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Sample records for defoliation performance late

  1. Experimental defoliation affects male but not female reproductive performance of the tropical monoecious plant Croton suberosus (Euphorbiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Narbona, Eduardo; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Monoecious plants have the capacity to allocate resources separately to male and female functions more easily than hermaphrodites. This can be advantageous against environmental stresses such as leaf herbivory. However, studies showing effects of herbivory on male and female functions and on the interaction with the plant's pollinators are limited, particularly in tropical plants. Here, the effects of experimental defoliation were examined in the monoecious shrub Croton suberosus (Euphorbiaceae), a wasp-pollinated species from a Mexican tropical dry forest. Methods Three defoliation treatments were applied: 0 % (control), 25 % (low) or 75 % (high) of plant leaf area removed. Vegetative (production of new leaves) and reproductive (pistillate and staminate flower production, pollen viability, nectar production, fruit set, and seed set) performance variables, and the abundance and activity of floral visitors were examined. Key Results Defoliated plants overcompensated for tissue loss by producing more new leaves than control plants. Production of staminate flowers gradually decreased with increasing defoliation and the floral sex ratio (staminate : pistillate flowers) was drastically reduced in high-defoliation plants. In contrast, female reproductive performance (pistillate flower production, fruit set and seed set) and pollinator visitation and abundance were not impacted by defoliation. Conclusions The asymmetrical effects of defoliation on male and female traits of C. suberosus may be due to the temporal and spatial flexibility in the allocation of resources deployed by monoecious plants. We posit that this helps to maintain the plant's pollination success in the face of leaf herbivory stress. PMID:20519239

  2. THERMAL DEFOLIATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An apparatus designed to defoliate cotton with hot air was tested in two varieties and two field conditions. Cotton defoliation using hot air was as effective as defoliation using tyical chemicals under some conditions. Aphid populations were eliminated by the thermal treatment, reducing the risk ...

  3. Consequences of enriched atmospheric CO{sub 2} and defoliation for foliar chemistry and gypsy moth performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lindroth, R.L.; Kinney, K.K.

    1998-10-01

    Elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO{sub 2} are likely to interact with other factors affecting plant physiology to alter plant chemical profiles and plant-herbivore interactions. The authors evaluated the independent and interactive effects of enriched CO{sub 2} and artificial defoliation on foliar chemistry of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum), and the consequences of such changes for short-term performance of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). They grew aspen and maple seedlings in ambient and enriched CO{sub 2} environments at the University of wisconsin Biotron. Seven weeks after budbreak, trees in half of the rooms were subjected to 50% defoliation. Afterwards, foliage was collected for chemical analyses, and feeding trials were conducted with fourth-stadium gypsy moths. Enriched CO{sub 2} altered foliar levels of water, nitrogen, carbohydrates, and phenolics, and responses generally differed between the two tree species. Defoliation induced chemical changes only in aspen. They found no significant interactions between CO{sub 2} and defoliation for levels of carbon-based defenses (phenolic glycosides and tannins). CO{sub 2} treatment altered the performance of larvae fed aspen, but not maple, whereas defoliation had little effect on performance on insects. In general, results from this experimental system do not support the hypothesis that induction of carbon-based chemical defenses, and attendant effects on insects, will be stronger in a CO{sub 2}-enriched world.

  4. Relationships between defoliation by late leaf spot and yield in new runner-type peanut cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early and late leaf spot caused by Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosporidium personatum, respectively, can cause severe losses on susceptible peanut (Arachis hypogaea) cultivars. Losses are primarily due to loss of peg integrity and loss of mature pods when peanut plants are inverted. Losses to bo...

  5. Thermal defoliation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The negative perception some consumers hold regarding agricultural chemicals has resulted in an increased demand for organic foods and fibers, and in increasing political pressure for the regulation of agricultural production practices. This has revived interest in thermal defoliation of cotton and ...

  6. Spraying Hydrangea Leaves with Chemical Defoliants, Urea, and GA in the Autumn Alters Defoliation Efficiency and Growth and Flowering Performance of Hydrangea during Forcing.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In two separate experiments, Hydrangea macrophylla ‘Merritt’s Supreme’ plants were used to study the effects of foliar sprays of Def-6 (Def, 2500, 5000, 7500 and 10000ppm), giberellic acid, (GA, 50ppm), copper-EDTA (CuEDTA, 0.5% and 1.0%), Florel (F, 2000ppm) and urea (U, 3%) on defoliation in the a...

  7. Efficiency of Tank-Mixing Insecticide with Defoliant Against Adult Boll Weevil (Coleoptera:Curculionidae) Populations as Determined by Late-Season Field Disturbance Trapping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large commercial field plots were used to assess the effect of tank-mixing cyfluthrin with a defoliant applied in preparation for cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., harvest on adult boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, populations in south Texas during 2002 and 2003. The defoliant-insectici...

  8. [Determination of eight defoliant residues in cotton by accelerated solvent extraction coupled with ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Wu, Gang; Dong, Suozhuai; Pan, Lulu; Zhao, Shanhong; Wang, Lijun; Guo, Fanglong; Li, Dan

    2013-07-01

    A novel method has been developed for the rapid extraction and determination of eight defoliants including thidiazuron, butiphos, methabenzthiazuron, abscisic acid, carfentra-zone-ethyl, diuron, paraquat, and pyrithiobac-sodium in cotton by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) coupled with ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The defoliants in cotton were extracted by ASE and the extracts were dried by a rotavapor, then redissolved in the solvents of acetonitrile and water (1:9, v/v). The chromatographic analysis was performed on an Acquity UPLC HSS T3 column (50 mmx 2. 1 mm, 1. 8 microm) by a gradient elution employing of acetonitrile and 0.05% (v/v) formic acid as mobile phases. The analytes were detected by electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in positive ion mode. Good linearities (r >0.99) were observed between 0. 01 and 0. 3 mg/L for all the compounds. The recoveries and relative standard deviations (RSDs) were obtained by spiking untreated samples with the eight defoliants at 0. 1, 0. 5 and 1.0 mg/kg. The average recoveries of the eight defoliants were from (84. 18 +/- 8.04)% to (95.99 +/- 6.76)%. The precision values expressed as RSDs were from 7. 04% to 10. 60% (n = 6). The limits of detection were 0. 8 - 29 microg/kg and the limits of quantification were 2.5 - 96 1/4g/kg for the analytes. The results ahowed that the method is simple, rapid, sensitive and accurate, and is suitable for the quantitative determination and confirmation of the eight defoliants in cotton. PMID:24164041

  9. Growth and mortality of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) in response to artificial defoliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulinier, Julien; Lorenzetti, François; Bergeron, Yves

    2014-02-01

    To simulate the effects of forest tent caterpillar (FTC) defoliation on trembling aspen growth and mortality, an artificial defoliation experiment was performed over three years in young aspen stands of northwestern Quebec. Defoliation plots of 15 × 15 m were established on three sites, together with associated control stands of pure trembling aspen. In 2007, root collar diameters were measured and positions of all trees were mapped prior defoliation. Severe FTC defoliation was simulated for three successive years (2007-2009) by manually removing all leaves from all but 7-10% of the trees present in the defoliation plots. Yearly surveys of growth and mortality were conducted until 2010 to evaluate defoliation effects on defoliated as well as surrounding undefoliated trees. In absence of other factors, growth and mortality of trembling aspen decreased and increased, respectively, after defoliation. Our study further revealed that small diameter trees died after one year of artificial defoliation, while larger-diameter trees died after repeated defoliations. Distributions of tree mortality tended to be aggregated at small scales (<5 m), corroborating gap patterns observed in mature stands following FTC outbreaks. This experiment revealed that trembling aspen mortality can be directly attributed solely to defoliation. Repeated defoliations during FTC outbreaks have the potential to profoundly modify stand productivity and structure by reducing tree growth and increasing tree mortality in the absence of predisposing factors.

  10. Cotton thermal defoliation economics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton harvest-aid chemical and application expenses are justified by increased quantity and value of harvested fiber, and decreased harvest costs. Chemical use may be restricted in certain production situations. Harvest preparation costs and producer returns were compared for thermal defoliation ...

  11. Defoliation reduces soil biota - and modifies stimulating effects of elevated CO2.

    PubMed

    Dam, Marie; Christensen, Søren

    2015-11-01

    To understand the responses to external disturbance such as defoliation and possible feedback mechanisms at global change in terrestrial ecosystems, it is necessary to examine the extent and nature of effects on aboveground-belowground interactions. We studied a temperate heathland system subjected to experimental climate and atmospheric factors based on prognoses for year 2075 and further exposed to defoliation. By defoliating plants, we were able to study how global change modifies the interactions of the plant-soil system. Shoot production, root biomass, microbial biomass, and nematode abundance were assessed in the rhizosphere of manually defoliated patches of Deschampsia flexuosa in June in a full-factorial FACE experiment with the treatments: increased atmospheric CO 2, increased nighttime temperatures, summer droughts, and all of their combinations. We found a negative effect of defoliation on microbial biomass that was not apparently affected by global change. The negative effect of defoliation cascades through to soil nematodes as dependent on CO 2 and drought. At ambient CO 2, drought and defoliation each reduced nematodes. In contrast, at elevated CO 2, a combination of drought and defoliation was needed to reduce nematodes. We found positive effects of CO 2 on root density and microbial biomass. Defoliation affected soil biota negatively, whereas elevated CO 2 stimulated the plant-soil system. This effect seen in June is contrasted by the effects seen in September at the same site. Late season defoliation increased activity and biomass of soil biota and more so at elevated CO 2. Based on soil biota responses, plants defoliated in active growth therefore conserve resources, whereas defoliation after termination of growth results in release of resources. This result challenges the idea that plants via exudation of organic carbon stimulate their rhizosphere biota when in apparent need of nutrients for growth. PMID:26640664

  12. FUTURE RISK OF GYPSY MOTH DEFOLIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data from the suitable habitit combined with forest density, and adjusted by prefered species basal area and the predicited geographic pattern of defoliation can be used to predict future potential for gypsy moth defoliation.

  13. HISTORICAL GYPSY MOTH DEFOLIATION FREQUENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gypsy moth populations may exist for many years at low densities such that it may be difficult to find any life stages. Then, for reasons that are not completely understood, populations may rise to very high densities and substantial defoliation of the canopy may occur. These da...

  14. The Virgin River Tamarisk Defoliation by Diorhabda carinulata: It's Effects on Evapotranspiration Rates and Groundwater Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sueki, S.; Healey, J. M.; Acharya, K.

    2013-12-01

    Saltcedar (tamarisk; Tamarix spp) has become the most widespread invasive plant species in the western United States. Waterways and their corridors have evolved into mono-species stands of saltcedar. Chemical and mechanical methods of tamarisk eradication have been partially effective and prove to be expensive and cause irrepressible damage to natural resources. In the late 1960s, biological control program began in order to reduce the risk of damaging native plants. In 2001, Diorhabda elongate (leaf beetles) was released for open field tests followed by other releases in several locations in the western United States. One of the successful releases occurred in St. George, UT along the Virgin River in 2006. The last few years has seen establishment of large scale populations in the lower Virgin River. Eddy covariance (EC) tower including groundwater monitoring well was set up along the Virgin River near Mesquite, NV in 2010 to monitor effects of tamarisk defoliation on evapotranspiration (ET). Initial 2010 data (pre-beetle) established a baseline for characterization of tamarisk ET and groundwater consumption prior to defoliation of tamarisk. The beetles arrived at the site in late 2010 and established a healthy population at the growing season of 2011. 2010 data compared to the episodic herbivore events, observed at the site in 2011 and 2012, clearly show the direct impact of tamarisk defoliation. The results show that the post-defoliation ET values along with magnitude of diurnal fluctuations, found in the water level record, decreased compared to the pre-defoliation values. However, magnitude of the effects of defoliation seemed to be dependent on growth stage of tamarisk at the time of defoliation. Also, the defoliation periods are short lived as tamarisk quickly recovered and establish new growth. In 2012, the defoliation occurred twice since tamarisk re-foliated quickly after the first defoliation by late summer before beetles started overwintering

  15. SOYBEAN.DEFOLIATION.1.SD.2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various chewing insects feed upon soybean plants, and their infestations may be economically significant in some years in the north-central United States. Soybean lines that are resistant to defoliation may be useful for management of chewing insect pests. Levels of defoliation from chewing insec...

  16. SOYBEAN.DEFOLIATION.2.SD.2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several types of chewing insects feed upon soybean plants, and their infestations may be economically significant in some years in the north-central United States. Soybean lines that are resistant to defoliation may be useful in the management of chewing insect pests. Levels of defoliation from c...

  17. Nitrate Variability in Hydrological Flowpaths for a Mid-Appalachian Forested Catchment Following a Large-Scale Defoliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riscassi, A. L.; Scanlon, T. M.

    2007-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) leakage from forested watersheds due to disturbance is a well-documented, but not well understood process that contributes to the degradation of receiving waters through eutrophication. Several studies have shown that large scale defoliation events in small forested watersheds in the Eastern U.S. cause immediate and dramatic increases in N flux to streams. Recovery times can differ dramatically depending upon location. Reasons for these differences are not well understood, however, because N transport and transformation processes are difficult to track over these long recovery timescales. This research focuses on a large-scale gypsy moth defoliation event that impacted Shenandoah National Park (SNP) in the late 1980s to early 1990s. Water chemistry and discharge have been monitored at a number of catchments within SNP over the timeframe since the defoliation. Recovery of these systems to pre-defoliation N levels has been observed to be unusually slow, lasting over a decade. Availability of high-frequency (i.e. hourly) stream chemistry and discharge data during storm events throughout the period of recovery allows us to investigate short- and long-term mechanisms for N "leaks" from forested watersheds. Through geochemical hydrograph separation techniques, we can determine how nitrate concentrations vary between event, soil, and groundwater during and in the years following a disturbance. Analyses focus on Paine Run, a 12.4 km2 catchment where over 50 storms have been characterized since the 1990-1992 defoliation. Standard geochemical hydrograph separation is performed using conservative tracers to determine the relative flow contributions from the three flow components for each measurement time step. Computed discharge components, along with measured steam nitrate concentrations (NO3 -) at each time-step, were used to solve for the relative concentration of NO3 - in each of the hydrologic zones for storms by solving the over-determined set of mixing

  18. The Pennsylvania defoliation application pilot test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcleod, R. G.; Zobrist, A. L.; Bryant, N. A.

    1983-01-01

    Satellite imagery for the State of Pennsylvania was digitally mosaicked to provide the seed data base for monitoring defoliation of hardwood trees by the gypsy moth. Two separate mosaics for the state were prepared, one before defoliation and one after defoliation, to determine the extent, direction, and impact of gypsy moth activity in the state. The digital mosaic technology used to construct the data base was transferred to Pennsylvania State University to permit periodic updates to the data base and to assist in planning and abatement activities. Participating agencies or institutions included Goddard Space Flight Center and the Pennsylvania State University Office for Remote Sensing of Earth Resources.

  19. Resource allocation in an annual herb: Effects of light, mycorrhizal fungi, and defoliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar-Chama, Ana; Guevara, Roger

    2016-02-01

    Concurrent interactions and the availability of resources (e.g., light) affect the cost/benefit balance during mutualistic and antagonistic interactions, as well as plant resource allocation patterns. Mycorrhizal interactions and herbivory concur in most plants, where mycorrhizae can enhance the uptake of soil nutrients by plants as well as consuming a large fraction of the plant's carbon, and defoliation usually reduces light interception and photosynthesis, thereby causing direct losses to the hosts of mycorrhizal fungi. Both types of interactions affect the carbon budget of their host plants and thus we predict that the relative costs of herbivory and mycorrhizal colonization will increase when photosynthesis is reduced, for instance in light limited environments. We conducted a greenhouse experiment using Datura stramonium to investigate the effects of defoliation and mycorrhizal inoculation on the resource allocation patterns in two different light environments. Defoliated plants overcompensated in terms of leaf mass in both light environments, but total seed mass per fruit was negatively affected by defoliation in both light environments. Mycorrhizal inoculation had a positive effect on vegetative growth and the leaf nitrogen content, but defoliation negates the benefit of mycorrhizal interactions in terms of the leaf nitrogen content. In general, D. stramonium compensated for the relative costs of concurrent mycorrhizal interactions and defoliation; plants that lacked both interactions exhibited the same performance as plants with both types of interactions.

  20. Responses of African Grasses in the Genus Sporobolus to Defoliation and Sodium Stress: Tradeoffs, Cross-Tolerance, or Independent Responses?

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Daniel M.; Anderson, T. Michael

    2013-01-01

    In the Serengeti ecosystem of East Africa, grazing ungulates prefer areas with elevated grass Na, suggesting that some grasses tolerate both high soil Na and defoliation. We performed a factorial Na-by-defoliation greenhouse study with five abundant Sporobolus congeners to explore whether Serengeti grasses possess traits which: (i) confer tolerance to both Na and defoliation (cross-tolerance); (ii) display a tradeoff; or (iii) act independently in their tolerances. Our expectation was that related grasses would exhibit cross-tolerance when simultaneously subjected to Na and defoliation. Instead, we found that physiological tolerances and growth responses to Na and defoliation did not correlate but instead acted independently: species characterized by intense grazing in the field showed no growth or photosynthetic compensation for combined Na and defoliation. Additionally, in all but the highest Na dosage, mortality was higher when species were exposed to both Na and defoliation together. Across species, mortality rates were greater in short-statured species which occur on sodic soils in heavily grazed areas. Mortality among species was positively correlated with specific leaf area, specific root length, and relative growth rate, suggesting that rapidly growing species which invest in low cost tissues have higher rates of mortality when exposed to multiple stressors. We speculate that the prevalence of these species in areas of high Na and disturbance is explained by alternative strategies, such as high fecundity, a wide range of germination conditions, or further dispersal, to compensate for the lack of additional tolerance mechanisms. PMID:27137400

  1. Mortality following cotton defoliation: San Joaquin Valley, California, 1970-1990.

    PubMed

    Ames, R G; Gregson, J

    1995-07-01

    A proportional mortality study comparing the cotton-growing areas of the San Joaquin Valley with the rest of the State of California was performed by the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment as a continuation of earlier studies related to mercaptan-releasing pesticides. This mortality study found a pattern of increased proportion of "respiratory causes" mortality (ICD codes 460-519), statistically significant at less than the .05 probability level, for 15 of 21 years between 1970 and 1990, for the time period during and immediately following cotton defoliation. Defoliants which have the potential to produce acute symptoms include DEF and Folex, both of which release odorous butyl mercaptan gas as a degradation product. This paper tests the hypothesis that exposure to cotton defoliant breakdown products may be associated with a disproportionate increase in mortality. Prediction of the mortality proportions by pounds of DEF and Folex used was not statistically significant in the unadjusted models or in models adjusted for air pollution variables. One air pollution adjustment factor, total suspended particulates, was a statistically significant independent mortality proportion predictor. This finding suggests that total suspended particulates, not defoliants, may be related to mortality differentials during defoliation season. Possible confounding by demographic variation of the counties was not controlled in the analysis. PMID:7552465

  2. Simulated impacts of insect defoliation on forest carbon dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvigy, D.; Clark, K. L.; Skowronski, N. S.; Schäfer, K. V. R.

    2012-12-01

    Many temperate and boreal forests are subject to insect epidemics. In the eastern US, over 41 million meters squared of tree basal area are thought to be at risk of gypsy moth defoliation. However, the decadal-to-century scale implications of defoliation events for ecosystem carbon dynamics are not well understood. In this study, the effects of defoliation intensity, periodicity and spatial pattern on the carbon cycle are investigated in a set of idealized model simulations. A mechanistic terrestrial biosphere model, ecosystem demography model 2, is driven with observations from a xeric oak-pine forest located in the New Jersey Pine Barrens. Simulations indicate that net ecosystem productivity (equal to photosynthesis minus respiration) decreases linearly with increasing defoliation intensity. However, because of interactions between defoliation and drought effects, aboveground biomass exhibits a nonlinear decrease with increasing defoliation intensity. The ecosystem responds strongly with both reduced productivity and biomass loss when defoliation periodicity varies from 5 to 15 yr, but exhibits a relatively weak response when defoliation periodicity varies from 15 to 60 yr. Simulations of spatially heterogeneous defoliation resulted in markedly smaller carbon stocks than simulations with spatially homogeneous defoliation. These results show that gypsy moth defoliation has a large effect on oak-pine forest biomass dynamics, functioning and its capacity to act as a carbon sink.

  3. Defoliation effects on pasture photosynthesis and respiration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ecosystem C gain or loss from managed grasslands can depend on the type and intensity of management practices that are employed. However, limited information is available at the field scale on how the type of defoliation, specifically grazing vs. cutting, affects gross primary productivity (GPP) an...

  4. Mapping Historic Gypsy Moth Defoliation with MODIS Satellite Data: Implications for Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spurce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William; Ryan, Robert E.; Smooth, James C.; Prados, Don; McKellip, Rodney; Sader, Steven A.; Gasser, Jerry; May, George

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews a project, the goal of which is to study the potential of MODIS data for monitoring historic gypsy moth defoliation. A NASA/USDA Forest Service (USFS) partnership was formed to perform the study. NASA is helping USFS to implement satellite data products into its emerging Forest Threat Early Warning System. The latter system is being developed by the USFS Eastern and Western Forest Threat Assessment Centers. The USFS Forest Threat Centers want to use MODIS time series data for regional monitoring of forest damage (e.g., defoliation) preferably in near real time. The study's methodology is described, and the results of the study are shown.

  5. Do Offspring of Insects Feeding on Defoliation-Resistant Trees Have Better Biological Performance When Exposed to Nutritionally-Imbalanced Food?

    PubMed

    Quezada-Garcia, Roberto; Fuentealba, Alvaro; Nguyen, Ngoc; Bauce, Éric

    2015-01-01

    White spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) trees that are resistant or susceptible to spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.)) attack were identified in a southern Quebec plantation. Due to high mortality-induced selective pressures imposed by resistant trees on spruce budworm larvae, insects that survive on resistant trees exhibited greater biological performance than those on susceptible trees. We tested the hypothesis that this better biological performance is maintained across generations when progeny were subjected to nutritional stress. We collected pupae from resistant and susceptible trees (phenotype). Adults were reared under controlled laboratory conditions. Progeny were subsequently reared on two types of artificial diet (high vs. low quality). Low quality diet simulated food quality deterioration during outbreak conditions. Results confirmed that surviving insects collected from resistant trees have better performance than those from susceptible trees. Offspring performance (pupal mass, developmental time) was affected only by diet quality. These results suggest that adaptive advantages that would be acquired from parents fed on resistant trees are lost when progeny are exposed to nutritionally-imbalanced food, but the effects persist when larvae are fed a balanced diet. Offspring mortality, fecundity and fertility were positively influenced by parental origin (tree phenotype). PMID:26463069

  6. Aerial Photography: Use in Detecting Simulated Insect Defoliation in Corn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, H. C.; Latham, R.; Meyer, M. P.

    1973-01-01

    Artificial defoliation in corn was used to explore the usefulness of aerial photography in detecting crop insect infestations. Defoliation on the top of plants was easily detected, while that on the base was less so. Aero infrared film with Wratten 89B filter gave the best results, and morning flights at the scale of 1:15840 are recommended. Row direction, plant growth stage, and time elapse since defoliation were not important factors.

  7. Evaluating the impact of red-edge band from Rapideye image for classifying insect defoliation levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelabu, Samuel; Mutanga, Onisimo; Adam, Elhadi

    2014-09-01

    The prospect of regular assessments of insect defoliation using remote sensing technologies has increased in recent years through advances in the understanding of the spectral reflectance properties of vegetation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the ability of the red edge channel of Rapideye imagery to discriminate different levels of insect defoliation in an African savanna by comparing the results of obtained from two classifiers. Random Forest and Support vector machine classification algorithms were applied using different sets of spectral analysis involving the red edge band. Results show that the integration of information from red edge increases classification accuracy of insect defoliation levels in all analysis performed in the study. For instance, when all the 5 bands of Rapideye imagery were used for classification, the overall accuracies increases about 19% and 21% for SVM and RF, respectively, as opposed to when the red edge channel was excluded. We also found out that the normalized difference red-edge index yielded a better accuracy result than normalized difference vegetation index. We conclude that the red-edge channel of relatively affordable and readily available high-resolution multispectral satellite data such as Rapideye has the potential to considerably improve insect defoliation classification especially in sub-Saharan Africa where data availability is limited.

  8. Effects of partial defoliation on carbon and nitrogen partitioning and photosynthetic carbon uptake by two-year-old cork oak (Quercus suber) saplings.

    PubMed

    Cerasoli, S; Scartazza, A; Brugnoli, E; Chaves, M M; Pereira, J S

    2004-01-01

    At the end of the growing season in late July, 20-month-old cork oak (Quercus suber L.) saplings were partially defoliated (63% of leaf area) to evaluate their ability to recover leaf area after defoliation. At 18 and 127 days after defoliation, changes in starch and nitrogen pools were determined in leaves and perennial organs, and variations in photosynthetic carbon uptake were investigated. To determine the role of stored nitrogen in regrowth after defoliation, plant nitrogen was labeled in the previous winter by enriching the nutrient solution with 15N. Plants recovered the lost leaf area in 127 days. Although there was remobilization of starch and nitrogen from leaves and perennial organs, the availability of resources for growth in the following spring was not decreased by defoliation. On the contrary, starch concentration in coarse roots was higher in defoliated saplings than in control saplings, presumably as a result of the higher net CO2 exchange rate in newly developed leaves compared with pre-existing leaves. PMID:14652217

  9. EVALUATION OF COTTON DEFOLIATION STRATEGIES USING AIRBORNE MULTISPECTRAL IMAGERY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Visual observations and ground measurements are commonly used to evaluate cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) harvest aids for defoliation, boll opening, and re-growth control. This paper presents a remote sensing-based method for evaluating the effectiveness of different defoliation treatments. Field ...

  10. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: DEFOLIATION OF COTTON, STATE-OF-THE ART

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a study of air pollutants emitted during the defoliation or desiccation of cotton prior to harvest. (Defoliation is the process by which leaves are abscissed from the plant by the action of topically applied chemical agents. Desiccation by chemicals is the dr...

  11. Grain amaranths are defoliation tolerant crop species capable of utilizing stem and root carbohydrate reserves to sustain vegetative and reproductive growth after leaf loss.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Ortiz, Erandi; Espitia-Rangel, Eduardo; Tiessen, Axel; Délano-Frier, John Paul

    2013-01-01

    Tolerance to defoliation can be defined as the degree to which productivity is affected by photosynthetic area reduction. This trait was studied in grain amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus and A. hypochondriacus), which are considered to be a highly defoliation-tolerant species. The physiological and biochemical responses to increasing levels of mechanical leaf removal up to total defoliation were quantified. Tolerance appeared to be dependent on various factors: ( i) amount of lost tissue; (ii) mechanics of leaf tissue removal; (iii) environment, and (iv) species tested. Thus, grain amaranth was found to be a highly tolerant species under green-house conditions when leaf tissue loss was performed by gradual perforation. However, tolerance was compromised under similar conditions when defoliation was done by gradual cutting of the leaf. Also tolerance in completely defoliated plants tended to decrease under field conditions, where differences between A. cruentus and A. hypochondriacus were observed. All non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) levels were reduced in stems and roots of totally defoliated amaranths one day after treatment. Such depletion probably provided the carbon (C) resources needed to sustain the early recovery process in the absence of photosynthetic capacity. This was corroborated by shading of intact plants, which produced the same rapid and drastic reduction of NSC levels in these tissues. These results emphasize the role of stored NSCs, particularly starch, in buffering the impact of severe defoliation in amaranth. The fall in sucrose synthase and cell wall invertase activity observed in stems and roots soon after defoliation was consistent with their predicted shift from sink to source tissues. It is concluded that mobilization of C stores in stems and roots, is a physiologically important trait underlying tolerance to defoliation in grain amaranth. PMID:23861825

  12. Grain Amaranths Are Defoliation Tolerant Crop Species Capable of Utilizing Stem and Root Carbohydrate Reserves to Sustain Vegetative and Reproductive Growth after Leaf Loss

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Ortiz, Erandi; Espitia-Rangel, Eduardo; Tiessen, Axel; Délano-Frier, John Paul

    2013-01-01

    Tolerance to defoliation can be defined as the degree to which productivity is affected by photosynthetic area reduction. This trait was studied in grain amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus and A. hypochondriacus), which are considered to be a highly defoliation-tolerant species. The physiological and biochemical responses to increasing levels of mechanical leaf removal up to total defoliation were quantified. Tolerance appeared to be dependent on various factors: ( i) amount of lost tissue; (ii) mechanics of leaf tissue removal; (iii) environment, and (iv) species tested. Thus, grain amaranth was found to be a highly tolerant species under green-house conditions when leaf tissue loss was performed by gradual perforation. However, tolerance was compromised under similar conditions when defoliation was done by gradual cutting of the leaf. Also tolerance in completely defoliated plants tended to decrease under field conditions, where differences between A. cruentus and A. hypochondriacus were observed. All non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) levels were reduced in stems and roots of totally defoliated amaranths one day after treatment. Such depletion probably provided the carbon (C) resources needed to sustain the early recovery process in the absence of photosynthetic capacity. This was corroborated by shading of intact plants, which produced the same rapid and drastic reduction of NSC levels in these tissues. These results emphasize the role of stored NSCs, particularly starch, in buffering the impact of severe defoliation in amaranth. The fall in sucrose synthase and cell wall invertase activity observed in stems and roots soon after defoliation was consistent with their predicted shift from sink to source tissues. It is concluded that mobilization of C stores in stems and roots, is a physiologically important trait underlying tolerance to defoliation in grain amaranth. PMID:23861825

  13. THERMAL COTTON DEFOLIATION: IMPACT ON LATE-SEASON WHITEFLIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential upper thermal limits of the silverleaf whitefly were evaluated in the laboratory. Leaves infested with whitefly nymphs and pupae were collected from the field and exposed to a series of increasing temperatures in a drying oven. Heat treatments began at ~158°F (~70°C) and increased at...

  14. Non-defoliating and defoliating strains from cotton correlate with races 1 and 2 of Verticillium dahliae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae is an important disease of cotton worldwide. Isolates of V. dahliae can be characterized as race 1 or race 2 based on the responses of differential cultivars of tomato and lettuce or as defoliating or non-defoliating based on symptom expression in cot...

  15. Temporal patterns of nitrogen leakage from mid-Appalachian forested watersheds: Role of insect defoliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshleman, Keith N.; Morgan, Raymond P.; Webb, James R.; Deviney, Frank A.; Galloway, James N.

    1998-08-01

    Fluxes of dissolved nitrogen (N) as nitrate from forested watersheds in the mid-Appalachian region have important water quality ramifications for small acid-sensitive streams and for downstream receiving waters such as the Chesapeake Bay. Previous studies of N leakage have suggested that annual dissolved N fluxes from small watersheds can vary by several orders of magnitude and may be increasing as second-growth forests gradually become N saturated from the accrual of atmospheric N loadings. In this study, we examined the temporal (intra-annual and interannual) variability in dissolved nitrate fluxes from five small (area < 15 km2) forested watersheds in the mid-Appalachian region from 1988 to 1995. At all sites, nitrate concentrations were observed to increase dramatically during storm flow events, with nitric acid contributing significantly to depressions in pH and acid-neutralizing capacity; annual nitrate fluxes were dominated by high-discharge periods. Interannually, the fluxes at each site varied by 1-2 orders of magnitude, but the patterns of N leakage displayed considerable synchrony with outbreaks of gypsy moth caterpillar defoliation that began in the late 1980s and early 1990s in this region. N leakage from forested watersheds apparently lagged the initial defoliation by several months to perhaps a year or more. Defoliation outbreaks by the gypsy moth caterpillar (or other herbivorous pests) thus provide an alternative explanation of N leakage from forest ecosystems. Poorly documented insect defoliations, rather than premature N saturation of intact forest ecosystems, need to be considered as a possible explanation of N leakage from forested watersheds in the mid-Appalachian region and elsewhere.

  16. Monitoring Tamarisk Defoliation and Scaling Evapotranspiration Using Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennison, P. E.; Hultine, K. R.; Nagler, P. L.; Miura, T.; Glenn, E. P.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2008-12-01

    Non-native tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) has invaded riparian ecosystems throughout the Western United States. Another non-native species, the saltcedar leaf beetle (Diorhabda elongata), has been released in an attempt to control tamarisk infestations. Most efforts directed towards monitoring tamarisk defoliation by Diorhabda have focused on changes in leaf area or sap flux, but these measurements only give a local view of defoliation impacts. We are assessing the ability of remote sensing data for monitoring tamarisk defoliation and measuring resulting changes in evapotranspiration over space and time. Tamarisk defoliation by Diorhabda has taken place during the past two summers along the Colorado River and its tributaries near Moab, Utah. We are using 15 meter spatial resolution Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and 250 meter spatial resolution Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) data to monitor tamarisk defoliation. An ASTER normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) time series has revealed large drops in index values associated with loss of leaf area due to defoliation. MODIS data have superior temporal monitoring abilities, but at the sacrifice of much lower spatial resolution. A MODIS enhanced vegetation index time series has revealed that for pixels where the percentage of riparian cover is moderate or high, defoliation is detectable even at 250 meter spatial resolution. We are comparing MODIS vegetation index time series to site measurements of leaf area and sap flux. We are also using an evapotranspiration model to scale potential water savings resulting from the biocontrol of tamarisk.

  17. Ethylene: a factor in defoliation induced by auxins.

    PubMed

    Hallaway, M; Osborne, D J

    1969-03-01

    Aerial sprays of synthetic auxins defoliate many species of tropical trees. Treatment of Euonymus japonica leaves with the n-butyl ester of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid causes premature senescence and leaf fall and stimulates ethylene production by the blade 5-to 25-fold. Exposure to ethylene alone similarly accelerates senescence and leaf fall. Evidence indicates that the defoliant action of auxin is mediated through the enhanced amounts of ethylene in the blade. PMID:5764868

  18. Assessing MODIS-based Products and Techniques for Detecting Gypsy Moth Defoliation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William; Smoot, James C.; Prados, Don; McKellip, Rodney; Sader, Steven A.; Gasser, Jerry; May, George

    2008-01-01

    The project showed potential of MODIS and VIIRS time series data for contributing defoliation detection products to the USFS forest threat early warning system. This study yielded the first satellite-based wall-to-wall 2001 gypsy moth defoliation map for the study area. Initial results led to follow-on work to map 2007 gypsy moth defoliation over the eastern United States (in progress). MODIS-based defoliation maps offer promise for aiding aerial sketch maps either in planning surveys and/or adjusting acreage estimates of annual defoliation. More work still needs to be done to assess potential of technology for "now casts"of defoliation.

  19. An Experimental Comparison of Two Methods on Photosynthesis Driving Soil Respiration: Girdling and Defoliation

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Yanli; Guan, Dexin; Wu, Jiabing; Wang, Anzhi; Jin, Changjie; Yuan, Fenghui

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies with different experimental methods have demonstrated that photosynthesis significantly influences soil respiration (RS). To compare the experimental results of different methods, RS after girdling and defoliation was measured in five-year-old seedlings of Fraxinus mandshurica from June to September. Girdling and defoliation significantly reduced RS by 33% and 25% within 4 days, and 40% and 32% within the entire treatment period, respectively. The differential response of RS to girdling and defoliation was a result of the over-compensation for RS after girdling and redistribution of stored carbon after defoliation. No significant effect on RS was observed between girdling and defoliation treatment, while the soluble sugar content in fine roots was higher in defoliation than in girdling treatment, indicating that defoliation had less compensation effect for RS after interrupting photosynthates supply. We confirm the close coupling of RS with photosynthesis and recommend defoliation for further studies to estimate the effect of photosynthesis on RS. PMID:26177498

  20. Defining the temporal window for monitoring forest canopy defoliation using Landsat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, R. F.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of Landsat imagery of forested areas near Williamsport, Pennsylvania shows that the effects of defoliation by insects can be assessed over a two month period beginning in early June. Within this window heavily defoliated forest can be successfully delineated from moderately defoliated and healthy forest. Consequently, the effects of insect damage can be assessed at times other than peak defoliation, doubling the probability that useful satellite data can be acquired in the Williamsport area.

  1. Crested Wheatgrass Defoliation Intensity and Season of Use on Medusahead Invasion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of crested wheatgrass defoliation intensity and timing on medusahead density and biomass. Eighteen treatments (six defoliation levels, three seasons of defoliation) were applied to 21.5-ft2 plots on two sites with varying clay content. Plant...

  2. Timing of examinations affects school performance differently in early and late chronotypes.

    PubMed

    van der Vinne, Vincent; Zerbini, Giulia; Siersema, Anne; Pieper, Amy; Merrow, Martha; Hut, Roelof A; Roenneberg, Till; Kantermann, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Circadian clocks of adolescents typically run late-including sleep times-yet adolescents generally are expected at school early in the morning. Due to this mismatch between internal (circadian) and external (social) times, adolescents suffer from chronic sleep deficiency, which, in turn, affects academic performance negatively. This constellation affects students' future career prospects. Our study correlates chronotype and examination performance. In total, 4734 grades were collected from 741 Dutch high school students (ages 11-18 years) who had completed the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire to estimate their internal time. Overall, the lowest grades were obtained by students who were very late chronotypes (MSFsc > 5.31 h) or slept very short on schooldays (SDw < 7.03 h). The effect of chronotype on examination performance depended on the time of day that examinations were taken. Opposed to late types, early chronotypes obtained significantly higher grades during the early (0815-0945 h) and late (1000-1215 h) morning. This group difference in grades disappeared in the early afternoon (1245-1500 h). Late types also obtained lower grades than early types when tested at the same internal time (hours after MSFsc), which may reflect general attention and learning disadvantages of late chronotypes during the early morning. Our results support delaying high school starting times as well as scheduling examinations in the early afternoon to avoid discrimination of late chronotypes and to give all high school students equal academic opportunities. PMID:25537752

  3. Abundance and Frequency of the Asiatic Oak Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Defoliation on American, Chinese, and Hybrid Chestnut (Castanea)

    PubMed Central

    Case, Ashley E.; Mayfield, Albert E.; Clark, Stacy L.; Schlarbaum, Scott E.; Reynolds, Barbara C.

    2016-01-01

    The Asiatic oak weevil, Cyrtepistomus castaneus Roelofs (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a nonnative defoliator of trees in the Fagaceae family in the United States but has not been studied on Castanea species in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Planted trees of Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh. (Fagales: Fagaceae), Castanea mollissima Blume (Fagales: Fagaceae), and four hybrid breeding generations were evaluated in 2012 for insect defoliation and C. castaneus abundance and frequency. Defoliation was visually assessed throughout the growing season at two sites in the southern Appalachian Mountains (western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee). C. castaneus abundance and frequency were monitored on trees using beat sheets and emergence was recorded from ground traps. Asiatic oak weevils were more abundant and more frequently collected on American chestnut (Ca. dentata) and its most closely related BC3F3 hybrid generation than on the Asian species Ca. mollissima. In most months, C. castaneus colonization of hybrid generations was not significantly different than colonization of parental species. Frequency data for C. castaneus suggested that adults were distributed relatively evenly throughout the study sites rather than in dense clusters. Emergence of C. castaneus was significantly higher under a canopy dominated by Quercus species than under non-Quercus species or open sky. C. castaneus emergence began in May and peaked in late June and early July. These results may be useful for resource managers trying to restore blight-resistant chestnut to the Southern Appalachians while minimizing herbivory by insect pests. PMID:27001964

  4. Abundance and Frequency of the Asiatic Oak Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Defoliation on American, Chinese, and Hybrid Chestnut (Castanea).

    PubMed

    Case, Ashley E; Mayfield, Albert E; Clark, Stacy L; Schlarbaum, Scott E; Reynolds, Barbara C

    2016-01-01

    The Asiatic oak weevil, Cyrtepistomus castaneus Roelofs (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a nonnative defoliator of trees in the Fagaceae family in the United States but has not been studied on Castanea species in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Planted trees of Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh. (Fagales: Fagaceae), Castanea mollissima Blume (Fagales: Fagaceae), and four hybrid breeding generations were evaluated in 2012 for insect defoliation and C. castaneus abundance and frequency. Defoliation was visually assessed throughout the growing season at two sites in the southern Appalachian Mountains (western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee). C. castaneus abundance and frequency were monitored on trees using beat sheets and emergence was recorded from ground traps. Asiatic oak weevils were more abundant and more frequently collected on American chestnut (Ca. dentata) and its most closely related BC3F3 hybrid generation than on the Asian species Ca. mollissima. In most months, C. castaneus colonization of hybrid generations was not significantly different than colonization of parental species. Frequency data for C. castaneus suggested that adults were distributed relatively evenly throughout the study sites rather than in dense clusters. Emergence of C. castaneus was significantly higher under a canopy dominated by Quercus species than under non-Quercus species or open sky. C. castaneus emergence began in May and peaked in late June and early July. These results may be useful for resource managers trying to restore blight-resistant chestnut to the Southern Appalachians while minimizing herbivory by insect pests. PMID:27001964

  5. Gypsy moth defoliation assessment: Forest defoliation in detectable from satellite imagery. [New England, New York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, H. J. (Principal Investigator); Rohde, W. G.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 imagery obtained over eastern Pennsylvania during July 1973, indicates that forest defoliation is detectable from satellite imagery and correlates well with aerial visual survey data. It now appears that two damage classes (heavy and moderate-light) and areas of no visible defoliation can be detected and mapped from properly prepared false composite imagery. In areas where maple is the dominant species or in areas of small woodlots interspersed with agricultural areas, detection and subsequent mapping is more difficult.

  6. Potential of VIIRS Time Series Data for Aiding the USDA Forest Service Early Warning System for Forest Health Threats: A Gypsy Moth Defoliation Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Ryan, Robert E.; Smoot, James; Kuper, Phillip; Prados, Donald; Russell, Jeffrey; Ross, Kenton; Gasser, Gerald; Sader, Steven; McKellip, Rodney

    2007-01-01

    This report details one of three experiments performed during FY 2007 for the NASA RPC (Rapid Prototyping Capability) at Stennis Space Center. This RPC experiment assesses the potential of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data for detecting and monitoring forest defoliation from the non-native Eurasian gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). The intent of the RPC experiment was to assess the degree to which VIIRS data can provide forest disturbance monitoring information as an input to a forest threat EWS (Early Warning System) as compared to the level of information that can be obtained from MODIS data. The USDA Forest Service (USFS) plans to use MODIS products for generating broad-scaled, regional monitoring products as input to an EWS for forest health threat assessment. NASA SSC is helping the USFS to evaluate and integrate currently available satellite remote sensing technologies and data products for the EWS, including the use of MODIS products for regional monitoring of forest disturbance. Gypsy moth defoliation of the mid-Appalachian highland region was selected as a case study. Gypsy moth is one of eight major forest insect threats listed in the Healthy Forest Restoration Act (HFRA) of 2003; the gypsy moth threatens eastern U.S. hardwood forests, which are also a concern highlighted in the HFRA of 2003. This region was selected for the project because extensive gypsy moth defoliation occurred there over multiple years during the MODIS operational period. This RPC experiment is relevant to several nationally important mapping applications, including agricultural efficiency, coastal management, ecological forecasting, disaster management, and carbon management. In this experiment, MODIS data and VIIRS data simulated from MODIS were assessed for their ability to contribute broad, regional geospatial information on gypsy moth defoliation. Landsat and ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission

  7. Effects of Invasive Winter Moth Defoliation on Tree Radial Growth in Eastern Massachusetts, USA

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Michael J.; Lee, Thomas D.; Ducey, Mark J.; Elkinton, Joseph S.; Boettner, George H.; Dodds, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Winter moth, Operophtera brumata L. (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), has been defoliating hardwood trees in eastern Massachusetts since the 1990s. Native to Europe, winter moth has also been detected in Rhode Island, Connecticut, eastern Long Island (NY), New Hampshire, and Maine. Individual tree impacts of winter moth defoliation in New England are currently unknown. Using dendroecological techniques, this study related annual radial growth of individual host (Quercus spp. and Acer spp.) trees to detailed defoliation estimates. Winter moth defoliation was associated with up to a 47% reduction in annual radial growth of Quercus trees. Latewood production of Quercus was reduced by up to 67% in the same year as defoliation, while earlywood production was reduced by up to 24% in the year following defoliation. Winter moth defoliation was not a strong predictor of radial growth in Acer species. This study is the first to document impacts of novel invasions of winter moth into New England. PMID:26462685

  8. Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) suppession by sudangrass interference and defoliation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canada thistle is difficult to manage in farming systems with reduced reliance on herbicides, including organic and low-external input systems. Previous field studies found that defoliation or sudangrass interference suppressed Canada thistle. Our objective was to understand the factors causing supp...

  9. Effects of early and late harvest on agronomic performance and stability of late blight resistant (R-gene free) potato genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To assess the effectiveness of genotype resistance to potato late blight, foliar blight development, area under disease progress curves (AUDPC) and tuber blight were quantified. Late blight resistant potato genotypes (R-gene free) were assessed for yield performance and stability at early (90 days) ...

  10. Artificial defoliation effect on Populus growth, biomass production, and total nonstructural carbohydrate concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Reichenbacker, R.R.; Hart, E.R.; Schultz, R.C.

    1996-06-01

    The impact of artificial defoliation on Populus growth, biomass production, and total nonstructural carbohydrate concentration was examined. Four Populus clones were field planted and artificially defoliated. Assigned defoliation levels (0, 25, 50, or 75%) were applied to leaves of leaf plastochron index 0 through 8 during a 6-d period in a 3-step incremental manner to simulate cottonwood leaf beetle, Chrysomela scripta F., larval feeding patterns. Artificial defoliations were timed to coincide with the outbreaks of natural beetle populations in adjacent areas. After 2 growing seasons, trees were measured for height, diameter, and biomass accumulation. Root samples were collected from 0 and 75% defoliation treatments for each clone. Biomass was reduced an average of 33% as defoliation level increased from 0 to 75%. As defoliation level increased from 0 to 75%, a consistent allocation ratio of biomass to 2/3 above and 1/3 below ground components continued in all clones. An overcompensation response occurred in above ground biomass when a defoliation level of 25% was applied. Between 25 and 75% a strong linear trend of decreasing biomass as defoliation increased was indicated. Vitality of the tree, as indicated by total nonstructural carbohydrate content, was affected only slightly by increasing defoliation. 26 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  11. Metabolic and enzymatic changes associated with carbon mobilization, utilization and replenishment triggered in grain amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) in response to partial defoliation by mechanical injury or insect herbivory

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    /enzymes that are differentially affected by the way leaf damage is performed. Defoliation tolerance in grain is a complex process that can’t be fully explained at the transcriptomic level only. PMID:22966837

  12. Photosynthetic responses of field-grown Pinus radiata trees to artificial and aphid-induced defoliation.

    PubMed

    Eyles, Alieta; Smith, David; Pinkard, Elizabeth A; Smith, Ian; Corkrey, Ross; Elms, Stephen; Beadle, Chris; Mohammed, Caroline

    2011-06-01

    The phloem-feeding aphid Essigella californica represents a potential threat to the productivity of Pinus radiata plantations in south-eastern Australia. Five- and nine-year-old field trials were used to characterize the effects of artificial and natural aphid-induced (E. californica) defoliation, respectively, on shoot photosynthesis and growth. Photosynthetic capacity (A(max)) was significantly greater following a 25% (D25) (13.8 µmol m(-2) s(-1)) and a 50% (D50) (15.9 µmol m(-2) s(-1)) single-event upper-crown artificial defoliation, 3 weeks after defoliation than in undefoliated control trees (12.9 µmol m(-2) s(-1)). This response was consistently observed for up to 11 weeks after the defoliation event; by Week 16, there was no difference in A(max) between control and defoliated trees. In the D50 treatment, this increased A(max) was not sufficient to fully compensate for the foliage loss as evidenced by the reduced diameter increment (by 15%) in defoliated trees 36 weeks after defoliation. In contrast, diameter increment of trees in the D25 treatment was unaffected by defoliation. The A(max) of trees experiencing upper-crown defoliation by natural and repeated E. californica infestations varied, depending on host genotype. Despite clear differences in defoliation levels between resistant and susceptible genotypes (17 vs. 35% of tree crown defoliated, respectively), growth of susceptible genotypes was not significantly different from that of resistant genotypes. The observed increases in A(max) in the lower crown of the canopy following attack suggested that susceptible genotypes were able to partly compensate for the loss of foliage by compensatory photosynthesis. The capacity of P. radiata to regulate photosynthesis in response to natural aphid-induced defoliation provides evidence that the impact of E. californica attack on stem growth will be less than expected, at least for up to 35% defoliation. PMID:21697147

  13. Occupations that people with late effects of polio perceive difficult to perform.

    PubMed

    Appelin, Katja; Lexell, Jan; Månsson Lexell, Eva

    2014-09-01

    The aims of this study were to describe which occupations that people with late effects of polio perceive difficult to perform, which occupational area the occupations were related to and their level of complexity. The aims were also to describe their own perception of the importance, performance and satisfaction with these occupations. Sixty-two participants (mean age 61 years) were assessed with the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. A total of 431 occupations were reported (43% self-care, 32% productivity and 25% leisure). Two subcategories, household management (27 %) and functional mobility (23 %), represented half of all the reported occupations. Ratings for prioritized occupations (N = 300) were high for importance and generally low for performance and satisfaction. A wide variety of occupations were reported, related to both occupational areas and different levels of complexity within an occupational area. The results underscore the importance of using assessment tools that can capture both the variety and complexity of occupations. By obtaining more detailed information about occupations that people with late effects of polio perceive difficult to perform, this will enable occupational therapists to offer targeted interventions that can facilitate engagement in meaningful and purposeful occupations. A larger and more heterogeneous sample may enable the results to be generalized to more people with late effects of polio. Future studies should focus on methods that can facilitate engagement in meaningful and purposeful occupations for people with late effects of polio. PMID:24619836

  14. Qualitative Assessment of Speech Perception Performance of Early and Late Cochlear Implantees.

    PubMed

    Kant, Anjali R; Pathak, Sonal

    2015-09-01

    The present study aims to provide a qualitative description and comparison of speech perception performance using model based tests like multisyllabic lexical neighborhood test (MLNT) and lexical neighborhood test (LNT), in early and late implanted (prelingual) hearing impaired children using cochlear implants. The subjects comprised of cochlear implantees; Group I (early implantees)-n = 15, 3-6 years of age; mean age at implantation-3½ years. Group II (late implantees)-n = 15, 7-13 years of age; mean age at implantation-5 years. The tests were presented in a sound treated room at 70 dBSPL. The children were instructed to repeat the words on hearing them. Responses were scored as percentage of words correctly repeated. Their means were computed. The late implantees achieved higher scores for words on MLNT than those on LNT. This may imply that late implantees are making use of length cues in order to aid them in speech perception. The major phonological process used by early implantees was deletion and by the late implantees was substitution. One needs to wait until the child achieves a score of 20 % on LNT before assessing other aspects of his/her speech perception abilities. There appears to be a need to use speech perception tests which are based on theoretical empirical models, in order to enable us to give a descriptive analysis of post implant speech perception performance. PMID:26405667

  15. Estimation of scots pine defoliation by the common pine sawfly (Diprion pini L.) using multi-temporal radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latva-Kayra, Petri T.

    In 1998-2001 Finland suffered the most severe insect outbreak ever recorded, over 500,000 hectares. The outbreak was caused by the common pine sawfly ( Diprion pini L.). The outbreak has continued in the study area, Palokangas, ever since. To find a good method to monitor this type of outbreaks, the purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of multi-temporal ERS-2 and ENVISAT SAR imagery for estimating Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) defoliation. Three methods were tested: unsupervised k-means clustering, supervised linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and logistic regression. In addition, I assessed if harvested areas could be differentiated from the defoliated forest using the same methods. Two different speckle filters were used to determine the effect of filtering on the SAR imagery and subsequent results. The logistic regression performed best, producing a classification accuracy of 81.6% (kappa 0.62) with two classes (no defoliation, >20% defoliation). LDA accuracy was with two classes at best 77.7% (kappa 0.54) and k-means 72.8 (0.46). In general, the largest speckle filter, 5 x 5 image window, performed best. When additional classes were added the accuracy was usually degraded on a step-by-step basis. The results were good, but because of the restrictions in the study they should be confirmed with independent data, before full conclusions can be made that results are reliable. The restrictions include the small size field data and, thus, the problems with accuracy assessment (no separate testing data) as well as the lack of meteorological data from the imaging dates.

  16. Future impacts of nitrogen deposition and climate change scenarios on forest crown defoliation.

    PubMed

    De Marco, Alessandra; Proietti, Chiara; Cionni, Irene; Fischer, Richard; Screpanti, Augusto; Vitale, Marcello

    2014-11-01

    Defoliation is an indicator for forest health in response to several stressors including air pollutants, and one of the most important parameters monitored in the International Cooperative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests). The study aims to estimate crown defoliation in 2030, under three climate and one nitrogen deposition scenarios, based on evaluation of the most important factors (meteorological, nitrogen deposition and chemical soil parameters) affecting defoliation of twelve European tree species. The combination of favourable climate and nitrogen fertilization in the more adaptive species induces a generalized decrease of defoliation. On the other hand, severe climate change and drought are main causes of increase in defoliation in Quercus ilex and Fagus sylvatica, especially in Mediterranean area. Our results provide information on regional distribution of future defoliation, an important knowledge for identifying policies to counteract negative impacts of climate change and air pollution. PMID:25118942

  17. Effects of Artificial Defoliation on Growth and Biomass Accumulation in Short-Rotation Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Jetton, Robert M.; Robison, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Sweetgum, Liquidambar styraciflua L. (Hamamelidales: Hamamelidaceae), is a species of interest for short-rotation plantation forestry in the southeastern United States. Despite its high levels of resistance to many native insects and pathogens, the species is susceptible to generalist defoliators during outbreak epidemics. The objective of this field study was to evaluate the potential impact of defoliation on sweetgum growth and productivity within the context of an operational plantation. Over three growing seasons, trees were subjected to artificial defoliation treatments of various intensity (control = 0% defoliation; low intensity = 33% defoliation; moderate intensity = 67% defoliation; high intensity = 99% defoliation) and frequency (not defoliated; defoliated once in April of the first growing season; defoliated twice, once in April of the first growing season and again in April of the second growing season). The responses of stem height, stem diameter, stem volume, crown volume, total biomass accumulation, and branch growth were measured in November of each growing season. At the end of the first growing season, when trees had received single defoliations, significant reductions in all growth traits followed the most severe (99%) defoliation treatment only. After the second and third growing seasons, when trees had received one or two defoliations of varying intensity, stem diameter and volume and total tree biomass were reduced significantly by 67 and 99% defoliation, while reductions in stem height and crown volume followed the 99% treatment only. All growth traits other than crown volume were reduced significantly by two defoliations but not one defoliation. Results indicate that sweetgum is highly resilient to single defoliations of low, moderate, and high intensity. However, during the three-year period of the study, repeated high-intensity defoliation caused significant reductions in growth and productivity that could have lasting impacts on yield

  18. Condensed tannins increase nitrogen recovery by trees following insect defoliation.

    PubMed

    Madritch, Michael D; Lindroth, Richard L

    2015-10-01

    While the importance of plant secondary metabolites to belowground functioning is gaining recognition, the perception remains that secondary metabolites are produced for herbivore defense, whereas their belowground impacts are ecological by-products, or 'afterlife' effects. However, plants invest a significant amount of resources into production of secondary metabolites that have minimal effects on herbivore resistance (e.g. condensed tannins and insect herbivores). We show that genetically mediated variation in condensed tannin concentration is correlated with plant nitrogen recovery following a severe defoliation event. We used single-tree mesocosms labeled with (15) N to track nitrogen through both the frass and litter cycling pathways. High concentrations of leaf tannins in Populus tremuloides were correlated with (15) N recovery from frass within the same growing season and in the following growing season. Likewise, leaf tannin concentrations were also correlated with (15) N recovery from the litter of defoliated trees in the growing season following the defoliation event. Conversely, tannins were not well correlated with nitrogen uptake under conditions of nominal herbivory. Our results suggest that tannins may confer benefits in response to herbivore pressure through conserved belowground nitrogen cycling, rather than via defensive properties. Consequently, tannins may be considered as chemical mediators of tolerance rather than resistance. PMID:25952793

  19. Monitoring the defoliation of hardwood forests in Pennsylvania using LANDSAT. [gypsy moth surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dottavio, C. L.; Nelson, R. F.; Williams, D. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    An automated system for conducting annual gypsy moth defoliation surveys using LANDSAT MSS data and digital processing techniques is described. A two-step preprocessing procedure was developed that uses multitemporal data sets representing forest canopy conditions before and after defoliation to create a digital image in which all nonforest cover types are eliminated or masked out of a LANDSAT image that exhibits insect defoliation. A temporal window for defoliation assessment was identified and a statewide data base was established. A data management system to interface image analysis software with the statewide data base was developed and a cost benefit analysis of this operational system was conducted.

  20. Consequences of resource limitation for recovery from repeated defoliation in Eucalyptus globulus Labilladière.

    PubMed

    Barry, Karen M; Quentin, Audrey; Eyles, Alieta; Pinkard, Elizabeth A

    2012-01-01

    Recovery following defoliation can be modified by co-occurring site resource limitations. The growth response of young Eucalyptus globulus saplings to two defoliation events was examined in an experimental plantation with combinations of low (-) or high (+) water (W) and nitrogen (N) resources. Artificial defoliation was applied at 3 and 9 months of age to remove ~40 and 55% of leaf area in the upper crown, respectively. At 18 months of age, height, stem diameter and leaf area were not significantly different between control and defoliated saplings, across all resource treatments. However, stem volume, bark volume and branch number were significantly increased in defoliated saplings, including a significant interaction with resource treatment. Total above-ground biomass of saplings in response to defoliation was significantly higher (almost double) than controls for the low water (N + W-) treatment only. Significantly increased foliar starch content (and a trend for increased soluble sugars) in the upper crown zone was found in the defoliated saplings of the N + W- treatment compared with the upper zone of control saplings. Foliar total non-structural carbohydrates were significantly correlated to stem biomass regardless of resource treatment or defoliation, and we suggest that foliar resources are most important for stem growth in E. globulus rather than stored carbon (C) from other tissues. After repeated defoliation and several months recovery, E. globulus saplings were generally not C limited in this study. PMID:22174093

  1. Effects of breakfast and caffeine on performance and mood in the late morning and after lunch.

    PubMed

    Smith, A P; Kendrick, A M; Maben, A L

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of breakfast and caffeine on performance, mood and cardiovascular functioning in the late morning and after lunch. Forty-eight subjects were tested at 07.45 and subjects then assigned to one of the four conditions formed by combining caffeine and breakfast conditions. Subjects in the caffeine condition were given a dose of 4 mg/kg, the caffeine manipulation being double blind. At 11.15 subjects were given another coffee (subjects remained in the same caffeine condition) and had lunch at 12.30. Performance was examined prior to lunch (11.30) and after lunch (14.00). Effects of breakfast on recognition memory (lower false alarm rate) and logical reasoning (reduced accuracy) were found in the late morning but not after lunch. However, a semantic processing task was performed more slowly by the breakfast group after lunch. Caffeine improved performance on a sustained attention task, the logical reasoning task and semantic memory task. Subjects given caffeine also reported greater alertness and feelings of well-being, whereas the effects of breakfast on mood changed from the late morning to early afternoon. Few interactions between breakfast and caffeine conditions were obtained. PMID:1299795

  2. Employing broadband spectra and cluster analysis to assess thermal defoliation of cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growers and field scouts need assistance in surveying cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fields subjected to thermal defoliation to reap the benefits provided by this nonchemical defoliation method. A study was conducted to evaluate broadband spectral data and unsupervised classification as tools for s...

  3. Responses of Medicago sativa and M. falcata type alfalfas to different defoliation times and grass competition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incorporating alfalfa into rangelands can enhance the quantity and quality of forage production. We evaluated the impact of defoliation timing and selective defoliation on two grazing- (Anik and SCMF 3713) and one hay-type alfalfas (Vernal) near Mandan, North Dakota, USA. Entries were space-plante...

  4. Defoliation effects on Bromus tectorum seed production: Implications for grazing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hempy-Mayer, K.; Pyke, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) is an invasive annual grass that creates near-homogenous stands in areas throughout the Intermountain sagebrush steppe and challenges successful native plant restoration in these areas. A clipping experiment carried out at two cheatgrass-dominated sites in eastern Oregon (Lincoln Bench and Succor Creek) evaluated defoliation as a potential control method for cheatgrass and a seeding preparation method for native plant reseeding projects. Treatments involved clipping plants at two heights (tall = 7.6 cm, and short = 2.5 cm), two phenological stages (boot and purple), and two frequencies (once and twice), although purple-stage treatments were clipped only once. Treatments at each site were replicated in a randomized complete block design that included a control with no defoliation. End-of-season seed density (seeds??m-2) was estimated by sampling viable seeds from plants, litter, and soil of each treatment. Undipped control plants produced an average of approximately 13 000 and 20 000 seeds??m-2 at Lincoln Bench and Succor Creek, respectively. Plants clipped short at the boot stage and again 2 wk later had among the lowest mean seed densities at both sites, and were considered the most successful treatments (Lincoln Bench: F 6,45 = 47.07, P < 0.0001; Succor Creek: F6,40 = 19.60, P < 0.0001). The 95% confidence intervals for seed densities were 123-324 seeds??m-2 from the Lincoln Bench treatment, and 769-2256 seeds??m-2 from the Succor Creek treatment. Literature suggests a maximum acceptable cheatgrass seed density of approximately 330 seeds??m-2 for successful native plant restoration through reseeding. Thus, although this study helped pinpoint optimal defoliation parameters for cheatgrass control, it also called into question the potential for livestock grazing to be an effective seed-bed preparation technique in native plant reseeding projects in cheatgrass-dominated areas.

