Patient-specific liver deformation modeling for tumor tracking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oh, Young-Taek; Hwang, Youngkyoo; Kim, Jung-Bae; Bang, Won-Chul; Kim, James D. K.; Kim, Chang Yeong
2013-03-01
We present a new method for patient-specific liver deformation modeling for tumor tracking. Our method focuses on deforming two main blood vessels of the liver - hepatic and portal vein - to utilize them as features. A novel centerline editing algorithm based on ellipse fitting is introduced for vessel deformation. Centerline-based blood vessel model and various interpolation methods are often used for generating a deformed model at the specific time t. However, it may introduce artifacts when models used in interpolation are not consistent. One of main reason of this inconsistency is the location of bifurcation points differs from each image. To solve this problem, our method generates a base model from one of patient's CT images. Next, we apply a rigid iterative closest point (ICP) method to the base model with centerlines of other images. Because the transformation is rigid, the length of each vessel's centerline is preserved while some part of the centerline is slightly deviated from centerlines of other images. We resolve this mismatch using our centerline editing algorithm. Finally, we interpolate three deformed models of liver, blood vessels, tumor using quadratic Bézier curves. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach with the real patient data.
Wang, Yi; Ni, Dong; Qin, Jing; Xu, Ming; Xie, Xiaoyan; Heng, Pheng-Ann
2016-01-01
Image-guided prostate interventions often require the registration of preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) images to real-time transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images to provide high-quality guidance. One of the main challenges for registering MR images to TRUS images is how to estimate the TRUS-probe-induced prostate deformation that occurs during TRUS imaging. The combined statistical and biomechanical modeling approach shows promise for the adequate estimation of prostate deformation. However, the right setting of the biomechanical parameters is very crucial for realistic deformation modeling. We propose a patient-specific deformation model equipped with personalized biomechanical parameters obtained from shear wave elastography to reliably predict the prostate deformation during image-guided interventions. Using data acquired from a prostate phantom and twelve patients with suspected prostate cancer, we compared the prostate deformation model with and without patient-specific biomechanical parameters in terms of deformation estimation accuracy. The results show that the patient-specific deformation model possesses favorable model ability, and outperforms the model without patient-specific biomechanical parameters. The employment of the patient-specific biomechanical parameters obtained from elastography for deformation modeling shows promise for providing more precise deformation estimation in applications that use computer-assisted image-guided intervention systems. PMID:27272239
Wang, Yi; Ni, Dong; Qin, Jing; Xu, Ming; Xie, Xiaoyan; Heng, Pheng-Ann
2016-01-01
Image-guided prostate interventions often require the registration of preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) images to real-time transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images to provide high-quality guidance. One of the main challenges for registering MR images to TRUS images is how to estimate the TRUS-probe-induced prostate deformation that occurs during TRUS imaging. The combined statistical and biomechanical modeling approach shows promise for the adequate estimation of prostate deformation. However, the right setting of the biomechanical parameters is very crucial for realistic deformation modeling. We propose a patient-specific deformation model equipped with personalized biomechanical parameters obtained from shear wave elastography to reliably predict the prostate deformation during image-guided interventions. Using data acquired from a prostate phantom and twelve patients with suspected prostate cancer, we compared the prostate deformation model with and without patient-specific biomechanical parameters in terms of deformation estimation accuracy. The results show that the patient-specific deformation model possesses favorable model ability, and outperforms the model without patient-specific biomechanical parameters. The employment of the patient-specific biomechanical parameters obtained from elastography for deformation modeling shows promise for providing more precise deformation estimation in applications that use computer-assisted image-guided intervention systems. PMID:27272239
Development of patient-specific biomechanical models for predicting large breast deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Lianghao; Hipwell, John H.; Tanner, Christine; Taylor, Zeike; Mertzanidou, Thomy; Cardoso, Jorge; Ourselin, Sebastien; Hawkes, David J.
2012-01-01
Physically realistic simulations for large breast deformation are of great interest for many medical applications such as cancer diagnosis, image registration, surgical planning and image-guided surgery. To support fast, large deformation simulations of breasts in clinical settings, we proposed a patient-specific biomechanical modelling framework for breasts, based on an open-source graphics processing unit-based, explicit, dynamic, nonlinear finite element (FE) solver. A semi-automatic segmentation method for tissue classification, integrated with a fully automated FE mesh generation approach, was implemented for quick patient-specific FE model generation. To solve the difficulty in determining material parameters of soft tissues in vivo for FE simulations, a novel method for breast modelling, with a simultaneous material model parameter optimization for soft tissues in vivo, was also proposed. The optimized deformation prediction was obtained through iteratively updating material model parameters to maximize the image similarity between the FE-predicted MR image and the experimentally acquired MR image of a breast. The proposed method was validated and tested by simulating and analysing breast deformation experiments under plate compression. Its prediction accuracy was evaluated by calculating landmark displacement errors. The results showed that both the heterogeneity and the anisotropy of soft tissues were essential in predicting large breast deformations under plate compression. As a generalized method, the proposed process can be used for fast deformation analyses of soft tissues in medical image analyses and surgical simulations.
Development of patient-specific biomechanical models for predicting large breast deformation.
Han, Lianghao; Hipwell, John H; Tanner, Christine; Taylor, Zeike; Mertzanidou, Thomy; Cardoso, Jorge; Ourselin, Sebastien; Hawkes, David J
2012-01-21
Physically realistic simulations for large breast deformation are of great interest for many medical applications such as cancer diagnosis, image registration, surgical planning and image-guided surgery. To support fast, large deformation simulations of breasts in clinical settings, we proposed a patient-specific biomechanical modelling framework for breasts, based on an open-source graphics processing unit-based, explicit, dynamic, nonlinear finite element (FE) solver. A semi-automatic segmentation method for tissue classification, integrated with a fully automated FE mesh generation approach, was implemented for quick patient-specific FE model generation. To solve the difficulty in determining material parameters of soft tissues in vivo for FE simulations, a novel method for breast modelling, with a simultaneous material model parameter optimization for soft tissues in vivo, was also proposed. The optimized deformation prediction was obtained through iteratively updating material model parameters to maximize the image similarity between the FE-predicted MR image and the experimentally acquired MR image of a breast. The proposed method was validated and tested by simulating and analysing breast deformation experiments under plate compression. Its prediction accuracy was evaluated by calculating landmark displacement errors. The results showed that both the heterogeneity and the anisotropy of soft tissues were essential in predicting large breast deformations under plate compression. As a generalized method, the proposed process can be used for fast deformation analyses of soft tissues in medical image analyses and surgical simulations. PMID:22173131
Wang, Li; Ren, Yi; Gao, Yaozong; Tang, Zhen; Chen, Ken-Chung; Li, Jianfu; Shen, Steve G. F.; Yan, Jin; Lee, Philip K. M.; Chow, Ben; Xia, James J.; Shen, Dinggang
2015-01-01
Purpose: A significant number of patients suffer from craniomaxillofacial (CMF) deformity and require CMF surgery in the United States. The success of CMF surgery depends on not only the surgical techniques but also an accurate surgical planning. However, surgical planning for CMF surgery is challenging due to the absence of a patient-specific reference model. Currently, the outcome of the surgery is often subjective and highly dependent on surgeon’s experience. In this paper, the authors present an automatic method to estimate an anatomically correct reference shape of jaws for orthognathic surgery, a common type of CMF surgery. Methods: To estimate a patient-specific jaw reference model, the authors use a data-driven method based on sparse shape composition. Given a dictionary of normal subjects, the authors first use the sparse representation to represent the midface of a patient by the midfaces of the normal subjects in the dictionary. Then, the derived sparse coefficients are used to reconstruct a patient-specific reference jaw shape. Results: The authors have validated the proposed method on both synthetic and real patient data. Experimental results show that the authors’ method can effectively reconstruct the normal shape of jaw for patients. Conclusions: The authors have presented a novel method to automatically estimate a patient-specific reference model for the patient suffering from CMF deformity. PMID:26429255
Spratley, E M; Matheis, E A; Hayes, C W; Adelaar, R S; Wayne, J S
2015-08-01
A cohort of adult acquired flatfoot deformity rigid-body models was developed to investigate the effects of isolated tendon transfer with successive levels of medializing calcaneal osteotomy (MCO). Following IRB approval, six diagnosed flatfoot sufferers were subjected to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and their scans used to derive patient-specific models. Single-leg stance was modeled, constrained solely through physiologic joint contact, passive soft-tissue tension, extrinsic muscle force, body weight, and without assumptions of idealized mechanical joints. Surgical effect was quantified using simulated mediolateral (ML) and anteroposterior (AP) X-rays, pedobarography, soft-tissue strains, and joint contact force. Radiographic changes varied across states with the largest average improvements for the tendon transfer (TT) + 10 mm MCO state evidenced through ML and AP talo-1st metatarsal angles. Interestingly, 12 of 14 measures showed increased deformity following TT-only, though all increases disappeared with inclusion of MCO. Plantar force distributions showed medial forefoot offloading concomitant with increases laterally such that the most corrected state had 9.0% greater lateral load. Predicted alterations in spring, deltoid, and plantar fascia soft-tissue strain agreed with prior cadaveric and computational works suggesting decreased strain medially with successive surgical repair. Finally, joint contact force demonstrated consistent medial offloading concomitant with variable increases laterally. Rigid-body modeling thus offers novel advantages for the investigation of foot/ankle biomechanics not easily measured in vivo. PMID:25465617
Fully-deformable patient motion models from cone-beam CT for radiotherapy applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin, J.; McClelland, J.; Yip, C.; Thomas, C.; Hartill, C.; Ahmad, S.; Meir, I.; Landau, D.; Hawkes, D.
2014-03-01
We propose a method to build a fully deformable motion model directly from cone-beam CT (CBCT) projections. This allows inter-fraction variations in the respiratory motion to be accounted for. It is envisaged that the model be used to track the tumour, and monitor organs at risk (OAR), during gated or tracked radiotherapy (RT) treatment of lung cancer. The method is tested on CBCT projections from a simulated phantom in two cases. The simulations are generated from a patient respiratory trace and associated CBCT scanner geometry. Without and with motion correction, l2 norm maximum errors were reduced from 24.5 to 0.698 mm in case 1, and 20.0 to 0.101 mm in case 2, respectively.
Khanal, Bishesh; Lorenzi, Marco; Ayache, Nicholas; Pennec, Xavier
2016-07-01
We propose a framework for developing a comprehensive biophysical model that could predict and simulate realistic longitudinal MRIs of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The framework includes three major building blocks: i) atrophy generation, ii) brain deformation, and iii) realistic MRI generation. Within this framework, this paper focuses on a detailed implementation of the brain deformation block with a carefully designed biomechanics-based tissue loss model. For a given baseline brain MRI, the model yields a deformation field imposing the desired atrophy at each voxel of the brain parenchyma while allowing the CSF to expand as required to globally compensate for the locally prescribed volume loss. Our approach is inspired by biomechanical principles and involves a system of equations similar to Stokes equations in fluid mechanics but with the presence of a non-zero mass source term. We use this model to simulate longitudinal MRIs by prescribing complex patterns of atrophy. We present experiments that provide an insight into the role of different biomechanical parameters in the model. The model allows simulating images with exactly the same tissue atrophy but with different underlying deformation fields in the image. We explore the influence of different spatial distributions of atrophy on the image appearance and on the measurements of atrophy reported by various global and local atrophy estimation algorithms. We also present a pipeline that allows evaluating atrophy estimation algorithms by simulating longitudinal MRIs from large number of real subject MRIs with complex subject-specific atrophy patterns. The proposed framework could help understand the implications of different model assumptions, regularization choices, and spatial priors for the detection and measurement of brain atrophy from longitudinal brain MRIs. PMID:27039699
Videogrammetric Model Deformation Measurement Technique
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burner, A. W.; Liu, Tian-Shu
2001-01-01
The theory, methods, and applications of the videogrammetric model deformation (VMD) measurement technique used at NASA for wind tunnel testing are presented. The VMD technique, based on non-topographic photogrammetry, can determine static and dynamic aeroelastic deformation and attitude of a wind-tunnel model. Hardware of the system includes a video-rate CCD camera, a computer with an image acquisition frame grabber board, illumination lights, and retroreflective or painted targets on a wind tunnel model. Custom software includes routines for image acquisition, target-tracking/identification, target centroid calculation, camera calibration, and deformation calculations. Applications of the VMD technique at five large NASA wind tunnels are discussed.
Modelling magnetically deformed neutron stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haskell, B.; Samuelsson, L.; Glampedakis, K.; Andersson, N.
2008-03-01
Rotating deformed neutron stars are important potential sources for ground-based gravitational wave interferometers such as LIGO, GEO600 and VIRGO. One mechanism that may lead to significant non-asymmetries is the internal magnetic field. It is well known that a magnetic star will not be spherical and, if the magnetic axis is not aligned with the spin axis, the deformation will lead to the emission of gravitational waves. The aim of this paper is to develop a formalism that would allow us to model magnetically deformed stars, using both realistic equations of state and field configurations. As a first step, we consider a set of simplified model problems. Focusing on dipolar fields, we determine the internal magnetic field which is consistent with a given neutron star model and calculate the associated deformation. We discuss the relevance of our results for current gravitational wave detectors and future prospects.
Wittek, Adam; Joldes, Grand; Couton, Mathieu; Warfield, Simon K; Miller, Karol
2010-12-01
Long computation times of non-linear (i.e. accounting for geometric and material non-linearity) biomechanical models have been regarded as one of the key factors preventing application of such models in predicting organ deformation for image-guided surgery. This contribution presents real-time patient-specific computation of the deformation field within the brain for six cases of brain shift induced by craniotomy (i.e. surgical opening of the skull) using specialised non-linear finite element procedures implemented on a graphics processing unit (GPU). In contrast to commercial finite element codes that rely on an updated Lagrangian formulation and implicit integration in time domain for steady state solutions, our procedures utilise the total Lagrangian formulation with explicit time stepping and dynamic relaxation. We used patient-specific finite element meshes consisting of hexahedral and non-locking tetrahedral elements, together with realistic material properties for the brain tissue and appropriate contact conditions at the boundaries. The loading was defined by prescribing deformations on the brain surface under the craniotomy. Application of the computed deformation fields to register (i.e. align) the preoperative and intraoperative images indicated that the models very accurately predict the intraoperative deformations within the brain. For each case, computing the brain deformation field took less than 4 s using an NVIDIA Tesla C870 GPU, which is two orders of magnitude reduction in computation time in comparison to our previous study in which the brain deformation was predicted using a commercial finite element solver executed on a personal computer. PMID:20868706
Deformation quantization of cosmological models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cordero, Rubén; García-Compeán, Hugo; Turrubiates, Francisco J.
2011-06-01
The Weyl-Wigner-Groenewold-Moyal formalism of deformation quantization is applied to cosmological models in the minisuperspace. The quantization procedure is performed explicitly for quantum cosmology in a flat minisuperspace. The de Sitter cosmological model is worked out in detail and the computation of the Wigner functions for the Hartle-Hawking, Vilenkin and Linde wave functions are done numerically. The Wigner function is analytically calculated for the Kantowski-Sachs model in (non)commutative quantum cosmology and for string cosmology with dilaton exponential potential. Finally, baby universes solutions are described in this context and the Wigner function is obtained.
Deformable human body model development
Wray, W.O.; Aida, T.
1998-11-01
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A Deformable Human Body Model (DHBM) capable of simulating a wide variety of deformation interactions between man and his environment has been developed. The model was intended to have applications in automobile safety analysis, soldier survivability studies and assistive technology development for the disabled. To date, we have demonstrated the utility of the DHBM in automobile safety analysis and are currently engaged in discussions with the U.S. military involving two additional applications. More specifically, the DHBM has been incorporated into a Virtual Safety Lab (VSL) for automobile design under contract to General Motors Corporation. Furthermore, we have won $1.8M in funding from the U.S. Army Medical Research and Material Command for development of a noninvasive intracranial pressure measurement system. The proposed research makes use of the detailed head model that is a component of the DHBM; the project duration is three years. In addition, we have been contacted by the Air Force Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory concerning possible use of the DHBM in analyzing the loads and injury potential to pilots upon ejection from military aircraft. Current discussions with Armstrong involve possible LANL participation in a comparison between DHBM and the Air Force Articulated Total Body (ATB) model that is the current military standard.
Ng, Angela; Nguyen, Thao-Nguyen; Moseley, Joanne L.; Hodgson, David C.; Sharpe, Michael B.; Brock, Kristy K.
2010-03-15
Purpose: Late complications (cardiac toxicities, secondary lung, and breast cancer) remain a significant concern in the radiation treatment of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). To address this issue, predictive dose-risk models could potentially be used to estimate radiotherapy-related late toxicities. This study investigates the use of deformable image registration (DIR) and navigator channels (NCs) to reconstruct 3D lung models from 2D radiographic planning images, in order to retrospectively calculate the treatment dose exposure to HL patients treated with 2D planning, which are now experiencing late effects. Methods: Three-dimensional planning CT images of 52 current HL patients were acquired. 12 image sets were used to construct a male and a female population lung model. 23 ''Reference'' images were used to generate lung deformation adaptation templates, constructed by deforming the population model into each patient-specific lung geometry using a biomechanical-based DIR algorithm, MORFEUS. 17 ''Test'' patients were used to test the accuracy of the reconstruction technique by adapting existing templates using 2D digitally reconstructed radiographs. The adaptation process included three steps. First, a Reference patient was matched to a Test patient by thorax measurements. Second, four NCs (small regions of interest) were placed on the lung boundary to calculate 1D differences in lung edges. Third, the Reference lung model was adapted to the Test patient's lung using the 1D edge differences. The Reference-adapted Test model was then compared to the 3D lung contours of the actual Test patient by computing their percentage volume overlap (POL) and Dice coefficient. Results: The average percentage overlapping volumes and Dice coefficient expressed as a percentage between the adapted and actual Test models were found to be 89.2{+-}3.9% (Right lung=88.8%; Left lung=89.6%) and 89.3{+-}2.7% (Right=88.5%; Left=90.2%), respectively. Paired T-tests demonstrated that the
Analytical volcano deformation source models
Lisowski, Michael
2007-01-01
Primary volcanic landforms are created by the ascent and eruption of magma. The ascending magma displaces and interacts with surrounding rock and fluids as it creates new pathways, flows through cracks or conduits, vesiculates, and accumulates in underground reservoirs. The formation of new pathways and pressure changes within existing conduits and reservoirs stress and deform the surrounding rock. Eruption products load the crust. The pattern and rate of surface deformation around volcanoes reflect the tectonic and volcanic processes transmitted to the surface through the mechanical properties of the crust.
Deformable template models for emission tomography
Amit, Y. . Dept. of Statistics); Manbeck, K.M. . Div. of Applied Mathematics)
1993-06-01
The reconstruction of emission tomography data is an ill-posed inverse problem and, as such, requires some form of regularization. Previous efforts to regularize the restoration process have incorporated rather general assumptions about the isotope distribution within a patient's body. Here, the authors present a theoretical and algorithmic framework in which the notion of a deformable template can be used to identify and quantify brain tumors in pediatric patients. Patient data and computer simulation experiments are presented which illustrate the performance of the deformable template approach to single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).
Models of the Dynamic Deformations of Polymers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merzhievsky, Lev; Voronin, Mihail; Korchagina, Anna
2013-06-01
In the process of deformation under the influence of external loading polymeric mediums show the complicated behavior connected with features of their structure. For amorphous polymers distinguish three physical conditions - glasslike, highlyelastic and viscoplastic. To each of the listed conditions there corresponds to mikro - meso- and macrostructural mechanisms of irreversible deformation. In the report the review of results of construction of models for the description of dynamic and shock-wave deformation of the polymers which are based on developed authors representations about mechanisms of irreversible deformation is made. Models include the formulation of the equations of conservation laws, considering effect of a relaxation of shear stresses in the process of deformation. For closing of models the equations of states with nonspherical tensor of deformations and relation for time of a relaxation of shear stresses are constructed. With using of the formulated models a number of problems of dynamic and shock wave deformations has been solved. The results are compared with corresponding experimental date. Development of the used approach are in summary discussed. To taking into account memory and fractal properties of real polymers is supposed of derivatives and integrals of a fractional order to use. Examples of constitutive equations with derivatives of a fractional order are presented. This work is supported by the Integration project of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science 64 and grant RFBR 12-01-00726.
Decoherence of spin-deformed bosonic model
Dehdashti, Sh.; Mahdifar, A.; Bagheri Harouni, M.; Roknizadeh, R.
2013-07-15
The decoherence rate and some parameters affecting it are investigated for the generalized spin-boson model. We consider the spin-bosonic model when the bosonic environment is modeled by the deformed harmonic oscillators. We show that the state of the environment approaches a non-linear coherent state. Then, we obtain the decoherence rate of a two-level system which is in contact with a deformed bosonic environment which is either in thermal equilibrium or in the ground state. By using some recent realization of f-deformed oscillators, we show that some physical parameters strongly affect the decoherence rate of a two-level system. -- Highlights: •Decoherence of the generalized spin-boson model is considered. •In this model the environment consists of f-oscillators. •Via the interaction, the state of the environment approaches non-linear coherent states. •Effective parameters on decoherence are considered.
Digital deformation model for fisheye image rectification.
Hou, Wenguang; Ding, Mingyue; Qin, Nannan; Lai, Xudong
2012-09-24
Fisheye lens can provide a wide view over 180°. It then has prominence advantages in three dimensional reconstruction and machine vision applications. However, the serious deformation in the image limits fisheye lens's usage. To overcome this obstacle, a new rectification method named DDM (Digital Deformation Model) is developed based on two dimensional perspective transformation. DDM is a type of digital grid representation of the deformation of each pixel on CCD chip which is built by interpolating the difference between the actual image coordinate and pseudo-ideal coordinate of each mark on a control panel. This method obtains the pseudo-ideal coordinate according to two dimensional perspective transformation by setting four mark's deformations on image. The main advantages are that this method does not rely on the optical principle of fisheye lens and has relatively less computation. In applications, equivalent pinhole images can be obtained after correcting fisheye lens images using DDM. PMID:23037373
Model the Deformation and Failure of Solids
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2001-10-19
EMU models the deformation and failure of solids based on a reformulated theory of continuum mechanics known as the Peridynamic model. This approach allows dynamic fracture and other failure mechanisms to be simulated with a minimum of mesh effeces and without a need for supplementary kinetic relations for crack growth. Penetration by a rigid projectile is also included in the code.
Modelling deformation and fracture in confectionery wafers
Mohammed, Idris K.; Charalambides, Maria N.; Williams, J. Gordon; Rasburn, John
2015-01-22
The aim of this research is to model the deformation and fracture behaviour of brittle wafers often used in chocolate confectionary products. Three point bending and compression experiments were performed on beam and circular disc samples respectively to determine the 'apparent' stress-strain curves in bending and compression. The deformation of the wafer for both these testing types was observed in-situ within an SEM. The wafer is modeled analytically and numerically as a composite material with a core which is more porous than the skins. X-ray tomography was used to generate a three dimensional volume of the wafer microstructure which was then meshed and used for quantitative analysis. A linear elastic material model, with a damage function and element deletion, was used and the XMT generated architecture was loaded in compression. The output from the FE simulations correlates closely to the load-deflection deformation observed experimentally.
Modelling deformation and fracture in confectionery wafers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohammed, Idris K.; Charalambides, Maria N.; Williams, J. Gordon; Rasburn, John
2015-01-01
The aim of this research is to model the deformation and fracture behaviour of brittle wafers often used in chocolate confectionary products. Three point bending and compression experiments were performed on beam and circular disc samples respectively to determine the 'apparent' stress-strain curves in bending and compression. The deformation of the wafer for both these testing types was observed in-situ within an SEM. The wafer is modeled analytically and numerically as a composite material with a core which is more porous than the skins. X-ray tomography was used to generate a three dimensional volume of the wafer microstructure which was then meshed and used for quantitative analysis. A linear elastic material model, with a damage function and element deletion, was used and the XMT generated architecture was loaded in compression. The output from the FE simulations correlates closely to the load-deflection deformation observed experimentally.
Mathematical modeling of deformation during hot rolling
Jin, D.; Stachowiak, R.G.; Samarasekera, I.V.; Brimacombe, J.K.
1994-12-31
The deformation that occurs in the roll bite during the hot rolling of steel, particularly the strain-rate and strain distribution, has been mathematically modeled using finite-element analysis. In this paper three different finite-element models are compared with one another and with industrial measurements. The first model is an Eulerian analysis based on the flow formulation method, while the second utilizes an Updated Lagrangian approach. The third model is based on a commercially available program DEFORM which also utilizes a Lagrangian reference frame. Model predictions of strain and strain-rate distribution, particularly near the surface of the slab, are strongly influenced by the treatment of friction at the boundary and the magnitude of the friction coefficient or shear factor. Roll forces predicted by the model have been compared with industrial rolling loads from a seven-stand hot-strip mill.
Deformity incidence in leprosy patients treated with multidrug therapy.
Rao, P S; Subramanian, M; Subramanian, G
1994-01-01
The records of 2,285 (2,007 paucibacillary (PB) and 278 multibacillary (MB)) cases of leprosy which were declared as released from treatment (RFT) after multidrug therapy (MDT) and under surveillance as per the National Leprosy Eradication Programme (NLEP) guidelines in the rural field practice area of Central Leprosy Teaching & Research Institute (CLTRI), Chengalpattu, between September 1986 and September 1993 were analyzed for collecting data on the incidence of deformity. Of the 2,285 cases 2,053 (1,947 PB and 106 MB) did not have deformity at the commencement of treatment. Three MB cases and one PB case out of the 2,053 developed deformity (all grade II) during the course of treatment. No patient developed deformity during surveillance. Thus the deformity incidence in the population of patients was 0.681 per 1000 person-years of observation. Age, sex, type of disease, prior dapsone monotherapy and nerve involvement at the commencement of treatment appear to influence the deformity incidence. The risk of development of deformity in patients treated with MDT appear to be very low and analysis of larger data sets is suggested to corroborate the above findings as the information would be useful for planning prevention and management of deformity services. PMID:7714354
Management of Spinal Deformity in Adult Patients With Neuromuscular Disease.
Protopsaltis, Themistocles S; Boniello, Anthony J; Schwab, Frank J
2016-09-01
A wide range of neuromuscular diseases, including Parkinson disease, cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, and myopathy, are associated with spinal deformities. The most common postural deformities include anterocollis, Pisa syndrome (pleurothotonus), scoliosis, and camptocormia. Nonsurgical management of spinal deformity in patients with neuromuscular disease centers on maximizing the medical management of the underlying neurodegenerative pathology before surgical intervention is contemplated. Surgical management can include decompression alone, or decompression and fusion with short or long fusion constructs. Patients with neuromuscular disease are susceptible to postoperative medical complications, such as delirium, epidural hematomas, pulmonary emboli, and cardiac events. Compared with outcomes in the typical patient with spinal deformity, postoperative outcomes in patients with neuromuscular disease have higher rates of surgical complications, such as instrumentation failure, proximal junctional kyphosis, loss of correction, and the need for revision surgery, regardless of the magnitude of surgical treatment. PMID:27471900
Measurement of ship deformation based on ARX model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Xianglu; Qin, Shiqiao; Wang, Xingshu; Hu, Feng; Wu, Wei; Zheng, JiaXing
2016-01-01
Ship deformation is the main error source of partial reference. Such deformation can be estimated by laser gyro units and Kalman filter technology. For Kalman filter, deformation was divide into two parts, dynamic deformation, and static deformation. Traditionally, dynamic deformation is treated as AR2 model .In this paper, dynamic deformation is taken as a kind of ARX model. Based on actual data measured by Yuanwang-3 Space Survey Ship, simulation experiments are studied. Results show that the novel model can improve the measurement precision.
Unified Model Deformation and Flow Transition Measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burner, Alpheus W.; Liu, Tianshu; Garg, Sanjay; Bell, James H.; Morgan, Daniel G.
1999-01-01
The number of optical techniques that may potentially be used during a given wind tunnel test is continually growing. These include parameter sensitive paints that are sensitive to temperature or pressure, several different types of off-body and on-body flow visualization techniques, optical angle-of-attack (AoA), optical measurement of model deformation, optical techniques for determining density or velocity, and spectroscopic techniques for determining various flow field parameters. Often in the past the various optical techniques were developed independently of each other, with little or no consideration for other techniques that might also be used during a given test. Recently two optical techniques have been increasingly requested for production measurements in NASA wind tunnels. These are the video photogrammetric (or videogrammetric) technique for measuring model deformation known as the video model deformation (VMD) technique, and the parameter sensitive paints for making global pressure and temperature measurements. Considerations for, and initial attempts at, simultaneous measurements with the pressure sensitive paint (PSP) and the videogrammetric techniques have been implemented. Temperature sensitive paint (TSP) has been found to be useful for boundary-layer transition detection since turbulent boundary layers convect heat at higher rates than laminar boundary layers of comparable thickness. Transition is marked by a characteristic surface temperature change wherever there is a difference between model and flow temperatures. Recently, additional capabilities have been implemented in the target-tracking videogrammetric measurement system. These capabilities have permitted practical simultaneous measurements using parameter sensitive paint and video model deformation measurements that led to the first successful unified test with TSP for transition detection in a large production wind tunnel.
A deformable model for tracking tumors across consecutive imaging studies
Nosher, John L.; Schneider, M. D. Benjamin; Foran, David J.
2009-01-01
Objective A deformable registration technique was developed and evaluated to track and quantify tumor response to radiofrequency ablation for patients with liver malignancies. Materials and methods The method uses the combined power of global and local alignment of pre- and post-treatment computed tomography image data sets. The strategy of the algorithm is to infer volumetric deformation based upon surface displacements using a linearly elastic finite element model (FEM). Using this framework, the major challenge for tracking tumor location is not the tissue mechanical properties for FEM modeling but rather the evaluation of boundary conditions. Three different methods were systematically investigated to automatically determine the boundary conditions defined by the correspondences on liver surfaces. Results Using both 2D synthetic phantoms and imaged 3D beef liver data we performed gold standard registration while measuring the accuracy of non-rigid deformation. The fact that the algorithms could support mean displacement error of tumor deformation up to 2 mm indicates that this technique may serve as a useful tool for surgical interventions. The method was further demonstrated and evaluated using consecutive imaging studies for three liver cancer patients. Conclusion The FEM-based surface registration technique provides accurate tracking and monitoring of tumor and surrounding tissue during the course of treatment and follow-up. PMID:19774096
Adaptive deformable model for mouth boundary detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mirhosseini, Ali R.; Yan, Hong; Lam, Kin-Man
1998-03-01
A new generalized algorithm is proposed to automatically extract a mouth boundary model form human face images. Such an algorithm can contribute to human face recognition and lip-reading-assisted speech recognition systems, in particular, and multimodal human computer interaction system, in general. The new model is an iterative algorithm based on a hierarchical model adaptation scheme using deformable templates, as a generalization of some of the previous works. The role of prior knowledge is essential for perceptual organization in the algorithm. The prior knowledge about the mouth shape is used to define and initialize a primary deformable mode. Each primary boundary curve of a mouth is formed on three control points, including two mouth corners, whose locations are optimized using a primary energy functional. This energy functional essentially captures the knowledge of the mouth shape to perceptually organize image information. The primary model is finely tuned in the second stage of optimization algorithm using a generalized secondary energy functional. Basically each boundary curve is finely tuned using more control points. The primary model is replaced by an adapted model if there is an increase in the secondary energy functional. The results indicate that the new model adaptation technique satisfactorily generalizes the mouth boundary model extraction in an automated fashion.
Modelling highly deformable metal extrusion using SPH
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prakash, Mahesh; Cleary, Paul W.
2015-05-01
Computational modelling is often used to reduce trial extrusions through accurate defect prediction. Traditionally, metal extrusion is modelled using mesh based finite element methods. However, large plastic deformations can lead to heavy re-meshing and numerical diffusion. Here we use the mesh-less smoothed particle hydrodynamics method since it allows simulation of large deformations without re-meshing and the tracking of history dependent properties such as plastic strain making it suitable for defect prediction. The variation in plastic strain and deformation for aluminium alloy in a cylindrical 3D geometry with extrusion ratio and die angle is evaluated. The extrusion process is found to have three distinct phases consisting of an initial sharp rise in extrusion force, a steady phase requiring constant force and terminating in a sharp decline in force as metal is completely extruded. Deformation and plastic strain increased significantly with extrusion ratio but only moderately with die angle. Extrusion force increased by 150 % as the extrusion ratio increased from 2:1 to 4:1 but had only a marginal change with die angle. A low strain zone in the centre of the extruded product was found to be a function of extrusion ratio but was persistent and did not vary with die angle. Simulation of a complex 3D building industry component showed large variations in plastic strain along the length of the product at two scales. These were due to change in metal behaviour as extrusion progressed from phase 1 to phase 2. A stagnation zone at the back of the die was predicted that could lead to the "funnel" or "pipe" defect.
Uncertainty estimation in reconstructed deformable models
Hanson, K.M.; Cunningham, G.S.; McKee, R.
1996-12-31
One of the hallmarks of the Bayesian approach to modeling is the posterior probability, which summarizes all uncertainties regarding the analysis. Using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique, it is possible to generate a sequence of objects that represent random samples drawn from the posterior distribution. We demonstrate this technique for reconstructions of two-dimensional objects from noisy projections taken from two directions. The reconstructed object is modeled in terms of a deformable geometrically-defined boundary with a constant interior density yielding a nonlinear reconstruction problem. We show how an MCMC sequence can be used to estimate uncertainties in the location of the edge of the reconstructed object.
Tracking of object deformations in color and depth video: deformation models and applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jordt, Andreas; Reinhold, Stefan; Koch, Reinhard
2015-05-01
The research on deformation tracking based on color image data has continuously gained a wide interest in the last 15 years. In addition, using depth sensors such as the Microsoft Kinect, allows to mitigate the ambiguity problems that arise when trying to solve the deformation tracking tasks on color images only, by adding depth information. However, the fusion of color and depth data is not straight forward, and the deformation tracking task is still ill-posed due to the lack of a general deformation model. The problem is usually circumvented by providing special deformation functions for the task at hand, e.g., skeleton-based for reconstructing people or triangle-based for tracking planar surfaces. In this article we summarize the Analysis by Synthesis (AbS) approach for deformation tracking in depth and color video and show some successful applications of specialized deformation functions. To overcome the issues with NURBS based deformation tracking we propose a new geodesic RBF-based deformation model, which can adapt to any surface topology and shape, while keeping the number of deformation parameters low. Example deformations for objects of different topologies are given, showing the versatility and efficiency of the proposed model.
A tumor growth model with deformable ECM
Sciumè, G; Santagiuliana, R; Ferrari, M; Decuzzi, P; Schrefler, B A
2015-01-01
Existing tumor growth models based on fluid analogy for the cells do not generally include the extracellular matrix (ECM), or if present, take it as rigid. The three-fluid model originally proposed by the authors and comprising tumor cells (TC), host cells (HC), interstitial fluid (IF) and an ECM, considered up to now only a rigid ECM in the applications. This limitation is here relaxed and the deformability of the ECM is investigated in detail. The ECM is modeled as a porous solid matrix with Green-elastic and elasto-visco-plastic material behavior within a large strain approach. Jauman and Truesdell objective stress measures are adopted together with the deformation rate tensor. Numerical results are first compared with those of a reference experiment of a multicellular tumor spheroid (MTS) growing in vitro, then three different tumor cases are studied: growth of an MTS in a decellularized ECM, growth of a spheroid in the presence of host cells and growth of a melanoma. The influence of the stiffness of the ECM is evidenced and comparison with the case of a rigid ECM is made. The processes in a deformable ECM are more rapid than in a rigid ECM and the obtained growth pattern differs. The reasons for this are due to the changes in porosity induced by the tumor growth. These changes are inhibited in a rigid ECM. This enhanced computational model emphasizes the importance of properly characterizing the biomechanical behavior of the malignant mass in all its components to correctly predict its temporal and spatial pattern evolution. PMID:25427284
A tumor growth model with deformable ECM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sciumè, G.; Santagiuliana, R.; Ferrari, M.; Decuzzi, P.; Schrefler, B. A.
2014-12-01
Existing tumor growth models based on fluid analogy for the cells do not generally include the extracellular matrix (ECM), or if present, take it as rigid. The three-fluid model originally proposed by the authors and comprising tumor cells (TC), host cells (HC), interstitial fluid (IF) and an ECM, considered up to now only a rigid ECM in the applications. This limitation is here relaxed and the deformability of the ECM is investigated in detail. The ECM is modeled as a porous solid matrix with Green-elastic and elasto-visco-plastic material behavior within a large strain approach. Jauman and Truesdell objective stress measures are adopted together with the deformation rate tensor. Numerical results are first compared with those of a reference experiment of a multicellular tumor spheroid (MTS) growing in vitro, then three different tumor cases are studied: growth of an MTS in a decellularized ECM, growth of a spheroid in the presence of host cells and growth of a melanoma. The influence of the stiffness of the ECM is evidenced and comparison with the case of a rigid ECM is made. The processes in a deformable ECM are more rapid than in a rigid ECM and the obtained growth pattern differs. The reasons for this are due to the changes in porosity induced by the tumor growth. These changes are inhibited in a rigid ECM. This enhanced computational model emphasizes the importance of properly characterizing the biomechanical behavior of the malignant mass in all its components to correctly predict its temporal and spatial pattern evolution.
Discrete element modelling of subglacial sediment deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christensen, A. D.; Egholm, D. L.; Piotrowski, J. A.; Tulaczyk, S.
2012-04-01
Soft, deformable sediments are often present under glaciers. Subglacial sediments deform under the differential load of the ice, and this causes the overlying glacier to accelerate its motion. Understanding the rheology of subglacial sediment is therefore important for models of glacial dynamics. Previous studies of the mechanical behaviour of subglacial sediments have primarily relied on analytical considerations and laboratory shearing experiments. As a novel approach, the Discrete Element Method (DEM) is used to explore the highly nonlinear dynamics of a granular bed that is exposed to stress conditions comparable to subglacial environments. The numerical approach allows close monitoring of the mechanical and rheological behaviour under a range of conditions. Of special interest is bed shear strength, strain distribution and -localization, mode of deformation, and role of effective normal pressure during shearing. As a calibration benchmark, results from laboratory ring-shear experiments on granular material are compared to similar numerical experiments. The continuously recorded stress dynamics in the laboratory shear experiments are compared to DEM experiments, and the micro-mechanical parameters in the contact model of the DEM code are calibrated to match the macroscopic Mohr-Coulomb failure criteria parameters, constrained from successive laboratory shear tests under a range of normal pressures. The data-parallel nature of the basic DEM formulation makes the problem ideal for utilizing the high arithmetic potential of modern general-purpose GPUs. Using the Nvidia Cuda C toolkit, the algorithm is formulated for spherical particles in three dimensions with a soft-body contact model. Scene rendering is performed using a custom Cuda ray-tracing algorithm. Efforts on optimization of the particle algorithm are discussed, and future plans of expansion are presented.
Modelling Polymer Deformation during 3D Printing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McIlroy, Claire; Olmsted, Peter
Three-dimensional printing has the potential to transform manufacturing processes, yet improving the strength of printed parts, to equal that of traditionally-manufactured parts, remains an underlying issue. The fused deposition modelling technique involves melting a thermoplastic, followed by layer-by-layer extrusion to fabricate an object. The key to ensuring strength at the weld between layers is successful inter-diffusion. However, prior to welding, both the extrusion process and the cooling temperature profile can significantly deform the polymer micro-structure and, consequently, how well the polymers are able to ``re-entangle'' across the weld. In particular, polymer alignment in the flow can cause de-bonding of the layers and create defects. We have developed a simple model of the non-isothermal extrusion process to explore the effects that typical printing conditions and material rheology have on the conformation of a polymer melt. In particular, we incorporate both stretch and orientation using the Rolie-Poly constitutive equation to examine the melt structure as it flows through the nozzle, the subsequent alignment with the build plate and the resulting deformation due to the fixed nozzle height, which is typically less than the nozzle radius.
A geometric deformable model for echocardiographic image segmentation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hang, X.; Greenberg, N. L.; Thomas, J. D.
2002-01-01
Gradient vector flow (GVF), an elegant external force for parametric deformable models, can capture object boundaries from both sides. A new geometric deformable model is proposed that combines GVF and the geodesic active contour model. The level set method is used as the numerical method of this model. The model is applied for echocardiographic image segmentation.
Predicting tumor location by modeling the deformation of the breast.
Pathmanathan, Pras; Gavaghan, David J; Whiteley, Jonathan P; Chapman, S Jonathan; Brady, J Michael
2008-10-01
Breast cancer is one of the biggest killers in the western world, and early diagnosis is essential for improved prognosis. The shape of the breast varies hugely between the scenarios of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (patient lies prone, breast hanging down under gravity), X-ray mammography (breast strongly compressed) and ultrasound or biopsy/surgery (patient lies supine), rendering image fusion an extremely difficult task. This paper is concerned with the use of the finite-element method and nonlinear elasticity to build a 3-D, patient-specific, anatomically accurate model of the breast. The model is constructed from MR images and can be deformed to simulate breast shape and predict tumor location during mammography or biopsy/surgery. Two extensions of the standard elasticity problem need to be solved: an inverse elasticity problem (arising from the fact that only a deformed, stressed, state is known initially), and the contact problem of modeling compression. The model is used for craniocaudal mediolateral oblique mammographic image matching, and a number of numerical experiments are performed. PMID:18838373
Discrete element modeling of subglacial sediment deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Damsgaard, Anders; Egholm, David L.; Piotrowski, Jan A.; Tulaczyk, Slawek; Larsen, Nicolaj K.; Tylmann, Karol
2013-12-01
The Discrete Element Method (DEM) is used in this study to explore the highly nonlinear dynamics of a granular bed when exposed to stress conditions comparable to those at the bed of warm-based glaciers. Complementary to analog experiments, the numerical approach allows a detailed analysis of the material dynamics and the shear zone development during progressive shear strain. The geometry of the heterogeneous stress network is visible in the form of force-carrying grain bridges and adjacent, volumetrically dominant, inactive zones. We demonstrate how the shear zone thickness and dilation depend on the level of normal (overburden) stress, and we show how high normal stress can mobilize material to great depths. The particle rotational axes tend to align with progressive shear strain, with rotations both along and reverse to the shear direction. The results from successive laboratory ring-shear experiments on simple granular materials are compared to results from similar numerical experiments. The simulated DEM material and all tested laboratory materials deform by an elastoplastic rheology under the applied effective normal stress. These results demonstrate that the DEM is a viable alternative to continuum models for small-scale analysis of sediment deformation. It can be used to simulate the macromechanical behavior of simple granular sediments, and it provides an opportunity to study how microstructures in subglacial sediments are formed during progressive shear strain.
Modeling Secular Deformation of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sinnett, D. K.; Montgomery-Brown, E. D.; Casu, F.; Segall, P.; Fukushima, Y.; Miklius, A.; Poland, M. P.
2010-12-01
Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, is a dynamic volcanic and tectonic system that hosts rift intrusions and eruptions, summit inflation/deflation and eruptions, flank earthquakes and slow slip events, as well as quasi-steady flank motion. We seek to identify and characterize the actively deforming structures on Kilauea and study their interactions using a combination of GPS, InSAR, and seismic data. In addition we examine whether the change from summit subsidence to inflation in 2003, led to changes elsewhere in the volcano. We begin by modeling velocities of 16 continuous GPS and 28 campaign GPS sites and mean velocities from three ENVISAT tracks (T93 ascending: 10 acquisitions from 20030120 to 20041115; T200 descending: 13 acquisitions from 20030127 to 20041122, T429 descending: 10 acquisitions from 20030212 to 20041103) between 2003 and 2004, a period lacking major episodic events. We use triangular dislocations to mesh the curving rift zones and décollement. The southwest and east rift zones are continuous through the summit caldera area, where we also include a point center of dilatation beneath the southwest caldera. A décollement beginning about 12 km offshore at seven km depth dips approximately eight degrees northwest to achieving a depth of nine kilometers beneath the summit/rift zone. The décollement mesh continues at a shallower dip beneath the north flank of Kilauea reaching a final depth of 9.5 km beneath the north flank of Kilauea/south flank of Mauna Loa. Kinematic constraints enforce that opening at the base of the rift equal the differential décollement slip across the rift. Future modeling will include tests of Koae and Hilina fault geometries as well as time-dependent modeling of the deformation field.
Videogrammetric Model Deformation Measurement System User's Manual
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dismond, Harriett R.
2002-01-01
The purpose of this manual is to provide the user of the NASA VMD system, running the MDef software, Version 1.10, all information required to operate the system. The NASA Videogrammetric Model Deformation system consists of an automated videogrammetric technique used to measure the change in wing twist and bending under aerodynamic load in a wind tunnel. The basic instrumentation consists of a single CCD video camera and a frame grabber interfaced to a computer. The technique is based upon a single view photogrammetric determination of two-dimensional coordinates of wing targets with fixed (and known) third dimensional coordinate, namely the span-wise location. The major consideration in the development of the measurement system was that productivity must not be appreciably reduced.
Percutaneous nephrolithotomy in prone position in patients with spinal deformities
Izol, Volkan; Aridogan, Ibrahim Atilla; Borekoglu, Ali; Gokalp, Fatih; Hatipoglu, Zehra; Bayazit, Yildirim; Zeren, Sinan
2015-01-01
Introduction: The feasibility, safety and efficacy of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in patients with spinal deformities were evaluated and the results of a single centre experience were reported. Patients and methods: Between July 1999 and December 2014, 16 patients with spinal deformities underwent PCNL. The anomalies included 5 cases with kyphoscoliosis, 4 with post-polio syndrome, 3 with osteogenesis imperfecta, 3 with myotonic dystrophy, and 1 with ankylosing spondylitis. All patients were preoperatively evaluated by an intravenous urogram and computerized tomography to assess the anatomy and appropriate access. The operative details, stone clearance rates, and complications were retrospectivelyanalyzed. Results: A total of 16 standard PCNL procedures were performed on 16 renal-units. The mean age of the patients was 30.7 ± 17.2 (5-62) years, and the mean stone burden was 609.6 ± 526.9 (100-1800) mm2. The mean operative and fluoroscopy times were 76.6 ± 35.1 (35-150) minutes and 12.5 ± 8.5 (3-34) minutes, respectively. At the end of the surgery, 13 (81.2%) of the patients were stone free. The overall success rate was 93.7% with the inclusion of 2 patients with clinically insignificant residual fragments (<3 mm). Complications (31.2%) included haemorrhage requiring a transfusion in 2 patients, prolonged urine leakage requiring double J catheter insertion in 1, infection in 1, and nephrectomy due to bleeding in 1. Mean hospitalization time was 4.6 ± 2.4 (3-13) days. Conclusion: PCNL is an effective, safe and minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of kidney stones in patients with spinal deformities, and it can be performed with low morbidity and high success rates. To achieve better results and minimizing the risk factors, systematic and anatomic evaluations for anaesthesia and operative planning are crucial before surgery. PMID:26885036
Nonlinear modeling and estimation of slew induced structural deformations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dwyer, T. A. W., III; Karray, F.
