedly increase the effectiveness and efficiency of its operations. It cannot, however, by itself fully rationalize the acquisition process so that incentives to achieve greater efficiency are fully passed on to contractors. DOD can, however, revise its acquisition process so that surge provisions are a deliberate step in the contract of each sensitive procurement, and could require a surge analysis for each action, steps that would highlight preparations for surge. DOD should consider the creation of a new institution similar to, but more generic than SEMATECH to handle its activities that directly enhance the defense industrial base. It should also support the creation of a body whose goal it is to identify non-neutralities in government policy. 23 refs., 1 fig., 15 tabs.

  19. Emergent Network Defense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Earl Newell

    2013-01-01

    The research problem that inspired this effort is the challenge of managing the security of systems in large-scale heterogeneous networked environments. Human intervention is slow and limited: humans operate at much slower speeds than networked computer communications and there are few humans associated with each network. Enabling each node in the…

  20. Emergency Preparedness and Role Clarity among Rescue Workers during the Terror Attacks in Norway July 22, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, May Janne Botha; Gjerland, Astrid; Rund, Bjørn Rishovd; Ekeberg, Øivind; Skogstad, Laila

    2016-01-01

    Background Few studies address preparedness and role clarity in rescue workers after a disaster. On July 22, 2011, Norway was struck by two terror attacks; 77 people were killed and many injured. Healthcare providers, police officers and firefighters worked under demanding conditions. The aims of this study were to examine the level of preparedness, exposure and role clarity. In addition, the relationship between demographic variables, preparedness and exposure and a) role clarity during the rescue operations and; b) achieved mastering for future disaster operations. Methods In this cross-sectional study, healthcare providers (n = 859), police officers (n = 252) and firefighters (n = 102) returned a questionnaire approximately 10 months after the terror attacks. Results The rescue personnel were trained and experienced, and the majority knew their professional role (healthcare providers M = 4.1 vs. police officers: M = 3.9 vs. firefighters: M = 4.2, p < .001, [scale 1–5]). The police officers reported significantly more lack of control (p < .001). In the multivariable analysis, being female (OR 1.4, p < .05), having more years of work experience (OR 2.3, p = < .001), previous training (OR 1.6, p < .05) and the experience of an event with > 5 fatalities (OR 1.6, p < .05) were all associated with role clarity, together with a feeling of control, not being obstructed in work and perceiving the rescue work as a success. Moreover, independent predictors of being more prepared for future operations were arousal during the operation (OR 2.0, p < .001) and perceiving the rescue work as a success (OR 1.5, p < .001). Conclusion Most of the rescue workers were experienced and knew their professional role. Training and everyday-work-experience must be a focal point when preparing rescue workers for disaster. PMID:27280520

  1. Inter- and intraspecific comparisons of antiherbivore defenses in three species of rainforest understory shrubs.

    PubMed

    Fincher, R M; Dyer, L A; Dodson, C D; Richards, J L; Tobler, M A; Searcy, J; Mather, J E; Reid, A J; Rolig, J S; Pidcock, W

    2008-04-01

    Plants defend themselves against herbivores and pathogens with a suite of morphological, phenological, biochemical, and biotic defenses, each of which is presumably costly. The best studied are allocation costs that involve trade-offs in investment of resources to defense versus other plant functions. Decreases in growth or reproductive effort are the costs most often associated with antiherbivore defenses, but trade-offs among different defenses may also occur within a single plant species. We examined trade-offs among defenses in closely related tropical rain forest shrubs (Piper cenocladum, P. imperiale, and P. melanocladum) that possess different combinations of three types of defense: ant mutualists, secondary compounds, and leaf toughness. We also examined the effectiveness of different defenses and suites of defenses against the most abundant generalist and specialist Piper herbivores. For all species examined, leaf toughness was the most effective defense, with the toughest species, P. melanocladum, receiving the lowest incidence of total herbivory, and the least tough species, P. imperiale, receiving the highest incidence. Although variation in toughness within each species was substantial, there were no intraspecific relationships between toughness and herbivory. In other Piper studies, chemical and biotic defenses had strong intraspecific negative correlations with herbivory. A wide variety of defensive mechanisms was quantified in the three Piper species studied, ranging from low concentrations of chemical defenses in P. imperiale to a complex suite of defenses in P. cenocladum that includes ant mutualists, secondary metabolites, and moderate toughness. Ecological costs were evident for the array of defensive mechanisms within these Piper species, and the differences in defensive strategies among species may represent evolutionary trade-offs between costly defenses. PMID:18317843