  5. Effects of late-gestation heat stress on immunity and performance of calves.

    PubMed

    Dahl, G E; Tao, S; Monteiro, A P A

    2016-04-01

    Lactating cows that experience heat stress will have reduced dry matter intake and milk yield and shift metabolism, which ultimately reduces the efficiency of milk production. Dry cows that are heat stressed similarly experience lower intake, reduced mammary growth, and compromised immune function that ultimately results in a poorer transition into lactation and lower milk yield in the next lactation. A recent focus in our laboratory is on the effects of late gestation, in utero heat stress on calf survival and performance. We have completed a series of studies to examine preweaning growth and health, and later reproductive and productive responses, in an attempt to quantify acute and persistent effects of in utero heat strain. Late gestation heat stress results in calves with lower body weight at birth, shorter stature at weaning, and failure to achieve the same weight or height at 12 mo of age observed in calves from dams that are cooled when dry. A portion of the reduced growth may result from the lower immune status observed in calves heat stressed in utero, which begins with poorer apparent efficiency of immunoglobulin absorption and extends to lower survival rates through puberty. Heat-stressed calves, however, have permanent shifts in metabolism that are consistent with greater peripheral accumulation of energy and less lean growth relative to those from cooled dams. Comparing reproductive performance in calves heat stressed versus those cooled in utero, we observe that the cooled heifers require fewer services to attain pregnancy and become pregnant at an earlier age. Tracking the milk production in calves that were heat stressed in utero versus those cooled in late gestation revealed a significant reduction of yield in the first lactation, approximately 5 kg/d through 35 wk of lactation, despite similar body weight and condition score at calving. These observations indicate that a relatively brief period of heat stress in late gestation dramatically alters

  6. Exogenous genistein in late gestation: effects on fetal development and sow and piglet performance.

    PubMed

    Farmer, C; Robertson, P; Xiao, C W; Rehfeldt, C; Kalbe, C

    2016-09-01

    Due to their functional similarity to estradiol, phytoestrogens could prove to be beneficial in late gestating sows. The goal of this study was to determine the impact of providing the phytoestrogen genistein during late pregnancy on the performance of sows and their litters. In total, 56 gilts were equally divided into the two following groups on day 90 of gestation: (1) controls (CTL); and (2) two daily i.m. injections of 220 mg of genistein (GEN). Treatments were carried out until farrowing. Jugular blood samples were collected from 16 gilts/treatment on days 89 and 110 of gestation, and on days 3 and 21 of lactation. Milk samples were also obtained from those sows on day 3 of lactation. A male piglet from 16 CTL and 15 GEN litters was slaughtered at 24 h postpartum and a blood sample was obtained. The liver, heart and visceral organs were weighed and the semitendinosus (ST) muscle was collected and carcass composition was determined. The treatment increased (P0.1) on weight or backfat loss of sows during lactation, milk composition or weights of piglets. The pre-weaning mortality rate of piglets was very low (0.1). However, carcasses from GEN litters contained more fat than those from CTL litters (9.63% v. 8.34%, P0.1). In conclusion, injecting gilts with 440 mg/day of genistein in late gestation increased IGF1 concentrations in gilts and carcass fat in neonatal piglets, but had minimal effect on muscle development of piglets at birth and on the performance of lactating sows and their litters. PMID:26971408

  7. Insulin Resistance, Brain Atrophy, and Cognitive Performance in Late Middle–Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Willette, Auriel A.; Xu, Guofan; Johnson, Sterling C.; Birdsill, Alex C.; Jonaitis, Erin M.; Sager, Mark A.; Hermann, Bruce P.; La Rue, Asenath; Asthana, Sanjay; Bendlin, Barbara B.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Insulin resistance dysregulates glucose uptake and other functions in brain areas affected by Alzheimer disease. Insulin resistance may play a role in Alzheimer disease etiopathogenesis. This longitudinal study examined whether insulin resistance among late middle–aged, cognitively healthy individuals was associated with 1) less gray matter in Alzheimer disease–sensitive brain regions and 2) worse cognitive performance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, gray matter volume, and the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) were acquired in 372 participants at baseline and a consecutive subset of 121 individuals ~4 years later. Voxel-based morphometry and tensor-based morphometry were used, respectively, to test the association of insulin resistance with baseline brain volume and progressive gray matter atrophy. RESULTS Higher insulin resistance predicted less gray matter at baseline and 4 years later in medial temporal lobe, prefrontal cortices, precuneus, and other parietal gyri. A region-of-interest analysis, independent of the voxel-wise analyses, confirmed that higher insulin resistance was related to medial temporal lobe atrophy. Atrophy itself corresponded to cognitive deficits in the RAVLT. Temporal lobe atrophy that was predicted by higher insulin resistance significantly mediated worse RAVLT encoding performance. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that insulin resistance in an asymptomatic, late middle–aged cohort is associated with progressive atrophy in regions affected by early Alzheimer disease. Insulin resistance may also affect the ability to encode episodic information by negatively influencing gray matter volume in medial temporal lobe. PMID:23069842

  8. Carbon allocation during defoliation: testing a defense-growth trade-off in balsam fir

    PubMed Central

    Deslauriers, Annie; Caron, Laurie; Rossi, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    During repetitive defoliation events, carbon can become limiting for trees. To maintain growth and survival, the resources have to be shared more efficiently, which could result in a trade-off between the different physiological processes of a plant. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of defoliation in carbon allocation of balsam fir [Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.] to test the presence of a trade-off between allocation to growth, carbon storage, and defense. Three defoliation intensities [control (C-trees, 0% defoliation), moderately (M-trees, 41–60%), and heavily (H-trees, 61–80%) defoliated] were selected in order to monitor several variables related to stem growth (wood formation in xylem), carbon storage in stem and needle (non-structural soluble sugars and starch), and defense components in needles (terpenoids compound) from May to October 2011. The concentration of starch was drastically reduced in both wood and leaves of H-trees with a quasi-absence of carbon partitioning to storage in early summer. Fewer kinds of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were formed with an increasing level of defoliation indicating a lower carbon allocation for the production of defense. The carbon allocation to wood formation gradually reduced at increasing defoliation intensities, with a lower growth rate and fewer tracheids resulting in a reduced carbon sequestration in cell walls. The hypothesis of a trade-off between the allocations to defense components and to non-structural (NCS) and structural (growth) carbon was rejected as most of the measured variables decreased with increasing defoliation. The starch amount was highly indicative of the tree carbon status at different defoliation intensity and future research should focus on the mechanism of starch utilization for survival and growth following an outbreak. PMID:26029235

  9. Nutrients and defoliation increase soil carbon inputs in grassland.

    PubMed

    Ziter, Carly; MacDougall, Andrew S

    2013-01-01

    Given the regulatory impact of resources and consumers on plant production, decomposition, and soil carbon sequestration, anthropogenic changes to nutrient inputs and grazing have likely transformed how grasslands process atmospheric CO2. The direction and magnitude of these changes, however, remain unclear in this system, whose soils contain -20% of the world's carbon pool. Nutrients stimulate production but can also increase tissue palatability and decomposition. Grazing variously affects tissue quality and quantity, decreasing, standing biomass, but potentially increasing leaf nutrient concentrations, root production, or investment in tissue defenses that slow litter decay. Here, we quantified individual and interactive impacts of nutrient addition and simulated grazing (mowing) on above- and belowground production, tissue quality, and soil carbon inputs in a western North American grassland with globally distributed agronomic species. Given that nutrients and grazing are often connected with increased root production and higher foliar tissue quality, we hypothesized that these treatments would combine to reduce inputs of recalcitrant-rich litter critical for C storage. This hypothesis was unsupported. Nutrients and defoliation combined to significantly increase belowground production but did not affect root tissue quality. There were no significant interactions between nutrients and defoliation for any measured response. Three years of nutrient addition increased root and shoot biomass by 37% and 23%, respectively, and had no impact on decomposition, resulting in a -15% increase in soil organic matter and soil carbon. Defoliation triggered a significant burst of short-lived lignin-rich roots, presumably a compensatory response to foliar loss, which increased root litter inputs by 33%. The majority of root and shoot responses were positively correlated, with aboveground biomass a reasonable proxy for whole plant responses. The exceptions were decomposition, with

  10. Diminished performance on neuropsychological testing in late life depression is correlated with microstructural white matter abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Mettenburg, Joseph M; Benzinger, Tammie L.S.; Shimony, Joshua S; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Sheline, Yvette I

    2012-01-01

    Background Traditional T2 weighted MR imaging results are non-specific for the extent of underlying white matter structural abnormalities present in late life depression (LLD). Diffusion tensor imaging provides a unique opportunity to investigate the extent and nature of structural injury, but has been limited by examining only a subset of regions of interest (ROI) and by confounds common to the study of an elderly population, including comorbid vascular pathology. Furthermore, comprehensive correlation of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measurements, including axial and radial diffusivity measurements, has not been demonstrated in the late life depression population. Methods 51 depressed and 16 non-depressed, age- and cerebrovascular risk factor- matched elderly subjects underwent traditional anatomic T1 and T2 weight imaging, as well as DTI. The DTI data were skeletonized using tract based spatial statistics (TBSS), and both regional and global analyses were performed. Results Widespread structural abnormalities within white matter were detected in the LLD group, accounting for age, gender and education and matched for cerebrovascular risk factors and global T2 white matter hyperintensities (T2WMH). Regional differences were most prominent in uncinate and cingulate white matter and were generally characterized by an increase in radial diffusivity. Age-related changes particularly in the cingulate bundle were more advanced in individuals with LLD relative to controls. Regression analysis demonstrated significant correlations of regional fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity with five different neuropsychological factor scores. TBSS analysis demonstrated a greater extent of white matter abnormalities in LLD not responsive to treatment, as compared to controls. Conclusions White matter integrity is compromised in late life depression, largely manifested by increased radial diffusivity in specific regions, suggesting underlying myelin injury. A possible

  11. Extreme defoliation reduces tree growth but not C and N storage in a winter-deciduous species

    PubMed Central

    Piper, Frida I.; Gundale, Michael J.; Fajardo, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims There is a growing concern about how forests will respond to increased herbivory associated with climate change. Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) limitation are hypothesized to cause decreasing growth after defoliation, and eventually mortality. This study examines the effects of a natural and massive defoliation by an insect on mature trees’ C and N storage, which have rarely been studied together, particularly in winter-deciduous species. Methods Survival, growth rate, carbon [C, as non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentration] and nitrogen (N) storage, defences (tannins and total polyphenols), and re-foliation traits were examined in naturally defoliated and non-defoliated adult trees of the winter-deciduous temperate species Nothofagus pumilio 1 and 2 years after a massive and complete defoliation caused by the caterpillar of Ormiscodes amphimone (Saturniidae) during summer 2009 in Patagonia. Key Results Defoliated trees did not die but grew significantly less than non-defoliated trees for at least 2 years after defoliation. One year after defoliation, defoliated trees had similar NSC and N concentrations in woody tissues, higher polyphenol concentrations and lower re-foliation than non-defoliated trees. In the second year, however, NSC concentrations in branches were significantly higher in defoliated trees while differences in polyphenols and re-foliation disappeared and decreased, respectively. Conclusions The significant reduction in growth following defoliation was not caused by insufficient C or N availability, as frequently assumed; instead, it was probably due to growth limitations due to factors other than C or N, or to preventative C allocation to storage. This study shows an integrative approach to evaluating plant growth limitations in response to disturbance, by examining major resources other than C (e.g. N), and other C sinks besides storage and growth (e.g. defences and re-foliation). PMID:25851136

  12. Fire, defoliation, and competing species alter Aristida purpurea biomass, tiller, and axillary bud production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aristida purpurea (threeawn) is a competitive native perennial grass with monoculturistic tendencies and poor palatability. We examined effects of fire, defoliation, and interspecific/intraspecific planting for 1) threeawn responses in the presence of threeawn, Bouteloua gracilis, or Pascopyrum smi...

  13. cis-3-Chloroacrylic Acid: A New Cotton Defoliant and Crop Desiccant.

    PubMed

    Herrett, R A; Kurtz, A N

    1963-09-20

    cis-3-Chloroacrylic acid is a potent cotton defoliant and a crop desiccant. Relationships between structure and activity indicate a relatively high degree of specificity, since minor modifications in structure result in loss of activity. PMID:17751800

  14. Rhythm synchronization performance and auditory working memory in early- and late-trained musicians.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Jennifer A; Penhune, Virginia B

    2010-07-01

    Behavioural and neuroimaging studies provide evidence for a possible "sensitive" period in childhood development during which musical training results in long-lasting changes in brain structure and auditory and motor performance. Previous work from our laboratory has shown that adult musicians who begin training before the age of 7 (early-trained; ET) perform better on a visuomotor task than those who begin after the age of 7 (late-trained; LT), even when matched on total years of musical training and experience. Two questions were raised regarding the findings from this experiment. First, would this group performance difference be observed using a more familiar, musically relevant task such as auditory rhythms? Second, would cognitive abilities mediate this difference in task performance? To address these questions, ET and LT musicians, matched on years of musical training, hours of current practice and experience, were tested on an auditory rhythm synchronization task. The task consisted of six woodblock rhythms of varying levels of metrical complexity. In addition, participants were tested on cognitive subtests measuring vocabulary, working memory and pattern recognition. The two groups of musicians differed in their performance of the rhythm task, such that the ET musicians were better at reproducing the temporal structure of the rhythms. There were no group differences on the cognitive measures. Interestingly, across both groups, individual task performance correlated with auditory working memory abilities and years of formal training. These results support the idea of a sensitive period during the early years of childhood for developing sensorimotor synchronization abilities via musical training. PMID:20508918

  15. Impact of defoliation intensities on plant biomass, nutrient uptake and arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in Lotus tenuis growing in a saline-sodic soil.

    PubMed

    García, I; Mendoza, R

    2012-11-01

    The impact of different defoliation intensities on the ability of Lotus tenuis plants to regrowth, mobilise nutrients and to associate with native AM fungi and Rhizobium in a saline-sodic soil was investigated. After 70 days, plants were subjected to 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% defoliation and shoot regrowth was assessed at the end of subsequent 35 days. Compared to non-defoliated plants, low or moderate defoliation up to 75% did not affect shoot regrowth. However, 100% treatment affected shoot regrowth and the clipped plants were not able to compensate the growth attained by non-defoliated plants. Root growth was more affected by defoliation than shoot growth. P and N concentrations in shoots and roots increased with increasing defoliation while Na(+) concentration in shoots of non-defoliated and moderately defoliated plants was similar. Non-defoliated and moderately defoliated plants prevented increases of Na(+) concentration in shoots through both reducing Na(+) uptake and Na(+) transport to shoots by accumulating Na(+) in roots. At high defoliation, the salinity tolerance mechanism is altered and Na(+) concentration in shoots was higher than in roots. Reduction in the photosynthetic capacity induced by defoliation neither changed the root length colonised by AM fungi nor arbuscular colonisation but decreased the vesicular colonisation. Spore density did not change, but hyphal density and Rhizobium nodules increased with defoliation. The strategy of the AM symbiont consists in investing most of the C resources to preferentially retain arbuscular colonisation as well as inoculum density in the soil. PMID:22512871

  16. Low and moderate doses of caffeine late in exercise improve performance in trained cyclists.

    PubMed

    Talanian, Jason L; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess if low and moderate doses of caffeine delivered in a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CES) late in exercise improved time-trial (TT) performance. Fifteen (11 male, 4 female) cyclists (age, 22.5 ± 0.9 years; body mass, 69.3 ± 2.6 kg; peak oxygen consumption, 64.6 ± 1.9 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1)) completed 4 double-blinded randomized trials. Subjects completed 120 min of cycling at ∼60% peak oxygen consumption with 5 interspersed 120-s intervals at ∼82% peak oxygen consumption, immediately followed by 40-s intervals at 50 W. Following 80 min of cycling, subjects either ingested a 6% CES (PL), a CES with 100 mg (low dose, 1.5 ± 0.1 mg·kg body mass(-1)) of caffeine (CAF1), or a CES with 200 mg (moderate dose, 2.9 ± 0.1 mg·kg body mass(-1)) of caffeine (CAF2). Following the 120-min cycling challenge, cyclists completed a 6-kJ·kg body mass(-1) TT. There was no difference between respiratory, heart rate, glucose, free fatty acid, body mass, hematocrit, or urine specific gravity measurements between treatments. The CAF2 (26:36 ± 0:22 min:s) TT was completed faster than CAF1 (27:36 ± 0:32 min:s, p < 0.05) and both CAF1 and CAF2 TTs were completed faster than PL (28:41 ± 0:38 min:s, p < 0.05). Blood lactate was similar between trials and rose to a greater extent during the TT (p < 0.05). In summary, both doses of caffeine delivered late in exercise improved TT performance over the PL trial and the moderate dose (CAF2) improved performance to a greater extent than the low dose (CAF1). PMID:27426699

  17. The effect of dietary energy source during mid to late lactation on liver triglyceride and lactation performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Añon, M; Bertics, S J; Grummer, R R

    1997-10-01

    Control [1.61 Mcal of net energy for lactation (NEL)/kg of dry matter (DM)], high grain (1.70 Mcal of NEL)/kg of DM), or high fat [1.70 Mcal of NEL/kg of DM with 2.3% tallow (DM basis)] diets were fed to 43 cows (150 +/- 3.1 d in milk) during mid to late lactation to determine effects on performance characteristics, metabolic parameters, or both during mid to late lactation, the dry period, and the first 100 d of the next lactation. All cows received identical diets during the dry period and during early lactation. Increasing the energy density of the diets during mid to late lactation increased DM intake (DMI), plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentration, milk production, and milk protein yield. Compared with the high grain diets, fat supplementation decreased DMI and the percentage of milk protein but increased plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentration without causing elevation of liver triglyceride at the end of mid to late lactation. Increased energy density of the diets did not affect body condition score during mid to late lactation. There were no residual effects for any of the treatments on DMI, lactation performance, or body weight in the subsequent lactation. However, energy supplementation during mid to late lactation increased liver triglyceride content after calving. Compared with high fat diets, high grain diets fed during mid to late lactation increased plasma beta-hydroxy-butyrate concentration in the subsequent lactation. High energy diets fed during mid to late lactation may influence lipid metabolism during the following lactation. PMID:9361222

  18. Is growth reduction in defoliated trees a consequence of prioritized carbon allocation to reserves?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoch, Guenter; Schmid, Sandra; Palacio, Sara

    2015-04-01

    Tissue concentrations of carbon reserve compounds are frequently used as proxies for the carbon balance of trees, but the mechanisms regulating the formation of carbon reserves are still under debate. It is often assumed that carbon storage in trees is largely a consequence of surplus carbon supply (reserve accumulation). In contrast, carbon storage might also occur against prevailing carbon demand from other sink activities, like growth (reserve formation), in which case carbon reserve pools might increase even at carbon limitation, and thus, cannot be used as indicators for a tree's carbon supply status. Such a situation might be severe defoliation by herbivores. Especially in evergreen tree species, it has been shown that natural and experimental defoliation leads to a reduction of growth that is proportional to the lost leaf area. Compared to this strong effect on growth, carbon reserve pools (i.e. sugars, starch and storage lipids) of defoliated trees often exert only a temporary decrease immediately after defoliation, while tissue concentrations of carbon reserves return to those of undefoliated trees by the end of the growing season. Within a recent experiment, we investigated, if the growth decline in trees following early season defoliation is the consequence of prioritized carbon allocation to carbon reserves over growth. To test this hypothesis we grew seedlings of evergreen Quecus ilex and deciduous Quercus petraea trees under low (140 ppm), medium (280 ppm) and high (560 ppm) CO2 concentrations and completely defoliated half of the seedlings in each CO2 treatment at the beginning of the growing season. In undefoliated control trees, CO2 had a significant positive effect on the seasonal growth in both species. Defoliation had a strong negative impact on growth in the evergreen Q. illex, but less in the deciduous Q. petraea. In both species, the growth reduction after defoliation relative to undefoliated controls was very similar at all three CO2

  19. Defoliation by pastoralists affects savanna tree seedling dynamics by limiting the facilitative role of canopy cover.

    PubMed

    Bufford, Jennifer L; Gaoue, Orou G

    2015-07-01

    Recurrent tree defoliation by pastoralists, akin to herbivory, can negatively affect plant reproduction and population dynamics. However, our understanding of the indirect role of defoliation in seedling recruitment and tree-grass dynamics in tropical savanna is limited. In West African savanna, Fulani pastoralists frequently defoliate several fodder tree species to feed livestock in the dry season. We investigated the direct and indirect effects of recurrent defoliation of African mahogany (Khaya senegalensis) by Fulani people on seedling (< 2 cm basal diameter) and sapling dynamics in West Africa using four years of demographic data on seedling and sapling density, growth, and survival, coupled with fruit production and microhabitat data over the same time period. Tree canopy cover facilitated seedlings but had negative effects on sapling growth possibly via intraspecific competition with adult plants. Interspecific competition with grasses strongly reduced seedling survival but had a weak effect on sapling growth. Fire reduced seedling survival and weakly reduced growth of seedlings and saplings, but did not affect sapling survival. These results indicate that the effect of fire on seedlings and saplings is distinct, a mechanism suitable for an episodic recruitment of seedlings into the sapling stage and consistent with predictions from the demographic bottleneck model. Defoliation affected seedling density and sapling growth through changes in canopy cover, but had no effect on seedling growth and sapling survival. In the moist region, sapling density was higher in sites with low-intensity defoliation, indicating that defoliation may strengthen the tree recruitment bottleneck. Our study suggests that large-scale defoliation can alter the facilitative role of nurse trees on seedling dynamics and tree-sapling competition. Given that tree defoliation by local people is a widespread activity throughout savanna-forest systems in West Africa, it has the potential to

  20. Supplementation strategy during late gestation alters steer progeny health in the feedlot without affecting cow performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Implementation of minimal supplemental strategies during late gestation has been reported to potentially increase post-weaning progeny health in the feedlot. Therefore, to investigate the effects of nutritional management strategies during late gestation on cow and subsequent steer progeny performa...

  1. Dissipation of the defoliant tribufos in cotton-producing soils.

    PubMed

    Potter, Thomas L; Reddy, Krishna N; Millhollen, Eddie P; Bednarz, Craig W; Bosch, David D; Truman, Clint C; Strickland, Timothy

    2002-06-19

    Soil dissipation of the cotton defoliant tribufos was measured in laboratory incubations and on 0.2-ha research plots. Computed 50% dissipation time (DT(50)) using nonlinear and linear kinetic models ranged from 1 to 19 days. Data indicated that exchangeable soil aluminum inhibited tribufos-degrading soil organisms. Nevertheless, measured DT(50) values were 40 to 700 times less than the aerobic soil half-life (t(1/2)) values used in recent tribufos risk assessments. DT(50) values suggest that risk estimates were overstated. However, edge-of-field runoff concentrations measured on research plots exceeded invertebrate LOECs, thus some aquatic risk is indicated. Field data also suggested that volatilization may be a significant soil dissipation pathway. From this result, we conclude that volatilization should be included in simulation models used for pesticide registration. This will likely improve the accuracy of model outputs for products such as tribufos. Potential volatilization losses indicate a need to evaluate the atmospheric behavior of tribufos. PMID:12059162

  2. Improvement of cold resistance and performance of broilers by acute cold exposure during late embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shinder, D; Ruzal, M; Giloh, M; Druyan, S; Piestun, Y; Yahav, S

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to fine-tune previous acute cold exposure treatments of broiler embryos during late embryogenesis to improve lifelong cold resistance and performance. Six hundred Cobb hatching eggs were incubated under standard conditions and then exposed to 3 treatments: control; cold treatment in which embryos were exposed to 15°C for 30 min on d 18 and 19 of incubation (30 × 2); and cold treatment similar to 30 × 2 but with 60-min exposures (60 × 2). Egg shell temperature (T(egg)) and heart rate (HR) were monitored pre- and posttreatment. Upon hatching, hatchability, body weight, and body temperature were recorded. From 14 to 35 d of age, three quarters of the chickens in each treatment were raised under ascites-inducing conditions (AIC) and the remaining birds were raised under standard brooding conditions (SBC). The T(egg) and HR decreased significantly in response to increased exposure time on d 18 of incubation. On d 19 of incubation, before the second cold exposure, the 30 × 2 group showed greater T(egg) and HR than the controls, and during the second exposure they maintained these parameters better than the 60 × 2 embryos. No treatment effect on hatchability was observed. At 35 d of age ascites incidence among 30 × 2 chickens under AIC was significantly less than that among the controls (P < 0.01), and body weight of these chickens under either SBC or AIC was significantly higher than that of the controls. Under SBC relative breast muscle weight was significantly higher in 60 × 2 chickens, whereas the relative heart weight was higher in both cold-treated groups than in the controls. It can be concluded that repeated short acute cold exposures during late embryogenesis significantly reduced ascites incidence and improved growth rate under either SBC or AIC. These results may be related to a prenatal epigenetic adaptation of the thermoregulatory and cardiovascular systems to low ambient temperature. PMID:21325235

  3. Canopy Defoliation has More Impact on Carbohydrate Availability than on Hydraulic Function in Declining Scots Pine Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poyatos, R.; Aguadé, D.; Gómez, M.; Mencuccini, M.; Martínez-Vilalta, J.

    2013-12-01

    Drought-induced defoliation has recently been associated with depletion of carbohydrate reserves and increased mortality risk in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at its dry limit. Are defoliated pines hydraulically impaired compared to non-defoliated pines? Moreover, how do defoliated pines cope with potentially lethal droughts, as compared to non-defoliated pines in the same population? In order to address these questions, we measured the seasonal dynamics of sap flow and needle water potentials (2010-2012), hydraulic function and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) (2012) in healthy and defoliated pines in the Prades mountains (NE Spain). The summer drought was mild in 2010, intense in 2012 and extremely long in 2011. Defoliated Scots pines showed higher sap flow per unit leaf area during spring, but they were more sensitive to summer drought (Figure 1). This pattern was associated with a steeper decline in soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance, which could not be explained by differences in branch vulnerability to embolism across defoliation classes. Accordingly, the native loss of xylem conductivity in branches, measured in 2012, remained similar across defoliation classes and reached >65% at the peak of the drought. However, a steeper vulnerability curve was observed for root xylem of defoliated pines. Xylem diameter variations (2011-2012) will be used to further investigate possible differences in the aboveground/belowground partitioning of hydraulic resistance across defoliation classes. NSC levels varied across tree organs (leaves>branches>roots>trunk) and strongly declined with drought. Defoliated pines displayed reduced NSC levels throughout the study period, despite enhanced water transport capacity and increased gas exchange rates during spring. Overall, the defoliated vs. healthy status seems to be more associated to differences in carbohydrate storage and dynamics than to hydraulic differences per se. However, starch conversion to soluble sugars during

  4. Limited Growth Recovery after Drought-Induced Forest Dieback in Very Defoliated Trees of Two Pine Species.

    PubMed

    Guada, Guillermo; Camarero, J Julio; Sánchez-Salguero, Raúl; Cerrillo, Rafael M Navarro

    2016-01-01

    Mediterranean pine forests display high resilience after extreme climatic events such as severe droughts. However, recent dry spells causing growth decline and triggering forest dieback challenge the capacity of some forests to recover following major disturbances. To describe how resilient the responses of forests to drought can be, we quantified growth dynamics in plantations of two pine species (Scots pine, black pine) located in south-eastern Spain and showing drought-triggered dieback. Radial growth was characterized at inter- (tree-ring width) and intra-annual (xylogenesis) scales in three defoliation levels. It was assumed that the higher defoliation the more negative the impact of drought on tree growth. Tree-ring width chronologies were built and xylogenesis was characterized 3 years after the last severe drought occurred. Annual growth data and the number of tracheids produced in different stages of xylem formation were related to climate data at several time scales. Drought negatively impacted growth of the most defoliated trees in both pine species. In Scots pine, xylem formation started earlier in the non-defoliated than in the most defoliated trees. Defoliated trees presented the shortest duration of the radial-enlargement phase in both species. On average the most defoliated trees formed 60% of the number of mature tracheids formed by the non-defoliated trees in both species. Since radial enlargement is the xylogenesis phase most tightly related to final growth, this explains why the most defoliated trees grew the least due to their altered xylogenesis phases. Our findings indicate a very limited resilience capacity of drought-defoliated Scots and black pines. Moreover, droughts produce legacy effects on xylogenesis of highly defoliated trees which could not recover previous growth rates and are thus more prone to die. PMID:27066053

  5. Limited Growth Recovery after Drought-Induced Forest Dieback in Very Defoliated Trees of Two Pine Species

    PubMed Central

    Guada, Guillermo; Camarero, J. Julio; Sánchez-Salguero, Raúl; Cerrillo, Rafael M. Navarro

    2016-01-01

    Mediterranean pine forests display high resilience after extreme climatic events such as severe droughts. However, recent dry spells causing growth decline and triggering forest dieback challenge the capacity of some forests to recover following major disturbances. To describe how resilient the responses of forests to drought can be, we quantified growth dynamics in plantations of two pine species (Scots pine, black pine) located in south-eastern Spain and showing drought-triggered dieback. Radial growth was characterized at inter- (tree-ring width) and intra-annual (xylogenesis) scales in three defoliation levels. It was assumed that the higher defoliation the more negative the impact of drought on tree growth. Tree-ring width chronologies were built and xylogenesis was characterized 3 years after the last severe drought occurred. Annual growth data and the number of tracheids produced in different stages of xylem formation were related to climate data at several time scales. Drought negatively impacted growth of the most defoliated trees in both pine species. In Scots pine, xylem formation started earlier in the non-defoliated than in the most defoliated trees. Defoliated trees presented the shortest duration of the radial-enlargement phase in both species. On average the most defoliated trees formed 60% of the number of mature tracheids formed by the non-defoliated trees in both species. Since radial enlargement is the xylogenesis phase most tightly related to final growth, this explains why the most defoliated trees grew the least due to their altered xylogenesis phases. Our findings indicate a very limited resilience capacity of drought-defoliated Scots and black pines. Moreover, droughts produce legacy effects on xylogenesis of highly defoliated trees which could not recover previous growth rates and are thus more prone to die. PMID:27066053

  6. Interactive effects of water supply and defoliation on photosynthesis, plant water status and growth of Eucalyptus globulus Labill.

    PubMed

    Quentin, A G; O'Grady, A P; Beadle, C L; Mohammed, C; Pinkard, E A

    2012-08-01

    Increased climatic variability, including extended periods of drought stress, may compromise on the health of forest ecosystems. The effects of defoliating pests on plantations may also impact on forest productivity. Interactions between climate signals and pest activity are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the combined effects of reduced water availability and defoliation on maximum photosynthetic rate (A(sat)), stomatal conductance (g(s)), plant water status and growth of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. Field-grown plants were subjected to two water-availability regimes, rain-fed (W-) and irrigated (W+). In the summer of the second year of growth, leaves from 75% of crown length removed from trees in both watering treatments and physiological responses within the canopies were examined. We hypothesized that defoliation would result in improved plant water status providing a mechanistic insight into leaf- and canopy-scale gas-exchange responses. Defoliated trees in the W+ treatment exhibited higher A(sat) and g(s) compared with non-defoliated trees, but these responses were not observed in the W- treatment. In contrast, at the whole-plant scale, maximum rates of transpiration (E(max)) and canopy conductance (G(Cmax)) and soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance (K(P)) increased in both treatments following defoliation. As a result, plant water status was unaffected by defoliation and trees in the defoliated treatments exhibited homeostasis in this respect. Whole-plant soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance was strongly correlated with leaf scale g(s) and A(sat) following the defoliation, providing a mechanistic insight into compensatory up-regulation of photosynthesis. Above-ground height and diameter growth were unaffected by defoliation in both water availability treatments, suggesting that plants use a range of responses to compensate for the impacts of defoliation. PMID:22874831

  7. Hybridization of an invasive shrub affects tolerance and resistance to defoliation by a biological control agent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Wyatt I.; Friedman, Jonathan M.; Gaskin, John F.; Norton, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Evolution has contributed to the successful invasion of exotic plant species in their introduced ranges, but how evolution affects particular control strategies is still under evaluation. For instance, classical biological control, a common strategy involving the utilization of highly specific natural enemies to control exotic pests, may be negatively affected by host hybridization because of shifts in plant traits, such as root allocation or chemical constituents. We investigated introgression between two parent species of the invasive shrub tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) in the western United States, and how differences in plant traits affect interactions with a biological control agent. Introgression varied strongly with latitude of origin and was highly correlated with plant performance. Increased levels of T. ramosissima introgression resulted in both higher investment in roots and tolerance to defoliation and less resistance to insect attack. Because tamarisk hybridization occurs predictably on the western U.S. landscape, managers may be able to exploit this information to maximize control efforts. Genetic differentiation in plant traits in this system underpins the importance of plant hybridization and may explain why some biological control releases are more successful than others.

  8. Hybridization of an invasive shrub affects tolerance and resistance to defoliation by a biological control agent

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Wyatt I; Friedman, Jonathan M; Gaskin, John F; Norton, Andrew P

    2014-01-01

    Evolution has contributed to the successful invasion of exotic plant species in their introduced ranges, but how evolution affects particular control strategies is still under evaluation. For instance, classical biological control, a common strategy involving the utilization of highly specific natural enemies to control exotic pests, may be negatively affected by host hybridization because of shifts in plant traits, such as root allocation or chemical constituents. We investigated introgression between two parent species of the invasive shrub tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) in the western United States, and how differences in plant traits affect interactions with a biological control agent. Introgression varied strongly with latitude of origin and was highly correlated with plant performance. Increased levels of T. ramosissima introgression resulted in both higher investment in roots and tolerance to defoliation and less resistance to insect attack. Because tamarisk hybridization occurs predictably on the western U.S. landscape, managers may be able to exploit this information to maximize control efforts. Genetic differentiation in plant traits in this system underpins the importance of plant hybridization and may explain why some biological control releases are more successful than others. PMID:24665340

  9. Effects of defoliation and shading on the physiological cost of reproduction in silky locoweed Oxytropis sericea

    PubMed Central

    Ida, Takashi Y.; Harder, Lawrence D.; Kudo, Gaku

    2012-01-01

    Background The production of flowers, fruits and seeds demands considerable energy and nutrients, which can limit the allocation of these resources to other plant functions and, thereby, influence survival and future reproduction. The magnitude of the physiological costs of reproduction depends on both the factors limiting seed production (pollen, ovules or resources) and the capacity of plants to compensate for high resource demand. Methods To assess the magnitude and consequences of reproductive costs, we used shading and defoliation to reduce photosynthate production by fully pollinated plants of a perennial legume, Oxytropis sericea (Fabaceae), and examined the resulting impact on photosynthate allocation, and nectar, fruit and seed production. Key Results Although these leaf manipulations reduced photosynthesis and nectar production, they did not alter photosynthate allocation, as revealed by 13C tracing, or fruit or seed production. That photosynthate allocation to reproductive organs increased >190 % and taproot mass declined by 29 % between flowering and fruiting indicates that reproduction was physiologically costly. Conclusions The insensitivity of fruit and seed production to leaf manipulation is consistent with either compensatory mobilization of stored resources or ovule limitation. Seed production differed considerably between the two years of the study in association with contrasting precipitation prior to flowering, perhaps reflecting contrasting limits on reproductive performance. PMID:22021817

  10. Identification of potato breeding clones that confer high levels of late blight resistance to their progeny

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 1996, potato seedling minitubers derived from greenhouse crosses have been grown out under heavy late blight pressure in Toluca, Mexico. A total of 2500 individuals were planted each year along with cv. Alpha as a susceptible control. Percent defoliation readings were taken on a weekly basis u...

  11. Late-gestation heat stress abatement on performance and behavior of Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Karimi, M T; Ghorbani, G R; Kargar, S; Drackley, J K

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate cooling to lessen the effects of heat stress during the last 3 wk of gestation on performance and behavior of multiparous Holstein cows. Twenty nonlactating cows were randomly assigned to treatments approximately 21 d before their expected calving date based on mature equivalent milk production and parity. Treatments were only imposed during the last 3 wk of gestation and included heat stress (HT; n=10) and cooling (CL; n=10), both under a similar photoperiod (14 h of light and 10 h of dark). Dry cows were housed in a sand-bedded stall with the stall areas for CL cows equipped with sprinklers and fans that were on from 0700 to 1900 h, whereas those for the HT cows were not. After parturition, all cows were housed in a barn with cooling devices. Rectal temperatures were measured daily at 1400 h and respiration rates were recorded by counting the flank movements for 1 min at 1500 h on odd days over the last 3 wk of gestation to calving. Daily dry matter intake was measured from -21 d relative to expected calving to 21 d after calving and milk production was recorded daily up to 180 d in milk. Behavioral changes of dry cows were studied continuously for 24 h at -10 d relative to expected calving. The average temperature-humidity index during the last 3 wk of gestation was 69.7 and was not significantly different between treatments. Heat-stressed cows exhibited greater rectal temperatures (39.5 vs. 39.2°C), greater respiration rates (70.4 vs. 63.3 breaths/min), and decreased dry matter intake (13.7 vs. 15.5 kg/d) compared with CL cows. Compared with HT cows, CL cows produced more milk during 180 d in milk (40.5 vs. 44.6 kg/d). Heat stress decreased ruminating (243.2 vs. 282.5 min/d) and chewing times (390.6 vs. 448.7 min/d) at -10 d before calving. The CL cows had shorter standing times than their HT counterparts (390.4 vs. 474.0 min/d). These results confirm that heat stress abatement in the late gestation period improves

  12. The tolerance of grain amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L.) to defoliation during vegetative growth is compromised during flowering.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Ortiz, Erandi; Délano-Frier, John Paul; Tiessen, Axel

    2015-06-01

    The biochemical processes underlying variations of tolerance are often accompanied by source-sink transitions affecting carbon (C) metabolism. We investigated the tolerance of Amaranthus cruentus L. to total mechanical defoliation through development and in different growing seasons. Defoliated A. cruentus recovered ∼80% of their above-ground biomass and ∼100% of grain yield compared to intact plants if defoliation occurred early during ontogeny, but could not compensate when defoliation occurred during flowering. Tolerance index was higher in the summer season (-0.3) than in the winter season (-0.7). Overall, defoliation tolerance was closely related to phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) activity in leaves and the subsequent accumulation of starch (∼500 μmol/gDW) and sucrose (∼140 μmol/gDW) in stems and roots. Thus, A. cruentus accumulated sufficient C in roots and stem to allow branching and shoot re-growth after defoliation, but it only possessed sufficient C reserves to maintain <19% seed yield in the absence of new vegetative tissue. Seed size was larger during the warm season but it was not affected by foliar damage. Seed chemical composition was altered by defoliation at flowering. We conclude that A. cruentus defoliation tolerance depends on both, the re-allocation of starch from stem and roots, and the activation of dormant meristems before flowering to generate new photosynthetic capacity to sustain seed filling. PMID:25863889

  13. Consequences of Repeated Defoliation on Belowground Bud Banks of Carex brevicuspis (Cyperaceae) in the Dongting Lake Wetlands, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin-Sheng; Deng, Zheng-Miao; Xie, Yong-Hong; Li, Feng; Hou, Zhi-Yong; Wu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Despite the predominant role of bud banks in the regeneration of clonal macrophyte populations, few studies have examined the way in which clonal macrophytes adjust the demographic features of bud banks to regulate population dynamics in response to defoliation in wetlands. We investigated the density and composition of bud banks under repeated defoliation in the wetland sedge Carex brevicuspis C. B. Clarke in the Dongting Lake wetlands, China. The density and biomass of rhizome buds and shoots did not decrease significantly in response to repeated defoliation over two consecutive years. The composition of bud banks, which consisted of long and short rhizome buds, also did not change significantly in response to repeated defoliation. Nevertheless, the ramet height and the shoot, root, and rhizome mass of C. brevicuspis declined significantly under repeated defoliation. Our findings suggest that bud banks are a conservative reproductive strategy that enables C. brevicuspis to tolerate a certain amount of defoliation. The maintenance of large bud banks after repeated defoliation may enable C. brevicuspis populations to regenerate and persist in disturbed habitats. However, bud bank density of C. brevicuspis might decline in the long term because the amount of carbon stored in rhizome buds and plants is reduced by frequent defoliation. PMID:27524993

  14. Multiple-level defoliation assessment with hyperspectral data: integration of continuum-removed absorptions and red edges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hyperspectral data were collected from 40 canopies of saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima), 10 healthy canopies and 30 canopies defoliated by an introduced biological control agent, the saltcedar leaf beetle (Diorhabda elongata). These data were assessed to detect categories of defoliation in response to...

  15. Consequences of Repeated Defoliation on Belowground Bud Banks of Carex brevicuspis (Cyperaceae) in the Dongting Lake Wetlands, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xin-Sheng; Deng, Zheng-Miao; Xie, Yong-Hong; Li, Feng; Hou, Zhi-Yong; Wu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Despite the predominant role of bud banks in the regeneration of clonal macrophyte populations, few studies have examined the way in which clonal macrophytes adjust the demographic features of bud banks to regulate population dynamics in response to defoliation in wetlands. We investigated the density and composition of bud banks under repeated defoliation in the wetland sedge Carex brevicuspis C. B. Clarke in the Dongting Lake wetlands, China. The density and biomass of rhizome buds and shoots did not decrease significantly in response to repeated defoliation over two consecutive years. The composition of bud banks, which consisted of long and short rhizome buds, also did not change significantly in response to repeated defoliation. Nevertheless, the ramet height and the shoot, root, and rhizome mass of C. brevicuspis declined significantly under repeated defoliation. Our findings suggest that bud banks are a conservative reproductive strategy that enables C. brevicuspis to tolerate a certain amount of defoliation. The maintenance of large bud banks after repeated defoliation may enable C. brevicuspis populations to regenerate and persist in disturbed habitats. However, bud bank density of C. brevicuspis might decline in the long term because the amount of carbon stored in rhizome buds and plants is reduced by frequent defoliation. PMID:27524993

  16. Effect of defoliation prior to a frost on postharvest respiration rate, extractable sucrose, and invert sugar concentration of sugarbeet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the effect of defoliation prior to a frost on postharvest storage properties of sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.). Roots of plants with canopies intact until harvest were compared to roots of plants that had been defoliated prior to a frost on multiple harvest dates following a da...

  17. Effects of high fiber intake during late pregnancy on sow physiology, colostrum production, and piglet performance.

    PubMed

    Loisel, F; Farmer, C; Ramaekers, P; Quesnel, H

    2013-11-01

    Dietary fiber given during pregnancy may influence sow endocrinology and increase piglet BW gain during early lactation. The aim of the current study was to determine whether dietary fiber given to sows during late pregnancy induces endocrine changes that could modulate sow colostrum production and, thus, piglet performance. From d 106 of pregnancy until parturition, 29 Landrace×Large White nulliparous sows were fed gestation diets containing 23.4 [high fiber (HF); n=15] or 13.3% total dietary fiber [low fiber (LF); n=14]. In the HF diet, wheat and barley were partly replaced by soybean hulls, wheat bran, sunflower meal (undecorticated), and sugar beet pulp. After parturition, sows were fed a standard lactation diet. Colostrum production was estimated during 24 h, starting at the onset of parturition (T0) and ending at 24 h after parturition (T24) based on piglet weight gains. Jugular blood samples were collected from sows on d 101 of pregnancy, daily from d 111 of gestation to d 3 of lactation, and then on d 7 and 21 of lactation (d 0 being the day of parturition). Postprandial kinetics of plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were determined on d 112 of pregnancy. The feeding treatment did not influence sow colostrum yield (3.9±0.2 kg) or piglet weight gain during the first day postpartum to d 21 of lactation. Colostrum intake of low birth weight piglets (<900 g) was greater in litters from HF sows than from LF sows (216±24 vs. 137±22 g; P=0.02). Preweaning mortality was lower in HF than LF litters (6.2 vs. 14.7%; P=0.01). Circulating concentrations of progesterone, prolactin, estradiol-17β, and cortisol were not influenced by the treatment. Sows fed the HF diet had greater postprandial insulin concentrations than LF sows (P=0.02) whereas the postprandial glucose peak was similar. At T24, colostrum produced by HF sows contained 29% more lipid than colostrum produced by LF sows (P=0.04). Immunoglobulin A concentrations in colostrum were lower at T0 and T

  18. Tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) water fluxes before, during and after episodic defoliation by the saltcedar leaf beetle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hultine, K.R.; Nagler, P.L.; Dennison, P.E.; Bush, S.E.; Ehleringer, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Tamarisk (Tamarix) species are among the most successful and economically costly plant invaders in the western United States, in part due to its potential to remove large amounts of water from shallow aquifers. Accordingly, local, state and federal agencies have released a new biological control - the saltcedar leaf beetle (Diorhabda elongata) along many watersheds in the western United States to reduce the spread of tamarisk. The beetle defoliates tamarisk for much of the growing season resulting in potentially large seasonal declines in productivity, fitness, and water loss from tamarisk stands. We measured sap flux density (Js) using heat dissipation sensors to investigate water use patterns of tamarisk before, during and after a single, six week beetle-induced defoliation event in southeastern, Utah, USA. Granier-style probes were installed on 20 dominant trees from May through September 2008, a period that covers almost the entire growing season. As the beetle emerged from dormancy in mid-June, daytime and nighttime Js measurably increased for approximately two weeks before declining to less than 20% of predicted values (predicted by modeling Js with atmospheric vapor pressure deficit in May and June before defoliation). Tamarisk trees in mid-August produced new leaves and Js returned to pre-defoliation levels. Total Js, summed over the duration of the study was 13% lower than predicted values. These data suggest that defoliation results in only small changes in seasonal water loss from tamarisk stands. Current research is focusing on long-term ecohydrological impacts of tamarisk defoliation over multiple growing seasons.

  19. Growth Regulator Changes in Cotton Associated with Defoliation Caused by Verticillium albo-atrum.

    PubMed

    Wiese, M V; Devay, J E

    1970-03-01

    Cotton plants, variety Acala 4-42 family 77 (Gossypium hirsutum L.,), were stem puncture-inoculated with either a defoliating isolate (T9) or a nondefoliating isolate (SS4) of Verticillium albo-atrum (Reinke and Berth.). As symptoms developed, growth regulators were assayed in diseased plants to discern their importance in the disease syndrome.An Avena coleoptile straight growth bioassay demonstrated the presence of several growth-regulatory compounds in cotton tissue extracts. Indoleacetic acid was among the compounds whose effects on coleoptile growth were influenced by disease development. Coleoptile growth due to indoleacetic acid was greater in extracts of diseased stems and leaves than in extracts of comparable healthy tissues. During the defoliation period the T9 and SS4 isolates appeared equally effective in increasing indoleacetic acid and reducing indoleacetic acid decarboxylation. Preceding defoliation, however, in plants showing equivalent symptoms the degradation of auxin was reduced more by infection with T9, the defoliating isolate. The reduced auxin degradation appeared to be releated to concomitant increases in caffeic acid and other indoleacetic acid-oxidase inhibitors in the affected tissues.Abscisic acid in tissue extracts strongly inhibited coleoptile growth. During the defoliation period gas-liquid chromatographic and ultraviolet absorption measurements revealed that abscisic acid levels were approximately doubled in T9-infected leaves but were relatively unaffected in leaves infected with the nondefoliating isolate and in stems infected with either isolate.The onset of epinasty and especially defoliation was also accompanied by increased ethylene production in diseased plants. Ethylene in gas samples taken from jars confining plants infected with SS4 or T9, respectively, was increased 2- and 5-fold over uninoculated controls. Ethylene supplied exogenously to healthy plants in concentrations as low as 0.2 microliter per liter induced both the

  20. Growth Regulator Changes in Cotton Associated with Defoliation Caused by Verticillium albo-atrum1

    PubMed Central

    Wiese, M. V.; Devay, J. E.

    1970-01-01

    Cotton plants, variety Acala 4-42 family 77 (Gossypium hirsutum L.,), were stem puncture-inoculated with either a defoliating isolate (T9) or a nondefoliating isolate (SS4) of Verticillium albo-atrum (Reinke and Berth.). As symptoms developed, growth regulators were assayed in diseased plants to discern their importance in the disease syndrome. An Avena coleoptile straight growth bioassay demonstrated the presence of several growth-regulatory compounds in cotton tissue extracts. Indoleacetic acid was among the compounds whose effects on coleoptile growth were influenced by disease development. Coleoptile growth due to indoleacetic acid was greater in extracts of diseased stems and leaves than in extracts of comparable healthy tissues. During the defoliation period the T9 and SS4 isolates appeared equally effective in increasing indoleacetic acid and reducing indoleacetic acid decarboxylation. Preceding defoliation, however, in plants showing equivalent symptoms the degradation of auxin was reduced more by infection with T9, the defoliating isolate. The reduced auxin degradation appeared to be releated to concomitant increases in caffeic acid and other indoleacetic acid-oxidase inhibitors in the affected tissues. Abscisic acid in tissue extracts strongly inhibited coleoptile growth. During the defoliation period gas-liquid chromatographic and ultraviolet absorption measurements revealed that abscisic acid levels were approximately doubled in T9-infected leaves but were relatively unaffected in leaves infected with the nondefoliating isolate and in stems infected with either isolate. The onset of epinasty and especially defoliation was also accompanied by increased ethylene production in diseased plants. Ethylene in gas samples taken from jars confining plants infected with SS4 or T9, respectively, was increased 2- and 5-fold over uninoculated controls. Ethylene supplied exogenously to healthy plants in concentrations as low as 0.2 microliter per liter induced both

  1. The effects of defoliation on carbon allocation: can carbon limitation reduce growth in favour of storage?

    PubMed

    Wiley, Erin; Huepenbecker, Sarah; Casper, Brenda B; Helliker, Brent R

    2013-11-01

    There is no consensus about how stresses such as low water availability and temperature limit tree growth. Sink limitation to growth and survival is often inferred if a given stress does not cause non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations or levels to decline along with growth. However, trees may actively maintain or increase NSC levels under moderate carbon stress, making the pattern of reduced growth and increased NSCs compatible with carbon limitation. To test this possibility, we used full and half defoliation to impose severe and moderate carbon limitation on 2-year-old Quercus velutina Lam. saplings grown in a common garden. Saplings were harvested at either 3 weeks or 4 months after treatments were applied, representing short- and longer-term effects on woody growth and NSC levels. Both defoliation treatments maintained a lower total leaf area than controls throughout the experiment with no evidence of photosynthetic up-regulation, and resulted in a similar total biomass reduction. While fully defoliated saplings had lower starch levels than controls in the short term, half defoliated saplings maintained control starch levels in both the short and longer term. In the longer term, fully defoliated saplings had the greatest starch concentration increment, allowing them to recover to near-control starch levels. Furthermore, between the two harvest dates, fully and half defoliated saplings allocated a greater proportion of new biomass to starch than did controls. The maintenance of control starch levels in half defoliated saplings indicates that these trees actively store a substantial amount of carbon before growth is carbon saturated. In addition, the allocation shift favouring storage in defoliated saplings is consistent with the hypothesis that, as an adaptation to increasing carbon stress, trees can prioritize carbon reserve formation at the expense of growth. Our results suggest that as carbon limitation increases, reduced growth is not necessarily

  2. Effects of supplementation during late gestation on goat performance and behavior under rangeland conditions.

    PubMed

    Luna-Orozco, J R; Meza-Herrera, C A; Contreras-Villarreal, V; Hernández-Macías, N; Angel-Garcia, O; Carrillo, E; Mellado, M; Véliz-Deras, F G

    2015-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of peripartum feed supplementation on doe and kid BW and BCS, milk yield and composition, serum metabolites, and maternal-neonatal behavior under rangeland conditions in northern Mexico. Adult does ( = 23) were randomly assigned to 3 nutritional plane groups: 1) goats supplemented (500 g of concentrate [18% CP/kg DM, 2.7 Mcal/kg DM, and 2% salt]) from 15 d prepartum to 7 d postpartum (G15; = 8), 2) the same supplementation as G15 but from 35 d before until 7 d after kidding (G35; = 8), and 3) nonsupplemented does (GC; = 7). Supplemented goats differed from GC goats in BW (48 ± 1.8, 46.1 ± 2.5, and 44.9 ± 2.3 kg; < 0.05), milk yield (1.8 ± 0.1, 1.9 ± 0.2, and 1.2 ± 0.1 kg at d 15 postpartum; < 0.01), kid birth weights (3.8 ± 0.2, 3.6 ± 0.2, and 3.4 ± 0.2 kg; < 0.05), and kid BW at 15 d after birth (6.9 ± 0.2, 6.6 ± 0.2, and 5.6 ± 0.2 kg; < 0.05) for the G35, G15, and GC, respectively. Serum concentrations for total protein, glucose, and cholesterol were not affected ( > 0.05) by treatments. Milk of GC goats showed increased ( < 0.05) percentages for fat, protein, lactose, and nonfat milk solids, whereas total quantities of these variables where higher ( < 0.05) in the G15 and G35 groups. Furthermore, GC dams spent more time seeking their offspring and emitted more low-pitched bleats 4 h postpartum ( < 0.05) in a 2-choice test compared with the G15 and G35 groups. In general, peripartum supplementation promoted a closer dam-kid relationship at 8 h postpartum. Goat performance may be improved in this semiarid region of Mexico with marginal production through supplementation in late gestation. PMID:26440195

  3. A Study of Specialty Clones’ Yield Performance in Early and Late Harvests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: A study was conducted on specialty potato breeding lines to examine yield components in an early and late harvest. Upon first examination it was apparent that the early water cutoff had a large effect on total yield. In the early trial only one clone achieved 600 cwt/A of total...

  4. SURVEYING THERMALLY-DEFOLIATED COTTON PLOTS WITH COLOR-INFRARED AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers can use heated air (thermal defoliation) as a nonchemical alternative for terminating cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) growth and for preparing it for harvest, making this technique ideal for cotton grown in sustainable systems. For large cotton fields, growers need assistance in examining ...

  5. Interaction of Insect Defoliation, Wildfires and Climate Change on Carbon Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hom, J.; van Tuyl, S.; Scheller, R.; Pan, Y.; Clark, K.; Cole, J.; Foster, J.; Patterson, M.; Gallagher, M.

    2009-05-01

    We assess and predict the interactive effects of gypsy moth defoliation, fire management, and climate change on carbon uptake, forest productivity, species composition, and tree mortality in the New Jersey Pine Barrens. This effort will combine carbon flux measurements, a forest landscape disturbance model, and field monitoring data. We will determine how interactions among these disturbances affect current management and potential carbon management goals. The LANDIS-II forest landscape simulation model in this study uses three model extensions or modules: the Dynamic Fire System (DFS) extension, the Biomass Succession extension, and an insect defoliation extension. Parameterization of the DFS and the Biomass Succession extension uses new and existing data sources for the study area. This includes flux tower data from three upland forest types, for annual net ecosystem exchange of carbon taken before and after defoliation as well as during prescribed burns. An intensified grid of FIA-type plots around each tower (up to 24 plots per tower) provides additional biometric information. The study conducted a field mortality survey and canopy foliar analysis to understand the process of forest decline with insect defoliation. This project provides a predictive framework for working through landscape to regional management scenarios in areas with multiple, interacting management priorities that can be applied across the US, especially in areas where both insect and fire disturbances occur.

  6. The Use of Internal Nitrogen Stores in the Rhizomatous Grass Calamagrostis epigejos During Regrowth After Defoliation

    PubMed Central

    KAVANOVÁ, MONIKA; GLOSER, VÍT

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims The regrowth dynamics after defoliation of the invasive grass Calamagrostis epigejos were studied. As nitrogen (N) reserves have been shown to play an important role during plant regrowth, the identity, location and relative importance for regrowth of N stores were determined in this rhizomatous grass. • Methods Plant growth, nitrate uptake and root respiration were followed during recovery from defoliation. Water soluble carbohydrates, nitrate, free amino acids and soluble proteins were analysed in the remaining organs. • Key Results Nitrate uptake and root respiration were severely reduced during the first days of regrowth. Roots were the main net source of mobilized N. The quantitatively dominant N storage compounds were free amino acids. Free amino acids and soluble proteins in the roots decreased by 55 and 50 %, respectively, and a substantial (∼38 %) decrease in stubble protein was also observed. Although the relative abundance of several soluble proteins in roots decreased during the initial recovery from defoliation, no evidence was found for vegetative storage protein (VSP). Furthermore, rhizomes did not act as a N storage compartment. • Conclusions Production of new leaf area was entirely reliant, during the first week after defoliation, on N stores present in the plant. Mobilized N originated mainly from free amino acids and soluble proteins located in roots, and less so from proteins in stubble. Presence of VSP in the roots was not confirmed. The data suggest that rhizomes played an important role in N transport but not in N storage. PMID:15598700

  7. Remote sensing for assessing cotton defoliation, regrowth control and root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton defoliation and post-harvest destruction are important cultural practices for cotton production. Cotton root rot is a serious and destructive disease that affects cotton yield and lint quality. This paper presents exemplary applications of remote sensing technology for evaluating cotton def...

  8. EFFECT OF DEFOLIATION AND ROOT-FEEDING ON MAMEY SAPOTE YIELD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mamey sapote, Pouteria sapota (Sapotaceae), is a valuable fruit crop that grows well in Puerto Rico. Unfortunately it is a preferred host of Phyllophaga vandinei (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). The adults of this beetle can defoliate trees and the larvae feed on the roots, in some cases resulting in the...

  9. Defoliation Management of Bahiagrass Germplasm Affects Dry Matter Yeild and Herbage Nutritive Value

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flügge) cultivars are daylength-sensitive and have minimal cool-season production. A new genotype is less daylength sensitive and more cold tolerant, but its dry matter (DM) yield and nutritive value responses to defoliation treatments are unknown. A 3-yr field experimen...

  10. Detection of tamarisk defoliation by the northern tamarisk beetle based on multitemporal Landsat 5 thematic mapper imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meng, Ran; Dennison, Philip E.; Jamison, Levi R.; van Riper, Charles, III; Nager, Pamela; Hultine, Kevin R.; Bean, Dan W.; Dudley, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The spread of tamarisk (Tamarix spp., also known as saltcedar) is a significant ecological disturbance in western North America and has long been targeted for control, leading to the importation of the northern tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) as a biological control agent. Following its initial release along the Colorado River near Moab, Utah in 2004, the beetle has successfully established and defoliated tamarisk across much of the upper Colorado River Basin. However, the spatial distribution and seasonal timing of defoliation are complex and difficult to quantify over large areas. To address this challenge, we tested and compared two remote sensing approaches to mapping tamarisk defoliation: Disturbance Index (DI) and a decision tree method called Random Forest (RF). Based on multitemporal Landsat 5 TM imagery for 2006-2010, changes in DI and defoliation probability from RF were calculated to detect tamarisk defoliation along the banks of Green, Colorado, Dolores and San Juan rivers within the Colorado Plateau area. Defoliation mapping accuracy was assessed based on field surveys partitioned into 10 km sections of river and on regions of interest created for continuous riparian vegetation. The DI method detected 3711 ha of defoliated area in 2007, 7350 ha in 2008, 10,457 ha in 2009 and 5898 ha in 2010. The RF method detected much smaller areas of defoliation but proved to have higher accuracy, as demonstrated by accuracy assessment and sensitivity analysis, with 784 ha in 2007, 960 ha in 2008, 934 ha in 2009, and 1008 ha in 2010. Results indicate that remote sensing approaches are likely to be useful for studying spatiotemporal patterns of tamarisk defoliation as the tamarisk leaf beetle spreads throughout the western United States.

  11. The impact of late, non-balanced bilingualism on cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Vega-Mendoza, Mariana; West, Holly; Sorace, Antonella; Bak, Thomas H

    2015-04-01

    We present a study examining cognitive functions in late non-balanced bilinguals with different levels of second language proficiency. We examined in two experiments a total of 193 mono- and bilingual university students. We assessed different aspects of attention (sustained, selective and attentional switching), verbal fluency (letter and category) as well as picture-word association as a measure of language proficiency. In Experiment 2 we also compared students in their first/initial (Y1) and fourth/final (Y4) year of either language or literature studies. There were no differences between both groups in category fluency. In selective attention, bilinguals outperformed monolinguals in Y1 and this difference remained significant in Y4 despite overall improvement in both groups. Contrasting results were found in attentional switching and letter fluency: while no differences were found in Y1 in both tasks, in Y4 there was an advantage for bilinguals in attentional switching and for monolinguals in letter fluency. We conclude that overall late-acquisition non-balanced bilinguals experience similar cognitive effects as their early-acquisition balanced counterparts. However, different cognitive effects may appear at different stages of adult second language acquisition. PMID:25596355

  12. Cognitive function, functional performance and severity of depression in Chinese older persons with late-onset depression.

    PubMed

    Tam, C W C; Lam, L C W

    2012-03-01

    OBJECTIVES. The relationship between cognitive status and depressive symptoms and their liability to cause functional decline are of clinical and public health importance as it appears to be common, frequently coexists, and may be treatable. This study examined the relationship of depression severity and cognitive performance and the impact of such an interaction on functional ability in Chinese elderly subjects with late-onset depression. METHODS. A total of 105 non-demented elderly patients with late-onset depression were recruited. Impairment in instrumental activities of daily living and severity of depression were respectively assessed with the Disability Assessment for Dementia scale and the 24-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Various cognitive domains were assessed including global cognitive function, delayed episodic memory, and executive functions. The relationship between specific cognitive impairment and mood symptom severity was assessed. The clinical correlates of functional performance were also examined. RESULTS. Increasingly severe depression was associated with lower scores in the Mini-Mental State Examination, delayed recall, and poorer performance in the Trail Making Test-Part A (after adjusting for the effect of age and education). The severity of apathy correlated negatively with the Mini-Mental State Examination scores only. Among the depressed subjects, greater levels of depression and apathy, poorer performance in Trail Making Test-Part B, and mild parkinsonian signs were associated with lower functional scores. CONCLUSIONS. Lack of interest and motivation, depressive mood, compounded by behavioural abnormalities resulting from executive dysfunction, accounted for functional disability in elderly subjects with late-onset depression. These relationships may provide the background for developing interventions targeting functional deficits associated with specific cognitive dysfunctions and depression. PMID:22447800

  13. Interannual variation in leaf expansion and outbreak of a teak defoliator at a teak stand in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Katsunori; Tantasirin, Chatchai; Suzuki, Masakazu

    2011-07-01

    The leaf area index (LAI) is a key factor affecting tree growth in forests. Following the outbreak of a defoliator, the LAI declines, serving as a useful indicator in forest management. In this study, daily radiative transmittance from above the canopy, which decreases exponentially with increasing LAI, was measured in a teak plantation (Tectona grandis L. f.) in northern Thailand from March through July in 2001-2008. Volumetric soil moisture was also measured at depths of 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 m. The negative logarithmic value of the ratio of daily downward solar radiation on the forest floor to that above the canopy (NLR; -ln[Sb decrease/Sdecrease]), was calculated as an indicator of leaf flush and subsequent leaf expansion. The NLR data indicated that leaf expansion began in late March and continued to the beginning of May during all eight years (with the day the leaves began to expand defined as D(B)). In addition, the peak in NLR values (NLR(P)), corresponding to the lowest value of a 99% confidence interval, occurred in July. The day when NLR first reached NLR(P) was defined as D(P), which always occurred in June, 31-85 days after D(B). The NLR indicated an increase in the population of Hyblaea puera (a teak defoliator) that was associated with greatly decreased leaf areas during two growth periods (D(B)-D(P)): the earliest D(B)-D(P) in 2001 and the second-earliest D(B)-D(P) in 2008. In almost all cases, soil moisture data indicated that leaf expansion occurred after increases in soil moisture at depths of 0.1-0.4 m even without increases at 0.6 m; in contrast, increases in shallow soil moisture (0.1-0.2 m) were insufficient to trigger leaf expansion at the stand level. Periods of soil drought at 0.1-0.4-m soil depths inhibited leaf expansion, resulting in prolongation of the interval between D(B) and D(P) during those years in which the D(B)'s occurred chronologically close to one another. Moreover, when drought did not limit leaf expansion, the D

  14. Is it useful to perform a chest X-ray in asymptomatic patients with late latent syphilis?

    PubMed

    Dabis, R; Radcliffe, K

    2011-02-01

    According to the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) guidelines, a chest X-ray is recommended as part of the assessment of patients with late latent syphilis to exclude cardiovascular complications. The aims of this study were firstly to audit all cases of late latent syphilis seen at our centre since 1994 and to see whether a chest X-ray was requested and secondly to assess whether performing a chest X-ray was clinically useful. Of the 456 case notes audited, 298 chest X-rays were requested; 182 (61%) were reported as normal. Results were not available for 64 (21%) and 32 (11%) patients either declined or did not attend for follow-up. There were 20 (7%) chest X-rays that were reported as abnormal, yet none of these radiological findings were consistent with the cardiovascular complications of syphilis. In view of the lack of significant chest X-ray findings in asymptomatic patients with late latent syphilis, a chest X-ray should not be requested. PMID:21427433

  15. Effects of selected defoliants in combination with insecticides on sweetpotato whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and its parasitoids in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of two defoliants, Def (S, S, Stributylphosphorotrithioate) and Dropp (thidiazuron) alone and in combination with two commonly used insecticides, a pyrethroid, Karate (lambda-cyhalothrin) and an organophosphate, Guthion (azinphosmethyl) on sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius Bioty...

  16. Effect of increased daylight during late pregnancy on the reproductive performance of mares after parturition.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, M; Tischner, M

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of prolonged photoperiod during late pregnancy on subsequent ovarian activity and fertility in mares. Pregnant mares (n=13) due to give birth in January and February were stimulated by a fixed photoperiod (16 h light: 8 h dark) from 15 November (during the last 2-3 months of gestation) until up to 1 month after parturition. A control group of mares (n=9) due to give birth at the same time were kept in the same stable and management regimen, but under natural light conditions. Light-treated mares ovulated during foal oestrus approximately 3 days earlier than did the control mares (P < 0.05). The incidence of winter ovarian inactivity in foaling mares was 7.6% in the treatment group and 33% in the control mares. The processes of involution and uterine fluid expulsion were similar in both groups. The final pregnancy rate was high in both the experimental and control groups, being 92 and 89%, respectively. However, the duration of the open period (period from parturition to next pregnancy) was significantly shorter in the mares that received the light treatment compared with the untreated control mares. PMID:20681183

  17. Better Late than Never? The Relation of Registration Date to Class Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Gary G.; Stahl, Kandy J.; Walker, Michael E.; Ford, Angela M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether students who register for classes earlier perform better. Student registration date and time was recorded for five undergraduate psychology classes from the beginning of pre-registration through the last day to add a course--88 data collection points. The major dependent variable was students' course performance.…

  18. Personality traits measured at baseline can predict academic performance in upper secondary school three years late.

    PubMed

    Rosander, Pia; Bäckström, Martin

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the ability of personality to predict academic performance in a longitudinal study of a Swedish upper secondary school sample. Academic performance was assessed throughout a three-year period via final grades from the compulsory school and upper secondary school. The Big Five personality factors (Costa & McCrae, ) - particularly Conscientiousness and Neuroticism - were found to predict overall academic performance, after controlling for general intelligence. Results suggest that Conscientiousness, as measured at the age of 16, can explain change in academic performance at the age of 19. The effect of Neuroticism on Conscientiousness indicates that, as regarding getting good grades, it is better to be a bit neurotic than to be stable. The study extends previous work by assessing the relationship between the Big Five and academic performance over a three-year period. The results offer educators avenues for improving educational achievement. PMID:25257093

  19. Feast and famine: previous defoliation limiting survival of pine processionary caterpillar Thaumetopoea pityocampa in Scots pine Pinus sylvestris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hódar, José A.; Zamora, Regino; Castro, Jorge; Baraza, Elena

    2004-12-01

    This study analyses the consequences of previous defoliation on the survival of the larvae of the pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Denis and Schiffermüller) feeding on relict Scots pine Pinus sylvestris (L.) ssp. nevadensis Christ in the Sierra Nevada mountains (SE Spain). Egg batches of the pine processionary moth were placed on four groups of Scots pines that underwent different periods of herbivory. The larval survival was related to the nitrogen content, fibre, phenolics and terpenes in the needles. Larval survival was higher in undefoliated pines, lower in pines defoliated two consecutive years, and intermediate in pines defoliated only one year, suggesting a direct relationship between previous defoliation and larval survival. In contrast, none of the characteristics of the needles showed a clear relationship with larval survival. The resulting reduction in larval number also affects the capacity of the larvae to develop during winter, because it hampered nest warming. Thus, previous defoliation limits, although it does not impede, the possibility of repeated defoliation on Scots pine.