1988-01-01
A model of the nonlinear dynamics of a deformable maneuvering multibody system is described, whereby elastic deformation are modeled by restoring forces and dissipative forces at point mass appendages. This model is brought into bilinear form. Estimation of deformations occasioned by rapid slewing maneuvers is carried out by a filter based on a globally equivalent linear model of the bilinear dynamics, and is shown to be an improvement over the extended Kalman filter. To further alleviate the computational burden, the estimated deformation state is propagated between observations by a low dimensional operator spline interpolator of bilinear system Volterra series, which is easily implemented.
Tracheal stent prediction using statistical deformable models of tubular shapes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pinho, R.; Huysmans, T.; Vos, W.; Sijbers, J.
2008-03-01
Tracheal stenosis is a narrowing of the trachea that impedes normal breathing. Tracheotomy is one solution, but subjects patients to intubation. An alternative technique employs tracheal stents, which are tubular structures that push the walls of the stenotic areas to their original location. They are implanted with endoscopes, therefore reducing the surgical risk to the patient. Stents can also be used in tracheal reconstruction to aid the recovery of reconstructed areas. Correct preoperative stent length and diameter specification is crucial to successful treatment, otherwise stents might not cover the stenotic area nor push the walls as required. The level of stenosis is usually measured from inside the trachea, either with endoscopes or with image processing techniques that, eg compute the distance from the centre line to the walls of the trachea. These methods are not suited for the prediction of stent sizes because they can not trivially estimate the healthy calibre of the trachea at the stenotic region. We propose an automatic method that enables the estimation of stent dimensions with statistical shape models of the trachea. An average trachea obtained from a training set of CT scans of healthy tracheas is placed in a CT image of a diseased person. The shape deforms according to the statistical model to match the walls of the trachea, except at stenotic areas. Since the deformed shape gives an estimation of the healthy trachea, it is possible to predict the size and diameter of the stent to be implanted in that specific subject.
dMODELS: A software package for modeling volcanic deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Battaglia, M.
2013-12-01
dMODELS is software package including the most common source models used to interpret deformation measurements near active volcanic centers. The emphasis is on estimating the parameters of analytical models of deformation by inverting data from the Global Positioning System (GPS), InSAR, tiltmeters and strainmeters. Source models include: (a) pressurized spherical, ellipsoidal and sill-like magma chambers in an elastic, homogeneous, flat half-space; and (b) pressurized spherical magma chamber with correction for the effect of topography (i.e., Williams and Wadge, 1998). All the expressions have been extended to include deformation and strain within the Earth's crust (as opposed to only the Earth's surface) and verified against finite element models. The software has been developed using Matlab but compiled versions that can be run using the free Matlab Compiler Runtime (MCR) are available for Linux, and Windows 7 (32bit and 64bit). The MATLAB scripts and compiled files are open source and intended for teaching and research. The software can be downloaded from the USGS web site pubs.usgs.gov/tm/13/b1/. Please e-mail the author at mbattaglia@usgs.gov if you would like to be included in the dMODELS mail list to get information about the release of software updates.
Meshless Modeling of Deformable Shapes and their Motion
Adams, Bart; Ovsjanikov, Maks; Wand, Michael; Seidel, Hans-Peter; Guibas, Leonidas J.
2010-01-01
We present a new framework for interactive shape deformation modeling and key frame interpolation based on a meshless finite element formulation. Starting from a coarse nodal sampling of an object’s volume, we formulate rigidity and volume preservation constraints that are enforced to yield realistic shape deformations at interactive frame rates. Additionally, by specifying key frame poses of the deforming shape and optimizing the nodal displacements while targeting smooth interpolated motion, our algorithm extends to a motion planning framework for deformable objects. This allows reconstructing smooth and plausible deformable shape trajectories in the presence of possibly moving obstacles. The presented results illustrate that our framework can handle complex shapes at interactive rates and hence is a valuable tool for animators to realistically and efficiently model and interpolate deforming 3D shapes. PMID:24839614
Deformations of Geometric Structures in Topological Sigma Models
Bytsenko, A. A.
2010-11-25
We study a Lie algebra of formal vector fields W{sub n} with it application to the perturbative deformed holomorphic symplectic structure in the A-model, and a Calabi-Yau manifold with boundaries in the B-model. We show that equivalent classes of deformations are described by a Hochschild cohomology of the DG-algebra A = (A,Q), Q = {partial_derivative}-bar+{partial_derivative}{sub deform,} which is defined to be the cohomology of (-1){sup n}Q+d{sub Hoch}. Here {partial_derivative}-bar is the initial non-deformed BRST operator while {partial_derivative}{sub deform} is the deformed part whose algebra is a Lie algebra of linear vector fields gl{sub n}.
Deformation modeling and constitutive modeling for anisotropic superalloys
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Milligan, Walter W.; Antolovich, Stephen D.
1989-01-01
A study of deformation mechanisms in the single crystal superalloy PWA 1480 was conducted. Monotonic and cyclic tests were conducted from 20 to 1093 C. Both (001) and near-(123) crystals were tested, at strain rates of 0.5 and 50 percent/minute. The deformation behavior could be grouped into two temperature regimes: low temperatures, below 760 C; and high temperatures, above 820 to 950 C depending on the strain rate. At low temperatures, the mechanical behavior was very anisotropic. An orientation dependent CRSS, a tension-compression asymmetry, and anisotropic strain hardening were all observed. The material was deformed by planar octahedral slip. The anisotropic properties were correlated with the ease of cube cross-slip, as well as the number of active slip systems. At high temperatures, the material was isotropic, and deformed by homogeneous gamma by-pass. It was found that the temperature dependence of the formation of superlattice-intrinsic stacking faults was responsible for the local minimum in the CRSS of this alloy at 400 C. It was proposed that the cube cross-slip process must be reversible. This was used to explain the reversible tension-compression asymmetry, and was used to study models of cross-slip. As a result, the cross-slip model proposed by Paidar, Pope and Vitek was found to be consistent with the proposed slip reversibility. The results were related to anisotropic viscoplastic constitutive models. The model proposed by Walter and Jordan was found to be capable of modeling all aspects of the material anisotropy. Temperature and strain rate boundaries for the model were proposed, and guidelines for numerical experiments were proposed.
Jordanian deformation of the open sℓ(2) Gaudin model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
António, N. Cirilo; Manojlović, N.; Nagy, Z.
2014-04-01
We derive a deformed sℓ( 2) Gaudin model with integrable boundaries. Starting from the Jordanian deformation of the SL( 2)-invariant Yang R-matrix and generic solutions of the associated reflection equation and the dual reflection equation, we obtain the corresponding inhomogeneous spin- 1/2 XXX chain. The semiclassical expansion of the transfer matrix yields the deformed sℓ( 2) Gaudin Hamiltonians with boundary terms.
Analysis of deformable image registration accuracy using computational modeling.
Zhong, Hualiang; Kim, Jinkoo; Chetty, Indrin J
2010-03-01
Computer aided modeling of anatomic deformation, allowing various techniques and protocols in radiation therapy to be systematically verified and studied, has become increasingly attractive. In this study the potential issues in deformable image registration (DIR) were analyzed based on two numerical phantoms: One, a synthesized, low intensity gradient prostate image, and the other a lung patient's CT image data set. Each phantom was modeled with region-specific material parameters with its deformation solved using a finite element method. The resultant displacements were used to construct a benchmark to quantify the displacement errors of the Demons and B-Spline-based registrations. The results show that the accuracy of these registration algorithms depends on the chosen parameters, the selection of which is closely associated with the intensity gradients of the underlying images. For the Demons algorithm, both single resolution (SR) and multiresolution (MR) registrations required approximately 300 iterations to reach an accuracy of 1.4 mm mean error in the lung patient's CT image (and 0.7 mm mean error averaged in the lung only). For the low gradient prostate phantom, these algorithms (both SR and MR) required at least 1600 iterations to reduce their mean errors to 2 mm. For the B-Spline algorithms, best performance (mean errors of 1.9 mm for SR and 1.6 mm for MR, respectively) on the low gradient prostate was achieved using five grid nodes in each direction. Adding more grid nodes resulted in larger errors. For the lung patient's CT data set, the B-Spline registrations required ten grid nodes in each direction for highest accuracy (1.4 mm for SR and 1.5 mm for MR). The numbers of iterations or grid nodes required for optimal registrations depended on the intensity gradients of the underlying images. In summary, the performance of the Demons and B-Spline registrations have been quantitatively evaluated using numerical phantoms. The results show that parameter
Analysis of deformable image registration accuracy using computational modeling
Zhong Hualiang; Kim, Jinkoo; Chetty, Indrin J.
2010-03-15
Computer aided modeling of anatomic deformation, allowing various techniques and protocols in radiation therapy to be systematically verified and studied, has become increasingly attractive. In this study the potential issues in deformable image registration (DIR) were analyzed based on two numerical phantoms: One, a synthesized, low intensity gradient prostate image, and the other a lung patient's CT image data set. Each phantom was modeled with region-specific material parameters with its deformation solved using a finite element method. The resultant displacements were used to construct a benchmark to quantify the displacement errors of the Demons and B-Spline-based registrations. The results show that the accuracy of these registration algorithms depends on the chosen parameters, the selection of which is closely associated with the intensity gradients of the underlying images. For the Demons algorithm, both single resolution (SR) and multiresolution (MR) registrations required approximately 300 iterations to reach an accuracy of 1.4 mm mean error in the lung patient's CT image (and 0.7 mm mean error averaged in the lung only). For the low gradient prostate phantom, these algorithms (both SR and MR) required at least 1600 iterations to reduce their mean errors to 2 mm. For the B-Spline algorithms, best performance (mean errors of 1.9 mm for SR and 1.6 mm for MR, respectively) on the low gradient prostate was achieved using five grid nodes in each direction. Adding more grid nodes resulted in larger errors. For the lung patient's CT data set, the B-Spline registrations required ten grid nodes in each direction for highest accuracy (1.4 mm for SR and 1.5 mm for MR). The numbers of iterations or grid nodes required for optimal registrations depended on the intensity gradients of the underlying images. In summary, the performance of the Demons and B-Spline registrations have been quantitatively evaluated using numerical phantoms. The results show that parameter
HSR Model Deformation Measurements from Subsonic to Supersonic Speeds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burner, A. W.; Erickson, G. E.; Goodman, W. L.; Fleming, G. A.
1999-01-01
This paper describes the video model deformation technique (VMD) used at five NASA facilities and the projection moire interferometry (PMI) technique used at two NASA facilities. Comparisons between the two techniques for model deformation measurements are provided. Facilities at NASA-Ames and NASA-Langley where deformation measurements have been made are presented. Examples of HSR model deformation measurements from the Langley Unitary Wind Tunnel, Langley 16-foot Transonic Wind Tunnel, and the Ames 12-foot Pressure Tunnel are presented. A study to improve and develop new targeting schemes at the National Transonic Facility is also described. The consideration of milled targets for future HSR models is recommended when deformation measurements are expected to be required. Finally, future development work for VMD and PMI is addressed.
Discrete element modeling of subglacial sediment deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Damsgaard, A.; Egholm, D. L.; Piotrowski, J. A.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Larsen, N. K.
2013-12-01
The Discrete Element Method (DEM) is used to explore the highly nonlinear dynamics of a granular bed when exposed to stress conditions comparable to those at the bed of warm-based glaciers. In the DEM, the material is simulated on a grain-by-grain basis, and defining the micromechanical properties of the inter-particle contacts parameterizes the model. For validating the numerical approach, the macromechanical behavior of the numerical material is compared to the results from successive laboratory ring-shear experiments. Overall, there is a good agreement between the geotechnical behavior of the real granular materials and the numerical results. The materials deform by an elasto-plastic rheology under the applied effective normal stress and horizontal shearing. The peak and ultimate shear strengths depend linearly on the magnitude of the normal stress by the Mohr-Coulomb constitutive relationship. The numerical approach allows for a detailed analysis of the material dynamics and shear zone development during progressive shear strain. We demonstrate how the shear zone thickness and dilation increase with the magnitude of the normal stress. The stresses are distributed heterogeneously through the granular material along stress-carrying force chains. Between the force chains are the volumetrically dominant inactive zones. Overall, the force chain orientation is parallel to the maximum compressive stress. The data-parallel nature of the basic DEM formulation makes the problem ideal for utilizing the high arithmetic potential of modern general-purpose GPUs. Using the Nvidia CUDA C toolkit, the algorithm is formulated for spherical particles in three dimensions with a linear-elastic soft-body contact model. We have coupled the DEM model to a model for porewater flow, and we present early results of particle-porewater interactions. The two-way mechanical coupling is used to investigate pore-pressure feedbacks, which may be very important for the dynamics of soft
Robust Deformable Image Registration using Prior Shape Information for Atlas to Patient Registration
Ellingsen, Lotta M.; Chintalapani, Gouthami; Taylor, Russell H.; Prince, Jerry L.
2009-01-01
Statistical atlases enable the individualization of atlas information for patient specific applications such as surgical planning. In this paper, a statistical atlas comprising a point distribution model defined on the vertices of a tetrahedral mesh is registered to a subject’s computed tomography scan of the human pelvis. The approach consists of a volumetric deformable registration method augmented to maintain the topology of the atlas mesh after deformation as well as incorporating the dominant three-dimensional shape modes in the atlas. Experimental results demonstrate that incorporation of the statistical shape atlas helps to stabilize the registration and improves robustness and registration accuracy. PMID:19515532
Effect of Material Property Heterogeneity on Biomechanical Modeling of Prostate under Deformation
Samavati, Navid; McGrath, Deirdre M.; Jewett, Michael A.S.; van der Kwast, Theo; Ménard, Cynthia; Brock, Kristy K.
2015-01-01
Biomechanical model based deformable image registration has been widely used to account for prostate deformation in various medical imaging procedures. Biomechanical material properties are important components of a biomechanical model. In this study, the effect of incorporating tumor-specific material properties in the prostate biomechanical model was investigated to provide insight into the potential impact of material heterogeneity on the prostate deformation calculations First, a simple spherical prostate and tumor model was used to analytically describe the deformations and demonstrate the fundamental effect of changes in the tumor volume and stiffness in the modeled deformation. Next, using clinical prostate model, a parametric approach was used to describe the variations in the heterogeneous prostate model by changing tumor volume, stiffness, and location, to show the differences in the modeled deformation between heterogeneous and homogeneous prostate models. Finally, five clinical prostatectomy examples were used in separately performed homogeneous and heterogeneous biomechanical model based registrations to describe the deformations between 3D reconstructed histopathology images and ex vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and examine the potential clinical impact of modeling biomechanical heterogeneity of the prostate. The analytical formulation showed that increasing the tumor volume and stiffness could significantly increase the impact of heterogeneous prostate model in the calculated displacement differences compared to homogeneous model. The parametric approach using a single prostate model indicated up to 4.8 mm of displacement difference at the tumor boundary compared to a homogeneous model. . Such differences in the deformation of prostate could bepotentially clinically significant given the voxel size of the ex vivo MR images (0.3×0.3×0.3 mm). However, no significant changes in the registration accuracy were observed using heterogeneous models
Preliminary deformation model for National Seismic Hazard map of Indonesia
Meilano, Irwan; Gunawan, Endra; Sarsito, Dina; Prijatna, Kosasih; Abidin, Hasanuddin Z.; Susilo,; Efendi, Joni
2015-04-24
Preliminary deformation model for the Indonesia’s National Seismic Hazard (NSH) map is constructed as the block rotation and strain accumulation function at the elastic half-space. Deformation due to rigid body motion is estimated by rotating six tectonic blocks in Indonesia. The interseismic deformation due to subduction is estimated by assuming coupling on subduction interface while deformation at active fault is calculated by assuming each of the fault‘s segment slips beneath a locking depth or in combination with creeping in a shallower part. This research shows that rigid body motion dominates the deformation pattern with magnitude more than 15 mm/year, except in the narrow area near subduction zones and active faults where significant deformation reach to 25 mm/year.
Modeling thermomechanical processes in shape memory polymers under finite deformations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rogovoi, A. A.; Stolbova, O. S.
2015-11-01
A model taking into account finite deformations is constructed for the behavior of a shape memory polymer which undergoes a transition from the highly elastic to the vitreous state and back during deformation and temperature change. The obtained relations are tested on problems which have experimental support.
A quantitative evaluation of models for Aegean crustal deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nyst, M.; Thatcher, W.
2003-04-01
Modeling studies of eastern Mediterranean tectonics show that Aegean deformation is mainly determined by WSW directed expulsion of Anatolia and SW directed extension due to roll-back of African lithosphere along the Hellenic trench. How motion is transferred across the Aegean remains a subject of debate. The two most widely used hypotheses for Aegean tectonics assert fundamentally different mechanisms. The first model describes deformation as a result of opposing rotations of two rigid microplates separated by a zone of extension. In the second model most motion is accommodated by shear on a series of dextral faults and extension on graben systems. These models make different quantitative predictions for the crustal deformation field that can be tested by a new, spatially dense GPS velocity data set. To convert the GPS data into crustal deformation parameters we use different methods to model complementary aspects of crustal deformation. We parameterize the main fault and plate boundary structures of both models and produce representations for the crustal deformation field that range from purely rigid rotations of microplates, via interacting, elastically deforming blocks separated by crustal faults to a continuous velocity gradient field. Critical evaluation of these models indicates strengths and limitations of each and suggests new measurements for further refining understanding of present-day Aegean tectonics.
Dystrophic Spinal Deformities in a Neurofibromatosis Type 1 Murine Model
Yang, Dalong; Yang, Hao; Chen, Shi; Wu, Xiaohua; Li, Xiaohong; Yang, Xianlin; Mohammad, Khalid S.; Guise, Theresa A.; Bergner, Amanda L.; Stevenson, David A.; Yang, Feng-Chun
2015-01-01
Despite the high prevalence and significant morbidity of spinal anomalies in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), the pathogenesis of these defects remains largely unknown. Here, we present two murine models: Nf1flox/−;PeriCre and Nf1flox/−;Col.2.3Cre mice, which recapitulate spinal deformities seen in the human disease. Dynamic histomorphometry and microtomographic studies show recalcitrant bone remodeling and distorted bone microarchitecture within the vertebral spine of Nf1flox/−;PeriCre and Nf1flox/−;Col2.3Cre mice, with analogous histological features present in a human patient with dystrophic scoliosis. Intriguingly, 36–60% of Nf1flox/−;PeriCre and Nf1flox/−;Col2.3Cre mice exhibit segmental vertebral fusion anomalies with boney obliteration of the intervertebral disc (IVD). While analogous findings have not yet been reported in the NF1 patient population, we herein present two case reports of IVD defects and interarticular vertebral fusion in patients with NF1. Collectively, these data provide novel insights regarding the pathophysiology of dystrophic spinal anomalies in NF1, and provide impetus for future radiographic analyses of larger patient cohorts to determine whether IVD and vertebral fusion defects may have been previously overlooked or underreported in the NF1 patient population. PMID:25786243
Dystrophic spinal deformities in a neurofibromatosis type 1 murine model.
Rhodes, Steven D; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Dalong; Yang, Hao; Chen, Shi; Wu, Xiaohua; Li, Xiaohong; Yang, Xianlin; Mohammad, Khalid S; Guise, Theresa A; Bergner, Amanda L; Stevenson, David A; Yang, Feng-Chun
2015-01-01
Despite the high prevalence and significant morbidity of spinal anomalies in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), the pathogenesis of these defects remains largely unknown. Here, we present two murine models: Nf1flox/-;PeriCre and Nf1flox/-;Col.2.3Cre mice, which recapitulate spinal deformities seen in the human disease. Dynamic histomorphometry and microtomographic studies show recalcitrant bone remodeling and distorted bone microarchitecture within the vertebral spine of Nf1flox/-;PeriCre and Nf1flox/-;Col2.3Cre mice, with analogous histological features present in a human patient with dystrophic scoliosis. Intriguingly, 36-60% of Nf1flox/-;PeriCre and Nf1flox/-;Col2.3Cre mice exhibit segmental vertebral fusion anomalies with boney obliteration of the intervertebral disc (IVD). While analogous findings have not yet been reported in the NF1 patient population, we herein present two case reports of IVD defects and interarticular vertebral fusion in patients with NF1. Collectively, these data provide novel insights regarding the pathophysiology of dystrophic spinal anomalies in NF1, and provide impetus for future radiographic analyses of larger patient cohorts to determine whether IVD and vertebral fusion defects may have been previously overlooked or underreported in the NF1 patient population. PMID:25786243
Deformation texture development in a model composite system
Poole, W.J.; MacEwen, S.; Kocks, U.F.; Embury, J.D.
1995-05-01
Model composites fabricated with a polycrystalline copper matrix and continuous tungsten fibres were deformed in plane strain compression with the fibres perpendicular to the loading axis and parallel to the direction of zero strain. The development of texture in the matrix due to deformation was measured using x-ray diffraction. It was observed that the macroscopic texture development in the composite was weaker than for unreinforced copper. The pattern of deformation in the matrix was quantified using experimental measurements and finite element method calculations. By carefully sectioning the composite after deformation, texture measurements were conducted for regions which exhibited characteristic types of deformation. These measurements showed that there is a variety of local textures (some weaker, some stronger than the texture in the unreinforced matrix) which when summed give the result of a weak global texture. This result is in agreement with the predictions from the computer simulations of Bolmaro et al.
Modeling and inversion of volcanic surface deformation based on Mogi model and McTigue model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Srigutomo, Wahyu; Trimadona, Martakusumah, Rocky; Anwar, Hairil
2015-04-01
Surface deformation occurred in a volcano is related strongly to the magmatic deformation beneath it. In this work we calculate the surface vertical and horizontal displacements due to hydrostatic pressure change of magma cavity based on point pressure source (Mogi) model and finite spherical source (McTigue) model. We apply the Levenberg-Marquardt inversion scheme to estimate the physical parameters contributing to the deformation.
Droplet Deformation Prediction With the Droplet Deformation and Breakup Model (DDB)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vargas, Mario
2012-01-01
The Droplet Deformation and Breakup Model was used to predict deformation of droplets approaching the leading edge stagnation line of an airfoil. The quasi-steady model was solved for each position along the droplet path. A program was developed to solve the non-linear, second order, ordinary differential equation that governs the model. A fourth order Runge-Kutta method was used to solve the equation. Experimental slip velocities from droplet breakup studies were used as input to the model which required slip velocity along the particle path. The center of mass displacement predictions were compared to the experimental measurements from the droplet breakup studies for droplets with radii in the range of 200 to 700 mm approaching the airfoil at 50 and 90 m/sec. The model predictions were good for the displacement of the center of mass for small and medium sized droplets. For larger droplets the model predictions did not agree with the experimental results.
Deformable models with sparsity constraints for cardiac motion analysis.
Yu, Yang; Zhang, Shaoting; Li, Kang; Metaxas, Dimitris; Axel, Leon
2014-08-01
Deformable models integrate bottom-up information derived from image appearance cues and top-down priori knowledge of the shape. They have been widely used with success in medical image analysis. One limitation of traditional deformable models is that the information extracted from the image data may contain gross errors, which adversely affect the deformation accuracy. To alleviate this issue, we introduce a new family of deformable models that are inspired from the compressed sensing, a technique for accurate signal reconstruction by harnessing some sparseness priors. In this paper, we employ sparsity constraints to handle the outliers or gross errors, and integrate them seamlessly with deformable models. The proposed new formulation is applied to the analysis of cardiac motion using tagged magnetic resonance imaging (tMRI), where the automated tagging line tracking results are very noisy due to the poor image quality. Our new deformable models track the heart motion robustly, and the resulting strains are consistent with those calculated from manual labels. PMID:24721617
Battaglia, Maurizio; Cervelli; Peter, F.; Murray, Jessica R.
2013-01-01
This manual provides the physical and mathematical concepts for selected models used to interpret deformation measurements near active faults and volcanic centers. The emphasis is on analytical models of deformation that can be compared with data from the Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), leveling surveys, tiltmeters and strainmeters. Source models include pressurized spherical, ellipsoidal, and horizontal penny-shaped geometries in an elastic, homogeneous, flat half-space. Vertical dikes and faults are described following the mathematical notation for rectangular dislocations in an elastic, homogeneous, flat half-space. All the analytical expressions were verified against numerical models developed by use of COMSOL Multyphics, a Finite Element Analysis software (http://www.comsol.com). In this way, typographical errors present were identified and corrected. Matlab scripts are also provided to facilitate the application of these models.
A fractal model for crustal deformation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Turcotte, D. L.
1986-01-01
It is hypothesized that crustal deformation occurs on a scale-invariant matrix of faults. For simplicity, a two-dimensional pattern of hexagons on which strike-slip faulting occurs is considered. The behavior of the system is controlled by a single parameter, the fractal dimension. Deformation occurs on all scales of faults. The fractal dimension determines the fraction of the total displacement that occurs on the first-order or primary faults. The value of the fractal dimension can be obtained from the frequency-magnitude relation for earthquakes. The results are applied to the San Andreas fault system in central California. Earthquake studies give D = 1.90. The main strand of the San Andreas fault is associated with the primary faults of the fractal system. It is predicted that the relative velocity across the main strand is 2.93 cm/yr. The remainder of the relative velocity of 5.5 cm/yr between the Pacific and North American plates occurs on higher-order faults. The predicted value is in reasonably good agreement with the value 3.39 + or - 0.29 cm/yr obtained from geological studies.
Fluctuating Nonlinear Spring Model of Mechanical Deformation of Biological Particles.
Kononova, Olga; Snijder, Joost; Kholodov, Yaroslav; Marx, Kenneth A; Wuite, Gijs J L; Roos, Wouter H; Barsegov, Valeri
2016-01-01
The mechanical properties of virus capsids correlate with local conformational dynamics in the capsid structure. They also reflect the required stability needed to withstand high internal pressures generated upon genome loading and contribute to the success of important events in viral infectivity, such as capsid maturation, genome uncoating and receptor binding. The mechanical properties of biological nanoparticles are often determined from monitoring their dynamic deformations in Atomic Force Microscopy nanoindentation experiments; but a comprehensive theory describing the full range of observed deformation behaviors has not previously been described. We present a new theory for modeling dynamic deformations of biological nanoparticles, which considers the non-linear Hertzian deformation, resulting from an indenter-particle physical contact, and the bending of curved elements (beams) modeling the particle structure. The beams' deformation beyond the critical point triggers a dynamic transition of the particle to the collapsed state. This extreme event is accompanied by a catastrophic force drop as observed in the experimental or simulated force (F)-deformation (X) spectra. The theory interprets fine features of the spectra, including the nonlinear components of the FX-curves, in terms of the Young's moduli for Hertzian and bending deformations, and the structural damage dependent beams' survival probability, in terms of the maximum strength and the cooperativity parameter. The theory is exemplified by successfully describing the deformation dynamics of natural nanoparticles through comparing theoretical curves with experimental force-deformation spectra for several virus particles. This approach provides a comprehensive description of the dynamic structural transitions in biological and artificial nanoparticles, which is essential for their optimal use in nanotechnology and nanomedicine applications. PMID:26821264
Fluctuating Nonlinear Spring Model of Mechanical Deformation of Biological Particles
Kononova, Olga; Snijder, Joost; Kholodov, Yaroslav; Marx, Kenneth A.; Wuite, Gijs J. L.; Roos, Wouter H.; Barsegov, Valeri
2016-01-01
The mechanical properties of virus capsids correlate with local conformational dynamics in the capsid structure. They also reflect the required stability needed to withstand high internal pressures generated upon genome loading and contribute to the success of important events in viral infectivity, such as capsid maturation, genome uncoating and receptor binding. The mechanical properties of biological nanoparticles are often determined from monitoring their dynamic deformations in Atomic Force Microscopy nanoindentation experiments; but a comprehensive theory describing the full range of observed deformation behaviors has not previously been described. We present a new theory for modeling dynamic deformations of biological nanoparticles, which considers the non-linear Hertzian deformation, resulting from an indenter-particle physical contact, and the bending of curved elements (beams) modeling the particle structure. The beams’ deformation beyond the critical point triggers a dynamic transition of the particle to the collapsed state. This extreme event is accompanied by a catastrophic force drop as observed in the experimental or simulated force (F)-deformation (X) spectra. The theory interprets fine features of the spectra, including the nonlinear components of the FX-curves, in terms of the Young’s moduli for Hertzian and bending deformations, and the structural damage dependent beams’ survival probability, in terms of the maximum strength and the cooperativity parameter. The theory is exemplified by successfully describing the deformation dynamics of natural nanoparticles through comparing theoretical curves with experimental force-deformation spectra for several virus particles. This approach provides a comprehensive description of the dynamic structural transitions in biological and artificial nanoparticles, which is essential for their optimal use in nanotechnology and nanomedicine applications. PMID:26821264
Collaborative multi organ segmentation by integrating deformable and graphical models.
Uzunbaş, Mustafa Gökhan; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Shaoting; Poh, Kilian M; Li, Kang; Metaxas, Dimitris
2013-01-01
Organ segmentation is a challenging problem on which significant progress has been made. Deformable models (DM) and graphical models (GM) are two important categories of optimization based image segmentation methods. Efforts have been made on integrating two types of models into one framework. However, previous methods are not designed for segmenting multiple organs simultaneously and accurately. In this paper, we propose a hybrid multi organ segmentation approach by integrating DM and GM in a coupled optimization framework. Specifically, we show that region-based deformable models can be integrated with Markov Random Fields (MRF), such that multiple models' evolutions are driven by a maximum a posteriori (MAP) inference. It brings global and local deformation constraints into a unified framework for simultaneous segmentation of multiple objects in an image. We validate this proposed method on two challenging problems of multi organ segmentation, and the results are promising. PMID:24579136
Sparse deformable models with application to cardiac motion analysis.
Yu, Yang; Zhang, Shaoting; Huang, Junzhou; Metaxas, Dimitris; Axel, Leon
2013-01-01
Deformable models have been widely used with success in medical image analysis. They combine bottom-up information derived from image appearance cues, with top-down shape-based constraints within a physics-based formulation. However, in many real world problems the observations extracted from the image data often contain gross errors, which adversely affect the deformation accuracy. To alleviate this issue, we introduce a new family of deformable models that are inspired from compressed sensing, a technique for efficiently reconstructing a signal based on its sparseness in some domain. In this problem, we employ sparsity to represent the outliers or gross errors, and combine it seamlessly with deformable models. The proposed new formulation is applied to the analysis of cardiac motion, using tagged magnetic resonance imaging (tMRI), where the automated tagging line tracking results are very noisy due to the poor image quality. Our new deformable models track the heart motion robustly, and the resulting strains are consistent with those calculated from manual labels. PMID:24683970
Computational model of deformable lenses actuated by dielectric elastomers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Tongqing; Cai, Shengqiang; Wang, Huiming; Suo, Zhigang
2013-09-01
A recent design of deformable lens mimics the human eye, adjusting its focal length in response to muscle-like actuation. The artificial muscle is a membrane of a dielectric elastomer subject to a voltage. Here, we calculate the coupled and inhomogeneous deformation of the lens and the dielectric elastomer actuator by formulating a nonlinear boundary-value problem. We characterize the strain-stiffening elastomer with the Gent model and describe the voltage-induced deformation using the model of ideal dielectric elastomer. The computational predictions agree well with experimental data. We use the model to explore the space of parameters, including the prestretch of the membrane, the volume of the liquid in the lens, and the size of the dielectric elastomer actuator relative to the lens. We examine how various modes of failure limit the minimum radius of curvature.
Symmetries and deformations in the spherical shell model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Van Isacker, P.; Pittel, S.
2016-02-01
We discuss symmetries of the spherical shell model that make contact with the geometric collective model of Bohr and Mottelson. The most celebrated symmetry of this kind is SU(3), which is the basis of Elliott’s model of rotation. It corresponds to a deformed mean field induced by a quadrupole interaction in a single major oscillator shell N and can be generalized to include several major shells. As such, Elliott’s SU(3) model establishes the link between the spherical shell model and the (quadrupole component of the) geometric collective model. We introduce the analogue symmetry induced by an octupole interaction in two major oscillator shells N-1 and N, leading to an octupole-deformed solution of the spherical shell model. We show that in the limit of large oscillator shells, N\\to ∞ , the algebraic octupole interaction tends to that of the geometric collective model.
Ground and Structure Deformation 3d Modelling with a Tin Based Property Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
TIAN, T.; Zhang, J.; Jiang, W.
2013-12-01
With the development of 3D( three-dimensional) modeling and visualization, more and more 3D tectonics are used to assist the daily work in Engineering Survey, in which the prediction of deformation field in strata and structure induced by underground construction is an essential part. In this research we developed a TIN (Triangulated Irregular Network) based property model for the 3D (three dimensional) visualization of ground deformation filed. By record deformation vector for each nodes, the new model can express the deformation with geometric-deformation-style by drawing each node in its new position and deformation-attribute-distribution-style by drawing each node in the color correspond with its deformation attribute at the same time. Comparing with the volume model based property model, this new property model can provide a more precise geometrical shape for structure objects. Furthermore, by recording only the deformation data of the user-interested 3d surface- such as the ground surface or the underground digging surface, the new property model can save a lot of space, which makes it possible to build the deformation filed model of a much more large scale. To construct the models of deformation filed based on TIN model, the refinement of the network is needed to increase the nodes number, which is necessary to express the deformation filed with a certain resolution. The TIN model refinement is a process of sampling the 3D deformation field values on points on the TIN surface, for which we developed a self-adapting TIN refinement method. By set the parameter of the attribute resolution, this self-adapting method refines the input geometric-expressing TIN model by adding more vertexes and triangles where the 3D deformation filed changing faster. Comparing with the even refinement method, the self-adapting method can generate a refined TIN model with nodes counted less by two thirds. Efficiency Comparison between Self-adapting Refinement Method and Even
Interpretation of postseismic deformation with a viscoelastic relaxation model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wahr, J.; Wyss, M.
1980-01-01
A viscoelastic relaxation model is used to interpret postseismic surface deformation for the large-magnitude Aleutian earthquakes of 1957 and 1965. The lithosphere and asthenosphere are modeled as elastic solids with an anomalous viscoelastic inclusion below the island arc volcanoes. It is found that the observed postseismic surface deformation is a corollary of the known island arc structure. A satisfactory fit to the uplift following the 1957 earthquake is found for a viscoelastic volume with 80-km width extending from a depth of 50 to 200 km.
Modeling Large-Strain, High-Rate Deformation in Metals
Lesuer, D R; Kay, G J; LeBlanc, M M
2001-07-20
The large strain deformation response of 6061-T6 and Ti-6Al-4V has been evaluated over a range in strain rates from 10{sup -4} s{sup -1} to over 10{sup 4} s{sup -1}. The results have been used to critically evaluate the strength and damage components of the Johnson-Cook (JC) material model. A new model that addresses the shortcomings of the JC model was then developed and evaluated. The model is derived from the rate equations that represent deformation mechanisms active during moderate and high rate loading. Another model that accounts for the influence of void formation on yield and flow behavior of a ductile metal (the Gurson model) was also evaluated. The characteristics and predictive capabilities of these models are reviewed.
Uncertainties in tomographic reconstructions based on deformable models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanson, Kenneth M.; Cunningham, Gregory S.; McKee, Robert J.
1997-04-01
Deformable geometric models fit very naturally into the context of Bayesian analysis. The prior probability of boundary shapes is taken to proportional to the negative exponential of the deformation energy used to control the boundary. This probabilistic interpretation is demonstrated using a Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo (MCMC) technique, which permits one to generate configurations that populate the prior. One of may uses for deformable models is to solve ill-posed tomographic reconstruction problems, which we demonstrate by reconstructing a two-dimensional object from two orthogonal noisy projections. We show how MCMC samples drawn from the posterior can be used to estimate uncertainties in the location of the edge of the reconstructed object.
Matrix model description of baryonic deformations
Bena, Iosif; Murayama, Hitoshi; Roiban, Radu; Tatar, Radu
2003-03-13
We investigate supersymmetric QCD with N{sub c} + 1 flavors using an extension of the recently proposed relation between gauge theories and matrix models.The impressive agreement between the two sides provides a beautiful confirmation of the extension of the gauge theory-matrix model relation to this case.
Modeling deformation behavior of the baseball.
Nicholls, Rochelle Llewelyn; Miller, Karol; Elliott, Bruce C
2005-02-01
Regulating ball response to impact is one way to control ball exit velocity in baseball. This is necessary to reduce injuries to defensive players and maintain the balance between offense and defense in the game. This paper presents a model for baseball velocity-dependent behavior. Force-displacement data were obtained using quasi-static compression tests to 50% of ball diameter (n = 70 baseballs). The force-displacement curves for a very stiff baseball (Model B) and a softer type (Model C) were characterized by a Mooney-Rivlin model using implicit finite element analysis (ANSYS software, version 6.1). Agreement between experimental and numerical results was excellent for both Model B (C(10) = 0, C(01) = 3.7e(6) Pa) and Model C (C(10) = 0, C(01) = 2.6e(6) Pa). However, this material model was not available in the ANSYS/LSDYNA explicit dynamic software (version 6.1) used to quantify the transient behavior of the ball. Therefore the modeling process was begun again using a linear viscoelastic material. G(infinity), the long-term shear modulus of the material, was determined by the same implicit FEA procedure. Explicit FEA was used to quantify the time-dependent response of each ball in terms of instantaneous shear modulus (G0) and a decay term (beta). The results were evaluated with respect to published experimental data for the ball coefficient of restitution at five velocities (13.4-40.2 ms(-1)) and were in agreement with the experimental values. The model forms the basis for future research on baseball response to impact with the bat. PMID:16131702
Target Recognition Using Neural Networks for Model Deformation Measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ross, Richard W.; Hibler, David L.
1999-01-01
Optical measurements provide a non-invasive method for measuring deformation of wind tunnel models. Model deformation systems use targets mounted or painted on the surface of the model to identify known positions, and photogrammetric methods are used to calculate 3-D positions of the targets on the model from digital 2-D images. Under ideal conditions, the reflective targets are placed against a dark background and provide high-contrast images, aiding in target recognition. However, glints of light reflecting from the model surface, or reduced contrast caused by light source or model smoothness constraints, can compromise accurate target determination using current algorithmic methods. This paper describes a technique using a neural network and image processing technologies which increases the reliability of target recognition systems. Unlike algorithmic methods, the neural network can be trained to identify the characteristic patterns that distinguish targets from other objects of similar size and appearance and can adapt to changes in lighting and environmental conditions.
Videogrammetric Model Deformation Measurement Technique for Wind Tunnel Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barrows, Danny A.
2006-01-01
Videogrammetric measurement technique developments at NASA Langley were driven largely by the need to quantify model deformation at the National Transonic Facility (NTF). This paper summarizes recent wind tunnel applications and issues at the NTF and other NASA Langley facilities including the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel, 31-Inch Mach 10 Tunnel, 8-Ft high Temperature Tunnel, and the 20-Ft Vertical Spin Tunnel. In addition, several adaptations of wind tunnel techniques to non-wind tunnel applications are summarized. These applications include wing deformation measurements on vehicles in flight, determining aerodynamic loads based on optical elastic deformation measurements, measurements on ultra-lightweight and inflatable space structures, and the use of an object-to-image plane scaling technique to support NASA s Space Exploration program.
Deformable part models for object detection in medical images
2014-01-01
Background Object detection in 3-D medical images is often necessary for constraining a segmentation or registration task. It may be a task in its own right as well, when instances of a structure, e.g. the lymph nodes, are searched. Problems from occlusion, illumination and projection do not arise, making the problem simpler than object detection in photographies. However, objects of interest are often not well contrasted against the background. Influence from noise and other artifacts is much stronger and shape and appearance may vary substantially within a class. Methods Deformable models capture the characteristic shape of an anatomic object and use constrained deformation for hypothesing object boundaries in image regions of low or non-existing contrast. Learning these constraints requires a large sample data base. We show that training may be replaced by readily available user knowledge defining a prototypical deformable part model. If structures have a strong part-relationship, or if they may be found based on spatially related guiding structures, or if the deformation is rather restricted, the supporting data information suffices for solving the detection task. We use a finite element model to represent anatomic variation by elastic deformation. Complex shape variation may be represented by a hierarchical model with simpler part variation. The hierarchy may be represented explicitly as a hierarchy of sub-shapes, or implicitly by a single integrated model. Data support and model deformation of the complete model can be represented by an energy term, serving as quality-of-fit function for object detection. Results The model was applied to detection and segmentation tasks in various medical applications in 2- and 3-D scenes. It has been shown that model fitting and object detection can be carried out efficiently by a combination of a local and global search strategy using models that are parameterized for the different tasks. Conclusions A part-based elastic
A New Model for Episodic Caldera Deformation at Yellowstone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cervelli, P. F.; Gervais, S. M.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Wicks, C. W.
2012-12-01
For nearly 90 years, geodetic measurements at Yellowstone have shown recurring episodes of uplift and subsidence confined mostly to the caldera but also extending into the Norris Geyser Basin. The most recent such episode began in late 2004 with the onset of caldera-wide uplift that continued for about 5 years before switching to subsidence in late 2009. The physical mechanism driving the deformation is unknown, though several researchers have proposed kinematic models that can reproduce the observed data. The "Lake" earthquake swarm, which occurred in the northern part of Yellowstone Lake from December 2008 through January 2009, provides a new constraint on caldera deformation models. The timing of the swarm correlates with an abrupt change in local deformation, which preceded the gradual transition from uplift to subsidence in late 2009. Thus, caldera deformation, at least in the vicinity of Yellowstone Lake, consists of two (or more) distinct parts, implying the existence of two (or more) distinct deformation sources. This fresh information leads us to propose a new kinematic model for deformation at Yellowstone, which we develop from the last 15 years of continuous GPS and InSAR data. Our new model consists of three deformation sources: (1) a cauldron block source that is subject to a constant displacement at its base while its surrounding ring fault remains locked; (2) a pressurizing (or depressurizing) spherical cavity near the Norris Geyser Basin, which is known to deform separately from the caldera; and (3) a pressurizing (or depressurizing) spherical cavity at the Sour Creek Dome, which we infer from the abrupt change in deformation rate after the Lake Swarm. We use the GPS and InSAR data from the period of strongest signal, summer 2005 through summer 2007, to optimize the geometry of the three sources: the locations and depths of the spherical cavity, and the perimeter of the cauldron block. We then, while holding their geometry fixed, estimate the
Finite element modelling of frictional instability between deformable rocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xing, H. L.; Makinouchi, A.
2003-10-01
Earthquakes are recognized as resulting from a stick-slip frictional instability along faults. Based on the node-to-point contact element strategy (an arbitrarily shaped contact element strategy applied with the static-explicit algorithm for modelling non-linear frictional contact problems proposed by authors), a finite element code for modelling the 3-D non-linear friction contact between deformable bodies has been developed and extended here to analyse the non-linear stick-slip frictional instability between deformable rocks with a rate- and state-dependent friction law. A typical fault bend model is taken as an application example to be analysed here. The variations of the normal contact force, the frictional force, the transition of stick-slip instable state and the related relative slip velocity along the fault between the deformable rocks and the stress evolution in the total bodies during the different stages are investigated, respectively. The calculated results demonstrate the usefulness of this code for simulating the non-linear frictional instability between deformable rocks. Copyright
Analysis on sheet cyclic plastic deformation using mixed hardening model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Qun; Jin, Miao; Yuxin, Zhu
2013-05-01
Treating the cyclic deformation problem of sheet flowing through drawbead as the object of the research, using HILL anisotropy yield criterion and mixed hardening model, the cyclic plastic deformation mechanism of sheet was studied, the deformation characteristics of sheet subjected to cyclic loads were revealed, and the influence of Bauschinger effect on stress-strain circulating relationship and the influence of bending neutral layer migration on the stress of sheet's intermediate integral point were analyzed as well. The effectiveness of the model was verified by experiments. The results of analysis were showed that the stress values influenced by Bauschinger effect were different at the yield point of reverse loading and the point of unloading during the cyclic deformation. The stress rate at the yield point of reverse loading and the point of unloading in different loading branches was also different. The stress-strain circulating relationship in different loading branches can be approximately treated as bilinear. The tangent modulus of each loading branch showed a significant downward trend as the times of the reverse loading increased. The tangent modulus calculated by the mixed hardening model after the second loading branch reduced to less than 21% of the first loading tangent modulus. Effected by the neutral layer migration, the stress-strain curve of integral point of sheet's intermediate layer showed alternating transition phenomenon of the tensile stress and compressive stress.
Reappraisal of a model for deformed special relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gubitosi, Giulia; Magueijo, João
2016-06-01
We revisit one of the earliest proposals for deformed dispersion relations in the light of recent results on dynamical dimensional reduction and production of cosmological fluctuations. Depending on the specification of the measure of integration and the addition rule in momentum space the model may be completed so as to merely deform Lorentz invariance, or so as to introduce a preferred frame. Models which violate Lorentz invariance have a negative UV asymptotic dimension and a very red spectrum of quantum vacuum fluctuations. Instead, models which preserve frame independence can exhibit running to a UV dimension of two, and a scale-invariant spectrum of fluctuations. The bispectrum of the fluctuations is another point of divergence between the two casings proposed here for the original model.
Quantitative comparisons of numerical models of brittle deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buiter, S.
2009-04-01
Numerical modelling of brittle deformation in the uppermost crust can be challenging owing to the requirement of an accurate pressure calculation, the ability to achieve post-yield deformation and localisation, and the choice of rheology (plasticity law). One way to approach these issues is to conduct model comparisons that can evaluate the effects of different implementations of brittle behaviour in crustal deformation models. We present a comparison of three brittle shortening experiments for fourteen different numerical codes, which use finite element, finite difference, boundary element and distinct element techniques. Our aim is to constrain and quantify the variability among models in order to improve our understanding of causes leading to differences between model results. Our first experiment of translation of a stable sand-like wedge serves as a reference that allows for testing against analytical solutions (e.g., taper angle, root-mean-square velocity and gravitational rate of work). The next two experiments investigate an unstable wedge in a sandbox-like setup which deforms by inward translation of a mobile wall. All models accommodate shortening by in-sequence formation of forward shear zones. We analyse the location, dip angle and spacing of thrusts in detail as previous comparisons have shown that these can be highly variable in numerical and analogue models of crustal shortening and extension. We find that an accurate implementation of boundary friction is important for our models. Our results are encouraging in the overall agreement in their dynamic evolution, but show at the same time the effort that is needed to understand shear zone evolution. GeoMod2008 Team: Markus Albertz, Michele Cooke, Susan Ellis, Taras Gerya, Luke Hodkinson, Kristin Hughes, Katrin Huhn, Boris Kaus, Walter Landry, Bertrand Maillot, Christophe Pascal, Anton Popov, Guido Schreurs, Christopher Beaumont, Tony Crook, Mario Del Castello and Yves Leroy
Meshless deformable models for 3D cardiac motion and strain analysis from tagged MRI.