  2. An Academic-Government-Faith Partnership to Build Disaster Mental Health Preparedness and Community Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Semon, Natalie L.; Lating, Jeffrey M.; Everly, George S.; Perry, Charlene J.; Moore, Suzanne Straub; Mosley, Adrian M.; Thompson, Carol B.; Links, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Faculty and affiliates of the Johns Hopkins Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Center partnered with local health departments and faith-based organizations to develop a dual-intervention model of capacity-building for public mental health preparedness and community resilience. Project objectives included (1) determining the feasibility of the tri-partite collaborative concept; (2) designing, delivering, and evaluating psychological first aid (PFA) training and guided preparedness planning (GPP); and (3) documenting preliminary evidence of the sustainability and impact of the model. Methods We evaluated intervention effectiveness by analyzing pre- and post-training changes in participant responses on knowledge-acquisition tests administered to three urban and four rural community cohorts. Changes in percent of correct items and mean total correct items were evaluated. Criteria for model sustainability and impact were, respectively, observations of nonacademic partners engaging in efforts to advance post-project preparedness alliances, and project-attributable changes in preparedness-related practices of local or state governments. Results The majority (11 of 14) test items addressing technical or practical PFA content showed significant improvement; we observed comparable testing results for GPP training. Government and faith partners developed ideas and tools for sustaining preparedness activities, and numerous project-driven changes in local and state government policies were documented. Conclusions Results suggest that the model could be an effective approach to promoting public health preparedness and community resilience. PMID:25355980

  3. Cross-sectional survey of the disaster preparedness of nurses across the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Usher, Kim; Mills, Jane; West, Caryn; Casella, Evan; Dorji, Passang; Guo, Aimin; Koy, Virya; Pego, George; Phanpaseuth, Souksavanh; Phouthavong, Olaphim; Sayami, Jamuna; Lak, Muy Seang; Sio, Alison; Ullah, Mohammad Mofiz; Sheng, Yu; Zang, Yuli; Buettner, Petra; Woods, Cindy

    2015-12-01

    Healthcare workers who have received disaster preparedness education are more likely to report a greater understanding of disaster preparedness. However, research indicates that current nursing curricula do not adequately prepare nurses to respond to disasters. This is the first study to assess Asia-Pacific nurses' perceptions about their level of disaster knowledge, skills, and preparedness. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 757 hospital and community nurses in seven Asia-Pacific countries. Data were collected using the modified Disaster Preparedness Evaluation Tool. Participants were found to have overall low-to-moderate levels of disaster knowledge, skills and preparedness, wherein important gaps were identified. A majority of the variance in disaster preparedness scores was located at the level of the individual respondent, not linked to countries or institutions. Multilevel random effects modelling identified disaster experience and education as significant factors of positive perceptions of disaster knowledge, skills, and management. The first step toward disaster preparedness is to ensure frontline health workers are able to respond effectively to disaster events. The outcomes of this study have important policy and education implications. PMID:26245707

  4. Emergency Preparedness in the 10-Mile Emergency Planning Zone Surrounding Nuclear Power Plants

    PubMed Central

    Adalja, Amesh A.; Sell, Tara Kirk; Ravi, Sanjana J.; Minton, Katie; Morhard, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Each of the nuclear power plants in the US is encircled by an Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ). Within each EPZ, government officials, utility professionals, emergency managers, and public health practitioners collectively conduct extensive planning, exercises, and outreach to better protect their communities in the event of a nuclear accident. Our objective was to conduct a cross-sectional study of off-site public health preparedness within EPZs to better understand the dynamics of nuclear preparedness and uncover lessons for all-hazards preparedness. Methods Using a qualitative, interview-based method, we consulted 120 county emergency managers, state health preparedness officers, state radiation health officials, and industry officials from 17 EPZs in ten different states. Results Interviewees reflected that EPZ emergency preparedness is generally robust, results from strong public-private partnership between nuclear plants and emergency management agencies, and enhances all-hazard preparedness. However, there exist a few areas which merit further study and improvement. These areas include cross-state coordination, digital public communication, and optimizing the level of public education within EPZs. Conclusions This first-of-its-kind study provides a cross-sectional snapshot of emergency preparedness in the 10-mile EPZ surrounding nuclear power plants. PMID:26692825

  5. The Study to Improve Tsunami Preparedness Education in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Mayumi; Tanırcan, Gülüm; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki; Puskulcu, Seyhun; Kumamoto, Kunihiko