  20. Gibberellin stimulates regrowth after defoliation of sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis) by regulating expression of fructan-related genes.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yueyue; Shao, Linhui; Li, Xiuqing; Liu, Gongshe; Chen, Shuangyan

    2016-09-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) affect forage growth and development; however, it is largely unknown how GAs regulate the metabolism of fructan (an important polysaccharide reserve in many cereals) and the regrowth of forage plants after defoliation. To explore the mechanism of the responses of defoliated sheepgrass [Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel] to GA, we sprayed defoliated sheepgrass with GA3 and/or paclobutrazol (PAC; an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis) and analyzed the growth characteristics, carbohydrate contents, and transcript levels of genes related to GA metabolism, GA signal transduction, and fructan metabolism. The results showed that spraying exogenous GA3 onto defoliated sheepgrass promoted leaf and internode elongation, while spraying with PAC inhibited leaf and internode elongation, compared with the control. Spraying GA3 onto defoliated sheepgrass also altered the fructan content by extending the period of fructan utilization. At the transcriptional level, exogenous GA3 increased the transcript levels of genes related to GA metabolism in the sheath. Taken together, our results suggest that exogenous GA3 stimulates the regrowth of defoliated sheepgrass regrowth by regulating GA and fructan-related genes, and by promoting endogenous GA synthesis, fructan metabolism, and signaling. PMID:27216422

  1. Exudation of alcohol and aldehyde sugars from roots of defoliated Lolium perenne L. grown under sterile conditions.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Stephen J; Read, Derek B; Murray, Philip J; Gregory, Peter J

    2008-11-01

    Root exudates were collected over a 27 day period from defoliated and non-defoliated Lolium perenne L. plants grown under sterile conditions in microlysimeters. Eleven individual sugars, including both aldehyde and alcohol sugars, were identified and quantified with a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). There was no change in the number of sugars present between 7 and 27 days, but the exudation of alcohol sugars decreased rapidly at about day 12. Xylose and glucose were present in the largest amounts. Defoliation initially increased the total amount of sugars in the exudates, but continuous defoliation reduced total sugar exudation by 16% and induced changes in the exudation patterns of individual sugars. Defoliation enhanced exudation of erythritol, threitol, and xylitol, reduced exudation of glucose and arabitol, but had little effect on the amounts of other sugars exuded. The more complex 6 C, 5 OH aldehyde sugars, especially glucose, showed changes earlier and to a greater extent (17 days), than the 5 C, 4 OH (xylose and ribose) and 6 C 4 OH (fucose) aldehyde groups. These findings confirm the general finding that repeated defoliation reduces the quantity of total sugars exuded, but the pattern of release of individual sugars is complex and variable. PMID:18815840

  2. [Effects of Litchi chinensis Defoliation on Growth and Photosynthesis of Microcystis aeruginosa].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-xiong; Jiang, Chen-chun; Li, Jin-weiz; Wang, Xiao-ju

    2015-05-01

    The growth and physiology of bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa were determined by the pulse amplitude modulated fluorimetry when exposed to different concentrations of Litchi chinensis defoliation extract for 15 d. The growth, maximal efficiency (Fv/Fm), effective quantum yield (YII) of PSII photochemistry, photosynthesis efficiency (α) , maximum electron transport rate (rETRmax) and light saturation coefficient (Ik) were used to evaluate the growth and photosynthesis in M. aeruginosa. It was found that the extract of L. chinensis defoliation stored for 5 days significantly inhibited the growth of M. aeruginosa in a concentration-dependent way. After a long time of exposure, stimulation effect disappeared gradually. Fv/Fm fluorescence parameters, YII and alpha changed from negative correlation to positive correlation or kept positive correlation with the extract of L. chinensis defoliation, which might affect the photosynthesis of M. aeruginosa at early time or help the cyanobacterium to survive in the stress environment by improving the efficiency of light energy. Ik, rETRmax and the content of algal chlorophyll-a changed from negative to significant negative correlation with the extract. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectra showed that the peak intensities of tryptophan and tyrosine fluorescence were only about one third in 2.0 g · L(-1) extract treatment when compared to the 1.2 g · L(-1) extract treatment on day 15. At the same time, the peak intensity of humic acid fluorescence was weaker than that on day 1. Further study showed that the EC50 of algal growth was smaller than that of the traditional crops straw, which might achieve good effect to control the growth of algae with lower concentration of L. chinensis defoliation extract due to its strong allelopathy. PMID:26314111

  3. Cotton defoliant runoff as a function of active ingredient and tillage.

    PubMed

    Potter, Thomas L; Truman, Clint C; Bosch, David D; Bednarz, Craig W

    2003-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) defoliant runoff was recently identified as an ecological risk. However, assessments are not supported by field studies. Runoff potential of three defoliant active ingredients, dimethipin (2,3-dihydro-5,6-dimethyl-1,4-dithiin 1,1,4,4-tetraoxide), thidiazuron (N-phenyl-N-1,2,3-thidiazol-5-yl-urea), and tribufos (S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate) was investigated by rainfall simulation on strip (ST) and conventionally tilled (CT) cotton in south central Georgia. Simulated rainfall timing relative to defoliant application (1 h after) represented an extreme worst-case scenario; however, weather records indicate that it was not unrealistic for the region. Thidiazuron and tribufos losses were 12 to 15% of applied. Only 2 to 5% of the more water soluble dimethipin was lost. Although ST erosion rates were less, loss of tribufos, a strongly sorbing compound, was not affected. Higher sediment-water partition coefficients (kd) were measured in ST samples. This likely explains why no tillage related differences in loss rates were observed, but it is unknown whether this result can be generalized. The study was conducted in the first year following establishment of tillage treatments at the study site. As soil conditions stabilize, ST impacts may change. Data provide an estimate of the maximum amount of the defoliants that will run off during a single postapplication storm event. Use of these values in place of the default value in runoff simulation models used in pesticide risk assessments will likely improve risk estimate accuracy and enhance evaluation of comparative risk among these active ingredients. PMID:14674540

  4. Effect of defoliant (butiphose) on morpho-physiological properties and enzyme systems of natural membranes.

    PubMed

    Mirakhmedov, A K; Ochilov, K R; Sagatova, G A; Khan, M Z; Khole, V

    1989-03-01

    Butiphose (Tributyltritiophosphate, (C4H9S)3PO) a commonly used defoliant in cotton growing regions of USSR, caused extensive alterations in morphological features of erythrocyte and nuclear membranes and affected the permeability properties of rat liver mitochondrial membrane. It disrupted Ca2+ transport system and other energy dependent processes in mitochondria. A reduction in the activity of cytochrome-c-oxidase and NAD.H-oxidase was also observed. PMID:2606532

  5. The Phytotoxin Coronatine Induces Abscission-Related Gene Expression and Boll Ripening during Defoliation of Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xiaoli; Duan, Liusheng; Zhang, Mingcai; Tan, Weiming; Xu, Dongyong; Li, Zhaohu

    2014-01-01

    Defoliants can increase machine harvest efficiency of cotton (Gossypium hirusutum L.), prevent lodging and reduce the time from defoliation to harvest. Coronatine (COR) is a chlorosis-inducing non-host-specific phytotoxin that induces leaf and/or fruit abscission in some crops. The present study investigates how COR might induce cotton leaf abscission by modulating genes involved in cell wall hydrolases and ACC (ethylene precursor) in various cotton tissues. The effects of COR on cotton boll ripening, seedcotton yield, and seed development were also studied. After 14 d of treatment with COR, cells within the leaf abscission zone (AZ) showed marked differentiation. Elevated transcripts of GhCEL1, GhPG and GhACS were observed in the AZs treated with COR and Thidiazuron (TDZ). The relative expression of GhCEL1 and GhACS in TDZ treated plants was approximately twice that in plants treated with COR for 12 h. However, only GhACS expression increased in leaf blade and petiole. There was a continuous increase in the activity of hydrolytic enzymes such as cellulase (CEL) and polygalacturonase (PG), and ACC accumulation in AZs following COR and TDZ treatments, but there was greater increase in ACC activity of COR treated boll crust, indicating that COR had greater ripening effect than TDZ. Coronatine significantly enhanced boll opening without affecting boll weight, lint percentage and seed quality. Therefore, COR can be a potential cotton defoliant with different physiological mechanism of action from the currently used TDZ. PMID:24845465

  6. The phytotoxin coronatine induces abscission-related gene expression and boll ripening during defoliation of cotton.

    PubMed

    Du, Mingwei; Li, Yi; Tian, Xiaoli; Duan, Liusheng; Zhang, Mingcai; Tan, Weiming; Xu, Dongyong; Li, Zhaohu

    2014-01-01

    Defoliants can increase machine harvest efficiency of cotton (Gossypium hirusutum L.), prevent lodging and reduce the time from defoliation to harvest. Coronatine (COR) is a chlorosis-inducing non-host-specific phytotoxin that induces leaf and/or fruit abscission in some crops. The present study investigates how COR might induce cotton leaf abscission by modulating genes involved in cell wall hydrolases and ACC (ethylene precursor) in various cotton tissues. The effects of COR on cotton boll ripening, seedcotton yield, and seed development were also studied. After 14 d of treatment with COR, cells within the leaf abscission zone (AZ) showed marked differentiation. Elevated transcripts of GhCEL1, GhPG and GhACS were observed in the AZs treated with COR and Thidiazuron (TDZ). The relative expression of GhCEL1 and GhACS in TDZ treated plants was approximately twice that in plants treated with COR for 12 h. However, only GhACS expression increased in leaf blade and petiole. There was a continuous increase in the activity of hydrolytic enzymes such as cellulase (CEL) and polygalacturonase (PG), and ACC accumulation in AZs following COR and TDZ treatments, but there was greater increase in ACC activity of COR treated boll crust, indicating that COR had greater ripening effect than TDZ. Coronatine significantly enhanced boll opening without affecting boll weight, lint percentage and seed quality. Therefore, COR can be a potential cotton defoliant with different physiological mechanism of action from the currently used TDZ. PMID:24845465

  7. Activation of sucrose transport in defoliated Lolium perenne L.: an example of apoplastic phloem loading plasticity.

    PubMed

    Berthier, Alexandre; Desclos, Marie; Amiard, Véronique; Morvan-Bertrand, Annette; Demmig-Adams, Barbara; Adams, William W; Turgeon, Robert; Prud'homme, Marie-Pascale; Noiraud-Romy, Nathalie

    2009-07-01

    The pathway of carbon phloem loading was examined in leaf tissues of the forage grass Lolium perenne. The effect of defoliation (leaf blade removal) on sucrose transport capacity was assessed in leaf sheaths as the major carbon source for regrowth. The pathway of carbon transport was assessed via a combination of electron microscopy, plasmolysis experiments and plasma membrane vesicles (PMVs) purified by aqueous two-phase partitioning from the microsomal fraction. Results support an apoplastic phloem loading mechanism. Imposition of an artificial proton-motive force to PMVs from leaf sheaths energized an active, transient and saturable uptake of sucrose (Suc). The affinity of Suc carriers for Suc was 580 microM in leaf sheaths of undefoliated plants. Defoliation induced a decrease of K(m) followed by an increase of V(max). A transporter was isolated from stubble (including leaf sheaths) cDNA libraries and functionally expressed in yeast. The level of L.perenne SUcrose Transporter 1 (LpSUT1) expression increased in leaf sheaths in response to defoliation. Taken together, the results indicate that Suc transport capacity increased in leaf sheaths of L. perenne in response to leaf blade removal. This increase might imply de novo synthesis of Suc transporters, including LpSUT1, and may represent one of the mechanisms contributing to rapid refoliation. PMID:19520670

  8. Effects of intermittent ractopamine hydocloride use on pig growth performance in late finishing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding, withdrawal, and refeeding 10 ppm ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) on pig performance. In Exp. 1, the 4 treatments consisted of 1) a control diet fed for 56 d before marketing; 2) RAC fed for the first 21 d, and then the control diet ...

  9. Potential of VIIRS Data for Regional Monitoring of Gypsy Moth Defoliation: Implications for Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spruce, J. P.; Ryan, R. E.; Smoot, J. C.; Prados, D. L.; McKellip, R. D.; Sader, S. A.; Gasser, G.; May, G.; Hargrove, W.

    2007-12-01

    A NASA RPC (Rapid Prototyping Capability) experiment was conducted to assess the potential of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) data for monitoring non-native gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) defoliation of forests. This experiment compares defoliation detection products computed from simulated VIIRS and from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) time series products as potential inputs to a forest threat EWS (Early Warning System) being developed for the USFS (USDA Forest Service). Gypsy moth causes extensive defoliation of broadleaved forests in the United States and is specifically identified in the Healthy Forest Restoration Act (HFRA) of 2003. The HFRA mandates development of a national forest threat EWS. This system is being built by the USFS, and NASA is aiding integration of needed satellite data products into this system, including MODIS products. This RPC experiment enabled the MODIS follow-on, VIIRS, to be evaluated as a data source for EWS forest monitoring products. The experiment included 1) assessment of MODIS-simulated VIIRS NDVI products, and 2) evaluation of gypsy moth defoliation mapping products from MODIS-simulated VIIRS and from MODIS NDVI time series data. This experiment employed MODIS data collected over the approx. 15 million acre mid-Appalachian Highlands during the annual peak defoliation time frame (June 10 through July 27) during 2000-2006. NASA Stennis Application Research Toolbox software was used to produce MODIS-simulated VIIRS data and NASA Stennis Time Series Product Tool software was employed to process MODIS and MODIS-simulated VIIRS time series data scaled to planetary reflectance. MODIS-simulated VIIRS data was assessed through comparison to Hyperion-simulated VIIRS data using data collected during gypsy moth defoliation. Hyperion- simulated MODIS data showed a high correlation with actual MODIS data. MODIS-simulated VIIRS data for the same date showed moderately high correlation with Hyperion

  10. Effect of dietary supplementation with glycitein during late pregnancy and lactation on antioxidative indices and performance of primiparous sows.

    PubMed

    Hu, Y J; Gao, K G; Zheng, C T; Wu, Z J; Yang, X F; Wang, L; Ma, X Y; Zhou, A G; Jiang, Z J

    2015-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with glycitein, a major soy isoflavone, during late pregnancy (starting on d 85) and lactation on antioxidative indices and performance in primiparous sows. A total of 227 gilts (Yorkshire × Landrace) were used, and after parturition, piglets were cross-fostered within treatment so that each sow suckled 10 piglets. Gilts were randomly divided into 4 groups on d 85 of pregnancy and thereafter fed the basal diets of gestation or lactation (controls) or those supplemented with 15, 30, or 45 mg/kg diet glycitein. Reproductive performance of the sows, growth of litters, concentration of plasma glycitein, milk composition, and antioxidative indices in sows' plasma and milk, such as the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), were measured. Supplementation of the dam's diets with glycitein increased ADG of piglets (linear, P = 0.003) and weaned BW of litters (linear, P = 0.01) and both variables were approximately 10% greater than controls with the 45 mg/kg treatment. The percentage of milk protein was linearly (P < 0.05) increased on d 1 and 7 of lactation, and milk fat content increased on d 7 and 14 (linear, P< 0.05). All other measured indices of performance were unaffected by supplementation with glycitein (P > 0.05). The glycitein concentration in sow's plasma was linearly (P < 0.0001) elevated. During lactation, linear increases occurred in plasma activities of SOD (P < 0.001) and T-AOC (P < 0.05 to P< 0.001), CAT (d 7 to 18 of lactation, P < 0.05) and GSH-Px (d 7 of lactation, P < 0.05), whereas the content of plasma MDA decreased (linear, P < 0.05) throughout lactation with glycitein supplementation. Activities of CAT and T-AOC in milk were not affected by maternal supplementation with glycitein, but increases in SOD on d 18 of lactation (P

  11. The role of defoliation and root rot pathogen infection in driving the mode of drought-related physiological decline in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    PubMed

    Aguadé, D; Poyatos, R; Gómez, M; Oliva, J; Martínez-Vilalta, J

    2015-03-01

    Drought-related tree die-off episodes have been observed in all vegetated continents. Despite much research effort, however, the multiple interactions between carbon starvation, hydraulic failure and biotic agents in driving tree mortality under field conditions are still not well understood. We analysed the seasonal variability of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) in four organs (leaves, branches, trunk and roots), the vulnerability to embolism in roots and branches, native embolism (percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity (PLC)) in branches and the presence of root rot pathogens in defoliated and non-defoliated individuals in a declining Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) population in the NE Iberian Peninsula in 2012, which included a particularly dry and warm summer. No differences were observed between defoliated and non-defoliated pines in hydraulic parameters, except for a higher vulnerability to embolism at pressures below -2 MPa in roots of defoliated pines. No differences were found between defoliation classes in branch PLC. Total NSC (TNSC, soluble sugars plus starch) values decreased during drought, particularly in leaves. Defoliation reduced TNSC levels across tree organs, especially just before (June) and during (August) drought. Root rot infection by the fungal pathogen Onnia P. Karst spp. was detected but it did not appear to be associated to tree defoliation. However, Onnia infection was associated with reduced leaf-specific hydraulic conductivity and sapwood depth, and thus contributed to hydraulic impairment, especially in defoliated pines. Infection was also associated with virtually depleted root starch reserves during and after drought in defoliated pines. Moreover, defoliated and infected trees tended to show lower basal area increment. Overall, our results show the intertwined nature of physiological mechanisms leading to drought-induced mortality and the inherent difficulty of isolating their contribution under field conditions. PMID

  12. Oscillation Phase Locking and Late ERP Components of Intracranial Hippocampal Recordings Correlate to Patient Performance in a Working Memory Task

    PubMed Central

    Kleen, Jonathan K.; Testorf, Markus E.; Roberts, David W.; Scott, Rod C.; Jobst, Barbara J.; Holmes, Gregory L.; Lenck-Santini, Pierre-Pascal

    2016-01-01

    In working memory tasks, stimulus presentation induces a resetting of intracranial temporal lobe oscillations in multiple frequency bands. To further understand the functional relevance of this phenomenon, we investigated whether working memory performance depends on the phase precision of ongoing oscillations in the hippocampus. We recorded intra-hippocampal local field potentials in individuals performing a working memory task. Two types of trials were administered. For high memory trials presentation of a list of four letters (“List”) was followed by a single letter memory probe (“Test”). Low memory load trials, consisting of four identical letters (AAAA) followed by a probe with the same letter (A), were interspersed. Significant phase locking of ongoing oscillations across trials, estimated by the Pairwise Phase Consistency Index (PPCI) was observed in delta (0.5–4 Hz), theta (5–7 Hz), and alpha (8–12 Hz) bands during stimulus presentation and recall but was increased in low memory load trials. Across patients however, higher delta PPCIs during recall in the left hippocampus were associated with faster reaction times. Because phase locking could also be interpreted as a consequence of a stimulus evoked potential, we performed event related potential analysis (ERP) and examined the relationship of ERP components with performance. We found that both amplitude and latency of late ERP components correlated with both reaction time and accuracy. We propose that, in the Sternberg task, phase locking of oscillations, or alternatively its ERP correlate, synchronizes networks within the hippocampus and connected structures that are involved in working memory. PMID:27378885

  13. Effects of amino acids and energy intake during late gestation of high-performing gilts and sows on litter and reproductive performance under commercial conditions.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, M A D; Gourley, K M; Dritz, S S; Tokach, M D; Bello, N M; DeRouchey, J M; Woodworth, J C; Goodband, R D

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of AA and energy intake during late gestation on piglet birth weight and reproductive performance of high-performing (14.5 total born) gilts and sows housed under commercial conditions. At d 90 of gestation, a total of 1,102 females (PIC 1050) were housed in pens by parity group (gilts or sows) with approximately 63 gilts and 80 sows in each pen, blocked by BW within each pen, and each female was randomly assigned to dietary treatments within BW block. Dietary treatments consisted of combinations of 2 standardized ileal digestible (SID) AA intakes (10.7 or 20.0 g/d SID Lys and other AA met or exceeded the NRC [2012] recommendations) and 2 energy intakes (4.50 or 6.75 Mcal/d intake of NE) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Data were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models specified to recognize pen as the experimental unit for parity and the individual female as the experimental unit for dietary treatments. Results indicate an overall positive effect of high energy intake on BW gain during late gestation, although this effect was more manifest under conditions of high, as opposed to low, AA intake (interaction, < 0.001). Furthermore, the magnitude of BW gain response to increased energy intake was greater ( < 0.001) for sows compared with gilts. Sows fed high energy intake had a reduced probability of piglets born alive ( < 0.004) compared with those fed low energy, but no evidence for differences was found in gilts. This can be explained by an increased probability ( = 0.002) of stillborns in sows fed high energy intake vs. sows fed low energy intake. There were no evidences for differences among dietary treatments in litter birth weight and individual piglet birth weight of total piglets born. However, individual born alive birth weight was approximately 30 ± 8.2 g heavier ( = 0.011) for females fed high, as opposed to low, energy intake. Furthermore, piglets born alive were approximately 97 ± 9.5 g

  14. Elevated CO2, not defoliation, enhances N cycling and increases short-term soil N immobilization regardless of N addition in a semiarid grassland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated CO2 and defoliation effects on nitrogen (N) cycling in rangeland soils remain poorly understood. Here we tested whether effects of elevated CO2 and defoliation (clipping to 2.5 cm height) on N cycling depended on soil N availability (addition of 1 vs. 11 g N/m2) in intact mesocosms extracte...

  15. Long-term shifts in the cyclicity of outbreaks of a forest-defoliating insect.

    PubMed

    Allstadt, Andrew J; Haynes, Kyle J; Liebhold, Andrew M; Johnson, Derek M

    2013-05-01

    Recent collapses of population cycles in several species highlight the mutable nature of population behavior as well as the potential role of human-induced environmental change in causing population dynamics to shift. We investigate changes in the cyclicity of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) outbreaks by applying wavelet analysis to an 86-year time series of forest defoliation in the northeastern United States. Gypsy moth population dynamics shifted on at least four occasions during the study period (1924-2009); strongly cyclical outbreaks were observed between ca. 1943-1965 and ca. 1978-1996, with noncyclical dynamics in the intervening years. During intervals of cyclical dynamics, harmonic oscillations at cycle lengths of 4-5 and 8-10 years co-occurred. Cross-correlation analyses indicated that the intensity of suppression efforts (area treated by insecticide application) did not significantly reduce the total area of defoliation across the region in subsequent years, and no relationship was found between insecticide use and the cyclicity of outbreaks. A gypsy moth population model incorporating empirically based trophic interactions produced shifting population dynamics similar to that observed in the defoliation data. Gypsy moth cycles were the result of a high-density limit cycle driven by a specialist pathogen. Though a generalist predator did not produce an alternative stable equilibrium, cyclical fluctuations in predator density did generate extended intervals of noncyclical behavior in the gypsy moth population. These results suggest that changes in gypsy moth population behavior are driven by trophic interactions, rather than by changes in climatic conditions frequently implicated in other systems. PMID:23073635

  16. Monitoring gypsy moth defoliation by applying change detection techniques to Landsat imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. L.; Stauffer, M. L.

    1978-01-01

    The overall objective of a research effort at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center is to develop and evaluate digital image processing techniques that will facilitate the assessment of the intensity and spatial distribution of forest insect damage in Northeastern U.S. forests using remotely sensed data from Landsats 1, 2 and C. Automated change detection techniques are presently being investigated as a method of isolating the areas of change in the forest canopy resulting from pest outbreaks. In order to follow the change detection approach, Landsat scene correction and overlay capabilities are utilized to provide multispectral/multitemporal image files of 'defoliation' and 'nondefoliation' forest stand conditions.

  17. Population dynamics of the Teak defoliator (Hyblaea puera Cramer) in Nilambur teak plantations using Randomly Amplified Gene Encoding Primers (RAGEP)

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekhar, N; Sajeev, TV; Sudheendrakumar, VV; Banerjee, Moinak

    2005-01-01

    Background The Teak defoliator (Hyblaea puera) is a pest moth of teak woodlands in India and other tropical regions (e.g. Thailand) and is of major economic significance. This pest is of major concern as it is involved in complete defoliation of trees during the early part of the growing season. Defoliation does not kill teak trees, but it results in huge amount of timber loss. Teak defoliator outbreaks are a regular annual feature in most teak plantations in India and it is extremely difficult to predict the exact time and place of occurrence of these outbreaks. Evidence from the study of the population dynamics of H. puera indicated habitual, short range movements of emerging moth populations, suggesting that these populations have spread to larger areas, generation after generation, affecting the entire teak plantations. We were therefore interested in investigating the temporal and spatial relationship among various population groups in Nilambur, Kerala (India) and address the cause of outbreak at the landscape level. Results The populations were classified into 'endemic', 'epicenter' and 'epidemic' populations based on the time of occurrence and size of infestation. We devised a novel method of screening nuclear and mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms using Randomly Amplified Gene Encoding Primers (RAGEP). We have used this method extensively to evaluate the species specificity, reproducibility and to discriminate among the three different characterised populations of teak defoliator. Conclusions This method also allowed us to comment with some certainty that the endemic teak defoliator, H. puera do not play a major role in contributing to large-scale infestations. With respect to the hypotheses put forward regarding the origin of outbreaks of the moth, this study confirms the role of migration in outbreak causation, while negating the belief that endemic populations aggregate to cause an epidemic. PMID:15689236

  18. Appraisal of Artificial Screening Techniques of Tomato to Accurately Reflect Field Performance of the Late Blight Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Nowakowska, Marzena; Nowicki, Marcin; Kłosińska, Urszula; Maciorowski, Robert; Kozik, Elżbieta U.

    2014-01-01

    Late blight (LB) caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans continues to thwart global tomato production, while only few resistant cultivars have been introduced locally. In order to gain from the released tomato germplasm with LB resistance, we compared the 5-year field performance of LB resistance in several tomato cultigens, with the results of controlled conditions testing (i.e., detached leaflet/leaf, whole plant). In case of these artificial screening techniques, the effects of plant age and inoculum concentration were additionally considered. In the field trials, LA 1033, L 3707, L 3708 displayed the highest LB resistance, and could be used for cultivar development under Polish conditions. Of the three methods using controlled conditions, the detached leaf and the whole plant tests had the highest correlation with thefield experiments. The plant age effect on LB resistance in tomato reported here, irrespective of the cultigen tested or inoculum concentration used, makes it important to standardize the test parameters when screening for resistance. Our results help show why other reports disagree on LB resistance in tomato. PMID:25279467

  19. Optimising the spatial resolution of WorldView-2 pan-sharpened imagery for predicting levels of Gonipterus scutellatus defoliation in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lottering, Romano; Mutanga, Onisimo

    2016-02-01

    Gonipterus scutellatus Gyllenhal is a leaf feeding weevil that is a major defoliator of the genus Eucalyptus. Understanding the relationship between levels of weevil induced vegetation defoliation and the optimal spatial resolution of satellite images is essential for effective management of plantation resources. The objective of this study was to identify appropriate spatial resolutions for predicting levels of weevil induced defoliation. We resampled the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Simple Ratio (SR) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) images computed from a WorldView-2 pan-sharpened image, which is characterised with a 0.5 m spatial resolution and 8 spectral bands. Within each plantation compartment 30 × 30 m plots were established, representing different levels of defoliation. From the centre of each plot, the spatial resolution of the original image was progressively resampled from 1.5 to 8.5 m, with 1 m increments. The minimal variance for each level of defoliation was then established and used as an indicator for quantitatively selecting the optimal spatial resolution. Results indicate that an appropriate spatial resolution was established at 1.25, 1.25, 1.75 and 2.25 m for low, medium, high and severe levels of defoliation, respectively. In addition, an Artificial Neural Network was run to determine the relationship between the appropriate spatial resolution and levels of Gonipterus scutellatus induced defoliation. The model yielded an R2 of 0.80, with an RMSE of 1.28 (2.45% of the mean measured defoliation) based on an independent test dataset. We then compared this model to a model developed using the original 0.5 m image spatial resolution. Our results suggest that optimising the spatial resolution of remotely sensed imagery essentially improves the prediction of vegetation defoliation. In essence, this study provides the foundation for multi-scale defoliation mapping using high spatial resolution imagery.

  20. Plant vigour at establishment and following defoliation are both associated with responses to drought in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    PubMed Central

    Hatier, Jean-Hugues B.; Faville, Marty J.; Hickey, Michael J.; Koolaard, John P.; Schmidt, Jana; Carey, Brandi-Lee; Jones, Chris S.

    2014-01-01

    Periodic drought events present a significant and, with climate change, increasing constraint on temperate forage plants’ production. Consequently, improving plants’ adaptive response to abiotic stress is a key goal to ensure agricultural productivity in these regions. In this study we developed a new methodology, using both area-based comparison and soil water content measurements of individual non-irrigated and irrigated clones, to assess performance of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) genotypes subjected to moisture stress in a simulated competitive environment. We applied this method to the evaluation of a full-sibling population from a pair cross between genotypes from a New Zealand cultivar and a Moroccan ecotype. Our hypothesis was that: (i) both leaf lamina regrowth after defoliation (LR) and plant vigour affect plant performance during drought and rehydration; and (ii) quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with plant performance under moisture stress could be identified. Differences amongst genotypes in dry matter (DM) production, early vigour at establishment, leaf elongation rate and LR were measured. LR explained most of the variation in DM production during exposure to moisture deficit and rehydration followed by plant vigour, indicated by initial DM production in both treatments and subsequent measures of DM production of irrigated clones. We identified two main QTL regions associated with DM production and LR, both during drought exposure and rehydration. Further research focused on these regions should improve our understanding of the genetic control of drought response in this forage crop and potentially other grass species with significant synteny, and support improvement in performance through molecular breeding approaches. PMID:25104762

  1. Controlling the Emotional Bias: Performance, Late Positive Potentials, and the Effect of Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS)

    PubMed Central

    Faehling, Florian; Plewnia, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive control of emotional processing is essential for adaptive human behavior. Biased attention toward emotionally salient information is critically linked with affective disorders and is discussed as a promising treatment target. Anodal (activity enhancing) transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to increase healthy and impaired cognitive control over emotional distraction and is therefore widely used for the investigation and experimental treatment of this disorder. In this study, event-related potential (ERP) were recorded parallel to tDCS to track its online effects. Healthy volunteers (n = 87) performed a delayed working memory paradigm with emotional salient and neutral distractors during stimulation with different intensities (sham, 0.5, 1, 1.5 mA). Measuring the late positive potential (LPP), an ERP that indexes attention allocation, we found that a valence-specific increase of the early portion of the LPP (eLPP, 250–500 ms) was associated with less emotional distraction in the sham group. Of note, stimulation with tDCS exerted an intensity related effect on this correlation. The later part of the LPP (lLPP, 500–1000 ms) was found to be correlated with reaction time, regardless of valence. General effect of tDCS on LPPs and task performance were not observed. These findings demonstrate that ERP recordings parallel to tDCS are feasible to investigate the neuronal underpinnings of stimulation effects on executive functions. Furthermore, they support the notion that the LPP induced by a distractive stimulus during a working memory task mirrors the additional allocation of neuronal resources with a specific sensitivity of the early LPP for highly arousing negative stimuli. Finally, together with the variable magnitude and direction of the emotional bias, the lack of systematic modulations of LPPs and behavior by tDCS further underlines the important influence of the individual brain activity patterns on stimulation effects both on

  2. Potential of VIIRS Data for Regional Monitoring of Gypsy Moth Defoliation: Implications for Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Ryan, Robert E.; Smoot, James C.; Prados, Donald; McKellip, Rodney; Sader. Steven A.; Gasser, Jerry; May, George; Hargrove, William

    2007-01-01

    A NASA RPC (Rapid Prototyping Capability) experiment was conducted to assess the potential of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) data for monitoring non-native gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) defoliation of forests. This experiment compares defoliation detection products computed from simulated VIIRS and from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) time series products as potential inputs to a forest threat EWS (Early Warning System) being developed for the USFS (USDA Forest Service). Gypsy moth causes extensive defoliation of broadleaved forests in the United States and is specifically identified in the Healthy Forest Restoration Act (HFRA) of 2003. The HFRA mandates development of a national forest threat EWS. This system is being built by the USFS and NASA is aiding integration of needed satellite data products into this system, including MODIS products. This RPC experiment enabled the MODIS follow-on, VIIRS, to be evaluated as a data source for EWS forest monitoring products. The experiment included 1) assessment of MODIS-simulated VIIRS NDVI products, and 2) evaluation of gypsy moth defoliation mapping products from MODIS-simulated VIIRS and from MODIS NDVI time series data. This experiment employed MODIS data collected over the approximately 15 million acre mid-Appalachian Highlands during the annual peak defoliation time frame (approximately June 10 through July 27) during 2000-2006. NASA Stennis Application Research Toolbox software was used to produce MODIS-simulated VIIRS data and NASA Stennis Time Series Product Tool software was employed to process MODIS and MODIS-simulated VIIRS time series data scaled to planetary reflectance. MODIS-simulated VIIRS data was assessed through comparison to Hyperion-simulated VIIRS data using data collected during gypsy moth defoliation. Hyperion-simulated MODIS data showed a high correlation with actual MODIS data (NDVI R2 of 0.877 and RMSE of 0.023). MODIS-simulated VIIRS data for the same

  3. Influence of late gestation drylot rations differing in protein degradability and fat content on beef cow and subsequent calf performance.

    PubMed

    Wilson, T B; Faulkner, D B; Shike, D W

    2015-12-01

    Spring-calving, mature cows ( = 191 total) and their progeny were used to evaluate the effects of late gestation drylot rations differing in RUP and fat content on cow performance as well as performance and carcass characteristics of subsequent progeny. Cows were blocked by BW and anticipated calving date and assigned to 16 pens. Pens were randomly allotted to 1 of 2 treatments: limit-fed corn coproducts and ground cornstalks (COP; TDN = 64.4%, CP = 11.1%, RDP = 60.2% of CP, and fat = 5.1%) or limit-fed ground mixed, cool-season grass hay (HY; TDN = 55.7%, CP = 9.5%, RDP = 86.0% of CP, and fat = 2.3%). Treatments were limit fed as isocaloric, isonitrogenous rations from 88 ± 11 d prepartum to calving. All cows were fed a common diet postpartum. Cow BW and BCS were collected at the beginning of the feeding period, within 48 h after calving, and at breeding. Calf BW was collected at birth and at 64 ± 11 and 124 ± 11 d of age. Milk production was determined using the weigh-suckle-weigh technique at 64 ± 11 and 124 ± 11 d postpartum. At 124 ± 11 d of age, steers ( = 68) and nonreplacement heifer calves ( = 25) were weaned and placed on a common feedlot diet with individual feed intake monitored using GrowSafe. Feedlot calves were slaughtered at a commercial facility 35 ± 10 d after a minimum ultrasound 12-rib fat thickness estimation of 0.9 cm. After calving, cow BW was greater ( < 0.01) and BCS was greater ( < 0.01) for cows fed COP than for cows fed HY. Calf birth BW was greater ( = 0.04) for those born to cows fed COP with no difference ( = 0.43) in percentage of unassisted births across treatment. Cows fed HY were lighter ( < 0.01) at breeding with lower BCS ( = 0.03); nevertheless, overall pregnancy rate was not different ( = 0.80). No differences ( ≥ 0.22) in milk production were detected. For feedlot progeny, initial feedlot BW, final BW, and days on feed were not different ( ≥ 0.23), and as a result, no difference ( = 0.21) in feedlot ADG was

  4. LANDSAT Digital Data Base Preparation for the Pennsylvania Defoliation Application Pilot Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcleod, R. G.; Zobrist, A. L.

    1982-01-01

    A LANDSAT digital mosaic data base for the State of Pennsylvania was prepared for use in the development of an automated system to annually estimate the extent and severity of Gypsy Moth defoliation of hardward forests. The techniques for detecting the defoliation and development of a geographic information system (GIS) to assess damage is being developed jointly by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and Pennsylvania State University using the JPL prepared mosaic base. The JPL processing involved the use of ground control points from the Master Data Processor for planimetric control, resampling of the LANDSAT data to 57 x 57 meter pixels, realignment to north, and reprojection to the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection in UTM zones 17 and 18. The completed mosaic for each UTM zone was subdivided into 1 degree of latitude by 2 degrees of longitude quadrangles for easy data handling. Consideration is given to the issues of mapping standards, sensor and spacecraft platform characteristics, and their implication to geographic information systems operation. Methods for obtaining measures of accuracy for LANDSAT mosaics are reviewed.

  5. Analysis of English language learner performance on the biology Massachusetts comprehensive assessment system: The impact of english proficiency, first language characteristics, and late-entry ELL status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Mary A.

    This study analyzed English language learner (ELL) performance on the June 2012 Biology MCAS, namely on item attributes of domain, cognitive skill, and linguistic complexity. It examined the impact of English proficiency, Latinate first language, first language orthography, and late-entry ELL status. The results indicated that English proficiency was a strong predictor of performance and that ELLs at higher levels of English proficiency overwhelmingly passed. The results further indicated that English proficiency introduced a construct-irrelevant variance on the Biology MCAS and raised validity issues for using this assessment at lower levels of English proficiency. This study also found that ELLs with a Latinate first language consistently had statistically significant lower performance. Late-entry ELL status did not predict Biology MCAS performance.

  6. Influence of defoliation date and gin-drying temperature on oven moisture and KFT water within cotton cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water measured in lint cotton by Karl Fischer Titration was compared to moisture content measured by standard oven-drying in two cultivars. The cultivars had been defoliated at different times and ginned at two possible temperatures. Ginned lint was further processed to produce mechanically cleaned,...

  7. Effects of Defoliating Insect Resistance QTLs and a crylAc Transgene in Soybean Near-Isogenic Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Additional sources of resistance would be desirable to manage defoliating insect resistance to crystal proteins coded by transgenes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and to sustain the deployment of Bt crops. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects and interactions of three soybean (G...

  8. Defoliation of interior Douglas-fir elicits carbon transfer and stress signalling to ponderosa pine neighbors through ectomycorrhizal networks.

    PubMed

    Song, Yuan Yuan; Simard, Suzanne W; Carroll, Allan; Mohn, William W; Zeng, Ren Sen

    2015-01-01

    Extensive regions of interior Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca, IDF) forests in North America are being damaged by drought and western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis). This damage is resulting from warmer and drier summers associated with climate change. To test whether defoliated IDF can directly transfer resources to ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosae) regenerating nearby, thus aiding in forest recovery, we examined photosynthetic carbon transfer and defense enzyme response. We grew pairs of ectomycorrhizal IDF 'donor' and ponderosa pine 'receiver' seedlings in pots and isolated transfer pathways by comparing 35 μm, 0.5 μm and no mesh treatments; we then stressed IDF donors either through manual defoliation or infestation by the budworm. We found that manual defoliation of IDF donors led to transfer of photosynthetic carbon to neighboring receivers through mycorrhizal networks, but not through soil or root pathways. Both manual and insect defoliation of donors led to increased activity of peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and superoxide dismutase in the ponderosa pine receivers, via a mechanism primarily dependent on the mycorrhizal network. These findings indicate that IDF can transfer resources and stress signals to interspecific neighbors, suggesting ectomycorrhizal networks can serve as agents of interspecific communication facilitating recovery and succession of forests after disturbance. PMID:25683155

  9. Defoliation of interior Douglas-fir elicits carbon transfer and stress signalling to ponderosa pine neighbors through ectomycorrhizal networks

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yuan Yuan; Simard, Suzanne W.; Carroll, Allan; Mohn, William W.; Zeng, Ren Sen

    2015-01-01

    Extensive regions of interior Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca, IDF) forests in North America are being damaged by drought and western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis). This damage is resulting from warmer and drier summers associated with climate change. To test whether defoliated IDF can directly transfer resources to ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosae) regenerating nearby, thus aiding in forest recovery, we examined photosynthetic carbon transfer and defense enzyme response. We grew pairs of ectomycorrhizal IDF ‘donor’ and ponderosa pine ‘receiver’ seedlings in pots and isolated transfer pathways by comparing 35 μm, 0.5 μm and no mesh treatments; we then stressed IDF donors either through manual defoliation or infestation by the budworm. We found that manual defoliation of IDF donors led to transfer of photosynthetic carbon to neighboring receivers through mycorrhizal networks, but not through soil or root pathways. Both manual and insect defoliation of donors led to increased activity of peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and superoxide dismutase in the ponderosa pine receivers, via a mechanism primarily dependent on the mycorrhizal network. These findings indicate that IDF can transfer resources and stress signals to interspecific neighbors, suggesting ectomycorrhizal networks can serve as agents of interspecific communication facilitating recovery and succession of forests after disturbance. PMID:25683155

  10. Forest defoliators and climatic change: Potential changes in spatial distribution of outbreaks of western spruce budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.W.; Liebhold, A.M.

    1995-02-01

    Changes in geographical ranges and spatial extent of outbreaks of pest species are likely consequences of climatic change. We investigated potential changes in spatial distribution of outbreaks of western spruce budworm, Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman, and gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), in Oregon and Pennsylvania, respectively using maps of historial defoliation, climate, and forest type in a geographic information system. Maps of defoliation frequency at a resolution of 2 x 2 km were assembled from historical aerial survey data. Weather maps for mean monthly temperature maxima and minima and precipitation over 30 yr were developed by interpolation. Relationships between defoliation status and environmental variables were estimated using linear discriminant analysis. Five climatic change scenarios were investigated: an increase of 2{degrees}C, a 2{degrees}C increase with a small increase and a small decrease in precipitation, and projections of two general circulation models (GCMs) after 100 yr at doubled carbon dioxide. With an increase in temperature alone, the projected defoliated area decreased relative to ambient conditions for budworm and increased slightly for gypsy moth. With an increase in temperature and precipitation, defoliated area increased for both species. Conversely, defoliated area decreased for both when temperature increased and precipitation decreased. Results for the GCM scenarios contrasted sharply. For one GCM, defoliation by budworm was projected to cover Oregon completely, whereas no defoliation was projected by gypsy moth in Pennsylvania. For the other, defoliation disappeared completely for budworm and slightly exceeded that under ambient conditions for gypsy moth. The results are discussed in terms of current forest composition and its potential changes. 36 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Nitrate variability in hydrological flow paths for three mid-Appalachian forested watersheds following a large-scale defoliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riscassi, Ami L.; Scanlon, Todd M.

    2009-06-01

    Nitrate (NO3-) leakage from forested watersheds due to disturbance is a well documented but not well understood process that can contribute to the degradation of receiving waters through eutrophication. Several studies have shown that large-scale defoliation and deforestation events in small forested watersheds in the eastern United States cause immediate and dramatic increases in NO3- flux to steams, with large differences in recovery time. Water quality and discharge data collected from 1992 to 2004 following a large-scale gypsy moth defoliation were used to investigate hydrological controls on long-term NO3- leakage from three forested watersheds in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia. During storm events, a conventional two-component hydrograph separation in conjunction with an inverse solution technique was employed to determine the concentrations of NO3- in groundwater and soil water. Following defoliation, groundwater NO3- concentrations declined exponentially with a distinct seasonal pattern. A rank-order relationship between the rate constants associated with the exponential declines in groundwater NO3- concentrations and groundwater recession constants indicates a hydrological control on long-term watershed recovery for these defoliated systems. Comparisons to deforested systems in Hubbard Brook, New Hampshire, and Coweeta, North Carolina, indicate hydrological controls are similarly present. Biogeochemical differences, however, need to be considered to account for the more attenuated recovery observed in defoliated systems. No long-term trend was found in the model-derived soil water NO3- concentrations, which suggests the presence of some form of rate limitation on the transformation of the nitrogen pool introduced during the disturbance and/or reduced nutrient uptake due to tree mortality.

  12. The Role of Forest Tent Caterpillar Defoliations and Partial Harvest in the Decline and Death of Sugar Maple

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Henrik; Messier, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Natural and anthropogenic disturbances can act as stresses on tree vigour. According to Manion's conceptual model of tree disease, the initial vigour of trees decreases as a result of predisposing factors that render these trees more vulnerable to severe inciting stresses, stresses that can then cause final vigour decline and subsequent tree death. This tree disease model was tested in sugar maple (Acer saccharum) by assessing the roles of natural and anthropogenic disturbances in tree decline and death. Methods Radial growth data from 377 sugar maple trees that had undergone both defoliations by insects and partial harvest were used to estimate longitudinal survival probabilities as a proxy for tree vigour. Radial growth rates and survival probabilities were compared among trees subjected to different levels of above- and below-ground disturbances, between periods of defoliation and harvest, and between live and dead trees. Key Results Manion's tree disease model correctly accounts for vigour decline and tree death in sugar maple; tree growth and vigour were negatively affected by a first defoliation, predisposing these trees to death later during the study period due to a second insect outbreak that initiated a final vigour decline. This decline was accelerated by the partial harvest disturbance in 1993. Even the most severe anthropogenic disturbances from partial harvest did not cause, unlike insect defoliation, any growth or vigour declines in live sugar maple. Conclusions Natural disturbances acted as predisposing and inciting stresses in tree sugar maple decline and death. Anthropogenic disturbances from a partial harvest at worst accelerated a decline in trees that were already weakened by predisposing and inciting stresses (i.e. repeated insect defoliations). Favourable climatic conditions just before and after the partial harvest may have alleviated possible negative effects on growth resulting from harvesting. PMID:18660493

  13. Whole-plant versus leaf-level regulation of photosynthetic responses after partial defoliation in Eucalyptus globulus saplings.

    PubMed

    Eyles, Alieta; Pinkard, Elizabeth A; Davies, Noel W; Corkrey, Ross; Churchill, Keith; O'Grady, Anthony P; Sands, Peter; Mohammed, Caroline

    2013-04-01

    Increases in photosynthetic capacity (A1500) after defoliation have been attributed to changes in leaf-level biochemistry, water, and/or nutrient status. The hypothesis that transient photosynthetic responses to partial defoliation are regulated by whole-plant (e.g. source-sink relationships or changes in hydraulic conductance) rather than leaf-level mechanisms is tested here. Temporal variation in leaf-level gas exchange, chemistry, whole-plant soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance (KP), and aboveground biomass partitioning were determined to evaluate mechanisms responsible for increases in A1500 of Eucalyptus globulus L. potted saplings. A1500 increased in response to debudding (B), partial defoliation (D), and combined B&D treatments by up to 36% at 5 weeks after treatment. Changes in leaf-level factors partly explained increases in A1500 of B and B&D treatments but not for D treatment. By week 5, saplings in B, B&D, and D treatments had similar leaf-specific KP to control trees by maintaining lower midday water potentials and higher transpiration rate per leaf area. Whole-plant source:sink ratios correlated strongly with A1500. Further, unlike KP, temporal changes in source:sink ratios tracked well with those observed for A1500. The results indicate that increases in A1500 after partial defoliation treatments were largely driven by an increased demand for assimilate by developing sinks rather than improvements in whole-plant water relations and changes in leaf-level factors. Three carbohydrates, galactional, stachyose, and, to a lesser extent, raffinose, correlated strongly with photosynthetic capacity, indicating that these sugars may function as signalling molecules in the regulation of longer term defoliation-induced gas exchange responses. PMID:23382548

  14. Ad libitum Pasture Feeding in Late Pregnancy Does Not Improve the Performance of Twin-bearing Ewes and Their Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Corner-Thomas, R. A.; Back, P. J.; Kenyon, P. R.; Hickson, R. E.; Ridler, A. L.; Stafford, K. J.; Morris, S. T.

    2015-01-01

    within the Control nutritional regimen ewes (p<0.05). These results indicate farmers can provide twin-bearing ewes with pre- and post-grazing ryegrass-white clover herbage covers of approximately 1,100 and 800 kg DM/ha in late pregnancy, provided that herbage covers are 1400 in lactation, without affecting lamb performance to weaning. The present results also indicate that under these grazing conditions, there is little difference in ewe performance within the BCS range of 2.0 to 3.0 and therefore they do not need to be managed separately. PMID:25656209

  15. The impact of ozone fumigations on the biology of a late season sugar maple defoliator (Heterocampa guttivitta Walker)

    SciTech Connect

    Constantin, M.; Mauffette, Y. )

    1993-06-01

    Two-year old sugar maple seedlings were exposed to charcoal-filtered air (CFA) and to three multiples (1x, 1.5x or 3x) of the ambient ozone (O[sub 3]) concentrations during the summers of 1991 and 1992. The saddled prominent (Heterocampa guttivitta Walker) was reared on leaves sampled from CFA and fumigated plants. Developmental cues such as pupal weight, survival rate, egg production and larval developmental time were measured and compared among CFA and 0, treatments. In 1991, larvae reared on the CFA foliage developed significantly lighter pupal weights than those reared on 1x and 3x (306mg vs 355mg and 353mg); the other variables were not affected by the treatments. A similar trend was observed in 1992 although pupal weights did not significantly differ among CFA and O[sub 3] fumigations. These results indicate that this lepidopteran can respond to biochemical changes induced by abiotic stresses such as ozone.

  16. Employing citizen science to study defoliation impacts on arthropod communities on tamarisk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, Audrey L.

    The invasive tamarisk tree is widespread across the southwestern landscape of the United States and has been dominant in regulated river reaches, outcompeting native vegetation and impacting trophic webs in riparian ecosystems. The changes in riparian habitat and recreation opportunities along southwestern rivers, like the San Juan River in Utah, led to the implementation of a biocontrol program in the form of the tamarisk leaf beetle (Diorhabda spp.). It is unknown what the long term effects on riparian ecosystems are as a result of the beetles' defoliation of tamarisk each summer. This study sought to identify the current arthropod community composition and abundance over one growing season on the San Juan River between Bluff and Mexican Hat, UT and second, to involve the public in this research through a citizen science component. I found that non-native insects, including the tamarisk leaf beetle, dominated the arboreal arthropod communities within the tamarisk and there are relatively few native arthropods residing in tamarisk throughout the summer season. Foliation levels (the quantity of leaves in the canopy of tamarisk) were inconclusive predictors of arthropod abundances but varied by species and by feeding guild. This may indicate that the defoliation of the tamarisk is not necessarily negatively impacting trophic interactions in tamarisk. I incorporated youth participants on educational river rafting trips to assist in data collection of arthropods from tamarisk trees as a way to educate and bring attention to the issue of invasive species in the Southwest. After completing my own citizen science project and after doing a literature review of other, similar citizen science projects, I found that striving for both rigorous scientific data and quality educational programming is challenging for a small scale project that does not target broad spatial, geographic, or temporal data. Citizen science project developers should clearly identify their objectives

  17. Involvement of Ethylene in the Action of the Cotton Defoliant Thidiazuron 1

    PubMed Central

    Suttle, Jeffrey C.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of the defoliant thidiazuron (N-phenyl-N′-1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-ylurea) on endogenous ethylene evolution and the role of endogenous ethylene in thidiazuron-mediated leaf abscission were examined in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv Stoneville 519) seedlings. Treatment of 20- to 30-day-old seedlings with thidiazuron at concentrations equal to or greater than 10 micromolar resulted in leaf abscission. At a treatment concentration of 100 micromolar, nearly total abscission of the youngest leaves was observed. Following treatment, abscission of the younger leaves commenced within 48 hours and was complete by 120 hours. A large increase in ethylene evolution from leaf blades and abscission zone explants was readily detectable within 24 hours of treatment and persisted until leaf fall. Ethylene evolution from treated leaf blades was greatest 1 day posttreatment and reached levels in excess of 600 nanoliters per gram fresh weight per hour (26.7 nanomoles per gram fresh weight per hour). The increase in ethylene evolution occurred in the absence of increased ethane evolution, altered leaf water potential, or decreased chlorophyll levels. Treatment of seedlings with inhibitors of ethylene action (silver thiosulfate, hypobaric pressure) or ethylene synthesis (aminoethoxyvinylglycine) resulted in an inhibition of thidiazuron-induced defoliation. Application of exogenous ethylene or 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid largely restored the thidiazuron response. The results indicate that thidiazuron-induced leaf abscission is mediated, at least in part, by an increase in endogenous ethylene evolution. However, alterations of other phytohormone systems thought to be involved in regulating leaf abscission are not excluded by these studies. PMID:16664229

  18. Involvement of ethylene in the action of the cotton defoliant thidiazuron.

    PubMed

    Suttle, J C

    1985-06-01

    The effect of the defoliant thidiazuron (N-phenyl-N'-1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-ylurea) on endogenous ethylene evolution and the role of endogenous ethylene in thidiazuron-mediated leaf abscission were examined in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv Stoneville 519) seedlings. Treatment of 20- to 30-day-old seedlings with thidiazuron at concentrations equal to or greater than 10 micromolar resulted in leaf abscission. At a treatment concentration of 100 micromolar, nearly total abscission of the youngest leaves was observed. Following treatment, abscission of the younger leaves commenced within 48 hours and was complete by 120 hours. A large increase in ethylene evolution from leaf blades and abscission zone explants was readily detectable within 24 hours of treatment and persisted until leaf fall. Ethylene evolution from treated leaf blades was greatest 1 day posttreatment and reached levels in excess of 600 nanoliters per gram fresh weight per hour (26.7 nanomoles per gram fresh weight per hour). The increase in ethylene evolution occurred in the absence of increased ethane evolution, altered leaf water potential, or decreased chlorophyll levels. Treatment of seedlings with inhibitors of ethylene action (silver thiosulfate, hypobaric pressure) or ethylene synthesis (aminoethoxyvinylglycine) resulted in an inhibition of thidiazuron-induced defoliation. Application of exogenous ethylene or 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid largely restored the thidiazuron response. The results indicate that thidiazuron-induced leaf abscission is mediated, at least in part, by an increase in endogenous ethylene evolution. However, alterations of other phytohormone systems thought to be involved in regulating leaf abscission are not excluded by these studies. PMID:16664229

  19. Effects of Fall Applications of Chemical Defoliants, Urea, and Gibberellic Acid on Defoliation in the Fall and Performance of Hydrangeas during Forcing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In two separate experiments, Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb.) Ser. ‘Merritt’s Supreme’ plants were used to study the effects of foliar sprays of Def 6 (tributyl phosphorotrithioate, 2500, 5000, 7500 and 10000 mg·L-1), gibberellic acid, (GA, 50 mg·L-1), copper-EDTA (CuEDTA, 0.5% and 1.0%), Florel (2000...

  20. Effects of insecticide treatments on subsequent defoliation by western spruce budworm in Oregon and Washington: 1982-92. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehan, K.A.

    1996-03-01

    Effects of insecticide treatments conducted in Oregon and Washington from 1982 through 1992 on subsequent defoliation by western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman) were evaluated by using aerial sketchmaps and a geographic information system. For each treatment, the extent and severity of defoliation was calculated for the treated areas and a set of four nested rings surrounding the treated area (0-0.5 mile, 0.5.1 mile, 1-2 miles) for up to 8 years: 3 years prior to treatment, the year of treatment, and 4 years following treatment, insecticide treatments applied in 1982 and 1983 coincided with reduced percentages of defoliation by western spruce budworm during the year following treatment. However, the percentage of defoliation usually returned to pretreatment levels by the second year, and defoliation severity in treated and adjacent untreated areas was nearly identical following treatment. For the period from 1985 through 1992, defoliation patterns (including both extent and severity) following treatment were generally similar in treated and adjacent untreated areas.

  1. Ecotypic variation in growth responses to simulated herbivory: trade-off between maximum relative growth rate and tolerance to defoliation in an annual plant

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, Iván D.; Tapia-López, Rosalinda; Núñez-Farfán, Juan

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that slow-growing plants are more likely to maximize above-ground biomass and fitness when defoliated by herbivores than those with an already high relative growth rate (RGR). Some populations of the annual herb Datura stramonium L. can tolerate foliar damage better than others. The physiological basis of this difference is examined here in a comparative study of two ecotypes that differ in tolerance and maximum growth rate, using a growth analytical approach. One hundred and fifty-four plants of each ecotype grown under controlled conditions were suddenly defoliated (35 % of total leaf area removed) and a similar sample size of plants remained undefoliated (control). Ontogenetic plastic changes in RGR and its growth components [net assimilation rate (NAR), specific leaf area and leaf weight ratio (LWR)] after defoliation were measured to determine whether these plastic changes maximize plant growth and fitness. Different ontogenetic phases of the response were discerned and increased RGR of defoliated plants was detected at the end of the experimental period, but brought about by a different growth component (NAR or LWR) in each ecotype. These changes in RGR are putatively related to increases in fitness in defoliated environments. At the intra-specific scale, data showed a trade-off between the ability to grow under benign environmental conditions and the ability to tolerate resource limitation due to defoliation. PMID:25725085

  2. Effect of Feeding a Mixed Microbial Culture Fortified with Trace Minerals on the Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Late-fattening Hanwoo Steers: A Field Study.

    PubMed

    Kwak, W S; Kim, Y I; Lee, S M; Lee, Y H; Choi, D Y

    2015-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding a trace minerals-fortified microbial culture (TMC) on the performance and carcass characteristics of late-fattening Hanwoo steers. A mixture of microbes (0.6% [v/w] of Enterobacter sp., Bacillus sp., Lactobacillus sp., and Saccharomyces sp.) was cultured with 99% feedstuff for ensiling and 0.4% trace minerals (zinc, selenium, copper, and cobalt). Sixteen late-fattening steers (mean age, 21.8 months) were allocated to two diets: a control diet (concentrate mix and rice straw) and a treated diet (control diet+3.3% TMC). At a mean age of 31.1 months, all the steers were slaughtered. The addition of TMC to the diet did not affect the average daily weight gain of the late fattening steers, compared with that of control steers. Moreover, consuming the TMC-supplemented diet did not affect cold carcass weight, yield traits such as back fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, yield index or yield grade, or quality traits such as meat color, fat color, texture, maturity, marbling score, or quality grade. However, consumption of a TMC-supplemented diet increased the concentrations of zinc, selenium, and sulfur (p<0.05) in the longissimus muscle. With respect to amino acids, animals consuming TMC showed increased (p<0.05) concentrations of lysine, leucine, and valine among essential amino acids and a decreased (p<0.05) concentration of proline among non-essential amino acids. In conclusion, the consumption of a TMC-supplemented diet during the late-fattening period elevated the concentrations of certain trace minerals and essential amino acids in the longissimus muscle, without any deleterious effects on performance and other carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers. PMID:26580283

  3. Effect of Feeding a Mixed Microbial Culture Fortified with Trace Minerals on the Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Late-fattening Hanwoo Steers: A Field Study

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, W. S.; Kim, Y. I.; Lee, S. M.; Lee, Y. H.; Choi, D. Y.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding a trace minerals-fortified microbial culture (TMC) on the performance and carcass characteristics of late-fattening Hanwoo steers. A mixture of microbes (0.6% [v/w] of Enterobacter sp., Bacillus sp., Lactobacillus sp., and Saccharomyces sp.) was cultured with 99% feedstuff for ensiling and 0.4% trace minerals (zinc, selenium, copper, and cobalt). Sixteen late-fattening steers (mean age, 21.8 months) were allocated to two diets: a control diet (concentrate mix and rice straw) and a treated diet (control diet+3.3% TMC). At a mean age of 31.1 months, all the steers were slaughtered. The addition of TMC to the diet did not affect the average daily weight gain of the late fattening steers, compared with that of control steers. Moreover, consuming the TMC-supplemented diet did not affect cold carcass weight, yield traits such as back fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, yield index or yield grade, or quality traits such as meat color, fat color, texture, maturity, marbling score, or quality grade. However, consumption of a TMC-supplemented diet increased the concentrations of zinc, selenium, and sulfur (p<0.05) in the longissimus muscle. With respect to amino acids, animals consuming TMC showed increased (p<0.05) concentrations of lysine, leucine, and valine among essential amino acids and a decreased (p<0.05) concentration of proline among non-essential amino acids. In conclusion, the consumption of a TMC-supplemented diet during the late-fattening period elevated the concentrations of certain trace minerals and essential amino acids in the longissimus muscle, without any deleterious effects on performance and other carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers. PMID:26580283

  4. Effect of drought and defoliation on the susceptibility of eucalypts to cankers caused by Endothia gyrosa and Botryosphaeria ribis

    SciTech Connect

    Old, K.M.; Gibbs, R.; Craig, I.; Myers, B.J. ); Yuan, Z.Q. )

    1990-01-01

    Seedlings, saplings and mature eucalypts were susceptible to infection by Endothia gyrosa and Botryosphaeria ribis. Eucalyptus regnans and E. delegatensis were more susceptible than E. grandis and E. saligna. In trees not subjected to stress, cankers were limited in extent and often healed. When trees were defoliated, either manually or by severe insect attack, stem concentrations of both starch and soluble carbohydrates were reduced and canker development in some pathogen/host combinations was increased. Seedlings subjected to water stress were not predisposed to canker formation. The association of E. gyrosa with branch dieback of rural eucalypts suffering from chronic defoliation suggests that canker fungi contribute to the crown dieback syndrome in south-eastern Australia.

  5. Clinico Hemato Biochemical Findings, Clinical Management, and Production Performance of Bovines with Late Pregnancy Indigestion (Type IV Vagal Indigestion)

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Syed Ashaq; Uppal, Sanjeev Kumar; Sood, Naresh Kumar; Mahajan, Shashi Kant

    2014-01-01

    This prospective study was conducted on 15 animals (eight buffaloes and seven cows), diagnosed with late pregnancy indigestion. Ten buffaloes and 10 cows served as the control group. The animals were in advanced pregnancy and had partial or complete anorexia, reduced water intake, loss of defecation or scanty faecal output, and mild to moderate dehydration. Heart and respiration rates were increased and rumen motility was reduced. Five animals had persistent tympany and moderate distension of left abdomen, and two animals each had bilateral abdominal distension and papple shaped abdomen. Neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were significantly higher and lower than the control values. Total bilirubin, AST, total protein, globulin, BUN, glucose, and lactate were significantly higher, and chloride and calcium were significantly lower than the control values. Levels of ALP, GGT, albumin, creatinine, cholesterol, triglyceride, fibrinogen, fibrinogen ratio, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium did not differ significantly from the control values. Rumen chloride concentration was higher than the reference range. Majority of animals were managed symptomatically until parturition. There was no effect on fetal survival or milk yield in current and subsequent lactation. So, late pregnancy indigestion causes clinical and hemato biochemical alterations which require special consideration when treating diseased animals. PMID:24804149

  6. Predicted effects of gypsy moth defoliation and climate change on forest carbon dynamics in the New Jersey pine barrens.

    PubMed

    Kretchun, Alec M; Scheller, Robert M; Lucash, Melissa S; Clark, Kenneth L; Hom, John; Van Tuyl, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Disturbance regimes within temperate forests can significantly impact carbon cycling. Additionally, projected climate change in combination with multiple, interacting disturbance effects may disrupt the capacity of forests to act as carbon sinks at large spatial and temporal scales. We used a spatially explicit forest succession and disturbance model, LANDIS-II, to model the effects of climate change, gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) defoliation, and wildfire on the C dynamics of the forests of the New Jersey Pine Barrens over the next century. Climate scenarios were simulated using current climate conditions (baseline), as well as a high emissions scenario (HadCM3 A2 emissions scenario). Our results suggest that long-term changes in C cycling will be driven more by climate change than by fire or gypsy moths over the next century. We also found that simulated disturbances will affect species composition more than tree growth or C sequestration rates at the landscape level. Projected changes in tree species biomass indicate a potential increase in oaks with climate change and gypsy moth defoliation over the course of the 100-year simulation, exacerbating current successional trends towards increased oak abundance. Our research suggests that defoliation under climate change may play a critical role in increasing the variability of tree growth rates and in determining landscape species composition over the next 100 years. PMID:25119162

  7. Predicted Effects of Gypsy Moth Defoliation and Climate Change on Forest Carbon Dynamics in the New Jersey Pine Barrens

    PubMed Central

    Kretchun, Alec M.; Scheller, Robert M.; Lucash, Melissa S.; Clark, Kenneth L.; Hom, John; Van Tuyl, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Disturbance regimes within temperate forests can significantly impact carbon cycling. Additionally, projected climate change in combination with multiple, interacting disturbance effects may disrupt the capacity of forests to act as carbon sinks at large spatial and temporal scales. We used a spatially explicit forest succession and disturbance model, LANDIS-II, to model the effects of climate change, gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) defoliation, and wildfire on the C dynamics of the forests of the New Jersey Pine Barrens over the next century. Climate scenarios were simulated using current climate conditions (baseline), as well as a high emissions scenario (HadCM3 A2 emissions scenario). Our results suggest that long-term changes in C cycling will be driven more by climate change than by fire or gypsy moths over the next century. We also found that simulated disturbances will affect species composition more than tree growth or C sequestration rates at the landscape level. Projected changes in tree species biomass indicate a potential increase in oaks with climate change and gypsy moth defoliation over the course of the 100-year simulation, exacerbating current successional trends towards increased oak abundance. Our research suggests that defoliation under climate change may play a critical role in increasing the variability of tree growth rates and in determining landscape species composition over the next 100 years. PMID:25119162

  8. Remote sensing of tamarisk biomass, insect herbivory, and defoliation: Novel methods in the Grand Canyon Region, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sankey, Temuulen Ts.; Sankey, Joel B.; Horne, Rene; Bedford, Ashton

    2016-01-01

    Tamarisk is an invasive, riparian shrub species in the southwestern USA. The northern tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) has been introduced to several states to control tamarisk. We classified tamarisk distribution in the Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, Arizona using a 0.2 m resolution, airborne multispectral data and estimated tamarisk beetle effects (overall accuracy of 86 percent) leading to leaf defoliation in a 49,408 m2 area. We also estimated individual tamarisk tree biomass and their uncertainties using airbonre liday data (100 points/m2). On average, total above ground tamarisk biomass was 8.67 kg/m2 (SD=17.6). The tamarisk beetle defoliation resulted in a mean leaf biomass loss of 0.52 kg/m2 and an equivalent of 25,692 kg across the entire study area. Our defoliated tamarisk map and biomass estimates can help inform restoration treatments to reduce tamarisk. Continued monitoring of tamarisk and tamarisk beetle effects are recommended to understand the currently-unknown eventual equilibrium between the two species and the cascading effects on ecosystem processes.

  9. Remote sensing of spruce budworm defoliation using EO-1 Hyperion hyperspectral data: an example in Quebec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Z.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-04-01

    Each year, the spruce budworm (SBW) causes severe, widespread damage to spruces and fir in east coast Canada. Early estimation of the defoliation can provide crucial support to mitigate the socio-economic impact on vulnerable forests. Remote sensing techniques are suitable to investigate the affected regions that usually consist of large and inaccessible forestry areas. Using satellite images, surface reflectance values at two or more wavelengths are combined to generate vegetation indices (VIs), revealing a relative abundance of features of interest. Forest health analysis based on VIs is considered as one of the primary information sources for monitoring vegetation conditions. Especially the spectral resolution of Hyperion hyperspectral satellite imagery used in this study allows for a detailed examination of the red to near-infrared portion of the spectrum to identify areas of stressed vegetation. Several narrow-band vegetation indices are used to indicate the overall amount and quality of photosynthetic material and moisture content in vegetation. By integrating the information from VIs that focus on different aspects of overall health and vigour in forested areas, the study aims at detecting defoliated condition in a forested region in the Province of Quebec, Canada. In June and August of 2014 two Hyperion images were acquired by NASA's EO-1 satellite for this study. Changes in vegetation health and vigour are observed and quantitatively compared using the multi-temporal remote sensing images. The experimental results suggest that the VI- based forest health analysis is effective in estimating SBW defoliation in the study area.

  10. Clonal Expansion and Migration of a Highly Virulent, Defoliating Lineage of Verticillium dahliae.

    PubMed

    Milgroom, Michael G; Del Mar Jiménez-Gasco, María; Olivares-García, Concepción; Jiménez-Díaz, Rafael M

    2016-09-01

    We used a population genomics approach to test the hypothesis of clonal expansion of a highly fit genotype in populations of Verticillium dahliae. This fungal pathogen has a broad host range and can be dispersed in contaminated seed or other plant material. It has a highly clonal population structure, with several lineages having nearly worldwide distributions in agricultural crops. Isolates in lineage 1A are highly virulent and cause defoliation in cotton, okra, and olive (denoted 1A/D), whereas those in other lineages cause wilting but not defoliation (ND). We tested whether the highly virulent lineage 1A/D could have spread from the southwestern United States to the Mediterranean basin, as predicted from historical records. We found 187 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), determined by genotyping by sequencing, among 91 isolates of lineage 1A/D and 5 isolates in the closely related lineage 1B/ND. Neighbor-joining and maximum-likelihood analyses on the 187 SNPs showed a clear divergence between 1A/D and 1B/ND haplotypes. Data for only 77 SNPs were obtained for all 96 isolates (no missing data); lineages 1A/D and 1B/ND differed by 27 of these 77 SNPs, confirming a clear divergence between the two lineages. No evidence of recombination was detected within or between these two lineages. Phylogenetic and genealogical analyses resulted in five distinct subclades of 1A/D isolates that correlated closely with geographic origins in the Mediterranean basin, consistent with the hypothesis that the D pathotype was introduced at least five times in independent founder events into this region from a relatively diverse source population. The inferred ancestral haplotype was found in two isolates sampled before 1983 from the southwestern United States, which is consistent with historical records that 1A/D originated in North America. The five subclades coalesce with the ancestral haplotype at the same time, consistent with a hypothesis of rapid population expansion in the

  11. Tamarisk Water Flux Patterns Before, During and After Episodic Defoliation by the Salt Cedar Leaf Beetle on the Colorado Plateau, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hultine, K. R.; Nagler, P. L.; Dennison, P. E.