Wang, Xiaoxu; Chen, Ting; Zhang, Shaoting; Schaerer, Joël; Qian, Zhen; Huh, Suejung; Metaxas, Dimitris; Axel, Leon
2015-01-01
Tagged magnetic resonance imaging (TMRI) provides a direct and noninvasive way to visualize the in-wall deformation of the myocardium. Due to the through-plane motion, the tracking of 3D trajectories of the material points and the computation of 3D strain field call for the necessity of building 3D cardiac deformable models. The intersections of three stacks of orthogonal tagging planes are material points in the myocardium. With these intersections as control points, 3D motion can be reconstructed with a novel meshless deformable model (MDM). Volumetric MDMs describe an object as point cloud inside the object boundary and the coordinate of each point can be written in parametric functions. A generic heart mesh is registered on the TMRI with polar decomposition. A 3D MDM is generated and deformed with MR image tagging lines. Volumetric MDMs are deformed by calculating the dynamics function and minimizing the local Laplacian coordinates. The similarity transformation of each point is computed by assuming its neighboring points are making the same transformation. The deformation is computed iteratively until the control points match the target positions in the consecutive image frame. The 3D strain field is computed from the 3D displacement field with moving least squares. We demonstrate that MDMs outperformed the finite element method and the spline method with a numerical phantom. Meshless deformable models can track the trajectory of any material point in the myocardium and compute the 3D strain field of any particular area. The experimental results on in vivo healthy and patient heart MRI show that the MDM can fully recover the myocardium motion in three dimensions. PMID:25157446
Meshless deformable models for 3D cardiac motion and strain analysis from tagged MRI
Wang, Xiaoxu; Chen, Ting; Zhang, Shaoting; Schaerer, Joël; Qian, Zhen; Huh, Suejung; Metaxas, Dimitris; Axel, Leon
2016-01-01
Tagged magnetic resonance imaging (TMRI) provides a direct and noninvasive way to visualize the in-wall deformation of the myocardium. Due to the through-plane motion, the tracking of 3D trajectories of the material points and the computation of 3D strain field call for the necessity of building 3D cardiac deformable models. The intersections of three stacks of orthogonal tagging planes are material points in the myocardium. With these intersections as control points, 3D motion can be reconstructed with a novel meshless deformable model (MDM). Volumetric MDMs describe an object as point cloud inside the object boundary and the coordinate of each point can be written in parametric functions. A generic heart mesh is registered on the TMRI with polar decomposition. A 3D MDM is generated and deformed with MR image tagging lines. Volumetric MDMs are deformed by calculating the dynamics function and minimizing the local Laplacian coordinates. The similarity transformation of each point is computed by assuming its neighboring points are making the same transformation. The deformation is computed iteratively until the control points match the target positions in the consecutive image frame. The 3D strain field is computed from the 3D displacement field with moving least squares. We demonstrate that MDMs outperformed the finite element method and the spline method with a numerical phantom. Meshless deformable models can track the trajectory of any material point in the myocardium and compute the 3D strain field of any particular area. The experimental results on in vivo healthy and patient heart MRI show that the MDM can fully recover the myocardium motion in three dimensions. PMID:25157446
Dynamic deformable models for 3D MRI heart segmentation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhukov, Leonid; Bao, Zhaosheng; Gusikov, Igor; Wood, John; Breen, David E.
2002-05-01
Automated or semiautomated segmentation of medical images decreases interstudy variation, observer bias, and postprocessing time as well as providing clincally-relevant quantitative data. In this paper we present a new dynamic deformable modeling approach to 3D segmentation. It utilizes recently developed dynamic remeshing techniques and curvature estimation methods to produce high-quality meshes. The approach has been implemented in an interactive environment that allows a user to specify an initial model and identify key features in the data. These features act as hard constraints that the model must not pass through as it deforms. We have employed the method to perform semi-automatic segmentation of heart structures from cine MRI data.
Phenomenological model for transient deformation based on state variables
Jackson, M S; Cho, C W; Alexopoulos, P; Mughrabi, H; Li, C Y
1980-01-01
The state variable theory of Hart, while providing a unified description of plasticity-dominated deformation, exhibits deficiencies when it is applied to transient deformation phenomena at stresses below yield. It appears that the description of stored anelastic strain is oversimplified. Consideration of a simple physical picture based on continuum dislocation pileups suggests that the neglect of weak barriers to dislocation motion is the source of these inadequacies. An appropriately modified description incorporating such barriers then allows the construction of a macroscopic model including transient effects. Although the flow relations for the microplastic element required in the new theory are not known, tentative assignments may be made for such functions. The model then exhibits qualitatively correct behavior when tensile, loading-unloading, reverse loading, and load relaxation tests are simulated. Experimental procedures are described for determining the unknown parameters and functions in the new model.
Multiplanar Deformities Correction Using Taylor Spatial Frame in Skeletally Immature Patients
Koren, Lior; Keren, Yaniv; Eidelman, Mark
2016-01-01
Background: Taylor Spatial Frame (TSF) is a modern circular external fixator that, using a virtual hinge, is able to correct six axis deformities simultaneously. Despite the growing popularity of this method, few reports exist about its use in children and adolescents. To evaluate the effectiveness of TSF in correcting multiplanar deformities in patients with open physis, we reviewed the results of treatment in children who had at least two planes deformities of lower limbs. Methods: Over a period of 8 years, we treated 51 patients, 40 boys, 11 girls, with a mean age of 12.4 years (range, 2-16 years). All patients had open physis at the time of the TSF application. All patients had at least two deformities (angular and/or rotational). Fifty-five osteotomies (11 femoral, 44 tibial) were performed. Patients were divided into four groups: 13 with post-traumatic malunions, 18 with tibia vara, six with rickets, and 14 with miscellaneous deformities. Correction goal was determined as correction of deformities to population-average parameters of the lower limbs in frontal and sagittal views and normal mechanical axis deviation. Results: Correction goal was achieved in all except one patient; four patients had recurrence of deformities post-operatively and were re-operated. Most common complications were pin tract infection (20 patients), delayed union (2), regenerate translation (1), post-removal femoral fractures (2), knee subluxation (1), nonunion (1), and one patient developed chronic osteomyelitis secondary to deep pin tract infection. Conclusion: TSF allowed accurate correction of complex limb deformities in children and adolescents with relatively few serious complications. Level of Evidence: Level IV. Case series. PMID:27347235
Modeling of friction-induced deformation and microstructures.
Michael, Joseph Richard; Prasad, Somuri V.; Jungk, John Michael; Cordill, Megan J.; Bammann, Douglas J.; Battaile, Corbett Chandler; Moody, Neville Reid; Majumdar, Bhaskar Sinha (New Mexico Institure of Mining and Technology)
2006-12-01
Frictional contact results in surface and subsurface damage that could influence the performance, aging, and reliability of moving mechanical assemblies. Changes in surface roughness, hardness, grain size and texture often occur during the initial run-in period, resulting in the evolution of subsurface layers with characteristic microstructural features that are different from those of the bulk. The objective of this LDRD funded research was to model friction-induced microstructures. In order to accomplish this objective, novel experimental techniques were developed to make friction measurements on single crystal surfaces along specific crystallographic surfaces. Focused ion beam techniques were used to prepare cross-sections of wear scars, and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and TEM to understand the deformation, orientation changes, and recrystallization that are associated with sliding wear. The extent of subsurface deformation and the coefficient of friction were strongly dependent on the crystal orientation. These experimental observations and insights were used to develop and validate phenomenological models. A phenomenological model was developed to elucidate the relationships between deformation, microstructure formation, and friction during wear. The contact mechanics problem was described by well-known mathematical solutions for the stresses during sliding friction. Crystal plasticity theory was used to describe the evolution of dislocation content in the worn material, which in turn provided an estimate of the characteristic microstructural feature size as a function of the imposed strain. An analysis of grain boundary sliding in ultra-fine-grained material provided a mechanism for lubrication, and model predictions of the contribution of grain boundary sliding (relative to plastic deformation) to lubrication were in good qualitative agreement with experimental evidence. A nanomechanics-based approach has been developed for characterizing the
Resurgence in η-deformed Principal Chiral Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Demulder, Saskia; Dorigoni, Daniele; Thompson, Daniel C.
2016-07-01
We study the SU(2) Principal Chiral Model (PCM) in the presence of an integrable η-deformation. We put the theory on {R}× {S}^1 with twisted boundary conditions and then reduce the circle to obtain an effective quantum mechanics associated with the Whittaker-Hill equation. Using resurgent analysis we study the large order behaviour of perturbation theory and recover the fracton events responsible for IR renormalons. The fractons are modified from the standard PCM due to the presence of this η-deformation but they are still the constituents of uniton-like solutions in the deformed quantum field theory. We also find novel SL(2,{C}) saddles, thus strengthening the conjecture that the semi-classical expansion of the path integral gives rise to a resurgent transseries once written as a sum over Lefschetz thimbles living in a complexification of the field space. We conclude by connecting our quantum mechanics to a massive deformation of the {N} = 2 4-d gauge theory with gauge group SU(2) and N f = 2.
Experimental modelling of ground deformation associated with shallow magma intrusions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galland, Olivier
2012-02-01
Active volcanoes experience ground deformation as a response to the dynamics of underground magmatic systems. The analysis of ground deformation patterns may provide important constraints on the dynamics and shape of the underlying volcanic plumbing systems. Nevertheless, these analyses usually take into account simplistic shapes (sphere, dykes, sills) and the results cannot be verified as the modelled systems are buried. In this paper, I present new results from experimental models of magma intrusion, in which both the evolution of ground deformation during intrusion and the shape of the underlying intrusion are monitored. The models consisted of a molten vegetable oil, simulating low viscosity magma, injected into cohesive fine-grained silica flour, simulating the brittle upper crust; oil injection resulted is sheet intrusions (dykes, sills and cone sheets). The initial topography in the models was flat. While the oil was intruding, the surface of the models slightly lifted up to form a smooth relief, which was mapped through time. After an initial symmetrical development, the uplifted area developed asymmetrically; at the end of the experiments, the oil always erupted at the steepest edge of the uplifted area. After the experiment, the oil solidified, the intrusion was excavated and the shape of its top surface mapped. The comparison between the uplifted zone and the underlying intrusions showed that (1) the complex shapes of the uplifted areas reflected the complex shapes of the underlying intrusions, (2) the time evolution of the uplifted zone was correlated with the evolution of the underlying intrusion, and (3) the early asymmetrical evolution of the uplifted areas can be used to predict the location of the eruption of the oil. The experimental results also suggest that complex intrusion shapes (inclined sheet, cone sheet, complex sill) may have to be considered more systematically in the analyses of ground deformation patterns on volcanoes.
Experimental modelling of ground deformation associated with shallow magma intrusions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galland, O.
2012-04-01
Active volcanoes experience ground deformation as a response to the dynamics of underground magmatic systems. The analysis of ground deformation patterns may provide important constraints on the dynamics and shape of the underlying volcanic plumbing systems. Nevertheless, these analyses usually take into account simplistic shapes (sphere, dykes, sills) and the results cannot be verified as the modelled systems are buried. In this contribution, I will present new results from experimental models of magma intrusion, in which both the evolution of ground deformation during intrusion and the shape of the underlying intrusion are monitored in 3D. The models consisted of a molten vegetable oil, simulating low viscosity magma, injected into cohesive fine-grained silica flour, simulating the brittle upper crust; oil injection resulted is sheet intrusions (dykes, sills and cone sheets). The initial topography in the models was flat. While the oil was intruding, the surface of the models slightly lifted up to form a smooth relief, which was mapped through time. After an initial symmetrical development, the uplifted area developed asymmetrically; at the end of the experiments, the oil always erupted at the steepest edge of the uplifted area. After the experiment, the oil solidified, the intrusion was excavated and the shape of its top surface mapped. The comparison between the uplifted zone and the underlying intrusions showed that (1) the complex shapes of the uplifted areas reflected the complex shapes of the underlying intrusions, (2) the time evolution of the uplifted zone was correlated with the evolution of the underlying intrusion, and (3) the early asymmetrical evolution of the uplifted areas can be used to predict the location of the eruption of the oil. The experimental results also suggest that complex intrusion shapes (inclined sheet, cone sheet, complex sill) may have to be considered more systematically in analyses of ground deformation patterns on volcanoes.
Dislocation models of interseismic deformation in the western United States
Pollitz, F.F.; McCrory, P.; Svarc, J.; Murray, J.
2008-01-01
The GPS-derived crustal velocity field of the western United States is used to construct dislocation models in a viscoelastic medium of interseismic crustal deformation. The interseismic velocity field is constrained by 1052 GPS velocity vectors spanning the ???2500-km-long plate boundary zone adjacent to the San Andreas fault and Cascadia subduction zone and extending ???1000 km into the plate interior. The GPS data set is compiled from U.S. Geological Survey campaign data, Plate Boundary Observatory data, and the Western U.S. Cordillera velocity field of Bennett et al. (1999). In the context of viscoelastic cycle models of postearthquake deformation, the interseismic velocity field is modeled with a combination of earthquake sources on ???100 known faults plus broadly distributed sources. Models that best explain the observed interseismic velocity field include the contributions of viscoelastic relaxation from faulting near the major plate margins, viscoelastic relaxation from distributed faulting in the plate interior, as well as lateral variations in depth-averaged rigidity in the elastic lithosphere. Resulting rigidity variations are consistent with reduced effective elastic plate thickness in a zone a few tens of kilometers wide surrounding the San Andreas fault (SAF) system. Primary deformation characteristics are captured along the entire SAF system, Eastern California Shear Zone, Walker Lane, the Mendocino triple junction, the Cascadia margin, and the plate interior up to ???1000 km from the major plate boundaries.
Dislocation models of interseismic deformation in the western United States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pollitz, Fred F.; McCrory, Patricia; Svarc, Jerry; Murray, Jessica
2008-04-01
The GPS-derived crustal velocity field of the western United States is used to construct dislocation models in a viscoelastic medium of interseismic crustal deformation. The interseismic velocity field is constrained by 1052 GPS velocity vectors spanning the ˜2500-km-long plate boundary zone adjacent to the San Andreas fault and Cascadia subduction zone and extending ˜1000 km into the plate interior. The GPS data set is compiled from U.S. Geological Survey campaign data, Plate Boundary Observatory data, and the Western U.S. Cordillera velocity field of Bennett et al. (1999). In the context of viscoelastic cycle models of postearthquake deformation, the interseismic velocity field is modeled with a combination of earthquake sources on ˜100 known faults plus broadly distributed sources. Models that best explain the observed interseismic velocity field include the contributions of viscoelastic relaxation from faulting near the major plate margins, viscoelastic relaxation from distributed faulting in the plate interior, as well as lateral variations in depth-averaged rigidity in the elastic lithosphere. Resulting rigidity variations are consistent with reduced effective elastic plate thickness in a zone a few tens of kilometers wide surrounding the San Andreas fault (SAF) system. Primary deformation characteristics are captured along the entire SAF system, Eastern California Shear Zone, Walker Lane, the Mendocino triple junction, the Cascadia margin, and the plate interior up to ˜1000 km from the major plate boundaries.
Active deformation in Western Turkey: new GPS observations and models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nocquet, J.; Aktug, B.; Parsons, B.; Cingoz, A.; England, P.; Erkan, Y.; Soyer, N.; Akdeniz, H.; Kilicoglu, A.
2007-12-01
How the continents deform remains a matter of debate. One view postulates that continental deforming zones are comprised of a limited numbers of rigid (elastic) microplates. If true, the surface motion can then be described by the relative rotation of blocks, and strain should be localized along the major faults separating the blocks. An alternative view is that the deformation at depth is distributed over wide areas, can be modelled by a viscous flow responding to boundary conditions applied on it and gravitational potential energy gradients related to variations in topography, and the surface strain simply reflects this deformation. Western Turkey is a region of crustal extension, part of the Nubia/Eurasia plate boundary. Its kinematics is often modelled by the relative motion of a small number of rigid blocks (Nyst & Thatcher, 2005, Reilinger et al., 2006). However, until now, the limited number of GPS velocity vectors available has prevented a detailed examination of which is the more appropriate description. We present a new geodetic velocity field including ~100 sites from the longitude the Central Anatolian plateau to the Aegean coast, derived from a combination of campaigns carried out between 1997 and 2006, and continuous GPS operating since 2003, which we use to test the different models. While the kinematics of the area can be correctly modelled by a block model, a good fit to the velocity field requires blocks with sizes smaller than 100 km and still fails to adequately predict the strain rate observed within blocks . Alternatively, we test an approach where the lithosphere is modelled as a thin viscous sheet, responding to the gravitational potentiel energy contrast between the high plateau of eastern Turkey to the east and the subduction along the Hellenic trench in the southwest. The simplistic model has only one free parameter (the force applied by the subducting oceanic lithosphere on the Aegean ), but provides a good agreement with the observed
Modeling and analysis methodology for aeroelastically tailored chordwise deformable wings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rehfield, Lawrence W.; Chang, Stephen; Zischka, Peter J.
1992-01-01
Structural concepts have been created which produce chordwise camber deformation that results in enhanced lift. A wing box can be tailored to utilize each of these with composites. In attempting to optimize the aerodynamic benefits, we have found there are two optimal designs that are of interest. There is a weight optimum which corresponds to the maximum lift per unit structural weight. There is also a lift optimum that corresponds to maximum absolute lift. New structural models, the basic deformation mechanisms that are utilized and typical analytical results are presented. It appears that lift enhancements of sufficient magnitude can be produced to render this type of wing tailoring of practical interest. Experiments and finite element correlations are performed which confirm the validity of the theoretical models utilized.
3D deformable organ model based liver motion tracking in ultrasound videos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Jung-Bae; Hwang, Youngkyoo; Oh, Young-Taek; Bang, Won-Chul; Lee, Heesae; Kim, James D. K.; Kim, Chang Yeong
2013-03-01
This paper presents a novel method of using 2D ultrasound (US) cine images during image-guided therapy to accurately track the 3D position of a tumor even when the organ of interest is in motion due to patient respiration. Tracking is possible thanks to a 3D deformable organ model we have developed. The method consists of three processes in succession. The first process is organ modeling where we generate a personalized 3D organ model from high quality 3D CT or MR data sets captured during three different respiratory phases. The model includes the organ surface, vessel and tumor, which can all deform and move in accord with patient respiration. The second process is registration of the organ model to 3D US images. From 133 respiratory phase candidates generated from the deformable organ model, we resolve the candidate that best matches the 3D US images according to vessel centerline and surface. As a result, we can determine the position of the US probe. The final process is real-time tracking using 2D US cine images captured by the US probe. We determine the respiratory phase by tracking the diaphragm on the image. The 3D model is then deformed according to respiration phase and is fitted to the image by considering the positions of the vessels. The tumor's 3D positions are then inferred based on respiration phase. Testing our method on real patient data, we have found the accuracy of 3D position is within 3.79mm and processing time is 5.4ms during tracking.
Virasoro irregular conformal block and beta deformed random matrix model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Sang Kwan; Rim, Chaiho; Zhang, Hong
2015-03-01
Virasoro irregular conformal block is presented as the expectation value of Jack-polynomials of the beta-deformed Penner-type matrix model and is compared with the inner product of Gaiotto states with arbitrary rank. It is confirmed that there are non-trivial modifications of the Gaiotto states due to the normalization of the states. The relation between the two is explicitly checked for rank 2 irregular conformal block.
Model Deformation Measurements at a Cryogenic Wind Tunnel Using Photogrammetry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burner, A. W.; Snow, W. L.; Goad, W. K.
1982-01-01
A photogrammetric closed circuit television system to measure model deformation at the National Transonic Facility (NTF) is described. The photogrammetric approach was chosen because of its inherent rapid data recording of the entire object field. Video cameras are used to acquire data instead of film cameras due to the inaccessibility of cameras which must be housed within the cryogenic, high pressure plenum of this facility. Data reduction procedures and the results of tunnel tests at the NTF are presented.
Model deformation measurements at a cryogenic wind tunnel using photogrammetry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burner, A. W.; Snow, W. L.; Goad, W. K.
1985-01-01
A photogrammetric closed circuit television system to measure model deformation at the National Transonic Facility (NTF) is described. The photogrammetric approach was chosen because of its inherent rapid data recording of the entire object field. Video cameras are used to acquire data instead of film cameras due to the inaccessibility of cameras which must be housed within the cryogenic, high pressure plenum of this facility. Data reduction procedures and the results of tunnel tests at the NTF are presented.
Evaluation and Surgical Management of the Overcorrected Clubfoot Deformity in the Adult Patient.
Burger, Dawid; Aiyer, Amiethab; Myerson, Mark S
2015-12-01
Adult patients presenting with an overcorrected clubfoot often have had a posteromedial release. They present later in life and have compensated quite well despite the development of deformity. Minor trauma may lead to the onset of acute symptoms. A spectrum of deformity exists. Key features include a dorsally subluxated navicular, a dorsal bunion from overpull of the tibialis anterior tendon, valgus of the ankle or hindfoot or both, and a flattop talus. This article details the diagnostic approach to the overcorrected clubfoot patient and options for management of the various components of the deformity. PMID:26589080
Heterogeneous Deformable Modeling of Bio-Tissues and Haptic Force Rendering for Bio-Object Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Shiyong; Lee, Yuan-Shin; Narayan, Roger J.
This paper presents a novel technique for modeling soft biological tissues as well as the development of an innovative interface for bio-manufacturing and medical applications. Heterogeneous deformable models may be used to represent the actual internal structures of deformable biological objects, which possess multiple components and nonuniform material properties. Both heterogeneous deformable object modeling and accurate haptic rendering can greatly enhance the realism and fidelity of virtual reality environments. In this paper, a tri-ray node snapping algorithm is proposed to generate a volumetric heterogeneous deformable model from a set of object interface surfaces between different materials. A constrained local static integration method is presented for simulating deformation and accurate force feedback based on the material properties of a heterogeneous structure. Biological soft tissue modeling is used as an example to demonstrate the proposed techniques. By integrating the heterogeneous deformable model into a virtual environment, users can both observe different materials inside a deformable object as well as interact with it by touching the deformable object using a haptic device. The presented techniques can be used for surgical simulation, bio-product design, bio-manufacturing, and medical applications.
Surrogate modeling of deformable joint contact using artificial neural networks.
Eskinazi, Ilan; Fregly, Benjamin J
2015-09-01
Deformable joint contact models can be used to estimate loading conditions for cartilage-cartilage, implant-implant, human-orthotic, and foot-ground interactions. However, contact evaluations are often so expensive computationally that they can be prohibitive for simulations or optimizations requiring thousands or even millions of contact evaluations. To overcome this limitation, we developed a novel surrogate contact modeling method based on artificial neural networks (ANNs). The method uses special sampling techniques to gather input-output data points from an original (slow) contact model in multiple domains of input space, where each domain represents a different physical situation likely to be encountered. For each contact force and torque output by the original contact model, a multi-layer feed-forward ANN is defined, trained, and incorporated into a surrogate contact model. As an evaluation problem, we created an ANN-based surrogate contact model of an artificial tibiofemoral joint using over 75,000 evaluations of a fine-grid elastic foundation (EF) contact model. The surrogate contact model computed contact forces and torques about 1000 times faster than a less accurate coarse grid EF contact model. Furthermore, the surrogate contact model was seven times more accurate than the coarse grid EF contact model within the input domain of a walking motion. For larger input domains, the surrogate contact model showed the expected trend of increasing error with increasing domain size. In addition, the surrogate contact model was able to identify out-of-contact situations with high accuracy. Computational contact models created using our proposed ANN approach may remove an important computational bottleneck from musculoskeletal simulations or optimizations incorporating deformable joint contact models. PMID:26220591
Electrohydrodynamic Model of Vesicle Deformation in Alternating Electric Fields
Vlahovska, Petia M.; Gracià, Rubèn Serral; Aranda-Espinoza, Said; Dimova, Rumiana
2009-01-01
Abstract We develop an analytical theory to explain the experimentally observed morphological transitions of quasispherical giant vesicles induced by alternating electric fields. The model treats the inner and suspending media as lossy dielectrics, and the membrane as an impermeable flexible incompressible–fluid sheet. The vesicle shape is obtained by balancing electric, hydrodynamic, bending, and tension stresses exerted on the membrane. Our approach, which is based on force balance, also allows us to describe the time evolution of the vesicle deformation, in contrast to earlier works based on energy minimization, which are able to predict only stationary shapes. Our theoretical predictions for vesicle deformation are consistent with experiment. If the inner fluid is more conducting than the suspending medium, the vesicle always adopts a prolate shape. In the opposite case, the vesicle undergoes a transition from a prolate to oblate ellipsoid at a critical frequency, which the theory identifies with the inverse membrane charging time. At frequencies higher than the inverse Maxwell-Wagner polarization time, the electrohydrodynamic stresses become too small to alter the vesicle's quasispherical rest shape. The model can be used to rationalize the transient and steady deformation of biological cells in electric fields. PMID:19527639
Linking plate reconstructions with deforming lithosphere to geodynamic models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller, R. D.; Gurnis, M.; Flament, N.; Seton, M.; Spasojevic, S.; Williams, S.; Zahirovic, S.
2011-12-01
While global computational models are rapidly advancing in terms of their capabilities, there is an increasing need for assimilating observations into these models and/or ground-truthing model outputs. The open-source and platform independent GPlates software fills this gap. It was originally conceived as a tool to interactively visualize and manipulate classical rigid plate reconstructions and represent them as time-dependent topological networks of editable plate boundaries. The user can export time-dependent plate velocity meshes that can be used either to define initial surface boundary conditions for geodynamic models or alternatively impose plate motions throughout a geodynamic model run. However, tectonic plates are not rigid, and neglecting plate deformation, especially that of the edges of overriding plates, can result in significant misplacing of plate boundaries through time. A new, substantially re-engineered version of GPlates is now being developed that allows an embedding of deforming plates into topological plate boundary networks. We use geophysical and geological data to define the limit between rigid and deforming areas, and the deformation history of non-rigid blocks. The velocity field predicted by these reconstructions can then be used as a time-dependent surface boundary condition in regional or global 3-D geodynamic models, or alternatively as an initial boundary condition for a particular plate configuration at a given time. For time-dependent models with imposed plate motions (e.g. using CitcomS) we incorporate the continental lithosphere by embedding compositionally distinct crust and continental lithosphere within the thermal lithosphere. We define three isostatic columns of different thickness and buoyancy based on the tectonothermal age of the continents: Archean, Proterozoic and Phanerozoic. In the fourth isostatic column, the oceans, the thickness of the thermal lithosphere is assimilated using a half-space cooling model. We also
A nonaffine network model for elastomers undergoing finite deformations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davidson, Jacob D.; Goulbourne, N. C.
2013-08-01
In this work, we construct a new physics-based model of rubber elasticity to capture the strain softening, strain hardening, and deformation-state dependent response of rubber materials undergoing finite deformations. This model is unique in its ability to capture large-stretch mechanical behavior with parameters that are connected to the polymer chemistry and can also be easily identified with the important characteristics of the macroscopic stress-stretch response. The microscopic picture consists of two components: a crosslinked network of Langevin chains and an entangled network with chains confined to a nonaffine tube. These represent, respectively, changes in entropy due to thermally averaged chain conformations and changes in entropy due to the magnitude of these conformational fluctuations. A simple analytical form for the strain energy density is obtained using Rubinstein and Panyukov's single-chain description of network behavior. The model only depends on three parameters that together define the initial modulus, extent of strain softening, and the onset of strain hardening. Fits to large stretch data for natural rubber, silicone rubber, VHB 4905 (polyacrylate rubber), and b186 rubber (a carbon black-filled rubber) are presented, and a comparison is made with other similar constitutive models of large-stretch rubber elasticity. We demonstrate that the proposed model provides a complete description of elastomers undergoing large deformations for different applied loading configurations. Moreover, since the strain energy is obtained using a clear set of physical assumptions, this model may be tested and used to interpret the results of computer simulation and experiments on polymers of known microscopic structure.
Quasiequilibrium models for triaxially deformed rotating compact stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Xing; Markakis, Charalampos; Sugiyama, Noriyuki; Uryū, Kōji
2008-12-01
Quasiequilibrium models of rapidly rotating triaxially deformed stars are computed in general relativistic gravity, assuming a conformally flat spatial geometry (Isenberg-Wilson-Mathews formulation) and a polytropic equation of state. Highly deformed solutions are calculated on the initial slice covered by spherical coordinate grids, centered at the source, in all angular directions up to a large truncation radius. Constant rest mass sequences are calculated from nearly axisymmetric to maximally deformed triaxial configurations. Selected parameters are to model (proto-) neutron stars; the compactness is M/R=0.001, 0.1, 0.14, and 0.2 for polytropic index n=0.3 and M/R=0.001, 0.1, 0.12, and 0.14 for n=0.5, where M/R refers to that of a nonrotating spherical star having the same rest mass. We confirmed that the triaxial solutions exist for these parameters as in the case of Newtonian polytropes. However, it is also found that the triaxial sequences become shorter for higher compactness, and those disappear at a certain large compactness for the n=0.5 case. In the scenario of the contraction of proto-neutron stars being subject to strong viscosity and rapid cooling, it is plausible that, once the viscosity driven secular instability sets in during the contraction, the proto-neutron stars are always maximally deformed triaxial configurations, as long as the compactness and the equation of state parameters allow such triaxial sequences. Detection of gravitational waves from such sources may be used as another probe for the nuclear equation of state.
Myocardial deformation recovery from cine MRI using a nearly incompressible biventricular model.
Bistoquet, Arnaud; Oshinski, John; Skrinjar, Oskar
2008-02-01
This paper presents a method for biventricular myocardial deformation recovery from cine MRI. The method is based on a deformable model that is nearly incompressible, a desirable property since the myocardium has been shown to be nearly incompressible. The model uses a matrix-valued radial basis function to represent divergence-free displacement fields, which is a first order approximation of incompressibility. This representation allows for deformation modeling of an arbitrary topologies with a relatively small number of parameters, which is suitable for representing the motion of the multi-chamber structure of the heart. The myocardium needs to be segmented in an initial frame after which the method automatically determines the tissue deformation everywhere in the myocardium throughout the cardiac cycle. Two studies were carried out to validate the method. In the first study the myocardial deformation was recovered from a 3D anatomical cine MRI sequence of a healthy volunteer and then validated against the manual segmentation of the biventricular wall and against the corresponding 3D tagged cine MRI sequence. The average volume agreement between the model and the manual segmentation had a false positive rate of 3.2%, false negative rate of 2.8% and true positive rate of 91.4%. The average distance between the model and manually determined intersections of perpendicular tag planes was 1.7mm (1.2 pixel). The same procedures was repeated on another set of 3D anatomical and tagged MRI scans of the same volunteer taken four months later. The recovered deformation was very similar to the one obtained from the first set of scans. In the second study the method was applied to 3D anatomical cine MRI scans of three patients with ventricular dyssynchrony and three age-matched healthy volunteers. The recovered strains of the normal subjects were clearly stronger than the recovered strains of the patients and they were similar to those reported by other researchers. The
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vile, Douglas J.
In radiation therapy, interfraction organ motion introduces a level of geometric uncertainty into the planning process. Plans, which are typically based upon a single instance of anatomy, must be robust against daily anatomical variations. For this problem, a model of the magnitude, direction, and likelihood of deformation is useful. In this thesis, principal component analysis (PCA) is used to statistically model the 3D organ motion for 19 prostate cancer patients, each with 8-13 fractional computed tomography (CT) images. Deformable image registration and the resultant displacement vector fields (DVFs) are used to quantify the interfraction systematic and random motion. By applying the PCA technique to the random DVFs, principal modes of random tissue deformation were determined for each patient, and a method for sampling synthetic random DVFs was developed. The PCA model was then extended to describe the principal modes of systematic and random organ motion for the population of patients. A leave-one-out study tested both the systematic and random motion model's ability to represent PCA training set DVFs. The random and systematic DVF PCA models allowed the reconstruction of these data with absolute mean errors between 0.5-0.9 mm and 1-2 mm, respectively. To the best of the author's knowledge, this study is the first successful effort to build a fully 3D statistical PCA model of systematic tissue deformation in a population of patients. By sampling synthetic systematic and random errors, organ occupancy maps were created for bony and prostate-centroid patient setup processes. By thresholding these maps, PCA-based planning target volume (PTV) was created and tested against conventional margin recipes (van Herk for bony alignment and 5 mm fixed [3 mm posterior] margin for centroid alignment) in a virtual clinical trial for low-risk prostate cancer. Deformably accumulated delivered dose served as a surrogate for clinical outcome. For the bony landmark setup
Toman, Heba Ahmed; Hassan, Rozita; Hassan, Rosline; Nasir, Ariffin
2011-09-01
This comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in the pediatric daycare unit, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia to determine the prevalence of craniofacial deformities (CFD) and the association between these deformities and different clinical presentations among thalassemia patients. Patients were classified as either craniofacial deformity positive (CFD+) or craniofacial deformity negative (CFD-) by two examiners based on the presence or absence of deformity of the cheeks, frontal and/or maxillary bones. Fifteen clinical parameters were compared between the groups. Nineteen out of 43 patients (44.2%; confidence interval, 30.2-58.2%) had craniofacial deformities (CFD+). Both groups were comparable among the clinical parameters studied. Patients in the CFD+ group did not start their blood transfusions significantly earlier than the CFD- group (p = 0.50) and had a nonsignificantly lower mean pretransfusion hemoglobin level than the CFD- group (p = 0.71). Patients receiving regular monthly blood transfusions had a nonsignificantly smaller percentage of CFD than those transfused less often (p = 0.495). CFD+ patients had a splenectomy at a nonsignificantly younger age than CFD- patients (p = 0.36). HbE/beta thalassemia patients were not significantly less likely to develop CFD than other varieties (p = 0.50) and males had a nonsignificantly higher percentage of CFD than females (p = 0.29). This study shows CFD in thalassemia patients are still prevalent but no significant associated factors were found; however, a nonsignificantly higher prevalence of CFD was observed in patients with signs of severe disease and less efficient treatment. PMID:22299450
Neylon, J. Qi, X.; Sheng, K.; Low, D. A.; Kupelian, P.; Santhanam, A.; Staton, R.; Pukala, J.; Manon, R.
2015-01-15
Purpose: Validating the usage of deformable image registration (DIR) for daily patient positioning is critical for adaptive radiotherapy (RT) applications pertaining to head and neck (HN) radiotherapy. The authors present a methodology for generating biomechanically realistic ground-truth data for validating DIR algorithms for HN anatomy by (a) developing a high-resolution deformable biomechanical HN model from a planning CT, (b) simulating deformations for a range of interfraction posture changes and physiological regression, and (c) generating subsequent CT images representing the deformed anatomy. Methods: The biomechanical model was developed using HN kVCT datasets and the corresponding structure contours. The voxels inside a given 3D contour boundary were clustered using a graphics processing unit (GPU) based algorithm that accounted for inconsistencies and gaps in the boundary to form a volumetric structure. While the bony anatomy was modeled as rigid body, the muscle and soft tissue structures were modeled as mass–spring-damper models with elastic material properties that corresponded to the underlying contoured anatomies. Within a given muscle structure, the voxels were classified using a uniform grid and a normalized mass was assigned to each voxel based on its Hounsfield number. The soft tissue deformation for a given skeletal actuation was performed using an implicit Euler integration with each iteration split into two substeps: one for the muscle structures and the other for the remaining soft tissues. Posture changes were simulated by articulating the skeletal structure and enabling the soft structures to deform accordingly. Physiological changes representing tumor regression were simulated by reducing the target volume and enabling the surrounding soft structures to deform accordingly. Finally, the authors also discuss a new approach to generate kVCT images representing the deformed anatomy that accounts for gaps and antialiasing artifacts that may
Facial Performance Transfer via Deformable Models and Parametric Correspondence.
Asthana, Akshay; de la Hunty, Miles; Dhall, Abhinav; Goecke, Roland
2012-09-01
The issue of transferring facial performance from one person's face to another's has been an area of interest for the movie industry and the computer graphics community for quite some time. In recent years, deformable face models, such as the Active Appearance Model (AAM), have made it possible to track and synthesize faces in real time. Not surprisingly, deformable face model-based approaches for facial performance transfer have gained tremendous interest in the computer vision and graphics community. In this paper, we focus on the problem of real-time facial performance transfer using the AAM framework. We propose a novel approach of learning the mapping between the parameters of two completely independent AAMs, using them to facilitate the facial performance transfer in a more realistic manner than previous approaches. The main advantage of modeling this parametric correspondence is that it allows a "meaningful" transfer of both the nonrigid shape and texture across faces irrespective of the speakers' gender, shape, and size of the faces, and illumination conditions. We explore linear and nonlinear methods for modeling the parametric correspondence between the AAMs and show that the sparse linear regression method performs the best. Moreover, we show the utility of the proposed framework for a cross-language facial performance transfer that is an area of interest for the movie dubbing industry. PMID:21931176
Characterization and modeling of heterogeneous deformation in commercial purity titanium
Yang, Y; Wang, Leyun; Zambaldi, Dr C; Eisenlohr, P; Barabash, Rozaliya; Liu, W.; Stoudt, Dr M R; Crimp, Prof M A; Bieler, Prof T R
2011-01-01
Heterogeneous deformation, including local dislocation shear activity and lattice rotation, was analyzed in microstructure patches of polycrystalline commercial purity titanium specimens using three different experimental methods. The measurements were compared with crystal plasticity finite element (CPFE) simulations for the same region that incorporate a local phenomenological hardening constitutive model. The dislocation activity was measured using techniques associated with atomic force microscopy (AFM), confocal microscopy, three-dimensional-X-ray diffraction (3D-XRD), and nano-indentation. These measurements allow assessment and guidance for strategic improvement of the accuracy of CPFE model development. The CPFE model successfully predicted most types of active dislocation systems within grains at the correct magnitudes, but the simulation of spatial distribution of strain was not always similar to experimental observations. To obtain an accurate CPFE model, the critical resolved shear stresses for major deformation systems in -titanium were assessed using an optimization strategy with CPFE predictions of the measured pile-up topography surrounding axisymmetric nano-indentation. Only modest improvements were noted over the simulations done without such optimized parameters. This indicates that a major challenge for model development is to effectively predict conditions where slip transfer occurs, and where geometrically necessary dislocations (GND) accumulate.
Recent progress in modelling 3D lithospheric deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaus, B. J. P.; Popov, A.; May, D. A.
2012-04-01
Modelling 3D lithospheric deformation remains a challenging task, predominantly because the variations in rock types, as well as nonlinearities due to for example plastic deformation result in sharp and very large jumps in effective viscosity contrast. As a result, there are only a limited number of 3D codes available, most of which are using direct solvers which are computationally and memory-wise very demanding. As a result, the resolutions for typical model runs are quite modest, despite the use of hundreds of processors (and using much larger computers is unlikely to bring much improvement in this situation). For this reason we recently developed a new 3D deformation code,called LaMEM: Lithosphere and Mantle Evolution Model. LaMEM is written on top of PETSc, and as a result it runs on massive parallel machines and we have a large number of iterative solvers available (including geometric and algebraic multigrid methods). As it remains unclear which solver combinations work best under which conditions, we have implemented most currently suggested methods (such as schur complement reduction or Fully coupled iterations). In addition, we can use either a finite element discretization (with Q1P0, stabilized Q1Q1 or Q2P-1 elements) or a staggered finite difference discretization for the same input geometry, which is based on a marker and cell technique). This gives us he flexibility to test various solver methodologies on the same model setup, in terms of accuracy, speed, memory usage etc. Here, we will report on some features of LaMEM, on recent code additions, as well as on some lessons we learned which are important for modelling 3D lithospheric deformation. Specifically we will discuss: 1) How we combine a particle-and-cell method to make it work with both a finite difference and a (lagrangian, eulerian or ALE) finite element formulation, with only minor code modifications code 2) How finite difference and finite element discretizations compare in terms of
Liao, Xiangyun; Yuan, Zhiyong; Lai, Qianfeng; Guo, Jiaxiang; Zheng, Qi; Yu, Sijiao; Tong, Qianqian; Si, Weixin; Sun, Mingui
2015-01-01
Purpose In ultrasound-guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) therapy, the target tissue (such as a tumor) often moves and/or deforms in response to an external force. This problem creates difficulties in treating patients and can lead to the destruction of normal tissue. In order to solve this problem, we present a novel method to model and predict the movement and deformation of the target tissue during ultrasound-guided HIFU therapy. Methods Our method computationally predicts the position of the target tissue under external force. This prediction allows appropriate adjustments in the focal region during the application of HIFU so that the treatment head is kept aligned with the diseased tissue through the course of therapy. To accomplish this goal, we utilize the cow tissue as the experimental target tissue to collect spatial sequences of ultrasound images using the HIFU equipment. A Geodesic Localized Chan-Vese (GLCV) model is developed to segment the target tissue images. A 3D target tissue model is built based on the segmented results. A versatile particle framework is constructed based on Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) to model the movement and deformation of the target tissue. Further, an iterative parameter estimation algorithm is utilized to determine the essential parameters of the versatile particle framework. Finally, the versatile particle framework with the determined parameters is used to estimate the movement and deformation of the target tissue. Results To validate our method, we compare the predicted contours with the ground truth contours. We found that the lowest, highest and average Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) values between predicted and ground truth contours were, respectively, 0.9615, 0.9770 and 0.9697. Conclusion Our experimental result indicates that the proposed method can effectively predict the dynamic contours of the moving and deforming tissue during ultrasound-guided HIFU therapy. PMID:25993644
Dislocation model for aseismic crustal deformation at Hollister, California
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Matsuura, Mitsuhiro; Jackson, David D.; Cheng, Abe
1986-01-01
A model of crustal deformation during the interseismic phase is developed and applied (using the improved Bayesian inversion algorithm described by Jackson and Matsu'ura, 1985) to trilateration data for the USGS Hollister (CA) network. In the model, rigid blocks in motion relative to each other experience friction only in a brittle upper zone, while their ductile lower zones slide freely; the Hollister model comprises five blocks and nine rectangular fault patches. The data and results are presented in tables, graphs, and maps and characterized in detail. The model predicts steady block motion on time scales between 10 yr and 1 Myr, with net motion across the San Andreas/Calaveras fault system 38 + or - 3 mm/yr and brittle/ductile transition depths ranging from 0.4 to 11 km. Two San Andreas segments with higher probabilities of moderate-to-large earthquakes are identified.
Development and treatment of spinal deformity in patients with cerebral palsy
Tsirikos, Athanasios I
2010-01-01
Scoliosis is a common deformity in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. This is usually associated with pelvic obliquity due to extension of the curve to the sacrum. Sagittal plane deformity is less common and often develops along with scoliosis. Spinal deformity in patients with severe neurological handicaps can affect their ability to sit and cause significant back pain or pain due to rib impingement against the elevated side of the pelvis on the concavity of the curvature. Surgical correction followed by spinal arthrodesis is indicated in patients with progressive deformities which interfere with their level of function and quality of life. Spinal deformity correction is a major task in children with multiple medical co-morbidities and can be associated with a high risk of complications including death. A well-coordinated multidisciplinary approach is required in the assessment and treatment of this group of patients with the aim to minimize the complication rate and secure a satisfactory surgical outcome. Good knowledge of the surgical and instrumentation techniques, as well as the principles of management is needed to achieve optimum correction of the deformity and balancing of the spine and pelvis. Spinal fusion has a well-documented positive impact even in children with quadriplegia or total body involvement and is the only surgical procedure which has such a high satisfaction rate among parents and caregivers. PMID:20419001
Comparison of Three Optical Methods for Measuring Model Deformation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burner, A. W.; Fleming, G. A.; Hoppe, J. C.
2000-01-01
The objective of this paper is to compare the current state-of-the-art of the following three optical techniques under study by NASA for measuring model deformation in wind tunnels: (1) video photogrammetry, (2) projection moire interferometry, and (3) the commercially available Optotrak system. An objective comparison of these three techniques should enable the selection of the best technique for a particular test undertaken at various NASA facilities. As might be expected, no one technique is best for all applications. The techniques are also not necessarily mutually exclusive and in some cases can be complementary to one another.
Algebraic approach to the projected deformed oscillator model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asherova, R. M.; Smirnov, Yu. F.; Tolstoy, V. N.; Shustov, A. P.
1981-03-01
A new method of calculation in terms of the projected deformed oscillator model is proposed. The method involves expansion of its wave functions in terms of the wave functions of an isotropic oscillator potential. Only overlap integrals between projected wave functions and reduced probabilities B(E2) of E2 transitions are examined. B(E2) values are expressed as a series containing the corresponding values of the Elliott SU(3) scheme. The convergence of these expansions is shown to be fairly good. The expectation values of operators ( QQ) and ( QQQ), which characterize the effective internal non-sphericity and non-axiality of the nucleus, are also calculated and discussed.
Modeling and Prediction of Hot Deformation Flow Curves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mirzadeh, Hamed; Cabrera, Jose Maria; Najafizadeh, Abbas
2012-01-01
The modeling of hot flow stress and prediction of flow curves for unseen deformation conditions are important in metal-forming processes because any feasible mathematical simulation needs accurate flow description. In the current work, in an attempt to summarize, generalize, and introduce efficient methods, the dynamic recrystallization (DRX) flow curves of a 17-4 PH martensitic precipitation hardening stainless steel, a medium carbon microalloyed steel, and a 304 H austenitic stainless steel were modeled and predicted using (1) a hyperbolic sine equation with strain dependent constants, (2) a developed constitutive equation in a simple normalized stress-normalized strain form and its modified version, and (3) a feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN). These methods were critically discussed, and the ANN technique was found to be the best for the modeling available flow curves; however, the developed constitutive equation showed slightly better performance than that of ANN and significantly better predicted values than those of the hyperbolic sine equation in prediction of flow curves for unseen deformation conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wasserman, Richard Marc
The radiation therapy treatment planning (RTTP) process may be subdivided into three planning stages: gross tumor delineation, clinical target delineation, and modality dependent target definition. The research presented will focus on the first two planning tasks. A gross tumor target delineation methodology is proposed which focuses on the integration of MRI, CT, and PET imaging data towards the generation of a mathematically optimal tumor boundary. The solution to this problem is formulated within a framework integrating concepts from the fields of deformable modelling, region growing, fuzzy logic, and data fusion. The resulting fuzzy fusion algorithm can integrate both edge and region information from multiple medical modalities to delineate optimal regions of pathological tissue content. The subclinical boundaries of an infiltrating neoplasm cannot be determined explicitly via traditional imaging methods and are often defined to extend a fixed distance from the gross tumor boundary. In order to improve the clinical target definition process an estimation technique is proposed via which tumor growth may be modelled and subclinical growth predicted. An in vivo, macroscopic primary brain tumor growth model is presented, which may be fit to each patient undergoing treatment, allowing for the prediction of future growth and consequently the ability to estimate subclinical local invasion. Additionally, the patient specific in vivo tumor model will be of significant utility in multiple diagnostic clinical applications.