    2016-04-01

    Compared to its long history on disastrous earthquakes, disaster education history in Turkey is rather short. It has just started with an initiative of Disaster Preparedness Education Unit of Bogazici University (BU/DPEU) after 1999 Kocaeli Earthquake. Training modules and materials on disaster preparedness were prepared both for students, teachers and community. Regarding to the school education, the Ministry of National Education (MoNE) reformed their education plan in 2003, and disaster education became one of eight focused components for primary-middle education. In 2011-2014 MoNE had conducted "School-based Disaster Education Project" in collaboration with Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). The majority of the school education materials focus more on earthquake and there are very few education programs on tsunami. Within the MarDiM (Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in the Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey) project between Turkey and Japan a multidisciplinary engineering research as well as development of disaster education, tsunami education booklet and video were newly developed in 2015. In order to investigate students' knowledge natural disasters and disaster preparedness with focus on tsunami, a questionnaire based survey was conducted. The survey aims to clarify following questions: 1) how students obtain natural disaster information, 2) how students prepare for natural disaster, 3) knowledge on tsunami (hazard mechanism, evacuation behavior, historical disaster). The study was conducted by BU/DPEU in 2015 and 375 students answered the questionnaire. Results showed that students have more interest on earthquake, flood, tsunami and landslide followed it. Most students have heard about tsunami and the school is a key resource of their information. They know relatively well about tsunami mechanism, however, they have less knowledge on tsunami evacuation behavior and tsunami history in Turkey. In order to let students have

  6. Replenishing our defensive microbes

    PubMed Central

    Ursell, Luke K.; Van Treuren, William; Metcalf, Jessica L.; Pirrung, Meg; Gewirtz, Andrew; Knight, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale characterization of the human microbiota has largely focused on Western adults, yet these populations may be uncharacteristic because of their diets and lifestyles. In particular, the rise of “Western diseases” may in part stem from reduced exposure to, or even loss of, microbes with which humans have coevolved. Here we review beneficial microbes associated with pathogen resistance, highlighting the emerging role of complex microbial communities in protecting against disease. We discuss ways in which modern lifestyles and practices may deplete physiologically important microbiota, and explore prospects for reintroducing or encouraging the growth of beneficial microbes to promote the restoration of healthy microbial ecosystems. PMID:23836415

  7. Art of Disaster Preparedness in European Union: a Survey on the Health Systems

    PubMed Central

    Djalali, Ahmadreza; Della Corte, Francesco; Foletti, Marco; Ragazzoni, Luca; Ripoll Gallardo, Alba; Lupescu, Olivera; Arculeo, Chris; von Arnim, Götz; Friedl, Tom; Ashkenazi, Michael; Fischer, Philipp; Hreckovski, Boris; Khorram-Manesh, Amir; Komadina, Radko; Lechner, Konstanze; Patru, Cristina; Burkle, Frederick M.; Ingrassia, Pier Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Naturally occurring and man-made disasters have been increasing in the world, including Europe, over the past several decades. Health systems are a key part of any community disaster management system. The success of preparedness and prevention depends on the success of activities such as disaster planning, organization and training. The aim of this study is to evaluate health system preparedness for disasters in the 27 European Union member countries. Method: A cross-sectional analysis study was completed between June-September 2012. The checklist used for this survey was a modified from the World Health Organization toolkit for assessing health-system capacity for crisis management. Three specialists from each of the 27 European Union countries were included in the survey. Responses to each survey question were scored and the range of preparedness level was defined as 0-100%, categorized in three levels as follows: Acceptable; Transitional; or Insufficient. Results: Response rate was 79.1%. The average level of disaster management preparedness in the health systems of 27 European Union member states was 68% (Acceptable). The highest level of preparedness was seen in the United Kingdom, Luxemburg, and Lithuania. Considering the elements of disaster management system, the highest level of preparedness score was at health information elements (86%), and the lowest level was for hospitals, and educational elements (54%). Conclusion: This survey study suggests that preparedness level of European Union countries in 2012 is at an acceptable level but could be improved. Elements such as hospitals and education and training suffer from insufficient levels of preparedness. The European Union health systems need a collective strategic plan, as well as enough resources, to establish a comprehensive and standardized disaster management strategy plan. A competency based training curriculum for managers and first responders is basic to accomplishing this goal

  8. After 9/11: priority focus areas for bioterrorism preparedness in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Jenifer K

    2004-01-01

    Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, bioterrorism preparedness was a priority in hospitals, but it did not remain a priority. As a result, hospitals are still unprepared to deal with the effects of a bioterrorist attack. The government has provided initial funding to state and local governments for bioterrorism preparedness; however, much of this money has yet to reach hospitals. With the inadequate funding available to hospitals, four initial measures must be focused on. These focus areas are community involvement, hospital staff education, information technology and disease surveillance improvement, and additional equipment and staff acquisition. Hospitals should also make bioterrorism-preparedness planning a regional effort. PMID:15328657