    2008-12-01

    Tamarisk (Tamarix) species are among the most successful plant invaders in the western United States, and has had significant impacts on watershed hydrology and water resources. Accordingly, local, state and federal agencies have undertaken considerable efforts to eradicate tamarisk and restore riparian habitats to pre-invasion status. A biological control - the saltcedar leaf beetle (Diorhabda elongata) - was released in the summer of 2004 at several locations in eastern Utah, USA to control the spread and impact of tamarisk within the Colorado River watershed. Beginning in April of 2008, sap flux techniques were used to monitor changes in transpiration fluxes in response to canopy defoliation by the beetle. Specifically we installed modified (10 mm length) heat dissipation probes into the main stem of 20 mature tamarisk trees within a single stand on the Colorado Plateau. In July, the saltcedar leaf beetle reduced the total leaf area to near 0% of pre-beetle invasion status. Consequently, sap flux declined by up to 80% compared to pre-beetle invasion fluxes. By mid-August, refoliation of the canopy occurred, and sap flux rates returned to pre- defoliation status. Sap flux rates prior to defoliation were modeled against atmospheric vapor pressure deficit in order to predict the amount of water salvage from defoliation. Sap flux from June 1 through September 1 was on average 36% lower than predicted values. Combined with scaling techniques, the heat dissipation approach shows a high potential for monitoring changes in watershed hydrology in response to tamarisk defoliation by the saltcedar leaf beetle. Nevertheless, tamarisk sap flux studies with heat dissipation probes presents several challenges, including, narrow sapwood depth, low flux rates in response to defoliation, and large thermal gradients that are inevitable in warm climates (particularly after defoliation removes canopy shading). We will present results from ongoing research to address these potential

  12. Framework for video-based monitoring of forest insect defoliation and discoloration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Feifei; Wang, Yafei; Qiao, Yanyou

    2015-01-01

    Pest damage is a general problem that disturbs the growth of forests, influencing carbon sequestration and causing economic losses. In the past decades, many studies have been conducted to monitor and detect forest insect damage using satellite remote sensing technology. Satellite remote sensing has a satellite or aerial vision allowing the monitoring of extensive forest areas, but it usually requires constant time periods and is prone to cloud interference. To enable more efficient and effective monitoring of forest pest damage, a video-based monitoring framework is presented. This framework comprises three key parts: (1) video positioning of forest insect damage based on digital elevation model (DEM) and the parameters obtained from the pan-tilt-zoom camera, (2) integration of two-dimensional/three-dimensional geographic information system and video surveillance to provide more intuitionistic monitoring and assistance for positioning, (3) on-site verification conducted by ground surveys and guided through global positioning system (GPS) integrated in the embedded devices. The experiment was carried out over two forest areas to validate the proposed method. Results showed that the framework bears a sound positioning accuracy and high detection ratio, which could be effectively used in detecting and monitoring forest insect defoliation and discoloration.

  13. Molecular data and phylogeny of Nosema infecting lepidopteran forest defoliators in the genera Choristoneura and Malacosoma.

    PubMed

    Kyei-Poku, George; Gauthier, Debbie; van Frankenhuyzen, Kees

    2008-01-01

    Nosema isolates from five lepidopteran forest defoliators, Nosema fumiferanae from spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana; a Nosema sp. from jack pine budworm, Choristoneura pinus pinus and western spruce budworm, Choristoneura occidentalis (Nosema sp. CPP and Nosema sp. CO, respectively); Nosema thomsoni from large aspen tortrix, Choristoneura conflictana; and Nosema disstriae, from the forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria were compared based on their small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences. Four of the species sequenced, N. fumiferanae, Nosema sp. CPP, Nosema sp. CO, and N. disstriae have a high SSU rDNA sequence identity (0.6%-1.5%) and are members of the "true Nosema" clade. They all showed the reverse arrangement of the (large subunit [LSU]-internal transcribed spacer [ITS]-SSU) of the rRNA gene. The fifth species, N. thomsoni has the usual (SSU-ITS-LSU) arrangement and is not a member of this clade showing only an 82% sequence similarity. We speculate, therefore, that a genetic reversal may have occurred in the common ancestor to the "true Nosema" clade. Although, the mechanism for rearrangement of the rRNA gene subunits is not known we provide a possible explanation for the localization. N. fumiferanae, Nosema sp. CPP, and Nosema sp. CO clustered together on the inferred phylogenetic tree. The high sequence similarities, the reverse arrangement in the rRNA gene subunits, and the phylogenetic clustering suggest that these three species are closely related but separate species. PMID:18251803

  14. Effect of the Defoliant Thidiazuron on Ethylene Evolution from Mung Bean Hypocotyl Segments

    PubMed Central

    Suttle, Jeffrey C.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of the defoliant thidiazuron (N-phenyl-N′1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-ylurea) on ethylene evolution from etiolated mung bean hypocotyl segments was examined. Treatment of hypocotyl segments with concentrations of thidiazuron equal to or greater than 30 nanomolar stimulated ethylene evolution. Increased rates of ethylene evolution from thidiazuron-treated tissues could be detected within 90 minutes of treatment and persisted up to 30 hours after treatment. Radioactive methionine was readily taken up by thidiazuron-treated tissues and was converted to ethylene, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and an acidic conjugate of ACC. Aminoethoxyvinylglycine, aminooxyacetic acid, cobalt chloride, and α-aminoisobutyric acid reduced ethylene evolution from treated tissues. An increase in the endogenous content of free ACC coincided with the increase in ethylene evolution following thidiazuron treatment. Uptake and conversion of exogenous ACC to ethylene were not affected by thidiazuron treatment. No increases in the extractable activities of ACC synthase were detected following thidiazuron treatment. PMID:16663757

  15. Effects of Dracontomelon duperreanum defoliation extract on Microcystis aeruginosa: physiological and morphological aspects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoxiong; Jiang, Chenchun; Szeto, Yim-Tong; Li, Ho-Kin; Yam, Kwei-Lam; Wang, Xiaojun

    2016-05-01

    Harmful cyanobacteria bloom contributes to economic loss as well as the threat to human health. Agricultural waste products, particularly straw, have been used to control bloom while arbor plant is the potential candidate for limiting antialgal activity. This study investigated the use of Dracontomelon duperreanum defoliation extract (DDDE) to inhibit the activity of Microcystis aeruginosa. The primary goal of the research was to explore the solution to control cyanobacterial bloom. The photosynthetic activity, cell morphology, membrane integrity, and esterase activity of M. aeruginosa were determined using phytoplankton analyzer pulse amplitude modulation (Phyto-PAM) and flow cytometry before and after exposure to DDDE. The inhibitory rate of M. aeruginosa was about 99.6 % on day 15 when exposed to 2.0 g L(-1). A reduction of chlorophyll a (Chl-a) activity and changes in cell membrane suggested the algistatic property of DDDE. Inhibition of photosynthetic activity was reflected by changing mean Chl-a fluorescence intensity (MFI) which was about 52.5 % on day 15 when exposed to 2.0 g L(-1) DDDE as well as relative electron transport rates (rETRs) of algal cell. These changes might contribute to the suppression of M. aeruginosa. Algal cell exposed to DDDE may lead to cell volume reduction or slow growth. This resulted in a decreased proportion of normal or swollen granular cells after DDDE treatment. PMID:26803752

  16. Effect of the defoliant thidiazuron on ethylene evolution from mung bean hypocotyl segments.

    PubMed

    Suttle, J C

    1984-08-01

    The effect of the defoliant thidiazuron (N-phenyl-N'1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-ylurea) on ethylene evolution from etiolated mung bean hypocotyl segments was examined. Treatment of hypocotyl segments with concentrations of thidiazuron equal to or greater than 30 nanomolar stimulated ethylene evolution. Increased rates of ethylene evolution from thidiazuron-treated tissues could be detected within 90 minutes of treatment and persisted up to 30 hours after treatment. Radioactive methionine was readily taken up by thidiazuron-treated tissues and was converted to ethylene, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and an acidic conjugate of ACC. Aminoethoxyvinylglycine, aminooxyacetic acid, cobalt chloride, and alpha-aminoisobutyric acid reduced ethylene evolution from treated tissues. An increase in the endogenous content of free ACC coincided with the increase in ethylene evolution following thidiazuron treatment. Uptake and conversion of exogenous ACC to ethylene were not affected by thidiazuron treatment. No increases in the extractable activities of ACC synthase were detected following thidiazuron treatment. PMID:16663757

  17. Late paternities.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jean

    2007-06-01

    Late paternities are frequent. Very often these couples ask for medically assisted procreation. In general, it is considered that the couple should not be treated differently from the couple where the father is younger. Recent studies show a certain number of specific risks linked to the late paternities. Doctors and society do not act in the same way towards men and women: a 'sensible age' for women to no longer attempt pregnancy has been set in many countries at 42 years of age, whereas men aged 80 can benefit from IVF attempts and be reimbursed by the state or insurance companies. This is an obvious inequity. PMID:17579995

  18. A Late Glacial Environmental Reconstruction performed on Lacustrine Sediments from the Southern Tibetan Plateau identifies regional Monsoon Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henkel, K.; Ahlborn, M.; Haberzettl, T.; Alivernini, M.; Kasper, T.; Thiele, A.; St-Onge, G.; Daut, G.; Frenzel, P.; Gleixner, G.; Wang, J.; Zhu, L.; Maeusbacher, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) is very sensitive to climate variations and is therefore an ideal study site to investigate past climate changes. Influenced by the Asian Monsoon system, the numerous lake systems on the TP serve as valuable archives for past hydrological changes, which are assumed to be caused by variations in strength and extent of the monsoonal impact. The lacustrine record from the terminal lake Tangra Yumco (4540 m a.s.l., 31°13'N, 86°43'E) consists of an interbedding of fine-grained silty sediments with laminations of different thicknesses (sub-mm to cm) and partly intercalated blackish sandy layers. Thin section analysis in the laminated areas reveals cyclic laminations composed of a carbonate and a detrital layer. Homogenous intervals represent turbidite deposits which are further detected based on lithology, radiography as well as changes in the water content, grain size, Ti-values (XRF) and in the paleomagnetic parameter median destructive field. The chronology is based on 27 AMS-radiocarbon ages on bulk organic matter and one piece of wood, which is of terrestrial origin. To determine a possible carbon reservoir effect, additional surface sediment samples and one modern aquatic plant were measured. The calculated reservoir effect of 2,120 +110/-90 years is assumed to be constant over the time and thus the base of the record reveals a corrected radiocarbon age of 17,270 +325/-310 cal BP. Additionally, investigations on paleomagnetic secular variations were carried out, showing that since 15,900 cal BP the record preserved a well-defined magnetization recording a genuine paleomagnetic signal. Regarding the geochemical (organic and inorganic), sedimentological, mineralogical and micropaleontological analyses, a low lake level with a high terrestrial input is observed for the Late Glacial. At 15.6 ka cal BP, a change in the sediment accumulation rate, increased allochthoneous input and changing ostracod fauna point to an increasing lake level. In

  19. Disruption of the Polar Auxin Transport System in Cotton Seedlings following Treatment with the Defoliant Thidiazuron.

    PubMed

    Suttle, J C

    1988-01-01

    The effect of the defoliant thidiazuron (TDZ) on basipetal auxin transport in petiole segments isolated from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv LG102) seedlings was examined using the donor/receiver agar block technique. Treatment of intact seedlings with TDZ at concentrations of 1 micromolar or greater resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of (14)C-IAA transport in petiole segments isolated 1 or 2 days after treatment. Using 100 micromolar TDZ, the inhibition was detectable 19 hours after treatment and was complete by 27 hours. Both leaves and petiole segments exhibited a marked increase in ethylene production following treatment with TDZ at concentrations of 0.1 micromolar or greater. The involvement of ethylene in this TDZ response was evaluated by examining the effects of two inhibitors of ethylene action: silver thiosulfate, 2,5-norbornadiene. One day after treatment, both inhibitors effectively antagonized the TDZ-induced inhibition of auxin transport. Two days after TDZ treatment both inhibitors were ineffective. The decrease in IAA transport in TDZ treated tissues was associated with increased metabolism of IAA. The transport of (14)C-2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid was also inhibited by TDZ treatment. This inhibition was not accompanied by increased metabolism. Incorporation of TDZ into the receiver blocks had no effect on auxin transport. The ability of the phytotropin N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid to stimulate IAA uptake from a bathing medium was reduced in TDZ-treated tissues. This reduction is thought to reflect a decline in the auxin efflux system following TDZ treatment. PMID:16665874

  20. Using remote sensing to assess stand loss and defoliation in maize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Bruce Joel

    Accurate assessment of hail and wind damage to crops has long been a difficult task. Yield effects of stand loss and defoliation at various crop stages are well known, but getting accurate damage information across a field has been problematic. A quick and accurate method of determining losses such as using remote sensing techniques could lead to more efficient crop management and more accurate insurance claims adjustment. New satellites with spatial and temporal resolution capable of assessing crop damage could provide data for producing maps of field damage. Field plots of maize, Zea mays L. were established in Indiana and Nebraska in 1997, 1998, and 1999 and were subjected to various levels of stand loss and leaf loss during vegetative and early reproductive growth stages. Remote sensing data were collected using a variety of imaging spectroradiometers mounted in airplanes and field spectrometers mounted on boom trucks. Radiometric data compiled by wavelength to produce spectral response curves showed light reflectance level directly related to damage level across a broad range of wavelengths. Using feature selection, a function of the image processing software MultiSpec, the red and near infrared (NIR) wavelength bands provided the most distinction among levels of damage. Classification of images by damage level was accomplished using a combination of red and near infrared bands and using Discriminate Analysis Feature Extraction (DAFE) to utilize the contribution of all sensor bands and attempt high accuracy. Classification accuracies achievable for discriminating four levels of damage inflicted on a particular date ranged from 72% to 100%, with accuracy depending on the band combination used and level of damage. In a field after a storm, remote sensing images could be used to extrapolate information collected by insurance adjusters, and produce damage maps of a field. Fewer ground checks would be needed to get an accurate damage estimate.

  1. Simple Physical Performance Measures and Vascular Health in Late Midlife Women: The Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation

    PubMed Central

    El Khoudary, Samar R.; Chen, Hsiang-Yu; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; McClure, Candace; Selzer, Faith; Karvonen-Gutierrez, Carrie; Jackson, Elizabeth A.; Ylitalo, Kelly R.; Sternfeld, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical performance measures have been shown to predict mortality and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) mainly in elderly populations. We evaluated whether physical performance measures are associated with vascular health indices (carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), adventitial diameter (cAD) and carotid plaque) in a large sample of multi-ethnic, late midlife women. Methods Participants from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation free of CVD and who had carotid ultrasound assessed at the 12th annual visit were evaluated. Physical function (PF) measures at visit 12 included: average 40-foot walking speed and average time needed for sit-to-stand assessment. Results A total of 1103 women (53.7% White, 30.5% Black, 15.9% Chinese) aged 59.6±2.7 years at visit 12, were included. In models adjusted for study site, race, current age, menopausal status and systolic blood pressure, slower walking speed and longer time needed for sit-to-stand were significantly associated with wider cAD, thicker cIMT and a higher probability of a high level of carotid plaque burden (all P-values <0.05). Associations between walking speed and cAD, and between time needed for sit-to-stand and cAD, remained significant (P=0.04) or marginally significant (P=0.07), respectively, after additional adjustment for CVD risk factors, medications and physical activity. However, the associations between PF measures and cIMT and plaque burden were largely explained by traditional CVD risk factors. Conclusions The current study suggest that worse performance in simple objective PF tests may be an early indicator of vascular structural changes that precede vascular disease among women at late midlife. PMID:25577747

  2. [Ecological and biological features of soils in the forests defoliated by the siberian moth in the southern taiga of middle Siberia].

    PubMed

    Krasnoshchekov, Iu N; Vishniakova, Z V; Perevoznikova, V D; Baranchikov, Iu N

    2003-01-01

    Experimental data are analyzed that concern the effect of zoogenic debris on the properties of soddy deep podzolic soils and raw-humus brown soils characteristic of southern taiga forests in the Yenisei region of Siberia. It is shown that the influence of excrements of Siberian moth larvae on the soil microflora lasts for two or, at most, three growing seasons. Zoogenic plant debris falling on the ground surface during tree stand defoliation is a short-acting but powerful stimulant of biological activity in the litter; hence, it has a considerable effect on soil properties. This effect is enhanced by changes in ecological conditions that occur upon defoliation. The influence of the cenotic factor on biogenic soil properties is manifested more strongly in the organogenic horizons. The communities of microorganisms involved in the nitrogen and carbon cycles are dominated by prototrophic forms in the normal fir forest and by pedotrophic forms in the forest defoliated by pests. PMID:14735796

  3. Phosphorus and Defoliation Interact and Improve the Growth and Composition of the Plant Community and Soil Properties in an Alpine Pasture of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    PubMed

    Qi, Juan; Nie, Zhongnan; Jiao, Ting; Zhang, Degang

    2015-01-01

    Pasture degradation caused by overgrazing and inappropriate fertiliser management is a major production and environmental threat in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Previous research has focused on the effects of mixed nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertiliser and reduced grazing pressure on the plant community of the grassland; however, the role of P and how it interacts with various defoliation (the process of the complete or partial removal of the above-ground parts of plants by grazing or cutting) intensities on the plant and soil of the grassland ecosystem have not been quantified. A field experiment was conducted to quantify how P application in combination of defoliation pressure could impact the dynamic change of the plant and soil in a native alpine grassland ecosystem of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China, from May 2012 to September 2014. A split-plot design with 4 replicates and repeated measures was used to determine the growth and composition of plant community and soil physical and chemical properties under various levels of P fertiliser and defoliation intensity. The results showed that applying 20 kg P/ha increased the herbage yield of Melissitus ruthenica by 68% and total pasture yield by 25%. Close defoliation favoured the growth and plant frequency of the shorter species, whereas lax defoliation favoured that of the taller plant species. Medium P rate and cutting to 3 cm above ground gave an overall best outcome in pasture yield, quality and frequency and soil moisture and nutrient concentration. Application of P fertiliser with a moderate defoliation pressure to promote legume growth and N fixation has the potential to achieve multiple benefits in increasing pasture and livestock production and improving environmental sustainability in the alpine pasture of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, a fragile and P-deficient ecosystem zone in China and its western neighbouring countries. PMID:26513363

  4. Phosphorus and Defoliation Interact and Improve the Growth and Composition of the Plant Community and Soil Properties in an Alpine Pasture of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Juan; Nie, Zhongnan; Jiao, Ting; Zhang, Degang

    2015-01-01

    Pasture degradation caused by overgrazing and inappropriate fertiliser management is a major production and environmental threat in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Previous research has focused on the effects of mixed nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertiliser and reduced grazing pressure on the plant community of the grassland; however, the role of P and how it interacts with various defoliation (the process of the complete or partial removal of the above-ground parts of plants by grazing or cutting) intensities on the plant and soil of the grassland ecosystem have not been quantified. A field experiment was conducted to quantify how P application in combination of defoliation pressure could impact the dynamic change of the plant and soil in a native alpine grassland ecosystem of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China, from May 2012 to September 2014. A split-plot design with 4 replicates and repeated measures was used to determine the growth and composition of plant community and soil physical and chemical properties under various levels of P fertiliser and defoliation intensity. The results showed that applying 20 kg P/ha increased the herbage yield of Melissitus ruthenica by 68% and total pasture yield by 25%. Close defoliation favoured the growth and plant frequency of the shorter species, whereas lax defoliation favoured that of the taller plant species. Medium P rate and cutting to 3 cm above ground gave an overall best outcome in pasture yield, quality and frequency and soil moisture and nutrient concentration. Application of P fertiliser with a moderate defoliation pressure to promote legume growth and N fixation has the potential to achieve multiple benefits in increasing pasture and livestock production and improving environmental sustainability in the alpine pasture of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, a fragile and P-deficient ecosystem zone in China and its western neighbouring countries. PMID:26513363

  5. Influence of excessive dietary protein intake during late gestation on drylot beef cow performance and progeny growth, carcass characteristics, and plasma glucose and insulin concentrations.

    PubMed

    Wilson, T B; Long, N M; Faulkner, D B; Shike, D W

    2016-05-01

    Spring-calving cows ( = 49) were used to investigate the effects of excessive prepartum dietary protein intake on late gestation cow performance as well as subsequent progeny growth, carcass characteristics, and plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. Treatments were formulated to be isocaloric and provide 100% (REQ) or 129% (HP) of CP requirement. Treatments were limit-fed 78 ± 12 d prepartum to calving. All cows were fed a common diet postpartum. Cow BW and BCS were recorded at initiation of treatments and within 48 h post-calving. Milk production was estimated via the weigh-suckle-weigh technique 69 ± 11 d postpartum. Calf BW was measured at birth and at weaning (121 ± 11 d of age). Progeny ( = 42) were weaned as a group and placed into a feedlot and fed a common finishing diet. Glucose and insulin concentrations were analyzed on a subset of progeny (12 per treatment) 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, and 240 min post-feeding, 2 d before slaughter (342 ± 11 d of age). Treatment had no effect ( ≥ 0.22) on cow BW, BCS, milk production, and subsequent reproduction or progeny preweaning growth. Progeny finishing growth and marbling scores were not affected ( ≥ 0.24) by treatment, yet 12th rib fat thickness ( < 0.01), KPH ( = 0.04), and YG ( = 0.01) were greater for progeny born to HP dams. Progeny born to HP dams had decreased ( ≤ 0.01) glucose and insulin concentrations, and insulin to glucose ratios, indicating greater insulin sensitivity. Although feeding cows 129% of CP requirement during late gestation did not affect cow performance or progeny preweaning or finishing period growth; carcass adiposity was increased by maternal treatment. PMID:27285701

  6. Late-term abortion.

    PubMed

    Epner, J E; Jonas, H S; Seckinger, D L

    1998-08-26

    Recent proposed federal legislation banning certain abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, would modify the US Criminal Code such that physicians performing these procedures would be liable for monetary and statutory damages. Clarification of medical procedures is important because some of the procedures used to induce abortion prior to viability are identical or similar to postviability procedures. This article reviews the scientific and medical information on late-term abortion and late-term abortion techniques and includes data on the prevalence of late-term abortion, abortion-related mortality and morbidity rates, and legal issues regarding fetal viability and the balance of maternal and fetal interests. According to enacted American Medical Association (AMA) policy, the use of appropriate medical terminology is critical in defining late-term abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, which is a variant of but distinct from dilatation and evacuation. The AMA recommends that the intact dilatation and extraction procedure not be used unless alternative procedures pose materially greater risk to the woman and that abortions not be performed in the third trimester except in cases of serious fetal anomalies incompatible with life. Major medical societies are urged to collaborate on clinical guidelines on late-term abortion techniques and circumstances that conform to standards of good medical practice. More research on the advantages and disadvantages of specific abortion procedures would help physicians make informed choices about specific abortion procedures. Expanded ongoing data surveillance systems estimating the prevalence of abortion are also needed. PMID:9728645

  7. Asynchrony between Host Plant and Insects-Defoliator within a Tritrophic System: The Role of Herbivore Innate Immunity.

    PubMed

    Martemyanov, Vyacheslav V; Pavlushin, Sergey V; Dubovskiy, Ivan M; Yushkova, Yuliya V; Morosov, Sergey V; Chernyak, Elena I; Efimov, Vadim M; Ruuhola, Teija; Glupov, Victor V

    2015-01-01

    The effects of asynchrony in the phenology of spring-feeding insect-defoliators and their host plants on insects' fitness, as well as the importance of this effect for the population dynamics of outbreaking species of insects, is a widespread and well-documented phenomenon. However, the spreading of this phenomenon through the food chain, and especially those mechanisms operating this spreading, are still unclear. In this paper, we study the effect of seasonally declined leafquality (estimated in terms of phenolics and nitrogen content) on herbivore fitness, immune parameters and resistance against pathogen by using the silver birch Betula pendula--gypsy moth Lymantria dispar--nucleopolyhedrovirus as the tritrophic system. We show that a phenological mismatch induced by the delay in the emergence of gypsy moth larvae and following feeding on mature leaves has negative effects on the female pupal weight, on the rate of larval development and on the activity of phenoloxidase in the plasma of haemolymph. In addition, the larval susceptibility to exogenous nucleopolyhydrovirus infection as well as covert virus activation were both enhanced due to the phenological mismatch. The observed effects of phenological mismatch on insect-baculovirus interaction may partially explain the strong and fast fluctuations in the population dynamics of the gypsy moth that is often observed in the studied part of the defoliator area. This study also reveals some indirect mechanisms of effect related to host plant quality, which operate through the insect innate immune status and affect resistance to both exogenous and endogenous virus. PMID:26115118

  8. Asynchrony between Host Plant and Insects-Defoliator within a Tritrophic System: The Role of Herbivore Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Martemyanov, Vyacheslav V.; Pavlushin, Sergey V.; Dubovskiy, Ivan M.; Yushkova, Yuliya V.; Morosov, Sergey V.; Chernyak, Elena I.; Efimov, Vadim M.; Ruuhola, Teija; Glupov, Victor V.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of asynchrony in the phenology of spring-feeding insect-defoliators and their host plants on insects’ fitness, as well as the importance of this effect for the population dynamics of outbreaking species of insects, is a widespread and well-documented phenomenon. However, the spreading of this phenomenon through the food chain, and especially those mechanisms operating this spreading, are still unclear. In this paper, we study the effect of seasonally declined leafquality (estimated in terms of phenolics and nitrogen content) on herbivore fitness, immune parameters and resistance against pathogen by using the silver birch Betula pendula—gypsy moth Lymantria dispar—nucleopolyhedrovirus as the tritrophic system. We show that a phenological mismatch induced by the delay in the emergence of gypsy moth larvae and following feeding on mature leaves has negative effects on the female pupal weight, on the rate of larval development and on the activity of phenoloxidase in the plasma of haemolymph. In addition, the larval susceptibility to exogenous nucleopolyhydrovirus infection as well as covert virus activation were both enhanced due to the phenological mismatch. The observed effects of phenological mismatch on insect-baculovirus interaction may partially explain the strong and fast fluctuations in the population dynamics of the gypsy moth that is often observed in the studied part of the defoliator area. This study also reveals some indirect mechanisms of effect related to host plant quality, which operate through the insect innate immune status and affect resistance to both exogenous and endogenous virus. PMID:26115118

  9. Quantitative estimation of Hyblaea puera NPV production in three larval stages of the teak defoliator, Hyblaea puera (Cramer).

    PubMed

    Biji, C P; Sudheendrakumar, V V; Sajeev, T V

    2006-09-01

    Hyblaea puera nucleoployhedrovirus (HpNPV) is a potential biocontrol agent of the teak defoliator, Hyblaea puera (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Hyblaeidae). To quantify the growth of the virus in the host larvae, three larval stages of the teak defoliator were subjected to quantitative bioassays using specified dilutions of HpNPV. The HpNPV production was found to be dependent on the dose, incubation period as well as stage specific responses of the host insect used. As larvae matured, production of the virus per mg body weight was not found to be in a constant proportion to the increase in the body weight. The combination which yielded the greatest virus production of 3.55 x 10(9) polyhedral occlusion bodies (POBs) was that in which larva weighing 26-37 mg was fed with 1 x 10(6) POBs, incubated for 6 h and harvested at 72 h post infection (h p.i.). The response of the fourth instar larvae was found to be more productive than the third and fifth instar larvae, which makes it an ideal candidate for mass production of the virus in vivo. PMID:16687178

  10. Small mammal abundance and habitat relationships on deciduous forested sites with different susceptibility to gypsy moth defoliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahner, Richard H.; Smith, Harvey R.

    1991-01-01

    Small mammals are important predators of gypsy moths ( Lymantria dispar L.), which are major defoliators of deciduous forests in the northeastern United States. Abundance and habitat relationships of small mammals were studied during summers 1984 and 1985 on forested sites at Moshannon and Rothrock state forests in two physiographic regions of Pennsylvania (Allegheny High Plateaus Province and Valley and Ridge Province, respectively) that varied in potential susceptibility to defoliation. The white-footed mouse ( Peromyscus leucopus), which is a major vertebrate predator of gypsy moths, was the most common small mammal on all sites. Of the four common species, northern short-tailed shrews ( Blarina brevicauda), southern red-backed voles ( Clethrionomys gapperi), and white-footed mice were more abundant at Moshannon compared to Rothrock State Forest, but masked shrews ( Sorex cinereus) were more abundant at Rothrock. Elevation was a major factor affecting abundance and distribution of small mammals. Because of the greater abundance of small mammals and more suitable physiographic features at Moshannon compared to Rothrock State Forest, small mammals may be more effective as predators on gypsy moths in the Allegheny High Plateaus than the Valley and Ridge Province of Pennsylvania.

  11. Testosterone Plus Low-Intensity Physical Training in Late Life Improves Functional Performance, Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Biogenesis, and Mitochondrial Quality Control in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wen; Wong, Siu; Li, Michelle; Liang, Wentao; Liesa, Marc; Serra, Carlo; Jasuja, Ravi; Bartke, Andrzej; Kirkland, James L.; Shirihai, Orian; Bhasin, Shalender

    2012-01-01

    Testosterone supplementation increases muscle mass in older men but has not been shown to consistently improve physical function and activity. It has been hypothesized that physical exercise is required to induce the adaptations necessary for translation of testosterone-induced muscle mass gain into functional improvements. However, the effects of testosterone plus low intensity physical exercise training (T/PT) on functional performance and bioenergetics are unknown. In this pilot study, we tested the hypothesis that combined administration of T/PT would improve functional performance and bioenergetics in male mice late in life more than low-intensity physical training alone. 28-month old male mice were randomized to receive T/PT or vehicle plus physical training (V/PT) for 2 months. Compare to V/PT control, administration of T/PT was associated with improvements in muscle mass, grip strength, spontaneous physical movements, and respiratory activity. These changes were correlated with increased mitochondrial DNA copy number and expression of markers for mitochondrial biogenesis. Mice receiving T/PT also displayed increased expression of key elements for mitochondrial quality control, including markers for mitochondrial fission-and-fusion and mitophagy. Concurrently, mice receiving T/PT also displayed increased expression of markers for reduced tissue oxidative damage and improved muscle quality. Conclusion: Testosterone administered with low-intensity physical training improves grip strength, spontaneous movements, and respiratory activity. These functional improvements were associated with increased muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and improved mitochondrial quality control. PMID:23240002

  12. Rhizosphere interactions, carbon allocation, and nitrogen acquisition of two perennial North American grasses in response to defoliation and elevated atmospheric CO2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon allocation and N acquisition by plants following defoliation may be linked through plant-microbe interactions in the rhizosphere. Feedbacks between herbivory and plant-microbe interactions may also be affected by increasing atmospheric CO2, through plant responses to changes in carbon and nit...

  13. Sap flux-scaled transpiration by tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) before, during and after episodic defoliation by the saltcedar leaf beetle (Diorhabda carinulata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hultine, K.R.; Nagler, P.L.; Morino, K.; Bush, S.E.; Burtch, K.G.; Dennison, P.E.; Glenn, E.P.; Ehleringer, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    The release of the saltcedar beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) has resulted in the periodic defoliation of tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) along more than 1000 river km in the upper Colorado River Basin and is expected to spread along many other river reaches throughout the upper basin, and possibly into the lower Colorado River Basin. Identifying the impacts of these release programs on tamarisk water use and subsequent water cycling in arid riparian systems are largely unknown, due in part to the difficulty of measuring water fluxes in these systems. We used lab-calibrated, modified heat-dissipation sap flux sensors to monitor tamarisk water use (n=20 trees) before, during and after defoliation by the saltcedar leaf beetle during the 2008 and 2009 growing seasons (May-October) in southeastern Utah. We incorporated a simple model that related mean stem sap flux density (Js) with atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (vpd) before the onset of defoliation in 2008. The model was used to calculate differences between predicted Js and Js measured throughout the two growing seasons. Episodic defoliation resulted in a 16% reduction in mean annual rates of Js in both 2008 and 2009, with decreases occurring only during the periods in which the trees were defoliated (about 6-8 weeks per growing season). In other words, rates of Js rebounded to values predicted by the model when the trees produced new leaves after defoliation. Sap flux data were scaled to stand water use by constructing a tamarisk-specific allometric equation to relate conducting sapwood area to stem diameter, and by measuring the size distribution of stems within the stand. Total water use in both years was 0.224m, representing a reduction of about 0.04myr-1. Results showed that repeated defoliation/refoliation cycles did not result in a progressive decrease in either leaf production or water use over the duration of the study. This investigation improves ground-based estimates of tamarisk water use, and will support

  14. Do elevations in temperature, CO2, and nutrient availability modify belowground carbon gain and root morphology in artificially defoliated silver birch seedlings?

    PubMed Central

    Huttunen, Liisa; Saravesi, Karita; Markkola, Annamari; Niemelä, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    Climate warming increases the risk of insect defoliation in boreal forests. Losses in photosynthetically active surfaces cause reduction in net primary productivity and often compromise carbon reserves of trees. The concurrent effects of climate change and removal of foliage on root growth responses and carbohydrate dynamics are poorly understood, especially in tree seedlings. We investigated if exposures to different combinations of elevated temperature, CO2, and nutrient availability modify belowground carbon gain and root morphology in artificially defoliated 1-year-old silver birches (Betula pendula). We quantified nonstructural carbohydrates (insoluble starch as a storage compound; soluble sucrose, fructose, and glucose) singly and in combination in fine roots of plants under winter dormancy. Also the total mass, fine root proportion, water content, and length of roots were defined. We hypothesized that the measured properties are lower in defoliated birch seedlings that grow with ample resources than with scarce resources. On average, fertilization markedly decreased both the proportion and the carbohydrate concentrations of fine roots in all seedlings, whereas the effect of fertilization on root water content and dry mass was the opposite. However, defoliation mitigated the effect of fertilization on the root water content, as well as on the proportion of fine roots and their carbohydrate concentrations by reversing the outcomes. Elevation in temperature decreased and elevation in CO2 increased the absolute contents of total nonstructural carbohydrates, whereas fertilization alleviated both these effects. Also the root length and mass increased by CO2 elevation. This confirms that surplus carbon in birch tissues is used as a substrate for storage compounds and for cell wall synthesis. To conclude, our results indicate that some, but not all elements of climate change alter belowground carbon gain and root morphology in defoliated silver birch seedlings. PMID

  15. Ryegrass pasture combined with partial total mixed ration reduces enteric methane emissions and maintains the performance of dairy cows during mid to late lactation.

    PubMed

    Dall-Orsoletta, Aline C; Almeida, João Gabriel R; Carvalho, Paulo C F; Savian, Jean V; Ribeiro-Filho, Henrique M N

    2016-06-01

    The inclusion of grazed pasture in dairy feeding systems based on a total mixed ration (TMR) reduces feed costs, benefits herd health, and reduces environmental impact. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of ryegrass pasture combined with a partial TMR on enteric methane emissions, dry matter intake (DMI), and performance of dairy cows from mid to late lactation. The experimental treatments included 100% TMR (control), partial TMR + 6h of continuous grazing (0900-1500 h), and partial TMR + 6h of grazing that was divided into 2 periods of 3h each that took place after milking (0900-1200 h; 1530-1830 h). Twelve F1 cows (Holstein × Jersey; 132±44 DIM) were divided into 6 lots and distributed in a 3×3 Latin square design with 3 periods of 21 d (15 d of adaptation and 6 d of evaluation). Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) pasture was used, and the TMR was composed of 80% corn silage, 18% soybean meal, and 2% mineral and vitamin mixture, based on dry matter. The same mixture was used for cows with access to pasture. The total DMI, milk production, and 4% fat-corrected milk were similar for all cows; however, the pasture DMI (7.4 vs. 6.0kg/d) and grazing period (+ 40 min/d) were higher in cows that had access to pasture for 2 periods of 3h compared with those that grazed for a continuous 6-h period. Methane emission was higher (656 vs. 547g/d) in confined cows than in those that received partial TMR + pasture. The inclusion of annual ryegrass pasture in the diet of dairy cows maintained animal performance and reduced enteric methane emissions. The percentage of grazed forage in the cows' diet increased when access to pasture was provided in 2 periods after the morning and afternoon milking. PMID:27016830

  16. Declines in dissolved silica concentrations in western Virginia streams (1988-2003): Gypsy moth defoliation stimulates diatoms?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grady, Amy E.; Scanlon, Todd M.; Galloway, James N.

    2007-03-01

    Dissolved silica concentrations in western Virginia streams showed a significant bias toward declines (p < 0.0001) over the time period from 1988 to 2003. Streams with the greatest declines were those that had the highest mean dissolved silica concentrations, specific to watersheds underlain by basaltic and granitic bedrock. We examined potential geochemical, hydrological, and biological factors that could account for the observed widespread declines, focusing on six core watersheds where weekly stream chemistry data were available. No relationships were evident between stream water dissolved silica concentrations and pH, a finding supported by the results from a geochemical model applied to the dominant bedrock mineralogy. Along with changes in watershed acidity, changes in precipitation and discharge were also discounted since no significant trends were observed over the study period. Analyses of two longer-term data sets that extend back to 1979 revealed that the initiation of the dissolved silica declines coincided with the timing of a gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) defoliation event. We develop a conceptual model centered on benthic diatoms, which are found within each of the six core watersheds but in greater abundance in the more silica-rich streams. Gypsy moth defoliation led to greater sunlight penetration and enhanced nitrate concentrations in the streams, which could have spurred population growth and silica uptake. The model can explain why the observed declines are primarily driven by decreased concentrations during low-flow conditions. This study illustrates lasting effects of disturbance on watershed biogeochemistry, in this case causing decadal-scale variability in stream water dissolved silica concentrations.

  17. Plot- and landscape-level changes in climate and vegetation following defoliation of exotic saltcedar (Tamarix sp.) from the biocontrol agent Diorhabda carinulata along a stream in the Mojave Desert (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bateman, H.L.; Nagler, P.L.; Glenn, E.P.

    2013-01-01

    The biocontrol agent, northern tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda carinulata), has been used to defoliate non-native saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) in USA western riparian systems since 2001. Biocontrol has the potential to impact biotic communities and climatic conditions in affected riparian areas. To determine the relationships between biocontrol establishment and effects on vegetation and climate at the plot and landscape scales, we measured temperature, relative humidity, foliage canopy, solar radiation, and used satellite imagery to assess saltcedar defoliation and evapotranspiration (ET) along the Virgin River in the Mojave Desert. Following defoliation solar radiation increased, daily humidity decreased, and maximum daily temperatures tended to increase. MODIS and Landsat satellite imagery showed defoliation was widespread, resulting in reductions in ET and vegetation indices. Because biocontrol beetles are spreading into new saltcedar habitats on arid western rivers, and the eventual equilibrium between beetles and saltcedar is unknown, it is necessary to monitor trends for ecosystem functions and higher trophic-level responses in habitats impacted by biocontrol.

  18. Effects of late gestation distillers grains supplementation on fall-calving beef cow performance and steer calf growth and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Wilson, T B; Schroeder, A R; Ireland, F A; Faulkner, D B; Shike, D W

    2015-10-01

    Fall-calving, mature Angus and Simmental × Angus cows ( = 251 total) and their progeny were used to evaluate the effects of late gestation dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) supplementation on cow performance and progeny growth and carcass characteristics. Cows were blocked by breed and allotted to 12 tall fescue pastures (6.8 ha average). Pastures were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: cows were offered 2.1 kg DM DDGS·cow·d (SUP; CP = 23%, fat = 7%; = 6 pastures) or were not offered a supplement (CON; = 6 pastures) 69 ± 9 d before expected calving date. Cows remained on treatments until calving. Once weekly, cows that had calved were removed from treatment pastures and were moved to new tall fescue pastures (21.6 ha average) where cows from both treatments were comingled without further supplementation. Cows ( = 74) were removed from study for calving more than 30 d after expected calving date, calf loss and injury, or euthanasia. Cow BW and BCS were recorded at the beginning of the supplementation period, after calving, and at breeding. Calf BW was taken at birth and early weaning (82 ± 14 d of age). After weaning, 71 steer progeny (representative of dam breed and treatment pastures) were transitioned to a common feedlot diet with individual feed intake monitored using the GrowSafe feeding system. Steers were slaughtered at 47 ± 4 d after a minimum 12th rib fat thickness (back fat) estimation of 0.6 cm, with cattle being shipped in 3 groups. Forage availability was not different between treatments ( = 0.69). Cows offered SUP gained more BW and BCS ( ≤ 0.02) during the supplementation period. There were no differences ( ≥ 0.12) in calving date, calf birth or weaning BW, or preweaning ADG. Cow BW at breeding was not different ( = 0.19); however, BCS at breeding was greater ( < 0.01) for cows offered supplement. No differences ( ≥ 0.11) in milk production, AI conception, or overall pregnancy rate were detected. For steer progeny, initial

  19. Sister-chromatid exchanges and cell-cycle delay in Chinese hamster V79 cells treated with 9 organophosphorus compounds (8 pesticides and 1 defoliant).

    PubMed

    Chen, H H; Sirianni, S R; Huang, C C

    1982-03-01

    Significant increase of sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE) in V79 cells treated with 2 organophosphorus pesticides (OPP), fenthion and oxydemeton-methyl, was observed. The other 7 compounds (6 OPP and 1 defoliant) namely, amaze, azinphos-methyl, bolstar, DEF-defoliant, fensulfothion, monitor and nemacur caused no increase of SCE frequencies at the doses tested. All the compounds except fensulfothion and oxydemeton-methyl induced cell-cycle delay in varying degrees. Cell-cycle delay caused by an OPP was found to be dose-dependent. Based on these data as well as others reported, it would appear that OPP which induce no SCE increase and no or slight cell-cycle delay could be considered as good candidates to substitute the pesticides that have been found to be harmful to the environment. PMID:6211614

  20. Development of a data management front end for use with a LANDSAT based information system. [assessing gypsy moth defoliation damage in Pennsylvania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, B. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    A user friendly front end was constructed to facilitate access to the LANDSAT mosaic data base supplied by JPL and to process both LANDSAT and ancillary data. Archieval and retrieval techniques were developed to efficiently handle this data base and make it compatible with requirements of the Pennsylvania Bureau of Forestry. Procedures are ready for: (1) forming the forest/nonforest mask in ORSER compressed map format using GSFC-supplied classification procedures; (2) registering data from a new scene (defoliated) to the mask (which may involve mosaicking if the area encompasses two LANDSAT scenes; (3) producing a masked new data set using the MASK program; (4) analyzing this data set to produce a map showing degrees of defoliation, output on the Versatec plotter; and (5) producing color composite maps by a diazo-type process.

  1. Pp6-FEH1 encodes an enzyme for degradation of highly polymerized levan and is transcriptionally induced by defoliation in timothy (Phleum pratense L.).

    PubMed

    Tamura, Ken-ihi; Sanada, Yasuharu; Tase, Kazuhiro; Komatsu, Toshinori; Yoshida, Midori

    2011-06-01

    The ability of grasses to regrow after defoliation by cutting or grazing is a vital factor in their survival and an important trait when they are used as forage crops. In temperate grass species accumulating fructans, defoliation induces the activity of a fructan exohydrolase (FEH) that degrades fructans to serve as a carbon source for regrowth. Here, a cDNA from timothy was cloned, named Pp6-FEH1, that showed similarity to wheat fructan 6-exohydrolase (6-FEH). The recombinant enzyme expressed in Pichia pastoris completely degraded fructans that were composed mainly of β(2,6)-linked and linear fructans (levan) with a high degree of polymerization (DP) in the crown tissues of timothy. The substrate specificity of Pp6-FEH1 differed from previously characterized enzymes with 6-FEH activity in fructan-accumulating plants: (i) Pp6-FEH1 showed 6-FEH activity against levan (mean DP 20) that was 4-fold higher than against 6-kestotriose (DP 3), indicating that Pp6-FEH1 has a preference for β(2,6)-linked fructans with high DP; (ii) Pp6-FEH1 had significant activity against β(2,1)-linked fructans, but considerably less than against β(2,6)-linked fructans; (iii) Pp6-FEH1 had weak invertase activity, and its 6-FEH activity was inhibited slightly by sucrose. In the stubble of seedlings and in young haplocorms from adult timothy plants, transcripts of Pp6-FEH1 were significantly increased within 3 h of defoliation, followed by an increase in 6-FEH activity and in the degradation of fructans. These results suggest that Pp6-FEH1 plays a role in the degradation of fructans and the mobilization of carbon sources for regrowth after defoliation in timothy. PMID:21317211

  2. Pp6-FEH1 encodes an enzyme for degradation of highly polymerized levan and is transcriptionally induced by defoliation in timothy (Phleum pratense L.)

    PubMed Central

    Tamura, Ken-ichi; Sanada, Yasuharu; Tase, Kazuhiro; Komatsu, Toshinori; Yoshida, Midori

    2011-01-01

    The ability of grasses to regrow after defoliation by cutting or grazing is a vital factor in their survival and an important trait when they are used as forage crops. In temperate grass species accumulating fructans, defoliation induces the activity of a fructan exohydrolase (FEH) that degrades fructans to serve as a carbon source for regrowth. Here, a cDNA from timothy was cloned, named Pp6-FEH1, that showed similarity to wheat fructan 6-exohydrolase (6-FEH). The recombinant enzyme expressed in Pichia pastoris completely degraded fructans that were composed mainly of β(2,6)-linked and linear fructans (levan) with a high degree of polymerization (DP) in the crown tissues of timothy. The substrate specificity of Pp6-FEH1 differed from previously characterized enzymes with 6-FEH activity in fructan-accumulating plants: (i) Pp6-FEH1 showed 6-FEH activity against levan (mean DP 20) that was 4-fold higher than against 6-kestotriose (DP 3), indicating that Pp6-FEH1 has a preference for β(2,6)-linked fructans with high DP; (ii) Pp6-FEH1 had significant activity against β(2,1)-linked fructans, but considerably less than against β(2,6)-linked fructans; (iii) Pp6-FEH1 had weak invertase activity, and its 6-FEH activity was inhibited slightly by sucrose. In the stubble of seedlings and in young haplocorms from adult timothy plants, transcripts of Pp6-FEH1 were significantly increased within 3 h of defoliation, followed by an increase in 6-FEH activity and in the degradation of fructans. These results suggest that Pp6-FEH1 plays a role in the degradation of fructans and the mobilization of carbon sources for regrowth after defoliation in timothy. PMID:21317211

  3. Does gibberellin biosynthesis play a critical role in the growth of Lolium perenne? Evidence from a transcriptional analysis of gibberellin and carbohydrate metabolic genes after defoliation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qianhe; Jones, Chris S.; Parsons, Anthony J.; Xue, Hong; Rasmussen, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Global meat and milk production depends to a large extent on grazed pastures, with Lolium perenne being the major forage grass in temperate regions. Defoliation and subsequent regrowth of leaf blades is a major and essential event with respect to L. perenne growth and productivity. Following defoliation, carbohydrates (mainly fructans and sucrose) have to be mobilized from heterotrophic tissues to provide energy and carbon for regrowth of photosynthetic tissues. This mobilization of reserve carbohydrates requires a substantial change in the expression of genes coding for enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Here we tested the hypothesis that gibberellins (GA) are at the core of the processes regulating the expression of these genes. Thus, we examined the transcript profiles of genes involved in carbohydrate and GA metabolic pathways across a time course regrowth experiment. Our results show that following defoliation, the immediate reduction of carbohydrate concentrations in growing tissues is associated with a concomitant increase in the expression of genes encoding carbohydrate mobilizing invertases, and was also associated with a strong decrease in the expression of fructan synthesizing fructosyltransferase genes. We also show that the decrease in fructan levels is preceded by increased expression of the GA activating gene GA3-oxidase and decreased expression of the GA inactivating gene GA2-oxidase in sheaths. GA3-oxidase expression was negatively, while GA2-oxidase positively linked to sucrose concentrations. This study provides indicative evidence that gibberellins might play a role in L. perenne regrowth following defoliation and we hypothesize that there is a link between gibberellin regulation and sugar metabolism in L. perenne. PMID:26579182

  4. The effect of high-starch diets fed to beef cows during late gestation on the feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fetus requires glucose as an energy source; hence, it was hypothesized that diets rich in glycogenic substrates during late gestation would yield offspring that have a greater potential to produce a high quality carcass. In November of 2005 and 2006, 54 and 59, respectively, non-lactating cows o...

  5. Fluxes of Reserve-Derived and Currently Assimilated Carbon and Nitrogen in Perennial Ryegrass Recovering from Defoliation. The Regrowing Tiller and Its Component Functionally Distinct Zones1

    PubMed Central

    Schnyder, Hans; de Visser, Ries

    1999-01-01

    The quantitative significance of reserves and current assimilates in regrowing tillers of severely defoliated plants of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) was assessed by a new approach, comprising 13C/12C and 15N/14N steady-state labeling and separation of sink and source zones. The functionally distinct zones showed large differences in the kinetics of currently assimilated C and N. These are interpreted in terms of ”substrate” and ”tissue” flux among zones and C and N turnover within zones. Tillers refoliated rapidly, although C and N supply was initially decreased. Rapid refoliation was associated with (a) transient depletion of water-soluble carbohydrates and dilution of structural biomass in the immature zone of expanding leaves, (b) rapid transition to current assimilation-derived growth, and (c) rapid reestablishment of a balanced C:N ratio in growth substrate. This balance (C:N, approximately 8.9 [w/w] in new biomass) indicated coregulation of growth by C and N supply and resulted from complementary fluxes of reserve- and current assimilation-derived C and N. Reserves were the dominant N source until approximately 3 d after defoliation. Amino-C constituted approximately 60% of the net influx of reserve C during the first 2 d. Carbohydrate reserves were an insignificant source of C for tiller growth after d 1. We discuss the physiological mechanisms contributing to defoliation tolerance. PMID:10198102

  6. Photosynthesis and water-use efficiency of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) in relation to pear thrips defoliation.

    PubMed

    Ellsworth, D S; Tyree, M T; Parker, B L; Skinner, M

    1994-06-01

    An experimental introduction of pear thrips (Taeniothrips inconsequens Uzel), a major defoliator in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) forests in northeastern North America, was conducted in a field plantation to determine if compensatory gas exchange occurs in response to feeding damage by this piercing-sucking insect. Sugar maple trees were enclosed in netting (167 micro m mesh) and pear thrips adults were introduced before leaf expansion in the spring. Pear thrips reduced whole-tree leaf area by approximately 23% and reduced leaf size (both mass and area) by 20% in the upper crown. Measurements of net CO(2) assimilation rate (A(net)) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) were made on tagged foliage that was later analyzed for stable carbon isotope composition (delta(13)C) to provide estimates of short- and long-term leaf water use efficiency (WUE). Pear thrips feeding reduced A(net) for fully expanded leaves by approximately 20%, although leaf chlorophyll content and leaf mass per unit area were apparently not affected. Comparison of A(net), g(s), instantaneous WUE and leaf delta(13)C between damaged and control trees as well as visibly undamaged versus moderately damaged foliage on pear thrips-infested trees indicated that there were no effects of pear thrips feeding damage on WUE or leaf delta(13)C. Long-term WUE among sugar maple trees in the field plantation, indicated by leaf delta(13)C analysis, was related to shorter-term estimates of leaf gas exchange behavior such as g(s) and calculated leaf intercellular CO(2) concentration (C(i)). We conclude that pear thrips feeding has no effect on leaf WUE, but at the defoliation levels in our experiment, it may reduce leaf A(net), as a result of direct tissue damage or through reduced g(s). Therefore, even small reductions in leaf A(net) by pear thrips feeding damage may have an important effect on the seasonal carbon balance of sugar maple when integrated over the entire growing season. PMID:14967678

  7. Wood Anatomy and Insect Defoliator Systems: Is there an anatomical response to sustained feeding by the western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis) on Douglas-fir (Pseudotusga menziesii)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axelson, Jodi; Gärtner, Holger; Alfaro, René; Smith, Dan

    2013-04-01

    The western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman) is the most widespread and destructive defoliator of coniferous forests in western North America, and has a long-term coexistence with its primary host tree, Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Franco). Western spruce budworm (WSB) outbreaks usually last for several years, and cause reductions in annual growth, stem defects, and regeneration delays. In British Columbia, the WSB is the second most damaging insect after the mountain pine beetle, and sustained and/or severe defoliation can result in the mortality of host trees. Numerous studies have used tree rings to reconstruct WSB outbreaks across long temporal scales, to evaluate losses in stand productivity, and examine isotope ratios. Although some studies have looked at the impacts of artificial defoliation on balsam fir in eastern North America, there has been no prior research on how WSB outbreaks affect the anatomical structure of the stem as described by intra-annual wood density and potential cell size variations. The objective of this study was to anatomically examine the response of Douglas-fir to sustained WSB outbreaks in two regions of southern British Columbia. We hypothesize that the anatomical intra-annual characteristics of the tree rings, such as cell wall thickness, latewood cell size, and/or lumen area changes during sustained WSB outbreaks. To test this hypothesis we sampled four permanent sample plots in coastal and dry interior sites, which had annually resolved defoliation data collected over a 7-12 year period. At each site diameter-at-breast height (cm), height (m), and crown position were recorded and three increment cores were extracted from 25 trees. Increment cores were prepared to permit anatomical and x-ray density analyses. For each tree, a 15µm thick micro section was cut from the radial plane. Digital images of the micro sections were captured and processed. In each annual ring, features such as cell lumen area (µm2

  8. The state of microbial complexes in soils of forest ecosystems after fires and defoliation of stands by gypsy moths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogorodskaya, A. V.; Baranchikov, Yu. N.; Ivanova, G. A.

    2009-03-01

    The state of microbial cenoses in the soils of forest ecosystems damaged by fires of different strengths and gypsy moth outbreaks (Central Siberia) was assessed by the intensity of the basal respiration, the content of carbon of the microbial biomass, and the microbial metabolic quotient. The degree of the disturbance of the microbial cenoses in the soils under pine forests after fires was higher than that in the soils under the forests defoliated by gypsy moths. The greatest changes of the microbial complexes were recorded after the fires of high and medium intensity. In the litters, the content of the microbial biomass, the intensity of basal respiration, and the microbial metabolic quotient value were restored on the fifth year after the fires, whereas in the upper (0-10 cm) soil layer, these parameters still differed from those in the control variant, especially after the highly intense fires. After the weak fires, the ecophysiological state of the microbial complexes was restored within two-three years.

  9. Enzymatic response of the eucalypt defoliator Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) to a bis-benzamidine proteinase Inhibitor. i.

    PubMed

    Marinho-Prado, Jeanne Scardini; Lourenção, A L; Guedes, R N C; Pallini, A; Oliveira, J A; Oliveira, M G A

    2012-10-01

    Ingestion of proteinase inhibitors leads to hyperproduction of digestive proteinases, limiting the bioavailability of essential amino acids for protein synthesis, which affects insect growth and development. However, the effects of proteinase inhibitors on digestive enzymes can lead to an adaptive response by the insect. In here, we assessed the biochemical response of midgut proteinases from the eucalypt defoliator Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll) to different concentrations of berenil, a bis-benzamidine proteinase inhibitor, on eucalyptus. Eucalyptus leaves were immersed in berenil solutions at different concentrations and fed to larvae of T. arnobia. Mortality was assessed daily. The proteolytic activity in the midgut of T. arnobia was assessed after feeding on plants sprayed with aqueous solutions of berenil, fed to fifth instars of T. arnobia for 48 h before midgut removal for enzymatic assays. Larvae of T. arnobia were able to overcome the effects of the lowest berenil concentrations by increasing their trypsin-like activity, but not as berenil concentration increased, despite the fact that the highest berenil concentration resulted in overproduction of trypsin-like proteinases. Berenil also prevented the increase of the cysteine proteinases activity in response to trypsin inhibition. PMID:23950094

  10. CHANGES IN THE PHYSIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE AND ENERGY METABOLISM OF AN ESTUARINE MYSID

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measures of physiological performance and energy metabolism were made on an estuarine mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) exposed throughout a life cycle to the defoliant DEF. EF concentrations > 0.246 ug/l reduced survival through release of the first brood. oung production was completely ...

  11. Low temperature and defoliation affect fructan-metabolizing enzymes in different regions of the rhizophores of Vernonia herbacea.

    PubMed

    Portes, Maria Teresa; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia L; de Carvalho, Maria Angela M

    2008-10-01

    In addition to the storage function, fructans in Asteraceae from floras with seasonal growth have been associated with drought and freezing tolerance. Vernonia herbacea, native of the Brazilian Cerrado, bears underground reserve organs, rhizophores, accumulating inulin-type fructans. The rhizophore is a cauline branched system with positive geotropic growth, with the apex (distal region) presenting younger tissues; sprouting of new shoots occurs by development of buds located on the opposite end (proximal region). Plants induced to sprouting by excision of the aerial organs present increased 1-fructan exohydrolase (1-FEH) activity in the proximal region, while plants at the vegetative stage present high 1-sucrose:sucrose fructosyltransferase (1-SST) in the distal region. The aim of the present study was to analyze how low temperature (5 degrees C) could affect fructan-metabolizing enzymes and fructan composition in the different regions of the rhizophores of intact and excised plants. 1-SST and 1-fructan:fructan fructosyltransferase (1-FFT) were higher in the distal region decreasing towards the proximal region in intact plants at the vegetative phase, and were drastically diminished when cold and/or excision were imposed. In contrast, 1-FEH increased in the proximal region of treated plants, mainly in excised plants subjected to cold. The ratio fructo-oligo to fructo-polysaccharides was significantly higher in plants exposed to low temperature (1.17 in intact plants and 1.64 in excised plants) than in plants exposed to natural temperature conditions (0.84 in intact vegetative plants and 0.58 in excised plants), suggesting that oligosaccharides are involved in the tolerance of plants to low temperature via 1-FEH, in addition to 1-FFT. Principal component analysis indicated different response mechanisms in fructan metabolism under defoliation and low temperature, which could be interpreted as part of the strategies to undergo unfavorable environmental conditions

  12. The importance of wood nutrient storage in tropical forest nitrogen and phosphorus cycles: Insights from a sapling defoliation experiment in Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heineman, K.; Dalling, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    The availability of soil nutrients limits productivity and influences tree species distribution in tropical forests. Given the scarcity of soil resources, trees in tropical forests should be under selection to store nutrients for periods when nutrient demand exceeds supply. However, little is known about the capacity of trees to remobilize nutrients from long-lived woody biomass in tropical forests, despite wood sequestering a large proportion of bioavailable nutrients in tropical ecosystems. We evaluated nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) remobilization from woody biomass via experimental defoliation of saplings from four widely distributed genera of tropical trees in Panama. Focal saplings were sampled in high and low fertility habitats in both montane and lowland forests to maximize contrast in the availability and identity of limiting nutrients. N and P concentrations of stem wood were measured before defoliation and after subsequent re-foliation response to calculate wood remobilization efficiency. Initial wood P concentrations differed significantly within taxa between low and high fertility habitats, whereas initial wood N differed significantly within taxa between lowland and montane forests, but not among soil fertility habitats. In three of four genera studied, wood P concentrations declined after refoliation at both elevations, and the proportion of wood P remobilized was greater on low fertility compared to high fertility sites. In contrast, significant N remobilization was restricted to the low fertility montane site, where nitrogen is most likely to limit plant growth. These findings provide evidence that a significant fraction of N and P in woody biomass is can be remobilized in response to asymmetry in nutrient supply and demand, as opposed consisting primarily of recalcitrant structural material. Furthermore, variation in remobilization responses of species to defoliation provides additional evidence that multiple nutrient-limitation in tropical

  13. Effects of artificial defoliation of pines on the structure and physiology of the soil fungal community of a mixed pine-spruce forest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullings, Ken; Raleigh, Christopher; New, Michael H.; Henson, Joan

    2005-01-01

    Loss of photosynthetic area can affect soil microbial communities by altering the availability of fixed carbon. We used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and Biolog filamentous-fungus plates to determine the effects of artificial defoliation of pines in a mixed pine-spruce forest on the composition of the fungal community in a forest soil. As measured by DGGE, two fungal species were affected significantly by the defoliation of pines (P < 0.001); the frequency of members of the ectomycorrhizal fungus genus Cenococcum decreased significantly, while the frequency of organisms of an unidentified soil fungus increased. The decrease in the amount of Cenococcum organisms may have occurred because of the formation of extensive hyphal networks by species of this genus, which require more of the carbon fixed by their host, or because this fungus is dependent upon quantitative differences in spruce root exudates. The defoliation of pines did not affect the overall composition of the soil fungal community or fungal-species richness (number of species per core). Biolog filamentous-fungus plate assays indicated a significant increase (P < 0.001) in the number of carbon substrates utilized by the soil fungi and the rate at which these substrates were used, which could indicate an increase in fungal-species richness. Thus, either small changes in the soil fungal community give rise to significant increases in physiological capabilities or PCR bias limits the reliability of the DGGE results. These data indicate that combined genetic and physiological assessments of the soil fungal community are needed to accurately assess the effect of disturbance on indigenous microbial systems.

  14. Late-Notice HIE Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hejduk, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    Provide a response to MOWG action item 1410-01: Analyze close approaches which have required mission team action on short notice. Determine why the approaches were identified later in the process than most other events. Method: Performed an analysis to determine whether there is any correlation between late notice event identification and space weather, sparse tracking, or high drag objects, which would allow preventive action to be taken Examined specific late notice events identified by missions as problematic to try to identify root cause and attempt to relate them to the correlation analysis.

  15. Effect of Medicinal Plant By-products Supplementation to Total Mixed Ration on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Economic Efficacy in the Late Fattening Period of Hanwoo Steers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, S. J.; Kim, D. H.; Guan, Le Luo; Ahn, S. K.; Cho, K. W.; Lee, Sung S.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of medicinal plant by-products (MPB) supplementation to a total mixed ration (TMR) on growth, carcass characteristics and economic efficacy in the late fattening period of Hanwoo steers. Twenty seven steers (body weight [BW], 573±57 kg) were assigned to 3 treatment groups so that each treatment based on BW contained 9 animals. All groups received ad libitum TMR throughout the feeding trial until slaughter (from 24 to 30 months of age) and treatments were as follows: control, 1,000 g/kg TMR; treatment 1 (T1), 970 g/kg TMR and 30 g/kg MPB; treatment 2 (T2), 950 g/kg TMR and 50 g/kg MPB. Initial and final BW were not different among treatments. Resultant data were analyzed using general linear models of SAS. Average daily gain and feed efficiency were higher (p<0.05) for T1 than control, but there was no difference between control and T2. Plasma albumin showed low-, intermediate- and high-level (p<0.05) for control, T1 and T2, whereas non-esterified fatty acid was high-, intermediate- and high-level (p<0.05) for control, T1 and T2, respectively. Carcass weight, carcass rate, backfat thickness and rib eye muscle area were not affected by MPB supplementation, whereas quality and yield grades were highest (p<0.05) for T1 and T2, respectively. Daily feed costs were decreased by 0.5% and 0.8% and carcass prices were increased by 18.1% and 7.6% for T1 and T2 compared to control, resulting from substituting TMR with 30 and 50 g/kg MPB, respectively. In conclusion, the substituting TMR by 30 g/kg MPB may be a potential feed supplement approach to improve economic efficacy in the late fattening period of Hanwoo steers. PMID:26580440

  16. Effect of β-hydroxy β-methyl butyrate supplementation of sows in late gestation and lactation on sow production of colostrum and milk and piglet performance.

    PubMed

    Flummer, C; Theil, P K

    2012-12-01

    This trial was conducted to investigate whether β-hydroxy β-methyl butyrate (HMB) supplementation during late gestation and throughout lactation would influence colostrum and milk production of sows and neonatal piglet survival (0 to 24 h). Control sows (CON; n = 8) were fed a standard lactation diet from day 108 of gestation and until 28 d after parturition (weaning). Sows fed HMB (n = 8) were fed the CON diet topdressed with 2.5 g Ca(HMB)(2) equally divided at each 2 daily meals throughout the experiment. Litters were standardized to 12 piglets per sow within experimental group on day 1, and both groups weaned on average 11.3 piglets per sow. Blood samples were taken from the sows by jugular vein puncture on days -3, 1, 10, 17, and 28 relative to parturition. Piglets were weighed at birth, after 24 h, and repeatedly throughout lactation to estimate the colostrum and milk yield of the sows. Samples of colostrum and milk were collected and analyzed. Sows fed HMB had a higher colostrum yield (512 vs. 434 ± 30 g/piglet; P = 0.05) estimated based on the piglet weight gain during the colostrum period (132 vs. 76 ± 21 g/piglet; P = 0.05) and the mortality rate of HMB piglets were lower during the colostrum period (0.0 vs. 4.8%, P < 0.05). The HMB supplementation did not affect colostrum composition (P > 0.10). Supplementation with HMB increased milk content of fat (7.40 vs. 6.47 ± 0.30%; P < 0.05), dry matter (19.0 vs. 18.2 ± 0.26; P < 0.05), and energy (4.81 vs. 4.47 ± 0.12 kJ/g; P < 0.05) and reduced the sow backfat at weaning (11.4 vs. 14.5 ± 1.0 mm; P < 0.05). The HMB piglets weighed less at weaning than the control piglets (7.48 vs. 8.30 ± 0.20 kg; P < 0.01), although the milk yield was not reduced. Plasma acetate was higher in HMB sows [202 (175; 233) vs. 158 (141; 179) μM; P < 0.05] whereas plasma 3-hydroxy butyrate was reduced in HMB sows during lactation. In conclusion, HMB supplemented to sows improved the colostrum production but inhibited piglet

  17. Growth Performance by Fall-Calving Cow-Calf Pairs Grazing Tall Fescue Pastures with Different Proportions Stockpiled Until Late Fall

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stockpiling tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is a viable but variable management practice used to reduce winter feed costs for cattle. The objective of this 2-yr study was to determine the impact of stockpiling different proportions of total fescue acreage on growth performance of fall-calv...