The impact of patient self assessment of deformity on HRQL in adults with scoliosis
Tones, Megan J; Moss, Nathan D
2007-01-01
Background Body image and HRQL are significant issues for patients with scoliosis due to cosmetic deformity, physical and psychological symptoms, and treatment factors. A selective review of scoliosis literature revealed that self report measures of body image and HRQL share unreliable correlations with radiographic measures and clinician recommendations for surgery. However, current body image and HRQL measures do not indicate which aspects of scoliosis deformity are the most distressing for patients. The WRVAS is an instrument designed to evaluate patient self assessment of deformity, and may show some promise in identifying aspects of deformity most troubling to patients. Previous research on adolescents with scoliosis supports the use of the WRVAS as a clinical tool, as the instrument shares strong correlations with radiographic measures and quality of life instruments. There has been limited use of this instrument on adult populations. Methods The WRVAS and the SF-36v2, a HRQL measure, were administered to 71 adults with scoliosis, along with a form to report age and gender. Preliminary validation analyses were performed on the WRVAS (floor and ceiling effects, internal consistency and collinearity, correlations with the SF-36v2, and multiple regression with the WRVAS total score as the predictor, and SF-36v2 scores as outcomes). Results The psychometric properties of the WRVAS were acceptable. Older participants perceived their deformities as more severe than younger participants. More severe deformities were associated with lower scores on the Physical Component Summary Score of the SF-36v2. Total WRVAS score also predicted Physical Component Summary scores. Conclusion The results of the current study indicate that the WRVAS is a reliable tool to use with adult patients, and that patient self assessment of deformity shared a relationship with physical rather than psychological aspects of HRQL. The current and previous studies concur that revision of the
Multi-view and 3D deformable part models.
Pepik, Bojan; Stark, Michael; Gehler, Peter; Schiele, Bernt
2015-11-01
As objects are inherently 3D, they have been modeled in 3D in the early days of computer vision. Due to the ambiguities arising from mapping 2D features to 3D models, 3D object representations have been neglected and 2D feature-based models are the predominant paradigm in object detection nowadays. While such models have achieved outstanding bounding box detection performance, they come with limited expressiveness, as they are clearly limited in their capability of reasoning about 3D shape or viewpoints. In this work, we bring the worlds of 3D and 2D object representations closer, by building an object detector which leverages the expressive power of 3D object representations while at the same time can be robustly matched to image evidence. To that end, we gradually extend the successful deformable part model [1] to include viewpoint information and part-level 3D geometry information, resulting in several different models with different level of expressiveness. We end up with a 3D object model, consisting of multiple object parts represented in 3D and a continuous appearance model. We experimentally verify that our models, while providing richer object hypotheses than the 2D object models, provide consistently better joint object localization and viewpoint estimation than the state-of-the-art multi-view and 3D object detectors on various benchmarks (KITTI [2] , 3D object classes [3] , Pascal3D+ [4] , Pascal VOC 2007 [5] , EPFL multi-view cars[6] ). PMID:26440264
Modeling Permanent Deformations of Superelastic and Shape Memory Materials
Urbano, Marco Fabrizio; Auricchio, Ferdinando
2015-01-01
In this paper we propose a modification of the polycrystalline shape memory alloy constitutive model originally proposed by Souza. By introducing a transformation strain energy with two different hardening coefficients, we are able to take into account the effect of the martensitic transformation of unfavorably oriented grains occurring after the main plateau. By choosing a proper second hardening coefficient, it is possible to reproduce the correct stress strain behavior of the material after the plateau without the need of introducing a much smaller Young modulus for martensite. The proposed modification is introduced in the model comprising permanent deformation effects. Model results for uniaxial stress tests are compared to experimental results showing good agreement. PMID:26110494
Phase field modeling of partially saturated deformable porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sciarra, Giulio
2016-09-01
A poromechanical model of partially saturated deformable porous media is proposed based on a phase field approach at modeling the behavior of the mixture of liquid water and wet air, which saturates the pore space, the phase field being the saturation (ratio). While the standard retention curve is expected still^ to provide the intrinsic retention properties of the porous skeleton, depending on the porous texture, an enhanced description of surface tension between the wetting (liquid water) and the non-wetting (wet air) fluid, occupying the pore space, is stated considering a regularization of the phase field model based on an additional contribution to the overall free energy depending on the saturation gradient. The aim is to provide a more refined description of surface tension interactions. An enhanced constitutive relation for the capillary pressure is established together with a suitable generalization of Darcy's law, in which the gradient of the capillary pressure is replaced by the gradient of the so-called generalized chemical potential, which also accounts for the "force", associated to the local free energy of the phase field model. A micro-scale heuristic interpretation of the novel constitutive law of capillary pressure is proposed, in order to compare the envisaged model with that one endowed with the concept of average interfacial area. The considered poromechanical model is formulated within the framework of strain gradient theory in order to account for possible effects, at laboratory scale, of the micro-scale hydro-mechanical couplings between highly localized flows (fingering) and localized deformations of the skeleton (fracturing).
Continuum modeling of deformation and aggregation of red blood cells.
Yoon, Daegeun; You, Donghyun
2016-07-26
In order to gain better understanding for rheology of an isolated red blood cell (RBC) and a group of multiple RBCs, new continuum models for describing mechanical properties of cellular structures of an RBC and inter-cellular interactions among multiple RBCs are developed. The viscous property of an RBC membrane, which characterizes dynamic behaviors of an RBC under stress loading and unloading processes, is determined using a generalized Maxwell model. The present model is capable of predicting stress relaxation and stress-strain hysteresis, of which prediction is not possible using the commonly used Kelvin-Voigt model. Nonlinear elasticity of an RBC is determined using the Yeoh hyperelastic material model in a framework of continuum mechanics using finite-element approximation. A novel method to model inter-cellular interactions among multiple adjacent RBCs is also developed. Unlike the previous modeling approaches for aggregation of RBCs, where interaction energy for aggregation is curve-fitted using a Morse-type potential function, the interaction energy is analytically determined. The present aggregation model, therefore, allows us to predict various effects of physical parameters such as the osmotic pressure, the thickness of a glycocalyx layer, the penetration depth, and the permittivity, on the depletion and electrostatic energy among RBCs. Simulations for elongation and recovery deformation of an RBC and for aggregation of multiple RBCs are conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the present continuum modeling methods. PMID:26706720
Custom stems for femoral deformity in patients less than 40 years of age
Akbar, Michael; Aldinger, Guenther; Krahmer, Knut; Bruckner, Thomas
2009-01-01
Background and purpose Femoral deformity associated with osteoarthritis is a challenge for both the surgeon and the implant. Many of the patients with these deformities are young. Standard implants can be difficult to fit into these femurs. We prospectively evaluated the outcome of custom uncemented femoral stems in young patients. Methods 61 consecutive patients (72 hips) underwent surgery for osteoarthritis because of femoral deformity at a mean age of 35 (22–40) years. The patients received a CT3D-A custom-made femoral stem and an uncemented cup. The mean follow-up time was 14 (10–16) years. 2 patients died at 7 and 8 years after surgery, otherwise, none of the patients were lost to follow-up. Results At follow-up, the femoral prosthesis had not been revised in 59 patients (70 hips). 3 patients (3 hips) had required revision surgery due to loosening of the acetabular component; 2 hips were awaiting revision surgery for loosening of the acetabular cup. There were no cases of dislocation or infection. At review, all stems were considered stable according to the radiographic criteria. No migration or subsidence was observed on plain radiographs. Interpretation Our results are comparable to published results of custom stems regarding survival and outcome. Considering the young age and the deformities in this series of uncemented custom femoral stems, and the fact that there was follow-up of up to 16 years, the survival is remarkable. This technique appears to be a reasonable alternative in younger patients with femoral deformities. PMID:19513891
Modelling couplings between reaction, fluid flow and deformation: Kinetics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malvoisin, Benjamin; Podladchikov, Yury Y.; Connolly, James A. D.
2016-04-01
Mineral assemblages out of equilibrium are commonly found in metamorphic rocks testifying of the critical role of kinetics for metamorphic reactions. As experimentally determined reaction rates in fluid-saturated systems generally indicate complete reaction in less than several years, i.e. several orders of magnitude faster than field-based estimates, metamorphic reaction kinetics are generally thought to be controlled by transport rather than by processes at the mineral surface. However, some geological processes like earthquakes or slow-slip events have shorter characteristic timescales, and transport processes can be intimately related to mineral surface processes. Therefore, it is important to take into account the kinetics of mineral surface processes for modelling fluid/rock interactions. Here, a model coupling reaction, fluid flow and deformation was improved by introducing a delay in the achievement of equilibrium. The classical formalism for dissolution/precipitation reactions was used to consider the influence of the distance from equilibrium and of temperature on the reaction rate, and a dependence on porosity was introduced to model evolution of reacting surface area during reaction. The fitting of experimental data for three reactions typically occurring in metamorphic systems (serpentine dehydration, muscovite dehydration and calcite decarbonation) indicates a systematic faster kinetics close from equilibrium on the dehydration side than on the hydration side. This effect is amplified through the porosity term in the reaction rate since porosity is formed during dehydration. Numerical modelling indicates that this difference in reaction rate close from equilibrium plays a key role in microtextures formation. The developed model can be used in a wide variety of geological systems where couplings between reaction, deformation and fluid flow have to be considered.
On the Modeling of Plastic Deformation of Magnesium Alloys
Ertuerk, S.; Steglich, D.; Bohlen, J.; Letzig, D.; Brocks, W.
2007-05-17
Magnesium alloys are promising materials due to their low density and therefore high specific strength. However, the industrial application is not well established so far, especially for wrought products such as sheets or profiles. Due to its hexagonal crystallographic structure, deformation mechanisms observed in magnesium alloys are rather different from those in face centered cubic metals such as aluminum alloys. This leads not only to a mechanical anisotropy, but also to a tension-compression asymmetry, i.e. unequal compressive and tensile yield strength. The resulting complexity in the yielding behavior of such materials cannot be captured by conventional models of J2 plasticity. Cazacu and Barlat, therefore, proposed a phenomenological yield potential which accounts for the respective phenomena by introducing the third invariant of the stress tensor. Simulations based on this model are performed with ABAQUS/Explicit and a user defined routine VUMAT for validating the respective implementation. The application aims at simulating the extrusion process of magnesium alloys.
Meshless analysis of shear deformable shells: the linear model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Costa, Jorge C.; Tiago, Carlos M.; Pimenta, Paulo M.
2013-10-01
This work develops a kinematically linear shell model departing from a consistent nonlinear theory. The initial geometry is mapped from a flat reference configuration by a stress-free finite deformation, after which, the actual shell motion takes place. The model maintains the features of a complete stress-resultant theory with Reissner-Mindlin kinematics based on an inextensible director. A hybrid displacement variational formulation is presented, where the domain displacements and kinematic boundary reactions are independently approximated. The resort to a flat reference configuration allows the discretization using 2-D Multiple Fixed Least-Squares (MFLS) on the domain. The consistent definition of stress resultants and consequent plane stress assumption led to a neat formulation for the analysis of shells. The consistent linear approximation, combined with MFLS, made possible efficient computations with a desired continuity degree, leading to smooth results for the displacement, strain and stress fields, as shown by several numerical examples.
Modeling level structures of odd-odd deformed nuclei
Hoff, R.W.; Kern, J.; Piepenbring, R.; Boisson, J.P.
1985-01-15
A technique for modeling quasiparticle excitation energies and rotational parameters in odd-odd deformed nuclei has been applied to actinide species where new experimental data have been obtained by use of neutron-capture gamma-ray spectroscopy. The input parameters required for the calculation were derived from empirical data on single-particle excitations in neighboring odd-mass nuclei. Calculated configuration-specific values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings were used. Calculated and experimental level structures for /sup 238/Np, /sup 244/Am, and /sup 250/Bk are compared, as well as those for several nuclei in the rare-earch region. The agreement for the actinide species is excellent, with bandhead energies deviating 22 keV and rotational parameters 5%, on the average. Corresponding average deviations for five rare-earth nuclei are 47 keV and 7%. Several applications of this modeling technique are discussed.
Modeling level structures of odd-odd deformed nuclei
Hoff, R.W.; Kern, J.; Piepenbring, R.; Boisson, J.P.
1984-09-07
A technique for modeling quasiparticle excitation energies and rotational parameters in odd-odd deformed nuclei has been applied to actinide species where new experimental data have been obtained by use of neutron-capture gamma-ray spectroscopy. The input parameters required for the calculation were derived from empirical data on single-particle excitations in neighboring odd-mass nuclei. Calculated configuration-specific values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings were used. Calculated and experimental level structures for /sup 238/Np, /sup 244/Am, and /sup 250/Bk are compared, as well as those for several nuclei in the rare-earth region. The agreement for the actinide species is excellent, with bandhead energies deviating 22 keV and rotational parameters 5%, on the average. Corresponding average deviations for five rare-earth nuclei are 47 keV and 7%. Several applications of this modeling technique are discussed. 18 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.
A micromechanical model for the deformation behavior of titanium polycrystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romanova, V.; Balokhonov, R.; Shakhidjanov, V.; Zinovieva, O.
2015-10-01
A microstructure-based constitutive model for a polycrystalline titanium alloy is constructed on the basis of anisotropic elasticity and crystal plasticity theory, with allowance made for the prismatic and basal slip systems. A three-dimensional polycrystalline structure consisting of 1600 grains is designed by a step-by-step packing method and introduced explicitly into finite-element calculations. Numerical modeling of uniaxial tension is performed using Abaqus/Explicit. Grains unfavorably oriented to the loading axis are shown to remain elastic, while slip occurs in the neighboring grains. As this takes place, rotational modes of deformation are activated in addition to shear strain (translational) modes, and surface grains with a low ability to yield demonstrate a tendency towards extrusion.
Variable-intercept panel model for deformation zoning of a super-high arch dam.
Shi, Zhongwen; Gu, Chongshi; Qin, Dong
2016-01-01
This study determines dam deformation similarity indexes based on an analysis of deformation zoning features and panel data clustering theory, with comprehensive consideration to the actual deformation law of super-high arch dams and the spatial-temporal features of dam deformation. Measurement methods of these indexes are studied. Based on the established deformation similarity criteria, the principle used to determine the number of dam deformation zones is constructed through entropy weight method. This study proposes the deformation zoning method for super-high arch dams and the implementation steps, analyzes the effect of special influencing factors of different dam zones on the deformation, introduces dummy variables that represent the special effect of dam deformation, and establishes a variable-intercept panel model for deformation zoning of super-high arch dams. Based on different patterns of the special effect in the variable-intercept panel model, two panel analysis models were established to monitor fixed and random effects of dam deformation. Hausman test method of model selection and model effectiveness assessment method are discussed. Finally, the effectiveness of established models is verified through a case study. PMID:27386345
Neotectonic deformation model of the Northern Algeria from Paleomagnetic data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Derder, M. E. M.; Henry, B.; Maouche, S.; Amenna, M.; Bayou, B.; Djellit, H.; Ymel, H.; Gharbi, S.; Abtout, A.; Ayache, M.
2012-04-01
The seismic activity of the Western Mediterranean area is partly concentrated in northern Africa, particularly in northern Algeria, as it is shown by the strongest recent earthquakes of "Zemmouri" 21 May 2003 Mw=6.9 and the "El Asnam" 10 October 1980 Ms= 7.3. This seismicity is due to the tectonic activity related to the convergence between Africa and Eurasia plates since at least the Oligocene. The deformation is mostly compressional with associated folds, strike-slip faults and thrusts, and a direction of shortening between N-S and NNW-SSE. This convergence involves a tectonic transpression which is expressed by active deformation along the plate boundary. In northern Algeria, the seismicity is concentrated in a coastal E-W thin band zone (the Tell Atlas). Active structures define there NE-SW trending folds and NE-SW sinistral transpressive faults, which affect the intermountain and coastal Neogene to Quaternary sedimentary basins (e.g. " Cheliff "basin, " Mitidja "basin, …). These reverse faults are associated with NW-SE to E-W strike-slips deep faults. The active tectonics could be explained by a simple blocks rotation kinematics model. In order to test the validity of this kinematic model, three different paleomagnetic studies have been conducted. The first one concerned the "Cheliff" basin where sedimentary Neogene formations were extensively sampled (66 sites). The second study was carried out on Miocene andesite and dacite rocks cropping out along the northern coastal zone of the "Cheliff" basin ("Beni Haoua" area, 19 sites). The third study has been carried out on the Miocene magmatic rocks (rhyolites and basalts) cropping out north-eastern part of the "Mitidja" basin ("Cap Djinet" - "Boumerdes" area, 23 sites). The obtained results show existence of paleomagnetic clockwise rotations in all the studied areas and then validates the kinematics block rotation model. Accordingly, the deformation related to the convergence between the Africa and Eurasia
Effect of L-carnitine supplementation on red blood cells deformability in hemodialysis patients.
Nikolaos, S; George, A; Telemachos, T; Maria, S; Yannis, M; Konstantinos, M
2000-01-01
Anemia is a serious problem in hemodialysis patients, the main cause of which is erythropoietin deficiency. After the discovery of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) at the end of the last decade, the hematological profile of hemodialysis patients improved significantly but at considerable expense. The deformability of red blood cells (RBC) influences their microcirculation and tissue oxygen delivery along with their life span. We investigated the deformabilty of RBCs in 15 hemodialysis patients before and after three months on L-carnitine supplementation (30 mg/Kg body wt/dialysis session). We excluded from the study all patients who received blood transfusions three months before or during the study, patients who had hemorrhagic episodes, those with hyperparathyroidism or infections, and any who required surgical intervention during the study. The serum iron, folic acid and vitamin B-12 levels were kept normal during the duration of the study. The erythropoietin dose taken before the beginning of L-cartnitine supplementation was not changed. The deformability of RBCs before and after dialysis, prior to and following three months on L-carnitine was determined and compared to the deformability of RBCs from a control group. Hematocrit levels were measured before entry into the study and every month for three months. We found that the deformability of RBCs before the dialysis session was significantly greater than that found in the control group (t-test, p < 0.00001), and that there was a further increase after the end of the dialysis session. Three months following L-carnitine supplementation, we found a significant reduction of RBCs deformability (paired t-test, p < 0.004), and a significant increase in the hematocrit (ANOVA, p < 0.0001). We concluded that abnormalities in the deformability of RBCs improved after L-carnitine and that this was responsible for the increase in the hematocrit. This may allow a substantial reduction in rHuEpo dose. PMID:10718283
Heijckmann, A Caroline; Dumitrescu, Bianca; Nieuwenhuijzen Kruseman, Arie C; Geusens, Piet; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce HR; De Vries, Jolanda; Drent, Marjolein; Huijberts, Maya SP
2008-01-01
Background Previous studies from our group have shown that a high prevalence of vertebral deformities suggestive of fracture can be found in patients with an inflammatory disease, despite a near normal bone mineral density (BMD). As quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the heel can be used for refined assessment of bone strength, we evaluated whether QUS can be used to identify subjects with an inflammatory disease with an increased chance of having a vertebral fracture. Methods 246 patients (mean age: 44 ± 12.4 years) with an inflammatory disease (sarcoidosis or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)) were studied. QUS of the heel and BMD of the hip (by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)) were measured. Furthermore lateral single energy densitometry of the spine for assessment of vertebral deformities was done. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the strength of association between the prevalence of a vertebral deformity and BMD and QUS parameters, adjusted for gender and age. Results Vertebral deformities (ratio of <0.80) were found in 72 vertebrae of 54 subjects (22%). In contrast to the QUS parameters BUA (broadband ultrasound attenuation) and SOS (speed of sound), T-score of QUS and T-scores of the femoral neck and trochanter (DXA) were lower in the group of patients with vertebral deformities. Logistic regression analysis showed that the vertebral deformity risk increases by about 60 to 90% per 1 SD reduction of BMD (T-score) determined with DXA but not with QUS. Conclusion Our findings imply that QUS measurements of the calcaneus in patients with an inflammatory condition, such as sarcoidosis and IBD, are likely of limited value to identify patients with a vertebral fracture. PMID:18492278
Statistical Modeling of CTV Motion and Deformation for IMRT of Early-Stage Rectal Cancer
Bondar, Luiza; Intven, Martijn; Burbach, J.P. Maarten; Budiarto, Eka; Kleijnen, Jean-Paul; Philippens, Marielle; Asselen, Bram van; Seravalli, Enrica; Reerink, Onne; Raaymakers, Bas
2014-11-01
Purpose: To derive and validate a statistical model of motion and deformation for the clinical target volume (CTV) of early-stage rectal cancer patients. Methods and Materials: For 16 patients, 4 to 5 magnetic resonance images (MRI) were acquired before each fraction was administered. The CTV was delineated on each MRI. Using a leave-one-out methodology, we constructed a population-based principal component analysis (PCA) model of the CTV motion and deformation of 15 patients, and we tested the model on the left-out patient. The modeling error was calculated as the amount of the CTV motion-deformation of the left-out-patient that could not be explained by the PCA model. Next, the PCA model was used to construct a PCA target volume (PCA-TV) by accumulating motion-deformations simulated by the model. A PCA planning target volume (PTV) was generated by expanding the PCA-TV by uniform margins. The PCA-PTV was compared with uniform and nonuniform CTV-to-PTV margins. To allow comparison, geometric margins were determined to ensure adequate coverage, and the volume difference between the PTV and the daily CTV (CTV-to-PTV volume) was calculated. Results: The modeling error ranged from 0.9 ± 0.5 to 2.9 ± 2.1 mm, corresponding to a reduction of the CTV motion-deformation between 6% and 60% (average, 23% ± 11%). The reduction correlated with the magnitude of the CTV motion-deformation (P<.001, R=0.66). The PCA-TV and the CTV required 2-mm and 7-mm uniform margins, respectively. The nonuniform CTV-to-PTV margins were 4 mm in the left, right, inferior, superior, and posterior directions and 8 mm in the anterior direction. Compared to uniform and nonuniform CTV-to-PTV margins, the PCA-based PTV significantly decreased (P<.001) the average CTV-to-PTV volume by 128 ± 20 mL (49% ± 4%) and by 35 ± 6 mL (20% ± 3.5%), respectively. Conclusions: The CTV motion-deformation of a new patient can be explained by a population-based PCA model. A PCA model
A Computational Model of Deformable Cell Rolling in Shear Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eggleton, Charles; Jadhav, Sameer
2005-03-01
Selectin-mediated rolling of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) on activated endothelium is critical to their recruitment to sites of inflammation. The cell rolling velocity is influenced by bond interactions on the molecular scale that oppose hydrodynamic forces at the mesoscale. Recent studies have shown that PMN rolling velocity on selectin-coated surfaces in shear flow is significantly slower compared to that of microspheres bearing a similar density of selectin ligands. To investigate whether cell deformability is responsible for these differences, we developed a 3-D computational model which simulates rolling of a deformable cell on a selectin-coated surface under shear flow with a stochastic description of receptor-ligand bond interaction. We observed that rolling velocity increases with increasing membrane stiffness and this effect is larger at high shear rates. The average bond lifetime, number of receptor-ligand bonds and the cell-substrate contact area decreased with increasing membrane stiffness. This study shows that cellular properties along with the kinetics of selectin-ligand interactions affect leukocyte rolling on selectin-coated surfaces.
Modeling Cyclic Deformation of HSLA Steels Using Crystal Plasticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, Somnath; Xie, Chunlei
2004-06-01
In this paper, we propose a multi-time scale modeling technique for analyzing cyclic plastic deformation in crystalline solids subject to periodic loading. An asymptotic expansion of the variables in the time domain, together with homogenization forms the basis of multi-time scaling. In the macroscopic scale analysis, the oscillatory behavior of the load is averaged out and neglected, and the rate of averaged material behavior is quite slow in cyclic deformation. Implicitly, this means that the periodicity of some variables may be assumed for the oscillatory potion of the material behavior may be approximated. In this formulation, the governing equations are divided into two initial-boundary value problems with two different time scale: one is long time scale problem for describing the smooth averaged solution (global problem) and the other is for the remaining oscillatory potion (local problem). For the global problem, long time increments, which are longer than one cycle period, can be used and this multi-time scaling becomes an effective integrator.
A unified asperity-deformation model for cracked rocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, K.; Gibson, R. L.; Ge, J.
2010-12-01
Seismic velocities in rocks increase with pressure, a pattern often explained by changes in cracks within the rock volume. Specifically, the width of microcracks will decrease, increasing the contact area of crack surfaces, which in turn leads to increased stiffness of the crack. This causes P- and S-wave velocities to increase, and having accurate models of this behavior is important in many applications where it is important to related stress changes and observed seismic velocities, such as investigations of both fault zones and changing conditions in geothermal fields or hydrocarbon reservoirs. Several different models have been proposed to explain and quantify the relationship between confining pressure and the physical properties of cracked rocks, including a number of solutions describing cracks as ellipsoidal voids (penny-shaped cracks) of with varying aspect ratios that close at different pressures. Differential effective medium theories based on this model will typically use a fairly large number of parameters to fit measured data. An alternative approach describes cracks or fractures as rough surfaces that do not fully close with increasing pressure, and estimates the increase in contact area as asperities come into contact. An asperity-deformation model of this type was developed by, e.g., Gangi and Carlson (1985), and it parameterizes asperities on crack surfaces in terms of a set of cylindrical rods with heights following power-law distribution. The model results in a simple expression for the increase in velocity caused by increased number of asperities (rods) in contact with increasing pressure, an expression that accurately models increases in velocity using only three parameters. However, the model was formulated only for normal modulus of the cracks, the modulus relevant for P-wave propagation across the crack. Since S-waves are controlled by the tangential or shear modulus of the crack, this model cannot be used to jointly invert both P- and S
An elastoviscoplastic finite element model of lithospheric deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albert, Richard Alan
1998-12-01
Via the finite element method, the stress state and deformation of the lithosphere were investigated with topographic loading. An elastoviscoplastic (EVP) rheology governed the mechanical response in a 40 km thick lithospheric plate of wet olivine. The viscous aspect of the rheology utilized a steady-state dislocation creep constitutive relation. The plastic part of the rheology treated frictional slip on faults within pervasively fractured rock via Byerlee's rule. The first studies use a time-invariant, steady-state conduction temperature distribution in the plate. These studies involved topographic loading with different maximum loads and different load growth rates. The EVP results were compared to elastic perfectly-plastic (EPP) solutions for plate bending as constrained by the Yield Strength Envelope (YSE) formulation for lithospheric mechanics. The EVP results included the often-overlooked effect that the load has on strengthening underlying rock against brittle deformation. The creep strain rate in the EVP models varied with time, depth, and lateral location, unlike the EPP/YSE models that constrain all creep to a single a priori creep strain rate. At the transition from frictional slip to creep, the EVP models showed a three km zone with contributions from both mechanisms, relative to the EPP/YSE's artificially sharp and immediate transition. The last study incorporated two variations on the temperature distribution in the EVP lithosphere. The "whole-lithosphere cooling model" cooled the plate during and after the load growth period, following the half-space cooling model for oceanic lithosphere. Unlike its non-cooling counterpart, the whole-lithosphere cooling model showed no further frictional slip after the load growth period. The "magma conduit model" used an initial temperature distribution that had a high temperature along a vertical symmetry axis during loading to approximate temperature effects from a magma conduit. After loading, its temperature
3D Face Modeling Using the Multi-Deformable Method
Hwang, Jinkyu; Yu, Sunjin; Kim, Joongrock; Lee, Sangyoun
2012-01-01
In this paper, we focus on the problem of the accuracy performance of 3D face modeling techniques using corresponding features in multiple views, which is quite sensitive to feature extraction errors. To solve the problem, we adopt a statistical model-based 3D face modeling approach in a mirror system consisting of two mirrors and a camera. The overall procedure of our 3D facial modeling method has two primary steps: 3D facial shape estimation using a multiple 3D face deformable model and texture mapping using seamless cloning that is a type of gradient-domain blending. To evaluate our method's performance, we generate 3D faces of 30 individuals and then carry out two tests: accuracy test and robustness test. Our method shows not only highly accurate 3D face shape results when compared with the ground truth, but also robustness to feature extraction errors. Moreover, 3D face rendering results intuitively show that our method is more robust to feature extraction errors than other 3D face modeling methods. An additional contribution of our method is that a wide range of face textures can be acquired by the mirror system. By using this texture map, we generate realistic 3D face for individuals at the end of the paper. PMID:23201976
Unified constitutive model for single crystal deformation behavior with applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walker, K. P.; Meyer, T. G.; Jordan, E. H.
1988-01-01
Single crystal materials are being used in gas turbine airfoils and are candidates for other hot section components because of their increased temperature capabilities and resistance to thermal fatigue. Development of a constitutive model which assesses the inelastic behavior of these materials has been studied in 2 NASA programs: Life Prediction and Constitutive Models for Engine Hot Section Anisotropic Materials and Biaxial Constitutive Equation Development for Single Crystals. The model has been fit to a large body of constitutive data for single crystal PWA 1480 material. The model uses a unified approach for computing total inelastic strains (creep plus plasticity) on crystallographic slip systems reproducing observed directional and strain rate effects as a natural consequence of the summed slip system quantities. The model includes several of the effects that have been reported to influence deformation in single crystal materials, such as shear stress, latent hardening, and cross slip. The model is operational in a commercial Finite Element code and is being installed in a Boundary Element Method code.
Nasal septal deformities in chronic rhinosinusitis patients: clinical and radiological aspects.
Poje, G; Zinreich, J S; Skitarelić, N; Đurić Vuković, K; Passàli, G C; Passàli, D; Mladina, R
2014-04-01
Septal deformities are very frequent in patients suffering from chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). The question is whether or not some types of septal deformities are involved more frequently in this process or not. The authors observed the incidence of particular types of septal deformities in a group of CRS patients using Mladina classification. The same has been done with a control group that consisted of healthy volunteers. In the literature, type 7 has been found very frequently, i.e. in nearly 30% of all CRS cases. Herein, type 7 was mostly composed of types 3 and 5. Type 3 can be accurately recognised on axial MSCT scans, while type 5 can be accurately recognised on coronal views. Concomitant septal surgery at the time of endoscopic sinus surgery is recommended. PMID:24843222
Onofrey, John A.; Staib, Lawrence H.; Papademetris, Xenophon
2015-01-01
This paper describes a framework for learning a statistical model of non-rigid deformations induced by interventional procedures. We make use of this learned model to perform constrained non-rigid registration of pre-procedural and post-procedural imaging. We demonstrate results applying this framework to non-rigidly register post-surgical computed tomography (CT) brain images to pre-surgical magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of epilepsy patients who had intra-cranial electroencephalography electrodes surgically implanted. Deformations caused by this surgical procedure, imaging artifacts caused by the electrodes, and the use of multi-modal imaging data make non-rigid registration challenging. Our results show that the use of our proposed framework to constrain the non-rigid registration process results in significantly improved and more robust registration performance compared to using standard rigid and non-rigid registration methods. PMID:26900569
Video model deformation system for the National Transonic Facility
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burner, A. W.; Snow, W. L.; Goad, W. K.
1983-01-01
A photogrammetric closed circuit television system to measure model deformation at the National Transonic Facility is described. The photogrammetric approach was chosen because of its inherent rapid data recording of the entire object field. Video cameras are used to acquire data instead of film cameras due to the inaccessibility of cameras which must be housed within the cryogenic, high pressure plenum of this facility. A rudimentary theory section is followed by a description of the video-based system and control measures required to protect cameras from the hostile environment. Preliminary results obtained with the same camera placement as planned for NTF are presented and plans for facility testing with a specially designed test wing are discussed.
Diot, Quentin Kavanagh, Brian; Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy; Gaspar, Laurie; Miften, Moyed; Garg, Kavita
2015-11-15
Purpose: To differentiate radiation-induced fibrosis from regional lung collapse outside of the high dose region in patients treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung tumors. Methods: Lung deformation maps were computed from pre-treatment and post-treatment computed tomography (CT) scans using a point-to-point translation method. Fifty anatomical landmarks inside the lung (vessel or airway branches) were matched on planning and follow-up scans for the computation process. Two methods using the deformation maps were developed to differentiate regional lung collapse from fibrosis: vector field and Jacobian methods. A total of 40 planning and follow-ups CT scans were analyzed for 20 lung SBRT patients. Results: Regional lung collapse was detected in 15 patients (75%) using the vector field method, in ten patients (50%) using the Jacobian method, and in 12 patients (60%) by radiologists. In terms of sensitivity and specificity the Jacobian method performed better. Only weak correlations were observed between the dose to the proximal airways and the occurrence of regional lung collapse. Conclusions: The authors presented and evaluated two novel methods using anatomical lung deformations to investigate lung collapse and fibrosis caused by SBRT treatment. Differentiation of these distinct physiological mechanisms beyond what is usually labeled “fibrosis” is necessary for accurate modeling of lung SBRT-induced injuries. With the help of better models, it becomes possible to expand the therapeutic benefits of SBRT to a larger population of lung patients with large or centrally located tumors that were previously considered ineligible.
Modeling of ductile deformation in anisotropic rocks with slip surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dabrowski, Marcin
2013-04-01
Flanking structures and sheath folds can develop in layered rocks due to flow perturbation around slip surfaces in shear zones (Exner and Dabrowski, 2010; Reber et al., submitted). Mechanical anisotropy of the host rock has been shown to play a major role in determining the slip rate and the flow pattern around it (Kocher and Mancktelow, 2006; Fletcher, 2011). In addition, anisotropic fluids such as ductile foliated rocks have a 'memory' of deformation due to evolving microstructure. For example, the rotation of a rigid circular inclusion embedded in a layered host in layer-parallel shear results in the structural reorganization around it, which leads to the modification of the flow pattern in the host and in consequence to a massive reduction of the inclusion rotation rate (Dabrowski and Schmid, 2011). Willis (1964) derived an analytical elastic solution for an elliptical inclusion in a homogeneous anisotropic matrix subject to a uniform load in the far field. The solution can be reduced to the case of an incompressible viscous medium. The case of an arbitrarily oriented inviscid slit under shear parallel to the principal axis of anisotropy can be obtained by reducing it even further. Although derived for the initial state of homogeneous planar anisotropy, the solution provides useful insights into the large deformation behavior of the system. In this study, I will use different models and numerical modeling techniques to assess the impact of mechanical anisotropy and structural development on the perturbing flow around an inviscid slit (slip surface) embedded in a host comprising discrete isotropic layers in layer-parallel simple shear. In the limit of thin layers (the number of layers intercepting the slit tends to infinity), the host is modeled as an anisotropic fluid. The anisotropic viscosity is determined by the bulk anisotropic viscosity of the layered system. The layering is initially planar or equivalently the anisotropy is initially homogeneous. Both non
Modelling of reactive fluid transport in deformable porous rocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yarushina, V. M.; Podladchikov, Y. Y.
2009-04-01
One outstanding challenge in geology today is the formulation of an understanding of the interaction between rocks and fluids. Advances in such knowledge are important for a broad range of geologic settings including partial melting and subsequent migration and emplacement of a melt into upper levels of the crust, or fluid flow during regional metamorphism and metasomatism. Rock-fluid interaction involves heat and mass transfer, deformation, hydrodynamic flow, and chemical reactions, thereby necessitating its consideration as a complex process coupling several simultaneous mechanisms. Deformation, chemical reactions, and fluid flow are coupled processes. Each affects the others. Special effort is required for accurate modelling of the porosity field through time. Mechanical compaction of porous rocks is usually treated under isothermal or isoentropic simplifying assumptions. However, joint consideration of both mechanical compaction and reactive porosity alteration requires somewhat greater than usual care about thermodynamic consistency. Here we consider the modelling of multi-component, multi-phase systems, which is fundamental to the study of fluid-rock interaction. Based on the conservation laws for mass, momentum, and energy in the form adopted in the theory of mixtures, we derive a thermodynamically admissible closed system of equations describing the coupling of heat and mass transfer, chemical reactions, and fluid flow in a deformable solid matrix. Geological environments where reactive transport is important are located at different depths and accordingly have different rheologies. In the near surface, elastic or elastoplastic properties would dominate, whereas viscoplasticity would have a profound effect deeper in the lithosphere. Poorly understood rheologies of heterogeneous porous rocks are derived from well understood processes (i.e., elasticity, viscosity, plastic flow, fracturing, and their combinations) on the microscale by considering a
Research on geometrical model and mechanism for metal deformation based on plastic flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
An, H. P.; Rui, Z. Y.; Li, X.
2015-12-01
Starting with general conditions of metal plastic deformation, it analyses the relation between the percentage spread and geometric parameters of a forming body with typical machining process are studied. A geometrical model of deforming metal is set up according to the characteristic of a flowing metal particle. Starting from experimental results, the effect of technological parameters and friction between workpiece and dies on plastic deformation of a material were studied and a slippage deformation model of mass points within the material was proposed. Finally, the computing methods for strain and deformation energy and temperature rise are derived from homogeneous deformation. The results can be used to select technical parameters and compute physical quantities such as strain, deformation energy, and temperature rise.
Modeling Step-Strain Relaxation and Cyclic Deformations of Elastomers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, A.R.; Mead, J. L.
2000-01-01
Data for step-strain relaxation and cyclic compressive deformations of highly viscous short elastomer cylinders are modeled using a large strain rubber viscoelastic constitutive theory with a rate-independent friction stress term added. In the tests, both small and large amplitude cyclic compressive strains, in the range of 1% to 10%, were superimposed on steady state compressed strains, in the range of 5% to 20%, for frequencies of 1 and 10 Hz. The elastomer cylinders were conditioned prior to each test to soften them. The constants in the viscoclastic-friction constitutive theory are determined by employing a nonlinear least-squares method to fit the analytical stresses for a Maxwell model, which includes friction, to measured relaxation stresses obtained from a 20% step-strain compression test. The simulation of the relaxation data with the nonlinear model is successful at compressive strains of 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%. Simulations of hysteresis stresses for enforced cyclic compressive strains of 20% +/- 5% are made with the model calibrated by the relaxation data. The predicted hysteresis stresses are lower than the measured stresses.
Model of plastic deformation for extreme loading conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Preston, Dean L.; Tonks, Davis L.; Wallace, Duane C.
2003-01-01
We present a model of metallic plastic flow suitable for numerical simulations of explosive loading and high velocity impacts. The dependence of the plastic strain rate on applied stress at low strain rates is of the Arrhenius form but with an activation energy that is singular at zero stress so that the deformation rate vanishes in that limit. Work hardening is modeled as a generalized Voce law. At strain rates exceeding 109s-1, work hardening is neglected, and the rate dependence of the flow stress is calculated using Wallace's theory of overdriven shocks in metals [D.C. Wallace, Phys. Rev. B 24, 5597 (1981); 24, 5607 (1981)]. The thermal-activation regime is continuously merged into the strong shock limit, yielding a model applicable over the 15 decades in strain rate from 10-3 to 1012 s-1. The model represents all aspects of constitutive behavior seen in Hopkinson bar and low-rate data, including a rapid increase in the constant-strain rate sensitivity, with 10% accuracy. High-pressure behavior is controlled by the shear modulus, G(ρ,T), and the melting temperature, Tm(ρ). There are eleven material parameters in addition to G(ρ,T) and Tm(ρ). Parameters for Cu, U, Ta, Mo, V, Be, 304 SS, and 21-6-9 SS are provided.
Modeling Airflow Using Subject-Specific 4DCT-Based Deformable Volumetric Lung Models.
Ilegbusi, Olusegun J; Li, Zhiliang; Seyfi, Behnaz; Min, Yugang; Meeks, Sanford; Kupelian, Patrick; Santhanam, Anand P
2012-01-01
Lung radiotherapy is greatly benefitted when the tumor motion caused by breathing can be modeled. The aim of this paper is to present the importance of using anisotropic and subject-specific tissue elasticity for simulating the airflow inside the lungs. A computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD) based approach is presented to simulate airflow inside a subject-specific deformable lung for modeling lung tumor motion and the motion of the surrounding tissues during radiotherapy. A flow-structure interaction technique is employed that simultaneously models airflow and lung deformation. The lung is modeled as a poroelastic medium with subject-specific anisotropic poroelastic properties on a geometry, which was reconstructed from four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) scan datasets of humans with lung cancer. The results include the 3D anisotropic lung deformation for known airflow pattern inside the lungs. The effects of anisotropy are also presented on both the spatiotemporal volumetric lung displacement and the regional lung hysteresis. PMID:23365554
Modeling Airflow Using Subject-Specific 4DCT-Based Deformable Volumetric Lung Models
Ilegbusi, Olusegun J.; Li, Zhiliang; Seyfi, Behnaz; Min, Yugang; Meeks, Sanford; Kupelian, Patrick; Santhanam, Anand P.
2012-01-01
Lung radiotherapy is greatly benefitted when the tumor motion caused by breathing can be modeled. The aim of this paper is to present the importance of using anisotropic and subject-specific tissue elasticity for simulating the airflow inside the lungs. A computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD) based approach is presented to simulate airflow inside a subject-specific deformable lung for modeling lung tumor motion and the motion of the surrounding tissues during radiotherapy. A flow-structure interaction technique is employed that simultaneously models airflow and lung deformation. The lung is modeled as a poroelastic medium with subject-specific anisotropic poroelastic properties on a geometry, which was reconstructed from four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) scan datasets of humans with lung cancer. The results include the 3D anisotropic lung deformation for known airflow pattern inside the lungs. The effects of anisotropy are also presented on both the spatiotemporal volumetric lung displacement and the regional lung hysteresis. PMID:23365554
In-room breathing motion estimation from limited projection views using a sliding deformation model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delmon, V.; Vandemeulebroucke, J.; Pinho, R.; Vila Oliva, M.; Sarrut, D.; Rit, S.
2014-03-01
Purpose: To estimate in-room breathing motion from a limited number of 2D cone-beam (CB) projection images by registering them to a phase of the 4D planning CT. Methods: Breathing motion was modelled using a piecewise continuous B-spline representation [1], allowing to preserve the sliding along the thoracic wall while limiting the degrees of freedom. The deformed target 3D image was subsequently used to generate Digitally Reconstructed Radiographs (DRR). The Normalized Correlation Coefficient (NCC) between the measured projection images and the DRR was computed in the 2D projection space. However, the partial derivatives of the NCC relative to the transform parameters were backprojected into the 3D space, avoiding the projection of the transform Jacobian matrix which is computationally intractable [2]. Results: The method was quantitatively evaluated on 16 lung cancer patients. 40 CB projection images were simulated using the end-exhale phase of the 4D planning CT and the geometric parameters of a clinical CB protocol. The end-inhale phase was deformed to match these simulated projections. The Target Registration Error (TRE) decreased from 8.8 mm to 2.0 mm while the TRE obtained from the 3D/3D registration of the reconstructed CBCT was significantly worse (2.6 mm), due to view aliasing artefacts. We also provide the motion compensated image reconstructed from a real CB acquisition showing the quality improvement brought by the in-room deformation model compared to the planning motion model. Conclusions: We have developed a 2D/3D deformable registration algorithm that enables in-room breathing motion estimation from cone-beam projection images.
STATISTICAL MECHANICS MODELING OF MESOSCALE DEFORMATION IN METALS
Anter El-Azab
2013-04-08
The research under this project focused on a theoretical and computational modeling of dislocation dynamics of mesoscale deformation of metal single crystals. Specifically, the work aimed to implement a continuum statistical theory of dislocations to understand strain hardening and cell structure formation under monotonic loading. These aspects of crystal deformation are manifestations of the evolution of the underlying dislocation system under mechanical loading. The project had three research tasks: 1) Investigating the statistical characteristics of dislocation systems in deformed crystals. 2) Formulating kinetic equations of dislocations and coupling these kinetics equations and crystal mechanics. 3) Computational solution of coupled crystal mechanics and dislocation kinetics. Comparison of dislocation dynamics predictions with experimental results in the area of statistical properties of dislocations and their field was also a part of the proposed effort. In the first research task, the dislocation dynamics simulation method was used to investigate the spatial, orientation, velocity, and temporal statistics of dynamical dislocation systems, and on the use of the results from this investigation to complete the kinetic description of dislocations. The second task focused on completing the formulation of a kinetic theory of dislocations that respects the discrete nature of crystallographic slip and the physics of dislocation motion and dislocation interaction in the crystal. Part of this effort also targeted the theoretical basis for establishing the connection between discrete and continuum representation of dislocations and the analysis of discrete dislocation simulation results within the continuum framework. This part of the research enables the enrichment of the kinetic description with information representing the discrete dislocation systems behavior. The third task focused on the development of physics-inspired numerical methods of solution of the coupled
Wang, Yi; Cheng, Jie-Zhi; Ni, Dong; Lin, Muqing; Qin, Jing; Luo, Xiongbiao; Xu, Ming; Xie, Xiaoyan; Heng, Pheng Ann
2016-02-01
Registration and fusion of magnetic resonance (MR) and 3D transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images of the prostate gland can provide high-quality guidance for prostate interventions. However, accurate MR-TRUS registration remains a challenging task, due to the great intensity variation between two modalities, the lack of intrinsic fiducials within the prostate, the large gland deformation caused by the TRUS probe insertion, and distinctive biomechanical properties in patients and prostate zones. To address these challenges, a personalized model-to-surface registration approach is proposed in this study. The main contributions of this paper can be threefold. First, a new personalized statistical deformable model (PSDM) is proposed with the finite element analysis and the patient-specific tissue parameters measured from the ultrasound elastography. Second, a hybrid point matching method is developed by introducing the modality independent neighborhood descriptor (MIND) to weight the Euclidean distance between points to establish reliable surface point correspondence. Third, the hybrid point matching is further guided by the PSDM for more physically plausible deformation estimation. Eighteen sets of patient data are included to test the efficacy of the proposed method. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach provides more accurate and robust MR-TRUS registration than state-of-the-art methods do. The averaged target registration error is 1.44 mm, which meets the clinical requirement of 1.9 mm for the accurate tumor volume detection. It can be concluded that the presented method can effectively fuse the heterogeneous image information in the elastography, MR, and TRUS to attain satisfactory image alignment performance. PMID:26441446
Fluid-Structure interaction modeling in deformable porous arteries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zakerzadeh, Rana; Zunino, Paolo
2015-11-01
A computational framework is developed to study the coupling of blood flow in arteries interacting with a poroelastic arterial wall featuring possibly large deformations. Blood is modeled as an incompressible, viscous, Newtonian fluid using the Navier-Stokes equations and the arterial wall consists of a thick material which is modeled as a Biot system that describes the mechanical behavior of a homogeneous and isotropic elastic skeleton, and connecting pores filled with fluid. Discretization via finite element method leads to the system of nonlinear equations and a Newton-Raphson scheme is adopted to solve the resulting nonlinear system through consistent linearization. Moreover, interface conditions are imposed on the discrete level via mortar finite elements or Nitsche's coupling. The discrete linearized coupled FSI system is solved by means of a splitting strategy, which allows solving the Navier-Stokes and Biot equations separately. The numerical results investigate the effects of proroelastic parameters on the pressure wave propagation in arteries, filtration of incompressible fluids through the porous media, and the structure displacement. The fellowship support from the Computational Modeling & Simulation PhD program at University of Pittsburgh for Rana Zakerzadeh is gratefully acknowledged.