  9. Stakeholders' experiences with US hospital emergency preparedness--Part 2.

    PubMed

    Cagliuso, Nicholas V

    This study examined, via qualitative phenomenology, important stakeholders' experiences with US hospital emergency preparedness, finding that their experiences varied from positive and effective to frustrating, time-consuming and inefficient. The findings centred on four themes: the importance of funding; collaboration, communication and coordination; the role of government; and hospital leadership buy-in. Together, these findings suggest that issues such as a lack of performance metrics, insufficient funding, inadequate surge capacity, confusing federal guidelines and accreditation requirements and an overall lack of coordination in hospitals' abilities to manage emergency incidents continue to plague the US healthcare system. Exploring, and now understanding, these experiences can support the field in maintaining elements that work and recognising and applying solutions to its short-comings. This is the second of two papers on the subject, the first of which appeared in a previous issue of this journal, examining the study's methodological approach, data analysis, main results and implications for practice. PMID:26591933

  10. Preparedness for Threat of Chikungunya in the Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Hoy, Damian; Horwood, Paul F.; Ropa, Berry; Hancock, Thane; Guillaumot, Laurent; Rickart, Keith; Frison, Pascal; Pavlin, Boris; Souares, Yvan

    2014-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) caused significant outbreaks of illness during 2005–2007 in the Indian Ocean region. Chikungunya outbreaks have also occurred in the Pacific region, including in Papua New Guinea in 2012; New Caledonia in April 2013; and Yap State, Federated States of Micronesia, in August 2013. CHIKV is a threat in the Pacific, and the risk for further spread is high, given several similarities between the Pacific and Indian Ocean chikungunya outbreaks. Island health care systems have difficulties coping with high caseloads, which highlights the need for early multidisciplinary preparedness. The Pacific Public Health Surveillance Network has developed several strategies focusing on surveillance, case management, vector control, laboratory confirmation, and communication. The management of this CHIKV threat will likely have broad implications for global public health. PMID:25062306

  11. Pharmacy Leader’s Role in Hospital Emergency Preparedness Planning

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Christopher; Daniel, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The Director’s Forum column is designed to guide pharmacy leaders in establishing patient-centered services in hospitals and health systems. Environmental disasters and terrorist attacks demonstrate that it is imperative for both a hospital and community to have an emergency preparedness plan. The goal of this article is to provide health-system pharmacy leaders with a practical approach in developing an emergency operations plan (EOP) that can be activated in the event of a disaster. Pharmacy leaders should (1) review government and community disaster responses and understand the movement of drug supply for each response, (2) create a pharmacy disaster plan, (3) list the essential medications and determine their inventory levels, and (4) establish a staff training program to enhance understanding and implementation of the EOP. If successfully developed and executed, a hospital pharmacy department’s EOP has a high rating of success in meeting patient-centered needs in the unforeseen event of a disaster PMID:24958947

  12. Southern state radiological emergency preparedness and response agencies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    This Report provides information on the state agencies assigned to radioactive materials transportation incidents in 16 Southern States Energy Board member states. For each, the report lists the agencies with primary authority for preparedness and response, their responsibilities and personnel within the agencies who can offer additional information on their radioactive materials transportation programs. The report also lists each state's emergency team members and its laboratory and analytical capabilities. Finally, the governor's designee for receiving advance notification of high-level radioactive materials and spent fuel shipments under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's regulations is listed for each state. Part 71 requires prenotification for large quantity radioactive waste shipments. Part 73 addresses prenotification for spent nuclear reactor fuel shipments.

  13. Southern state radiological emergency preparedness and response agencies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    This Report provides information on the state agencies assigned to radioactive materials transportation incidents in 16 Southern States Energy Board member states. For each, the report lists the agencies with primary authority for preparedness and response, their responsibilities and personnel within the agencies who can offer additional information on their radioactive materials transportation programs. The report also lists each state`s emergency team members and its laboratory and analytical capabilities. Finally, the governor`s designee for receiving advance notification of high-level radioactive materials and spent fuel shipments under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s regulations is listed for each state. Part 71 requires prenotification for large quantity radioactive waste shipments. Part 73 addresses prenotification for spent nuclear reactor fuel shipments.

  14. Safety and emergency preparedness considerations for geotechnical field operations

    SciTech Connect

    Wemple, R.P.

    1989-04-01

    The GEO Energy Technology Department at Sandia National Laboratories is involved in several remote-site drilling and/or experimental operations each year. In 1987, the Geothermal Research Division of the Department developed a general set of Safe Operating Procedures (SOPs) that could be applied to a variety of projects. This general set is supplemented by site-specific SOPs as needed. Effective field operations require: integration of safety and emergency preparedness planning with overall project planning, training of field personnel and inventorying of local emergency support resources, and, developing a clear line of responsibility and authority to enforce the safety requirements. Copies of SOPs used in recent operations are included as examples of working documents for the reader.