  18. Associations of fatigue from mid to late life with physical performance and strength in early old age: Results from a British prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Mänty, Minna; Kuh, Diana; Cooper, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine associations of fatigue in mid and later life with physical performance and strength in early old age. METHODS Data on approximately 1800 men and women from the UK Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development with data on fatigue at ages 43 and 60-64 years were used. Fatigue was defined as perceived tiredness and was assessed prospectively at ages 43 and 60-64. At both ages, participants were categorized as having no, occasional or frequent fatigue. Physical performance and strength were measured at age 60-64 using four objective measures: grip strength, standing balance, chair rising, and timed get-up-and-go (TUG) tests. RESULTS There were associations between reports of frequent fatigue at both ages and poorer grip strength, chair rise and TUG performance at 60-64 years. Furthermore, individuals reporting frequent fatigue at both ages had weaker grip strength (β -4.09 kg, 95% CI -6.71, -1.48), and slower chair rise (β -4.65 rep./min, 95% CI -6.65, -2.64) and TUG (β -4.22 cm/s, 95% CI -12.16, -2.28) speeds when compared to those who reported no fatigue at both time points. These associations were robust and were maintained after adjustment for a range of covariates including physical activity and health status. CONCLUSIONS Reports of frequent fatigue were associated with poorer physical performance in early old age, especially if sustained from mid to later life. These findings indicate that it is not just fatigue but fatigue sustained across adulthood that has implications for later life functioning. PMID:26176776

  19. Relationship between the degree of insulin resistance during late gestation and postpartum performance in dairy cows and factors that affect growth and metabolic status of their calves

    PubMed Central

    KAWASHIMA, Chiho; MUNAKATA, Megumi; SHIMIZU, Takashi; MIYAMOTO, Akio; KIDA, Katsuya; MATSUI, Motozumi

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of insulin resistance (IR) during the close-up dry period on the metabolic status and performance of dairy cows as well as to determine the effects on body weight (BW) and metabolic status of their calves. An insulin tolerance test (ITT) was conducted by administering 0.05 IU/kg BW of insulin to 34 multiparous Holstein cows at 3 weeks prepartum. Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 45 and 60 min after insulin injection, and cows were divided into two groups based on the time required for glucose to reach the minimum levels [non-IR (NIR), 45 min (n=28); and IR, 60 min (n=6)]. Blood or milk sampling and body condition score (BCS) estimation were performed twice weekly during the experimental period. Blood samples from calves were collected immediately after birth. Cows with IR showed lower BCS (P<0.05) and serum urea nitrogen (P<0.05) and glucose concentration (P=0.05) before calving, and lower serum non-esterified fatty acid concentration (P<0.05) and milk yield (P<0.05) and earlier resumption of luteal activity (P<0.05) after calving; their calves showed lower BW (P<0.05) and plasma insulin-like growth factor-I concentration (P<0.001) and higher plasma insulin concentration (P<0.05). In conclusion, IR at 3 weeks prepartum in dairy cows is related to postpartum metabolic status and performance along with growth and metabolic status of their calves. PMID:26781705

  20. Relationship between the degree of insulin resistance during late gestation and postpartum performance in dairy cows and factors that affect growth and metabolic status of their calves.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Chiho; Munakata, Megumi; Shimizu, Takashi; Miyamoto, Akio; Kida, Katsuya; Matsui, Motozumi

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of insulin resistance (IR) during the close-up dry period on the metabolic status and performance of dairy cows as well as to determine the effects on body weight (BW) and metabolic status of their calves. An insulin tolerance test (ITT) was conducted by administering 0.05 IU/kg BW of insulin to 34 multiparous Holstein cows at 3 weeks prepartum. Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 45 and 60 min after insulin injection, and cows were divided into two groups based on the time required for glucose to reach the minimum levels [non-IR (NIR), 45 min (n=28); and IR, 60 min (n=6)]. Blood or milk sampling and body condition score (BCS) estimation were performed twice weekly during the experimental period. Blood samples from calves were collected immediately after birth. Cows with IR showed lower BCS (P<0.05) and serum urea nitrogen (P<0.05) and glucose concentration (P=0.05) before calving, and lower serum non-esterified fatty acid concentration (P<0.05) and milk yield (P<0.05) and earlier resumption of luteal activity (P<0.05) after calving; their calves showed lower BW (P<0.05) and plasma insulin-like growth factor-I concentration (P<0.001) and higher plasma insulin concentration (P<0.05). In conclusion, IR at 3 weeks prepartum in dairy cows is related to postpartum metabolic status and performance along with growth and metabolic status of their calves. PMID:26781705

  1. Complications in late pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Meguerdichian, David

    2012-11-01

    Complications of late pregnancy are managed infrequently in the emergency department and, thus, can pose a challenge when the emergency physician encounters acute presentations. An expert understanding of the anatomic and physiologic changes and possible complications of late pregnancy is vital to ensure proper evaluation and care for both mother and fetus. This article focuses on the late pregnancy issues that the emergency physician will face, from the bleeding and instability of abruptio placentae to the wide spectrum of complications and management strategies encountered with preterm labor. PMID:23137403

  2. Potential of VIIRS Time Series Data for Aiding the USDA Forest Service Early Warning System for Forest Health Threats: A Gypsy Moth Defoliation Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Ryan, Robert E.; McKellip, Rodney

    2008-01-01

    The Healthy Forest Restoration Act of 2003 mandated that a national forest threat Early Warning System (EWS) be developed. The USFS (USDA Forest Service) is currently building this EWS. NASA is helping the USFS to integrate remotely sensed data into the EWS, including MODIS data for monitoring forest disturbance at broad regional scales. This RPC experiment assesses the potential of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data for contribution to the EWS. In doing so, the RPC project employed multitemporal simulated VIIRS and MODIS data for detecting and monitoring forest defoliation from the non-native Eurasian gypsy moth (Lymantria despar). Gypsy moth is an invasive species threatening eastern U.S. hardwood forests. It is one of eight major forest insect threats listed in the Healthy Forest Restoration Act of 2003. This RPC experiment is relevant to several nationally important mapping applications, including carbon management, ecological forecasting, coastal management, and disaster management

  3. Effects of ozone and sulfur dioxide on forage and range species. Volume 2. Under simulated grazing (defoliation). Final report Oct 80-Jun 83

    SciTech Connect

    Younger, V.B.; Shropshire, F.M.; Thompson, C.R.

    1983-06-30

    Soft chess and broadleaf filaree plants were grown in pots and exposed to sulfur dioxide in open-top field chambers. Plants were fumigated with 0.0 ppm, 0.1 ppm or 0./sub 2/'' ppm sulfur dioxide for six hours per day, five days per week over an 18 week period. Plants were harvested at week 9, week 13 and week 18. Defoliation treatments were carried out on one-half of the plants. Chronic exposure of nonclipped soft chess to SO/sub 2/ led to reduced yield. Clipping of soft chess usually cancelled the SO/sub 2/ effects. Broadleaf filaree appeared more tolerant to SO/sub 2/ than soft chess.

  4. Late running is not too late against Alzheimer's pathology.

    PubMed

    Herring, Arne; Münster, Yvonne; Metzdorf, Judith; Bolczek, Bastien; Krüssel, Sarah; Krieter, David; Yavuz, Ilkay; Karim, Fro; Roggendorf, Constanze; Stang, Anthony; Wang, Yachao; Hermann, Dirk M; Teuber-Hanselmann, Sarah; Keyvani, Kathy

    2016-10-01

    In the last decade a vast number of animal studies have produced overwhelming evidence that exercise not only compensates for memory loss by increasing brain plasticity and cognitive reserve but also directly counteracts Alzheimer-like pathology when provided before disease onset or in early disease stages. But so far, there is little knowledge about therapeutic effects of training when started in advanced disease stages. In the present study we show that following seven months of sedentary life style five months of wheel running, started four months after disease onset was still able to mitigate at least some aspects of the full-blown Alzheimer's pathology in TgCRND8 mice. Late running had mild but significant effects on structural plasticity by increasing the dendritic complexity. It further reduced beta-amyloid (Aβ) plaque burden and enhanced Aβ clearance across the blood-brain barrier, along with attenuating microgliosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, and autophagy deficits, resulting in better memory performance and less agitation. However, unlike early exercise, late running did not affect abnormal amyloid precursor protein metabolism, tau pathology, or angiogenesis. These results allow concluding that it is never too late to counteract Alzheimer's disease with physical training but the earlier the intervention starts, the more pronounced is the therapeutic potential. PMID:27312772

  5. Measuring Phenological Changes due to Defoliation of the Non-Native Species, Saltcedar (Tamarisk) Following Episodic Foliage Removal by the Beetle Diorhabda elongate and Phenological Impacts on Forage Quality for Insectivorous Birds on the Dolores River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagler, P. L.; Dennison, P. E.; Hultine, K. R.; van Riper, C.; Glenn, E. P.

    2008-12-01

    Since its introduction to the western U.S. more than a century ago, tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) has become dominant or sub-dominant over many major arid, and semi-arid river systems and their tributaries. The presence of tamarisk has been cited for reducing water availability for human enterprise and biodiversity, displacing native vegetation and for reducing habitat quality for wildlife. With increasing emphasis by public and private sectors on controlling saltcedar (Tamarix chinensis) in the western US, there will likely be a dramatic change in riparian vegetation composition over the course of the next several decades. The rates at which these changes will occur, and the resultant effects on riparian insects and birds that utilize insects for food, are presently unknown. Effects on riparian vegetation communities, resulting from changes in host plant species composition, will likely include changes in plant biomass, microclimate changes, and plant species diversity. These changes could potentially have a profound impact on migratory and breeding birds within riparian corridors throughout the southwest. Recently, the saltcedar leaf beetle (Diorhabda elongata) was released as a tamarisk biocontrol agent. This beetle has successfully defoliated tamarisk where it has been introduced, but there are currently no comprehensive programs in place for monitoring the rapid spread of Diorhabda, the impact of defoliation on habitat and water resources, or the long-term impact of defoliation on tamarisk. We used higher spatial resolution ASTER data and coarser MODIS data for monitoring defoliation caused by Diorhabda elongata and subsequent changes in evapotranspiration (ET). Widespread tamarisk defoliation was observed in an eastern Utah study area during summers 2007, 2008. We measured stem sap flux, leaf carbon isotope ratios, leaf area, LAI, and vegetation indices from mounted visible and infrared cameras and satellite imagery. The cameras were paired on towers installed 30

  6. Lateness to School Remediation Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugwuegbulam, Charles N.; Ibrahim, Haj. Naheed

    2015-01-01

    Primary and secondary school in Nigeria encourage punctuality to school yet a good number of the learners came late to school. This is especially true in the case of day students. Learners who come late to school are usually punished in one way or the other yet the lateness to school phenomenon still persist. Lateness to school behaviour affects…

  7. Late Mitochondrial Acquisition, Really?

    PubMed Central

    Degli Esposti, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a timely critique of a recent Nature paper by Pittis and Gabaldón that has suggested a late origin of mitochondria in eukaryote evolution. It shows that the inferred ancestry of many mitochondrial proteins has been incorrectly assigned by Pittis and Gabaldón to bacteria other than the aerobic proteobacteria from which the ancestor of mitochondria originates, thereby questioning the validity of their suggestion that mitochondrial acquisition may be a late event in eukaryote evolution. The analysis and approach presented here may guide future studies to resolve the true ancestry of mitochondria. PMID:27289097

  8. Multiresidue analysis of cotton defoliant, herbicide, and insecticide residues in water by solid-phase extraction and GC-NPD, GC-MS, and HPLC-diode array detection.

    PubMed

    Potter, T L; Marti, L; Belflower, S; Truman, C C

    2000-09-01

    A multiresidue procedure was developed for analysis of cotton pesticide and harvest-aid chemicals in water using solid-phase extraction and analysis by GC-NPD, GC-MS, and HPLC-DAD. Target compounds included the defoliants tribufos, dimethipin, thidiazuron; the herbicide diuron; and the insecticide methyl parathion. Three solid-phase extraction (SPE) media, octadecylsilyl (ODS), graphitized carbon black (GCB), and a divinylbenzene-N-vinyl pyrollidine copolymer (DVBVP), were evaluated. On GCB and ODS, recoveries varied depending on compound type. Recoveries were quantitative for all compounds on DVBVP, ranging from 87 to 115% in spiked deionized water and surface runoff. The method detection limit was less than 0.1 microg L(-)(1). SPE with DVBVP was applied to post-defoliation samples of surface runoff and tile drainage from a cotton research plot and surface runoff from a commercial field. The research plot was defoliated with a tank mixture of dimethipin and thidiazuron, and the commercial field, with tribufos. Dimethipin was detected (1.9-9.6 microg L(-)(1)) in all research plot samples. In the commercial field samples, tribufos concentration ranged from 0.1 to 135 microg L(-)(1). An exponentially decreasing concentration trend was observed with each successive storm event. PMID:10995322

  9. The appropriate standardized ileal digestible tryptophan to lysine ratio improves pig performance and regulates hormones and muscular amino acid transporters in late finishing gilts fed low-protein diets.

    PubMed

    Ma, W F; Zhang, S H; Zeng, X F; Liu, X T; Xie, C Y; Zhang, G J; Qiao, S Y

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of various standardized ileal digestible (SID) Trp to Lys ratios on the performance and carcass characteristics of late finishing gilts receiving low-CP (9.6%) diets supplemented with crystalline AA. Ninety gilts (89.1 ± 5.1 kg) were used in a dose-response study conducted for 35 d. Crystalline Trp (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, or 0.6 g/kg) was added to a corn-wheat bran basal diet providing SID Trp to Lys ratios of 0.12, 0.15, 0.18, 0.21, or 0.24. Each diet was fed to 6 pens of pigs with 3 gilts per pen. At the end of the experiment, 30 gilts (1 pig per pen) were slaughtered to evaluate carcass traits and meat quality (BW = 121 kg). Increasing the SID Trp to Lys ratio increased ADG (linear and quadratic effect, < 0.05) and also improved G:F (linear and quadratic effect, < 0.05). Serum urea nitrogen (SUN) decreased as the SID Trp to Lys ratio increased (linear and quadratic effects, < 0.05). A quadratic effect of L* light and marbling in the longissimus dorsi was observed as the dietary SID Trp to Lys ratio increased ( < 0.05). Increasing the SID Trp to Lys ratio increased the level of serum GH (quadratic effect, < 0.05) and also increased the level of serum IGF-1 (linear and quadratic effect, < 0.05). Increasing the SID Trp to Lys ratio increased the protein abundance of the muscular AA transporter of sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2) in the longissimus dorsi muscle (linear and quadratic effect, < 0.05). The optimum SID Trp to Lys ratios to maximize ADG and G:F as well as to minimize SUN levels were 0.16, 0.17, and 0.16 using a linear-breakpoint model and 0.20, 0.20, and 0.20 using a quadratic model. Tryptophan could influence serum GH and IGF-1 secretion and protein abundance of the muscular AA transporter of SNAT2 in the longissimus dorsi muscle in late finishing gilts fed low-protein diets. PMID:26020882

  10. Performance.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2006-01-01

    High performance is difficult to maintain because it is dynamic and not well understood. Based on a synthesis of many sources, a model is proposed where performance is a function of the balance between capacity and challenge. Too much challenge produces coping (or a crash); excess capacity results in boredom. Over time, peak performance drifts toward boredom. Performance can be managed by adjusting our level of ability, our effort, the opportunity to perform, and the challenge we agree to take on. Coping, substandard but acceptable performance, is common among professionals and its long-term side effects can be debilitating. A crash occurs when coping mechanisms fail. PMID:17020177

  11. Late Babylonian Astrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, John M.

    The last five centuries BC saw the development of several new forms of astrology in Babylonia. Key to these new astrological techniques was the invention of the zodiac in about 400 BC. These new forms of astrology include personal horoscopes, astral medicine, and the exploitation of geometrical relationships between the position of heavenly bodies. Several Late Babylonian astrological doctrines were later adopted within Greek astrology.

  12. Influence of maternal plane of nutrition on mares and their foals: determination of mare performance and voluntary dry matter intake during late pregnancy using a dual-marker system.

    PubMed

    Winsco, K N; Coverdale, J A; Wickersham, T A; Lucia, J L; Hammer, C J

    2013-09-01

    altered plane of nutrition of mares in late gestation influenced mare performance. Furthermore, DMI of hay was influenced by both diet and month of gestation. Continued research investigating manipulation of maternal nutrition and its effects on DMI would be beneficial to completely understand the relationships of these observations. PMID:23825323

  13. Influence of virus inoculation method and host larval age on productivity of the nucleopolyhedrovirus of the teak defoliator, Hyblaea puera (Cramer).

    PubMed

    Biji, C P; Sudheendrakumar, V V; Sajeev, T V

    2006-04-01

    Hyblaea puera nucleopolyhedrovirus (HpNPV) is a potential biocontrol agent against the teak defoliator H. puera (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Hyblaeidae). As part of optimization of the mass production of this nucleopolyhedrovirus, three methods of inoculation were evaluated against the host larvae with various yield parameters as selection criteria. The inoculation methods compared were controlled dose on diet in rearing tubes using a micropipette, controlled dose on leaf discs (prepared from teak leaves) using a micropipette and spraying onto diet filled rearing tubes using an atomizer. Fifth instar H. puera larvae of the weight classes 75-100, 101-125, 126-150, 151-175 and 176-200mg were used for the bioassay. With reference to percentage of harvested larvae, virus production per larva and virus production per inoculated larva (VPIL), spraying viral suspension into rearing tubes filled with artificial diet using a hand sprayer was found to be the most efficient method of inoculation. It was observed that the method of inoculation and age of the larvae has discrete as well as interactive influence on the virus yield parameters. PMID:16384613

  14. Late embryogenesis abundant proteins

    PubMed Central

    Olvera-Carrillo, Yadira; Reyes, José Luis

    2011-01-01

    Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins accumulate at the onset of seed desiccation and in response to water deficit in vegetative plant tissues. The typical LEA proteins are highly hydrophilic and intrinsically unstructured. They have been classified in different families, each one showing distinctive conserved motifs. In this manuscript we present and discuss some of the recent findings regarding their role in plant adaptation to water deficit, as well as those concerning to their possible function, and how it can be related to their intrinsic structural flexibility. PMID:21447997

  15. Late Washing efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, M.F.

    1992-08-31

    Interim Waste Technology has demonstrated the Late Washing concept on the Experimental Laboratory Filter (ELF) at TNX. In two tests, washing reduced the [NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}] from 0.08 M to approximately 0.01 M on slurries with 2 year equivalent radiation exposures and 9.5 wt. % solids. For both washes, the [NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}] decreased at rates near theoretical for a constant volume stirred vessel, indicating approximately l00% washing efficiency. Permeate flux was greater than 0.05 gpm/ft{sup 2} for both washes at a transmembrane pressure of 50 psi and flow velocity of 9 ft/sec.

  16. 7 CFR 3555.253 - Late payment charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Late payment charges. 3555.253 Section 3555.253 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL HOUSING PROGRAM (Eff. 9-1-14) Servicing Performing Loans § 3555.253 Late...

  17. [Late postcontusion secondary glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Chiseliţă, D; Vancea, P; Filiman, O; Brănişteanu, D; Bredetean, M; Poiata, I

    1995-01-01

    The investigation of 33 patients with late postcontusional glaucoma subjected to surgery and followed up for 25 +/- 8.24 months has revealed: the interval accident-surgery is shorter in the close-angle combined forms; the essential mechanisms responsible for glaucoma occurrence are: the alteration of trabecular meshwork (for open-angle glaucoma) and pupillary block (for close angle glaucoma); simple cases required antiglaucoma surgery (trabeculectomy, peripheral iridectomy) and the mixed ones required combined (trabeculectomy, lens extraction, lens implant) or sequential surgeries (antiglaucoma surgery, vitrectomy etc); the glaucomatous process was stopped in 83.4% of the open-angle glaucoma cases and progressed in 23.5% of the close-angle glaucoma cases; the functional improvements post antiglaucoma surgery combined with removal of opacities are lessened by the higher frequency of severe per- and post-operative complication. PMID:7654676

  18. Disruption of the polar auxin transport system in cotton seedlings following treatment with the defoliant thidiazuron. [Gossypium hirsutum L. cv LG102

    SciTech Connect

    Suttle, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of the defoliant thidiazuron (TDZ) on basipetal auxin transport in petiole segments isolated from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv LG102) seedlings was examined using the donor/receiver agar block technique. Treatment of intact seedlings with TDZ at concentrations of 1 micromolar or greater resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of /sup 14/C-IAA transport in petiole segment isolated 1 or 2 days after treatment. Using 100 micromolar TDZ, the inhibition was detectable 19 hours after treatment and was complete by 27 hours. Both leaves and petiole segments exhibited a marked increase in ethylene production following treatment with TDZ at concentrations of 0.1 micromolar or greater. The involvement of ethylene in this TDA response was evaluated by examining the effects of two inhibitors of ethylene action: silver thiosulfate, 2,5-norbornadiene. One day after treatment, both inhibitors effectively antagonized the TDZ-induced inhibition of auxin transport. Two days after TDZ treatment both inhibitors were ineffective. The decrease in IAA transport in TDZ treated tissues was associated with increased metabolism of IAA. The transport of /sup 14/C-2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid was also inhibited by TDZ treatment. This inhibition was not accompanied by increased metabolism. Incorporation of TDZ into the receiver blocks had no effect on auxin transport. The ability of the phytotropin N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid to stimulate IAA uptake from a bathing medium was reduced in TDZ-treated tissues. This reduction is thought to reflect a decline in the auxin efflux system following TDZ treatment.

  19. Modeling late Paleozoic glaciation

    SciTech Connect

    Crowley, T.J.; Baum, S.K. )

    1992-06-01

    Late Paleozoic glaciation on Gondwana is associated with changes in geography, solar luminosity, and estimated CO{sub 2} levels. To assess the relative importance of these boundary conditions, the authors conducted a suite of climate model simulations for the periods before, during, and after peak mid-Carboniferous ({approximately}300 Ma) glaciation (340, 300, and 255 and 225 Ma, respectively). Orbital insolation values favorable for glaciation and interglaciation were used for each time interval. Results indicate that changes in geography cause significant changes in snow area, but the temporal trend is not consistent with the geologic record for glaciation. Combined CO{sub 2}-plus-geography changes yield the best agreement with observations. In addition, interglacial orbital configurations result in almost ice-free conditions for the glacial interval at 300 Ma, at a time of low CO{sub 2}. The large simulated glacial-interglacial snowline fluctuations for Permian-Carboniferous time may explain cyclothem fluctuations at these times. Overall, results support the importance of the CO{sub 2} paradigm, but also indicate that a fuller understanding of past climate change requires consideration of paleogeographic, luminosity, and orbital insolation changes.

  20. Early and Late Onset Sepsis in Late Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Moran, Cassandra; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Cotten, C. Michael; Clark, Reese H.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Smith, P. Brian

    2009-01-01

    Background Preterm birth is increasing worldwide, and late preterm births, which comprise more than 70% of all preterm births, account for much of the increase. Early and late onset sepsis results in significant mortality in extremely preterm infants, but little is known about sepsis outcomes in late preterm infants. Methods This is an observational cohort study of infants < 121 days of age (119,130 infants less than or equal to 3 days of life and 106,142 infants between 4 and 120 days of life) with estimated gestational age at birth between 34 and 36 weeks, admitted to 248 neonatal intensive care units in the United States between 1996 and 2007. Results During the study period, the cumulative incidence of early and late onset sepsis was 4.42 and 6.30 episodes per 1000 admissions, respectively. Gram-positive organisms caused the majority of early and late onset sepsis episodes. Infants with early onset sepsis caused by Gram-negative rods and infants with late onset sepsis were more likely to die than their peers with sterile blood cultures (OR 4.39, 95% CI 1.71–11.23, P=0.002; and OR 3.37, 95% CI 2.35–4.84, P<0.001, respectively). Conclusion Late preterm infants demonstrate specific infection rates, pathogen distribution, and mortality associated with early and late onset sepsis. The results of this study are generalizable to late preterm infants admitted to the special care nursery or neonatal intensive care unit. PMID:19953725

  1. Antennal transcriptome analysis and comparison of olfactory genes in two sympatric defoliators, Dendrolimus houi and Dendrolimus kikuchii (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sufang; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Hongbin; Kong, Xiangbo

    2014-09-01

    The Yunnan pine and Simao pine caterpillar moths, Dendrolimus houi Lajonquière and Dendrolimus kikuchii Matsumura (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), are two closely related and sympatric pests of coniferous forests in southwestern China, and olfactory communication systems of these two insects have received considerable attention because of their economic importance. However, there is little information on the molecular aspect of odor detection about these insects. Furthermore, although lepidopteran species have been widely used in studies of insect olfaction, few work made comparison between sister moths on the olfactory recognition mechanisms. In this study, next-generation sequencing of the antennal transcriptome of these two moths were performed to identify the major olfactory genes. After comparing the antennal transcriptome of these two moths, we found that they exhibit highly similar transcripts-associated GO terms. Chemosensory gene families were further analyzed in both species. We identified 23 putative odorant binding proteins (OBP), 17 chemosensory proteins (CSP), two sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMP), 33 odorant receptors (OR), and 10 ionotropic receptors (IR) in D. houi; and 27 putative OBPs, 17 CSPs, two SNMPs, 33 ORs, and nine IRs in D. kikuchii. All these transcripts were full-length or almost full-length. The predicted protein sequences were compared with orthologs in other species of Lepidoptera and model insects, including Bombyx mori, Manduca sexta, Heliothis virescens, Danaus plexippus, Sesamia inferens, Cydia pomonella, and Drosophila melanogaster. The sequence homologies of the orthologous genes in D. houi and D. kikuchii are very high. Furthermore, the olfactory genes were classed according to their expression level, and the highly expressed genes are our target for further function investigation. Interestingly, many highly expressed genes are ortholog gene of D. houi and D. kikuchii. We also found that the Classic OBPs were

  2. Center Variation in the Delivery of Indicated Late Preterm Births.

    PubMed

    Aliaga, Sofia; Zhang, Jun; Long, D Leann; Herring, Amy H; Laughon, Matthew; Boggess, Kim; Reddy, Uma M; Grantz, Katherine Laughon

    2016-08-01

    Objective Evidence for optimal timing of delivery for some pregnancy complications at late preterm gestation is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify center variation of indicated late preterm births. Study design We performed an analysis of singleton late preterm and term births from a large U.S. retrospective obstetrical cohort. Births associated with spontaneous preterm labor, major congenital anomalies, chorioamnionitis, and emergency cesarean were excluded. We used modified Poisson fixed effects logistic regression with interaction terms to assess center variation of indicated late preterm births associated with four medical/obstetric comorbidities after adjusting for socio-demographics, comorbidities, and hospital/provider characteristics. Results We identified 150,055 births from 16 hospitals; 9,218 were indicated late preterm births. We found wide variation of indicated late preterm births across hospitals. The extent of center variation was greater for births associated with preterm premature rupture of membranes (risk ratio [RR] across sites: 0.45-3.05), hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (RR across sites: 0.36-1.27), and placenta previa/abruption (RR across sites: 0.48-1.82). We found less center variation for births associated with diabetes (RR across sites: 0.65-1.39). Conclusion Practice variation in the management of indicated late preterm deliveries might be a source of preventable late preterm birth. PMID:27120474

  3. Helping the Habitually Late Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Jerry

    1978-01-01

    The author gives three major reasons for a student being habitually late to class: resistance, disorganization, or unavoidable schedule conflicts. He makes specific suggestions to teachers for dealing with the disorganized and resistant latecomers. (SJL)

  4. Late Blooming or Language Problem?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Swallowing / Disorders and Diseases Late Blooming or Language Problem? Parents are smart. They listen to their ... or not their child is developing speech and language at a normal rate. If parents think that ...

  5. Late effects from hadron therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Blakely, Eleanor A.; Chang, Polly Y.

    2004-06-01

    Successful cancer patient survival and local tumor control from hadron radiotherapy warrant a discussion of potential secondary late effects from the radiation. The study of late-appearing clinical effects from particle beams of protons, carbon, or heavier ions is a relatively new field with few data. However, new clinical information is available from pioneer hadron radiotherapy programs in the USA, Japan, Germany and Switzerland. This paper will review available data on late tissue effects from particle radiation exposures, and discuss its importance to the future of hadron therapy. Potential late radiation effects are associated with irradiated normal tissue volumes at risk that in many cases can be reduced with hadron therapy. However, normal tissues present within hadron treatment volumes can demonstrate enhanced responses compared to conventional modes of therapy. Late endpoints of concern include induction of secondary cancers, cataract, fibrosis, neurodegeneration, vascular damage, and immunological, endocrine and hereditary effects. Low-dose tissue effects at tumor margins need further study, and there is need for more acute molecular studies underlying late effects of hadron therapy.

  6. [The first labor analgesia with drug was already performed in late Meiji-Period (1868-1912): trace of opioid-scopolamine which was used in Akiko Yosano, back to its origins].

    PubMed

    Okutomi, Toshiyuki

    2013-02-01

    There have been some records of labor analgesia with intravenous or rectal anesthetics in early Showa-period (1926-1989). However, the author found that labor analgesia had been already attempted for some women in late Meiji-period (1868-1912). One of agents used was pantopon, a water-soluble opioid without serious respiratory depression as morphine. The drug was developed and produced in Germany. Some doctors applied this agent with scopolamine to labor analgesia in Europe. They also reported that this combination also conferred excellent analgesic effects without any serious complications in the mother and fetus. This combination was originally used for general surgery with inhaled anesthesia at that period. It remains uncertain how Japanese doctors got pantopon scopolamine from Germany. PMID:23479935

  7. Late complications of tracheotomy.

    PubMed

    Wood, D E; Mathisen, D J

    1991-09-01

    Complications of tracheotomy are largely preventable. Although some authors cite these complications as indications for prolonged endotracheal intubation to avoid tracheotomy, others believe that the laryngotracheal complications of prolonged endotracheal intubation warrant early tracheotomy. Obviously, unnecessary tracheotomies should not be performed, and the controversy regarding the timing of conversion of endotracheal intubation to tracheotomy is handled in an earlier article in this issue. We feel, however, that a properly performed tracheotomy has a low incidence of complications that are more easily managed than are the complex laryngotracheal complications of prolonged endotracheal intubation. Significant post-tracheotomy tracheal stenosis occurs in 8% of patients and is secondary to an overly large tracheotomy stoma or damage at the tracheostomy tube cuff site. Stoma stenosis can be minimized by not making an overly large tracheal stoma and by prevention of undue leverage on the tracheostomy tube. Cuff stenosis can be minimized by the use of the high-volume low-pressure cuffs with careful prevention of overdistention of the cuff. Bronchoscopic dilatation, laser resection, and Silastic T-tube placement provide control of the airway until definitive surgical resection and reconstruction can be performed safely. Tracheoesophageal fistula is an uncommon but life-threatening complication that can be prevented by avoiding overdistention of the tracheostomy tube cuff and by avoiding the concomitant use of a stiff nasogastric tube. These patients are best managed conservatively until they are able to be weaned from a ventilator. A single-stage repair of both the esophagus and the trachea should then be done. Tracheoinnominate artery fistula can be avoided by correct placement of the tracheostomy stoma through the second and third tracheal rings rather than lower in the trachea and by avoidance of overinflation of tracheostomy tube cuffs. PMID:1934960

  8. Late childhood stuttering

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Peter; Davis, Stephen; Williams, Roberta

    2007-01-01

    Purpose A longitudinal study was conducted on 76 children which examined risk factors that led children who stutter at around age eight to persist in the disorder when they reached age twelve. Method All children were verified as stuttering at the first assessment on the basis of a clinical referral and a further clinical assessment. When they reached twelve, they were classified as persistent or recovered on the basis of parent, child and researcher assessments. A range of measures was taken at the two age-points for determining risk factors for persistence/recovery. Results More males than females were affected. There was no evidence for persistence and recovery to run in families. At first referral all speakers who stuttered had high stuttering severity ratings and high proportions of dysfluencies in their speech (particularly those involving repetitions of whole words). At age 12 plus, the severity ratings of the recovered speakers and dysfluency counts dropped. The persistent speakers continued to have high severity ratings and produced more part-word dysfluencies. Temperament, measured at first assessment, differed between all stutterers and fluent controls and, when persistent and recovered speaker groups were examined separately, recovered speakers were less adaptable than persistent speakers; persistent speakers had more intense moods than controls; recovered speakers were less adaptable than controls. Detection of backward masking stimuli at 12 plus did not differ between all the children who stuttered and controls but when speakers who stuttered were differentiated by recovery group, persistent speakers had poorer backward masking thresholds than recovered speakers. Performance in motor tasks controlled by the cerebellum was assessed at 12 plus. There were indications of poor cerebellar control in speakers who persisted compared with the recovered speakers. Conclusion The tendency for more males than females to stutter was confirmed. Different patterns

  9. Technical bases DWPF Late Washing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Fish, D.L.; Landon, L.F.

    1992-08-10

    A task force recommended that the technical feasibility of a Late Wash' facility be assessed [1]. In this facility, each batch of tetraphenylborate slurry from Tank 49 would be given a final wash to reduce the concentrations of nitrite and radiolysis products to acceptable levels. Laboratory-scale studies have demonstrated that d the nitrite content of the slurry fed to DWPF is reduced to 0.01 M or less (and at least a 4X reduction in concentration of the soluble species is attained), (1) the need for HAN during hydrolysis is eliminated (eliminating the production of ammonium ion during hydrolysis), (2) hydrolysis may be done with a catalyst concentration that will not exceed the copper solubility in glass and (3) the non-polar organic production during hydrolysis is significantly reduced. The first phase of an aggressive research and development program has been completed and all test results obtained to date support the technical feasibility of Late Washing. Paralleling this research and development effort is an aggressive design study directed by DWPF to scope and cost retrofitting the Auxiliary Pump Pit (APP) to enable performing a final wash of each batch of precipitate slurry before R is transferred into the DWPF Soft Processing Cell (SPC). An initial technical bases for the Late Wash Facility was transmitted to DWPF on June 15, 1992. Research and development activities are continuing directed principally at optimization of the cross-f low fitter decontamination methodology and pilot-scale validation of the recommended benzene stripping metodology.

  10. Pyomyositis of Obturator Muscles: Unusual Late Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Soraganvi, Prasad Channappa; Ramakanth, R

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Pyomyositis of obturator muscles is rare condition. Late presentation with deformities of hip misleads the clinician. Late presentation (6 weeks) of this condition has not been reported earlier. This report highlights this unusual presentation of Pyomyositis of the obturator muscles. Case Report: We are reporting a 14year old female patient presented with limp and pain in hip since 6 weeks. Her hip radiographs were unremarkable. Patient was admitted and MRI done. MRI findings were consistent with obturator pyomyositis. Diagnosis of pyomyositis confirmed by MRI and we performed percutaneous aspiration and drained about 25ml of purulent material mixed with blood. The culture grew Staphylococcus aureus. Patient received intravenous antibiotic for 1week and oral antibiotic for 2weeks. Patient was immobilized in fixed skin traction in Thomas splint for 5days, later gentle mobilization was started. Her condition improved dramatically after aspiration. A follow up MRI done at 3 weeks following aspiration revealed a significant reduction in intramuscular collection of obturator internus and obturator externus. Three weeks following aspiration patient was relieved of the pain and was able to walk normally. At 6 months follow up visit patient was asymptomatic. Conclusion: Late presentation of obturator pyomyositis is rare. We emphasise on careful examination and need for early imaging for diagnosis. Percutaneous drainage results in successful treatment. PMID:27298909

  11. Two-stage arterial switch operation: is late ever too late?

    PubMed

    Al Qethamy, Howaida O; Aizaz, Khawar; Aboelnazar, Saber A R; Hijab, Samina; Al Faraidi, Yahya

    2002-09-01

    Results of the two-stage arterial switch operation in 49 patients with transposition of the great arteries, performed between January 1995 and September 2000, were reviewed retrospectively. Twenty-one patients had a ventricular septal defect. Anatomical correction was carried out 21.89 +/- 9.86 months after pulmonary artery banding, with or without a modified Blalock-Taussig shunt. Hospital mortality was 8% (4 patients). During follow-up of 30.12 +/- 14.38 months, there was 1 late death and 1 patient required reoperation for pseudoaneurysm of the ascending aorta. Actuarial survival and freedom from reoperation at 5 years were 90% and 97%, respectively. Late anatomic correction (> 6 months) after the preliminary procedure can be performed with an acceptable mortality and morbidity, but undue delay may lead to left ventricular dysfunction, arrhythmias, and new aortic valve regurgitation or subaortic stenosis. PMID:12213747

  12. Ground measured evapotranspiration scaled to stand level using MODIS and Landsat sensors to study Tamarix spp.response to repeated defoliation by the Tamarix leaf beetle at two sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlstein, S.; Nagler, P. L.; Glenn, E. P.; Hultine, K. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Dolores River in Southern Utah and the Virgin River in Southern Nevada are ecosystems under pressure from increased groundwater withdrawal due to growing populations and introduced riparian species. We studied the impact of the biocontrol Tamarix leaf beetles (Dirohabda carinulata and D. elongata) on the introduced riparian species, Tamarix spp., phenology and water use over multiple cycles of annual defoliation. Heat balance sap flow measurements, leaf area index (LAI), well data, allometry and satellite imagery from Landsat Thematic Mapper 5 and EOS-1 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) sensors were used to assess the distribution of beetle defoliation and its effect on evapotranspiration (ET). Study objectives for the Virgin River were to measure pre-beetle arrival ET, while the Dolores River site has had defoliation since 2004 and is a site of long-term beetle effect monitoring. This study focuses on measurements conducted over two seasons, 2010 and 2011. At the Dolores River site, results from 2010 were inconclusive due to sensor malfunctions but plant ET by sap flow in 2011 averaged 1.02 mm/m^2 leaf area/day before beetle arrival, dropping to an average of 0.75 mm/m^2 leaf area/day after beetle arrival. Stand level estimations from May - December, 2010 by MODIS were about 0.63 mm/ day, results from Landsat were 0.51 mm/day in June and 0.78 in August. For January -September, 2011, MODIS values were about 0.6 mm/day, and Landsat was 0.57 mm/day in June and 0.62 mm/day in August. These values are lower than previously reported ET values for this site meaning that repeated defoliation does diminish stand level water use. The Virgin River site showed plant ET from sap flow averaged about 3.9-4 mm/m^2 leaf area/day from mid-May - September, 2010. In 2011, ET from sap flow averaged 3.83 mm/m^2 leaf area/day during June - July, but dropped to 3.73 mm/ m^2 leaf area/day after beetle arrival in August. The slight drop in plant ET is not significant

  13. Late Silurian plutons in Yucatan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, M. B.; Walker, J. Douglas

    1996-08-01

    U-Pb measurements of zircons from two composite plutons in the Maya Mountains of the Yucatan Block (Belize) give Late Silurian ages. Zircons from one of the five compositional phases of the Mountain Pine Ridge pluton yield an age of 418±3.6 Ma. A second compositional phase gives a minimum age of 404 Ma, and zircons from a third phase, although plagued with high common Pb, yield ages consistent with the other two. Zircons from one compositional phase of the Hummingbird-Mullins River pluton indicate an age of about 410-420 Ma. These data demonstrate that two of the three Maya Mountains plutons residing among the strata of the Late Pennsylvanian through Permian Santa Rosa Group are older than that sedimentation. Although the third pluton was not dated, both the similarity of sedimentary facies patterns adjacent to it to those adjacent to one of the plutons dated as Late Silurian and a published single Rb-Sr age of 428 ± 41 Ma suggest this third pluton also was emergent during Santa Rosa deposition. Thus the new U/Pb dates and other data suggest that all three Maya Mountains plutons pre-date Late Carboniferous sedimentation and that none intrude the Santa Rosa Group. Although very uniform ages of about 230 Ma amongst all plutons, derived from abundant earlier dating by the K-Ar system, led to the conclusion that intrusion mostly had occurred in the Late Triassic, the U-Pb ages (obtained from the same sites as the K-Ar dates) demonstrate that the K-Ar ages do not derive from a Late Triassic intrusive episode. The K-Ar dates probably are a signature of the rifting associated with Pangean breakup and formation of the Gulf of Mexico. In a reconstructed Pangea, the position of the Maya Mountains Late Silurian plutons suggests that the Late Silurian Acadian-Caledonian orogen of eastern North America extended through the region of the future Gulf of Mexico. Finally, the U-Pb ages of the Maya Mountains plutons are the same as those of a group of shocked zircons found in the

  14. Early and Late Retirement Exits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brougham, Ruby R.; Walsh, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The current study proposes that personal need fulfillment (relatedness, generativity, identity, growth, and finances) predicts early and late retirement intentions. The personal needs of 160 full-time older employees were measured by personal goals, job satisfactions, job characteristics, and intrinsic motivation. Results suggest that the personal…

  15. Planetary science: Ubiquitous late veneer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenan, James

    2012-09-01

    Iron-loving elements are thought to have been added to Mars, Earth and the Moon after core formation. An analysis of meteorites formed in the first two to three million years of Solar System history suggests that a similar late veneer was added elsewhere too.

  16. Late onset globoid cell leukodystrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Grewal, R P; Petronas, N; Barton, N W

    1991-01-01

    A 29 year old male with onset of globoid cell leukodystrophy at age 14 is described. This is the first case of enzymatically confirmed globoid cell leukodystrophy with onset of symptoms after the age of ten. This patient is unique because of the late onset and slow progression and extends the clinical spectrum of globoid cell leukodystrophy. Images PMID:1800646

  17. LATE-AGE ONSET SCLERODERMA

    PubMed Central

    Manno, Rebecca L.; Wigley, Fredrick M.; Gelber, Allan C.; Hummers, Laura K.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Although patients who develop scleroderma (SSc) later in life (≥ 65 years) may express the entire clinical spectrum of disease, we hypothesize that patients with late-age onset incur a different risk for specific organ manifestations of disease compared to those with younger-age onset SSc. METHODS In total, 2300 SSc patients were evaluated between 1990–2009 and reviewed from a university-based Scleroderma Center cohort. Demographic profile, SSc subtype, autoantibody status, Medsger severity scores, pulmonary function tests, echocardiography, and right heart catheterization parameters were compared between late-age versus younger-age onset patients. RESULTS Overall, 2084 (91%) patients developed SSc prior to age 65; whereas 216 (9%) were ≥65 years. Late-age onset patients had a significantly higher proportion of anti-centromere antibodies (42% vs 27%; p=0.001) compared to younger-age onset. Risk of pulmonary hypertension (OR 1.77; 95%CI 1.00, 3.12), muscle weakness (OR 1.85; 95%CI 1.30, 2.64), renal impairment (OR 2.83; 95%CI 1.98, 4.04) and cardiac disease (OR 2.69; 95%CI 1.92, 3.78) was greater among those with late-age onset SSc; although risk of digital ischemia (OR 0.64; 95%CI 0.47, 0.86) was reduced. The cumulative incidence of pulmonary hypertension at 5 years was greater among those with late-age (9%) compared to younger-age (2.5%) onset SSc (log-rank, p<0.001). CONCLUSION These findings suggest that older SSc patients are at greater risk for pulmonary hypertension, renal impairment, cardiac disease, and muscle weakness. Awareness of the distinct risk for specific organ manifestations in SSc, in particular pulmonary hypertension, should guide the care of older SSc patients whose disease begins after age 65 years. PMID:21685299

  18. Late Entry into Primary School in Developing Societies: Findings from Cross-National Household Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko; Loaiza, Edilberto; Engle, Patrice L.

    2010-02-01

    Late entry into primary school is a widespread phenomenon in developing countries. Students who enter school late are more likely to repeat grades, drop out and perform more poorly. Yet the phenomenon has received little scholarly attention, and there is a dearth of cross-national data. In this paper, we draw on data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS2), a cross-national household survey conducted in developing countries. We first estimate the percentage of students entering primary school late across 38 countries in order to identify the countries in which the issue of late entry is most common. Secondly, we describe the background characteristics of students who are more likely to enter school late. We then employ multinominal logistic regression equations to predict the probability of late entry. Our findings highlight the need for policies to reduce late entry for children from disadvantaged backgrounds.

  19. Neuroimaging findings in late-onset schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Changtae; Lim, Hyun Kook; Lee, Chang Uk

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in late-onset mental disorders. Among them, geriatric schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are significant health care risks and major causes of disability. We discussed whether late-onset schizophrenia (LOS) and late-onset bipolar (LOB) disorder can be a separate entity from early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) and early-onset bipolar (EOB) disorder in a subset of late-life schizophrenia or late-life bipolar disorder through neuroimaging studies. A literature search for imaging studies of LOS or LOB was performed in the PubMed database. Search terms used were "(imaging OR MRI OR CT OR SPECT OR DTI OR PET OR fMRI) AND (schizophrenia or bipolar disorder) AND late onset." Articles that were published in English before October 2013 were included. There were a few neuroimaging studies assessing whether LOS and LOB had different disease-specific neural substrates compared with EOS and EOB. These researches mainly observed volumetric differences in specific brain regions, white matter hyperintensities, diffusion tensor imaging, or functional neuroimaging to explore the differences between LOS and LOB and EOS and EOB. The aim of this review was to highlight the neural substrates involved in LOS and LOB through neuroimaging studies. The exploration of neuroanatomical markers may be the key to the understanding of underlying neurobiology in LOS and LOB. PMID:24401535

  20. Late Onset Clozapine Induced Agranulocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Velayudhan, Rajmohan; Kakkan, Sushil

    2014-01-01

    Agranulocytosis is defined as an absolute neutrophil count less than 100/mm3 in association with infectious disease. The risk of agranulocytosis is 0.38% of all clozapine treated cases and there is a relatively lesser incidence in Indian population. The risk of clozapine-induced agranulocytosis and neutropenia is highest in the first 6 months and higher in the initial 18 months after the onset of treatment. There have been very few reports of neutropenia and agranulocytosis after this period. There have so far been no reports of late onset clozapine induced agranulocytosis has been reported from India. A case of late onset clozapine induced agranulocytosis with possible mechanism of the same is reported. PMID:25336778

  1. The Impact That Change in the Registration Calendar Has on Student Outcomes, and the Reduction of Late Registration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fobbs, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Students who register for classes late have always been a challenge for community colleges. The student who registers late creates a burden on the enrollment staff, and they create academic achievement challenges for themselves as well. Late class registration has been linked to lower overall GPA's, and to overall lower academic performance. This…

  2. Information about the Late Effects of Polio

    MedlinePlus

    ... health professionals Handbook on the Late Effects of Poliomyelitis for Physicians and Survivors Late Effects of Polio ... Contact info@post-polio.org. Remember POLIO? Polio (poliomyelitis or infantile paralysis) triggers memories of closed swimming ...

  3. Comparing the Effect of Oral Supplementation of Vitamin E, Injective Vitamin E and Selenium or Both during Late Pregnancy on Production and Reproductive Performance and Immune Function of Dairy Cows and Calves

    PubMed Central

    Kafilzadeh, Farokh; Kheirmanesh, Habibollah; Karami Shabankareh, Hamed; Targhibi, Mohhamad Reza; Yong Meng, Goh

    2014-01-01

    The object of this study was to determine the effect of prepartum supplementation of vitamin E with or without injective vitamin E and selenium (Se) on productive and reproductive performances and immune function in dairy cows. Sixty multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided randomly into three groups at the end of gestation. Cows in each group received one of three treatments: (1) a single intramuscular (im) injection of vit. E + selenium 3 weeks prepartum; (2) daily supplementation of oral vit. E given from 3 weeks prepartum to parturition; (3) injective vit. E + Se with daily supplementation of oral vit. E. Blood samples were collected from cows at calving and from calves at 0 and 7 days of age. Concentration of IgG in serum of cows and calves as well as in colostrum was determined. No significant differences among treatments occurred in the concentrations of IgG, animal, and calf production and reproduction performance. Due to the lack of significant difference between injection and oral supplementation, it is recommended to replace the injection with oral supplementation. PMID:25045726

  4. Late blight – Is resistance futile?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article will provide an overview of late blight resistance research that has been done within the USDA/ARS and the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The article is meant to be an informative look at the history of late blight resistance and the ability of the late blight pathogen to overcome res...

  5. 24 CFR 241.1105 - Late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Late charges. 241.1105 Section 241...-Eligibility Requirements § 241.1105 Late charges. The note and security instrument may provide for the lender's collection of a late charge, not to exceed 2 cents for each dollar of each payment to interest...

  6. 24 CFR 242.38 - Late charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Late charge. 242.38 Section 242.38... FOR HOSPITALS Mortgage Requirements § 242.38 Late charge. The mortgage may provide for the collection by the mortgagee of a late charge in accordance with terms, conditions, and standards of HUD for...

  7. 24 CFR 235.1216 - Late charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Late charge. 235.1216 Section 235... § 235.1216 Late charge. The mortgage may provide for the collection by the mortgagee of a late charge... date upon which payment is due. Such charge shall not be included in the assistance payment....

  8. 12 CFR 560.33 - Late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Late charges. 560.33 Section 560.33 Banks and... Investment Powers for Federal Savings Associations § 560.33 Late charges. A Federal savings association may include in a home loan contract a provision authorizing the imposition of a late charge with respect...

  9. 12 CFR 560.33 - Late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Late charges. 560.33 Section 560.33 Banks and... Investment Powers for Federal Savings Associations § 560.33 Late charges. A Federal savings association may include in a home loan contract a provision authorizing the imposition of a late charge with respect...

  10. 24 CFR 200.88 - Late charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Late charge. 200.88 Section 200.88... Requirements for Existing Projects Mortgage Provisions § 200.88 Late charge. The mortgage may provide for the collection by the mortgagee of a late charge in accordance with terms, conditions and standards of...

  11. 24 CFR 241.1105 - Late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Late charges. 241.1105 Section 241...-Eligibility Requirements § 241.1105 Late charges. The note and security instrument may provide for the lender's collection of a late charge, not to exceed 2 cents for each dollar of each payment to interest...

  12. 24 CFR 200.88 - Late charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Late charge. 200.88 Section 200.88... Requirements for Existing Projects Mortgage Provisions § 200.88 Late charge. The mortgage may provide for the collection by the mortgagee of a late charge in accordance with terms, conditions and standards of...

  13. 24 CFR 235.1216 - Late charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Late charge. 235.1216 Section 235... § 235.1216 Late charge. The mortgage may provide for the collection by the mortgagee of a late charge... date upon which payment is due. Such charge shall not be included in the assistance payment....

  14. 50 CFR 600.1015 - Late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Late charges. 600.1015 Section 600.1015... charges. The late charge to fish buyers for fee payment, collection, deposit, and/or disbursement shall be..., deposited, and/or disbursed. The full late charge shall apply to the fee for each month or portion of...

  15. 24 CFR 242.38 - Late charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Late charge. 242.38 Section 242.38... FOR HOSPITALS Mortgage Requirements § 242.38 Late charge. The mortgage may provide for the collection by the mortgagee of a late charge in accordance with terms, conditions, and standards of HUD for...

  16. Early and late neonatal septicaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Placzek, M M; Whitelaw, A

    1983-01-01

    Between 1979 and 1982 we reviewed 1000 consecutive admissions to the neonatal intensive care unit of this hospital. Sixty five infants had positive blood cultures. Mortality was 70% among 17 infants who had septicaemia in the first 48 hours of life and for whom appropriate treatment may have been too late because of difficulties of early diagnosis. In the remaining 48 infants mortality was 12%, septicaemia occurred later, and was associated with Staphylococcus epidermidis (56%) and with the presence of an intravascular catheter (50%). PMID:6625634

  17. Soft coincidence in late acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Campo, Sergio del; Herrera, Ramon; Pavon, Diego

    2005-06-15

    We study the coincidence problem of late cosmic acceleration by assuming that the present ratio between dark matter and dark energy is a slowly varying function of the scale factor. As the dark energy component we consider two different candidates, first a quintessence scalar field, and then a tachyon field. In either case analytical solutions for the scale factor, the field, and the potential are derived. Both models show a good fit to the recent magnitude-redshift supernovae data. However, the likelihood contours disfavor the tachyon field model as it seems to prefer a excessively high value for the matter component.

  18. Late Relapse of Testicular Germ Cell Tumors.

    PubMed

    O'Shaughnessy, Matthew J; Feldman, Darren R; Carver, Brett S; Sheinfeld, Joel

    2015-08-01

    Germ cell tumors of the testis have an overall survival rate greater than 90% as a result of a successful multidisciplinary approach to management. Late relapse affects a subset of patients however, and tends to be chemorefractory and the overall prognosis is poor. Surgery is the mainstay in management of late relapse but salvage chemotherapy can be successful. In this review, the clinical presentation and detection of late relapse, clinical outcomes, and predictors of survival in late relapse and the importance of a multidisciplinary treatment approach for successful management of late relapse are discussed. PMID:26216823

  19. Musical Training and Late-Life Cognition.

    PubMed

    Gooding, Lori F; Abner, Erin L; Jicha, Gregory A; Kryscio, Richard J; Schmitt, Fredrick A

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of early- to midlife musical training on cognition in older adults. A musical training survey examined self-reported musical experience and objective knowledge in 237 cognitively intact participants. Responses were classified into low-, medium-, and high-knowledge groups. Linear mixed models compared the groups' longitudinal performance on the Animal Naming Test (ANT; semantic verbal fluency) and Logical Memory Story A Immediate Recall (LMI; episodic memory) controlling for baseline age, time since baseline, education, sex, and full-scale IQ. Results indicate that high-knowledge participants had significantly higher LMI scores at baseline and over time compared to low-knowledge participants. The ANT scores did not differ among the groups. Ability to read music was associated with higher mean scores for both ANT and LMI over time. Early- to midlife musical training may be associated with improved late-life episodic and semantic memory as well as a useful marker of cognitive reserve. PMID:24375575

  20. Musical Training and Late-Life Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Gooding, Lori F; Abner, Erin L; Jicha, Gregory A; Kryscio, Richard J; Schmitt, Fredrick A

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated effects of early- to mid-life musical training on cognition in older adults. A Musical Training Survey examined self-reported musical experience and objective knowledge in 237 cognitively intact participants. Responses were classified into Low, Medium, and High knowledge groups. Linear mixed models compared the groups’ longitudinal performance on the Animal Naming Test (ANT; semantic verbal fluency) and Logical Memory Story A Immediate Recall (LMI; episodic memory) controlling for baseline age, time since baseline, education, sex, and full-scale IQ. Results indicate that High knowledge participants had significantly higher LMI scores at baseline and over time compared to Low knowledge participants. ANT scores did not differ among the groups. Ability to read music was associated with higher mean scores for both ANT and LMI over time. Early-to mid-life musical training may be associated with improved late-life episodic and semantic memory as well as a useful marker of cognitive reserve. PMID:24375575

  1. Are ''Late-Signing'' Deaf Children ''Mindblind''? Understanding Goal Directedness in Imitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Want, S.C.; Gattis, M.

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies with ''late-signing'' deaf children (deaf children born into families in which no-one uses a sign language) have indicated that they have difficulty performing tasks that require them to reason about other people's false beliefs. However, virtually no research has so far investigated how far late signers' difficulties with mental…

  2. Postformal Thinking and Creativity among Late Adolescents: A Post-Piagetian Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Pai-Lu; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between cognitive development levels and creative performance among late adolescents from a post-Piagetian perspective. Participants were 386 college students, ranging in age from 19 to 26 years. The Social Paradigm Belief Scale was employed to measure the three cognitive styles of late adolescence: formal,…

  3. Late Glacial and Late Holocene Paleohydrology of Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aichner, B.; Feakins, S. J.; Mischke, S.; Herzschuh, U.; Liu, X.; Rajabov, I.; Wang, Y.; Heinecke, L.

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this study is to deepen the understanding of past climatological, ecological and hydrological changes in Central Asia, by means of organic geochemical proxies and in close cooperation with other work groups providing biological and sedimentological data. We analysed an 8 m sediment core from Lake Karakuli, a small open freshwater lake situated at an altitude of 3,657 m between the massifs of Muztagh Ata (7,546 m) and Kongur Shan (7,719 m) in western China. Additional work is in progress on a 12 m core derived from Lake Karakul in Tajikistan, a large closed saline lake situated in a tectonic graben structure at an altitude of 3,928 m. The distance between the two lakes is 130 km and basal ages of the cores are ca. 4.7 ka BP (China) and ca. 27 ka BP (Tajikistan). The lake catchments may be classified as alpine steppe to alpine deserts with mean annual temperature of ca. 0 °C and mean annual precipitation of ca. 100 mm, respectively. Summer precipitation, associated with the Indian monsoon, accounts for <30% of the annual total, whereas most precipitation is supplied by mid-latitude Westerlies between March and May. In the small Chinese lake long-chain fatty acids (FAs) were mainly attributed to terrestrial sources by compound-specific carbon isotopic analyses. In contrast δ13C values up to -14‰ for abundant mid-chain FAs suggest aquatic origins in the large Lake Karakul. Hydrogen isotopic variability is ca. 15‰ in the mid-Holocene record and ca. 60‰ in the first data derived from the Late Glacial record. In the latter, the most pronounced change from higher to lower δD-values of aquatic biomarkers is tentatively interpreted as change from arid to more humid conditions at the Late Glacial to Holocene transition. Since in Central Asia isotopic variability of precipitation mainly correlates with temperature, we interpret high resolution δD data of terrestrial long-chain FAs in the younger core to mainly reflect mid-Holocene temperature variations

  4. Respiratory consequences of late preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Pike, Katharine C; Lucas, Jane S A

    2015-06-01

    In developed countries most preterm births occur between 34 and 37 weeks' gestation. Deliveries during this 'late preterm' period are increasing and, since even mild prematurity is now recognised to be associated with adverse health outcomes, this presents healthcare challenges. Respiratory problems associated with late preterm birth include neonatal respiratory distress, severe RSV infection and childhood wheezing. Late preterm birth prematurely interrupts in utero lung development and is associated with maternal and early life factors which adversely affect the developing respiratory system. This review considers 1) mechanisms underlying the association between late preterm birth and impaired respiratory development, 2) respiratory morbidity associated with late preterm birth, particularly long-term outcomes, and 3) interventions which might protect respiratory development by addressing risk factors affecting the late preterm population, including maternal smoking, early life growth restriction and vulnerability to viral infection. PMID:25554628

  5. Never too late? An advantage on tests of auditory attention extends to late bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Bak, Thomas H.; Vega-Mendoza, Mariana; Sorace, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies, using predominantly visual tasks, indicate that early bilinguals tend to outperform monolinguals on attention tests. It remains less clear whether such advantages extend to those bilinguals who have acquired their second language later in life. We examined this question in 38 monolingual and 60 bilingual university students. The bilingual group was further subdivided into early childhood (ECB), late childhood (LCB), and early adulthood bilinguals (EAB). The assessment consisted of five subtests from the clinically validated Test of Everyday Attention (TEA). Overall, bilinguals outperformed monolinguals on auditory attention tests, but not on visual search tasks. The latter observation suggests that the differences between bilinguals and monolinguals are specific and not due to a generally higher cognitive performance in bilinguals. Within the bilingual group, ECB showed a larger advantage on attention switching, LCB/EAB on selective attention. We conclude that the effects of bilingualism extend into the auditory domain and are not confined to childhood bilinguals, although their scope might be slightly different in early and late bilinguals. PMID:24904498

  6. 37 CFR 385.4 - Late payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 385.4 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS RATES AND TERMS... AND DISTRIBUTING OF PHYSICAL AND DIGITAL PHONORECORDS Physical Phonorecord Deliveries, Permanent Digital Downloads and Ringtones § 385.4 Late payments. A Licensee shall pay a late fee of 1.5% per...

  7. 37 CFR 385.4 - Late payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 385.4 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS RATES AND TERMS... AND DISTRIBUTING OF PHYSICAL AND DIGITAL PHONORECORDS Physical Phonorecord Deliveries, Permanent Digital Downloads and Ringtones § 385.4 Late payments. A Licensee shall pay a late fee of 1.5% per...

  8. 37 CFR 385.4 - Late payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 385.4 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS RATES AND TERMS... AND DISTRIBUTING OF PHYSICAL AND DIGITAL PHONORECORDS Physical Phonorecord Deliveries, Permanent Digital Downloads and Ringtones § 385.4 Late payments. A Licensee shall pay a late fee of 1.5% per...

  9. 37 CFR 385.4 - Late payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 385.4 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS RATES AND TERMS... AND DISTRIBUTING OF PHYSICAL AND DIGITAL PHONORECORDS Physical Phonorecord Deliveries, Permanent Digital Downloads and Ringtones § 385.4 Late payments. A Licensee shall pay a late fee of 1.5% per...

  10. Late Registration: May It Rest in Peace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Banion, Terry

    2012-01-01

    Almost every institution of higher education engages in late registration. But evidence is mounting that the practice, originally intended to keep the doors of opportunity open for students as long as possible, wreaks havoc on the ability of colleges to achieve the goals of the emerging completion agenda. Despite best intentions, late registration…

  11. 16 CFR 444.4 - Late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Late charges. 444.4 Section 444.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES CREDIT PRACTICES § 444.4 Late charges. (a) In... any deliquency charge on a payment, which payment is otherwise a full payment for the...

  12. 12 CFR 535.4 - Late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Late charges. 535.4 Section 535.4 Banks and.... until 7-1-2010) § 535.4 Late charges. (a) In connection with collecting a debt arising out of an... delinquency charge on a payment, which payment is otherwise a full payment for the applicable period and...

  13. 24 CFR 203.25 - Late charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Late charge. 203.25 Section 203.25 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF... charge. The mortgage may provide for the collection by the mortgagee of a late charge, not to exceed...

  14. 24 CFR 203.25 - Late charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Late charge. 203.25 Section 203.25 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF... charge. The mortgage may provide for the collection by the mortgagee of a late charge, not to exceed...

  15. 16 CFR 444.4 - Late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Late charges. 444.4 Section 444.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES CREDIT PRACTICES § 444.4 Late charges. (a) In... any deliquency charge on a payment, which payment is otherwise a full payment for the...

  16. 12 CFR 706.4 - Late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Late charges. 706.4 Section 706.4 Banks and... OR PRACTICES § 706.4 Late charges. (a) In connection with collecting a debt arising out of an... indirectly, to levy or collect any delinquency charge on a payment, which payment is otherwise a full...

  17. 37 CFR 385.4 - Late payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 385.4 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS RATES AND TERMS... AND DISTRIBUTING OF PHYSICAL AND DIGITAL PHONORECORDS Physical Phonorecord Deliveries, Permanent Digital Downloads and Ringtones § 385.4 Late payments. A Licensee shall pay a late fee of 1.5% per...

  18. Cycads: Fossil evidence of late paleozoic origin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mamay, S.H.

    1969-01-01

    Plant fossils from Lower Permian strata of the southwestern United States have been interpreted as cycadalean megasporophylls. They are evidently descended from spermopterid elements of the Pennsylvanian Taeniopteris complex; thus the known fossil history of the cycads is extended from the Late Triassic into the late Paleozoic. Possible implications of the Permian fossils toward evolution of the angiosperm carpel are considered.

  19. 30 CFR 218.54 - Late payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Late payments. 218.54 Section 218.54 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT COLLECTION OF MONIES AND PROVISION FOR GEOTHERMAL CREDITS AND INCENTIVES Oil and Gas, General § 218.54 Late...

  20. Late-onset offending: fact or fiction.

    PubMed

    Wiecko, Filip M

    2014-01-01

    This research focuses on a detailed exploration of late-onset offending. Using the National Youth Survey, this work seeks to answer three questions. First, is late-onset offending a real phenomenon? Second, if late onset does exist, is the evidence for it conditioned by how we define crime and delinquency? Finally, is late-onset offending an artifact of measurement methodology? Most literature evidencing late onset relies on official police contact and arrest data. Propensity or control theories in general posit that late onset should not exist. Propensity, namely self-control, should be instilled early in life and if absent, results in early initiation into crime and delinquency. Research in developmental psychology seems to support this notion. The findings from this study indicate that late-onset offending is almost nonexistent when self-reported measures are used leading one to conclude that contemporary evidence for late-onset is heavily conditioned by how we measure crime and delinquency. A comprehensive discussion includes future directions for research, and implications for theory development and methodology. PMID:23014937

  1. Early vs. late refeeding in acute infantile diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Gazala, E; Weitzman, S; Weizman, Z; Gross, J; Bearman, J E; Gorodischer, R

    1988-03-01

    A randomized ambulatory trial was performed to compare early (6-h) vs. late (24-h) refeeding in acute infantile diarrhea. Ninety infants with mild dehydration were enrolled in the study. Following an initial oral rehydration period (WHO formula), refeeding was introduced using a diet based on either breast milk or cow's milk. Early (n = 53) and late (n = 37) refeeding groups were similar in ethnic background, socioeconomic level, relevant past history, nutritional and clinical state, and stool pathogens. Infants were assessed upon their initial visit, at 24 and 48 h, and at 7 and 14 days thereafter for evaluation of weight, hydration state, stool frequency and need of hospitalization. No significant differences in the above parameters were observed between the two groups. Different patterns of refeeding (breast milk vs. cow's milk) in both early and late refeeding groups showed no significant differences in the features studied. Since the short-term clinical outcome following early refeeding in acute infantile diarrhea is not different from late refeeding, we suggest that early refeeding should be preferred, particularly in developing populations, in order to minimize the adverse nutritional effects of prolonged fasting during recurrent bouts of gastroenteritis. PMID:3286579

  2. Late renal dysfunction in adult survivors of bone marrow transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, C.A.; Cohen, E.P.; Barber-Derus, S.W.; Murray, K.J.; Ash, R.C.; Casper, J.T.; Moulder, J.E. )

    1991-06-01

    Until recently long-term renal toxicity has not been considered a major late complication of bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Late renal dysfunction has been described in a pediatric population status post-BMT which was attributable to the radiation in the preparatory regimen. A thorough review of adults with this type of late renal dysfunction has not previously been described. Fourteen of 103 evaluable adult patients undergoing allogeneic (96) or autologous (7) bone marrow transplantation, predominantly for leukemia and lymphomas, at the Medical College of Wisconsin (Milwaukee, WI) have had a syndrome of renal insufficiency characterized by increased serum creatinine, decreased glomerular filtration rate, anemia, and hypertension. This syndrome developed at a median of 9 months (range, 4.5 to 26 months) posttransplantation in the absence of specific identifiable causes. The cumulative probability of having this renal dysfunction is 20% at 1 year. Renal biopsies performed on seven of these cases showed the endothelium widely separated from the basement membrane, extreme thickening of the glomerular basement membrane, and microthrombi. Previous chemotherapy, antibiotics, and antifungals as well as cyclosporin may add to and possibly potentiate a primary chemoradiation marrow transplant renal injury, but this clinical syndrome is most analogous to clinical and experimental models of radiation nephritis. This late marrow transplant-associated nephritis should be recognized as a potentially limiting factor in the use of some intensive chemoradiation conditioning regimens used for BMT. Some selective attenuation of the radiation to the kidneys may decrease the incidence of this renal dysfunction.

  3. Impact of late radiation effects on cancer survivor children: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Coura, Cibeli Fernandes; Modesto, Patrícia Cláudia

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to identify the late effects of radiation exposure in pediatric cancer survivors. An integrated literature review was performed in the databases MEDLINE and LILACS and SciELO. Included were articles in Portuguese and English, published over the past 10 years, using the following keywords: "neoplasias/neoplasms" AND "radioterapia/radiotherapy" AND "radiação/radiation". After analysis, 14 articles - published in nine well-known journals - met the inclusion criteria. The publications were divided into two categories: "Late endocrine effects" and "Late non-endocrine effects". Considering the increased survival rates in children who had cancer, the impact of late effects of exposure to radiation during radiological examinations for diagnosis and treatment was analyzed. Childhood cancer survivors were exposed to several late effects and should be early and regularly followed up, even when exposed to low radiation doses. PMID:26313432

  4. Impact of late radiation effects on cancer survivor children: an integrative review

    PubMed Central

    Coura, Cibeli Fernandes; Modesto, Patrícia Cláudia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We aimed to identify the late effects of radiation exposure in pediatric cancer survivors. An integrated literature review was performed in the databases MEDLINE and LILACS and SciELO. Included were articles in Portuguese and English, published over the past 10 years, using the following keywords: “neoplasias/neoplasms” AND “radioterapia/radiotherapy” AND “radiação/radiation”. After analysis, 14 articles - published in nine well-known journals - met the inclusion criteria. The publications were divided into two categories: “Late endocrine effects” and “Late non-endocrine effects”. Considering the increased survival rates in children who had cancer, the impact of late effects of exposure to radiation during radiological examinations for diagnosis and treatment was analyzed. Childhood cancer survivors were exposed to several late effects and should be early and regularly followed up, even when exposed to low radiation doses. PMID:26313432

  5. US poised to outlaw late abortion technique.

    PubMed

    Bozalis, D

    1995-11-18

    The House of Representatives passed a bill, by a two-thirds majority (288-139), prohibiting late (at 19-20 weeks gestation) abortion using intrauterine cranial decompression. The bill now awaits judgment from the Senate Judiciary Committee for hearings. If the bill becomes law, physicians performing the procedure could face up to two years in prison. Chris Smith, Republican cochairman of the House Pro-Life Caucus, who introduced the bill in the House, described the vote as historic. During his emotional speech, the procedure was described in order to desanitize a form of abortion that he called barbaric torture. Patricia Schroeder, Colorado House Representative, argued that the wording of the bill allowed the procedure only when it was the only possible way of saving the mother's life; the woman's health and future fertility were, in effect, set aside. There is no exception clause for when the woman's life or health is endangered. Schroeder fears women will be forced to choose more dangerous methods of abortion and believes more discussion is required regarding health risks and a more precise definition of when the procedure may be used. She is joined by the California Medical Association, the American Medical Women's Association, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, and the American Medical Association. PMID:7496271

  6. A Late Pleistocene sea level stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spratt, Rachel M.; Lisiecki, Lorraine E.