A simulation model for analysing brain structure deformations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Bona, Sergio; Lutzemberger, Ludovico; Salvetti, Ovidio
2003-12-01
Recent developments of medical software applications—from the simulation to the planning of surgical operations—have revealed the need for modelling human tissues and organs, not only from a geometric point of view but also from a physical one, i.e. soft tissues, rigid body, viscoelasticity, etc. This has given rise to the term 'deformable objects', which refers to objects with a morphology, a physical and a mechanical behaviour of their own and that reflects their natural properties. In this paper, we propose a model, based upon physical laws, suitable for the realistic manipulation of geometric reconstructions of volumetric data taken from MR and CT scans. In particular, a physically based model of the brain is presented that is able to simulate the evolution of different nature pathological intra-cranial phenomena such as haemorrhages, neoplasm, haematoma, etc and to describe the consequences that are caused by their volume expansions and the influences they have on the anatomical and neuro-functional structures of the brain.
Automated 3D Motion Tracking using Gabor Filter Bank, Robust Point Matching, and Deformable Models
Wang, Xiaoxu; Chung, Sohae; Metaxas, Dimitris; Axel, Leon
2013-01-01
Tagged Magnetic Resonance Imaging (tagged MRI or tMRI) provides a means of directly and noninvasively displaying the internal motion of the myocardium. Reconstruction of the motion field is needed to quantify important clinical information, e.g., the myocardial strain, and detect regional heart functional loss. In this paper, we present a three-step method for this task. First, we use a Gabor filter bank to detect and locate tag intersections in the image frames, based on local phase analysis. Next, we use an improved version of the Robust Point Matching (RPM) method to sparsely track the motion of the myocardium, by establishing a transformation function and a one-to-one correspondence between grid tag intersections in different image frames. In particular, the RPM helps to minimize the impact on the motion tracking result of: 1) through-plane motion, and 2) relatively large deformation and/or relatively small tag spacing. In the final step, a meshless deformable model is initialized using the transformation function computed by RPM. The model refines the motion tracking and generates a dense displacement map, by deforming under the influence of image information, and is constrained by the displacement magnitude to retain its geometric structure. The 2D displacement maps in short and long axis image planes can be combined to drive a 3D deformable model, using the Moving Least Square method, constrained by the minimization of the residual error at tag intersections. The method has been tested on a numerical phantom, as well as on in vivo heart data from normal volunteers and heart disease patients. The experimental results show that the new method has a good performance on both synthetic and real data. Furthermore, the method has been used in an initial clinical study to assess the differences in myocardial strain distributions between heart disease (left ventricular hypertrophy) patients and the normal control group. The final results show that the proposed method
A True-Stress Creep Model Based on Deformation Mechanisms for Polycrystalline Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Xijia; Williams, Steve; Gong, Diguang
2012-11-01
A true-stress creep model has been developed based on well-recognized deformation mechanisms, i.e., dislocation glide, dislocation climb, and grain boundary sliding. The model provides a physics-based description of the entire creep deformation process with regards to the strain-time history (primary, secondary, and tertiary creep), rupture strain and lifetime, which finds good agreement with experimental observations for Waspaloy. A deformation-mechanism map is constructed for Waspaloy, and a creep failure criterion is defined by the dominant deformation mechanisms leading to intergranular/transgranular fracture. Thus, the model is a self-consistent tool for creep life prediction.
Joint segmentation and deformable registration of brain scans guided by a tumor growth model.
Gooya, Ali; Pohl, Kilian M; Bilello, Michel; Biros, George; Davatzikos, Christos
2011-01-01
This paper presents an approach for joint segmentation and deformable registration of brain scans of glioma patients to a normal atlas. The proposed method is based on the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm that incorporates a glioma growth model for atlas seeding, a process which modifies the normal atlas into one with a tumor and edema. The modified atlas is registered into the patient space and utilized for the posterior probability estimation of various tissue labels. EM iteratively refines the estimates of the registration parameters, the posterior probabilities of tissue labels and the tumor growth model parameters. We have applied this approach to 10 glioma scans acquired with four Magnetic Resonance (MR) modalities (T1, T1-CE, T2 and FLAIR) and validated the result by comparing them to manual segmentations by clinical experts. The resulting segmentations look promising and quantitatively match well with the expert provided ground truth. PMID:21995070
Model Attitude and Deformation Measurements at the NASA Glenn Research Center
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woike, Mark R.
2008-01-01
The NASA Glenn Research Center is currently participating in an American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) sponsored Model Attitude and Deformation Working Group. This working group is chartered to develop a best practices document dealing with the measurement of two primary areas of wind tunnel measurements, 1) model attitude including alpha, beta and roll angle, and 2) model deformation. Model attitude is a principle variable in making aerodynamic and force measurements in a wind tunnel. Model deformation affects measured forces, moments and other measured aerodynamic parameters. The working group comprises of membership from industry, academia, and the Department of Defense (DoD). Each member of the working group gave a presentation on the methods and techniques that they are using to make model attitude and deformation measurements. This presentation covers the NASA Glenn Research Center s approach in making model attitude and deformation measurements.
Treatment of Combined Spinal Deformity in Patient with Ollier Disease and Abnormal Vertebrae
Ryabykh, S. О.; Gubin, A. V.; Prudnikova, О. G.; Kobyzev, А. Е.
2012-01-01
We report staged treatment of severe combined spinal deformity in an 11-year-old patient with Ollier disease and abnormal cervical vertebra. Combined scoliosis with systemic pathology and abnormal vertebrae is a rare condition and features atypical deformity location and rapid progression rate and frequently involves the rib cage and pelvis, disturbing the function of chest organs and skeleton. Progressive deformity resulted in cachexia and acute respiratory failure. A halo-pelvic distraction device assembled of Ilizarov components was employed for a staged surgical treatment performed for lifesaving indications. After vital functions stabilized, the scoliosis curve of the cervical spine was corrected and fixed with a hybrid system of transpedicular supporting points, connecting rods, and connectors that provided staged distraction during growth. The treatment showed good functional and cosmetic result. PMID:24436859
Treatment of combined spinal deformity in patient with ollier disease and abnormal vertebrae.
Ryabykh, S О; Gubin, A V; Prudnikova, Capital O Cyrillic G; Kobyzev, Capital A Cyrillic Е
2013-06-01
We report staged treatment of severe combined spinal deformity in an 11-year-old patient with Ollier disease and abnormal cervical vertebra. Combined scoliosis with systemic pathology and abnormal vertebrae is a rare condition and features atypical deformity location and rapid progression rate and frequently involves the rib cage and pelvis, disturbing the function of chest organs and skeleton. Progressive deformity resulted in cachexia and acute respiratory failure. A halo-pelvic distraction device assembled of Ilizarov components was employed for a staged surgical treatment performed for lifesaving indications. After vital functions stabilized, the scoliosis curve of the cervical spine was corrected and fixed with a hybrid system of transpedicular supporting points, connecting rods, and connectors that provided staged distraction during growth. The treatment showed good functional and cosmetic result. PMID:24436859
Model for deformation in Long Valley, California, 1980-1983
Rundle, J.B.; Whitcomb, J.H.
1984-10-10
Geodetic data collected in Long Valley, California, from 1975 through 1981 define a pattern of uplift and strain which is evidently associated with a sequence of earthquakes occuring in May 1980 and subsequent swarm activity continuing until the present. We have constructed a model to explain the deformation observed since May 1980 in terms of inflation of two subsurface magma chambers, faulting in the south most region of the caldera, and slip in the Hilton Creek fault. The most significant new feature of the model is the shallow magma chamber at 5 km depth, located a few hundred meters to the east of the Casa Diablo hot spring area. Inflation of this chamber cause stresses which show consistency with various aspects of the seismicity in the south moat of the calcers. Calculations of stress across vertical planes over the magma chambers can be used together with failure criteria to estimate the inflation volume at which the rock layers intervening between the chamber and the surface will fail by extensional fracture.
Numerical modeling on progressive internal deformation in down-built diapirs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fuchs, Lukas; Koyi, Hemin; Schmeling, Harro
2014-09-01
A two-dimensional finite difference code (FDCON) is used to estimate the finite deformation within a down-built diapir. The geometry of the down-built diapir is fixed by using two rigid rectangular overburden units which sink into a source layer of a constant viscosity. Thus, the model refers to diapirs consisting of a source layer feeding a vertical stem, and not to other salt structures (e.g. salt sheets or pillows). With this setup we study the progressive strain in three different deformation regimes within the “salt” material: (I) a squeezed channel-flow deformation regime and (II) a corner-flow deformation regime within the source layer, and (III) a pure channel-flow deformation regime within the stem. We analyze the evolution of finite deformation in each regime individually, progressive strain for particles passing all three regimes, and total 2D finite deformation within the salt layer. Model results show that the material which enters the stem bears inherited strain accumulated from the other two domains. Therefore, finite deformation in the stem differs from the expected channel-flow deformation, due to the deformation accumulated within the source layer. The stem displays a high deformation zone within its center and areas of decreasing progressive strain between its center and its boundaries. High deformation zones within the stem could also be observed within natural diapirs (e.g. Klodowa, Polen). The location and structure of the high deformation zone (e.g. symmetric or asymmetric) could reveal information about different rates of salt supplies from the source layer. Thus, deformation pattern could directly be correlated to the evolution of the diapir.
Ren, Yi; Wang, Li; Gao, Yaozong; Tang, Zhen; Chen, Ken Chung; Li, Jianfu; Shen, Steve G.F.; Yan, Jin; Lee, Philip K.M.; Chow, Ben; Xia, James J.; Shen, Dinggang
2014-01-01
The success of craniomaxillofacial (CMF) surgery depends not only on the surgical techniques, but also upon an accurate surgical planning. However, surgical planning for CMF surgery is challenging due to the absence of a patient-specific reference model. In this paper, we present a method to automatically estimate an anatomically correct reference shape of jaws for the patient requiring orthognathic surgery, a common type of CMF surgery. We employ the sparse representation technique to represent the normal regions of the patient with respect to the normal subjects. The estimated representation is then used to reconstruct a patient-specific reference model with “restored” normal anatomy of the jaws. We validate our method on both synthetic subjects and patients. Experimental results show that our method can effectively reconstruct the normal shape of jaw for patients. Also, a new quantitative measurement is introduced to quantify the CMF deformity and validate the method in a quantitative approach, which is rarely used before. PMID:25328919
Kinematic and kinetic analysis of static sitting of patients with neuropathic spine deformity.
Murans, Girts; Gutierrez-Farewik, Elena M; Saraste, Helena
2011-10-01
Wheelchair dependent children with neuropathic and neuromuscular diseases have up to 90% risk for progressive spine deformities. An unbalanced sitting can induce progression of spinal and pelvic deformities. Many current clinical assessment methods of sitting of such patients are semi-quantitative, or questionnaire-based. A 3D movement analysis offers quantitative and objective biomechanical analysis of sitting. The aim was to validate a method to describe quiet sitting and differences between patients and controls as well as to apply the methodology for pre- and post-operative comparison. The analysis was performed on 14 patients and 10 controls. Four patients were retested after spine surgery. Seat load asymmetry was up to 30% in the patient group comparing to maximum 7% in the control group. The asymmetric position of Ground Reaction Force vector between left and right sides was significant. Plumb line of cervical 7th vertebra over sacral 1st was different only in rotation. The location of Common Center of Pressure relative to inter-trochanteric midpoint was more anterior in controls than in patients. Pelvic inclination in patients was smaller, the obliquity and rotation was similar. There were no significant differences between patients and controls of the thorax position. Results with more changes in the seat-loading domain in comparison with posture indicate good postural control compensation of spinal deformity induced disequilibrium despite neuromuscular disease in the background. The comparison of the pelvic obliquity data from kinematics and X-ray showed good correlation. The four patients tested postoperatively improved after surgery. PMID:21816615
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldberg, Robert K.; Stouffer, Donald C.
1998-01-01
Recently applications have exposed polymer matrix composite materials to very high strain rate loading conditions, requiring an ability to understand and predict the material behavior under these extreme conditions. In this second paper of a two part report, a three-dimensional composite micromechanical model is described which allows for the analysis of the rate dependent, nonlinear deformation response of a polymer matrix composite. Strain rate dependent inelastic constitutive equations utilized to model the deformation response of a polymer are implemented within the micromechanics method. The deformation response of two representative laminated carbon fiber reinforced composite materials with varying fiber orientation has been predicted using the described technique. The predicted results compare favorably to both experimental values and the response predicted by the Generalized Method of Cells, a well-established micromechanics analysis method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xue, Cheng; Tang, Fuk-Hay
2014-03-01
A patient specific registration model based on finite element method was investigated in this study. Image registration of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Magnetic Resonance imaging (MRI) has been studied a lot. Surface-based registration is extensively applied in medical imaging. We develop and evaluate a registration method combine surface-based registration with biomechanical modeling. .Four sample cases of patients with PET and MRI breast scans performed within 30 days were collected from hospital. K-means clustering algorithm was used to segment images into two parts, which is fat tissue and neoplasm [2]. Instead of placing extrinsic landmarks on patients' body which may be invasive, we proposed a new boundary condition to simulate breast deformation during two screening. Then a three dimensional model with meshes was built. Material properties were assigned to this model according to previous studies. The whole registration was based on a biomechanical finite element model, which could simulate deformation of breast under pressure.
Clements, Logan W; Collins, Jarrod A; Weis, Jared A; Simpson, Amber L; Adams, Lauryn B; Jarnagin, William R; Miga, Michael I
2016-01-01
Soft-tissue deformation represents a significant error source in current surgical navigation systems used for open hepatic procedures. While numerous algorithms have been proposed to rectify the tissue deformation that is encountered during open liver surgery, clinical validation of the proposed methods has been limited to surface-based metrics, and subsurface validation has largely been performed via phantom experiments. The proposed method involves the analysis of two deformation-correction algorithms for open hepatic image-guided surgery systems via subsurface targets digitized with tracked intraoperative ultrasound (iUS). Intraoperative surface digitizations were acquired via a laser range scanner and an optically tracked stylus for the purposes of computing the physical-to-image space registration and for use in retrospective deformation-correction algorithms. Upon completion of surface digitization, the organ was interrogated with a tracked iUS transducer where the iUS images and corresponding tracked locations were recorded. Mean closest-point distances between the feature contours delineated in the iUS images and corresponding three-dimensional anatomical model generated from preoperative tomograms were computed to quantify the extent to which the deformation-correction algorithms improved registration accuracy. The results for six patients, including eight anatomical targets, indicate that deformation correction can facilitate reduction in target error of [Formula: see text]. PMID:27081664
Deformation-induced damage and recovery in model hydrogels - A molecular dynamics simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zidek, Jan; Milchev, Andrey; Jancar, Josef; Vilgis, Thomas A.
2016-09-01
Using molecular dynamics simulation of a model hybrid cross-link hydrogel, we investigate the network damage evolution and the related structure transformations. We model the hydrogel structure as a network-connected assembly of crosslinked clusters whereby deformation-induced damage is considered along with network recovery. The two principal mechanisms involved in hydrogel recovery from deformation include segment hops of the building structure units (segments) between clusters and cluster shape modification. These mechanisms act either instantaneously, or with a certain time delay after the onset of deformation. By elucidating the conditions under which one of the mechanisms prevails, one may design hydrogel materials with a desired response to deformation.
Cunliffe, Alexandra R.; Contee, Clay; Armato, Samuel G.; White, Bradley; Justusson, Julia; Malik, Renuka; Al-Hallaq, Hania A.
2015-01-01
Purpose: To characterize the effects of deformable image registration of serial computed tomography (CT) scans on the radiation dose calculated from a treatment planning scan. Methods: Eighteen patients who received curative doses (≥60 Gy, 2 Gy/fraction) of photon radiation therapy for lung cancer treatment were retrospectively identified. For each patient, a diagnostic-quality pretherapy (4–75 days) CT scan and a treatment planning scan with an associated dose map were collected. To establish correspondence between scan pairs, a researcher manually identified anatomically corresponding landmark point pairs between the two scans. Pretherapy scans then were coregistered with planning scans (and associated dose maps) using the demons deformable registration algorithm and two variants of the Fraunhofer MEVIS algorithm (“Fast” and “EMPIRE10”). Landmark points in each pretherapy scan were automatically mapped to the planning scan using the displacement vector field output from each of the three algorithms. The Euclidean distance between manually and automatically mapped landmark points (dE) and the absolute difference in planned dose (|ΔD|) were calculated. Using regression modeling, |ΔD| was modeled as a function of dE, dose (D), dose standard deviation (SDdose) in an eight-pixel neighborhood, and the registration algorithm used. Results: Over 1400 landmark point pairs were identified, with 58–93 (median: 84) points identified per patient. Average |ΔD| across patients was 3.5 Gy (range: 0.9–10.6 Gy). Registration accuracy was highest using the Fraunhofer MEVIS EMPIRE10 algorithm, with an average dE across patients of 5.2 mm (compared with >7 mm for the other two algorithms). Consequently, average |ΔD| was also lowest using the Fraunhofer MEVIS EMPIRE10 algorithm. |ΔD| increased significantly as a function of dE (0.42 Gy/mm), D (0.05 Gy/Gy), SDdose (1.4 Gy/Gy), and the algorithm used (≤1 Gy). Conclusions: An average error of <4 Gy in radiation
Cunliffe, Alexandra R.; Armato, Samuel G.; White, Bradley; Justusson, Julia; Contee, Clay; Malik, Renuka; Al-Hallaq, Hania A.
2015-01-15
Purpose: To characterize the effects of deformable image registration of serial computed tomography (CT) scans on the radiation dose calculated from a treatment planning scan. Methods: Eighteen patients who received curative doses (≥60 Gy, 2 Gy/fraction) of photon radiation therapy for lung cancer treatment were retrospectively identified. For each patient, a diagnostic-quality pretherapy (4–75 days) CT scan and a treatment planning scan with an associated dose map were collected. To establish correspondence between scan pairs, a researcher manually identified anatomically corresponding landmark point pairs between the two scans. Pretherapy scans then were coregistered with planning scans (and associated dose maps) using the demons deformable registration algorithm and two variants of the Fraunhofer MEVIS algorithm (“Fast” and “EMPIRE10”). Landmark points in each pretherapy scan were automatically mapped to the planning scan using the displacement vector field output from each of the three algorithms. The Euclidean distance between manually and automatically mapped landmark points (d{sub E}) and the absolute difference in planned dose (|ΔD|) were calculated. Using regression modeling, |ΔD| was modeled as a function of d{sub E}, dose (D), dose standard deviation (SD{sub dose}) in an eight-pixel neighborhood, and the registration algorithm used. Results: Over 1400 landmark point pairs were identified, with 58–93 (median: 84) points identified per patient. Average |ΔD| across patients was 3.5 Gy (range: 0.9–10.6 Gy). Registration accuracy was highest using the Fraunhofer MEVIS EMPIRE10 algorithm, with an average d{sub E} across patients of 5.2 mm (compared with >7 mm for the other two algorithms). Consequently, average |ΔD| was also lowest using the Fraunhofer MEVIS EMPIRE10 algorithm. |ΔD| increased significantly as a function of d{sub E} (0.42 Gy/mm), D (0.05 Gy/Gy), SD{sub dose} (1.4 Gy/Gy), and the algorithm used (≤1 Gy). Conclusions: An
A Novel Method of Modeling the Deformation Resistance for Clad Sheet
Hu Jianliang; Yi Youping; Xie Mantang
2011-08-22
Because of the excellent thermal conductivity, the clad sheet (3003/4004/3003) of aluminum alloy is extensively used in various heat exchangers, such as radiator, motorcar air conditioning, evaporator, and so on. The deformation resistance model plays an important role in designing the process parameters of hot continuous rolling. However, the complex behaviors of the plastic deformation of the clad sheet make the modeling very difficult. In this work, a novel method for modeling the deformation resistance of clad sheet was proposed by combining the finite element analysis with experiments. The deformation resistance model of aluminum 3003 and 4004 was proposed through hot compression test on the Gleeble-1500 thermo-simulation machine. And the deformation resistance model of clad sheet was proposed through finite element analysis using DEFORM-2D software. The relationship between cladding ratio and the deformation resistance was discussed in detail. The results of hot compression simulation demonstrate that the cladding ratio has great effects on the resistance of the clad sheet. Taking the cladding ratio into consideration, the mathematical model of the deformation resistance for clad sheet has been proved to have perfect forecasting precision of different cladding ratio. Therefore, the presented model can be used to predict the rolling force of clad sheet during the hot continuous rolling process.
Mini-midvastus total knee arthroplasty in patients with severe varus deformity.
Liu, Hao-Chen; Kuo, Feng-Chih; Huang, Chung-Chen; Wang, Jun-Wen
2015-02-01
Patients with severe varus deformity of the knee (≥15° varus) usually are not considered good candidates for minimally invasive total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The goal of this study was to retrospectively investigate outcomes in patients with severe varus deformity after minimally invasive TKA. A study group of 52 patients with a tibiofemoral mechanical axis of 195° or greater was compared with a matched control group of 55 patients with a tibiofemoral mechanical axis of less than 195°. Clinical and radiographic evaluations according to the American Knee Society rating system were obtained preoperatively and postoperatively, and postoperative patient satisfaction in the 2 groups was compared. All patients were followed at a mean of 3 years (range, 2-5 years). Preoperatively, clinical knee and function scores and range of motion were inferior in the study group compared with the control group (P<.001). However, at the latest follow-up, both groups of patients were satisfied with the clinical results, and no significant differences were found in the knee and function scores (P>.05). Radiographic evaluation showed no differences in the mechanical axis, femoral component valgus angle, and tibial component valgus angle, and all outliers of the radiographic parameters between the 2 groups postoperatively (P >.05). The study results showed that mini-midvastus TKA did not result in more inaccurate implant positioning in patients with severe varus deformity of the knee. The clinical outcome in the group with severe varus was comparable to that in the group with less severe varus PMID:25665115
Modeling of regional earthquakes, aseismic deformation and fault patterns
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyakhovsky, V.; Ben-Zion, Y.
2005-12-01
and depth-dependent timescale of ductile stress relaxation. Thus, high strain rates generated by large earthquakes (mainshocks) lead to transient deepening of the brittle-ductile transition and gradual decrease of the maximum hypocenter depth with time from the mainshock. The ratio between the time scale of damage accumulation and time scale of damage-related irreversible strain controls the partition of the stored strain energy in the seismogenic zone between seismic and aseismic components of deformation. Analytical and numerical results show that properties of aftershock sequences are very sensitive to this ratio. Comparison between 3-D modeling and seismic activity in the Dead Sea region indicates that the degree of seismic coupling is very low in the central and northern parts of the Dead Sea Transform, in agreement with previous independent estimates.
Using transverse isotropy to model arbitrary deformation-induced anisotropy
Brannon, R.M.
1996-07-01
A unifying framework is developed for the analysis of brittle materials. Heretofore diverse classes of models result from different choices for unspecified coefficient and distribution functions in the unified theory. Material response is described in terms of expectation integrals of transverse symmetry tensors. First, a canonical body containing cracks of all the same orientation is argued to possess macroscopic transverse isotropy. An orthogonal basis for the linear subspace consisting of all double-symmetric transversely-isotropic fourth-order tensors associated with a given material vector is introduced and applied to deduce the explicit functional dependence of the compliance of such contrived materials on the shared crack orientation. A principle of superposition of strain rates is used to write the compliance for a more realistic material consisting of cracks of random size and orientation as an expectation integral of the transverse compliance for each orientation times the joint distribution function for the size and orientation. Utilizing an evolving (initially exponential) size- dependence in the joint distribution, the general theory gives unprecedented agreement with measurements of the dynamic response of alumina to impact loading, especially upon release where the calculations predict the development of considerable deformation- induced anisotropy, challenging the conventional notion of shocks as isotropic phenomena.
Four dimensional deformable image registration using trajectory modeling
Castillo, Edward; Castillo, Richard; Martinez, Josue; Shenoy, Maithili; Guerrero, Thomas
2013-01-01
A four-dimensional deformable image registration (4D DIR) algorithm, referred to as 4D local trajectory modeling (4DLTM), is presented and applied to thoracic 4D computed tomography (4DCT) image sets. The theoretical framework on which this algorithm is built exploits the incremental continuity present in 4DCT component images to calculate a dense set of parameterized voxel trajectories through space as functions of time. The spatial accuracy of the 4DLTM algorithm is compared with an alternative registration approach in which component phase to phase (CPP) DIR is utilized to determine the full displacement between maximum inhale and exhale images. A publically available DIR reference database (http://www.dir-lab.com) is utilized for the spatial accuracy assessment. The database consists of ten 4DCT image sets and corresponding manually identified landmark points between the maximum phases. A subset of points are propagated through the expiratory 4DCT component images. Cubic polynomials were found to provide sufficient flexibility and spatial accuracy for describing the point trajectories through the expiratory phases. The resulting average spatial error between the maximum phases was 1.25 mm for the 4DLTM and 1.44 mm for the CPP. The 4DLTM method captures the long-range motion between 4DCT extremes with high spatial accuracy. PMID:20009196
Water flow based geometric active deformable model for road network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leninisha, Shanmugam; Vani, Kaliaperumal
2015-04-01
A width and color based geometric active deformable model is proposed for road network extraction from remote sensing images with minimal human interception. Orientation and width of road are computed from a single manual seed point, from which the propagation starts both right and left hand directions of the starting point, which extracts the interconnected road network from the aerial or high spatial resolution satellite image automatically. Here the propagation (like water flow in canal with defined boundary) is restricted with color and width of the road. Road extraction is done for linear, curvilinear (U shape and S shape) roads first, irrespective of width and color. Then, this algorithm is improved to extract road with junctions in a shape of L, T and X along with center line. Roads with small break or disconnected roads are also extracts by a modified version of this same algorithm. This methodology is tested and evaluated with various remote sensing images. The experimental results show that the proposed method is efficient and extracting roads accurately with less computation time. However, in complex urban areas, the identification accuracy declines due to the various sizes of obstacles, over bridges, multilane etc.
An asperity-deformation model for effective pressure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gangi, Anthony F.; Carlson, Richard L.
1996-05-01
Variations of the mechanical and transport properties of cracked and/or porous rocks under isotropic stress depend on both the confining pressure ( Pc) and the pore-fluid pressure ( Pp). To a first approximation, these rock properties are functions of the differential pressure, Pd = Pc - Pp; at least for low differential pressures. However, at higher differential pressures, the properties depend in a more complicated way upon the two pressures. The concept of effective pressure, Pe, is used to denote this variation and it is defined as Pe( Pc, Pp) = Pc - n( Pc, Pp) Pp. If n = 1 (and therefore, is independent of Pc and Pp), the effective pressure is just the differential pressure. We have used an asperity-deformation model and a force-balance equation to derive expressions for the effective pressure. We equate the total external force (in one direction), Fc, to the total force on the asperities, Fa, and the force of the fluid, Fp, acting in that same direction. The fluid force, Fp, acts only on the parts of the crack (or pore-volume) faces which are not in contact. Then, the asperity pressure, Pa, is the average force per unit area acting on the crack (or grain) contacts P a = {F a}/{A} = {F c}/{A} - {F p}/{A} = P c - (1 - {A c}/{A})P p, where A is the total area over which Fc acts and Ac is the area of contact of the crack asperities or the grains. Thus, the asperity pressure, Pa, is greater than the differential pressure, Pd, because Pp acts on a smaller area, A- Ac, than the total area, A. For elastic asperities, the area of contact Ac and the strain (e.g., crack and pore openings) remain the same, to a high degree of approximation, at constant asperity pressure. Therefore, transport properties such as permeability, resistivity, thermal conductivity, etc. are constant, to the same degree of approximation, at constant asperity pressure. For these properties, the asperity pressure is, very accurately, the effective pressure, Pc. Using this model, we find that the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Yong Tao; Alderson, Andrew; Alderson, Kim Lesley
2012-04-01
Force field based simulation has been employed to predict the deformation mechanisms of auxetic nano-materials having tetrahedral framework. The structure of α-quartz was studied in detail for subjecting to uniaxial loading along the Z direction. The cooperative dilation and rotation of tetrahedra acting concurrently were demonstrated to be the main deformation mechanism of α-quartz, confirming previous analytical model. Slight tetrahedral distortion also existed for undeformed and deformed structure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Yong Tao; Alderson, Andrew; Alderson, Kim Lesley
2011-11-01
Force field based simulation has been employed to predict the deformation mechanisms of auxetic nano-materials having tetrahedral framework. The structure of α-quartz was studied in detail for subjecting to uniaxial loading along the Z direction. The cooperative dilation and rotation of tetrahedra acting concurrently were demonstrated to be the main deformation mechanism of α-quartz, confirming previous analytical model. Slight tetrahedral distortion also existed for undeformed and deformed structure.
Bhardwaj, Praveen; Parekh, Harshil; Venkatramani, Hari; Raja Sabapathy, S
2015-01-01
Ulnar deviation deformity of the wrist in patients with birth brachial plexus palsy is an important cosmetic concern among the patients and their relatives; especially in the patients who have recovered the basic limb functions. Though there is ample literature available regarding the management of the shoulder deformity there is paucity of literature regarding management of wrist ulnar deviation deformity. We report our experience with correction of this deformity in five cases with isolated ulnar deviation deformity without forearm rotational deformity or weakness of the wrist muscles. All the patients underwent extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) to extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) tendon transfer. At a minimum of 18 months follow-up all the patients and their families were satisfied with the cosmetic appearance of the limb. Correction of the deformity improves the appearance of the limb, improves self-confidence of the child, and allows them to integrate well into the society. Interestingly, the patients expressed improvement in their grip strength and overall hand function after this surgery. The notable functions which improved were easy reach of the hand-to-mouth for feeding and easy handling of the things requiring bimanual activities. Although the main aim of this operation was to correct the appearance of the hand it was found to be also functionally useful by the patients and hence we are encouraged to report it for wider use. The results were maintained during the follow-up period of as long as 47 months. PMID:25609294
Kozin, Scott H; Zlotolow, Dan A
2015-10-01
Madelung deformity of the wrist is more common in females and is often associated with Leri Weill dyschondrosteosis, a mesomelic form of dwarfism. Patients with Madelung deformity often report wrist deformity resulting from the prominence of the relatively long ulna. The typical Madelung deformity is associated with a Vickers ligament that creates a tether across the volar-ulnar radial physis that restricts growth across this segment. The distal radius deforms in the coronal (increasing radial inclination) and the sagittal (increasing volar tilt) planes. There is lunate subsidence and the proximal carpal row adapts to the deformity by forming an upside-down pyramid shape or triangle. Treatment depends on the age at presentation, degree of deformity, and magnitude of symptoms. Mild asymptomatic deformity warrants a period of nonsurgical management with serial x-ray examinations because the natural history is unpredictable. Many patients never require surgical intervention. Progressive deformity in the young child with considerable growth potential remaining requires release of Vickers ligament and radial physiolysis to prevent ongoing deterioration Concomitant ulnar epiphysiodesis may be necessary. Advanced asymptomatic deformity in older children with an unacceptable-appearing wrist or symptomatic deformity are indications for surgery. A dome osteotomy of the radius allows 3-dimensional correction of the deformity. Positive radiographic and clinical results after dome osteotomy have been reported. PMID:26341718
Procter, Nathan; Goh, Vincent; Mahadevan, Gnanadevan; Stewart, Simon; Horowitz, John
2016-01-01
It has been documented recently that left atrial (LA) deformation in AF patients (while in AF) is predictive of subsequent stroke risk. Additionally, diminished LA deformation during AF correlates with the presence of LA blood stasis. Given that endothelial function is dependent on laminar blood flow, the present study sought to investigate the effect of diminished LA deformation (during AF) on platelet reactivity and inflammation in AF patients. Patients (n = 17) hospitalised with AF underwent echocardiography (while in AF) for determination of peak positive LA strain (LASp). Whole blood impedance aggregometry was used to measure extent of ADP-induced aggregation and subsequent inhibitory response to the nitric oxide (NO) donor, sodium nitroprusside. Platelet thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip) content was determined by immunohistochemistry. LASp tended (p = 0.078) to vary inversely with CHA2DS2VASc scores. However, mediators of inflammation (C-reactive protein, Txnip) did not correlate significantly with LASp nor did extent of ADP-induced platelet aggregation or platelet NO response. These results suggest that the thrombogenic risk associated with LA stasis is independent of secondary effects on platelet aggregability or inflammation. PMID:27069318
Are cam and pincer deformities as common as dysplasia in Japanese patients with hip pain?
Mori, R; Yasunaga, Y; Yamasaki, T; Nakashiro, J; Fujii, J; Terayama, H; Ohshima, S; Ochi, M
2014-02-01
In Japan, osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip secondary to acetabular dysplasia is very common, and there are few data concerning the pathogeneses and incidence of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). We have attempted to clarify the radiological prevalence of painful FAI in a cohort of Japanese patients and to investigate the radiological findings. We identified 176 symptomatic patients (202 hips) with Tönnis grade 0 or 1 osteoarthritis, whom we prospectively studied between August 2011 and July 2012. There were 61 men (65 hips) and 115 women (137 hips) with a mean age of 51.8 years (11 to 83). Radiological analyses included the α-angle, centre-edge angle, cross-over sign, pistol grip deformity and femoral head neck ratio. Of the 202 hips, 79 (39.1%) had acetabular dysplasia, while 80 hips (39.6%) had no known aetiology. We found evidence of FAI in 60 hips (29.7%). Radiological FAI findings associated with cam deformity were the most common. There was a significant relationship between the pistol grip deformity and both the α-angle (p < 0.001) and femoral head-neck ratio (p = 0.024). Radiological evidence of symptomatic FAI was not uncommon in these Japanese patients. PMID:24493180
Procter, Nathan; Goh, Vincent; Mahadevan, Gnanadevan; Stewart, Simon; Horowitz, John
2016-01-01
It has been documented recently that left atrial (LA) deformation in AF patients (while in AF) is predictive of subsequent stroke risk. Additionally, diminished LA deformation during AF correlates with the presence of LA blood stasis. Given that endothelial function is dependent on laminar blood flow, the present study sought to investigate the effect of diminished LA deformation (during AF) on platelet reactivity and inflammation in AF patients. Patients (n = 17) hospitalised with AF underwent echocardiography (while in AF) for determination of peak positive LA strain (LASp). Whole blood impedance aggregometry was used to measure extent of ADP-induced aggregation and subsequent inhibitory response to the nitric oxide (NO) donor, sodium nitroprusside. Platelet thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip) content was determined by immunohistochemistry. LASp tended (p = 0.078) to vary inversely with CHA2DS2VASc scores. However, mediators of inflammation (C-reactive protein, Txnip) did not correlate significantly with LASp nor did extent of ADP-induced platelet aggregation or platelet NO response. These results suggest that the thrombogenic risk associated with LA stasis is independent of secondary effects on platelet aggregability or inflammation. PMID:27069318
A theoretical model of grainsize evolution during deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ricard, Y.; Bercovici, D.; Rozel, A.
2007-12-01
Lithospheric shear localization, as occurs in the formation of tectonic plate boundaries, is often associated with diminished grainsize (e.g., mylonites). Grainsize reduction is typically attributed to dynamic recrystallization; however, theoretical models of shear-localization arising from this hypothesis are problematic since (1) they require the simultaneous action of two exclusive creep mechanisms (diffusion and dislocation creep), and (2) the grain-growth ("healing") laws employed by these models are derived from static grain-growth or coarsening theory, although the shear-localization setting itself is far from static equilibrium. We present a new first-principles grained-continuum theory which accounts for both coarsening and damage-induced grainsize reduction. Damage per se is the generic process for generation of microcracks, defects, dislocations (including recrystallization), subgrains, nucleii and cataclastic breakdown of grains. The theory contains coupled statistical grain-scale and continuum macroscopic components. The grain-scale element of the theory prescribes both the evolution of the grainsize distribution, and a phenomenological grain-growth law derived from non-equilibrium thermodynamics; grain-growth thus incorporates the free energy differences between grains, including both grain-boundary surface energy (which controls coarsening) and the contribution of deformational work to these free energiesconservation and positivity of entropy production provide the phenomenological law for the statistical grain-growth law. We identify four potential mechanisms that affect the distribution of grainsize; two of them conserve the number of grains but change their relative masses and two of them change the number of grains by sticking them together or breaking them. In the limit of static equilibrium, only the two mechanisms that increase the average grainsize are allowed by the second law of thermodynamics. The first one is a diffusive mass transport
Effect of Pedal Deformity on Gait in a Patient With Total Knee Arthroplasty.
Wynes, Jacob; Lamm, Bradley M; Bhave, Anil; Elmallah, Randa K; Mont, Michael A
2016-01-01
The authors present the case of an 81-year-old man who, despite an anatomically aligned total knee arthroplasty, continued to have knee pain. The patient's ipsilateral rigid flatfoot caused by an earlier partial pedal amputation resulted in a valgus moment during gait, thus creating clinical symptoms in the total knee arthroplasty. Because of the deformity and scarring within the flatfoot, this valgus deformity was corrected through a varus distal femoral osteotomy. The result was normalization of the mechanical axis of the lower limb and a pain-free total knee arthroplasty with an excellent clinical outcome. This case shows the importance of comprehensive lower-extremity clinical and radiographic examination as well as gait analysis to understand the biomechanical effect on total knee arthroplasty. Recognition of pedal deformities and lower limb malalignment is paramount for achieving optimal outcomes and long-term success of total knee arthroplasty. The authors show that a rigid or nonflexible pedal deformity can have negative biomechanical effects on total knee arthroplasty. PMID:26709556
Neotectonic deformation models for probabilistic seismic hazard: a study in the External Dinarides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kastelic, Vanja; Carafa, Michele M. C.; Visini, Francesco
2016-06-01
In Europe, common input data types for seismic hazard evaluation include earthquake catalogues, seismic zonation models and ground motion models, all with well-constrained epistemic uncertainties. In contrast, neotectonic deformation models and their related uncertainties are rarely considered in earthquake forecasting and seismic hazard studies. In this study, for the first time in Europe, we developed a seismic hazard model based exclusively on active fault and geodynamic deformation models. We applied it to the External Dinarides, a slow-deforming fold-and-thrust belt in the Central Mediterranean. The two deformation models furnish consistent long-term earthquake rates above the Mw 4.7 threshold on a latitude/longitude grid with 0.2° spacing. Results suggest that the use of deformation models is a valid alternative to empirical-statistical approaches in earthquake forecasting in slow-deforming regions of Europe. Furthermore, we show that the variability of different deformation models has a comparable effect on the peak ground motion acceleration uncertainty as do the ground motion prediction equations.
Al Kaissi, Ali; Kenis, Vladimir; Melchenko, Eugeniy; Ghachem, Maher Ben; Csepan, Robert; Grill, Franz; Ganger, Rudolf
2016-01-01
Background: Thoracolumbar kyphosis has been considered as the first presenting deformity and is often a key diagnostic clue noted in children with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type IV (Morquio's syndrome). However, we observed that the progressive irregularities of the epiphyses of the long bones were the most prominent skeletal pathology, causing effectively the development of diverse forms of lower limbs deformities with extreme variation in age of onset. Materials and Methods: Ten patients (seven children and three adults) with an average age of 15 years have been enrolled in this study. Age of diagnosis of MPS IVA has a variable age of onset and a MISLEADING rate of severity. Hip dislocations, genu valgum, protrusio acetabuli and osteoarthritis were the most common lower limbs deformities in these patients. Clinical and radiographic phenotypes were the baseline tools of documentation. Urinary screening and genotypic characterizations have been applied accordingly. Results: Combined pelvic and femoral procedures for hip dislocation, epiphysiodeses and supracondylar osteotomy for genu valgum and hip arthroplasty for protrusio acetabuli have been performed. All patients manifested insufficient activity of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulphate sulphatase, an enzyme that degrades keratin sulphate and chondroitin-6 sulphate. Conclusion: The extensive clinical heterogeneity contributed significantly in the delay in establishing the diagnosis particularly in adult patients with MPS IV. The epiphyseal irregularities of the long bones and the progressive flattening pathology of MPS IV A were the reason to falsely diagnose some patients as spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenital and/or tarda. Proximal femoral osteotomy, realignment osteotomy and total hip arthroplasty have been performed for coxa vara, genu valgum and protrusio acetabuli, respectively, in children and adult group of patients. The importance of early diagnosis on MPS IV A is to receive enzyme replacement therapy
Gao, Yaozong; Shao, Yeqin; Lian, Jun; Wang, Andrew Z; Chen, Ronald C; Shen, Dinggang
2016-06-01
Segmenting male pelvic organs from CT images is a prerequisite for prostate cancer radiotherapy. The efficacy of radiation treatment highly depends on segmentation accuracy. However, accurate segmentation of male pelvic organs is challenging due to low tissue contrast of CT images, as well as large variations of shape and appearance of the pelvic organs. Among existing segmentation methods, deformable models are the most popular, as shape prior can be easily incorporated to regularize the segmentation. Nonetheless, the sensitivity to initialization often limits their performance, especially for segmenting organs with large shape variations. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to guide deformable models, thus making them robust against arbitrary initializations. Specifically, we learn a displacement regressor, which predicts 3D displacement from any image voxel to the target organ boundary based on the local patch appearance. This regressor provides a non-local external force for each vertex of deformable model, thus overcoming the initialization problem suffered by the traditional deformable models. To learn a reliable displacement regressor, two strategies are particularly proposed. 1) A multi-task random forest is proposed to learn the displacement regressor jointly with the organ classifier; 2) an auto-context model is used to iteratively enforce structural information during voxel-wise prediction. Extensive experiments on 313 planning CT scans of 313 patients show that our method achieves better results than alternative classification or regression based methods, and also several other existing methods in CT pelvic organ segmentation. PMID:26800531
Deformations in the Shoulder Tissues During Load Carriage: A Computational Model.
Hadid, Amir; Belzer, Noa; Shabshin, Nogah; Epstein, Yoram; Gefen, Amit
2015-11-01
Shoulder soft tissue deformations seem to be one of the limiting factors of load carriage among soldiers and recreational backpackers that are required to carry heavy loads. Yet, there are no loading limits related to the forces borne by the shoulders, and the backpacks designs are not consistent with providing pressure relief from this sensitive anatomical region. The aim of this study was to develop a model that will enable to study the biomechanical loads that develop in the shoulder under heavy loads and to help in optimizing load carriage systems design. A 3-dimensional, anatomically accurate finite element model of a human shoulder was constructed based on MRI scans. The model was developed to calculate the effective stresses on the skin below the shoulder strap (superficial loads) and the effective strain in the brachial plexus region (inner tissue deformation) for loads of up to 35 kg. The model successfully predicted deformations in the soft tissue surrounding the brachial plexus when compared with deformations measured from load-bearing MRI scans. The model yielded a skin pressure mapping, which showed pressure hotspots in the clavicle region. Inner tissue deformations mapping, as assessed by brachial plexus envelop strains, were found to peak at 30% effective strain at the lateral aspect below the pectoralis muscle. The newly developed model successfully predicted soft tissue deformations in the shoulder related to backpacks. This model can be used to optimize load carriage systems for better distribution of pressure over the shoulders and lower inner tissue deformations. PMID:26506178
DEFORMATION DEPENDENT TUL MULTI-STEP DIRECT MODEL
WIENKE,H.; CAPOTE, R.; HERMAN, M.; SIN, M.
2007-04-22
The Multi-Step Direct (MSD) module TRISTAN in the nuclear reaction code EMPIRE has been extended in order to account for nuclear deformation. The new formalism was tested in calculations of neutron emission spectra emitted from the {sup 232}Th(n,xn) reaction. These calculations include vibration-rotational Coupled Channels (CC) for the inelastic scattering to low-lying collective levels, ''deformed'' MSD with quadrupole deformation for inelastic scattering to the continuum, Multi-Step Compound (MSC) and Hauser-Feshbach with advanced treatment of the fission channel. Prompt fission neutrons were also calculated. The comparison with experimental data shows clear improvement over the ''spherical'' MSD calculations and JEFF-3.1 and JENDL-3.3 evaluations.
Saito, D; Mikami, T; Oda, Y; Hasebe, D; Nishiyama, H; Saito, I; Kobayashi, T
2016-08-01
The aim of this study was to determine the relationships among bone properties, bone metabolic markers, and types of jaw deformity. The subjects were 55 female patients with jaw deformities. Skeletal morphology was examined using lateral cephalograms, and the patients were divided into three groups according to the type of anteroposterior skeletal pattern. Serum osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b, as well as deoxypyridinoline in urine, were measured as bone metabolic markers. Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurements were used to assess bone properties at the calcaneal bone. The bone volume and bone density of the condylar process were measured in 43 patients by computed tomography. There were no significant differences in bone metabolic markers and QUS parameters between the groups, although bone formation and resorption markers tended to be higher in patients with a protrusive mandible. On the other hand, patients with mandibular retrusion had a higher tendency to have small and dense condylar processes. In conclusion, the results suggest that growth depression or a degenerative change in the mandibular condyle is involved in the pathogenesis of mandibular retrusion, although risk factors for progressive condylar resorption were not determined. PMID:26972158
Patient-Specific Models of Cardiac Biomechanics.
Krishnamurthy, Adarsh; Villongco, Christopher T; Chuang, Joyce; Frank, Lawrence R; Nigam, Vishal; Belezzuoli, Ernest; Stark, Paul; Krummen, David E; Narayan, Sanjiv; Omens, Jeffrey H; McCulloch, Andrew D; Kerckhoffs, Roy Cp
2013-07-01
Patient-specific models of cardiac function have the potential to improve diagnosis and management of heart disease by integrating medical images with heterogeneous clinical measurements subject to constraints imposed by physical first principles and prior experimental knowledge. We describe new methods for creating three-dimensional patient-specific models of ventricular biomechanics in the failing heart. Three-dimensional bi-ventricular geometry is segmented from cardiac CT images at end-diastole from patients with heart failure. Human myofiber and sheet architecture is modeled using eigenvectors computed from diffusion tensor MR images from an isolated, fixed human organ-donor heart and transformed to the patient-specific geometric model using large deformation diffeomorphic mapping. Semi-automated methods were developed for optimizing the passive material properties while simultaneously computing the unloaded reference geometry of the ventricles for stress analysis. Material properties of active cardiac muscle contraction were optimized to match ventricular pressures measured by cardiac catheterization, and parameters of a lumped-parameter closed-loop model of the circulation were estimated with a circulatory adaptation algorithm making use of information derived from echocardiography. These components were then integrated to create a multi-scale model of the patient-specific heart. These methods were tested in five heart failure patients from the San Diego Veteran's Affairs Medical Center who gave informed consent. The simulation results showed good agreement with measured echocardiographic and global functional parameters such as ejection fraction and peak cavity pressures. PMID:23729839
Patient-specific models of cardiac biomechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krishnamurthy, Adarsh; Villongco, Christopher T.; Chuang, Joyce; Frank, Lawrence R.; Nigam, Vishal; Belezzuoli, Ernest; Stark, Paul; Krummen, David E.; Narayan, Sanjiv; Omens, Jeffrey H.; McCulloch, Andrew D.; Kerckhoffs, Roy C. P.