  15. Public health preparedness for chemical incidents in Europe.

    PubMed

    Kello, Dinko

    2003-06-01

    In response to the attack of 11 September 2001 on the USA, World Health Organization (WHO), Regional Office for Europe took immediate steps in order to be able to assist countries in case of a terrorist attack. Among other things, WHO organised a series of different consultations with international organisations, government representatives and experts in order to assess the state of preparedness at the national and international levels, to identify the main problems and to make recommendations. The problems were addressed in the context of possible public health consequences, regardless of whether such an incident derived from a deliberate act or a naturally occurring event. This overview gives a brief account of presentation made at the European Union "First Civil Protection Forum", which was held in Brussels in November 2002, and which served as a basis for defining the EU priorities and actions to make Europe a safer place to live. PMID:14679666

  16. Midbrain circuits for defensive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Tovote, Philip; Esposito, Maria Soledad; Botta, Paolo; Chaudun, Fabrice; Fadok, Jonathan P; Markovic, Milica; Wolff, Steffen B E; Ramakrishnan, Charu; Fenno, Lief; Deisseroth, Karl; Herry, Cyril; Arber, Silvia; Lüthi, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Survival in threatening situations depends on the selection and rapid execution of an appropriate active or passive defensive response, yet the underlying brain circuitry is not understood. Here we use circuit-based optogenetic, in vivo and in vitro electrophysiological, and neuroanatomical tracing methods to define midbrain periaqueductal grey circuits for specific defensive behaviours. We identify an inhibitory pathway from the central nucleus of the amygdala to the ventrolateral periaqueductal grey that produces freezing by disinhibition of ventrolateral periaqueductal grey excitatory outputs to pre-motor targets in the magnocellular nucleus of the medulla. In addition, we provide evidence for anatomical and functional interaction of this freezing pathway with long-range and local circuits mediating flight. Our data define the neuronal circuitry underlying the execution of freezing, an evolutionarily conserved defensive behaviour, which is expressed by many species including fish, rodents and primates. In humans, dysregulation of this 'survival circuit' has been implicated in anxiety-related disorders. PMID:27279213

  17. Inducible defenses, phenotypic variability and biotic environments.

    PubMed

    Adler, F R; Drew Harvell, C

    1990-12-01

    Defensive morphologies, chemicals and behaviors induced by cues from consumers or competitors have been described in numerous organisms. Much work has focused on the costs of defenses and the actual cues used. Here, we review recent progress in determining the effects of inducible defenses on consumers and the cues implicated in inducing defenses against consumers and competitors, thereby laying the groundwork for studying the implications of inducible defenses for the dynamics of foraging, population size and evolution. PMID:21232402

  18. Health-Related Quality of Life Domains and Household Preparedness for Public Health Emergencies: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2006-2010

    PubMed Central

    Strine, Tara W.; Neff, Linda J.; Crawford, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Background This study examined the association between self-reported levels of household disaster preparedness and a range of physical and mental health quality of life outcomes. Methods Data collected from 14 states participating in a large state-based telephone survey were analyzed (n 5 104 654). Household disaster-preparedness items included having a 3-day supply of food, water, and prescription medications; a working battery-powered radio and flashlight; an evacuation plan; and a willingness to evacuate when instructed to do so. Quality-of-life items were categorized into 2 domains: physical health (general health, unhealthy physical days, and activity-limited days) and mental health (unhealthy mental days, social and emotional support, and life satisfaction). Results Persons with self-reported impaired mental health were generally less likely to report being prepared for a disaster than those who did not report impairment in each domain. Persons with low life satisfaction were among the least likely to be prepared, followed by those with inadequate social and emotional support, and then by those with frequent mental distress. Persons reporting physical impairments also reported deficits in many of the preparedness items. However, after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, some of the associations were attenuated and no longer significant Conclusion Persons reporting impaired quality of life are vulnerable to increased mental and physical distress during a disaster, and their vulnerability is compounded if they are ill-prepared. Therefore, persons reporting impaired quality of life should be included in the list of vulnerable populations that need disaster preparedness and response outreach. PMID:24618171

  19. Hospital preparedness for possible nonconventional casualties: an Israeli experience.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Shaul; Yoeli, Naomi; Paz, Gedalia; Barbash, Gabriel I; Varssano, David; Fertel, Nurit; Hassner, Avi; Drory, Margalit; Halpern, Pinchas