    2016-04-01

    Late Pleistocene sea level has been reconstructed from ocean sediment core data using a wide variety of proxies and models. However, the accuracy of individual reconstructions is limited by measurement error, local variations in salinity and temperature, and assumptions particular to each technique. Here we present a sea level stack (average) which increases the signal-to-noise ratio of individual reconstructions. Specifically, we perform principal component analysis (PCA) on seven records from 0 to 430 ka and five records from 0 to 798 ka. The first principal component, which we use as the stack, describes ˜ 80 % of the variance in the data and is similar using either five or seven records. After scaling the stack based on Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) sea level estimates, the stack agrees to within 5 m with isostatically adjusted coral sea level estimates for Marine Isotope Stages 5e and 11 (125 and 400 ka, respectively). Bootstrapping and random sampling yield mean uncertainty estimates of 9-12 m (1σ) for the scaled stack. Sea level change accounts for about 45 % of the total orbital-band variance in benthic δ18O, compared to a 65 % contribution during the LGM-to-Holocene transition. Additionally, the second and third principal components of our analyses reflect differences between proxy records associated with spatial variations in the δ18O of seawater.

  7. Late-Glacial to Late-holocene Shifts in Global Precipitation Delta(sup 18)O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasechko, S.; Lechler, A.; Pausata, F.S.R.; Fawcett, P.J.; Gleeson, T.; Cendon, D.I.; Galewsky, J.; LeGrande, A. N.; Risi, C.; Sharp, Z. D.; Welker, J. M.; Werner, M.; Yoshimura, K.

    2015-01-01

    Reconstructions of Quaternary climate are often based on the isotopic content of paleo-precipitation preserved in proxy records. While many paleo-precipitation isotope records are available, few studies have synthesized these dispersed records to explore spatial patterns of late-glacial precipitation delta(sup 18)O. Here we present a synthesis of 86 globally distributed groundwater (n 59), cave calcite (n 15) and ice core (n 12) isotope records spanning the late-glacial (defined as 50,000 to 20,000 years ago) to the late-Holocene (within the past 5000 years). We show that precipitation delta(sup 18)O changes from the late-glacial to the late-Holocene range from -7.1% (delta(sup 18)O(late-Holocene) > delta(sup 18)O(late-glacial) to +1.7% (delta(sup 18)O(late-glacial) > delta(sup 18)O(late-Holocene), with the majority (77) of records having lower late-glacial delta(sup 18)O than late-Holocene delta(sup 18)O values. High-magnitude, negative precipitation delta(sup 18)O shifts are common at high latitudes, high altitudes and continental interiors.

  8. Late Cenozoic intraplate faulting in eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaahmadi, Abbas; Rosenbaum, Gideon

    2014-12-01

    The intensity and tectonic origin of late Cenozoic intraplate deformation in eastern Australia is relatively poorly understood. Here we show that Cenozoic volcanic rocks in southeast Queensland have been deformed by numerous faults. Using gridded aeromagnetic data and field observations, structural investigations were conducted on these faults. Results show that faults have mainly undergone strike-slip movement with a reverse component, displacing Cenozoic volcanic rocks ranging in ages from ˜31 to ˜21 Ma. These ages imply that faulting must have occurred after the late Oligocene. Late Cenozoic deformation has mostly occurred due to the reactivation of major faults, which were active during episodes of basin formation in the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous and later during the opening of the Tasman and Coral Seas from the Late Cretaceous to the early Eocene. The wrench reactivation of major faults in the late Cenozoic also gave rise to the occurrence of brittle subsidiary reverse strike-slip faults that affected Cenozoic volcanic rocks. Intraplate transpressional deformation possibly resulted from far-field stresses transmitted from the collisional zones at the northeast and southeast boundaries of the Australian plate during the late Oligocene-early Miocene and from the late Miocene to the Pliocene. These events have resulted in the hitherto unrecognized reactivation of faults in eastern Australia.

  9. Successful Salvage of Late Anastomotic Thrombosis after Free Tissue Transfer.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Peter W; Fernandez, John G; Cemal, Yeliz; Mehrara, Babak J; Pusic, Andrea L; McCarthy, Colleen M; Matros, Evan; Cordeiro, Peter G; Disa, Joseph J

    2016-05-01

    Background Anastomotic thrombosis following free tissue transfer (FTT) on or after day 5 ("late thrombosis") is reported to have extremely low rates of salvage. Analysis of our institution's experience with FTT was performed to make recommendations about the optimal management of late thrombosis, and to identify any variables that are correlated with increased salvage rates. Methods The study included patients who underwent FTT between 1986 and 2014, then suffered anastomotic thrombosis on or after postoperative day 5. Twenty-six variables involving demographic information, flap characteristics, circumstances of the thrombotic event, and details of any salvage attempt were analyzed. Patients whose FTT were successfully salvaged and those whose were not were statistically compared. Results Of the 3,212 patients who underwent FTT, 23 suffered late thrombosis (0.7%), and the salvage rate was 60.8% (14 of 23). The salvage rate for reconstruction of the head and neck was 53.3%, breast was 66.7%, and extremity was 100%. There was a statistically significantly greater salvage rate in flaps performed after 1998 than in those performed before 1998 (p = 0.023). There was a nonstatistically significant trend toward increased salvage rates in patients who had no anastomotic thrombotic risk factors, reconstruction using fasciocutaneous flaps, and anastomotic revision using new recipient vessels. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that flap survival after episodes of late thrombosis can be higher than what the literature has previously reported. This underscores the importance of rigorous postoperative monitoring, as well as the importance of exploration at the earliest instance of concern for threatened flap viability. PMID:26872023

  10. Reduction in postsystolic wall thickening during late preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Monnet, Xavier; Lucats, Laurence; Colin, Patrice; Derumeaux, Geneviève; Dubois-Rande, Jean-Luc; Hittinger, Luc; Ghaleh, Bijan; Berdeaux, Alain

    2007-01-01

    Brief coronary artery occlusion (CAO) and reperfusion induce myocardial stunning and late preconditioning. Postsystolic wall thickening (PSWT) also develops with CAO and reperfusion. However, the time course of PSWT during stunning and the regional function pattern of the preconditioned myocardium remain unknown. The goal of this study was to investigate the evolution of PSWT during myocardial stunning and its modifications during late preconditioning. Dogs were chronically instrumented to measure (sonomicrometry) systolic wall thickening (SWT), PSWT, total wall thickening (TWT = SWT + PSWT), and maximal rate of thickening (dWT/dt(max)). Two 10-min CAO (circumflex artery) were performed 24 h apart (day 0 and day 1, n = 7). At day 0, CAO decreased SWT and increased PSWT. During the first hours of the subsequent stunning, evolution of PSWT was symmetrical to that of SWT. At day 1, baseline SWT was similar to day 0, but PSWT was reduced (-66%), while dWT/dt(max) and SWT/TWT ratio increased (+48 and +14%, respectively). After CAO at day 1, stunning was reduced, indicating late preconditioning. Simultaneously vs. day 0, PSWT was significantly reduced, and dWT/dt(max) as well as SWT/TWT ratio were increased, i.e., a greater part of TWT was devoted to ejection. Similar decrease in PSWT was observed with a nonischemic preconditioning stimulus (rapid ventricular pacing, n = 4). In conclusion, a major contractile adaptation occurs during late preconditioning, i.e., the rate of wall thickening is enhanced and PWST is almost abolished. These phenotype adaptations represent potential approaches for characterizing stunning and late preconditioning with repetitive ischemia in humans. PMID:16920813

  11. Clinical and cognitive diversity of psychotic states arising in late life (late paraphrenia).

    PubMed

    Almeida, O P; Howard, R J; Levy, R; David, A S; Morris, R G; Sahakian, B J

    1995-07-01

    This study aimed to explore the heterogeneity of paranoid psychosis with onset in late life by using cognitive factors in a centroid method of cluster analysis. Forty-seven subjects were allocated to two different clusters, the first with 24 (51.1%) and the second with 23 (48.9%) patients. Their cognitive attainment was evaluated against the performance of 33 elderly controls, all groups being matched for age, sex, and the numbers of years of education. Patients in cluster 2 showed a pattern of widespread cognitive impairment, which involved general measures of cognitive performance (MMSE, CAMCOG, WAIS-R verbal and performance scores), memory (digit and spatial span, delayed matching-to-sample, recognition memory for words and faces), and executive functions (verbal fluency, extra and intra-dimensional shift ability, spatial working memory, and planning). In contrast, patients in cluster 1 were only impaired on their extra-dimensional set shift and planning abilities, suggesting a more specific and restricted executive functioning deficit. We also analysed the impact that the use of antipsychotic medication could have had on patients' cognitive performance, which was shown to be negligible. In addition, there was no difference between the clusters with regard to the number of patients using neuroleptics, suggesting that the medication was unlikely to have introduced a performance bias in the two patient clusters. The validity of the subdivision of these patients into two separate groups was further supported by other clinical findings. Patients in cluster 1 exhibited more severe psychotic symptoms, as measured by the SAPS, than their counterparts in cluster 2, and were also more likely to display first-rank symptoms of Schneider. Conversely, cluster 2 membership was strongly associated with the presence of neurological signs and negative symptoms. We suggest that psychotic states arising in late life are a heterogeneous condition that may be best divided in two

  12. Systematic Review of the Relationship between Acute and Late Gastrointestinal Toxicity after Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Peach, Matthew Sean; Showalter, Timothy N.; Ohri, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    A small but meaningful percentage of men who are treated with external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer will develop late gastrointestinal toxicity. While numerous strategies to prevent gastrointestinal injury have been studied, clinical trials concentrating on late toxicity have been difficult to carry out. Identification of subjects at high risk for late gastrointestinal injury could allow toxicity prevention trials to be performed using reasonable sample sizes. Acute radiation therapy toxicity has been shown to predict late toxicity in several organ systems. Late toxicities may occur as a consequential effect of acute injury. In this systematic review of published reports, we found that late gastrointestinal toxicity following prostate radiotherapy seems to be statistically and potentially causally related to acute gastrointestinal morbidity as a consequential effect. We submit that acute gastrointestinal toxicity may be used to identify at-risk patients who may benefit from additional attention for medical interventions and close follow-up to prevent late toxicity. Acute gastrointestinal toxicity could also be explored as a surrogate endpoint for late effects in prospective trials. PMID:26697225

  13. SDO Sees Late Phase in Solar Flares

    NASA Video Gallery

    On May 5, 2010, shortly after the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) began normal operation, the sun erupted with numerous coronal loops and flares. Many of these showed a previously unseen "late pha...

  14. Late Endovascular Pulmonary Artery Band Migration.

    PubMed

    Luciani, Giovanni Battista; Lucchese, Gianluca; Hoxha, Stiljan; Torre, Salvatore; Treviso, Oscar; Faggian, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Here reported is an unusual case of pulmonary artery band migration with serendipitous clinical presentation late after neonatal palliation of single ventricle with aortic arch hypoplasia. The diagnostic and therapeutic implications are discussed. PMID:26694278

  15. Late Amazonian Glaciations in Utopia Planitia, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osinski, G. R.; Capitan, R. D.; Kerrigan, M.; Barry, N.; Blain, S.

    2012-03-01

    We present evidence from western Utopia Planitia, including lineated valley fill and lobate debris aprons, for widespread glaciations over a large expanse of the northern plains and dichotomy boundary during Late Amazonian times.

  16. Influence of phonotactic probability/neighbourhood density on lexical learning in late talkers

    PubMed Central

    MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Schwartz, Richard G.; Shafer, Valerie L.; Marton, Klara

    2013-01-01

    Background Toddlers who are late talkers demonstrate delays in phonological and lexical skills. However, the influence of phonological factors on lexical acquisition in toddlers who are late talkers has not been examined directly. Aims To examine the influence of phonotactic probability/neighbourhood density on word learning in toddlers who were late talkers using comprehension, production and word recognition tasks. Methods & Procedures Two-year-olds who were late talkers (n = 12) and typically developing toddlers (n = 12) were exposed to 12 novel pseudo-words for unfamiliar objects in ten training sessions. Pseudo-words contained high or low phonotactic probability English sound sequences. The toddlers’ comprehension, speech production and detection of mispronunciation of the newly learned words were examined using a preferential looking paradigm. Outcomes & Results Late talkers showed poorer performance than toddlers with typical language development in all three tasks: comprehension, production and detection of mispronunciations. The toddlers with typical language development showed better speech production and more sensitivity to mispronunciations for high than low phonotactic probability/neighbourhood density sequences. Phonotactic probability/neighbourhood density did not influence the late talkers’ speech production or sensitivity to mispronunciations; they performed similarly for pseudo-words with high and low phonotactic probability/neighbourhood density sound sequences. Conclusions & Implications The results indicate that some late talkers do not recognize statistical properties of their language, which may contribute to their slower lexical learning. PMID:23472958

  17. Outer atmospheres of late-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsky, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Recent observational results concerning chromospheres and coronae in late-type stars are described. In particular, it is indicated where in the cool half of the HR diagram chromospheres, transition regions, coronae, and large mass loss occur and what the important parameters determining the energy balance of these layers are. The chromospheric modelling process is summarized and models of the late-type supergiants Beta Dra, Epsilon Gem, and Alpha Ori recently computed by Basri and Linsky (1980) are detailed.

  18. Very Late Bare Metal Stent Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Soto Herrera, Mariana; Restrepo, José A.; Felipe Buitrago, Andrés; Gómez Mejía, Mabel; Díaz, Jesús H.

    2013-01-01

    Very late stent thrombosis is a rare and not-well-understood complication after bare metal stent implantation. It usually presents as an ST elevation acute coronary syndrome and it is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Pathophysiologic mechanisms are not well defined; nevertheless, recent studies have proposed a neoatherosclerotic process as the triggering mechanism. We present the case of a patient with bare metal very late stent thrombosis 12 years after implantation. PMID:24829831

  19. 12 CFR 706.4 - Late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Late charges. 706.4 Section 706.4 Banks and.... until 7-1-10) § 706.4 Late charges. (a) In connection with collecting a debt arising out of an extension... indirectly, to levy or collect any delinquency charge on a payment, which payment is otherwise a full...

  20. Unusual late nodular presentation of secondary syphilis.

    PubMed

    Lanjouw, E; van der Meijden, W I; den Hollander, J C; Neumann, H A M

    2009-04-01

    A 20-year-old man presented with a five-week history of an eruption of papules and nodules disseminated over his body and face. We propose that this patient has a late form of secondary syphilis with a nodular, granulomatous inflammation in urgent need of treatment. Otherwise late irreversible sequelae could develop and unwanted possible further sexual transmission could take place. PMID:19304976

  1. [Occupational complexity and late-life memory and reasoning abilities].

    PubMed

    Ishioka, Yoshiko; Gondo, Yasuyuki; Masui, Yukie; Nakagawa, Takeshi; Tabuchi, Megumi; Ogawa, Madoka; Kamide, Kei; Ikebe, Kazunori; Arai, Yasumichi; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Takahashi, Ryutaro

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the associations between the complexity of an individual's primary lifetime occupation and his or her late-life memory and reasoning performance, using data from 824 community-dwelling participants aged 69-72 years. The complexity of work with data, people, and things was evaluated based on the Japanese job complexity score. The associations between occupational complexity and participant's memory and reasoning abilities were examined in multiple regression analyses. An association was found between more comple work with people and higher memory performance, as well as between more complex work with data and higher reasoning performance, after having controlled for gender, school records, and education. Further, an interaction effect was observed between gender and complexity of work with data in relation to reasoning performance: work involving a high degree of complexity with data was associated with high reasoning performance in men. These findings suggest the need to consider late-life cognitive functioning within the context of adulthood experiences, specifically those related to occupation and gender. PMID:26402953

  2. Diagnosis and Treatment of Depression and Cognitive Impairment in Late-Life

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Sarah Shizuko; Kanellopoulos, Dora; Manning, Kevin J.; Alexopoulos, George S.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment in late life depression is prevalent, disabling, and heterogeneous. Although mild cognitive impairment in depression does not usually progress to dementia, accurate assessment of cognition is vital to prognosis and treatment planning. For example, executive dysfunction often accompanies late-life depression, influences performance across cognitive domains, and is associated with poor antidepressant treatment outcomes. Here, we review how assessment can capture dysfunction across cognitive domains, and discuss cognitive trajectories frequently observed in late-life depression in the context of the neurobiology of this disorder. Furthermore we review the efficacy of a sample of interventions tailored to specific cognitive profiles. PMID:25655026

  3. Late wash cross-flow filter organic balance

    SciTech Connect

    Baich, M.A.

    1992-11-16

    A recent DOE-Savannah River review of the results and data from the Late Washing Crossflow Fitter assessment identified the fate of biphenyl as a concern in the Late Washing material balance. The concern arose because after the late washing operation only about 40% of the biphenyl remained in the irradiated precipitate and analyses of the spent wash water stream did not account for the missing biphenyl [2]. This document summarizes the results of subsequent filtration studies on the behavior and fate of all known organic precipitate feed components including biphenyl. The study employed a statistically designed material balance across a laboratory crossflow fitter. Data from two separate experiments are presented here. Results of the first study indicated no statistically significant loss of biphenyl, diphenylmercury, 0-terphenyl, diphenylamine, or aniline. Results did indicate minor losses of phenylboric acid, M-terphenyl, P-terphenyl, and a significant production of phenol, believed to be due to the way in which the experiment was performed. A second experiment demonstrated no statistically significant lose of any of the organic compounds.

  4. Differential neural mechanisms for early and late prediction error detection.

    PubMed

    Malekshahi, Rahim; Seth, Anil; Papanikolaou, Amalia; Mathews, Zenon; Birbaumer, Niels; Verschure, Paul F M J; Caria, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that prediction, instantiated at different perceptual levels, facilitate visual processing and enable prompt and appropriate reactions. Until now, the mechanisms underlying the effect of predictive coding at different stages of visual processing have still remained unclear. Here, we aimed to investigate early and late processing of spatial prediction violation by performing combined recordings of saccadic eye movements and fast event-related fMRI during a continuous visual detection task. Psychophysical reverse correlation analysis revealed that the degree of mismatch between current perceptual input and prior expectations is mainly processed at late rather than early stage, which is instead responsible for fast but general prediction error detection. Furthermore, our results suggest that conscious late detection of deviant stimuli is elicited by the assessment of prediction error's extent more than by prediction error per se. Functional MRI and functional connectivity data analyses indicated that higher-level brain systems interactions modulate conscious detection of prediction error through top-down processes for the analysis of its representational content, and possibly regulate subsequent adaptation of predictive models. Overall, our experimental paradigm allowed to dissect explicit from implicit behavioral and neural responses to deviant stimuli in terms of their reliance on predictive models. PMID:27079423

  5. Technical bases DWPF Late Washing Facility. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Fish, D.L.; Landon, L.F.

    1992-08-10

    A task force recommended that the technical feasibility of a ``Late Wash` facility be assessed [1]. In this facility, each batch of tetraphenylborate slurry from Tank 49 would be given a final wash to reduce the concentrations of nitrite and radiolysis products to acceptable levels. Laboratory-scale studies have demonstrated that d the nitrite content of the slurry fed to DWPF is reduced to 0.01 M or less (and at least a 4X reduction in concentration of the soluble species is attained), (1) the need for HAN during hydrolysis is eliminated (eliminating the production of ammonium ion during hydrolysis), (2) hydrolysis may be done with a catalyst concentration that will not exceed the copper solubility in glass and (3) the non-polar organic production during hydrolysis is significantly reduced. The first phase of an aggressive research and development program has been completed and all test results obtained to date support the technical feasibility of Late Washing. Paralleling this research and development effort is an aggressive design study directed by DWPF to scope and cost retrofitting the Auxiliary Pump Pit (APP) to enable performing a final wash of each batch of precipitate slurry before R is transferred into the DWPF Soft Processing Cell (SPC). An initial technical bases for the Late Wash Facility was transmitted to DWPF on June 15, 1992. Research and development activities are continuing directed principally at optimization of the cross-f low fitter decontamination methodology and pilot-scale validation of the recommended benzene stripping metodology.

  6. Differential neural mechanisms for early and late prediction error detection

    PubMed Central

    Malekshahi, Rahim; Seth, Anil; Papanikolaou, Amalia; Mathews, Zenon; Birbaumer, Niels; Verschure, Paul F. M. J.; Caria, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that prediction, instantiated at different perceptual levels, facilitate visual processing and enable prompt and appropriate reactions. Until now, the mechanisms underlying the effect of predictive coding at different stages of visual processing have still remained unclear. Here, we aimed to investigate early and late processing of spatial prediction violation by performing combined recordings of saccadic eye movements and fast event-related fMRI during a continuous visual detection task. Psychophysical reverse correlation analysis revealed that the degree of mismatch between current perceptual input and prior expectations is mainly processed at late rather than early stage, which is instead responsible for fast but general prediction error detection. Furthermore, our results suggest that conscious late detection of deviant stimuli is elicited by the assessment of prediction error’s extent more than by prediction error per se. Functional MRI and functional connectivity data analyses indicated that higher-level brain systems interactions modulate conscious detection of prediction error through top-down processes for the analysis of its representational content, and possibly regulate subsequent adaptation of predictive models. Overall, our experimental paradigm allowed to dissect explicit from implicit behavioral and neural responses to deviant stimuli in terms of their reliance on predictive models. PMID:27079423

  7. Management of anxiety in late life.

    PubMed

    Flint, A J

    1998-01-01

    Epidemiologic data are used as a framework to discuss the pharmacologic and cognitive-behavioral management of anxiety disorders in late life. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and phobias account for most cases of anxiety in late life. The high level of comorbidity between GAD and major depression, and the observation that the anxiety usually arises secondarily to the depression, suggests that antidepressant medication should be the primary pharmacologic treatment for many older people with GAD. Most individuals with late-onset agoraphobia do not have a history of panic attacks and the illness often starts after a traumatic event. Exposure therapy is the treatment of choice for agoraphobia without panic. It is uncommon for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and panic disorder to start for the first time in old age, but these disorders can persist from younger years into late life. Case reports and uncontrolled case series suggest that elderly people with OCD or panic disorder can benefit from pharmacologic and cognitive-behavioral treatments that are known to be effective in younger patients. However, it is not known whether the rate of response among elderly patients is adversely affected by the chronicity of these disorders. The prevalence and incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder in late life are not known. Uncontrolled data support the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in war veterans with chronic symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder; other treatments for this condition await evaluation in the elderly. PMID:10230998

  8. Radiation-Induced Lymphocyte Apoptosis to Predict Radiation Therapy Late Toxicity in Prostate Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Schnarr, Kara; Boreham, Douglas; Sathya, Jinka; Julian, Jim; Dayes, Ian S.

    2009-08-01

    Purpose: To examine a potential correlation between the in vitro apoptotic response of lymphocytes to radiation and the risk of developing late gastrointestinal (GI)/genitourinary (GU) toxicity from radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Prostate cancer patients formerly enrolled in a randomized study were tested for radiosensitivity by using a radiation-induced lymphocyte apoptosis assay. Apoptosis was measured using flow cytometry-based Annexin-FITC/7AAD and DiOC{sub 6}/7AAD assays in subpopulations of lymphocytes (total lymphocytes, CD4+, CD8+ and CD4-/CD8-) after exposure to an in vitro dose of 0, 2, 4, or 8 Gy. Results: Patients with late toxicity after radiotherapy showed lower lymphocyte apoptotic responses to 8 Gy than patients who had not developed late toxicity (p = 0.01). All patients with late toxicity had apoptosis levels that were at or below the group mean. The negative predictive value in both apoptosis assays ranged from 95% to 100%, with sensitivity values of 83% to 100%. Apoptosis at lower dose points and in lymphocyte subpopulations had a weaker correlation with the occurrence of late toxicity. Conclusions: Lymphocyte apoptosis after 8 Gy of radiation has the potential to predict which patients will be spared late toxicity after radiation therapy. Further research should be performed to identify the specific subset of lymphocytes that correlates with late toxicity, followed by a corresponding prospective study.

  9. Precursors and Correlates of Anxiety Trajectories from Late Childhood to Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letcher, Primrose; Sanson, Ann; Smart, Diana; Toumbourou, John W.

    2012-01-01

    The present research employed a prospective, multi-informant design to examine precursors and correlates of differing anxiety profiles from late childhood to late adolescence. The sample consisted of 626 boys and 667 girls who are participants in the Australian Temperament Project, a large, longitudinal, community-based study that has followed…

  10. Acute and late gastrointestinal toxicity after radiotherapy in prostate cancer patients: Consequential late damage

    SciTech Connect

    Heemsbergen, Wilma D. . E-mail: w.heemsbergen@nki.nl; Peeters, Stephanie T.H.; Koper, Peter; Hoogeman, Mischa S.; Lebesque, Joos V.

    2006-09-01

    Purpose: Late gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity after radiotherapy can be partly explained by late effects of acute toxicity (consequential late damage). We studied whether there is a direct relationship between acute and late GI toxicity. Patients and Methods: A total of 553 evaluable patients from the Dutch dose escalation trial (68 Gy vs. 78 Gy) were included. We defined three outcomes for acute reactions: 1) maximum Radiation Therapy Oncology Group acute toxicity, 2) maximum acute mucous discharge (AMD), and 3) maximum acute proctitis. Within a multivariable model, late endpoints (overall toxicity and five toxicity indicators) were studied as a function of acute toxicity, pretreatment symptoms, and relevant dose parameters. Results: At multivariable analysis, AMD and acute proctitis were strong predictors for overall toxicity, 'intermittent bleeding,' and 'incontinence pads' (p {<=} 0.01). For 'stools {>=}6/day' all three were strong predictors. No significant associations were found for 'severe bleeding' and 'use of steroids.' The predictive power of the dose parameters remained at the same level or became weaker for most late endpoints. Conclusions: Acute GI toxicity is an independent significant predictor of late GI toxicity. This suggests a significant consequential component in the development of late GI toxicity.

  11. The late early Miocene Sabine River

    SciTech Connect

    Manning, E. )

    1990-09-01

    Work on a new late early Miocene vertebrate fossil site, in a paleochannel deposit of the upper Carnahan Bayou Member of the lower Fleming Formation, has revealed unexpected data on the course and nature of the Sabine River of that time. Screen washing for smaller vertebrate remains at the site, just west of the Sabine River in Newton County, central eastern Texas, has resulted in the recovery of early Permian, Early Cretaceous, Late Cretaceous (Maestrichtian), Paleocene/Eocene, late Eocene, and Oligocene/Miocene fossils, in addition to the main early Miocene fauna. The reworked fossils, as well as distinctive mineral grains, show that the late early Miocene Sabine River was connected to the Texas/Oklahoma/Arkansas boundary section of the Red River, as well as to rivers draining the southern Ouachita Mountains. These rivers must have joined the Texas/Louisiana boundary section of the Sabine River somewhere in northwest Louisiana at that time. This suggests that the Louisiana section of the present Red River pirated the Texas/Oklahoma/Arkansas boundary section of the river some time after the early Miocene. The preservation of recognizable fossils transported hundreds of miles in a large river itself requires explanation. It is speculated here that the late early Miocene Sabine River incorporated a large amount of the then recently deposited volcanic ash from the Trans-Pecos Volcanic Field. Montmorillonite clay from the altered volcanic ash would have made the river very turbid, which could have allowed coarse sand-sized particles to be carried in the suspended load of the river, rather than in its bed load (where they would have been destroyed by the rolling chert gravel). Additional evidence for such long-distance fossil transport in the late early Miocene rivers of the western Gulf Coastal Plain comes from the abundant Cretaceous fossils of the upper Oakville Formation of southeast Texas and the Siphonina davisi zone of the southeast Texas subsurface.

  12. Late Paleozoic orogeny in Alaska's Farewell terrane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, D.C.; Dumoulin, J.; Layer, P.; Sunderlin, D.; Roeske, S.; McClelland, B.; Harris, A.G.; Abbott, G.; Bundtzen, T.; Kusky, T.

    2003-01-01

    Evidence is presented for a previously unrecognized late Paleozoic orogeny in two parts of Alaska's Farewell terrane, an event that has not entered into published scenarios for the assembly of Alaska. The Farewell terrane was long regarded as a piece of the early Paleozoic passive margin of western Canada, but is now thought, instead, to have lain between the Siberian and Laurentian (North American) cratons during the early Paleozoic. Evidence for a late Paleozoic orogeny comes from two belts located 100-200 km apart. In the northern belt, metamorphic rocks dated at 284-285 Ma (three 40Ar/39Ar white-mica plateau ages) provide the main evidence for orogeny. The metamorphic rocks are interpreted as part of the hinterland of a late Paleozoic mountain belt, which we name the Browns Fork orogen. In the southern belt, thick accumulations of Pennsylvanian-Permian conglomerate and sandstone provide the main evidence for orogeny. These strata are interpreted as the eroded and deformed remnants of a late Paleozoic foreland basin, which we name the Dall Basin. We suggest that the Browns Fork orogen and Dall Basin comprise a matched pair formed during collision between the Farewell terrane and rocks to the west. The colliding object is largely buried beneath Late Cretaceous flysch to the west of the Farewell terrane, but may have included parts of the so-called Innoko terrane. The late Paleozoic convergent plate boundary represented by the Browns Fork orogen likely connected with other zones of plate convergence now located in Russia, elsewhere in Alaska, and in western Canada. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Late-Onset Hypogonadism and Testosterone Replacement in Older Men.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Rajib K; Bhattacharya, Shelley B

    2015-11-01

    Late-onset hypogonadism is an underdiagnosed and easily treated condition defined by low serum testosterone levels in men older than 65 years. When treated, a significant improvement in quality of life may be reached in this rapidly rising sector of the population. During the evaluation, laboratory tests and a full medication review should be performed to exclude other illnesses or adverse effects from medications. The major goal of treatment in this population is treating the symptoms related to hypogonadism. There has not been clear evidence supporting universally giving older men with low serum testosterone levels and hypogonadal symptoms testosterone replacement therapy. PMID:26476121

  14. Infrared Observations of Late Type Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, K. M.

    1977-01-01

    Substantive mass loss resulting in appreciable circumstellar dust envelopes is common in late-type stars. The evolutionary history and physical state of a cool star determine the chemistry within the outer stellar atmosphere mirrored by the molecular and particulate material present in the envelope. The observational consequences of this debris determined by moderate spectral resolution infrared spectrophotometry are reviewed. Significant information is provided by observations of the emergent energy flux of both the cool stellar photosphere and of the circumstellar dust envelope. The observation suggests that mass-loss occurs to some degree throughout late stellar evolutionary phases and that occasional periods of high mass loss are not uncommon.

  15. Late Cretaceous vicariance in Gondwanan amphibians.

    PubMed

    Van Bocxlaer, Ines; Roelants, Kim; Biju, S D; Nagaraju, J; Bossuyt, Franky

    2006-01-01

    Overseas dispersals are often invoked when Southern Hemisphere terrestrial and freshwater organism phylogenies do not fit the sequence or timing of Gondwana fragmentation. We used dispersal-vicariance analyses and molecular timetrees to show that two species-rich frog groups, Microhylidae and Natatanura, display congruent patterns of spatial and temporal diversification among Gondwanan plates in the Late Cretaceous, long after the presumed major tectonic break-up events. Because amphibians are notoriously salt-intolerant, these analogies are best explained by simultaneous vicariance, rather than by oceanic dispersal. Hence our results imply Late Cretaceous connections between most adjacent Gondwanan landmasses, an essential concept for biogeographic and palaeomap reconstructions. PMID:17183706

  16. A case of late-onset oligomeganephronia.

    PubMed

    Alves, Rafael José Vargas; Oppermann, Kenselyn; Schein, Luiz Eduardo; Pêgas, Karla Lais

    2012-01-01

    A 33-year old caucasian man was investigated for pain in the right flank, proteinuria, hemathuria and an elevated serum creatinine level. He also presented an abnormal ultrasonography, which revealed asymmetric kidneys. Through renal biopsy, the diagnosis of oligomeganephronia (OMN) was confirmed. OMN is a very rare form of renal hypoplasia, and late-onset in adulthood is even rarer. In the pediatric population, OMN leads to end-stage-renal-failure(ESRF) in a few years. This is the sixth case related in the literature of a late-onset OMN who have not yet developed ESRF. PMID:23318829

  17. Nonavian feathers in a late Triassic archosaur.

    PubMed

    Jones, T D; Ruben, J A; Martin, L D; Kurochkin, E N; Feduccia, A; Maderson, P F; Hillenius, W J; Geist, N R; Alifanov, V

    2000-06-23

    Longisquama insignis was an unusual archosaur from the Late Triassic of central Asia. Along its dorsal axis Longisquama bore a series of paired integumentary appendages that resembled avian feathers in many details, especially in the anatomy of the basal region. The latter is sufficiently similar to the calamus of modern feathers that each probably represents the culmination of virtually identical morphogenetic processes. The exact relationship of Longisquama to birds is uncertain. Nevertheless, we interpret Longisquama's elongate integumentary appendages as nonavian feathers and suggest that they are probably homologous with avian feathers. If so, they antedate the feathers of Archaeopteryx, the first known bird from the Late Jurassic. PMID:10864867

  18. Eating Disorders in Late-life

    PubMed Central

    Luca, Antonina; Luca, Maria; Calandra2, Carmela

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders are a heterogeneous group of complex psychiatric disorders characterized by abnormal eating behaviours that lead to a high rate of morbidity, or even death, if underestimated and untreated. The main disorders enlisted in the chapter of the Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders-5 dedicated to “Feeding and Eating Disorders” are: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Even though these abnormal behaviours are mostly diagnosed during childhood, interesting cases of late-life eating disorders have been reported in literature. In this review, these eating disorders are discussed, with particular attention to the diagnosis and management of those cases occurring in late-life. PMID:25657852

  19. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Late Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calamari, John E.; Pontarelli, Noelle K.; Armstrong, Kerrie M.; Salstrom, Seoka A.

    2012-01-01

    Although obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has received increasing attention, the study and treatment of OCD in late life has been neglected. The obsessions and compulsions seen with older adults do not appear to differ from the symptoms experienced by other age groups, although developmental issues might influence symptom focus (e.g., memory…

  20. Late glacial aridity in southern Rocky Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, O.K.; Pitblado, B.L.

    1995-09-01

    While the slopes of the present-day Colorado Rocky Mountains are characterized by large stands of subalpine and montane conifers, the Rockies of the late glacial looked dramatically different. Specifically, pollen records suggest that during the late glacial, Artemisia and Gramineae predominated throughout the mountains of Colorado. At some point between 11,000 and 10,000 B.P., however, both Artemisia and grasses underwent a dramatic decline, which can be identified in virtually every pollen diagram produced for Colorado mountain sites, including Como Lake (Sangre de Cristo Mountains), Copley Lake and Splains; Gulch (near Crested Butte), Molas Lake (San Juan Mountains), and Redrock Lake (Boulder County). Moreover, the same pattern seems to hold for pollen spectra derived for areas adjacent to Colorado, including at sites in the Chuska Mountains of New Mexico and in eastern Wyoming. The implications of this consistent finding are compelling. The closest modem analogues to the Artemisia- and Gramineae-dominated late-glacial Colorado Rockies are found in the relatively arid northern Great Basin, which suggests that annual precipitation was much lower in the late-glacial southern Rocky Mountains than it was throughout the Holocene.

  1. Fast Mapping in Late-Talking Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weismer, Susan Ellis; Venker, Courtney E.; Evans, Julia L.; Moyle, Maura Jones

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated fast mapping in late-talking (LT) toddlers and toddlers with normal language (NL) development matched on age, nonverbal cognition, and maternal education. The fast-mapping task included novel object labels and familiar words. The LT group scored significantly lower than the NL group on novel word comprehension and…

  2. Late relapses in acute promyelocytic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Latagliata, Roberto; Carmosino, Ida; Breccia, Massimo; Minni, Antonio; Testi, Anna; Iorio, Nicol; Lo-Coco, Francesco; Avvisati, Giuseppe; Petti, Maria Concetta; Mandelli, Franco; Cimino, Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    From January 1988 to December 1997, among 53 acute promyelocytic leukaemia patients in 1st complete remission (CR) after 5 years from diagnosis, we observed 5 late relapses (9.4%) after 60, 61, 71, 101 and 155 months from diagnosis; 3 of those late relapses (7.7%) occurred among 39 patients previously treated with all-trans-retinoic acid. An involvement of the mastoid occurred in 3/5 patients (60%), compared with 2/32 patients (6.3%) at an early relapse (p < 0.02). As to the treatment of the late relapse, 1 patient received all-trans-retinoic acid alone followed by allogeneic transplantation and 4 patients were treated according to the GIMEMA 0191 protocol. All patients achieved a 2nd CR and are still alive: 4 in the 2nd molecular CR after 6, 33, 34 and 115 months; 1 relapsed after 15 months and is now in the 3rd CR. In conclusion, a late relapse occurred in a sizeable fraction of acute promyelocytic leukaemia patients: the high rate of ear involvement might be explained considering the ear as a 'disease sanctuary'. PMID:17135723

  3. 50 CFR 600.1015 - Late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Late charges. 600.1015 Section 600.1015 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Fishing Capacity Reduction Framework § 600.1015...

  4. Late Immersion Foundation Document: Teachers and Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this document is to give teachers and administrators the contextual and pedagogical tools for the late immersion program. It acts as a guide for beginning and experienced teachers who need to update their knowledge regarding this program and its details. For many working in this area, it also confirms their daily practices as well as…

  5. 7 CFR 925.141 - Late payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Late payments. 925.141 Section 925.141 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA...

  6. 7 CFR 925.141 - Late payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Late payments. 925.141 Section 925.141 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA...

  7. 7 CFR 925.141 - Late payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Late payments. 925.141 Section 925.141 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA...

  8. 7 CFR 925.141 - Late payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Late payments. 925.141 Section 925.141 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA...

  9. 7 CFR 925.141 - Late payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Late payments. 925.141 Section 925.141 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA...

  10. The early days of late blight

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale DNA sequencing of samples of foliage collected in the 19th century from plants infected with late blight has shown that the potato famines of the 1840s were triggered by a single clonal lineage of Phytophthora infestans, called HERB-1, which persisted for at least 50 years. PMID:23795302

  11. Successful School Principalship in Late-Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulford, Bill; Edmunds, Bill; Ewington, John; Kendall, Lawrie; Kendall, Diana; Silins, Halia

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Who are late-career school principals? Do they continue to make a positive contribution to their schools? Do they feel tired and trapped or do they maintain their commitment to education and young people? The purpose of this paper is to explore these issues, employing the results of a survey on successful school principalship with the…

  12. 30 CFR 870.21 - Late payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Late payments. 870.21 Section 870.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION ABANDONED MINE RECLAMATION FUND-FEE COLLECTION AND COAL PRODUCTION REPORTING §...

  13. Late breast recurrence after lumpectomy and irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, J.M.; Spitalier, J.M.; Amalric, R.

    1983-08-01

    For 276 patients with early breast cancer followed from 10 to 21 years after lumpectomy and radiotherapy, the recurrence rate in the treated breast was 15.6%, and 7.2% developed contralateral breast cancer. Only 63% of breast recurrences occurred within 5 years, and the remainder were late failures, with 5 of the 43 recurrences observed after 10 years. The proportion of failures occurring late was greater for T/sub 1/ than for T/sub 2/ tumors (53% vs 25%). Twenty-six percent of early recurrences were inoperable, and an adverse impact of early recurrence on 10-year survival was clearly demonstrable. Late recurrences were all operable and did not appear to be associated with decreased survival. Only 16 of the 36 patients (44%) with operable breast recurrence ever developed metastatic disease, and 5 year survival following salvage therapy was 62%. Although the treated breast remains at continuous cancer risk even beyond 5 years, the prognosis of late recurrence appears quite similar to that of contralateral breast cancer.

  14. Processing of Inflected Nouns in Late Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portin, Marja; Lehtonen, Minna; Laine, Matti

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the recognition of Swedish inflected nouns in two participant groups. Both groups were Finnish-speaking late learners of Swedish, but the groups differed in regard to their Swedish language proficiency. In a visual lexical decision task, inflected Swedish nouns from three frequency ranges were contrasted with corresponding…

  15. Bereaved Elders: Transformative Learning in Late Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study sought to understand older adults' (elders) transformative learning through bereavement in late life. Nine bereaved elders were engaged through in-depth interviews. Data analysis via the constant comparative method indicated deep changes in views of death-related issues as well as ongoing life-related issues. The process of…

  16. Unmatched Case-Control Study on Late Presentation of HIV Infection in Santiago, Cape Verde (2004-2011).

    PubMed

    Moreira, António L; Fronteira, Inês; Figueiredo Augusto, Gonçalo; Martins, Maria Rosario O

    2016-03-01

    Access to free antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Sub-Saharan Africa has been steadily increasing over the past decade. However, the success of large-scale ART programmes depends on timely diagnosis and early initiation of HIV care. This study characterizes late presenters to HIV care in Santiago (Cape Verde) between 2004 and 2011, and identifies factors associated with late presentation for care. We defined late presentation as persons presenting to HIV care with a CD4 count below 350 cells/mm³. An unmatched case-control study was conducted using socio-demographic and behavioural data of 368 individuals (191 cases and 177 controls) collected through an interviewer-administered questionnaire, comparing HIV patients late and early presented to care. Logistic regression was performed to estimate odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals. Results show that 51.9% were late presenters for HIV. No differences were found in gender distribution, marital status, or access to health services between cases and controls. Participants who undertook an HIV test by doctor indication were more likely to present late compared with those who tested for HIV by their own initiative. Also, individuals taking less time to initiate ART are more likely to present late. This study highlights the need to better understand reasons for late presentation to HIV care in Cape Verde. People in older age groups should be targeted in future approaches focused on late presenters to HIV care. PMID:26999167

  17. Unmatched Case-Control Study on Late Presentation of HIV Infection in Santiago, Cape Verde (2004–2011)

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, António L.; Fronteira, Inês; Augusto, Gonçalo Figueiredo; Martins, Maria Rosario O.

    2016-01-01

    Access to free antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Sub-Saharan Africa has been steadily increasing over the past decade. However, the success of large-scale ART programmes depends on timely diagnosis and early initiation of HIV care. This study characterizes late presenters to HIV care in Santiago (Cape Verde) between 2004 and 2011, and identifies factors associated with late presentation for care. We defined late presentation as persons presenting to HIV care with a CD4 count below 350 cells/mm3. An unmatched case-control study was conducted using socio-demographic and behavioural data of 368 individuals (191 cases and 177 controls) collected through an interviewer-administered questionnaire, comparing HIV patients late and early presented to care. Logistic regression was performed to estimate odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals. Results show that 51.9% were late presenters for HIV. No differences were found in gender distribution, marital status, or access to health services between cases and controls. Participants who undertook an HIV test by doctor indication were more likely to present late compared with those who tested for HIV by their own initiative. Also, individuals taking less time to initiate ART are more likely to present late. This study highlights the need to better understand reasons for late presentation to HIV care in Cape Verde. People in older age groups should be targeted in future approaches focused on late presenters to HIV care. PMID:26999167

  18. The late maintenance of hippocampal LTP: requirements, phases, 'synaptic tagging', 'late-associativity' and implications.

    PubMed

    Reymann, Klaus G; Frey, Julietta U

    2007-01-01

    Our review focuses on the mechanisms which enable the late maintenance of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP; >3h), a phenomenon which is thought to underlie prolonged memory. About 20 years ago we showed for the first time that the maintenance of LTP - like memory storage--depends on intact protein synthesis and thus, consists of at least two temporal phases. Here we concentrate on mechanisms required for the induction of the transient early-LTP and of the protein synthesis-dependent late-LTP. Our group has shown that the induction of late-LTP requires the associative activation of heterosynaptic inputs, i.e. the synergistic activation of glutamatergic and modulatory, reinforcing inputs within specific, effective time windows. The induction of late-LTP is characterized by novel, late-associative properties such as 'synaptic tagging' and 'late-associative reinforcement'. Both phenomena require the associative setting of synaptic tags as well as the availability of plasticity-related proteins (PRPs) and they are restricted to functional dendritic compartments, in general. 'Synaptic tagging' guarantees input specificity and thus the specific processing of afferent signals for the establishment of late-LTP. 'Late-associative reinforcement' describes a process where early-LTP by the co-activation of modulatory inputs can be transformed into late-LTP in activated synapses where a tag is set. Recent evidence from behavioral experiments, which studied processes of emotional and cognitive reinforcement of LTP, point to the physiological relevance of the above mechanisms during cellular and system's memory formation. PMID:16919684

  19. [The auditory late potentials (P300, MMN) in central speech disorders in children].

    PubMed

    Wiskirska-Woźnica, Bozena; Obrebowski, Andrzej; Swidziński, Piotr; Pruszewicz, Antoni; Zebryk-Stopa, Anna

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper was introduction of preliminary study of late auditory evoked potentials P300 and MMN insome central communication process disorders. The investigations were performed in the group of three children with development dysphasia and pseudobulbar dyzarthria. The registration of endogenic late cognitive potentials was performed using the alternate application of stimulus of pure tones 1 and 2 kHz, and logatoms (da)-(ga). In all patients the normal hearing threshold and the unilateral disturbances in registration of P300 and mismatch negativity (MMN) were found. PMID:15603392

  20. Late-glacial to late-Holocene shifts in global precipitation δ18O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasechko, S.; Lechler, A.; Pausata, F. S. R.; Fawcett, P. J.; Gleeson, T.; Cendón, D. I.; Galewsky, J.; LeGrande, A. N.; Risi, C.; Sharp, Z. D.; Welker, J. M.; Werner, M.; Yoshimura, K.

    2015-10-01

    Reconstructions of Quaternary climate are often based on the isotopic content of paleo-precipitation preserved in proxy records. While many paleo-precipitation isotope records are available, few studies have synthesized these dispersed records to explore spatial patterns of late-glacial precipitation δ18O. Here we present a synthesis of 86 globally distributed groundwater (n = 59), cave calcite (n = 15) and ice core (n = 12) isotope records spanning the late-glacial (defined as ~ 50 000 to ~ 20 000 years ago) to the late-Holocene (within the past ~ 5000 years). We show that precipitation δ18O changes from the late-glacial to the late-Holocene range from -7.1 ‰ (δ18Olate-Holocene > δ18Olate-glacial) to +1.7 ‰ (δ18Olate-glacial > δ18Olate-Holocene), with the majority (77 %) of records having lower late-glacial δ18O than late-Holocene δ18O values. High-magnitude, negative precipitation δ18O shifts are common at high latitudes, high altitudes and continental interiors (δ18Olate-Holocene > δ18Olate-glacial by more than 3 ‰). Conversely, low-magnitude, positive precipitation δ18O shifts are concentrated along tropical and subtropical coasts (δ18Olate-glacial > δ18Olate-Holocene by less than 2 ‰). Broad, global patterns of late-glacial to late-Holocene precipitation δ18O shifts suggest that stronger-than-modern isotopic distillation of air masses prevailed during the late-glacial, likely impacted by larger global temperature differences between the tropics and the poles. Further, to test how well general circulation models reproduce global precipitation δ18O shifts, we compiled simulated precipitation δ18O shifts from five isotope-enabled general circulation models simulated under recent and last glacial maximum climate states. Climate simulations generally show better inter-model and model-measurement agreement in temperate regions than in the tropics, highlighting a need for further research to better understand how inter-model spread in

  1. Very Late Results of Esophagomyotomy for Patients With Achalasia

    PubMed Central

    Csendes, Attila; Braghetto, Italo; Burdiles, Patricio; Korn, Owen; Csendes, Paula; Henríquez, Ana

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Laparoscopic esophagomyotomy is the preferred approach to patients with achalasia of the esophagus, However, there are very few long-term follow-up studies (>10 years) in these patients. Objective: To perform a very late subjective and objective follow-up in a group of 67 patients submitted to esophagomyotomy plus a partial antireflux surgery (Dor's technique). Material and Methods: In a prospective study that lasted 30 years, 67 patients submitted to surgery were divided into 3 groups: group I followed for 80 to 119 months (15 patients); group II, with follow-up of 120 to 239 months (35 patients); and group III, with follow-up more than 240 months (17 patients). They were submitted to clinical questionnaire, endoscopic evaluation, histologic analysis, radiologic studies, manometric determinations, and 24-hour pH studies late after surgery. Results: Three patients developed a squamous cell esophageal carcinoma 5, 7, and 15 years after surgery. At the late follow-up, Visick III and IV were seen in 7%, 23%, and 35%, according to the length of follow-up of each group. Endoscopic examination revealed a progressive nonsignificant deterioration of esophageal mucosa, histologic analysis distal to squamous-columnar junction showed a significant decrease of fundic mucosa in patients of group III, with increase of intestinal metaplasia, although not significant time. Lower esophageal sphincter showed a significant decrease of resting pressure 1 year after surgery, which remained similar at the late control. There was no return to peristaltic activity. Acid reflux measured by 24-hour pH studies revealed a progressive increase, and the follow-up was longer. Nine patients developed Barrett esophagus: 6 of them a short-segment and 3 a long-segment Barrett esophagus. Final clinical results in all 67 patients demonstrated excellent or good results in 73% of the cases, development of epidermoid carcinoma in 4.5%, and failures in 22.4% of the patients, mainly due to

  2. Early Proctoscopy is a Surrogate Endpoint of Late Rectal Toxicity in Prostate Cancer Treated With Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ippolito, Edy; Massaccesi, Mariangela; Digesu, Cinzia; Deodato, Francesco; Macchia, Gabriella; Pirozzi, Giuseppe Antonio; Cilla, Savino; Cuscuna, Daniele; Di Lallo, Alessandra; Mattiucci, Gian Carlo; Mantini, Giovanna; Pacelli, Fabio; Valentini, Vincenzo; Cellini, Numa; Ingrosso, Marcello; Morganti, Alessio Giuseppe

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To predict the grade and incidence of late clinical rectal toxicity through short-term (1 year) mucosal alterations. Methods and Materials: Patients with prostate adenocarcinoma treated with curative or adjuvant radiotherapy underwent proctoscopy a year after the course of radiotherapy. Mucosal changes were classified by the Vienna Rectoscopy Score (VRS). Late toxicity data were analyzed according to the Kaplan-Meier method. Comparison between prognosis groups was performed by log-rank analysis. Results: After a median follow-up time of 45 months (range, 18-99), the 3-year incidence of grade {>=}2 rectal late toxicity according to the criteria of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group was 24%, with all patients (24/24; 100%) experiencing rectal bleeding. The occurrence of grade {>=}2 clinical rectal late toxicity was higher in patients with grade {>=}2 (32% vs. 15 %, p = 0.02) or grade {>=}3 VRS telangiectasia (47% vs. 17%, p {<=} 0.01) and an overall VRS score of {>=}2 (31% vs. 16 %, p = 0.04) or {>=}3 (48% vs. 17%, p = 0.01) at the 1-year proctoscopy. Conclusions: Early proctoscopy (1 year) predicts late rectal bleeding and therefore can be used as a surrogate endpoint for late rectal toxicity in studies aimed at reducing this frequent complication.

  3. Nicotine improves the functional activity of late endothelial progenitor cells via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Min; Liu, Qian; Sun, Jing; Yi, Kaihong; Wu, Libiao; Tan, Xuerui

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are involved in the modulation of functional activity of late endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) induced by nicotine. Total mononuclear cells (MNCs) were isolated from human umbilical cord blood by Ficoll density gradient centrifugation, and then the cells were plated on fibronectin-coated culture plates. Late EPCs were positive for 1,1-dioctadecyl-3,3,3,3-tetramethylindocarbocyanine-labeled acetylated low-density lipoprotein (DiI-acLDL) uptake and fluorescein-isothiocyanate-conjugated Ulex europaeus agglutinin lectin (UEA-1) binding. Expression of von Willbrand factor (vWF), kinase insert domain receptor (KDR), and α7 nAChR was detected by indirect immunofluorescence staining. Late EPCs of 3-5 passages were treated for 32 h with either vehicle or nicotine with or without pre-incubation of nAChR antagonism, mecamylamine, or α-bungarotoxin. The viability, migration, and in vitro vasculogenesis activity of late EPCs were assayed with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, modified Boyden chamber assay, and in vitro angiogenesis assay, respectively. Late EPCs adhesion assay was performed by replating cells on fibronectin-coated plates, and then adherent cells were counted. Incubation with 10 nmol/L nicotine enhanced viable, migratory, adhesive, and in vitro vasculogenesis capacity of late EPCs. The effect of nicotine on late EPCs can be attenuated by mecamylamine or α-bungarotoxin. In conclusion, nicotine improves the functional activity of late EPCs via nAChRs. PMID:21774635

  4. Youth Indicators of Late-M Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Daniel; Cruz, K.; Lépine, S.; Alpert, N.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study in which we searched for a correlation between weak Na absorption doublet (8183Å, 8194Å) and strong H-Alpha emission (6563Å) in late-M dwarf stars (M6-M9), as both are indicative of youth. Our sample consists of late-M Dwarfs from the LSPM Survey (Lépine and Shara, 2005), which contain stars with measured proper motions of mu > 40 mas/yr. Measurements for emission and absorption strength were made using spectral indices. Our preliminary results are presented; future work will include a similar analysis of early type M Dwarfs, as well as kinematics. This work was funded by the CUNY Summer Undergraduate Research Program, as well as the CUNY Macaulay Honors College, and we acknowledge the hospitality of the American Museum of Natural History.

  5. Late onset spondyloarthropathy mimicking polymyalgia rheumatica.

    PubMed

    Aydeniz, Ali; Altındağ, Ozlem; Oğüt, Evrim; Gürsoy, Savaş

    2012-05-01

    We report a 55-year-old woman with late onset spondyloarthropathy who had widespread body pain and pitting oedema of both ankles. She had been followed up for polymyalgia rheumatica for nearly 10 years. On laboratory examination, ESR: 62 mm/h and CRP: 16.1 mg/dl. HLA was positive. There was tenderness on both of her ankles. We diagnosed late onset spondyloarthropathy according to clinic and radiographic findings. The patient was treated with sulphasalazine 200 mg/day and indomethacin 100 mg/day. As a conclusion, LoSPA may mimic a variety of rheumatic conditions such as PMR and reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome. Careful examination should be warranted in such conditions. PMID:20237931

  6. Lifetime constraints for late dark matter decay

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Nicole F.; Galea, Ahmad J.; Petraki, Kalliopi

    2010-07-15

    We consider a class of late-decaying dark matter models, in which a dark matter particle decays to a heavy stable daughter of approximately the same mass, together with one or more relativistic particles which carry away only a small fraction of the parent rest mass. Such decays can affect galactic halo structure and evolution, and have been invoked as a remedy to some of the small-scale structure formation problems of cold dark matter. There are existing stringent limits on the dark matter lifetime if the decays produce photons. By considering examples in which the relativistic decay products instead consist of neutrinos or electron-position pairs, we derive stringent limits on these scenarios for a wide range of dark matter masses. We thus eliminate a sizable portion of the parameter space for these late-decay models if the dominant decay channel involves standard model final states.

  7. Late B Star X-Ray Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Frederick M.

    The most basic conclusion to be drawn from the EINSTEIN stellar X-ray observations was that all stars are X-ray sources - except the late-B and early- to mid-A stars. While this is still true in general, observations with the ROSAT X-ray observatory have shown that young late-B/early-A stars, those in and near regions of star formation, are often bright X-ray sources. It is not yet clear why (or, indeed, whether) young B-A stars are often X-ray sources. We request time on the IUE to observe a sample of these stars. We will compare the line profiles against B star models against archival spectra, looking for evidence of mass loss or mass inflows, as well as evidence of transition region gas. Detection of the latter will prove that the B stars are indeed X-ray sources.

  8. Perceptions of conventional war: late adolescents' views.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, B W; Roscoe, B; Kennedy, D

    1988-01-01

    Late adolescents' views concerning conventional war were assessed in order to better understand the thinking of today's youth and to compare their views with those of early adolescents previously reported in the literature. Three hundred ninety-nine college undergraduates from two universities were surveyed regarding conventional warfare in general and United States military involvement in Latin America specifically. Results suggest that attitudes toward war were related to sex, socioeconomic status, and political affiliation. Although two-thirds of the respondents believed wars were sometimes needed, there was little support for United States military involvement in Latin America and much skepticism of President Reagan's honesty on the issue. Overall, late adolescents' views were less positive and less extreme than were those of early adolescents. PMID:3195377

  9. Pharmacologic treatment of depression in late life

    PubMed Central

    Flint, A J

    1997-01-01

    A number of age-related factors, including changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, medical comorbidity and an increased risk of drug-drug interaction, can complicate the pharmacologic management of depression in late life. Nevertheless, over 80% of elderly depressed patients will eventually respond to vigorous treatment and, when treated over 2 years, up to 75% of those will not have a relapse or recurrence of depression. This article reviews a number of issues relating to the pharmacotherapy of depression in elderly people. In particular, it discusses the similarities and differences between various antidepressant medications, issues pertaining to dosing and length of treatment, and management of the patient who does not respond to first-line treatment. The author emphasizes that, because of the high risk of relapse and recurrence, a long-term collaboration between the patient and the physician is required to successfully manage depression in late life. PMID:9347777

  10. Holographic dark energy and late cosmic acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavón, Diego

    2007-06-01

    It has been persuasively argued that the number of effective degrees of freedom of a macroscopic system is proportional to its area rather than to its volume. This entails interesting consequences for cosmology. Here we present a model based on this 'holographic principle' that accounts for the present stage of accelerated expansion of the Universe and significantly alleviates the coincidence problem also for non-spatially flat cosmologies. Likewise, we comment on a recently proposed late transition to a fresh decelerated phase.

  11. Treatment of childhood cancers: late effects.

    PubMed

    2015-10-01

    In France, about 1 in 1000 young adults aged 20 to 30 years is a survivor of childhood cancer and is thus faced with late effects of their cancer and its treatment (radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy). What are the late effects of childhood cancer therapy? A systematic review by the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) provides useful information based on European and North American data. Cancer treatments can have many long-term consequences that depend on the drugs and doses used, radiation therapy protocols and irradiated organs, and age at the time of treatment. Cytotoxic drugs and radiation can both cause infertility. Abdominopelvic radiation therapy in girls has been linked to an increased risk of premature delivery and other complications of pregnancy. No increase in birth defects has been reported among children born to childhood cancer survivors. Anthracyclines and radiation therapy can cause cardiomyopathy. Neck irradiation can lead to thyroid disorders, and cranial irradiation to growth retardation. Chemotherapy can cause osteonecrosis and loss of bone density, but without an increased risk of fracture. The risk of cognitive impairment and structural abnormalities of the brain is higher when the child is younger or receives a high cumulative dose of cranial irradiation or total irradiation dosage. Some cytotoxic drugs can damage the kidneys. Cranial radiation therapy can cause long-term neuroendocrine disorders and growth disorders, especially when the dose exceeds 18 Gy. Cytotoxic drugs (alkylating agents, etoposide, etc.) and radiation therapy can cause second cancers of a different histological type. One analysis of second cancers showed a median time to onset of 7 years for solid tumours and 2.5 years for lymphoma and leukaemia. Better knowledge of the late effects of childhood cancer therapy can help orient the choice of treatment towards less harmful options or, if necessary, implement measures aimed at preventing late adverse

  12. Cryptosporidiosis in intensively reared Barramundi (Lates calcarifer).

    PubMed

    Gabor, Les J; Srivastava, Mukesh; Titmarsh, Jeff; Dennis, Michelle; Gabor, Melinda; Landos, Matthew

    2011-03-01

    Two outbreaks of mortality in juvenile barramundi (Lates calcarifer) with a high prevalence of gastrointestinal cryptosporidiosis are described. Juvenile barramundi at a separate hatchery and grow-out facility were demonstrating markedly increased mortality rates. Histological examination in all cases indicated a heavy infection of Cryptosporidium-like organisms within the distal stomach and proximal small intestine. Electron microscopy confirmed a diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis; however, speciation was not possible. PMID:21398470

  13. A new Late Carboniferous Pangea reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, X.

    2014-12-01

    Paleomagnetically reconstructed Laurasia and Gondwana are well satisfied. However, the Pangea reconstruction remains controversial. The Late Triassic-Early Jurassic reconstruction, Pangea A, is consistent with one derived by closure of the Atlantic Ocean. As going back to older Period, the Pangea A reconstruction cannot stand. Particularly, the Late Carboniferous and Permian reconstruction, Pangea B, placed Gondwana ~3500 km eastward relative to its Pangea A configuration. This might indicate that the super continent was tectonically evolving during the period. For instance, an intra Pangean megashear zone has been proposed to show the evolution from Pangea B to Pangea A. On the other hand, researchers suspected that the Pangea B reconstruction is not accurate, because of several factors, i.e., the effect of persistent, large non-dipole field, remagnetization, errors in paleomagnetic record (inclination shallowing), and so on. To test the effect of inclination shallowing on the Pangea reconstruction, we here focus on the Late Carboniferous time, because, the Laurasian poles are mainly from volcanic rocks, and the Gondwana poles dominantly from sediments. This makes the test rather simple. Assuming a flattening factor of 0.5, we corrected the paleomagnetic inclinations of the Late Carboniferous results from Gondwana, and the inclination-corrected poles are thus achieved. The mean Laurasia and Gondwana poles can largely be accommodated by closure of the Atlantic Ocean, and the remaining offset may be solved by a ~15 degree relative rotation between the two continents. Relative rotation is often observed during continental collision (e.g., the collision between the North and South China blocks, the India-Asia collision, and so on), and more likely than the large scale shear. Our test indicates that Pangea B is probably the artifact of paleomagnetic inclination shallowing in sedimentary rocks.

  14. Palynology, sedimentology and palaeoecology of the late Holocene Dead Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Frank Harald; Kagan, Elisa J.; Schwab, Markus J.; Stein, Mordechai

    2007-06-01

    Palynological and sedimentological studies were performed at two Holocene profiles in erosion gullies (Ze'elim and Ein Feshkha) which dissect the retreating western shore of the Dead Sea. The aim of the project was to analyse possible links between climate, lithology, and vegetation development. The section in Ze'elim shows both lacustrine and fluvial sediments, whereas sedimentation at Ein Feshkha is predominantly lacustrine. The Ze'elim profile, previously used for paleo-lake reconstruction provides an opportunity to compare climate triggered lake levels as paleo-hydrological indicators and vegetation history by use of palynology. The vegetation development in Ze'elim and Ein Feshkha is influenced by both climate and human impact. The pollen record of Ze'elim begins in the Pottery Neolithic, the section of Ein Feshkha in the Late Bronze Age, both records end in the Middle Ages. The Ze'elim section is characterized by sedimentary hiati between the beginning of the Chalcolithic Period until the Middle Bronze Age and within the Late Bronze Age. Settlement periods during the Middle Bronze Age, Iron Age and Hellenistic-Roman-Byzantine Period are indicated by high values of anthropogenic indicators and/or Mediterranean trees. Collapses of agriculture, which can be related to climate effects, are evident during the Late Bronze Age, during the Iron Age and at the end of the Byzantine Period when the lake level curve indicates arid conditions. A comparison of the two pollen records, from different environments, illustrates a more prominent influence of Mediterranean vegetation and cultivated plants in the pollen diagram of Ein Feshkha. The southern Dead Sea region (at the desert fringe) is more vulnerable to regional climate change.

  15. Coronary occlusive disease and late graft failure after cardiac transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Mullins, P A; Cary, N R; Sharples, L; Scott, J; Aravot, D; Large, S R; Wallwork, J; Schofield, P M

    1992-01-01

    Objective—Coronary occlusive disease is the main cause of late mortality after cardiac transplantation. It has both similarities and differences compared with conventional atherosclerotic coronary disease. The pathophysiology of late graft failure from coronary occlusive disease is unclear at present. We reviewed the experience of this disorder in our cardiac transplant programme. Design—A retrospective analysis of angiographic and pathological data. Setting—A regional cardiothoracic centre and transplant unit. Patients—Of a population of 383 orthotopic cardiac transplant recipients operated upon between January 1979 and June 1990, 447 coronary angiograms were available for review in 193 patients. Thirteen of a possible 18 results of post mortem examinations from patients dying from coronary occlusive disease were available. Main outcome measure—Coronary occlusive disease was defined as any evidence of disease on coronary angiography. Post mortem examinations were performed with standard techniques. Results The angiographic prevalence of coronary occlusive disease was 3% (1/32 patients) and 40% (19/47 patients) at one and five years respectively. Twenty six grafts failed due to coronary occlusive disease compared with 132 graft failures from all causes during this period. Acute thrombosis was present in a large vessel in seven of 13 fatal cases undergoing necropsy (54%). Noticeable large vessel involvement with disease in smaller distal vessels was present in four patients (31%). The remaining two patients (15%) had small vessel disease alone. Twelve of the 13 patients had significant cardiomegaly (cardiac weight ≥400 g) with a mean weight of 510 (range 370-740) g. Conclusion—Coronary occlusive disease is the main late complication after cardiac transplantation. A combination of coronary thrombosis, ischaemia from stenoses of large and small coronary vessels, and cardiomegaly contribute to the graft failure of these patients. PMID:1389755

  16. (Very) long wavelength deformations of Africa since late Cretaceous times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillocheau, Francois; The Topoafrica Working Group

    2014-05-01

    The African continent is characterized by a bimodal topography. The 900-1100m elevation peak mainly corresponds to the Southern African (Kalahari Plateau) and the East African Domes, whereas the 300-400 m peak is the mean elevation of the Sahara. Those reliefs are characterized by very long wavelength (x1000 km), similar to the scale of mantle dynamics. The origin of this relief, dynamic topography or more local controls (e.g. old lithospheric inheritance), are highly debated and more geological controls are required. To answer those questions - in the frame of the TopoAfrica project - we performed a geomorphical study of Africa coupled with the tectono-sedimentary study of the sedimentary basins or the magmatism. (1) Most of the African reliefs are younger than the Early-Middle Eocene (55-40 Ma). (2) The only significative old relief of Africa is the Southern African Plateau that experienced a two steps evolution, a first uplift during Late Cretaceous contemporaneous with high erosion under humid climatic conditions, followed by a second uplift during Late Eocene - Early Oligocene. The present-day arid to semi-arid climate could explain its preservation. (3) Most of Africa is uplifted during Miocene times (20-10 Ma), age of most of the present-day reliefs. (4) The African magmatic provinces (Virunga-Kivu, Cameroon Volcanic Line, Hoggar, Aïr…) are associated with local uplifts that started around Late Eocene times (40-35 Ma). The relationships of those reliefs with the migration of the African plate over the African superswell will be discussed.

  17. Late quaternary sequence stratigraphy, South Florida margin

    SciTech Connect

    Locker, S.D.; Hine, A.C.

