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Sample records for deformation linear response

  1. Dynamic deformation and fragmentation response of maraging steel linear cellular alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakus, Adam E.; Fredenberg, David A.; McCoy, Tammy; Thadhani, Naresh; Cochran, Joe K.

    2012-03-01

    The dynamic deformation and fragmentation response of 25% dense 9-cell linear cellular alloy (LCA) made of unaged 250 maraging steel, fabricated using a direct reduction and extrusion technique, is investigated. Explicit finite element simulations were implemented using AUTODYN finite element code. The maraging steel properties were defined using a Johnson-Cook strength model with previously validated parameters. Rod-on-anvil impact tests were performed using the 7.6mm helium gas gun and the transient deformation and fragmentation response was recorded with highspeed imaging. Analysis of observed deformation states of specimens and finite element simulations reveal that in the case of the 9-cell LCA, dissipation of stress and strain occurs along the interior cell wells resulting in significant and ubiquitous buckling prior to confined fragmentation.

  2. Dynamic Deformation and Fragmentation Response of Maraging Steel Linear Cellular Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakus, Adam; Fredenburg, D. A.; McCoy, T.; Thadhani, N. N.; Cochran, J.

    2011-06-01

    The dynamic deformation and fragmentation response of 25% dense 9-cell linear cellular alloy (LCA) made of unaged 250 maraging steel, fabricated using a direct reduction and extrusion technique, is investigated. Explicit finite element simulations were implemented using AUTODYN. The maraging steel properties were defined using a Johnson-Cook strength model with previously validated parameters. Rod-on-anvil impact tests were performed using the 7.6 mm helium gas gun and the transient deformation and fragmentation response was recorded with high-speed imaging. For purpose of comparison, the response of 25% dense hollow cylinders of same density as the 9-cell LCA was also studied. Analysis of observed states of specimens and finite element simulations reveal that in the case of the 9-cell LCA, dissipation of stress and strain occurs along the interior cell wells resulting in significant and ubiquitous buckling prior to confined fragmentation. In comparison, the simple hollow cylinder undergoes significant radial lipping, eventually producing larger sized, external fragments. DTRA Grant No. HDTRA1-07-1-0018 and NDSEG Fellowship Program.

  3. Linear response of light deformed nuclei investigated by self-consistent quasiparticle random-phase approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Losa, C.; Doessing, T.; Pastore, A.; Vigezzi, E.; Broglia, R. A.

    2010-06-15

    We present a calculation of the properties of vibrational states in deformed, axially-symmetric even-even nuclei, within the framework of a fully self-consistent quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA). The same Skyrme energy density and density-dependent pairing functionals are used to calculate the mean field and the residual interaction in the particle-hole and particle-particle channels. We have tested our software in the case of spherical nuclei against fully self-consistent calculations published in the literature, finding excellent agreement. We investigate the consequences of neglecting the spin-orbit and Coulomb residual interactions in QRPA. Furthermore we discuss the improvement obtained in the QRPA result associated with the removal of spurious modes. Isoscalar and isovector responses in the deformed {sup 24-26}Mg, {sup 34}Mg isotopes are presented and compared to experimental findings.

  4. Capsule deformation and orientation in general linear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szatmary, Alex; Eggleton, Charles

    2010-11-01

    We considered the response of spherical and non-spherical capsules to general flows. (A capsule is an elastic membrane enclosing a fluid, immersed in fluid.) First, we established that nonspherical capsules align with the imposed irrotational linear flow; this means that initial orientation does not affect steady-state capsule deformation, so this steady-state deformation can be determined entirely by the capillary number and the type of flow. The type of flow is characterized by r: r=0 for axisymmetric flows, and r=1 for planar flows; intermediate values of r are combinations of planar and axisymmetric flow. By varying the capillary number and r, all irrotational linear Stokes flows can be generated. For the same capillary number, planar flows lead to more deformation than uniaxial or biaxial extensional flows. Deformation varies monotonically with r, so one can determine bounds on capsule deformation in general flow by only looking at uniaxial, biaxial, and planar flow. These results are applicable to spheres in all linear flows and to ellipsoids in irrotational linear flow.

  5. Linear, non-linear and plastic bending deformation of cellulose nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pan; Ogawa, Yu; Nishiyama, Yoshiharu; Ismail, Ahmed E; Mazeau, Karim

    2016-07-20

    The deformation behaviour of cellulose nanocrystals under bending loads was investigated by using atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and finite element analysis (FEA), and compared with electron micrographs of ultrasonicated microfibrils. The linear elastic, non-linear elastic, and plastic deformation regions were observed with increasing bending displacements. In the linear elastic region, the deformation behaviour was highly anisotropic with respect to the bending direction. This was due to the difference in shear modulus, and the deformation could be approximated by standard continuum mechanics using the corresponding elastic tensors. Above the linear elastic region, the shear deformation became a dominant factor as the amplitude of shear strain drastically increased. Plastic deformation limit was observed at the bending angle above about 60°, independent of the bending direction. The morphology of the atomistic model of plastically deformed cellulose crystals showed a considerable similarity to the kinked cellulose microfibrils observed by transmission electron microscopy. Our observations highlight the importance of shear during deformation of cellulose crystals and provide an understanding of basic deformations occurring during the processing of cellulose materials. PMID:27388579

  6. Linear and Nonlinear Photoinduced Deformations of Cantilevers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, D.; Warner, M.

    2007-10-01

    Glassy and elastomeric nematic networks with dye molecules present can be very responsive to illumination, huge reversible strains being possible. If absorption is appreciable, strain decreases with depth into a cantilever, leading to bend that is the basis of micro-opto-mechanical systems (MOMS). Bend actually occurs even when Beer’s law suggests a tiny penetration of light into a heavily dye-doped system. We model the nonlinear opto-elastic processes behind this effect. In the regime of cantilever thickness giving optimal bending for a given incident light intensity, there are three neutral surfaces. In practice such nonlinear absorptive effects are very important since heavily doped systems are commonly used.

  7. Deformable silicon membrane for dynamic linear laser beam diffuser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, J.; Bich, A.; Herzig, H. P.; Bitterli, R.; Noell, W.; Scharf, T.; Voelkel, R.; Weible, K. J.; de Rooij, N. F.

    2010-02-01

    We present a dynamic laser beam shaper based on MEMS technology. We show a prototype of a dynamic diffuser made of single crystal silicon. A linearly deformable silicon micromembrane is used to diffuse a laser beam in one dimension. Resonance frequencies of the membrane can range from 1 kHz to 20 kHz. Mode shapes of the deformable mirror are excited using magnetic actuation. Diffusing angle can be tuned by adjusting the driving current in the membrane. We measured a diffusing angle of 1° for an applied current of 40 mA. The aluminum coated mirror can handle 140 W/cm2 of visible to infrared optical power. Application to smooth out interference pattern generated by a static diffuser is shown.

  8. Meshless analysis of shear deformable shells: the linear model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Jorge C.; Tiago, Carlos M.; Pimenta, Paulo M.

    2013-10-01

    This work develops a kinematically linear shell model departing from a consistent nonlinear theory. The initial geometry is mapped from a flat reference configuration by a stress-free finite deformation, after which, the actual shell motion takes place. The model maintains the features of a complete stress-resultant theory with Reissner-Mindlin kinematics based on an inextensible director. A hybrid displacement variational formulation is presented, where the domain displacements and kinematic boundary reactions are independently approximated. The resort to a flat reference configuration allows the discretization using 2-D Multiple Fixed Least-Squares (MFLS) on the domain. The consistent definition of stress resultants and consequent plane stress assumption led to a neat formulation for the analysis of shells. The consistent linear approximation, combined with MFLS, made possible efficient computations with a desired continuity degree, leading to smooth results for the displacement, strain and stress fields, as shown by several numerical examples.

  9. Linear Response for Intermittent Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baladi, Viviane; Todd, Mike

    2016-02-01

    We consider the one parameter family {α mapsto T_{α}} ({α in [0,1)} ) of Pomeau-Manneville type interval maps {T_{α}(x) = x(1+2^{α} x^{α})} for {x in [0,1/2)} and {T_{α}(x)=2x-1} for {x in [1/2, 1]} , with the associated absolutely continuous invariant probability measure {μ_{α}} . For {α in (0,1)} , Sarig and Gouëzel proved that the system mixes only polynomially with rate {n^{1-1/{α}}} (in particular, there is no spectral gap). We show that for any {ψ in Lq} , the map {α to int_01 ψ d μ_{α}} is differentiable on {[0,1-1/q)} , and we give a (linear response) formula for the value of the derivative. This is the first time that a linear response formula for the SRB measure is obtained in the setting of slowly mixing dynamics. Our argument shows how cone techniques can be used in this context. For {α ≥ 1/2} we need the {n^{-1/{α}}} decorrelation obtained by Gouëzel under additional conditions.

  10. Deformation propagation in responsive polymer network films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Surya K.; Cherstvy, Andrey G.; Metzler, Ralf

    2014-08-01

    We study the elastic deformations in a cross-linked polymer network film triggered by the binding of submicron particles with a sticky surface, mimicking the interactions of viral pathogens with thin films of stimulus-responsive polymeric materials such as hydrogels. From extensive Langevin Dynamics simulations we quantify how far the network deformations propagate depending on the elasticity parameters of the network and the adhesion strength of the particles. We examine the dynamics of the collective area shrinkage of the network and obtain some simple relations for the associated characteristic decay lengths. A detailed analysis elucidates how the elastic energy of the network is distributed between stretching and compression modes in response to the particle binding. We also examine the force-distance curves of the repulsion or attraction interactions for a pair of sticky particles in the polymer network film as a function of the particle-particle separation. The results of this computational study provide new insight into collective phenomena in soft polymer network films and may, in particular, be applied to applications for visual detection of pathogens such as viruses via a macroscopic response of thin films of cross-linked hydrogels.

  11. Deformation and fracture processes in graphene nanoribbons with linear quadrupoles of disclinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochnev, A. S.; Morozov, N. F.; Ovid'ko, I. A.; Semenov, B. N.

    2016-05-01

    The deformation and fracture processes in graphene nanoribbons containing linear quadrupoles of disclinations are investigated by the method of molecular dynamics. Special attention is given to estimating the effect of the curvature formed by disclinations and free boundaries in graphene nanoribbons with linear quadrupoles of disclinations on their mechanical characteristics (the stress-strain curve, the strength at the single-axis tension, and the degree of plastic deformation).

  12. Optically isolated signal coupler with linear response

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    An optocoupler for isolating electrical signals that translates an electrical input signal linearly to an electrical output signal. The optocoupler comprises a light emitter, a light receiver, and a light transmitting medium. The light emitter, preferably a blue, silicon carbide LED, is of the type that provides linear, electro-optical conversion of electrical signals within a narrow wavelength range. Correspondingly, the light receiver, which converts light signals to electrical signals and is preferably a cadmium sulfide photoconductor, is linearly responsive to light signals within substantially the same wavelength range as the blue LED.

  13. Study of the influence of actin-binding proteins using linear analyses of cell deformability.

    PubMed

    Plaza, Gustavo R; Uyeda, Taro Q P; Mirzaei, Zahra; Simmons, Craig A

    2015-07-21

    The actin cytoskeleton plays a key role in the deformability of the cell and in mechanosensing. Here we analyze the contributions of three major actin cross-linking proteins, myosin II, α-actinin and filamin, to cell deformability, by using micropipette aspiration of Dictyostelium cells. We examine the applicability of three simple mechanical models: for small deformation, linear viscoelasticity and drop of liquid with a tense cortex; and for large deformation, a Newtonian viscous fluid. For these models, we have derived linearized equations and we provide a novel, straightforward methodology to analyze the experiments. This methodology allowed us to differentiate the effects of the cross-linking proteins in the different regimes of deformation. Our results confirm some previous observations and suggest important relations between the molecular characteristics of the actin-binding proteins and the cell behavior: the effect of myosin is explained in terms of the relation between the lifetime of the bond to actin and the resistive force; the presence of α-actinin obstructs the deformation of the cytoskeleton, presumably mainly due to the higher molecular stiffness and to the lower dissociation rate constants; and filamin contributes critically to the global connectivity of the network, possibly by rapidly turning over cross-links during the remodeling of the cytoskeletal network, thanks to the higher rate constants, flexibility and larger size. The results suggest a sophisticated relationship between the expression levels of actin-binding proteins, deformability and mechanosensing. PMID:26059185

  14. Linear Response Laws and Causality in Electrodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuffa, Alex J.; Scales, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Linear response laws and causality (the effect cannot precede the cause) are of fundamental importance in physics. In the context of classical electrodynamics, students often have a difficult time grasping these concepts because the physics is obscured by the intermingling of the time and frequency domains. In this paper, we analyse the linear…

  15. Characterization of Composites Response at High Rates of Deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilat, Amos

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the proposed research is to experimentally study the effect of strain rate on mechanical response (deformation and failure) of IM-7/977-2 carbon fiber/epoxy matrix composites. The experimental data will provide the information needed for the development of a nonlinear, rate dependent deformation and strength model for this material that can subsequently be used in design.

  16. Linear response to nonstationary random excitation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasselman, T.

    1972-01-01

    Development of a method for computing the mean-square response of linear systems to nonstationary random excitation of the form given by y(t) = f(t) x(t), in which x(t) = a stationary process and f(t) is deterministic. The method is suitable for application to multidegree-of-freedom systems when the mean-square response at a point due to excitation applied at another point is desired. Both the stationary process, x(t), and the modulating function, f(t), may be arbitrary. The method utilizes a fundamental component of transient response dependent only on x(t) and the system, and independent of f(t) to synthesize the total response. The role played by this component is analogous to that played by the Green's function or impulse response function in the convolution integral.

  17. Prediction of Undsteady Flows in Turbomachinery Using the Linearized Euler Equations on Deforming Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, William S.; Hall, Kenneth C.

    1994-01-01

    A linearized Euler solver for calculating unsteady flows in turbomachinery blade rows due to both incident gusts and blade motion is presented. The model accounts for blade loading, blade geometry, shock motion, and wake motion. Assuming that the unsteadiness in the flow is small relative to the nonlinear mean solution, the unsteady Euler equations can be linearized about the mean flow. This yields a set of linear variable coefficient equations that describe the small amplitude harmonic motion of the fluid. These linear equations are then discretized on a computational grid and solved using standard numerical techniques. For transonic flows, however, one must use a linear discretization which is a conservative linearization of the non-linear discretized Euler equations to ensure that shock impulse loads are accurately captured. Other important features of this analysis include a continuously deforming grid which eliminates extrapolation errors and hence, increases accuracy, and a new numerically exact, nonreflecting far-field boundary condition treatment based on an eigenanalysis of the discretized equations. Computational results are presented which demonstrate the computational accuracy and efficiency of the method and demonstrate the effectiveness of the deforming grid, far-field nonreflecting boundary conditions, and shock capturing techniques. A comparison of the present unsteady flow predictions to other numerical, semi-analytical, and experimental methods shows excellent agreement. In addition, the linearized Euler method presented requires one or two orders-of-magnitude less computational time than traditional time marching techniques making the present method a viable design tool for aeroelastic analyses.

  18. Ballistic transport in graphene beyond linear response

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenstein, B.; Korniyenko, Y.; Lewkowicz, M.; Kao, H. C.

    2010-01-15

    The process of coherent creation of particle-hole excitations by an electric field in graphene is quantitatively described beyond linear response. We calculate the evolution of current density, number of pairs and energy in ballistic regime for electric field E using the tight-binding model. While for ballistic flight times smaller than t{sub nl}propor toE{sup -1/2} current is linear in E and independent of time, for larger ballistic times the current increases after t{sub nl} as Jpropor toE{sup 3/2}t and finally at yet larger times (t>t{sub B}propor toE{sup -1}) Bloch oscillations set in. It is shown that the number of pairs follows the 2D generalization of the Schwinger's creation rate npropor toE{sup 3/2} only on certain time segments with a prefactor different from that obtained using the asymptotic formula.

  19. Linear and Non-Linear Long-Term Terrain Deformation with DInSAR (CPT: Coherent Pixels Technique)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallorqui, J. J.; Mora, O.; Blanco, P.; Broquetas, A.

    2004-06-01

    / In this paper, an advanced technique for the generation of deformation maps using SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data is presented. The algorithm, called the Coherent Pixels Technique, estimates the linear and non-linear components of the displacement, the error of the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) used to cancel the topographic terms, and the atmospheric artifacts from a reduced set of low spatial resolution interferograms. The pixel candidates are selected from those presenting a good coherence level in the whole set of interferograms and the resulting non-uniform mesh tessellated with the Delauney triangulation to establish connections among them. The linear component of movement and DEM error are estimated adjusting a linear model to the data only on the connections. Later on, this information, once integrated to retrieve the absolute values, is used to calculate the non-linear component of movement and atmospheric artifacts with alternate filtering techniques in both temporal and spatial domains. The method presents high flexibility with respect to the required number of images and the baselines length. However, better results are obtained with large datasets of short baseline interferograms. The technique has been tested with ERS SAR data from an area of Catalonia (Spain) and the Campi Flegrei area (Naples, Italy) and validated with on-field precise levelling measurements.

  20. Random Response of Linear Hysteretic Damping

    SciTech Connect

    Floris, Claudio

    2008-07-08

    The probabilistic characterization of the response of a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) oscillator with linear hysteretic damping excited by ground motion described by zero mean stationary Gaussian processes is achieved by profiting from a steady-state solution of the motion equation, valid when the excitation is given by the superposition of harmonics. The model of linear hysteretic damping has been introduced to fit damping mechanisms in which the dissipation rate is independent of frequency, and mathematically it is described by the Hilbert transform of the response. Though this model is debated since it violates the principle of causality, its intrinsic simplicity makes it preferable to other models. The steady-state solution of the motion equation proposed in this paper allows a closed form evaluation of the respone mean square value. However, the numerical examples show that this quantity is affected by the mechanism of energy dissipation only when this is large. On the contrary, for a low capacity of dissipation the response mean square value is rather insensitive to the dissipation mechanism.

  1. Deformation Response and Life of Metallic Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissenden, Cliff J.

    2005-01-01

    The project was initially funded for one year (for $100,764) to investigate the potential of particulate reinforced metals for aeropropulsion applications and to generate fatigue results that quantify the mean stress effect for a titanium alloy matrix material (TIMETAL 21S). The project was continued for a second year (for $85,000) to more closely investigate cyclic deformation, especially ratcheting, of the titanium alloy matrix at elevated temperature. Equipment was purchased (for $19,000) to make the experimental program feasible; this equipment included an extensometer calibrator and a multi-channel signal conditioning amplifier. The project was continued for a third year ($50,000) to conduct cyclic relaxation experiments aimed at validating the elastic-viscoelastic-viscoplastic model that NASA GRC had developed for the titanium alloy. Finally, a one-year no cost extension was granted to enable continued analysis of the experimental results and model comparisons.

  2. A non-linear elastic constitutive framework for replicating plastic deformation in solids.

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Scott Alan; Schunk, Peter Randall

    2014-02-01

    Ductile metals and other materials typically deform plastically under large applied loads; a behavior most often modeled using plastic deformation constitutive models. However, it is possible to capture some of the key behaviors of plastic deformation using only the framework for nonlinear elastic mechanics. In this paper, we develop a phenomenological, hysteretic, nonlinear elastic constitutive model that captures many of the features expected of a plastic deformation model. This model is based on calculating a secant modulus directly from a materials stress-strain curve. Scalar stress and strain values are obtained in three dimensions by using the von Mises invariants. Hysteresis is incorporated by tracking an additional history variable and assuming an elastic unloading response. This model is demonstrated in both single- and multi-element simulations under varying strain conditions.

  3. Shortcuts to adiabaticity from linear response theory.

    PubMed

    Acconcia, Thiago V; Bonança, Marcus V S; Deffner, Sebastian

    2015-10-01

    A shortcut to adiabaticity is a finite-time process that produces the same final state as would result from infinitely slow driving. We show that such shortcuts can be found for weak perturbations from linear response theory. With the help of phenomenological response functions, a simple expression for the excess work is found-quantifying the nonequilibrium excitations. For two specific examples, i.e., the quantum parametric oscillator and the spin 1/2 in a time-dependent magnetic field, we show that finite-time zeros of the excess work indicate the existence of shortcuts. Finally, we propose a degenerate family of protocols, which facilitates shortcuts to adiabaticity for specific and very short driving times. PMID:26565209

  4. Shortcuts to adiabaticity from linear response theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acconcia, Thiago V.; Bonança, Marcus V. S.; Deffner, Sebastian

    2015-10-01

    A shortcut to adiabaticity is a finite-time process that produces the same final state as would result from infinitely slow driving. We show that such shortcuts can be found for weak perturbations from linear response theory. With the help of phenomenological response functions, a simple expression for the excess work is found—quantifying the nonequilibrium excitations. For two specific examples, i.e., the quantum parametric oscillator and the spin 1/2 in a time-dependent magnetic field, we show that finite-time zeros of the excess work indicate the existence of shortcuts. Finally, we propose a degenerate family of protocols, which facilitates shortcuts to adiabaticity for specific and very short driving times.

  5. Shortcuts to adiabaticity from linear response theory

    SciTech Connect

    Acconcia, Thiago V.; Bonança, Marcus V. S.; Deffner, Sebastian

    2015-10-23

    A shortcut to adiabaticity is a finite-time process that produces the same final state as would result from infinitely slow driving. We show that such shortcuts can be found for weak perturbations from linear response theory. Moreover, with the help of phenomenological response functions, a simple expression for the excess work is found—quantifying the nonequilibrium excitations. For two specific examples, i.e., the quantum parametric oscillator and the spin 1/2 in a time-dependent magnetic field, we show that finite-time zeros of the excess work indicate the existence of shortcuts. We finally propose a degenerate family of protocols, which facilitates shortcuts to adiabaticity for specific and very short driving times.

  6. Shortcuts to adiabaticity from linear response theory

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Acconcia, Thiago V.; Bonança, Marcus V. S.; Deffner, Sebastian

    2015-10-23

    A shortcut to adiabaticity is a finite-time process that produces the same final state as would result from infinitely slow driving. We show that such shortcuts can be found for weak perturbations from linear response theory. Moreover, with the help of phenomenological response functions, a simple expression for the excess work is found—quantifying the nonequilibrium excitations. For two specific examples, i.e., the quantum parametric oscillator and the spin 1/2 in a time-dependent magnetic field, we show that finite-time zeros of the excess work indicate the existence of shortcuts. We finally propose a degenerate family of protocols, which facilitates shortcuts tomore » adiabaticity for specific and very short driving times.« less

  7. Linear response and hydrodynamics for granular fluids.

    PubMed

    Dufty, James; Baskaran, Aparna; Brey, J Javier

    2008-03-01

    A formal derivation of linear hydrodynamics for a granular fluid is given. The linear response to small spatial perturbations of a homogeneous reference state is studied in detail, using methods of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. A transport matrix for macroscopic excitations in the fluid is defined in terms of the response functions. An expansion in the wave vector to second order allows identification of all phenomenological susceptibilities and transport coefficients through Navier-Stokes order in terms of appropriate time correlation functions. The transport coefficients in this representation are the generalization to granular fluids of the familiar Helfand and Green-Kubo relations for normal fluids. The analysis applies to a variety of collision rules. Important differences in both the analysis and results from those for normal fluids are identified and discussed. A scaling limit is described corresponding to the conditions under which idealized inelastic hard sphere models can apply. Further details and interpretation are provided in the paper following this one, by specialization to the case of smooth, inelastic hard spheres with constant coefficient of restitution. PMID:18517373

  8. Hydration thermodynamics beyond the linear response approximation.

    PubMed

    Raineri, Fernando O

    2016-10-19

    The solvation energetics associated with the transformation of a solute molecule at infinite dilution in water from an initial state A to a final state B is reconsidered. The two solute states have different potentials energies of interaction, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], with the solvent environment. Throughout the A [Formula: see text] B transformation of the solute, the solvation system is described by a Hamiltonian [Formula: see text] that changes linearly with the coupling parameter ξ. By focusing on the characterization of the probability density [Formula: see text] that the dimensionless perturbational solute-solvent interaction energy [Formula: see text] has numerical value y when the coupling parameter is ξ, we derive a hierarchy of differential equation relations between the ξ-dependent cumulant functions of various orders in the expansion of the appropriate cumulant generating function. On the basis of this theoretical framework we then introduce an inherently nonlinear solvation model for which we are able to find analytical results for both [Formula: see text] and for the solvation thermodynamic functions. The solvation model is based on the premise that there is an upper or a lower bound (depending on the nature of the interactions considered) to the amplitude of the fluctuations of Y in the solution system at equilibrium. The results reveal essential differences in behavior for the model when compared with the linear response approximation to solvation, particularly with regards to the probability density [Formula: see text]. The analytical expressions for the solvation properties show, however, that the linear response behavior is recovered from the new model when the room for the thermal fluctuations in Y is not restricted by the existence of a nearby bound. We compare the predictions of the model with the results from molecular dynamics computer simulations for aqueous solvation, in which either (1) the solute

  9. Microscopic response to inhomogeneous deformations in curvilinear coordinates.

    PubMed

    Stengel, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    A mechanical deformation of a continuum can be expressed as a generalized coordinate transformation of space. Consequently, the equations of electrostatics in deformable media must satisfy covariance requirements with respect to such transformations, a problem that has long been addressed in the context of general relativity. Here we show how these ideas can be incorporated into the framework of density-functional perturbation theory, providing access to the microscopic charge density and electrostatic potential response to an arbitrary deformation field. We demonstrate the power of our approach by deriving, in full generality, the surface contributions to the flexoelectric response of a finite object, a topic that has recently been a matter of controversy. The breakdown of translational periodicity produces consequences that might seem highly paradoxical at first sight: for example, the macroscopic bulk polarization does not always correspond to the physical surface charge. PMID:24189935

  10. Linear friction weld process monitoring of fixture cassette deformations using empirical mode decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, O. J.; Gibson, C.; Wilson, P.; Lohse, N.; Popov, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    Due to its inherent advantages, linear friction welding is a solid-state joining process of increasing importance to the aerospace, automotive, medical and power generation equipment industries. Tangential oscillations and forge stroke during the burn-off phase of the joining process introduce essential dynamic forces, which can also be detrimental to the welding process. Since burn-off is a critical phase in the manufacturing stage, process monitoring is fundamental for quality and stability control purposes. This study aims to improve workholding stability through the analysis of fixture cassette deformations. Methods and procedures for process monitoring are developed and implemented in a fail-or-pass assessment system for fixture cassette deformations during the burn-off phase. Additionally, the de-noised signals are compared to results from previous production runs. The observed deformations as a consequence of the forces acting on the fixture cassette are measured directly during the welding process. Data on the linear friction-welding machine are acquired and de-noised using empirical mode decomposition, before the burn-off phase is extracted. This approach enables a direct, objective comparison of the signal features with trends from previous successful welds. The capacity of the whole process monitoring system is validated and demonstrated through the analysis of a large number of signals obtained from welding experiments.

  11. Erythrocyte deformability - A partner of the inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Silva-Herdade, Ana Santos; Andolina, Giulia; Faggio, Caterina; Calado, Ângelo; Saldanha, Carlota

    2016-09-01

    We aim to establish an in vivo animal model of acute inflammation using PAF (platelet activating factor) as inflammatory agent and to study the erythrocyte deformability changes induced by the inflammatory response. Counting the number of rolling and adherent neutrophils to endothelium after 2, 4 and 6h of intrascrotal injection of PAF we showed the induction of an inflammatory state. Blood samples are collected in order to measure the erythrocyte deformability and to quantify NO efflux from the red blood cells (RBCs). The results show an increased number of rolling and adherent neutrophils after 2h and 4h of inflammation as well as decreased values of erythrocyte deformability in the same time-points. This result is in line with the need of a low blood viscosity to the recruitment process that will improve leukocyte migration towards the endothelial wall. NO efflux from RBCs is also affected by the inflammatory response at the first hours of inflammation. This animal model demonstrates in vivo the association between an acute inflammatory response and the rheological properties of the blood, namely the RBCs deformability. For those reasons we consider this as an adequate model to study acute inflammatory responses as well as hemorheological parameters. PMID:27142964

  12. On The Linearity of Enso's Atmospheric Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigam, S.; Deweaver, E.

    The linearity, or extent of anti-symmetry, of El Nino and La Nina heating and circula- tion anomalies is examined by compositing the winter season anomalies for positive and negative values of the Nino3.4 SST index in excess of one standard deviation. Eight winters meet this condition in each ENSO phase during 1950-2000, and the warm and cold years are equitably distributed relative to the 1976/77 climate transi- tion. ENSO SSTs have a direct effect on the large-scale atmospheric circulation through their impact on diabatic heating and subsequent upper-level divergence over the equa- torial Pacific. These fields show a significant westward displacement for the La Nina composite compared to the El Nino composite, as expected from the SST threshold condition for convection. But despite the westward shift in convection, the 200mb height composites are almost anti-symmetric over the Pacific, with only a small (about 10) westward shift for the extratropical La Nina pattern. The upper-level height re- sponse in the tropics, including the position of the El Nino anticyclones, is found to be even more anti-symmetric than the extratropical response. Our finding of anti-symmetry in the upper-level Pacific height responses to warm and cold ENSO events is in disagreement with the observational composites of Hoerling et al. (1997), which show a large shift between El Nino and La Nina height patterns over the North Pacific. In their composites, the La Nina response resembles the PNA pat- tern, a result not in evidence here. This difference can be understood as a consequence of decadal variability, particularly the 1976/77 climate transition.

  13. Study of non-linear deformation of vocal folds in simulations of human phonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saurabh, Shakti; Bodony, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Direct numerical simulation is performed on a two-dimensional compressible, viscous fluid interacting with a non-linear, viscoelastic solid as a model for the generation of the human voice. The vocal fold (VF) tissues are modeled as multi-layered with varying stiffness in each layer and using a finite-strain Standard Linear Solid (SLS) constitutive model implemented in a quadratic finite element code and coupled to a high-order compressible Navier-Stokes solver through a boundary-fitted fluid-solid interface. The large non-linear mesh deformation is handled using an elliptic/poisson smoothening technique. Supra-glottal flow shows asymmetry in the flow, which in turn has a coupling effect on the motion of the VF. The fully compressible simulations gives direct insight into the sound produced as pressure distributions and the vocal fold deformation helps study the unsteady vortical flow resulting from the fluid-structure interaction along the full phonation cycle. Supported by the National Science Foundation (CAREER Award Number 1150439).

  14. Electrical resistivity response due to elastic-plastic deformations

    SciTech Connect

    Stout, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    The electrical resistivity of many materials is sensitive to changes in the electronic band configurations surrounding the atoms, changes in the electron-phonon interaction cross-sections, and changes in the density of intrinsic defect structures. These changes are most directly dependent on interatomic measures of relative deformation. For this reason, a model for resistivity response is developed in terms of interatomic measures of relative deformation. The relative deformation consists of two terms, a continuous function to describe the recoverable displacement between two atoms in the atomic lattice structure and a functional to describe the nonrecoverable displacement between two atoms as a result of interatomic discontinuities from dislocation kinetics. This model for resistivity extends the classical piezoresistance representation and relates electric resistance change directly to physical mechanisms. An analysis for the resistivity change of a thin foil ideally embedded in a material that undergoes elastic-plastic deformation is presented. For the case of elastic deformations, stress information in the material surrounding the thin foil is inferred for the cases of pure strain coupling boundary conditions, pure stress coupling boundary conditions, and a combination of stress-strain coupling boundary conditions. 42 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Fluctuation Relation beyond Linear Response Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, A.; Zamponi, F.; Gallavotti, G.

    2005-05-01

    The Fluctuation Relation (FR) is an asymptotic result onthe distribution of certain observables averaged over timeintervals τ as τ → ∞ and it is a generalization of thefluctuation-dissipation theorem to far from equilibrium systemsin a steady state, which reduces to the usual Green-Kubo (GK)relation in the limit of small external non-conservative forces.FR is a theorem for smooth uniformly hyperbolic systems, and it isassumed to be true in all dissipative `chaotic enough' systemsin a steady state. In this paper, we develop a theory of finitetime corrections to FR, needed to compare the asymptoticprediction of FR with numerical observations, which necessarilyinvolve fluctuations of observables averaged over finite timeintervals τ. We perform a numerical test of FR in two cases inwhich non-Gaussian fluctuations are observable, while GK does notapply and we get a non-trivial verification of FR that is independent of and different from linear response theory.Our results are compatible with the theory of finite timecorrections to FR, while FR would be observably violated,well within the precision of our experiments, if such correctionswere neglected.

  16. Deformation and annealing response of TD-nickel chromium sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kane, R. D.; Ebert, L. J.

    1973-01-01

    The deformation and annealing response of TD-nickel chromium (TD-NiCr) 0.1 inch thick sheet was examined using various cold-rolling and annealing treatments. Upon annealing (above 816 C (1500 F), the as-received material was converted from an initially ultra-fine grain size (average grain dimension 0.51 micron) to a large grain structure. Increases in grain size by a factor of 100 to 200 were observed for this transformation. However, in those material states where the large grain transformation was absent, a fine grain recrystallized structure formed upon annealing (above 732 C (1350 F)). The deformation and annealing response of TD-NiCr sheet was evaluated with respect to the processing related variables as mode and severity of deformation and annealing temperature. Results indicate that the large grain transformation, classical primary recrystallization occurs. Using selected materials produced during the deformation and annealing study, the elevated temperature tensile properties of TD-NiCr sheet were examined in the temperature range 593 C (1100 F) to 1093 C (2000 F). It was observed that the elevated temperature tensile properties of TD-NiCr sheet could be optimized by the stabilization of a large grain size in this material using the cold working and/or annealing treatments developed during the present investigation.

  17. Development of experimental verification techniques for non-linear deformation and fracture.

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, Neville Reid; Bahr, David F.

    2003-12-01

    This project covers three distinct features of thin film fracture and deformation in which the current experimental technique of nanoindentation demonstrates limitations. The first feature is film fracture, which can be generated either by nanoindentation or bulge testing thin films. Examples of both tests will be shown, in particular oxide films on metallic or semiconductor substrates. Nanoindentations were made into oxide films on aluminum and titanium substrates for two cases; one where the metal was a bulk (effectively single crystal) material and the other where the metal was a 1 pm thick film grown on a silica or silicon substrate. In both cases indentation was used to produce discontinuous loading curves, which indicate film fracture after plastic deformation of the metal. The oxides on bulk metals fractures occurred at reproducible loads, and the tensile stress in the films at fracture were approximately 10 and 15 GPa for the aluminum and titanium oxides respectively. Similarly, bulge tests of piezoelectric oxide films have been carried out and demonstrate film fracture at stresses of only 100's of MPa, suggesting the importance of defects and film thickness in evaluating film strength. The second feature of concern is film adhesion. Several qualitative and quantitative tests exist today that measure the adhesion properties of thin films. A relatively new technique that uses stressed overlayers to measure adhesion has been proposed and extensively studied. Delamination of thin films manifests itself in the form of either telephone cord or straight buckles. The buckles are used to calculate the interfacial fracture toughness of the film-substrate system. Nanoindentation can be utilized if more energy is needed to initiate buckling of the film system. Finally, deformation in metallic systems can lead to non-linear deformation due to 'bursts' of dislocation activity during nanoindentation. An experimental study to examine the structure of dislocations around

  18. Fatigueless response of spider draglines in cyclic torsion facilitated by reversible molecular deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Bhupesh; Singh, Kamal P.

    2014-11-01

    We demonstrate that spider draglines exhibit a fatigueless response in extreme cyclic torsion up to its breaking limit. The well defined Raman bands at 1095 and 1245 cm-1 shifted linearly towards lower wavenumbers versus increasing twist in both clockwise and counter-clockwise directions. Under thousands of continuous loading cycles of twist strain approaching its breaking limit, all the Raman bands were preserved and the characteristic Raman peak shifts were found to be reversible. Besides, nanoscale surface profile of the worked silk appeared as good as the pristine silk. This unique fatigueless twist response of draglines, facilitated by reversible deformation of protein molecules, could find applications in durable miniatured devices.

  19. Extension of non-linear beam models with deformable cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, I.; Krylov, S.; Harari, I.

    2015-12-01

    Geometrically exact beam theory is extended to allow distortion of the cross section. We present an appropriate set of cross-section basis functions and provide physical insight to the cross-sectional distortion from linear elastostatics. The beam formulation in terms of material (back-rotated) beam internal force resultants and work-conjugate kinematic quantities emerges naturally from the material description of virtual work of constrained finite elasticity. The inclusion of cross-sectional deformation allows straightforward application of three-dimensional constitutive laws in the beam formulation. Beam counterparts of applied loads are expressed in terms of the original three-dimensional data. Special attention is paid to the treatment of the applied stress, keeping in mind applications such as hydrogel actuators under environmental stimuli or devices made of electroactive polymers. Numerical comparisons show the ability of the beam model to reproduce finite elasticity results with good efficiency.

  20. The large deformation elastic response of woven Kevlar fabric

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    The large deformation elastic response of a plane woven Kevlar fabric is investigated analytically and experimentally. The analysis assumes the undeformed geometry to be a sequence of interlaced arcs of circles which reverse at each yarn midpoint, ad each yarn is modeled as an extensible elastical subject to certain compatibility conditions. Deflection-force relations for the fabric are determined in terms of the initial weave geometry and the elastic properties of the individual yarns. The theoretical results agree well with the results of experiments performed on a fabric woven from 400 denier Kevlar yarns under conditions of uniaxial loading in both warp and fill directions. 13 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Response of a rotorcraft model with damping non-linearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tongue, B. H.

    1985-11-01

    The linearized equations of motion of a helicopter in contact with the ground have solutions which can be linearly stable or unstable, depending on the system parameters. The present study includes physical non-linearities in the helicopter model. This allows one to determine if a steady-state response exists and, if so, what the frequency and amplitude of the oscillations will be. In this way, one can determine how serious the linearly unstable operating regime is and whether destructive oscillations are possible when the system is in the linearly stable regime. The present analysis applies to helicopters having fully articulated rotors.

  2. A material sensitivity study on the accuracy of deformable organ registration using linear biomechanical models

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, Y.; Liang, J.; Yan, D.

    2006-02-15

    Model-based deformable organ registration techniques using the finite element method (FEM) have recently been investigated intensively and applied to image-guided adaptive radiotherapy (IGART). These techniques assume that human organs are linearly elastic material, and their mechanical properties are predetermined. Unfortunately, the accurate measurement of the tissue material properties is challenging and the properties usually vary between patients. A common issue is therefore the achievable accuracy of the calculation due to the limited access to tissue elastic material constants. In this study, we performed a systematic investigation on this subject based on tissue biomechanics and computer simulations to establish the relationships between achievable registration accuracy and tissue mechanical and organ geometrical properties. Primarily we focused on image registration for three organs: rectal wall, bladder wall, and prostate. The tissue anisotropy due to orientation preference in tissue fiber alignment is captured by using an orthotropic or a transversely isotropic elastic model. First we developed biomechanical models for the rectal wall, bladder wall, and prostate using simplified geometries and investigated the effect of varying material parameters on the resulting organ deformation. Then computer models based on patient image data were constructed, and image registrations were performed. The sensitivity of registration errors was studied by perturbating the tissue material properties from their mean values while fixing the boundary conditions. The simulation results demonstrated that registration error for a subvolume increases as its distance from the boundary increases. Also, a variable associated with material stability was found to be a dominant factor in registration accuracy in the context of material uncertainty. For hollow thin organs such as rectal walls and bladder walls, the registration errors are limited. Given 30% in material uncertainty

  3. Descriptive Linear modeling of steady-state visual evoked response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levison, W. H.; Junker, A. M.; Kenner, K.

    1986-01-01

    A study is being conducted to explore use of the steady state visual-evoke electrocortical response as an indicator of cognitive task loading. Application of linear descriptive modeling to steady state Visual Evoked Response (VER) data is summarized. Two aspects of linear modeling are reviewed: (1) unwrapping the phase-shift portion of the frequency response, and (2) parsimonious characterization of task-loading effects in terms of changes in model parameters. Model-based phase unwrapping appears to be most reliable in applications, such as manual control, where theoretical models are available. Linear descriptive modeling of the VER has not yet been shown to provide consistent and readily interpretable results.

  4. Deformation Bands as Linear Elastic Fractures: Progress in Theory and Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternlof, K.; Pollard, D.

    2001-12-01

    Deformation bands (DBs) are thin, tabular, bounded features of highly localized shear and/or compaction that commonly occur as systematic and pervasive arrays in porous sandstone. They also constitute an active area of theoretical and experimental research into the compressive failure of granular materials. Based on our ongoing study of DBs in the field, we propose that they originate at stress concentrations and propagate as brittle fractures in a linear elastic medium. Furthermore, we suggest that individual DB morphology is largely dominated by the closing (anti-mode I) component of the displacement discontinuity accommodated. The notion of DBs as "anti-cracks" akin to pressure solution surfaces is not new. But close examination of real DB arrays within the unifying context of linear elastic fracture mechanics is needed to add depth and bring quantitative rigor to our understanding of the phenomenon. Thus, we are building a body of detailed data based on field observation and thin-section analysis to substantiate and expand our central hypothesis, while also laying the foundation for an effort to replicate realistic DB arrays using numerical modeling techniques. Our field effort focuses on the Jurassic Aztec Sandstone as exposed in and around the Valley of Fire State Park, Nevada. This area offers expansive and varied DB exposures within a thick and relatively consistent sequence of dune-dominated aeolian sandstone. We will present interim results, interpretations and conclusions specific to the elastic nature of DBs, in particular comparing our data to the three distinct fracture-tip models: the dislocation, and the crack with and without cohesive end zones. Each of these models predicts substantially different near-tip stress fields for the same material under the same remote loading conditions, leading to different expectations for basic DB shape, structure, and propagation and mechanical interaction behavior. These expectations will be compared to and judged

  5. In situ sensing of non-linear deformation and damage in epoxy particulate composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadlamani, Venkat K.; Chalivendra, Vijaya; Shukla, Arun; Yang, Sze

    2012-07-01

    Damage sensing of epoxy particulate composites was investigated using multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) under quasi-static uniaxial tensile loading. Two types of particulates, namely (a) aluminum silicate hollow microspheres (cenospheres), and (b) liquid carboxyl-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile (CTBN) rubber were considered in this study. The influence of three different volume fractions of cenospheres (10%, 20% and 30%) and three different weight fractions of CTBN resin (10, 20 and 30 phr) on the electromechanical response was studied. A four-circumferential ring probe (FCRP) technique was employed to measure the electrical resistance of the test specimen as a function of the axial strain. The resistance-strain curve is compared with a simultaneously measured mechanical stress-strain curve. The electromechanical measurement show additional stages of material deformation not readily revealed from the mechanical stress-strain curve. The resistance change associated with the unfolding of entangled polymer chains and further straightening of the polymer chains decreased the distance between CNTs, causing improved electron hopping in all composites except 30% cenospheres composite. The U-shaped electrical response demonstrated by both 20 and 30 phr rubber composites exploited the CNT sensory network successfully by providing early warning of composite failure due to micro-crack propagation which resulted in breaking of the CNT network.

  6. Response properties of pigeon otolith afferents to linear acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Si, X.; Angelaki, D. E.; Dickman, J. D.

    1997-01-01

    In the present study, the sensitivity to sinusoidal linear accelerations in the plane of the utricular macula was tested in afferents. The head orientation relative to the translation axis was varied in order to determine the head position that elicited the maximal and minimal responses for each afferent. The response gain and phase values obtained to 0.5-Hz and 2-Hz linear acceleration stimuli were then plotted as a function of head orientation and a modified cosine function was fit to the data. From the best-fit cosine function, the predicted head orientations that would produce the maximal and minimal response gains were estimated. The estimated maximum response gains to linear acceleration in the utricular plane for the afferents varied between 75 and 1420 spikes s-1 g-1. The mean maximal gains for all afferents to 0.5-Hz and 2-Hz sinusoidal linear acceleration stimuli were 282 and 367 spikes s-1 g-1, respectively. The minimal response gains were essentially zero for most units. The response phases always led linear acceleration and remained constant for each afferent, regardless of head orientation. These response characteristics indicate that otolith afferents are cosine tuned and behave as one-dimensional linear accelerometers. The directions of maximal sensitivity to linear acceleration for the afferents varied throughout the plane of the utricle; however, most vectors were directed out of the opposite ear near the interaural axis. The response dynamics of the afferents were tested using stimulus frequencies ranging between 0.25 Hz and 10 Hz (0.1 g peak acceleration). Across stimulus frequencies, most afferents had increasing gains and constant phase values. These dynamic properties for individual afferents were fit with a simple transfer function that included three parameters: a mechanical time constant, a gain constant, and a fractional order distributed adaptation operator.

  7. Linear optical response of finite systems using multishift linear system solvers

    SciTech Connect

    Hübener, Hannes; Giustino, Feliciano

    2014-07-28

    We discuss the application of multishift linear system solvers to linear-response time-dependent density functional theory. Using this technique the complete frequency-dependent electronic density response of finite systems to an external perturbation can be calculated at the cost of a single solution of a linear system via conjugate gradients. We show that multishift time-dependent density functional theory yields excitation energies and oscillator strengths in perfect agreement with the standard diagonalization of the response matrix (Casida's method), while being computationally advantageous. We present test calculations for benzene, porphin, and chlorophyll molecules. We argue that multishift solvers may find broad applicability in the context of excited-state calculations within density-functional theory and beyond.

  8. Frontal Wave Stability during Moist Deformation Frontogenesis. Part I: Linear Wave Dynamics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Craig H.; Thorpe, Alan J.

    1994-03-01

    It has been shown that lower tropospheric potential vorticity zones formed during moist deformation frontogenesis will support growing waves if at some time the frontogenesis ceases. In this paper, the ways in which these waves are affected by the frontogenetic process are identified.Observations show that fronts in the eastern Atlantic commonly feature saturated ascent regions characterized by zero moist potential vorticity. Furthermore, in many cases the horizontal temperature gradient in the lowest one to two kilometers of the atmosphere is rather weak. These features are incorporated in an analytical archetype. The dynamical implications of saturated ascent in conditions of zero moist potential vorticity are represented in the model by assuming that adiabatic temperature changes are precisely balanced by diabatic tendencies. The observed small temperature gradient at low levels is represented in the model by taking it to be zero in the lowest two kilometers. Consequently, the forcing of the low-level moist ageostrophic vortex stretching that strengthens the low-level potential vorticity anomaly is confined to middle and upper levels.A semianalytical initial value solution for the linear development of waves on the evolving low-level potential vorticity anomaly is obtained. The waves approximately satisfy the inviscid primitive equations whenever the divergent part of the perturbation is negligible relative to the rotational part. The range of nonmodal wave developments supported by the front is summarized using RT phase diagrams. This analysis shows that the most dramatic effects of frontogenesis on frontal wave growth are due to (a) the increase in time of the potential vorticity and hence potential instability of the flow and (b) the increase in time of the alongfront wavelength relative to the width of the strip. An optimally growing streamfunction wave is described. Finally, a diagnostic technique suitable for identifying small amplitude frontal waves in

  9. Conceptual DFT: chemistry from the linear response function.

    PubMed

    Geerlings, Paul; Fias, Stijn; Boisdenghien, Zino; De Proft, Frank

    2014-07-21

    Within the context of reactivity descriptors known in conceptual DFT, the linear response function (χ(r,r')) remained nearly unexploited. Although well known, in its time dependent form, in the solid state physics and time-dependent DFT communities the study of the "chemistry" present in the kernel was, until recently, relatively unexplored. The evaluation of the linear response function as such and its study in the time independent form are highlighted in the present review. On the fundamental side, the focus is on the approaches of increasing complexity to compute and represent χ(r,r'), its visualisation going from plots of the unintegrated χ(r,r') to an atom condensed matrix. The study on atoms reveals its physical significance, retrieving atomic shell structure, while the results on molecules illustrate that a variety of chemical concepts are retrieved: inductive and mesomeric effects, electron delocalisation, aromaticity and anti-aromaticity, σ and π aromaticity,…. The applications show that the chemistry of aliphatic (saturated and unsaturated) chains, saturated and aromatic/anti-aromatic rings, organic, inorganic or metallic in nature, can be retrieved via the linear response function, including the variation of the electronic structure of the reagents along a reaction path. The connection of the linear response function with the concept of nearsightedness and the alchemical derivatives is also highlighted. PMID:24531142

  10. Testing Linear Models for Ability Parameters in Item Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glas, Cees A. W.; Hendrawan, Irene

    2005-01-01

    Methods for testing hypotheses concerning the regression parameters in linear models for the latent person parameters in item response models are presented. Three tests are outlined: A likelihood ratio test, a Lagrange multiplier test and a Wald test. The tests are derived in a marginal maximum likelihood framework. They are explicitly formulated…

  11. Qubit Measurement with a Nonlinear Cavity Detector Beyond Linear Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laflamme, Catherine; Clerk, Aashish

    2012-02-01

    We consider theoretically the use of a driven, nonlinear superconducting microwave cavity to measure a coupled superconducting qubit. This is similar to setups studied in recent experiments.ootnotetextM. Hatridge et al. Phys.Rev.B, 83,134501 (2011)^,ootnotetextF.R. Ong et al. PRL 106,167002 (2011) In a previous work, we demonstrated that for weak coupling (where linear response theory holds) one misses the quantum limit on QND detection in this system by a large factor proportional to the parametric gain.ootnotetextC. Laflamme and A.A. Clerk, Phys. Rev. A 83, 033803 (2011) Here we calculate measurement backaction beyond linear response by using an approximate mapping to a detuned degenerate parametric amplifier having both linear and dispersive couplings to the qubit. We find surprisingly that the backaction dephasing rate is far more sensitive to corrections beyond linear response than the detector response. Thus, increasing the coupling strength can significantly increase the efficiency of the measurement. We interpret this behavior in terms of the non-Gaussian photon number fluctuations of the nonlinear cavity. Our results have applications to quantum information processing and quantum amplification with superconducting microwave circuits.

  12. Non-linear dielectric response of ferrofluids under magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licinio, Pedro; Teixeira, Alvaro V.; Figueiredo, José Marcos A.

    2005-03-01

    The dielectric response of a water-based magnetic fluid is investigated at room temperature and in the frequency range of 100-10 7 rad/s. The response is linear in the electric fields used. Upon application of a constant magnetic field of 40 mT, which is well below the sample saturation, the response becomes non-linear. Magnetic field effects are isolated by performing a differential analysis of the inverse dielectric permittivity with and without applied field in both perpendicular and parallel configurations. The imaginary part of the differential inverse permittivity displays two peaks. The low-frequency peak is seen to correspond to the orientation relaxation of aggregates also detected in SAXS, photon correlation and atomic force microscopy measurements. The high-frequency peak corresponds to single magnetic particle reorientation.

  13. Parametric instability of a many point-vortex system in a multi-layer flow under linear deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhov, Eugene A.; Koshel, Konstantin V.

    2016-05-01

    The paper deals with a dynamical system governing the motion of many point vortices located in different layers of a multi-layer flow under external deformation. The deformation consists of generally independent shear and rotational components. First, we examine the dynamics of the system's vorticity center. We demonstrate that the vorticity center of such a multi-vortex multi-layer system behaves just like the one of two point vortices interacting in a homogeneous deformation flow. Given nonstationary shear and rotational components oscillating with different magnitudes, the vorticity center may experience parametric instability leading to its unbounded growth. However, we then show that one can shift to a moving reference frame with the origin coinciding with the position of the vorticity center. In this new reference frame, the new vorticity center always stays at the origin of coordinates, and the equations governing the vortex trajectories look exactly the same as if the vorticity center had never moved in the original reference frame. Second, we studied the relative motion of two point vortices located in different layers of a two-layer flow under linear deformation. We analyze their regular and chaotic dynamics identifying parameters resulting in effective and extensive destabilization of the vortex trajectories.

  14. Contact nonlinearities and linear response in jammed particulate packings.

    PubMed

    Goodrich, Carl P; Liu, Andrea J; Nagel, Sidney R

    2014-08-01

    Packings of frictionless athermal particles that interact only when they overlap experience a jamming transition as a function of packing density. Such packings provide the foundation for the theory of jamming. This theory rests on the observation that, despite the multitude of disordered configurations, the mechanical response to linear order depends only on the distance to the transition. We investigate the validity and utility of such measurements that invoke the harmonic approximation and show that, despite particles coming in and out of contact, there is a well-defined linear regime in the thermodynamic limit. PMID:25215727

  15. Linearity in the response of photopolymers as optical recording media.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Sergi; Marquez, Andrés; Guardiola, Francisco J; Riquelme, Marina; Fernández, Roberto; Pascual, Inmaculada; Beléndez, Augusto

    2013-05-01

    Photopolymer are appealing materials for diffractive elements recording. Two of their properties when they are illuminated are useful for this goal: the relief surface changes and the refractive index modifications. To this goal the linearity in the material response is crucial to design the optimum irradiance for each element. In this paper we measured directly some parameters to know how linear is the material response, in terms of the refractive index modulation versus exposure, then we can predict the refractive index distributions during recording. We have analyzed at different recording intensities the evolution of monomer diffusion during recording for photopolymers based on PVA/Acrylamide. This model has been successfully applied to PVA/Acrylamide photopolymers to predict the transmitted diffracted orders and the agreement with experimental values has been increased. PMID:23669956

  16. Gaussian fluctuations and linear response in an electron transfer protein

    PubMed Central

    Simonson, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    In response to charge separation or transfer, polar liquids respond in a simple linear fashion. A similar linear response for proteins might be expected from the central limit theorem and is postulated in widely used theories of protein electrostatics, including the Marcus electron transfer theory and dielectric continuum theories. Although these theories are supported by a variety of experimental data, the exact validity of a linear protein dielectric response has been difficult to determine. Molecular dynamics simulations are presented that establish a linear dielectric response of both protein and surrounding solvent over the course of a biologically relevant electron transfer reaction: oxido-reduction of yeast cytochrome c in solution. Using an umbrella-sampling free energy approach with long simulations, an accurate treatment of long-range electrostatics and both classical and quantum models of the heme, good agreement is obtained with experiment for the redox potential relative to a heme–octapeptide complex. We obtain a reorganization free energy that is only half that for heme–octapeptide and is reproduced with a dielectric continuum model where the heme vicinity has a dielectric constant of only 1.1. This value implies that the contribution of protein reorganization to the electron transfer free energy barrier is reduced almost to the theoretical limit (a dielectric of one), and that the fluctuations of the electrostatic potential on the heme have a simple harmonic form, in accord with Marcus theory, even though the fluctuations of many individual protein groups (especially at the protein surface) are anharmonic. PMID:12011418

  17. An experimental-theoretical correlation study of non-linear bending and torsion deformations of a cantilever beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowell, E. H.; Traybar, J.; Hodges, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental study of the large deformation of a cantilevered beam under a gravity tip load has been made. The beam root is rotated so that the tip load is oriented at various angles with respect to the beam principal axes. Static twist and bending deflections of the tip and bending natural frequencies have been measured as a function of tip load magnitude and orientation. The experimental data are compared with the results of a recently developed non-linear structural theory. Agreement is reasonably good when bending deflections are small compared to the beam span, but systematic differences occur for larger deflections.

  18. Linear response of tripartite entanglement to infinitesimal noise

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fu-Lin; Chen, Jing-Ling

    2014-10-15

    Recent experimental progress in prolonging the coherence time of a quantum system prompts us to explore the behavior of quantum entanglement at the beginning of the decoherence process. The response of the entanglement under an infinitesimal noise can serve as a signature of the robustness of entangled states. A crucial problem of this topic in multipartite systems is to compute the degree of entanglement in a mixed state. We find a family of global noise in three-qubit systems, which is composed of four W states. Under its influence, the linear response of the tripartite entanglement of a symmetrical three-qubit pure state is studied. A lower bound of the linear response is found to depend completely on the initial tripartite and bipartite entanglement. This result shows that the decay of tripartite entanglement is hastened by the bipartite one. - Highlights: • We study a set of W-type noise and its linear effect on symmetric pure states. • Its effect on two-qubit entanglement depends only on the initial concurrence. • A lower bound of the effect on 3-tangle is found in terms of initial entanglements. • We obtain the time of three-tangle sudden death for two families of typical states. • These reveal that the bipartite entanglement speeds up the decay of the tripartite one.

  19. Identifying the Hamiltonian structure in linear response theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    List, Nanna Holmgaard; Coriani, Sonia; Christiansen, Ove; Kongsted, Jacob

    2014-06-01

    We present a unifying framework for linear response eigenvalue equations that encompasses both variational Hartree-Fock and Kohn-Sham density functional theory as well as non-variational coupled-cluster theory. The joint description is rooted in the so-called Hamiltonian structure of the response kernel matrices, whose properties permit an immediate identification of the well-known paired eigenvalue spectrum describing a molecule in the isolated state. Recognizing the Hamiltonian structure underlying the equations further enables a generalization to the case of a polarizable-embedded molecule treated in variational and, in particular, in non-variational theories.

  20. Linear response to long wavelength fluctuations using curvature simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldauf, Tobias; Seljak, Uroš; Senatore, Leonardo; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2016-09-01

    We study the local response to long wavelength fluctuations in cosmological N-body simulations, focusing on the matter and halo power spectra, halo abundance and non-linear transformations of the density field. The long wavelength mode is implemented using an effective curved cosmology and a mapping of time and distances. The method provides an alternative, more direct, way to measure the isotropic halo biases. Limiting ourselves to the linear case, we find generally good agreement between the biases obtained from the curvature method and the traditional power spectrum method at the level of a few percent. We also study the response of halo counts to changes in the variance of the field and find that the slope of the relation between the responses to density and variance differs from the naïve derivation assuming a universal mass function by approximately 8–20%. This has implications for measurements of the amplitude of local non-Gaussianity using scale dependent bias. We also analyze the halo power spectrum and halo-dark matter cross-spectrum response to long wavelength fluctuations and derive second order halo bias from it, as well as the super-sample variance contribution to the galaxy power spectrum covariance matrix.

  1. Development of experimental verification techniques for non-linear deformation and fracture on the nanometer scale.

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, Neville Reid; Bahr, David F.

    2005-11-01

    This work covers three distinct aspects of deformation and fracture during indentations. In particular, we develop an approach to verification of nanoindentation induced film fracture in hard film/soft substrate systems; we examine the ability to perform these experiments in harsh environments; we investigate the methods by which the resulting deformation from indentation can be quantified and correlated to computational simulations, and we examine the onset of plasticity during indentation testing. First, nanoindentation was utilized to induce fracture of brittle thin oxide films on compliant substrates. During the indentation, a load is applied and the penetration depth is continuously measured. A sudden discontinuity, indicative of film fracture, was observed upon the loading portion of the load-depth curve. The mechanical properties of thermally grown oxide films on various substrates were calculated using two different numerical methods. The first method utilized a plate bending approach by modeling the thin film as an axisymmetric circular plate on a compliant foundation. The second method measured the applied energy for fracture. The crack extension force and applied stress intensity at fracture was then determined from the energy measurements. Secondly, slip steps form on the free surface around indentations in most crystalline materials when dislocations reach the free surface. Analysis of these slip steps provides information about the deformation taking place in the material. Techniques have now been developed to allow for accurate and consistent measurement of slip steps and the effects of crystal orientation and tip geometry are characterized. These techniques will be described and compared to results from dislocation dynamics simulations.

  2. Linear-scaling time-dependent density-functional theory in the linear response formalism.

    PubMed

    Zuehlsdorff, T J; Hine, N D M; Spencer, J S; Harrison, N M; Riley, D J; Haynes, P D

    2013-08-14

    We present an implementation of time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) in the linear response formalism enabling the calculation of low energy optical absorption spectra for large molecules and nanostructures. The method avoids any explicit reference to canonical representations of either occupied or virtual Kohn-Sham states and thus achieves linear-scaling computational effort with system size. In contrast to conventional localised orbital formulations, where a single set of localised functions is used to span the occupied and unoccupied state manifold, we make use of two sets of in situ optimised localised orbitals, one for the occupied and one for the unoccupied space. This double representation approach avoids known problems of spanning the space of unoccupied Kohn-Sham states with a minimal set of localised orbitals optimised for the occupied space, while the in situ optimisation procedure allows for efficient calculations with a minimal number of functions. The method is applied to a number of medium sized organic molecules and a good agreement with traditional TDDFT methods is observed. Furthermore, linear scaling of computational cost with system size is demonstrated on (10,0) carbon nanotubes of different lengths. PMID:23947840

  3. Linearity of Climate Response to Increases in Black Carbon Aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Mahajan, Salil; Evans, Katherine J.; Hack, James J.; Truesdale, John

    2013-04-19

    The impact of absorbing aerosols on global climate are not completely understood. Here, we present results of idealized experiments conducted with the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM4) coupled to a slab ocean model (CAM4-SOM) to simulate the climate response to increases in tropospheric black carbon aerosols (BC) by direct and semi-direct effects. CAM4-SOM was forced with 0, 1x, 2x, 5x and 10x an estimate of the present day concentration of BC while maintaining their estimated present day global spatial and vertical distribution. The top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiative forcing of BC in these experiments is positive (warming) and increases linearly as the BC burden increases. The total semi-direct effect for the 1x experiment is positive but becomes increasingly negative for higher BC concentrations. The global average surface temperature response is found to be a linear function of the TOA radiative forcing. The climate sensitivity to BC from these experiments is estimated to be 0.42 K $ W^{-1} m^{2}$ when the semi-direct effects are accounted for and 0.22 K $ W^{-1} m^{2}$ with only the direct effects considered. Global average precipitation decreases linearly as BC increases, with a precipitation sensitivity to atmospheric absorption of 0.4 $\\%$ $W^{-1}m^{2}$ . The hemispheric asymmetry of BC also causes an increase in southward cross-equatorial heat transport and a resulting northward shift of the inter-tropical convergence zone in the simulations at a rate of 4$^{\\circ}$N $ PW^{-1}$. Global average mid- and high-level clouds decrease, whereas the low-level clouds increase linearly with BC. The increase in marine stratocumulus cloud fraction over the south tropical Atlantic is caused by increased BC-induced diabatic heating of the free troposphere.

  4. The Exact Solution for Linear Thermoelastic Axisymmetric Deformations of Generally Laminated Circular Cylindrical Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Michael P.; Schultz, Marc R.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed exact solution is presented for laminated-composite circular cylinders with general wall construction and that undergo axisymmetric deformations. The overall solution is formulated in a general, systematic way and is based on the solution of a single fourth-order, nonhomogeneous ordinary differential equation with constant coefficients in which the radial displacement is the dependent variable. Moreover, the effects of general anisotropy are included and positive-definiteness of the strain energy is used to define uniquely the form of the basis functions spanning the solution space of the ordinary differential equation. Loading conditions are considered that include axisymmetric edge loads, surface tractions, and temperature fields. Likewise, all possible axisymmetric boundary conditions are considered. Results are presented for five examples that demonstrate a wide range of behavior for specially orthotropic and fully anisotropic cylinders.

  5. Deformation Response of Unsymmetrically Laminated Plates Subjected to Inplane Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ochinero, Tomoya T.; Hyer, Michael W.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the out-of-plane deformation behavior of unsymmetric cross-ply composite plates compressed inplane by displacing one edge of the plate a known amount. The plates are assumed to be initially flat and several boundary conditions are considered. Geometrically nonlinear behavior is assumed. The primary objectives are to study the out-of-plane behavior as a function of increasing inplane compression and to determine if bifurcation behavior and secondary buckling can occur. It is shown that, depending on the boundary conditions, both can occur, though the characteristics are different than the pre and post-buckling behavior of a companion symmetric cross-ply plate. Furthermore, while a symmetric cross-ply plate can postbuckle with either a positive or negative out-of-plane displacement, the unsymmetric cross-ply plates studied deflect out-of-plane only in one direction throughout the range of inplane compression, the direction again depending on the boundary conditions

  6. Scaling the Non-linear Impact Response of Flat and Curved Composite Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambur, Damodar R.; Chunchu, Prasad B.; Rose, Cheryl A.; Feraboli, Paolo; Jackson, Wade C.

    2005-01-01

    The application of scaling laws to thin flat and curved composite panels exhibiting nonlinear response when subjected to low-velocity transverse impact is investigated. Previous research has shown that the elastic impact response of structural configurations exhibiting geometrically linear response can be effectively scaled. In the present paper, a preliminary experimental study is presented to assess the applicability of the scaling laws to structural configurations exhibiting geometrically nonlinear deformations. The effect of damage on the scalability of the structural response characteristics, and the effect of scale on damage development are also investigated. Damage is evaluated using conventional methods including C-scan, specimen de-plying and visual inspection of the impacted panels. Coefficient of restitution and normalized contact duration are also used to assess the extent of damage. The results confirm the validity of the scaling parameters for elastic impacts. However, for the panels considered in the study, the extent and manifestation of damage do not scale according to the scaling laws. Furthermore, the results indicate that even though the damage does not scale, the overall panel response characteristics, as indicated by contact force profiles, do scale for some levels of damage.

  7. On nonlinear viscoelastic deformations: a reappraisal of Fung's quasi-linear viscoelastic model

    PubMed Central

    De Pascalis, Riccardo; Abrahams, I. David; Parnell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers a reappraisal of Fung's model for quasi-linear viscoelasticity. It is shown that a number of negative features exhibited in other works, commonly attributed to the Fung approach, are merely a consequence of the way it has been applied. The approach outlined herein is shown to yield improved behaviour and offers a straightforward scheme for solving a wide range of models. Results from the new model are contrasted with those in the literature for the case of uniaxial elongation of a bar: for an imposed stretch of an incompressible bar and for an imposed load. In the latter case, a numerical solution to a Volterra integral equation is required to obtain the results. This is achieved by a high-order discretization scheme. Finally, the stretch of a compressible viscoelastic bar is determined for two distinct materials: Horgan–Murphy and Gent. PMID:24910527

  8. Nonequilibrium thermal transport and its relation to linear response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karrasch, C.; Ilan, R.; Moore, J. E.

    2013-11-01

    We study the real-time dynamics of spin chains driven out of thermal equilibrium by an initial temperature gradient TL≠TR using density matrix renormalization group methods. We demonstrate that the nonequilibrium energy current saturates fast to a finite value if the linear-response thermal conductivity is infinite, i.e., if the Drude weight D is nonzero. Our data suggest that a nonintegrable dimerized chain might support such dissipationless transport (D>0). We show that the steady-state value JE of the current for arbitrary TL≠TR is of the functional form JE=f(TL)-f(TR), i.e., it is completely determined by the linear conductance. We argue for this functional form, which is essentially a Stefan-Boltzmann law in this integrable model; for the XXX ferromagnet, f can be computed via the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz in good agreement with the numerics. Inhomogeneous systems exhibiting different bulk parameters as well as Luttinger liquid boundary physics induced by single impurities are discussed briefly.

  9. Finite orbit energetic particle linear response to toroidal Alfven eigenmodes

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, H.L.; Ye, Huanchun . Inst. for Fusion Studies); Breizman, B.N. . Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    1991-07-01

    The linear response of energetic particles to the TAE modes is calculated taking into account their finite orbit excursion from the flux surfaces. The general expression reproduces the previously derived theory for small banana width: when the banana width {triangle}{sub b} is much larger than the mode thickness {triangle}{sub m}, we obtain a new compact expression for the linear power transfer. When {triangle}{sub m}/{triangle}{sub b} {much lt} 1, the banana orbit effect reduces the power transfer by a factor of {triangle}{sub m}/{triangle}{sub b} from that predicted by the narrow orbit theory. A comparison is made of the contribution to the TAE growth rate of energetic particles with a slowing-down distribution arising from an isotropic source, and a balance-injected beam source when the source speed is close to the Alfven speed. For the same stored energy density, the contribution from the principal resonances ({vert bar}{upsilon}{sub {parallel}}{vert bar} = {upsilon}{sub A} is substantially enhanced in the beam case compared to the isotropic case, while the contribution at the higher sidebands ({vert bar}{upsilon}{sub {parallel}}{vert bar}) = {upsilon}{sub A}/(2{ell} {minus} 1) with {ell} {ge} 2) is substantially reduced. 10 refs.

  10. Geyser periodicity and the response of geysers to deformation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, S.E.; Rojstaczer, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    Numerical simulations of multiphase fluid and heat transport through a porous medium define combinations of rock properties and boundary conditions which lead to geyser-like periodic discharge. Within the rather narrow range of conditions that allow geyser-like behavior, eruption frequency and discharge are highly sensitive to the intrinsic permeabilities of the geyser conduit and the surrounding rock matrix, to the relative permeability functions assumed, and to pressure gradients in the matrix. In theory, heats pipes (concomitant upward flow of steam and downward flow of liquid) can exist under similar conditions, but our simulations suggest that the periodic solution is more stable. Simulated time series of geyser discharge are chaotic, but integrated quantities such as eruption frequency and mass discharge per eruption are free of chaos. These results may explain the observed sensitivity of natural geysers to small strains such as those caused by remote earthquakes, if ground motion is sufficient to induce permeability changes. Changes in geyser behavior caused by minor preseismic deformation, periodic surface loading, and Earth tides are more difficult to explain in the context of our current model. Copyright 1996 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. Linear versus nonlinear response of a forced wave turbulence system.