2013-07-01
Patient-specific models of cardiac function have the potential to improve diagnosis and management of heart disease by integrating medical images with heterogeneous clinical measurements subject to constraints imposed by physical first principles and prior experimental knowledge. We describe new methods for creating three-dimensional patient-specific models of ventricular biomechanics in the failing heart. Three-dimensional bi-ventricular geometry is segmented from cardiac CT images at end-diastole from patients with heart failure. Human myofiber and sheet architecture is modeled using eigenvectors computed from diffusion tensor MR images from an isolated, fixed human organ-donor heart and transformed to the patient-specific geometric model using large deformation diffeomorphic mapping. Semi-automated methods were developed for optimizing the passive material properties while simultaneously computing the unloaded reference geometry of the ventricles for stress analysis. Material properties of active cardiac muscle contraction were optimized to match ventricular pressures measured by cardiac catheterization, and parameters of a lumped-parameter closed-loop model of the circulation were estimated with a circulatory adaptation algorithm making use of information derived from echocardiography. These components were then integrated to create a multi-scale model of the patient-specific heart. These methods were tested in five heart failure patients from the San Diego Veteran's Affairs Medical Center who gave informed consent. The simulation results showed good agreement with measured echocardiographic and global functional parameters such as ejection fraction and peak cavity pressures.
A Deformable Generic 3D Model of Haptoral Anchor of Monogenean
Teo, Bee Guan; Dhillon, Sarinder Kaur; Lim, Lee Hong Susan
2013-01-01
In this paper, a digital 3D model which allows for visualisation in three dimensions and interactive manipulation is explored as a tool to help us understand the structural morphology and elucidate the functions of morphological structures of fragile microorganisms which defy live studies. We developed a deformable generic 3D model of haptoral anchor of dactylogyridean monogeneans that can subsequently be deformed into different desired anchor shapes by using direct manipulation deformation technique. We used point primitives to construct the rectangular building blocks to develop our deformable 3D model. Point primitives are manually marked on a 2D illustration of an anchor on a Cartesian graph paper and a set of Cartesian coordinates for each point primitive is manually extracted from the graph paper. A Python script is then written in Blender to construct 3D rectangular building blocks based on the Cartesian coordinates. The rectangular building blocks are stacked on top or by the side of each other following their respective Cartesian coordinates of point primitive. More point primitives are added at the sites in the 3D model where more structural variations are likely to occur, in order to generate complex anchor structures. We used Catmull-Clark subdivision surface modifier to smoothen the surface and edge of the generic 3D model to obtain a smoother and more natural 3D shape and antialiasing option to reduce the jagged edges of the 3D model. This deformable generic 3D model can be deformed into different desired 3D anchor shapes through direct manipulation deformation technique by aligning the vertices (pilot points) of the newly developed deformable generic 3D model onto the 2D illustrations of the desired shapes and moving the vertices until the desire 3D shapes are formed. In this generic 3D model all the vertices present are deployed for displacement during deformation. PMID:24204903
A deformable generic 3D model of haptoral anchor of Monogenean.
Teo, Bee Guan; Dhillon, Sarinder Kaur; Lim, Lee Hong Susan
2013-01-01
In this paper, a digital 3D model which allows for visualisation in three dimensions and interactive manipulation is explored as a tool to help us understand the structural morphology and elucidate the functions of morphological structures of fragile microorganisms which defy live studies. We developed a deformable generic 3D model of haptoral anchor of dactylogyridean monogeneans that can subsequently be deformed into different desired anchor shapes by using direct manipulation deformation technique. We used point primitives to construct the rectangular building blocks to develop our deformable 3D model. Point primitives are manually marked on a 2D illustration of an anchor on a Cartesian graph paper and a set of Cartesian coordinates for each point primitive is manually extracted from the graph paper. A Python script is then written in Blender to construct 3D rectangular building blocks based on the Cartesian coordinates. The rectangular building blocks are stacked on top or by the side of each other following their respective Cartesian coordinates of point primitive. More point primitives are added at the sites in the 3D model where more structural variations are likely to occur, in order to generate complex anchor structures. We used Catmull-Clark subdivision surface modifier to smoothen the surface and edge of the generic 3D model to obtain a smoother and more natural 3D shape and antialiasing option to reduce the jagged edges of the 3D model. This deformable generic 3D model can be deformed into different desired 3D anchor shapes through direct manipulation deformation technique by aligning the vertices (pilot points) of the newly developed deformable generic 3D model onto the 2D illustrations of the desired shapes and moving the vertices until the desire 3D shapes are formed. In this generic 3D model all the vertices present are deployed for displacement during deformation. PMID:24204903
Model-based registration for assessment of spinal deformities in idiopathic scoliosis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forsberg, Daniel; Lundström, Claes; Andersson, Mats; Knutsson, Hans
2014-01-01
Detailed analysis of spinal deformity is important within orthopaedic healthcare, in particular for assessment of idiopathic scoliosis. This paper addresses this challenge by proposing an image analysis method, capable of providing a full three-dimensional spine characterization. The proposed method is based on the registration of a highly detailed spine model to image data from computed tomography. The registration process provides an accurate segmentation of each individual vertebra and the ability to derive various measures describing the spinal deformity. The derived measures are estimated from landmarks attached to the spine model and transferred to the patient data according to the registration result. Evaluation of the method provides an average point-to-surface error of 0.9 mm ± 0.9 (comparing segmentations), and an average target registration error of 2.3 mm ± 1.7 (comparing landmarks). Comparing automatic and manual measurements of axial vertebral rotation provides a mean absolute difference of 2.5° ± 1.8, which is on a par with other computerized methods for assessing axial vertebral rotation. A significant advantage of our method, compared to other computerized methods for rotational measurements, is that it does not rely on vertebral symmetry for computing the rotational measures. The proposed method is fully automatic and computationally efficient, only requiring three to four minutes to process an entire image volume covering vertebrae L5 to T1. Given the use of landmarks, the method can be readily adapted to estimate other measures describing a spinal deformity by changing the set of employed landmarks. In addition, the method has the potential to be utilized for accurate segmentations of the vertebrae in routine computed tomography examinations, given the relatively low point-to-surface error.
Modelling MEMS deformable mirrors for astronomical adaptive optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blain, Celia
As of July 2012, 777 exoplanets have been discovered utilizing mainly indirect detection techniques. The direct imaging of exoplanets is the next goal for astronomers, because it will reveal the diversity of planets and planetary systems, and will give access to the exoplanet's chemical composition via spectroscopy. With this spectroscopic knowledge, astronomers will be able to know, if a planet is terrestrial and, possibly, even find evidence of life. With so much potential, this branch of astronomy has also captivated the general public attention. The direct imaging of exoplanets remains a challenging task, due to (i) the extremely high contrast between the parent star and the orbiting exoplanet and (ii) their small angular separation. For ground-based observatories, this task is made even more difficult, due to the presence of atmospheric turbulence. High Contrast Imaging (HCI) instruments have been designed to meet this challenge. HCI instruments are usually composed of a coronagraph coupled with the full onaxis corrective capability of an Extreme Adaptive Optics (ExAO) system. An efficient coronagraph separates the faint planet's light from the much brighter starlight, but the dynamic boiling speckles, created by the stellar image, make exoplanet detection impossible without the help of a wavefront correction device. The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) system is a high performance HCI instrument developed at Subaru Telescope. The wavefront control system of SCExAO consists of three wavefront sensors (WFS) coupled with a 1024- actuator Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS) deformable mirror (DM). MEMS DMs offer a large actuator density, allowing high count DMs to be deployed in small size beams. Therefore, MEMS DMs are an attractive technology for Adaptive Optics (AO) systems and are particularly well suited for HCI instruments employing ExAO technologies. SCExAO uses coherent light modulation in the focal plane introduced by the DM, for
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Erickson, Gary E.
2013-01-01
A video-based photogrammetric model deformation system was established as a dedicated optical measurement technique at supersonic speeds in the NASA Langley Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. This system was used to measure the wing twist due to aerodynamic loads of two supersonic commercial transport airplane models with identical outer mold lines but different aeroelastic properties. One model featured wings with deflectable leading- and trailing-edge flaps and internal channels to accommodate static pressure tube instrumentation. The wings of the second model were of single-piece construction without flaps or internal channels. The testing was performed at Mach numbers from 1.6 to 2.7, unit Reynolds numbers of 1.0 million to 5.0 million, and angles of attack from -4 degrees to +10 degrees. The video model deformation system quantified the wing aeroelastic response to changes in the Mach number, Reynolds number concurrent with dynamic pressure, and angle of attack and effectively captured the differences in the wing twist characteristics between the two test articles.
Gholipour, Ali; Limperopoulos, Catherine; Clancy, Sean; Clouchoux, Cedric; Akhondi-Asl, Alireza; Estroff, Judy A.; Warfield, Simon K.
2014-01-01
The development and identification of best methods in fetal brain MRI analysis is crucial as we expect an outburst of studies on groupwise and longitudinal analysis of early brain development in the upcoming years. To address this critical need, in this paper, we have developed a mathematical framework for the construction of an unbiased deformable spatiotemporal atlas of the fetal brain MRI and compared it to alternative configurations in terms of similarity metrics and deformation models. Our contributions are twofold: first we suggest a novel approach to fetal brain spatiotemporal atlas construction that shows high capability in capturing anatomic variation between subjects; and second, within our atlas construction framework we evaluate and compare a set of plausible configurations for inter-subject fetal brain MRI registration and identify the most accurate approach that can potentially lead to most accurate results in population atlas construction, atlas-based segmentation, and group analysis. Our evaluation results indicate that symmetric diffeomorphic deformable registration with cross correlation similarity metric outperforms other configurations in this application and results in sharp unbiased atlases that can be used in fetal brain MRI analysis. PMID:25485391
Casciaro, Mariano E; El-Batti, Salma; Chironi, Gilles; Simon, Alain; Mousseaux, Elie; Armentano, Ricardo L; Alsac, Jean-Marc; Craiem, Damian
2016-05-01
Rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is responsible for 1-3% of all deaths among the elderly population in developed countries. A novel endograft proposes an endovascular aneurysm sealing (EVAS) system that isolates the aneurysm wall from blood flow using a polymer-filled endobag that surrounds two balloon-expandable stents. The volume of injected polymer is determined by monitoring the endobag pressure but the final AAA expansion remains unknown. We conceived and developed a fully deformable surface model for the comparison of pre-operative sac lumen size and final endobag size (measured using a follow-up scan) with the volume of injected polymer. Computed tomography images were acquired for eight patients. Aneurysms were manually and automatically segmented twice by the same observer. The injected polymer volume resulted 9% higher than the aneurysm pre-operative lumen size (p < 0.05), and 11% lower than the final follow-up endobag volume (p < 0.01). The automated method required minimal user interaction; it was fast and used a single set of parameters for all subjects. Intra-observer and manual vs. automated variability of measured volumes were 0.35 ± 2.11 and 0.07 ± 3.04 mL, respectively. Deformable surface models were used to quantify AAA size and showed that EVAS system devices tended to expand the sac lumen size. PMID:26350505
Modelling continental deformation within global plate tectonic reconstructions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williams, S.; Whittaker, J.; Heine, C.; Müller, P.
2010-12-01
A limitation of regional and global plate tectonic models is the way continental deformation is represented. Continental blocks are typically represented as rigid polygons - overlaps or gaps between adjacent continental blocks represent extension or compression respectively. Full-fit reconstructions of major ocean basins result in large overlaps between the conjugate continental plates, on the basis that the continental margins are highly extended compared to their pre-rift state. A fundamental challenge in generating more robust global-scale plate reconstructions is the incorporation of a more quantitative description of the kinematics within extended passive margins, based on observations. We have used the conjugate Southern Australia and Wilkes Land, Antarctica margins as a case study, and as part of this work have generated revised sediment thickness maps for these margins. These datasets are used to test different approaches for generating full-fit reconstructions in order to create a framework of methodologies that is globally applicable. One approach is to restore two conjugate continent-ocean boundaries (COBs) to their pre-rift configuration and then use the geometric fitting method of Hellinger (1981) and Royer and Chang (1991), used to generate fits of seafloor isochrons, to generate a “full-fit” Euler pole. To quantitatively restore the COBs to their palinspastic pre-rift configuration we integrate estimates of crustal thickness along small circle paths, defined by an initial estimate of the Euler stage pole describing plate motions during continental rifting. We then use the conjugate sets of restored COB’s as inputs to the geometric fitting method, treating them as isochrons, and so generate poles of rotation for the plate configuration prior to rifting. Two potential shortcomings of this methodology are that (1) the conjugate margins are treated independently, whereas in reality they were actually one continuous continental basin during rifting
Volume Preserved Mass-Spring Model with Novel Constraints for Soft Tissue Deformation.
Duan, Yuping; Huang, Weimin; Chang, Huibin; Chen, Wenyu; Zhou, Jiayin; Teo, Soo Kng; Su, Yi; Chui, Chee Kong; Chang, Stephen
2016-01-01
An interactive surgical simulation system needs to meet three main requirements, speed, accuracy, and stability. In this paper, we present a stable and accurate method for animating mass-spring systems in real time. An integration scheme derived from explicit integration is used to obtain interactive realistic animation for a multiobject environment. We explore a predictor-corrector approach by correcting the estimation of the explicit integration in a poststep process. We introduce novel constraints on positions into the mass-spring model (MSM) to model the nonlinearity and preserve volume for the realistic simulation of the incompressibility. We verify the proposed MSM by comparing its deformations with the reference deformations of the nonlinear finite-element method. Moreover, experiments on porcine organs are designed for the evaluation of the multiobject deformation. Using a pair of freshly harvested porcine liver and gallbladder, the real organ deformations are acquired by computed tomography and used as the reference ground truth. Compared to the porcine model, our model achieves a 1.502 mm mean absolute error measured at landmark locations for cases with small deformation (the largest deformation is 49.109 mm) and a 3.639 mm mean absolute error for cases with large deformation (the largest deformation is 83.137 mm). The changes of volume for the two deformations are limited to 0.030% and 0.057%, respectively. Finally, an implementation in a virtual reality environment for laparoscopic cholecystectomy demonstrates that our model is capable to simulate large deformation and preserve volume in real-time calculations. PMID:25398184
Study of optical techniques for the Ames unitary wind tunnels. Part 4: Model deformation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, George
1992-01-01
A survey of systems capable of model deformation measurements was conducted. The survey included stereo-cameras, scanners, and digitizers. Moire, holographic, and heterodyne interferometry techniques were also looked at. Stereo-cameras with passive or active targets are currently being deployed for model deformation measurements at NASA Ames and LaRC, Boeing, and ONERA. Scanners and digitizers are widely used in robotics, motion analysis, medicine, etc., and some of the scanner and digitizers can meet the model deformation requirements. Commercial stereo-cameras, scanners, and digitizers are being improved in accuracy, reliability, and ease of operation. A number of new systems are coming onto the market.
[Research progress on real-time deformable models of soft tissues for surgery simulation].
Xu, Shaoping; Liu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Hua; Luo, Jie
2010-04-01
Biological tissues generally exhibit nonlinearity, anisotropy, quasi-incompressibility and viscoelasticity about material properties. Simulating the behaviour of elastic objects in real time is one of the current objectives of virtual surgery simulation which is still a challenge for researchers to accurately depict the behaviour of human tissues. In this paper, we present a classification of the different deformable models that have been developed. We present the advantages and disadvantages of each one. Finally, we make a comparison of deformable models and perform an evaluation of the state of the art and the future of deformable models. PMID:20481334
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sablik, M. J.; Rios, S.; Landgraf, F. J. G.; Yonamine, T.; de Campos, M. F.
2005-05-01
In 2.2% Si electrical steel, the magnetic hysteresis behavior is sharply sheared by a rather small plastic deformation (0.5%). A modification to the Jiles-Atherton hysteresis model makes it possible to model magnetic effects of plastic deformation. In this paper, with this model, it is shown how a narrow hysteresis with an almost steplike hysteresis curve for an undeformed specimen is sharply sheared by plastic deformation. Computed coercivity and hysteresis loss show a sharp step to higher values at small strain due to an n =1/2 power law dependence on residual strain. The step is seen experimentally.
Sablik, M.J.; Rios, S.; Landgraf, F.J.G.; Yonamine, T.; Campos, M.F. de
2005-05-15
In 2.2% Si electrical steel, the magnetic hysteresis behavior is sharply sheared by a rather small plastic deformation (0.5%). A modification to the Jiles-Atherton hysteresis model makes it possible to model magnetic effects of plastic deformation. In this paper, with this model, it is shown how a narrow hysteresis with an almost steplike hysteresis curve for an undeformed specimen is sharply sheared by plastic deformation. Computed coercivity and hysteresis loss show a sharp step to higher values at small strain due to an n=1/2 power law dependence on residual strain. The step is seen experimentally.
Models for rupture mechanics of plate boundaries and crustal deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nur, A.
1983-02-01
The role of pull aparts and pushups in transcurrent systems, the rotation of faults and blocks within transcurrent fault systems, the role of accretion tectonics in plate boundary deformation, and power law creep behavior and the yielding at plate boundaries were investigated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Azimi, Maryam
Radiation therapy has been used in the treatment of cancer tumors for several years and many cancer patients receive radiotherapy. It may be used as primary therapy or with a combination of surgery or other kinds of therapy such as chemotherapy, hormone therapy or some mixture of the three. The treatment objective is to destroy cancer cells or shrink the tumor by planning an adequate radiation dose to the desired target without damaging the normal tissues. By using the pre-treatment Computer Tomography (CT) images, most of the radiotherapy planning systems design the target and assume that the size of the tumor will not change throughout the treatment course, which takes 5 to 7 weeks. Based on this assumption, the total amount of radiation is planned and fractionated for the daily dose required to be delivered to the patient's body. However, this assumption is flawed because the patients receiving radiotherapy have marked changes in tumor geometry during the treatment period. Therefore, there is a critical need to understand the changes of the tumor shape and size over time during the course of radiotherapy in order to prevent significant effects of inaccuracy in the planning. In this research, a methodology is proposed in order to monitor and predict daily (fraction day) tumor volume and surface changes of head and neck cancer tumors during the entire treatment period. In the proposed method, geometrical modeling and data mining techniques will be used rather than repetitive CT scans data to predict the tumor deformation for radiation planning. Clinical patient data were obtained from the University of Texas-MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC). In the first step, by using CT scan data, the tumor's progressive geometric changes during the treatment period are quantified. The next step relates to using regression analysis in order to develop predictive models for tumor geometry based on the geometric analysis results and the patients' selected attributes (age, weight
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bibee, M. A.; Calantoni, J.; Sclater, J. G.
2005-05-01
Experiments on sandboxes provide a useful tool for understanding the deformation of both sedimentary sequences and the continental crust. Boerner and Sclater (1992) have shown that the deformation under extension of assemblies of steel balls can reproduce many of the basic features of these experiments. We use a discrete particle model (DPM) to simulate previously performed physical experiments, which consisted of extending close-packed assemblies of steel balls placed on a rubber sheet attached to moveable boundaries. Steel balls are modeled with spherical elements in the DPM where normal and tangential forces generated at contact points are modeled with springs and friction, respectively. The simulations allow for a quantitative examination of the displacement and rotation of each steel ball as well as provide estimates of the contact forces between them. We perform a suite of simulations to explore the behavior of the model due to variations in the material properties of the balls and rate of extension of the assembly. Qualitative visual analysis shows that the simulations reproduce the qualitative features from the physical experiments such as dilation, rotation, and fault formation. Our success in matching most of the major features of the experiment indicates that the DPM may have a real future in improving our understanding of the deformation of both sedimentary sequences and the continental crust.
Two-dimensional numerical modeling for separation of deformable cells using dielectrophoresis.
Ye, Ting; Li, Hua; Lam, K Y
2015-02-01
In this paper, we numerically explore the possibility of separating two groups of deformable cells, by a very small dielectrophoretic (DEP) microchip with the characteristic length of several cell diameters. A 2D two-fluid model is developed to describe the separation process, where three types of forces are considered, the aggregation force for cell-cell interaction, the deformation force for cell deformation, and the DEP force for cell dielectrophoresis. As a model validation, we calculate the levitation height of a cell subject to DEP force, and compare it with the experimental data. After that, we simulate the separation of two groups of cells with different dielectric properties at high and low frequencies, respectively. The simulation results show that the deformable cells can be separated successfully by a very small DEP microchip, according to not only their different permittivities at the high frequency, but also their different conductivities at the low frequency. In addition, both two groups of cells have a shape deformation from an original shape to a lopsided slipper shape during the separation process. It is found that the cell motion is mainly determined by the DEP force arising from the electric field, causing the cells to deviate from the centerline of microchannel. However, the cell deformation is mainly determined by the deformation force arising from the fluid flow, causing the deviated cells to undergo an asymmetric motion with the deformation of slipper shape. PMID:24981085
Chi, Y.; Liang, J.; Yan, D.
2006-02-15
Model-based deformable organ registration techniques using the finite element method (FEM) have recently been investigated intensively and applied to image-guided adaptive radiotherapy (IGART). These techniques assume that human organs are linearly elastic material, and their mechanical properties are predetermined. Unfortunately, the accurate measurement of the tissue material properties is challenging and the properties usually vary between patients. A common issue is therefore the achievable accuracy of the calculation due to the limited access to tissue elastic material constants. In this study, we performed a systematic investigation on this subject based on tissue biomechanics and computer simulations to establish the relationships between achievable registration accuracy and tissue mechanical and organ geometrical properties. Primarily we focused on image registration for three organs: rectal wall, bladder wall, and prostate. The tissue anisotropy due to orientation preference in tissue fiber alignment is captured by using an orthotropic or a transversely isotropic elastic model. First we developed biomechanical models for the rectal wall, bladder wall, and prostate using simplified geometries and investigated the effect of varying material parameters on the resulting organ deformation. Then computer models based on patient image data were constructed, and image registrations were performed. The sensitivity of registration errors was studied by perturbating the tissue material properties from their mean values while fixing the boundary conditions. The simulation results demonstrated that registration error for a subvolume increases as its distance from the boundary increases. Also, a variable associated with material stability was found to be a dominant factor in registration accuracy in the context of material uncertainty. For hollow thin organs such as rectal walls and bladder walls, the registration errors are limited. Given 30% in material uncertainty
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldberg, Robert K.; Stouffer, Donald C.
1998-01-01
Recently applications have exposed polymer matrix composite materials to very high strain rate loading conditions, requiring an ability to understand and predict the material behavior under these extreme conditions. In this first paper of a two part report, background information is presented, along with the constitutive equations which will be used to model the rate dependent nonlinear deformation response of the polymer matrix. Strain rate dependent inelastic constitutive models which were originally developed to model the viscoplastic deformation of metals have been adapted to model the nonlinear viscoelastic deformation of polymers. The modified equations were correlated by analyzing the tensile/ compressive response of both 977-2 toughened epoxy matrix and PEEK thermoplastic matrix over a variety of strain rates. For the cases examined, the modified constitutive equations appear to do an adequate job of modeling the polymer deformation response. A second follow-up paper will describe the implementation of the polymer deformation model into a composite micromechanical model, to allow for the modeling of the nonlinear, rate dependent deformation response of polymer matrix composites.
FISH analysis of a subtle familial Xp deletion in a female patient with Madelung deformity
Hsu, T.Y.; Gibson, L.H.; Pober, B.R.
1994-09-01
A subtle deletion of Xp [del(X)(p22.32)]was identified by high-resolution chromosome analysis in a twelve-year-old female with short stature (<2 percentile) and Madelung deformity suggestive of Turner syndrome. The proband`s mother, who has short stature (<2 percentile) and demyelinating disorder, also showed this deletion. The maternal grandmother is of normal height and carries two normal X chromosomes. Both the patient and her mother have no other physical abnormalities and are of normal intelligence. To confirm and delineate this Xp deletion, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed on metaphases from the patient and her mother using probes of DXYS20 (a pseudoautosomal locus), DXS232A, and a newly isolated Xp YAC clone, YHX2, whose relative map position is unknown. Hybridization signals of DXS232A were detected on both X chromosomes, and DXYS20 and YHX2 were missing from one of the X`s of both the patient and her mother. YHX2 was thus placed distal to DXS232A (tel-DXYS20-YHX2-S232A-cen). This familial deletion with a breakpoint distal to DXS232A, which is located at -900 Kb telomeric to STS locus, appears to be the smallest Xp deletion reported thus far. Short stature is consistently associated with females carrying Xp deletions. Madelung deformity has been found in some patients with Turner syndrome or Dyschondrosteosis but it has not been reported in patients with Xp deletion. Our results suggest that the phenotype of our patient is associated with her chromosome abnormality. Due to the subtlety of the deletion identified in our patient and her mother, females presenting with short stature warrant careful clinical and cytogenetic evaluation.
Learning deformation model for expression-robust 3D face recognition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Zhe; Liu, Shu; Wang, Yi; Lei, Tao
2015-12-01
Expression change is the major cause of local plastic deformation of the facial surface. The intra-class differences with large expression change somehow are larger than the inter-class differences as it's difficult to distinguish the same individual with facial expression change. In this paper, an expression-robust 3D face recognition method is proposed by learning expression deformation model. The expression of the individuals on the training set is modeled by principal component analysis, the main components are retained to construct the facial deformation model. For the test 3D face, the shape difference between the test and the neutral face in training set is used for reconstructing the expression change by the constructed deformation model. The reconstruction residual error is used for face recognition. The average recognition rate on GavabDB and self-built database reaches 85.1% and 83%, respectively, which shows strong robustness for expression changes.
Effects of orthognathic surgery on psychological status of patients with jaw deformities.
Takatsuji, H; Kobayashi, T; Kojima, T; Hasebe, D; Izumi, N; Saito, I; Saito, C
2015-09-01
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of orthognathic surgery on psychological status. The subjects were 119 patients (38 males and 81 females, mean age 25.5±9.4 years) who underwent orthognathic surgery. They were divided into class III (84 patients), class II (20 patients), and class I (15 patients) groups according to the anteroposterior skeletal pattern, and they were also divided into an asymmetry group (51 patients) and a symmetry group (68 patients). We assessed psychological status using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) before surgery and at more than 6 months after surgery. The MMPI scores for the depression, hysteria, psychasthenia, and social introversion scales were significantly higher than standard values before surgery, and the hypomania scale significantly lower. The cannot say scale, depression scale, and hysteria scale decreased significantly after surgery. A comparison of MMPI scores among the groups showed the depression scale in the class III group to be higher than those in the class I and II groups; there was no significant difference between the asymmetry and symmetry groups. In conclusion, orthognathic surgery has a positive influence on the psychological status of patients with jaw deformities, especially patients with skeletal class III malocclusion. PMID:26004311
Lee, Wen-Li; Chang, Koyin; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng
2016-09-01
Segmenting lung fields in a chest radiograph is essential for automatically analyzing an image. We present an unsupervised method based on multiresolution fractal feature vector. The feature vector characterizes the lung field region effectively. A fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm is then applied to obtain a satisfactory initial contour. The final contour is obtained by deformable models. The results show the feasibility and high performance of the proposed method. Furthermore, based on the segmentation of lung fields, the cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) can be measured. The CTR is a simple index for evaluating cardiac hypertrophy. After identifying a suspicious symptom based on the estimated CTR, a physician can suggest that the patient undergoes additional extensive tests before a treatment plan is finalized. PMID:26530048
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Pengfei; Gu, Lixu; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Jingsi; Xu, Hua; Dong, Jiasheng; Chen, Weitao; Pei, Wei; Song, Jiasi; Li, Bowen; Xu, Jianrong
2007-12-01
In this paper, a virtual breast plastic surgery planning method is proposed, which reconstructs the breast after excision for certain diseases such as cancer. In order to achieve a rational result, we calculate shape, area, volume and depth of the skin and muscle for the reconstruction, based on the other healthy breast. The steps are as follows: 1) input breast's MRI data of patient; 2) get the healthy breast using balloon segmentation algorithm and get triangle mesh on breast surface; 3) flatten the triangulated skin of breast using deformable model to attain the shape and volume of the flap for breast reconstruction. Other methods such as mesh smoothing and cutting of triangulated surface are also introduced. The doctors validation and evaluation process are also provided to ensure the robust and stable result of virtual surgery planning.
A low-dimensional deformation model for cancer cells in flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, A. M.; Berny-Lang, M. A.; Liao, S.; Kanso, E.; Kuhn, P.; McCarty, O. J. T.; Newton, P. K.
2012-08-01
A low-dimensional parametric deformation model of a cancer cell under shear flow is developed. The model is built around an experiment in which MDA-MB-231 adherent cells are subjected to flow with increasing shear. The cell surface deformation is imaged using differential interference contrast microscopy imaging techniques until the cell releases into the flow. We post-process the time sequence of images using an active shape model from which we obtain the principal components of deformation. These principal components are then used to obtain the parameters in an empirical constitutive equation determining the cell deformations as a function of the fluid normal and shear forces imparted. The cell surface is modeled as a 2D Gaussian interface which can be deformed with three active parameters: H (height), σx (x-width), and σy (y-width). Fluid forces are calculated on the cell surface by discretizing the surface with regularized Stokeslets, and the flow is driven by a stochastically fluctuating pressure gradient. The Stokeslet strengths are obtained so that viscous boundary conditions are enforced on the surface of the cell and the surrounding plate. We show that the low-dimensional model is able to capture the principal deformations of the cell reasonably well and argue that active shape models can be exploited further as a useful tool to bridge the gap between experiments, models, and numerical simulations in this biological setting.
Modeling for deformable mirrors and the adaptive optics optimization program
Henesian, M.A.; Haney, S.W.; Trenholme, J.B.; Thomas, M.
1997-03-18
We discuss aspects of adaptive optics optimization for large fusion laser systems such as the 192-arm National Ignition Facility (NIF) at LLNL. By way of example, we considered the discrete actuator deformable mirror and Hartmann sensor system used on the Beamlet laser. Beamlet is a single-aperture prototype of the 11-0-5 slab amplifier design for NIF, and so we expect similar optical distortion levels and deformable mirror correction requirements. We are now in the process of developing a numerically efficient object oriented C++ language implementation of our adaptive optics and wavefront sensor code, but this code is not yet operational. Results are based instead on the prototype algorithms, coded-up in an interpreted array processing computer language.
Outcome of major spinal deformity surgery in high-risk patients: comparison between two departments
Murans, Girts; Gustavsson, Bengt; Saraste, Helena
2010-01-01
Study design: Retrospective cohort study Objective: To describe the outcome and resource use in major spine surgery on high-risk patients, and analyze possible differences between two surgical departments. Methods: Data from the deformity register and medical records of 136 patients, median age 12-years, with neuromuscular and congenital spinal deformities with and without intraspinal pathology, surgically treated by one surgeon from 1997 through 2004 at two departments. H1 with a pediatric multidisciplinary team, and H2 with focus on adult spine. Variables at baseline: age, gender, diagnosis, curve size, and type of surgical procedure. Result variables included clinical and radiographic outcome, surgery time, length of intensive care and hospital stay, relative blood loss, and occurrence of complications during 2 or more years follow-up. Results: There was no perioperative or postoperative mortality, no spinal-cord damage, no neurological or ambulatory function deterioration. The overall complication rate was 36%, and the overall major complication rate was 15.4%. The mean loss of correction was 2° during the follow-up. There were statistically significant differences between the H1 and H2 departments. At H1, deformity correction was better and surgery time shorter. Infections were more frequent at H2 (P = .04; 6/65 at H1; 16/71 at H2), tendency (P = .06) of more department-related complications was higher at H2. Conclusions: Major spine surgery in high-risk patients can be performed safely and with good outcoms. Impact of organization and workplace culture on the outcome might be important and worth further study. PMID:22956923
Kao, Philip H; Lammers, Steven R; Hunter, Kendall; Stenmark, Kurt R; Shandas, Robin; Qi, H Jerry
2010-04-01
Many biological materials are composites composed of a soft matrix reinforced with stiffer fibers. These stiffer fibers may have a tortuous shape and wind through the soft matrix. At small material deformation, these fibers deform in a bending mode and contribute little to the material stiffness; at large material deformation, these fibers deform in a stretching mode and induce a stiffening effect in the material behavior. The transition from bending mode deformation to stretching mode deformation yields a characteristic J-shape stress-strain curve. In addition, the spatial distribution of these fibers may render the composite an anisotropic behavior. In this paper, we present an anisotropic finite-deformation hyperelastic constitutive model for such materials. Here, the matrix is modeled as an isotropic neo-Hookean material. "The behaviors of single tortuous fiber are represented by a crimped fiber model". The anisotropic behavior is introduced by a structure tensor representing the effective orientation distribution of crimped fibers. Parametric studies show the effect of fiber tortuosity and fiber orientation distribution on the overall stress-strain behaviors of the materials. PMID:21822502
Predictive Model for Temperature-Induced Deformation of Robot Mechanical Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poonyapak, Pranchalee
The positioning accuracy and repeatability of a robot are critical for many industrial applications. Drift in repeatability can occur with changes in environmental and internal conditions, such as those seen with temperature-induced deformation. Thermal instability causes dimensional deformation, and a warm-up cycle is typically required to bring the robot to a thermally stable working condition. The elimination of warm-up cycles will ultimately enhance the positioning accuracy of the robots, their productivity, and reduce unnecessary energy consumption. The main objective of this research was to develop a robot controller algorithm that would provide, a priori, compensation for temperature-induced deformation associated with warm-up in robot mechanical systems. The research started at the fundamental stage of gaining insight into the thermal behaviour and corresponding temperature-induced deformation of simplified, i.e., one-dimensional, robot mechanical systems consisting of slender links and heat sources. The systems were studied using concomitant experimental, numerical and analytical models to provide cross-checking of the results. For the experimental model, the deformation was measured by tracking the drift of a laser diode spot across a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera chip. A non-contact measurement system consisting of an infrared camera, a CCD camera and a laser diode was developed to provide high accuracy measurement for the deformation. The numerical model was generated with a coupled thermal-mechanical finite element analysis incorporating thermal effects due to conduction and convection. The models were tested with the analytical model that was further extended using a finite difference technique. Once the three models showed excellent agreement, it was possible to develop a controller algorithm. Deformations predicted by the finite difference model were used as input for a validation experiment of the compensation algorithm. Results of the
All-loop correlators of integrable λ-deformed σ-models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Georgiou, George; Sfetsos, Konstantinos; Siampos, Konstantinos
2016-08-01
We compute the 2- and 3-point functions of currents and primary fields of λ-deformed integrable σ-models characterized also by an integer k. Our results apply for any semisimple group G, for all values of the deformation parameter λ and up to order 1 / k. We deduce the OPEs and equal-time commutators of all currents and primaries. We derive the currents' Poisson brackets which assume Rajeev's deformation of the canonical structure of the isotropic PCM, the underlying structure of the integrable λ-deformed σ-models. We also present analogous results in two limiting cases of special interest, namely for the non-Abelian T-dual of the PCM and for the pseudodual model.
Extension of continental lithosphere - A model for two scales of basin and range deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zuber, M. T.; Parmentier, E. M.; Fletcher, R. C.
1986-04-01
The development of a model for deformation in an extending continental lithosphere that is stratified in density and strength is described. The lithosphere model demonstrates that the necking instabilities at two wavelengths originate due to a strong upper crust, a mantle layer, and a weak lower crust. It is observed that the dominant wavelengths of necking are controlled by layer thickness and the strength of the layers control the amplitude of the instabilities. The model is applied to the Basin and Range Province of the western U.S. where deformations in ranges and tile domains are detected. The relation between the Bouguer gravity anomaly and the deformations is studied. The data reveal that the horizontal scale of short wavelength necking correlates with the spacings of individual basins and ranges, and the longer wavelength corresponds to the width of tilt domains. The control of the Basin and Range deformation by two scales of extensional instability is proposed.
Modelling Deformation and Texture Evolution in OFHC Copper at Large Strain and High Strain Rate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonora, Nicola; Testa, Gabriel; Ruggiero, Andrew; Iannitti, Gianluca; Hörnqvist, Magnus; Mortazavi, Nooshin
2015-06-01
In this work, a two-scale approach to simulate high rate deformation and texture evolution in OFHC copper is presented. The modified Rusinek-Klepaczko material model was used to simulate the response of the material at continuum scale accounting for different deformation mechanisms occurring over an extensive range of strain rate and temperature. Material model parameters were determined from characterization test (mainly uniaxial tests) results. Successively, the model was validated simulating material deformation in Taylor anvil impact, symmetric Taylor impact (rod-on-rod) and dynamic tensile extrusion (DTE) tests. Texture evolution, under different deformation paths was simulated using the crystal plasticity package CPFEM and results were compared with those obtained by EBSD analysis. The possibility to incorporate the effect of grain size evolution and fragmentation at continuum scale is discussed.
Fereidoonnezhad, B; Naghdabadi, R; Holzapfel, G A
2016-08-01
Inelastic phenomena such as stress softening and unrecoverable inelastic deformations induced by supra-physiological loading have been observed experimentally in soft tissues such as arteries. These phenomena need to be accounted for in constitutive models of arterial tissues so that computational models can properly predict the outcome of interventional procedures such as arterial clamping and balloon angioplasty that involve non-physiological tissue loading. Motivated by experimental data, a novel pseudo-elastic damage model is proposed to describe discontinuous softening and permanent deformation in arterial tissues. The model is fitted to experimental data and specific material parameters for 9 abdominal and 14 thoracic aortas are provided. Furthermore, the model was implemented in a finite element code and numerically analyzed with respect to experimental tests, i.e. cyclic uniaxial tension in circumferential and longitudinal directions. Results showed that the model is able to capture specific features including anisotropy, nonlinearity, and damage-induced inelastic phenomena, i.e. stress softening and permanent deformation. Finite element results of a more complex boundary-value problem, i.e. aortic clamping considering the three aortic layers, residual stress, non-symmetric blood pressure after clamping, and patient-specific data are also presented. PMID:27233103
Analysis of lymphocytes deformation in microchannel flows using compound drop model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tatsumi, K.; Haizumi, K.; Sugimoto, K.; Nakabe, K.
2014-08-01
To understand the physical properties of the lymphocytes and develop a numerical model that can predict the motion and deformation of lymphocytes in flows, three-dimensional numerical simulation of the lymphocytes flowing through the contraction region of the microchannel was carried out employing the compound drop model in this study. The present model considers the shear-thinning effect of the cytoplasm, and includes the nucleus by applying another drop inside the cell. The results were compared with the experimental ones measured by recording the lymphocyte deformation using the high-speed camera. The time- dependent characteristics of the deformation degree DI of the lymphocyte, and the effects of the flow rate and the nucleus position on the DI were discussed. The results showed that the conventional drop model applying the Newtonian fluid properties to the cytoplasm cannot predict the deformation in the contraction region correctly where the nonlinear effects become important. The present model, on the other hand, showed a good agreement with the measured one. Further, the nucleus showed a significant effect on the shape of the lymphocyte. The rigid nucleus supressed the cell deformation and a slight deviation of its position affected the deformation rate of the leading and trailing sides markedly.
Modelling heat and mass transfer in bread baking with mechanical deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nicolas, V.; Salagnac, P.; Glouannec, P.; Ploteau, J.-P.; Jury, V.; Boillereaux, L.
2012-11-01
In this paper, the thermo-hydric behaviour of bread during baking is studied. A numerical model has been developed with Comsol Multiphysics© software. The model takes into account the heat and mass transfers in the bread and the phenomenon of swelling. This model predicts the evolution of temperature, moisture, gas pressure and deformation in French "baguette" during baking. Local deformation is included in equations using solid phase conservation and, global deformation is calculated using a viscous mechanic model. Boundary conditions are specified with the sole temperature model and vapour pressure estimation of the oven during baking. The model results are compared with experimental data for a classic baking. Then, the model is analysed according to physical properties of bread and solicitations for a better understanding of the interactions between different mechanisms within the porous matrix.
Modeling of porous scaffold deformation induced by medium perfusion.
Podichetty, Jagdeep T; Madihally, Sundararajan V
2014-05-01
In this study, we tested the possibility of calculating permeability of porous scaffolds utilized in soft tissue engineering using pore size and shape. We validated the results using experimental measured pressure drop and simulations with the inclusion of structural deformation. We prepared Polycaprolactone (PCL) and Chitosan-Gelatin (CG) scaffolds by salt leaching and freeze drying technique, respectively. Micrographs were assessed for pore characteristics and mechanical properties. Porosity for both scaffolds was nearly same but the permeability varied 10-fold. Elastic moduli were 600 and 9 kPa for PCL and CG scaffolds, respectively, while Poisson's ratio was 0.3 for PCL scaffolds and ∼1.0 for CG scaffolds. A flow-through bioreactor accommodating a 10 cm diameter and 0.2 cm thick scaffold was used to determine the pressure-drop at various flow rates. Additionally, computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations were performed by coupling fluid flow, described by Brinkman equation, with structural mechanics using a dynamic mesh. The experimentally obtained pressure drop matched the simulation results of PCL scaffolds. Simulations were extended to a broad range of permeabilities (10(-10) m(2) to 10(-14) m(2) ), elastic moduli (10-100,000 kPa) and Poisson's ratio (0.1-0.49). The results showed significant deviation in pressure drop due to scaffold deformation compared to rigid scaffold at permeabilities near healthy tissues. Also, considering the scaffold as a nonrigid structure altered the shear stress profile. In summary, scaffold permeability can be calculated using scaffold pore characteristics and deformation could be predicted using CFD simulation. These relationships could potentially be used in monitoring tissue regeneration noninvasively via pressure drop. PMID:24259467
Anwer, Shahnawaz; Alghadir, Ahmad; Abu Shaphe, Md.; Anwar, Dilshad
2015-01-01
Objectives. This systematic review was conducted to examine the effects of exercise on spinal deformities and quality of life in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Data Sources. Electronic databases, including PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, PEDro, and Web of Science, were searched for research articles published from the earliest available dates up to May 31, 2015, using the key words “exercise,” “postural correction,” “posture,” “postural curve,” “Cobb's angle,” “quality of life,” and “spinal deformities,” combined with the Medical Subject Heading “scoliosis.” Study Selection. This systematic review was restricted to randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials on AIS published in English language. The quality of selected studies was assessed by the PEDro scale, the Cochrane Collaboration's tool, and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation System (GRADE). Data Extraction. Descriptive data were collected from each study. The outcome measures of interest were Cobb angle, trunk rotation, thoracic kyphosis, lumbar kyphosis, vertebral rotation, and quality of life. Data Synthesis. A total of 30 studies were assessed for eligibility. Six of the 9 selected studies reached high methodological quality on the PEDro scale. Meta-analysis revealed moderate-quality evidence that exercise interventions reduce the Cobb angle, angle of trunk rotation, thoracic kyphosis, and lumbar lordosis and low-quality evidence that exercise interventions reduce average lateral deviation. Meta-analysis revealed moderate-quality evidence that exercise interventions improve the quality of life. Conclusions. A supervised exercise program was superior to controls in reducing spinal deformities and improving the quality of life in patients with AIS. PMID:26583083
Kinematic model of crustal deformation of Fenwei basin, China based on GPS observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qu, Wei; Lu, Zhong; Zhang, Qin; Li, Zhenhong; Peng, Jianbin; Wang, Qingliang; Drummond, Jane; Zhang, Ming
2014-04-01
Using high precision GPS data for the period of 1999-2007 from the China Crustal Movement Observation Network, we have constructed a plate kinematic model of crustal deformation of Fenwei basin, China. We have examined different kinematic models that can fit the horizontal crustal deformation of the Fenwei basin using three steps of testing. The first step is to carry out unbiasedness and efficiency tests of various models. The second step is to conduct significance tests of strain parameters of the models. The third step is to examine whether strain parameters can fully represent the deformation characteristics of the 11 tectonic blocks over the Fenwei basin. Our results show that the degree of rigidity at the Ordos, Hetao, Yinshan and South China blocks is significant at the 95% confidence level, indicating the crustal deformation of these blocks can be represented by a rigid block model without the need to consider differential deformation within blocks. We have demonstrated that homogeneous strain condition is suitable for the Yinchuan basin but not for other 6 blocks. Therefore, inhomogeneous strains within blocks should be considered when establishing the crustal deformation model for these blocks. We have also tested that not all of the quadratic terms of strain parameters are needed for the Yuncheng-Linfen block. Therefore, four kinds of elastic kinematic models that can best represent the detailed deformation characteristics of the 11 blocks of Fenwei basin are finally obtained. Based on the established model, we have shown that the current tectonic strain feature of the Fenwei basin is mainly characterized by tensile strain in the NW-SE direction, and the boundaries betweem the Ganqing and Ordos blocks and the Shanxi graben possess the maximum shear strain. A comparison between our results and past geological and geophysical investigations further confirms that the model established in this paper is reasonable.