    2004-01-01

    Since 9/11, hospitals and health authorities have been preparing medical response in case of various mass terror attacks. The experience of Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center in treating suicide-bombing mass casualties served, in the time leading up to the war in Iraq, as a platform for launching a preparedness program for possible attacks with biological and chemical agents of mass destruction. Adapting Quarantelli's criteria on disaster mitigation to the "microinfrastructure" of the hospital, and including human behavior experts, we attempted to foster an interactive emergency management process that would deal with contingencies stemming from the potential hazards of chemical and biological (CB) weapons. The main objective of our work was to encourage an organization-wide communication network that could effectively address the contingent hazards unique to this unprecedented situation. A stratified assessment of needs, identification of unique dangers to first responders, and assignment of team-training sessions paved the way for program development. Empowerment through leadership and resilience training was introduced to emergency team leaders of all disciplines. Focal subject matters included proactive planning, problem-solving, informal horizontal and vertical communication, and coping through stress-management techniques. The outcome of this process was manifested in an "operation and people" orientation supporting a more effective and compatible emergency management. The aim of article is to describe this process and to point toward the need for a broad-spectrum view in such circumstances. Unlike military units, the civilian hospital staff at risk, expected to deal with CB casualties, requires adequate personal consideration to enable effective functioning. Issues remain to be addressed in the future. We believe that collaboration and sharing of knowledge, information, and expertise beyond the medical realm is imperative in assisting hospitals to expedite

  20. Planning guidance for the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program

    SciTech Connect

    Shumpert, B.L.; Watson, A.P.; Sorensen, J.H.

    1995-02-01

    This planning guide was developed under the direction of the U.S. Army and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) which jointly coordinate and direct the development of the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP). It was produced to assist state, local, and Army installation planners in formulating and coordinating plans for chemical events that may occur at the chemical agent stockpile storage locations in the continental United States. This document provides broad planning guidance for use by both on-post and off-post agencies and organizations in the development of a coordinated plan for responding to chemical events. It contains checklists to assist in assuring that all important aspects are included in the plans and procedures developed at each Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP) location. The checklists are supplemented by planning guidelines in the appendices which provide more detailed guidance regarding some issues. The planning guidance contained in this document will help ensure that adequate coordination between on-post and off-post planners occurs during the planning process. This planning guide broadly describes an adequate emergency planning base that assures that critical planning decisions will be made consistently at every chemical agent stockpile location. This planning guide includes material drawn from other documents developed by the FEMA, the Army, and other federal agencies with emergency preparedness program responsibilities. Some of this material has been developed specifically to meet the unique requirements of the CSEPP. In addition to this guidance, other location-specific documents, technical studies, and support studies should be used as needed to assist in the planning at each of the chemical agent stockpile locations to address the specific hazards and conditions at each location.

  1. Defense mechanisms in congenital and acquired facial disfigurement: a clinical-empirical study.

    PubMed

    van den Elzen, Marijke E P; Versnel, Sarah L; Perry, J Christopher; Mathijssen, Irene M J; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J

    2012-04-01

    It is of clinical interest to investigate the degree to which patients with facial disfigurement use defense styles. Therefore, 59 adults born with rare facial clefts, 59 patients with facial deformities acquired at an adult age, and a reference group of 141 adults without facial disfigurements completed standardized questionnaires. There was a significant difference between the group with and the group without disfigurements on immature defense styles, with the disfigured group using the immature style more frequently. There was a trend for the nondisfigured group to use more mature defense styles. No difference between congenital and acquired groups was seen on individual types of defense style. Self-esteem had the strength to differentiate mature and immature defense styles within our disfigured groups. The association of low self-esteem and the utilization of immature defense styles suggests that professional help may tailor treatment on discussing immature defense style and problems triggering or maintaining this style. PMID:22456586

  2. Transnational architecting for homeland defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Thomas W.

    2002-07-01

    The homeland security interests of a many nations are being increasingly threatened by the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, drug trafficking, mass migration, global terrorism, environmental concerns, international crime and other global issues. This paper presents the case for development of such a transnational ballistic missile defense architecture for homeland defense and specifically addresses the architecture methodology and process, as well as the potential benefits and the top-level architecture trade issues that would have to be addressed if the community should decide to seriously pursue such an approach.