    PubMed

    Cadot, Olivier; Touzé, Cyril; Boudaoud, Arezki

    2010-10-01

    A vibrating plate is set into a chaotic state of wave turbulence by a forcing having periodic and random components. Both components are weighted in order to explore continuously intermediate forcing from the periodic to the random one, but keeping constant its rms value. The transverse velocity of the plate is measured at the application point of the force. It is found that whatever the detail of the forcing is, the velocity spectra exhibit a universal cascade for frequencies larger than the forcing frequency range. In contrast, the velocity spectra strongly depend on the nature of the forcing within the range of forcing frequencies. The coherence function is used to extract the contribution of the velocity fluctuations that display a linear relationship with the forcing. The nonlinear contribution to the velocity fluctuations is found to be almost constant, about 55% of the total velocity fluctuations whatever the nature of the forcing from random to periodic. On the other hand, the nonlinear contribution to the fluctuations of the injected power depends on the nature of the forcing; it is significantly larger for the periodic forcing (60%) and decreases continuously as the randomness is increased, reaching a value of 40% for the pure random forcing. For all the cases of intermediate forcing from random to periodic, a simple model of the velocity response recovers in a fairly good agreement the probability density function of the injected power. The consequence of the existence of a linear-response component is discussed in the context of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem validation in experiments of out-of-equilibrium systems. PMID:21230369

  12. Comparison of thermomechanical calculations for highly non-linear quasistatic drift deformations

    SciTech Connect

    Wayland, J.R.; Bertholf, L.D.

    1980-07-01

    Results of code calculations for the November 14, 1979, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Code Benchmark Workshop are compared. The results from five different codes (COUPLEFLO, JAC, SANCHO, SPECTROM, and STEALTH) are given for a problem involving the creep closure of an underground drift. The basic features of the codes are summarized and the codes are evaluated in terms of their applicability to WIPP problems. The codes predicted essentially the same response for this problem, and they appear to be nearly equally applicable to problems of this type. Also, a new benchmark problem is suggested along with a more realistic creep model for bedded salt.

  13. Responses of proteins to different ionic environment are linearly interrelated.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Luisa A; Madeira, Pedro P; Uversky, Alexey V; Uversky, Vladimir N; Zaslavsky, Boris Y

    2015-03-27

    Protein partitioning in aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) is widely used as a convenient, inexpensive, and readily scaled-up separation technique. Protein partition behavior in ATPS is known to be readily manipulated by ionic composition. However, the available data on the effects of salts and buffer concentrations on protein partitioning are very limited. To fill this gap, partitioning of 15 proteins was examined in dextran-poly(ethylene glycol) ATPSs with different salt additives (Na2SO4, NaClO4, NaSCN, CsCl) in 0.11 M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.4. This analysis reveals that there is a linear relationship between the logarithms of the protein partition coefficients determined in the presence of different salts. This relationship suggests that the protein response to ionic environment is determined by the protein structure and type and concentrations of the ions present. Analysis of the differences between protein structures (described in terms of proteins responses to different salts) and that of cytochrome c chosen as a reference showed that the peculiarities of the protein surface structure and B-factor used as a measure of the protein flexibility are the determining parameters. Our results provide better insight into the use of different salts in manipulating protein partitioning in aqueous two-phase systems. These data also demonstrate that the protein responses to different ionic environments are interrelated and are determined by the structural peculiarities of protein surface. It is suggested that changes in ionic microenvironment of proteins may regulate protein transport and behavior in biological systems. PMID:25708470

  14. Superimposed linear psoriasis: differential therapeutic response of linear and nonlinear lesions.

    PubMed

    Seitz, C S; Garbaraviciene, J; Bröcker, E-B; Hamm, H

    2009-07-01

    Linear psoriasis is a very unusual clinical variation of psoriasis. Typical clinical features include early onset of erythematosquamous lesions along Blaschko's lines, ability to elicit psoriatic features, absence of pruritus and positive family history for psoriasis. Recently, the term 'superimposed linear psoriasis' was coined for cases with development of nonlinear psoriatic lesions at predilection sites in later life. We report a 19-year-old woman meeting all criteria for the diagnosis of superimposed linear psoriasis including typical histological features. Remarkably, treatment with topical steroids and dithranol cleared the psoriatic lesions on predilection sites whereas the linear lesions were resistant to topical therapy. Linear psoriatic lesions are believed to be caused by genetic alterations in early embryogenesis leading to loss of heterozygosity at a gene locus involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Comparison of mosaic keratinocytes derived from linear lesions with wild-type keratinocytes from the same person may therefore allow identification of key regulatory genes. PMID:19094135

  15. Design of polarization-dependent, flexural-torsional deformation in photo responsive liquid crystalline polymer networks.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew L; Lee, Kyung Min; White, Timothy J; Vaia, Richard A

    2014-03-01

    Light responsive materials that exhibit wirelessly actuated, multidimensional deformation are excellent candidates for programmable matter applications such as morphing structures or soft robotics. A central challenge to designing adaptive structures from these materials is the ability accurately predict three dimensional deformations. Previous modeling efforts have focused almost exclusively on pure bending. Herein we examine key material parameters affecting light driven flexural-torsional response in azobenzene functionalized liquid crystal polymer networks. We show that a great deal of control can be obtained by specifying material alignment and actuating the material with polarized light. Insight gained from the theoretical framework here lays the foundation for more extensive modeling efforts to combine polarization controlled flexural-torsional deformations with complex geometry, boundary conditions, and loading conditions. PMID:24651881

  16. Dynamic Deformation Response of Maraging Steel Hollow Sphere and Aluminum Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Gregory; Scripka, David; Welchel, Ricky; Cochran, Joe; Sanders, Tom; Thadhani, Naresh

    2011-06-01

    The dynamic deformation response of a light-weight composite system consisting of maraging steel hollow spheres in an aluminum matrix is investigated. The composite system made by in-filtrating aluminum alloy melt around the high strength and toughness maraging steel hollow spheres, enables design of a light-weight energy-absorbing structural material. Rod-on-anvil Taylor impact tests are conducted to study the behavior of the composite material under uniaxial stress loading. The transient deformation states are captured using high-speed digital imaging for correlation with AUTODYN simulations. The recovered impacted samples are characterized using microscopy to determine the deformation response of the hollow spheres and the influence of the matrix-sphere interface on the overall properties of the composite material.

  17. Linear plasma response, electrostatic fluctuations and Thomson scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozmus, Wojciech; Zheng, Zhen; Bychenkov, Valery Yu.; Brantov, Andrei V.

    2011-10-01

    Our nonlocal and nonstationary transport theory provides a method of solution of the initial value problem for the full set of linearized Fokker-Planck kinetic equations with Landau collision operators. The closure relations reduce the problem of finding particle distribution functions to the solution of the close set of fluid equations. This has been recently realized for the electron-ion plasma in the entire range of plasma collisionality. No particular choice of the initial distribution function is necessary to derive the longitudinal plasma susceptibility from the full set of kinetic equations. We will discuss new complete results for in electron-ion plasmas. The full description of the longitudinal plasma response is used in the derivation of damping and dispersion relations for electrostatic fluctuations such as Langmuir waves, ion-acoustic and entropy modes. Particle collision effects are rigorously accounted for. The Onsager's regression of fluctuations method is applied to derive dynamical form factor S(k,w) and Thomson scattering (TS) cross-section from the set of fluid equations. We will discuss application of the nonlocal hydrodynamics to the derivation of S(k,w). In particular, we will examine the importance of an entropy mode peak as the direct measure of ion temperature in TS experiments.

  18. Patient-specific non-linear finite element modelling for predicting soft organ deformation in real-time: application to non-rigid neuroimage registration.

    PubMed

    Wittek, Adam; Joldes, Grand; Couton, Mathieu; Warfield, Simon K; Miller, Karol

    2010-12-01

    Long computation times of non-linear (i.e. accounting for geometric and material non-linearity) biomechanical models have been regarded as one of the key factors preventing application of such models in predicting organ deformation for image-guided surgery. This contribution presents real-time patient-specific computation of the deformation field within the brain for six cases of brain shift induced by craniotomy (i.e. surgical opening of the skull) using specialised non-linear finite element procedures implemented on a graphics processing unit (GPU). In contrast to commercial finite element codes that rely on an updated Lagrangian formulation and implicit integration in time domain for steady state solutions, our procedures utilise the total Lagrangian formulation with explicit time stepping and dynamic relaxation. We used patient-specific finite element meshes consisting of hexahedral and non-locking tetrahedral elements, together with realistic material properties for the brain tissue and appropriate contact conditions at the boundaries. The loading was defined by prescribing deformations on the brain surface under the craniotomy. Application of the computed deformation fields to register (i.e. align) the preoperative and intraoperative images indicated that the models very accurately predict the intraoperative deformations within the brain. For each case, computing the brain deformation field took less than 4 s using an NVIDIA Tesla C870 GPU, which is two orders of magnitude reduction in computation time in comparison to our previous study in which the brain deformation was predicted using a commercial finite element solver executed on a personal computer. PMID:20868706

  19. Modeling and Simulation of the Impact Response of Filled and Unfilled Linear Cellular Alloys for Structural Energetic Material Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakus, Adam; Fredenburg, Anthony; Thadhani, Naresh

    2008-04-01

    We are investigating the mechanics of impact-induced stress transfer between a linear cellular alloy (LCA) and a reactive filler to determine the effect of cell geometry on deformation and fragmentation. LCAs are honeycomb structures made of maraging steel, and provide structural integrity for the reactive filler such as a powder mixture of Ta+Fe2O3. 3-D computations are used to determine stress and strain distributions in both filled and unfilled LCAs during impact. The strength and failure models used for maraging steel and the response of Ta+Fe2O3 are validated through experiment. The failure response of three different geometries: 9-cell, pie, and reinforced pie, are compared with the response of a hollow cylinder, for impact velocities of 100, 200, and 300 m/s. Unfilled, the cylindrical geometry provides the least resistance to deformation and fragmentation, while the reinforced pie LCA provides the most resistance. Understanding of the mechanics of deformation and failure is used to determine the most effective geometry for stress transfer to the filler.

  20. The deformation and failure response of closed-cell PMDI foams subjected to dynamic impact loading

    SciTech Connect

    Koohbor, Behrad; Mallon, Silas; Kidane, Addis; Lu, Wei -Yang

    2015-04-07

    The present work aims to investigate the bulk deformation and failure response of closed-cell Polymeric Methylene Diphenyl Diisocyanate (PMDI) foams subjected to dynamic impact loading. First, foam specimens of different initial densities are examined and characterized in quasi-static loading conditions, where the deformation behavior of the samples is quantified in terms of the compressive elastic modulus and effective plastic Poisson's ratio. Then, the deformation response of the foam specimens subjected to direct impact loading is examined by taking into account the effects of material compressibility and inertia stresses developed during deformation, using high speed imaging in conjunction with 3D digital image correlation. The stress-strain response and the energy absorption as a function of strain rate and initial density are presented and the bulk failure mechanisms are discussed. As a result, it is observed that the initial density of the foam and the applied strain rates have a substantial influence on the strength, bulk failure mechanism and the energy dissipation characteristics of the foam specimens.

  1. The deformation and failure response of closed-cell PMDI foams subjected to dynamic impact loading

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Koohbor, Behrad; Mallon, Silas; Kidane, Addis; Lu, Wei -Yang

    2015-04-07

    The present work aims to investigate the bulk deformation and failure response of closed-cell Polymeric Methylene Diphenyl Diisocyanate (PMDI) foams subjected to dynamic impact loading. First, foam specimens of different initial densities are examined and characterized in quasi-static loading conditions, where the deformation behavior of the samples is quantified in terms of the compressive elastic modulus and effective plastic Poisson's ratio. Then, the deformation response of the foam specimens subjected to direct impact loading is examined by taking into account the effects of material compressibility and inertia stresses developed during deformation, using high speed imaging in conjunction with 3D digitalmore » image correlation. The stress-strain response and the energy absorption as a function of strain rate and initial density are presented and the bulk failure mechanisms are discussed. As a result, it is observed that the initial density of the foam and the applied strain rates have a substantial influence on the strength, bulk failure mechanism and the energy dissipation characteristics of the foam specimens.« less

  2. The Effect of Crosslinking on the Microscale Stress Response and Molecular Deformations in Actin Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurmessa, Bekele; Fitzpatrick, Robert; Valdivia, Jonathon; Anderson, Rae M. R.

    Actin, the most abundant protein in eukaryotic cells, is a semi-flexible biopolymer in the cytoskeleton that plays a crucial structural and mechanical role in cell stability, motion and replication, as well as muscle contraction. Most of these mechanically driven structural changes in cells stem from the complex viscoelastic nature of entangled actin networks and the presence of a myriad of proteins that cross-link actin filaments. Despite their importance, the mechanical response of actin networks is not yet well understood, particularly at the molecular level. Here, we use optical trapping - coupled with fluorescence microscopy - to characterize the microscale stress response and induced filament deformations in entangled and cross-linked actin networks subject to localized mechanical perturbations. In particular, we actively drive a microsphere 10 microns through an entangled or cross- linked actin network at a constant speed and measure the resistive force that the deformed actin filaments exert on the bead during and following strain. We simultaneously visualize and track individual sparsely-labeled actin filaments to directly link force response to molecular deformations, and map the propagation of the initially localized perturbation field throughout the rest of the network (~100 um). By varying the concentration of actin and cross-linkers we directly determine the role of crosslinking and entanglements on the length and time scales of stress propagation, molecular deformation and relaxation mechanisms in actin networks.

  3. Viscoelastoplastic Deformation and Damage Response of Titanium Alloy, Ti-6Al-4V, at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Lerch, Bradley A.; Saleeb, Atef F.; Kasemer, Matthew P.

    2013-01-01

    Time-dependent deformation and damage behavior can significantly affect the life of aerospace propulsion components. Consequently, one needs an accurate constitutive model that can represent both reversible and irreversible behavior under multiaxial loading conditions. This paper details the characterization and utilization of a multi-mechanism constitutive model of the GVIPS class (Generalized Viscoplastic with Potential Structure) that has been extended to describe the viscoelastoplastic deformation and damage of the titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V. Associated material constants were characterized at five elevated temperatures where viscoelastoplastic behavior was observed, and at three elevated temperatures where damage (of both the stiffness reduction and strength reduction type) was incurred. Experimental data from a wide variety of uniaxial load cases were used to correlate and validate the proposed GVIPS model. Presented are the optimized material parameters, and the viscoelastoplastic deformation and damage responses at the various temperatures.

  4. Broadband linear and nonlinear optical response of plasmonic quasicrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravishankar, Ajith P.; Yallapragada, V. J.; Kasture, S.; Nagarajan, Arvind; Achanta, Venu Gopal

    2016-05-01

    Plasmonic quasicrystals with 5-fold rotation symmetry are shown to offer broadband transmission enhancement. The observed linear transmission enhancement leads to broadband second harmonic generation in a wide incident angle range contrary to unpatterned gold film. From the measured linear and harmonic transmitted powers, we estimate the 2nd order susceptibility values in the 760-840 nm range.

  5. Deformation partitioning during transpression in response to Early Devonian oblique convergence, northern Appalachian orogen, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solar, Gary S.; Brown, Michael

    2001-06-01

    Transpressive deformation was distributed heterogeneously within the Central Maine belt shear zone system, which formed in response to Early Devonian oblique convergence during the Acadian orogeny in the northern Appalachians. 'Straight' belts are characterized by tight folds, S>L fabrics and sub-parallel form lines, and asymmetric structures that together indicate dextral-SE-side-up kinematics. In contrast, intervening zones between 'straight' belts are characterized by open folds and L≫S fabrics. Within both types of zone, metasedimentary rocks have fabrics defined by the same minerals at the same metamorphic grade, including a penetrative, moderately to steeply NE-plunging mineral lineation. Thus, we interpret accumulation of plastic deformation and regional metamorphic (re-) crystallization to have been synchronous across the Central Maine belt shear zone system. Discordance between inclusion trails in regionally developed porphyroblasts of garnet and staurolite and matrix fabrics in 'straight' belt rocks records shortening by tightening of folds and greater reorientation of matrix fabrics with respect to porphyroblasts. Kinematic partitioning of flow was responsible for the contrasting states of finite deformation recorded in the Central Maine belt shear zone system. Perturbations in the flow were caused by serially developed thrust-ramp anticlines in the stratigraphic succession immediately above the Avalon-like basement, at which décollement of the shear zone system was initially rooted. General shear deformation at the ramps involved strain softening with an enhanced component of noncoaxial flow. In contrast, deformation during extrusion in the intervening zones involved strain hardening with a greater component of coaxial flow. Part of the thickening stratigraphic succession exceeded Tsolidus, reflected by the occurrence of migmatites and granites. The latter were partly sourced from the underlying Avalon-like basement that was involved in the

  6. Thermally-induced structural dynamic response of flexural configurations influenced by linear/non-linear thermal effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namburu, Raju R.; Tamma, Kumar K.

    1991-01-01

    The thermally-induced strucural dynamic response of flexural configurations influenced by linear/nonlinear thermal effects is presented in conjunction with 'unified' transient approaches for effectively tackling this class of interdisciplinary problems. For illustrative purposes, the flexural structural models are assumed to be of the Euler-Bernoulli type. The purpose of the present paper is to not only provide an understanding of the influence of general linear/nonlinear thermal effects on flexural configurations, but also to provide to the analyst effective computational tools which help preserve a unified technology for the interdisciplinary areas encompassing structural mechanics/dynamics and thermal sciences. Several numerical test models illustrate the representative thermally-induced structural dynamic response of flexural configurations subjected to general linear/nonlinear temperature effects.

  7. Linear optical response of carbon nanotubes under axial magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradian, Rostam; Chegel, Raad; Behzad, Somayeh

    2010-04-01

    We considered single walled carbon naotubes (SWCNTs) as real three dimensional (3D) systems in a cylindrical coordinate. The optical matrix elements and linear susceptibility, χ(ω), in the tight binding approximation in terms of one-dimensional wave vector, kz and subband index, l are calculated. In an external axial magnetic field optical frequency dependence of linear susceptibility are investigated. We found that axial magnetic field has two effects on the imaginary part of the linear susceptibility spectrum, in agreement with experimental results. The first effect is broadening and the second, splitting. Also we found that for all metallic zigzag and armchair SWCNTs, the axial magnetic field leads to the creation of a peak with energy less than 1.5 eV, contrary to what is observed in the absence of a magnetic field.

  8. Non-linear magnetohydrodynamic modeling of plasma response to resonant magnetic perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orain, F.; Bécoulet, M.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Huijsmans, G.; Pamela, S.; Nardon, E.; Passeron, C.; Latu, G.; Grandgirard, V.; Fil, A.; Ratnani, A.; Chapman, I.; Kirk, A.; Thornton, A.; Hoelzl, M.; Cahyna, P.

    2013-10-01

    The interaction of static Resonant Magnetic Perturbations (RMPs) with the plasma flows is modeled in toroidal geometry, using the non-linear resistive MHD code JOREK, which includes the X-point and the scrape-off-layer. Two-fluid diamagnetic effects, the neoclassical poloidal friction and a source of toroidal rotation are introduced in the model to describe realistic plasma flows. RMP penetration is studied taking self-consistently into account the effects of these flows and the radial electric field evolution. JET-like, MAST, and ITER parameters are used in modeling. For JET-like parameters, three regimes of plasma response are found depending on the plasma resistivity and the diamagnetic rotation: at high resistivity and slow rotation, the islands generated by the RMPs at the edge resonant surfaces rotate in the ion diamagnetic direction and their size oscillates. At faster rotation, the generated islands are static and are more screened by the plasma. An intermediate regime with static islands which slightly oscillate is found at lower resistivity. In ITER simulations, the RMPs generate static islands, which forms an ergodic layer at the very edge (ψ ≥0.96) characterized by lobe structures near the X-point and results in a small strike point splitting on the divertor targets. In MAST Double Null Divertor geometry, lobes are also found near the X-point and the 3D-deformation of the density and temperature profiles is observed.

  9. Non-linear magnetohydrodynamic modeling of plasma response to resonant magnetic perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Orain, F.; Bécoulet, M.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Nardon, E.; Passeron, C.; Latu, G.; Grandgirard, V.; Fil, A.; Ratnani, A.; Huijsmans, G.; Pamela, S.; Chapman, I.; Kirk, A.; Thornton, A.; Cahyna, P.

    2013-10-15

    The interaction of static Resonant Magnetic Perturbations (RMPs) with the plasma flows is modeled in toroidal geometry, using the non-linear resistive MHD code JOREK, which includes the X-point and the scrape-off-layer. Two-fluid diamagnetic effects, the neoclassical poloidal friction and a source of toroidal rotation are introduced in the model to describe realistic plasma flows. RMP penetration is studied taking self-consistently into account the effects of these flows and the radial electric field evolution. JET-like, MAST, and ITER parameters are used in modeling. For JET-like parameters, three regimes of plasma response are found depending on the plasma resistivity and the diamagnetic rotation: at high resistivity and slow rotation, the islands generated by the RMPs at the edge resonant surfaces rotate in the ion diamagnetic direction and their size oscillates. At faster rotation, the generated islands are static and are more screened by the plasma. An intermediate regime with static islands which slightly oscillate is found at lower resistivity. In ITER simulations, the RMPs generate static islands, which forms an ergodic layer at the very edge (ψ≥0.96) characterized by lobe structures near the X-point and results in a small strike point splitting on the divertor targets. In MAST Double Null Divertor geometry, lobes are also found near the X-point and the 3D-deformation of the density and temperature profiles is observed.

  10. Simulating Thermal Cycling and Isothermal Deformation Response of Polycrystalline NiTi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manchiraju, Sivom; Gaydosh, Darrell J.; Noebe, Ronald D.; Anderson, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    A microstructure-based FEM model that couples crystal plasticity, crystallographic descriptions of the B2-B19' martensitic phase transformation, and anisotropic elasticity is used to simulate thermal cycling and isothermal deformation in polycrystalline NiTi (49.9at% Ni). The model inputs include anisotropic elastic properties, polycrystalline texture, DSC data, and a subset of isothermal deformation and load-biased thermal cycling data. A key experimental trend is captured.namely, the transformation strain during thermal cycling is predicted to reach a peak with increasing bias stress, due to the onset of plasticity at larger bias stress. Plasticity induces internal stress that affects both thermal cycling and isothermal deformation responses. Affected thermal cycling features include hysteretic width, two-way shape memory effect, and evolution of texture with increasing bias stress. Affected isothermal deformation features include increased hardening during loading and retained martensite after unloading. These trends are not captured by microstructural models that lack plasticity, nor are they all captured in a robust manner by phenomenological approaches. Despite this advance in microstructural modeling, quantitative differences exist, such as underprediction of open loop strain during thermal cycling.

  11. Experimental and numerical studies of nonlinear ultrasonic responses on plastic deformation in weld joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan-Xun, Xiang; Wu-Jun, Zhu; Ming-Xi, Deng; Fu-Zhen, Xuan

    2016-02-01

    The experimental measurements and numerical simulations are performed to study ultrasonic nonlinear responses from the plastic deformation in weld joints. The ultrasonic nonlinear signals are measured in the plastic deformed 30Cr2Ni4MoV specimens, and the results show that the nonlinear parameter monotonically increases with the plastic strain, and that the variation of nonlinear parameter in the weld region is maximal compared with those in the heat-affected zone and base regions. Microscopic images relating to the microstructure evolution of the weld region are studied to reveal that the change of nonlinear parameter is mainly attributed to dislocation evolutions in the process of plastic deformation loading. Meanwhile, the finite element model is developed to investigate nonlinear behaviors of ultrasonic waves propagating in a plastic deformed material based on the nonlinear stress-strain constitutive relationship in a medium. Moreover, a pinned string model is adopted to simulate dislocation evolution during plastic damages. The simulation and experimental results show that they are in good consistency with each other, and reveal a rising acoustic nonlinearity due to the variations of dislocation length and density and the resulting stress concentration. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51325504, 11474093, and 11474361) and the Shanghai Rising-Star Program, China (Grant No. 14QA1401200).

  12. CFORM- LINEAR CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN AND ANALYSIS: CLOSED FORM SOLUTION AND TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF THE LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamison, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    CFORM was developed by the Kennedy Space Center Robotics Lab to assist in linear control system design and analysis using closed form and transient response mechanisms. The program computes the closed form solution and transient response of a linear (constant coefficient) differential equation. CFORM allows a choice of three input functions: the Unit Step (a unit change in displacement); the Ramp function (step velocity); and the Parabolic function (step acceleration). It is only accurate in cases where the differential equation has distinct roots, and does not handle the case for roots at the origin (s=0). Initial conditions must be zero. Differential equations may be input to CFORM in two forms - polynomial and product of factors. In some linear control analyses, it may be more appropriate to use a related program, Linear Control System Design and Analysis (KSC-11376), which uses root locus and frequency response methods. CFORM was written in VAX FORTRAN for a VAX 11/780 under VAX VMS 4.7. It has a central memory requirement of 30K. CFORM was developed in 1987.

  13. A single charge in the actin binding domain of fascin can independently tune the linear and non-linear response of an actin bundle network.

    PubMed

    Maier, M; Müller, K W; Heussinger, C; Köhler, S; Wall, W A; Bausch, A R; Lieleg, O

    2015-05-01

    Actin binding proteins (ABPs) not only set the structure of actin filament assemblies but also mediate the frequency-dependent viscoelastic moduli of cross-linked and bundled actin networks. Point mutations in the actin binding domain of those ABPs can tune the association and dissociation dynamics of the actin/ABP bond and thus modulate the network mechanics both in the linear and non-linear response regime. We here demonstrate how the exchange of a single charged amino acid in the actin binding domain of the ABP fascin triggers such a modulation of the network rheology. Whereas the overall structure of the bundle networks is conserved, the transition point from strain-hardening to strain-weakening sensitively depends on the cross-linker off-rate and the applied shear rate. Our experimental results are consistent both with numerical simulations of a cross-linked bundle network and a theoretical description of the bundle network mechanics which is based on non-affine bending deformations and force-dependent cross-link dynamics. PMID:26004635

  14. Micro-Structural Response of DP 600 to High Strain Rate Deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamburg, Brian; Schneider, Judy; Jones, Stanley E.

    2008-01-01

    The object of this study was to investigate the micro-structural response of DP 600 subjected to high strain rate, ballistic impact tests. The ballistic tests were conducted using normal impact of a hardened steel penetrator into a 2 mm thick sheet of DP 600. The average strain rates produced from this test method are on the order of 10(exp 5)/s. Electron microscopy was used to investigate the microstructure before and after high strain rate deformation. A variation in material response was observed between tests conducted at 0.8 x 105 and 25 x 10(exp 5)/s.

  15. Response of silicon-Based Linear Energy Transfer Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aman, A.; Bman, B.; Badhwar, G. D.; ONeill, P. M. O.

    2000-01-01

    Silicon-based linear energy transfer (LET) telescope,(e. g., DOSTEL and RRMD) have recently been flown in space. LET spectra measured using tissue equivalent proportional counters show differences that need to be fully understood. A Monte Carlo technique based on: 1. radiation transport cluster intra-cascade model. 2. Landau-Vavilov distribution, 3. telescope geometry and detector coincidence & discriminator settings, 4. spacecraft shielding geometry, and 5. the external free space radiation environment, including recent albedo measurements, was developed.

  16. The Simplest Complete Model of Choice Response Time: Linear Ballistic Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Scott D.; Heathcote, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    We propose a linear ballistic accumulator (LBA) model of decision making and reaction time. The LBA is simpler than other models of choice response time, with independent accumulators that race towards a common response threshold. Activity in the accumulators increases in a linear and deterministic manner. The simplicity of the model allows…

  17. The role of purinergic signaling on deformation induced injury and repair responses of alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Belete, Hewan A; Hubmayr, Rolf D; Wang, Shaohua; Singh, Raman-Deep

    2011-01-01

    Cell wounding is an important driver of the innate immune response of ventilator-injured lungs. We had previously shown that the majority of wounded alveolus resident cells repair and survive deformation induced insults. This is important insofar as wounded and repaired cells may contribute to injurious deformation responses commonly referred to as biotrauma. The central hypothesis of this communication states that extracellular adenosine-5' triphosphate (ATP) promotes the repair of wounded alveolus resident cells by a P2Y2-Receptor dependent mechanism. Using primary type 1 alveolar epithelial rat cell models subjected to micropuncture injury and/or deforming stress we show that 1) stretch causes a dose dependent increase in cell injury and ATP media concentrations; 2) enzymatic depletion of extracellular ATP reduces the probability of stretch induced wound repair; 3) enriching extracellular ATP concentrations facilitates wound repair; 4) purinergic effects on cell repair are mediated by ATP and not by one of its metabolites; and 5) ATP mediated cell salvage depends at least in part on P2Y2-R activation. While rescuing cells from wounding induced death may seem appealing, it is possible that survivors of membrane wounding become governors of a sustained pro-inflammatory state and thereby perpetuate and worsen organ function in the early stages of lung injury syndromes. Means to uncouple P2Y2-R mediated cytoprotection from P2Y2-R mediated inflammation and to test the preclinical efficacy of such an undertaking deserve to be explored. PMID:22087324

  18. The strain path dependence of plastic deformation response of AA5754: Experiment and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Pham, Minh-Son; Hu, Lin; Iadicola, Mark; Creuziger, Adam; Rollett, Anthony D.

    2013-12-16

    This work presents modeling of experiments on a balanced biaxial (BB) pre-strained AA5754 alloy, subsequently reloaded uniaxially along the rolling direction and transverse direction. The material exhibits a complex plastic deformation response during the change in strain path due to 1) crystallographic texture, 2) aging (interactions between dislocations and Mg atoms) and 3) recovery (annihilation and re-arrangement of dislocations). With a BB prestrain of about 5 %, the aging process is dominant, and the yield strength for uniaxially deformed samples is observed to be higher than the flow stress during BB straining. The strain hardening rate after changing path is, however, lower than that for pre-straining. Higher degrees of pre-straining make the dynamic recovery more active. The dynamic recovery at higher strain levels compensates for the aging effect, and results in: 1) a reduction of the yield strength, and 2) an increase in the hardening rate of re-strained specimens along other directions. The yield strength of deformed samples is further reduced if these samples are left at room temperature to let static recovery occur. The synergistic influences of texture condition, aging and recovery processes on the material response make the modeling of strain path dependence of mechanical behavior of AA5754 challenging. In this study, the influence of crystallographic texture is taken into account by incorporating the latent hardening into a visco-plastic self-consistent model. Different strengths of dislocation glide interaction models in 24 slip systems are used to represent the latent hardening. Moreover, the aging and recovery effects are also included into the latent hardening model by considering strong interactions between dislocations and dissolved atom Mg and the microstructural evolution. These microstructural considerations provide a powerful capability to successfully describe the strain path dependence of plastic deformation behavior of AA5754.

  19. The in vitro passive elastic response of chicken pectoralis muscle to applied tensile and compressive deformation.

    PubMed

    Mohammadkhah, Melika; Murphy, Paula; Simms, Ciaran K

    2016-09-01

    The mechanics of passive skeletal muscle are important in impact biomechanics, surgical simulation, and rehabilitation engineering. Existing data from porcine tissue has shown a significant tension/compression asymmetry, which is not captured by current constitutive modelling approaches using a single set of material parameters, and an adequate explanation for this effect remains elusive. In this paper, the passive elastic deformation properties of chicken pectoralis muscle are assessed for the first time, to provide deformation data on a skeletal muscle which is very different to porcine tissue. Uniaxial, quasi-static compression and tensile tests were performed on fresh chicken pectoralis muscle in the fibre and cross-fibre directions, and at 45° to the fibre direction. Results show that chicken muscle elastic behaviour is nonlinear and anisotropic. The tensile stress-stretch response is two orders of magnitude larger than in compression for all directions tested, which reflects the tension/compression asymmetry previously observed in porcine tissue. In compression the tissue is stiffest in the cross-fibre direction. However, tensile deformation applied at 45° gives the stiffest response, and this is different to previous findings relating to porcine tissue. Chicken muscle tissue is most compliant in the fibre direction for both tensile and compressive applied deformation. Generally, a small percentage of fluid exudation was observed in the compressive samples. In the future these data will be combined with microstructural analysis to assess the architectural basis for the tension/compression asymmetry now observed in two different species of skeletal muscle. PMID:27281164

  20. Response Characteristics of a Linear Rotorcraft Vibration Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunz, Donald L.

    1982-01-01

    A fully coupled vibration model, consisting of a rotor with only flapping degrees of freedom plus pylon and fuselage pitching motion, was used in a parametric study undertaken to investigate the response characteristics of a simplified helicopter. Among the parameters studied were uncoupled body frequency, blade stiffness, hinge offset, advance ratio, and mast height. Results from the harmonic balance solution of the equations of motion show how each of these quantities affects the response of the model. The results also indicate that there is a potential for reducing vibration response through the judicious definition of the design parameters.

  1. Linear Response Theory for Hard and Soft Glassy Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Langer, J.; Bouchbinder, Eran

    2011-01-01

    Despite qualitative differences in their underlying physics, both hard and soft glassy materials exhibit almost identical linear rheological behaviors. We show that these nearly universal properties emerge naturally in a shear-transformation-zone (STZ) theory of amorphous plasticity, extended to include a broad distribution of internal thermal-activation barriers. The principal features of this barrier distribution are predicted by nonequilibrium, effective-temperature thermodynamics. Our theoretical loss modulus G{double_prime}({omega}) has a peak at the {alpha} relaxation rate, and a power law decay of the form {omega}{sup -{zeta}} for higher frequencies, in quantitative agreement with experimental data.

  2. Linear response of doped graphene sheets to vector potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Principi, A.; Polini, Marco; Vignale, G.

    2009-08-01

    A two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions (MDFs) is a very useful model to describe low-energy electrons in monolayer graphene. Because the MDF current operator is directly proportional to the (sublattice) pseudospin operator, the MDF current-current response function, which describes the response to a vector potential, happens to coincide with the pseudospin-pseudospin response function. In this work, we present analytical results for the wave vector- and frequency-dependent longitudinal and transverse pseudospin-pseudospin response functions of noninteracting MDFs. The transverse response in the static limit is then used to calculate the noninteracting orbital magnetic susceptibility. These results are a starting point for the construction of approximate pseudospin-pseudospin response functions that would take into account electron-electron interactions (for example at the random-phase-approximation level). They also constitute a very useful input for future applications of current-density-functional theory to graphene sheets subjected to time and spatially varying vector potentials.

  3. The stratospheric response to external factors based on MERRA data using linear multivariate linear regression analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozubek, M.; Rozanov, E.; Krizan, P.

    2014-09-01

    The stratosphere is influenced by many external forcings (natural or anthropogenic). There are many studies which are focused on this problem and that is why we can compare our results with them. This study is focused on the variability and trends of temperature and circulation characteristics (zonal and meridional wind component) in connection with different phenomena variation in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere. We consider the interactions between the troposphere-stratosphere-lower mesosphere system and external and internal phenomena, e.g. solar cycle, QBO, NAO or ENSO using multiple linear techniques. The analysis was applied to the period 1979-2012 based on the current reanalysis data, mainly the MERRA reanalysis dataset (Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications) for pressure levels: 1000-0.1 hPa. We do not find a strong temperature signal for solar flux over the tropics about 30 hPa (ERA-40 results) but the strong positive signal has been observed near stratopause almost in the whole analyzed area. This could indicate that solar forcing is not represented well in the higher pressure levels in MERRA. The analysis of ENSO and ENSO Modoki shows that we should take into account more than one ENSO index for similar analysis. Previous studies show that the volcanic activity is important parameter. The signal of volcanic activity in MERRA is very weak and insignificant.

  4. Item Response Theory Using Hierarchical Generalized Linear Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravand, Hamdollah

    2015-01-01

    Multilevel models (MLMs) are flexible in that they can be employed to obtain item and person parameters, test for differential item functioning (DIF) and capture both local item and person dependence. Papers on the MLM analysis of item response data have focused mostly on theoretical issues where applications have been add-ons to simulation…

  5. MODELING STREAM-AQUIFIER INTERACTIONS WITH LINEAR RESPONSE FUNCTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The problem of stream-aquifer interactions is pertinent to conjunctive-use management of water resources and riparian zone hydrology. Closed form solutions are derived for stream-aquifer interactions in rates and volumes expressed as convolution integrals of impulse response and ...

  6. Efficient Algorithms for Estimating the Absorption Spectrum within Linear Response TDDFT

    SciTech Connect

    Brabec, Jiri; Lin, Lin; Shao, Meiyue; Govind, Niranjan; Yang, Chao; Saad, Yousef; Ng, Esmond

    2015-10-06

    We present two iterative algorithms for approximating the absorption spectrum of molecules within linear response of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) framework. These methods do not attempt to compute eigenvalues or eigenvectors of the linear response matrix. They are designed to approximate the absorption spectrum as a function directly. They take advantage of the special structure of the linear response matrix. Neither method requires the linear response matrix to be constructed explicitly. They only require a procedure that performs the multiplication of the linear response matrix with a vector. These methods can also be easily modified to efficiently estimate the density of states (DOS) of the linear response matrix without computing the eigenvalues of this matrix. We show by computational experiments that the methods proposed in this paper can be much more efficient than methods that are based on the exact diagonalization of the linear response matrix. We show that they can also be more efficient than real-time TDDFT simulations. We compare the pros and cons of these methods in terms of their accuracy as well as their computational and storage cost.

  7. SU-E-J-148: Evaluating Tumor Response with a Commercially Available Deformable Registration System

    SciTech Connect

    Bowling, J; Ramsey, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to present a method for evaluating the response to treatment using a commercially available deformable image registration software package (Velocity Medical Systems) and repeat PET/CT imaging. This technique can be used to identify volumes that are risk for tumor recurrence. Methods: Response to treatment was evaluated using PET/CT images acquired prior-to and post-treatment for radiation therapy patients treated with concurrent chemotherapy. Velocity (Version 3.0.1) was used to deform the initial PET/CT to the post treatment PET/CT. The post-treatment PET images were then subtracted from the pre-treatment PET images. The resulting re-sampled image is a three-dimensional SUV difference map that shows pixels with increasing SUV values. SUV values increases greater than 2.5 in the post treatment images were identified for additional follow-up. Results: A total of 5 Lung patients were analyzed as part of this study. One lung patient in the cohort had an SUV increase of +3.28 that was identified using the SUV difference map. This volume of increased uptake was located outside the treatment field and adjacent to the 35 Gy isodose line. The remaining four patients all had SUV decreases inside the planning target volume, and no unexpected areas of increase outside the irradiated volumes. All five patients were analyzed using standard tools inside the Velocity application. Conclusion: The response to treatment can easily be measured using serial PET/CT images and a commercially available deformable image registration. This provides both the radiation oncologists and medical oncologists with a quantitative assessment of their treatment to use in patient follow-up.

  8. A novel method to characterize the elastic/plastic deformation response of thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Bourcier, R.J.; Sniegowski, J.J.; Porter, V.L.

    1996-07-01

    A novel experimental/numerical test method has been developed which allows accurate characterization of the elastic and large-strain plastic mechanical response of thin films. Silicon micromachining techniques have been used to fabricate isolated film features which are mechanically tested using our ultralow-load indentation test system. Macro-scale laboratory testing and finite element analysis were employed to optimize the design of the geometric feature used and to benchmark our analysis capabilities. A simple rigid-plastic geometric analysis of our test structure is developed and applied to the observed force-displacement response, allowing us to extract the uniaxial inelastic stress-strain response of micrometer-scale thin film structures. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the inelastic deformation behavior of metal alloy features of this size scale has been quantitatively determined.

  9. Critical scaling in linear response of frictionless granular packings near jamming.

    PubMed

    Ellenbroek, Wouter G; Somfai, Ellák; van Hecke, Martin; van Saarloos, Wim

    2006-12-22

    We study the origin of the scaling behavior in frictionless granular media above the jamming transition by analyzing their linear response. The response to local forcing is non-self-averaging and fluctuates over a length scale that diverges at the jamming transition. The response to global forcing becomes increasingly nonaffine near the jamming transition. This is due to the proximity of floppy modes, the influence of which we characterize by the local linear response. We show that the local response also governs the anomalous scaling of elastic constants and contact number. PMID:17280395

  10. Thermal shifts and intermittent linear response of aging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibani, Paolo; Christiansen, Simon

    2008-04-01

    At time t after an initial quench, an aging system responds to a perturbation turned on at time twresponse on the ratio t/tw . Further insight is obtained imposing small temperature steps, so-called T shifts. The average response as a function of t/tw,eff , where tw,eff is the effective age, is similar to the response of a system aged isothermally at the final temperature. Using an Ising model with plaquette interactions, the applicability of analytic formulas for the average isothermal magnetization is confirmed. The T -shifted aging behavior of the model is approximately described using effective ages. Large positive shifts nearly reset the effective age. Negative T shifts offer a more detailed probe of the dynamics. Assuming the marginal stability of the “current” attractor against thermal noise fluctuations, the scaling form tw,eff=twx and the dependence of the exponent x on the aging temperatures before and after the shift are theoretically available. The predicted form of x has no adjustable parameters. Both the algebraic scaling of the effective age and the form of the exponent reasonably agree with the data. The present simulations thus confirm the crucial role of marginal stability in glassy relaxation.

  11. Linear Ordinary Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients. Revisiting the Impulsive Response Method Using Factorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camporesi, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    We present an approach to the impulsive response method for solving linear constant-coefficient ordinary differential equations based on the factorization of the differential operator. The approach is elementary, we only assume a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. In particular, we avoid the use of distribution theory, as well as of…

  12. RESPONSE LINEARIZATION OF A DIODE DETECTOR TYPE RADIO FREQUENCY ELECTRIC FIELD PROBE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An EPROM-based linearization circuit with a resolution of 0.1 percent of full scale has been designed to linearize the response of an orthogonal dipole electric field probe terminated with diodes. Design approach, performance, and probe characteristics are discussed. The nonlinea...

  13. Experimental study on the dynamic response of in-plane deformation of dielectric elastomer under alternating electric load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Chen, Hualing; Sheng, Junjie; Zhang, Junshi; Wang, Yongquan; Jia, Shuhai

    2014-02-01

    Recently, dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) have garnered remarkable attention mainly due to their ability of large deformation. Previously, the dynamic responses of out-of-plane deformations of inflated and clamped dielectric elastomer (DE) membranes were experimentally investigated, and a quasi-static model of large deformation concerned with the configuration was derived. However, the research work on the time-varying response of in-plane deformation of DE is insufficient. In this paper, we studied the dynamic response of the in-plane deformation of a dielectric elastomer membrane under a pure-shear state. We experimentally analysed how this response was affected by the peak voltage, frequency, pre-stretching, and signal waveform. The deformation equilibrium position of the membrane drifted severely during vibration, which may be attributable to the high viscoelasticity of the membrane and may lead to issues when designing precise instruments. We also studied how the peak voltage, frequency, pre-stretching, and waveform affected this viscoelastic drifting.

  14. Research of dynamical Characteristics of slow deformation Waves as Massif Responses on Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachay, Olga; Khachay, Oleg; Shipeev, Oleg

    2013-04-01

    The research of massif state with use of approaches of open system theory [1-3] was developed for investigation the criterions of dissipation regimes for real rock massifs, which are under heavy man-caused influence. For realization of that research we used the data of seismic catalogue of Tashtagol mine. As a result of the analyze of that data we defined character morphology of phase trajectories of massif response, which was locally in time in a stable state: on the phase plane with coordinates released by the massif during the dynamic event energy E and lg(dE/dt) there is a local area as a ball of twisted trajectories and some not great bursts from that ball, which are not greater than 105 joules. In some time intervals that burst can be larger, than 105 joules, achieving 106 joules and yet 109 joules. [3]. Evidently there are two reciprocal depend processes: the energy accumulation in the attracted phase trajectories area and resonance fault of the accumulated energy. But after the fault the system returns again to the same attracted phase trajectories area. For analyzing of the thin structure of the chaotic area we decided to add the method of processing of the seismic monitoring data by new parameters. We shall consider each point of explosion as a source of seismic or deformation waves. Using the kinematic approach of seismic information processing we shall each point of the massif response use as a time point of the first arrival of the deformation wave for calculation of the wave velocity, because additionally we know the coordinates of the fixed response and the coordinates of explosion. The use of additional parameter-velocity of slow deformation wave propagation allowed us with use method of phase diagrams identify their hierarchic structure, which allow us to use that information for modeling and interpretation the propagation seismic and deformation waves in hierarchic structures. It is researched with use of that suggested processing method the thin

  15. Linear and nonlinear piezoelectric response of charged cellular polypropylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kressmann, Reiner

    2001-10-01

    Piezoelectricity in a charged cellular polypropylene, called EMFi, is investigated with respect to nonlinearities to explain the strong differences in longitudinal piezoelectric constants published in the literature and ranging from 90 to 250 pC/N. The inverse constant was measured interferometrically to be 90 pm/V. Quasistatic and dynamic measurements with small loads yielded the same value for the direct constant. The direct constant was also investigated with respect to large-signal behavior becoming noticeable at static and dynamic loads higher than 10 kPa. Both the quasistatic and the dynamic constant increase up to 130 pC/N at such loads. Furthermore, an additional resonance appears under strong loading in the range of about 10 Hz shifting down with increasing load. In addition, the piezoelectric constant increases also with increasing dynamic load under constant static load. The nonlinearity also results in the generation of harmonics. Finally, boundary effects can be detected if just a small area of the sample is loaded. This effect appearing mainly at frequencies below 20 Hz is attributed to airflow between the air bubbles. A load-dependent Young's modulus, mainly responsible for the nonlinear behavior, is calculated from the experiments. It diminishes from 2 to 1.5 MPa at a load of 60 kPa.

  16. An implicit three-dimensional model for describing the inelastic response of solids undergoing finite deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopal, K. R.; Srinivasa, A. R.

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a new unified class of 3D nonlinear anisotropic finite deformation inelasticity model that (1) exhibits rate-independent or dependent hysteretic response (i.e., response wherein reversal of the external stimuli does not cause reversal of the path in state space) with or without yield surfaces. The hysteresis persists with quasistatic loading. (2) Encompasses a wide range of different types of inelasticity models (such as Mullins effect in rubber, rock and soil mechanics, traditional metal plasticity, hysteretic behavior of shape memory materials) into a simple unified framework that is relatively easy to implement in computational schemes and (3) does not require any a priori particular notion of plastic strain or yield function. The core idea behind the approach is the development of an system of implicit rate equations that allow for the continuity of the response but with different rates along different directions. The theory, which is in purely mechanical setting, subsumes and generalizes many commonly used approaches for hypoelasticity and rate-independent plasticity. We illustrate its capability by modeling the Mullins effect which is the inelastic behavior of certain rubbery materials. We are able to simulate the entire cyclic response without the use of additional internal variables, i.e., the entire response is modeled by using an implicit function of stress and strain measures and their rates.

  17. Linear and cubic response to the initial eccentricity in heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noronha-Hostler, Jacquelyn; Yan, Li; Gardim, Fernando G.; Ollitrault, Jean-Yves

    2016-01-01

    We study the relation between elliptic flow, v2, and the initial eccentricity, ɛ2, in heavy-ion collisions, using hydrodynamic simulations. Significant deviations from linear eccentricity scaling are seen in more peripheral collisions. We identify the mechanism responsible for these deviations as a cubic response, which we argue is a generic property of the hydrodynamic response to the initial density profile. The cubic response increases elliptic flow fluctuations, thereby improving agreement of initial condition models with experimental data.

  18. Prediction of Nociceptive Responses during Sedation by Linear and Non-Linear Measures of EEG Signals in High Frequencies

    PubMed Central

    Melia, Umberto; Vallverdú, Montserrat; Borrat, Xavier; Valencia, Jose Fernando; Jospin, Mathieu; Jensen, Erik Weber; Gambus, Pedro; Caminal, Pere

    2015-01-01

    The level of sedation in patients undergoing medical procedures evolves continuously, affected by the interaction between the effect of the anesthetic and analgesic agents and the pain stimuli. The monitors of depth of anesthesia, based on the analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG), have been progressively introduced into the daily practice to provide additional information about the state of the patient. However, the quantification of analgesia still remains an open problem. The purpose of this work is to improve the prediction of nociceptive responses with linear and non-linear measures calculated from EEG signal filtered in frequency bands higher than the traditional bands. Power spectral density and auto-mutual information function was applied in order to predict the presence or absence of the nociceptive responses to different stimuli during sedation in endoscopy procedure. The proposed measures exhibit better performances than the bispectral index (BIS). Values of prediction probability of Pk above 0.75 and percentages of sensitivity and specificity above 70% were achieved combining EEG measures from the traditional frequency bands and higher frequency bands. PMID:25901571

  19. Peripharyngeal tissue deformation, stress distributions, and hyoid bone movement in response to mandibular advancement.

    PubMed

    Amatoury, Jason; Kairaitis, Kristina; Wheatley, John R; Bilston, Lynne E; Amis, Terence C

    2015-02-01

    Mandibular advancement (MA) increases upper airway (UA) patency and decreases collapsibility. Furthermore, MA displaces the hyoid bone in a cranial-anterior direction, which may contribute to MA-associated UA improvements via redistribution of peripharyngeal tissue stresses (extraluminal tissue pressure, ETP). In the present study, we examined effects of MA on ETP distributions, deformation of the peripharyngeal tissue surface (UA geometry), and hyoid bone position. We studied 13 supine, anesthetized, tracheostomized, spontaneously breathing adult male New Zealand White rabbits. Graded MA was applied from 0 to ∼4.5 mm. ETP was measured at six locations distributed throughout three UA regions: tongue, hyoid, and epiglottis. Axial computed tomography images of the UA (nasal choanae to glottis) were acquired and used to measure lumen geometry (UA length; regional cross-sectional area) and hyoid displacement. MA resulted in nonuniform decreases in ETP (greatest at tongue region), ranging from -0.11 (-0.15 to -0.06) to -0.82 (-1.09 to -0.54) cmH2O/mm MA [linear mixed-effects model slope (95% confidence interval)], across all sites. UA length decreased by -0.5 (-0.8 to -0.2) %/mm accompanied by nonuniform increases in cross-sectional area (greatest at hyoid region) ranging from 7.5 (3.6-11.4) to 18.7 (14.9-22.5) %/mm. The hyoid bone was displaced in a cranial-anterior direction by 0.42 (0.36-0.44) mm/mm MA. In summary, MA results in nonuniform changes in peripharyngeal tissue pressure distributions and lumen geometry. Displacement of the hyoid bone with MA may play a pivotal role in redistributing applied MA loads, thus modifying tissue stress/deformation distributions and determining resultant UA geometry outcomes. PMID:25505028

  20. Ligand-Induced Protein Responses and Mechanical Signal Propagation Described by Linear Response Theories

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lee-Wei; Kitao, Akio; Huang, Bang-Chieh; Gō, Nobuhiro

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a general linear response theory (LRT) is formulated to describe time-dependent and -independent protein conformational changes upon CO binding with myoglobin. Using the theory, we are able to monitor protein relaxation in two stages. The slower relaxation is found to occur from 4.4 to 81.2 picoseconds and the time constants characterized for a couple of aromatic residues agree with those observed by UV Resonance Raman (UVRR) spectrometry and time resolved x-ray crystallography. The faster “early responses”, triggered as early as 400 femtoseconds, can be best described by the theory when impulse forces are used. The newly formulated theory describes the mechanical propagation following ligand-binding as a function of time, space and types of the perturbation forces. The “disseminators”, defined as the residues that propagate signals throughout the molecule the fastest among all the residues in protein when perturbed, are found evolutionarily conserved and the mutations of which have been shown to largely change the CO rebinding kinetics in myoglobin. PMID:25229149

  1. The role of non-linear deformation analyses in the design of a reinforced soil berm at Red River U-frame lock No. 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebeling, Robert M.; Peters, John F.; Mosher, Reed L.

    1997-11-01

    This paper describes a design application of non-linear deformation analysis to a complex soil-structure-foundation interaction problem through use of a finite element analysis. The problem consists of a proposed renovation to an existing soil-founded U-frame lock structure consisting of construction of a densely reinforced soil berm adjacent to an existing lock wall. Major questions facing the designer involve reduction of the earth pressure on the lock wall, layout of the reinforcing in the soil berm, and collateral effects of berm construction on the U-frame lock structure. A non-linear deformation analysis played a central role in addressing all of these questions. Berm construction and four operational load cases were used to understand the performance of the reinforced berm and to discern interactions among the lock, the backfill, the foundation strata of the U-frame lock, the reinforced berm, and the foundation strata of the reinforced berm. Insight gained from the soil-structure-foundation interaction analyses led to an alteration to the proposed reinforcement layout to enhance the performance of the reinforced soil berm.

  2. Activation of bone remodeling after fatigue: differential response to linear microcracks and diffuse damage.

    PubMed

    Herman, B C; Cardoso, L; Majeska, R J; Jepsen, K J; Schaffler, M B

    2010-10-01

    Recent experiments point to two predominant forms of fatigue microdamage in bone: linear microcracks (tens to a few hundred microns in length) and "diffuse damage" (patches of diffuse stain uptake in fatigued bone comprised of clusters of sublamellar-sized cracks). The physiological relevance of diffuse damage in activating bone remodeling is not known. In this study microdamage amount and type were varied to assess whether linear or diffuse microdamage has similar effects on the activation of intracortical resorption. Activation of resorption was correlated to the number of linear microcracks (Cr.Dn) in the bone (R(2)=0.60, p<0.01). In contrast, there was no activation of resorption in response to diffuse microdamage alone. Furthermore, there was no significant change in osteocyte viability in response to diffuse microdamage, suggesting that osteocyte apoptosis, which is known to activate remodeling at typical linear microcracks in bone, does not result from sublamellar damage. These findings indicate that inability of diffuse microdamage to activate resorption may be due to lack of a focal injury response. Finally, we found that duration of loading does not affect the remodeling response. In conclusion, our data indicate that osteocytes activate resorption in response to linear microcracks but not diffuse microdamage, perhaps due to lack of a focal injury-induced apoptotic response. PMID:20633708

  3. Comparison of Finite Element Non-Linear Beam Random Response with Experimental Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, R. R.; Mei, C.; Wolfe, HF

    1996-09-01

    A finite element formulation combined with the equivalent linearization technique and normal mode method is developed for the non-linear random response of beams subjected to acoustic and thermal loads applied simultaneously. To validate the present formulation and solution procedure, results are compared with the classical continuum solution and the Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equation solution. Comparison is also made with experimental data for a pre-stretched clamped beam. Random responses of thermally buckled simply supported beam, clamped beam and simply supported-clamped beam are presented. The comparison of the present simultaneously loaded response with the existing sequentially loaded results shows a significant difference between them.

  4. Reconstruction of coup de sabre deformity (linear localized scleroderma) by using galeal frontalis muscle flap and demineralized bone matrix combination.

    PubMed

    Cavusoglu, Tarik; Yazici, Ilker; Vargel, Ibrahim; Karakaya, Esen Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    In this clinical report, we are presenting the combination of demineralized bone matrix combined with bilateral galea frontalis flaps. Based on our 6-month results, this seems to be a reasonable combination to accomplish long-lasting restoration of forehead defects related to en coup de sabre linear localized scleroderma. PMID:21233742

  5. The spin polarized linear response from density functional theory: theory and application to atoms.

    PubMed

    Fias, Stijn; Boisdenghien, Zino; De Proft, Frank; Geerlings, Paul

    2014-11-14

    Within the context of spin polarized conceptual density functional theory, the spin polarized linear response functions are introduced both in the [N, N(s)] and [N(α), N(β)] representations. The mathematical relations between the spin polarized linear response functions in both representations are examined and an analytical expression for the spin polarized linear response functions in the [N(α), N(β)] representation is derived. The spin polarized linear response functions were calculated for all atoms up to and including argon. To simplify the plotting of our results, we integrated χ(r, r') to a quantity χ(r, r'), circumventing the θ and ϕ dependence. This allows us to plot and to investigate the periodicity throughout the first three rows in the periodic table within the two different representations. For the first time, χ(αβ)(r, r'), χ(βα)(r, r'), and χ(SS)(r, r') plots have been calculated and discussed. By integration of the spin polarized linear response functions, different components to the polarisability, α(αα), α(αβ), α(βα), and α(ββ) have been calculated. PMID:25399132

  6. The spin polarized linear response from density functional theory: Theory and application to atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Fias, Stijn Boisdenghien, Zino; De Proft, Frank; Geerlings, Paul

    2014-11-14

    Within the context of spin polarized conceptual density functional theory, the spin polarized linear response functions are introduced both in the [N, N{sub s}] and [N{sub α}, N{sub β}] representations. The mathematical relations between the spin polarized linear response functions in both representations are examined and an analytical expression for the spin polarized linear response functions in the [N{sub α}, N{sub β}] representation is derived. The spin polarized linear response functions were calculated for all atoms up to and including argon. To simplify the plotting of our results, we integrated χ(r, r′) to a quantity χ(r, r{sup ′}), circumventing the θ and ϕ dependence. This allows us to plot and to investigate the periodicity throughout the first three rows in the periodic table within the two different representations. For the first time, χ{sub αβ}(r, r{sup ′}), χ{sub βα}(r, r{sup ′}), and χ{sub SS}(r, r{sup ′}) plots have been calculated and discussed. By integration of the spin polarized linear response functions, different components to the polarisability, α{sub αα}, α{sub αβ}, α{sub βα}, and α{sub ββ} have been calculated.

  7. NMR nuclear magnetic shielding anisotropy of linear molecules within the linear response within the elimination of the small component approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz de Azúa, Martín C.; Giribet, Claudia G.; Melo, Juan I.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of the spin-Zeeman (SZ) operator in the evaluation of the spin-orbit effect on the nuclear magnetic shielding tensor in the context of the linear response within the elimination of the small component approach is critically discussed. It is shown that such term yields no contribution to the isotropic nuclear magnetic shielding constant, but it may be of great importance in the determination of individual tensor components, and particularly of the tensor anisotropy. In particular, an interesting relation between the SZ and orbital Zeeman contributions to the spin-orbit effect for the case of linear molecules is shown to hold. Numerical examples for the BrH, IH, and XeF2 molecules are presented which show that, provided the SZ term is taken into account, results of the individual shielding tensor components and the tensor anisotropy are in good agreement with those obtained by other theoretical methods, and particularly by the Dirac-Hartree-Fock approach.

  8. Response of a fluid-immersed microcantilever close to a deformable body

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, R. J.; Lee, T. C.; Cater, J. E.; Bachtiar, V.; Minton, J.

    2015-03-07

    The importance of hydrodynamics upon the response of a microcantilever immersed in a viscous fluid has been well established [J. E. Sader, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 64 (1998); C. A. Eysden and J. E. Sader, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 044908 (2007)]. It has previously been shown that the presence of a nearby rigid planar surface can significantly alter a microcantilever's non-contact response, through microcantilever–surface hydrodynamic interactions [C. P. Green and J. E. Sader, Phys. Fluids 17, 073102 (2005); C. P. Green and J. E. Sader, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 114913 (2005); R. J. Clarke et al., J. Fluid Mech. 545, 397426 (2005); R. J. Clarke et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 050801 (2006).]. In cases where the nearby surface is a finite-sized deformable body, such as in noncontact microrheology measurements, we expect to see further changes in the microcantilever's response. Hence, we here compute the thermal spectra of several microcantilevers in the presence of different compliant samples that have the characteristics of soft biological fibres. Our findings demonstrate that the elastohydrodynamic regime can substantially dictate the extent to which the compliance of a given body is evident in the microcantilever's thermal spectra, and suggest that certain nondimensional quantities should lie within particular, ranges for this to be the case. We expect these findings to be of interest in areas such as Atomic Force Microscopy, microsensing, and non-contact microrheology.

  9. Response of a fluid-immersed microcantilever close to a deformable body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, R. J.; Bachtiar, V.; Lee, T. C.; Cater, J. E.; Minton, J.

    2015-03-01

    The importance of hydrodynamics upon the response of a microcantilever immersed in a viscous fluid has been well established [J. E. Sader, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 64 (1998); C. A. Eysden and J. E. Sader, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 044908 (2007)]. It has previously been shown that the presence of a nearby rigid planar surface can significantly alter a microcantilever's non-contact response, through microcantilever-surface hydrodynamic interactions [C. P. Green and J. E. Sader, Phys. Fluids 17, 073102 (2005); C. P. Green and J. E. Sader, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 114913 (2005); R. J. Clarke et al., J. Fluid Mech. 545, 397426 (2005); R. J. Clarke et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 050801 (2006).]. In cases where the nearby surface is a finite-sized deformable body, such as in noncontact microrheology measurements, we expect to see further changes in the microcantilever's response. Hence, we here compute the thermal spectra of several microcantilevers in the presence of different compliant samples that have the characteristics of soft biological fibres. Our findings demonstrate that the elastohydrodynamic regime can substantially dictate the extent to which the compliance of a given body is evident in the microcantilever's thermal spectra, and suggest that certain nondimensional quantities should lie within particular, ranges for this to be the case. We expect these findings to be of interest in areas such as Atomic Force Microscopy, microsensing, and non-contact microrheology.

  10. Linear Viscoelastic Response of PBX-9501 Binder using Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davande, Hemali

    2005-03-01

    Quantum-chemistry based force fields for Estane, bis-dinitropropyl formal (BDNPF) and bis dinitropropyl acetal (BDNPA) plasticizer have been developed, validated and utilized in atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of a model PBX-9501 binder. The viscoelastic response of unentangled binder melt using MD simulations was studied. These results were then used in prediction of linear viscoelastic response of an entangled melt using theoretical models for viscoelastic response of block copolymers and compared with experiments.

  11. Linear-response calculation in the time-dependent density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Nakatsukasa, Takashi; Inakura, Tsunenori; Avogadro, Paolo; Ebata, Shuichiro; Sato, Koichi; Yabana, Kazuhiro

    2012-11-12

    Linear response calculations based on the time-dependent density-functional theory are presented. Especially, we report results of the finite amplitude method which we have recently proposed as an alternative and feasible approach to the (quasiparticle-)random-phase approximation. Calculated properties of the giant resonances and low-energy E1 modes are discussed. We found a universal linear correlation between the low-energy E1 strength and the neutron skin thickness.

  12. Effect of geometric elastic non-linearities on the impact response of flexible multi-body systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakr, E. M.; Shabana, A. A.

    1987-02-01

    The intermittent motion behavior of large scale geometrically non-linear flexible multi-body systems due to impact loading is investigated. Impacts and the associated impulsive forces are incorporated into the dynamic formulation by using a generalized momentum balance. The solution of the momentum equation provides the jump discontinuities in the system velocities and reaction forces. Flexible components in the system are discretized by using the finite element method. Because of the large rotations of the system components, a set of reference co-ordinates are employed to describe the motion of a selected body reference. The rigid body modes of the finite element shape functions are eliminated by using a set of reference conditions and accordingly a unique displacement field is defined. In order to account for the inertia and elastic non-linearities which are, respectively, the results of the large rotations and finite deformations, the system inertia and stiffness characteristics have to be iteratively updated. Two numerical examples of different nature are presented. The first example is a high speed slider crank mechanism with a flexible connecting rod. In the second example, however, the dynamic response of a flexible multi-body aircraft during the touch down impact is predicted.

  13. Frequency Response of Synthetic Vocal Fold Models with Linear and Nonlinear Material Properties

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Stephanie M.; Thomson, Scott L.; Dromey, Christopher; Smith, Simeon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to create synthetic vocal fold models with nonlinear stress-strain properties and to investigate the effect of linear versus nonlinear material properties on fundamental frequency during anterior-posterior stretching. Method Three materially linear and three materially nonlinear models were created and stretched up to 10 mm in 1 mm increments. Phonation onset pressure (Pon) and fundamental frequency (F0) at Pon were recorded for each length. Measurements were repeated as the models were relaxed in 1 mm increments back to their resting lengths, and tensile tests were conducted to determine the stress-strain responses of linear versus nonlinear models. Results Nonlinear models demonstrated a more substantial frequency response than did linear models and a more predictable pattern of F0 increase with respect to increasing length (although range was inconsistent across models). Pon generally increased with increasing vocal fold length for nonlinear models, whereas for linear models, Pon decreased with increasing length. Conclusions Nonlinear synthetic models appear to more accurately represent the human vocal folds than linear models, especially with respect to F0 response. PMID:22271874

  14. Quasi-Linear Cochlear Responses to Noise Can Result from Instantaneous Nonlinearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi-Wen; Neely, Stephen T.

    2011-11-01

    Responses to acoustic stimuli in the cochlea are known to be nonlinear. Many existing models of cochlear mechanics were built upon three basic assumptions: traveling-wave amplification is provided by active mechanisms in the outer hair cells (OHCs). Second, as the stimulus level increases, the gain decreases due to saturation nonlinearity in the OHCs. Finally, the saturation non-linearity is "instantaneous"; its input-output relation does not possess memory. These assumptions were recently challenged by reports that basilar-membrane (BM) responses to noise can be predicted well by level-dependent Wiener filters and are thus quasi-linear. It was argued that the quasi-linear responses could not result from instantaneous nonlinearity. In this paper, we present a model of cochlear mechanics which has instantaneous OHC saturation nonlinearity but produces quasi-linear responses to noise. Correlation coefficients were consistently greater than 0.9 between simulated noise responses and the responses predicted by equivalent Wiener filters. Further, Gaussianity in the acoustic stimuli was preserved on the BM. We conclude that the results support the common understandings and assumptions of cochlear mechanics.

  15. Linear response theory for symmetry improved two particle irreducible effective actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Michael J.; Whittingham, Ian B.; Kosov, Daniel S.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the linear response of an O (N ) scalar quantum field theory subject to external perturbations using the symmetry-improved two-particle irreducible effective action (SI-2PIEA) formalism [A. Pilaftsis and D. Teresi, Nucl. Phys. B874, 594 (2013)]. Despite satisfactory equilibrium behavior, we find a number of unphysical effects at the linear response level. Goldstone boson field fluctuations are overdetermined, with the only consistent solution being to set the fluctuations and their driving sources to zero, except for momentum modes where the Higgs and Goldstone self-energies obey a particular relationship. Also Higgs field fluctuations propagate masslessly, despite the Higgs propagator having the correct mass. These pathologies are independent of any truncation of the effective action and still exist even if we relax the overdetermining Ward identities, so long as the constraint is formulated O (N ) covariantly. We discuss possible reasons for the apparent incompatibility of the constraints and linear response approximation and possible ways forward.

  16. Deformation responses of slow moving landslides to precipitation in the Northern Apennines (Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, Benedikt; Simoni, Alessandro; Schmidt, David; Bertello, Lara; Berti, Matteo

    2016-04-01

    Slow moving landslides are a frequent feature in the Northern Apennines of Italy and one of the main landscape forming agents. Among the most common landslide types are complex earth flows that occur in chaotic clay-shales and complex rock slides in highly fractured flysch. We present the results of an InSAR-based survey in the Reno and Panaro river catchments, which are located South of Bologna and Modena in the Northern Apennines of Italy. We processed Envisat and Cosmo-SkyMed radar data using the Stanford Method of Persistent Scatterers (StaMPS) and documented movement on 62 deep-seated landslides. These landslides were compared to the regional landslide inventory that contains information about the type of landslide, its state of activity and the lithological characteristics of the host rock. Of the landslides found using InSAR, 42 % correspond to active landslide bodies in the regional inventory, while 48 % are mapped as dormant and 10% are not previously mapped. InSAR-derived landslides often do not correspond to the exact extent of mapped landslide bodies. InSAR results show two recurring styles of deformation: (1) earthflows involving chaotic clay-shale units that exhibit steady state displacement, or exhibit long-term (multi-annual) accelerations and decelerations, or (2) complex landslides in flysch units that are characterized by distinct increases in displacement rate following periods (weeks-to-months) of intense precipitation. Such differences in behavior might be due to inherent differences in the mechanical and hydraulic characteristics of the material in relation to the specific climatic forcing experienced during the observation period (2003 and 2015). Flysch units are relatively more fragile and have higher permeability when compared to clay-shale units. Hence the deformation response to the precipitation is likely faster and characterized by more abrupt accelerations and decelerations.