    1995-12-01

    Late Quaternary sea-level change and the Florida Current have combined to produce a progradational shelf-slope margin along the western portion of the south Florida Platform facing the Straits of Florida. Analysis of high resolution seismic reflection profiles suggest at least eight 5th order late Quaternary sequences downlap onto the Pourtales Terrace at 250 m water depth. Along most of the south Florida margin, this Late Quaternary section is very thin, and only where significant accumulations occur can the stratigraphic patterns produced by sea-level change be clearly observed. Recognition of systems tracts and their boundaries from high-resolution seismic data is important for prediction of sedimentary facies and stratigraphic development of margins. Many south Florida seismic boundaries can be fit to the Exxon sequence stratigraphy model. Others appear to reflect the added effect of bottom-current erosion that complicates the signal produced by sea-level change. Overall, the sea-level signal appears to dominate the stratigraphic record, especially from the 2-dimensional perspective of dip-oriented seismic profiles. However, the 3-dimensional geometry of deposits are strongly influenced by along slope accumulation patterns controlled by the Florida Current. This study provides new insight on the importance of both geostrophic boundary currents and sea-level change in controlling stratigraphic development of a carbonate platform margin. Similar anomalously thick slope deposits in ancient sequences may indicate similar controls on accumulation and could lend to predictions of related paleo-platform configurations.

  18. Late-time cosmological phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, D.N. Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL )

    1990-11-01

    It is shown that the potential galaxy formation and large-scale structure problems of objects existing at high redshifts (Z {approx gt} 5), structures existing on scales of 100M pc as well as velocity flows on such scales, and minimal microwave anisotropies ({Delta}T/T) {approx lt} 10{sup {minus}5} can be solved if the seeds needed to generate structure form in a vacuum phase transition after decoupling. It is argued that the basic physics of such a phase transition is no more exotic than that utilized in the more traditional GUT scale phase transitions, and that, just as in the GUT case, significant random gaussian fluctuations and/or topological defects can form. Scale lengths of {approximately}100M pc for large-scale structure as well as {approximately}1 M pc for galaxy formation occur naturally. Possible support for new physics that might be associated with such a late-time transition comes from the preliminary results of the SAGE solar neutrino experiment, implying neutrino flavor mixing with values similar to those required for a late-time transition. It is also noted that a see-saw model for the neutrino masses might also imply a tau neutrino mass that is an ideal hot dark matter candidate. However, in general either hot or cold dark matter can be consistent with a late-time transition. 47 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Late Holocene climate: Natural or anthropogenic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruddiman, W. F.; Fuller, D. Q.; Kutzbach, J. E.; Tzedakis, P. C.; Kaplan, J. O.; Ellis, E. C.; Vavrus, S. J.; Roberts, C. N.; Fyfe, R.; He, F.; Lemmen, C.; Woodbridge, J.

    2016-03-01

    For more than a decade, scientists have argued about the warmth of the current interglaciation. Was the warmth of the preindustrial late Holocene natural in origin, the result of orbital changes that had not yet driven the system into a new glacial state? Or was it in considerable degree the result of humans intervening in the climate system through greenhouse gas emissions from early agriculture? Here we summarize new evidence that moves this debate forward by testing both hypotheses. By comparing late Holocene responses to those that occurred during previous interglaciations (in section 2), we assess whether the late Holocene responses look different (and thus anthropogenic) or similar (and thus natural). This comparison reveals anomalous (anthropogenic) signals. In section 3, we review paleoecological and archaeological syntheses that provide ground truth evidence on early anthropogenic releases of greenhouse gases. The available data document large early anthropogenic emissions consistent with the anthropogenic ice core anomalies, but more information is needed to constrain their size. A final section compares natural and anthropogenic interpretations of the δ13C trend in ice core CO2.

  20. Very Late Photometry of SN 2011fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerzendorf, W. E.; Taubenberger, S.; Seitenzahl, I. R.; Ruiter, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Type Ia supernova SN 2011fe is one of the closest supernovae of the past decades. Due to its proximity and low dust extinction, this object provides a very rare opportunity to study the extremely late time evolution (>900 days) of thermonuclear supernovae. In this Letter, we present our photometric data of SN 2011fe taken at an unprecedented late epoch of ≈930 days with GMOS-N mounted on the Gemini North telescope (g = 23.43 ± 0.28, r = 24.14 ± 0.14, i = 23.91 ± 0.18, and z = 23.90 ± 0.17) to study the energy production and retention in the ejecta of SN 2011fe. Together with previous measurements by other groups, our result suggests that the optical supernova light curve can still be explained by the full thermalization of the decay positrons of 56Co. This is in spite of theoretical predicted effects (e.g., infrared catastrophe, positron escape, and dust) that advocate a substantial energy redistribution and/or loss via various processes that result in a more rapid dimming at these very late epochs.

  1. Late-time cosmological phase transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, David N.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that the potential galaxy formation and large scale structure problems of objects existing at high redshifts (Z approx. greater than 5), structures existing on scales of 100 M pc as well as velocity flows on such scales, and minimal microwave anisotropies ((Delta)T/T) (approx. less than 10(exp -5)) can be solved if the seeds needed to generate structure form in a vacuum phase transition after decoupling. It is argued that the basic physics of such a phase transition is no more exotic than that utilized in the more traditional GUT scale phase transitions, and that, just as in the GUT case, significant random Gaussian fluctuations and/or topological defects can form. Scale lengths of approx. 100 M pc for large scale structure as well as approx. 1 M pc for galaxy formation occur naturally. Possible support for new physics that might be associated with such a late-time transition comes from the preliminary results of the SAGE solar neutrino experiment, implying neutrino flavor mixing with values similar to those required for a late-time transition. It is also noted that a see-saw model for the neutrino masses might also imply a tau neutrino mass that is an ideal hot dark matter candidate. However, in general either hot or cold dark matter can be consistent with a late-time transition.

  2. VERY LATE PHOTOMETRY OF SN 2011fe

    SciTech Connect

    Kerzendorf, W. E.; Taubenberger, S.; Seitenzahl, I. R.; Ruiter, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Type Ia supernova SN 2011fe is one of the closest supernovae of the past decades. Due to its proximity and low dust extinction, this object provides a very rare opportunity to study the extremely late time evolution (>900 days) of thermonuclear supernovae. In this Letter, we present our photometric data of SN 2011fe taken at an unprecedented late epoch of ≈930 days with GMOS-N mounted on the Gemini North telescope (g = 23.43 ± 0.28, r = 24.14 ± 0.14, i = 23.91 ± 0.18, and z = 23.90 ± 0.17) to study the energy production and retention in the ejecta of SN 2011fe. Together with previous measurements by other groups, our result suggests that the optical supernova light curve can still be explained by the full thermalization of the decay positrons of {sup 56}Co. This is in spite of theoretical predicted effects (e.g., infrared catastrophe, positron escape, and dust) that advocate a substantial energy redistribution and/or loss via various processes that result in a more rapid dimming at these very late epochs.

  3. Provider-Initiated Late Preterm Births in Brazil: Differences between Public and Private Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Maria do Carmo; Esteves-Pereira, Ana Paula; Nakamura-Pereira, Marcos; Torres, Jacqueline Alves; Domingues, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira; Dias, Marcos Augusto Bastos; Moreira, Maria Elizabeth; Theme-Filha, Mariza; da Gama, Silvana Granado Nogueira

    2016-01-01

    Background A large proportion of the rise in prematurity worldwide is owing to late preterm births, which may be due to the expansion of obstetric interventions, especially pre-labour caesarean section. Late preterm births pose similar risks to overall prematurity, making this trend a concern. In this study, we describe factors associated with provider-initiated late preterm birth and verify differences in provider-initiated late preterm birth rates between public and private health services according to obstetric risk. Methods This is a sub-analysis of a national population-based survey of postpartum women entitled “Birth in Brazil”, performed between 2011 and 2012. We included 23,472 singleton live births. We performed non-conditional multiple logistic regressions assessing associated factors and analysing differences between public and private health services. Results Provider-initiated births accounted for 38% of late preterm births; 32% in public health services and 61% in private health services. They were associated with previous preterm birth(s) and maternal pathologies for women receiving both public and private services and with maternal age ≥35 years for women receiving public services. Women receiving private health services had higher rates of provider-initiated late preterm birth (rate of 4.8%) when compared to the ones receiving public services (rate of 2.4%), regardless of obstetric risk–adjusted OR of 2.3 (CI 1.5–3.6) for women of low obstetric risk and adjusted OR of 1.6 (CI 1.1–2.3) for women of high obstetric risk. Conclusion The high rates of provider-initiated late preterm birth suggests a considerable potential for reduction, as such prematurity can be avoided, especially in women of low obstetric risk. To promote healthy births, we advise introducing policies with incentives for the adoption of new models of birth care. PMID:27196102

  4. Cancer Metastases: Early Dissemination and Late Recurrences

    PubMed Central

    Friberg, Sten; Nyström, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Metastatic cells from a primary tumor can occur before the primary cancer is detected. Metastatic cells can also remain in the patient for many years after removal of the primary tumor without proliferating. These dormant malignant cells can awaken and cause recurrent disease decades after the primary treatment. The purpose of this article is to review the clinical evidence for early dissemination and late recurrences in human malignant tumors. We used the following definitions: dormancy of cells may be defined as a nonproliferating state or an arrest in the cell cycle that results in a prolonged G0 phase. If one accepts the term “late metastases” to indicate a period exceeding 10 years from the removal of the primary tumor, then the two malignancies in which this occurs most frequently are cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). METHODS PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched with the keywords “metastases,” “early dissemination,” “late recurrences,” “inadvertently transmitted cancer,” “tumor growth rate,” “dormancy,” “circulating tumor cells,” and “transplantation of cancer.” RESULTS Several case reports of early dissemination and late recurrences of various types of malignancies were found. Analyses of the growth rates of several malignant tumors in the original host indicated that the majority of cancers had metastasized years before they were detected. CMM, RCC, and malignant glioblastoma were the three most common malignancies resulting from an organ transplantation. CMM and RCC were also the two most common malignancies that showed dormancy. In several cases of transplanted CMM and RCC, the donor did not have any known malignancy or had had the malignancy removed so long ago that the donor was regarded as cured. CONCLUSION (1) Metastases can frequently exist prior to the detection of the primary tumor. (2) Metastatic cells may reside in organs in the original host that are not

  5. COGNITION AS A THERAPEUTIC TARGET IN LATE-LIFE DEPRESSION: POTENTIAL FOR NICOTINIC THERAPEUTICS

    PubMed Central

    Zurkovsky, Lilia; Taylor, Warren D.; Newhouse, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Depression is associated with impairments to cognition and brain function at any age, but such impairments in the elderly are particularly problematic because of the additional burden of normal cognitive aging and in some cases, structural brain pathology. Individuals with late-life depression exhibit impairments in cognition and brain structural integrity, alongside mood dysfunction. Antidepressant treatment improves symptoms in some but not all patients, and those who benefit may not return to the cognitive and functional level of nondepressed elderly. Thus, for comprehensive treatment of late-life depression, it may be necessary to address both the affective and cognitive deficits. In this review, we propose a model for the treatment of late-life depression in which nicotinic stimulation is used to improve cognitive performance and improve the efficacy of an antidepressant treatment of the syndrome of late-life depression. The cholinergic system is well-established as important to cognition. Although muscarinic stimulation may exacerbate depressive symptoms, nicotinic stimulation may improve cognition and neural functioning without a detriment to mood. While some studies of nicotinic subtype specific receptor agonists have shown promise in improving cognitive performance, less is known regarding how nicotinic receptor stimulation affects cognition in depressed elderly patients. Late-life depression thus represents a new therapeutic target for the development of nicotinic agonist drugs and parallel treatment of cognitive dysfunction along with medical and psychological approaches to treating mood dysfunction may be necessary to ensure full resolution of depressive illness in aging. PMID:23933385

  6. Nile behaviour and Late Palaeolithic humans in Upper Egypt during the Late Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeersch, Pierre M.; Van Neer, Wim

    2015-12-01

    The reconstruction of the environment and the human population history of the Nile Valley during the Late Pleistocene have received a lot of attention in the literature thus far. There seems to be a consensus that during MIS2 extreme dry conditions prevailed over north-eastern Africa, which was apparently not occupied by humans. The Nile Valley seems to be an exception; numerous field data have been collected suggesting an important population density in Upper Egypt during MIS2. The occupation remains are often stratified in, or at least related to, aeolian and Nile deposits at some elevation above the present-day floodplain. They are rich in lithics and animal bones, mainly fish, illustrating the exploitation of the Nile Valley by the Late Palaeolithic inhabitants. The fluvial processes active during that period have traditionally been interpreted as a continuously rising highly braided river. In this paper we summarize the evidence thus far available for the Late Pleistocene on the population densities in the Nile Valley, and on the models of Nilotic behaviour. In the discussion we include data on the environmental conditions in Eastern Africa, on the aeolian processes in the Western Desert of Egypt derived from satellite images, 14C and OSL dates, in order to formulate a new model that explains the observed high remnants of aeolian and Nilotic deposits and the related Late Palaeolithic sites. This model hypothesizes that, during the Late Pleistocene, and especially the LGM, dunes from the Western Desert invaded the Nile Valley at several places in Upper Egypt. The much reduced activity of the White Nile and the Blue Nile was unable to evacuate incoming aeolian sand and, as a consequence, several dams were created in the Upper Egyptian Nile Valley. Behind such dams the created lakes offered ideal conditions for human subsistence. This model explains the occurrence of Late Palaeolithic hunter-fisher-gatherers in a very arid environment with very low Nile flows

  7. Chronic or Late Lyme Neuroborreliosis: Analysis of Evidence Compared to Chronic or Late Neurosyphilis

    PubMed Central

    Miklossy, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Whether spirochetes persist in affected host tissues and cause the late/chronic manifestations of neurosyphilis was the subject of long-lasting debate. Detection of Treponema pallidum in the brains of patients with general paresis established a direct link between persisting infection and tertiary manifestations of neurosyphilis. Today, the same question is in the center of debate with respect to Lyme disease. The goal of this review was to compare the established pathological features of neurosyphilis with those available for Lyme neuroborreliosis. If the main tertiary forms of neurosyphilis also occur in Lyme neuroborreliosis and Borrelia burgdorferi can be detected in brain lesions would indicate that the spirochete is responsible for the neuropsychiatric manifestations of late/chronic Lyme neuroborreliosis. The substantial amounts of data available in the literature show that the major forms of late/chronic Lyme neuroborreliosis (meningovascular and meningoencephalitis) are clinically and pathologically confirmed. Borrelia burgdorferi was detected in association with tertiary brain lesions and cultivated from the affected brain or cerebrospinal fluid. The accumulated data also indicate that Borrelia burgdorferi is able to evade from destruction by the host immune reactions, persist in host tissues and sustain chronic infection and inflammation. These observations represent evidences that Borrelia burgdorferi in an analogous way to Treponema pallidum is responsible for the chronic/late manifestations of Lyme neuroborreliosis. Late Lyme neuroborreliosis is accepted by all existing guidelines in Europe, US and Canada. The terms chronic and late are synonymous and both define tertiary neurosyphilis or tertiary Lyme neuroborreliosis. The use of chronic and late Lyme neuroborreliosis as different entities is inaccurate and can be confusing. Further pathological investigations and the detection of spirochetes in infected tissues and body fluids are strongly needed

  8. Cortical Thickness Abnormalities in Late Adolescence with Online Gaming Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Kai; Cheng, Ping; Dong, Tao; Bi, Yanzhi; Xing, Lihong; Yu, Dahua; Zhao, Limei; Dong, Minghao; von Deneen, Karen M.; Liu, Yijun; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Online gaming addiction, as the most popular subtype of Internet addiction, had gained more and more attention from the whole world. However, the structural differences in cortical thickness of the brain between adolescents with online gaming addiction and healthy controls are not well unknown; neither was its association with the impaired cognitive control ability. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans from late adolescence with online gaming addiction (n = 18) and age-, education- and gender-matched controls (n = 18) were acquired. The cortical thickness measurement method was employed to investigate alterations of cortical thickness in individuals with online gaming addiction. The color-word Stroop task was employed to investigate the functional implications of the cortical thickness abnormalities. Imaging data revealed increased cortical thickness in the left precentral cortex, precuneus, middle frontal cortex, inferior temporal and middle temporal cortices in late adolescence with online gaming addiction; meanwhile, the cortical thicknesses of the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), insula, lingual gyrus, the right postcentral gyrus, entorhinal cortex and inferior parietal cortex were decreased. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the cortical thicknesses of the left precentral cortex, precuneus and lingual gyrus correlated with duration of online gaming addiction and the cortical thickness of the OFC correlated with the impaired task performance during the color-word Stroop task in adolescents with online gaming addiction. The findings in the current study suggested that the cortical thickness abnormalities of these regions may be implicated in the underlying pathophysiology of online gaming addiction. PMID:23326379

  9. Cortical thickness abnormalities in late adolescence with online gaming addiction.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Kai; Cheng, Ping; Dong, Tao; Bi, Yanzhi; Xing, Lihong; Yu, Dahua; Zhao, Limei; Dong, Minghao; von Deneen, Karen M; Liu, Yijun; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Online gaming addiction, as the most popular subtype of Internet addiction, had gained more and more attention from the whole world. However, the structural differences in cortical thickness of the brain between adolescents with online gaming addiction and healthy controls are not well unknown; neither was its association with the impaired cognitive control ability. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans from late adolescence with online gaming addiction (n = 18) and age-, education- and gender-matched controls (n = 18) were acquired. The cortical thickness measurement method was employed to investigate alterations of cortical thickness in individuals with online gaming addiction. The color-word Stroop task was employed to investigate the functional implications of the cortical thickness abnormalities. Imaging data revealed increased cortical thickness in the left precentral cortex, precuneus, middle frontal cortex, inferior temporal and middle temporal cortices in late adolescence with online gaming addiction; meanwhile, the cortical thicknesses of the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), insula, lingual gyrus, the right postcentral gyrus, entorhinal cortex and inferior parietal cortex were decreased. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the cortical thicknesses of the left precentral cortex, precuneus and lingual gyrus correlated with duration of online gaming addiction and the cortical thickness of the OFC correlated with the impaired task performance during the color-word Stroop task in adolescents with online gaming addiction. The findings in the current study suggested that the cortical thickness abnormalities of these regions may be implicated in the underlying pathophysiology of online gaming addiction. PMID:23326379

  10. Early migration of tibial components is associated with late revision

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We performed two parallel systematic reviews and meta-analyses to determine the association between early migration of tibial components and late aseptic revision. Methods One review comprised early migration data from radiostereometric analysis (RSA) studies, while the other focused on revision rates for aseptic loosening from long-term survival studies. Thresholds for acceptable and unacceptable migration were determined according to that of several national joint registries: < 5% revision at 10 years. Results Following an elaborate literature search, 50 studies (involving 847 total knee prostheses (TKPs)) were included in the RSA review and 56 studies (20,599 TKPs) were included in the survival review. The results showed that for every mm increase in migration there was an 8% increase in revision rate, which remained after correction for age, sex, diagnosis, hospital type, continent, and study quality. Consequently, migration up to 0.5 mm was considered acceptable during the first postoperative year, while migration of 1.6 mm or more was unacceptable. TKPs with migration of between 0.5 and 1.6 mm were considered to be at risk of having revision rates higher than 5% at 10 years. Interpretation There was a clinically relevant association between early migration of TKPs and late revision for loosening. The proposed migration thresholds can be implemented in a phased, evidence-based introduction of new types of knee prostheses, since they allow early detection of high-risk TKPs while exposing only a small number of patients. PMID:23140091

  11. How to manage a late diagnosed Hirschsprung's disease

    PubMed Central

    Ouladsaiad, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Background: How to manage a late diagnosed Hirschsprung's disease (HD) and how to avoid calibre discrepancy? Subjects and Methods: A retrospective study of all patients diagnosed with HD over 2 years in our hospital from January 2009 to December 2012. Data were analysed for clinical presentations, investigations, surgical procedures and post-operative outcome. Results: Fifteen patients, operated by one single surgeon, were included in this study. The mean age was 6 years (2-16 years). Patients had an ultra-short segment type in 4 cases, rectosigmoid type in 9 cases and descending colonic aganglionosis in 2 cases. Rectal wash out was effective in 12 patients. A blowhole transverse colostomy was performed in 2 patients. Twelve patients underwent one single stage endorectal pull-through. Anastomosis incongruence was avoided by a plication procedure never described before. The assessment of post-operative outcomes by the paediatric incontinence and constipation scoring system revealed a normal continence function in all our patients, but 3 patients suffered from soiling secondary to constipation. Conclusion: One single stage pull-through can be safe and effective in children with late diagnosed HD. Routine rectal washout is a good way to prepare the colon. In some cases, blowhole colostomy can be an option. Anastomosis incongruence is a challenge; we describe a plication procedure to avoid it. PMID:27251658

  12. Late Paleozoic basin evolution in the Western Pyrenees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantarelli, V.; Casas-Sainz, A.; Corrado, S.; Gisbert-Aguilar, J.; Invernizzi, C.; Aldega, L.

    2009-04-01

    at the bottom and top by first order unconformities all along the Pyrenean chain, and second order paraconformities can be identified within the lacustrine succession. Although these units are traditionally considerated as purely sedimentary (Gisbert, 1981), metamorphic parageneses (greenschist facies) have been locally recognized in one of these basins (Aragón-Bearn basin) in the Lower Red Unit below the paraconformity that marks the beginning of the Upper Red Unit (Lago et al., 2004). This metamorphism has been interpreted as related to later intrusion of andesitic bodies, although its causes are still matter of debate. In order to better constrain the origin and features of this metamorphism, we present results of fluid inclusions micro-thermometric studies on quartz and calcite veins and mineralogical XRD analyses of the <2 micron grain size fraction of the Aragón-Bearn basin sediments, performed on the Intermediate Unit, Lower Red Unit and Upper Red Unit. These data will be compared with the thermo-baric signature defined through classical petrography and coal petrography of the surrounding rocks of the Axial Zone and the Triassic deposits, and discussed in the light of the late Variscan and Early Alpine tectonic evolution of this sector of the Pyrenees.

  13. Mathematics Learning Disabilities in Girls with Fragile X or Turner Syndrome during Late Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Melissa M.; Mazzocco, Michele M. M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study focuses on math and related skills among 32 girls with fragile X (n = 14) or Turner (n = 18) syndrome during late elementary school. Performance in each syndrome group was assessed relative to Full Scale IQ-matched comparison groups of girls from the general population (n = 32 and n = 89 for fragile X syndrome and Turner…

  14. Nonresident Fathers' Parenting Style and the Adjustment of Late-Adolescent Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karre, Jennifer K.; Mounts, Nina S.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relation between nonresident fathers' parenting style, mothers' parenting style and behaviors, and depression and antisocial behavior in a sample of late-adolescent boys (n = 177). Hierarchical regression analyses were performed. Maternal psychological well-being was associated with fewer adolescent depression symptoms.…

  15. Development of Selective Attention: Perceptual Load Influences Early versus Late Attentional Selection in Children and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L.; Carr, Thomas H.; Nigg, Joel T.

    2002-01-01

    Examined in two studies the moderating effect of perceptual load on visual selective attention. Found that children's performance was as efficient as adults' under conditions of high but not low loads, suggesting that early selection engages rapidly maturing neural systems and late selection engages later-maturing systems. The onset of early…

  16. The Late Triassic and Late Jurassic stress fields and tectonic transmission of North China craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Guiting; Wang, Yanxin; Hari, K. R.

    2010-09-01

    The transmission of the tectonic regime from the Paleo-Asian Ocean to the Pacific Ocean during Mesozoic era was reconstructed using the modeling of Late Triassic (T 3) and Late Jurassic (J 3) stress fields employing two dimensional linear finite element models (2-D FEM). The model at T 3 proposes that Qinling-Dabie-Sulu orogens coevally collided and the model J 3 proposes that Subei block continued to collide with the North China block along the Sulu orogen while the collision of the Qinling-Dabie orogen was terminated. The stress fields at T 3 and J 3 during the two episodes were calculated based on mechanical conditions under different deviatoric stresses acting along the boundaries of the North China craton by elastic finite modeling. The transmission between two episodes of stress fields resulted from Qinling-Dabie-Sulu collision between North China and South China in the Late Triassic period, and from continued collision between the Subei block and North China by the NW-trending movement of Izanagi plate during Late Jurassic. The results from modeling of the Mesozoic stress fields of the North China suggest that late Jurassic was the key transmission period of the tectonic regime of the North China block when large scale thrusting triggered the subsequent destruction of the North China craton.

  17. 24 CFR 203.554 - Enforcement of late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... on the part of the mortgagor is the failure to pay a late charge or charges (§ 203.25), except as provided in § 203.556. (b) A late charge attributable to a particular installment payment due under the... mortgagor of his obligation to pay a late charge, such a charge may be deducted from any subsequent...

  18. 49 CFR 630.6 - Late and incomplete reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Late and incomplete reports. 630.6 Section 630.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.6 Late and incomplete reports. (a) Late...

  19. 49 CFR 630.6 - Late and incomplete reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Late and incomplete reports. 630.6 Section 630.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.6 Late and incomplete reports. (a) Late...

  20. 49 CFR 630.6 - Late and incomplete reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Late and incomplete reports. 630.6 Section 630.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.6 Late and incomplete reports. (a) Late...

  1. 49 CFR 630.6 - Late and incomplete reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Late and incomplete reports. 630.6 Section 630.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.6 Late and incomplete reports. (a) Late...

  2. 49 CFR 630.6 - Late and incomplete reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Late and incomplete reports. 630.6 Section 630.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.6 Late and incomplete reports. (a) Late...

  3. 7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section 51.1356... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown from late blooms. Such pears often have excessively long stems (commonly termed “rat...

  4. 7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section 51.1356... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown from late blooms. Such pears often have excessively long stems (commonly termed “rat...

  5. 7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section 51.1356... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown from late blooms. Such pears often have excessively long...

  6. 7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section 51.1356... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown from late blooms. Such pears often have excessively long stems (commonly termed “rat...

  7. 7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section 51.1356... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown from late blooms. Such pears often have excessively long...

  8. 48 CFR 852.273-70 - Late offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Late offers. 852.273-70... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 852.273-70 Late offers. As prescribed in 873.110(a), insert the following provision: Late Offers (JAN 2003) This provision...

  9. Late Pliocene deglaciation of Southern Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczak, M. H.; Carlson, A. E.; Stoner, J. S.; Hatfield, R. G.; Wolhowe, M. D.; Mathias, A.

    2015-12-01

    Predicting the response of the remaining Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets to increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations is an important goal of climate science. The late Pliocene (3.3-3.0 Ma; formerly the middle Pliocene) may offer a natural quasi-analogue to climate in the upcoming centuries: CO2 levels were ~400 PPM, global surface temperatures were 2-3 degrees higher, and sea level was likely at least 6 m higher than today. Yet little is currently known about the history of the pre-Quaternary Greenland ice sheet. IODP Expedition 303 site U1307 at 2575 m depth on the Eirik Ridge extends back to 3.4 Ma, capturing the late-Pliocene warm period adjacent to the southern Greenland ice sheet. Ice-rafted debris records, interpreted on a paleomagnetic reversal age model, suggest roughly 40 ka cyclicity of between ~5% and ~40% sand. Between ~3.3 and 3.2 Ma there is a significant change in lithology characterized by an abrupt reduction in magnetic susceptibility, during which time the sand fraction remains below 10%. Assuming a magnetite mineralogy, hysteresis ratios support a much finer magnetic assemblage of unique provenance in this interval; Mrs/Ms values of the silt fraction range from ~0.2-0.25, compared to ~0.1 in the sediments above and below. The origin this material will be discussed, although this observation is unambiguously consistent with the disappearance of silt transported from the southern Greenland ice sheet. The lack of Greenlandic source material observed in this interval is unique in the last 3.4 Ma at this location, and may indicate full deglaciation of southern Greenland in the late Pliocene.

  10. Late Cretaceous sea level from a paleoshoreline

    SciTech Connect

    McDonough, K.J.; Cross, T.A. )

    1991-04-10

    The contemporary elevation of a Late Cenomanian ({approx}93 Ma) shoreline was determined at five localities along the tectonically stable, eastern margin of the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway, North America. This shoreline, represented by marine-to-nonmarine facies transitions in strata of the Greenhorn sequence (UZA-2 cycle of Haq et al. (1987)), was identified from outcrop and borehole data. Biostratigraphic zonations constrained the geologic age at each locality. Sequence stratigraphic correlations, based on identifying discrete progradational units and the surfaces that separate them, were used to refine age correlations to better than 100 kyr between localities. A single Cenomanian shoreline was correlated within a single progradational unit, and its elevation was determined at five localities. This paleostrandline occurs 265-286m above present-day sea level, at an average elevation of 276 m. Isostatic and flexural corrections were applied to remove the effects of postdepositional vertical movement, including sediment compaction by loading, uplift due to erosion, and glacial loading and rebound. Errors inherent in each measurement and each correction were estimated. Corrections and their cumulative error estimates yield a Late Cenomanian elevation of 269{plus minus}87 m above present sea level. The corrected elevation approximates sea level at 93 Ma and provides a measure of Late Cenomanian eustasy prior to the Early Turonian highstand. Establishing the absolute value for eustasy at a single point in geologic time provides a frame of reference for calibrating relative sea level curves, as well as constraining the magnitudes of tectonic subsidence, sediment flux, and other variables that controlled water depth and relative sea level.

  11. [Late-onset alcohol withdrawal syndrome].

    PubMed

    Batel, P; Larivière, P

    2000-10-01

    The alcoholic withdrawal syndrome (AWS) arises variably within hours following the hospitalization of an alcohol dependent patient. Delay usually observed between admission and the first symptoms depends above all on alcohol serum level concentration at arrival and on the degree of severity of physical dependence. The case reported here describes the very late onset severe alcoholic withdrawal syndrome observed in a 57-year-old alcohol dependent patient hospitalized for leg trauma and operated within hours followed admission. The first symptoms of AWS appeared only the 4-th day after hospitalization and the patient quickly developed a clinical state of delirium tremens. Delay in the onset of this AWS is discussed. PMID:11104941

  12. Arctic palaeosalinities during late Cainozoic time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, Y.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    DURING the late Cainozoic, alternations between interglacial and glacial conditions, manifested by waning and waxing of continental ice sheets coincided with the rise and fall of seawater temperatures. Our palaeontological and oxygen isotope data indicate that although the major oceans and low latititude seas underwent large temperature variations, ??? 5-10 ??C, Arctic water temperatures remained near freezing point for at least the past 3 Myr, the time interval represented by the longest studied cores. We have determined palaeotemperatures from the ratio of left to right coiling Globigerina pachyderma1-3 and calculated palaeosalinities using the oxygen isotope palaeotemperature expression of Epstein et al.4. ?? 1975 Nature Publishing Group.

  13. An uncommon late complication of appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Lapus, Robert M; Baker, Mark D

    2010-10-01

    A 10-year-old boy presented with a 2.5-week history of right leg pain and limp. A right flank mass was noted by a parent on the day of presentation. The child's past medical history was remarkable for perforated appendicitis treated with an interval laparoscopic appendectomy 2 years before this presentation. Abdominal and pelvic computed tomography revealed a retroperitoneal mass with calcifications, suggestive of a retained appendicolith with abscess formation. This case illustrates the importance of considering very late complications of appendicitis in patients presenting with fever and abdominal or flank pain or masses. PMID:20930600

  14. Late-stage sinking of plutons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glazner, A.F.; Miller, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    Many granodiorite to diorite plutons in the Great Basin of western North America are surrounded by rim monoclines or anticlines that suggest relative downward movement of the plutons while wall rocks were hot and ductile. We propose that such plutons rise to a level of approximately neutral buoyancy and then founder as their densities increase ??? 40% during crystallization. Late-stage sinking of intermediate to mafic plutons should be common when wall rocks are rich in weak, low-density minerals such as quartz and calcite. Structures related to sinking will overprint those related to initial pluton emplacement and may be mistaken for regional tectonic structures.

  15. Spatial Response of Mammals to Late Quaternary Environmental Fluctuations

    PubMed

    Graham; Lundelius; Graham; Schroeder; Toomey; Anderson; Barnosky; Burns; Churcher; Grayson; Guthrie; Harington; Jefferson; Martin; McDonald; Morlan; Semken; Webb; Werdelin; Wilson

    1996-06-14

    Analyses of fossil mammal faunas from 2945 localities in the United States demonstrate that the geographic ranges of individual species shifted at different times, in different directions, and at different rates in response to late Quaternary environmental fluctuations. The geographic pattern of faunal provinces was similar for the late Pleistocene and late Holocene, but differing environmental gradients resulted in dissimilar species composition for these biogeographic regions. Modern community patterns emerged only in the last few thousand years, and many late Pleistocene communities do not have modern analogs. Faunal heterogeneity was greater in the late Pleistocene. PMID:8662471

  16. Commoditization of High Performance Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Studham, Scott S.

    2004-04-01

    The commoditization of high performance computers started in the late 80s with the attack of the killer micros. Previously, high performance computers were exotic vector systems that could only be afforded by an illustrious few. Now everyone has a supercomputer composed of clusters of commodity processors. A similar commoditization of high performance storage has begun. Commodity disks are being used for high performance storage, enabling a paradigm change in storage and significantly changing the price point of high volume storage.

  17. Late glacial climate estimates for southern Nevada: The ostracode fossil record

    SciTech Connect

    Forester, R.M.; Smith, A.J.

    1995-10-01

    Climate change plays an important role in determining as possible long term hydrological performance of the potential high level nuclear waste repository within Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Present-day global circulation results in this region having an arid to semi-arid climate characterized by hot and relatively dry summers. Global circulation during the late glacial (about 14 to 20 ka) was very different from the present-day. Preliminary study of late-glacial fossil ostracodes from {open_quotes}marsh deposits{close_quotes} in the upper Las Vegas Valley suggests mean annual precipitation may have been four times higher, while mean annual temperature may have been about 10{degrees}C cooler than today. A major difference between present-day and late-glacial climate was likely the existence of cooler, cloudier, and wetter summers in the past.

  18. THE ENVIRONMENTAL DEPENDENCE OF THE FRACTION OF 'UNCONVENTIONAL' GALAXIES: RED LATE TYPES AND BLUE EARLY TYPES

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Xinfa; He Jizhou; Wu Ping; Ding Yingping

    2009-07-10

    From the Main galaxy sample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 6, we construct two volume-limited samples with the luminosity -20.0 {<=} M{sub r} {<=} -18.5 and -22.40 {<=} M{sub r} {<=} -20.16, respectively, to explore the environmental dependence of the fraction of 'unconventional' galaxies: red late types and blue early types. We use the density estimator within the distance to the fifth nearest neighbor, and construct two samples at both extremes of density and perform comparative studies between them for each volume-limited sample. Results of two volume-limited samples show the same conclusions: the fraction of red late-type galaxies rises considerably with increasing local density, and that one of the blue early-type galaxies declines substantially with increasing local density. In addition, we note that bluer galaxies preferentially are late types, but the red galaxies are not dominated by early types.

  19. Cross-Sectional Analysis of Late HAART Initiation in Latin America and the Caribbean: Late Testers and Late Presenters

    PubMed Central

    Crabtree-Ramírez, Brenda; Caro-Vega, Yanink; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Wehbe, Firas; Cesar, Carina; Cortés, Claudia; Padgett, Denis; Koenig, Serena; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Cahn, Pedro; McGowan, Catherine; Masys, Daniel; Sierra-Madero, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Background Starting HAART in a very advanced stage of disease is assumed to be the most prevalent form of initiation in HIV-infected subjects in developing countries. Data from Latin America and the Caribbean is still lacking. Our main objective was to determine the frequency, risk factors and trends in time for being late HAART initiator (LHI) in this region. Methodology Cross-sectional analysis from 9817 HIV-infected treatment-naïve patients initiating HAART at 6 sites (Argentina, Chile, Haiti, Honduras, Peru and Mexico) from October 1999 to July 2010. LHI had CD4+ count ≤200cells/mm3 prior to HAART. Late testers (LT) were those LHI who initiated HAART within 6 months of HIV diagnosis. Late presenters (LP) initiated after 6 months of diagnosis. Prevalence, risk factors and trends over time were analyzed. Principal Findings Among subjects starting HAART (n = 9817) who had baseline CD4+ available (n = 8515), 76% were LHI: Argentina (56%[95%CI:52–59]), Chile (80%[95%CI:77–82]), Haiti (76%[95%CI:74–77]), Honduras (91%[95%CI:87–94]), Mexico (79%[95%CI:75–83]), Peru (86%[95%CI:84–88]). The proportion of LHI statistically changed over time (except in Honduras) (p≤0.02; Honduras p = 0.7), with a tendency towards lower rates in recent years. Males had increased risk of LHI in Chile, Haiti, Peru, and in the combined site analyses (CSA). Older patients were more likely LHI in Argentina and Peru (OR 1.21 per +10-year of age, 95%CI:1.02–1.45; OR 1.20, 95%CI:1.02–1.43; respectively), but not in CSA (OR 1.07, 95%CI:0.94–1.21). Higher education was associated with decreased risk for LHI in Chile (OR 0.92 per +1-year of education, 95%CI:0.87–0.98) (similar trends in Mexico, Peru, and CSA). LHI with date of HIV-diagnosis available, 55% were LT and 45% LP. Conclusion LHI was highly prevalent in CCASAnet sites, mostly due to LT; the main risk factors associated were being male and older age. Earlier HIV-diagnosis and earlier treatment initiation

  20. Convection in Oblate Late-Type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junfeng

    2015-08-01

    In this talk, we present recent investigations of the convection, oblateness and differential rota-tion in rapidly rotating late-type stars with a novel and powerful Compressible High-ORder Un-structured Spectral-difference (CHORUS) code (J. Comput. Physics Vol. 290, 190-211, 2015). Recent observations have revealed the drastic effects of rapid rotation on stellar structure, including centrifugal deformation and gravity darkening. The centrifugal force counteracts gravity, causing the equatorial region to expand. Consequently, rapidly rotating stars are oblate and cannot be described by an one-dimensional spherically symmetric model. If convection establishes a substantial differential rotation, as in the envelopes of late-type stars, this can considerably increase the oblateness. We have successfully extended the CHORUS code to model rapidly rotating stars on fixed unstructured grids. In the CHORUS code, the hydrodynamic equations are discretized by a robust and efficient high-order Spectral Difference Method (SDM). The discretization stencil of the spectral difference method is compact and advantageous for parallel processing. CHORUS has been verified by comparing to spherical anelastic convection simulations on benchmark problems. This talk will be centred on the first global simulations by CHORUS for convection in oblate stars with different rotating rates. We quantify the influence of the oblateness on the mean flows and the thermal structure of the convection zone through these new simulations and implications of these results for stellar observations will be discussed.

  1. Microvascular pathology in late-life depression.

    PubMed

    Santos, Micaela; Xekardaki, Aikaterini; Kövari, Enikö; Gold, Gabriel; Bouras, Constantin; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon

    2012-11-15

    Since the era of Gaupp who introduced the concept of atheroscletic depressive disorder, the concept of late-life depression has been correlated with cerebrovascular comorbidities, microvascular lesions, frontal cortical and subcortical gray and white matter hyperintensities. The predominant neuropsychological deficits concern the domains of planning, organization and abstraction, with executive dysfunction being the predominant finding. MRI studies reveal a higher prevalence of white matter lesions in elderly patients with depression. Molecular mechanisms underlying the disease still remain unclear. Hyperhomocysteinemia has been associated with depression through its toxicity to neurons and blood vessels. Endothelial dysfunction is another possible mechanism referring to the loss of vasodilatation capacity. Inflammatory phenomena, such as increased peripheral leucocytes, elevated CRP and cytokine levels, could play a role in endothelial dysfunction. In this review we will briefly combine findings from neurobiological, epidemiological, structural and post-mortem data. A more complex model in late-life depression combining different modalities could be an elucidating approach to the disease's etiopathogeny in the future. PMID:22687957

  2. Late endocrine effects of childhood cancer.

    PubMed

    Rose, Susan R; Horne, Vincent E; Howell, Jonathan; Lawson, Sarah A; Rutter, Meilan M; Trotman, Gylynthia E; Corathers, Sarah D

    2016-06-01

    The cure rate for paediatric malignancies is increasing, and most patients who have cancer during childhood survive and enter adulthood. Surveillance for late endocrine effects after childhood cancer is required to ensure early diagnosis and treatment and to optimize physical, cognitive and psychosocial health. The degree of risk of endocrine deficiency is related to the child's sex and their age at the time the tumour is diagnosed, as well as to tumour location and characteristics and the therapies used (surgery, chemotherapy or radiation therapy). Potential endocrine problems can include growth hormone deficiency, hypothyroidism (primary or central), adrenocorticotropin deficiency, hyperprolactinaemia, precocious puberty, hypogonadism (primary or central), altered fertility and/or sexual function, low BMD, the metabolic syndrome and hypothalamic obesity. Optimal endocrine care for survivors of childhood cancer should be delivered in a multidisciplinary setting, providing continuity from acute cancer treatment to long-term follow-up of late endocrine effects throughout the lifespan. Endocrine therapies are important to improve long-term quality of life for survivors of childhood cancer. PMID:27032982

  3. Modeling late entry bias in survival analysis.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Masaaki; Eguchi, Shinto

    2005-06-01

    In a failure time analysis, we sometimes observe additional study subjects who enter during the study period. These late entries are treated as left-truncated data in the statistical literature. However, with real data, there is a substantial possibility that the delayed entries may have extremely different hazards compared to the other standard subjects. We focus on a situation in which such entry bias might arise in the analysis of survival data. The purpose of the present article is to develop an appropriate methodology for making inference about data including late entries. We construct a model that includes parameters for the effect of delayed entry bias having no specification for the distribution of entry time. We also discuss likelihood inference based on this model and derive the asymptotic behavior of estimates. A simulation study is conducted for a finite sample size in order to compare the analysis results using our method with those using the standard method, where independence between entry time and failure time is assumed. We apply this method to mortality analysis among atomic bomb survivors defined in a geographical study region. PMID:16011705

  4. ER contact sites direct late endosome transport.

    PubMed

    Wijdeven, Ruud H; Jongsma, Marlieke L M; Neefjes, Jacques; Berlin, Ilana

    2015-12-01

    Endosomes shuttle select cargoes between cellular compartments and, in doing so, maintain intracellular homeostasis and enable interactions with the extracellular space. Directionality of endosomal transport critically impinges on cargo fate, as retrograde (microtubule minus-end directed) traffic delivers vesicle contents to the lysosome for proteolysis, while the opposing anterograde (plus-end directed) movement promotes recycling and secretion. Intriguingly, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is emerging as a key player in spatiotemporal control of late endosome and lysosome transport, through the establishment of physical contacts with these organelles. Earlier studies have described how minus-end-directed motor proteins become discharged from vesicles engaged at such contact sites. Now, Raiborg et al. implicate ER-mediated interactions, induced by protrudin, in loading plus-end-directed motor kinesin-1 onto endosomes, thereby stimulating their transport toward the cell's periphery. In this review, we recast the prevailing concepts on bidirectional late endosome transport and discuss the emerging paradigm of inter-compartmental regulation from the ER-endosome interface viewpoint. PMID:26440125

  5. Late Archean rise of aerobic microbial ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Freeman, Katherine H.

    2006-01-01

    We report the 13C content of preserved organic carbon for a 150 million-year section of late Archean shallow and deepwater sediments of the Hamersley Province in Western Australia. We find a 13C enrichment of ≈10‰ in organic carbon of post-2.7-billion-year-old shallow-water carbonate rocks relative to deepwater sediments. The shallow-water organic-carbon 13C content has a 29‰ range in values (−57 to −28‰), and it contrasts with the less variable but strongly 13C-depleted (−40 to −45‰) organic carbon in deepwater sediments. The 13C enrichment likely represents microbial habitats not as strongly influenced by assimilation of methane or other 13C-depleted substrates. We propose that continued oxidation of shallow settings favored the expansion of aerobic ecosystems and respiring organisms, and, as a result, isotopic signatures of preserved organic carbon in shallow settings approached that of photosynthetic biomass. Facies analysis of published carbon-isotopic records indicates that the Hamersley shallow-water signal may be representative of a late Archean global signature and that it preceded a similar, but delayed, 13C enrichment of deepwater deposits. The data suggest that a global-scale expansion of oxygenated habitats accompanied the progression away from anaerobic ecosystems toward respiring microbial communities fueled by oxygenic photosynthesis before the oxygenation of the atmosphere after 2.45 billion years ago. PMID:17043234

  6. Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Weigelt, Patrick; Steinbauer, Manuel Jonas; Cabral, Juliano Sarmento; Kreft, Holger

    2016-04-01

    Island biogeographical models consider islands either as geologically static with biodiversity resulting from ecologically neutral immigration-extinction dynamics, or as geologically dynamic with biodiversity resulting from immigration-speciation-extinction dynamics influenced by changes in island characteristics over millions of years. Present climate and spatial arrangement of islands, however, are rather exceptional compared to most of the Late Quaternary, which is characterized by recurrent cooler and drier glacial periods. These climatic oscillations over short geological timescales strongly affected sea levels and caused massive changes in island area, isolation and connectivity, orders of magnitude faster than the geological processes of island formation, subsidence and erosion considered in island theory. Consequences of these oscillations for present biodiversity remain unassessed. Here we analyse the effects of present and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) island area, isolation, elevation and climate on key components of angiosperm diversity on islands worldwide. We find that post-LGM changes in island characteristics, especially in area, have left a strong imprint on present diversity of endemic species. Specifically, the number and proportion of endemic species today is significantly higher on islands that were larger during the LGM. Native species richness, in turn, is mostly determined by present island characteristics. We conclude that an appreciation of Late Quaternary environmental change is essential to understand patterns of island endemism and its underlying evolutionary dynamics. PMID:27027291

  7. Midlife migraine and late-life parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Ross, G. Webster; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Garcia, Melissa; Gudmundsson, Larus S.; Sveinbjörnsdóttir, Sigurlaug; Wagner, Amy K.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Launer, Lenore J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that having migraine in middle age is related to late-life parkinsonism and a related disorder, restless legs syndrome (RLS), also known as Willis-Ekbom disease (WED). Methods: The AGES-Reykjavik cohort (born 1907–1935) has been followed since 1967. Headaches were classified based on symptoms assessed in middle age. From 2002 to 2006, 5,764 participants were reexamined to assess symptoms of parkinsonism, diagnosis of Parkinson disease (PD), family history of PD, and RLS/WED. Results: Subjects with midlife migraine, particularly migraine with aura (MA), were in later life more likely than others to report parkinsonian symptoms (odds ratio [OR]MA = 3.6 [95% CI 2.7–4.8]) and diagnosed PD (ORMA = 2.5 [95% CI 1.2–5.2]). Women with MA were more likely than others to have a parent (ORMA = 2.26 [95% CI 1.3–4.0]) or sibling (ORMA = 1.78 [95% CI 1.1–2.9]) with PD. Late-life RLS/WED was increased for headache generally. Associations were independent of cardiovascular disease and MRI-evident presumed ischemic lesions. Conclusions: These findings suggest there may be a common vulnerability to, or consequences of, migraine and multiple indicators of parkinsonism. Additional genetic and longitudinal observational studies are needed to identify candidate pathways that may account for the comorbid constellation of symptoms. PMID:25230997

  8. Mental development and growth in children with chronic liver disease of early and late onset.

    PubMed

    Stewart, S M; Uauy, R; Kennard, B D; Waller, D A; Benser, M; Andrews, W S

    1988-08-01

    Comparison was made of the mental function and physical growth of 21 children in whom liver disease occurred in the first year of life with 15 patients with late (17 months of age to 12 years of age) manifestation of liver disease. Ages (mean +/- SD) at testing for the two groups was 8 +/- 3 years for the early group and 11 +/- 5 years for the late group. Wechsler verbal, performance, and full-scale IQ scores were lower for the early group (range of mean scores: early, 85 to 86 v late, 96 to 103). Growth measures were significantly different in the two groups. Means +/- SD (percentage of standard) were: length for early group, 92 +/- 9; for late, 99 +/- 7; and head circumference for early, 98 +/- 4; for late, 101 +/- 2. The groups were similar in severity of liver disease and acute nutritional status, however. Patients with intellectual impairment had a longer duration of illness, poor nutritional status, and vitamin E deficiency; 82% of impaired patients were in the early group. The data suggest that liver disease during early life has pernicious effects on intellectual function and linear growth. Careful monitoring of nutritional status of children with early-onset liver disease and aggressive nutritional support beginning at the time of diagnosis may help reduce delays in growth and mental development. PMID:3399290

  9. Precursors and correlates of anxiety trajectories from late childhood to late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Letcher, Primrose; Sanson, Ann; Smart, Diana; Toumbourou, John W

    2012-01-01

    The present research employed a prospective, multi-informant design to examine precursors and correlates of differing anxiety profiles from late childhood to late adolescence. The sample consisted of 626 boys and 667 girls who are participants in the Australian Temperament Project, a large, longitudinal, community-based study that has followed young people's psychosocial adjustment from infancy to adulthood. The present research analyzes data collected from the first 12 waves of data, from 4-8 months to 17 years. Parents, primary school teachers, maternal and child health nurses, and from the age of 11 onward, the young people themselves have provided survey data. Trajectory analyses revealed three distinct patterns of self-reported anxiety from late childhood to late adolescence, comprising low, moderate, and high (increasing) trajectories, which differed somewhat between boys and girls. A range of parent- and teacher-reported factors was found to be associated with these trajectories, including temperament style, behavior problems, social skills, parenting, negative family events, and peer relationships. Compared with male trajectories, female trajectories were associated with a greater variety of psychosocial variables (including parenting and externalizing problems), which may partially account for the higher prevalence of anxiety in adolescent girls compared with boys. Findings shed light on gender-specific pathways to anxiety and the need for comprehensive, integrative approaches to intervention and prevention programs. PMID:22551395

  10. Millennial scale climatic responses through a Late Miocene precession cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzocchi, Alice; Lunt, Dan; Flecker, Rachel; Bradshaw, Catherine

    2014-05-01

    Late Miocene (11.61-5.33 Ma) climate is thought to have been warmer and wetter than the present, with nearly ice-free conditions over the Northern Hemisphere, and significant differences in vegetation distribution. There still is considerable uncertainty in the reconstructed CO2 levels for this time period, fostered by the temporally and spatially biased distribution of the available proxy record. Previous model-data comparison studies (i.e. Bradshaw et al., 2012; Pound et al., 2011) highlighted the mismatch between model results and proxy data for this time period. Here, we investigate how taking into account the variability due to changes in orbital forcing can account for some of these differences. We also explore the orbital control on the monsoonal systems at millennial scale resolution, as well as the impact of background CO2 on orbital sensitivity. Long-term changes in seasonal and latitudinal solar insolation are generated by periodic oscillations in the Earth's orbit and tilt relative to the Sun. These cycles have a modulating effect on climate and ocean circulation patterns. A record of this signal can be found in a number of terrestrial and marine sedimentary sequences. A series of 22 fully coupled atmosphere-ocean-vegetation simulations has been run through an entire precession cycle during the Late Miocene (~6.5 Ma). These experiments were performed using HadCM3L (Hadley Centre Coupled Model, Version 3 - Low resolution ocean) with TRIFFID (Top-down Representation of Interactive Foliage and Flora Including Dynamics) to test the climatic response to changes in orbital forcing. The Mediterranean Sea provides a remarkable geological record for this time slice. Several sequences around the basin margins have been astronomically tuned so that high resolution geological data can be directly compared with our model results. However, this is not the case for the rest of the world, where the distribution of climate proxy data for the Late Miocene is sparse

  11. LATE ACUTE REJECTION IN LIVER TRANSPLANT: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    NACIF, Lucas Souto; PINHEIRO, Rafael Soares; PÉCORA, Rafael Antônio de Arruda; DUCATTI, Liliana; ROCHA-SANTOS, Vinicius; ANDRAUS, Wellington; D'ALBUQUERQUE, Luiz Carneiro

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Late acute rejection leads to worse patient and graft survival after liver transplantation. Aim: To analyze the reported results published in recent years by leading transplant centers in evaluating late acute rejection and update the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of liver transplantation. Method: Systematic literature review through Medline-PubMed database with headings related to late acute rejection in articles published until November 2013 was done. Were analyzed demographics, immunosuppression, rejection, infection and graft and patient survival rates. Results: Late acute rejection in liver transplantation showed poor results mainly regarding patient and graft survival. Almost all of these cohort studies were retrospective and descriptive. The incidence of late acute rejection varied from 7-40% in these studies. Late acute rejection was one cause for graft loss and resulted in different outcomes with worse patient and graft survival after liver transplant. Late acute rejection has been variably defined and may be a cause of chronic rejection with worse prognosis. Late acute rejection occurs during a period in which the goal is to maintain lower immunosuppression after liver transplantation. Conclusion: The current articles show the importance of late acute rejection. The real benefit is based on early diagnosis and adequate treatment at the onset until late follow up after liver transplantation. PMID:26537150

  12. Predictors of neighborhood risk for late-stage melanoma: addressing disparities through spatial analysis and area-based measures.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shasa; Sherman, Recinda; Arheart, Kristopher; Kirsner, Robert S

    2014-04-01

    Minority populations have disproportionately more advanced stage melanoma and worse survival. To clarify the impact of race and ethnicity on late-stage melanoma diagnosis, we performed spatial analysis of geocoded melanoma cases diagnosed in Florida, 1999-2008, to identify geographic clusters of higher-than-expected incidence of late-stage melanoma and developed predictive models for melanoma cases in high-risk neighborhoods accounting for area-based poverty, race/ethnicity, patient insurance status, age, and gender. In the adjusted model, Hispanic ethnicity and census tract-level poverty are the strongest predictors for clustering of late-stage melanoma. Hispanic whites were 43% more likely to live in neighborhoods with excessive late-stage melanoma (P<0.001) compared with non-Hispanic whites (NHW). For every 1% increase in population living in poverty, there is a 2% increase in late-stage melanoma clustering (P<0.001). Census tract-level poverty predicted late-stage melanoma similarly among NHW and Hispanic whites. The impact of insurance coverage varied among populations; the most consistent trend was that Medicaid coverage is associated with higher odds for late-stage melanoma. The finding that Hispanics are most likely to reside in high-risk neighborhoods, independent of poverty and insurance status, underscores the importance of addressing, and overcoming community-level barriers to melanoma care. PMID:24335896

  13. Differential patterns of cortical reorganization following constraint-induced movement therapy during early and late period after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Sawaki, Lumy; Butler, Andrew J.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Wassenaar, Peter A.; Mohammad, Yousef; Blanton, Sarah; Sathian, K.; Nichols-Larsen, Deborah S.; Wolf, Steven L.; Good, David C.; Wittenberg, George F.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) leads to improvement in upper extremity movement and cortical reorganization after stroke. Direct comparison of the differential degree of cortical reorganization according to chronicity in stroke subjects receiving CIMT has not been performed and was the purpose of this study. We hypothesized that a higher degree of cortical reorganization would occur in the early (less than 9 months post-stroke) compared to the late group (more than 12 months post-stroke). METHODS 17 early and 9 late subjects were enrolled. Each subject was evaluated using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT) and received CIMT for 2 weeks. RESULTS The early group showed greater improvement in WMFT compared with the late group. TMS motor maps showed persistent enlargement in both groups. The map shifted posteriorly in the late stroke group. CONCLUSION CIMT appears to lead to greater improvement in motor function in early phase after stroke. Greater cortical reorganization associated with shift in map position occurred in late group. SIGNIFICANCE The contrast between larger functional gains in the early group vs larger map expansion in the late group may indicate that cortical reorganization depends upon different neural substrates in the late stroke group. PMID:25227542

  14. Migration of a Late Cretaceous fish.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Scott J; Erickson, J Mark; Holland, F D

    2003-05-01

    Late Cretaceous sediments from the Western Interior of North America yield exceptionally well preserved fossils that serve as proxies for the rapidly changing climate preceding the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary (about 67-65 Myr ago). Here we reconstruct the ontogenetic history of a Maastrichtian-age fish, Vorhisia vulpes, by using the carbon, oxygen and strontium isotope ratios of four aragonite otoliths collected from the Fox Hills Formation of South Dakota. Individuals of V. vulpes spawned in brackish water (about 70-80% seawater) and during their first year migrated to open marine waters of the Western Interior Seaway, where they remained for 3 years before returning to the estuary, presumably to spawn and die. The mean delta(18)O from the marine growth phase of V. vulpes yields a seawater temperature of 18 degrees C, which is consistent with leaf physiognomy and general-circulation-model temperature estimates for the Western Interior during the latest Maastrichtian. PMID:12721626

  15. Solar and late-type dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, L.

    1982-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory's and the IUE's contributions to knowledge of coronal formation in late-type stars are discussed. The HR diagram of stars seen as X-ray sources by these observatories is presented, and the influence of rotation on X-ray emission is reviewed. Emission from the Alpha Cen system and from active stars with quiescent coronae is examined, and the extent of the contribution of emission from normal stars to the soft X-ray background is addressed. The quiescent and flare emission from Alpha Cen, the temporal variability of X-ray emission from a sample of active chromosphere stars, and the predicted contribution of chromospheric emission to the diffuse soft X-ray background are depicted. Chromospheric indicators of activity are discussed, the connection between surface magnetic fields and X-ray emission in the chromosphere is briefly reviewed, and the quantitative links between X-ray data and magnetic fields is summarily presented.

  16. Late Mousterian persistence near the Arctic Circle.

    PubMed

    Slimak, Ludovic; Svendsen, John Inge; Mangerud, Jan; Plisson, Hugues; Heggen, Herbjørn Presthus; Brugère, Alexis; Pavlov, Pavel Yurievich

    2011-05-13

    Palaeolithic sites in Russian high latitudes have been considered as Upper Palaeolithic and thus representing an Arctic expansion of modern humans. Here we show that at Byzovaya, in the western foothills of the Polar Urals, the technological structure of the lithic assemblage makes it directly comparable with Mousterian Middle Palaeolithic industries that so far have been exclusively attributed to the Neandertal populations in Europe. Radiocarbon and optical-stimulated luminescence dates on bones and sand grains indicate that the site was occupied during a short period around 28,500 carbon-14 years before the present (about 31,000 to 34,000 calendar years ago), at the time when only Upper Palaeolithic cultures occupied lower latitudes of Eurasia. Byzovaya may thus represent a late northern refuge for Neandertals, about 1000 km north of earlier known Mousterian sites. PMID:21566192

  17. Late stage trifluoromethylthiolation strategies for organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Barata-Vallejo, Sebastian; Bonesi, Sergio; Postigo, Al

    2016-07-26

    Substitution by the CF3S group allows for an increase in lipophilicity and electron-withdrawing properties along with an improvement in the bioavailability of medicinal targets; consequently, the late stage introduction of CF3S moieties into medicinal scaffolds is a sought-after strategy in synthetic organic chemistry. Different newly-developed electrophilic and nucleophilic reagents are used to effect the trifluoromethylthiolation of (hetero)aromatic compounds, aliphatic compounds (alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl substrates), the trifluoromethylthiolation at the α- and β-carbonyl positions, and heteroatoms (N- and S-). Such reactions can involve homolytic substitutions, or functional-group substitutions (ipso). Addition reactions of electrophilic reagents to double and triple bonds followed by ring-cyclizations will be shown to yield relevant CF3S-substituted heteroaromatic compounds with relevant pharmacological action. PMID:27354317

  18. Impact vaporization: Late time phenomena from experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, P. H.; Gault, D. E.

    1987-01-01

    While simple airflow produced by the outward movement of the ejecta curtain can be scaled to large dimensions, the interaction between an impact-vaporized component and the ejecta curtain is more complicated. The goal of these experiments was to examine such interaction in a real system involving crater growth, ejection of material, two phased mixtures of gas and dust, and strong pressure gradients. The results will be complemented by theoretical studies at laboratory scales in order to separate the various parameters for planetary scale processes. These experiments prompt, however, the following conclusions that may have relevance at broader scales. First, under near vacuum or low atmospheric pressures, an expanding vapor cloud scours the surrounding surface in advance of arriving ejecta. Second, the effect of early-time vaporization is relatively unimportant at late-times. Third, the overpressure created within the crater cavity by significant vaporization results in increased cratering efficiency and larger aspect ratios.

  19. Late Cenozoic Moisture History of East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trauth, M. H.; Maslin, M. A.; Deino, A.; Strecker, M. R.

    2004-12-01

    Evidence from fluvio-lacustrine sediments in ten separate basins in the Ethiopian and Kenya rifts suggests there were three protracted humid periods during the Late Cenozoic; at 2.7 - 2.5, 1.9 - 1.7, and 1.1 - 0.9 million years before present. These wet periods are coeval with known increases of aridity in parts of North West and North East Africa, indicating significant regional shifts in African climate. These three East African wet periods correspond to major global climatic changes as well as maxima in eccentricity and thus precession, suggesting a combined global and local causation. These climatic changes were important for the speciation and dispersal of mammals and hominids in East Africa as it implies that key steps in human evolution occurred during relatively humid periods in a region containing extensive deep lakes.

  20. Pachyonychia congenita with late onset (PC tarda)

    PubMed Central

    Sravanthi, A.; Srivalli, P.; Gopal, K. V. T.; Rao, T. Narayana

    2016-01-01

    Pachyonychia congenita is a rare type of ectodermal dysplasia further classified into 4 types. Cutaneous manifestations seen in most of the cases of Pachyonychia congenita include palmoplantar keratoderma, follicular hyperkeratosis, wedge shaped nails, oral leukokeratosis and woolly hair. A 25-year-old male presented to us with thickened nails and scanty scalp hair. On examination, we noticed hyperkeratotic plaques over both the soles, palmoplantar hyperhidrosis and yellowish discoloration, wedging with subungual hyperkeratosis of all the nails. Follicular hyperkeratotic papules and steatocystoma multiplex were also observed over the scalp and face. The patient had history of natal teeth and on dental examination, lower central incisors were absent. All cutaneous changes in our case had manifested first in the 2nd decade except for natal teeth. All the above features suggested the diagnosis of pachyonychia congenita with late onset (PC tarda), which is an infrequently reported rare variant. PMID:27559502

  1. Pachyonychia congenita with late onset (PC tarda).

    PubMed

    Sravanthi, A; Srivalli, P; Gopal, K V T; Rao, T Narayana

    2016-01-01

    Pachyonychia congenita is a rare type of ectodermal dysplasia further classified into 4 types. Cutaneous manifestations seen in most of the cases of Pachyonychia congenita include palmoplantar keratoderma, follicular hyperkeratosis, wedge shaped nails, oral leukokeratosis and woolly hair. A 25-year-old male presented to us with thickened nails and scanty scalp hair. On examination, we noticed hyperkeratotic plaques over both the soles, palmoplantar hyperhidrosis and yellowish discoloration, wedging with subungual hyperkeratosis of all the nails. Follicular hyperkeratotic papules and steatocystoma multiplex were also observed over the scalp and face. The patient had history of natal teeth and on dental examination, lower central incisors were absent. All cutaneous changes in our case had manifested first in the 2(nd) decade except for natal teeth. All the above features suggested the diagnosis of pachyonychia congenita with late onset (PC tarda), which is an infrequently reported rare variant. PMID:27559502

  2. Postformal thinking and creativity among late adolescents: a post-Piagetian approach.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pai-Lu; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between cognitive development levels and creative performance among late adolescents from a post-Piagetian perspective. Participants were 386 college students, ranging in age from 19 to 26 years. The Social Paradigm Belief Scale was employed to measure the three cognitive styles of late adolescence: formal, relativistic, and dialectical thinking. The Divergent Thinking Test (DTT) was used to measure creative performance. Dialectical and relativistic thinking were positively correlated with creative performance, whereas formal thinking was negatively correlated. Planned contrasts revealed that postformal thinkers scored higher than formal thinkers in all dimensions of creativity, and additional MANOVA analysis exhibited a similar pattern. Multiple discriminant analysis showed that the linear combination of the six dimensions of creativity recognized in the DTT discriminated between formal and postformal thinkers, which supported our findings about the relationship between postformal thinking and creativity. Future research directions and implications for creativity pedagogy are discussed. PMID:18689099

  3. Plate Tectonics in the Late Paleozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domeier, Mat; Torsvik, Trond

    2014-05-01

    As the chronicle of plate motions through time, paleogeography is fundamental to our understanding of plate tectonics and its role in shaping the geology of the present-day. To properly appreciate the history of tectonics—and its influence on the deep Earth and climate—it is imperative to seek an accurate and global model of paleogeography. However, owing to the incessant loss of oceanic lithosphere through subduction, the paleogeographic reconstruction of 'full-plates' (including oceanic lithosphere) becomes increasingly challenging with age. Prior to 150 Ma ~60% of the lithosphere is missing and reconstructions are developed without explicit regard for oceanic lithosphere or plate tectonic principles; in effect, reflecting the earlier mobilistic paradigm of continental drift. Although these 'continental' reconstructions have been immensely useful, the next-generation of mantle models requires global plate kinematic descriptions with full-plate reconstructions. Moreover, in disregarding (or only loosely applying) plate tectonic rules, continental reconstructions fail to take advantage of a wealth of additional information in the form of practical constraints. Following a series of new developments, both in geodynamic theory and analytical tools, it is now feasible to construct full-plate models that lend themselves to testing by the wider Earth-science community. Such a model is presented here for the late Paleozoic (410-250 Ma). Although we expect this model to be particularly useful for numerical mantle modeling, we hope that it can also serve as a general framework for understanding late Paleozoic tectonics, one on which future improvements can be built and further tested.

  4. Late termination of pregnancy. Professional dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Kandel, Isack; Merrick, Joav

    2003-09-23

    Abortion is an issue as long as history and hotly debated in all societies and communities. In some societies and countries it is legal, while other countries have no legal basis, and some countries have made it a crime. Today up to 90% of abortions take place in the first trimester, about 9% in the second trimester, and the rest in the third trimester. This paper deals with the issue of late termination of pregnancy, the practical medical aspects, legal issues, international aspects, and the dilemma for the professional. In early history, abortion was accepted by clergy and societies, but in recent history it is more restricted and in some countries prohibited. It does not seem that restriction leads to a lower abortion rate, but rather an active contraceptive policy, campaign, and availability to prevent pregnancies that are unwanted. In countries where abortion is restricted, the trend has been an increase in illegal abortion that leads to unsafe abortion with complications, permanent injuries, and maternal mortality. Unsafe and illegal abortion is a public health concern that governments should try to prevent and instead find ways to strengthen their commitments toward better and safer health and family planning services for women. Late termination of pregnancies is an issue of grave concern with many practical medical aspects, ethical questions, and professional dilemmas. This is especially of concern because of the viability of the fetus and should only take place in order to prevent harm to the physical and mental health of the mother or due to an anomaly or disability of the fetus. PMID:14519900

  5. Late Glacial lakes - uniform or contrasting ecosystems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawiska, Izabela; Rzodkiewicz, Monika; Noryśkiewicz, Agnieszka M.; Obremska, Milena; Ott, Florian; Kramkowski, Mateusz; Słowiński, Michał; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Brauer, Achim

    2015-04-01

    Climate changes are one of the most investigated topic in paleolimnology. The Late Glacial and Early Holocene time are specially interesting as than most abrupt changes happened. Lake sediments are known to be great source of information of the past environments. They are functioning as natural archives because in them preserve animal and plants remains. In this study we investigated three cores of the biogenic sediments from the lakes located in close vicinity in Tuchola Forest (Northern Poland): paleolake Trzechowskie, Lake Czechowskie-deepest part and Lake Czechowskie-bay. We made Cladocera, diatom and pollen analysis, the chronology was determined by varve counting, Laacher See Tephra (12,880 yrs BP) and 14C dating. The aim of our research was to find out the response of zooplankton, phytoplankton, lake and catchment vegetation to abrupt climate changes. We were interested in similarities and differences between those three locations in response of entire communities but also species composition. The preliminary results revealed that the Cladocera, diatoms and plants communities were sensitive to climatic shifts and it is well shown in the results of ordination method (PCA). However in the Cladocera and diatoms assemblages, which reflect well lake environment conditions, the dominant species and total number of species present, were different in all three locations. Especially great difference was noted between paleolake Trzechowskie and Lake Czechowskie (core from the deepest part). The results of our research shows that in Late Glacial time landscape in Lake Czechowskie region (Tuchola Forest, Northern Poland) had mosaic character. Local factors such as relief, edaphic conditions strongly modified type of vegetation and in close vicinity existed lakes that had very diverse environments.