  3. RNase 7 in Cutaneous Defense

    PubMed Central

    Rademacher, Franziska; Simanski, Maren; Harder, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    RNase 7 belongs to the RNase A superfamily and exhibits a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against various microorganisms. RNase 7 is expressed in human skin, and expression in keratinocytes can be induced by cytokines and microbes. These properties suggest that RNase 7 participates in innate cutaneous defense. In this review, we provide an overview about the role of RNase 7 in cutaneous defense with focus on the molecular mechanism of the antimicrobial activity of RNase 7, the regulation of RNase 7 expression, and the role of RNase 7 in skin diseases. PMID:27089327

  4. 76 FR 53119 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... of Availability (NOA) in the Federal Register (76 FR 28757) announcing the revised Defense Logistics... Office of the Secretary Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense....

  5. 22 CFR 120.44 - Foreign defense article or defense service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Foreign defense article or defense service. 120.44 Section 120.44 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.44 Foreign defense article or defense service. Foreign defense article...

  6. Radiological Defense Officer. Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Washington, DC.

    This student workbook includes the necessary administrative materials, briefs, exercises and answer sheets for the quizzes and final course examination as needed by the students during the conduct of the Radiological Defense Officer course. Among the briefs included are the following: (1) Reporting Forms; (2) Forecasting Dose Rates; (3) Dose…

  7. In Defense of the Vendors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, G. Brockett

    1975-01-01

    The problems that are encountered when cooperation breaks down between the industrial source operator and the pollution control equipment vendor are examined. The focal point of this examination is the study of defenses available to the equipment vendor when industrial source operators refuse to cooperate. (Author/BT)

  8. Collaborative Attack vs. Collaborative Defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shouhuai

    We have witnessed many attacks in the cyberspace. However, most attacks are launched by individual attackers even though an attack may involve many compromised computers. In this paper, we envision what we believe to be the next generation cyber attacks — collaborative attacks. Collaborative attacks can be launched by multiple attackers (i.e., human attackers or criminal organizations), each of which may have some specialized expertise. This is possible because cyber attacks can become very sophisticated and specialization of attack expertise naturally becomes relevant. To counter collaborative attacks, we might need collaborative defense because each “chain” in a collaborative attack may be only adequately dealt with by a different defender. In order to understand collaborative attack and collaborative defense, we present a high-level abstracted framework for evaluating the effectiveness of collaborative defense against collaborative attacks. As a first step towards realizing and instantiating the framework, we explore a characterization of collaborative attacks and collaborative defense from the relevant perspectives.

  9. Restart of the Armenia-2 Nuclear Power Station: Radiological emergency preparedness considerations for the nearby American community

    SciTech Connect

    Vargo, G.J.; Sherwood, G.L.

    1996-06-01

    The Armenia Nuclear Power Station is located at Metsamor, approximately 30 km NW of the capital, Yerevan. The station, a two-unit, first-generation Soviet-designed VVER-440/270 pressurized water reactor plant was closed following the 1988 earthquake near Spitak. Because of a severe energy shortage the Government of Armenia has undertaken a program to recommission Unit 2. The plant design and circumstances surrounding its closure caused members of the U.S. Embassy staff and the American community in Armenia to express concerns for their safety in the event of a radiological emergency. In response, two representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy`s International Nuclear Safety Program traveled to Armenia to review the Status of radiological emergency preparedness, meet with the American community, and make protective action recommendations. In this presentation we examine the major issues associated with recommissioning of Armenia-2, the challenges involved with developing a radiological emergency preparedness program for the American community, and our recommendations for protective actions in the absence of a strong communications and radiological monitoring infrastructure.

  10. Costs and trade-offs of grazer-induced defenses in Scenedesmus under deficient resource

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xuexia; Wang, Jun; Chen, Qinwen; Chen, Ge; Huang, Yuan; Yang, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    The green alga Scenedesmus obliquus can form inducible defensive morphs under grazing threat. Costs and trade-offs of inducible defense are expected to accompany the benefits of defensive morphs, but are hard to detect under nutrient-sufficient experimental conditions. To test the existence of costs associated with inducible defense, we cultured S. obliquus along resource availability gradients in the presence or absence of infochemical cues from Daphnia, and measured the strength of defensive colony formation and fitness characters. Under the lowest phosphorous concentration, the expression of inducible defensive colony resulted in decreased growth rate, which provides direct evidence for physiological costs. Along the gradient reduction of phosphorous concentration or light intensity, inducible defense in S. obliquus showed a decreasing trend. However, the photosynthetic efficiency of S. obliquus was barely affected by its defense responses, suggesting that the negative correlations between resource availability and colony formation of this alga may be due to resource-based trade-offs in the allocation of limited resources. Thus, our results indicated that expression of inducible defense of S. obliquus was impaired under insufficient phosphorus or light. Furthermore, under severe phosphate deficiency, obvious physiological costs of inducible defense could be detected even though defensive colony formation also decreased significantly. PMID:26932369

  11. Documentation associated with the WESF preparation for receiving 25 cesium capsules from the Applied Radiant Energy Corporation (ARECO)

    SciTech Connect

    Pawlak, M.W.