  17. Quenched Stresses And Linear Elastic Response Of Random Packings Of Frictionless Particles Near Jamming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, Kamran

    We study stress correlations and elastic response in large-scale computer simulations of particle packings near jamming. We show that there are characteristic lengths in both the stresses and elastic response that diverge in similar ways as the confining pressure approaches zero from above. For the case of the stress field, we show that the power spectrum of the hydrostatic pressure and shear stress agrees with a field-theoretic framework proposed by Henkes and Chakraborty [15] at short to intermediate wavelengths (where the power is flat in Fourier space), but contains significant excess power at wavelengths larger than about 50 to 100 particle diameters, with the specific crossover point going to larger wavelength at decreasing pressure, consistent with a divergence at p = 0. These stress correlations were missed in previous studies by other groups due to limited system size. For the case of the elastic response, we probe the system in three ways: i) point forcing, ii) constrained homogeneous deformation where the system is driven with no-slip boundary conditions, and iii) free periodic homogeneous deformation. For the point force, we see distinct characteristic lengths for longitudinal and transverse modes each of which diverges in a different way with decreasing pressure with xiT ˜ p--1/4 and xiL ˜ p--0.4 respectively. For the constrained homogeneous deformation we see a scaling of the local shear modulus with the size of the probing region consistent with xi ˜ p--1/2 similar to the xiL ˜ p --0.4 observed in the longitudinal component of the point response and in perfect agreement with the rigidity length discussed in recently proposed scenarios for jamming. Finally, we show that the transverse and longitudinal contributions to the strain field in response to unconstrained deformation (either volumetric or shear) have markedly different behavior. The transverse contribution is surprisingly invariant with respect to p with localized shear transformations

  18. The deformation response of three-dimensional woven composites subjected to high rates of loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankow, Mark Robert

    The use of polymer matrix composites is widespread, with development in automotive, aerospace and recreational equipment. These applications have produced loading scenarios which are unfamiliar and not well understood. Several applications involve impact loading, which produces large strain rates and delamination failure. New manufacturing methods have led to three dimensional (3D) weave geometries that provide composites with damage protection. This is accomplished through elimination of delamination, and localizing the extent of damage. The present work is a combined experimental and computational study aimed at developing a mechanism based deformation response model for 3D woven composites, including the prediction of failure strengths at high loading rates. Three unique experimental configurations have been developed; along with finite element based simulations to predict the material response and failure mechanisms that are experimentally observed. End Notch Flexure (ENF) tests were used to determine the effectiveness of the Z-fiber at resisting crack propagation. The crack propagation was found to have rate dependent properties, with architecture based parameters required to predict the strength and resistance. The computational results reinforced the experimental observations. A new FE implementation captured the effectiveness of the Z-fiber reinforcement bridging the growing crack. Shock impact testing was performed to simulate the effects of blast loading on the material. New experimental measurement methods were utilized to record the deformations and strains which led to observations of matrix micro-cracking, the first failure mode. Computational models were developed to predict the material behavior subjected to shock loading, including matrix micro-cracking, which was predicted accurately. Finally, split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) testing was done to understand the high strain rate behavior of the material in compression in all three directions. The

  19. Transition to Coherence in Populations of Coupled Chaotic Oscillators: A Linear Response Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Topaj, Dmitri; Kye, Won-Ho; Pikovsky, Arkady

    2001-08-13

    We consider the collective dynamics in an ensemble of globally coupled chaotic maps. The transition to the coherent state with a macroscopic mean field is analyzed in the framework of the linear response theory. The linear response function for the chaotic system is obtained using the perturbation approach to the Frobenius-Perron operator. The transition point is defined from this function by virtue of the self-excitation condition for the feedback loop. Analytical results for the coupled Bernoulli maps are confirmed by the numerics.

  20. The linearity response of the Planck-LFI flight model receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mennella, A.; Villa, F.; Terenzi, L.; Cuttaia, F.; Battaglia, P.; Bersanelli, M.; Butler, R. C.; D'Arcangelo, O.; Artal, E.; Davis, R.; Frailis, M.; Franceschet, C.; Galeotta, S.; Gregorio, A.; Hughes, N.; Jukkala, P.; Kettle, D.; Kilpiä, V.-H.; Laaninen, M.; Lapolla, P. M.; Leonardi, R.; Leutenegger, P.; Lowe, S.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Meinhold, P.; Mendes, L.; Miccolis, M.; Morgante, G.; Roddis, N.; Sandri, M.; Silvestri, R.; Stringhetti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Zacchei, A.; Varis, J.; Wilkinson, A.; Zonca, A.

    2009-12-01

    In this paper we discuss the linearity response of the Planck-LFI receivers, with particular reference to signal compression measured on the 30 and 44 GHz channels. In the article we discuss the various sources of compression and present a model that accurately describes data measured during tests performed with individual radiomeric chains. After discussing test results we present the best parameter set representing the receiver response and discuss the impact of non linearity on in-flight calibration, which is shown to be negligible.

  1. Application of linear response theory to magnetotransport properties of dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J. R.; Redmer, R.; Reinholz, H.

    2010-03-15

    Linear response theory, as developed within the Zubarev formalism, is a quantum statistical approach for describing systems out of but close to equilibrium, which has been successfully applied to a wide variety of plasmas in an external electric field and/or containing a temperature gradient. We present here an extension of linear response theory to include the effects of an external magnetic field. General expressions for the complete set of relevant transport properties are given. In particular, the Hall effect and the influence of a magnetic field on the dc electrical conductivity are discussed. Low-density limits including electron-electron scattering are presented as well as results for arbitrary degeneracy.

  2. Galilean invariance and linear response theory for Fractional Quantum Hall Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromov, Andrey; Abanov, Alexandre

    2013-03-01

    We study a general effective field theory of Galilean invariant two-dimensional charged fluid in external electro-magnetic and gravitational fields. We find that combination of the generalized Galilean and gauge invariance implies nontrivial Ward identities between gravitational and electro-magnetic linear responses in the system. This identity appears to hold in all orders of gradient expansion and it generalizes the relation between Hall viscosity and Hall conductivity recently found by Hoyos and Son. We also check the relation in the case of free electrons with integer filling of Landau levels where corresponding linear responses can be calculated directly. Was supported by the NSF under Grant No. DMR-1206790.

  3. Near-linear response of mean monsoon strength to a broad range of radiative forcings.

    PubMed

    Boos, William R; Storelvmo, Trude

    2016-02-01

    Theoretical models have been used to argue that seasonal mean monsoons will shift abruptly and discontinuously from wet to dry stable states as their radiative forcings pass a critical threshold, sometimes referred to as a "tipping point." Further support for a strongly nonlinear response of monsoons to radiative forcings is found in the seasonal onset of the South Asian summer monsoon, which is abrupt compared with the annual cycle of insolation. Here it is shown that the seasonal mean strength of monsoons instead exhibits a nearly linear dependence on a wide range of radiative forcings. First, a previous theory that predicted a discontinuous, threshold response is shown to omit a dominant stabilizing term in the equations of motion; a corrected theory predicts a continuous and nearly linear response of seasonal mean monsoon strength to forcings. A comprehensive global climate model is then used to show that the seasonal mean South Asian monsoon exhibits a near-linear dependence on a wide range of isolated greenhouse gas, aerosol, and surface albedo forcings. This model reproduces the observed abrupt seasonal onset of the South Asian monsoon but produces a near-linear response of the mean monsoon by changing the duration of the summer circulation and the latitude of that circulation's ascent branch. Thus, neither a physically correct theoretical model nor a comprehensive climate model support the idea that seasonal mean monsoons will undergo abrupt, nonlinear shifts in response to changes in greenhouse gas concentrations, aerosol emissions, or land surface albedo. PMID:26811462

  4. Project REPONS: Offshore Faults, Tectonic Deformation and Turbidite Record in Response to the January 12 2010 Earthquake, Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHugh, C. M.; Gulick, S. P.; Cormier, M.; Dieudonne, N.; Diebold, J. B.; Douilly, R.; Hornbach, M.; Johnson, H. E.; Mishkin, K.; Seeber, L.; Sorlien, C. C.; Steckler, M. S.; Symithe, S. J.

    2010-12-01

    As part of an NSF RAPID response to the January 12, 2010 earthquake, we mapped the underwater continuation of the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone (EPGF) west of Léogâne. Multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, chirp subbottom profiler, sediment sampling and CTD measurements were conducted in water depths of 2 m to 1750 m from the R/V Endeavor and from a small inflatable boat. The offshore segment of the EPGF is manifested by two steep, 50-80 m high linear ridges and at least two subsurface faults. The submarine EPGF is part of a transition from releasing to restraining segment. To the east, it joins its onshore trace in a releasing bend and continues to the west in a restraining bend that perhaps caused the Tapion ridge. Within the Baies de Petit and Grand Goâve, river outlets are correlated with lateral spreading and/or subsidence where we observed increased local damage to structures. Lateral spreading and/or subsidence appears to have increased tsunami effects locally. Coral uplift NE and SW of offshore fault traces offer evidence of the January 12, 2010 surface deformation. While a seafloor rupture is not evident from the data collected we do image deformation within the upper 20 m in both bays. Mass wasting and gravity flow deposits from the last and older earthquakes were tracked from the Léogâne delta and along the coast to the deepest depocenter. Th-234 and Be-7 with half-lives of 24 and 53 days, respectively verified the January 12 turbidite and indicated an influx of terrigenous sediment mixed with marine sources. Coral debris was sampled in the shelf and upper slope (100-300 m) near the EPGF; basalt sand derived from the highlands and wood fragments at intermediate water depths (1000-1100 m); lastly an ~0.03 km3 and >1 m thick turbidite was deposited over 50 km2 in the Canal du Sud depocenter (1750 m). The sandy parts of all cores recovered from Canal du Sud depocenter have alternate episodes of traction deposition and erosion that reflect

  5. A theoretical and experimental investigation of the linear and nonlinear impulse responses from a magnetoplasma column

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grody, N. C.

    1973-01-01

    Linear and nonlinear responses of a magnetoplasma resulting from inhomogeneity in the background plasma density are studied. The plasma response to an impulse electric field was measured and the results are compared with the theory of an inhomogeneous cold plasma. Impulse responses were recorded for the different plasma densities, static magnetic fields, and neutral pressures and generally appeared as modulated, damped oscillations. The frequency spectra of the waveforms consisted of two separated resonance peaks. For weak excitation, the results correlate with the linear theory of a cold, inhomogeneous, cylindrical magnetoplasma. The damping mechanism is identified with that of phase mixing due to inhomogeneity in plasma density. With increasing excitation voltage, the nonlinear impulse responses display stronger damping and a small increase in the frequency of oscillation.

  6. Modeling and Simulation of the Impact Response of Maraging Steel Linear Cellular Alloys for Structural Energetic Material Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakus, Adam; Fredenburg, Anthony; McCoy, Tammy; Cochran, Joe; Thadhani, Naresh

    2009-06-01

    A refined Johnson-Cook material strength model is developed for predicting the dynamic strain and fracture response of Maraging 250 steel at high-strain rates. Finite element simulations of rod-on-anvil impacts are carried out at velocities exceeding 100m/s and compared with experimental impact tests performed on a 7.62mm gas gun. The transient and final dimensions of the simulated and experimentally impacted rods are compared and Johnson-Cook strength parameters are modified accordingly. The newly developed Maraging 250 steel Johnson-cook strength model is then applied to simulate the impact response of multiple, 25% dense linear cellular alloys (LCA) of various geometries at velocities exceeding 100m/s. Analyses of the deformation, fragmentation, and stress transfer behavior of the simulated LCAs are performed and validated through comparison of corresponding impact experiments performed on the LCAs produced via an extrusion and reduction process. Stress transfer to the interior walls varies as a function of LCA geometry, which also influences the outward fragmentation and energy retention at the cross-section of impact.

  7. VIBRA: An interactive computer program for steady-state vibration response analysis of linear damped structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, L. M.

    1984-01-01

    An interactive steady state frequency response computer program with graphics is documented. Single or multiple forces may be applied to the structure using a modal superposition approach to calculate response. The method can be reapplied to linear, proportionally damped structures in which the damping may be viscous or structural. The theoretical approach and program organization are described. Example problems, user instructions, and a sample interactive session are given to demonstate the program's capability in solving a variety of problems.

  8. Non-linear dual-axis biodynamic response to vertical whole-body vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawayseh, N.; Griffin, M. J.

    2003-11-01

    Seated human subjects have been exposed to vertical whole-body vibration so as to investigate the non-linearity in their biodynamic responses and quantify the response in directions other than the direction of excitation. Twelve males were exposed to random vertical vibration in the frequency range 0.25-25 Hz at four vibration magnitudes (0.125, 0.25, 0.625, and 1.25 m s -2 r.m.s.). The subjects sat in four sitting postures having varying foot heights so as to produce differing thigh contact with the seat (feet hanging, feet supported with maximum thigh contact, feet supported with average thigh contact, and feet supported with minimum thigh contact). Forces were measured in the vertical, fore-and-aft, and lateral directions on the seat and in the vertical direction at the footrest. The characteristic non-linear response of the human body with reducing resonance frequency at increasing vibration magnitudes was seen in all postures, but to a lesser extent with minimum thigh contact. Appreciable forces in the fore-and-aft direction also showed non-linearity, while forces in the lateral direction were low and showed no consistent trend. Forces at the feet were non-linear with a multi-resonant behaviour and were affected by the position of the legs. The decreased non-linearity with the minimum thigh contact posture suggests the tissues of the buttocks affect the non-linearity of the body more than the tissues of the thighs. The forces in the fore-and-aft direction are consistent with the body moving in two directions when exposed to vertical vibration. The non-linear behaviour of the body, and the considerable forces in the fore-aft direction should be taken into account when optimizing vibration isolation devices.

  9. Flutter and Forced Response Analyses of Cascades using a Two-Dimensional Linearized Euler Solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, T. S. R.; Srivastava, R.; Mehmed, O.

    1999-01-01

    Flutter and forced response analyses for a cascade of blades in subsonic and transonic flow is presented. The structural model for each blade is a typical section with bending and torsion degrees of freedom. The unsteady aerodynamic forces due to bending and torsion motions. and due to a vortical gust disturbance are obtained by solving unsteady linearized Euler equations. The unsteady linearized equations are obtained by linearizing the unsteady nonlinear equations about the steady flow. The predicted unsteady aerodynamic forces include the effect of steady aerodynamic loading due to airfoil shape, thickness and angle of attack. The aeroelastic equations are solved in the frequency domain by coupling the un- steady aerodynamic forces to the aeroelastic solver MISER. The present unsteady aerodynamic solver showed good correlation with published results for both flutter and forced response predictions. Further improvements are required to use the unsteady aerodynamic solver in a design cycle.

  10. Evaluating and interpreting the chemical relevance of the linear response kernel for atoms II: open shell.

    PubMed

    Boisdenghien, Zino; Fias, Stijn; Van Alsenoy, Christian; De Proft, Frank; Geerlings, Paul

    2014-07-28

    Most of the work done on the linear response kernel χ(r,r') has focussed on its atom-atom condensed form χAB. Our previous work [Boisdenghien et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput., 2013, 9, 1007] was the first effort to truly focus on the non-condensed form of this function for closed (sub)shell atoms in a systematic fashion. In this work, we extend our method to the open shell case. To simplify the plotting of our results, we average our results to a symmetrical quantity χ(r,r'). This allows us to plot the linear response kernel for all elements up to and including argon and to investigate the periodicity throughout the first three rows in the periodic table and in the different representations of χ(r,r'). Within the context of Spin Polarized Conceptual Density Functional Theory, the first two-dimensional plots of spin polarized linear response functions are presented and commented on for some selected cases on the basis of the atomic ground state electronic configurations. Using the relation between the linear response kernel and the polarizability we compare the values of the polarizability tensor calculated using our method to high-level values. PMID:24837234

  11. Analysis of bipolar linear circuit response mechanisms for high and low dose rate total dose irradiations

    SciTech Connect

    Barnaby, H.; Tausch, H.J.; Turfler, R.; Cole, P.; Baker, P.; Pease, R.L.

    1996-12-01

    A methodology is presented for the identification of circuit total dose response mechanisms in bipolar linear microcircuits irradiated at high and low dose rates. This methodology includes manual circuit analysis, circuit simulations with SPICE using extracted device parameters, and selective irradiations of portions of the circuit using a scanning electron microscope.

  12. Determining polarizable force fields with electrostatic potentials from quantum mechanical linear response theory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Yang, Weitao

    2016-06-14

    We developed a new method to calculate the atomic polarizabilities by fitting to the electrostatic potentials (ESPs) obtained from quantum mechanical (QM) calculations within the linear response theory. This parallels the conventional approach of fitting atomic charges based on electrostatic potentials from the electron density. Our ESP fitting is combined with the induced dipole model under the perturbation of uniform external electric fields of all orientations. QM calculations for the linear response to the external electric fields are used as input, fully consistent with the induced dipole model, which itself is a linear response model. The orientation of the uniform external electric fields is integrated in all directions. The integration of orientation and QM linear response calculations together makes the fitting results independent of the orientations and magnitudes of the uniform external electric fields applied. Another advantage of our method is that QM calculation is only needed once, in contrast to the conventional approach, where many QM calculations are needed for many different applied electric fields. The molecular polarizabilities obtained from our method show comparable accuracy with those from fitting directly to the experimental or theoretical molecular polarizabilities. Since ESP is directly fitted, atomic polarizabilities obtained from our method are expected to reproduce the electrostatic interactions better. Our method was used to calculate both transferable atomic polarizabilities for polarizable molecular mechanics' force fields and nontransferable molecule-specific atomic polarizabilities. PMID:27305996

  13. Analysis of aromaticity in planar metal systems using the linear response kernel.

    PubMed

    Fias, Stijn; Boisdenghien, Zino; Stuyver, Thijs; Audiffred, Martha; Merino, Gabriel; Geerlings, Paul; de Proft, Frank

    2013-04-25

    The linear response kernel is used to gain insight into the aromatic behavior of the less classical metal aromatic E4(2-) and CE4(2-) (E = Al, Ga) clusters. The effect of the systematic replacement of the aluminum atoms in Al4(2-) and CAl4(2-) by germanium atoms is studied using, Al3Ge-, Al2Ge2, AlGe3+, Ge4(2+), CAl3Ge-, CAl2Ge2, CAlGe3+, and CGe4(2+). The results are compared with the values of the delocalization index (δ(1,3)) and nucleus independent chemical shifts (NICS(zz)). Unintegrated plots of the linear response, computed for the first time on molecules, are used to analyze the delocalization in these clusters. All aromaticity indices studied, the linear response, δ(1,3), and NICS(zz), predict that the systems with a central carbon are less aromatic than the systems without a central carbon atom. Also, the linear response is more pronounced in the σ-electron density than in the π-density, pointing out that the systems are mainly σ-aromatic. PMID:23534921

  14. Study of non-linear energy response of POLAR plastic scintillators to electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaofeng; Xiao, Hualin; Yu, Boxiang; Orsi, Silvio; Wu, Bobing; Hu, Wei; Zhang, Xuan

    2015-10-01

    The POLAR experiment is a joint Chinese-European project conceived for a precise measurement of gamma ray polarization and optimized for the detection of the prompt emission of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) in the energy range 50-500 keV. POLAR is a novel compact space-borne Compton polarimeter consisting of 1600 low-Z plastic scintillator bars (EJ-248M), read out by 25 flat-panel multi-anode photomultiplier tubes. In the paper, we first present a dedicated experiment to study the non-linear energy response of EJ-248M plastic scintillator bars to electrons and the detailed data analysis. Second we obtained the Birks' constant of EJ-248M plastic scintillator as kB = 0.143 mm / MeV by least squares fitting. Finally we used Geant4 simulation to study the influence of non-linear energy response on the performance of POLAR, through which it was found that non-linear energy response will lead to a significant decrease in statistics and result in larger uncertainty in polarization measurement. The paper presents a general solution to the study of non-linear energy response of plastic scintillators to electrons.

  15. IS THE DOSE-RESPONSE LINEAR OR NONLINEAR FOR GENOTOXIC EFFECTS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    IS THE DOSE-RESPONSE LINEAR OR NONLINEAR FOR GENOTOXIC EFFECTS?
    Preston, RJ. Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, NHEERL, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711

    For considerations of cancer risk assessment from exposure to environmenta...

  16. Evaluating and Interpreting the Chemical Relevance of the Linear Response Kernel for Atoms.

    PubMed

    Boisdenghien, Zino; Van Alsenoy, Christian; De Proft, Frank; Geerlings, Paul

    2013-02-12

    Although a lot of work has been done on the chemical relevance of the atom-condensed linear response kernel χAB regarding inductive, mesomeric, and hyperconjugative effects as well as (anti)aromaticity of molecules, the same cannot be said about its not condensed form χ(r,r'). Using a single Slater determinant KS type ansatz involving second order perturbation theory, we set out to investigate the linear response kernel for a number of judiciously chosen closed (sub)shell atoms throughout the periodic table and its relevance, e.g., in relation to the shell structure and polarizability. The numerical results are to the best of our knowledge the first systematic study on this noncondensed linear response function, the results for He and Be being in line with earlier work by Savin. Different graphical representations of the kernel are presented and discussed. Moreover, a frontier orbital approach has been tested illustrating the sensitivity of the nonintegrated kernel to the nodal structure of the orbitals. As a test of our method, a numerical integration of the linear response kernel was performed, yielding an accuracy of 10(-4). We also compare calculated values of the polarizability tensor and their evolution throughout the periodic table to high-level values found in the literature. PMID:26588743

  17. A study of non-linearity in rainfall-runoff response using 120 UK catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathias, Simon A.; McIntyre, Neil; Oughton, Rachel H.

    2016-09-01

    This study presents a catchment characteristic sensitivity analysis concerning the non-linearity of rainfall-runoff response in 120 UK catchments. Two approaches were adopted. The first approach involved, for each catchment, regression of a power-law to flow rate gradient data for recession events only. This approach was referred to as the recession analysis (RA). The second approach involved calibrating a rainfall-runoff model to the full data set (both recession and non-recession events). The rainfall-runoff model was developed by combining a power-law streamflow routing function with a one parameter probability distributed model (PDM) for soil moisture accounting. This approach was referred to as the rainfall-runoff model (RM). Step-wise linear regression was used to derive regionalization equations for the three parameters. An advantage of the RM approach is that it utilizes much more of the observed data. Results from the RM approach suggest that catchments with high base-flow and low annual precipitation tend to exhibit greater non-linearity in rainfall-runoff response. In contrast, the results from the RA approach suggest that non-linearity is linked to low evaporative demand. The difference in results is attributed to the aggregation of storm-flow and base-flow into a single system giving rise to a seemingly more non-linear response when applying the RM approach to catchments that exhibit a strongly dual storm-flow base-flow response. The study also highlights the value and limitations in a regionlization context of aggregating storm-flow and base-flow pathways into a single non-linear routing function.

  18. Optical measurement of the weak non-linearity in the eardrum vibration response to auditory stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aerts, Johan

    The mammalian hearing organ consists of the external ear (auricle and ear canal) followed by the middle ear (eardrum and ossicles) and the inner ear (cochlea). Its function is to convert the incoming sound waves and convert them into nerve pulses which are processed in the final stage by the brain. The main task of the external and middle ear is to concentrate the incoming sound waves on a smaller surface to reduce the loss that would normally occur in transmission from air to inner ear fluid. In the past it has been shown that this is a linear process, thus without serious distortions, for sound waves going up to pressures of 130 dB SPL (˜90 Pa). However, at large pressure changes up to several kPa, the middle ear movement clearly shows non-linear behaviour. Thus, it is possible that some small non-linear distortions are also present in the middle ear vibration at lower sound pressures. In this thesis a sensitive measurement set-up is presented to detect this weak non-linear behaviour. Essentially, this set-up consists of a loud-speaker which excites the middle ear, and the resulting vibration is measured with an heterodyne vibrometer. The use of specially designed acoustic excitation signals (odd random phase multisines) enables the separation of the linear and non-linear response. The application of this technique on the middle ear demonstrates that there are already non-linear distortions present in the vibration of the middle ear at a sound pressure of 93 dB SPL. This non-linear component also grows strongly with increasing sound pressure. Knowledge of this non-linear component can contribute to the improvement of modern hearing aids, which operate at higher sound pressures where the non-linearities could distort the signal considerably. It is also important to know the contribution of middle ear non-linearity to otoacoustic emissions. This are non-linearities caused by the active feedback amplifier in the inner ear, and can be detected in the external and

  19. Disentangling linear and nonlinear brain responses to evoked deep tissue pain

    PubMed Central

    Loggia, Marco L.; Edwards, Robert R.; Kim, Jieun; Vangel, Mark G.; Wasan, Ajay; Gollub, Randy L.; Harris, Richard E.; Park, Kyungmo; Napadow, Vitaly

    2012-01-01

    Pain stimuli evoke widespread responses in the brain. However, our understanding of the physiological significance underlying heterogeneous response within different pain-activated and -deactivated regions is still limited. Using functional MRI, we evaluated brain responses to a wide range of stimulus intensity levels (1 innocuous, 7 painful) in order to estimate region-specific stimulus-response functions, which we hypothesized could illuminate that region’s functional relationship to pain. Linear and nonlinear brain responses to pain were estimated through independent Legendre polynomial transformations of pain ratings within a general linear model. This approach identified at least five different, regionally-specific activity profiles in the brain. Linearly increasing (e.g., primary somatosensory/motor cortex, insulae) and intensity-independent (e.g., secondary somatosensory cortex) activation was noted in traditional pain processing areas, potentially reflecting sensory encoding and all-or-none salience responses, respectively. Multiple activity profiles were seen in areas of the default mode network (DMN): intensity-independent deactivation (e.g., posterior cingulate cortex), linearly decreasing (e.g., contralateral inferior parietal lobule), and quadratic (U-shaped; e.g., medial prefrontal cortex). The latter observation suggests that: 1) different DMN subregions exhibit functional heterogeneity and 2) some DMN subregions respond in a percept-related manner to pain, suggesting closer linkage between the DMN and pain processing than previously thought. Future studies should apply a similar approach using innocuous stimuli of multiple intensities in order to evaluate whether the response profiles reported here can also be generalized to nonpainful somatosensory processing. PMID:22883925

  20. Dynamic Deformation and Recovery Response of Red Blood Cells to a Cyclically Reversing Shear Flow: Effects of Frequency of Cyclically Reversing Shear Flow and Shear Stress Level

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Nobuo; Kataoka, Hiroyuki; Yasuda, Toshitaka; Takatani, Setsuo

    2006-01-01

    Dynamic deformation and recovery responses of red blood cells (RBCs) to a cyclically reversing shear flow generated in a 30-μm clearance, with the peak shear stress of 53, 108, 161, and 274 Pa at the frequency of 1, 2, 3, and 5 Hz, respectively, were studied. The RBCs' time-varying velocity varied after the glass plate velocity without any time lag, whereas the L/W change, where L and W were the major and minor axes of RBCs' ellipsoidal shape, exhibited a rapid increase and gradual decay during the deformation and recovery phase. The time of minimum L/W occurrence lagged behind the zero-velocity time of the glass plate (zero stress), and the delay time normalized to the one-cycle duration remained constant at 8.0%. The elongation of RBCs at zero stress time became larger with the reversing frequency. A simple mechanical model consisting of an elastic linear element during a rapid elongation period and a parallel combination of elements such as a spring and dashpot during the nonlinear recovery phase was suggested. The dynamic response behavior of RBCs under a cyclically reversing shear flow was different from the conventional shape change where a steplike force was applied to and completely released from the RBCs. PMID:16766612

  1. Mechanical characterization and modeling of non-linear deformation and fracture of a fiber reinforced metal matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansson, S.

    1991-01-01

    The nonlinear anisotropic mechanical behavior of an aluminum alloy metal matrix composite reinforced with continuous alumina fibers was determined experimentally. The mechanical behavior of the composite were modeled by assuming that the composite has a periodical microstructure. The resulting unit cell problem was solved with the finite element method. Excellent agreement was found between theoretically predicted and measured stress-strain responses for various tensile and shear loadings. The stress-strain responses for transverse and inplane shear were found to be identical and this will provide a simplification of the constitutive equations for the composite. The composite has a very low ductility in transverse tension and a limited ductility in transverse shear that was correlated to high hydrostatic stresses that develop in the matrix. The shape of the initial yield surface was calculated and good agreement was found between the calculated shape and the experimentally determined shape.

  2. Characterization of actin filament deformation in response to actively driven microspheres propagated through entangled actin networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falzone, Tobias; Blair, Savanna; Robertson-Anderson, Rae

    2014-03-01

    The semi-flexible biopolymer actin is a ubiquitous component of nearly all biological organisms, playing an important role in many biological processes such as cell structure and motility, cancer invasion and metastasis, muscle contraction, and cell signaling. Concentrated actin networks possess unique viscoelastic properties that have been the subject of much theoretical and experimental work. However, much is still unknown regarding the correlation of the applied stress on the network to the induced filament strain at the molecular level. Here, we use dual optical traps alongside fluorescence microscopy to carry out active microrheology measurements that link mechanical stress to structural response at the micron scale. Specifically, we actively drive microspheres through entangled actin networks while simultaneously measuring the force the surrounding filaments exert on the sphere and visualizing the deformation and subsequent relaxation of fluorescent labeled filaments within the network. These measurements, which provide much needed insight into the link between stress and strain in actin networks, are critical for clarifying our theoretical understanding of the complex viscoelastic behavior exhibited in actin networks.

  3. Crustal vertical deformation response to different spatial scales of GRACE and GCMs surface loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Haoming; Chen, Wu; Yuan, Linguo

    2016-01-01

    Crustal vertical deformation (CVD) observed by continuous GPS height time-series can be explained largely by surface loading effects recovered from both Gravity Recover and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and General Circulation Models (GCMs) data. We first show that lower degree CVD spatial spectrum due to the Earth's elastic response to a uniform surface loading plays more important roles than that of high-degree case. We then demonstrate that GRACE data with 300-400 km spatial resolution have the ability to detect 99 per cent power of global and regional CVD in spatial spectrum domain using a global frequency-wavenumber spectrum method. We can just use either GRACE or GCMs 36 degree/order (d/o) spherical harmonic coefficients (SHCs) which correspond to 500 km spatial resolution to acquire more than 90 per cent variance of total CVD modeled by up to 180 d/o SHCs at 98 per cent global gridpoints. Globally, CVD modeled by GRACE loading can explain 72 per cent annual amplitude and 69 per cent variance of GPS observed height time-series, which is better than the GCMs results of 64 per cent for annual amplitude and 41 per cent for variance. Using a three cornered hat method, we also show that the noise level of monthly averaged CVD is about 3 mm for both GPS height time-series and GRACE loading result, while that of GCMs result is only 1.3 mm.

  4. Weld heat-affected-zone response to elevated-temperature deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, R.J.; Nippes, E.F.

    1996-11-01

    The mechanical response to elevated-temperature deformation was assessed for weld heat-affected-zone (HAZ) and base-metal microstructures in 2.25Cr-1Mo steel. A constant-displacement-rate (CDR) test, capable of determining long-time, notch-sensitivity tendencies, was implemented on a Gleeble 1,500 thermal/mechanical simulator and an Instron. Microstructures representative of the coarse-grained, grain-refined, and intercritical regions of the HAZ were simulated on a Gleeble. Microstructural reproduction reflected the preheat and postweld heat treatments in accordance with the required codes. A K{sub 1} analysis of the data was conducted, which showed that small-scale yielding criteria were adhered to throughout the test. The test results indicated that the high-temperature extensometer control of the Instron was better able to maintain stable crack growth after peak load than the crosshead control of the Gleeble. The CDR test was seen to be an effective, short-time procedure to delineate and compare the strength and relative service life of the structures present in the weld HAZ.

  5. Evolution of a fold-thrust belt deforming a unit with pre-existing linear asperities: Insights from analog models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burberry, Caroline M.; Swiatlowski, Jerlyn L.

    2016-06-01

    Heterogeneity, whether geometric or rheologic, in crustal material undergoing compression affects the geometry of the structures produced. This study documents the thrust fault geometries produced when discrete linear asperities are introduced into an analog model, scaled to represent bulk upper crustal properties, and compressed. Varying obliquities of the asperities are used, relative to the imposed compression, and the resultant development of thrust fault traces and branch lines in map view is tracked. Once the model runs are completed, cross-sections are created and analyzed. The models show that asperities confined to the base layer promote the clustering of branch lines in the surface thrusts. Strong clustering in branch lines is also noted where several asperities are in close proximity or cross. Slight reverse-sense reactivation of asperities cut through the sedimentary sequence is noted in cross-section, where the asperity and the subsequent thrust belt interact. The model results are comparable to the situation in the Dinaric Alps, where pre-existing faults to the SW of the NE Adriatic Fault Zone contribute to the clustering of branch lines developed in the surface fold-thrust belt. These results can therefore be used to evaluate the evolution of other basement-involved fold-thrust belts worldwide.

  6. Microscale modeling of fluid flow-geomechanics-seismicity: Relationship between permeability and seismic source response in deformed rock joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raziperchikolaee, S.; Alvarado, V.; Yin, S.

    2014-09-01

    Studying rock joint deformation including both slippage and opening mechanisms provides an opportunity to investigate the connection between the permeability and seismic source mechanisms. A microscale fluid flow-geomechanics-seismicity model was built to evaluate the transport response and failure mechanism of microcracks developed along a joint in Berea sandstone samples during deformation. The modeling method considers comprehensive grain-cement interactions. Fluid flow behavior is obtained through a realistic network model of the pore space in the compacted assembly. The geometric description of the complex pore structure is characterized to predict permeability of the rock sample as a function of rock deformation by using a dynamic pore network model. As a result of microcracks development, forces and displacements in grains involved in bond breakage are measured to determine seismic moment tensor. Shear and nonshear displacements are applied to the joint samples to investigate their effects on permeability evolution and failure mechanism of microcracks during joint deformation. In addition, the effect of joint roughness is analyzed by performing numerical compression tests. We also investigate how confining pressure affects volumetric deformation leading to opening or closure of developed microcracks and permeability changes of samples with joints.

  7. Linear response theory for annealing of radiation damage in semiconductor devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litovchenko, Vitaly

    1988-01-01

    A theoretical study of the radiation/annealing response of MOS ICs is described. Although many experiments have been performed in this field, no comprehensive theory dealing with radiation/annealing response has been proposed. Many attempts have been made to apply linear response theory, but no theoretical foundation has been presented. The linear response theory outlined here is capable of describing a broad area of radiation/annealing response phenomena in MOS ICs, in particular, both simultaneous irradiation and annealing, as well as short- and long-term annealing, including the case when annealing is nearing completion. For the first time, a simple procedure is devised to determine the response function from experimental radiation/annealing data. In addition, this procedure enables us to study the effect of variable temperature and dose rate, effects which are of interest in spaceflight. In the past, the shift in threshold potential due to radiation/annealing has usually been assumed to depend on one variable: the time lapse between an impulse dose and the time of observation. While such a suggestion of uniformity in time is certainly true for a broad range of radiation annealing phenomena, it may not hold for some ranges of the variables of interest (temperature, dose rate, etc.). A response function is projected which is dependent on two variables: the time of observation and the time of the impulse dose. This dependence on two variables allows us to extend the theory to the treatment of a variable dose rate. Finally, the linear theory is generalized to the case in which the response is nonlinear with impulse dose, but is proportional to some impulse function of dose. A method to determine both the impulse and response functions is presented.

  8. GPS analysis of ground surface deformation in response to 2011 drought in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karegar, M. A.; Dixon, T. H.; Malservisi, R.

    2014-12-01

    A precise process and analysis of a dense network of CGPS observations are used to infer the long term and seasonal deformation patterns of ground surface over the state of Texas. The state covers 9 major aquifers which supply more than 50 percent of the water utilized in the state and spread over ~75% of the state area. Pumping of groundwater from many aquifers for irrigation, industrial and human consumption has resulted in a significant water level declines, and in many areas caused long term ground surface subsidence. While more than 70 percent of GPS sites, located on the top of aquifers, experience subsidence, the remained sites located outside the aquifers present significant uplift as a result of elastic response to the changes in loading due to soil moisture and surface water. However, a significant episodic uplift (up 6 mm/yr) from 2010 to 2012 appears in all GPS time series corresponding to 2011 extreme drought in Texas and adjacent states. Such episodic uplift is inferred as an elastic response of ground surface to reduced surface load. While most of drought indicators rely on precipitation index, soil moisture model, satellite vegetation health index and streamflow data, we suggest using regional CGPS vertical displacement as a further proxy for the indication of a drought. Inverting the vertical displacement from GPS it is possible to estimate total water storage including the portion of groundwater storage. In this abstract, the uplifts during drought period are inverted to derive total water storage loss using load Green's function. The GPS-based estimate of water loss is compared with GRACE-based and Land Surface Models estimates of total water storage (e.g. NLDAS and GLDAS). The limitations and uncertainty associated with each technique are discussed.

  9. The response of a linear baroclinic equatorial ocean to periodic forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, M. A.; Sarachik, E. S.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation is conducted regarding the periodic response of the linear inviscid shallow water equations in a meridionally unbounded basin to zonal forcings at a single low frequency omega. A general solution in the long wave approximation and on an equatorial beta-plane is obtained by summing the Kelvin mode and the finite sum of Rossby modes whose turning points lie equatorward of the turning latitude at frequency omega. The results of the investigation suggest that even if the low frequency forcing has a simple structure, considerable spatial inhomogeneity in the deep ocean response would have to be expected. On the basis of linear inviscid theory, some conclusions are drawn about the causes of the differences between equatorial thermocline response in the Atlantic and Pacific.

  10. Effects of Cyclic and Monotonic Deformations on Nonlinear Ultrasonic Response of Austenitic Stainless Steel: A Comparative Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianfeng; Xuan, Fu-Zhen; Xiang, Yanxun; Zhao, Peng

    2016-05-01

    The effect of plastic deformations on the nonlinear ultrasonic response in austenite stainless steel was investigated under the tensile, asymmetric cyclic, and symmetric cyclic loadings. Nonlinear ultrasonic wave measurement was performed on the interrupted specimens. Results show that cyclic and monotonic plastic deformations lead to the significantly different acoustic nonlinear response. The increase of dislocation density and martensite transformation causes the increase of acoustic nonlinearity. By contrast, the well-developed cell structures decrease the acoustic nonlinear response. Under the asymmetric cyclic loading condition, the lightly decrease of acoustic nonlinearity is caused by the development of cell structures, while the slight increase of acoustic nonlinearity should be attributed to the increase of martensite transformation. Comparatively, the severe increase of acoustic nonlinearity during the first stage under symmetric cyclic loading is ascribed to the fast generation of dislocation structures and martensite transformation.

  11. Vestibular afferent responses to linear accelerations in the alert squirrel monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somps, Christopher J.; Schor, Robert H.; Tomko, David L.

    1994-01-01

    The spontaneous activity of 40 otolith afferents and 44 canal afferents was recorded in 4 alert, intact squirrel monkeys. Polarization vectors and response properties of otolith afferents were determined during static re-orientations relative to gravity and during Earth-horizontal, sinusoidal, linear oscillations. Canal afferents were tested for sensitivity to linear accelerations. For regular otolith afferents, a significant correlation between upright discharge rate and sensitivity to dynamic acceleration in the horizontal plane was observed. This correlation was not present in irregular units. The sensitivity of otolith afferents to both static tilts and dynamic linear acceleration was much greater in irregularly discharging units than in regularly discharging units. The spontaneous activity and static and dynamic response properties of regularly discharging otolith afferents were similar to those reported in barbiturate-anesthetized squirrel monkeys. Irregular afferents also had similar dynamic response properties when compared to anesthetized monkeys. However, this sample of irregular afferents in alert animals had higher resting discharge rates and greater sensitivity to static tilts. The majority of otolith polarization vectors were oriented near the horizontal in the plane of the utricular maculae; however, directions of maximum sensitivity were different during dynamic and static testing. Canal afferents were not sensitive to static tilts or linear oscillations of the head.

  12. The role of linear interference in the Annular Mode response to Tropical SST forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, C. G.; Kushner, P. J.

    2010-12-01

    Sea-surface temperature (SST) anomalies in different parts of the Tropics are known to drive very different teleconnections into the extratropics on monthly-to-seasonal timescales. For example, wintertime El Nino SST warming in the tropical Pacific Ocean (TPO) is associated with an equatorward shifted subtropical jet, a weaker stratospheric polar vortex, and high pressure over the northern polar regions characteristic of the negative phase of the Northern Annular Mode (NAM). By contrast, SST warming in the Tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) has been shown to be associated with a poleward shifted subtropical jet, strengthened polar vortex, and and a positive phase NAM. This study presents a simple dynamical framework for understanding these different responses. It is shown that the sign and strength of the NAM response to tropical SST forcing is often simply related to the phasing, and hence the linear interference, between the Rossby wave response and the climatological stationary wave. The TPO (TIO) wave response reinforces (attenuates) the climatological wave and therefore weakens (strengthens) the stratospheric jet and leads to a negative (positive) NAM response. In additional simulations, it is shown that decreasing the strength of the climatological stationary wave reduces the importance of linear interference and increases the importance of nonlinearity. This work demonstrates that the simulated extratropical Annular Mode responses to climate forcings can depend sensitively on the amplitude and phase of the climatological stationary wave and the wave response.

  13. Encoding of head acceleration in vestibular neurons. I. Spatiotemporal response properties to linear acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, G. A.; Perachio, A. A.; Angelaki, D. E.

    1993-01-01

    1. Extracellular recordings were made in and around the medial vestibular nuclei in decerebrated rats. Neurons were functionally identified according to their semicircular canal input on the basis of their responses to angular head rotations around the yaw, pitch, and roll head axes. Those cells responding to angular acceleration were classified as either horizontal semicircular canal-related (HC) or vertical semicircular canal-related (VC) neurons. The HC neurons were further characterized as either type I or type II, depending on the direction of rotation producing excitation. Cells that lacked a response to angular head acceleration, but exhibited sensitivity to a change in head position, were classified as purely otolith organ-related (OTO) neurons. All vestibular neurons were then tested for their response to sinusoidal linear translation in the horizontal head plane. 2. Convergence of macular and canal inputs onto central vestibular nuclei neurons occurred in 73% of the type I HC, 79% of the type II HC, and 86% of the VC neurons. Out of the 223 neurons identified as receiving macular input, 94 neurons were further studied, and their spatiotemporal response properties to sinusoidal stimulation with pure linear acceleration were quantified. Data were obtained from 33 type I HC, 22 type II HC, 22 VC, and 17 OTO neurons. 3. For each neuron the angle of the translational stimulus vector was varied by 15, 30, or 45 degrees increments in the horizontal head plane. In all tested neurons, a direction of maximum sensitivity was identified. An interesting difference among neurons was their response to translation along the direction perpendicular to that that produced the maximum response ("null" direction). For the majority of neurons tested, it was possible to evoke a nonzero response during stimulation along the null direction always had response phases that varied as a function of stimulus direction. 4. These spatiotemporal response properties were quantified in two

  14. Linear response as a singular limit for a periodically driven closed quantum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russomanno, Angelo; Silva, Alessandro; Santoro, Giuseppe E.

    2013-09-01

    We address the issue of the validity of linear response theory for a closed quantum system subject to a periodic external driving. Linear response theory (LRT) predicts energy absorption at frequencies of the external driving where the imaginary part of the appropriate response function is different from zero. Here we show that, for a fairly general nonlinear many-body system on a lattice subject to an extensive perturbation, this approximation should be expected to be valid only up to a time t* depending on the strength of the driving, beyond which the true coherent Schrödinger evolution departs from the linear response prediction and the system stops absorbing energy from the driving. We exemplify this phenomenon in detail with the example of a quantum Ising chain subject to a time-periodic modulation of the transverse field, by comparing an exact Floquet analysis with the standard results of LRT. In this context, we also show that if the perturbation is just local, the system is expected in the thermodynamic limit to keep absorbing energy, and LRT works at all times. We finally argue more generally the validity of the scenario presented for closed quantum many-body lattice systems with a bound on the energy-per-site spectrum, discussing the experimental relevance of our findings in the context of cold atoms in optical lattices and ultra-fast spectroscopy experiments.

  15. Improving linear accelerator service response with a real- time electronic event reporting system.

    PubMed

    Hoisak, Jeremy D P; Pawlicki, Todd; Kim, Gwe-Ya; Fletcher, Richard; Moore, Kevin L

    2014-01-01

    To track linear accelerator performance issues, an online event recording system was developed in-house for use by therapists and physicists to log the details of technical problems arising on our institution's four linear accelerators. In use since October 2010, the system was designed so that all clinical physicists would receive email notification when an event was logged. Starting in October 2012, we initiated a pilot project in collaboration with our linear accelerator vendor to explore a new model of service and support, in which event notifications were also sent electronically directly to dedicated engineers at the vendor's technical help desk, who then initiated a response to technical issues. Previously, technical issues were reported by telephone to the vendor's call center, which then disseminated information and coordinated a response with the Technical Support help desk and local service engineers. The purpose of this work was to investigate the improvements to clinical operations resulting from this new service model. The new and old service models were quantitatively compared by reviewing event logs and the oncology information system database in the nine months prior to and after initiation of the project. Here, we focus on events that resulted in an inoperative linear accelerator ("down" machine). Machine downtime, vendor response time, treatment cancellations, and event resolution were evaluated and compared over two equivalent time periods. In 389 clinical days, there were 119 machine-down events: 59 events before and 60 after introduction of the new model. In the new model, median time to service response decreased from 45 to 8 min, service engineer dispatch time decreased 44%, downtime per event decreased from 45 to 20 min, and treatment cancellations decreased 68%. The decreased vendor response time and reduced number of on-site visits by a service engineer resulted in decreased downtime and decreased patient treatment cancellations. PMID

  16. Near-linear response of mean monsoon strength to a broad range of radiative forcings

    PubMed Central

    Boos, William R.; Storelvmo, Trude

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical models have been used to argue that seasonal mean monsoons will shift abruptly and discontinuously from wet to dry stable states as their radiative forcings pass a critical threshold, sometimes referred to as a “tipping point.” Further support for a strongly nonlinear response of monsoons to radiative forcings is found in the seasonal onset of the South Asian summer monsoon, which is abrupt compared with the annual cycle of insolation. Here it is shown that the seasonal mean strength of monsoons instead exhibits a nearly linear dependence on a wide range of radiative forcings. First, a previous theory that predicted a discontinuous, threshold response is shown to omit a dominant stabilizing term in the equations of motion; a corrected theory predicts a continuous and nearly linear response of seasonal mean monsoon strength to forcings. A comprehensive global climate model is then used to show that the seasonal mean South Asian monsoon exhibits a near-linear dependence on a wide range of isolated greenhouse gas, aerosol, and surface albedo forcings. This model reproduces the observed abrupt seasonal onset of the South Asian monsoon but produces a near-linear response of the mean monsoon by changing the duration of the summer circulation and the latitude of that circulation’s ascent branch. Thus, neither a physically correct theoretical model nor a comprehensive climate model support the idea that seasonal mean monsoons will undergo abrupt, nonlinear shifts in response to changes in greenhouse gas concentrations, aerosol emissions, or land surface albedo. PMID:26811462

  17. The adequate stimulus for avian short latency vestibular responses to linear translation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. A.; Jones, S. M.; Colbert, S.

    1998-01-01

    Transient linear acceleration stimuli have been shown to elicit eighth nerve vestibular compound action potentials in birds and mammals. The present study was undertaken to better define the nature of the adequate stimulus for neurons generating the response in the chicken (Gallus domesticus). In particular, the study evaluated the question of whether the neurons studied are most sensitive to the maximum level of linear acceleration achieved or to the rate of change in acceleration (da/dt, or jerk). To do this, vestibular response thresholds were measured as a function of stimulus onset slope. Traditional computer signal averaging was used to record responses to pulsed linear acceleration stimuli. Stimulus onset slope was systematically varied. Acceleration thresholds decreased with increasing stimulus onset slope (decreasing stimulus rise time). When stimuli were expressed in units of jerk (g/ms), thresholds were virtually constant for all stimulus rise times. Moreover, stimuli having identical jerk magnitudes but widely varying peak acceleration levels produced virtually identical responses. Vestibular response thresholds, latencies and amplitudes appear to be determined strictly by stimulus jerk magnitudes. Stimulus attributes such as peak acceleration or rise time alone do not provide sufficient information to predict response parameter quantities. Indeed, the major response parameters were shown to be virtually independent of peak acceleration levels or rise time when these stimulus features were isolated and considered separately. It is concluded that the neurons generating short latency vestibular evoked potentials do so as "jerk encoders" in the chicken. Primary afferents classified as "irregular", and which traditionally fall into the broad category of "dynamic" or "phasic" neurons, would seem to be the most likely candidates for the neural generators of short latency vestibular compound action potentials.

  18. Linear response range characterization and in vivo application of laser speckle imaging of blood flow dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Bernard; Ramírez-San-Juan, Julio C.; Lotfi, Justin; Nelson, J. S.

    2006-07-01

    Noninvasive blood flow imaging can provide critical information on the state of biological tissue and the efficacy of approaches to treat disease. With laser speckle imaging (LSI), relative changes in blood flow are typically reported, with the assumption that the measured values are on a linear scale. A linear relationship between the measured and actual flow rate values has been suggested. The actual flow rate range, over which this linear relationship is valid, is unknown. Herein we report the linear response range and velocity dynamic range (VDR) of our LSI instrument at two relevant camera integration times. For integration times of 1 and 10 ms, the best case VDR was 80 and 60 dB, respectively, and the worst case VDR was 20 and 50 dB. The best case VDR values were similar to those reported in the literature for optical Doppler tomography. We also demonstrate the potential of LSI for monitoring blood flow dynamics in the rodent dorsal skinfold chamber model. These findings imply that LSI can provide accurate wide-field maps of microvascular blood flow rate dynamics and highlight heterogeneities in flow response to the application of exogenous agents.

  19. Communication: A reduced-space algorithm for the solution of the complex linear response equations used in coupled cluster damped response theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauczor, Joanna; Norman, Patrick; Christiansen, Ove; Coriani, Sonia

    2013-12-01

    We present a reduced-space algorithm for solving the complex (damped) linear response equations required to compute the complex linear response function for the hierarchy of methods: coupled cluster singles, coupled cluster singles and iterative approximate doubles, and coupled cluster singles and doubles. The solver is the keystone element for the development of damped coupled cluster response methods for linear and nonlinear effects in resonant frequency regions.

  20. Linear response to leadership, effective temperature and decision making in flocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Daniel; Giomi, Luca

    The Vicsek model is the prototypical system for studying collective behavior of interacting self propelled particles (SPPs). It has formed the basis for models explaining the collective behavior of many active systems including flocks of birds and swarms of insects. To the standard Vicsek model we introduce a small angular torque to a subset of the particles and observe how this effects the direction of polarisation of the entire swarm. This is analogous to a few informed birds trying to lead the rest of a large flock by initiating a turn. We find a linear response to this perturbation and fluctuations that are in agreement with fluctuation dissipation theorem. This allows the identification of an effective temperature for the Vicsek model that follows a power law with the noise amplitude. The linear response can also be extended to the process of decision-making, wherein flocks must decide between the behaviors of two competing subgroups of individuals.

  1. Challenges within the linear response approximation when studying enzyme catalysis and effects of mutations.

    PubMed

    Sharir-Ivry, Avital; Varatharaj, Rajapandian; Shurki, Avital

    2015-01-13

    Various aspects of the linear response approximation (LRA) approach were examined when calculating reaction barriers within an enzyme and its different mutants. Scaling the electrostatic interactions is shown to slightly affect the absolute values of the barriers but not the overall trend when comparing wild-type and mutants. Convergence of the overall energetics was shown to depend on the sampling. Finally, the contribution of particular residues was shown to be significant, despite its small value. PMID:26574227

  2. New computational method for non-LTE, the linear response matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier, K. B.; Graziani, F. R.; Harte, J. A.; Libby, S. B.; More, R. M.; Rathkopf, J.; Zimmerman, G. B.

    1998-10-01

    We investigate non-local thermodynamic equilibrium atomic kinetics using nonequilibrium thermodynamics and linear response theory. This approach gives a rigorous general framework for exploiting results from non-LTE kinetic calculations and offers a practical data-tabulation scheme suitable for use in plasma simulation codes. We describe how this method has been implemented to supply a fast and accurate non-LTE option in Lasnex.

  3. Function projective synchronization in partially linear drive-response chaotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rong; Xu, Zhen-Yuan

    2010-12-01

    This paper gives the definition of function projective synchronization with less conservative demand for a scaling function, and investigates the function projective synchronization in partially linear drive-response chaotic systems. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, it has been shown that the function projective synchronization with desired scaling function can be realized by simple control law. Moreover it does not need scaling function to be differentiable, bounded and non-vanished. The numerical simulations are provided to verify the theoretical result.

  4. The Mexican Ridges Fold Belt, Gulf of Mexico: Deformation, Dynamics of Deposition of Growth Strata, and the Delay of Sedimentary Response to Tectonic Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarbuh Lugo, U. I.; Contreras, J.

    2014-12-01

    Deformation of the Mexican Ridges fold belt (MRFB), western Gulf of Mexico, initiated in the Late Neogene in response to normal faulting along the Quetzalcoatl Extensional System offshore Veracruz. Previous authors analyzed stacking patterns of growth strata concluding deformation occurred in two stages: the western section of the fold belt developed during the Upper Miocene whereas the eastern part became active during the Lower Pliocene. Here we analyze a regional seismic line to determine whether deformation migrated progressively eastward. In contrast to previous studies we do not use stacking patterns but excess area. This parameter provides direct information of both linear shortening, and superficial mass transport. We construct excess-area plots for each of the folds comprising the MRFB; from them we estimate the shortening and the degradation path of the seafloor deformed by folding. Moreover, by assuming denudation is in steady state, we are able to differentiate sediments derived locally from sediments transported from distant sources. Results show tectonic transport in the MRFB is 11.8 km; shortening of individual folds ranges 3-16%, with an average strain for the entire MRFB of ~10%; structures grew at a mean uplift rate of 0.2 mm/yr. We estimate the constant of mass diffusivity, which controls the rate of degradation, has a mean value of 0.27 m2/yr. This value is characteristic of rapid, episodic mass movements. Finally, the sedimentation rate is ~0.2 mm/yr. Those parameters, however, are not constant; they decrease toward the deepwater portion of the fold belt. The structures proximal to the continental shelf are rising rapidly and are being degraded more intensely than those in the distal part of the fold belt. Our results reveal that deformation started synchronously throughout the MRFB during the Late Miocene and not in two episodes as previously reported. The reason for the seeming discrepancy is due to the copious sedimentation in the eastern

  5. Thermodynamics of the mesoscopic thermoelectric heat engine beyond the linear-response regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Kaoru; Hatano, Naomichi

    2015-10-01

    Mesoscopic thermoelectric heat engine is much anticipated as a device that allows us to utilize with high efficiency wasted heat inaccessible by conventional heat engines. However, the derivation of the heat current in this engine seems to be either not general or described too briefly, even inappropriately in some cases. In this paper, we give a clear-cut derivation of the heat current of the engine with suitable assumptions beyond the linear-response regime. It resolves the confusion in the definition of the heat current in the linear-response regime. After verifying that we can construct the same formalism as that of the cyclic engine, we find the following two interesting results within the Landauer-Büttiker formalism: the efficiency of the mesoscopic thermoelectric engine reaches the Carnot efficiency if and only if the transmission probability is finite at a specific energy and zero otherwise; the unitarity of the transmission probability guarantees the second law of thermodynamics, invalidating Benenti et al.'s argument in the linear-response regime that one could obtain a finite power with the Carnot efficiency under a broken time-reversal symmetry [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 230602 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.106.230602]. These results demonstrate how quantum mechanics constrains thermodynamics.

  6. Development of a linearized unsteady aerodynamic analysis for cascade gust response predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verdon, Joseph M.; Hall, Kenneth C.

    1990-01-01

    A method for predicting the unsteady aerodynamic response of a cascade of airfoils to entropic, vortical, and acoustic gust excitations is being developed. Here, the unsteady flow is regarded as a small perturbation of a nonuniform isentropic and irrotational steady background flow. A splitting technique is used to decompose the linearized unsteady velocity into rotational and irrotational parts leading to equations for the complex amplitudes of the linearized unsteady entropy, rotational velocity, and velocity potential that are coupled only sequentially. The entropic and rotational velocity fluctuations are described by transport equations for which closed-form solutions in terms of the mean-flow drift and stream functions can be determined. The potential fluctuation is described by an inhomogeneous convected wave equation in which the source term depends on the rotational velocity field, and is determined using finite-difference procedures. The analytical and numerical techniques used to determine the linearized unsteady flow are outlined. Results are presented to indicate the status of the solution procedure and to demonstrate the impact of blade geometry and mean blade loading on the aerodynamic response of cascades to vortical gust excitations. The analysis described herein leads to very efficient predictions of cascade unsteady aerodynamic response phenomena making it useful for turbomachinery aeroelastic and aeroacoustic design applications.

  7. Thermodynamics of the mesoscopic thermoelectric heat engine beyond the linear-response regime.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kaoru; Hatano, Naomichi

    2015-10-01

    Mesoscopic thermoelectric heat engine is much anticipated as a device that allows us to utilize with high efficiency wasted heat inaccessible by conventional heat engines. However, the derivation of the heat current in this engine seems to be either not general or described too briefly, even inappropriately in some cases. In this paper, we give a clear-cut derivation of the heat current of the engine with suitable assumptions beyond the linear-response regime. It resolves the confusion in the definition of the heat current in the linear-response regime. After verifying that we can construct the same formalism as that of the cyclic engine, we find the following two interesting results within the Landauer-Büttiker formalism: the efficiency of the mesoscopic thermoelectric engine reaches the Carnot efficiency if and only if the transmission probability is finite at a specific energy and zero otherwise; the unitarity of the transmission probability guarantees the second law of thermodynamics, invalidating Benenti et al.'s argument in the linear-response regime that one could obtain a finite power with the Carnot efficiency under a broken time-reversal symmetry [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 230602 (2011)]. These results demonstrate how quantum mechanics constrains thermodynamics. PMID:26565226

  8. Study on The Response Improvement of A Linear Actuator Using Temperature-Sensitive Magnetic Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Katsuhiro; Kanzaki, Yasunori; Ota, Tomohiro; Yamaguchi, Tadashi; Kawase, Yoshihiro

    We have been studying a linear actuator for the thermostatic switch using temperature-sensitive magnetic material (TSMM). In this paper, the effect of the geometry of TSMM on response time is investigated by computing the dynamic characteristics of the actuator employing the 3-D finite element method coupled with the equations of magnetic field, heat transfer and motion. As a result, it is found that the response of the actuator is greatly improved. The validity of the computation is clarified though the comparison with the measurement of a prototype.

  9. Microsecond linear optical response in the unusual nematic phase of achiral bimesogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panov, V. P.; Balachandran, R.; Nagaraj, M.; Vij, J. K.; Tamba, M. G.; Kohlmeier, A.; Mehl, G. H.

    2011-12-01

    Some hydrocarbon linked mesogenic dimers are known to exhibit an additional nematic phase (Nx) below a conventional uniaxial nematic (Nu) phase. Although composed of non-chiral molecules, the Nx phase is found to exhibit linear (polar) switching under applied electric field. This switching has remarkably low response time of the order of a few microseconds. Two chiral domains with opposite handedness and consequently opposite responses are found in planar cells. Uniformly lying helix, electroclinic, and flexoelectric effects are given as possible causes for this intriguing phenomenon.

  10. The role of twinning deformation on the hardening response of polycrystalline magnesium from discrete dislocation dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Haidong; Aubry, Sylvie; Arsenlis, Athanasios; El-Awady, Jaafar A.

    2015-04-13

    The mechanical response of micro-twinned polycrystalline magnesium was studied through three-dimensional discrete dislocation dynamics (DDD). A systematic interaction model between dislocations and (1012) tension twin boundaries (TBs) was proposed and introduced into the DDD framework. In addition, a nominal grain boundary (GB) model agreeing with experimental results was also introduced to mimic the GB’s barrier effect. The current simulation results show that TBs act as a strong obstacle to gliding dislocations, which contributes significantly to the hardening behavior of magnesium. On the other hand, the deformation accommodated by twinning plays a softening role. Therefore, the concave shape of the Mg stress-strain curve results from the competition between dislocation-TB induced hardening and twinning deformation induced softening. At low strain levels, twinning deformation induced softening dominates and a decreasing hardening rate is observed in Stage-I. In Stage-II, both the hardening and softening effects decline, but twinning deformation induced softening declines faster, which leads to an increasing hardening rate.

  11. The role of twinning deformation on the hardening response of polycrystalline magnesium from discrete dislocation dynamics simulations

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fan, Haidong; Aubry, Sylvie; Arsenlis, Athanasios; El-Awady, Jaafar A.

    2015-04-13

    The mechanical response of micro-twinned polycrystalline magnesium was studied through three-dimensional discrete dislocation dynamics (DDD). A systematic interaction model between dislocations and (1012) tension twin boundaries (TBs) was proposed and introduced into the DDD framework. In addition, a nominal grain boundary (GB) model agreeing with experimental results was also introduced to mimic the GB’s barrier effect. The current simulation results show that TBs act as a strong obstacle to gliding dislocations, which contributes significantly to the hardening behavior of magnesium. On the other hand, the deformation accommodated by twinning plays a softening role. Therefore, the concave shape of the Mgmore » stress-strain curve results from the competition between dislocation-TB induced hardening and twinning deformation induced softening. At low strain levels, twinning deformation induced softening dominates and a decreasing hardening rate is observed in Stage-I. In Stage-II, both the hardening and softening effects decline, but twinning deformation induced softening declines faster, which leads to an increasing hardening rate.« less

  12. Linearization of dose-response curve of the radiochromic film dosimetry system

    SciTech Connect

    Devic, Slobodan; Tomic, Nada; Aldelaijan, Saad; DeBlois, Francois; Seuntjens, Jan; Chan, Maria F.; Lewis, Dave

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: Despite numerous advantages of radiochromic film dosimeter (high spatial resolution, near tissue equivalence, low energy dependence) to measure a relative dose distribution with film, one needs to first measure an absolute dose (following previously established reference dosimetry protocol) and then convert measured absolute dose values into relative doses. In this work, we present result of our efforts to obtain a functional form that would linearize the inherently nonlinear dose-response curve of the radiochromic film dosimetry system. Methods: Functional form [{zeta}= (-1){center_dot}netOD{sup (2/3)}/ln(netOD)] was derived from calibration curves of various previously established radiochromic film dosimetry systems. In order to test the invariance of the proposed functional form with respect to the film model used we tested it with three different GAFCHROMIC Trade-Mark-Sign film models (EBT, EBT2, and EBT3) irradiated to various doses and scanned on a same scanner. For one of the film models (EBT2), we tested the invariance of the functional form to the scanner model used by scanning irradiated film pieces with three different flatbed scanner models (Epson V700, 1680, and 10000XL). To test our hypothesis that the proposed functional argument linearizes the response of the radiochromic film dosimetry system, verification tests have been performed in clinical applications: percent depth dose measurements, IMRT quality assurance (QA), and brachytherapy QA. Results: Obtained R{sup 2} values indicate that the choice of the functional form of the new argument appropriately linearizes the dose response of the radiochromic film dosimetry system we used. The linear behavior was insensitive to both film model and flatbed scanner model used. Measured PDD values using the green channel response of the GAFCHROMIC Trade-Mark-Sign EBT3 film model are well within {+-}2% window of the local relative dose value when compared to the tabulated Cobalt-60 data. It was also

  13. The Pole Term in Linear Response Theory: An Example From the Transverse Response of the Electron Gas

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Zachary H.; Cockayne, Eric

    2008-01-01

    In linear response theory, the dielectric response at zero frequency sometimes appears to violate the f-sum rule, which has apparent implications for causality. Here, we study the origin of this apparent discrepancy, focusing on Lindhard’s formula for the transverse response of the electron gas. At non-zero frequency, first-order poles contribute to the imaginary part of the dielectric function in the usual way. At zero frequency, second-order poles contribute in a way which forces a careful consideration of the notation of summation and integration to avoid an error. A compact formula for the contribution of the second-order poles is presented. The sense in which the f-sum rule is satisfied is discussed. PMID:27096129

  14. Spatiotemporal processing of linear acceleration: primary afferent and central vestibular neuron responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelaki, D. E.; Dickman, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    Spatiotemporal convergence and two-dimensional (2-D) neural tuning have been proposed as a major neural mechanism in the signal processing of linear acceleration. To examine this hypothesis, we studied the firing properties of primary otolith afferents and central otolith neurons that respond exclusively to horizontal linear accelerations of the head (0.16-10 Hz) in alert rhesus monkeys. Unlike primary afferents, the majority of central otolith neurons exhibited 2-D spatial tuning to linear acceleration. As a result, central otolith dynamics vary as a function of movement direction. During movement along the maximum sensitivity direction, the dynamics of all central otolith neurons differed significantly from those observed for the primary afferent population. Specifically at low frequencies (linear velocity, in contrast to primary afferents that peaked in phase with linear acceleration. At least three different groups of central response dynamics were described according to the properties observed for motion along the maximum sensitivity direction. "High-pass" neurons exhibited increasing gains and phase values as a function of frequency. "Flat" neurons were characterized by relatively flat gains and constant phase lags (approximately 20-55 degrees ). A few neurons ("low-pass") were characterized by decreasing gain and phase as a function of frequency. The response dynamics of central otolith neurons suggest that the approximately 90 degrees phase lags observed at low frequencies are not the result of a neural integration but rather the effect of nonminimum phase behavior, which could arise at least partly through spatiotemporal convergence. Neither afferent nor central otolith neurons discriminated between gravitational and inertial components of linear acceleration. Thus response sensitivity was indistinguishable during 0.5-Hz pitch oscillations and fore-aft movements

  15. Research the dynamical characteristics of slow deformation waves as a rock massif response to explosions during its outworking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachay, Olga; Khachay, Oleg; Shipeev, Oleg

    2015-04-01

    As a result of long-term natural geomechanics and geophysical observation data on mines of complex ore rocks, generalization of the non-linear reaction of rock massif to heavy dynamic influences have been established. In addition, pendulum type waves have been observed and the sources of them have been located inside geoblocks of different hierarchic levels (Oparin et al., 2010). At the same time, these waves propagate with wide low (compared with seismic waves) velocity values (Kurlenja et al., 1993; Oparin et al., 2006). Research into the massif state with the use of the dynamic systems theory approach (Naimark et al., 2009; Chulichkov, 2003; Hachay et al., 2010) has been developed to ascertain the criteria of dissipative regimes changing for real rock massifs, which are under heavy man-caused influence. To realize such research we used the data from the seismic record of the Tashtagol mine for the two-year period from June 2006 up to June 2008. We used the space-time coordinates for all dynamic massif event responses, which occurred during that period inside the mine space and for the explosions - values fixed by seismic station energy (Hachay et al., 2010). The phase diagrams of the massif state for the northern and southern parts of the mine space were plotted in coordinates Ev(t) and d(Ev(t))/dt, t - time - in parts of 24 hours, Ev - the dissipated massive seismic energy - in joules. Hachay et al., (2010) analysed the morphology of seismic response phase trajectories on the explosion influences during different serial intervals in the southern part of the mine. In that period, according to data for different explosions in the mine, the majority of the total energy had been injected into the southern part of the mine. Moreover, at the end of 2007, just in the southern part, the strongest rock burst during the whole history of the working mine happened. We developed a new processing method of seismological information in real, which we can use directly in the

  16. Optical response of silver clusters and their hollow shells from linear-response TDDFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koval, Peter; Marchesin, Federico; Foerster, Dietrich; Sánchez-Portal, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    We present a study of the optical response of compact and hollow icosahedral clusters containing up to 868 silver atoms by means of time-dependent density functional theory. We have studied the dependence on size and morphology of both the sharp plasmonic resonance at 3–4 eV (originated mainly from sp-electrons), and the less studied broader feature appearing in the 6–7 eV range (interband transitions). An analysis of the effect of structural relaxations, as well as the choice of exchange correlation functional (local density versus generalised gradient approximations) both in the ground state and optical response calculations is also presented. We have further analysed the role of the different atom layers (surface versus inner layers) and the different orbital symmetries on the absorption cross-section for energies up to 8 eV. We have also studied the dependence on the number of atom layers in hollow structures. Shells formed by a single layer of atoms show a pronounced red shift of the main plasmon resonances that, however, rapidly converge to those of the compact structures as the number of layers is increased. The methods used to obtain these results are also carefully discussed. Our methodology is based on the use of localised basis (atomic orbitals, and atom-centered and dominant-product functions), which bring several computational advantages related to their relatively small size and the sparsity of the resulting matrices. Furthermore, the use of basis sets of atomic orbitals also allows the possibility of extending some of the standard population analysis tools (e.g. Mulliken population analysis) to the realm of optical excitations. Some examples of these analyses are described in the present work.

  17. Optical response of silver clusters and their hollow shells from linear-response TDDFT.

    PubMed

    Koval, Peter; Marchesin, Federico; Foerster, Dietrich; Sánchez-Portal, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    We present a study of the optical response of compact and hollow icosahedral clusters containing up to 868 silver atoms by means of time-dependent density functional theory. We have studied the dependence on size and morphology of both the sharp plasmonic resonance at 3-4 eV (originated mainly from sp-electrons), and the less studied broader feature appearing in the 6-7 eV range (interband transitions). An analysis of the effect of structural relaxations, as well as the choice of exchange correlation functional (local density versus generalised gradient approximations) both in the ground state and optical response calculations is also presented. We have further analysed the role of the different atom layers (surface versus inner layers) and the different orbital symmetries on the absorption cross-section for energies up to 8 eV. We have also studied the dependence on the number of atom layers in hollow structures. Shells formed by a single layer of atoms show a pronounced red shift of the main plasmon resonances that, however, rapidly converge to those of the compact structures as the number of layers is increased. The methods used to obtain these results are also carefully discussed. Our methodology is based on the use of localised basis (atomic orbitals, and atom-centered and dominant-product functions), which bring several computational advantages related to their relatively small size and the sparsity of the resulting matrices. Furthermore, the use of basis sets of atomic orbitals also allows the possibility of extending some of the standard population analysis tools (e.g. Mulliken population analysis) to the realm of optical excitations. Some examples of these analyses are described in the present work. PMID:27147701

  18. Cancer risk assessment: Optimizing human health through linear dose-response models.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Edward J; Shamoun, Dima Yazji; Hanekamp, Jaap C

    2015-07-01

    This paper proposes that generic cancer risk assessments be based on the integration of the Linear Non-Threshold (LNT) and hormetic dose-responses since optimal hormetic beneficial responses are estimated to occur at the dose associated with a 10(-4) risk level based on the use of a LNT model as applied to animal cancer studies. The adoption of the 10(-4) risk estimate provides a theoretical and practical integration of two competing risk assessment models whose predictions cannot be validated in human population studies or with standard chronic animal bioassay data. This model-integration reveals both substantial protection of the population from cancer effects (i.e. functional utility of the LNT model) while offering the possibility of significant reductions in cancer incidence should the hormetic dose-response model predictions be correct. The dose yielding the 10(-4) cancer risk therefore yields the optimized toxicologically based "regulatory sweet spot". PMID:25916915

  19. New differential equations governing the response cross-correlations of linear systems subjected to coloured loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falsone, G.; Settineri, D.