Niki, Yasuo; Matsumoto, Hideo; Otani, Toshiro; Enomoto, Hiroyuki; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Suda, Yasunori
2010-04-01
Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) reportedly yields decreased patient morbidity and a rapid return of function, but how much deformity can be accepted for MIS-TKA remains unclear. This study investigated 238 knees from 218 consecutive patients who underwent MIS-TKA. Patients were divided into groups with tibiofemoral mechanical axis (TFM) 195 degrees or greater and TFM less than 195 degrees, then clinical and radiographic results were compared. Similar improvements in knee score at 3 months postoperatively were obtained in the both groups, whereas radiographic accuracy of the coronal alignment in the TFM >or=195 degrees group was inferior to that in TFM <195 degrees group. Postoperative TFM was significantly worsened in patients with lateral bowing angle of the femoral shaft (LBFS) 4 degrees or greater, and 53% of patients in the TFM >or=195 degrees group displayed LBFS 4 degrees or greater, explaining the inferior radiographic accuracy in this group compared with the TFM <195 degrees group. These results indicate that use of MIS techniques decreases radiographic accuracy, particularly in patients with severe genu varum and increased LBFS. PMID:20347714
Fukuoka, Takuya; Hayashi, Takeshi; Ohira, Masayuki; Kato, Yuji; Deguchi, Ichiro; Maruyama, Hajime; Abe, Tetsuya; Sano, Hiroyasu; Mizuno, Satoko; Nagamine, Yuito; Kurita, Hiroki; Takao, Masaki; Tanahashi, Norio
2016-01-01
Objective Decompressive craniectomy (DC) in patients with malignant middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction is known to decrease the mortality rate. However, the functional outcomes (communication and oral intake) of this procedure remain unclear. Most patients with malignant MCA infarction exhibit a loss of consciousness, which may be principally governed by the thalamus. We herein investigated the functional outcomes of DC at 90 days after the onset of malignant MCA infarction and their association with preoperative thalamus deformation, which can occur due to pressure and edema. Methods Twelve of 2,692 patients with acute cerebral infarction were diagnosed with malignant MCA infarction and underwent DC. We evaluated preoperative thalamus damage using brain computed tomography and its association with communication and oral intake abilities and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and Barthel index scores at 90 days after stroke onset. Results The mRS score at 90 days was 0-4 in five patients. Seven patients could communicate immediately after surgery, while five could do so by 90 days. Five patients were able to resume the oral intake of food at 90 days. All patients with preoperative thalamus deformation showed a poor recovery, while those with absent or slight preoperative thalamus deformation showed a good recovery. Conclusion Patients with preoperative thalamus deformation caused by pressure and edema show a poor oral intake and communication abilities after DC, suggesting that preoperative thalamus deformation is a predictor of poor functional outcomes after DC in patients with malignant MCA infarction. PMID:27477404
Deformation of the UI-14at%Nb shape memory alloy: experiments and modeling
Field, Robert D; Tome, Carlos N; Mc Cabe, Rodney J; Clarke, Amy J; Brown, Donald W; Tupper, Catherine N
2010-12-22
U-14at%Nb is a shape memory effect (SME) alloy that undergoes deformation by the motion of complex twins and twin related lath boundaries up to the limit of SME deformation ({approx}7%). All of the twins present in the as-transformed martensite and active during SME deformation are derived from those of the orthorhombic alpha-U phase, modified for the monoclinic distortion of the alpha martensite phase. In the SME regime a simple Bain strain model qualitatively predicts variant selection, texture development in polycrystalline samples, and stress-strain behavior as a function of parent phase orientation in single crystal micropillars. In the post-SME regime, unrecoverable deformation occurs by a combination of slip and twinning, with the first few percent of strain in tension apparently governed by a twin species specifically associated with the monoclinic distortion (i.e. not present in the orthorhombic alpha-U phase). The situation in compression is more complicated, with a combination of slip and twinning systems believed responsible for deformation. A review of the Bain strain model for SME deformation will be presented in conjunction with experimental data. In addition, results from modeling of post-SME behavior using the Visco-Plastic Self-Consistent (VPSC) model will be compared to experimental texture measurements.
A Mechanism-based Model for Deformation Twinning in Polycrystalline FCC Steel
Wang, Yuan; Sun, Xin; Wang, Y. D.; Hu, Xiaohua; Zbib, Hussein M.
2014-06-01
Deformation twinning, a common and important plastic deformation mechanism, is the key contributor to the excellent combination of strength and ductility in twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel. In the open literature, a significant amount of research has been reported on the microstructural characteristics of deformation twinning and its influence on the overall deformation behavior of TWIP steel. In this study, we examine the feasibility of a mechanism-based crystal plasticity model in simulating the microstructural level deformation characteristics of TWIP steel. To this end, a model considering both double-slip and double-twin is developed to investigate the stress-strain behavior and local microstructural features related to the formation and growth of micro-twins in low stacking fault energy (SFE) TWIP steel. The twin systems are described as pseudo-slips that can be activated when their resolved shear stress reaches the corresponding critical value. A hardening law that accounts for the interaction among the slip and twin systems is also developed. Numerical simulations for dDifferent mesh sizes and single crystal patch tests under different loading modes are carried out to verify the modeling procedure. Our simulation results reveal that, despite its simple nature, the double-slip/double-twin model can capture the key deformation features of TWIP steel, including twin volume fraction evolution, continuous strain hardening, and the final fracture in the form of strain localization.
Shouchun Deng; Robert Podgorney; Hai Huang
2011-02-01
Key challenges associated with the EGS reservoir development include the ability to reliably predict hydraulic fracturing and the deformation of natural fractures as well as estimating permeability evolution of the fracture network with time. We have developed a physics-based rock deformation and fracture propagation simulator by coupling a discrete element model (DEM) for fracturing with a network flow model. In DEM model, solid rock is represented by a network of discrete elements (often referred as particles) connected by various types of mechanical bonds such as springs, elastic beams or bonds that have more complex properties (such as stress-dependent elastic constants). Fracturing is represented explicitly as broken bonds (microcracks), which form and coalesce into macroscopic fractures when external and internal load is applied. The natural fractures are represented by a series of connected line segments. Mechanical bonds that intersect with such line segments are removed from the DEM model. A network flow model using conjugate lattice to the DEM network is developed and coupled with the DEM. The fluid pressure gradient exerts forces on individual elements of the DEM network, which therefore deforms the mechanical bonds and breaks them if the deformation reaches a prescribed threshold value. Such deformation/fracturing in turn changes the permeability of the flow network, which again changes the evolution of fluid pressure, intimately coupling the two processes. The intimate coupling between fracturing/deformation of fracture networks and fluid flow makes the meso-scale DEM- network flow simulations necessary in order to accurately evaluate the permeability evolution, as these methods have substantial advantages over conventional continuum mechanical models of elastic rock deformation. The challenges that must be overcome to simulate EGS reservoir stimulation, preliminary results, progress to date and near future research directions and opportunities will be
Modeling grain size during hot deformation of IN 718
Medeiros, S.C.; Prasad, Y.V.R.K.; Frazier, W.G.; Srinivasan, R.
1999-12-17
Aerospace gas turbine disks operate in an environment of relatively high stresses caused by centrifugal forces and elevated temperatures. These severe conditions necessitate the need for materials with high temperature strength and good low cycle fatigue resistance. One class of alloys used for this task is the nickel base superalloys, out of which, IN 718 is the most widely used in the aerospace industry. The properties of IN 718 are attributed to the combined effects of the chemistry, heat treatment, and microstructure. The chemistry is tailored not only for solid solution strengthening but also for precipitation hardening developed during heat treatment, which combined with a fine grained microstructure lead to excellent mechanical properties such as low cycle fatigue resistance and elevated temperature strength. The properties of a gas turbine disk are sensitive to the microstructure, in particular the grain size, which is dependent on the processing history. The ability to precisely control the microstructural development during forging is dependent on controlling the process so that the workpiece is deformed within a safe region where no microstructural damage or flow instabilities occur. The microstructural mechanisms during deformation may themselves vary within the age region and it is desirable to determine them within the range of parameters that are commonly used in industrial processing. The objective of this work is to establish a relationship between the grain size and the process control parameters i.e., temperature and strain rate, in the hot working of IN 178.
q-Deformation of symplectic dynamical symmetries in algebraic models of nuclear structure
Georgieva, A. I.; Sviratcheva, K. D.; Ivanov, M. I.; Draayer, J. P.
2011-06-15
With a view toward further nuclear structure applications of approaches based on quantum-deformed (or q-deformed) algebras, introduced to the authors by Yu.F. Smirnov, we construct a q analog of a boson realization of the symplectic noncompact sp(4, R) algebra together with a q analog of a fermion realization of the symplectic compact sp(4) algebra. The first study, on the q-deformed Sp(4,R) symmetry, is applied to the development of a q analog of the two-dimensional Interacting Boson Model with q-deformed SU(3) the underpinning dynamical symmetry group. An explicit realization in terms of q-tensor operators with respect to the standard su{sub q}(2) algebra is given. The group-subgroup structure of this framework yields the physical interpretation of the generators of the groups under consideration. The second symplectic algebra, the q-deformed sp(4), is applied to studying isovector pairing correlations in atomic nuclei. A specific q deformation of the sp(4) algebra is realized in terms of q deformed fermion creation and annihilation operators of the shell model. The generators of the algebra close on four distinct realizations of the u{sub q}(2) subalgebra. These reductions, which correspond to different types of pairing interactions, yield a complete classification of the basis states. An analysis of the role of the q deformation is based on a comparison of the results for energies of the lowest isovector-paired 0{sup +} states in the deformed and nondeformed cases.
Surrogate-driven deformable motion model for organ motion tracking in particle radiation therapy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fassi, Aurora; Seregni, Matteo; Riboldi, Marco; Cerveri, Pietro; Sarrut, David; Battista Ivaldi, Giovanni; Tabarelli de Fatis, Paola; Liotta, Marco; Baroni, Guido
2015-02-01
The aim of this study is the development and experimental testing of a tumor tracking method for particle radiation therapy, providing the daily respiratory dynamics of the patient’s thoraco-abdominal anatomy as a function of an external surface surrogate combined with an a priori motion model. The proposed tracking approach is based on a patient-specific breathing motion model, estimated from the four-dimensional (4D) planning computed tomography (CT) through deformable image registration. The model is adapted to the interfraction baseline variations in the patient’s anatomical configuration. The driving amplitude and phase parameters are obtained intrafractionally from a respiratory surrogate signal derived from the external surface displacement. The developed technique was assessed on a dataset of seven lung cancer patients, who underwent two repeated 4D CT scans. The first 4D CT was used to build the respiratory motion model, which was tested on the second scan. The geometric accuracy in localizing lung lesions, mediated over all breathing phases, ranged between 0.6 and 1.7 mm across all patients. Errors in tracking the surrounding organs at risk, such as lungs, trachea and esophagus, were lower than 1.3 mm on average. The median absolute variation in water equivalent path length (WEL) within the target volume did not exceed 1.9 mm-WEL for simulated particle beams. A significant improvement was achieved compared with error compensation based on standard rigid alignment. The present work can be regarded as a feasibility study for the potential extension of tumor tracking techniques in particle treatments. Differently from current tracking methods applied in conventional radiotherapy, the proposed approach allows for the dynamic localization of all anatomical structures scanned in the planning CT, thus providing complete information on density and WEL variations required for particle beam range adaptation.
Hnizdo, V. )
1994-08-01
The differences between the deformed-potential and folding-model descriptions of inelastic nuclear scattering, attention to which has been called recently by Beene, Horen, and Satchler [Phys. Rev. C 48, 3128 (1993)], were pointed out already some time ago by contrasting the rules of equal deformation lengths and equal normalized multipole moments for the optical potential and the underlying nucleon distribution of the excited nucleus.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ling, Y.; Haselbacher, A.; Balachandar, S.; Najjar, F. M.; Stewart, D. S.
2013-01-01
The interaction of shock waves with deformable particles is an important fundamental problem. In some applications, e.g., the detonation of explosives loaded with metal particles, the pressure behind the shock wave can be significantly larger than the yield strength of the particle material. This means that particles can deform severely during their interaction with the shock wave. The experimental and theoretical studies of shock interaction with deformable particles (SIDP) are extremely challenging because of its highly transient nature. As a result, no accurate model exists yet that can be used in simulations. The objective of this paper is to develop a simple point-particle model that accurately captures the unsteady force and heat-transfer in SIDP. In the development of this model, we build on earlier models by Ling et al. (Int. J. Multiphase Flow 37, 1026-1044 (2011)) for the unsteady force and heat-transfer contributions for rigid particles. Insights gained from direct numerical simulations (DNS) guide the extension of these models to deforming particles. Results obtained with the extended model for the interaction of a deforming particle with a shock wave and a Chapman-Jouguet detonation wave compare well with DNS results and therefore offer significant improvements over standard models.
A kidney deformation model for use in non-rigid registration during image-guided surgery
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ong, Rowena E.; Herrell, S. Duke, III; Miga, Michael I.; Galloway, Robert L., Jr.
2008-03-01
In order to facilitate the removal of tumors during partial nephrectomies, an image-guided surgery system may be useful. This system would require a registration of the physical kidney to a pre-operative image volume; however, it is unclear whether a rigid registration would be sufficient. One possible source of non-rigid deformation is the clamping of the renal artery during surgery and the subsequent loss of pressure as the kidney is punctured and blood loss occurs. To explore this issue, a model of kidney deformation due to loss of perfusion and pressure was developed based on Biot's consolidation model. The model was tested on two resected porcine kidneys in which the renal artery and vein were clamped. CT image volumes of the kidney were obtained before and after the deformation caused unclamping, and fiducial markers embedded on the kidney surface allowed the deformation to be tracked. The accuracy of the kidney model was accessed by calculating the model error at the fiducial locations and using image similarity measures. Preliminary results indicate that the model may be useful in a non-rigid registration scheme; however, further refinements to the model may be necessary to better simulate the deformation due to loss of perfusion and pressure.
Hutnak, M.; Hurwitz, S.; Ingebritsen, S.E.; Hsieh, P.A.
2009-01-01
Ground surface displacement (GSD) in large calderas is often interpreted as resulting from magma intrusion at depth. Recent advances in geodetic measurements of GSD, notably interferometric synthetic aperture radar, reveal complex and multifaceted deformation patterns that often require complex source models to explain the observed GSD. Although hydrothermal fluids have been discussed as a possible deformation agent, very few quantitative studies addressing the effects of multiphase flow on crustal mechanics have been attempted. Recent increases in the power and availability of computing resources allow robust quantitative assessment of the complex time-variant thermal interplay between aqueous fluid flow and crustal deformation. We carry out numerical simulations of multiphase (liquid-gas), multicomponent (H 2O-CO2) hydrothermal fluid flow and poroelastic deformation using a range of realistic physical parameters and processes. Hydrothermal fluid injection, circulation, and gas formation can generate complex, temporally and spatially varying patterns of GSD, with deformation rates, magnitudes, and geometries (including subsidence) similar to those observed in several large calderas. The potential for both rapid and gradual deformation resulting from magma-derived fluids suggests that hydrothermal fluid circulation may help explain deformation episodes at calderas that have not culminated in magmatic eruption.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Philippon, Mélody; Le Carlier de Veslud, Christian; Gueydan, Frédéric; Brun, Jean-Pierre; Caumon, Guillaume
2015-09-01
Superposed to ductile syn-metamorphic deformations, post-foliation deformations affect metamorphic units during their exhumation. Understanding the role of such deformations in the structuration of metamorphic units is key for understanding the tectonic evolution of convergence zones. We characterize post-foliations deformations using 3D modelling which is a first-order tool to describe complex geological structures, but a challenging task where based only on surface data. We propose a modelling procedure that combines fast draft models (interpolation of orientation data), with more complex ones where the structural context is better understood (implicit modelling), allowing us to build a 3D geometrical model of Syros Island blueschists (Cyclades), based on field data. With our approach, the 3D model is able to capture the complex present-day geometry of the island, mainly controlled by the superposition of three types of post-metamorphic deformations affecting the original metamorphic pile: i) a top-to-South ramp-flat extensional system that dominates the overall island structure, ii) large-scale folding of the metamorphic units associated with ramp-flat extensional system, and iii) steeply-dipping normal faults trending dominantly NNW-SSE and EW. The 3D surfaces produced by this method match outcrop data, are geologically consistent, and provide reasonable estimates of geological structures in poorly constrained areas.
Evaluation of Landslide Hazard Using Models For Dynamic Deformation of The Earth Crust
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ovcharenko, A.; Sokolov, V.; Loh, C.-H.; Wen, K.-L.
The 4D-model (x, y, z, t - geographic coordinates, depth, time) for dynamic defor- mation of the Earth crust is applied for analysis of various catastrophic geodynamic phenomena, for example, the landslides that do not relate with earthquakes. The model of is constructed on the basis the geophysical data: Global Positioning System (GPS) network, Persistent Sea Water Level (PSWL) monitoring and seismic catalogues. It is possible to utilize also other indirect geophysical data that reflect the dynamic process of the Earth crust deformation. The process and results of the modeling are described for the case of Tsao-Ling (Taiwan) area, where a set of catastrophic landslides oc- curred during last 150 years. The development of elastic deformational displacement of the Earth crust is analyzed for this time period. It has been found, that generally the landslides occurred during the period of anomalous behavior of deformation (com- pression/tension changes, high gradient of deformation, etc.). It is also necessary to consider jointly direction of deformational displacement and peculiarities of surface relief (characteristics of mountain slopes). Thus, it is possible to conclude that the slow deformational processes may play a significant role in development of danger- ous geodynamic phenomena on mountain slopes. The method of revealing and analy- sis of potentially dangerous areas may include the follow steps. A - the detailed digital model of surface is used for selection of steep slope areas. B - the 4D-model is applied for the areas and schemes of characteristics of deformational displacement (gradient or vectors of horizontal displacement) are calculated for intervals of one-two years. C - the schemes of surface relief and modeled parameters are used jointly for analysis of dangerous periods.
Modeling Spatial Correlation of DNA Deformation: DNA Allostery in Protein Binding
Xu, Xinliang; Ge, Hao; Gu, Chan; Gao, Yi Qin; Wang, Siyuan S.; Thio, Beng Joo Reginald; Hynes, James T.; Xie, X. Sunney; Cao, Jianshu
2013-01-01
We report a study of DNA deformations using a coarse-grained mechanical model and quantitatively interpret the allosteric effects in protein-DNA binding affinity. A recent single molecule study (Kim et al. (2013) Science, 339, 816) showed that when a DNA molecule is deformed by specific binding of a protein, the binding affinity of a second protein separated from the first protein is altered. Experimental observations together with molecular dynamics simulations suggested that the origin of the DNA allostery is related to the observed deformation of DNA’s structure, in particular the major groove width. In order to unveil and quantify the underlying mechanism for the observed major groove deformation behavior related to the DNA allostery, here we provide a simple but effective analytical model where DNA deformations upon protein binding are analyzed and spatial correlations of local deformations along the DNA are examined. The deformation of the DNA base orientations, which directly affect the major groove width, is found in both an analytical derivation and coarse-grained Monte Carlo simulations. This deformation oscillates with a period of 10 base pairs with an amplitude decaying exponentially from the binding site with a decay length lD~10 base pairs, as a result of the balance between two competing terms in DNA base stacking energy. This length scale is in agreement with that reported from the single molecule experiment. Our model can be reduced to the worm-like chain form at length scales larger than lP but is able to explain DNA’s mechanical properties on shorter length scales, in particular the DNA allostery of protein-DNA interactions. PMID:23795567
Prediction of water loss and viscoelastic deformation of apple tissue using a multiscale model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aregawi, Wondwosen A.; Abera, Metadel K.; Fanta, Solomon W.; Verboven, Pieter; Nicolai, Bart
2014-11-01
A two-dimensional multiscale water transport and mechanical model was developed to predict the water loss and deformation of apple tissue (Malus × domestica Borkh. cv. ‘Jonagold’) during dehydration. At the macroscopic level, a continuum approach was used to construct a coupled water transport and mechanical model. Water transport in the tissue was simulated using a phenomenological approach using Fick’s second law of diffusion. Mechanical deformation due to shrinkage was based on a structural mechanics model consisting of two parts: Yeoh strain energy functions to account for non-linearity and Maxwell’s rheological model of visco-elasticity. Apparent parameters of the macroscale model were computed from a microscale model. The latter accounted for water exchange between different microscopic structures of the tissue (intercellular space, the cell wall network and cytoplasm) using transport laws with the water potential as the driving force for water exchange between different compartments of tissue. The microscale deformation mechanics were computed using a model where the cells were represented as a closed thin walled structure. The predicted apparent water transport properties of apple cortex tissue from the microscale model showed good agreement with the experimentally measured values. Deviations between calculated and measured mechanical properties of apple tissue were observed at strains larger than 3%, and were attributed to differences in water transport behavior between the experimental compression tests and the simulated dehydration-deformation behavior. Tissue dehydration and deformation in the high relative humidity range ( > 97% RH) could, however, be accurately predicted by the multiscale model. The multiscale model helped to understand the dynamics of the dehydration process and the importance of the different microstructural compartments (intercellular space, cell wall, membrane and cytoplasm) for water transport and mechanical
Prediction of water loss and viscoelastic deformation of apple tissue using a multiscale model.
Aregawi, Wondwosen A; Abera, Metadel K; Fanta, Solomon W; Verboven, Pieter; Nicolai, Bart
2014-11-19
A two-dimensional multiscale water transport and mechanical model was developed to predict the water loss and deformation of apple tissue (Malus × domestica Borkh. cv. 'Jonagold') during dehydration. At the macroscopic level, a continuum approach was used to construct a coupled water transport and mechanical model. Water transport in the tissue was simulated using a phenomenological approach using Fick's second law of diffusion. Mechanical deformation due to shrinkage was based on a structural mechanics model consisting of two parts: Yeoh strain energy functions to account for non-linearity and Maxwell's rheological model of visco-elasticity. Apparent parameters of the macroscale model were computed from a microscale model. The latter accounted for water exchange between different microscopic structures of the tissue (intercellular space, the cell wall network and cytoplasm) using transport laws with the water potential as the driving force for water exchange between different compartments of tissue. The microscale deformation mechanics were computed using a model where the cells were represented as a closed thin walled structure. The predicted apparent water transport properties of apple cortex tissue from the microscale model showed good agreement with the experimentally measured values. Deviations between calculated and measured mechanical properties of apple tissue were observed at strains larger than 3%, and were attributed to differences in water transport behavior between the experimental compression tests and the simulated dehydration-deformation behavior. Tissue dehydration and deformation in the high relative humidity range ( > 97% RH) could, however, be accurately predicted by the multiscale model. The multiscale model helped to understand the dynamics of the dehydration process and the importance of the different microstructural compartments (intercellular space, cell wall, membrane and cytoplasm) for water transport and mechanical deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grosse, Pablo; Yagupsky, Daniel; Winocur, Diego
2014-05-01
In order to evaluate the effects of growth and deformation (both separately and jointly) on volcano shape evolution, we performed a set of analogue experiments simulating these processes. The models consist of an initial symmetrical cone of 3 to 6 cm height composed of a mixture of quartz sand and plaster (cohesion of 100 to 300 Pa). Deformation was simulated through the relative motion of two underlying plates, generating a dextral E-W transcurrent fault. Growth was simulated through sedimentation of loads of granular material. For experiments simulating a fixed emission point, sedimentation was done on the same central point, whereas for experiments simulating variable emission points, sedimentation was done at the location of extrusion of corn syrup (pure and water-diluted, viscosities of 2 to 20 Pa.s) injected at the cone base, modeling magma intrusion. The experiments were documented by photographs and topographic scans, from which digital elevation models were constructed and used to calculate morphometric parameters. Five types of experiments were performed: -1. Deformation without growth (the initial cone is deformed by the E-W fault): the edifice elongates ENE-WSW, sub-perpendicular to σ1; a large graben forms at the summit region; the height/width ratio (H/W) strongly decreases. -2. Fixed-location growth without deformation (sedimentation on top of the initial cone): the edifice maintains its symmetrical, circular and regular shape, only size increases. -3. Variable-location growth without deformation (cycles of injection and sedimentation at the extrusion location): location of extrusions are variable, both within and between experiments; edifices are strongly irregular; elongation values and directions vary; H/W is maintained or decreases slightly. -4. Fixed-location growth with deformation (the initial cone is deformed by the fault and sedimentation is done on a central point): as with type (1) models, the cone elongates ENE-WSW and the central graben
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guldstrand, Frank; Bjugger, Fanny; Galland, Olivier; Burchardt, Steffi; Hallot, Erwan
2014-05-01
Inclined cone-sheets and sub-vertical dykes constitute the two principal types of magmatic sheet intrusions produced by volcanic systems. In active volcanic systems, the emplacement of sheet intrusions causes measurable surface deformation, which is analyzed through geodetic models. Geodetic model output is classically the shape of underlying intrusions causing the surface deformation, however, the results of these models are not testable as the subsurface intrusion is not accessible. Such test would only be doable with a physical system in which both (1) the surface deformation pattern and (2) the 3D shape of the underlying intrusion are known. In addition, established geodetic models only consider static magma intrusions, and do not account for emplacement and propagation processes. This would require combined good time- and space-resolution, which is not achievable with classical geodetic monitoring systems. We present a series of analogue models that may be a way of accurately linking surface deformation to the underlying intrusions and associated emplacement processes. We systematically varied depth of intrusion, the cohesive properties of the silica powder representing the country rock and the velocity of injected magma. The pressure of the intruding vegetable oil was measured through time, and the model surface topography was monitored. The low viscosity magma was simulated by molten vegetable oil, which solidified after intrusion; the solidified intrusion was then excavated and its shape was measured. By linking the development of the surface uplift in height, area, and volume with the pressure data from the onset of intrusion until the time of eruption, we identify characteristic laws of surface deformation. First results indicate that the pattern of uplift over time varies, depending on whether deformation is caused by a dyke- or a cone-sheet-shaped intrusion. The results from all experiments may enable us to distinguish the two intrusion types using
Feng, Jun; Ip, Horace H S; Cheng, Shuk H; Chan, Po K
2004-09-01
Embryonic cardiovascular system plays a vital role in embryonic development of human and animal. In this work, we introduce a novel deformable model, which we called Relational-tubular (ReTu) deformable model for segmenting and quantifying the embryonic vasculature of zebrafish embryo from microangiography image series. Particularly, to incorporate additional constraints on the spatial relationships among vessel branches, we introduce a new energy term called relation energy into the model energy function. This energy item acts as a repulsion force between neighboring vessels during the deformation to encourage them to move towards their respective volume data. Using the ReTu deformable model, the deformation process is an iterative two-stage procedure: vascular axis deformation and vascular surface deformation. The efficiency and robustness of this approach are demonstrated by experiments which show that satisfactory quantifications of the vasculature can be obtained after 3-4 iterations. PMID:15294311
Virtual Deformation Control of the X-56A Model with Simulated Fiber Optic Sensors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Suh, Peter M.; Chin, Alexander W.; Mavris, Dimitri N.
2014-01-01
A robust control law design methodology is presented to stabilize the X-56A model and command its wing shape. The X-56A was purposely designed to experience flutter modes in its flight envelope. The methodology introduces three phases: the controller design phase, the modal filter design phase, and the reference signal design phase. A mu-optimal controller is designed and made robust to speed and parameter variations. A conversion technique is presented for generating sensor strain modes from sensor deformation mode shapes. The sensor modes are utilized for modal filtering and simulating fiber optic sensors for feedback to the controller. To generate appropriate virtual deformation reference signals, rigid-body corrections are introduced to the deformation mode shapes. After successful completion of the phases, virtual deformation control is demonstrated. The wing is deformed and it is shown that angle-ofattack changes occur which could potentially be used to an advantage. The X-56A program must demonstrate active flutter suppression. It is shown that the virtual deformation controller can achieve active flutter suppression on the X-56A simulation model.
Virtual Deformation Control of the X-56A Model with Simulated Fiber Optic Sensors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Suh, Peter M.; Chin, Alexander Wong
2013-01-01
A robust control law design methodology is presented to stabilize the X-56A model and command its wing shape. The X-56A was purposely designed to experience flutter modes in its flight envelope. The methodology introduces three phases: the controller design phase, the modal filter design phase, and the reference signal design phase. A mu-optimal controller is designed and made robust to speed and parameter variations. A conversion technique is presented for generating sensor strain modes from sensor deformation mode shapes. The sensor modes are utilized for modal filtering and simulating fiber optic sensors for feedback to the controller. To generate appropriate virtual deformation reference signals, rigid-body corrections are introduced to the deformation mode shapes. After successful completion of the phases, virtual deformation control is demonstrated. The wing is deformed and it is shown that angle-of-attack changes occur which could potentially be used to an advantage. The X-56A program must demonstrate active flutter suppression. It is shown that the virtual deformation controller can achieve active flutter suppression on the X-56A simulation model.
Modeling spatial correlation of DNA deformations: Allosteric effects of DNA protein binding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Xinliang; Cao, Jianshu; Hao Ge Collaboration; X. Sunney Xie Collaboration
2013-03-01
We report a study of DNA deformations by a coarse grained mechanical model. Recent single molecule experimental studies show that when DNA molecule is deformed by its binding to a protein, the binding affinity of a second protein at distance L away from the first binding site is altered. To explain this observation, the relaxation of deformation along the DNA chain is examined. Our method predicts a general exponentially decaying behavior for differenct deformation modes. As an example, inter-helical distance deformation is studied in details, and is found to decay at a previously unknown lengthscale of 10 base pairs as a result of the balance between inter and intra DNA strand energy. This lengthscale is in good agreement with the said single molecule experimental observation. This model of local deformation relaxation helps us better understand many important issues in DNA such as the enhanced flexibility of DNA at short lengthscales and DNA repair mechanism inside cells. Biodynamic Optical Imaging Center, Peking University
A new bubble dynamics model to study bubble growth, deformation, and coalescence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huber, C.; Su, Y.; Nguyen, C. T.; Parmigiani, A.; Gonnermann, H. M.; Dufek, J.
2014-01-01
We propose a new bubble dynamics model to study the evolution of a suspension of bubbles over a wide range of vesicularity, and that accounts for hydrodynamical interactions between bubbles while they grow, deform under shear flow conditions, and exchange mass by diffusion coarsening. The model is based on a lattice Boltzmann method for free surface flows. As such, it assumes an infinite viscosity contrast between the exsolved volatiles and the melt. Our model allows for coalescence when two bubbles approach each other because of growth or deformation. The parameter (disjoining pressure) that controls the coalescence efficiency, i.e., drainage time for the fluid film between the bubbles, can be set arbitrarily in our calculations. We calibrated this parameter by matching the measured time for the drainage of the melt film across a range of Bond numbers (ratio of buoyancy to surface tension stresses) with laboratory experiments of a bubble rising to a free surface. The model is then used successfully to model Ostwald ripening and bubble deformation under simple shear flow conditions. The results we obtain for the deformation of a single bubble are in excellent agreement with previous experimental and theoretical studies. For a suspension, we observe that the collective effect of bubbles is different depending on the relative magnitude of viscous and interfacial stresses (capillary number). At low capillary number, we find that bubbles deform more readily in a suspension than for the case of a single bubble, whereas the opposite is observed at high capillary number.
Sibinski, Marcin; Synder, Marek; Higgs, Zoe C J; Kujawa, Jolanta; Grzegorzewski, Andrzej
2013-03-01
The purpose of the study was to assess the quality of life, physical function, self-motivation, and self-perception of skeletally mature patients with spina bifida and scoliosis. This is a prospective study on 19 skeletally mature patients with a mean age of 21.4 years. Several questionnaires were used for the study: Activities Scale for Kids, Quality of Life in Spina Bifida Questionnaire, The Health Self-Determinism Index for Children, Harter's Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents, and the Spina Bifida Spine Questionnaire. This study found no association between spinal deformity or other features related to spina bifida and self-perception, motivation, and overall physical function. More severe scoliosis affects quality of life and is related to the degree of pelvic obliquity and the age of the patients. Individuals with motor-level dysfunction below L3 had significantly better overall physical function compared with those with a higher level of lesions. This was the only factor found to affect physical function. Our findings suggest that most limitations in patients with spina bifida are not related to the degree of scoliosis but to other associated disabilities. PMID:23197183
A170P mutation in SHOX gene in a patient not presenting with Madelung deformity.
Alvarez-Mora, María Isabel; Madrigal, Irene; Rodriguez-Revenga, Laia; Mur, Antonio; Calvo, Dolors; Pascual I Bardají, Josep; Milà, Montserrat
2012-09-01
Idiopathic short stature is a multifactorial disease caused by defects in several genes. Among them, short stature homeobox-containing gene (SHOX) mutations have an incidence of 2%-15% within the idiopathic short population. The authors report a patient with moderate intellectual disability, short stature and no other radiological traits referred for subtelomeric screening. MLPA and sequencing results showed a heterozygous mutation in SHOX gene (A170P). This mutation has been described to fully cosegregate with Madelung deformity in patients affected with Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis and Langer mesomelic dysplasia. The authors report the first case of idiopathic short stature due to the A170P mutation in a patient without any radiological trait. The A170P mutation is the most prevalent mutation in the Spanish gypsy population affected with short stature disorders. The authors strongly recommend SHOX screening for deletions, duplications and point mutations in patients affected with short stature although they do not present any radiological traits. PMID:22461651
Mechanical dyssynchrony and deformation imaging in patients with functional mitral regurgitation
Rosa, Isabella; Marini, Claudia; Stella, Stefano; Ancona, Francesco; Spartera, Marco; Margonato, Alberto; Agricola, Eustachio
2016-01-01
Chronic functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) is a frequent finding of ischemic heart disease and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), associated with unfavourable prognosis. Several pathophysiologic mechanisms are involved in FMR, such as annular dilatation and dysfunction, left ventricle (LV) remodeling, dysfunction and dyssynchrony, papillary muscles displacement and dyssynchrony. The best therapeutic choice for FMR is still debated. When optimal medical treatment has already been set, a further option for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) and/or surgical correction should be considered. CRT is able to contrast most of the pathophysiologic determinants of FMR by minimizing LV dyssynchrony through different mechanisms: Increasing closing forces, reducing tethering forces, reshaping annular geometry and function, correcting diastolic MR. Deformation imaging in terms of two-dimensional speckle tracking has been validated for LV dyssynchrony assessment. Radial speckle tracking and three-dimensional strain analysis appear to be the best methods to quantify intraventricular delay and to predict CRT-responders. Speckle-tracking echocardiography in patients with mitral valve regurgitation has been usually proposed for the assessment of LV and left atrial function. However it has also revealed a fundamental role of intraventricular dyssynchrony in determining FMR especially in DCM, rather than in ischemic cardiomyopathy in which MR severity seems to be more related to mitral valve deformation indexes. Furthermore speckle tracking allows the assessment of papillary muscle dyssynchrony. Therefore this technique can help to identify optimal candidates to CRT that will probably demonstrate a reduction in FMR degree and thus will experience a better outcome. PMID:26981211
A theoretical model to predict tensile deformation behavior of balloon catheter.
Todo, Mitsugu; Yoshiya, Keiji; Matsumoto, Takuya
2016-09-01
In this technical note, a simple theoretical model was proposed to express the tensile deformation and fracture of balloon catheter tested by the ISO standard using piece-wise linear force-displacement relations. The model was then validated by comparing with the tensile force-displacement behaviors of two types of typical balloon catheters clinically used worldwide. It was shown that the proposed model can effectively be used to express the tensile deformation behavior and easily be handled by physicians who are not familiar with mechanics of materials. PMID:27214691
Wall stress and deformation analysis in a numerical model of pulse wave propagation.
He, Fan; Hua, Lu; Gao, Lijian
2015-01-01
To simulate pulse wave propagation, we set up a wave propagation model using blood-wall interaction in previous work. In this paper, our purpose is to investigate wall stress and deformation of the wave propagation model. The finite element method is employed for solving the governing equations of blood and wall. Our results suggest that there are two peaks in the circumferential stress and strain distributions of the normal model. The stress and strain values change with the varieties of different factors, such as wall thickness and vessel diameter. The results indicate that different parameters of fluid and tube wall have remarked impact on wall stress and deformation. PMID:26406044
Curnes, J T; Oakes, W J; Boyko, O B
1989-01-01
We examined the MR appearance of the hindbrain deformity, including the upper cervical spinal canal and craniovertebral junction, in 33 patients with Chiari II malformation. In this disorder, there is impaction at birth of the medulla and cerebellar vermis into the upper cervical spine, resulting in obliteration of the subarachnoid space and scalloping of the dens. Spinal canal enlargement during the child's growth, combined with dorsal displacement of neural tissue, eventually causes marked widening of the precervical subarachnoid space. This enlargement may simulate an intradural mass. Our series documents the changes seen at birth and the progression of the widened precervical space through the first and second decades. Twelve (36%) of the 33 patients studied were symptomatic, with brainstem or longtract symptomatology, and 11 of these required surgery. This group was compared with the remaining 21 asymptomatic Chiari II patients to identify MR features associated with clinical deterioration. The level of descent of the hindbrain hernia was critical; eight of 12 symptomatic patients had a cervicomedullary kink at C4 or lower, while no asymptomatic patients had a fourth ventricle, medulla, or kink below C3-C4. The precervical cord subarachnoid space was slightly wider in asymptomatic patients, although there was great overlap. In five patients with follow-up scans, this space was seen to increase in width after laminectomy. A CSF flow void was present in the precervical space in about 25% of patients in both groups. In nine of 12 symptomatic patients, C1 arch indentation of the dura (causing significant compression) was confirmed surgically. However, seven (33%) of the 21 asymptomatic patients also had this appearance. Absolute measurement of the anteroposterior diameter of the canal at C1 ranged from 11 to 25 mm in both groups. Retrocollis, which persisted despite sedation for MR, was seen in two patients, both symptomatic. Recognition of the vermis, medullary
Assessment of a Model-Based Deformable Image Registration Approach for Radiation Therapy Planning
Kaus, Michael R. . E-mail: Michael.kaus@philips.com; Brock, Kristy K.; Pekar, Vladimir; Dawson, Laura A.; Nichol, Alan M.; Jaffray, David A.
2007-06-01
Purpose: The aim of this study is to develop a surface-based deformable image registration strategy and to assess the accuracy of the system for the integration of multimodality imaging, image-guided radiation therapy, and assessment of geometrical change during and after therapy. Methods and Materials: A surface-model-based deformable image registration system has been developed that enables quantitative description of geometrical change in multimodal images with high computational efficiency. Based on the deformation of organ surfaces, a volumetric deformation field is derived using different volumetric elasticity models as alternatives to finite-element modeling. Results: The accuracy of the system was assessed both visually and quantitatively by tracking naturally occurring landmarks (bronchial bifurcations in the lung, vessel bifurcations in the liver, implanted gold markers in the prostate). The maximum displacements for lung, liver and prostate were 5.3 cm, 3.2 cm, and 0.6 cm respectively. The largest registration error (direction, mean {+-} SD) for lung, liver and prostate were (inferior-superior, -0.21 {+-} 0.38 cm) (anterior-posterior, -0.09 {+-} 0.34 cm), and (left-right, 0.04 {+-} 0.38 cm) respectively, which was within the image resolution regardless of the deformation model. The computation time (2.7 GHz Intel Xeon) was on the order of seconds (e.g., 10 s for 2 prostate datasets), and deformed axial images could be viewed at interactive speed (less than 1 s for 512 x 512 voxels). Conclusions: Surface-based deformable image registration enables the quantification of geometrical change in normal tissue and tumor with acceptable accuracy and speed.
Jensen, Jan Skov; Pedersen, Sune H.; Galatius, Søren; Fritz-Hansen, Thomas; Bech, Jan; Olsen, Flemming Javier; Mogelvang, Rasmus
2016-01-01
Background Global longitudinal systolic strain (GLS) has recently been demonstrated to be a superior prognosticator to conventional echocardiographic measures in patients after myocardial infarction (MI). The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of regional longitudinal myocardial deformation in comparison to GLS, conventional echocardiography and clinical information. Method In total 391 patients were admitted with ST-Segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention and subsequently examined by echocardiography. All patients were examined by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) and two-dimensional strain echocardiography (2DSE). Results During a median-follow-up of 5.3 (IQR 2.5–6.1) years the primary endpoint (death, heart failure or a new MI) was reached by 145 (38.9%) patients. After adjustment for significant confounders (including conventional echocardiographic parameters) and culprit lesion, reduced longitudinal performance in the anterior septal and inferior myocardial regions (but not GLS) remained independent predictors of the combined outcome. Furthermore, inferior myocardial longitudinal deformation provided incremental prognostic information to clinical and conventional echocardiographic information (Harrell's c-statistics: 0.63 vs. 0.67, p = 0.032). In addition, impaired longitudinal deformation outside the culprit lesion perfusion region was significantly associated with an adverse outcome (p<0.05 for all deformation parameters). Conclusion Regional longitudinal myocardial deformation measures, regardless if determined by TDI or 2DSE, are superior prognosticators to GLS. In addition, impaired longitudinal deformation in the inferior myocardial segment provides prognostic information over and above clinical and conventional echocardiographic risk factors. Furthermore, impaired longitudinal deformation outside the culprit lesion perfusion region seems to be a paramount marker of adverse
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Izadbakhsh, Adel; Inal, Kaan; Mishra, Raja K.
2012-04-01
In this paper, the finite strain plastic deformation of AM30 magnesium alloy has been simulated using the crystal plasticity finite element method. The simulations have been carried out using a rate-dependent elastic-viscoplastic crystal plasticity constitutive model implemented in a user defined material subroutine (UMAT) in the commercial software LS-DYNA. The plastic deformation mechanisms accounted for in the model are the slip systems in the matrix (parent grain), extension twinning systems and the slip systems inside the extension twinned regions. The parameters of the constitutive model have been calibrated using the experimental data. The calibrated model has then been used to predict the deformation of AM30 magnesium alloy in bending and simple shear. For the bending strain path, the effects of texture on the strain accommodated by the deformation mechanisms and bending moment have been investigated. For simple shear, the effects of texture on the relative activity of deformation mechanisms, shear stress and texture evolution have been investigated. Also, the effect of twinning on shear stress and texture evolution has been studied. The numerical analyses predicted a more uniform strain distribution during bending and simple shear for rolled texture compared with extruded texture.
Temporal-spatial modeling of fast-moving and deforming 3D objects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Xiaoliang; Wei, Youzhi
1998-09-01
This paper gives a brief description of the method and techniques developed for the modeling and reconstruction of fast moving and deforming 3D objects. A new approach using close-range digital terrestrial photogrammetry in conjunction with high speed photography and videography is proposed. A sequential image matching method (SIM) has been developed to automatically process pairs of images taken continuously of any fast moving and deforming 3D objects. Using the SIM technique a temporal-spatial model (TSM) of any fast moving and deforming 3D objects can be developed. The TSM would include a series of reconstructed surface models of the fast moving and deforming 3D object in the form of 3D images. The TSM allows the 3D objects to be visualized and analyzed in sequence. The SIM method, specifically the left-right matching and forward-back matching techniques are presented in the paper. An example is given which deals with the monitoring of a typical blast rock bench in a major open pit mine in Australia. With the SIM approach and the TSM model it is possible to automatically and efficiently reconstruct the 3D images of the blasting process. This reconstruction would otherwise be impossible to achieve using a labor intensive manual processing approach based on 2D images taken from conventional high speed cameras. The case study demonstrates the potential of the SIM approach and the TSM for the automatic identification, tracking and reconstruction of any fast moving and deforming 3D targets.
Videogrammetric Model Deformation Measurement Software Package: Reference Manual for MDef.exe
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cate, Kenneth H.
2001-01-01
The program MDef.exe was created to take images in wind tunnels of models under test, identify targets, compute the targets centroids, compute the target's real-world X-Y-Z coordinates and the model's deformation (vertical displacement and wing twist).
Marginal deformations of WZNW and coset models from O( d, d) transformations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hassan, S. F.; Sen, Ashoke
1993-09-01
We show that the O(2, 2) transformation of the SU(2) WZNW model gives rise to marginal deformation of this model by the operator ∫ d2zJ(z) overlineJ( overlinez) where J, overlineJareU(1) currents in the Cartan subalgebra. Generalization of this result to other WZNW theories is discussed. We also consider the O(3, 3) transformation of the product of an SU(2) WZNW model and a gauged SU(2) WZNW model. The three-parameter set of models obtained after the transformation is shown to be the result of first deforming the product of two SU(2) WZNW theories by marginal operators of the form Σ i,j = 12 C ijJ ioverlineJj, and then gauging an appropriate U(1) subgroup of the theory. Our analysis leads to a general conjecture that O( d, d) transformations of any WZNW model correspond to marginal deformation of the WZNW theory by an appropriate combination of left and right moving currents belonging to the Cartan subalgebra; and O( d, d) transformations of a gauged WZNW model can be identified to the gauged version of such marginally deformed WZNW models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferreira, Filippe; Lagoeiro, Leonardo; Morales, Luiz F. G.; Oliveira, Claudinei G. de; Barbosa, Paola; Ávila, Carlos; Cavalcante, Geane C. G.
2016-09-01
We show that naturally-deformed hematite from the Quadrilátero Ferrífero Province, Minas Gerais, Brazil, develops CPOs by dislocation creep, strongly influenced by basal plane parallel glide, even when this is not the favored slip system. Characterization of microstructure and texture, particularly intragranular misorientations, of naturally deformed hematite aggregates by EBSD allowed us to determine the importance of different slip systems, and confirm dislocation creep as the dominant deformation mechanism. Viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) models were constructed to constrain the slip systems required to operate for the observed CPO to develop, and its rheological implications. Changes in the CRSS ratio of hematite prism and basal slip systems and deformation regime lead to the development of distinct patterns of hematite crystallographic orientations. The basal slip-dominated simple shear model is the only one that can develop quasi-single-crystal CPO of the kind observed in highly deformed rocks from Quadrilátero Ferrífero. Comparison between naturally deformed hematite aggregates and VPSC models shows that CPO development of hematite is strongly influenced by a highly viscoplastic anisotropy through dislocation creep on hematite basal plane. Nonetheless, our results demonstrate that even the unfavorable slip systems should be regarded when the bulk rheology of mineral aggregates is evaluated.
Aeroelastic Deformation Measurements of Flap, Gap, and Overhang on a Semispan Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burner, A. W.; Liu, Tianshu; Garg, Sanjay; Ghee, Terence A.; Taylor, Nigel J.
2000-01-01
Single-camera, single-view videogrammetry has been used to determine static aeroelastic deformation of a slotted flap configuration on a semispan model at the National Transonic Facility (NTF). Deformation was determined by comparing wind-off to wind-on spatial data from targets placed on the main element, shroud, and flap of the model. Digitized video images from a camera were recorded and processed to automatically determine target image plane locations that were then corrected for sensor, lens, and frame grabber spatial errors. The videogrammetric technique has been established at NASA facilities as the technique of choice when high-volume static aeroelastic data with minimum impact on data taking is required. The primary measurement at the NTF with this technique in the past has been the measurement of static aeroelastic wing twist on full span models. The first results using the videogrammetric technique for the measurement of component deformation during semispan testing at the NTF are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rincon, Marta; Marquez, Alvaro; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin; Herrera, Raquel; Granja Bruña, Jose Luis; Llanes, Pilar
2014-05-01
The morphology of volcanoes provides important information about edifice evolution. Volcanoes can deform by gravitational instability and intrusions. This deformation can compromise volcano structural stability, promoting flank collapse even at dormant edifices. Identification of past/active deformation processes is therefore important not only for the understanding of volcano evolution but also for volcanic hazards. Both deformation due to the flank spreading of a volcano over its weak core and due to the intrusion of a cryptodome in the volcano edifice can produce faulting and changes in the morphology of volcano flanks. These morpho-structural changes in the volcano open the possibility to identify potential deformed and unstable volcanoes using remote sensing techniques and DEMs. We have used analogue models of flank spreading and intrusion processes to make progress in the morpho-structural identification of deformation features which can provide criteria for distinguishing processes. We have geometrically and mechanically scaled two different sets of experiments using a sand-plaster mixture for volcano materials, silicone putty for weak core rocks and Golden Syrup for magma intrusions. For monitoring changes in the volcano morphology we have used a Kinect sensor (Microsoft), which provides us vertical displacements of volcano flanks several times per second with a 1 mm precision. We have synchronized the Kinect sensor with a digital camera for monitoring the spatio-temporal evolution of tectonic structures together with morphology. All experiments produce asymmetrical changes in volcano morphology, developing convex-concave geometries in the deformed flank. However, the spatial relationships of structures with changes in volcano flank curvature are different for the two processes, as noted by previous authors. The morphometric tools developed for analyzing volcano topography allow us to identify intrusion processes due to volcano volume increase. We have
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thatcher, Wayne; Rundle, John B.