    1996-10-21

    The purpose of this report is to compile all documentation associated with facility preparation of WESF to receive 25 cesium capsules from ARECO. The WESF validated it`s preparedness by completing a facility preparedness review using a performance indicator checklist.

  12. School nurse online emergency preparedness training: an analysis of knowledge, skills, and confidence.

    PubMed

    Elgie, Robert; Sapien, Robert; Fullerton, Lynne; Moore, Brian

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a computer-assisted emergency preparedness course for school nurses. Participants from a convenience sample (52) of school nurses from New Mexico were randomly assigned to intervention or control groups in an experimental after-only posttest design. Intervention group participants completed 15 online emergency preparedness training modules followed by posttests, and control group participants completed the posttests without taking the training modules. Tests measured emergency preparedness with written exams, confidence surveys, and skills performance in videotaped scenarios; the videotaped scenarios were scored by Pediatric Emergency Medicine physicians blinded to whether the participants were in the intervention or control group. The intervention group participants scored significantly higher in tests of knowledge and skills than control group participants. Confidence Survey scores did not differ significantly. The online training modules are a valuable resource for improving school nurse emergency preparedness knowledge and skills but may not affect participants' confidence. PMID:20501914

  13. 78 FR 39304 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; FEMA Preparedness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; FEMA Preparedness Grants: Operation Stonegarden (OPSG) AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Federal Emergency Management Agency, as part of...

  14. Preparedness of Hospitals in North of Iran to Deal With Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Mohammad; Chaman, Reza; Raei, Mehdi; Nasrollahpour Shirvani, Seiyed Davoud; Afkar, Abolhasan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Preparedness of hospital has a major impact on their optimal and satisfactory performance. This study aimed to investigate the preparedness of the hospitals to deal with disasters. Case Presentation This cross-sectional study was carried in 2011 and all of the hospitals which were located in the northern areas of Iran were investigated through the census method. The data collection instruments were self-administered Managers’ Awareness Questionnaire (40 items) and a 141-item checklist. The mean percentage score of hospitals in management of the unanticipated disasters program in the hospital was good. The mean score of managers’ awareness of the hospital status was moderate. With the increase in managers’ awareness, the preparedness of the hospitals significantly increased (r = 0.73, P < 0.001). Conclusions The findings showed the moderate preparedness of the hospitals in the Northern provinces to deal with disasters. PMID:24349752

  15. 78 FR 66938 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response, Board of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... Public Health Preparedness and Response, Board of Scientific Counselors (BSC OPHPR) Cancellation This... More Information: Marquita Black, Executive Assistant, Office of Science and Public Health Practice... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  16. 75 FR 26773 - Public Readiness and Emergency Preparedness Act Countermeasures Injury Compensation Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Public Readiness and Emergency Preparedness... CICP administers the compensation program authorized by the Public Readiness and Emergency...

  17. 77 FR 59001 - Fee for Services To Support FEMA's Offsite Radiological Emergency Preparedness Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Fee for Services To Support FEMA's Offsite Radiological Emergency Preparedness Program AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is establishing a fiscal year (FY) 2014 hourly rate...

  18. 75 FR 19985 - Fee for Services To Support FEMA's Offsite Radiological Emergency Preparedness Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Fee for Services To Support FEMA's Offsite Radiological Emergency Preparedness Program AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has established a fiscal year (FY) 2010 hourly rate...

  19. Unveiling the Truth about Nurses' Personal Preparedness for Disaster Response: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Nash, Tracy Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    Although nurses are essential caregivers in disaster response, many are not prepared personally to report to the workplace during disaster situations. An online disaster preparedness education intervention to support personal readiness is described in this pilot study. PMID:26863707

  20. The role of information technology in emergency preparedness by local health departments: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Nguh, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Ever since the terrorist attacks of 9/11, the federal government increased funding for emergency preparedness. However, the literature continues to document several areas of weaknesses in public health emergency management by local health departments (LHD). This literature review discusses the role of information technology (IT) for emergency preparedness by LHDs. The focus areas for this review include evaluating the strategic management of IT by LHD, evaluation of the adoption and implementation of IT in emergency management, and assessing LHD's capacity and capability for emergency preparedness. Findings reveal that LHDs face significant challenges in the utilization of IT for emergency preparedness purposes such as weak capacity and capabilities, lack of structured planning and program implementation, and limited resources. Implications from this review include the development of "best practices," increased funding for IT infrastructure, and the establishment of strategic management framework for IT initiatives. PMID:25069026