    2011-06-01

    A procedure for evaluating the response cross-correlation of a linear structural system subjected to the action of stationary random multi-correlated processes is presented in this work. It is based on the definition of the fourth-order differential equation governing the modal response cross-correlation and of the corresponding solution. This is expressed in terms of the corresponding fundamental matrix, whose expression is related to the fundamental matrices of the differential equations governing the modal responses. The properties of this matrix allows to define a particular unconditionally stable numerical integration approach, which is composed of two independent step-by-step procedures, a progressive one and a regressive one. The applications have shown a level of accuracy comparable to that corresponding to the numerical solution of the double convolution integral, but the presented approach is characterised by a reduced computational effort.

  20. Linearized formulation for fluid-structure interaction: Application to the linear dynamic response of a pressurized elastic structure containing a fluid with a free surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schotté, J.-S.; Ohayon, R.

    2013-05-01

    To control the linear vibrations of structures partially filled with liquids is of prime importance in various industries such as aerospace, naval, civil and nuclear engineering. It is proposed here to investigate a linearized formulation adapted to a rational computation of the vibrations of such coupled systems. Its particularity is to be fully Lagrangian since it considers the fluid displacement field with respect to a static equilibrium configuration as the natural variable describing the fluid motion, as classically done in structural dynamics. As the coupled system considered here is weakly damped in the low frequency domain (low modal density), the analysis of the vibrations of the associated undamped conservative system constitutes the main objective of this paper. One originality of the present formulation is to take into account the effect of the pressurization of the tank on the dynamics of the system, particularly in the case of a compressible liquid. We propose here a new way of deriving the linearized equations of the coupled problem involving a deformable structure and an inner inviscid liquid with a free surface. A review of the classical case considering a heavy incompressible liquid is followed by an application to the new case involving a light compressible liquid. A solution procedure in the frequency domain is proposed and a numerical discretization using the finite element method is discussed. In order to reduce the computational costs, an appropriate reduced order matrix model using modal synthesis approach is also presented.

  1. High-resolution time-lapse tomography of rat vertebrae during compressive loading: deformation response analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fíla, T.; Kytýř, D.; Zlámal, P.; Kumpová, I.; Doktor, T.; Koudelka, P.; Jiroušek, O.

    2014-05-01

    This paper is focused on investigation of mechanical properties of rat vertebrae during compressive loading in the longitudinal direction of rat's spine. High-resolution time-lapse micro-tomography was used as a tool to create models of the inner structure and deformed shape in pre-defined deformation steps. First, peripheral areas of vertebra specimen were embedded in polymethyl methacrylate to obtain proper boundary conditions of contact between specimen and loading plattens. Experimental loading device designed for application in X-ray setups was utilized to compress the vertebrae in several deformation steps. High-resolution micro-tomography scanning was carried out at each deformation step. Specimen was irradiated in tomography device equipped with microfocus X-ray tube with 5μm focal spot size and large area flat panel detector. Spatial resolution of reconstructed three-dimensional images was approximately 10μm. Digital volume correlation algorithm was utilized in order to assess displacements in the microstructure in every loading increment. Finite element model of vertebra was created from volumetric data reconstructed from tomography of the undeformed specimen. Simulated compressive test of the developed finite element model was performed in order to compare stiffness and displacements obtained by digital volume correlation and finite element simulation.

  2. Transient response of multidegree-of-freedom linear systems to forcing functions with inequality constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michalopoulos, C. D.

    1974-01-01

    Optimal control theory is applied to analyze the transient response of discrete linear systems to forcing functions with unknown time dependence but having known bounds. Particular attention is given to forcing functions which include: (1) maximum displacement of any given mass element, (2) maximum relative displacement of any two adjacent masses, and (3) maximum acceleration of a given mass. Linear mechanical systems with an arbitrary number of degrees of freedom and only one forcing function acting are considered. In the general case, the desired forcing function is found to be a function that switches from the upper-to-lower bound and vice-versa at certain moments of time. A general procedure for finding such switching times is set forth.

  3. Identification of Linear and Nonlinear Aerodynamic Impulse Responses Using Digital Filter Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the mathematical existence and the numerically-correct identification of linear and nonlinear aerodynamic impulse response functions. Differences between continuous-time and discrete-time system theories, which permit the identification and efficient use of these functions, will be detailed. Important input/output definitions and the concept of linear and nonlinear systems with memory will also be discussed. It will be shown that indicial (step or steady) responses (such as Wagner's function), forced harmonic responses (such as Tbeodorsen's function or those from doublet lattice theory), and responses to random inputs (such as gusts) can all be obtained from an aerodynamic impulse response function. This paper establishes the aerodynamic impulse response function as the most fundamental, and, therefore, the most computationally efficient, aerodynamic function that can be extracted from any given discrete-time, aerodynamic system. The results presented in this paper help to unify the understanding of classical two-dimensional continuous-time theories with modem three-dimensional, discrete-time theories. First, the method is applied to the nonlinear viscous Burger's equation as an example. Next the method is applied to a three-dimensional aeroelastic model using the CAP-TSD (Computational Aeroelasticity Program - Transonic Small Disturbance) code and then to a two-dimensional model using the CFL3D Navier-Stokes code. Comparisons of accuracy and computational cost savings are presented. Because of its mathematical generality, an important attribute of this methodology is that it is applicable to a wide range of nonlinear, discrete-time problems.

  4. Identification of Linear and Nonlinear Aerodynamic Impulse Responses Using Digital Filter Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the mathematical existence and the numerically-correct identification of linear and nonlinear aerodynamic impulse response functions. Differences between continuous-time and discrete-time system theories, which permit the identification and efficient use of these functions, will be detailed. Important input/output definitions and the concept of linear and nonlinear systems with memory will also be discussed. It will be shown that indicial (step or steady) responses (such as Wagner's function), forced harmonic responses (such as Theodorsen's function or those from doublet lattice theory), and responses to random inputs (such as gusts) can all be obtained from an aerodynamic impulse response function. This paper establishes the aerodynamic impulse response function as the most fundamental, and, therefore, the most computationally efficient, aerodynamic function that can be extracted from any given discrete-time, aerodynamic system. The results presented in this paper help to unify the understanding of classical two-dimensional continuous-time theories with modern three-dimensional, discrete-time theories. First, the method is applied to the nonlinear viscous Burger's equation as an example. Next the method is applied to a three-dimensional aeroelastic model using the CAP-TSD (Computational Aeroelasticity Program - Transonic Small Disturbance) code and then to a two-dimensional model using the CFL3D Navier-Stokes code. Comparisons of accuracy and computational cost savings are presented. Because of its mathematical generality, an important attribute of this methodology is that it is applicable to a wide range of nonlinear, discrete-time problems.

  5. Vestibular short latency responses to pulsed linear acceleration in unanesthetized animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. A.

    1992-01-01

    Linear acceleration transients were used to elicit vestibular compound action potentials in non-invasively prepared, unanesthetized animals for the first time (chicks, Gallus domesticus, n = 33). Responses were composed of a series of up to 8 dominant peaks occurring within 8 msec of the stimulus. Response amplitudes for 1.0 g stimulus ranged from 1 to 10 microV. A late, slow, triphasic, anesthesia-labile component was identified as a dominant response feature in unanesthetized animals. Amplitudes increased and latencies decreased as stimulus intensity was increased (MANOVA P less than 0.05). Linear regression slope ranges were: amplitudes = 1.0-5.0 microV/g; latencies = -300 to -1100 microseconds/g. Thresholds for single polarity stimuli (0.035 +/- 0.022 g, n = 11) were significantly lower than those of alternating polarity (0.074 +/- 0.028 g, n = 18, P less than 0.001). Bilateral labyrinthectomy eliminated responses whereas bilateral extirpation of cochleae did not significantly change response thresholds. Intense acoustic masking (100/104 dB SL) produced no effect in 2 animals, but did produce small to moderate effects on response amplitudes in 7 others. Changes were attributed to effects on vestibular end organs. Results of unilateral labyrinth blockade (tetrodotoxin) suggest that P1 and N1 preferentially reflect ipsilateral eighth nerve compound action potentials whereas components beyond approximately 2 msec reflect activity from vestibular neurons that depend on both labyrinths. The results demonstrate that short latency vestibular compound action potentials can be measured in unanesthetized, non-invasively prepared animals.

  6. SANTOS - a two-dimensional finite element program for the quasistatic, large deformation, inelastic response of solids

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, C.M.

    1997-07-01

    SANTOS is a finite element program designed to compute the quasistatic, large deformation, inelastic response of two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric solids. The code is derived from the transient dynamic code PRONTO 2D. The solution strategy used to compute the equilibrium states is based on a self-adaptive dynamic relaxation solution scheme, which is based on explicit central difference pseudo-time integration and artificial mass proportional damping. The element used in SANTOS is a uniform strain 4-node quadrilateral element with an hourglass control scheme to control the spurious deformation modes. Finite strain constitutive models for many common engineering materials are included. A robust master-slave contact algorithm for modeling sliding contact is implemented. An interface for coupling to an external code is also provided. 43 refs., 22 figs.

  7. Laser speckle strain and deformation sensor using linear array image cross-correlation method for specifically arranged triple-beam triple-camera configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarrafzadeh-Khoee, Adel K. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The invention provides a method of triple-beam and triple-sensor in a laser speckle strain/deformation measurement system. The triple-beam/triple-camera configuration combined with sequential timing of laser beam shutters is capable of providing indications of surface strain and structure deformations. The strain and deformation quantities, the four variables of surface strain, in-plane displacement, out-of-plane displacement and tilt, are determined in closed form solutions.

  8. Local and linear chemical reactivity response functions at finite temperature in density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Franco-Pérez, Marco; Ayers, Paul W; Gázquez, José L; Vela, Alberto

    2015-12-28

    We explore the local and nonlocal response functions of the grand canonical potential density functional at nonzero temperature. In analogy to the zero-temperature treatment, local (e.g., the average electron density and the local softness) and nonlocal (e.g., the softness kernel) intrinsic response functions are defined as partial derivatives of the grand canonical potential with respect to its thermodynamic variables (i.e., the chemical potential of the electron reservoir and the external potential generated by the atomic nuclei). To define the local and nonlocal response functions of the electron density (e.g., the Fukui function, the linear density response function, and the dual descriptor), we differentiate with respect to the average electron number and the external potential. The well-known mathematical relationships between the intrinsic response functions and the electron-density responses are generalized to nonzero temperature, and we prove that in the zero-temperature limit, our results recover well-known identities from the density functional theory of chemical reactivity. Specific working equations and numerical results are provided for the 3-state ensemble model. PMID:26723661

  9. Local and linear chemical reactivity response functions at finite temperature in density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Franco-Pérez, Marco E-mail: ayers@mcmaster.ca E-mail: avela@cinvestav.mx; Ayers, Paul W. E-mail: ayers@mcmaster.ca E-mail: avela@cinvestav.mx; Gázquez, José L. E-mail: ayers@mcmaster.ca E-mail: avela@cinvestav.mx; Vela, Alberto E-mail: ayers@mcmaster.ca E-mail: avela@cinvestav.mx

    2015-12-28

    We explore the local and nonlocal response functions of the grand canonical potential density functional at nonzero temperature. In analogy to the zero-temperature treatment, local (e.g., the average electron density and the local softness) and nonlocal (e.g., the softness kernel) intrinsic response functions are defined as partial derivatives of the grand canonical potential with respect to its thermodynamic variables (i.e., the chemical potential of the electron reservoir and the external potential generated by the atomic nuclei). To define the local and nonlocal response functions of the electron density (e.g., the Fukui function, the linear density response function, and the dual descriptor), we differentiate with respect to the average electron number and the external potential. The well-known mathematical relationships between the intrinsic response functions and the electron-density responses are generalized to nonzero temperature, and we prove that in the zero-temperature limit, our results recover well-known identities from the density functional theory of chemical reactivity. Specific working equations and numerical results are provided for the 3-state ensemble model.

  10. Extrinsic contribution and non-linear response in lead-free KNN-modified piezoceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa, D. A.; García, J. E.; Pérez, R.; Gomis, V.; Albareda, A.; Rubio-Marcos, F.; Fernández, J. F.

    2009-01-01

    Finding lead-free ceramics with good piezoelectric properties is nowadays one of the most important challenges in materials science. The (K, Na, Li)(Nb, Ta, Sb)O3 system is one of the most promising candidates as a lead-free ceramic for transducer applications and is currently the object of important research work. In this paper, (K0.44Na0.52Li0.04)(Nb0.86Ta0.10Sb0.04)O3 was prepared by a conventional ceramic processing route. For this composition, orthorhombic-to-tetragonal phase transition was observed at temperatures very close to room temperature. As a consequence, good room temperature electromechanical properties were observed, displaying good thermal stability. We show that the most important contribution to dielectric, piezoelectric and elastic response comes from extrinsic effects, as was observed in other perovskite based materials. Nonlinearities in electromechanical properties induced by high electric field or mechanical stress were studied. Non-linear dielectric response was found to be less important than for soft PZT ceramics and was analysed within the Rayleigh framework. The results reveal that the non-linear response at room temperature in this material is mainly due to the irreversible wall domain movement.

  11. Skew-normal/independent linear mixed models for censored responses with applications to HIV viral loads

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Lachos, Victor H.; Castro, Luis M.; Dey, Dipak K.

    2012-01-01

    Often in biomedical studies, the routine use of linear mixed-effects models (based on Gaussian assumptions) can be questionable when the longitudinal responses are skewed in nature. Skew-normal/elliptical models are widely used in those situations. Often, those skewed responses might also be subjected to some upper and lower quantification limits (viz. longitudinal viral load measures in HIV studies), beyond which they are not measurable. In this paper, we develop a Bayesian analysis of censored linear mixed models replacing the Gaussian assumptions with skew-normal/independent (SNI) distributions. The SNI is an attractive class of asymmetric heavy-tailed distributions that includes the skew-normal, the skew-t, skew-slash and the skew-contaminated normal distributions as special cases. The proposed model provides flexibility in capturing the effects of skewness and heavy tail for responses which are either left- or right-censored. For our analysis, we adopt a Bayesian framework and develop a MCMC algorithm to carry out the posterior analyses. The marginal likelihood is tractable, and utilized to compute not only some Bayesian model selection measures but also case-deletion influence diagnostics based on the Kullback-Leibler divergence. The newly developed procedures are illustrated with a simulation study as well as a HIV case study involving analysis of longitudinal viral loads. PMID:22685005

  12. Thermodynamic bounds and general properties of optimal efficiency and power in linear responses.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jian-Hua

    2014-10-01

    We study the optimal exergy efficiency and power for thermodynamic systems with an Onsager-type "current-force" relationship describing the linear response to external influences. We derive, in analytic forms, the maximum efficiency and optimal efficiency for maximum power for a thermodynamic machine described by a N×N symmetric Onsager matrix with arbitrary integer N. The figure of merit is expressed in terms of the largest eigenvalue of the "coupling matrix" which is solely determined by the Onsager matrix. Some simple but general relationships between the power and efficiency at the conditions for (i) maximum efficiency and (ii) optimal efficiency for maximum power are obtained. We show how the second law of thermodynamics bounds the optimal efficiency and the Onsager matrix and relate those bounds together. The maximum power theorem (Jacobi's Law) is generalized to all thermodynamic machines with a symmetric Onsager matrix in the linear-response regime. We also discuss systems with an asymmetric Onsager matrix (such as systems under magnetic field) for a particular situation and we show that the reversible limit of efficiency can be reached at finite output power. Cooperative effects are found to improve the figure of merit significantly in systems with multiply cross-correlated responses. Application to example systems demonstrates that the theory is helpful in guiding the search for high performance materials and structures in energy researches. PMID:25375457

  13. Comparisons of linear and nonlinear plasma response models for non-axisymmetric perturbationsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, A. D.; Ferraro, N. M.; Izzo, V. A.; Lazarus, E. A.; Park, J.-K.; Cooper, W. A.; Hirshman, S. P.; Lao, L. L.; Lanctot, M. J.; Lazerson, S.; Liu, Y. Q.; Reiman, A.; Turco, F.

    2013-05-01

    With the installation of non-axisymmetric coil systems on major tokamaks for the purpose of studying the prospects of ELM-free operation, understanding the plasma response to the applied fields is a crucial issue. Application of different response models, using standard tools, to DIII-D discharges with applied non-axisymmetric fields from internal coils, is shown to yield qualitatively different results. The plasma response can be treated as an initial value problem, following the system dynamically from an initial unperturbed state, or from a nearby perturbed equilibrium approach, and using both linear and nonlinear models [A. D. Turnbull, Nucl. Fusion 52, 054016 (2012)]. Criteria are discussed under which each of the approaches can yield a valid response. In the DIII-D cases studied, these criteria show a breakdown in the linear theory despite the small 10-3 relative magnitude of the applied magnetic field perturbations in this case. For nonlinear dynamical evolution simulations to reach a saturated nonlinear steady state, appropriate damping mechanisms need to be provided for each normal mode comprising the response. Other issues arise in the technical construction of perturbed flux surfaces from a displacement and from the presence of near nullspace normal modes. For the nearby equilibrium approach, in the absence of a full 3D equilibrium reconstruction with a controlled comparison, constraints relating the 2D system profiles to the final profiles in the 3D system also need to be imposed to assure accessibility. The magnetic helicity profile has been proposed as an appropriate input to a 3D equilibrium calculation and tests of this show the anticipated qualitative behavior.

  14. Long-term prediction test procedure for most ICs, based on linear response theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litovchenko, V.; Ivakhnenko, I.

    1991-01-01

    Experimentally, thermal annealing is known to be a factor which enables a number of different integrated circuits (IC's) to recover their operating characteristics after suffering radiation damage in the space radiation environment; thus, decreasing and limiting long term cumulative total-dose effects. This annealing is also known to be accelerated at elevated temperatures both during and after irradiation. Linear response theory (LRT) was applied, and a linear response function (LRF) to predict the radiation/annealing response of sensitive parameters of IC's for long term (several months or years) exposure to the space radiation environment were constructed. Compressing the annealing process from several years in orbit to just a few hours or days in the laboratory is achieved by subjecting the IC to elevated temperatures or by increasing the typical spaceflight dose rate by several orders of magnitude for simultaneous radiation/annealing only. The accomplishments are as follows: (1) the test procedure to make predictions of the radiation response was developed; (2) the calculation of the shift in the threshold potential due to the charge distribution in the oxide was written; (3) electron tunneling processes from the bulk Si to the oxide region in an MOS IC were estimated; (4) in order to connect the experimental annealing data to the theoretical model, constants of the model of the basic annealing process were established; (5) experimental data obtained at elevated temperatures were analyzed; (6) time compression and reliability of predictions for the long term region were shown; (7) a method to compress test time and to make predictions of response for the nonlinear region was proposed; and (8) nonlinearity of the LRF with respect to log(t) was calculated theoretically from a model.

  15. Reduced-Order Models Based on Linear and Nonlinear Aerodynamic Impulse Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses a method for the identification and application of reduced-order models based on linear and nonlinear aerodynamic impulse responses. The Volterra theory of nonlinear systems and an appropriate kernel identification technique are described. Insight into the nature of kernels is provided by applying the method to the nonlinear Riccati equation in a non-aerodynamic application. The method is then applied to a nonlinear aerodynamic model of RAE 2822 supercritical airfoil undergoing plunge motions using the CFL3D Navier-Stokes flow solver with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. Results demonstrate the computational efficiency of the technique.

  16. Reduced Order Models Based on Linear and Nonlinear Aerodynamic Impulse Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses a method for the identification and application of reduced-order models based on linear and nonlinear aerodynamic impulse responses. The Volterra theory of nonlinear systems and an appropriate kernel identification technique are described. Insight into the nature of kernels is provided by applying the method to the nonlinear Riccati equation in a non-aerodynamic application. The method is then applied to a nonlinear aerodynamic model of an RAE 2822 supercritical airfoil undergoing plunge motions using the CFL3D Navier-Stokes flow solver with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. Results demonstrate the computational efficiency of the technique.

  17. Stray magnetic-field response of linear birefringent optical current sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDougall, Trevor W.; Hutchinson, Ted F.

    1995-07-01

    It is well known that the line integral, describing Faraday rotation in an optical medium, reduces to zero at low frequencies for a closed path that does not encircle a current source. If the closed optical path possesses linear birefringence in addition to Faraday rotation, the cumulative effects on the state of polarization result in a response to externally located current-carrying conductors. This effect can induce a measurable error of the order of 0.3% during certain steady-state operating conditions.

  18. Linear and nonlinear electrodynamic responses of bulk CaC6 in the microwave regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreone, A.; Cifariello, G.; Di Gennaro, E.; Lamura, G.; Emery, N.; Hérold, C.; Marêché, J. F.; Lagrange, P.

    2007-08-01

    The linear and nonlinear responses to a microwave electromagnetic field of two c-axis oriented polycrystalline samples of the recently discovered superconductor CaC6 (TC≈11.5K ) is studied in the superconducting state down to 2K. The surface resistance RS and the third order intermodulation distortion, arising from a two-tone excitation, have been measured as a function of temperature and microwave circulating power. Experiments are carried out using a dielectrically loaded copper cavity operating at 7GHz in a "hot finger" configuration. The results confirm recent experimental findings that CaC6 behaves as a weakly coupled, fully gapped, superconductor.

  19. Linear and nonlinear response to parameter variations in a mesoscale model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacker, J.; Snyder, C.

    2009-04-01

    It is widely recognized that ensemble prediction system (EPS) skill can improve when considering model error in the system design. Typical approaches include varying physical parameterization schemes or entire modeling systems within an EPS, and including stochastic terms in the dynamical equations. But perhaps the simplest approach to accounting for uncertainty in a model is to perturb inherently uncertain parameters within sub-grid parameterization schemes. Although it almost certainly cannot introduce all the modes of variability produced by other methods, its simplicity alone suggests that its effect on prediction skill and variability deserves quantitative scrutiny. In this work we seek to understand how perturbations to uncertain parameters manifest in a mesoscale model, and evaluate the potential for use in EPSs or data assimilation systems that can exploit ensemble covariances and linear or nonlinear responses. A set of four parameters are varied, corresponding to one each in cumulus, cloud microphysics, boundary-layer turbulence, and radiation schemes within the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) mesoscale numerical weather prediction model. Parameters are drawn only once from distributions intended to capture the uncertainty estimated by experts and reported in the literature. Each set of parameters is drawn with a Latin Hypercube Sampling technique that ensures the parameter sets are independent and fill the four-dimensional space spanned by the parameters. The parameter sets are then fixed and an ensemble of 10 members uses them for approximately 30 ensemble forecasts that are also subject to initial-condition, lateral boundary-condition and land-surface uncertainty. We show that the parameters and state variables have clear linear relationship in certain regions and at certain times; elsewhere there may be either little dependence of the state on the parameter, or a nonlinear dependence. Linear response and ensemble sensitivity are quantified with

  20. Gamow-Teller response in deformed even and odd neutron-rich Zr and Mo isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarriguren, P.; Algora, A.; Pereira, J.

    2014-03-01

    β-decay properties of neutron-rich Zr and Mo isotopes are investigated within a microscopic theoretical approach based on the proton-neutron quasiparticle random-phase approximation. The underlying mean field is described self-consistently from deformed Skyrme Hartree-Fock calculations with pairing correlations. Residual separable particle-hole and particle-particle forces are also included in the formalism. The structural evolution in these isotopic chains including both even and odd isotopes is analyzed in terms of the equilibrium deformed shapes. Gamow-Teller strength distributions, β-decay half-lives, and β-delayed neutron-emission probabilities are studied, stressing their relevance to describe the path of the nucleosynthesis rapid neutron capture process.

  1. Deformation mechanisms responsible for the creep resistance of Ti-Al alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, M.A.; Lipe, T.

    1997-12-31

    Two {gamma}-based Ti-Al alloys with similar grain sizes and, respectively, lamellar and duplex microstructures have been creep tested at 700 C and constant stresses ranging between 280 and 430 MPa. TEM observations have confirmed that the duplex alloy deforms by extensive mechanical twinning whose density increases with applied stress and increasing strain. The new twin interfaces subdivide the {gamma} grains throughout the primary stage of creep. At the onset of the minimum creep rate, the twin interfaces in the duplex alloy behave in the same way as the {gamma}/{gamma} or the {alpha}{sub 2}/{gamma} interfaces in the lamellar alloy. However, single dislocations were also present and it appears that in both alloys the deformation process is controlled by the accumulation and emission of dislocations from the different interfaces.

  2. Scaling regimes and linear/nonlinear responses of last millennium climate to volcanic and solar forcings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovejoy, Shaun; Varotsos, Costas

    2016-02-01

    At scales much longer than the deterministic predictability limits (about 10 days), the statistics of the atmosphere undergoes a drastic transition, the high-frequency weather acts as a random forcing on the lower-frequency macroweather. In addition, up to decadal and centennial scales the equivalent radiative forcings of solar, volcanic and anthropogenic perturbations are small compared to the mean incoming solar flux. This justifies the common practice of reducing forcings to radiative equivalents (which are assumed to combine linearly), as well as the development of linear stochastic models, including for forecasting at monthly to decadal scales. In order to clarify the validity of the linearity assumption and determine its scale range, we use last millennium simulations, with both the simplified Zebiak-Cane (ZC) model and the NASA GISS E2-R fully coupled GCM. We systematically compare the statistical properties of solar-only, volcanic-only and combined solar and volcanic forcings over the range of timescales from 1 to 1000 years. We also compare the statistics to multiproxy temperature reconstructions. The main findings are (a) that the variability in the ZC and GCM models is too weak at centennial and longer scales; (b) for longer than ≈ 50 years, the solar and volcanic forcings combine subadditively (nonlinearly) compounding the weakness of the response; and (c) the models display another nonlinear effect at shorter timescales: their sensitivities are much higher for weak forcing than for strong forcing (their intermittencies are different) and we quantify this with statistical scaling exponents.

  3. The neuronal response at extended timescales: a linearized spiking input–output relation

    PubMed Central

    Soudry, Daniel; Meir, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Many biological systems are modulated by unknown slow processes. This can severely hinder analysis – especially in excitable neurons, which are highly non-linear and stochastic systems. We show the analysis simplifies considerably if the input matches the sparse “spiky” nature of the output. In this case, a linearized spiking Input–Output (I/O) relation can be derived semi-analytically, relating input spike trains to output spikes based on known biophysical properties. Using this I/O relation we obtain closed-form expressions for all second order statistics (input – internal state – output correlations and spectra), construct optimal linear estimators for the neuronal response and internal state and perform parameter identification. These results are guaranteed to hold, for a general stochastic biophysical neuron model, with only a few assumptions (mainly, timescale separation). We numerically test the resulting expressions for various models, and show that they hold well, even in cases where our assumptions fail to hold. In a companion paper we demonstrate how this approach enables us to fit a biophysical neuron model so it reproduces experimentally observed temporal firing statistics on days-long experiments. PMID:24765073

  4. Linearized Unsteady Aerodynamic Analysis of the Acoustic Response to Wake/Blade-Row Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verdon, Joseph M.; Huff, Dennis L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The three-dimensional, linearized Euler analysis, LINFLUX, is being developed to provide a comprehensive and efficient unsteady aerodynamic scheme for predicting the aeroacoustic and aeroelastic responses of axial-flow turbomachinery blading. LINFLUX couples a near-field, implicit, wave-split, finite-volume solution to far-field acoustic eigensolutions, to predict the aerodynamic responses of a blade row to prescribed structural and aerodynamic excitations. It is applied herein to predict the acoustic responses of a fan exit guide vane (FEGV) to rotor wake excitations. The intent is to demonstrate and assess the LINFLUX analysis via application to realistic wake/blade-row interactions. Numerical results are given for the unsteady pressure responses of the FEGV, including the modal pressure responses at inlet and exit. In addition, predictions for the modal and total acoustic power levels at the FEGV exit are compared with measurements. The present results indicate that the LINFLUX analysis should be useful in the aeroacoustic design process, and for understanding the three-dimensional flow physics relevant to blade-row noise generation and propagation.

  5. Thin-skinned mass-wasting responsible for edifice-wide deformation at Arenal Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebmeier, Susanna; Biggs, Juliet; Muller, Cyril; Avard, Geoffroy

    2014-12-01

    The shape and stability of a volcano’s edifice depends on the relationship between eruption rate and the loss or redistribution of material due to erosion, mass-wasting or deformation. This work provides measurements of deformation and shallow mass-wasting at a stratovolcano immediately after an extended period of growth, and demonstrates that high rates of deformation can be associated with shallow edifice processes. We measure displacements and surface property changes on the upper flanks of Arenal, Costa Rica, after a ~40 year period of edifice growth. We present high-resolution satellite radar imagery of the 2011-2013 period that provides evidence of frequent rockfalls and of at least 16 slow-moving, shallow landslides (estimated to be 5-11 m thick, total volume = 2.4×107 m3 DRE). The 2012 Nicoya Earthquake (Mw 7.4) had no measurable impact on the velocities of sliding units at Arenal, but did result in an increase in the area affected by rockfall.

  6. Optimizing work output for finite-sized heat reservoirs: Beyond linear response.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    We uncover an optimization principle for the finite-time heat-work conversion process performed between two finite-sized heat reservoirs in the nonlinear response regime that is characterized by rather generic flux-force relations. We solve the problem of maximizing work output in a given time interval by means of the variational method. Moreover, in the limiting case that the cold reservoir is infinite, we find the corresponding optimized process can be determined by a single quantity, which plays the role similar to that of the Hamiltonian in classical mechanics. Some theoretical implications are discussed consequently, under the generalized tight-coupling condition which applies to both linear and nonlinear response cases. Our results can hopefully help design and control realistic thermodynamical processes. PMID:26871037

  7. Optimizing work output for finite-sized heat reservoirs: Beyond linear response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    We uncover an optimization principle for the finite-time heat-work conversion process performed between two finite-sized heat reservoirs in the nonlinear response regime that is characterized by rather generic flux-force relations. We solve the problem of maximizing work output in a given time interval by means of the variational method. Moreover, in the limiting case that the cold reservoir is infinite, we find the corresponding optimized process can be determined by a single quantity, which plays the role similar to that of the Hamiltonian in classical mechanics. Some theoretical implications are discussed consequently, under the generalized tight-coupling condition which applies to both linear and nonlinear response cases. Our results can hopefully help design and control realistic thermodynamical processes.

  8. Linear-response dynamics from the time-dependent Gutzwiller approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bünemann, J.; Capone, M.; Lorenzana, J.; Seibold, G.

    2013-05-01

    Within a Lagrangian formalism, we derive the time-dependent Gutzwiller approximation for general multi-band Hubbard models. Our approach explicitly incorporates the coupling between time-dependent variational parameters and a time-dependent density matrix from which we obtain dynamical correlation functions in the linear-response regime. Our results are illustrated for the one-band model where we show that the interacting system can be mapped to an effective problem of fermionic quasiparticles coupled to ‘doublon’ (double occupancy) bosonic fluctuations. The latter have an energy on the scale of the on-site Hubbard repulsion U in the dilute limit but become soft at the Brinkman-Rice transition, which is shown to be related to an emerging conservation law of doublon charge and the associated gauge invariance. Coupling with the boson mode produces a structure in the charge response and we find that a similar structure appears in dynamical mean-field theory.

  9. Linear response approach to collective electronic excitations of solids and surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhe; Gao, Shiwu

    2009-03-01

    We have developed a parallel computer program for the study of dynamic response of periodic systems. It computes the linear response of an interacting many-electron system from its ground-state electronic structures, which are obtained from ab initio band structure calculations in the plane-wave and pseudopotential scheme. As test examples, we applied this program to calculate the linear response of bulk aluminum and a beryllium monolayer. The excitation spectra show prominent plasmon resonances, which compare well with the available data and previous calculations. For surfaces or thin films, we found that removing periodicity perpendicular to the surface gives a more reliable description of the low-energy excitation spectra, especially in the long-wavelength limit. Program summaryProgram title: Dresponse Catalogue identifier: AECK_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AECK_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 49 098 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 11 836 088 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 90/MPI Computer: Any architecture with a Fortran 90 compiler Operating system: Any Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: Yes RAM: 50 MB-2 GB per processor depending on system size Classification: 7.3 External routines: BLAS ( http://www.netlib.org/blas/), Lapack ( http://www.netlib.org/lapack/), MPI ( http://www-unix.mcs.anl.gov/mpi/), abinit (for ground-state calculations, http://www.abinit.org/) Nature of problem: The dynamic response of bulk and surface systems. It is usually dominated by collective electronic excitations (plasmons) at low-energy range. Solution method: The ground-state wavefunctions are obtained from ab initio density-functional calculation in the planewave and

  10. Linear information processing in the retina: a study of horizontal cell responses.

    PubMed Central

    Tranchina, D; Gordon, J; Shapley, R; Toyoda, J

    1981-01-01

    A basic question about visual perception is whether the retina produces a faithful or a distorted neural representation of the visual image. It is now well known that in some retinal pathways there are significant nonlinear transductions which distort the neural image. The next natural question is, What are the locations of the nonlinear stages within the retinal network? We report here on an investigation of linearity and nonlinearity of responses of horizontal cells in the turtle retina as an assay of the degree of nonlinearity in the outer plexiform layer of the retina. The visual stimuli were sinusoidal gratings; these patterns were modulated by contrast reversal with a sinusoidal time course. The conclusion from our experiments is that the turtle's horizontal cell responses show evidence only of linear spatial summation even at moderately high contrasts on moderately high background levels. Our work thus indicates that there is no significant distortion of the visual image by the photoreceptors or by the neural summation of photoreceptor signals by horizontal cells under normal physiological conditions. These results are consistent with the view that the major nonlinearities of the retina are proximal to the outer plexiform layer. PMID:6947242

  11. Linear response to leadership, effective temperature, and decision making in flocks.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Daniel J G; Giomi, Luca

    2016-08-01

    Large collections of autonomously moving agents, such as animals or micro-organisms, are able to flock coherently in space even in the absence of a central control mechanism. While the direction of the flock resulting from this critical behavior is random, this can be controlled by a small subset of informed individuals acting as leaders of the group. In this article we use the Vicsek model to investigate how flocks respond to leadership and make decisions. Using a combination of numerical simulations and continuous modeling we demonstrate that flocks display a linear response to leadership that can be cast in the framework of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, identifying an effective temperature reflecting how promptly the flock reacts to the initiative of the leaders. The linear response to leadership also holds in the presence of two groups of informed individuals with competing interests, indicating that the flock's behavioral decision is determined by both the number of leaders and their degree of influence. PMID:27627365

  12. Damping of Bloch oscillations: Variational solutions of the Boltzmann equation beyond linear response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandt, Stephan

    2014-11-01

    Variational solutions of the Boltzmann equation usually rely on the concept of linear response. We extend the variational approach for tight-binding models at high entropies to a regime far beyond linear response. We analyze both weakly interacting fermions and incoherent bosons on a lattice. We consider a case where the particles are driven by a constant force, leading to the well-known Bloch oscillations, and we consider interactions that are weak enough not to overdamp these oscillations. This regime is computationally demanding and relevant for ultracold atoms in optical lattices. We derive a simple theory in terms of coupled dynamic equations for the particle density, energy density, current, and heat current, allowing for analytic solutions. As an application, we identify damping coefficients for Bloch oscillations in the Hubbard model at weak interactions and compute them for a one-dimensional toy model. We also approximately solve the long-time dynamics of a weakly interacting, strongly Bloch-oscillating cloud of fermionic particles in a tilted lattice, leading to a subdiffusive scaling exponent.

  13. Lead-lag relationships between stock and market risk within linear response theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borysov, Stanislav; Balatsky, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    We study historical correlations and lead-lag relationships between individual stock risks (standard deviation of daily stock returns) and market risk (standard deviation of daily returns of a market-representative portfolio) in the US stock market. We consider the cross-correlation functions averaged over stocks, using historical stock prices from the Standard & Poor's 500 index for 1994-2013. The observed historical dynamics suggests that the dependence between the risks was almost linear during the US stock market downturn of 2002 and after the US housing bubble in 2007, remaining at that level until 2013. Moreover, the averaged cross-correlation function often had an asymmetric shape with respect to zero lag in the periods of high correlation. We develop the analysis by the application of the linear response formalism to study underlying causal relations. The calculated response functions suggest the presence of characteristic regimes near financial crashes, when individual stock risks affect market risk and vice versa. This work was supported by VR 621-2012-2983.

  14. Linear response theory for the density matrix renormalization group: Efficient algorithms for strongly correlated excited states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakatani, Naoki; Wouters, Sebastian; Van Neck, Dimitri; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic

    2014-01-01

    Linear response theory for the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG-LRT) was first presented in terms of the DMRG renormalization projectors [J. J. Dorando, J. Hachmann, and G. K.-L. Chan, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 184111 (2009)]. Later, with an understanding of the manifold structure of the matrix product state (MPS) ansatz, which lies at the basis of the DMRG algorithm, a way was found to construct the linear response space for general choices of the MPS gauge in terms of the tangent space vectors [J. Haegeman, J. I. Cirac, T. J. Osborne, I. Pižorn, H. Verschelde, and F. Verstraete, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 070601 (2011)]. These two developments led to the formulation of the Tamm-Dancoff and random phase approximations (TDA and RPA) for MPS. This work describes how these LRTs may be efficiently implemented through minor modifications of the DMRG sweep algorithm, at a computational cost which scales the same as the ground-state DMRG algorithm. In fact, the mixed canonical MPS form implicit to the DMRG sweep is essential for efficient implementation of the RPA, due to the structure of the second-order tangent space. We present ab initio DMRG-TDA results for excited states of polyenes, the water molecule, and a [2Fe-2S] iron-sulfur cluster.

  15. Numerical Modeling of Particle-Fluid Mixtures in a Subglacial Setting: Granular Deformation and Hydrological Flow Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damsgaard, A.; Egholm, D. L.; Piotrowski, J. A.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Larsen, N. K.

    2014-12-01

    The coupled mechanical response of ice, water and sediment may control the flow of warm-based glaciers residing on deformable sediment. This is most clearly expressed by the fast flowing ice streams in Greenland and Antarctica, where low levels of basal friction are thought to support the high flow rates. These ice streams are of particular interest since they are large constituents of the polar ice sheet mass balance. The study of these ice streams and their future impact on the ice sheets necessitates a deeper understanding of their basal dynamics, including the rheology of water-saturated sediment. We present the methodology and first results of a coupled numerical model for computational experiments on granular-fluid mixtures under dynamic conditions similar to those in subglacial settings. The granular phase is simulated on a per-particle basis by the soft body discrete element method. The fluid phase is handled as a continuum by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The particle and fluid phases are coupled by mass conservation and momentum exchanges. The hydraulic diffusivity and permeability is compared to previous laboratory studies on tills. We demonstrate how the onset and halt of granular deformation is an efficient mechanism to create fluid pressure fluctuations due to local porosity changes. These pressure anomalies are driving transient hydraulic flows, and they influence directly the rheology of granular-fluid mixtures. Our results highlight the nonlinear nature of water saturated granular deformation, and demonstrate how the mechanical behaviour of granular materials may include both brittle and viscous components depending on the rates of deformation and the hydrological properties.

  16. The Linear Response Function of an Idealized Atmosphere. Part I: Construction Using Green's Functions and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanzadeh, Pedram; Kuang, Zhiming

    2016-09-01

    A linear response function (LRF) determines the mean-response of a nonlinear climate system to weak imposed forcings, and an eddy flux matrix (EFM) determines the eddy momentum and heat flux responses to mean-flow changes. Neither LRF nor EFM can be calculated from first principles due the lack of a complete theory for turbulent eddies. Here the LRF and EFM for an idealized dry atmosphere are computed by applying numerous localized weak forcings, one at a time, to a GCM with Held-Suarez physics and calculating the mean-responses. The LRF and EFM for zonally-averaged responses are then constructed using these forcings and responses through matrix inversion. Tests demonstrate that LRF and EFM are fairly accurate. Spectral analysis of the LRF shows that the most excitable dynamical mode, the neutral vector, strongly resembles the model's Annular Mode. The framework described here can be employed to compute the LRF/EFM for zonally-asymmetric responses and more complex GCMs. The potential applications of the LRF/EFM constructed here are i) forcing a specified mean-flow for hypothesis-testing, ii) isolating/quantifying the eddy-feedbacks in complex eddy-mean flow interaction problems, and iii) evaluating/improving more generally-applicable methods currently used to construct LRFs or diagnose eddy-feedbacks in comprehensive GCMs or observations. As an example for iii, in Part 2, the LRF is also computed using the fluctuation-dissipation theorem (FDT), and the previously-calculated LRF is exploited to investigate why FDT performs poorly in some cases. It is shown that dimension-reduction using leading EOFs, which is commonly used to construct LRFs from the FDT, can significantly degrade the accuracy due to the non-normality of the operator.

  17. A Fresh Look at Linear Ordinary Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients. Revisiting the Impulsive Response Method Using Factorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camporesi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach to the impulsive response method for solving linear constant-coefficient ordinary differential equations of any order based on the factorization of the differential operator. The approach is elementary, we only assume a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. In particular, we avoid the use of distribution theory, as…

  18. Linear summation in the barn owl's brainstem underlies responses to interaural time differences.

    PubMed

    Kuokkanen, Paula T; Ashida, Go; Carr, Catherine E; Wagner, Hermann; Kempter, Richard

    2013-07-01

    The neurophonic potential is a synchronized frequency-following extracellular field potential that can be recorded in the nucleus laminaris (NL) in the brainstem of the barn owl. Putative generators of the neurophonic are the afferent axons from the nucleus magnocellularis, synapses onto NL neurons, and spikes of NL neurons. The outputs of NL, i.e., action potentials of NL neurons, are only weakly represented in the neurophonic. Instead, the inputs to NL, i.e., afferent axons and their synaptic potentials, are the predominant origin of the neurophonic (Kuokkanen PT, Wagner H, Ashida G, Carr CE, Kempter R. J Neurophysiol 104: 2274-2290, 2010). Thus in NL the monaural inputs from the two brain sides converge and create a binaural neurophonic. If these monaural inputs contribute independently to the extracellular field, the response to binaural stimulation can be predicted from the sum of the responses to ipsi- and contralateral stimulation. We found that a linear summation model explains the dependence of the responses on interaural time difference as measured experimentally with binaural stimulation. The fit between model predictions and data was excellent, even without taking into account the nonlinear responses of NL coincidence detector neurons, although their firing rate and synchrony strongly depend on the interaural time difference. These results are consistent with the view that the afferent axons and their synaptic potentials in NL are the primary origin of the neurophonic. PMID:23554438

  19. Linear summation in the barn owl's brainstem underlies responses to interaural time differences

    PubMed Central

    Kuokkanen, Paula T.; Ashida, Go; Carr, Catherine E.; Wagner, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    The neurophonic potential is a synchronized frequency-following extracellular field potential that can be recorded in the nucleus laminaris (NL) in the brainstem of the barn owl. Putative generators of the neurophonic are the afferent axons from the nucleus magnocellularis, synapses onto NL neurons, and spikes of NL neurons. The outputs of NL, i.e., action potentials of NL neurons, are only weakly represented in the neurophonic. Instead, the inputs to NL, i.e., afferent axons and their synaptic potentials, are the predominant origin of the neurophonic (Kuokkanen PT, Wagner H, Ashida G, Carr CE, Kempter R. J Neurophysiol 104: 2274–2290, 2010). Thus in NL the monaural inputs from the two brain sides converge and create a binaural neurophonic. If these monaural inputs contribute independently to the extracellular field, the response to binaural stimulation can be predicted from the sum of the responses to ipsi- and contralateral stimulation. We found that a linear summation model explains the dependence of the responses on interaural time difference as measured experimentally with binaural stimulation. The fit between model predictions and data was excellent, even without taking into account the nonlinear responses of NL coincidence detector neurons, although their firing rate and synchrony strongly depend on the interaural time difference. These results are consistent with the view that the afferent axons and their synaptic potentials in NL are the primary origin of the neurophonic. PMID:23554438

  20. Fully relativistic description of spin-orbit torques by means of linear response theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimmer, S.; Chadova, K.; Seemann, M.; Ködderitzsch, D.; Ebert, H.

    2016-08-01

    Symmetry and magnitude of spin-orbit torques (SOT), i.e., current-induced torques on the magnetization of systems lacking inversion symmetry, are investigated in a fully relativistic linear response framework based on the Kubo formalism. By applying all space-time symmetry operations contained in the magnetic point group of a solid to the relevant response coefficient, the torkance expressed as torque-current correlation function, restrictions to the shape of the direct and inverse response tensors are obtained. These are shown to apply to the corresponding thermal analogs as well, namely the direct and inverse thermal SOT in response to a temperature gradient or heat current. Using an implementation of the Kubo-Bastin formula for the torkance into a first-principles multiple-scattering Green function framework and accounting for disorder effects via the so-called coherent potential approximation, all contributions to the SOT in pure systems, dilute as well as concentrated alloys can be treated on equal footing. This way, material specific values for all torkance tensor elements in the fcc (111) trilayer alloy system Pt| FexCo1 -x|Cu are obtained over a wide concentration range and discussed in comparison to results for electrical and spin conductivity, as well as to previous work—in particular concerning symmetry with respect to magnetization reversal and the nature of the various contributions.

  1. Physical deformity as sequela of chronic catatonia and response to electroconvulsive therapy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Devi, Sugnyani; Behere, Rishikesh V; Varambally, Shivarama; Rao, Naren P; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Gangadhar, Bangalore N

    2011-09-01

    Chronic catatonia with posturing can cause joint contractures leading to greater morbidity associated with the physical deformity. We report a case of a young man with chronic catatonic schizophrenia with posturing of bilateral upper limbs in flexion leading to fixed flexion contracture of left metacarpophalangeal joints. Initiation of electroconvulsive therapy along with physical rehabilitation measures helped him regain full range of motion in the right upper limb. The fixed flexion contracture, however, remained resistant to intensive treatment efforts. Early interventions in the form of electroconvulsive therapy and physical rehabilitation can be useful in reversing such potentially disabling complications. PMID:21865951

  2. THE RESPONSE OF DRUG EXPENDITURE TO NON-LINEAR CONTRACT DESIGN: EVIDENCE FROM MEDICARE PART D*

    PubMed Central

    Einav, Liran; Finkelstein, Amy; Schrimpf, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We study the demand response to non-linear price schedules using data on insurance contracts and prescription drug purchases in Medicare Part D. We exploit the kink in individuals’ budget set created by the famous “donut hole,” where insurance becomes discontinuously much less generous on the margin, to provide descriptive evidence of the drug purchase response to a price increase. We then specify and estimate a simple dynamic model of drug use that allows us to quantify the spending response along the entire non-linear budget set. We use the model for counterfactual analysis of the increase in spending from “filling” the donut hole, as will be required by 2020 under the Affordable Care Act. In our baseline model, which considers spending decisions within a single year, we estimate that “filling” the donut hole will increase annual drug spending by about $150, or about 8 percent. About one-quarter of this spending increase reflects “anticipatory” behavior, coming from beneficiaries whose spending prior to the policy change would leave them short of reaching the donut hole. We also present descriptive evidence of cross-year substitution of spending by individuals who reach the kink, which motivates a simple extension to our baseline model that allows – in a highly stylized way – for individuals to engage in such cross year substitution. Our estimates from this extension suggest that a large share of the $150 drug spending increase could be attributed to cross-year substitution, and the net increase could be as little as $45 per year. PMID:26769984

  3. Near-LTE linear response calculations with a collisional-radiative model for He-like Al ions. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    More, R.; Kato, T.

    1998-04-06

    We investigate non-equilibrium atomic kinetics using a collisional- radiative model modified to include line absorption. Steady-state emission is calculated for He-like aluminum immersed in a specified radiation field having fixed deviations from a Planck spectrum. The calculated net emission is presented as a NLTE response matrix. In agreement with a rigorous general rule of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, the linear response is symmetric. We compute the response matrix for 1% and {+-} 50% changes in the photon temperature and find linear response over a surprisingly large range.

  4. Radiation dose response simulation for biomechanical-based deformable image registration of head and neck cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Mayah, Adil; Moseley, Joanne; Hunter, Shannon; Brock, Kristy

    2015-11-01

    Biomechanical-based deformable image registration is conducted on the head and neck region. Patient specific 3D finite element models consisting of parotid glands (PG), submandibular glands (SG), tumor, vertebrae (VB), mandible, and external body are used to register pre-treatment MRI to post-treatment MR images to model the dose response using image data of five patients. The images are registered using combinations of vertebrae and mandible alignments, and surface projection of the external body as boundary conditions. In addition, the dose response is simulated by applying a new loading technique in the form of a dose-induced shrinkage using the dose-volume relationship. The dose-induced load is applied as dose-induced shrinkage of the tumor and four salivary glands. The Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) is calculated for the four salivary glands, and tumor to calculate the volume overlap of the structures after deformable registration. A substantial improvement in the registration is found by including the dose-induced shrinkage. The greatest registration improvement is found in the four glands where the average DSC increases from 0.53, 0.55, 0.32, and 0.37 to 0.68, 0.68, 0.51, and 0.49 in the left PG, right PG, left SG, and right SG, respectively by using bony alignment of vertebrae and mandible (M), body (B) surface projection and dose (D) (VB+M+B+D).

  5. Radiation dose response simulation for biomechanical-based deformable image registration of head and neck cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Al-Mayah, Adil; Moseley, Joanne; Hunter, Shannon; Brock, Kristy

    2015-11-01

    Biomechanical-based deformable image registration is conducted on the head and neck region. Patient specific 3D finite element models consisting of parotid glands (PG), submandibular glands (SG), tumor, vertebrae (VB), mandible, and external body are used to register pre-treatment MRI to post-treatment MR images to model the dose response using image data of five patients. The images are registered using combinations of vertebrae and mandible alignments, and surface projection of the external body as boundary conditions. In addition, the dose response is simulated by applying a new loading technique in the form of a dose-induced shrinkage using the dose-volume relationship. The dose-induced load is applied as dose-induced shrinkage of the tumor and four salivary glands. The Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) is calculated for the four salivary glands, and tumor to calculate the volume overlap of the structures after deformable registration. A substantial improvement in the registration is found by including the dose-induced shrinkage. The greatest registration improvement is found in the four glands where the average DSC increases from 0.53, 0.55, 0.32, and 0.37 to 0.68, 0.68, 0.51, and 0.49 in the left PG, right PG, left SG, and right SG, respectively by using bony alignment of vertebrae and mandible (M), body (B) surface projection and dose (D) (VB+M+B+D). PMID:26485227

  6. Indoor calibration of Sky Quality Meters: Linearity, spectral responsivity and uncertainty analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravettoni, M.; Strepparava, D.; Cereghetti, N.; Klett, S.; Andretta, M.; Steiger, M.

    2016-09-01

    The indoor calibration of brightness sensors requires extremely low values of irradiance in the most accurate and reproducible way. In this work the testing equipment of an ISO 17025 accredited laboratory for electrical testing, qualification and type approval of solar photovoltaic modules was modified in order to test the linearity of the instruments from few mW/cm2 down to fractions of nW/cm2, corresponding to levels of simulated brightness from 6 to 19 mag/arcsec2. Sixteen Sky Quality Meter (SQM) produced by Unihedron, a Canadian manufacturer, were tested, also assessing the impact of the ageing of their protective glasses on the calibration coefficients and the drift of the instruments. The instruments are in operation on measurement points and observatories at different sites and altitudes in Southern Switzerland, within the framework of OASI, the Environmental Observatory of Southern Switzerland. The authors present the results of the calibration campaign: linearity; brightness calibration, with and without protective glasses; transmittance measurement of the glasses; and spectral responsivity of the devices. A detailed uncertainty analysis is also provided, according to the ISO 17025 standard.

  7. Linear sea-level response to abrupt ocean warming of major West Antarctic ice basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengel, M.; Feldmann, J.; Levermann, A.

    2016-01-01

    Antarctica's contribution to global sea-level rise has recently been increasing. Whether its ice discharge will become unstable and decouple from anthropogenic forcing or increase linearly with the warming of the surrounding ocean is of fundamental importance. Under unabated greenhouse-gas emissions, ocean models indicate an abrupt intrusion of warm circumpolar deep water into the cavity below West Antarctica's Filchner-Ronne ice shelf within the next two centuries. The ice basin's retrograde bed slope would allow for an unstable ice-sheet retreat, but the buttressing of the large ice shelf and the narrow glacier troughs tend to inhibit such instability. It is unclear whether future ice loss will be dominated by ice instability or anthropogenic forcing. Here we show in regional and continental-scale ice-sheet simulations, which are capable of resolving unstable grounding-line retreat, that the sea-level response of the Filchner-Ronne ice basin is not dominated by ice instability and follows the strength of the forcing quasi-linearly. We find that the ice loss reduces after each pulse of projected warm water intrusion. The long-term sea-level contribution is approximately proportional to the total shelf-ice melt. Although the local instabilities might dominate the ice loss for weak oceanic warming, we find that the upper limit of ice discharge from the region is determined by the forcing and not by the marine ice-sheet instability.

  8. Linear and Nonlinear Optical Response in Silver Nanoclusters: Insight from a Computational Investigation.

    PubMed

    Day, Paul N; Pachter, Ruth; Nguyen, Kiet A; Bigioni, Terry P

    2016-02-01

    We report a density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) investigation of the thiolated silver nanoclusters [Ag44(SR)30](4-), Ag14(SR)12(PR'3)8, Ag31(SG)19, Ag32(SG)19, and Ag15(SG)11, which were synthesized and for which one-photon absorption (OPA) characterization is available. Our computational investigation based on careful examination of the exchange-correlation functional used in DFT geometry optimization and for the linear optical properties predictions by TDDFT, demonstrated good agreement with the measured linear absorption spectra, however dependent on the applied functional. Following the benchmarking, we evaluated the two-photon absorption (TPA) response using TDDFT, noting that accurate prediction of OPA is important for suppositions on the spectral range for TPA enhancement because of the sensitivity to the excitation energies. Although the TPA cross-section results are complicated by resonance effects and quantifying TPA cross sections for these systems is difficult, our results indicate that the nanoclusters Ag15 and Ag31/32 are likely to have large TPA cross sections. The spherical symmetry of the Ag44 and Ag14 nanoclusters leads to applicability of superatom theory, while it is not as useful for the more oblate geometries of the Ag15 and Ag31/32 systems. PMID:26730764

  9. The design of a linear phase superconducting filter with quasi-elliptic response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Tao; Yan, Shaolin; Zhao, Xinjie; Yue, Hongwei; Xie, Qinglian; Fang, Lan

    2008-06-01

    This paper presents the design of a linear phase superconducting filter with quasi-elliptic response. The coupling structure of the filter contains two trisections and one quadruplet. The two trisections are applied to generate two independent transmission zeros for high selectivity and are realized by meandered open-loop microstrip resonators; the quadruplet is applied for phase equalization and realized by four novel L-shaped microstrip resonators. The filter is designed at 1950 MHz with a bandwidth of 20 MHz. It is fabricated on a LaAlO3 wafer with double-coated Tl2Ba2CaCu2O8 films. The filter shows good selectivity together with flat group delay over 80% of the passband both in the simulation and measurements.

  10. Relaxation method and TCLE method of linear response in terms of thermo-field dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeki, Mizuhiko

    2008-03-01

    The general formulae of the dynamic susceptibility are derived using the relaxation method and the TCLE method for the linear response by introducing the renormalized hat-operator in terms of thermo-field dynamics (TFD). In the former method, the Kubo formula is calculated for systems with no external driving fields, while in the latter method the admittance is directly calculated from time-convolutionless equations with external driving terms. The relation between the two methods is analytically investigated, and also the fluctuation-dissipation theorem is examined for the two methods in terms of TFD. The TCLE method is applied to an interacting spin system, and a formula of the transverse magnetic susceptibility is derived for such a system. The transverse magnetic susceptibility of an interacting spin system with S = 1 / 2 spins is obtained up to the first order in powers of the spin-spin interaction.

  11. Derivation of spin-orbit couplings in collinear linear-response TDDFT: A rigorous formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Franco de Carvalho, Felipe; Curchod, Basile F. E.; Tavernelli, Ivano; Penfold, Thomas J.

    2014-04-14

    Using an approach based upon a set of auxiliary many-electron wavefunctions we present a rigorous derivation of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) within the framework of linear-response time-dependent density functional theory (LR-TDDFT). Our method is based on a perturbative correction of the non-relativistic collinear TDDFT equations using a Breit-Pauli spin-orbit Hamiltonian. The derivation, which is performed within both the Casida and Sternheimer formulations of LR-TDDFT, is valid for any basis set. The requirement of spin noncollinearity for the treatment of spin-flip transitions is also discussed and a possible alternative solution for the description of these transitions in the collinear case is also proposed. Our results are validated by computing the SOC matrix elements between singlet and triplet states of two molecules, formaldehyde and acetone. In both cases, we find excellent agreement with benchmark calculations performed with a high level correlated wavefunction method.

  12. Acoustically determined linear piezoelectric response of lithium niobate up to 1100 V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, N.; Branch, D. W.; Schamiloglu, E.; Cular, S.

    2014-04-01

    We present a method to measure high voltages using the piezoelectric crystal lithium niobate without using voltage dividers. A 36° Y-X cut lithium niobate crystal was coupled to two acoustic transducers, where direct current voltages were applied from 128-1100 V. The time-of-flight through the crystal was determined to be linearly dependent on the applied voltage. A model was developed to predict the time-delay in response to the applied voltage. The results show a sensitivity of 17 fs/V with a measurement error of 1 fs/V was achievable using this method. The sensitivity of this method can be increased by measuring the acoustic wave after multiple passes through the crystal. This method has many advantages over traditional techniques such as: favorable scalability for larger voltages, ease of use, cost effectiveness, and compactness.

  13. Asymptotic rates of response from forest tree breeding strategies using best linear unbiased prediction.

    PubMed

    Kerr, R J

    1998-03-01

    Genetic gain equations are developed for selection on multiple traits using either multi- or univariate best linear unbiased predictors (BLUP) and for selection under controlled and open pollination and polymix mating schemes. The equations assume an infinite population and account for the effects of selection. A comparison with simulated populations under the same mating schemes show that the gain equations predict selection response well, with the predictions having some upward bias. The gain equations are used to compare across mating schemes, to compare univariate to multivariate analyses, and to measure the reduction in the rate of genetic gain due to selection disequilibrium. Results show controlled pollination schemes can offer as much as a 56% advantage in genetic gain relative to open pollination. The reduction in the rate of genetic gain due to selection disequilibrium is approximately 27% under controlled pollination for the breeding goals studied. The results show a limited benefit in using multivariate analyses for predicting breeding values. PMID:24710888

  14. Acoustically determined linear piezoelectric response of lithium niobate up to 1100 V

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, N.; Branch, D. W.; Cular, S.; Schamiloglu, E.

    2014-04-21

    We present a method to measure high voltages using the piezoelectric crystal lithium niobate without using voltage dividers. A 36° Y-X cut lithium niobate crystal was coupled to two acoustic transducers, where direct current voltages were applied from 128–1100 V. The time-of-flight through the crystal was determined to be linearly dependent on the applied voltage. A model was developed to predict the time-delay in response to the applied voltage. The results show a sensitivity of 17 fs/V with a measurement error of 1 fs/V was achievable using this method. The sensitivity of this method can be increased by measuring the acoustic wave after multiple passes through the crystal. This method has many advantages over traditional techniques such as: favorable scalability for larger voltages, ease of use, cost effectiveness, and compactness.

  15. Response of discrete linear systems to forcing functions with inequality constraints.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michalopoulos, C. D.; Riley, T. A.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis is made of the maximum response of discrete, linear mechanical systems to arbitrary forcing functions which lie within specified bounds. Primary attention is focused on the complete determination of the forcing function which will engender maximum displacement to any particular mass element of a multi-degree-of-freedom system. In general, the desired forcing function is found to be a bang-bang type function, i.e., a function which switches from the maximum to the minimum bound and vice-versa at certain instants of time. Examples of two-degree-of-freedom systems, with and without damping, are presented in detail. Conclusions are drawn concerning the effect of damping on the switching times and the general procedure for finding these times is discussed.

  16. Circumventing chronological uncertainty in attempts to detect and understand non-linear ecosystem responses in shallow lake paleorecords

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Shallow lakes can undergo rapid changes in key biotic components. These phenomena, which include loss of submerged macrophytes, fish kills and algal blooms, can occur at sub-seasonal timescales and are often reported to be non-linear, threshold responses to a gradual intensification of an external driver and reflective of a change in state. Although such threshold responses are widely reported, a recent meta-analysis found that most such changes cannot be unequivocally confirmed as true threshold responses. This is because clear records of system stability in the face of a gradual increase in external driver intensity followed by rapid system change are lacking, as are records of post threshold stability in the new state following release of external driver pressure. That threshold responses were not confirmed often reflects insufficient time series of before or after data to establish driver variability and ecosystem stability. In this context, paleo studies provide a means to clearly identify non-linear, threshold responses in shallow lake ecosystems. The challenge of detecting evidence of non-linear responses in shallow lake ecosystems is often seen as a chronological one. Highly resolved and accurate sediment chronologies coupled with historical records of external driver intensity do provide a means to detect non-linear, threshold responses, but such chronologies are rare in shallow lakes. Fortunately, the 'tight chronology-historical record of external driver' approach is not the only, or even the most direct, way to detect non-linear ecosystem responses in paleo records. An alternative, more direct approach is ecosystem response and external driver intensity to be preserved in the same sedimentary record. Theoretically, it is arguable whether any chronological control is needed at all to determine if a non-linear response has occurred, for the key is not how quickly an ecosystem response may occur or if it is linear with respect to time, it is whether it is

  17. Equivalent linear response spectrum methodology for the seismic response of a simple structural system with a uni-directional support (tension only or compression only)

    SciTech Connect

    Gurdal, R.J.; Maxham, W.D.

    1996-12-01

    Typically, structures with significant non-linear supports are analyzed using either time-history algorithms or response spectrum enveloping techniques, with multiple stiffness values to represent the non-linear supports. However, there are problems associated with these methods: (1) time-history analyses require considerable computer time, and, more importantly, the generated response files can become too large; (2) linear response spectrum analyses, when used to envelop the non-linear solution, are excessively conservative. This paper presents an equivalent linear response spectrum methodology to analyze structural systems with a uni-directional support. The structure is free to move in one direction, and restricted with a support stiffness in the diametrically opposed direction. The mathematical formulas for this application are developed and presented. The results using this methodology are compared with actual results from corresponding time-history non-linear structural analyses. These comparisons, performed for the one-mass structural system, show that the equivalent linear response spectrum method closely approximates the time-history results.

  18. OREGANO_VE: a new parallelised 3D solver for the general (non-)linear Maxwell visco-elastic problem: validation and application to the calculation of surface deformation in the earthquake cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasaki, Tadashi; Houseman, Gregory; Hamling, Ian; Postek, Elek

    2010-05-01

    We have developed a new parallelized 3-D numerical code, OREGANO_VE, for the solution of the general visco-elastic problem in a rectangular block domain. The mechanical equilibrium equation is solved using the finite element method for a (non-)linear Maxwell visco-elastic rheology. Time-dependent displacement and/or traction boundary conditions can be applied. Matrix assembly is based on a tetrahedral element defined by 4 vertex nodes and 6 nodes located at the midpoints of the edges, and within which displacement is described by a quadratic interpolation function. For evaluating viscoelastic relaxation, an explicit time-stepping algorithm (Zienkiewicz and Cormeau, Int. J. Num. Meth. Eng., 8, 821-845, 1974) is employed. We test the accurate implementation of the OREGANO_VE by comparing numerical and analytic (or semi-analytic half-space) solutions to different problems in a range of applications: (1) equilibration of stress in a constant density layer after gravity is switched on at t = 0 tests the implementation of spatially variable viscosity and non-Newtonian viscosity; (2) displacement of the welded interface between two blocks of differing viscosity tests the implementation of viscosity discontinuities, (3) displacement of the upper surface of a layer under applied normal load tests the implementation of time-dependent surface tractions (4) visco-elastic response to dyke intrusion (compared with the solution in a half-space) tests the implementation of all aspects. In each case, the accuracy of the code is validated subject to use of a sufficiently small time step, providing assurance that the OREGANO_VE code can be applied to a range of visco-elastic relaxation processes in three dimensions, including post-seismic deformation and post-glacial uplift. The OREGANO_VE code includes a capability for representation of prescribed fault slip on an internal fault. The surface displacement associated with large earthquakes can be detected by some geodetic observations

  19. Bayesian Method for Support Union Recovery in Multivariate Multi-Response Linear Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wan-Ping

    Sparse modeling has become a particularly important and quickly developing topic in many applications of statistics, machine learning, and signal processing. The main objective of sparse modeling is discovering a small number of predictive patterns that would improve our understanding of the data. This paper extends the idea of sparse modeling to the variable selection problem in high dimensional linear regression, where there are multiple response vectors, and they share the same or similar subsets of predictor variables to be selected from a large set of candidate variables. In the literature, this problem is called multi-task learning, support union recovery or simultaneous sparse coding in different contexts. We present a Bayesian method for solving this problem by introducing two nested sets of binary indicator variables. In the first set of indicator variables, each indicator is associated with a predictor variable or a regressor, indicating whether this variable is active for any of the response vectors. In the second set of indicator variables, each indicator is associated with both a predicator variable and a response vector, indicating whether this variable is active for the particular response vector. The problem of variable selection is solved by sampling from the posterior distributions of the two sets of indicator variables. We develop a Gibbs sampling algorithm for posterior sampling and use the generated samples to identify active support both in shared and individual level. Theoretical and simulation justification are performed in the paper. The proposed algorithm is also demonstrated on the real image data sets. To learn the patterns of the object in images, we treat images as the different tasks. Through combining images with the object in the same category, we cannot only learn the shared patterns efficiently but also get individual sketch of each image.

  20. Grain size effect on monotonic and cyclic deformation responses of electroformed copper with ultrafine and nano sized twins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ji

    2007-12-01

    Refining of grain sizes is one of the most powerful tools for achieving enhanced properties and performance in polycrystalline metallic materials. It has been found that, by reducing the grain size to ultrafine and nano ranges, the strength of the materials can be significantly enhanced. However, interpretation of the influence of the grain size on the mechanical behaviour of this kind of materials is still in its infancy. Especially, as the grain size falls in these regions, conventional dislocation model is subjected to contradictory experimental results. A wide spread of the applications of these materials is hindered due to the lack of validated models. To develop the present understanding, a novel energy approach is attempted, in which deformation process was treated as an energetic process. This energy approach is experimentally tested and theoretically investigated. The experimental investigation includes mechanical response characterization and microstructure investigation. It was found that, with decreasing grain size, the static deformation mechanism appears to transform from lower hardening stage to higher stage. Similarly, the cyclic deformation mode also exhibits corresponding characteristics shifting. Such transitions are attributed to the material's internal energy increases with the decrease of the grain size, leading to the following conclusions: (1) A novel view on cyclic hardening, cyclic softening and cyclic creep in relation to the strain energy of the material is synthesized, based on which a microstructure evolution law is derived. (2) Quantitative grading of grain size is enabled for the first time. According to the presented grading method, the size of the ultrafine grain is equal to the critical grain size at which the energetic transition condition from Stage III hardening to Stage IV hardening is satisfied. (3) An original interpretation of the physical meaning for Hall-Petch constant is provided. The Hall-Petch slope constant is found

  1. On spurious detection of linear response and misuse of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem in finite time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottwald, Georg A.; Wormell, J. P.; Wouters, Jeroen

    2016-09-01

    Using a sensitive statistical test we determine whether or not one can detect the breakdown of linear response given observations of deterministic dynamical systems. A goodness-of-fit statistics is developed for a linear statistical model of the observations, based on results for central limit theorems for deterministic dynamical systems, and used to detect linear response breakdown. We apply the method to discrete maps which do not obey linear response and show that the successful detection of breakdown depends on the length of the time series, the magnitude of the perturbation and on the choice of the observable. We find that in order to reliably reject the assumption of linear response for typical observables sufficiently large data sets are needed. Even for simple systems such as the logistic map, one needs of the order of 106 observations to reliably detect the breakdown with a confidence level of 95 %; if less observations are available one may be falsely led to conclude that linear response theory is valid. The amount of data required is larger the smaller the applied perturbation. For judiciously chosen observables the necessary amount of data can be drastically reduced, but requires detailed a priori knowledge about the invariant measure which is typically not available for complex dynamical systems. Furthermore we explore the use of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem (FDT) in cases with limited data length or coarse-graining of observations. The FDT, if applied naively to a system without linear response, is shown to be very sensitive to the details of the sampling method, resulting in erroneous predictions of the response.