  6. A chronology for late prehistoric Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Burney, David A; Burney, Lida Pigott; Godfrey, Laurie R; Jungers, William L; Goodman, Steven M; Wright, Henry T; Jull, A J Timothy

    2004-01-01

    A database has been assembled with 278 age determinations for Madagascar. Materials 14C dated include pretreated sediments and plant macrofossils from cores and excavations throughout the island, and bones, teeth, or eggshells of most of the extinct megafaunal taxa, including the giant lemurs, hippopotami, and ratites. Additional measurements come from uranium-series dates on speleothems and thermoluminescence dating of pottery. Changes documented include late Pleistocene climatic events and, in the late Holocene, the apparently human-caused transformation of the environment. Multiple lines of evidence point to the earliest human presence at ca. 2300 14C yr BP (350 cal yr BC). A decline in megafauna, inferred from a drastic decrease in spores of the coprophilous fungus Sporormiella spp. in sediments at 1720+/-40 14C yr BP (230-410 cal yr AD), is followed by large increases in charcoal particles in sediment cores, beginning in the SW part of the island, and spreading to other coasts and the interior over the next millennium. The record of human occupation is initially sparse, but shows large human populations throughout the island by the beginning of the Second Millennium AD. Dating of the "subfossil" megafauna, including pygmy hippos, elephant birds, giant tortoises, and large lemurs, demonstrates that most if not all the extinct taxa were still present on the island when humans arrived. Many taxa overlapped chronologically with humans for a millennium or more. The extinct lemurs Hadropithecus stenognathus, Pachylemur insignis, Mesopropithecus pithecoides, and Daubentonia robusta, and the elephant birds Aepyornis spp. and Mullerornis spp., were still present near the end of the First Millennium AD. Palaeopropithecus ingens, Megaladapis edwardsi, and Archaeolemur sp. (cf. edwardsi) may have survived until the middle of the Second Millennium A.D. One specimen of Hippopotamus of unknown provenance dates to the period of European colonization. PMID:15288523

  7. Teaching surgery in late Byzantine Alexandria.

    PubMed

    Scarborough, John

    2010-01-01

    When one examines Alexandrian commentaries on works of Galen and Hippocrates, disclosed are essential guides to the Art of Medicine as practiced in the late fifth, sixth, and early seventh centuries. These are outlines and contents of a 'medical curriculum' in late Byzantine Alexandria, as well as Ravenna, and thanks to the patient and skilled labors of Dickson,' Duffy,2 Irmer, Palmieri, Pritchet, Westerink, and others, following and building on the pioneering studies of Bräutigam, Meyerhoff, and Temkin, medical historians can now peruse carefully edited Greek and Latin texts and generally reliable translations of some commentaries by Agnellus of Ravenna, John of Alexandria, Palladius, and Stephanus of Athens. Deeply experienced medical practitioners became teachers of would-be medical students in Alexandria and Ravenna. Alexandria had long functioned as a city reputed to be the home of medical instruction, and by ca. 550 or slightly later, teachers began to produce commentaries on the classic texts of Greek and Roman medicine, with Galen and Hippocrates as major authorities. Underpinning what the medical professors set down in their commentaries were extended lives spent in the actual practice of medicine, sometimes as military physicians (as may have been the case of Paul of Aegina in the early seventh century), sometimes as doctors who had gained lengthy experience in Alexandria itself, and sometimes as medical professionals who had emigrated to Egypt after successful careers in another part of the Greek-speaking eastern Roman Empire. Reflecting time as a medical student and later career in Constantinople, Aetius of Amida's Tetrabiblon foreshadows editorial mechanics and techniques of textual exegesis as they emerge more clearly with the medical commentators after 550. It may well be that Stephanus, 'the Philosopher and Physician', was originally from Athens, but whether he was or not, the attribution of an Athenian background suggests that non

  8. Phenotypic plasticity of early and late successional forbs in response to shifts in resources.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yingxin; Zhao, Xueyong; Zhou, Daowei; Zhang, Hongxiang; Zheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    We compared the phenotypic plasticity of two early successional forbs of nutrient-poor mobile dunes (Agriophyllum squarrosum and Corispermum macrocarpum) and two later successional forbs (weeds) of stabilized, higher nutrient dunes and cropland (Chenopodium acuminatum and Salsola collina) to variations in environmental factors. A controlled (including soil nutrients, water, and population density) greenhouse experiment was conducted in Horqin sandy land, China. Late successional species had high plasticity in growth response to nutrients and water or high performance in high soil nutrients and water, reflecting their higher nutrient habitat. In contrast, the early successional species have low plasticity, reflecting their adaptation to resource-poor early successional soil. Late successional species did not always have higher reproductive effort than early successional species. Plants did not have a uniform strategy of increasing reproductive effort with any environmental stressors. Reproductive effort increased with increasing water availability and decreasing nutrient levels, while density had no effect. Patterns of plasticity traits for late successional species exhibited a complex of Master-of-some and Jack-of-all-trades. Late successional species had higher performance or higher plasticity than early successional species. PMID:23185600

  9. Phenotypic Plasticity of Early and Late Successional Forbs in Response to Shifts in Resources

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yingxin; Zhao, Xueyong; Zhou, Daowei; Zhang, Hongxiang; Zheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    We compared the phenotypic plasticity of two early successional forbs of nutrient-poor mobile dunes (Agriophyllum squarrosum and Corispermum macrocarpum) and two later successional forbs (weeds) of stabilized, higher nutrient dunes and cropland (Chenopodium acuminatum and Salsola collina) to variations in environmental factors. A controlled (including soil nutrients, water, and population density) greenhouse experiment was conducted in Horqin sandy land, China. Late successional species had high plasticity in growth response to nutrients and water or high performance in high soil nutrients and water, reflecting their higher nutrient habitat. In contrast, the early successional species have low plasticity, reflecting their adaptation to resource-poor early successional soil. Late successional species did not always have higher reproductive effort than early successional species. Plants did not have a uniform strategy of increasing reproductive effort with any environmental stressors. Reproductive effort increased with increasing water availability and decreasing nutrient levels, while density had no effect. Patterns of plasticity traits for late successional species exhibited a complex of Master-of-some and Jack-of-all-trades. Late successional species had higher performance or higher plasticity than early successional species. PMID:23185600

  10. Estimating canopy leaf area index in the late stages of wheat growth using continuous wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yan; Tian, Qingjiu; Wang, Lei; Geng, Jun; Lyu, Chunguang

    2014-01-01

    The existing hyperspectral vegetation indices used for estimating the canopy leaf area index (LAI) of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) performed well, but the use of such indices at late growth stages can lead to inaccurate results. To improve the performance of LAI models for wheat in late growth stages, the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) method was applied in this study and used to decompose the canopy reflectance and its first derivative into wavelet coefficients. The correlation scalograms of wavelet coefficients and the LAI were then constructed and used to extract the top 1% correlated region as the wavelet feature. The canopy LAI estimation model for late growth wheat was established at last and compared with models based on 12 different types of hyperspectral vegetation indices. The results showed that, compared with the estimation models using the hyperspectral vegetation indices (for which the R2 values were all less than 0.15 and the root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) were greater than 1), the CWT-based canopy LAI estimation model for late growth wheat had obvious improvements in accuracy (maximum R2 of 0.53 and minimum of RMSE of 0.78). Hence, this new method shows promise for use in agricultural and ecological applications.

  11. Appetite Loss and Neurocognitive Deficits in Late-Life Depression

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Guy G.; McQuoid, Douglas R.; Steffens, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Examine association of appetite loss symptoms to neurocognitive performance in late-life depression (LLD). Methods Cross-sectional data from individuals aged 60+ with Major Depressive Disorder (N =322). Participants received clinical assessment of depression and neuropsychological testing. Factor analysis was used to characterize depression symptom factors, and composite scales were developed for episodic memory, psychomotor executive functions, verbal fluency, and working memory span. Results Factor analysis produced a five-factor solution: (1) Anhedonia/Sadness, (2) Suicidality/Guilt, (3) Appetite/Weight Loss, (4) Sleep Disturbance, and (5) Anxiety/Tension. In separate multivariate models for each neurocognitive domain and including all 5 depression factors, higher appetite-loss-related symptoms were associated with lower performance in episodic memory, psychomotor executive functions, and verbal fluency; results were significant with covariates of age, education, race, sex, age of depression onset, and illness burden. No other depression factors were associated with neurocognitive performance in these models. In an additional set of models, the Appetite factor mediated the association between global depression severity and neurocognitive performance. Discussion A factor of appetite and weight loss symptoms in LLD was uniquely associated with neurocognitive performance, in contrast to lack of association among other depression symptom factors. Conclusion Cognitive deficits are a major adverse outcome of LLD, and prominent appetite loss during acute depression may be a marker for these deficits, independent of overall depression severity. Research is needed to understand the mechanisms that may explain this association, and how it is related to the cognitive and symptomatic course of LLD. PMID:25315155

  12. Sex-related differences in explosive actions during late childhood.

    PubMed

    Meylan, César M P; Cronin, John B; Oliver, Jon L; Rumpf, Michael C

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sex-related differences in explosive actions during late childhood, while accounting for body size and maturity, and determine the predictive model responsible for performance. Sixty-eight boys (11.0 ± 1.1 years) and 45 girls (11.3 ± 0.9 years) performed a vertical and horizontal jump, 30-m sprint, and change of direction (COD) time trial. After allometric analysis, a common sex scaling factor of body mass was used for vertical (b = 1.02) and horizontal (b = 0.97) power. No significant sex difference in relative leg power was found before and after controlling for maturity status. Gender differences in 10 m, the Zigzag section, and flying 10 m of the COD task were found significant once adjusted for maturity (p ≤ 0.05). However, boys performed better than girls in 20- and 30-m sprint and the COD time trial regardless of maturity status (p ≤ 0.05). Reduced endomorphy in boys was the best predictor of explosive actions (R = 7-22%), whereas female performance was best explained by mass and maturity status (R = 15-19%). Jump power-specific allometric scaling factors need to be determined to account for body size. A training emphasis on sprinting and COD at a younger age in girls compared with boys is recommended because of their earlier onset of puberty and reduced natural ability in these tasks. Somatotype, age, maturity, and body mass should be monitored during the development of youth athletes to better understand explosive performance. PMID:25054572

  13. Late stage modification of receptors identified from dynamic combinatorial libraries.

    PubMed

    Pinkin, Nicholas K; N Power, Amanie; Waters, Marcey L

    2015-11-28

    Small molecule receptors are attractive potential sensors of post-translational modifications, including methylated lysine and methylated arginine. Using dynamic combinatorial chemistry (DCC), our lab previously identified a suite of receptors that bind to Kme3 with a range of affinities ranging from low micromolar to high nanomolar, each with a unique selectivity for Kme3 over the lower methylation states. To enable these receptors to have broad application as Kme3 sensors, we have developed a method for their late-stage modification, which we used to synthesize biotinylated derivatives of A2B, A2D, and A2G in a single step. For our most attractive receptor for applications, A2N, we needed to develop an alternative method for its selective functionalization, which we achieved by "activating" the carboxylic acids on the constituent monomer A or N by pre-functionalizing them with glycine (Gly). Using the resulting Gly-A and Gly-N monomers, we synthesized the novel A2N variants A2Gly-N, Gly-A2N, and Gly-A2Gly-N, which enabled the late stage biotinylation of A2N wherever Gly was incorporated. Finally, we performed ITC and NMR binding experiments to study the effect that carboxylate spacing has on the affinity and selectivity of A2Gly-N and Gly-A2N for KmeX guests compared to A2N. These studies revealed the proximity of the carboxylates to play a complex role in the molecular recognition event, despite their positioning on the outside of the receptor. PMID:26384269

  14. Electrophysiological evidence for late maturation of strategic episodic retrieval processes.

    PubMed

    Sprondel, Volker; Kipp, Kerstin H; Mecklinger, Axel

    2012-05-01

    Improvement in source memory performance throughout development is thought to be mediated by strategic processes that facilitate the retrieval of task-relevant information. Using event-related potentials (ERPs), we examined developmental changes in these processes during adolescence. Adolescents (13-14 years) and adults (19-29 years) completed a memory exclusion task which required the discrimination between words studied in one color ('targets') and words studied in the alternative color ('non-targets') under two conditions that put different demands on strategic control. Memory accuracy improved with age and also increased with decreasing control demands in both age groups. The parietal old/new effect, an ERP correlate of recollection, was reliable for targets across conditions in both age groups. By contrast, ERP correlates of non-target recollection were present in adolescents across conditions but not in adults. This suggests that adults implemented a strategy to prioritize recollection of target information with greater success than adolescents regardless of control demands, presumably reflecting maturational differences in cognitive control. In support of this view, the ERP amplitude difference between targets and non-targets was positively correlated with a measure of working memory capacity (WMC) in adults but not in adolescents. A further age-related difference was that ERP correlates of post-retrieval processing, including late right-frontal old/new effects and late posterior negativities, were observed in adults only. Together, our data suggest protracted maturation in the strategic processes that underlie selective recollection and post-retrieval control. PMID:22490174

  15. Late injury of cancer therapy on the female reproductive tract

    SciTech Connect

    Grigsby, P.W.; Russell, A.; Bruner, D.

    1995-03-30

    The purpose of this article is to review the late effects of cancer therapy on the female reproductive tract. The anatomic sites detailed are the vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. The available pathophysiology is discussed. Clinical syndromes are presented. Tolerance doses of irradiation for late effects are rarely presented in the literature and are reviewed where available. Management strategies for surgical, radiotherapeutic, and chemotherapeutic late effects are discussed. Endpoints for evaluation of therapeutic late effects have been formulated utilizing the symptons, objective, management, and analytic (SOMA) format. Late effects on the female reproductive tract from cancer therapy should be recognized and managed appropriately. A grading system for these effects is presented. Endpoints for late effects and tolls for the evaluation need to be further developed. 61 refs., 9 figs., 13 tabs.

  16. Dissociated motor development--developmental patterns, clinical characteristics, causal factors and outcome, with special reference to late walking children.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, A

    1979-05-01

    Dissociated motor development, defined as marked gross motor delay without any abnormal neurological signs and contrasting to a normal fine motor-adaptive performance, was studied prospectively in a consecutive in a consecutive series of 78 children, 48 girls and 30 boys, aged 7-23 months at first examination. When 17 months of age, 10 of them had become normalized, and in further three a disability explaining their gross motor delay had been diagnosed. At an average age of 4.2 years, the remaining 65 late walkers were, regardless of cause and developmental and neurological findings at final follow-up, characterized by a number of deviating clinical features as muscular hypotonia (71%), shuffling (51%) and dissociated or late pattern of learning to sit (79%). In 30 out of 65 late walkers (46%) a defined clinical condition of probable pathogenetic implication was found. In 35 out of 65 late walkers (54%), no explaining clinical condition was found. They have been designed to be idiopathic late walkers. Except for muscular hypotonia, present in 77%, conventional neurology was normal in this group. Minor neurological signs such as a positive Foerster sign, defect balance reactions in standing, or asymmetry in prewalking locomotion were, however, occasionally and temporarily observed. Girls were overrepresented among idiopathic late walkers, 69% compared to 43% among the symptomatic late walkers. Complete normalization was more common in the idiopathic group (66%) than in the symptomatic group (27%). Early differentiation between the late walkers who were normalized and those who developed mild mental retardation or neurological handicaps was difficult but not quite impossible. Heredity for shuffling, a non-revealing pre- and perinatal history, a developmental pattern of late learning to sit, and shuffling favoured a normal outcome. Creepers with a dissociated pattern of learning to sit and crawlers with muscular hypotonia were found to have an increased risk for later

  17. High Calcium (~80mol%) Late Stage Carbonate in ALH84001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gildea, K. J.; Holland, G.; Lyon, I. C.; Chatzitheodoridis, E.; Burgess, R.

    2006-03-01

    Brief petrological, chemical and textural description of previously undescribed high Ca late stage carbonate in Martian meteorite ALH84001. This carbonate surrounds Mg rich carbonates and rosette fragments.

  18. Comparative Earth history and Late Permian mass extinction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoll, A. H.; Bambach, R. K.; Canfield, D. E.; Grotzinger, J. P.

    1996-01-01

    The repeated association during the late Neoproterozoic Era of large carbon-isotopic excursions, continental glaciation, and stratigraphically anomalous carbonate precipitation provides a framework for interpreting the reprise of these conditions on the Late Permian Earth. A paleoceanographic model that was developed to explain these stratigraphically linked phenomena suggests that the overturn of anoxic deep oceans during the Late Permian introduced high concentrations of carbon dioxide into surficial environments. The predicted physiological and climatic consequences for marine and terrestrial organisms are in good accord with the observed timing and selectivity of Late Permian mass extinction.

  19. Comparative earth history and late Premian mass extinction

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, A.H.; Bambach, R.K.; Canfield, D.E.; Grotzinger, J.P.

    1996-07-26

    The repeated association during the late Neoproterozoic Era of large carbon-isotopic excursions, continental glaciation, and stratigraphically anomalous carbonate precipitation provides a framework for interpreting the reprise of these conditions on the Late Permian Earth. A paleoceanographic model that was developed to explain these stratigraphically linked phenomena suggests that the overturn of anoxic deep oceans during the Late Permian introduced high concentrations of carbon dioxide into surficial environments. The predicted physiological and climatic consequences for marine and terrestrial organisms are in good accord with the observed timing and selectivity of Late Permian mass extinction. 65 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Midlife Eriksonian psychosocial development: Setting the stage for late-life cognitive and emotional health.

    PubMed

    Malone, Johanna C; Liu, Sabrina R; Vaillant, George E; Rentz, Dorene M; Waldinger, Robert J

    2016-03-01

    Erikson's (1950) model of adult psychosocial development outlines the significance of successful involvement within one's relationships, work, and community for healthy aging. He theorized that the consequences of not meeting developmental challenges included stagnation and emotional despair. Drawing on this model, the present study uses prospective longitudinal data to examine how the quality of assessed Eriksonian psychosocial development in midlife relates to late-life cognitive and emotional functioning. In particular we were interested to see whether late-life depression mediated the relationship between Eriksonian development and specific domains of cognitive functioning (i.e., executive functioning and memory). Participants were 159 men from the over-75 year longitudinal Study of Adult Development. The sample was comprised of men from both higher and lower socioeconomic strata. Eriksonian psychosocial development was coded from men's narrative responses to interviews between the ages of 30-47 (Vaillant & Milofsky, 1980). In late life (ages 75-85) men completed a performance-based neuropsychological assessment measuring global cognitive status, executive functioning, and memory. In addition depressive symptomatology was assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale. Our results indicated that higher midlife Eriksonian psychosocial development was associated with stronger global cognitive functioning and executive functioning, and lower levels of depression 3 to 4 decades later. There was no significant association between Eriksonian development and late-life memory. Late-life depression mediated the relationship between Eriksonian development and both global cognition and executive functioning. All of these results controlled for highest level of education and adolescent intelligence. Findings have important implications for understanding the lasting benefits of psychosocial engagement in mid-adulthood for late-life cognitive and emotional health. In addition

  1. Late term tolerance in head neck cancer patients irradiated in the IMRT era

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim was to quantify severe transient and persisting late term effects in our single institution head neck cancer (HNC) cohort treated with curatively intended intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Hypothesis was if a 2-year follow up (FU) is sufficient to estimate the long term tolerance in HNC irradiated in the IMRT era. Methods Between 01/2002-8/2012, 707/1211 (58%) consecutively treated IMRT patients met the inclusion criteria of a FU time >12 months and loco-regional disease control (LRC). 45% presented with loco-regionally advanced disease; 55% were referred for curative definitive IMRT (66 Gy-72 Gy in 30–35 fractions), 45% underwent postoperative IMRT (60-66 Gy in 30–33 fractions). Systemic concomitant therapy was administered in 85%. Highly consistent treatment procedures were performed with respect to contouring processes, dose constraints, radiation schedules, and the use of systemic therapy. Grade 3/4 late term effects were prospectively assessed and analyzed with respect to subgroups at particular risk for specific late effects. Results Mean/median FU of the cohort was 41/35 months (15–124). 13% of the patients (92/707) experienced any grade 3/4 late effects (101 events in 92/707 patients), 81% in the first 12 months after radiation. 4% of all developed persisting late grade 3/4 effects (25 events in 25/707 patients). Conclusions IMRT led to a high late term tolerance in loco-regionally disease free HNC patients. The onset of any G3/4 effects showed a plateau at 2 years. The question of the cervical vessel tolerance in disease free long time survivors is still open and currently under evaluation at our institution. PMID:24192223

  2. A remarkable short-snouted horned dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous (late Campanian) of southern Laramidia

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Scott D.; Lund, Eric K.; Loewen, Mark A.; Farke, Andrew A.; Clayton, Katherine E.

    2013-01-01

    The fossil record of centrosaurine ceratopsids is largely restricted to the northern region of western North America (Alberta, Montana and Alaska). Exceptions consist of single taxa from Utah (Diabloceratops) and China (Sinoceratops), plus otherwise fragmentary remains from the southern Western Interior of North America. Here, we describe a remarkable new taxon, Nasutoceratops titusi n. gen. et sp., from the late Campanian Kaiparowits Formation of Utah, represented by multiple specimens, including a nearly complete skull and partial postcranial skeleton. Autapomorphies include an enlarged narial region, pneumatic nasal ornamentation, abbreviated snout and elongate, rostrolaterally directed supraorbital horncores. The subrectangular parietosquamosal frill is relatively unadorned and broadest in the mid-region. A phylogenetic analysis indicates that Nasutoceratops is the sister taxon to Avaceratops, and that a previously unknown subclade of centrosaurines branched off early in the group's history and persisted for several million years during the late Campanian. As the first well-represented southern centrosaurine comparable in age to the bulk of northern forms, Nasutoceratops provides strong support for the provincialism hypothesis, which posits that Laramidia—the western landmass formed by inundation of the central region of North America by the Western Interior Seaway—hosted at least two coeval dinosaur communities for over a million years of late Campanian time. PMID:23864598

  3. North atlantic deepwater temperature change during late pliocene and late quaternary climatic cycles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dwyer, G.S.; Cronin, T. M.; Baker, P.A.; Raymo, M.E.; Buzas, Jeffrey S.; Correge, T.

    1995-01-01

    Variations in the ratio of magnesium to calcium (Mg/Ca) in fossil ostracodes from Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 607 in the deep North Atlantic show that the change in bottom water temperature during late Pliocene 41,000-year obliquity cycles averaged 1.5??C between 3.2 and 2.8 million years ago (Ma) and increased to 2.3??C between 2.8 and 2.3 Ma, coincidentally with the intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation. During the last two 100,000-year glacial-to-interglacial climatic cycles of the Quaternary, bottom water temperatures changed by 4.5??C. These results show that glacial deepwater cooling has intensified since 3.2 Ma, most likely as the result of progressively diminished deep-water production in the North Atlantic and of the greater influence of Antarctic bottom water in the North Atlantic during glacial periods. The ostracode Mg/Ca data also allow the direct determination of the temperature component of the benthic foraminiferal oxygen isotope record from Site 607, as well as derivation of a hypothetical sea-level curve for the late Pliocene and late Quaternary. The effects of dissolution on the Mg/Ca ratios of ostracode shells appear to have been minimal.

  4. Dolomitization and late secondary porosity development in Nisku reefs (late Devonian) of Alberta

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.H.

    1983-03-01

    Dolomitization and associated calcite dissolution are important controls on reservoir quality in coral reefs on the Nisku Formation. Average porosities of 13 to 15% and permeabilities of 3 darcys are recorded in the fully dolomitized reefs, while lower average porosities of 3 to 5% and permeabilities of 350 millidarcys are recorded in partly dolomitized reefs. Dolomitization occurred over a long period of burial and resulted in the formation of two major types of dolomites that are volumetrically significant. The first is characterized by matrix-selective, gray, cloudy, 20 to 150-..mu.. crystals that grade from scattered subhedral and euhedral rhombs to interlocking crystalline mosaics. The second major type of dolomite is characterized by pervasive, brown, cloudy, 60 to 300-..mu.. crystals that occur in the flanks of structurally updip reefs and throughout the downdip reefs. Concentration of dolomite crystals and dissolution of individual rhombs along stylolites indicate that the matrix dolomite initially formed at shallow depths. As dolomitization progressed, dolomite recrystallization and cementation along with extensive calcite dissolution resulted in dramatic increases in porosity and permeability. Calcite dissolution continued after dolomitization ceased, but much of the dissolution is coeval with dolomitization. Late dolomites and secondary porosity in the Nisku reef trend increase in abundance down structural dip, toward the southwest. Thus, much of the dolomite and late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic when the regional structure tilted to the southwest. Although all Nisku reefs form stratigraphic traps, late diagenetic overprints in some significantly enhanced their reservoir quality.

  5. Late abortion practice in a teaching hospital in India.

    PubMed

    Bhathena, R K; Sheriar, N K; Guillebaud, J

    1990-04-01

    The medical records of 2055 patients undergoing late abortions were reviewed. These represented 15% of all abortions induced over 10 years. In 52%, abortion was performed between 13-16 weeks, and in 25% at or after 20 weeks. Abortion was requested for risk to health in 55% and for failed contraception in 40%. Surgical techniques were used in 39%. There was a trend to use vaginal surgical procedures increasingly, and intraamniotic saline decreasingly. Extraamniotic ethacridine lactate was used in 12%. Because of the cost, prostaglandin infusions were restricted to 2.5%. Planned evacuation of retained products following a medical procedure was performed in 71%; concomitant sterilization in 24%. The complication rate settled at 11% of which 4% were retained products of conception. Complications increased overall with advancing gestational age, and particularly from 15 weeks onward with vacuum aspiration (p0.05) and with dilatation and curettage (p0.05). Cervical injury increased with advancing gestation (p=0.01). In developing nations, there is a pressing need to educate illiterate women to request abortion earlier. PMID:12283425

  6. The late Precambrian greening of the Earth.

    PubMed

    Knauth, L Paul; Kennedy, Martin J

    2009-08-01

    Many aspects of the carbon cycle can be assessed from temporal changes in the (13)C/(12)C ratio of oceanic bicarbonate. (13)C/(12)C can temporarily rise when large amounts of (13)C-depleted photosynthetic organic matter are buried at enhanced rates, and can decrease if phytomass is rapidly oxidized or if low (13)C is rapidly released from methane clathrates. Assuming that variations of the marine (13)C/(12)C ratio are directly recorded in carbonate rocks, thousands of carbon isotope analyses of late Precambrian examples have been published to correlate these otherwise undatable strata and to document perturbations to the carbon cycle just before the great expansion of metazoan life. Low (13)C/(12)C in some Neoproterozoic carbonates is considered evidence of carbon cycle perturbations unique to the Precambrian. These include complete oxidation of all organic matter in the ocean and complete productivity collapse such that low-(13)C/(12)C hydrothermal CO(2) becomes the main input of carbon. Here we compile all published oxygen and carbon isotope data for Neoproterozoic marine carbonates, and consider them in terms of processes known to alter the isotopic composition during transformation of the initial precipitate into limestone/dolostone. We show that the combined oxygen and carbon isotope systematics are identical to those of well-understood Phanerozoic examples that lithified in coastal pore fluids, receiving a large groundwater influx of photosynthetic carbon from terrestrial phytomass. Rather than being perturbations to the carbon cycle, widely reported decreases in (13)C/(12)C in Neoproterozoic carbonates are more easily interpreted in the same way as is done for Phanerozoic examples. This influx of terrestrial carbon is not apparent in carbonates older than approximately 850 Myr, so we infer an explosion of photosynthesizing communities on late Precambrian land surfaces. As a result, biotically enhanced weathering generated carbon-bearing soils on a large

  7. Floral responses to the Late Paleozoic deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Looy, C. V.; DiMichele, W. A.

    2011-12-01

    The current human-induced thawing of ice house Earth prompts the careful examination of similar earlier events and their biotic consequences. The most recent full transition from a cool earth to a warm world took place in the Early to Middle Permian. Against a background of global warming, plant communities were affected globally resulting in migrations, extinctions and changed evolutionary patterns as a response to the environmental changes. The collapse of the southern hemisphere ice-sheets resulted in significant changes, not just at higher latitudes, but also in the tropics where the rainfall regime changed from seasonally dry to seasonally wet. In the Early Permian tropics - in areas where net sedimentation facilitates fossilization, to be more specific - vegetation rich in walchian conifers began to replace the spore plants and seed ferns that previously dominated the Late Pennsylvanian wetlands. The replacing drier floras probably lived in the basinal lowlands as well, but episodically at the drier times of climate cycles. New finds within the tropics of latest Early to Middle Permian-age, in particular from north-central Texas, indicate the existence of floras which were adapted to even more extended periods of drought. These were populated by the more derived voltzian conifers and other seed plants, such as cycads. Surprisingly, the clades in these floras were until recently only known from the tens-of-millions-of-years younger Late Permian and Early Mesozoic, where they were the dominant forms. These occurrences demonstrate that even more derived groups were already in existence and well differentiated by the Early Permian, outside the window of preservation. This pattern of change in conifers and their communities from north-central Texas is unique in that it represents the best documented record in the Phanerozoic of terrestrial ecosystem response to a change from a global cool-mode to warm-mode Earth. Conifers serve as "marker plants" for the

  8. Late Permian to Early Triassic magnetostratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haag, Maja; Heller, Friedrich

    1991-10-01

    A Late Permian to Early Triassic magnetostratigraphic reference section is presented. The Lower Triassic part is based on results from marine limestone sections in South China published earlier [1,2]. Reliable new Permian data are added here which have been collected in the Nammal gorge (Salt Range, Northwest Pakistan) where marine sediments have been deposited quasi-continuously with occasional minor hiatuses during the late Palaeozoic to early Mesozoic. About 50% of the Permian samples from the Nammal section contain, hidden beneath a strong recent or Tertiary overprint, a characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) which is very likely of Permian age. This component, which was imprinted on the southern hemisphere, has normal as well as reversed polarity with a normal mean direction (Decl. = 289.3°, Incl. = -50.3°, α 95 = 4.3° , N = 113) which is in close agreement with the palaeofield direction expected for a site belonging to the Indian plate as part of Gondwanaland during the Permian. In the lower Upper Permian several normal polarity zones are recognized. This contradicts the current assumption that rocks of this age belong to the long, reversely polarized Kiaman hyperzone. The Kiaman interval must end and the Illawarra hyperzone of mixed polarity must begin in or prior to the lowermost Upper Permian. The Permian/Triassic boundary at Nammal as well as in the Chinese sections is situated very close to a transition from a reversed to a normal polarity zone. The Upper Permian at Nammal together with the Lower Triassic South China sections is estimated to cover about 20 Ma. Nearly 30 polarity changes are observed which result in an average reversal frequency very similar to that observed during the early Tertiary. The reversal rate after the end of the long-lasting reversed Kiaman hyperchron apparently increases in a manner similar to that after the end of the Cretaceous Long Normal Superchron. Only a few polarity zones are found in the lower Upper Permian

  9. Initial and Late Results of Freedom Coronary Stent

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Young Keun; Kang, Kyung Tae; Jeong, Myung Ho; Kang, Jung Chaee; Park, Yang Kyu; Park, Ok Kyu

    2000-01-01

    Objectives Initial and late results after implantation of Freedom stents, a balloon expandable stainless steel coil stents were evaluated. Methods From Jun. 1996 to Nov. 1997, we implanted 123 Freedom stents in 122 lesions in 117 patients and performed follow-up coronary angiograms at 7.0 ± 3.6 months after stents placement. Clinical courses after stenting and follow-up coronary angiographic findings were evaluated. Comparison of clinical, angiographic, and procedural factors according to the presence or absence of restenosis was performed. Results In 117 patients who underwent stents implantation, major complications were not observed. Follow-up coronary angiograms were performed in 47 stents in 41 patients (35%). Among 47 stents, angiographic significant restenosis (percent diameter stenosis > 50%) was observed in 13 (28%). Mean age in 41 patients was 59 ± 9 years, with 27 male patients (66%). Indications for stents implantation were de novo lesions in 18 (38%), suboptimal results after PTCA in 18 (38%), bail-out lesions in 4 (9%) and restenotic lesions in 7 (15%). Lesion types by AHA/ACC classification were A in 1 (1%), B1 in 10 (21%), B2 in 17 (36%), and C in 19 (40%). Average lesion length was 13.7 ± 9.0mm, stent diameter 3.0 ± 0.3mm, and stent length 24.6 ± 9.0 mm. There were no significant differences of the clinical, angiographic, and procedural characteristics according to the presence or absence of restenosis. Conclusion Freedom coronary stents implantation is safely performed in various morphology of coronary lesions and no significant predictive factors on restenosis in follow-up coronary angiogram were observed. PMID:10714085

  10. Late effects in long-term survivors of ALL in childhood: experiences from the SPOG late effects study.

    PubMed

    von der Weid, N

    2001-04-01

    With the use of more intensive regimens including prophylactic CNS treatment, the prognosis of children with ALL has dramatically improved over the last three decades. The aim of this cross-sectional, nationwide study was to comprehensively assess long-term toxicity in ALL survivors, with special attention given to neuropsychological morbidity, and to look for possible differences in cognitive outcome between children having received prophylactic cranial irradiation and those not having received it. Between 1994 and 1996, long-term survivors of ALL were assessed in a multi-center setting according to a standardized protocol which included, besides usual clinical and laboratory investigations, a comprehensive endocrine work-up. Additionally, children having received anthracyclines were checked for possible late cardio-toxicity with echocardiography and ECG. Intellectual performance was evaluated with standardized neuropsychological tests (age-adapted versions of the Wechsler test). One-hundred and fifty patients were eligible for the study. The median age at diagnosis was 5 years and at evaluation 16 years, for a median follow-up of 10 years. Thirty-five patients had cranial irradiation as part of the prophylactic CNS treatment. One-hundred and forty (93%) of the 150 eligible patients were completely evaluated in terms of global long-term toxicity: 117 (83%) long-term survivors had no (n = 61) or only minimal (n = 56) late toxicity; 19 (14%) suffered from moderate impairments; 4 (3%) showed severe somatic or neuropsychological sequelae. Intellectual performance could be assessed in 147 (98%) of the 150 eligible patients. The mean global, verbal and non-verbal IQs (103, 105 and 101 respectively) of the ALL survivors as a group were comparable with those found in the general population. The results of the comparison between children having and those not having received prophylactic cranial irradiation showed: 1) significantly higher scores in chemotherapy-only treated

  11. Gratkorn - A new late Middle Miocene vertebrate fauna from Styria (Late Sarmatian, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, M.; Böhme, M.; Prieto, J.

    2009-04-01

    Integrated stratigraphic approaches provide precise correlations of global standard stages with regional Paratethys stages. Nevertheless, higher resolution stratigraphic matching of terrestrial deposits remains challenging due to the lack of a practical continental biostratigraphy. The mostly used tool for biostratigraphic correlation of non-marine deposits in the Old World is still the concept of Neogene Mammal-zones (MN-zones). However, at higher biostratigraphic resolution (<1 million years) this concept looses its practicability and has to be replaced by a taxon-range-zonation. To solve this problem a higher number of independently dated small-mammal localities are needed. This is especially crucial for the late Middle to earliest Late Miocene, for which vertebrate faunas in the (Central-)Paratethyan area rare. Recently, a new vertebrate fauna was discovered at the locality Gratkorn (clay pit St. Stefan) just beyond the northwestern margin of the Styrian Basin (Gratkorn Basin; 10 km NW Graz; 15°20'55"E/47°08'15"N). The fauna originates from a c. 0.5 m thick hydromorphic paleosol, underlain by fluvial sands and gravels and topped by c. 15 m thick limnic pelites (Gross, 2008). Sedimentological data as well as the gastropod (Harzhauser et al., 2008) and vertebrate faunas point to a highly structured, more or less vegetated alluvial fan/braided river landscape. Active and abandoned fluvial channels, moist floodplain-soils and ephemeral ponds but also nearby dryer open areas and limestone screes of the up-lifting Palaeozoic basement offered a wide range of habitats. The occurrence of xero- and thermophile terrestrial gastropods and ectothermic vertebrates correspond well with the late Middle/early Late Miocene dry-spell in Central Europe (Böhme et al., 2008). Furthermore, an overall semiarid climate is supported by the development of a calcrete horizon c. 0.6 m below the fossiliferous horizon. The vertebrate remains are irregularly distributed throughout the

  12. Late Eocene rings around the earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, E. A.

    1980-01-01

    The suggestion of O'Keefe (1980) that the terminal Eocene event was caused by rings of tektite material encircling the earth is discussed. It is argued that the assumption that the tektites are of lunar volcanic origin is unwarranted and contrary to existing data, including the lack of lunar rocks of suitable composition, the lack of lunar rocks of the correct age, the lack of evidence that the North American tektites fell throughout a sedimentary rock column of a few million years, and the nondetection of a tektite with a measurable cosmic ray exposure age. Alternatively, it is suggested that the terminal Eocene event may be associated with volcanic ash, air-fall tuff and bentonite in the late Eocene. O'Keefe replies that the hypothesis of the terrestrial origin of the tektites conflicts with the laws of physics, for example in the glass structure and shaping of the tektites. Furthermore, evidence is cited for lunar rocks of the proper major-element composition and ages, and it is noted that the proposed solar Poynting-Robertson effect would account for the particle fall distributions and cosmic ray ages.

  13. Late fiber deterioration in Dacron arterial grafts.

    PubMed Central

    Berger, K; Sauvage, L R

    1981-01-01

    The occurrence of late fiber deterioration was examined in 493 Dacron arterial prostheses. Grafts implanted were of four types: 137 Meadox Wesolowski Weavenit (WN), 71 Golaski Microknit (MK), 70 USCI Sauvage(Tm) external velour non-crimped (EVNC), and 215 USCI Sauvage external velour random-crimped (EVRC). Prostheses had been implanted for three to 15.3 years; no defects were detected prior to three years. Deterioration occurred in 15 of 493 grafts (mean incidence: 3%). Between 4.9% and 5.8% of patients had graft deterioration-nearly the same incidence in all four types of grafts. Deterioration consisted of thinning and breakage of yarn filaments, causing development of holes and, in some cases, graft dilatation. Dilatation did not always precede filament breakage. Broken filament ends were either tapered or square-ended, suggesting that modes of breakage. Tensile strength tests howed that fibers sometimes weakened nonuniformly within a specimen. Fiber breakage was associated with crimp ridges. The findings suggest that manufacturing variations probably reduce fiber resistance to mechanical fatigue. Other contributing factors may include storage conditions, sterilization methods, handling, and the degradative effects of tissue fluids and enzymes. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:6452101

  14. Cannabinoids in late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Aia; van der Marck, M A; van den Elsen, Gah; Olde Rikkert, Mgm

    2015-06-01

    Given the lack of effective treatments for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) and the substantial burden on patients, families, health care systems, and economies, finding an effective therapy is one of the highest medical priorities. The past few years have seen a growing interest in the medicinal uses of cannabinoids, the bioactive components of the cannabis plant, including the treatment of LOAD and other physical conditions that are common in older people. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that cannabinoids can reduce oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and the formation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, the key hallmarks of LOAD. In addition, in population-based studies, cannabinoids reduced dementia-related symptoms (e.g., behavioral disturbances). The current article provides an overview of the potential of cannabinoids in the treatment of LOAD and related neuropsychiatric symptoms in older people. We also discuss the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of cannabinoid-based drugs in older people with dementia. PMID:25788394

  15. Pliocene reversal of late Neogene aridification

    PubMed Central

    Sniderman, J. M. Kale; Woodhead, Jon D.; Jordan, Gregory J.; Drysdale, Russell N.; Tyler, Jonathan J.; Porch, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    The Pliocene epoch (5.3–2.6 Ma) represents the most recent geological interval in which global temperatures were several degrees warmer than today and is therefore considered our best analog for a future anthropogenic greenhouse world. However, our understanding of Pliocene climates is limited by poor age control on existing terrestrial climate archives, especially in the Southern Hemisphere, and by persistent disagreement between paleo-data and models concerning the magnitude of regional warming and/or wetting that occurred in response to increased greenhouse forcing. To address these problems, here we document the evolution of Southern Hemisphere hydroclimate from the latest Miocene to the middle Pliocene using radiometrically-dated fossil pollen records preserved in speleothems from semiarid southern Australia. These data reveal an abrupt onset of warm and wet climates early within the Pliocene, driving complete biome turnover. Pliocene warmth thus clearly represents a discrete interval which reversed a long-term trend of late Neogene cooling and aridification, rather than being simply the most recent period of greater-than-modern warmth within a continuously cooling trajectory. These findings demonstrate the importance of high-resolution chronologies to accompany paleoclimate data and also highlight the question of what initiated the sustained interval of Pliocene warmth. PMID:26858429

  16. On the Late Invention of the Gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, Kenneth

    2012-03-01

    The invention of the gyroscope is usually attributed to the French physicist Jean-Bernard-Leon Foucault in 1852. He certainly invented the word and also used his gyroscope to demonstrate the rotation of the Earth. However, the gyroscope was actually invented around 1812 by German physicist Johann Bohnenberger who called his device simply the ``machine''. Several others, including American physicist Walter R. Johnson (who called his apparatus the ``rotascope''), independently invented the gyroscope in the 1830's. Each of these devices employed a central object (sphere or disc) that could spin freely on a shaft. This was placed between three independent gimbals, which could also move freely. Bohnenberger's ``machine'' has much the same appearance as an armillary sphere. Such devices had been produced for at least the preceding three centuries. They were used to display the movements of various celestial bodies. However, armillary spheres are only simulations of celestial appearances, not actual demonstrations of physical phenomena. Gimbal systems similar to those found in gyroscopes were used on ships to level oil lamps from at least the sixteenth century and the ideas behind armillary spheres date back at least a millennium before that. So why was the gyroscope invented so late? Some possible reasons will be presented for the long delay between the development of the individual underlying components and the eventual appearance of the gyroscope in its modern form.

  17. Late Quaternary environments in Ruby Valley, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, R.S.

    1992-01-01

    Palynological data from sediment cores from the Ruby Marshes provide a record of environmental and climatic changes over the last 40,000 yr. The modern marsh waters are fresh, but no deeper than ???3 m. A shallow saline lake occupied this basin during the middle Wisconsin, followed by fresh and perhaps deep waters by 18,000 to 15,000 yr B.P. No sediments were recovered for the period between 15,000 and 11,000 yr B.P., possibly due to lake desiccation. By 10,800 yr B.P. a fresh-water lake was again present, and deeper-than-modern conditions lasted until 6800 yr B.P. The middle Holocene was characterized by very shallow water, and perhaps complete desiccation. The marsh system deepened after 4700 yr B.P., and fresh-water conditions persisted until modern times. Vegetation changes in Ruby Valley were more gradual than those seen in the paleolimno-logical record. Sagebrush steppe was more widespread than at present through the late Pleistocene and early Holocene, giving way somewhat to expanded shadscale vegetation between 8500 and 6800 yr B.P. Shadscale steppe contracted by 4000 yr B.P., but had greater than modern coverage until 1000 to 500 yr ago. Pinyon-juniper woodland was established in the southern Ruby Mountains by 4700 yr B.P. ?? 1992.

  18. Predictive biochemical assays for late radiation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, P.; Finkelstein, J.N.; Siemann, D.W.; Shapiro, D.L.; Van Houtte, P.; Penney, D.P.

    1986-04-01

    Surfactant precursors or other products of Type II pneumocytes have the potential to be the first biochemical marker for late radiation effects. This is particularly clinically important in the combined modality era because of the frequent occurrence of pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis secondary to radiation or chemotherapy. Accordingly, correlative studies have been pursued with the Type II pneumocyte as a beginning point to understand the complex pathophysiology of radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis. From our ultrastructural and biochemical studies, it is evident that Type II pneumocytes are an early target of radiation and the release of surfactant into the alveolus shortly after exposure persists for days and weeks. Through the use of lavaging techniques, alveolar surfactant has been elevated after pulmonary irradiation. In three murine strains and in the rabbit, there is a strong correlation with surfactant release at 7 and/or 28 days in vivo with later lethality in months. In vitro studies using cultures of type II pneumocytes also demonstrate dose response and tolerance factors that are comparable to the in vivo small and large animal diagnostic models. New markers are being developed to serve as a predictive index for later lethal pneumonopathies. With the development of these techniques, the search for early biochemical markers in man has been undertaken. Through the use of biochemical, histological, and ultrastructural techniques, a causal relationship between radiation effects on type II pneumocytes, pulmonary cells, endothelial cells of blood vessels, and their roles in the production of pneumonitis and fibrosis will evolve.

  19. Late cenozoic subduction complex of Sicily

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roure, F.; Howell, D.G.; Muller, C.; Moretti, I.

    1990-01-01

    Besides remnants of Hercynian deformations in the Peloritani nappe and of pre-Oligocene Alpine structures in the Troiani nappe, most compressive structures observed in the Sicilian accretionary wedge result from the late Cenozoic (Tortonian to Present) continental subduction of the Apulia (Iblei) block, and are thus synchronous with distensive structures related to the opening of the Tyrrhenian Sea. Syntectonic deposits fill southward-migrating foredeeps in a sequential fashion, and the dating of these deposits helps to constrain the timing of deformation. Similarly, Plio-Quaternary sediments, eroded from the accreted units, rest on top of the allochthon in either compressive piggy-back depressions or extensional basins. The age and configuration of these overlap deposits constrain our reconstructions of the subsurface geometry of the underlying peri-Tyrrhenian detachment faults or S-verging thrust-faults. Post-depositional erosion, normal faulting and syntectonic filling of basins contribute to maintaining the critical taper of the prism, whose geometry is continuously altered owing to frontal accretion, underplating and isostatic uplift. ?? 1990.

  20. Trade and Transport in Late Roman Syria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Christopher

    Despite the relative notoriety and miraculous level of preservation of the Dead Cities of Syria, fundamental questions of economic and subsistence viability remain unanswered. In the 1950s Georges Tchalenko theorized that these sites relied on intensive olive monoculture to mass export olive oil to urban centers. Later excavations discovered widespread cultivation of grains, fruit, and beans which directly contradicted Tchalenko's assertion of sole reliance on oleoculture. However, innumerable olive presses in and around the Dead Cities still speak to a strong tradition of olive production. This thesis tests the logistical viability of olive oil transportation from the Dead Cities to the distant urban centers of Antioch and Apamea. Utilization of Raster GIS and remote sensing data allows for the reconstruction of the physical and social landscapes of Late Roman Syria. Least Cost Analysis techniques produce a quantitative and testable model with which to simulate and evaluate the viability of long distance olive oil trade. This model not only provides a clearer understanding of the nature of long distance trade relationships in Syria, but also provides a model for investigating ancient economic systems elsewhere in the world. Furthermore, this project allows for the generation of new information regarding sites that are currently inaccessible to researchers.

  1. Pliocene reversal of late Neogene aridification.

    PubMed

    Sniderman, J M Kale; Woodhead, Jon D; Hellstrom, John; Jordan, Gregory J; Drysdale, Russell N; Tyler, Jonathan J; Porch, Nicholas

    2016-02-23

    The Pliocene epoch (5.3-2.6 Ma) represents the most recent geological interval in which global temperatures were several degrees warmer than today and is therefore considered our best analog for a future anthropogenic greenhouse world. However, our understanding of Pliocene climates is limited by poor age control on existing terrestrial climate archives, especially in the Southern Hemisphere, and by persistent disagreement between paleo-data and models concerning the magnitude of regional warming and/or wetting that occurred in response to increased greenhouse forcing. To address these problems, here we document the evolution of Southern Hemisphere hydroclimate from the latest Miocene to the middle Pliocene using radiometrically-dated fossil pollen records preserved in speleothems from semiarid southern Australia. These data reveal an abrupt onset of warm and wet climates early within the Pliocene, driving complete biome turnover. Pliocene warmth thus clearly represents a discrete interval which reversed a long-term trend of late Neogene cooling and aridification, rather than being simply the most recent period of greater-than-modern warmth within a continuously cooling trajectory. These findings demonstrate the importance of high-resolution chronologies to accompany paleoclimate data and also highlight the question of what initiated the sustained interval of Pliocene warmth. PMID:26858429

  2. [Medical statistics in the late Qing dynasty].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Long

    2013-01-01

    Chinese medical statistics basically went through three stages in the Late Qing Dynasty. The early stage was individual behavior of missionary doctors. In the early 16(th) century, western countries began to collect materials about medicine and public health in China. After the Opium War in 1840, more missionaries came to China and more doctors engaged in medical information collection and statistics. In 1860s, the western countries stole the customs power control from the Qing's government and the systematization process of statistics began. The process, content, method and time of statistics were improved. In the 20(th) century, modernity of medicine became the scale for a country's self-management qualification. Statistics was needed by the Qing government and relevant medical administration was established. During this process, they carried out this activity with different purposes according to the different participants. But from the point of influence, medical statistics promoted the spread and development of western medicine in China. They were also helpful to the perfection of medical research and public health system in China. PMID:23879982

  3. History of Late-Notice HIEs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frakes, P.

    2016-01-01

    Question was raised: are we seeing more late-notice events in recent months? Two definitions oflate-notice used to compare data: Event has at least one data point between TCA-4 days and TCA-2 days where the Pcwas below 1E-7, OR there were no data points in that timeframe. Event has at least one data point between TCA-2days and TCA where the Pc was at least 1E-4Event has at least one data point between TCA-4 days and TCA-2 dayswhere the Pc was below 1E-5, OR there were no data points in that timeframe. Event has at least one data pointbetween TCA-2 days and TCA where the Pc was at least 1E-4. The case studies that were examined all fall within criteriafor both definitions Terra vs 38192; TCA 24 JUN 2015Aura vs 89477; TCA 29 AUG 2015Terra vs 37131; TCA 19 DEC2015GPM vs 28685; TCA 5 SEP 2015.

  4. Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins in legumes

    PubMed Central

    Battaglia, Marina; Covarrubias, Alejandra A.

    2013-01-01

    Plants are exposed to different external conditions that affect growth, development, and productivity. Water deficit is one of these adverse conditions caused by drought, salinity, and extreme temperatures. Plants have developed different responses to prevent, ameliorate or repair the damage inflicted by these stressful environments. One of these responses is the activation of a set of genes encoding a group of hydrophilic proteins that typically accumulate to high levels during seed dehydration, at the last stage of embryogenesis, hence named Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins. LEA proteins also accumulate in response to water limitation in vegetative tissues, and have been classified in seven groups based on their amino acid sequence similarity and on the presence of distinctive conserved motifs. These proteins are widely distributed in the plant kingdom, from ferns to angiosperms, suggesting a relevant role in the plant response to this unfavorable environmental condition. In this review, we analyzed the LEA proteins from those legumes whose complete genomes have been sequenced such as Phaseolus vulgaris, Glycine max, Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus, Cajanus cajan, and Cicer arietinum. Considering their distinctive motifs, LEA proteins from the different groups were identified, and their sequence analysis allowed the recognition of novel legume specific motifs. Moreover, we compile their transcript accumulation patterns based on publicly available data. In spite of the limited information on these proteins in legumes, the analysis and data compiled here confirm the high correlation between their accumulation and water deficit, reinforcing their functional relevance under this detrimental conditions. PMID:23805145

  5. Late Precambrian bilaterians: grades and clades.

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, J W

    1994-01-01

    A broad variety of body plans and subplans appear during a period of perhaps 8 million years (my) within the Early Cambrian, an unequaled explosion of morphological novelty, the ancestral lineages represented chiefly or entirely by trace fossils. Evidence from the fossil record can be combined with that from molecular phylogenetic trees to suggest that the last common ancestor of (i) protostomes and deuterostomes was a roundish worm with a blood vascular system and (ii) of arthropods and annelids was similar, with a hydrostatic hemocoel; these forms are probably among trace makers of the late Precambrian. Cell-phenotype numbers in living phyla, and a model of cell-phenotype number increase, suggest an origin of metazoans near 600 my ago, followed by a passive rise in body-plan complexity. Living phyla appearing during the Cambrian explosion have a Hox/HOM gene cluster, implying its presence in the common ancestral trace makers. The explosion required a repatterning of gene expression that mediated the development of novel body plans but evidently did not require an important, abrupt increase in genomic or morphologic complexity. Images PMID:8041693

  6. Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins in legumes.

    PubMed

    Battaglia, Marina; Covarrubias, Alejandra A

    2013-01-01

    Plants are exposed to different external conditions that affect growth, development, and productivity. Water deficit is one of these adverse conditions caused by drought, salinity, and extreme temperatures. Plants have developed different responses to prevent, ameliorate or repair the damage inflicted by these stressful environments. One of these responses is the activation of a set of genes encoding a group of hydrophilic proteins that typically accumulate to high levels during seed dehydration, at the last stage of embryogenesis, hence named Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins. LEA proteins also accumulate in response to water limitation in vegetative tissues, and have been classified in seven groups based on their amino acid sequence similarity and on the presence of distinctive conserved motifs. These proteins are widely distributed in the plant kingdom, from ferns to angiosperms, suggesting a relevant role in the plant response to this unfavorable environmental condition. In this review, we analyzed the LEA proteins from those legumes whose complete genomes have been sequenced such as Phaseolus vulgaris, Glycine max, Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus, Cajanus cajan, and Cicer arietinum. Considering their distinctive motifs, LEA proteins from the different groups were identified, and their sequence analysis allowed the recognition of novel legume specific motifs. Moreover, we compile their transcript accumulation patterns based on publicly available data. In spite of the limited information on these proteins in legumes, the analysis and data compiled here confirm the high correlation between their accumulation and water deficit, reinforcing their functional relevance under this detrimental conditions. PMID:23805145

  7. Late Pleistocene Environments of the Central Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, Denis-Didier; Gerasimenko, Natalia; Matviischina, Zhanna; Kukla, George

    2001-11-01

    The Vyazivok loess sequence from the Dnieper Plain, Ukraine, documents regional environmental changes during the late Pleistocene and Holocene. Pedological and palynological analyses and low-field magnetic susceptibility document changes from dense temperate forest during the last interglacial maximum to open, harsh, loess-steppe during the latest Pleistocene. The Vyazivok section overlies hillwash derived from a lower Pleistocene terrace and consists of two stratified soil complexes (Kaydaky and Pryluky; marine isotope stage [MIS] 5 equivalent) separated by a layer of eolian dust (Tyasmyn silt). The lower soils in both complexes formed within forest. These soils are overlain by the Uday (MIS4) and Bug (MIS2) loess units, which are separated by boreal soils of the Vytachiv (MIS3) complex. The coldest conditions within the record occurred in the youngest loess. Holocene soils cap the Bug loess. The Vyazivok section shows remarkable similarities with other classical loess sequences in western Europe, the Czech Republic, and Austria. The Kaydaky, Pryluky, and Vytachiv deposits, correlate with the PKIII, PKII, and PKI soil complexes, respectively, of the Czech Republic. The Tyasmyn and Prylyky silt layers correspond to marker horizons from central Europe.

  8. Late-onset neonatal sepsis: recent developments

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Ying; Speer, Christian P

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of neonatal late-onset sepsis (LOS) is inversely related to the degree of maturity and varies geographically from 0.61% to 14.2% among hospitalised newborns. Epidemiological data on very low birth weight infants shows that the predominant pathogens of neonatal LOS are coagulase-negative staphylococci, followed by Gram-negative bacilli and fungi. Due to the difficulties in a prompt diagnosis of LOS and LOS-associated high risk of mortality and long-term neurodevelopmental sequelae, empirical antibiotic treatment is initiated on suspicion of LOS. However, empirical therapy is often inappropriately used with unnecessary broad-spectrum antibiotics and a prolonged duration of treatment. The increasing number of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative micro-organisms in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) worldwide is a serious concern, which requires thorough and efficient surveillance strategies and appropriate treatment regimens. Immunological strategies for preventing neonatal LOS are not supported by current evidence, and approaches, such as a strict hygiene protocol and the minimisation of invasive procedures in NICUs represent the cornerstone to reduce the burden of neonatal LOS. PMID:25425653

  9. (Model) Peatlands in late Quaternary interglacials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinen, Thomas; Brovkin, Victor

    2016-04-01

    Peatlands have accumulated a substantial amount of carbon, roughly 600 PgC, during the Holocene. Prior to the Holocene, there is relatively little direct evidence of peatlands, though coal deposits bear witness to a long history of peat-forming ecosystems going back to the Carboniferous. We therefore need to rely on models to investigate peatlands in times prior to the Holocene. We have developed a dynamical model of wetland extent and peat accumulation, integrated in the coupled climate carbon cycle model of intermediate complexity CLIMBER2-LPJ, in order to mechanistically model interglacial carbon cycle dynamics. This model consists of the climate model of intermediate complexity CLIMBER2 and the dynamic global vegetation model LPJ, which we have extended with modules to determine peatland extent and carbon accumulation. The model compares reasonably well to Holocene peat data. We have used this model to investigate the dynamics of atmospheric CO2 in the Holocene and two other late Quaternary interglacials, namely the Eemian, which is interesting due to its warmth, and Marine Isotope Stage 11 (MIS11), which is the longest interglacial during the last 500ka. We will also present model results of peatland extent and carbon accumulation for these interglacials. We will discuss model shortcomings and knowledge gaps currently preventing an application of the model to full glacial-interglacial cycles.

  10. Preventing Diabetes: Early Versus Late Preventive Interventions.

    PubMed

    Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Schwarz, Peter E H

    2016-08-01

    There are a number of arguments in support of early measures for the prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D), as well as for concepts and strategies at later intervention stages. Diabetes prevention is achievable when implemented in a sustainable manner. Sustainability within a T2D prevention program is more important than the actual point in time or disease process at which prevention activities may start. The quality of intervention, as well as its intensity, should vary with the degree of the identified T2D risk. Nevertheless, preventive interventions should start as early as possible in order to allow a wide variety of relatively low- and moderate-intensity programs. The later the disease risk is identified, the more intensive the intervention should be. Public health interventions for diabetes prevention represent an optimal model for early intervention. Late interventions will be targeted at people who already have significant pathophysiological derangements that can be considered steps leading to the development of T2D. These derangements may be difficult to reverse, but the worsening of dysglycemia may be halted, and thus the clinical onset of T2D can be delayed. PMID:27440823

  11. What Has He Done For Me Lately?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, W. Scott

    2002-01-01

    I had a boss once who continually asked me what the purpose of my work was, who were my customers, and how was I keeping my customers informed about my team's work. At first I found these questions perplexing, as my customers should have known the answers. I had covered them in my monthly/quarterly reports or in my project meeting notes. Finally, I confronted him about his questions. He acknowledged that my customers had this information, but he was hearing some disturbing comments between when I submitted my reports, comments like, 'What has he done for me lately?' I decided to take this input to heart. My ideas about communications norms needed a major overhaul. The communication norms I was comfortable with were becoming outdated. I realized the written and verbal communications response time was suddenly being measured in days or minutes. People's perception of a project team based on monthly or quarterly meetings was no longer adequate. In the past, once the team's credibility was established it was hard to change. In a rapid-fire communications world, no news causes people to question what the team is doing to move the business/project ahead.

  12. Late-adult onset Leigh syndrome.

    PubMed

    McKelvie, Penelope; Infeld, Bernard; Marotta, Rosetta; Chin, Judy; Thorburn, David; Collins, Steven

    2012-02-01

    We report an illustrative case of a 74-year-old man who, in the absence of intercurrent illness, presented with rapid cognitive decline. MRI showed bilateral, symmetrical, high T2-weighted signal in the anterior basal ganglia and medial thalami, extending to the periaqueductal grey matter, basal ganglia and basal frontal lobes. A (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography scan showed widespread reduction of metabolism in the cortex of the frontal, temporal and parietal lobes, posterior cingulate gyrus, precuneus and caudate nuclei, with sparing of the sensorimotor cortex, thalami and lentiform nuclei. A mild vitamin B12 deficiency was found and despite normal thiamine levels, intravenous (IV) thiamine and vitamin B therapy was commenced, with a short course of IV methylprednisolone and tetracycline. Repeat neuropsychological assessment four weeks following treatment revealed increased alertness and interactiveness but significant cognitive decline persisted. Unexpectedly, the patient suffered a transmural anterior myocardial infarction six weeks after presentation and died within 24hours. An a autopsy showed: global reduction in cytochrome oxidase (COX) activity in all skeletal muscles examined; bilateral, symmetrical, hypervascular, focally necrotizing lesions in the substantia nigra, periaqueductal grey matter, superior colliculi, medial thalami anteriorly and posteriorly, as well as in the putamena but the mammillary bodies were not affected. Biochemical analysis of fresh muscle confirmed selective deficiency of complex IV of the oxidative phosphorylation chain. A diagnosis of late-adult onset Leigh syndrome was made. Multiple genetic studies failed to identify the specific underlying mutation. The relevant literature is reviewed. PMID:22273117

  13. Preexposure to ozone blocks the antigen-induced late asthmatic response of the canine peripheral airways

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, C.R.; Kleeberger, S.R.; Spannhake, E.W. )

    1989-01-01

    The influence of exposure of the airways to ozone on acute allergic responsiveness has been investigated in several species. Little is known, however, about the effect of this environmental pollutant on the late asthmatic response (LAR) in animals in which it is exhibited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this effect in the canine peripheral airways and to assess the potential role of mast cells in modulating the effect. A series of experiments on seven mongrel dogs demonstrated that the numbers of mast cells at the base of the epithelial region of small subsegmental airways exposed to 1 ppm ozone for 5 min were significantly (p less than .01) increased 3 h following exposure compared to air exposed or nonexposed control airways. In a second series of experiments performed on eight additional mongrel dogs with inherent sensitivity to Ascaris suum antigen, antigen aerosol was administered to the sublobar segment 3 h following ozone preexposure when mast cell numbers were presumed to be increased. These experiments were performed to determine whether ozone preexposure could enhance the late-phase response to antigen by virtue of acutely increasing the number of mast cells available to bind the antigen. Four of the eight dogs tested displayed a late-phase response to antigen following air-sham preexposure. In these four dogs, simultaneous ozone preexposure of a contralateral lobe completely blocked the late-phase response to antigen. These results indicate that the consequences of a single exposure to ozone persist beyond its effects on acute antigen-induced bronchoconstriction and extend to the complex processes involved with the late response. This attenuating effect of ozone is seen under conditions where mast-cell numbers in the airways are increased above baseline levels.

  14. Performativity, Performance and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    This article explores Lyotard's notion of performativity through an engagement with McKenzie's analysis of performance as a "formation of knowledge and power" that has displaced the notion of discipline as the tool for social evaluation. Through conditions of "performance" capitalism, education is to conform to a…

  15. Proteomic analysis of mare follicular fluid during late follicle development

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Follicular fluid accumulates into the antrum of follicle from the early stage of follicle development. Studies on its components may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying follicular development and oocyte quality. With this objective, we performed a proteomic analysis of mare follicular fluid. First, we hypothesized that proteins in follicular fluid may differ from those in the serum, and also may change during follicle development. Second, we used four different approaches of Immunodepletion and one enrichment method, in order to overcome the masking effect of high-abundance proteins present in the follicular fluid, and to identify those present in lower abundance. Finally, we compared our results with previous studies performed in mono-ovulant (human) and poly-ovulant (porcine and canine) species in an attempt to identify common and/or species-specific proteins. Methods Follicular fluid samples were collected from ovaries at three different stages of follicle development (early dominant, late dominant and preovulatory). Blood samples were also collected at each time. The proteomic analysis was carried out on crude, depleted and enriched follicular fluid by 2D-PAGE, 1D-PAGE and mass spectrometry. Results Total of 459 protein spots were visualized by 2D-PAGE of crude mare follicular fluid, with no difference among the three physiological stages. Thirty proteins were observed as differentially expressed between serum and follicular fluid. Enrichment method was found to be the most powerful method for detection and identification of low-abundance proteins from follicular fluid. Actually, we were able to identify 18 proteins in the crude follicular fluid, and as many as 113 in the enriched follicular fluid. Inhibins and a few other proteins involved in reproduction could only be identified after enrichment of follicular fluid, demonstrating the power of the method used. The comparison of proteins found in mare follicular fluid

  16. 2 CFR 176.120 - Determinations on late requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determinations on late requests. 176.120... American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 § 176.120 Determinations on late requests. (a) If a... determination regarding the inapplicability of section 1605 of the Recovery Act on information required by §...

  17. Late-Treated Phenylketonuria and Partial Reversibility of Intellectual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Scott D.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with late-treated phenylketonuria (PKU) not detected by newborn screening but who followed dietary treatment for at least 12 months before 7 years of age have intelligence quotient (IQ) scores that range from severe impairment to the low-normal range. Among adults with late-treated PKU in California, 85% of those who were born from…

  18. Family and Individual Predictors of Late Adolescents' Romantic Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese-Weber, Marla; Marchand, Jennifer F.

    2002-01-01

    Studied parent-adolescent conflict and late adolescents' attachment anxiety and depressive symptoms as predictors of late adolescents' romantic relationships. Findings based on questionnaire responses of 256 college students highlight the differential roles of familial and individual attributes in female and male adolescents' romantic relationship…

  19. Morphology and Syntax in Late Talkers at Age 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rescorla, Leslie; Turner, Hannah L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study reports age 5 morphology and syntax skills in late talkers identified at age 2 (n = 34) and typically developing comparison children (n = 20). Results: The late talkers manifested significant morphological delays at ages 3 and 4 relative to comparison peers. Based on the 14 morphemes analyzed at age 5, the only significant…

  20. Coping and Late-Deafness: An Examination of Two Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Jill M.; Kashubeck-West, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the psychometric properties of two measures of coping in a sample of individuals with acquired hearing loss, specifically late-deafness. Methods: Using a quantitative descriptive design, coping of participants (N = 277) with late-deafness was measured to examine the reliability and validity of the Ways of Coping Questionnaire…