  2. Assessment of the setup dependence of detector response functions for mega-voltage linear accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, Christopher; Simon, Tom; Simon, Bill; Dempsey, James F.; Kahler, Darren; Palta, Jatinder R.; Liu Chihray; Yan Guanghua

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: Accurate modeling of beam profiles is important for precise treatment planning dosimetry. Calculated beam profiles need to precisely replicate profiles measured during machine commissioning. Finite detector size introduces perturbations into the measured profiles, which, in turn, impact the resulting modeled profiles. The authors investigate a method for extracting the unperturbed beam profiles from those measured during linear accelerator commissioning. Methods: In-plane and cross-plane data were collected for an Elekta Synergy linac at 6 MV using ionization chambers of volume 0.01, 0.04, 0.13, and 0.65 cm{sup 3} and a diode of surface area 0.64 mm{sup 2}. The detectors were orientated with the stem perpendicular to the beam and pointing away from the gantry. Profiles were measured for a 10x10 cm{sup 2} field at depths ranging from 0.8 to 25.0 cm and SSDs from 90 to 110 cm. Shaping parameters of a Gaussian response function were obtained relative to the Edge detector. The Gaussian function was deconvolved from the measured ionization chamber data. The Edge detector profile was taken as an approximation to the true profile, to which deconvolved data were compared. Data were also collected with CC13 and Edge detectors for additional fields and energies on an Elekta Synergy, Varian Trilogy, and Siemens Oncor linear accelerator and response functions obtained. Response functions were compared as a function of depth, SSD, and detector scan direction. Variations in the shaping parameter were introduced and the effect on the resulting deconvolution profiles assessed. Results: Up to 10% setup dependence in the Gaussian shaping parameter occurred, for each detector for a particular plane. This translated to less than a {+-}0.7 mm variation in the 80%-20% penumbral width. For large volume ionization chambers such as the FC65 Farmer type, where the cavity length to diameter ratio is far from 1, the scan direction produced up to a 40% difference in the shaping

  3. Contributions of DNA repair and damage response pathways to the non-linear genotoxic responses of alkylating agents.

    PubMed

    Klapacz, Joanna; Pottenger, Lynn H; Engelward, Bevin P; Heinen, Christopher D; Johnson, George E; Clewell, Rebecca A; Carmichael, Paul L; Adeleye, Yeyejide; Andersen, Melvin E

    2016-01-01

    From a risk assessment perspective, DNA-reactive agents are conventionally assumed to have genotoxic risks at all exposure levels, thus applying a linear extrapolation for low-dose responses. New approaches discussed here, including more diverse and sensitive methods for assessing DNA damage and DNA repair, strongly support the existence of measurable regions where genotoxic responses with increasing doses are insignificant relative to control. Model monofunctional alkylating agents have in vitro and in vivo datasets amenable to determination of points of departure (PoDs) for genotoxic effects. A session at the 2013 Society of Toxicology meeting provided an opportunity to survey the progress in understanding the biological basis of empirically-observed PoDs for DNA alkylating agents. Together with the literature published since, this review discusses cellular pathways activated by endogenous and exogenous alkylation DNA damage. Cells have evolved conserved processes that monitor and counteract a spontaneous steady-state level of DNA damage. The ubiquitous network of DNA repair pathways serves as the first line of defense for clearing of the DNA damage and preventing mutation. Other biological pathways discussed here that are activated by genotoxic stress include post-translational activation of cell cycle networks and transcriptional networks for apoptosis/cell death. The interactions of various DNA repair and DNA damage response pathways provide biological bases for the observed PoD behaviors seen with genotoxic compounds. Thus, after formation of DNA adducts, the activation of cellular pathways can lead to the avoidance of a mutagenic outcome. The understanding of the cellular mechanisms acting within the low-dose region will serve to better characterize risks from exposures to DNA-reactive agents at environmentally-relevant concentrations. PMID:27036068

  4. A pseudorandom pink noise for the computer-based measurements of linear responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinugawa, Tohru; Sakurai, Katsumi; Mitsui, Takahisa

    1998-07-01

    We propose a nonbinary pseudorandom sequence for the measurement of linear responses. Compared with a maximal length shift register sequence (m sequence), this sequence is more suitable for digital processing based on computers; with the use of discrete Fourier transforms, the response functions are reproduced without approximations from digitally sampled data because the input power spectrum is pink, i.e., completely flat in a given frequency range and 0 otherwise. In practice, the new sequence is simply the sum of harmonics with arbitrary phases and is produced readily with digital wave form generators. For reducing the peak power of this sequence, the amplitude distribution is better to be bimodal rather than Gaussian. For demonstrating its feasibility with common digital hardware, the magnetic resonance of Rb atoms in a sub-MHz region was measured successfully. With the use of the fast Fourier transform algorithm, our software task was only 0.4% of that for the cross-correlational calculation based on an m sequence.

  5. Polarizable embedding with a multiconfiguration short-range density functional theory linear response method

    SciTech Connect

    Hedegård, Erik Donovan; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Knecht, Stefan; Kongsted, Jacob Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard

    2015-03-21

    We present here the coupling of a polarizable embedding (PE) model to the recently developed multiconfiguration short-range density functional theory method (MC-srDFT), which can treat multiconfigurational systems with a simultaneous account for dynamical and static correlation effects. PE-MC-srDFT is designed to combine efficient treatment of complicated electronic structures with inclusion of effects from the surrounding environment. The environmental effects encompass classical electrostatic interactions as well as polarization of both the quantum region and the environment. Using response theory, molecular properties such as excitation energies and oscillator strengths can be obtained. The PE-MC-srDFT method and the additional terms required for linear response have been implemented in a development version of DALTON. To benchmark the PE-MC-srDFT approach against the literature data, we have investigated the low-lying electronic excitations of acetone and uracil, both immersed in water solution. The PE-MC-srDFT results are consistent and accurate, both in terms of the calculated solvent shift and, unlike regular PE-MCSCF, also with respect to the individual absolute excitation energies. To demonstrate the capabilities of PE-MC-srDFT, we also investigated the retinylidene Schiff base chromophore embedded in the channelrhodopsin protein. While using a much more compact reference wave function in terms of active space, our PE-MC-srDFT approach yields excitation energies comparable in quality to CASSCF/CASPT2 benchmarks.

  6. Exact solutions of the Liénard- and generalized Liénard-type ordinary nonlinear differential equations obtained by deforming the phase space coordinates of the linear harmonic oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harko, Tiberiu; Liang, Shi-Dong

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the connection between the linear harmonic oscillator equation and some classes of second order nonlinear ordinary differential equations of Li\\'enard and generalized Li\\'enard type, which physically describe important oscillator systems. By using a method inspired by quantum mechanics, and which consist on the deformation of the phase space coordinates of the harmonic oscillator, we generalize the equation of motion of the classical linear harmonic oscillator to several classes of strongly non-linear differential equations. The first integrals, and a number of exact solutions of the corresponding equations are explicitly obtained. The devised method can be further generalized to derive explicit general solutions of nonlinear second order differential equations unrelated to the harmonic oscillator. Applications of the obtained results for the study of the travelling wave solutions of the reaction-convection-diffusion equations, and of the large amplitude free vibrations of a uniform cantilever beam are also presented.

  7. Influence of Cutting Time on Brush Response: Implications for Herbivory in Linear (Transportation) Corridors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rea, Roy V.; Child, Kenneth N.; Spata, David P.; MacDonald, Douglas

    2007-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the influence the time of brush-cutting can have on plant regrowth and attractiveness to herbivores that browse in linear corridors. The influence of cutting time on leaf flush and senescence, shoot morphometry, and biomass was measured for 3 consecutive years after initial brush-cutting. Results indicate that morphological and phenological attributes of three woody deciduous plants were influenced by the timing of brush-cutting for up to 3 years after initial cutting. Brush-cutting generally stimulated plants to produce larger than normal shoots and delay leaf senescence. The degree to which plants were affected, however, varied with the timing of initial cutting and the species in question. Generally, plants cut later in the year resprouted more vigorously and were taller in the third year after cutting but produced less overall biomass than when cut earlier. In the years following brush-cutting, plants cut earlier flushed leaves earlier in the spring but delayed leaf senescence in the fall when compared to uncut controls. Results of these trials suggest that brush-cutting time influences plant response and several plant attributes known to influence plant attractiveness to moose and other herbivores. We therefore recommend that roadside and railside vegetation management plans consider the influence of cutting time on plant regrowth. Such considerations can ensure that brush is cut to reduce the attractiveness of plant regrowth in these linear corridors, reduce the utilization of such brush by herbivores, and, as such, mitigate collision risk between motorists and herbivores such as moose.

  8. Influence of cutting time on brush response: implications for herbivory in linear (transportation) corridors.

    PubMed

    Rea, Roy V; Child, Kenneth N; Spata, David P; MacDonald, Douglas

    2007-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the influence the time of brush-cutting can have on plant regrowth and attractiveness to herbivores that browse in linear corridors. The influence of cutting time on leaf flush and senescence, shoot morphometry, and biomass was measured for 3 consecutive years after initial brush-cutting. Results indicate that morphological and phenological attributes of three woody deciduous plants were influenced by the timing of brush-cutting for up to 3 years after initial cutting. Brush-cutting generally stimulated plants to produce larger than normal shoots and delay leaf senescence. The degree to which plants were affected, however, varied with the timing of initial cutting and the species in question. Generally, plants cut later in the year resprouted more vigorously and were taller in the third year after cutting but produced less overall biomass than when cut earlier. In the years following brush-cutting, plants cut earlier flushed leaves earlier in the spring but delayed leaf senescence in the fall when compared to uncut controls. Results of these trials suggest that brush-cutting time influences plant response and several plant attributes known to influence plant attractiveness to moose and other herbivores. We therefore recommend that roadside and railside vegetation management plans consider the influence of cutting time on plant regrowth. Such considerations can ensure that brush is cut to reduce the attractiveness of plant regrowth in these linear corridors, reduce the utilization of such brush by herbivores, and, as such, mitigate collision risk between motorists and herbivores such as moose. PMID:17557175

  9. Mechanical response of the quantum vacuum to dynamic deformations of a cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarabadani, Jalal; Miri, Mirfaez

    2006-08-01

    We consider two dynamically deforming plates immersed in the vacuum of a scalar field. We study both the (generalized) Neumann and the Dirichlet boundary conditions on the surfaces. For rough plates undergoing small displacements parallel or perpendicular to the normal axis, the mass correction, the vacuum viscosity, and the dissipation rate arising from photon emission inside the cavity, are calculated. In the case of motion along the normal axis, these quantities have no dependence on the shape of plates, and the Neumann ones are greater. We examine the specific example of two corrugated surfaces of a wave number k1p and mean separation H , performing lateral oscillation with a frequency ω1p . In contrast to Dirichlet photons, Neumann photons can be excited for all values of k1p , H , and ω1p . For short cavity lengths, the number of Neumann photons increases as H-2 . The phase difference between the harmonic motion of plates can be used to tune the dissipation rate. Neumann mass correction and dissipation rate are greater than Dirichlet ones. We calculated the force exerted on two corrugated plates that are moving uniformly in the lateral directions. This lateral force decreases as exp(-k1pH) if k1pH>1 , increases as H-5 if k1pH<0.1 , and is stronger in the case of the Dirichlet boundary condition.

  10. Thermal Cycling and Isothermal Deformation Response of Polycrystalline NiTi: Simulations vs. Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manchiraju, Sivom; Gaydosh, Darrell; Benafan, Othmane; Noebe, Ronald; Vaidyanathan, Raj; Anderson, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    A recent microstructure-based FEM model that couples crystal-based plasticity, the B2<-> MB190 phase transformation and anisotropic elasticity at the grain scale is calibrated to recent data for polycrystalline NiTi (49.9 at.% Ni). Inputs include anisotropic elastic properties, texture and differential scanning calorimetry data, as well as a subset of recent isothermal deformation and load-biased thermal cycling data. The model is assessed against additional experimental data. Several experimental trends are captured - in particular, the transformation strain during thermal cycling monotonically increases and reaches a peak with increasing bias stress. This is achieved, in part, by modifying the martensite hardening matrix proposed by Patoor et al. [Patoor E, Eberhardt A, Berveiller M. J Phys IV 1996;6:277]. Some experimental trends are underestimated - in particular, the ratcheting of macrostrain during thermal cycling. This may reflect a model limitation that transformation-plasticity coupling is captured on a coarse (grain) scale but not on a fine (martensitic plate) scale.

  11. Maintaining tetrahedral mesh quality in response to time-dependent topological and geometrical deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Kuprat, A.; George, D.

    1998-12-01

    When modeling deformation of geometrically complex regions, unstructured tetrahedral meshes provide the flexibility necessary to track interfaces as they change geometrically and topologically. In the class of time-dependent simulations considered in this paper, multimaterial interfaces are represented by sets of triangular facets, and motion of the interfaces is controlled by physical considerations. The motion of interior points in the conforming tetrahedral mesh (i.e., points not on interfaces) is arbitrary and may be chosen to produce good element shapes. In the context of specified boundary motion driven by physical considerations, they have found that a rather large glossary of mesh changes is required to allow the simulation to survive all the transitions of interface geometry and topology that occur during time evolution. This paper will describe mesh changes required to maintain good element quality as the geometry evolves, as well as mesh changes required to capture changes i n topology that occur when material regions collapse or pinch off. This paper will present a detailed description of mesh changes necessary for capturing the aforementioned geometrical and topological changes, as implemented in the code GRAIN3D, and will provide examples from a metallic grain growth simulation in which the normal velocity of the grain boundary is proportional to mean curvature.

  12. First-principles study on the effect of alloying elements on the elastic deformation response in β-titanium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Gouda, Mohammed K. Gepreel, Mohamed A. H.; Nakamura, Koichi

    2015-06-07

    Theoretical deformation response of hypothetical β-titanium alloys was investigated using first-principles calculation technique under periodic boundary conditions. Simulation was carried out on hypothetical 54-atom supercell of Ti–X (X = Cr, Mn, Fe, Zr, Nb, Mo, Al, and Sn) binary alloys. The results showed that the strength of Ti increases by alloying, except for Cr. The most effective alloying elements are Nb, Zr, and Mo in the current simulation. The mechanism of bond breaking was revealed by studying the local structure around the alloying element atom with respect to volume change. Moreover, the effect of alloying elements on bulk modulus and admissible strain was investigated. It was found that Zr, Nb, and Mo have a significant effect to enhance the admissible strain of Ti without change in bulk modulus.

  13. First-principles study on the effect of alloying elements on the elastic deformation response in β-titanium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouda, Mohammed K.; Nakamura, Koichi; A. H. Gepreel, Mohamed

    2015-06-01

    Theoretical deformation response of hypothetical β-titanium alloys was investigated using first-principles calculation technique under periodic boundary conditions. Simulation was carried out on hypothetical 54-atom supercell of Ti-X (X = Cr, Mn, Fe, Zr, Nb, Mo, Al, and Sn) binary alloys. The results showed that the strength of Ti increases by alloying, except for Cr. The most effective alloying elements are Nb, Zr, and Mo in the current simulation. The mechanism of bond breaking was revealed by studying the local structure around the alloying element atom with respect to volume change. Moreover, the effect of alloying elements on bulk modulus and admissible strain was investigated. It was found that Zr, Nb, and Mo have a significant effect to enhance the admissible strain of Ti without change in bulk modulus.

  14. Energy Loss of a High Charge Bunched Electron Beam in Plasma: Nonlinear Plasma Response and Linear Scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenzweig, J. B.; Barov, N.; Thompson, M. C.; Yoder, R.

    2002-12-01

    There has been much experimental and theoretical interest in blowout regime of plasma wakefield acceleration (PWFA), which features ultra-high accelerating fields, linear transverse focusing forces, and nonlinear plasma motion. Using an exact analysis, we examine here a fundamental limit of nonlinear PWFA excitation, by an infinitesimally short, relativistic electron beam. The beam energy loss in this case is shown to be linear in charge even for nonlinear plasma response, where a normalized, unitless charge exceeds unity, and relativistic plasma effects become important or dominant. The physical bases for this persistence of linear response are pointed out. As a byproduct of our analysis, we re-examine the issue of field divergence as the point-charge limit is approached, suggesting an important modification of commonly held views of evading unphysical energy loss. Deviations from linear behavior are investigated using simulations with finite length beams. The peak accelerating field in the plasma wave excited behind a finite-length beam is also examined, with the artifact of wave spiking adding to the apparent persistence of linear scaling of the peak field amplitude well into the nonlinear regime. On the other hand, at large enough normalized charge, linear scaling of fields collapses, with serious consequences for plasma wave excitation efficiency. The dramatic implications of these results for observing the collapse of linear scaling in planned experiments are discussed.

  15. Thin-skinned Mass-wasting Responsible for Rapid, Edifice-wide Deformation at Arenal Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebmeier, S. K.; Biggs, J.; Muller, C.; Avard, G.

    2014-12-01

    Volcanic edifices are built rapidly, at rates far exceeding those of erosion. The resulting mechanical failure of the edifices of both active and quiescent volcanoes can result in hazards on a range of scales, from rockfall to sector collapse. The stability of a volcanic edifice depends on the ratio of its exogenous growth to mass loss due to erosion, deformation and mass wasting. Geodetic measurements of edifice spreading have mostly been associated with local zones of extension at island volcanoes and relatively few observations have been made at continental stratovolcanoes. We present measurements of displacement and surface property changes at Arenal, Costa Rica, a continental stratovolcano that stopped erupting in 2010 after almost 42 years of activity. High resolution TerraSAR-X data (2011-2013) have increased the area covered geodetically by ~40%, allowing us to make measurements of displacements close to Arenal's summit for the first time. InSAR and intensity change observations provide evidence of frequent rockfalls and of shallow landslides (5-11 m thick, total volume = 1.9×107 m3 DRE). Rockfall and shallow translational landsliding have a stabilizing effect on Volcán Arenal's edifice that reduces the potential for external triggering of slope failure. We map 16 shallow landslides (5-11 m depth, 4% of post-1968 deposits) and expect failure planes to be associated with layers of blocky debris and lava crust. Unstable material on Arenal's upper slopes is removed steadily, potentially reducing sensitivity to external triggers: the 2012 Nicoya Earthquake (Mw 7.6) had no measurable impact on the velocities of sliding units, but did result in an elevated area of rockfall. This demonstrates the importance of mass wasting for the stability of young volcanic edifices.

  16. Targeting the finite-deformation response of wavy biological tissues with bio-inspired material architectures.

    PubMed

    Tu, Wenqiong; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy

    2013-12-01

    The Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm driven by a homogenized-based model is employed to target the response of three types of heart-valve chordae tendineae with different stiffening characteristics due to different degrees of waviness of collagen fibril/fiber bundles. First, geometric and material parameters are identified through an extensive parametric study that produce excellent agreement of the simulated response based on simplified unit cell architectures with the actual response of the complex biological tissue. These include amplitude and wavelength of the crimped chordae microstructure, elastic moduli of the constituent phases, and degree of microstructural refinement of the stiff phase at fixed volume fraction whose role in the stiffening response is elucidated. The study also reveals potential non-uniqueness of bio-inspired wavy microstructures in attaining the targeted response of certain chordae tendineae crimp configurations. The homogenization-based Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm, whose predictions are validated through the parametric study, is then shown to be an excellent tool in identifying optimal unit cell architectures in the design space that exhibits very steep gradients. Finally, defect criticality of optimal unit cell architectures is investigated in order to assess their feasibility in replacing actual biological tendons with stiffening characteristics. PMID:24018396

  17. Computation of linear and nonlinear site response for near field ground motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonilla, Luis Fabian

    The near-surface geological site conditions in the upper tens of meters are one of the dominant factors in controlling the amplitude and variation of strong ground motion during large earthquakes. The understanding of these site effects comes primarily from surface recordings. For instance, different methods to estimate site response and their variability are studied using aftershock data for the 17 January 1994 M6.7 Northridge, California earthquake. A second approach corresponds to borehole measurements. We use the Garner Valley Downhole Array (GVDA), which consists of a set of seven downhole strong-motion instruments ranging from 0 to 500 meters depth, to study site response effects. The GVDA velocity structure is first studied, then the H/ V is evaluated, and finally some considerations of 2D and 3D basin effects are also shown. These previous studies considered small to moderate earthquakes, where strain levels are small enough, so that linear wave propagation is assumed. However, for strong motions produced during large earthquakes, the soils behave nonlinearly. In this study we present evidence that nonlinearity can be directly observed in acceleration time histories such as Wildlife Refuge, 1987 Superstition Hills, CA; Kushiro Port station, 1993 Kushiro-Oki, Japan; among others. To understand the nature of nonlinear soil dynamics, we developed a model that includes anelastic dissipation of energy due to hysteresis. The hysteresis is described by the generalized Masing rules. This new hysteresis formulation, based on the classical Masing rules, has a functional representation, and depends only on one parameter that can be related to damping ratio tests. The coupling with pore pressure generation shows the degradation of the shear modulus and the yield stress during the cyclic response of the material. The simulations show amplitude reduction as well as the shift of the fundamental frequency to lower frequencies as observed on vertical arrays. The synthetic

  18. Plastic deformation in a metallic granular chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musson, Ryan W.; Carlson, William

    2016-03-01

    Solitary wave response was investigated in a metallic granular chain-piston system using LS-DYNA. A power law hardening material model was used to show that localized plastic deformation is present in a metallic granular chain for an impact velocity of 0.5 m/s. This loss due to plastic deformation was quantified via impulse, and it was shown that the loss scales nearly linearly with impact velocity. Therefore, metallic grains may not be suitable for devices that require high-amplitude solitary waves. There would be too much energy lost to plastic deformation. One can assume that ceramics will behave elastically; therefore, the response of an aluminum oxide granular chain was compared to that of a steel chain.

  19. Linear-response reflection coefficient of the recorder air-jet amplifier.

    PubMed

    Price, John C; Johnston, William A; McKinnon, Daniel D

    2015-11-01

    In a duct-flute such as the recorder, steady-state oscillations are controlled by two parameters, the blowing pressure and the frequency of the acoustic resonator. As in most feedback oscillators, the oscillation amplitude is determined by gain-saturation of the amplifier, and thus it cannot be controlled independently of blowing pressure and frequency unless the feedback loop is opened. In this work, the loop is opened by replacing the recorder body with a waveguide reflectometer: a section of transmission line with microphones, a signal source, and an absorbing termination. When the mean flow from the air-jet into the transmission line is not blocked, the air-jet amplifier is unstable to edge-tone oscillations through a feedback path that does not involve the acoustic resonator. When it is blocked, the air-jet is deflected somewhat outward and the system becomes stable. It is then possible to measure the reflection coefficient of the air-jet amplifier versus blowing pressure and acoustic frequency under linear response conditions, avoiding the complication of gain-saturation. The results provide a revealing test of flute drive models under the simplest conditions and with few unknown parameters. The strengths and weaknesses of flute drive models are discussed. PMID:26627801

  20. Linear ground-water flow, flood-wave response program for programmable calculators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kernodle, John Michael

    1978-01-01

    Two programs are documented which solve a discretized analytical equation derived to determine head changes at a point in a one-dimensional ground-water flow system. The programs, written for programmable calculators, are in widely divergent but commonly encountered languages and serve to illustrate the adaptability of the linear model to use in situations where access to true computers is not possible or economical. The analytical method assumes a semi-infinite aquifer which is uniform in thickness and hydrologic characteristics, bounded on one side by an impermeable barrier and on the other parallel side by a fully penetrating stream in complete hydraulic connection with the aquifer. Ground-water heads may be calculated for points along a line which is perpendicular to the impermeable barrie and the fully penetrating stream. Head changes at the observation point are dependent on (1) the distance between that point and the impermeable barrier, (2) the distance between the line of stress (the stream) and the impermeable barrier, (3) aquifer diffusivity, (4) time, and (5) head changes along the line of stress. The primary application of the programs is to determine aquifer diffusivity by the flood-wave response technique. (Woodard-USGS)

  1. Calculation of excitation energies from the CC2 linear response theory using Cholesky decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Baudin, Pablo; Marín, José Sánchez; Cuesta, Inmaculada García; Sánchez de Merás, Alfredo M. J.

    2014-03-14

    A new implementation of the approximate coupled cluster singles and doubles CC2 linear response model is reported. It employs a Cholesky decomposition of the two-electron integrals that significantly reduces the computational cost and the storage requirements of the method compared to standard implementations. Our algorithm also exploits a partitioning form of the CC2 equations which reduces the dimension of the problem and avoids the storage of doubles amplitudes. We present calculation of excitation energies of benzene using a hierarchy of basis sets and compare the results with conventional CC2 calculations. The reduction of the scaling is evaluated as well as the effect of the Cholesky decomposition parameter on the quality of the results. The new algorithm is used to perform an extrapolation to complete basis set investigation on the spectroscopically interesting benzylallene conformers. A set of calculations on medium-sized molecules is carried out to check the dependence of the accuracy of the results on the decomposition thresholds. Moreover, CC2 singlet excitation energies of the free base porphin are also presented.

  2. Path-following analysis of the dynamical response of a piecewise-linear capsule system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Páez Chávez, Joseph; Liu, Yang; Pavlovskaia, Ekaterina; Wiercigroch, Marian

    2016-08-01

    The dynamical response of a piecewise-linear capsule system is studied by means of path-following techniques in this paper. As the capsule model belongs to the class of piecewise-smooth dynamical systems involving impact and friction, a special care is taken in order to divide the trajectory of the system into a smooth vector field in each disjoint subregion. Specifically we study a two-sided drifting system focusing on directional control and energy consumption. We aim to address two practical problems which are maximizing the rate of progression and directional control of the system by following a typical period-1 trajectory. The one-parameter analysis shows that two types of bifurcations, grazing bifurcation and boundary-intersection crossing bifurcation are found, and the maximal rate of progression is achieved when the capsule performs the oscillations without sticking phases. In our two-parameter study, the control parameters for which the rate of progression is maximal are identified using fixed value of power consumption, and the curves which divide the motion of the capsule between forward and backward progression are obtained.

  3. A Bayesian approach for inducing sparsity in generalized linear models with multi-category response

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The dimension and complexity of high-throughput gene expression data create many challenges for downstream analysis. Several approaches exist to reduce the number of variables with respect to small sample sizes. In this study, we utilized the Generalized Double Pareto (GDP) prior to induce sparsity in a Bayesian Generalized Linear Model (GLM) setting. The approach was evaluated using a publicly available microarray dataset containing 99 samples corresponding to four different prostate cancer subtypes. Results A hierarchical Sparse Bayesian GLM using GDP prior (SBGG) was developed to take into account the progressive nature of the response variable. We obtained an average overall classification accuracy between 82.5% and 94%, which was higher than Support Vector Machine, Random Forest or a Sparse Bayesian GLM using double exponential priors. Additionally, SBGG outperforms the other 3 methods in correctly identifying pre-metastatic stages of cancer progression, which can prove extremely valuable for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. Importantly, using Geneset Cohesion Analysis Tool, we found that the top 100 genes produced by SBGG had an average functional cohesion p-value of 2.0E-4 compared to 0.007 to 0.131 produced by the other methods. Conclusions Using GDP in a Bayesian GLM model applied to cancer progression data results in better subclass prediction. In particular, the method identifies pre-metastatic stages of prostate cancer with substantially better accuracy and produces more functionally relevant gene sets. PMID:26423345

  4. Diffusion versus linear ballistic accumulation: different models for response time with different conclusions about psychological mechanisms?

    PubMed

    Heathcote, Andrew; Hayes, Brett

    2012-06-01

    Two similar classes of evidence-accumulation model have dominated theorizing about rapid binary choice: diffusion models and racing accumulator pairs. Donkin, Brown, Heathcote, and Wagenmakers (2011) examined mimicry between the Ratcliff diffusion (RD; Ratcliff & Smith, 2004) and the linear ballistic accumulator (LBA; Brown & Heathcote, 2008), the 2 least similar models from each class that provide a comprehensive account of a set benchmark phenomena in rapid binary choice. Where conditions differed only in the rate of evidence accumulation (the most common case in past research), simulations showed the models supported equivalent psychological inferences. In contrast, differences in 2 other parameters of key psychological interest, response caution (the amount of information required for a decision), and nondecision time, traded-off when fitting 1 model to data simulated from the other, implying the potential for divergent inferences about latent cognitive processes. However, Donkin, Brown, Heathcote, and Wagenmakers did not find such inconsistencies between fits of the RD and LBA models in a survey of data sets from paradigms using a range of experimental manipulations. We examined a further data set, collected by Dutilh, Vandekerckhove, Tuerlinckx, and Wagenmakers (2009), which used a manipulation not surveyed by Donkin, Brown, Heathcote, and Wagenmakers's practice. Dutilh et al.'s RD model fits indicated that practice had large effects on all three types of parameters. We show that in this case the LBA provides a different and simpler account of practice effects. Implications for evidence accumulation modelling are discussed. PMID:22686161

  5. Resonators coupled to voltage-biased Josephson junctions: From linear response to strongly driven nonlinear oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meister, S.; Mecklenburg, M.; Gramich, V.; Stockburger, J. T.; Ankerhold, J.; Kubala, B.

    2015-11-01

    Motivated by recent experiments in which a voltage-biased Josephson junction is placed in series with a resonator, the classical dynamics of the circuit is studied in various domains of parameter space. This problem can be mapped onto the dissipative motion of a single degree of freedom in a nonlinear time-dependent potential, where in contrast to conventional settings the nonlinearity appears in the driving while the static potential is purely harmonic. For long times the system approaches steady states which are analyzed in the underdamped regime over the full range of driving parameters including the fundamental resonance as well as higher harmonics and subharmonics. Observables such as the dc-Josephson current and the radiated microwave power give direct information about the underlying dynamics covering phenomena such as bifurcations, irregular motion, and up- and down-conversion. Due to their tunability, present and future setups provide versatile platforms to explore the changeover from linear response to strongly nonlinear behavior in driven dissipative systems under well defined conditions.

  6. Musculoskeletal stiffness changes linearly in response to increasing load during walking gait.

    PubMed

    Caron, Robert R; Lewis, Cara L; Saltzman, Elliot; Wagenaar, Robert C; Holt, Kenneth G

    2015-04-13

    Development of biologically inspired exoskeletons to assist soldiers in carrying load is a rapidly expanding field. Understanding how the body modulates stiffness in response to changing loads may inform the development of these exoskeletons and is the purpose of the present study. Seventeen subjects walked on a treadmill at a constant preferred walking velocity while nine different backpack loading conditions ranging from 12.5% to 40% bodyweight (BW) were introduced in an ascending and then descending order. Kinematic data were collected using Optotrak, a 3D motion analysis system, and used to estimate the position of the center of mass (COM). Two different estimates of stiffness were computed for the stance phase of gait. Both measures of stiffness were positively and linearly related to load magnitudes, with the slopes of the relationships being larger for the descending than the ascending conditions. These results indicate that changes in mechanical stiffness brought about in the musculoskeletal system vary systematically during increases in load to ensure that critical kinematic variables measured in a previous publication remain invariant (Caron et al., 2013). Changes in stiffness and other kinematics measured at the 40% BW condition suggest a boundary in which gait stiffness control limit is reached and a new gait pattern is required. Since soldiers are now carrying up to 96% of body weight, the need for research with even heavier loads is warranted. These findings have implications on the development of exoskeletons to assist in carrying loads. PMID:25678200

  7. Global hybrids from the semiclassical atom theory satisfying the local density linear response.

    PubMed

    Fabiano, Eduardo; Constantin, Lucian A; Cortona, Pietro; Della Sala, Fabio

    2015-01-13

    We propose global hybrid approximations of the exchange-correlation (XC) energy functional which reproduce well the modified fourth-order gradient expansion of the exchange energy in the semiclassical limit of many-electron neutral atoms and recover the full local density approximation (LDA) linear response. These XC functionals represent the hybrid versions of the APBE functional [Phys. Rev. Lett. 2011, 106, 186406] yet employing an additional correlation functional which uses the localization concept of the correlation energy density to improve the compatibility with the Hartree-Fock exchange as well as the coupling-constant-resolved XC potential energy. Broad energetic and structural testing, including thermochemistry and geometry, transition metal complexes, noncovalent interactions, gold clusters and small gold-molecule interfaces, as well as an analysis of the hybrid parameters, show that our construction is quite robust. In particular, our testing shows that the resulting hybrid, including 20% of Hartree-Fock exchange and named hAPBE, performs remarkably well for a broad palette of systems and properties, being generally better than popular hybrids (PBE0 and B3LYP). Semiempirical dispersion corrections are also provided. PMID:26574210

  8. Responses of Varroa-resistant honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) to Deformed wing virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The negative impact of Deformedwing virus (DWV) on European honey bees Apis mellifera is magnified by Varroa destructor parasitism. This study compared the responses of two Varroa-resistant honey bee stocks, pure Russian honey bees (RHB) and out-crossed Varroa Sensitive Hygienic bees, Pol-line (POL)...

  9. A shear deformable theory of laminated composite shallow shell-type panels and their response analysis. II - Static response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khdeir, A. A.; Librescu, L.; Frederick, D.

    1989-01-01

    In the second part of this paper, by using the static counterparts of the governing equations derived in Librescu (1989), the static response of shallow composite shell-type panels subjected to a sinusoidal transverse load is investigated. The numerical applications, encompassing a large number of boundary conditions and various lamination schemes, allow one to obtain some conclusions which are formulated in the paper.

  10. Some Aspects of the Deformation Response of Swirl-Mat Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Elahi, M.; Weitsman, Y.J.

    1999-10-01

    This report concerns the mechanical response of random glass fiber strand swirl-mat/urethane matrix composite under static and cyclic loads as well as under elevated temperatures and exposure to distilled water. The article presents an extensive amount of experimental data as well as predictions based on a couple damage/viscoelastic constitutive formulation generated to model the specific behavior of the material at hand. Damage evolution relations are derived from an empirical relationship. This work extends previously published results. It is shown that the current model has the capability to predict long-term response on the basis of short-term data and account for time-varying stresses and temperatures.

  11. Numerical conversion of transient to harmonic response functions for linear viscoelastic materials.

    PubMed

    Buschmann, M D

    1997-02-01

    Viscoelastic material behavior is often characterized using one of the three measurements: creep, stress-relaxation or dynamic sinusoidal tests. A two-stage numerical method was developed to allow representation of data from creep and stress-relaxation tests on the Fourier axis in the Laplace domain. The method assumes linear behavior and is theoretically applicable to any transient test which attains an equilibrium state. The first stage numerically resolves the Laplace integral to convert temporal stress and strain data, from creep or stress-relaxation, to the stiffness function, G(s), evaluated on the positive real axis in the Laplace domain. This numerical integration alone allows the direct comparison of data from transient experiments which attain a final equilibrium state, such as creep and stress relaxation, and allows such data to be fitted to models expressed in the Laplace domain. The second stage of this numerical procedure maps the stiffness function, G(s), from the positive real axis to the positive imaginary axis to reveal the harmonic response function, or dynamic stiffness, G(j omega). The mapping for each angular frequency, s, is accomplished by fitting a polynomial to a subset of G(s) centered around a particular value of s, substituting js for s and thereby evaluating G(j omega). This two-stage transformation circumvents previous numerical difficulties associated with obtaining Fourier transforms of the stress and strain time domain signals. The accuracy of these transforms is verified using model functions from poroelasticity, corresponding to uniaxial confined compression of an isotropic material and uniaxial unconfined compression of a transversely isotropic material. The addition of noise to the model data does not significantly deteriorate the transformed results and data points need not be equally spaced in time. To exemplify its potential utility, this two-stage transform is applied to experimental stress relaxation data to obtain the

  12. Influence of transverse-shear and large-deformation effects on the low-speed impact response of laminated composite plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambur, Damodar R.; Starnes, James H., Jr.; Prasad, Chunchu B.

    1993-01-01

    An analytical procedure is presented for determining the transient response of simply supported, rectangular laminated composite plates subjected to impact loads from airgun-propelled or dropped-weight impactors. A first-order shear-deformation theory is included in the analysis to represent properly any local short-wave-length transient bending response. The impact force is modeled as a locally distributed load with a cosine-cosine distribution. A double Fourier series expansion and the Timoshenko small-increment method are used to determine the contact force, out-of-plane deflections, and in-plane strains and stresses at any plate location due to an impact force at any plate location. The results of experimental and analytical studies are compared for quasi-isotropic laminates. The results indicate that using the appropriate local force distribution for the locally loaded area and including transverse-shear-deformation effects in the laminated plate response analysis are important. The applicability of the present analytical procedure based on small deformation theory is investigated by comparing analytical and experimental results for combinations of quasi-isotropic laminate thicknesses and impact energy levels. The results of this study indicate that large-deformation effects influence the response of both 24- and 32-ply laminated plates, and that a geometrically nonlinear analysis is required for predicting the response accurately.

  13. Hydrogeology and deformation of sandbars in response to fluctuations in flow of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, M.C.; Carruth, R.L.; Fink, J.B.; Boling, J.K.; Cluer, B.L.

    1995-01-01

    Rill erosion, slumping, and fissuring develop on seepage faces of many sandbars along the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon. These processes, observed at low river stage, are a response to residual head gradients in the sandbars caused by the river-stage fluctuation. Three sandbars were instrumented with sensors for continual monitoring of pore pressure and ground-water temperature within the sandbars and river stage. Two of the sandbars also had tilt sensors to aid in determining the relation between ground-water flow within and out of the sandbars and sandbar deformation. Tilting at sandbar 43.1L occurred on the downward limb of the hydrograph in the absence of scour, indicating slumping or a slump-creep sequence. The deformation was caused by outward-flowing bank storage, oversteepening of the lower part of the slope in the zone of fluctuating river stage by filling, and increased effective stress. At sandbar 172.3L, tilts were probably all related to scour and occurred on the rising limb of a hydrograph. Tilt occurred on April 17, May 7, May 13, June 18, and September 1, 1991. On September 1, the entire face of sandbar 172.3L was scoured. Rill erosion and slumping accompanied by measured tilts continued in reduced magnitude on sandbar 43.1L during interim flows. Thus, reduction in the range of discharge does not eliminate degradation caused by rill erosion, slumping, and fissuring. The importance of the ground-water processes is that they occur on every sandbar and become increasingly important on all sandbars in the absence of sandbar-building flows.

  14. Near-LTE linear response calculations with a collisional-radiative model for He-like Al ions

    SciTech Connect

    More, R.M.; Kato, T.

    1998-01-06

    We investigate the non-equilibrium atomic kinetics using a collisional-radiative (CR) model modified to include line absorption. Steady-state emission is calculated for He-like aluminum ions immersed in a specified radiation field having fixed deviations from a Planck spectrum. The net emission is interpreted in terms of NLTE population changes. The calculation provides an NLTE response matrix, and in agreement with a general relation of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, the response matrix is symmetric. We compute the response matrix for 1% and 50% changes in the photon temperature and find linear response over a surprisingly large range.

  15. The analysis of the impact response of a thin plate via fractional derivative standard linear solid model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossikhin, Yury A.; Shitikova, Marina V.

    2011-04-01

    The impact of a rigid body upon an infinite isotropic plate is investigated for the case when the viscoelastic features of the plate represent themselves only in the place of contact and are governed by the standard linear solid model with fractional derivatives. Thus, the problem concerns the shock interaction of the dropping mass and the target, wherein instead of the Hertz contact law the generalized fractional derivative standard linear solid law is employed as a law of interaction. The part of the plate beyond the contact domain is assumed to be elastic, and its behaviour is described by the equations of motion which take rotary inertia and shear deformations into account. It is assumed that transient waves generate in the plate at the moment of impact, the influence of which on the contact domain is considered using the theory of discontinuities. To determine the desired values behind the transverse shear wave front, one-term ray expansions are used, as well as the equations of motion of the falling mass and the contact region. As a result, we are led to a set of two linear differential equations, the solution of which is found analytically by the Laplace transform and by the Euler substitution method. This allows the contact force to be determined as a function of time.

  16. Evolution of Channels Draining Mount St. Helens: Linking Non-Linear and Rapid, Threshold Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, A.

    2010-12-01

    The catastrophic eruption of Mount St. Helens buried the valley of the North Fork Toutle River (NFT) to a depth of up to 140 m. Initial integration of a new drainage network took place episodically by the “filling and spilling” (from precipitation and seepage) of depressions formed during emplacement of the debris avalanche deposit. Channel incision to depths of 20-30 m occurred in the debris avalanche and extensive pyroclastic flow deposits, and headward migration of the channel network followed, with complete integration taking place within 2.5 years. Downstream reaches were converted from gravel-cobble streams with step-pool sequences to smoothed, infilled channels dominated by sand-sized materials. Subsequent channel evolution was dominated by channel widening with the ratio of changes in channel width to changes in channel depth ranging from about 60 to 100. Widening resulted in significant adjustment of hydraulic variables that control sediment-transport rates. For a given discharge over time, flow depths were reduced, relative roughness increased and flow velocity and boundary shear stress decreased non-linearly. These changes, in combination with coarsening of the channel bed with time resulted in systematically reduced rates of degradation (in upstream reaches), aggradation (in downstream reaches) and sediment-transport rates through much of the 1990s. Vertical adjustments were, therefore, easy to characterize with non-linear decay functions with bed-elevation attenuating with time. An empirical model of bed-level response was then created by plotting the total dimensionless change in elevation against river kilometer for both initial and secondary vertical adjustments. High magnitude events generated from the generated from upper part of the mountain, however, can cause rapid (threshold) morphologic changes. For example, a rain-on-snow event in November 2006 caused up to 9 m of incision along a 6.5 km reach of Loowit Creek and the upper NFT. The event

  17. Functions Represented as Linear Sequential Data: Relationships between Presentation and Student Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayalon, Michal; Watson, Anne; Lerman, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates students' ways of attending to linear sequential data in two tasks, and conjectures possible relationships between those ways and elements of the task design. Drawing on the substantial literature about such situations, we focus for this paper on linear rate of change, and on covariation and correspondence approaches to…

  18. Frequency Response of Synthetic Vocal Fold Models with Linear and Nonlinear Material Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Stephanie M.; Thomson, Scott L.; Dromey, Christopher; Smith, Simeon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to create synthetic vocal fold models with nonlinear stress-strain properties and to investigate the effect of linear versus nonlinear material properties on fundamental frequency (F[subscript 0]) during anterior-posterior stretching. Method: Three materially linear and 3 materially nonlinear models were…

  19. Response of individual thoracolumbar spine ligaments under high-rate deformation.

    PubMed

    Iwaskiw, Alexander S; Armiger, Robert S; Ott, Kyle A; Wickwire, Alexis C M; Merkle, Andrew C

    2012-01-01

    Under-Body Blast (UBB) has emerged as the predominant threat to ground vehicles and Warfighter survivability. The force transference from the vehicle structure to the human body has resulted in serious injuries, with the thoracolumbar spine frequently damaged. Computational models of the human body are being generated to model human response and develop injury mitigation strategies. To effectively model the spine mechanics, the thoracolumbar ligaments, which serve varying roles in contributing to spine stability, must be characterized at relevant strains and strain rates. Adaptation of cervical spine testing methods has allowed for testing of isolated spinal ligaments including the Anterior Longitudinal Ligament (ALL), Posterior Longitudinal Ligament (PLL), and Ligamentum Flavum (LF). A high-rate servo-hydraulic test machine was used to execute a tensile test protocol for 24 complexes with loading rates ranging from 240 - 2800 mm/s and displacements of 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%, and 300% of the measured ligament length. Non-contact strain field measurements were recorded to produce a three dimensional strain field of the ligament surface. In order to provide the ligament data in a form which can be incorporated in the human computational models, analytical methods for modeling the ligament response are being investigated. Ultimately, this model will be optimized to be utilized in computational models of the lumbar spine. PMID:22846283

  20. The role of retardation in the structure and linear response of finite nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Crecca, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Conventional random phase approximation (RPA) and Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA) calculations of nuclear structure and the linear response employ interactions between nucleons that are instantaneous. However, N-N interactions derived from the exchange of mesons between nucleons must depend on the space-time separation of the nucleons since the mesons travel at finite speeds. Furthermore, a quantum field theory that contains interacting meson and nucleon degrees of freedom employ the Feynman propagator, i{Delta}{sub F}(x - x{prime}), to connect the nucleon-meson vertices of Feynman diagrams. This raises the question of whether calculations done with space-time dependent interactions differ significantly from the conventional calculations that employ instantaneous forces, and what are the qualitative features of the difference. The inquiry into this question begins by generalizing the traditional RPA and TDA equations into the domain of retarded (space-time dependant) interactions. This entails establishing an integral equation (the Bethe-Salpeter equation) for the polarization propagator with the appropriate RPA or TDA kernel such that the integral equation reduces to the usual RPA or TDA matrix equation for the polarization propagator as the interaction becomes instantaneous. After establishing this generalization of the RPA and TDA, a TDA calculation is performed for an interaction arising from the exchange of a scalar meson. The results are compared with those obtained from the conventional instantaneous reduction of the scalar meson exchange interaction, the Yukawa potential. Upon comparing these results one finds that in general the nuclear structure obtained from scalar meson exchange differ little less than 10%.

  1. A linear discrete dynamic system model for temporal gene interaction and regulatory network influence in response to bioethanol conversion inhibitor HMF for ethanologenic yeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A linear discrete dynamic system model is constructed to represent the temporal interactions among significantly expressed genes in response to bioethanol conversion inhibitor 5-hydroxymethylfurfural for ethanologenic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This study identifies the most significant linear...

  2. Thermal Density Functional Theory: Time-Dependent Linear Response and Approximate Functionals from the Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pribram-Jones, Aurora; Grabowski, Paul E.; Burke, Kieron

    2016-06-01

    The van Leeuwen proof of linear-response time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is generalized to thermal ensembles. This allows generalization to finite temperatures of the Gross-Kohn relation, the exchange-correlation kernel of TDDFT, and fluctuation dissipation theorem for DFT. This produces a natural method for generating new thermal exchange-correlation approximations.

  3. Self-characterization of linear and nonlinear adaptive optics systems.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Peter J; Conan, Rodolphe; Keskin, Onur; Bradley, Colin; Agathoklis, Pan

    2008-01-10

    We present methods used to determine the linear or nonlinear static response and the linear dynamic response of an adaptive optics (AO) system. This AO system consists of a nonlinear microelectromechanical systems deformable mirror (DM), a linear tip-tilt mirror (TTM), a control computer, and a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. The system is modeled using a single-input-single-output structure to determine the one-dimensional transfer function of the dynamic response of the chain of system hardware. An AO system has been shown to be able to characterize its own response without additional instrumentation. Experimentally determined models are given for a TTM and a DM. PMID:18188192

  4. Tracking hydrothermal feature changes in response to seismicity and deformation at Mud Volcano thermal area, Yellowstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diefenbach, A. K.; Hurwitz, S.; Murphy, F.; Evans, W.

    2013-12-01

    The Mud Volcano thermal area in Yellowstone National Park comprises many hydrothermal features including fumaroles, mudpots, springs, and thermal pools. Observations of hydrothermal changes have been made for decades in the Mud Volcano thermal area, and include reports of significant changes (the appearance of new features, increased water levels in pools, vigor of activity, and tree mortality) following an earthquake swarm in 1978 that took place beneath the area. However, no quantitative method to map and measure surface feature changes through time has been applied. We present an analysis of aerial photographs from 1954 to present to track temporal changes in the boundaries between vegetated and thermally barren areas, as well as location, extent, color, clarity, and runoff patterns of hydrothermal features within the Mud Volcano thermal area. This study attempts to provide a detailed, long-term (>50 year) inventory of hydrothermal features and change detection at Mud Volcano thermal area that can be used to identify changes in hydrothermal activity in response to seismicity, uplift and subsidence episodes of the adjacent Sour Creek resurgent dome, or other potential causes.

  5. NIKE3D: an implicit, finite-deformation, finite element code for analyzing the static and dynamic response of three-dimensional solids

    SciTech Connect

    Hallquist, J.O.

    1981-01-01

    A user's manual is provided for NIKE3D, a fully implicit three-dimensional finite element code for analyzing the large deformation static and dynamic response of inelastic solids. A contact-impact algorithm permits gaps and sliding along material interfaces. By a specialization of this algorithm, such interfaces can be rigidly tied to admit variable zoning without the need of transition regions. Spatial discretization is achieved by the use of 8-node constant pressure solid elements. Bandwidth minimization is optional. Post-processors for NIKE3D include GRAPE for plotting deformed shapes and stress contours and DYNAP for plotting time histories.

  6. Diluted bitumen causes deformities and molecular responses indicative of oxidative stress in Japanese medaka embryos.

    PubMed

    Madison, Barry N; Hodson, P V; Langlois, V S

    2015-08-01

    This study characterized the toxicity and physiological effects of unweathered diluted bitumen (Access Western Blend dilbit; AWB) to fish. Embryos of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) were exposed for 17 days to dilutions of physically-dispersed (water accommodated fraction; WAF) and chemically-dispersed (chemically-enhanced WAF; CEWAF) dilbit. AWB dilbit exposure was not lethal to medaka, but resulted in a high prevalence of blue sac disease (BSD), impaired development, and abnormal or un-inflated swim bladders at hatch. Physiological effects were indicated by the relative mRNA levels of key genes associated with, among others, cell cycling and the response to mutations (p53), xenobiotic metabolism (ahr, arnt2), phase I (cyp1a) and II processes associated with oxidative stress (cat, g6pdh, hsp70, gst, gpx, gsr, nfe2, and sod). AWB dilbit treatment increased p53 and cyp1a transcript levels (1.5-fold and >15-fold, respectively), with significant, but less pronounced changes in indicators of oxidative stress and metabolism. The exposure-related changes in embryotoxicity and mRNA synthesis were consistent with metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to reactive and toxic metabolites. Medaka embryos responded similarly to WAF and CEWAF treatments, but CEWAF was about 100 times more efficient in delivering toxic concentrations of PAHs. The toxicity of chemically-dispersed nujol, a non-toxic mineral oil used as an experimental control, suggested that a portion of the observed effects of AWB could be attributed to excess dispersant in solution. This first study of the physiological effects of dilbit toxicity to fish embryos provides a baseline to compare toxicity between dilbit and conventional crude oils, and the groundwork for the development of molecular biomarkers of the sensitivity and level of risk of native Canadian fish species to dilbit exposure. PMID:26118968

  7. The response of a linear monostable system and its application in parameters estimation for PSK signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Chaowei; Zhan, Yafeng

    2016-03-01

    The output characteristics of a linear monostable system driven with a periodic signal and an additive white Gaussian noise are studied in this paper. Theoretical analysis shows that the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) decreases monotonously with the increasing noise intensity but the output SNR-gain is stable. Inspired by this high SNR-gain phenomenon, this paper applies the linear monostable system in the parameters estimation algorithm for phase shift keying (PSK) signals and improves the estimation performance.

  8. Comparison of Nonlinear Random Response Using Equivalent Linearization and Numerical Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Muravyov, Alexander A.

    2000-01-01

    A recently developed finite-element-based equivalent linearization approach for the analysis of random vibrations of geometrically nonlinear multiple degree-of-freedom structures is validated. The validation is based on comparisons with results from a finite element based numerical simulation analysis using a numerical integration technique in physical coordinates. In particular, results for the case of a clamped-clamped beam are considered for an extensive load range to establish the limits of validity of the equivalent linearization approach.

  9. Observation and Modeling of Seafloor Flow Rate Response to Slow Slip Deformation at the Costa Rica Forearc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labonte, A. L.; Fialko, Y.; Brown, K. M.

    2007-12-01

    Observations of transient flow through the seafloor during the 2000 Costa Rica Seismogenic Zone Experiment off the Nicoya peninsula suggests transient deformation events occurred in the shallow subduction zone, around 10 km arcward from the Middle America Trench. The observed deformation in this region is unexpected, as it is generally believed that accommodation of plate convergence in the shallow plate interface is through stable sliding. This study is an investigation of the type and extent of deformation events that could cause these flow transients. Fluid flow rates in response to displacement on a fault in a porous media are numerically calculated using a fully- coupled poroelastic finite element model. Modeled flow rates at the surface of a half-space, the seafloor, are intended to assist in interpretation of records from seafloor flow meter instrumentation. Model results show seafloor fluxes are a superposition of two effects causing volumetric strain at the surface: 1) compressional and dilational regions that radiate out from the fault tips, and 2) extensional and compressional bending of the free- boundary surface. Solutions of the spatial and temporal flow rate response to sudden slip along the decollement of a subduction zone are presented for near-field to far-field ruptures in a homogeneous crust and a heterogeneous crust with a layer of sediment overlying the basement. The characteristic patterns in flow rate for near-field and far-field ruptures in homogeneous and heterogeneous crust help to determine optimal instrument placement for future subduction zone studies. In addition, comparisons of the fully-coupled half-space model simulations for a homogeneous verses a heterogeneous crust demonstrates situations where it is safe to use existing analytical solutions for finite ruptures in a homogeneous poroelastic half-space instead of finite element modeling. Novel simulations of updip and downdip propagating ruptures in this study demonstrate unique

  10. Step-response of a torsional device with multiple discontinuous non-linearities: Formulation of a vibratory experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krak, Michael D.; Dreyer, Jason T.; Singh, Rajendra

    2016-03-01

    A vehicle clutch damper is intentionally designed to contain multiple discontinuous non-linearities, such as multi-staged springs, clearances, pre-loads, and multi-staged friction elements. The main purpose of this practical torsional device is to transmit a wide range of torque while isolating torsional vibration between an engine and transmission. Improved understanding of the dynamic behavior of the device could be facilitated by laboratory measurement, and thus a refined vibratory experiment is proposed. The experiment is conceptually described as a single degree of freedom non-linear torsional system that is excited by an external step torque. The single torsional inertia (consisting of a shaft and torsion arm) is coupled to ground through parallel production clutch dampers, which are characterized by quasi-static measurements provided by the manufacturer. Other experimental objectives address physical dimensions, system actuation, flexural modes, instrumentation, and signal processing issues. Typical measurements show that the step response of the device is characterized by three distinct non-linear regimes (double-sided impact, single-sided impact, and no-impact). Each regime is directly related to the non-linear features of the device and can be described by peak angular acceleration values. Predictions of a simplified single degree of freedom non-linear model verify that the experiment performs well and as designed. Accordingly, the benchmark measurements could be utilized to validate non-linear models and simulation codes, as well as characterize dynamic parameters of the device including its dissipative properties.

  11. Seismic response of structures: from non-stationary to non-linear effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlo Ponzo, Felice; Ditommaso, Rocco; Mucciarelli, Marco; Smith, Tobias

    2013-04-01

    The need for an effective seismic protection of buildings, and all the problems related to their management and maintenance over time, have led to a growing interest associated to develop of new integrated techniques for structural health monitoring and for damage detection and location during both ambient vibration and seismic events. It is well known that the occurrence of damage on any kind of structure is able to modify its dynamic characteristics. Indeed, the main parameters affected by the changes in stiffness characteristics are: periods of vibration, mode shapes and all the related equivalent viscous damping factors. With the aim to evaluate structural dynamic characteristics, their variation over time and after earthquakes, several Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE) methods have been proposed in the last years. Most of these are based on simplified relationship that provide the maximum inter-story drift evaluated combining structural variations in terms of: peak ground acceleration and/or structural eigenfrequencies and/or equivalent viscous damping factors related the main modes of the monitored structure. The NDE methods can be classified into four different levels. The progress of the level increases the quality and the number of the information. The most popular are certainly Level I methods being simple in implementation and economic in management. These kinds of methods are mainly based on the fast variation (less than 1 minute) of the structural fundamental frequency and the related variation of the equivalent viscous damping factor. Generally, it is possible to distinguish two types of variations: the long term variations, which may also be linked to external factors (temperature change, water content in the foundation soils, etc.) and short period variations (for example, due to seismic events), where apparent frequencies variations could occurred due to non-stationary phenomena (particular combination of input and structural response). In these

  12. Multiple linear regression to estimate time-frequency electrophysiological responses in single trials

    PubMed Central

    Hu, L.; Zhang, Z.G.; Mouraux, A.; Iannetti, G.D.

    2015-01-01

    Transient sensory, motor or cognitive event elicit not only phase-locked event-related potentials (ERPs) in the ongoing electroencephalogram (EEG), but also induce non-phase-locked modulations of ongoing EEG oscillations. These modulations can be detected when single-trial waveforms are analysed in the time-frequency domain, and consist in stimulus-induced decreases (event-related desynchronization, ERD) or increases (event-related synchronization, ERS) of synchrony in the activity of the underlying neuronal populations. ERD and ERS reflect changes in the parameters that control oscillations in neuronal networks and, depending on the frequency at which they occur, represent neuronal mechanisms involved in cortical activation, inhibition and binding. ERD and ERS are commonly estimated by averaging the time-frequency decomposition of single trials. However, their trial-to-trial variability that can reflect physiologically-important information is lost by across-trial averaging. Here, we aim to (1) develop novel approaches to explore single-trial parameters (including latency, frequency and magnitude) of ERP/ERD/ERS; (2) disclose the relationship between estimated single-trial parameters and other experimental factors (e.g., perceived intensity). We found that (1) stimulus-elicited ERP/ERD/ERS can be correctly separated using principal component analysis (PCA) decomposition with Varimax rotation on the single-trial time-frequency distributions; (2) time-frequency multiple linear regression with dispersion term (TF-MLRd) enhances the signal-to-noise ratio of ERP/ERD/ERS in single trials, and provides an unbiased estimation of their latency, frequency, and magnitude at single-trial level; (3) these estimates can be meaningfully correlated with each other and with other experimental factors at single-trial level (e.g., perceived stimulus intensity and ERP magnitude). The methods described in this article allow exploring fully non-phase-locked stimulus-induced cortical

  13. Multiple linear regression to estimate time-frequency electrophysiological responses in single trials.

    PubMed

    Hu, L; Zhang, Z G; Mouraux, A; Iannetti, G D

    2015-05-01

    Transient sensory, motor or cognitive event elicit not only phase-locked event-related potentials (ERPs) in the ongoing electroencephalogram (EEG), but also induce non-phase-locked modulations of ongoing EEG oscillations. These modulations can be detected when single-trial waveforms are analysed in the time-frequency domain, and consist in stimulus-induced decreases (event-related desynchronization, ERD) or increases (event-related synchronization, ERS) of synchrony in the activity of the underlying neuronal populations. ERD and ERS reflect changes in the parameters that control oscillations in neuronal networks and, depending on the frequency at which they occur, represent neuronal mechanisms involved in cortical activation, inhibition and binding. ERD and ERS are commonly estimated by averaging the time-frequency decomposition of single trials. However, their trial-to-trial variability that can reflect physiologically-important information is lost by across-trial averaging. Here, we aim to (1) develop novel approaches to explore single-trial parameters (including latency, frequency and magnitude) of ERP/ERD/ERS; (2) disclose the relationship between estimated single-trial parameters and other experimental factors (e.g., perceived intensity). We found that (1) stimulus-elicited ERP/ERD/ERS can be correctly separated using principal component analysis (PCA) decomposition with Varimax rotation on the single-trial time-frequency distributions; (2) time-frequency multiple linear regression with dispersion term (TF-MLRd) enhances the signal-to-noise ratio of ERP/ERD/ERS in single trials, and provides an unbiased estimation of their latency, frequency, and magnitude at single-trial level; (3) these estimates can be meaningfully correlated with each other and with other experimental factors at single-trial level (e.g., perceived stimulus intensity and ERP magnitude). The methods described in this article allow exploring fully non-phase-locked stimulus-induced cortical

  14. Tidal deformations of a spinning compact object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pani, Paolo; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Maselli, Andrea; Ferrari, Valeria

    2015-07-01

    The deformability of a compact object induced by a perturbing tidal field is encoded in the tidal Love numbers, which depend sensibly on the object's internal structure. These numbers are known only for static, spherically-symmetric objects. As a first step to compute the tidal Love numbers of a spinning compact star, here we extend powerful perturbative techniques to compute the exterior geometry of a spinning object distorted by an axisymmetric tidal field to second order in the angular momentum. The spin of the object introduces couplings between electric and magnetic deformations and new classes of induced Love numbers emerge. For example, a spinning object immersed in a quadrupolar, electric tidal field can acquire some induced mass, spin, quadrupole, octupole and hexadecapole moments to second order in the spin. The deformations are encoded in a set of inhomogeneous differential equations which, remarkably, can be solved analytically in vacuum. We discuss certain subtleties in defining the tidal Love numbers in general relativity, which are due to the difficulty in separating the tidal field from the linear response of the object in the solution, even in the static case. By extending the standard procedure to identify the linear response in the static case, we prove analytically that the Love numbers of a Kerr black hole remain zero to second order in the spin. As a by-product, we provide the explicit form for a slowly-rotating, tidally-deformed Kerr black hole to quadratic order in the spin, and discuss its geodesic and geometrical properties.

  15. Transcriptional responses, metabolic activity and mouthpart deformities in natural populations of Chironomus riparius larvae exposed to environmental pollutants.

    PubMed

    Planelló, Rosario; Servia, María J; Gómez-Sande, Pablo; Herrero, Óscar; Cobo, Fernando; Morcillo, Gloria

    2015-04-01

    Biomarkers are an important tool in laboratory assays that link exposure or effect of specific toxicants to key molecular and cellular events, but they have not been widely used in invertebrate populations exposed to complex mixtures of environmental contaminants in their natural habitats. The present study focused on a battery of biomarkers and their comparative analysis in natural populations of the benthic larvae of Chironomus riparius (Diptera), sampled in three differentially polluted rivers (the Con, Sar, and Louro in Galicia, Spain). In our study, some parameters were identified, such as hsp70 gene activity, GST enzymatic activity, total glycogen content and mouthpart deformities, which showed significant differences among populations from the three rivers that differed in the levels and types of sedimentary contaminants analyzed (metals, organic-chlorine pesticides, alkylphenols, pharmaceutical, and personal care products). In contrast to these sensitive biomarkers, other parameters showed no significant differences (hsc70 gene, EcR gene, P450 gene, RNA:DNA ratio, total protein content), and were stable even when comparing field and nonexposed laboratory populations. The hsp70 gene seems to be particularly sensitive to conditions of pollutant exposure, while its constitutive counterpart hsc70 showed invariable expression, suggesting that the hsc70/hsp70 ratio may be a potential indicator of polluted environments. Although further studies are required to understand the correlation between molecular responses and the ecological effects of pollutants on natural populations, the results provide new data about the biological responses to multiple-stressor environments. This field study adds new molecular endpoints, including gene expression, as suitable tools that, complementing other ecotoxicological parameters, may help to improve the methodologies of freshwater monitoring under the increasing burden of xenobiotics. PMID:23893657

  16. Modeling the Non-Linear Response of Fiber-Reinforced Laminates Using a Combined Damage/Plasticity Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuecker, Clara; Davila, Carlos G.; Pettermann, Heinz E.

    2008-01-01

    The present work is concerned with modeling the non-linear response of fiber reinforced polymer laminates. Recent experimental data suggests that the non-linearity is not only caused by matrix cracking but also by matrix plasticity due to shear stresses. To capture the effects of those two mechanisms, a model combining a plasticity formulation with continuum damage has been developed to simulate the non-linear response of laminates under plane stress states. The model is used to compare the predicted behavior of various laminate lay-ups to experimental data from the literature by looking at the degradation of axial modulus and Poisson s ratio of the laminates. The influence of residual curing stresses and in-situ effect on the predicted response is also investigated. It is shown that predictions of the combined damage/plasticity model, in general, correlate well with the experimental data. The test data shows that there are two different mechanisms that can have opposite effects on the degradation of the laminate Poisson s ratio which is captured correctly by the damage/plasticity model. Residual curing stresses are found to have a minor influence on the predicted response for the cases considered here. Some open questions remain regarding the prediction of damage onset.

  17. Linearized blade row compression component model. Stability and frequency response analysis of a J85-3 compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tesch, W. A.; Moszee, R. H.; Steenken, W. G.

    1976-01-01

    NASA developed stability and frequency response analysis techniques were applied to a dynamic blade row compression component stability model to provide a more economic approach to surge line and frequency response determination than that provided by time-dependent methods. This blade row model was linearized and the Jacobian matrix was formed. The clean-inlet-flow stability characteristics of the compressors of two J85-13 engines were predicted by applying the alternate Routh-Hurwitz stability criterion to the Jacobian matrix. The predicted surge line agreed with the clean-inlet-flow surge line predicted by the time-dependent method to a high degree except for one engine at 94% corrected speed. No satisfactory explanation of this discrepancy was found. The frequency response of the linearized system was determined by evaluating its Laplace transfer function. The results of the linearized-frequency-response analysis agree with the time-dependent results when the time-dependent inlet total-pressure and exit-flow function amplitude boundary conditions are less than 1 percent and 3 percent, respectively. The stability analysis technique was extended to a two-sector parallel compressor model with and without interstage crossflow and predictions were carried out for total-pressure distortion extents of 180 deg, 90 deg, 60 deg, and 30 deg.

  18. Effects of resistivity and rotation on the linear plasma response to non-axisymmetric magnetic perturbations on DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haskey, S. R.; Lanctot, M. J.; Liu, Y. Q.; Paz-Soldan, C.; King, J. D.; Blackwell, B. D.; Schmitz, O.

    2015-02-01

    Parameter scans show the strong dependence of the plasma response on the poloidal structure of the applied field highlighting the importance of being able to control this parameter using non-axisymmetric coil sets. An extensive examination of the linear single fluid plasma response to n = 3 magnetic perturbations in L-mode DIII-D lower single null plasmas is presented. The effects of plasma resistivity, toroidal rotation and applied field structure are calculated using the linear single fluid MHD code, MARS-F (Liu et al 2000 Phys. Plasmas 7 3681). Measures which separate the response into a pitch-resonant and resonant field amplification (RFA) component are used to demonstrate the extent to which resonant screening and RFA occurs. The ability to control the ratio of pitch-resonant fields to RFA by varying the phasing between upper and lower resonant magnetic perturbations coils sets is shown. The predicted magnetic probe outputs and displacement at the x-point are also calculated for comparison with experiments. Additionally, modelling of the linear plasma response using experimental toroidal rotation profiles and Spitzer like resistivity profiles are compared with results which provide experimental evidence of a direct link between the decay of the resonant screening response and the formation of a 3D boundary (Schmitz et al 2014 Nucl. Fusion 54 012001). Good agreement is found during the initial application of the MP, however, later in the shot a sudden drop in the poloidal magnetic probe output occurs which is not captured in the linear single fluid modelling.

  19. Haglund's Deformity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Is Haglund’s Deformity? Haglund’s deformity is a bony enlargement on the back of the heel. The soft ... the Achilles tendon becomes irritated when the bony enlargement rubs against shoes. This often leads to painful ...

  20. Higher-order sinusoidal input describing functions for the analysis of non-linear systems with harmonic responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuij, P. W. J. M.; Bosgra, O. H.; Steinbuch, M.

    2006-11-01

    For high-precision motion systems, modelling and control design specifically oriented at friction effects is instrumental. The sinusoidal input describing function theory represents an approximative mathematical framework for analysing non-linear system behaviour. This theory, however, limits the description of the non-linear system behaviour to a quasi-linear amplitude-dependent relation between sinusoidal excitation and sinusoidal response. In this paper, an extension to higher-order describing functions is realised by introducing the concept of the harmonics generator. The resulting higher-order sinusoidal input describing functions (HOSIDFs) relate the magnitude and phase of the higher harmonics of the periodic response of the system to the magnitude and phase of a sinusoidal excitation. Based on this extension two techniques to measure HOSIDFs are presented. The first technique is FFT based. The second technique is based on IQ (in-phase/quadrature-phase) demodulation. In a simulation, the measurement techniques have been tested by comparing the simulation results to analytically derived results from a known (backlash) non-linearity. In a subsequent practical case study both techniques are used to measure the changes in dynamic behaviour as a function of drive level due to friction in an electric motor. Both methods prove successful for measuring HOSIDFs.

  1. Linear and nonlinear interpretation of the direct strike lightning response of the NASA F106B thunderstorm research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, T. H.; Perala, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of the work reported here is to develop a methodology by which electromagnetic measurements of inflight lightning strike data can be understood and extended to other aircraft. A linear and time invariant approach based on a combination of Fourier transform and three dimensional finite difference techniques is demonstrated. This approach can obtain the lightning channel current in the absence of the aircraft for given channel characteristic impedance and resistive loading. The model is applied to several measurements from the NASA F106B lightning research program. A non-linear three dimensional finite difference code has also been developed to study the response of the F106B to a lightning leader attachment. This model includes three species air chemistry and fluid continuity equations and can incorporate an experimentally based streamer formulation. Calculated responses are presented for various attachment locations and leader parameters. The results are compared qualitatively with measured inflight data.

  2. Vestibular responses to linear acceleration are absent in otoconia-deficient C57BL/6JEi-het mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, S. M.; Erway, L. C.; Bergstrom, R. A.; Schimenti, J. C.; Jones, T. A.

    1999-01-01

    Vestibular evoked potentials (VsEPs) were measured in normal mice and in mice homozygous for the head tilt mutation (het/het, abbr. het). The het mice lack otoconia, the inertial mass critical for natural stimulation of inner ear gravity receptors. Our findings demonstrate that vestibular neural responses to pulsed linear acceleration are absent in het mice. The results: (1) confirm that adequate sensory stimuli fail to activate gravity receptors in the het model; and (2) serve as definitive evidence that far-field vestibular responses to pulsed linear acceleration depend critically on otolith end organs. The C57BL/6JEi-het mouse may be an excellent model of gravity receptor sensory deprivation.

  3. Comparison of Damage Models for Predicting the Non-Linear Response of Laminates Under Matrix Dominated Loading Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuecker, Clara; Davila, Carlos G.; Rose, Cheryl A.

    2010-01-01

    Five models for matrix damage in fiber reinforced laminates are evaluated for matrix-dominated loading conditions under plane stress and are compared both qualitatively and quantitatively. The emphasis of this study is on a comparison of the response of embedded plies subjected to a homogeneous stress state. Three of the models are specifically designed for modeling the non-linear response due to distributed matrix cracking under homogeneous loading, and also account for non-linear (shear) behavior prior to the onset of cracking. The remaining two models are localized damage models intended for predicting local failure at stress concentrations. The modeling approaches of distributed vs. localized cracking as well as the different formulations of damage initiation and damage progression are compared and discussed.

  4. Large Deformation Dynamic Response

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1993-08-23

    HONDO2-SLA is used to compute the time-dependent displacements, velocities, accelerations, and stresses within elastic or inelastic, two-dimensional or axisymmetric or planar bodies of arbitrary shape and materials.

  5. Madelung Deformity.

    PubMed

    Kozin, Scott H; Zlotolow, Dan A

    2015-10-01

    Madelung deformity of the wrist is more common in females and is often associated with Leri Weill dyschondrosteosis, a mesomelic form of dwarfism. Patients with Madelung deformity often report wrist deformity resulting from the prominence of the relatively long ulna. The typical Madelung deformity is associated with a Vickers ligament that creates a tether across the volar-ulnar radial physis that restricts growth across this segment. The distal radius deforms in the coronal (increasing radial inclination) and the sagittal (increasing volar tilt) planes. There is lunate subsidence and the proximal carpal row adapts to the deformity by forming an upside-down pyramid shape or triangle. Treatment depends on the age at presentation, degree of deformity, and magnitude of symptoms. Mild asymptomatic deformity warrants a period of nonsurgical management with serial x-ray examinations because the natural history is unpredictable. Many patients never require surgical intervention. Progressive deformity in the young child with considerable growth potential remaining requires release of Vickers ligament and radial physiolysis to prevent ongoing deterioration Concomitant ulnar epiphysiodesis may be necessary. Advanced asymptomatic deformity in older children with an unacceptable-appearing wrist or symptomatic deformity are indications for surgery. A dome osteotomy of the radius allows 3-dimensional correction of the deformity. Positive radiographic and clinical results after dome osteotomy have been reported. PMID:26341718

  6. Photoletter to the editor: Response of linear porokeratosis to photodynamic therapy in an 11-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Colmenero, Cristina; Ruiz-Villaverde, Ricardo; Martínez-García, Eliseo; Aneiros-Fernández, José; Tercedor-Sánchez, Jesús

    2015-12-31

    Porokeratoses are a group of different entities that belong to the skin keratinization disorders. From the histological point of view the main and common characteristic of these disorders is the presence of compact parakeratotic columns known as cornoid lamellae. All varieties should be carefully treated and followed-up because of the risk of developing malignant epithelial tumors. We report the successful response to photodynamic therapy (PDT) in a pediatric patient diagnosed with linear porokeratosis. PMID:26848323

  7. Numerical tailoring of linear response from plasmonic nano-resonators grown on a layer of polystyrene spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Benedetti, A. Belardini, A.; Veroli, A.; Centini, M.; Sibilia, C.

    2014-10-28

    We developed a geometrical method to reproduce the morphology of hybrid structures composed by self-ordered dielectric nanospheres covered by anisotropic plasmonic structures. Numerical analysis allowed to investigate the optical response of the considered system, and to identify the relevant parameters to achieve efficient and versatile light manipulation. In particular, we show that the overall structure, acting as a hybrid plasmonic-photonics meta-surface, can be engineered in order to maximize its linear and circular dichroic behavior at optical frequencies.

  8. Precision Interval Estimation of the Response Surface by Means of an Integrated Algorithm of Neural Network and Linear Regression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Ching F.

    1999-01-01

    The integration of Radial Basis Function Networks and Back Propagation Neural Networks with the Multiple Linear Regression has been accomplished to map nonlinear response surfaces over a wide range of independent variables in the process of the Modem Design of Experiments. The integrated method is capable to estimate the precision intervals including confidence and predicted intervals. The power of the innovative method has been demonstrated by applying to a set of wind tunnel test data in construction of response surface and estimation of precision interval.

  9. Probing the cross-effect of strains in non-linear elasticity of nearly regular polymer networks by pure shear deformation.

    PubMed

    Katashima, Takuya; Urayama, Kenji; Chung, Ung-il; Sakai, Takamasa

    2015-05-01

    The pure shear deformation of the Tetra-polyethylene glycol gels reveals the presence of an explicit cross-effect of strains in the strain energy density function even for the polymer networks with nearly regular structure including no appreciable amount of structural defect such as trapped entanglement. This result is in contrast to the expectation of the classical Gaussian network model (Neo Hookean model), i.e., the vanishing of the cross effect in regular networks with no trapped entanglement. The results show that (1) the cross effect of strains is not dependent on the network-strand length; (2) the cross effect is not affected by the presence of non-network strands; (3) the cross effect is proportional to the network polymer concentration including both elastically effective and ineffective strands; (4) no cross effect is expected exclusively in zero limit of network concentration in real polymer networks. These features indicate that the real polymer networks with regular network structures have an explicit cross-effect of strains, which originates from some interaction between network strands (other than entanglement effect) such as nematic interaction, topological interaction, and excluded volume interaction. PMID:25956121

  10. A new method for predicting response in complex linear systems. II. [under random or deterministic steady state excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdanoff, J. L.; Kayser, K.; Krieger, W.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes convergence and response studies in the low frequency range of complex systems, particularly with low values of damping of different distributions, and reports on the modification of the relaxation procedure required under these conditions. A new method is presented for response estimation in complex lumped parameter linear systems under random or deterministic steady state excitation. The essence of the method is the use of relaxation procedures with a suitable error function to find the estimated response; natural frequencies and normal modes are not computed. For a 45 degree of freedom system, and two relaxation procedures, convergence studies and frequency response estimates were performed. The low frequency studies are considered in the framework of earlier studies (Kayser and Bogdanoff, 1975) involving the mid to high frequency range.

  11. Application of linear response theory to experimental data of simultaneous radiation and annealing response of a CMOS device. Quarterly report No. 3, 8 June-8 September 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Litovchenko, V.

    1988-01-01

    Results from the application of linear response theory are compared to experimental data from simultaneous radiation and annealing response of a CMOS device. In particular, a method is applied which was developed earlier to determine the characteristic time, t(0), as well as the parameters A and C in the 1n(t) dependence of the linear response function R(t) = -C + A1n(1-t/t(0)). The method is based on a study of the linear response for t being much less than t(0), when R(t) can be expanded in a power series of t: R(t) = R(0) + R'(0)t + 1/2R''(0)t-squared + 1/3R'''(0)t-cubed + ..., where R'(0) and R''(0) are, respectively, the first and second derivatives of R with respect to t. To find the linear response, R(t-t') is substituted in the form of this power series equation into a general equation for the shift of the threshold potential. To test the method, irradiation experiments were conducted on RCA 10(6) rad-hard CMOS IC's. A dose rate of approximately 130 rads/min was used. An IC was irradiated with Co-60 gamma rays for several hours, taking measurements of the threshold potential for one n-channel and one p-channel transistor every ten minutes. For the p-channel transistor, t(0) was found to be approximately 110 min and for the n-channel, t(0) was approximately 70 min. For the p-channel, the theoretical curve deviates from the experimental points only after 70 min; for the n-channel, the deviation takes place after 45 min. Additional findings are discussed and the application of the method to pure annealing is described.

  12. No Evidence for a Low Linear Energy Transfer Adaptive Response in Irradiated RKO Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sowa, Marianne B.; Goetz, Wilfried; Baulch, Janet E.; Lewis, Adam J.; Morgan, William F.

    2011-01-06

    It has become increasingly evident from reports in the literature that there are many confounding factors that are capable of modulating radiation induced non-targeted responses such as the bystander effect and the adaptive response. In this paper we examine recent data that suggest that the observation of non-targeted responses may not be universally observable for differing radiation qualities. We have conducted a study of the adaptive response following low LET exposures for human colon carcinoma cells and failed to observe adaption for the endpoints of clonogenic survival or micronucleus formation.

  13. The Search for Non-Linear Exposure-Response Relationships at Ambient Levels in Environmental Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Lippmann, Morton

    2005-01-01

    Environmental exposures to ambient air particulate matter (PM), ozone (O3), environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and to dioxin and related compounds are of considerable public health concern, and risk assessments for them have generally been based on linear, non-threshold models derived from epidemiological study data. While the epidemiological databases for PM, O3, and ETS have been sufficient to show that adverse health effects are occurring, the relative risks have been quite low, and it has not been possible, to date, to identify thresholds or non-linear relationships for them. For dioxin and related compounds, the evidence for excess cancer risks has been inadequate to establish causality, and there is suggestive evidence that hormesis may have occurred. PMID:19330159

  14. Bound on thermoelectric power in a magnetic field within linear response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandner, Kay; Seifert, Udo

    2015-01-01

    For thermoelectric power generation in a multiterminal geometry, strong numerical evidence for a universal bound as a function of the magnetic-field induced asymmetry of the nondiagonal Onsager coefficients is presented. This bound implies, inter alia, that the power vanishes at least linearly when the maximal efficiency is approached. In particular, this result rules out that Carnot efficiency can be reached at finite power, which an analysis based on the second law only would, in principle, allow.

  15. Effect of stride length on overarm throwing delivery: A linear momentum response.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Dan K; Crotin, Ryan L; White, Scott

    2014-12-01

    Changing stride length during overhand throwing delivery is thought to alter total body and throwing arm linear momentums, thereby altering the proportion of throwing arm momentum relative to the total body. Using a randomized cross-over design, nineteen pitchers (15 collegiate and 4 high school) were assigned to pitch two simulated 80-pitch games at ±25% of their desired stride length. An 8-camera motion capture system (240Hz) integrated with two force plates (960Hz) and radar gun tracked each throw. Segmental linear momentums in each plane of motion were summed yielding throwing arm and total body momentums, from which compensation ratio's (relative contribution between the two) were derived. Pairwise comparisons at hallmark events and phases identified significantly different linear momentum profiles, in particular, anteriorly directed total body, throwing arm, and momentum compensation ratios (P⩽.05) as a result of manipulating stride length. Pitchers with shorter strides generated lower forward (anterior) momentum before stride foot contact, whereas greater upward and lateral momentum (toward third base) were evident during the acceleration phase. The evidence suggests insufficient total body momentum in the intended throwing direction may potentially influence performance (velocity and accuracy) and perhaps precipitate throwing arm injuries. PMID:25457417

  16. A dose-response curve for biodosimetry from a 6 MV electron linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Lemos-Pinto, M M P; Cadena, M; Santos, N; Fernandes, T S; Borges, E; Amaral, A

    2015-10-01

    Biological dosimetry (biodosimetry) is based on the investigation of radiation-induced biological effects (biomarkers), mainly dicentric chromosomes, in order to correlate them with radiation dose. To interpret the dicentric score in terms of absorbed dose, a calibration curve is needed. Each curve should be constructed with respect to basic physical parameters, such as the type of ionizing radiation characterized by low or high linear energy transfer (LET) and dose rate. This study was designed to obtain dose calibration curves by scoring of dicentric chromosomes in peripheral blood lymphocytes irradiated in vitro with a 6 MV electron linear accelerator (Mevatron M, Siemens, USA). Two software programs, CABAS (Chromosomal Aberration Calculation Software) and Dose Estimate, were used to generate the curve. The two software programs are discussed; the results obtained were compared with each other and with other published low LET radiation curves. Both software programs resulted in identical linear and quadratic terms for the curve presented here, which was in good agreement with published curves for similar radiation quality and dose rates. PMID:26445334

  17. Is Linear Displacement Information Or Angular Displacement Information Used During The Adaptation of Pointing Responses To An Optically Shifted Image?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bautista, Abigail B.

    1994-01-01

    Twenty-four observers looked through a pair of 20 diopter wedge prisms and pointed to an image of a target which was displaced vertically from eye level by 6 cm at a distance of 30 cm. Observers pointed 40 times, using only their right hand, and received error-corrective feedback upon termination of each pointing response (terminal visual feedback). At three testing distances, 20, 30, and 40 cm, ten pre-exposure and ten post-exposure pointing responses were recorded for each hand as observers reached to a mirror-viewed target located at eye level. The difference between pre- and post-exposure pointing response (adaptive shift) was compared for both Exposed and Unexposed hands across all three testing distances. The data were assessed according to the results predicted by two alternative models for processing spatial-information: one using angular displacement information and another using linear displacement information. The angular model of spatial mapping best predicted the observer's pointing response for the Exposed hand. Although the angular adaptive shift did not change significantly as a function of distance (F(2,44) = 1.12, n.s.), the linear adaptive shift increased significantly over the three testing distances 02 44) = 4.90 p less than 0.01).

  18. Spatially variable water table recharge and the hillslope hydrologic response: Analytical solutions to the linearized hillslope Boussinesq equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dralle, David N.; Boisramé, Gabrielle F. S.; Thompson, Sally E.

    2014-11-01

    The linearized hillslope Boussinesq equation, introduced by Brutsaert (1994), describes the dynamics of saturated, subsurface flow from hillslopes with shallow, unconfined aquifers. In this paper, we use a new analytical technique to solve the linearized hillslope Boussinesq equation to predict water table dynamics and hillslope discharge to channels. The new solutions extend previous analytical treatments of the linearized hillslope Boussinesq equation to account for the impact of spatiotemporal heterogeneity in water table recharge. The results indicate that the spatial character of recharge may significantly alter both steady state subsurface storage characteristics and the transient hillslope hydrologic response, depending strongly on similarity measures of controls on the subsurface flow dynamics. Additionally, we derive new analytical solutions for the linearized hillslope-storage Boussinesq equation and explore the interaction effects of recharge structure and hillslope morphology on water storage and base flow recession characteristics. A theoretical recession analysis, for example, demonstrates that decreasing the relative amount of downslope recharge has a similar effect as increasing hillslope convergence. In general, the theory suggests that recharge heterogeneity can serve to diminish or enhance the hydrologic impacts of hillslope morphology.

  19. Discrete control of linear distributed systems with application to the deformable primary mirror of a large orbiting telescope. Ph.D. Thesis - Rhode Island Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creedon, J. F.

    1970-01-01

    The results are presented of a detailed study of the discrete control of linear distributed systems with specific application to the design of a practical controller for a plant representative of a telescope primary mirror for an orbiting astronomical observatory. The problem of controlling the distributed plant is treated by employing modal techniques to represent variations in the optical figure. Distortion of the mirror surface, which arises primarily from thermal gradients, is countered by actuators working against a backing structure to apply a corrective force distribution to the controlled surface. Each displacement actuator is in series with a spring attached to the mirror by means of a pad intentionally introduced to restrict the excitation of high-order modes. Control is exerted over a finite number of the most significant modes.

  20. Non-linear analysis of body responses to functional electrical stimulation on hemiplegic subjects.

    PubMed

    Yu, W W; Acharya, U R; Lim, T C; Low, H W

    2009-08-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a method of applying low-level electrical currents to restore or improve body functions lost through nervous system impairment. FES is applied to peripheral nerves that control specific muscles or muscle groups. Application of advanced signal computing techniques to the medical field has helped to achieve practical solutions to the health care problems accurately. The physiological signals are essentially non-stationary and may contain indicators of current disease, or even warnings about impending diseases. These indicators may be present at all times or may occur at random on the timescale. However, to study and pinpoint these subtle changes in the voluminous data collected over several hours is tedious. These signals, e.g. walking-related accelerometer signals, are not simply linear and involve non-linear contributions. Hence, non-linear signal-processing methods may be useful to extract the hidden complexities of the signal and to aid physicians in their diagnosis. In this work, a young female subject with major neuromuscular dysfunction of the left lower limb, which resulted in an asymmetric hemiplegic gait, participated in a series of FES-assisted walking experiments. Two three-axis accelerometers were attached to her left and right ankles and their corresponding signals were recorded during FES-assisted walking. The accelerometer signals were studied in three directions using the Hurst exponent H, the fractal dimension (FD), the phase space plot, and recurrence plots (RPs). The results showed that the H and FD values increase with increasing FES, indicating more synchronized variability due to FES for the left leg (paralysed leg). However, the variation in the normal right leg is more chaotic on FES. PMID:19743632

  1. Non-linear response of coupled soil-pile-structure system under sinusoidal excitations with various frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussien, Mahmoud N.; Tobita, Tetsuo; Iai, Susumu

    The non-linear response of coupled soil-pile-structure systems to seismic loading is parametrically studied in the frequency domain using two-dimensional (2D) finite elements (FE). The soil-pile interaction in three dimensions (3D) is idealized in the 2D type using soil-pile interaction springs with non-linear hysteretic load displacement relationships. The system under investigation comprises of a single degree of freedom structure supported by an end-bearing single pile founded in a homogenous sand layer over rigid rock. Comparisons with established results from the literature suggest that the adopted FE model reasonably captures the essential features of the seismic response of the coupled soil-pile-structure system. Numerical results demonstrate the strong influence on the effective natural period of the foundation properties. The effect of non-linear soil behavior and soil profile as well as the frequency content of excitation on both kinematic and inertial interactions is illustrated. The relative contributions of kinematic and inertial interaction to the development of dynamic pile bending are clarified.

  2. Perception of tilt (somatogravic illusion) in response to sustained linear acceleration during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, G.; Moore, S. T.; Raphan, T.; Cohen, B.

    2001-01-01

    During the 1998 Neurolab mission (STS-90), four astronauts were exposed to interaural and head vertical (dorsoventral) linear accelerations of 0.5 g and 1 g during constant velocity rotation on a centrifuge, both on Earth and during orbital space flight. Subjects were oriented either left-ear-out or right-ear-out (Gy centrifugation), or lay supine along the centrifuge arm with their head off-axis (Gz centrifugation). Pre-flight centrifugation, producing linear accelerations of 0.5 g and 1 g along the Gy (interaural) axis, induced illusions of roll-tilt of 20 degrees and 34 degrees for gravito-inertial acceleration (GIA) vector tilts of 27 degrees and 45 degrees , respectively. Pre-flight 0.5 g and 1 g Gz (head dorsoventral) centrifugation generated perceptions of backward pitch of 5 degrees and 15 degrees , respectively. In the absence of gravity during space flight, the same centrifugation generated a GIA that was equivalent to the centripetal acceleration and aligned with the Gy or Gz axes. Perception of tilt was underestimated relative to this new GIA orientation during early in-flight Gy centrifugation, but was close to the GIA after 16 days in orbit, when subjects reported that they felt as if they were 'lying on side'. During the course of the mission, inflight roll-tilt perception during Gy centrifugation increased from 45 degrees to 83 degrees at 1 g and from 42 degrees to 48 degrees at 0.5 g. Subjects felt 'upside-down' during in-flight Gz centrifugation from the first in-flight test session, which reflected the new GIA orientation along the head dorsoventral axis. The different levels of in-flight tilt perception during 0.5 g and 1 g Gy centrifugation suggests that other non-vestibular inputs, including an internal estimate of the body vertical and somatic sensation, were utilized in generating tilt perception. Interpretation of data by a weighted sum of body vertical and somatic vectors, with an estimate of the GIA from the otoliths, suggests that

  3. A semiclassical hybrid approach to linear response functions for infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossmann, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Based on the integral representation of the semiclassical propagator of Herman and Kluk (HK), and in the limit of high temperatures, we formulate a hybrid expression for the correlation function of infrared spectroscopy. This is achieved by performing a partial linearization inside the integral over the difference of phase space variables that occurs after a twofold application of the HK propagator. A numerical case study for a coupled anharmonic oscillator shows that already for a total number of only two degrees of freedom, one of which is treated in the simplified manner, a substantial reduction of the numerical effort is achieved.

  4. A study of thermal response of concrete towers employing linear regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norouzi, Mehdi; Zarbaf, Seyed Ehsan Haji Agha Mohammad; Dalvi, Aditi; Hunt, Victor; Helmicki, Arthur

    2016-04-01

    It has been shown that the variations of structural properties due to changing environmental conditions such as temperature can be as significant as those caused by structural damage and even liveload. Therefore, tracking changes that are correlated with environmental variations is a necessary step in order to detect and assess structural damage in addition to the normal structural response to traffic. In this paper, daily measurement data that is collected from the concrete towers of the Ironton-Russell Bridge will be presented and correlation of the collected measurement data and temperature will be overviewed. Variation of the daily thermal response of tower concrete walls will be compared with the daily thermal responses of the steel box within the tower and finally, thermal coefficient for compensating the thermal induced responses will be estimated.

  5. Non-linearity dynamics in ecosystem response to climate change: Case studies and policy implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkett, V.R.; Wilcox, D.A.; Stottlemyer, R.; Barrow, W.; Fagre, D.; Baron, J.; Nielsen, J.L.; Allen, C.D.; Peterson, D.L.; Ruggerone, G.; Doyle, T.

    2005-01-01

    Many biological, hydrological, and geological processes are interactively linked in ecosystems. These ecological phenomena normally vary within bounded ranges, but rapid, nonlinear changes to markedly different conditions can be triggered by even small differences if threshold values are exceeded. Intrinsic and extrinsic ecological thresholds can lead to effects that cascade among systems, precluding accurate modeling and prediction of system response to climate change. Ten case studies from North America illustrate how changes in climate cna lead to rapid, threshold-type responses within ecological communities; the case studies also highlight the role of human activities that alter the rate or direction of system response to climate change. Understanding and anticipating nonlinear dynamics are important aspects of adaptation planning since responses of biological resources to changes in the physical climate system are not necessarily proportional and sometimes, as in the case of complex ecological systems, inherently nonlinear.

  6. Freezing of the Nb5 + ion dynamics in AgNbO3 studied by linear and nonlinear dielectric response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miga, S.; Kania, A.; Dec, J.

    2011-04-01

    Linear and nonlinear dielectric measurements of AgNbO3 ceramics and single crystals were carried out for the M phases (77-673 K). The linear dielectric response is dominated by the contribution of the submillimetre relaxational mode related to the Nb5 + ion dynamics (M2-M3). On the other hand, nonlinear dielectric χ3' susceptibility revealed anomalies at three characteristic temperatures: 90, 325 and 448 K. Two later ones are connected with changes of the Nb5 + ion dynamics. At Tf = 448 K a partial freezing of the Nb5 + ion displacement to the anti-polar, antiferroelectric array takes place. At 325 K further freezing of Nb and Ag displacements to the polar weak relaxor ferroelectric or dipolar glass transition occurs. This polar state coexists with the ground antiferroelectric one.

  7. Periodic and chaotic responses of an sdf system with piecewise linear stiffness subjected to combined harmonic and flow induced excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, S.; Sekar, P.

    1995-07-01

    The response of a single-degree-of-freedom (sdf) vibrating system with unsymmetrical piecewise linear stiffness subjected to combined harmonic and flow induced excitations is investigated. Motion limiting stops, different tension and compression behavior, etc., may introduce an unsymmetrical piecewise linear stiffness characteristic. A multi-harmonic balance cum Newton-Raphson procedure in conjunction with an FFT algorithm is adopted to determine the stable and unstable periodic solutions. The stability of the periodic solutions is investigated by using Floquet theory. Digital simulation results reveal periodic, quasi-periodic and chaotic motions of the system in a range of flow velocities. Mode locked oscillations with period 5 motions are found to occur in certain range of flow velocities. Bifurcation diagrams and Lyapunov exponents are also presented.

  8. Linear and nonlinear auditory response properties of interneurons in a high-order avian vocal motor nucleus during wakefulness

    PubMed Central

    Raksin, Jonathan N.; Glaze, Christopher M.; Smith, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Motor-related forebrain areas in higher vertebrates also show responses to passively presented sensory stimuli. However, sensory tuning properties in these areas, especially during wakefulness, and their relation to perception, are poorly understood. In the avian song system, HVC (proper name) is a vocal-motor structure with auditory responses well defined under anesthesia but poorly characterized during wakefulness. We used a large set of stimuli including the bird's own song (BOS) and many conspecific songs (CON) to characterize auditory tuning properties in putative interneurons (HVCIN) during wakefulness. Our findings suggest that HVC contains a diversity of responses that vary in overall excitability to auditory stimuli, as well as bias in spike rate increases to BOS over CON. We used statistical tests to classify cells in order to further probe auditory responses, yielding one-third of neurons that were either unresponsive or suppressed and two-thirds with excitatory responses to one or more stimuli. A subset of excitatory neurons were tuned exclusively to BOS and showed very low linearity as measured by spectrotemporal receptive field analysis (STRF). The remaining excitatory neurons responded well to CON stimuli, although many cells still expressed a bias toward BOS. These findings suggest the concurrent presence of a nonlinear and a linear component to responses in HVC, even within the same neuron. These characteristics are consistent with perceptual deficits in distinguishing BOS from CON stimuli following lesions of HVC and other song nuclei and suggest mirror neuronlike qualities in which “self” (here BOS) is used as a referent to judge “other” (here CON). PMID:22205651

  9. Uniaxial deformation of a soft porous material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMinn, Chris; Dufresne, Eric; Wettlaufer, John

    2015-11-01

    Compressing a porous material will decrease the volume of pore space, driving fluid out. Similarly, injecting fluid into a porous material will drive mechanical deformation, distorting the solid skeleton. This poromechanical coupling has applications ranging from cell and tissue mechanics to geomechanics and hydrogeology. The classical theory of linear poroelasticity captures this coupling by combining Darcy's law with linear elasticity and then further linearizing in the strain. This is a good model for very small deformations, but it becomes increasingly inappropriate as deformations grow larger, and moderate to large deformations are common in the context of phenomena such as swelling, damage, and extreme softness. Here, we compare the predictions of linear poroelasticity with those of a rigorous large-deformation framework in the context of two uniaxial model problems. We explore the error associated with the linear model in both steady and dynamic situations, as well as the impact of allowing the permeability to vary with the deformation.

  10. Upper Plate Deformation in Response to Aseismic Ridge Subduction along a Convergent Margin - the Piano Player Model: Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, T. W.; Fisher, D. M.; Morell, K. D.; Cupper, M. L.

    2008-12-01

    The Osa Peninsula, an outer forearc high ~20 km inboard of the Middle America Trench, is deforming in response to short wavelength variations in the bathymetry on the subducting aseismic Cocos Ridge, an elongate region of thickened crust ( up to 40% thicker) created by motion of the Cocos plate across the Galapagos Hotspot. Plate convergence is nearly orthogonal to the trench at ~90 mm/yr and the plate interface occurs at a depth ~5 km under the peninsula. Relief on the Cocos Ridge locally exceeds 1 km with the dominant topography expressed as two nearly parallel, but locally offset ridges separated by an axial graben. The strike of these features is sub-parallel to the convergence vector. Modern topography of the Osa Peninsula, elevation of the basement rocks (Early to Middle Tertiary Osa Mélange), elevations of late Quaternary marine deposits, and distribution of late Quaternary deformation rates directly mirror the bathymetry on the Cocos Ridge just outboard of the MAT. New geologic mapping, radiometric dating and fission track analysis constrain distribution and rates of deformation on the Osa Peninsula. The Osa Peninsula is fragmented into a complex set of blocks that vary in size from several kms on a side to <10 kms on a side. These blocks, which closely match the size, distribution and shape of bathymetric features on the incoming Cocos Ridge, are bounded by trench parallel and trench perpendicular, high angle, normal and reverse faults that extend to the plate interface, allowing for grossly different deformation histories over short distances. Fission track analyses of 4 sandstone samples from the Osa Mélange suggest that the basement rocks reached maximum burial temperatures of 60-80 ° C indicating burial depths of ~3-4 kms assuming a reasonable geothermal gradient of ~20 °/km. This suggests a very thin margin wedge prior to late Neogene unroofing. Rates of late Quaternary deformation are constrained by over 30 radiocarbon and 5 Optically Stimulated

  11. Do responses to different anthropogenic forcings add linearly in climate models?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvel, Kate; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Shindell, Drew; Bonfils, Céline; LeGrande, Allegra N.; Nazarenko, Larissa; Tsigaridis, Kostas

    2015-10-01

    Many detection and attribution and pattern scaling studies assume that the global climate response to multiple forcings is additive: that the response over the historical period is statistically indistinguishable from the sum of the responses to individual forcings. Here, we use the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) and National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate System Model (CCSM4) simulations from the CMIP5 archive to test this assumption for multi-year trends in global-average, annual-average temperature and precipitation at multiple timescales. We find that responses in models forced by pre-computed aerosol and ozone concentrations are generally additive across forcings. However, we demonstrate that there are significant nonlinearities in precipitation responses to different forcings in a configuration of the GISS model that interactively computes these concentrations from precursor emissions. We attribute these to differences in ozone forcing arising from interactions between forcing agents. Our results suggest that attribution to specific forcings may be complicated in a model with fully interactive chemistry and may provide motivation for other modeling groups to conduct further single-forcing experiments.

  12. Control and large deformations of marginal disordered structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murugan, Arvind; Pinson, Matthew; Chen, Elizabeth

    Designed deformations, such as origami patterns, provide a way to make easily controlled mechanical metamaterials with tailored responses to external forces. We focus on an often overlooked regime of origami - non-linear deformations of large disordered origami patterns with no symmetries. We find that practical questions of control in origami have counterintuitive answers, because of intimate connections to spin glasses and neural networks. For example, 1 degree of freedom origami structures are actually difficult to control about the flat state with a single actuator; the actuator is thrown off by an exponential number of `red herring' zero modes for small deformations, all but one of which disappear at larger deformations. Conversely, structures with multiple programmed motions are much easier to control than expected - in fact, they are as easy to control as a dedicated single-motion structure if the number of programmed motions is below a threshold (`memory capacity').

  13. A Step Response Based Mixed-Signal BIST Approach for Continuous-time Linear Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Alvernon; Lala, P. K.

    2001-01-01

    A new Mixed-Signal Built-in self-test approach that is based upon the step response of a reconfigurable (or multifunction) analog block is presented in this paper. The technique requires the overlapping step response of the Circuit Under Test (CUT) for two circuit configurations. Each configuration can be realized by changing the topology of the CUT or by sampling two CUT nodes with differing step responses. The technique can effectively detect both soft and hard faults and does not require an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and/or digital-to-analog converter(DAC). It also does not require any precision voltage sources or comparators. This approach does not require any additional analog circuits to realize the test signal generator and sample circuits. The paper is concluded with the application of the proposed approach to a circuit found in the work of Epstein et al and two ITC 97 analog benchmark circuits.

  14. Characterization of Photon-Counting Detector Responsivity for Non-Linear Two-Photon Absorption Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sburlan, S. E.; Farr, W. H.

    2011-01-01

    Sub-band absorption at 1550 nm has been demonstrated and characterized on silicon Geiger mode detectors which normally would be expected to have no response at this wavelength. We compare responsivity measurements to singlephoton absorption for wavelengths slightly above the bandgap wavelength of silicon (approx. 1100 microns). One application for this low efficiency sub-band absorption is in deep space optical communication systems where it is desirable to track a 1030 nm uplink beacon on the same flight terminal detector array that monitors a 1550 nm downlink signal for pointingcontrol. The currently observed absorption at 1550 nm provides 60-70 dB of isolation compared to the response at 1064 nm, which is desirable to avoid saturation of the detector by scattered light from the downlink laser.

  15. Direct Atomic-Orbital-Based Relativistic Two-Component Linear Response Method for Calculating Excited-State Fine Structures.

    PubMed

    Egidi, Franco; Goings, Joshua J; Frisch, Michael J; Li, Xiaosong

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we present a linear-response formalism of the complex two-component Hartree-Fock Hamiltonian that includes relativistic effects within the Douglas-Kroll-Hess and the Exact-Two-Component frameworks. The method includes both scalar and spin relativistic effects in the variational description of electronic ground and excited states, although it neglects the picture-change and explicit spin-orbit contributions arising from the two-electron interaction. An efficient direct formalism of solving the complex two-component response function is also presented in this work. The presence of spin-orbit couplings in the Hamiltonian and the two-component nature of the wave function and Fock operator allows the computation of excited-state zero-field splittings of systems for which relativistic effects are dominated by the one-electron term. Calculated results are compared to experimental reference values to assess the quality of the underlying approximations. The results show that the relativistic two-component linear response methods are able to capture the excited-state zero-field splittings with good agreement with experiments for the systems considered here, with all approximations exhibiting a similar performance. However, the error increases for heavy elements and for states of high orbital angular momentum, suggesting the importance of the two-electron relativistic effect in such situations. PMID:27387787

  16. Linear-scaling implementation of molecular response theory in self-consistent field electronic-structure theory.

    PubMed

    Coriani, Sonia; Høst, Stinne; Jansík, Branislav; Thøgersen, Lea; Olsen, Jeppe; Jørgensen, Poul; Reine, Simen; Pawłowski, Filip; Helgaker, Trygve; Sałek, Paweł

    2007-04-21

    A linear-scaling implementation of Hartree-Fock and Kohn-Sham self-consistent field theories for the calculation of frequency-dependent molecular response properties and excitation energies is presented, based on a nonredundant exponential parametrization of the one-electron density matrix in the atomic-orbital basis, avoiding the use of canonical orbitals. The response equations are solved iteratively, by an atomic-orbital subspace method equivalent to that of molecular-orbital theory. Important features of the subspace method are the use of paired trial vectors (to preserve the algebraic structure of the response equations), a nondiagonal preconditioner (for rapid convergence), and the generation of good initial guesses (for robust solution). As a result, the performance of the iterative method is the same as in canonical molecular-orbital theory, with five to ten iterations needed for convergence. As in traditional direct Hartree-Fock and Kohn-Sham theories, the calculations are dominated by the construction of the effective Fock/Kohn-Sham matrix, once in each iteration. Linear complexity is achieved by using sparse-matrix algebra, as illustrated in calculations of excitation energies and frequency-dependent polarizabilities of polyalanine peptides containing up to 1400 atoms. PMID:17461615

  17. Micro-anatomical response of cartilage-on-bone to compression: mechanisms of deformation within and beyond the directly loaded matrix

    PubMed Central

    Thambyah, Ashvin; Broom, Neil

    2006-01-01

    The biomechanical function of articular cartilage relies crucially on its integration with both the subchondral bone and the wider continuum of cartilage beyond the directly loaded contact region. This study was aimed at visualizing, at the microanatomical level, the deformation response of cartilage including that of the non-directly loaded continuum. Cartilage-on-bone samples from bovine patellae were loaded in static compression until a near-equilibrium deformation was achieved, and then chemically fixed in this deformed state. Full-depth cartilage–bone sections, incorporating the indentation profile and beyond, were studied in their fully hydrated state using differential interference contrast microscopy. Morphometric measurements of the indented profile were used in combination with a force analysis of the tangential layer to investigate the extent to which the applied force is attenuated in moving away from the directly loaded region. This study provides microscopic evidence of a structure-related response in the transitional zone of the cartilage matrix. It is manifested as an intense chevron-type shear discontinuity arising from the constraints provided by both the strain-limiting articular surface and the osteochondral attachment. The discontinuity persists well into the non-directly loaded continuum of cartilage and is proposed as a force attenuation mechanism. The structural and biomechanical analyses presented in this study emphasize the important role of the complex microanatomy of cartilage, highlighting the interconnectivity and optimal recruitment of the load-bearing elements throughout the zonally differentiated cartilage depth. PMID:17062019

  18. Response analysis of a laminar premixed M-flame to flow perturbations using a linearized compressible Navier-Stokes solver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard, M.; Schuller, T.; Sipp, D.; Schmid, P. J.

    2015-04-01

    The response of a laminar premixed methane-air flame subjected to flow perturbations around a steady state is examined experimentally and using a linearized compressible Navier-Stokes solver with a one-step chemistry mechanism to describe combustion. The unperturbed flame takes an M-shape stabilized both by a central bluff body and by the external rim of a cylindrical nozzle. This base flow is computed by a nonlinear direct simulation of the steady reacting flow, and the flame topology is shown to qualitatively correspond to experiments conducted under comparable conditions. The flame is then subjected to acoustic disturbances produced at different locations in the numerical domain, and its response is examined using the linearized solver. This linear numerical model then allows the componentwise investigation of the effects of flow disturbances on unsteady combustion and the feedback from the flame on the unsteady flow field. It is shown that a wrinkled reaction layer produces hydrodynamic disturbances in the fresh reactant flow field that superimpose on the acoustic field. This phenomenon, observed in several experiments, is fully interpreted here. The additional perturbations convected by the mean flow stem from the feedback of the perturbed flame sheet dynamics onto the flow field by a mechanism similar to that of a perturbed vortex sheet. The different regimes where this mechanism prevails are investigated by examining the phase and group velocities of flow disturbances along an axis oriented along the main direction of the flow in the fresh reactant flow field. It is shown that this mechanism dominates the low-frequency response of the wrinkled shape taken by the flame and, in particular, that it fully determines the dynamics of the flame tip from where the bulk of noise is radiated.

  19. Response analysis of a laminar premixed M-flame to flow perturbations using a linearized compressible Navier-Stokes solver

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, M.; Schuller, T.; Sipp, D.; Schmid, P. J.

    2015-04-15

    The response of a laminar premixed methane-air flame subjected to flow perturbations around a steady state is examined experimentally and using a linearized compressible Navier-Stokes solver with a one-step chemistry mechanism to describe combustion. The unperturbed flame takes an M-shape stabilized both by a central bluff body and by the external rim of a cylindrical nozzle. This base flow is computed by a nonlinear direct simulation of the steady reacting flow, and the flame topology is shown to qualitatively correspond to experiments conducted under comparable conditions. The flame is then subjected to acoustic disturbances produced at different locations in the numerical domain, and its response is examined using the linearized solver. This linear numerical model then allows the componentwise investigation of the effects of flow disturbances on unsteady combustion and the feedback from the flame on the unsteady flow field. It is shown that a wrinkled reaction layer produces hydrodynamic disturbances in the fresh reactant flow field that superimpose on the acoustic field. This phenomenon, observed in several experiments, is fully interpreted here. The additional perturbations convected by the mean flow stem from the feedback of the perturbed flame sheet dynamics onto the flow field by a mechanism similar to that of a perturbed vortex sheet. The different regimes where this mechanism prevails are investigated by examining the phase and group velocities of flow disturbances along an axis oriented along the main direction of the flow in the fresh reactant flow field. It is shown that this mechanism dominates the low-frequency response of the wrinkled shape taken by the flame and, in particular, that it fully determines the dynamics of the flame tip from where the bulk of noise is radiated.

  20. A Linear Dose-Response Relationship between Fasting Plasma Glucose and Colorectal Cancer Risk: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jianguo; Xiong, Lijuan; Li, Jiaoyuan; Cao, Heng; Jiang, Wen; Liu, Bo; Chen, Xueqin; Liu, Cheng; Liu, Ke; Wang, Guobin; Cai, Kailin

    2015-01-01

    For many years, the question of whether hyperglycaemia, a manifestation of prediabetes, diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, is a risk factor for colorectal cancer has been intensely studied. In fact, even after the conclusion of several prospective studies, the topic is still controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the dose-response relationship between blood glucose concentration and the incidence of colorectal cancer. A linear (P = 0.303 for non-linearity) dose-response relationship was observed between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and colorectal cancer risk without significant heterogeneity. The relative risk (RR) for colorectal cancer per 20 mg/dL increase in FPG was 1.015 (95% CI: 1.012–1.019, P = 0.000). In subgroup analyses, the pooled RRs for colon cancer (CC) and rectal cancer (RC) studies were 1.035 (95% CI 1.008–1.062, P = 0.011) and 1.031 (95% CI: 0.189–5.628, P = 0.972), respectively; in the analysis comparing men and women, the pooled RRs were 1.016 (95% CI: 1.012–1.020, P = 0.000) and 1.011 (95% CI: 0.995–1.027, P = 0.164), respectively. Sensitivity analyses using two methods showed similar results. In conclusion, there is a significant linear dose-response relationship between FPG and the incidence risk of colorectal cancer. For people with diabetes or prediabetes, controlling blood glucose might be useful to prevent colorectal cancer. PMID:26620869

  1. LINEAR STRUCTURAL MODELS FOR RESPONSE AND LATENCY PERFORMANCE IN ARITHMETIC. PSYCHOLOGY SERIES, TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 100.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUPPES, PATRICK; AND OTHERS

    A LEARNING MODEL TO IDENTIFY FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO THE DIFFICULTY OF A PROBLEM ITEM WAS SUPPORTED EMPIRICALLY, AND INDICATED THAT THE NUMBER OF STEPS REQUIRED TO SOLVE A PROBLEM WAS THE MOST IMPORTANT VARIABLE IN PREDICTING BOTH ERROR PROBABILITY AND RESPONSE LATENCY. THE MODEL, IN ORDER TO ESTABLISH DIFFERENTIAL PREDICTIONS OF DIFFICULTY IN…

  2. Linear Response Coupled Cluster Singles and Doubles Approach with Modified Spectral Resolution of the Similarity Transformed Hamiltonian

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalski, Karol; Hammond, Jeffrey R.; De Jong, Wibe A.

    2007-10-28

    This paper discusses practical scheme of correcting the linear response coupled cluster with singles and doubles (LR-CCSD) equations by shifting their poles, corresponding to the equation-of-motion CCSD (EOMCCSD) excitation energies, through adding the no-iterative corrections due to triples to the EOMCCSD excitation energies. A simple criterion is derived for the excited states to be corrected in the spectral resolution of similarity transformed Hamiltonian on the CCSD level. Benchmark calculations were performed to compare the accuracies of static and dynamic polarizabilities obtained in the way with the CC3 and CCSDT counterparts.

  3. Real-time Needle Steering in Response to Rolling Vein Deformation by a 9-DOF Image-Guided Autonomous Venipuncture Robot

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Alvin I.; Balter, Max L.; Maguire, Timothy J.; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2015-01-01

    Venipuncture is the most common invasive medical procedure performed in the United States and the number one cause of hospital injury. Failure rates are particularly high in pediatric and elderly patients, whose veins tend to deform, move, or roll as the needle is introduced. To improve venipuncture accuracy in challenging patient populations, we have developed a portable device that autonomously servos a needle into a suitable vein under image guidance. The device operates in real time, combining near-infrared and ultrasound imaging, computer vision software, and a 9 degrees-of-freedom robot that servos the needle. In this paper, we present the kinematic and mechanical design of the latest generation robot. We then investigate in silico and in vitro the mechanics of vessel rolling and deformation in response to needle insertions performed by the robot. Finally, we demonstrate how the robot can make real-time adjustments under ultrasound image guidance to compensate for subtle vessel motions during venipuncture. PMID:26779381

  4. Linear response of a vortex column - singular eigenfunctions and growth mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Anubhab; S, Abhishek; Dixit, Harish N.; Subramanian, Ganesh

    2011-11-01

    A vortex column supports oscillations known as Kelvin modes, eigenmodes that are irrotational outside the vortex core. In order to understand the interaction of a vortex with an external vortical disturbance field, we use an extended modal description that incorporates a singular continuous spectrum with eigenmodes that are vortical outside the core. The continuous spectrum eigenfunctions are explicitly evaluated for a Rankine vortex; the description is extended to smooth vorticity profiles based on an analogy with stratified shear flows. Next, in the framework of an initial value problem, we analyze the inviscid resonant interaction between a vortex column and suitably localized initial conditions. It is shown that while a Rankine vortex allows for an unbounded secular growth in response an infinitely localized initial condition, smooth vorticity profiles, with a non-zero critical layer vorticity gradient, exhibit a saturation resulting from a perturbation-vorticity-induced screening mechanism. The effects of an upstream tilt on this novel saturation response are investigated.

  5. Controlling the nonlinear optical properties of plasmonic nanoparticles with the phase of their linear response.

    PubMed

    Butet, Jérémy; Raziman, T V; Yang, Kuang-Yu; Bernasconi, Gabriel D; Martin, Olivier J F

    2016-07-25

    We numerically investigate the second harmonic generation from different plasmonic systems and evidence the key role played in their nonlinear response by the phase at the fundamental wavelength. In the case of a single plasmonic nanorod, the interference between the second harmonic dipolar and quadrupolar emission modes depends on their relative phase, which is deeply related to the excitation wavelength. The knowledge obtained in this simple case is then used to describe and understand the nonlinear response from a more complex structure, namely a gold nanodolmen. The complex phase evolution associated with a Fano resonance arising at the fundamental wavelength enables dramatically modifying the second harmonic emission patterns from plasmonic metamolecules within minute wavelength shifts. These results emphasize the importance of the phase in the nonlinear optical processes arising in plasmonic nanostructures, in addition to the increase in conversion yield associated with the excitation of localized surface plasmon resonances. PMID:27464164

  6. Analysis of the linear response function relating AL to VB{sub s} for individual substorms

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, G.T.; McPherron, R.L.

    1995-10-01

    Time series of the AL index and rectified solar wind electric field are used to study solar wind coupling to auroral ionospheric currents during individual substorms. Calculation of the individual filters is accompanied by representing them as the product of two simple filters: a low-pass filter that accounts for the response of the ionospheric electric field to the reconnection electric field, and a filter composed of delta function. The delta functions each have the effect of delaying and scaling the response of AL relative to VB{sub s} without distorting the waveform of VB{sub s}. Nearly all significant correlation between AL and VB{sub s} can be accounted for when the second filter contains only two components. This result suggests that the westward electrojet indexed by AL is controlled by two distinct processes, both proportional to VB{sub s}. For an ensemble of 117 isolated substorms the average prediction efficiency of a filter with two delays is 71%. If one were able to determine the exact values of the two delays and the two gain factors prior to an event, then one would be able to estimate the instantaneous magnetospheric response function. The authors examined season, universal time, and prior activity as possible factors controlling the magnitude of the parameters but found no apparent relationships. Until such relations are found the average parameters provide the best estimate but account for only 47% of the variance in the AL index. 20 refs., 10 figs.

  7. Scaling regimes and linear and nonlinear responses of last millennium climate models to volcanic and solar forcings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovejoy, S.; Varotsos, C. A.

    2015-09-01

    At scales much longer than the deterministic predictability limits (about 10 days), the statistics of the atmosphere undergo a drastic transition, the high frequency weather acts as a random forcing on the lower frequency macroweather. In addition, up to decadal and centennial scales the equivalent radiative forcings of solar, volcanic and anthropogenic perturbations are small compared to the mean incoming solar flux. This justifies the common practice of reducing forcings to radiative equivalents (which are assumed to combine linearly), as well as the development of linear stochastic models, including for forecasting at monthly to decadal scales. In order to clarify the validity of the linearity assumption and determine its range of validity, we use last Millennium simulations, both with the simplified Zebiac-Cane (ZC) model and the NASA GISS E2-R fully coupled GCM. We systematically compare the statistical properties of solar only, volcanic only and combined solar and volcanic forcings over the range of time scales from one to 1000 years. We also compare the statistics to multiproxy temperature reconstructions. The main findings are: (a) that the variability of the ZC and GCM models are too weak at centennial and longer scales, (b) for longer than ≈ 50 years, the solar and volcanic forcings combine subadditively (nonlinearly) compounding the weakness of the response, (c) the models display another nonlinear effect at shorter scales: their sensitivities are much higher for weak forcing than for strong forcing (their intermittencies are different) and we quantify this with statistical scaling exponents.

  8. Impact of observed North Atlantic multidecadal variations to European summer climate: a linear baroclinic response to surface heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Rohit; Müller, Wolfgang A.; Baehr, Johanna; Bader, Jürgen

    2016-07-01

    The observed prominent multidecadal variations in the central to eastern (C-E) European summer temperature are closely related to the Atlantic multidecadal variability (AMV). Using the Twentieth Century Reanalysis project version 2 data for the period of 1930-2012, we present a mechanism by which the multidecadal variations in the C-E European summer temperature are associated to a linear baroclinic atmospheric response to the AMV-related surface heat flux. Our results suggest that over the north-western Atlantic, the positive heat flux anomaly triggers a surface baroclinic pressure response to diabatic heating with a negative surface pressure anomaly to the east of the heat source. Further downstream, this response induces an east-west wave-like pressure anomaly. The east-west wave-like response in the sea level pressure structure, to which we refer as North-Atlantic-European East West (NEW) mode, is independent of the summer North Atlantic Oscillation and is the principal mode of variations during summer over the Euro-Atlantic region at multidecadal time scales. The NEW mode causes warming of the C-E European region by creating an atmospheric blocking-like situation. Our findings also suggest that this NEW mode is responsible for the multidecadal variations in precipitation over the British Isles and north-western Europe.

  9. Genomic stability in response to high versus low linear energy transfer radiation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Huefner, Neil D; Yoshiyama, Kaoru; Friesner, Joanna D; Conklin, Phillip A; Britt, Anne B

    2014-01-01

    Low linear energy transfer (LET) gamma rays and high LET HZE (high atomic weight, high energy) particles act as powerful mutagens in both plants and animals. DNA damage generated by HZE particles is more densely clustered than that generated by gamma rays. To understand the genetic requirements for resistance to high versus low LET radiation, a series of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants were exposed to either 1GeV Fe nuclei or gamma radiation. A comparison of effects on the germination and subsequent growth of seedlings led us to conclude that the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the two types of radiation (HZE versus gamma) are roughly 3:1. Similarly, in wild-type lines, loss of somatic heterozygosity was induced at an RBE of about a 2:1 (HZE versus gamma). Checkpoint and repair defects, as expected, enhanced sensitivity to both agents. The "replication fork" checkpoint, governed by ATR, played a slightly more important role in resistance to HZE-induced mutagenesis than in resistance to gamma induced mutagenesis. PMID:24904606

  10. Genomic stability in response to high versus low linear energy transfer radiation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Huefner, Neil D.; Yoshiyama, Kaoru; Friesner, Joanna D.; Conklin, Phillip A.; Britt, Anne B.

    2014-01-01

    Low linear energy transfer (LET) gamma rays and high LET HZE (high atomic weight, high energy) particles act as powerful mutagens in both plants and animals. DNA damage generated by HZE particles is more densely clustered than that generated by gamma rays. To understand the genetic requirements for resistance to high versus low LET radiation, a series of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants were exposed to either 1GeV Fe nuclei or gamma radiation. A comparison of effects on the germination and subsequent growth of seedlings led us to conclude that the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the two types of radiation (HZE versus gamma) are roughly 3:1. Similarly, in wild-type lines, loss of somatic heterozygosity was induced at an RBE of about a 2:1 (HZE versus gamma). Checkpoint and repair defects, as expected, enhanced sensitivity to both agents. The “replication fork” checkpoint, governed by ATR, played a slightly more important role in resistance to HZE-induced mutagenesis than in resistance to gamma induced mutagenesis. PMID:24904606

  11. Response analysis of a class of quasi-linear systems with fractional derivative excited by Poisson white noise.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongge; Xu, Wei; Yang, Guidong; Jia, Wantao

    2016-08-01

    The Poisson white noise, as a typical non-Gaussian excitation, has attracted much attention recently. However, little work was referred to the study of stochastic systems with fractional derivative under Poisson white noise excitation. This paper investigates the stationary response of a class of quasi-linear systems with fractional derivative excited by Poisson white noise. The equivalent stochastic system of the original stochastic system is obtained. Then, approximate stationary solutions are obtained with the help of the perturbation method. Finally, two typical examples are discussed in detail to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The analysis also shows that the fractional order and the fractional coefficient significantly affect the responses of the stochastic systems with fractional derivative. PMID:27586619

  12. Natural vibration response based damage detection for an operating wind turbine via Random Coefficient Linear Parameter Varying AR modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avendaño-Valencia, L. D.; Fassois, S. D.

    2015-07-01

    The problem of damage detection in an operating wind turbine under normal operating conditions is addressed. This is characterized by difficulties associated with the lack of measurable excitation(s), the vibration response non-stationary nature, and its dependence on various types of uncertainties. To overcome these difficulties a stochastic approach based on Random Coefficient (RC) Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) AutoRegressive (AR) models is postulated. These models may effectively represent the non-stationary random vibration response under healthy conditions and subsequently used for damage detection through hypothesis testing. The performance of the method for damage and fault detection in an operating wind turbine is subsequently assessed via Monte Carlo simulations using the FAST simulation package.

  13. Signal transmission from motor axons to group Ia muscle spindle afferents: frequency responses and second-order non-linearities.

    PubMed

    Windhorst, U; Kokkoroyiannis, T; Laouris, Y; Meyer-Lohmann, J

    1994-03-01

    Spinal recurrent inhibition via Renshaw cells and proprioceptive feedback via skeletal muscle and muscle spindle afferents have been hypothesized to constitute a compound feedback system [Windhorst (1989) Afferent Control of Posture and Locomotion; Windhorst (1993) Robots and Biological Systems--Towards a New Bionics]. To assess their detailed functions, it is necessary to know their dynamic characteristics. Previously we have extensively described the properties of signal transmission from motor axons to Renshaw cells using random motor axon stimulation and data analysis methods based thereupon. Using the same methods, we here compare these properties, in the cat, with those between motor axons and group Ia muscle spindle afferents in terms of frequency responses and nonlinear features. The frequency responses depend on the mean rate (carrier rate) of activation of motor axons and on the strength of coupling between motor units and spindles. In general, they are those of a second-order low-pass system with a cut-off at fairly low frequencies. This contrasts with the dynamics of motor axon-Renshaw cell couplings which are those of a much broader band-pass with its peak in the range of c. 2-15 Hz [Christakos (1987) Neuroscience 23, 613-623]. The second-order non-linearities in motor unit-muscle spindle signal lines are much more diverse than those in motor axon-Renshaw cell couplings. Although the average strength of response declines with mean stimulus rate in both subsystems, there is no systematic relationship between the amount of non-linearity and the average response in the former, whilst there is in the latter. The qualitative appearance of motor unit-muscle spindle non-linearities was complicated as was the average response to motor unit twitches. Thus, whilst Renshaw cells appear to dynamically reflect motor output rather faithfully, muscle spindles seem to signal local muscle fibre length changes and their dynamics. This would be consistent with the

  14. Linear response to perturbation of nonexponential renewal process: A generalized master equation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, I. M.

    2006-06-01

    The work by Barbi, Bologna, and Grigolini [Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 220601 (2005)] discusses a response to alternating external field of a non-Markovian two-state system, where the waiting time between the two attempted changes of state follows a power law. It introduced a new instrument for description of such situations based on a stochastic master equation with reset. In the present Brief Report we provide an alternative description of the situation within the framework of a generalized master equation. The results of our analytical approach are corroborated by direct numerical simulations of the system.

  15. Hemispheric asymmetry non-linear analysis of EEG during emotional responses from idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Yuvaraj, R; Murugappan, M

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies show right hemisphere has a unique contribution to emotion processing. The present study investigated EEG using non-linear measures during emotional processing in PD patients with respect to motor symptom asymmetry (i.e., most affected body side). We recorded 14-channel wireless EEGs from 20 PD patients and 10 healthy age-matched controls (HC) by eliciting emotions such as happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise and disgust. PD patients were divided into two groups, based on most affected body side and unilateral motor symptom severity: left side-affected (LPD, n = 10) or right side-affected PD patients (RPD, n = 10). Nonlinear analysis of these emotional EEGs were performed by using approximate entropy, correlation dimension, detrended fluctuation analysis, fractal dimension, higher order spectra, hurst exponent (HE), largest Lyapunov exponent and sample entropy. The extracted features were ranked using analysis of variance based on F value. The ranked features were then fed into classifiers namely fuzzy K-nearest neighbor and support vector machine to obtain optimal performance using minimum number of features. From the experimental results, we found that (a) classification performance across all frequency bands performed well in recognizing emotional states of LPD, RPD, and HC; (b) the emotion-specific features were mainly related to higher frequency bands; and (c) predominantly LPD patients (inferred right-hemisphere pathology) were more impaired in emotion processing compared to RPD, as showed by a poorer classification performance. The results suggest that asymmetric neuronal degeneration in PD patients may contribute to the impairment of emotional communication. PMID:27275378

  16. Swelling and Shrinking Properties of Thermo-Responsive Polymeric Ionic Liquid Hydrogels with Embedded Linear pNIPAAM

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Simon; Florea, Larisa; Fraser, Kevin J.; Diamond, Dermot

    2014-01-01

    In this study, varying concentrations of linear pNIPAAM have been incorporated for the first time into a thermo-responsive polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) hydrogel, namely tributyl-hexyl phosphonium 3-sulfopropylacrylate (P-SPA), to produce semi-interpenetrating polymer networks. The thermal properties of the resulting hydrogels have been investigated along with their thermo-induced shrinking and reswelling capabilities. The semi-interpenetrating networks (IPN) hydrogels were found to have improved shrinking and reswelling properties compared with their PIL counterpart. At elevated temperatures (50–80 °C), it was found that the semi-IPN with the highest concentration of hydrophobic pNIPAAM exhibited the highest shrinking percentage of ~40% compared to the conventional P-SPA, (27%). This trend was also found to occur for the reswelling measurements, with semi-IPN hydrogels producing the highest reswelling percentage of ~67%, with respect to its contracted state. This was attributed to an increase in water affinity due to the presence of hydrophilic pNIPAAM. Moreover, the presence of linear pNIPAAM in the polymer matrix leads to improved shrinking and reswelling response compared to the equivalent PIL. PMID:24681582

  17. Dynamic linear response of atoms in plasmas and photo-absorption cross-section in the dipole approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caizergues, C.; Blenski, T.; Piron, R.

    2016-03-01

    We report results on the self-consistent linear response theory of quantum average-atoms in plasmas. The approach is based on the two first orders of the cluster expansion of the plasma susceptibility. A change of variable is applied, which allows us to handle the diverging free-free transitions contribution in the self-consistent induced electron density and potential. The method is first tested on the case of rare gas isolated neutral atoms. A test of the Ehrenfest-type sum rule is then performed in a case of an actual average-atom in a plasma. At frequencies much higher than the plasma frequency, the sum rule seems to be fulfilled within the accuracy of the numerical methods. Close to the plasma frequency, the method seems not to account for the cold-plasma dielectric function renormalization in the sum rule, which was correctly reproduced in the case of the Thomas-Fermi-Bloch self-consistent linear response. This suggests the need for a better accounting for the outgoing waves in the asymptotic boundary conditions.

  18. Swelling and shrinking properties of thermo-responsive polymeric ionic liquid hydrogels with embedded linear pNIPAAM.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Simon; Florea, Larisa; Fraser, Kevin J; Diamond, Dermot

    2014-01-01

    In this study, varying concentrations of linear pNIPAAM have been incorporated for the first time into a thermo-responsive polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) hydrogel, namely tributyl-hexyl phosphonium 3-sulfopropylacrylate (P-SPA), to produce semi-interpenetrating polymer networks. The thermal properties of the resulting hydrogels have been investigated along with their thermo-induced shrinking and reswelling capabilities. The semi-interpenetrating networks (IPN) hydrogels were found to have improved shrinking and reswelling properties compared with their PIL counterpart. At elevated temperatures (50-80 °C), it was found that the semi-IPN with the highest concentration of hydrophobic pNIPAAM exhibited the highest shrinking percentage of ~40% compared to the conventional P-SPA, (27%). This trend was also found to occur for the reswelling measurements, with semi-IPN hydrogels producing the highest reswelling percentage of ~67%, with respect to its contracted state. This was attributed to an increase in water affinity due to the presence of hydrophilic pNIPAAM. Moreover, the presence of linear pNIPAAM in the polymer matrix leads to improved shrinking and reswelling response compared to the equivalent PIL. PMID:24681582

  19. Identification of linear and threshold responses in streams along a gradient of urbanization in Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ourso, R.T.; Frenzel, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    We examined biotic and physiochemical responses in urbanized Anchorage, Alaska, to the percent of impervious area within stream basins, as determined by high-resolution IKONOS satellite imagery and aerial photography. Eighteen of the 86 variables examined, including riparian and instream habitat, macroinvertebrate communities, and water/sediment chemistry, were significantly correlated with percent impervious area. Variables related to channel condition, instream substrate, water chemistry, and residential and transportation right-of-way land uses were identified by principal components analysis as significant factors separating site groups. Detrended canonical correspondence analysis indicated that the macroinvertebrate communities responded to an urbanization gradient closely paralleling the percent of impervious area within the subbasin. A sliding regression analysis of variables significantly correlated with percent impervious area revealed 8 variables exhibiting threshold responses that correspond to a mean of 4.4-5.8% impervious area, much lower than mean values reported in other, similar investigations. As contributing factors to a subbasin's impervious area, storm drains and roads appeared to be important elements influencing the degradation of water quality with respect to the biota.

  20. Glycemic Response and Fermentation of Crystalline Short Linear α-Glucans from Debranched Waxy Maize Starch.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Lauren R; Weber, Casey; Haub, Mark; Cai, Liming; Shi, Yong-Cheng

    2015-11-01

    The glycemic index (GI) is used to rank foods based on postprandial blood glucose response. GI test requires that 50 g of available carbohydrate be used. Available carbohydrate is often calculated as total carbohydrate minus dietary fiber; yet, AOAC fiber methods do not always include resistant starch (RS). The objective of this study was to examine GI response and fermentation properties of crystalline short-chain α-glucan (CSCA), which has high RS content, but no total dietary fiber (TDF) content as measured by AOAC method 991.43. Using the standard GI method, 10 adults were fed 50 g of waxy maize starch and CSCA, consumed alone and in mixed formulation. Breath hydrogen was also determined over 6 h. Fifty grams of CSCA was not entirely available in vivo, and breath hydrogen testing indicated that CSCA was as likely to ferment. Products high in RS, but with no TDF, would yield reduced GI values, and this calls for the need of a method to define available carbohydrate. PMID:26447350

  1. Microhydrodynamics of deformable particles: surprising responses of drops and vesicles to uniform electric field or shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlahovska, Petia

    2015-11-01

    Particle motion in a viscous fluid is a classic problem that continues to surprise researchers. In this talk, I will discuss some intriguing, experimentally-observed behaviors of droplets and giant vesicles (cell-size lipid membrane sacs) in electric or flow fields. In a uniform electric field, a droplet deforms into an ellipsoid that can either be steadily tilted relative to the applied field direction or undergo unsteady motions (periodic shape oscillations or irregular flipping); a spherical vesicle can adopt a transient square shape or reversibly porate. In a steady shear flow, a vesicle can tank-tread, tumble or swing. Theoretical models show that the nonlinear drop dynamics originates from the interplay of Quincke rotation and interface deformation, while the vesicle dynamics stems from the membrane inextensibility. The practical motivation for this research lies in an improved understanding of technologies that rely on the manipulation of drops and cells by flow or electric fields.

  2. Nonaffine chain and primitive path deformation in crosslinked polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, J. D.; Goulbourne, N. C.

    2016-08-01

    Chains in a polymer network deform nonaffinely at small length scales due to the ability for extensive microscopic rearrangement. Classically, the conformations of an individual chain can be described solely by an end-to-end length. This picture neglects interchain interactions and therefore does not represent the behavior of a real polymer network. The primitive path concept provides the additional detail to represent interchain entanglements, and techniques have recently been developed to identify the network of primitive paths in a polymer simulation. We use coarse-grained molecular dynamics (MD) to track both chain end-to-end and primitive path deformation in crosslinked polymer networks. The range of simulated materials includes short chain unentangled networks to long, entangled chain networks. Both chain end-to-end and primitive path length are found to be linear functions of the applied deformation, and a simple relationship describes the behavior of a network in response to large stretch uniaxial, pure shear, and equi-biaxial deformations. As expected, end-to-end chain length deformation is nonaffine for short chain networks, and becomes closer to affine for networks of long, entangled chains. However, primitive path deformation is found to always be nonaffine, even for long, entangled chains. We demonstrate how the microscopic constraints of crosslinks and entanglements affect nonaffine chain deformation as well as the simulated elastic behavior of the different networks.

  3. Meta-Analysis for Linear and Nonlinear Dose-Response Relations: Examples, an Evaluation of Approximations, and Software

    PubMed Central

    Orsini, Nicola; Li, Ruifeng; Wolk, Alicja; Khudyakov, Polyna; Spiegelman, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Two methods for point and interval estimation of relative risk for log-linear exposure-response relations in meta-analyses of published ordinal categorical exposure-response data have been proposed. The authors compared the results of a meta-analysis of published data using each of the 2 methods with the results that would be obtained if the primary data were available and investigated the circumstances under which the approximations required for valid use of each meta-analytic method break down. They then extended the methods to handle nonlinear exposure-response relations. In the present article, methods are illustrated using studies of the relation between alcohol consumption and colorectal and lung cancer risks from the ongoing Pooling Project of Prospective Studies of Diet and Cancer. In these examples, the differences between the results of a meta-analysis of summarized published data and the pooled analysis of the individual original data were small. However, incorrectly assuming no correlation between relative risk estimates for exposure categories from the same study gave biased confidence intervals for the trend and biased P values for the tests for nonlinearity and between-study heterogeneity when there was strong confounding by other model covariates. The authors illustrate the use of 2 publicly available user-friendly programs (Stata and SAS) to implement meta-analysis for dose-response data. PMID:22135359

  4. Meta-analysis for linear and nonlinear dose-response relations: examples, an evaluation of approximations, and software.

    PubMed

    Orsini, Nicola; Li, Ruifeng; Wolk, Alicja; Khudyakov, Polyna; Spiegelman, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Two methods for point and interval estimation of relative risk for log-linear exposure-response relations in meta-analyses of published ordinal categorical exposure-response data have been proposed. The authors compared the results of a meta-analysis of published data using each of the 2 methods with the results that would be obtained if the primary data were available and investigated the circumstances under which the approximations required for valid use of each meta-analytic method break down. They then extended the methods to handle nonlinear exposure-response relations. In the present article, methods are illustrated using studies of the relation between alcohol consumption and colorectal and lung cancer risks from the ongoing Pooling Project of Prospective Studies of Diet and Cancer. In these examples, the differences between the results of a meta-analysis of summarized published data and the pooled analysis of the individual original data were small. However, incorrectly assuming no correlation between relative risk estimates for exposure categories from the same study gave biased confidence intervals for the trend and biased P values for the tests for nonlinearity and between-study heterogeneity when there was strong confounding by other model covariates. The authors illustrate the use of 2 publicly available user-friendly programs (Stata and SAS) to implement meta-analysis for dose-response data. PMID:22135359

  5. Towards obtaining spatiotemporally precise responses to continuous sensory stimuli in humans: a general linear modeling approach to EEG.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Nuno R; Whelan, Robert; Foxe, John J; Lalor, Edmund C

    2014-08-15

    Noninvasive investigation of human sensory processing with high temporal resolution typically involves repeatedly presenting discrete stimuli and extracting an average event-related response from scalp recorded neuroelectric or neuromagnetic signals. While this approach is and has been extremely useful, it suffers from two drawbacks: a lack of naturalness in terms of the stimulus and a lack of precision in terms of the cortical response generators. Here we show that a linear modeling approach that exploits functional specialization in sensory systems can be used to rapidly obtain spatiotemporally precise responses to complex sensory stimuli using electroencephalography (EEG). We demonstrate the method by example through the controlled modulation of the contrast and coherent motion of visual stimuli. Regressing the data against these modulation signals produces spatially focal, highly temporally resolved response measures that are suggestive of specific activation of visual areas V1 and V6, respectively, based on their onset latency, their topographic distribution and the estimated location of their sources. We discuss our approach by comparing it with fMRI/MRI informed source analysis methods and, in doing so, we provide novel information on the timing of coherent motion processing in human V6. Generalizing such an approach has the potential to facilitate the rapid, inexpensive spatiotemporal localization of higher perceptual functions in behaving humans. PMID:24736185

  6. Sensitivity analysis of the non-linear dynamic viscoplastic response of 2-d structures with respect to material parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Makarand; Noor, Ahmed K.

    1995-01-01

    A computational procedure is presented for evaluating the sensitivity coefficients of the viscoplastic response of structures subjected to dynamic loading. A state of plane stress is assumed to exist in the structure, a velocity strain-Cauchy stress formulation is used, and the geometric non-linearities arising from large strains are incorporated. The Jaumann rate is used as a frame indifferent stress rate. The material model is chosen to be isothermal viscoplasticity, and an associated flow rule is used with a von Mises effective stress. The equations of motion emanating from a finite element semi-discretization are integrated using an explicit central difference scheme with an implicit stress update. The sensitivity coefficients are evaluated using a direct differentiation approach. Since the domain of integration is the current configuration, the sensitivity coefficients of the spatial derivatives of the shape functions must be included. Numerical results are presented for a thin plate with a central cutout subjected to an in-plane compressive loading. The sensitivity coefficients are generated by evaluating the derivatives of the response quantities with respect to Young's modulus, and two of the material parameters characterizing the viscoplastic response. Time histories of the response and sensitivity coefficients, and spatial distributions at selected times are presented.

  7. An investigation into linearity with cumulative emissions of the climate and carbon cycle response in HadCM3LC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddicoat, S. K.; Booth, B. B. B.; Joshi, M. M.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the extent to which global mean temperature, precipitation, and the carbon cycle are constrained by cumulative carbon emissions throughout four experiments with a fully coupled climate–carbon cycle model. The paired experiments adopt contrasting, idealised approaches to climate change mitigation at different action points this century, with total emissions rising to more than two trillion tonnes of carbon (TtC). For each pair, the contrasting mitigation approaches—capping emissions early versus reducing them to zero a few decades later—cause their cumulative emissions trajectories to diverge initially, then converge, cross, and diverge again. We find that global mean temperature is linear with cumulative emissions across all experiments, although differences of up to 1.5 K exist regionally when the trajectories of total carbon emitted during the course of the two scenarios coincide, for both pairs of experiments. Interestingly, although the oceanic precipitation response scales with cumulative emissions, the global precipitation response does not, due to a decrease in precipitation over land above emissions of around one TtC. Most carbon fluxes are less well constrained by cumulative emissions as they reach two trillion tonnes. The opposing mitigation approaches have different consequences for the Amazon rainforest, which affects the linearity with which the carbon cycle responds to cumulative emissions. The average Transient Climate Response to cumulative carbon Emissions (TCRE) is 1.95 K TtC‑1, at the upper end of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s range of 0.8–2.5 K TtC‑1.

  8. Response of semicircular canal dependent units in vestibular nuclei to rotation of a linear acceleration vector without angular acceleration

    PubMed Central

    Benson, A. J.; Guedry, F. E.; Jones, G. Melvill

    1970-01-01

    1. Recent experiments have shown that rotation of a linear acceleration vector round the head can generate involuntary ocular nystagmus in the absence of angular acceleration. The present experiments examine the suggestion that adequate stimulation of the semicircular canals may contribute to this response. 2. Decerebrate cats were located in a stereotaxic device on a platform, slung from four parallel cables, which could be driven smoothly round a circular orbit without inducing significant angular movement of the platform. This Parallel Swing Rotation (PSR) generated a centripetal acceleration of 4·4 m/sec2 which rotated round the head at 0·52 rev/sec. 3. The discharge frequency of specifically lateral canal-dependent neural units in the vestibular nuclei of cats was recorded during PSR to right and left, and in the absence of motion. The dynamic responses to purely angular motion were also examined on a servo-driven turntable. 4. Without exception all proven canal-dependent cells examined (twenty-nine cells in nine cats) were more active during PSR in the direction of endolymph circulation assessed to be excitatory to the unit, than during PSR in the opposite direction. 5. The observed changes in discharge frequency are assessed to have been of a magnitude appropriate for the generation of the involuntary oculomotor response induced by the same stimulus in the intact animal. 6. The findings suggest that a linear acceleration vector which rotates in the plane of the lateral semicircular canals can be an adequate stimulus to ampullary receptors, though an explanation which invokes the modulation of canal cells by a signal dependent upon the sequential activation of macular receptors cannot be positively excluded. PMID:5501270

  9. Origins of Total-Dose Response Variability in Linear Bipolar Microcircuits

    SciTech Connect

    BARNABY,H.J.; CIRBA,C.R.; SCHRIMPF,R.D.; FLEETWOOD,D.M.; PEASE,R.L.; SHANEYFELT,MARTY R.; TURFLINGER,T.; KRIEG,J.F.; MAHER,M.C.

    2000-11-15

    LM1ll voltage comparators exhibit a wide range of total-dose-induced degradation. Simulations show this variability may be a natural consequence of the low base doping of the substrate PNP (SPNP) input transistors. Low base doping increases the SPNP's collector to base breakdown voltage, current gain, and sensitivity to small fluctuations in the radiation-induced oxide defect densities. The build-up of oxide trapped charge (N{sub ot}) and interface traps (N{sub it}) is shown to be a function of pre-irradiation bakes. Experimental data indicate that, despite its structural similarities to the LM111, irradiated input transistors of the LM124 operational amplifier do not exhibit the same sensitivity to variations in pre-irradiation thermal cycles. Further disparities in LM111 and LM124 responses may result from a difference in the oxide defect build-up in the two part types. Variations in processing, packaging, and circuit effects are suggested as potential explanations.

  10. The assessment of in-flight dynamic range and response linearity of optical payloads onboard GF-1 satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Caixia; Ma, Lingling; Liu, Yaokai; Wang, Ning; Qian, Yonggang; Tang, Lingli; Li, Chuanrong

    2014-11-01

    Dynamic range and response linearity are two key parameters for impacting the quality of remote sensing image and subsequently the quantitative applications. Due to the space radiation and the degrading of electronic devices, the inflight dynamic range and response linearity of remote sensing payload are subject to change, and is essential to be assessed. Therefore, in this paper, with the aid of the permanent artificial target located in the AOE Baotou site in China, the two parameters for pan-chromatic camera (Pan) and the multi-spectral camera (Band 1-4) onboard GF-1 satellite are assessed with an extrapolation method using the in situ measurements and corresponding images acquired on November 4, 2013. The results show that the low point of the dynamic range for Pan band, Band 1, Band2, Band3 and Band4 is -24.08 W•sr-1m-2μm-1, -52.22 W•sr-1m-2μm-1, -35.20 W•sr-1m-2μm-1, -31.92 W•sr-1m-2μm-1, -24.07 W•sr-1m-2μm- 1 respectively; while the corresponding high point is 271.77 W•sr-1m-2μm-1, 401.58 W•sr-1m-2μm-1, 287.46 W•sr-1m- 2μm-1, 237.33W•sr-1m-2μm-1, 307.49W•sr-1m-2μm-1, respectively; meanwhile, it is demonstrated that all the sensors have a response linearity error of lower than 1%. Moreover, an analysis for this assessment is performed in terms of the uncertainties for surface reflectance measurement (1%), aerosol optical depth (10%), column water vapor (10%), MODTRAN model (1%) and solar irradiance (1%) using a simulation method with the aid of MODTRAN 4.0 model, and a total uncertainty of 2.12% is acquired.

  11. Elastocapillary Deformations and Fracture of Soft Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, Karen; Grzelka, Marion; Bostwick, Joshua

    When a droplet is placed on the surface of a soft gel, the surface deforms by an amount proportional to the elastocapillary length calculated from the ratio of surface tension and elastic modulus. For sufficiently large deformations, the gel can fracture due to the forces generated under the liquid-gel contact line. We observe that a starburst of channel fractures forms at the surface of the gel, driven by fluid propagating away from the central droplet. To understand the initiation of these cracks, we model the substrate as an incompressible, linear-elastic solid and quantify the elastic response. This provides quantitative agreement with experimental measurements of the number of fracture arms as a function of material properties and geometric parameters. In addition, we find that the initiation process is thermally-activated, with delay time that decreases as a function of the elastocapillary length.

  12. Linear response and Berry curvature in two-dimensional topological phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradlyn, Barry J.

    cannot contribute to low-temperature thermoelectric transport other than the ordinary Hall conductivity; the other thermoelectric effects (if they occur) are thus purely edge effects. The stress response to time-dependent strains is given by the Hall viscosity, which is robust against perturbations and related to the spin current. Finally, we address the issue of calculating the topological central charge from bulk wavefunctions for a topological phase. Using the form of the topological terms in the induced action, we show that we can calculate the various coefficients of these terms as Berry curvatures associated to certain metric and electromagnetic vector potential perturbations. We carry out this computation explicitly for quantum Hall trial wavefunctions that can be represented as conformal blocks in a chiral conformal field theory (CFT). These calculations make use of the gauge and gravitational anomalies in the underlying chiral CFT.

  13. Spinal deformity.

    PubMed

    Bunnell, W P

    1986-12-01

    Spinal deformity is a relatively common disorder, particularly in teenage girls. Early detection is possible by a simple, quick visual inspection that should be a standard part of the routine examination of all preteen and teenage patients. Follow-up observation will reveal those curvatures that are progressive and permit orthotic treatment to prevent further increase in the deformity. Spinal fusion offers correction and stabilization of more severe degrees of scoliosis. PMID:3786010

  14. Non-Linear Vibration Characteristics of Clamped Laminated Shallow Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ABE, A.; KOBAYASHI, Y.; YAMADA, G.

    2000-07-01

    This paper examines non-linear free vibration characteristics of first and second vibration modes of laminated shallow shells with rigidly clamped edges. Non-linear equations of motion for the shells based on the first order shear deformation and classical shell theories are derived by means of Hamilton's principle. We apply Galerkin's procedure to the equations of motion in which eigenvectors for first and second modes of linear vibration obtained by the Ritz method are employed as trial functions. Then simultaneous non-linear ordinary differential equations are derived in terms of amplitudes of the first and second vibration modes. Backbone curves for the first and second vibration modes are solved numerically by the Gauss-Legendre integration method and the shooting method respectively. The effects of lamination sequences and transverse shear deformation on the behavior are discussed. It is also shown that the motion of the first vibration mode affects the response for the second vibration mode.

  15. Response of deformation patterns to reorganizations of the southern San Andreas fault system since ca. 1.5 Ma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, M. L.; Fattaruso, L.; Dorsey, R. J.; Housen, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    Between ~1.5 and 1.1 Ma, the southern San Andreas fault system underwent a major reorganization that included initiation of the San Jacinto fault and termination of slip on the extensional West Salton detachment fault. The southern San Andreas fault itself has also evolved since this time, with several shifts in activity among fault strands within San Gorgonio Pass. We use three-dimensional mechanical Boundary Element Method models to investigate the impact of these changes to the fault network on deformation patterns. A series of snapshot models of the succession of active fault geometries explore the role of fault interaction and tectonic loading in abandonment of the West Salton detachment fault, initiation of the San Jacinto fault, and shifts in activity of the San Andreas fault. Interpreted changes to uplift patterns are well matched by model results. These results support the idea that growth of the San Jacinto fault led to increased uplift rates in the San Gabriel Mountains and decreased uplift rates in the San Bernardino Mountains. Comparison of model results for vertical axis rotation to data from paleomagnetic studies reveals a good match to local rotation patterns in the Mecca Hills and Borrego Badlands. We explore the mechanical efficiency at each step in the evolution, and find an overall trend toward increased efficiency through time. Strain energy density patterns are used to identify regions of off-fault deformation and potential incipient faulting. These patterns support the notion of north-to-south propagation of the San Jacinto fault during its initiation. The results of the present-day model are compared with microseismicity focal mechanisms to provide additional insight into the patterns of off-fault deformation within the southern San Andreas fault system.

  16. Dose-Volume Response Relationship for Brain Metastases Treated with Frameless Single-Fraction Linear Accelerator-Based Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Jianmin; Yusuf, Mehran B; Dragun, Anthony; Dunlap, Neal; Guan, Timothy; Boling, Warren; Rai, Shesh; Woo, Shiao

    2016-01-01

    Background: Our aim was to identify a dose-volume response relationship for brain metastases treated with frameless stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods: We reviewed patients who underwent frameless single-fraction linear accelerator SRS for brain metastases between 2007 and 2013 from an institutional database. Proportional hazards modeling was used to identify predictors of outcome. A ratio of maximum lesion dose per mm-diameter (Gy/mm) was constructed to establish a dose-volume relationship. Results: There were 316 metastases evaluated in 121 patients (2 - 33 mm in the largest diameter). The median peripheral dose was 18.0 Gy (range: 10.0 – 24.0 Gy). Local control was 84.8% for all lesions and was affected by location, peripheral dose, maximum dose, and lesion size (p values < 0.050). A dose-volume response relationship was constructed using the maximum dose and lesion size. A unit increase in Gy/mm was associated with decreased local failure (p = 0.005). Local control of 80%, 85%, and 90% corresponded to maximum doses per millimeter of 1.67 Gy/mm, 2.86 Gy/mm, and 4.4 Gy/mm, respectively. Toxicity was uncommon and only 1.0% of lesions developed radionecrosis requiring surgery. Conclusions: For brain metastases less than 3 cm, a dose-volume response relationship exists between maximum radiosurgical dose and lesion size, which is predictive of local control. PMID:27284495

  17. Active intraplate deformation as geodynamic responses to oblique shallow subduction of a flat slab: example from central and southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    Subduction of a flat slab has been recognized as one of the primary driving mechanism of wide intracontinental subsidence farther away from the subduction leading edge in many subduction margins. In most cases, however, quantitative and qualitative limitations on chronological constraints prevent comprehensive understanding of these geodynamic linkages. In this study, we show distinct, geologic and seismic evidence for spatial and temporal correlation between plate subduction and intercontinental deformation, mainly driven by dynamic interaction between subducting Philippine Sea (PHS) plate and overriding continental crusts of central and southwest Japan (Eurasian plate) along the Nankai-Tonankai subduction zone since Pliocene. Based on analyses of Pliocene to Pleistocene tectonic histories by use of rich dataset of Neogene stratigraphy, drainage network evolution, and shallow to deep seismic reflection profiles, depocenters of wide sedimentary basins and active thrusting have migrated northward since ca. 5 Ma to present from forearc to backarc of the southwest Japan arc. Median tectonic line, active dextral strike-slip fault as a forearc sliver along the Nankai, is located north of the upward extension of the downdip limit of the interseismic locked zone. Southwest Japan north of the MTL, underlain by the subducting slab with steady state slip (Nakanishi et al., 2002; Kodaira et al., 2004), appears tectonically less inactive than central Japan and has behaved as a less deformed rigid block. Contrastingly, Quaternary active intraplate deformation has been prominent north of the inactive MTL above a shallow flat segment of the PHS plate along the Tonankai. Deep seismic reflection profile images upward corrugated very shallow PHS slab being contact with continental lower crust beneath actively deforming area. We interpreted temporal and spatial correlation of oblique subduction of the shallow and flat, corrugated PHS slab as an essential mechanical role to enhance

  18. Wheat Drought-Responsive Grain Proteome Analysis by Linear and Nonlinear 2-DE and MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shan-Shan; Liang, Xiao-Na; Li, Xin; Wang, Shun-Li; Lv, Dong-Wen; Ma, Chao-Ying; Li, Xiao-Hui; Ma, Wu-Jun; Yan, Yue-Ming

    2012-01-01

    A comparative proteomic analysis of drought-responsive proteins during grain development of two wheat varieties Kauz (strong resistance to drought stress) and Janz (sensitive to drought stress) was performed by using linear and nonlinear 2-DE and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry technologies. Results revealed that the nonlinear 2-DE had much higher resolution than the linear 2-DE. A total of 153 differentially expressed protein spots were detected by both 2-DE maps, of which 122 protein spots were identified by MALDI-TOF and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. The identified differential proteins were mainly involved in carbohydrate metabolism (26%), detoxification and defense (23%), and storage proteins (17%). Some key proteins demonstrated significantly different expression patterns between the two varieties. In particular, catalase isozyme 1, WD40 repeat protein, LEA and alpha-amylase inhibitors displayed an upregulated expression pattern in Kauz, whereas they were downregulated or unchanged in Janz. Small and large subunit ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase, ascorbate peroxidase and G beta-like protein were all downregulated under drought stress in Janz, but had no expression changes in Kauz. Sucrose synthase and triticin precursor showed an upregulated expression pattern under water deficits in both varieties, but their upregulation levels were much higher in Kauz than in Janz. These differentially expressed proteins could be related to the biochemical pathways for stronger drought resistance of Kauz. PMID:23443111

  19. Mean field linear response within the elimination of the small component formalism to evaluate relativistic effects on magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roura, P. G.; Melo, J. I.; Ruiz de Azúa, M. C.; Giribet, C. G.

    2006-08-01

    The linear response within the elimination of the small component formalism is aimed at obtaining the leading order relativistic corrections to magnetic molecular properties in the context of the elimination of the small component approximation. In the present work we extend the method in order to include two-body effects in the form of a mean field one-body operator. To this end we consider the four-component Dirac-Hartree-Fock operator as the starting point in the evaluation of the second order relativistic expression of magnetic properties. The approach thus obtained is the fully consistent leading order approximation of the random phase approximation four-component formalism. The mean field effect on the relativistic corrections to both the diamagnetic and paramagnetic terms of magnetic properties taking into account both the Coulomb and Breit two-body interactions is considered.

  20. Electrostatic Solvation Free Energy of Amino Acid Side Chain Analogs: Implications for the Validity of Electrostatic Linear Response in Water

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Bin; Pettitt, Bernard M.

    2011-04-15

    Electrostatic free energies of solvation for 15 neutral amino acid side chain analogs are computed. We compare three methods of varying computational complexity and accuracy for three force fields: free energy simulations, Poisson-Boltzmann (PB), and linear response approximation (LRA) using AMBER, CHARMM, and OPLSAA force fields. We find that deviations from simulation start at low charges for solutes. The approximate PB and LRA produce an overestimation of electrostatic solvation free energies for most of molecules studied here. These deviations are remarkably systematic. The variations among force fields are almost as large as the variations found among methods. Our study confirms that success of the approximate methods for electrostatic solvation free energies comes from their ability to evaluate free energy differences accurately.

  1. Linear sea-level response of Antarctic tributaries to strong projected ocean warming underneath the Filchner-Ronne ice shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengel, Matthias; Feldmann, Johannes; Levermann, Anders

    2015-04-01

    Antarctica is the biggest potential contributor to future sea-level rise. Whether its ice discharge will become unstable and decouple from the anthropogenic forcing or increase linearly with the warming of the surrounding ocean is of fundamental importance for future projections. Under continued greenhouse-gas emissions, ocean models indicate the possibility of an abrupt intrusion of warm circumpolar deep water into the cavity below the Filchner-Ronne ice shelf within the next two centuries. The retrograde bed slope of the tributaries of this ice shelf suggests that an unstable ice-sheet retreat is possible in this region while the buttressing of the ice shelf and the narrow glacier troughs tend to inhibit such instability. So far, it is unclear whether the instability or the external forcing will dominate future ice losses for the highly buttressed tributaries. Here we show in regional and continental-scale ice-sheet simulations, which are capable of resolving unstable grounding line retreat, that the ice instability does not dominate the sea-level response of the Filchner-Ronne tributaries but that the discharge follows the strength of the forcing quasi-linearly. Exploring the ice-sheet response to melt-pulses from ocean projections with abrupt warm-water intrusion, we find that ice loss reduces after the end of each pulse and the long-term sea-level contribution is approximately proportional to the total shelf-ice melt. Although the local instabilities might dominate the ice loss for weak oceanic warming, we find that the upper limit of ice discharge from the region is determined by the forcing and not by the marine ice sheet instability. Generally, fast anthropogenic warming may override instabilities in inert cryospheric systems regarding their contribution to future sea level rise.

  2. Linear response of mutans streptococci to increasing frequency of xylitol chewing gum use: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN43479664

    PubMed Central

    Ly, Kiet A; Milgrom, Peter; Roberts, Marilyn C; Yamaguchi, David K; Rothen, Marilynn; Mueller, Greg

    2006-01-01

    Background Xylitol is a naturally occurring sugar substitute that has been shown to reduce the level of mutans streptococci in plaque and saliva and to reduce tooth decay. It has been suggested that the degree of reduction is dependent on both the amount and the frequency of xylitol consumption. For xylitol to be successfully and cost-effectively used in public health prevention strategies dosing and frequency guidelines should be established. This study determined the reduction in mutans streptococci levels in plaque and unstimulated saliva to increasing frequency of xylitol gum use at a fixed total daily dose of 10.32 g over five weeks. Methods Participants (n = 132) were randomized to either active groups (10.32 g xylitol/day) or a placebo control (9.828 g sorbitol and 0.7 g maltitol/day). All groups chewed 12 pieces of gum per day. The control group chewed 4 times/day and active groups chewed xylitol gum at a frequency of 2 times/day, 3 times/day, or 4 times/day. The 12 gum pieces were evenly divided into the frequency assigned to each group. Plaque and unstimulated saliva samples were taken at baseline and five-weeks and were cultured on modified Mitis Salivarius agar for mutans streptococci enumeration. Results There were no significant differences in mutans streptococci level among the groups at baseline. At five-weeks, mutans streptococci levels in plaque and unstimulated saliva showed a linear reduction with increasing frequency of xylitol chewing gum use at the constant daily dose. Although the difference observed for the group that chewed xylitol 2 times/day was consistent with the linear model, the difference was not significant. Conclusion There was a linear reduction in mutans streptococci levels in plaque and saliva with increasing frequency of xylitol gum use at a constant daily dose. Reduction at a consumption frequency of 2 times per day was small and consistent with the linear-response line but was not statistically significant. PMID:16556326

  3. Linear Versus Non-Linear Dose-Response Relationship Between Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Meconium Concentration of Nine Different Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters.

    PubMed

    Yang, J Y; Kwak, H S; Han, J Y; Choi, J S; Ahn, H K; Oh, Y J; Velázquez-Armenta, E Y; Nava-Ocampo, A A

    2015-01-01

    Presence of individual fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in meconium is considered to be a reliable biomarker of prenatal alcohol exposure, and their concentration has been found to be linearly associated with poor postnatal development, supporting the widely extended idea that ethanol is a non-threshold teratogen. However, a growing number of epidemiological studies have consistently found a lack of adverse short- and long-term fetal outcomes at low exposure levels. We therefore aimed to investigate the relationship between the concentration of individual FAEEs and prenatal alcohol exposure in meconium samples collected within the first 6 to 12?h after birth from 182 babies born to abstainer mothers and from 54 babies born to women who self-reported either light or moderate alcohol ingestion in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. In most cases, the individual FAEE concentrations were negligible and not significantly different (P >0.05) between exposed and control babies. The concentrations appeared to increase linearly with the dose only in the few babies born to mothers who reported >3 drinks/week. These results provide evidence that the correlation between prenatal alcohol exposure and individual FAEE concentrations in meconium is non-linear shape, with a threshold probably at 3 drinks/week. PMID:26691866

  4. One dimensional equivalent linear ground response analysis - A case study of collapsed Margalla Tower in Islamabad during 2005 Muzaffarabad Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, Khalid; Rehman, Zia-ur-; Farooq, Khalid; Memon, Shazim Ali

    2016-07-01

    One dimensional equivalent linear ground response analysis was conducted in the Margalla Tower building in Islamabad, which collapsed during 2005 Muzaffarabad Earthquake. The analyses were conducted in DEEPSOIL software, without considering the effect of ground water table. The input subsoil data were selected from laboratory and field tests conducted for the site with bedrock at a depth of 21 m as per site condition. The field and laboratory testing data showed that the subsoil beneath the Tower site was silty clay to lean clay according to the unified soil classification system. Four different accelerograms with PGA values of 0.17 g, 0.15 g, 0.22 g and 0.21 g, compatible with the earthquake in the target area were applied at the bedrock. The surface response spectra showed that, except the Accelerogram-1 all other three were amplified near the fundamental period of the site. The analyses showed that different PGA values (0.26 g, 0.21 g, 0.36 g and 0.21 g) were produced at the surface which can be explained due to the difference in the Fourier amplitude of input accelerograms. Furthermore, the different input accelerograms produced a different shear strain and thus mobilized different shear strengths along the soil profile depth. Finally, the calculated response spectra of accelerograms were compared with the response spectra of Islamabad. The calculated spectral acceleration values were found to be higher than reported by the Building Code of Pakistan (0.16 g to 0.24 g).

  5. Heating/ethanol-response of poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) with gradient pre-deformation and potential temperature sensor and anti-counterfeit applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Haibao; Huang, Wei Min; Lian Wu, Xue; Ge, Yu Chun; Zhang, Fan; Zhao, Yong; Geng, Junfeng

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, the heating/ethanol-response of a commercial poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) is investigated. All PMMA samples are pre-deformed by means of impression (surface compression with a mold) to introduce a gradient pre-strain/stress field. Two types of molds are applied in impression. One is a Singaporean coin and the other is a particularly designed mold with a variable protrusive feature on top. Two potential applications—temperature sensors to monitor overheating temperatures and anti-counterfeit labels with a water-mark that appears only upon heating to a particular temperature—are demonstrated. Since the heating-responsive shape memory effect (SME) is an intrinsic feature of almost all polymers, other conventional polymers may be used in such applications as well.

  6. A Unified Material Description for Light Induced Deformation in Azobenzene Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Bin, Jonghoon; Oates, William S.

    2015-01-01

    Complex light-matter interactions in azobenzene polymers have limited our understanding of how photoisomerization induces deformation as a function of the underlying polymer network and form of the light excitation. A unified modeling framework is formulated to advance the understanding of surface deformation and bulk deformation of polymer films that are controlled by linear or circularly polarized light or vortex beams. It is shown that dipole forces strongly respond to polarized light in contrast to higher order quadrupole forces that are often used to describe surface relief grating deformation through a field gradient constitutive law. The modeling results and comparisons with a broad range of photomechanical data in the literature suggest that the molecular structure of the azobenzene monomers dramatically influences the photostrictive behavior. The results provide important insight for designing azobenzene monomers within a polymer network to achieve enhanced photo-responsive deformation. PMID:26437598

  7. A Unified Material Description for Light Induced Deformation in Azobenzene Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin, Jonghoon; Oates, William S.

    2015-10-01

    Complex light-matter interactions in azobenzene polymers have limited our understanding of how photoisomerization induces deformation as a function of the underlying polymer network and form of the light excitation. A unified modeling framework is formulated to advance the understanding of surface deformation and bulk deformation of polymer films that are controlled by linear or circularly polarized light or vortex beams. It is shown that dipole forces strongly respond to polarized light in contrast to higher order quadrupole forces that are often used to describe surface relief grating deformation through a field gradient constitutive law. The modeling results and comparisons with a broad range of photomechanical data in the literature suggest that the molecular structure of the azobenzene monomers dramatically influences the photostrictive behavior. The results provide important insight for designing azobenzene monomers within a polymer network to achieve enhanced photo-responsive deformation.

  8. Linear Discriminant Analysis Achieves High Classification Accuracy for the BOLD fMRI Response to Naturalistic Movie Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Mandelkow, Hendrik; de Zwart, Jacco A; Duyn, Jeff H

    2016-01-01

    Naturalistic stimuli like movies evoke complex perceptual processes, which are of great interest in the study of human cognition by functional MRI (fMRI). However, conventional fMRI analysis based on statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and the general linear model (GLM) is hampered by a lack of accurate parametric models of the BOLD response to complex stimuli. In this situation, statistical machine-learning methods, a.k.a. multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA), have received growing attention for their ability to generate stimulus response models in a data-driven fashion. However, machine-learning methods typically require large amounts of training data as well as computational resources. In the past, this has largely limited their application to fMRI experiments involving small sets of stimulus categories and small regions of interest in the brain. By contrast, the present study compares several classification algorithms known as Nearest Neighbor (NN), Gaussian Naïve Bayes (GNB), and (regularized) Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) in terms of their classification accuracy in discriminating the global fMRI response patterns evoked by a large number of naturalistic visual stimuli presented as a movie. Results show that LDA regularized by principal component analysis (PCA) achieved high classification accuracies, above 90% on average for single fMRI volumes acquired 2 s apart during a 300 s movie (chance level 0.7% = 2 s/300 s). The largest source of classification errors were autocorrelations in the BOLD signal compounded by the similarity of consecutive stimuli. All classifiers performed best when given input features from a large region of interest comprising around 25% of the voxels that responded significantly to the visual stimulus. Consistent with this, the most informative principal components represented widespread distributions of co-activated brain regions that were similar between subjects and may represent functional networks. In light of these

  9. Linear Discriminant Analysis Achieves High Classification Accuracy for the BOLD fMRI Response to Naturalistic Movie Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Mandelkow, Hendrik; de Zwart, Jacco A.; Duyn, Jeff H.

    2016-01-01

    Naturalistic stimuli like movies evoke complex perceptual processes, which are of great interest in the study of human cognition by functional MRI (fMRI). However, conventional fMRI analysis based on statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and the general linear model (GLM) is hampered by a lack of accurate parametric models of the BOLD response to complex stimuli. In this situation, statistical machine-learning methods, a.k.a. multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA), have received growing attention for their ability to generate stimulus response models in a data-driven fashion. However, machine-learning methods typically require large amounts of training data as well as computational resources. In the past, this has largely limited their application to fMRI experiments involving small sets of stimulus categories and small regions of interest in the brain. By contrast, the present study compares several classification algorithms known as Nearest Neighbor (NN), Gaussian Naïve Bayes (GNB), and (regularized) Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) in terms of their classification accuracy in discriminating the global fMRI response patterns evoked by a large number of naturalistic visual stimuli presented as a movie. Results show that LDA regularized by principal component analysis (PCA) achieved high classification accuracies, above 90% on average for single fMRI volumes acquired 2 s apart during a 300 s movie (chance level 0.7% = 2 s/300 s). The largest source of classification errors were autocorrelations in the BOLD signal compounded by the similarity of consecutive stimuli. All classifiers performed best when given input features from a large region of interest comprising around 25% of the voxels that responded significantly to the visual stimulus. Consistent with this, the most informative principal components represented widespread distributions of co-activated brain regions that were similar between subjects and may represent functional networks. In light of these

  10. Responses to rotating linear acceleration vectors considered in relation to a model of the otolith organs. [human oculomotor response to transverse acceleration stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, A. J.; Barnes, G. R.

    1973-01-01

    Human subjects were exposed to a linear acceleration vector that rotated in the transverse plane of the skull without angular counterrotation. Lateral eye movements showed a sinusoidal change in slow phase velocity and an asymmetry or bias in the same direction as vector rotation. A model is developed that attributes the oculomotor response to otolithic mechanisms. It is suggested that the bias component is the manifestation of torsion of the statoconial plaque relative to the base of the utricular macula and that the sinusoidal component represents the translational oscillation of the statoconia. The model subsumes a hypothetical neural mechanism which allows x- and y-axis accelerations to be resolved. Derivation of equations of motion for the statoconial plaque in torsion and translation, which take into account forces acting in shear and normal to the macula, yield estimates of bias and sinusoidal components that are in qualitative agreement with the diverse experimental findings.

  11. Study of the Performance of an All-Optical Half-Adder Based on Three-Core Non-Linear Directional Fiber Coupler Under Delayed and Instantaneous Non-Linear Kerr Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, J. W. M.; Fraga, W. B.; Lima, F. T.; Guimarães, G. F.; Ferreira, A. C.; Lyra, M. L.; Sombra, A. S. B.

    2011-06-01

    Recently, much attention has been given to the influence of the relaxation process of the non-linear response, because the usual assumption of instantaneous non-linear response fails for ultra-short pulses, and additional contributions coming from non-linear dispersion and delayed non-linearity have to be taken into account. This article presents a numerical analysis of the symmetric planar and asymmetric planar three-core non-linear directional fiber couplers operating with a soliton pulse, where effects of both delayed and instantaneous non-linear Kerr responses are analyzed for implementation of an all-optical half-adder. To implement this all-optical half-adder, eight configurations were analyzed for the non-linear directional fiber coupler, with two symmetric and six asymmetric configurations. The half-adder is the key building block for many digital processing functions, such as shift register, binary counter, and serial parallel data converters. The optical coupler is an important component for applications in optical-fiber telecommunication systems and all integrated optical circuit because of its very high switching speeds. In this numerical simulation, the symmetric/asymmetric planar presents a structure with three cores in a parallel equidistant arrangement, three logical inputs, and two output energy. To prove the effectiveness of the theoretical model for generation of the all-optical half-adder, the best phase to be applied to the control pulse was sought, and a study was done of the extinction ratio level as a function of the Δ > parameter, the normalized time duration, and the Sum and Carry outputs of the (symmetric planar/asymmetric planar) non-linear directional fiber coupler. In this article, the interest is in transmission characteristics, extinction ratio level, normalized time duration, and pulse evolution along the non-linear directional fiber coupler. To compare the performance of the all-optical half-adders, the figure of merit of the

  12. Deformed Palmprint Matching Based on Stable Regions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiangqian; Zhao, Qiushi

    2015-12-01

    Palmprint recognition (PR) is an effective technology for personal recognition. A main problem, which deteriorates the performance of PR, is the deformations of palmprint images. This problem becomes more severe on contactless occasions, in which images are acquired without any guiding mechanisms, and hence critically limits the applications of PR. To solve the deformation problems, in this paper, a model for non-linearly deformed palmprint matching is derived by approximating non-linear deformed palmprint images with piecewise-linear deformed stable regions. Based on this model, a novel approach for deformed palmprint matching, named key point-based block growing (KPBG), is proposed. In KPBG, an iterative M-estimator sample consensus algorithm based on scale invariant feature transform features is devised to compute piecewise-linear transformations to approximate the non-linear deformations of palmprints, and then, the stable regions complying with the linear transformations are decided using a block growing algorithm. Palmprint feature extraction and matching are performed over these stable regions to compute matching scores for decision. Experiments on several public palmprint databases show that the proposed models and the KPBG approach can effectively solve the deformation problem in palmprint verification and outperform the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:26390453

  13. Landscape response to recent tectonic deformation in the SW Pannonian Basin: Evidence from DEM-based morphometric analysis of the Bilogora Mt. area, NE Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matoš, Bojan; Pérez-Peña, José Vicente; Tomljenović, Bruno

    2016-06-01

    Bilogora Mt. area is a transpressional structure located in the NE of Croatia, linked with the tectonic evolution of the Drava Depression. The structure formed during Pliocene and Quaternary from the inversion of NW-striking Drava Depression Boundary Fault, which originated as a normal fault and was reactivated as a dextral strike-slip fault. During Pliocene and Quaternary time, Bilogora Mt. area underwent more than 400 m of differential uplift, while still ongoing tectonic deformation is documented by historical and instrumental seismicity (3.5 ≤ ML ≤ 5.6). In this geomorphic study, the recent deformation in the Bilogora Mt. area, although obscured by landscape evolution variables, was assessed using DEM-based landscape morphometry and a set of morphometric indexes. Local relief and slope angle variability distributions were combined with morphometric indexes computed at the scale of the drainage basin. We analyzed hypsometric curves with the hypsometric integral (HI), basin asymmetry (AF) and parameters of longitudinal stream profiles (Cf, Cmax, Δl/L, θ, and ksn). Analyzed morphometric parameters were combined into a cumulative index of relative tectonic activity (RTA). This index summarizes drainage basin response to the possible recent tectonic activity. Results suggest that most of the tectonic activity is probably located along the NE front of the Bilogora Mt. area, in its NW and central part. This activity could be likely related to recent tectonic activity along the Kalnik Mt. Fault zone and Drava Depression Boundary Fault zones, respectively. A subordinate area characterized by recent tectonic activity could be suggested within the southernmost part of the study area. Quaternary activity in this area is probably related to NE-striking faults in vicinity of the town Daruvar that continue towards the northeast into the study area. Though methodology presented here represents a good identification tool of possible ongoing deformation, this study will be

  14. Quaternary deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.D. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Displaced or deformed rock units and landforms record the past 2 m.y. of faulting, folding, uplift, and subsidence in California. Properly interpreted, such evidence provides a quantitative basis for predicting future earthquake activity and for relating many diverse structures and landforms to the 5 cm/yr of horizontal motion at the boundary between the North American and Pacific plates. Modern techniques of geologic dating and expanded research on earthquake hazards have greatly improved our knowledge of the San Andreas fault system. Much of this new knowledge has been gained since 1965, and that part which concerns crustal deformation during the past 2 m.y. is briefly summarized here.

  15. Non-linear responsivity characterisation of a CMOS Active Pixel Sensor for high resolution imaging of the Jovian system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soman, M.; Stefanov, K.; Weatherill, D.; Holland, A.; Gow, J.; Leese, M.

    2015-02-01

    The Jovian system is the subject of study for the Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer (JUICE), an ESA mission which is planned to launch in 2022. The scientific payload is designed for both characterisation of the magnetosphere and radiation environment local to the spacecraft, as well as remote characterisation of Jupiter and its satellites. A key instrument on JUICE is the high resolution and wide angle camera, JANUS, whose main science goals include detailed characterisation and study phases of three of the Galilean satellites, Ganymede, Callisto and Europa, as well as studies of other moons, the ring system, and irregular satellites. The CIS115 is a CMOS Active Pixel Sensor from e2v technologies selected for the JANUS camera. It is fabricated using 0.18 μ m CMOS imaging sensor process, with an imaging area of 2000 × 1504 pixels, each 7 μ m square. A 4T pixel architecture allows for efficient correlated double sampling, improving the readout noise to better than 8 electrons rms, whilst the sensor is operated in a rolling shutter mode, sampling at up to 10 Mpixel/s at each of the four parallel outputs.A primary parameter to characterise for an imaging device is the relationship that converts the sensor's voltage output back to the corresponding number of electrons that were detected in a pixel, known as the Charge to Voltage Factor (CVF). In modern CMOS sensors with small feature sizes, the CVF is known to be non-linear with signal level, therefore a signal-dependent measurement of the CIS115's CVF has been undertaken and is presented here. The CVF is well modelled as a quadratic function leading to a measurement of the maximum charge handling capacity of the CIS115 to be 3.4 × 104 electrons. If the CIS115's response is assumed linear, its CVF is 21.1 electrons per mV (1/47.5 μ V per electron).

  16. Non-linear relationships between aflatoxin B₁ levels and the biological response of monkey kidney vero cells.

    PubMed

    Rasooly, Reuven; Hernlem, Bradley; He, Xiaohua; Friedman, Mendel

    2013-08-01

    Aflatoxin-producing fungi contaminate food and feed during pre-harvest, storage and processing periods. Once consumed, aflatoxins (AFs) accumulate in tissues, causing illnesses in animals and humans. Most human exposure to AF seems to be a result of consumption of contaminated plant and animal products. The policy of blending and dilution of grain containing higher levels of aflatoxins with uncontaminated grains for use in animal feed implicitly assumes that the deleterious effects of low levels of the toxins are linearly correlated to concentration. This assumption may not be justified, since it involves extrapolation of these nontoxic levels in feed, which are not of further concern. To develop a better understanding of the significance of low dose effects, in the present study, we developed quantitative methods for the detection of biologically active aflatoxin B₁ (AFB1) in Vero cells by two independent assays: the green fluorescent protein (GFP) assay, as a measure of protein synthesis by the cells, and the microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay, as a measure of cell viability. The results demonstrate a non-linear dose-response relationship at the cellular level. AFB1 at low concentrations has an opposite biological effect to higher doses that inhibit protein synthesis. Additional studies showed that heat does not affect the stability of AFB1 in milk and that the Vero cell model can be used to determine the presence of bioactive AFB1 in spiked beef, lamb and turkey meat. The implication of the results for the cumulative effects of low amounts of AFB1 in numerous foods is discussed. PMID:23949006

  17. Preliminary investigation fo the non-linear response of image intensifiers used for gamma-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fastje, David; Barber, H. Bradford; Bora, Vaibhav; Lemieux, Daniel; Miller, Brian; Grim, Gary P.

    2013-09-01

    Image intensifiers combined with columnar scintillators have found application in x-ray and gamma-ray, biomedical imaging and other fields. In scintillator imaging, hundreds or thousands of optical photons can illuminate the faceplate of the image intensifier in a small area, essentially simultaneously. This is a situation not found in the typical design application for an image intensifier, night vision or low-light-level imaging. Microchannel plates (MCPs) are known to exhibit gain saturation that could result in non-linear signal response in scintillator imaging, limiting quantitative measurement capabilities. A calibrated LED photon source was developed that can provide a known average number of photons per unit area in a small spot size, similar to that seen due to a gamma-ray interaction in a BazookaSPECT imager. A BazookaSPECT imager is composed of a columnar scintillator and an image intensifier, with output light optically imaged onto a CCD camera. The calibrated source was used to investigate gain-saturation effects for two Proxivision, GmbH image intensifiers, a single-stage BV 2583 EZ and a two stage BV 2583 QZ-V 100N in a BazookaSPECT imaging configuration. No gain saturation was found for the single-stage image intensifier up to more than 100 optical photons per microchannel, but significant gain-saturation non-linearities were measured in the two-stage image intensifier at high gains for >12 optical photons per microchannel. Implications for scintillator imaging using such systems are discussed.

  18. Non-Linear Relationships between Aflatoxin B1 Levels and the Biological Response of Monkey Kidney Vero Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rasooly, Reuven; Hernlem, Bradley; He, Xiaohua; Friedman, Mendel

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxin-producing fungi contaminate food and feed during pre-harvest, storage and processing periods. Once consumed, aflatoxins (AFs) accumulate in tissues, causing illnesses in animals and humans. Most human exposure to AF seems to be a result of consumption of contaminated plant and animal products. The policy of blending and dilution of grain containing higher levels of aflatoxins with uncontaminated grains for use in animal feed implicitly assumes that the deleterious effects of low levels of the toxins are linearly correlated to concentration. This assumption may not be justified, since it involves extrapolation of these nontoxic levels in feed, which are not of further concern. To develop a better understanding of the significance of low dose effects, in the present study, we developed quantitative methods for the detection of biologically active aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in Vero cells by two independent assays: the green fluorescent protein (GFP) assay, as a measure of protein synthesis by the cells, and the microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay, as a measure of cell viability. The results demonstrate a non-linear dose-response relationship at the cellular level. AFB1 at low concentrations has an opposite biological effect to higher doses that inhibit protein synthesis. Additional studies showed that heat does not affect the stability of AFB1 in milk and that the Vero cell model can be used to determine the presence of bioactive AFB1 in spiked beef, lamb and turkey meat. The implication of the results for the cumulative effects of low amounts of AFB1 in numerous foods is discussed. PMID:23949006

  19. Transient Earth system responses to cumulative carbon dioxide emissions: linearities, uncertainties, and probabilities in an observation-constrained model ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinacher, M.; Joos, F.

    2016-02-01

    Information on the relationship between cumulative fossil CO2 emissions and multiple climate targets is essential to design emission mitigation and climate adaptation strategies. In this study, the transient response of a climate or environmental variable per trillion tonnes of CO2 emissions, termed TRE, is quantified for a set of impact-relevant climate variables and from a large set of multi-forcing scenarios extended to year 2300 towards stabilization. An ˜ 1000-member ensemble of the Bern3D-LPJ carbon-climate model is applied and model outcomes are constrained by 26 physical and biogeochemical observational data sets in a Bayesian, Monte Carlo-type framework. Uncertainties in TRE estimates include both scenario uncertainty and model response uncertainty. Cumulative fossil emissions of 1000 Gt C result in a global mean surface air temperature change of 1.9 °C (68 % confidence interval (c.i.): 1.3 to 2.7 °C), a decrease in surface ocean pH of 0.19 (0.18 to 0.22), and a steric sea level rise of 20 cm (13 to 27 cm until 2300). Linearity between cumulative emissions and transient response is high for pH and reasonably high for surface air and sea surface temperatures, but less pronounced for changes in Atlantic meridional overturning, Southern Ocean and tropical surface water saturation with respect to biogenic structures of calcium carbonate, and carbon stocks in soils. The constrained model ensemble is also applied to determine the response to a pulse-like emission and in idealized CO2-only simulations. The transient climate response is constrained, primarily by long-term ocean heat observations, to 1.7 °C (68 % c.i.: 1.3 to 2.2 °C) and the equilibrium climate sensitivity to 2.9 °C (2.0 to 4.2 °C). This is consistent with results by CMIP5 models but inconsistent with recent studies that relied on short-term air temperature data affected by natural climate variability.

  20. Large Deformations of a Soft Porous Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMinn, Christopher W.; Dufresne, Eric R.; Wettlaufer, John S.

    2016-04-01

    Compressing a porous material will decrease the volume of the pore space, driving fluid out. Similarly, injecting fluid into a porous material can expand the pore space, distorting the solid skeleton. This poromechanical coupling has applications ranging from cell and tissue mechanics to geomechanics and hydrogeology. The classical theory of linear poroelasticity captures this coupling by combining Darcy's law with Terzaghi's effective stress and linear elasticity in a linearized kinematic framework. Linear poroelasticity is a good model for very small deformations, but it becomes increasingly inappropriate for moderate to large deformations, which are common in the context of phenomena such as swelling and damage, and for soft materials such as gels and tissues. The well-known theory of large-deformation poroelasticity combines Darcy's law with Terzaghi's effective stress and nonlinear elasticity in a rigorous kinematic framework. This theory has been used extensively in biomechanics to model large elastic deformations in soft tissues and in geomechanics to model large elastoplastic deformations in soils. Here, we first provide an overview and discussion of this theory with an emphasis on the physics of poromechanical coupling. We present the large-deformation theory in an Eulerian framework to minimize the mathematical complexity, and we show how this nonlinear theory simplifies to linear poroelasticity under the assumption of small strain. We then compare the predictions of linear poroelasticity with those of large-deformation poroelasticity in the context of two uniaxial model problems: fluid outflow driven by an applied mechanical load (the consolidation problem) and compression driven by a steady fluid throughflow. We explore the steady and dynamical errors associated with the linear model in both situations, as well as the impact of introducing a deformation-dependent permeability. We show that the error in linear poroelasticity is due primarily to kinematic

  1. Lobster claw deformity.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Ashish; Agrawal, Rahul; Singh, Rajat; Agrawal, Romi; Agrawal, Seema

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous erythroid colony (EEC) syndrome comprise of three cardinal features, i.e. ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia and cleft lip. EEC itself has three different forms. Ectrodactyly (absence of one or more digits) can be present with clefting in the proximal portion of hand or foot known as split hand foot malformation (SHFM) or lobster claw deformity. SHFM can be of four types depending upon the different responsible chromosomal loci. SHFM-4 can be present as pure limb malformation (non-syndromic form). In this article, describes a rare case report of lobster claw deformity patient. PMID:24992861

  2. Brittle Deformation in the Ordos Basin in response to the Mesozoic destruction of the North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q.; Jiang, L.

    2012-12-01

    Craton is continental block that has been tectonically stable since at least Proterozoic. Some cratons, however, become unstable for some geodynamic reasons. The North China Craton (NCC) is an example. Structure geological, geochemical, and geophysical works have revealed that the NCC was destructed in Cretaceous and that lithosphere thickness beneath the eastern NCC were thinned by 120 km. The present study will focus on deformation of the western NCC, and to understand the effect of the Mesozoic destruction of the North China Craton (NCC). Structural partitioning of the Ordos Basin, which is located in the western NCC, from the eastern NCC occurred during the Mesozoic. Unlike the eastern NCC where many Cretaceous metamorphic core complexes developed, sedimentary cover of the NCC remains nearly horizontal and deformation is manifested by joint. We visited 216 sites of outcrops and got 1928 joints measurements, among which 270 from Jurassic sandstones, 1378 from the Upper Triassic sandstones, 124 from the Middle and Lower Triassic sandstones, and 156 from Paleozoic sandstones. In the interior of the Ordos Basin, joints developed quite well in the Triassic strata, while joints in the Jurassic stata developed weakly and no joint in the Cretaceous strata. The Mesozoic stratigraphic thickness are: 1000 meters for the Lower Triassic, the Middle Triassic sandstone with thickness of 800 meters, 3000 meters for the Upper Triassic, 4000 meters for the Jurassic, and 1100 meters for the Lower Cretaceous. The vertical difference in joint development might be related to the burying depth of the strata: the higher the strata, the smaller the lithostatic stress, and then the weaker the joint. Joints in all stratigraphic levels showed a similar strain direction with the sigma 1 (the maximum pressure stress) vertical and the sigma 3 (the minimum pressure stress) horizontal and running N-S. The unconformity below the Cretaceous further indicates that joints in Jurassic and Triassic

  3. Madelung deformity.

    PubMed

    Ghatan, Andrew C; Hanel, Douglas P

    2013-06-01

    Madelung deformity is a rare congenital anomaly of the wrist caused by asymmetric growth at the distal radial physis secondary to a partial ulnar-sided arrest. The deformity is characterized by ulnar and palmar curvature of the distal radius, positive ulnar variance, and proximal subsidence of the lunate. It more commonly occurs in females than males and typically affects both wrists. The deformity can occur in isolation or as part of a genetic syndrome. The pattern of inheritance varies, with some cases following a pseudoautosomal pattern and many others lacking a clear family history. Nonsurgical management is typically advocated in asymptomatic patients. Few studies exist on the natural history of the condition; however, extensor tendon ruptures have been reported in severe and chronic cases. Stiffness, pain, and patient concerns regarding wrist cosmesis have been cited as indications for surgery. Various techniques for surgical management of Madelung deformity have been described, but clear evidence to support the use of any single approach is lacking. PMID:23728962

  4. A study of microstructure, quasi-static response, fatigue, deformation and fracture behavior of high strength alloy steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, Manigandan

    The history of steel dates back to the 17th century and has been instrumental in the betterment of every aspect of our lives ever since, from the pin that holds the paper together to the Automobile that takes us to our destination steel touches everyone every day. Path breaking improvements in manufacturing techniques, access to advanced machinery and understanding of factors like heat treatment, corrosion resistance have aided in the advancement in the properties of steel in the last few years. In this dissertation document, the results of a study aimed at the influence of alloy chemistry, processing and influence of the quasi static and fatigue behavior of seven alloy steels is discussed. The microstructure of the as-received steel was examined and characterized for the nature and morphology of the grains and the presence of other intrinsic features in the microstructure. The tensile, cyclic fatigue and bending fatigue tests were done on a fully automated closed-loop servo-hydraulic test machine at room temperature. The failed samples of high strength steels were examined in a scanning electron microscope for understanding the fracture behavior, especially the nature of loading be it quasi static, cyclic fatigue or bending fatigue . The quasi static and cyclic fatigue fracture behavior of the steels examined coupled with various factors contributing to failure are briefly discussed in light of the conjoint and mutually interactive influences of intrinsic microstructural effects, nature of loading, and stress (load)-deformation-microstructural interactions.

  5. Identification of combined action types in experiments with two toxicants: a response surface linear model with a cross term.

    PubMed

    Panov, Vladimir G; Varaksin, Anatoly N

    2016-02-01

    Within the framework of the response surface linear model with a cross term, i.e. a model of the type Y(x1, x2) = b0 + b1x1 + b2x2 + b12x1x2 (hyperbolic paraboloid), a complete solution of identification of combined action types of two toxicants x1 and x2 is presented. It is shown that the type of combined effect in this model is determined by two factors: the direction in which the toxicants act (unidirectional or oppositely directed), and the position of the saddle point S of a hyperbolic paraboloid. For unidirectional actions of toxicants, already-known ways to identify the type of combined effect (including a shape of the isobole: concave-up or concave-down) provided identical and unambiguous answers regarding the type of combined effect (antagonism or synergism). For oppositely directed actions of toxicants, the shape of the isobole (concave-up or concave-down) did not allow us to determine the type of combined action type unambiguously. We show that in both cases (unidirectional or oppositely directed actions of toxicants) the signs of the model coefficients b1, b2 and b12, in conjunction with the coordinates of the saddle point S help unambiguously identify the type of combined action by comparing the observed effect with the zero interaction response surface. An atlas of all possibly combined action types for two toxicants for the hyperbolic paraboloid model was created. Applications of the developed formalism to experimental data are provided. PMID:26894918

  6. Linear superposition of retinal action potentials to predict electrical flicker responses from the eye of the wolf spider, Lycosa baltimoriana (Keyserling).

    PubMed

    DE VOE, R D

    1962-09-01

    Retinal action potentials were elicited from light-adapted posterior median ocelli of the wolf spider Lycosa baltimoriana (Keyserling) by rectangular shaped photic stimuli representing 8 per cent increments or decrements of the background illumination. Responses to trains of recurrent incremental or decremental flashes were successfully predicted by graphical linear superposition of a single flash response, which was repeatedly drawn and added to itself at intervals equal to the period of the intermittent stimulus. Incremental stimuli inverted to form decremental stimuli elicited responses which were also inverted. Responses to single incremental flashes were successfully predicted by linear superposition of the response to one incremental step stimulus, which was inverted and added to itself at an interval equal to the duration of the flash. PMID:13884591

  7. Novel optical fiber sensor for deformation measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, Haiting; Sun, Suping; Yu, Jianqiang; Liu, Renqiang

    2010-10-01

    A light intensity modulation optical fiber sensor, which can measure deformation directly, has been developed. A light leakage zone is introduced on one side of fiber to increase the sensitivity of fiber under deformation. The machining process of sensor is considered. Hand carving, milling and embossing methods are introduced to produce the light leakage zone respectively, and the comparison between these methods is carried out. To obtain the static curve of sensor, cantilevered beam, simple support beam and cylinders are used respectively to measure little and large deformation. The static characters of sensor, such as sensitivity and measurement range, are analyzed from the static curve. The experimental results show that the sensor can distinguish the direction of deformation (positive bending and negative bending). Positive bending increases the throughput of light, and is distinguishable from negative bending, which decreases the throughput. The output of sensor is linear with curvature when the curvature radius is larger than 60mm. The response of sensor is a cosine function with the direction of deformation and there is a maximum sensitivity direction (perpendicular to the light leakage zone plane and passing through the axis of the fiber) and a minimum sensitivity direction (parallel to light leakage zone plane and pass through the axis of the fiber). The dynamic responds of attenuation vibration and sawtooth input signal are studied. Comparison between the optical fiber sensor, untreated fiber and strain gauge shows that the sensor is 400 times of untreated fiber in sensitivity and is more advantageous in measurement of thin structures. The sensor is easily made by multi-mode plastic optical fiber and the detection equipments are very simple, therefore it is small in size, simple in structure and low in cost, which make the sensor can be widely used in various fields.

  8. Number-conserving linear-response study of low-velocity ion stopping in a collisional magnetized classical plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Nersisyan, Hrachya B.; Deutsch, Claude; Das, Amal K.

    2011-03-15

    The results of a theoretical investigation of the low-velocity stopping power of ions in a magnetized collisional and classical plasma are reported. The stopping power for an ion is calculated through the linear-response (LR) theory. The collisions, which lead to a damping of the excitations in the plasma, are taken into account through a number-conserving relaxation time approximation in the LR function. In order to highlight the effects of collisions and magnetic field, we present a comparison of our analytical and numerical results obtained for nonzero damping or magnetic field with those for vanishing damping or magnetic field. It is shown that the collisions remove the anomalous friction obtained previously [Nersisyan et al., Phys. Rev. E 61, 7022 (2000)] for the collisionless magnetized plasmas at low ion velocities. One of the major objectives of this paper is to compare and to contrast our theoretical results with those obtained through a diffusion coefficient formulation based on the Dufty-Berkovsky relation evaluated for a magnetized one-component plasma modeled with target ions and electrons.

  9. Plastic deformation, wrinkling, and recovery in microgel multilayers†

    PubMed Central

    Gaulding, Jeffrey C.; Spears, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Microgel multi-layer films assembled from anionic particles and linear polycation were prepared on elastomeric substrates and their self-healing properties studied. Dried films were imaged in situ during mechanical deformation and were determined to undergo plastic deformation in response to linear strain, leading to film buckling upon strain relaxation. Hydration leads to rapid reorganization of the film building blocks, permitting recovery of the film to the undamaged state. Additionally, films were determined to heal in the presence of high relative humidity environments, suggesting that film swelling and hydration is a major factor in the restoration of film integrity, and that full immersion in solvent is not required for healing. Films prepared from microgels with lower levels of acid content and/or polycation length, factors strongly connected to the charge density and presumably the connectivity of the film, also display self-healing characteristics. PMID:24443657

  10. Dissipation in deforming chaotic billiards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Alexander Harvey

    Chaotic billiards (hard-walled cavities) in two or more dimensions are paradigm systems in the fields of classical and quantum chaos. We study the dissipation (irreversible heating) rate in such billiard systems due to general shape deformations which are periodic in time. We are motivated by older studies of one-body nuclear dissipation and by anticipated mesoscopic applications. We review the classical and quantum linear response theories of dissipation rate and demonstrate their correspondence in the semiclassical limit. In both pictures, heating is a result of stochastic energy spreading. The heating rate can be expressed as a frequency-dependent friction coefficient μ(ω), which depends on billiard shape and deformation choice. We show that there is a special class of deformations for which μ vanishes as like a power law in the small- ω limit. Namely, for deformations which cause translations and dilations μ ~ ω4 whereas for those which cause rotations μ ~ ω2. This contrasts the generic case for which μ ~ ω4 We show how a systematic treatment of this special class leads to an improved version of the `wall formula' estimate for μ(0). We show that the special nature of dilation (a new result) is semiclassically equivalent to a quasi- orthogonality relation between the (undeformed) billiard quantum eigenstates on the boundary. This quasi- orthogonality forms the heart of a `scaling method' for the numerical calculation of quantum eigenstates, invented recently by Vergini and Saraceno. The scaling method is orders of magnitude more efficient than any other known billiard quantization method, however an adequate explanation for its success has been lacking until now. We explain the scaling method, its errors, and applications. We also present improvements to Heller's plane wave method. Two smaller projects conclude the thesis. Firstly, we give a new formalism for quantum point contact (QPC) conductance in terms of scattering cross-section in the half

  11. On the unphysical solutions of the Kadanoff-Baym equations in linear response: Correlation-induced homogeneous density-distribution and attractors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The Kadanoff-Baym equations, which allow for the calculation of time-dependent expectation values of all one-particle observables, are found to yield unphysical electron density dynamics in the linear and nonlinear response, for Φ -derivable approximations, irrespective of interaction strength or type. In particular, we show that when calculated from the Kadanoff-Baym equations using correlated self-energy approximations, the linear response dynamics of isolated electron systems damps to an unphysical homogeneous density-distribution. The damping is also present for Hartree or Hartree-Fock self-energies. These surprising results supplement previous findings on the nonlinear response, and complement them by showing that the linear response is also plagued by unphysical dynamics. Being universal, this additional feature indicates the possible presence of an attractor that leads to amplitude death and a subsequent tendency to a homogeneous charge and density distribution. This unveils a scenario in which the Kadanoff-Baym dynamics simply breaks down, drastically restricting the parameter space for which the method can give physically meaningful insights. In addition to their relevance to the field of ultrafast electron dynamics in isolated and open systems, these findings may also impact the results obtained with the Bethe-Salpeter equation in linear response, due to the well-known equivalency between the two methods. This suggests the need for a different approach to the dynamics of quantum systems.

  12. Europium- and lithium-doped yttrium oxide nanocrystals that provide a linear emissive response with X-ray radiation exposure†

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Ian N.; Belley, Matthew D.; Nguyen, Giao; Rodrigues, Anna; Li, Yifan; Kirsch, David G.; Yoshizumi, Terry T.

    2015-01-01

    Eu- and Li-doped yttrium oxide nanocrystals [Y2−xO3; Eux, Liy], in which Eu and Li dopant ion concentrations were systematically varied, were developed and characterized (TEM, XRD, Raman spectroscopic, UV-excited lifetime, and ICP-AES data) in order to define the most emissive compositions under specific X-ray excitation conditions. These optimized [Y2−xO3; Eux, Liy] compositions display scintillation responses that: (i) correlate linearly with incident radiation exposure at X-ray energies spanning from 40–220 kVp, and (ii) manifest no evidence of scintillation intensity saturation at the highest evaluated radiation exposures [up to 4 Roentgen per second]. For the most emissive nanoscale scintillator composition, [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16], excitation energies of 40, 120, and 220 kVp were chosen to probe the dependence of the integrated emission intensity upon X-ray exposure-rate in energy regimes having different mass-attenuation coefficients and where either the photoelectric or the Compton effect governs the scintillation mechanism. These experiments demonstrate for the first time for that for comparable radiation exposures, when the scintillation mechanism is governed by the photoelectric effect and a comparably larger mass-attenuation coefficient (120 kVp excitation), greater integrated emission intensities are recorded relative to excitation energies where the Compton effect regulates scintillation (220 kVp) in nanoscale [Y2−xO3; Eux] crystals. Nanoscale [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16] (70 ± 20 nm) was further exploited as a detector material in a prototype fiber-optic radiation sensor. The scintillation intensity from the [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16]-modified, 400 μm sized optical fiber tip, recorded using a CCD-photodetector and integrated over the 605–617 nm wavelength domain, was correlated with radiation exposure using a Precision XRAD 225Cx small-animal image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) system. For both 80 and 225 kVp energies, this radio transparent

  13. Europium- and lithium-doped yttrium oxide nanocrystals that provide a linear emissive response with X-ray radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Ian N; Belley, Matthew D; Nguyen, Giao; Rodrigues, Anna; Li, Yifan; Kirsch, David G; Yoshizumi, Terry T; Therien, Michael J

    2014-05-21

    Eu- and Li-doped yttrium oxide nanocrystals [Y2-xO3; Eux, Liy], in which Eu and Li dopant ion concentrations were systematically varied, were developed and characterized (TEM, XRD, Raman spectroscopic, UV-excited lifetime, and ICP-AES data) in order to define the most emissive compositions under specific X-ray excitation conditions. These optimized [Y2-xO3; Eux, Liy] compositions display scintillation responses that: (i) correlate linearly with incident radiation exposure at X-ray energies spanning from 40-220 kVp, and (ii) manifest no evidence of scintillation intensity saturation at the highest evaluated radiation exposures [up to 4 Roentgen per second]. For the most emissive nanoscale scintillator composition, [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16], excitation energies of 40, 120, and 220 kVp were chosen to probe the dependence of the integrated emission intensity upon X-ray exposure-rate in energy regimes having different mass-attenuation coefficients and where either the photoelectric or the Compton effect governs the scintillation mechanism. These experiments demonstrate for the first time for that for comparable radiation exposures, when the scintillation mechanism is governed by the photoelectric effect and a comparably larger mass-attenuation coefficient (120 kVp excitation), greater integrated emission intensities are recorded relative to excitation energies where the Compton effect regulates scintillation (220 kVp) in nanoscale [Y2-xO3; Eux] crystals. Nanoscale [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16] (70 ± 20 nm) was further exploited as a detector material in a prototype fiber-optic radiation sensor. The scintillation intensity from the [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16]-modified, 400 μm sized optical fiber tip, recorded using a CCD-photodetector and integrated over the 605-617 nm wavelength domain, was correlated with radiation exposure using a Precision XRAD 225Cx small-animal image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) system. For both 80 and 225 kVp energies, this radiotransparent device

  14. Global and local large-deformation response of sub-micron, soft- and hard-particle filled polycarbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krop, Sam; Meijer, Han E. H.; van Breemen, Lambert C. A.

    2016-02-01

    Since polymers play an increasingly important role in both structural and tribological applications, understanding their intrinsic mechanical response is key. Therefore in the last few decades much effort has been devoted into the development of constitutive models that capture the polymers' intrinsic mechanical response quantitatively. An example is the Eindhoven Glassy Polymer model. In practice most polymers are filled, e.g. with hard particles or fibers, with colorants, or with soft particles that serve as impact modifiers. To characterize the influence of type and amount of filler particles on the intrinsic mechanical response, we designed model systems of polycarbonate with different volume fractions of small, order 100 nm sized, either hard or soft particles, and tested them in lubricated uniaxial compression experiments. To reveal the local effects on interparticle level, three-dimensional representative volume elements (RVEs) were constructed. The matrix material is modeled with the EGP model and the fillers with their individual mechanical properties. It is first shown that (only) 32 particles are sufficient to capture the statistical variations in these systems. Comparing the simulated response of the RVEs with the experiments demonstrates that in the small strain regime the stress is under-predicted since the polymer matrix is modeled by using only one single relaxation time. The yield- and the large strain response is captured well for the soft-particle filled systems while, for the hard-particles at increased filler loadings, the predictions are less accurate. This is likely caused by polymer-filler interactions that result in accelerated physical aging of the polymer matrix close to the surfaces. Modifying the Sa-parameter, that captures the thermodynamic state of the polymer matrix, allows us to correctly predict the macroscopic response after yield. The simulations reveal that all rate-dependencies of the different filled systems originate from

  15. Wavefront correction with a ferrofluid deformable mirror: experimental results and recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brousseau, Denis; Borra, Ermanno F.; Thibault, Simon; Ritcey, Anna M.; Parent, Jocelyn; Seddiki, Omar; Déry, Jean-Philippe; Faucher, Luc; Vassallo, Julien; Naderian, Azadeh

    2008-07-01

    We present the research status of a deformable mirror made of a magnetic liquid whose surface is actuated by a triangular array of small current carrying coils. We demonstrate that the mirror can correct a 11 μm low order aberrated wavefront to a residual RMS wavefront error 0.05 μm. Recent developments show that these deformable mirrors can reach a frequency response of several hundred hertz. A new method for linearizing the response of these mirrors is also presented.

  16. Characterization of the Earwig, Doru lineare, as a Predator of Larvae of the Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda: A Functional Response Study

    PubMed Central

    Sueldo, Mabel Romero; Bruzzone, Octavio A.; Virla, Eduardo G.

    2010-01-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is considered as the most important pest of maize in almost all tropical America. In Argentina, the earwig Doru lineare Eschscholtz (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) has been observed preying on S. frugiperda egg masses in corn crops, but no data about its potential role as a biocontrol agent of this pest have been provided. The predation efficiency of D. lineare on newly emerged S. frugiperda larva was evaluated through a laboratory functional response study. D. lineare showed type II functional response to S. frugiperda larval density, and disc equation estimations of searching efficiency and handling time were (a) = 0.374 and (t) = 182.9 s, respectively. Earwig satiation occurred at 39.4 S. frugiperda larvae. PMID:20575739

  17. Responses and toxin bioaccumulation in duckweed (Lemna minor) under microcystin-LR, linear alkybenzene sulfonate and their joint stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi; Xiao, Bangding; Song, Lirong; Wang, Chunbo; Zhang, Junqian

    2012-08-30

    Microcystin-LR (MCLR) and linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) are commonly found in eutrophic lakes due to toxic cyanobacterial blooms and exogenous organic compounds pollution. However, the ecotoxicological risk of their combination in the aquatic environment is unknown. This study investigated the effects of MCLR, LAS and their mixture on duckweed (Lemna minor) growth and physiological responses. MCLR accumulation in duckweed, with or without LAS, was also examined. Growth of duckweed and chlorophyll-a contents were significantly reduced after 8d exposure to high concentrations of MCLR (≥ 3 μg/ml), LAS (≥ 20 μg/ml) and their mixture (≥ 3+10 μg/ml). After 2d of exposure, superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione content in duckweed increased with increasing concentrations of MCLR, LAS and their mixture, with a significant difference observable after 8d of exposure. When MCLR and LAS concentrations were lower (≤ 0.1+1 μg/ml), the interaction of them is synergistic, but when the concentrations were higher, the synergy was weak. MC accumulation was much higher at 2d than at 8d when duckweed was exposed to lower concentrations of MCLR (≤ 3 μg/ml) or MCLR-LAS (≤ 3+10 μg/ml). Furthermore, LAS significantly enhanced the accumulation of MCLR in duckweed, even with LAS concentrations as low as 0.3 μg/ml (environmental concentration), indicating that greater negative ecological risks and higher MCLR phytoremediation potentials of duckweed might occur in MCLR-LAS-concomitant water. PMID:22763229

  18. Linear and nonlinear characteristics of the runoff response to regional climate factors in the Qira River basin, Xinjiang, Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The inland river watersheds of arid Northwest China represent an example of how, in recent times, climatic warming has increased the complexity of Earth’s hydrological processes. In the present study, the linear and nonlinear characteristics of the runoff response to temperature and precipitation were investigated in the Qira River basin, located on the northern slope of the Kunlun Mountains. The results showed that average temperature on annual and seasonal scales has displayed a significantly increasing trend, but this has not been reflected in accumulated precipitation and runoff. Using path analysis, a positive link between precipitation and runoff was found both annually and in the summer season. Conversely, it was found that the impact of temperature on runoff has been negative since the 1960s, attributable to higher evaporation and infiltration in the Qira River basin. Over the past 50 years, abrupt changes in annual temperature, precipitation and runoff occurred in 1997, 1987 and 1995, respectively. Combined with analysis using the correlation dimension method, it was found that the temperature, precipitation and runoff, both annually and seasonally, possessed chaotic dynamic characteristics, implying that complex hydro-climatic processes must be introduced into other variables within models to describe the dynamics. In addition, as determined via rescaled range analysis, a consistent annual and seasonal decreasing trend in runoff under increasing temperature and precipitation conditions in the future should be taken into account. This work may provide a theoretical perspective that can be applied to the proper use and management of oasis water resources in the lower reaches of river basins like that of the Qira River. PMID:26244113

  19. Nested generalized linear mixed model with ordinal response: Simulation and application on poverty data in Java Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widyaningsih, Yekti; Saefuddin, Asep; Notodiputro, Khairil A.; Wigena, Aji H.

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this research is to build a nested generalized linear mixed model using an ordinal response variable with some covariates. There are three main jobs in this paper, i.e. parameters estimation procedure, simulation, and implementation of the model for the real data. At the part of parameters estimation procedure, concepts of threshold, nested random effect, and computational algorithm are described. The simulations data are built for 3 conditions to know the effect of different parameter values of random effect distributions. The last job is the implementation of the model for the data about poverty in 9 districts of Java Island. The districts are Kuningan, Karawang, and Majalengka chose randomly in West Java; Temanggung, Boyolali, and Cilacap from Central Java; and Blitar, Ngawi, and Jember from East Java. The covariates in this model are province, number of bad nutrition cases, number of farmer families, and number of health personnel. In this modeling, all covariates are grouped as ordinal scale. Unit observation in this research is sub-district (kecamatan) nested in district, and districts (kabupaten) are nested in province. For the result of simulation, ARB (Absolute Relative Bias) and RRMSE (Relative Root of mean square errors) scale is used. They show that prov parameters have the highest bias, but more stable RRMSE in all conditions. The simulation design needs to be improved by adding other condition, such as higher correlation between covariates. Furthermore, as the result of the model implementation for the data, only number of farmer family and number of medical personnel have significant contributions to the level of poverty in Central Java and East Java province, and only district 2 (Karawang) of province 1 (West Java) has different random effect from the others. The source of the data is PODES (Potensi Desa) 2008 from BPS (Badan Pusat Statistik).

  20. Non-linear response of the Golo River system, Corsica, France, to Late Quaternary climatic and sea level variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forzoni, Andrea; Storms, J. E. A.; Reimann, Tony; Moreau, Julien; Jouet, Gwenael

    2015-08-01

    Disentangling the impact of climatic and sea level variations on fluvio-deltaic stratigraphy is still an outstanding question in sedimentary geology and geomorphology. We used the Golo River system, Corsica, France, as a natural laboratory to investigate the impact of Late Quaternary climate and sea level oscillations on sediment flux from a catchment and on fluvio-deltaic stratigraphy. We applied a numerical model, PaCMod, which calculates catchment sediment production and transport and compared modeling output to the sedimentary record of the Golo alluvial-coastal plain, whose chronology was reinterpreted using new optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages on feldspars. Our modeling, OSL ages, and geomorphological results indicate that the two main phases of braidplain development in the Golo alluvial-coastal plain occurred during the cold-dry phases of MIS5 and during the late MIS4-early MIS3, as a consequence of high catchment erosion rates and low water discharge. Incision and sediment reworking occurred during sea level low stand periods (MIS4 and late MIS3-MIS2). High sediment flux pulses from the catchment outlet were generated during the Lateglacial and early Holocene, as a result of the release of sediments previously stored within the catchment and enhanced snowmelt. Our results suggest a non-linear response of the Golo River system to climatic and eustatic changes, caused by sediment storage within the catchment and geomorphological thresholds. This indicates that a direct comparison between palaeo-climate and stratigraphy is not possible without considering catchment sediment storage and sediment transport delays out of the catchment.

  1. GPS observations of seasonal crustal deformation and long-term land subsidence in response to water storage changes in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, K. J.; De Linage, C.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2011-12-01

    Observations of vertical land surface height from Scripps Orbit and Permanent Array Center (SOPAC) GPS stations throughout California and the Western United States reveal significant seasonal and long-term land surface responses to water storage changes. Long-term land surface subsidence in the Central Valley is due to aquifer compaction resulting from ongoing groundwater depletion. Seasonal motion of the land surface due to elastic crustal loading provides insight about seasonal surface water loads such as snow water equivalent, soil moisture, and reservoir storage. This research explores the relationship between water storage changes observed by GRACE and Snotel and the land surface responses observed by GPS, and the potential for new applications of GPS for monitoring various components of water storage.

  2. Utilization of the Generalized Method of Cells to Analyze the Deformation Response of Laminated Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.

    2012-01-01

    In order to practically utilize ceramic matrix composites in aircraft engine components, robust analysis tools are required that can simulate the material response in a computationally efficient manner. The MAC/GMC software developed at NASA Glenn Research Center, based on the Generalized Method of Cells micromechanics method, has the potential to meet this need. Utilizing MAC/GMC, the effective stiffness properties, proportional limit stress and ultimate strength can be predicted based on the properties and response of the individual constituents. In this paper, the effective stiffness and strength properties for a representative laminated ceramic matrix composite with a large diameter fiber are predicted for a variety of fiber orientation angles and laminate orientations. As part of the analytical study, methods to determine the in-situ stiffness and strength properties of the constituents required to appropriately simulate the effective composite response are developed. The stiffness properties of the representative composite have been adequately predicted for all of the fiber orientations and laminate configurations examined in this study. The proportional limit stresses and strains and ultimate stresses and strains were predicted with varying levels of accuracy, depending on the laminate orientation. However, for the cases where the predictions did not have the desired level of accuracy, the specific issues related to the micromechanics theory were identified which could lead to difficulties that were encountered that could be addressed in future work.

  3. M theory on deformed superspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faizal, Mir

    2011-11-01

    In this paper we will analyze a noncommutative deformation of the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena (ABJM) theory in N=1 superspace formalism. We will then analyze the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) and anti-BRST symmetries for this deformed ABJM theory, and its linear as well as nonlinear gauges. We will show that the sum of the gauge fixing term and the ghost term for this deformed ABJM theory can be expressed as a combination of the total BRST and the total anti-BRST variation, in Landau and nonlinear gauges. We will show that in Landau and Curci-Ferrari gauges deformed ABJM theory is invariant under an additional set of symmetry transformations. We will also discuss the effect that the addition of a bare mass term has on this theory.

  4. Kernel-Smoothing Estimation of Item Characteristic Functions for Continuous Personality Items: An Empirical Comparison with the Linear and the Continuous-Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.

    2004-01-01

    This study used kernel-smoothing procedures to estimate the item characteristic functions (ICFs) of a set of continuous personality items. The nonparametric ICFs were compared with the ICFs estimated (a) by the linear model and (b) by Samejima's continuous-response model. The study was based on a conditioned approach and used an error-in-variables…

  5. Non-Linear Responses to Precipitation and Shrub Encroachment in Semi-Arid Grassland: Isotopes and CO2 Fluxes Reveal Soil Microsite Alteration as Explanation 1875

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Responses of net ecosystem production (NEP) to growing season rainfall amount is non-linear over a gradient of woody-plant encroachment in semi-arid riparian grassland. NEP is positively correlated with growing season precipitation amount in the grassland, but is negatively correlated with precipita...

  6. High dynamic range measurement of spectral responsivity and linearity of a radiation thermometer using a super-continuum laser and LEDs

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Y. S.; Lee, D. H.; Park, C. W.; Park, S. N.

    2013-09-11

    To realize the temperature scale above the freezing point of silver according to the definition of ITS-90, the dynamic range of the spectral responsivity is one of the most important factors which limit its uncertainty. When the residual spectral response at both side bands of a spectral band is not negligible, a significant uncertainty can be caused by a low dynamic range of the spectral responsivity measurement. In general, incandescent lamps are used to measure the spectral responsivity and the linearity. The dynamic range of the spectral responsivity measurement is often limited by a trade-off with the desired spectral resolution, which is less than 6 decades. Nonlinearity is another limiting fact of uncertainties of the temperature scale. Tungsten lamps have disadvantage in the nonlinearity measurements in terms of adjustability of radiance level and spectral selectivity. We report spectral responsivity measurements of which the measurable dynamic range is enhanced 50 times after replacing a QTH lamp with a super continuum laser. We also present a spectrally selected linearity measurement over a wide dynamic range using high-brightness light emitting diode arrays to observe a slight saturation of linearity.

  7. High dynamic range measurement of spectral responsivity and linearity of a radiation thermometer using a super-continuum laser and LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Y. S.; Lee, D. H.; Park, C. W.; Park, S. N.

    2013-09-01

    To realize the temperature scale above the freezing point of silver according to the definition of ITS-90, the dynamic range of the spectral responsivity is one of the most important factors which limit its uncertainty. When the residual spectral response at both side bands of a spectral band is not negligible, a significant uncertainty can be caused by a low dynamic range of the spectral responsivity measurement. In general, incandescent lamps are used to measure the spectral responsivity and the linearity. The dynamic range of the spectral responsivity measurement is often limited by a trade-off with the desired spectral resolution, which is less than 6 decades. Nonlinearity is another limiting fact of uncertainties of the temperature scale. Tungsten lamps have disadvantage in the nonlinearity measurements in terms of adjustability of radiance level and spectral selectivity. We report spectral responsivity measurements of which the measurable dynamic range is enhanced 50 times after replacing a QTH lamp with a super continuum laser. We also present a spectrally selected linearity measurement over a wide dynamic range using high-brightness light emitting diode arrays to observe a slight saturation of linearity.

  8. Large poroelastic deformation of a soft material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMinn, Christopher W.; Dufresne, Eric R.; Wettlaufer, John S.

    2014-11-01

    Flow through a porous material will drive mechanical deformation when the fluid pressure becomes comparable to the stiffness of the solid skeleton. This has applications ranging from hydraulic fracture for recovery of shale gas, where fluid is injected at high pressure, to the mechanics of biological cells and tissues, where the solid skeleton is very soft. The traditional linear theory of poroelasticity captures this fluid-solid coupling by combining Darcy's law with linear elasticity. However, linear elasticity is only volume-conservative to first order in the strain, which can become problematic when damage, plasticity, or extreme softness lead to large deformations. Here, we compare the predictions of linear poroelasticity with those of a large-deformation framework in the context of two model problems. We show that errors in volume conservation are compounded and amplified by coupling with the fluid flow, and can become important even when the deformation is small. We also illustrate these results with a laboratory experiment.

  9. Europium- and lithium-doped yttrium oxide nanocrystals that provide a linear emissive response with X-ray radiation exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanton, Ian N.; Belley, Matthew D.; Nguyen, Giao; Rodrigues, Anna; Li, Yifan; Kirsch, David G.; Yoshizumi, Terry T.; Therien, Michael J.

    2014-04-01

    Eu- and Li-doped yttrium oxide nanocrystals [Y2-xO3 Eux, Liy], in which Eu and Li dopant ion concentrations were systematically varied, were developed and characterized (TEM, XRD, Raman spectroscopic, UV-excited lifetime, and ICP-AES data) in order to define the most emissive compositions under specific X-ray excitation conditions. These optimized [Y2-xO3 Eux, Liy] compositions display scintillation responses that: (i) correlate linearly with incident radiation exposure at X-ray energies spanning from 40-220 kVp, and (ii) manifest no evidence of scintillation intensity saturation at the highest evaluated radiation exposures [up to 4 Roentgen per second]. For the most emissive nanoscale scintillator composition, [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16], excitation energies of 40, 120, and 220 kVp were chosen to probe the dependence of the integrated emission intensity upon X-ray exposure-rate in energy regimes having different mass-attenuation coefficients and where either the photoelectric or the Compton effect governs the scintillation mechanism. These experiments demonstrate for the first time for that for comparable radiation exposures, when the scintillation mechanism is governed by the photoelectric effect and a comparably larger mass-attenuation coefficient (120 kVp excitation), greater integrated emission intensities are recorded relative to excitation energies where the Compton effect regulates scintillation (220 kVp) in nanoscale [Y2-xO3 Eux] crystals. Nanoscale [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16] (70 +/- 20 nm) was further exploited as a detector material in a prototype fiber-optic radiation sensor. The scintillation intensity from the [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16]-modified, 400 μm sized optical fiber tip, recorded using a CCD-photodetector and integrated over the 605-617 nm wavelength domain, was correlated with radiation exposure using a Precision XRAD 225Cx small-animal image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) system. For both 80 and 225 kVp energies, this radiotransparent device recorded

  10. Tissue-to-Cellular Deformation Coupling in Cell-Microintegrated Elastomeric Scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stella, J. A.; Liao, J.; Hong, Y.; Merryman, W. D.; Wagner, W. R.; Sacks, M. S.

    Long term efficacy of tissue replacements or regenerative therapies rely on the critical processes of cell proliferation and differentiation, the production of organized matrix, and concurrent tissue remodeling or growth. Recent studies have shown that mechanical and chemical factors modulate cell function which has profound implications on tissue growth and remodeling. As such, creating engineered tissue replacement options requires a detailed command of the complex, dynamic, and reciprocal interactions which occur at the cell-ECM interface. To gain a better understanding of the coupled tissue-cellular deformation response, we propose the use of cell-microintegrated elastomeric scaffolds which provide a unique platform to investigate cellular deformations within a three dimensional fibrous scaffold. Scaffold specimens micro-integrated with vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) were subjected to controlled biaxial stretch with 3D cellular deformations and local fiber micro-architecture simultaneously quantified. Interestingly, local cellular deformations exhibited a non-linear deformation response with scaffold strain which was attributed to unique microarchitectural morphologies. Local scaffold microstructural changes induced by macro-level applied strain dominated cellular deformations, so that monotonic increases in scaffold strain do not necessitate similar levels of cellular deformation. This result has fundamental implications when attempting to elucidate the events of de-novo tissue development and remodeling in engineeredtissues.

  11. Ethylene signaling pathway is not linear, however its lateral part is responsible for sensing and signaling of sulfur status in plants

    PubMed Central

    Moniuszko, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    A secondary, non-linear, lateral part of ethylene signaling pathway has been anticipated and speculated before. Recently, it has been found that part of the proteomic response of Eruca sativa to silver nitrate (which is an inhibitor of ethylene signaling) is related to sulfur metabolism. Using public Arabidopsis thaliana microarray data, I show that silver nitrate mimics the signal of sulfur starvation at the transcriptome level. This, combined with data mined from literature, indicates that ethylene receptors are localized at the beginning of the response to sulfur deficiency in plants. This means that the non-linear, lateral part of ethylene signaling pathway exists and is responsible for transduction of the signal of sulfur deficit. Here, I present a model of such a pathway and anticipate it to be the starting point for more detailed analysis of the lateral part of ethylene signaling pathway and the exact mechanism of sulfur status sensing in plants. PMID:26340594

  12. Supertransvectants, cohomology, and deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Fraj, Nizar; Laraiedh, Ismail; Omri, Salem

    2013-02-01

    Over the (1, N)-dimensional real superspace, N = 2, 3, we classify {osp}(N|2)-invariant binary differential operators acting on the superspaces of weighted densities, where {osp}(N|2) is the orthosymplectic Lie superalgebra. This result allows us to compute the first differential {osp}(N|2)-relative cohomology of the Lie superalgebra K(N) of contact vector fields with coefficients in the superspace of linear differential operators acting on the superspaces of weighted densities. We classify generic formal {osp}(3|2)-trivial deformations of the K(3)-module structure on the superspaces of symbols of differential operators. We prove that any generic formal {osp}(3|2)-trivial deformation of this K(3)-module is equivalent to its infinitesimal part. This work is the simplest generalization of a result by the first author et al. [Basdouri, I., Ben Ammar, M., Ben Fraj, N., Boujelbene, M., and Kammoun, K., "Cohomology of the Lie superalgebra of contact vector fields on {K}^{1|1} and deformations of the superspace of symbols," J. Nonlinear Math. Phys. 16, 373 (2009), 10.1142/S1402925109000431].

  13. Response of a low-subsiding intracratonic basin to long wavelength deformations: the Palaeocene-early Eocene period in the Paris Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briais, J.; Guillocheau, F.; Lasseur, E.; Robin, C.; Châteauneuf, J. J.; Serrano, O.

    2016-02-01

    The uppermost Cretaceous to early Palaeogene is a period of major deformations of the western part of the Eurasian plate with prominent basin inversions starting from the Coniacian onwards. These deformations occur in a complex geodynamic setting within both the context of the Africa-Eurasia convergence and the North Atlantic opening. While Mesozoic graben inversions have been extensively studied, particularly in Eastern Europe and the North Sea, more gentle deformations that affect thicker crust areas (intracratonic basins and emerged lands) are not as well documented. The objective of this study is to constrain the exact timing, type, and magnitude of the early Palaeogene deformations affecting the intracratonic Paris Basin and to integrate them at the western European scale. Low-amplitude deformations are attempted through a high-resolution reconstitution of its stratigraphic record based on well-dated outcrops and well-dated wells, and a high number of well-logs that are correlated using the "stacking pattern" sequence stratigraphic technique. Two orders of sequences are identified (third and fourth order) and correlated throughout the basin. Basin geometric and palaeogeographic reconstitutions are based on sediment thickness and facies analysis. Two-dimensional accommodation space measurements were taken in order to quantify the magnitude of the deformations. Three phases of deformation were recognized. 1. An intra-Maastrichtian-pre-Thanetian (59 Ma) deformation, with major uplift and erosion of the Cretaceous strata with two sub-periods of deformation: Maastrichtian-pre-middle-Danian and Upper Danian-pre-Thanetian long-wavelength deformations. This period of major deformation is coeval with Upper Cretaceous/pre-Danian compressive deformations linked to the Africa-Eurasia convergence in southern France and with volcanic activity from the North Atlantic to Massif Central and the Rhenish Shield during the Palaeocene. 2. An early Ypresian (55.1-54.3 Ma) medium

  14. Response of a low subsiding intracratonic basin to long wavelength deformations: the Palaeocene-early Eocene period in the Paris basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briais, J.; Guillocheau, F.; Lasseur, E.; Robin, C.; Châteauneuf, J. J.; Serrano, O.

    2015-12-01

    The uppermost Cretaceous to early Palaeogene is a period of major deformations of the western part of the Eurasian plate with prominent basin inversions starting from the Coniacian onwards. These deformations occur in a complex geodynamic setting within both the context of the Africa-Eurasia convergence and the North Atlantic opening. While Mesozoic graben inversions have been extensively studied, particularly in Eastern Europe and the North Sea, more gentle deformations that affect thicker crust areas (intracratonic basins and emerged lands) are not as well documented. The objective of this study is to constrain the exact timing, type and magnitude of the early Palaeogene deformations affecting the intracratonic Paris basin and to integrate them at the Western European scale. Relatively gentle deformations are attempted through a high-resolution reconstitution of its stratigraphic record based on outcrops and well-dated wells, and a high number of well-logs that are correlated using the "stacking pattern" sequence stratigraphic technique. Two orders of sequences are identified (third- and fourth-order) and correlated throughout the basin. Basin geometric and palaeogeographic reconstitutions are based on sediment thickness and facies analysis. Two-dimensional accommodation space measurements were taken in order to quantify the magnitude of the deformations. Three phases of deformation were recognized. 1. An intra-Maastrichtian-pre-Thanetian (59 Ma) deformation, with major uplift and erosion of the Cretaceous strata with two sub-periods of deformation: Maastrichtian-pre-middle-Danian and Upper Danian-pre-Thanetian long wavelength deformations. This period of major deformation is coeval with Upper Cretaceous-pre-Danian compressive deformations linked to the Africa-Eurasia convergence in southern France and with volcanic activity from the North Atlantic to Massif Central and the Rhenish Shield during the Palaeocene; 2. an early Ypresian (55.1-54.3 Ma) medium

  15. Dynamical DMRG study of non-linear optical response in one-dimensional dimerized Hubbard model with nearest neighbor Coulomb interaction and alternating on-site potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sota, Shigetoshi; Tohyama, Takami; Brazovskii, Serguei

    2012-02-01

    The optical response of organic compounds has been attracting much attention. The one of the reasons is the huge non-linear and ultrafast optical response [K. Yamamoto et. al., J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 77, 074709(2008)]. In order to investigate such optical properties, we carry out dynamical DMRG calculations to obtain optical responses in the 1/4-filled one-dimensional Hubbard model including the nearest neighbor Coulomb interaction and the alternating electron hopping. The charge gap [S. Nishimoto, M. Takahashi, and Y. Ohta, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 69, 1594(2000)] and the bound state [H. Benthien and E. Jeckelmann, Eur. Phys. J. B 44, 287(2005)] in this model have been discussed based on DMRG calculations. In the present study, we introduce an alternating on-site potential giving the polarization in the system into the dimerized Hubbard model, which breaks the reflection symmetry of the system. In this talk, we discuss the obtained linear and the 2nd order non-linear optical susceptibility in order to make a prediction for non-linear optical experiments in the future.

  16. A fluid pressure and deformation analysis for geological sequestration of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Zhijie; Fang, Yilin; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Bonneville, Alain

    2012-06-07

    We present a hydro-mechanical model and deformation analysis for geological sequestration of carbon dioxide. The model considers the poroelastic effects by taking into account the two-way coupling between the geomechanical response and the fluid flow process in greater detail. In order for analytical solutions, the simplified hydro-mechanical model includes the geomechanical part that relies on the theory of linear elasticity, while the fluid flow is based on the Darcy’s law. The model was derived through coupling the two parts using the standard linear poroelasticity theory. Analytical solutions for fluid pressure field were obtained for a typical geological sequestration scenario and the solutions for ground deformation were obtained using the method of Green’s function. Solutions predict the temporal and spatial variation of fluid pressure, the effect of permeability and elastic modulus on the fluid pressure, the ground surface uplift, and the radial deformation during the entire injection period.

  17. A coupled deformation-diffusion theory for fluid-saturated porous solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henann, David; Kamrin, Ken; Anand, Lallit

    2012-02-01

    Fluid-saturated porous materials are important in several familiar applications, such as the response of soils in geomechanics, food processing, pharmaceuticals, and the biomechanics of living bone tissue. An appropriate constitutive theory describing the coupling of the mechanical behavior of the porous solid with the transport of the fluid is a crucial ingredient towards understanding the material behavior in these varied applications. In this work, we formulate and numerically implement in a finite-element framework a large-deformation theory for coupled deformation-diffusion in isotropic, fluid-saturated porous solids. The theory synthesizes the classical Biot theory of linear poroelasticity and the more-recent Coussy theory of poroplasticity in a large deformation framework. In this talk, we highlight several salient features of our theory and discuss representative examples of the application of our numerical simulation capability to problems of consolidation as well as deformation localization in granular materials.

  18. Promoting research in rock deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Steve

    In response to informal discussions at the 1988 AGU Spring Meeting in Baltimore, Md., a dinner colloquium was held December 5, 1988, in San Francisco. Our purpose was to explore ways of promoting basic research in rock deformation, for which no professional organization exists that spans the full range of research interests. In spite of an informal distribution of announcements of the meeting, 54 people attended.Rock deformation is the materials science of the crystalline and amorphous materials that make up the solid Earth. As such, it includes not only the physical processes responsible for brittle and ductile deformation but also the important chemical processes that influence time-dependent inelastic deformation. Consequently, there is a continuing need to engage interest and collaboration from materials scientists, mineral physicists, metallurgists, surface chemists, and geochemists in the study of the inelastic mechanical behavior of these complex materials.

  19. Cyclic Deformation Response of β-Annealed Ti-5Al-5V-5Mo-3Cr Alloy Under Compressive Loading Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jun; Wang, Zhirui; Zhou, Jie

    2011-09-01

    This article reports the cyclic deformation behavior of the β-annealed metastable Ti-5Al-5V-5Mo-3Cr (Ti-5553) alloy under the condition of pure compressive fatigue stress. The following three aspects, namely, the mechanical response, the surface morphology evolution, and the dislocation structures, were systematically investigated. Under all testing conditions, the material demonstrated cyclic softening in the initial cycles followed by saturation. The progressive observation of surface morphology at fixed locations, but after different numbers of cycles, elucidated typical planar slip behavior and the early appearance of fatigue microcracks, which were found often to be induced by the highly localized planar slip bands. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study revealed dislocation annihilation upon cycling, i.e., the reduction of dislocation density as well as the simplification of dislocation configurations. In addition, detwinning and changed twin boundary structures upon cycling were also detected. Such activities, together with the intersection of coherent ω precipitates by moving dislocations, are considered to be responsible for the initial softening, whereas the dislocation dipole flip-flop mechanism is presumably responsible for the cyclic saturation behavior. An attempt was made to explain the strain-localized planar slip behavior by considering the stacking fault energy (SFE) as well as the free-electron-to-atom ( e/ a) ratio. The nanoscaled ω and α precipitation in the β matrix may also contribute to the planar slip behavior. The effect of the microstructure in the as-received material was also analyzed for the strain localization and planar-slip mode.

  20. A Study of Time-dependent and Anisotropic Effects on the Deformation Response of Two Flywheel Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saleeb, Atef F.; Arnold, Steven M.; Al-Zoubi, Nasser R.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of material time dependency and anisotropy in the context of two specific flywheel designs-preload and multi-directional composite (MDC)--is investigated. In particular, we focus on the following aspects: 1) geometric constraints, 2) material constraints, 3) loading type, and 4) the fundamental character of the time-dependent response, i.e., reversible or irreversible. The bulk of the results presented were obtained using a composite (PMC IM7/8552 at 135 C) material system. The material was characterized using a general multimechanism hereditary (viscoelastoplastic) model. As a general conclusion, the results have clearly shown that both the preload and the MDC rotor designs are significantly affected by time-dependent material behavior, which may impact the state of rotor balance and potentially reduce its operating life. In view of the results of the parametric studies and predictions made in the present study, the need for actual experimentation focusing on the time-dependent behavior of full-scale flywheel rotors is self-evident.

  1. Variation in deformation of the South Panama Accretionary Prism: Response to oblique subduction and trench sediment variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, Mary E.; Moore, Gregory F.

    1990-08-01

    Migrated single-channel seismic lines and Sea-MARC II side scan and bathymetry data document an active accretionary prism along the obliquely convergent margin of south Panama, a region previously believed to be a transform margin. The eastern flank of the Coiba Ridge is being subducted in this region, creating the requisite geometry for along-strike variation in trench sediment thickness and type. The regional east dip of the downgoing plate causes the depth of the oceanic crust along the trench to drop approximately 1800 m from west to east. In the western region of the study area the incoming sedimentary section consists of approximately 600 m of pelagic and hemipelagic sediments. A wedge of trench turbidites that overlies the incoming hemipelagic sediments thickens from less than 100 m in the western region to more than 900 m in the eastern region of the study area. The eastward increase in sediment thickness correlates with the following changes in the accretionary prism: (1) decrease in initial surface slope; (2) broadening of the inner trench slope; (3) increase in thrust spacing; (4) steepening of frontal thrusts; and (5) fold development. Each of the responses reflects, in varying degrees, the increase in volume and changing physical properties of the accreted material, as well as the changing shear strength of the décollement. The increase in overburden pressure and compaction in the deeper sediments, together with the change in lithology from oceanic to trenchfill sediments, should produce an eastward increase in sediment shear strength both within the wedge and along its base. Because the décollement will tend to form where the pore fluid pressure-overburden ratio is at a maximum, the shear strength within the wedge should increase relative to basal shear strength. Decreased surface slopes will result from the increasing contrast in shear strength between the wedge and its base.

  2. Mesh Deformation Based on Fully Stressed Design: The Method and Two-Dimensional Examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Su-Yuen; Chang, Chau-Lyan

    2007-01-01

    Mesh deformation in response to redefined boundary geometry is a frequently encountered task in shape optimization and analysis of fluid-structure interaction. We propose a simple and concise method for deforming meshes defined with three-node triangular or four-node tetrahedral elements. The mesh deformation method is suitable for large boundary movement. The approach requires two consecutive linear elastic finite-element analyses of an isotropic continuum using a prescribed displacement at the mesh boundaries. The first analysis is performed with homogeneous elastic property and the second with inhomogeneous elastic property. The fully stressed design is employed with a vanishing Poisson s ratio and a proposed form of equivalent strain (modified Tresca equivalent strain) to calculate, from the strain result of the first analysis, the element-specific Young s modulus for the second analysis. The theoretical aspect of the proposed method, its convenient numerical implementation using a typical linear elastic finite-element code in conjunction with very minor extra coding for data processing, and results for examples of large deformation of two-dimensional meshes are presented in this paper. KEY WORDS: Mesh deformation, shape optimization, fluid-structure interaction, fully stressed design, finite-element analysis, linear elasticity, strain failure, equivalent strain, Tresca failure criterion

  3. Achieving a Linear Dose Rate Response in Pulse-Mode Silicon Photodiode Scintillation Detectors Over a Wide Range of Excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Lewis

    2014-02-01

    We are developing a new dose calibrator for nuclear pharmacies that can measure radioactivity in a vial or syringe without handling it directly or removing it from its transport shield “pig”. The calibrator's detector comprises twin opposing scintillating crystals coupled to Si photodiodes and current-amplifying trans-resistance amplifiers. Such a scheme is inherently linear with respect to dose rate over a wide range of radiation intensities, but accuracy at low activity levels may be impaired, beyond the effects of meager photon statistics, by baseline fluctuation and drift inevitably present in high-gain, current-mode photodiode amplifiers. The work described here is motivated by our desire to enhance accuracy at low excitations while maintaining linearity at high excitations. Thus, we are also evaluating a novel “pulse-mode” analog signal processing scheme that employs a linear threshold discriminator to virtually eliminate baseline fluctuation and drift. We will show the results of a side-by-side comparison of current-mode versus pulse-mode signal processing schemes, including perturbing factors affecting linearity and accuracy at very low and very high excitations. Bench testing over a wide range of excitations is done using a Poisson random pulse generator plus an LED light source to simulate excitations up to ˜106 detected counts per second without the need to handle and store large amounts of radioactive material.

  4. Performance of low-cost few-mode fiber Bragg grating sensor systems: polarization sensitivity and linearity of temperature and strain response.

    PubMed

    Ganziy, D; Rose, B; Bang, O

    2016-08-10

    We evaluate whether 850 nm fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor systems can use low-cost 1550 nm telecom fibers; in other words, how detrimental the influence of higher-order modes is to the polarization stability and linearity of the strain and temperature response. We do this by comparing polarization sensitivity of a few-mode 850 nm FBG sensor to a strictly single-mode 850 nm FBG sensor system using 850 nm single-mode fibers. We also compare the performance of the FBGs in strain and temperature tests. Our results show that the polarization stability and the linearity of the response degrade due to the presence of the higher-order modes. We demonstrate that, by using simple coiling of the 1550 nm fiber, one can regain the performance of the few-mode system and make it usable for high precision measurements. PMID:27534455

  5. Comment on "Scaling regimes and linear/nonlinear responses of last millennium climate to volcanic and solar forcing" by S. Lovejoy and C. Varotsos (2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rypdal, Kristoffer; Rypdal, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Lovejoy and Varotsos (2016) (L&V) analyse the temperature response to solar, volcanic, and solar plus volcanic forcing in the Zebiak-Cane (ZC) model, and to solar and solar plus volcanic forcing in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) E2-R model. By using a simple wavelet filtering technique they conclude that the responses in the ZC model combine subadditively on timescales from 50 to 1000 years. Nonlinear response on shorter timescales is claimed by analysis of intermittencies in the forcing and the temperature signal for both models. The analysis of additivity in the ZC model suffers from a confusing presentation of results based on an invalid approximation, and from ignoring the effect of internal variability. We present tests without this approximation which are not able to detect nonlinearity in the response, even without accounting for internal variability. We also demonstrate that internal variability will appear as subadditivity if it is not accounted for. L&V's analysis of intermittencies is based on a mathematical result stating that the intermittencies of forcing and response are the same if the response is linear. We argue that there are at least three different factors that may invalidate the application of this result for these data. It is valid only for a power-law response function; it assumes power-law scaling of structure functions of forcing as well as temperature signal; and the internal variability, which is strong at least on the short timescales, will exert an influence on temperature intermittence which is independent of the forcing. We demonstrate by a synthetic example that the differences in intermittencies observed by L&V easily can be accounted for by these effects under the assumption of a linear response. Our conclusion is that the analysis performed by L&V does not present valid evidence for a detectable nonlinear response in the global temperature in these climate models.

  6. Evaluation of the thermal-hydraulic response and fuel rod thermal and mechanical deformation behavior during the power burst facility test LOC-3. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Yackle, T.R.; MacDonald, P.E.; Broughton, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    An evaluation of the results from the LOC-3 nuclear blowdown test conducted in the Power Burst Facility is presented. The test objective was to examine fuel and cladding behavior during a postulated cold leg break accident in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Separate effects of rod internal pressure and the degree of irradiation were investigated in the four-rod test. Extensive cladding deformation (ballooning) and failure occurred during blowdown. The deformation of the low and high pressure rods was similar; however, the previously irradiated test rod deformed to a greater extent than a similar fresh rod exposed to identical system conditions.

  7. TU-F-12A-03: Using 18F-FDG-PET-CT and Deformable Registration During Head-And-Neck Cancer (HNC) Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) to Predict Treatment Response

    SciTech Connect

    Vergalasova, I; Mowery, Y; Yoo, D; Brizel, D; Das, S

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of deformable vs. rigid registration of pre-treatment 18F-FDG-PET-CT to intra-treatment 18F-FDG-PET-CT on different standardized uptake value (SUV) parameters and investigate which parameters correlate best with post-treatment response in patients undergoing IMRT for HNC. Methods: Pre-treatment and intra-treatment PET-CT (after 20Gy) scans were acquired, in addition to a 12 week post-treatment PET-CT to assess treatment response. Primary and lymph node gross tumor volumes (GTV-PRI and GTV-LN) were contoured on the pre-treatment CT. These contours were then mapped to intra-treatment PET images via rigid and deformable registration. Absolute changes from pre- to intra-treatment scans for rigid and deformable registration were extracted for the following parameters: SUV-MAX, SUV-MEAN, SUV-20%, SUV-40%, and SUV-60% (SUV-X% is the minimum SUV to the highest-intensity X% volume). Results: Thirty-eight patients were evaluated, with 27 available for classification as complete or incomplete response (CR/ICR). The pre-treatment average tumor volumes for the patients were 24.05cm{sup 3} for GTV-PRI and 23.4cm{sup 3} for GTV-LN. For GTV-PRI, there was no statistically significant difference between rigid vs. deformable registration across all ΔSUV parameters. For GTV-LN contours, all parameters were significantly different except for ΔSUV-MAX. For deformably-registered GTV-PRI, changes in the following metrics were significantly different for CR vs. ICR: SUV-MEAN(p=0.003), SUV-20%(p=0.02), SUV-40%(p=0.02), and SUV-60%(p=0.008). The following cutoff values separated CR from ICR with high sensitivity and specificity: ΔSUV-MEAN=1.49, ΔSUV-20%=2.39, ΔSUV-40%=1.80 and ΔSUV-60%=1.31. Corresponding areas under the Receiver Operating Characteristics curve were 0.90, 0.81, 0.81, and 0.85, respectively. Conclusion: Rigidly and deformably registered contours yielded statistically similar SUV parameters for GTV-PRI, but not GTV-LN. This implies that

  8. Time-Dependent Reversible-Irreversible Deformation Threshold Determined Explicitly by Experimental Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castelli, Michael G.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2000-01-01

    Structural materials for the design of advanced aeropropulsion components are usually subject to loading under elevated temperatures, where a material's viscosity (resistance to flow) is greatly reduced in comparison to its viscosity under low-temperature conditions. As a result, the propensity for the material to exhibit time-dependent deformation is significantly enhanced, even when loading is limited to a quasi-linear stress-strain regime as an effort to avoid permanent (irreversible) nonlinear deformation. An understanding and assessment of such time-dependent effects in the context of combined reversible and irreversible deformation is critical to the development of constitutive models that can accurately predict the general hereditary behavior of material deformation. To this end, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field developed a unique experimental technique that identifies the existence of and explicitly determines a threshold stress k, below which the time-dependent material deformation is wholly reversible, and above which irreversible deformation is incurred. This technique is unique in the sense that it allows, for the first time, an objective, explicit, experimental measurement of k. The underlying concept for the experiment is based on the assumption that the material s time-dependent reversible response is invariable, even in the presence of irreversible deformation.

  9. On the Need for Comprehensive Validation of Deformable Image Registration, Investigated With a Novel 3-Dimensional Deformable Dosimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Juang, Titania; Das, Shiva; Adamovics, John; Benning, Ron; Oldham, Mark

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: To introduce and evaluate a novel deformable 3-dimensional (3D) dosimetry system (Presage-Def/Optical-CT) and its application toward investigating the accuracy of dose deformation in a commercial deformable image registration (DIR) package. Methods and Materials: Presage-Def is a new dosimetry material consisting of an elastic polyurethane matrix doped with radiochromic leuco dye. Radiologic and mechanical properties were characterized using standard techniques. Dose-tracking feasibility was evaluated by comparing dose distributions between dosimeters irradiated with and without 27% lateral compression. A checkerboard plan of 5-mm square fields enabled precise measurement of true deformation using 3D dosimetry. Predicted deformation was determined from a commercial DIR algorithm. Results: Presage-Def exhibited a linear dose response with sensitivity of 0.0032 ΔOD/(Gy∙cm). Mass density is 1.02 g/cm{sup 3}, and effective atomic number is within 1.5% of water over a broad (0.03-10 MeV) energy range, indicating good water-equivalence. Elastic characteristics were close to that of liver tissue, with Young's modulus of 13.5-887 kPa over a stress range of 0.233-303 kPa, and Poisson's ratio of 0.475 (SE, 0.036). The Presage-Def/Optical-CT system successfully imaged the nondeformed and deformed dose distributions, with isotropic resolution of 1 mm. Comparison with the predicted deformed 3D dose distribution identified inaccuracies in the commercial DIR algorithm. Although external contours were accurately deformed (submillimeter accuracy), volumetric dose deformation was poor. Checkerboard field positioning and dimension errors of up to 9 and 14 mm, respectively, were identified, and the 3D DIR-deformed dose γ passing rate was only γ{sub 3%/3} {sub mm} = 60.0%. Conclusions: The Presage-Def/Optical-CT system shows strong potential for comprehensive investigation of DIR algorithm accuracy. Substantial errors in a commercial DIR were found in the conditions

  10. Specific absorption rate calculations of magnetite, using a modified linear response model for applications in magnetic hyperthermia

    SciTech Connect

    Hernández S, A. E-mail: meduardo2001@hotmail.com; Cano, M. E. E-mail: meduardo2001@hotmail.com; Torres-Arenas, J.

    2014-11-07

    Currently the absorption of electromagnetic radiation by magnetic nanoparticles is studied for biomedical applications of cancer thermotherapy. Several experiments are conduced following the framework of the Rosensweig model, in order to estimate their specific absorption rate. Nevertheless, this linear approximation involves strong simplifications which constrain their accuracy and validity range. The main aim of this work is to incorporate the deviation of the sphericity assumption in particles shapes, to improve the determination of their specific absorption rate. The correction to the effective particles volume is computed as a measure of the apparent amount of magnetic material, interacting with the external AC magnetic field. Preliminary results using the physical properties of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, exhibit an important correction in their estimated specific absorption rate, as a function of the apparent mean particles radius. Indeed, we have observed using a small deviation (6% of the apparent radius), up to 40% of the predicted specific absorption rate by the Rosensweig linear approximation.

  11. Impact of turbulence on the prediction of linear aeroacoustic interactions: Acoustic response of a turbulent shear layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gikadi, Jannis; Föller, Stephan; Sattelmayer, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    A powerful model to predict aeroacoustic interactions in the linear regime is the perturbed compressible linearized Navier-Stokes equations. Thus far, the frequently employed derivation suggests that the effect of turbulence and its associated Reynolds stresses is neglected and a quasi-laminar model is employed. In this paper, dynamic perturbation equations are derived incorporating the effect of turbulence and its interaction with perturbation quantities. This is done by employing a triple decomposition of the instantaneous variables. The procedure results in a closure problem for the Reynolds stresses for which a linear eddy-viscosity model is proposed. The resulting perturbation equations are applied to a grazing flow in a T-joint for which strong shear layer instabilities at certain frequencies are experimentally observed. Passive scattering properties of the grazing flow are validated against the experiments performed by Karlsson and Åbom and perturbation equations being quasi-laminar. We find that prediction models must include the effect of Reynolds stresses to capture the aeroacoustic interaction effects correctly. Neglecting its effect naturally results in the over prediction of vortex growth at the frequencies of shear layer instability and therewith in an over prediction of aeroacoustic interactions.

  12. Deformations in chiral liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibaev, Petr; Reddy, Kathryn; Bateman, Daniel; Iljin, Andrey

    2014-03-01

    Deformations and their relaxation in chiral liquid crystals are studied experimentally and theoretically in planar geometry for liquid crystalline mixtures of varying viscosities. It is shown by both methods that shear deformation in liquid crystals results in the inclination and extension of cholesteric helix in samples with high viscosity. Stretching deformation results in shrinking cholesteric helix. This leads to a possibility of detecting deformations on a nanometer scale by observing changes in selective reflection spectra. Theoretical model takes into account elastic strain of physical network formed by the entanglements between components of liquid crystalline mixture, viscosity of the matrix and elasticity of the liquid crystalline subsystem. This allows to model mechanical response of the matrix with different viscosities to stretching and shear of various amplitudes. It is shown that relaxation of the cholesteric helix takes much shorter time than mechanical relaxation of the mixtures. The model perfectly agrees with experimental data. The model is compared with theoretical model describing behavior of elastomers.

  13. Effect of large deformation pre-loads on the wave properties of hexagonal lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Raj Kumar; Rimoli, Julian; Ruzzene, Massimo

    2016-05-01

    We study linear wave propagation in nonlinear hexagonal lattices capable of undergoing large deformations, under different levels of pre-load. The lattices are composed of a set of masses connected by linear axial and angular springs, with the nonlinearity arising solely from geometric effects. By applying different levels of pre-load, the small amplitude linear wave propagation response can be varied from isotropic to highly directional. Analytical expressions for the stiffness of a unit cell in the deformed configuration are derived and they are used to analyze the dispersion surfaces and group velocity variation with pre-load. Numerical simulations on finite lattices demonstrate the validity of our unit cell predictions and illustrate the wave steering potential of our lattice.

  14. Anatomy of gravitationally deformed slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chigira, Masahiro; Yamasaki, Shintaro; Hariyama, Takehiro

    2010-05-01

    Deep-seated gravitational slope deformation is the deformation of rocks as well as slope surfaces, but the internal structures have not been well observed and described before. This is mainly due to the difficulty in obtaining undisturbed samples from underground. We analyzed the internal deformational structures of gravitationally deformed slopes by using high quality drilled cores obtained by hybrid drilling technique, which has been recently developed and can recover very fragile materials that could not be taken by the conventional drilling techniques. Investigated slopes were gravitationally deformed out-facing slopes of pelitic schist and shale. The slope surfaces showed deformational features of small steps, depressions, knobs, and linear depressions, but had no major main scarp and landslide body with well-defined outline. This is indicative of slow, deep-seated gravitational deformation. Most of these small deformational features are hidden by vegetations, but they are detected by using airborne laser scanner. Drilled cores showed that the internal deformation is dominated by the slip and tearing off along foliations. Slippage along foliations is conspicuous in pelitic schist: Pelitic schist is sheared, particularly along black layers, which are rich in graphite and pyrite. Graphite is known to be a solid lubricant in material sciences, which seems to be why shearing occurs along the black layers. Rock mass between two slip layers is sheared, rotated, fractured, and pulverized; undulation of bedding or schistosity could be the nucleation points of fracturing. Tearing off along foliations is also the major deformation mode, which forms jagged morphology of rock fragments within shear zones. Rock fragments with jagged surface are commonly observed in "gouge", which is very different from tectonic gouge. This probably reflects the low confining pressures during their formation. Microscopic to mesoscopic openings along fractures are commonly observed with

  15. THE SHAPE OF THE TUMOR DOSE RESPONSE CURVES AT LOW PAH EXPOSURES: TESTING THE DEFAULT ASSUMPTION OF LINEARITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have previously characterized the administered dose tumor-response, stable DNA adduct-lung tumor response, and K-ras mutation profiles in tumors from strain A/J mice exposed i.p. to 6 PAHs including B[a]P . In summary, we demonstrated that: 1. The relationships between admini...

  16. Deformable micro torque swimmer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Takuji; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Omori, Toshihiro; Imai, Yohsuke

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the deformation of a ciliate swimming freely in a fluid otherwise at rest. The cell body was modeled as a capsule with a hyper elastic membrane enclosing Newtonian fluid. Thrust forces due to the ciliary beat were modeled as torques distributed above the cell body. Effects of the membrane elasticity, the aspect ratio of cell's reference shape and the density difference between the cell and the surrounding fluid were investigated. The results showed that the cell deformed like heart shape when Capillary number (Ca) was sufficiently large, and the swimming velocity decreased as Ca was increased. The gravity effect on the membrane tension suggested that the upwards and downwards swimming velocities of Paramecium might be reglated by the calcium ion channels distributed locally around the anterior end. Moreover, the gravity induced deformation made a cell directed vertically downwards, which resulted in a positive geotaxis like behavior with physical origin. These results are important to understand physiology of ciliate's biological responses to mechanical stimuli.

  17. A chemo-electro-mechanical model for simulation of responsive deformation of glucose-sensitive hydrogels with the effect of enzyme catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hua; Luo, Rongmo; Birgersson, Erik; Lam, Khin Yong

    2009-02-01

    A multi-effect-coupling glucose-stimulus (MECglu) model is developed and solved numerically for the swelling behavior of soft smart hydrogels responding to changes in the environmental glucose concentration. The model considers the effect of the glucose oxidation reaction catalyzed by enzymes including glucose oxidase and catalase. It is composed of the Nernst-Planck equation for the mobile species in the solvent, the Poisson equation for the electric potential, and a nonlinear mechanical equation for the large deformations of the hydrogel that arise due to the conversion of chemical energy to mechanical. Based on the theory of the chemo-electro-mechanical-coupled fields, the formulation of the fixed charge groups bound onto the cross-linked polymer network is associated with the change of the ambient solution pH. The MECglu model is validated by comparison between the steady-state computation and experimental equilibrium swelling curves, and good agreement is obtained. A parameter study is then conducted by steady-state simulations to ascertain the impact of various solvent parameters on the responsive swelling behavior of the hydrogel. One key parameter is the glucose concentration, which is varied within the range of practical physiological glucose concentrations from 0 to 16.5 mM (300 mg/ml) to support the design and optimization of an insulin delivery system based on a glucose-sensitive hydrogel with immobilized glucose oxidase and catalase. The influence of oxygen and glucose concentrations in the solvent is then further studied for the distributive profiles of reacting and diffusive species concentrations, the electric potential, the displacement, as well as the swelling ratio of the glucose-sensitive hydrogel.

  18. Effects of interatomic potentials on mechanical deformation of glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei-Ren; Iwashita, Takuya; Egami, Takeshi

    2013-03-01

    Apparently glasses behave like an elastic solid, which shows a linear relationship between stress and strain in mechanical deformation. However the understanding of the mechanical response of glasses remains elusive because of structural disorder. Mechanical deformation of monatomic model glasses was studied using athermal quasi-static shear (AQS) simulation and with three different potentials. As the interatomic potentials we employed the 12-6 Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential, modified Johnson (mJ) potential, and Dzugutov (Dz) potential, respectively. For mJ and Dz glasses the shear modulus keeps constant below a critical strain, below which it decreases rapidly or discontinuously with strain. Such changes in shear modulus were mostly related to the change in local topology of atomic connectivity or anelasticity. In contrast LJ glass shows a gradual decrease in shear modulus in a continuous manner. The results indicated that the difference arises from the nature of the potentials if the topology of atomic connectivity can be clearly defined.

  19. CT assessment of tumour response to treatment: comparison of linear, cross-sectional and volumetric measures of tumour size.

    PubMed

    Sohaib, S A; Turner, B; Hanson, J A; Farquharson, M; Oliver, R T; Reznek, R H

    2000-11-01

    Changes in cross-sectional area are currently used to assess tumour response to treatment. The aims of this study were to validate a helical CT technique for volume determination using a series of phantoms and to compare tumour responses indicated by one-, two- and three-dimensional measures of tumour size change in patients treated for germ cell cancer or lymphoma. All studies were performed on an IGE HiSpeed Advantage helical CT scanner with an Advantage Windows workstation. Phantom volumes were calculated using volume reconstruction software and compared with reference volumes determined by water displacement. 20 lymph node masses were studied on serial CT scans in 16 patients treated with chemotherapy for germ cell cancer or lymphoma. For each lesion the maximum diameter, maximum cross-sectional area and volume were determined before and after treatment. Tumour response was assessed using the standard World Health Organisation criteria (i.e. changes in cross-sectional area) and the newly proposed unidimensional response evaluation criteria in solid tumour (RECIST). The CT volume measurement error was 1.0-5.1% for regularly shaped phantoms larger than 35 cm3. In the assessment of treatment response there was 90% agreement between one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) measurements and 100% agreement between 2D and three-dimensional (3D) measurements. CT volume measurements are accurate and reproducible, particularly for larger structures. Assessment of tumour response using 1D, 2D and 3D measures had limited influence on the classification of treatment response. However, the impact of CT assessment of tumour response using 1D, 2D and 3D measurements on clinical decisions and patient outcome remains to be determined. PMID:11144795

  20. Implementation of the CCSD-PCM linear response function for frequency dependent properties in solution: Application to polarizability and specific rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caricato, Marco

    2013-09-01

    This work reports the first implementation of the frequency dependent linear response (LR) function for the coupled cluster singles and doubles method (CCSD) combined with the polarizable continuum model of solvation for the calculation of frequency dependent properties in solution. In particular, values of static and dynamic polarizability as well as specific rotation are presented for various test molecules. Model calculations of polarizability show that a common approximation used in the definition of the LR function with solvation models recovers over 70% of the full response while maintaining a computational cost comparable to gas phase LR-CCSD. Calculations of specific rotation for three compounds for which gas phase methods predict the wrong sign of the rotation show that accounting for the electronic response of the solvent may be essential to assign the correct absolute configuration of chiral molecules.

  1. Greater Expectations: Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling to Examine Expectancy for Treatment Outcome as a Predictor of Treatment Response

    PubMed Central

    Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page; Henrich, Christopher C.; Rothbaum, Barbara Olasov

    2013-01-01

    A client’s expectation that therapy will be beneficial has long been considered an important factor contributing to therapeutic outcomes, but recent empirical work examining this hypothesis has primarily yielded null findings. The present study examined the contribution of expectancies for treatment outcome to actual treatment outcome from the start of therapy through 12-month follow-up in a clinical sample of individuals (n=72) treated for fear of flying with either in vivo exposure or virtual reality exposure therapy. Using a piecewise hierarchical linear model, outcome expectancy predicted treatment gains made during therapy but not during follow-up. Compared to lower levels, higher expectations for treatment outcome yielded stronger rates of symptom reduction from the beginning to the end of treatment on 2 standardized self-report questionnaires on fear of flying. The analytic approach of the current study is one potential reason that findings contrast with prior literature. The advantages of using hierarchical linear modeling to assess interindividual differences in longitudinal data are discussed. PMID:19027436

  2. A deformable model for tracking tumors across consecutive imaging studies

    PubMed Central

    Nosher, John L.; Schneider, M. D. Benjamin; Foran, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective A deformable registration technique was developed and evaluated to track and quantify tumor response to radiofrequency ablation for patients with liver malignancies. Materials and methods The method uses the combined power of global and local alignment of pre- and post-treatment computed tomography image data sets. The strategy of the algorithm is to infer volumetric deformation based upon surface displacements using a linearly elastic finite element model (FEM). Using this framework, the major challenge for tracking tumor location is not the tissue mechanical properties for FEM modeling but rather the evaluation of boundary conditions. Three different methods were systematically investigated to automatically determine the boundary conditions defined by the correspondences on liver surfaces. Results Using both 2D synthetic phantoms and imaged 3D beef liver data we performed gold standard registration while measuring the accuracy of non-rigid deformation. The fact that the algorithms could support mean displacement error of tumor deformation up to 2 mm indicates that this technique may serve as a useful tool for surgical interventions. The method was further demonstrated and evaluated using consecutive imaging studies for three liver cancer patients. Conclusion The FEM-based surface registration technique provides accurate tracking and monitoring of tumor and surrounding tissue during the course of treatment and follow-up. PMID:19774096

  3. Dynamic Deformation of Thermosetting Polymers---All Atomistic Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsige, Mesfin; Shenogina, Natalia; Mukhopadhyay, Sharmila; Patnaik, Soumya

    2013-03-01

    We are using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the interconnection between structural and mechanical properties of highly cross-linked polymer networks. In this study we focused on the widely used resin-hardener system composed of DGEBA epoxy oligomers and aromatic amine hardener DETDA. Accurate cross-linked models were developed using the effective cross-linking procedure that enables to generate thermoset structures with realistic structural characteristics. These models were used to examine the elastic properties of thermosetting networks with various degrees of curing and length of resin strands both in glassy and rubbery states. In our recent study we employed static deformation approach to estimate potential energy contribution to the mechanical response. In the present work we are using dynamic deformation approach which takes into account both potential energy and thermal motions in the structure. Uniaxial, volumetric and shear dynamic deformation modes were used to obtain Young's, bulk, shear moduli and Poisson's ratio directly. We also calculated elastic constants using formulae of linear elasticity and analyzed the results obtained by direct deformation and interconversion methods. The elastic properties determined from these two approaches are in good agreement with each other and also with experimental data.

  4. Finite element analysis of large transient elastic-plastic deformations of simple structures, with application to the engine rotor fragment containment/deflection problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, R. W.; Witmer, E. A.

    1972-01-01

    Assumed-displacement versions of the finite-element method are developed to predict large-deformation elastic-plastic transient deformations of structures. Both the conventional and a new improved finite-element variational formulation are derived. These formulations are then developed in detail for straight-beam and curved-beam elements undergoing (1) Bernoulli-Euler-Kirchhoff or (2) Timoshenko deformation behavior, in one plane. For each of these categories, several types of assumed-displacement finite elements are developed, and transient response predictions are compared with available exact solutions for small-deflection, linear-elastic transient responses. The present finite-element predictions for large-deflection elastic-plastic transient responses are evaluated via several beam and ring examples for which experimental measurements of transient strains and large transient deformations and independent finite-difference predictions are available.

  5. Statistical field theories deformed within different calculi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olemskoi, A. I.; Borysov, S. S.; Shuda, I. A.

    2010-09-01

    Within the framework of basic-deformed and finite-difference calculi, as well as deformation procedures proposed by Tsallis, Abe, and Kaniadakis and generalized by Naudts, we develop field-theoretical schemes of statistically distributed fields. We construct a set of generating functionals and find their connection with corresponding correlators for basic-deformed, finite-difference, and Kaniadakis calculi. Moreover, we introduce pair of additive functionals, which expansions into deformed series yield both Green functions and their irreducible proper vertices. We find as well formal equations, governing by the generating functionals of systems which possess a symmetry with respect to a field variation and are subjected to an arbitrary constrain. Finally, we generalize field-theoretical schemes inherent in concrete calculi in the Naudts manner. From the physical point of view, we study dependences of both one-site partition function and variance of free fields on deformations. We show that within the basic-deformed statistics dependence of the specific partition function on deformation has in logarithmic axes symmetrical form with respect to maximum related to deformation absence; in case of the finite-difference statistics, the partition function takes non-deformed value; for the Kaniadakis statistics, curves of related dependences have convex symmetrical form at small curvatures of the effective action and concave form at large ones. We demonstrate that only moment of the second order of free fields takes non-zero values to be proportional to inverse curvature of effective action. In dependence of the deformation parameter, the free field variance has linearly arising form for the basic-deformed distribution and increases non-linearly rapidly in case of the finite-difference statistics; for more complicated case of the Kaniadakis distribution, related dependence has double-well form.

  6. Linear Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorin, Anatoly

    2010-01-01

    In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.

  7. Linear Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Sidorin, Anatoly

    2010-01-05

    In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.

  8. Linearity of β-cell response across the metabolic spectrum and to pharmacology: insights from a graded glucose infusion-based investigation series.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Sudha S; Shankar, R Ravi; Mixson, Lori A; Miller, Deborah L; Chung, Christopher; Cilissen, Caroline; Beals, Chan R; Stoch, S Aubrey; Steinberg, Helmut O; Kelley, David E

    2016-06-01

    The graded glucose infusion (GGI) examines insulin secretory response patterns to continuously escalating glycemia. The current study series sought to more fully appraise its performance characteristics. Key questions addressed were comparison of the GGI to the hyperglycemic clamp (HGC), comparison of insulin secretory response patterns across three volunteer populations known to differ in β-cell function (healthy nonobese, obese nondiabetic, and type 2 diabetic), and characterization of effects of known insulin secretagogues in the context of a GGI. Insulin secretory response was measured as changes in insulin, C-peptide, insulin secretion rates (ISR), and ratio of ISR to prevailing glucose (ISR/G). The GGI correlated well with the HGC (r = 0.72 for ISR/G, P < 0.01). The insulin secretory response in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) was significantly blunted (P < 0.001), whereas it was significantly increased in obese nondiabetics compared with healthy nonobese (P < 0.001). Finally, robust (P < 0.001 over placebo) pharmacological effects were observed in T2DM and healthy nonobese volunteers. Collectively, the findings of this investigational series bolster confidence that the GGI has solid attributes for assessing insulin secretory response to glucose across populations and pharmacology. Notably, the coupling of insulin secretory response to glycemic changes was distinctly and uniformly linear across populations and in the context of insulin secretagogues. (Clinical Trial Registration Nos. NCT00782418, NCT01055340, NCT01373450). PMID:27072496

  9. A computational and experimental study of the linear and nonlinear response of a star polymer melt with a moderate number of unentangled arms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, Barry W.; Lentzakis, Helen; Sakellariou, Georgios; Vlassopoulos, Dimitris; Briels, Wim J.

    2014-09-01

    We present from simulations and experiments results on the linear and nonlinear rheology of a moderate functionality, low molecular weight unentangled polystyrene (PS) star melt. The PS samples were anionically synthesized and close to monodisperse while their moderate functionality ensures that they do not display a pronounced core effect. We employ a highly coarse-grained model known as Responsive Particle Dynamics where each star polymer is approximated as a point particle. The eliminated degrees of freedom are used in the definition of an appropriate free energy as well as describing the transient pair-wise potential between particles that accounts for the viscoelastic response. First we reproduce very satisfactorily the experimental moduli using simulation. We then consider the nonlinear response of the same polymer melts by implementing a start-up shear protocol for a wide range of shear rates. As in experiments, we observe the development of a stress overshoot with increasing shear rate followed by a steady-state shear stress. We also recover the shear-thinning nature of the melt, although we slightly overestimate the extent of shear-thinning with simulations. In addition, we study relaxations upon the removal of shear where we find encouraging agreement between experiments and simulations, a finding that corroborates our agreement for the linear rheology.

  10. Non-linear ecosystem response to long-term changes in precipitation and nitrogen availability in a desert grassland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to assess ecosystem responses to long-term changes in precipitation and nitrogen availability in the Northern Chihuahuan Desert (NM, USA), using rainfall manipulations (80% reduced PPT, ambient, 80% increased) and fertilization additions (with and without ammonium nitrate) for five...

  11. Comparison of real-time and linear-response time-dependent density functional theories for molecular chromophores ranging from sparse to high densities of states

    SciTech Connect

    Tussupbayev, Samat; Govind, Niranjan; Lopata, Kenneth A.; Cramer, Christopher J.

    2015-03-10

    We assess the performance of real-time time-dependent density functional theory (RT-TDDFT) for the calculation of absorption spectra of 12 organic dye molecules relevant to photovoltaics and dye sensitized solar cells with 8 exchange-correlation functionals (3 traditional, 3 global hybrids, and 2 range-separated hybrids). We compare the calculations with traditional linear-response (LR) TDDFT. In addition, we demonstrate the efficacy of the RT-TDDFT approach to calculate wide absorption spectra of two large chromophores relevant to photovoltaics and molecular switches.

  12. A shear deformable theory of laminated composite shallow shell-type panels and their response analysis. I - Free vibration and buckling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Librescu, L.; Khdeir, A. A.; Frederick, D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper deals with the substantiation of a shear deformable theory of cross-ply laminated composite shallow shells. While the developed theory preserves all the advantages of the first order transverse shear deformation theory it succeeds in eliminating some of its basic shortcomings. The theory is further employed in the analysis of the eigenvibration and static buckling problems of doubly curved shallow panels. In this context, the state space concept is used in conjunction with the Levy method, allowing one to analyze these problems in a unified manner, for a variety of boundary conditions. Numerical results are presented and some pertinent conclusions are formulated.

  13. Laboratory determination of effective stress laws for deformation and permeability of chalk

    SciTech Connect

    Teufel, L W; Warpinski, N R

    1990-01-01

    Laboratory deformation and permeability measurements have been made on chalk samples from Ekofisk area fields as a function of confining stress and pore pressure to determine the effective stress laws for chalk. An understanding of the effective stress law is essential to obtain correct reservoir-property data from core analysis and is critical for reservoir management studies and reservoir compaction models. A powerful statistical technique known as the response surface method has been used to analyze our laboratory data determine the form of the effective stress law for deformation and permeability. Experiments were conducted on chalk samples that had a range of porosities from 15% to 36%, because porosity is the dominant intrinsic property that effects deformation and permeability behavior of chalk. Deformation of a 36% porosity chalk was highly nonlinear, but the effective stress law was linear, with {alpha} equal to about unity. Lower-porosity samples showed linear strain behavior and a linear effective stress law with {alpha} as low as 0.74. Analysis of the effective stress law for permeability is presented only for the lowest porosity chalk sample because changes in permeability in the higher-porosity chalk samples due to increasing confining stress or pore pressure were not were large enough, to deduce meaningful effective stress relationships. 15 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. The Iflaviruses Sacbrood virus and Deformed wing virus evoke different transcriptional responses in the honeybee which may facilitate their horizontal or vertical transmission

    PubMed Central

    Fannon, Jessica M.; Moore, Jonathan D.; Wood, Graham R.; Evans, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Sacbrood virus (SBV) and Deformed wing virus (DWV) are evolutionarily related positive-strand RNA viruses, members of the Iflavirus group. They both infect the honeybee Apis mellifera but have strikingly different levels of virulence when transmitted orally. Honeybee larvae orally infected with SBV usually accumulate high levels of the virus, which halts larval development and causes insect death. In contrast, oral DWV infection at the larval stage usually causes asymptomatic infection with low levels of the virus, although high doses of ingested DWV could lead to DWV replicating to high levels. We investigated effects of DWV and SBV infection on the transcriptome of honeybee larvae and pupae using global RNA-Seq and real-time PCR analysis. This showed that high levels of SBV replication resulted in down-regulation of the genes involved in cuticle and muscle development, together with changes in expression of putative immune-related genes. In particular, honeybee larvae with high levels of SBV replication, with and without high levels of DWV replication, showed concerted up-regulated expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), and down-regulated expression of the prophenoloxidase activating enzyme (PPAE) together with up-regulation of the expression of a putative serpin, which could lead to the suppression of the melanisation pathway. The effects of high SBV levels on expression of these immune genes were unlikely to be a consequence of SBV-induced developmental changes, because similar effects were observed in honeybee pupae infected by injection. In the orally infected larvae with high levels of DWV replication alone we observed no changes of AMPs or of gene expression in the melanisation pathway. In the injected pupae, high levels of DWV alone did not alter expression of the tested melanisation pathway genes, but resulted in up-regulation of the AMPs, which could be attributed to the effect of DWV on the regulation of AMP expression in response to wounding. We

  15. Rats' performance on variable-interval schedules with a linear feedback loop between response rate and reinforcement rate.

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Phil; Hildebrandt, Tom; DeJongh, Julie; Soh, Mariane

    2003-01-01

    Three experiments investigated whether rats are sensitive to the molar properties of a variable-interval (VI) schedule with a positive relation between response rate and reinforcement rate (i.e., a VI+ schedule). In Experiment 1, rats responded faster on a variable ratio (VR) schedule than on a VI+ schedule with an equivalent feedback function. Reinforced interresponse times (IRTs) were shorter on the VR as compared to the VI+ schedule. In Experiments 2 and 3, there was no systematic difference in response rates maintained by a VI+ schedule and a VI schedule yoked in terms of reinforcement rate. This was found both when the yoking procedure was between-subject (Experiment 2) and within-subject (Experiment 3). Mean reinforced IRTs were similar on both the VI+ and yoked VI schedules, but these values were more variable on the VI+ schedule. These results provided no evidence that rats are sensitive to the feedback function relating response rate to reinforcement rate on a VI+ schedule. PMID:12822684

  16. Anisotropic lattice response induced by a linearly-polarized femtosecond optical pulse excitation in interfacial phase change memory material

    PubMed Central

    Makino, Kotaro; Saito, Yuta; Fons, Paul; Kolobov, Alexander V.; Nakano, Takashi; Tominaga, Junji; Hase, Muneaki

    2016-01-01

    Optical excitation of matter with linearly-polarized femtosecond pulses creates a transient non-equilibrium lattice displacement along a certain direction. Here, the pump and probe pulse polarization dependence of the photo-induced ultrafast lattice dynamics in (GeTe)2/(Sb2Te3)4 interfacial phase change memory material is investigated under obliquely incident conditions. Drastic pump polarization dependence of the coherent phonon amplitude is observed when the probe polarization angle is parallel to the c–axis of the sample, while the pump polarization dependence is negligible when the probe polarization angle is perpendicular to the c–axis. The enhancement of phonon oscillation amplitude due to pump polarization rotation for a specific probe polarization angle is only found in the early time stage (≤2 ps). These results indicate that the origin of the pump and probe polarization dependence is dominantly attributable to the anisotropically-formed photo-excited carriers which cause the directional lattice dynamics. PMID:26805401

  17. Response of Silicon-Based Linear Energy Transfer Spectrometers: Implication for Radiation Risk Assessment in Space Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; O'Neill, P. M.

    2001-01-01

    There is considerable interest in developing silicon-based telescopes because of their compactness and low power requirements. Three such telescopes have been flown on board the Space Shuttle to measure the linear energy transfer spectra of trapped, galactic cosmic ray, and solar energetic particles. Dosimeters based on single silicon detectors have also been flown on the Mir orbital station. A comparison of the absorbed dose and radiation quality factors calculated from these telescopes with that estimated from measurements made with a tissue equivalent proportional counter show differences which need to be fully understood if these telescopes are to be used for astronaut radiation risk assessments. Instrument performance is complicated by a variety of factors. A Monte Carlo-based technique was developed to model the behavior of both single element detectors in a proton beam, and the performance of a two-element, wide-angle telescope, in the trapped belt proton field inside the Space Shuttle. The technique is based on: (1) radiation transport intranuclear-evaporation model that takes into account the charge and angular distribution of target fragments, (2) Landau-Vavilov distribution of energy deposition allowing for electron escape, (3) true detector geometry of the telescope, (4) coincidence and discriminator settings, (5) spacecraft shielding geometry, and (6) the external space radiation environment, including albedo protons. The value of such detailed modeling and its implications in astronaut risk assessment is addressed. c2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Anisotropic lattice response induced by a linearly-polarized femtosecond optical pulse excitation in interfacial phase change memory material.

    PubMed

    Makino, Kotaro; Saito, Yuta; Fons, Paul; Kolobov, Alexander V; Nakano, Takashi; Tominaga, Junji; Hase, Muneaki

    2016-01-01

    Optical excitation of matter with linearly-polarized femtosecond pulses creates a transient non-equilibrium lattice displacement along a certain direction. Here, the pump and probe pulse polarization dependence of the photo-induced ultrafast lattice dynamics in (GeTe)2/(Sb2Te3)4 interfacial phase change memory material is investigated under obliquely incident conditions. Drastic pump polarization dependence of the coherent phonon amplitude is observed when the probe polarization angle is parallel to the c-axis of the sample, while the pump polarization dependence is negligible when the probe polarization angle is perpendicular to the c-axis. The enhancement of phonon oscillation amplitude due to pump polarization rotation for a specific probe polarization angle is only found in the early time stage (≤2 ps). These results indicate that the origin of the pump and probe polarization dependence is dominantly attributable to the anisotropically-formed photo-excited carriers which cause the directional lattice dynamics. PMID:26805401

  19. Response of silicon-based linear energy transfer spectrometers: implication for radiation risk assessment in space flights.

    PubMed

    Badhwar, G D; O'Neill, P M

    2001-07-11

    There is considerable interest in developing silicon-based telescopes because of their compactness and low power requirements. Three such telescopes have been flown on board the Space Shuttle to measure the linear energy transfer spectra of trapped, galactic cosmic ray, and solar energetic particles. Dosimeters based on single silicon detectors have also been flown on the Mir orbital station. A comparison of the absorbed dose and radiation quality factors calculated from these telescopes with that estimated from measurements made with a tissue equivalent proportional counter show differences which need to be fully understood if these telescopes are to be used for astronaut radiation risk assessments. Instrument performance is complicated by a variety of factors. A Monte Carlo-based technique was developed to model the behavior of both single element detectors in a proton beam, and the performance of a two-element, wide-angle telescope, in the trapped belt proton field inside the Space Shuttle. The technique is based on: (1) radiation transport intranuclear-evaporation model that takes into account the charge and angular distribution of target fragments, (2) Landau-Vavilov distribution of energy deposition allowing for electron escape, (3) true detector geometry of the telescope, (4) coincidence and discriminator settings, (5) spacecraft shielding geometry, and (6) the external space radiation environment, including albedo protons. The value of such detailed modeling and its implications in astronaut risk assessment is addressed. PMID:11858255

  20. Anisotropic lattice response induced by a linearly-polarized femtosecond optical pulse excitation in interfacial phase change memory material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, Kotaro; Saito, Yuta; Fons, Paul; Kolobov, Alexander V.; Nakano, Takashi; Tominaga, Junji; Hase, Muneaki

    2016-01-01

    Optical excitation of matter with linearly-polarized femtosecond pulses creates a transient non-equilibrium lattice displacement along a certain direction. Here, the pump and probe pulse polarization dependence of the photo-induced ultrafast lattice dynamics in (GeTe)2/(Sb2Te3)4 interfacial phase change memory material is investigated under obliquely incident conditions. Drastic pump polarization dependence of the coherent phonon amplitude is observed when the probe polarization angle is parallel to the c-axis of the sample, while the pump polarization dependence is negligible when the probe polarization angle is perpendicular to the c-axis. The enhancement of phonon oscillation amplitude due to pump polarization rotation for a specific probe polarization angle is only found in the early time stage (≤2 ps). These results indicate that the origin of the pump and probe polarization dependence is dominantly attributable to the anisotropically-formed photo-excited carriers which cause the directional lattice dynamics.