1984-09-01
Vertical displacements due to periodic reverse faulting events in an elastic plate overlying a viscoelastic (Maxwell) half space are obtained and compared with the observed deformation cycle (coseismic strain release, postseismic transients, interseismic strain accumulation) from Japan. The viscoelastic effects, including the influence of buoyant restoring forces, are obtained using the method developed by Rundle, and plate convergence and strain accumulation are incorporated following the procedure suggested by Savage. The resulting deformation cycle is compared with that of an analogous elastic half-space dislocation model in which postearthquake effects are due to transient aseismic slip below the coseismic fault. Cyclic deformation is similar but not identical for the two models, and observations from southwest Japan suggest the superiority of the viscoelastic coupling model. In particular, inclusion of the effects of steady state flow in the asthenosphere overcomes a defect of the elastic half-space model and results in agreement with the observed interseismic movement pattern. Several aspects of the postseismic deformation, its landward migration, and its transition to the interseismic phase of the cycle are explained as well, but the short duration of near-trench transients relative to those observed farther inland is not matched. The success of a buried slip model in explaining early postseismic near-trench movements and asthenospheric flow in accounting for cumulative postearthquake transient motions suggests the existence of a transition zone between lithosphere and asthenosphere whose behavior is brittle/elastic in the short term and ductile for longer-term deformation, and such a modification may reconcile remaining discordant observations. However, reasonable variations in coupling model parameters cannot account for observed differences in the deformation cycle in other parts of Japan, and these regional differences remain unexplained.
A Full-Body Layered Deformable Model for Automatic Model-Based Gait Recognition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Haiping; Plataniotis, Konstantinos N.; Venetsanopoulos, Anastasios N.
2007-12-01
This paper proposes a full-body layered deformable model (LDM) inspired by manually labeled silhouettes for automatic model-based gait recognition from part-level gait dynamics in monocular video sequences. The LDM is defined for the fronto-parallel gait with 22 parameters describing the human body part shapes (widths and lengths) and dynamics (positions and orientations). There are four layers in the LDM and the limbs are deformable. Algorithms for LDM-based human body pose recovery are then developed to estimate the LDM parameters from both manually labeled and automatically extracted silhouettes, where the automatic silhouette extraction is through a coarse-to-fine localization and extraction procedure. The estimated LDM parameters are used for model-based gait recognition by employing the dynamic time warping for matching and adopting the combination scheme in AdaBoost.M2. While the existing model-based gait recognition approaches focus primarily on the lower limbs, the estimated LDM parameters enable us to study full-body model-based gait recognition by utilizing the dynamics of the upper limbs, the shoulders and the head as well. In the experiments, the LDM-based gait recognition is tested on gait sequences with differences in shoe-type, surface, carrying condition and time. The results demonstrate that the recognition performance benefits from not only the lower limb dynamics, but also the dynamics of the upper limbs, the shoulders and the head. In addition, the LDM can serve as an analysis tool for studying factors affecting the gait under various conditions.
Use of a CT statistical deformation model for multi-modal pelvic bone segmentation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thompson, Stephen; Penney, Graeme; Buie, Damien; Dasgupta, Prokar; Hawkes, Dave
2008-03-01
We present a segmentation algorithm using a statistical deformation model constructed from CT data of adult male pelves coupled to MRI appearance data. The algorithm allows the semi-automatic segmentation of bone for a limited population of MRI data sets. Our application is pelvic bone delineation from pre-operative MRI for image guided pelvic surgery. Specifically, we are developing image guidance for prostatectomies using the daVinci telemanipulator. Hence the use of male pelves only. The algorithm takes advantage of the high contrast of bone in CT data, allowing a robust shape model to be constructed relatively easily. This shape model can then be applied to a population of MRI data sets using a single data set that contains both CT and MRI data. The model is constructed automatically using fluid based non-rigid registration between a set of CT training images, followed by principal component analysis. MRI appearance data is imported using CT and MRI data from the same patient. Registration optimisation is performed using differential evolution. Based on our limited validation to date, the algorithm may outperform segmentation using non-rigid registration between MRI images without the use of shape data. The mean surface registration error achieved was 1.74 mm. The algorithm shows promise for use in segmentation of pelvic bone from MRI, though further refinement and validation is required. We envisage that the algorithm presented could be extended to allow the rapid creation of application specific models in various imaging modalities using a shape model based on CT data.
In Situ Sensing Guided Geotechnical Modelling of Subglacial Deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clayton, A.; Brain, M.; Hart, J. K.; Roberts, D.; Martinez, K.; Rosser, N. J.
2014-12-01
Data collected by in situ subglacial probes has been used to guide a series of geotechnical tests on till. The testing provides an opportunity to develop a process-based understanding of movement patterns observed in the subglacial environment. The probes were deployed by the Glacsweb project at Skalafellsjökull, Iceland, in 2008 and 2012. They were emplaced in till below 80 m of ice and recorded a number of variables including pore pressure, case stress, movement and conductivity. During the winter of 2008-2009 cyclic pressure changes were recorded in the till. Repeated pore pressure increases of up to 20% occurred over a variable period of one to eight weeks. Each rise was followed by a sharp drop in pore pressure lasting up to a few days. A back pressure shear box was used to replicate the pore pressure changes whilst maintaining a constant horizontal shear stress and normal total stress to examine effects on deformation and strain rate. Till was collected for testing from the ice margin close to the probes in 2012 and remoulded for use in the back pressure shear box. General characterisation of the till was performed to benchmark it against previous work and then a series of pore pressure re-inflation tests were undertaken. These approximated the pore pressure variations observed in the field by linearly increasing pore pressure and so decreasing normal effective stress. The till displayed dilatancy-induced episodic increases in strain rate. These were regulated by consolidation that increased shear strength and so reduced strain rate. Strain rate variations were similar to ice velocity variations recorded by differential GPS deployed on the ice surface above the probes.
Adaptive deformable model for colonic polyp segmentation and measurement on CT colonography
Yao Jianhua; Summers, Ronald M.
2007-05-15
Polyp size is one important biomarker for the malignancy risk of a polyp. This paper presents an improved approach for colonic polyp segmentation and measurement on CT colonography images. The method is based on a combination of knowledge-guided intensity adjustment, fuzzy clustering, and adaptive deformable model. Since polyps on haustral folds are the most difficult to be segmented, we propose a dual-distance algorithm to first identify voxels on the folds, and then introduce a counter-force to control the model evolution. We derive linear and volumetric measurements from the segmentation. The experiment was conducted on 395 patients with 83 polyps, of which 43 polyps were on haustral folds. The results were validated against manual measurement from the optical colonoscopy and the CT colonography. The paired t-test showed no significant difference, and the R{sup 2} correlation was 0.61 for the linear measurement and 0.98 for the volumetric measurement. The mean Dice coefficient for volume overlap between automatic and manual segmentation was 0.752 (standard deviation 0.154)
Repeatability of a 3D multi-segment foot model protocol in presence of foot deformities.
Deschamps, Kevin; Staes, Filip; Bruyninckx, Herman; Busschots, Ellen; Matricali, Giovanni A; Spaepen, Pieter; Meyer, Christophe; Desloovere, Kaat
2012-07-01
Repeatability studies on 3D multi-segment foot models (3DMFMs) have mainly considered healthy participants which contrasts with the widespread application of these models to evaluate foot pathologies. The current study aimed at establishing the repeatability of the 3DMFM described by Leardini et al. in presence of foot deformities. Foot kinematics of eight adult participants were analyzed using a repeated-measures design including two therapists with different levels of experience. The inter-trial variability was higher compared to the kinematics of healthy subjects. Consideration of relative angles resulted in the lowest inter-session variability. The absolute 3D rotations between the Sha-Cal and Cal-Met seem to have the lowest variability in both therapists. A general trend towards higher σ(sess)/σ(trial) ratios was observed when the midfoot was involved. The current study indicates that not only relative 3D rotations and planar angles can be measured consistently in patients, also a number of absolute parameters can be consistently measured serving as basis for the decision making process. PMID:22591792
On the choice of boundary conditions in continuum models of continental deformation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wdowinski, Shimon; O'Connell, Richard J.
1990-01-01
Recent studies of continental deformation have treated the lithosphere as a viscous medium and investigated the time evolution of the deformation caused by tectonic and buoyancy forces. This paper examines the differences between (1) continuum models that keep velocity boundary conditions constant with time and (2) models that keep stress boundary conditions constant with time. These differences are demonstrated by using a simple example of a continental lithosphere that is subjected to horizontal compression. The results show that in (2) the indentation velocity decreases with time, while in (1) the indentation velocity remains constant with time.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Makarov, P. V.; Peryshkin, A. Yu.
2015-10-01
In this paper, a mathematical model of propagating slow waves of non-elastic deformation, whose velocities in magnitude are between the velocities of tectonic creep and sound velocities, is proposed. It is shown that the model describes both Lueders fronts and slow waves of deformation in geo-environments and in the faults. Our model is a related dynamic model of elasto-plastic deformation of loaded medium, where fast processes of dynamic medium response to loading develop together with the formation of slow deformational wave. These slow waves of deformation in the model are treated as auto-wave processes and they are a collective response to loading, i.e. they are the result of self-organization in the medium being deformed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Furlong, Kevin P.; Govers, Rob; Herman, Matthew
2016-04-01
Subduction zone megathrusts host the largest and deadliest earthquakes on the planet. Over the past decades (primarily since the 2004 Sumatra event) our abilities to observe the build-up in slip deficit along these plate boundary zones has improved substantially with the development of relatively dense observing systems along major subduction zones. One, perhaps unexpected, result from these observations is a range of present-day behavior along the boundaries. Some regions show displacements (almost always observed on the upper plate along the boundary) that are consistent with elastic deformation driven by a fully locked plate interface, while other plate boundary segments (oftentimes along the same plate boundary system) show little or no plate motion directed displacements. This latter case is often interpreted as reflecting little to no coupling along the plate boundary interface. What is unclear is whether this spatial variation in apparent plate boundary interface behavior reflects true spatial differences in plate interface properties and mechanics, or may rather reflect temporal behavior of the plate boundary during the earthquake cycle. In our integrated observational and modeling analyses, we have come to the conclusion that much of what is seen as diverse behavior along subduction margins represents different time in the earthquake cycle (relative to recurrence rate and material properties) rather than fundamental differences between subduction zone mechanics. Our model-constrained conceptual model accounts for the following generalized observations: 1. Coseismic displacements are enhanced in "near-trench" region 2. Post-seismic relaxation varies with time and position landward - i.e. there is a propagation of the transition point from "post" (i.e. trenchward) to "inter" (i.e. landward) seismic displacement behavior. 3. Displacements immediately post-EQ (interpreted to be associated with "after slip" on megathrust?). 4. The post-EQ transient response can
A numerical model of deformation and fluid-flow in an evolving thrust wedge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strayer, Luther M.; Hudleston, Peter J.; Lorig, Loren J.
2001-06-01
To investigate deformation and fluid-flow in an actively deforming tectonic wedge, we model the evolution of a large, two-dimensional (100 km long, 5 km thick), mechanically and hydrologically homogeneous and isotropic pile of sedimentary strata that is deformed to become a thrust wedge. We compare both 'dry' and 'wet' cases, in order to illustrate: (1) the relative importance of fluids on wedge evolution, and (2) the effect of brittle deformation on fluid-flow. We use an elastic-plastic constitutive relation, including a Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion and a non-associated flow rule, and coupled fluid flow, with bulk rock properties that approximate typical foreland sedimentary strata. Simulations are made both with and without dilation. The model is fully dynamic, but inertial forces remain small. Results show that deformation within the wedge is accommodated by reverse-slip movement on shear bands, which migrate in both directions through the wedge as both fore- and back-thrusts. The model has features predicted by the critical-taper theory: (1) overall wedge geometry; (2) crudely self-similar growth during evolution; (3) more intense deformation toward the rear of the wedge. The models show strong overall in-sequence faulting behavior with major thrusts isolating relatively undeformed packages, which are moved in a piggyback manner upon the active thrusts. Intermittent out-of-sequence faulting does however occur, in order to maintain the wedge taper. Fluid-flow in the deforming wedge is dominated by topography, but is also strongly affected by dilational plastic deformation. In all simulations, there is focused fluid flow within fault zones. When mechanical time-stepping is shut off (uncoupled), flow systems evolve to steady-state where inflow equals outflow. By subtracting the two 'states' we isolate the mechanical fluid response from the total coupled system response. The mechanical fluid response is manifest as contours of head and pressure difference and
Extent of Spine Deformity Predicts Lung Growth and Function in Rabbit Model of Early Onset Scoliosis
Olson, J. Casey; Takahashi, Ayuko; Glotzbecker, Michael P.; Snyder, Brian D.
2015-01-01
Early onset deformity of the spine and chest wall (initiated <8 years of age) is associated with increased morbidity at adulthood relative to adolescent onset deformity of comparable severity. Presumably, inhibition of thoracic growth during late stage alveolarization leads to an irreversible loss of pulmonary growth and thoracic function; however the natural history of this disease from onset to adulthood has not been well characterized. In this study we establish a rabbit model of early onset scoliosis to establish the extent that thoracic deformity affects structural and functional respiratory development. Using a surgical right unilateral rib-tethering procedure, rib fusion with early onset scoliosis was induced in 10 young New Zealand white rabbits (3 weeks old). Progression of spine deformity, functional residual capacity, total lung capacity, and lung mass was tracked through longitudinal breath-hold computed tomography imaging up to skeletal maturity (28 weeks old). Additionally at maturity forced vital capacity and regional specific volume were calculated as functional measurements and histo-morphometry performed with the radial alveolar count as a measure of acinar complexity. Data from tethered rib rabbits were compared to age matched healthy control rabbits (N = 8). Results show unilateral rib-tethering created a progressive spinal deformity ranging from 30° to 120° curvature, the severity of which was strongly associated with pulmonary growth and functional outcomes. At maturity rabbits with deformity greater than the median (55°) had decreased body weight (89%), right (59%) and left (86%) lung mass, right (74%) and left (69%) radial alveolar count, right lung volume at total lung capacity (60%), and forced vital capacity (75%). Early treatment of spinal deformity in children may prevent pulmonary complications in adulthood and these results provide a basis for the prediction of pulmonary development from thoracic structure. This model may also have
Chen, Quan; Zhigang, Cai; Xin, Peng; Yang, Wang; Chuanbin, Guo
2016-02-01
The treatment of complicated mandibular defects, including misshaped and missing bones, is challenging, and the success of reconstruction depends to a large extent on the formulation of a precise surgical plan. There is still no ideal preoperative method of design for reconstruction to deal with large, cross-midline, mandibular, segmental defects. We have built a virtual deformable mandibular model (VDMM) with 3-dimensional animation software. Sixteen handles were set on the model, and these could be easily controlled with a computer mouse to change the morphology of the deformable mandibular model. The computed tomographic (CT) data from 10 normal skulls was used to validate the adjustability of the VDMM. According to the positions of the mandibular fossa of the temporomandibular joint, the maxillary dental arch, and the craniomaxillofacial profile, the model could be adjusted to an ideal contour, which was coordinated with the skull. The VDMM was then adjusted further according to the morphology of the original mandible. A 3-dimensional comparison was made between the model of the deformed mandible and the original mandible. Using 16 control handles, the VDMM could be adjusted to a new outline, which was similar in shape to the original mandible. Within 3mm deviation either way, the absolute mean distribution of deviation between the contour of the deformed model and the original mandible was 92.5%. The VDMM might be useful for preoperative design of reconstruction of complicated mandibular defects. PMID:26711316
A structurally based viscoelastic model for passive myocardium in finite deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Jing Jin
2016-09-01
This paper discusses the finite-deformation viscoelastic modeling for passive myocardium tissue. The formulations established can also be applied to model other fiber-reinforced soft tissue. Based on the morphological structure of the myocardium, a specific free-energy function is constructed to reflect its orthotropicity. After deriving the stress-strain relationships in the simple shear deformation, a genetic algorithm is used to optimally estimate the material parameters of the myocardial constitutive equation. The results show that the proposed myocardial model can well fit the shear experimental data. To validate the viscoelastic model, it is used to predict the creep and the dynamic responses of a cylindrical model of the left ventricle. Upon comparing the results calculated by the proven myocardial elastic model with those by the viscoelastic model, the merits of the latter are discussed.
A structurally based viscoelastic model for passive myocardium in finite deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Jing Jin
2016-06-01
This paper discusses the finite-deformation viscoelastic modeling for passive myocardium tissue. The formulations established can also be applied to model other fiber-reinforced soft tissue. Based on the morphological structure of the myocardium, a specific free-energy function is constructed to reflect its orthotropicity. After deriving the stress-strain relationships in the simple shear deformation, a genetic algorithm is used to optimally estimate the material parameters of the myocardial constitutive equation. The results show that the proposed myocardial model can well fit the shear experimental data. To validate the viscoelastic model, it is used to predict the creep and the dynamic responses of a cylindrical model of the left ventricle. Upon comparing the results calculated by the proven myocardial elastic model with those by the viscoelastic model, the merits of the latter are discussed.
A multilayer model of time dependent deformation following an earthquake on a strike-slip fault
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cohen, S. C.
1981-01-01
A multilayer model of the Earth to calculate finite element of time dependent deformation and stress following an earthquake on a strike slip fault is discussed. The model involves shear properties of an elastic upper lithosphere, a standard viscoelastic linear solid lower lithosphere, a Maxwell viscoelastic asthenosphere and an elastic mesosphere. Systematic variations of fault and layer depths and comparisons with simpler elastic lithosphere over viscoelastic asthenosphere calculations are analyzed. Both the creep of the lower lithosphere and astenosphere contribute to the postseismic deformation. The magnitude of the deformation is enhanced by a short distance between the bottom of the fault (slip zone) and the top of the creep region but is less sensitive to the thickness of the creeping layer. Postseismic restressing is increased as the lower lithosphere becomes more viscoelastic, but the tendency for the width of the restressed zone to growth with time is retarded.
The Development of Deformation Model for Semi-Dynamic Datum of Indonesia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Susilo, S.; Meilano, I.; Abidin, H. Z.; Sapiie, B.; Efendi, J.; Wijanarto, A. B.; Syafi'i, A.
2015-12-01
A new geocentric datum for Indonesia was launched on 11 October 2013 namely the Indonesian Geospatial Reference System 2013 (IGRS 2013). The IGRS 2013 is a semi -dynamic datum in nature that uses the global ITRF2008 with a reference epoch on 1 January 2012. A deformation model that incorporates tectonic block motion and earthquakes related deformations, was used to transform coordinates at an observation epoch to or from this reference epoch. GPS observations from campaigns and continuous network in Indonesia for the period between 1996 and 2014 were used to determine velocities field. Secular velocity was separated from co-seismic offset and post-seismic transients present in the GPS time series. Using the secular velocities field, the interseismic block rotation parameters were estimated for each tectonic block in Indonesia. A preliminary result shows that the magnitude of deformation model due to tectonic block rotation is more than 15 mm/yr.
Bunnell, W P
1986-12-01
Spinal deformity is a relatively common disorder, particularly in teenage girls. Early detection is possible by a simple, quick visual inspection that should be a standard part of the routine examination of all preteen and teenage patients. Follow-up observation will reveal those curvatures that are progressive and permit orthotic treatment to prevent further increase in the deformity. Spinal fusion offers correction and stabilization of more severe degrees of scoliosis. PMID:3786010
The anisotropic λ-deformed SU (2) model is integrable
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sfetsos, Konstantinos; Siampos, Konstantinos
2015-04-01
The all-loop anisotropic Thirring model interpolates between the WZW model and the non-Abelian T-dual of the anisotropic principal chiral model. We focus on the SU (2) case and we prove that it is classically integrable by providing its Lax pair formulation. We derive its underlying symmetry current algebra and use it to show that the Poisson brackets of the spatial part of the Lax pair, assume the Maillet form. In this way we procure the corresponding r and s matrices which provide non-trivial solutions to the modified Yang-Baxter equation.
Modeling of cell adhesion and deformation mediated by receptor-ligand interactions.
Golestaneh, Amirreza F; Nadler, Ben
2016-04-01
The current work is devoted to studying adhesion and deformation of biological cells mediated by receptors and ligands in order to enhance the existing models. Due to the sufficient in-plane continuity and fluidity of the phospholipid molecules, an isotropic continuum fluid membrane is proposed for modeling the cell membrane. The developed constitutive model accounts for the influence of the presence of receptors on the deformation and adhesion of the cell membrane through the introduction of spontaneous area dilation. Motivated by physics, a nonlinear receptor-ligand binding force is introduced based on charge-induced dipole interaction. Diffusion of the receptors on the membrane is governed by the receptor-ligand interaction via Fick's Law and receptor-ligand interaction. The developed model is then applied to study the deformation and adhesion of a biological cell. The proposed model is used to study the role of the material, binding, spontaneous area dilation and environmental properties on the deformation and adhesion of the cell. PMID:26093646
3D Segmentation of Rodent Brain Structures Using Hierarchical Shape Priors and Deformable Models
Zhang, Shaoting; Huang, Junzhou; Uzunbas, Mustafa; Shen, Tian; Delis, Foteini; Huang, Xiaolei; Volkow, Nora; Thanos, Panayotis; Metaxas, Dimitris N.
2016-01-01
In this paper, we propose a method to segment multiple rodent brain structures simultaneously. This method combines deformable models and hierarchical shape priors within one framework. The deformation module employs both gradient and appearance information to generate image forces to deform the shape. The shape prior module uses Principal Component Analysis to hierarchically model the multiple structures at both global and local levels. At the global level, the statistics of relative positions among different structures are modeled. At the local level, the shape statistics within each structure is learned from training samples. Our segmentation method adaptively employs both priors to constrain the intermediate deformation result. This prior constraint improves the robustness of the model and benefits the segmentation accuracy. Another merit of our prior module is that the size of the training data can be small, because the shape prior module models each structure individually and combines them using global statistics. This scheme can preserve shape details better than directly applying PCA on all structures. We use this method to segment rodent brain structures, such as the cerebellum, the left and right striatum, and the left and right hippocampus. The experiments show that our method works effectively and this hierarchical prior improves the segmentation performance. PMID:22003750
3D segmentation of rodent brain structures using hierarchical shape priors and deformable models.
Zhang, Shaoting; Huang, Junzhou; Uzunbas, Mustafa; Shen, Tian; Delis, Foteini; Huang, Xiaolei; Volkow, Nora; Thanos, Panayotis; Metaxas, Dimitris N
2011-01-01
In this paper, we propose a method to segment multiple rodent brain structures simultaneously. This method combines deformable models and hierarchical shape priors within one framework. The deformation module employs both gradient and appearance information to generate image forces to deform the shape. The shape prior module uses Principal Component Analysis to hierarchically model the multiple structures at both global and local levels. At the global level, the statistics of relative positions among different structures are modeled. At the local level, the shape statistics within each structure is learned from training samples. Our segmentation method adaptively employs both priors to constrain the intermediate deformation result. This prior constraint improves the robustness of the model and benefits the segmentation accuracy. Another merit of our prior module is that the size of the training data can be small, because the shape prior module models each structure individually and combines them using global statistics. This scheme can preserve shape details better than directly applying PCA on all structures. We use this method to segment rodent brain structures, such as the cerebellum, the left and right striatum, and the left and right hippocampus. The experiments show that our method works effectively and this hierarchical prior improves the segmentation performance. PMID:22003750
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ottosson, W.; Lykkegaard Andersen, J. A.; Borrisova, S.; Mellemgaard, A.; Behrens, C. F.
2014-03-01
Respiration and anatomical variation during radiotherapy (RT) of lung cancer yield dosimetric uncertainties of the delivered dose, possibly affecting the clinical outcome if not corrected for. Adaptive radiotherapy (ART), based on deformable image registration (DIR) and Deep-Inspiration-Breath-Hold (DIBH) gating can potentially improve the accuracy of RT. Purpose: The objective was to investigate the performance of contour propagation on repeated CT and Cone Beam CT (CBCT) images in DIBH compared to images acquired in free breathing (FB), using a recently released DIR software. Method: Three locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients were included, each with a planning-, midterm- and final CT (pCT, mCT, fCT) and 7 CBCTs acquired weekly and on the same day as the mCT and fCT. All imaging were performed in both FB and DIBH, using Varian RPM system for respiratory tracking. Delineations of anatomical structures were performed on each image set. The CT images were retrospective rigidly and deformable registered to all obtained images using the Varian Smart Adapt v. 11.0. The registered images were analysed for volume change and Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC). Result: Geometrical similarities were found between propagated and manually delineated structures, with a slightly favour of FB imaging. Special notice should be taken to registrations where image artefacts or low tissue contrast are present. Conclusion: This study does not support the hypothesis that DIBH images perform better image registration than FB images. However DIR is a feasible tool for ART of lung cancer.
Benchmarking of five commercial deformable image registration algorithms for head and neck patients.
Pukala, Jason; Johnson, Perry B; Shah, Amish P; Langen, Katja M; Bova, Frank J; Staton, Robert J; Mañon, Rafael R; Kelly, Patrick; Meeks, Sanford L
2016-01-01
Benchmarking is a process in which standardized tests are used to assess system performance. The data produced in the process are important for comparative purposes, particularly when considering the implementation and quality assurance of DIR algorithms. In this work, five commercial DIR algorithms (MIM, Velocity, RayStation, Pinnacle, and Eclipse) were benchmarked using a set of 10 virtual phantoms. The phantoms were previously developed based on CT data collected from real head and neck patients. Each phantom includes a start of treatment CT dataset, an end of treatment CT dataset, and the ground-truth deformation vector field (DVF) which links them together. These virtual phantoms were imported into the commercial systems and registered through a deformable process. The resulting DVFs were compared to the ground-truth DVF to determine the target registration error (TRE) at every voxel within the image set. Real treatment plans were also recalculated on each end of treatment CT dataset and the dose transferred according to both the ground-truth and test DVFs. Dosimetric changes were assessed, and TRE was correlated with changes in the DVH of individual structures. In the first part of the study, results show mean TRE on the order of 0.5 mm to 3 mm for all phan-toms and ROIs. In certain instances, however, misregistrations were encountered which produced mean and max errors up to 6.8 mm and 22 mm, respectively. In the second part of the study, dosimetric error was found to be strongly correlated with TRE in the brainstem, but weakly correlated with TRE in the spinal cord. Several interesting cases were assessed which highlight the interplay between the direction and magnitude of TRE and the dose distribution, including the slope of dosimetric gradients and the distance to critical structures. This information can be used to help clinicians better implement and test their algorithms, and also understand the strengths and weaknesses of a dose adaptive approach
Droplet Deformation Prediction with the Droplet Deormation and Break Up Model (DDB)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vargas, Mario
2012-01-01
The Droplet Deformation and Breakup Model was used to predict deformation of droplets approaching the leading edge stagnation line of an airfoil. The quasi-steady model was solved for each position along the droplet path. A program was developed to solve the non-linear, second order, ordinary differential equation that governs the model. A fourth order Runge-Kutta method was used to solve the equation. Experimental slip velocities from droplet breakup studies were used as input to the model which required slip velocity along the particle path. The center of mass displacement predictions were compared to the experimental measurements from the droplet breakup studies for droplets with radii in the range of 200 to 700 mm approaching the airfoil at 50 and 90 m/sec. The model predictions were good for the displacement of the center of mass for small and medium sized droplets. For larger droplets the model predictions did not agree with the experimental results.
Crustal deformation, the earthquake cycle, and models of viscoelastic flow in the asthenosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cohen, S. C.; Kramer, M. J.
1983-01-01
The crustal deformation patterns associated with the earthquake cycle can depend strongly on the rheological properties of subcrustal material. Substantial deviations from the simple patterns for a uniformly elastic earth are expected when viscoelastic flow of subcrustal material is considered. The detailed description of the deformation pattern and in particular the surface displacements, displacement rates, strains, and strain rates depend on the structure and geometry of the material near the seismogenic zone. The origin of some of these differences are resolved by analyzing several different linear viscoelastic models with a common finite element computational technique. The models involve strike-slip faulting and include a thin channel asthenosphere model, a model with a varying thickness lithosphere, and a model with a viscoelastic inclusion below the brittle slip plane. The calculations reveal that the surface deformation pattern is most sensitive to the rheology of the material that lies below the slip plane in a volume whose extent is a few times the fault depth. If this material is viscoelastic, the surface deformation pattern resembles that of an elastic layer lying over a viscoelastic half-space. When the thickness or breath of the viscoelastic material is less than a few times the fault depth, then the surface deformation pattern is altered and geodetic measurements are potentially useful for studying the details of subsurface geometry and structure. Distinguishing among the various models is best accomplished by making geodetic measurements not only near the fault but out to distances equal to several times the fault depth. This is where the model differences are greatest; these differences will be most readily detected shortly after an earthquake when viscoelastic effects are most pronounced.
Crustal deformation, the earthquake cycle, and models of viscoelastic flow in the asthenosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cohen, S. C.; Kramer, M. J.
1984-01-01
The crustal deformation patterns associated with the earthquake cycle can depend strongly on the rheological properties of subcrustal material. Substantial deviations from the simple patterns for a uniformly elastic earth are expected when viscoelastic flow of subcrustal material is considered. The detailed description of the deformation pattern and in particular the surface displacements, displacement rates, strains, and strain rates depend on the structure and geometry of the material near the seismogenic zone. The origin of some of these differences are resolved by analyzing several different linear viscoelastic models with a common finite element computational technique. The models involve strike-slip faulting and include a thin channel asthenosphere model, a model with a varying thickness lithosphere, and a model with a viscoelastic inclusion below the brittle slip plane. The calculations reveal that the surface deformation pattern is most sensitive to the rheology of the material that lies below the slip plane in a volume whose extent is a few times the fault depth. If this material is viscoelastic, the surface deformation pattern resembles that of an elastic layer lying over a viscoelastic half-space. When the thickness or breath of the viscoelastic material is less than a few times the fault depth, then the surface deformation pattern is altered and geodetic measurements are potentially useful for studying the details of subsurface geometry and structure. Distinguishing among the various models is best accomplished by making geodetic measurements not only near the fault but out to distances equal to several times the fault depth. This is where the model differences are greatest; these differences will be most readily detected shortly after an earthquake when viscoelastic effects are most pronounced.
On the impact of reducing global geophysical fluid model deformations in SLR data processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weigelt, Matthias; Thaller, Daniela
2016-04-01
Mass redistributions in the atmosphere, oceans and the continental hydrology cause elastic loading deformations of the Earth's crust and thus systematically influence Earth-bound observation systems such as VLBI, GNSS or SLR. Causing non-linear station variations, these loading deformations have a direct impact on the estimated station coordinates and an indirect impact on other parameters of global space-geodetic solutions, e.g. Earth orientation parameters, geocenter coordinates, satellite orbits or troposphere parameters. Generally, the impact can be mitigated by co-parameterisation or by reducing deformations derived from global geophysical fluid models. Here, we focus on the latter approach. A number of data sets modelling the (non-tidal) loading deformations are generated by various groups. They show regionally and locally significant differences and consequently the impact on the space-geodetic solutions heavily depends on the available network geometry. We present and discuss the differences between these models and choose SLR as the speace-geodetic technique of interest in order to discuss the impact of atmospheric, oceanic and hydrological loading on the parameters of space-geodetic solutions when correcting for the global geophysical fluid models at the observation level. Special emphasis is given to a consistent usage of models for geometric and gravimetric corrections during the data processing. We quantify the impact of the different deformation models on the station coordinates and discuss the improvement in the Earth orientation parameters and the geocenter motion. We also show that a significant reduction in the RMS of the station coordinates can be achieved depending on the model of choice.
Analytical Modeling of the High Strain Rate Deformation of Polymer Matrix Composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldberg, Robert K.; Roberts, Gary D.; Gilat, Amos
2003-01-01
The results presented here are part of an ongoing research program to develop strain rate dependent deformation and failure models for the analysis of polymer matrix composites subject to high strain rate impact loads. State variable constitutive equations originally developed for metals have been modified in order to model the nonlinear, strain rate dependent deformation of polymeric matrix materials. To account for the effects of hydrostatic stresses, which are significant in polymers, the classical 5 plasticity theory definitions of effective stress and effective plastic strain are modified by applying variations of the Drucker-Prager yield criterion. To verify the revised formulation, the shear and tensile deformation of a representative toughened epoxy is analyzed across a wide range of strain rates (from quasi-static to high strain rates) and the results are compared to experimentally obtained values. For the analyzed polymers, both the tensile and shear stress-strain curves computed using the analytical model correlate well with values obtained through experimental tests. The polymer constitutive equations are implemented within a strength of materials based micromechanics method to predict the nonlinear, strain rate dependent deformation of polymer matrix composites. In the micromechanics, the unit cell is divided up into a number of independently analyzed slices, and laminate theory is then applied to obtain the effective deformation of the unit cell. The composite mechanics are verified by analyzing the deformation of a representative polymer matrix composite (composed using the representative polymer analyzed for the correlation of the polymer constitutive equations) for several fiber orientation angles across a variety of strain rates. The computed values compare favorably to experimentally obtained results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naliboff, J. B.; Billen, M. I.
2010-12-01
A characteristic feature of global subduction zones is normal faulting in the outer rise region, which reflects flexure of the downgoing plate in response to the slab pull force. Variations in the patterns of outer rise normal faulting between different subduction zones likely reflects both the magnitude of flexural induced topography and the strength of the downgoing plate. In particular, the rheology of the uppermost oceanic lithosphere is likely to strongly control the faulting patterns, which have been well documented recently in both the Middle and South American trenches. These recent observations of outer rise faulting provide a unique opportunity to test different rheological models of the oceanic lithosphere using geodynamic numerical experiments. Here, we develop a new approach for modeling deformation in the outer rise and trench regions of downgoing slabs, and discuss preliminary 2-D numerical models examining the relationship between faulting patterns and the rheology of the oceanic lithosphere. To model viscous and brittle deformation within the oceanic lithosphere we use the CIG (Computational Infrastructure for Geodynamics) finite element code Gale, which is designed to solve long-term tectonic problems. In order to resolve deformation features on geologically realistic scales (< 1 km), we model only the portion of the subduction system seaward of the trench. Horizontal and vertical stress boundary conditions on the side walls drive subduction and reflect, respectively, the ridge-push and slab-pull plate-driving forces. The initial viscosity structure of the oceanic lithosphere and underlying asthenosphere follow a composite viscosity law that takes into account both Newtonian and non-Newtonian deformation. The viscosity structure is consequently governed primarily by the strain rate and thermal structure, which follows a half-space cooling model. Modification of the viscosity structure and development of discrete shear zones occurs during yielding
Cell resolved, multiparticle model of plastic tissue deformations and morphogenesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Czirok, Andras; Isai, Dona Greta
2015-02-01
We propose a three-dimensional mechanical model of embryonic tissue dynamics. Mechanically coupled adherent cells are represented as particles interconnected with elastic beams which can exert non-central forces and torques. Tissue plasticity is modeled by a stochastic process consisting of a connectivity change (addition or removal of a single link) followed by a complete relaxation to mechanical equilibrium. In particular, we assume that (i) two non-connected, but adjacent particles can form a new link; and (ii) the lifetime of links is reduced by tensile forces. We demonstrate that the proposed model yields a realistic macroscopic elasto-plastic behavior and we establish how microscopic model parameters determine material properties at the macroscopic scale. Based on these results, microscopic parameter values can be inferred from tissue thickness, macroscopic elastic modulus and the magnitude and dynamics of intercellular adhesion forces. In addition to their mechanical role, model particles can also act as simulation agents and actively modulate their connectivity according to specific rules. As an example, anisotropic link insertion and removal probabilities can give rise to local cell intercalation and large scale convergent extension movements. The proposed stochastic simulation of cell activities yields fluctuating tissue movements which exhibit the same autocorrelation properties as empirical data from avian embryos.
Cell resolved, multiparticle model of plastic tissue deformations and morphogenesis
Isai, Dona Greta
2014-01-01
We propose a three dimensional mechanical model of embryonic tissue dynamics. Mechanically coupled adherent cells are represented as particles interconnected with elastic beams which can exert non-central forces and torques. Tissue plasticity is modeled by a stochastic process consisting of a connectivity change (addition or removal of a single link) followed by a complete relaxation to mechanical equilibrium. In particular, we assume that (i) two non-connected, but adjacent particles can form a new link; and (ii) the lifetime of links is reduced by tensile forces. We demonstrate that the proposed model yields a realistic macroscopic elasto-plastic behavior and we establish how microscopic model parameters determine material properties at the macroscopic scale. Based on these results, microscopic parameter values can be inferred from tissue thickness, macroscopic elastic modulus and the magnitude and dynamics of intercellular adhesion forces. In addition to their mechanical role, model particles can also act as simulation agents and actively modulate their connectivity according to specific rules. As an example, anisotropic link insertion and removal probabilities can give rise to local cell intercalation and large scale convergent extension movements. The proposed stochastic simulation of cell activities yields fluctuating tissue movements which exhibit the same autocorrelation properties as empirical data from avian embryos. PMID:25502910
SDEM modelling of deformation associated with a listric fault system and associated fluid flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rasmussen, Marie L.; Clausen, Ole R.; Egholm, David L.; Andresen, Katrine J.
2016-04-01
Numerical modelling of geological structures using FEM, DEM and SDEM methods as well as analogue modelling are widely used in order to achieve a better understanding of the kinematics and dynamics during deformation. The methods are furthermore the ultimate source for mapping (observing) the true geometry of geological structures as well as subsurface fluid flow phenomena in 3D seismic data developed for hydrocarbon exploration. Here we use 3D seismic data and SDEM modelling to suggest a dynamic-kinematic evolution of the deformation in the hangingwall of a listric fault overlying an active salt roller. We use the results to obtain a better understanding of the fluid flow in a complex deformed hangingwall. The case study is focused at the D-1 fault trend in the western part of the Norwegian Danish Basin, at the northern slope of the Ringkøbing-Fyn High. The D-1 main fault detaches along the northern flank of a Zechstein salt roller which was active during the Cenozoic. The seismic analysis shows a system of secondary normal antithetic and synthetic faults dipping approximately 50-60dg within the hangingwall. Shallow gas is trapped in the hangingwall and the secondary faults often confine the accumulations i.e. indicating that the secondary faults are sealing. The modelling confirms that the geometry of the secondary faults is highly controlled by the rheology of different layers in the hangingwall but also on the intensity of the salt movement. The modelling also suggests the presence of vertical deformation zones; structures which are not directly observed on the seismic data. The vertical deformation zones are related to the differential vertical movement of the strata due to salt migration. A neural network trained chimney probability cube shows high probabilities for the presence of minor vertical gas chimneys below the gas accumulations suggesting that vertical fluid migration in the hangingwall occurred in areas with significant vertical salt movements. The
Shi, Xing; Lin, Guang; Zou, Jianfeng; Fedosov, Dmitry A.
2013-07-20
To model red blood cell (RBC) deformation in flow, the recently developed LBM-DLM/FD method ([Shi and Lim, 2007)29], derived from the lattice Boltzmann method and the distributed Lagrange multiplier/fictitious domain methodthe fictitious domain method, is extended to employ the mesoscopic network model for simulations of red blood cell deformation. The flow is simulated by the lattice Boltzmann method with an external force, while the network model is used for modeling red blood cell deformation and the fluid-RBC interaction is enforced by the Lagrange multiplier. To validate parameters of the RBC network model, sThe stretching numerical tests on both coarse and fine meshes are performed and compared with the corresponding experimental data to validate the parameters of the RBC network model. In addition, RBC deformation in pipe flow and in shear flow is simulated, revealing the capacity of the current method for modeling RBC deformation in various flows.
Bouguila, Jed; Besbes, Ghazi; Khochtali, Habib
2015-11-01
β Thalassemia is an inherited genetic disorder of hemoglobin synthesis characterized by a reduction of β chains of globin. Typical features of patients with β thalassemia are skeletal modifications, particularly in the skull and in the facial bones. In thalassemia major, involvement of the facial skeleton can result in severe disfigurement, often referred to as "rodent facies". Various surgical approaches to correct the facial deformity have been advocated; however, treatment remains controversial. The worse the patient's systemic condition, the more unstable and more complicated the surgical procedure. Patient with multisystemic disorder and severe deformity, such as in our case, with a complete lack of cortical bone for bone fixation, might not be amenable to such procedures. Thorough knowledge of the multiple systemic manifestations, therapy, and prognosis of this syndrome is necessary to formulate a safe, comprehensive surgical plan for these patients. PMID:26363895
A coupled fluid flow, deformation and heat transfer model for a twin roll caster
Bradbury, P.J.; Hunt, J.D.
1995-12-31
A numerical model of coupled fluid flow, solidification and plastic deformation for the twin roll casting process has been developed. Non-orthogonal curvilinear coordinates are used to provide a more realistic description of the roll bite geometry while a variable heat transfer coefficient based on the normal pressure at the strip/roll interface, is incorporated through the roll bite.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Yin; Wang, Wenqiang; He, Hongliang; Jiang, Tailong; Huan, Qiang; Zhang, Fuping; Li, Yongqiang; Lu, Tiecheng
2015-03-01
To prevent functional failure, the macroscopic shock response of ceramics needs to be understood. We explored the mesoscopic deformation features of porous ceramics, which are responsible for the measured macroscopic "plastic" wave profiles, using polycrystalline modeling and experiments. A polycrystalline model is established that considers the influence of two major microstructures (multi-voids and grain boundaries) in the porous ceramics. Shock experiments with the recovery of shocked porous lead zirconate titanate ceramics were conducted. The computational results show that shear cracks nucleate around voids under shock because of severe shear stress concentrations. Broken fragments fill the voids and lead to void collapse. Representative long-distance extended cracks and thick crevices are observed in the recovered sample subjected to 3.3 GPa compression. These representative features are reproduced by the polycrystalline model. An initial transgranular crack translates into an intergranular crack after a certain propagation range to form a long-distance extended crack. Intergranular cracks branch from the main transgranular crack during main crack propagation to form a thick crevice. The simultaneous propagation of main and branching cracks results in a more effective shock energy dissipation. Slippage and rotation deformation induced by multi-cracks allows the shocked porous ceramic to deform even after all the voids have collapsed. Mesoscopic deformations of porous ceramics induce significant stress relaxations and lead to macroscopic "plastic" wave profiles. The polycrystalline model will aid microstructures design and provide guidance for preventing the shock failure of functional ceramics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erdt, Marius; Sakas, Georgios
2010-03-01
This work presents a novel approach for model based segmentation of the kidney in images acquired by Computed Tomography (CT). The developed computer aided segmentation system is expected to support computer aided diagnosis and operation planning. We have developed a deformable model based approach based on local shape constraints that prevents the model from deforming into neighboring structures while allowing the global shape to adapt freely to the data. Those local constraints are derived from the anatomical structure of the kidney and the presence and appearance of neighboring organs. The adaptation process is guided by a rule-based deformation logic in order to improve the robustness of the segmentation in areas of diffuse organ boundaries. Our work flow consists of two steps: 1.) a user guided positioning and 2.) an automatic model adaptation using affine and free form deformation in order to robustly extract the kidney. In cases which show pronounced pathologies, the system also offers real time mesh editing tools for a quick refinement of the segmentation result. Evaluation results based on 30 clinical cases using CT data sets show an average dice correlation coefficient of 93% compared to the ground truth. The results are therefore in most cases comparable to manual delineation. Computation times of the automatic adaptation step are lower than 6 seconds which makes the proposed system suitable for an application in clinical practice.
A deformation model for non-rigid registration of the kidney
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ong, Rowena E.; Glisson, Courtenay L.; Herrell, S. Duke; Miga, Michael I.; Galloway, Robert
2009-02-01
The development of an image-guided renal surgery system may aid tumor resection during partial nephrectomies. This system would require the registration of pre-operative kidney CT or MR scans to the physical kidney; however, the amount of non-rigid deformation occurring during surgery and whether it can be corrected for in an image-guided system is unknown. One possible source of non-rigid deformation is a change in pressure within the kidney: during surgery, clamping of the renal artery and vein results in a loss of perfusion, such that the subsequent cutting of the kidney and fluid outflow may cause a decrease in intrarenal pressure. In this work, we attempt to characterize the deformation due to cutting of the kidney and subsequent changes in intrarenal pressure. To accomplish this, we perfused a resected porcine kidney at a physiologically realistic pressure, clamped the renal vessels, and cut the kidney using a tracked scalpel. The resulting deformation was tracked in a CT scanner using 15-20 glass bead fiducials attached to the kidney surface. A modified form of Biot's consolidation model was used to simulate the deformation, and the accuracy was assessed by calculating the target registration error and image similarity.
HERMES: A Model to Describe Deformation, Burning, Explosion, and Detonation
Reaugh, J E
2011-11-22
HERMES (High Explosive Response to MEchanical Stimulus) was developed to fill the need for a model to describe an explosive response of the type described as BVR (Burn to Violent Response) or HEVR (High Explosive Violent Response). Characteristically this response leaves a substantial amount of explosive unconsumed, the time to reaction is long, and the peak pressure developed is low. In contrast, detonations characteristically consume all explosive present, the time to reaction is short, and peak pressures are high. However, most of the previous models to describe explosive response were models for detonation. The earliest models to describe the response of explosives to mechanical stimulus in computer simulations were applied to intentional detonation (performance) of nearly ideal explosives. In this case, an ideal explosive is one with a vanishingly small reaction zone. A detonation is supersonic with respect to the undetonated explosive (reactant). The reactant cannot respond to the pressure of the detonation before the detonation front arrives, so the precise compressibility of the reactant does not matter. Further, the mesh sizes that were practical for the computer resources then available were large with respect to the reaction zone. As a result, methods then used to model detonations, known as {beta}-burn or program burn, were not intended to resolve the structure of the reaction zone. Instead, these methods spread the detonation front over a few finite-difference zones, in the same spirit that artificial viscosity is used to spread the shock front in inert materials over a few finite-difference zones. These methods are still widely used when the structure of the reaction zone and the build-up to detonation are unimportant. Later detonation models resolved the reaction zone. These models were applied both to performance, particularly as it is affected by the size of the charge, and to situations in which the stimulus was less than that needed for reliable
A deformation of quantum affine algebra in squashed Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten models
Kawaguchi, Io; Yoshida, Kentaroh
2014-06-01
We proceed to study infinite-dimensional symmetries in two-dimensional squashed Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten models at the classical level. The target space is given by squashed S³ and the isometry is SU(2){sub L}×U(1){sub R}. It is known that SU(2){sub L} is enhanced to a couple of Yangians. We reveal here that an infinite-dimensional extension of U(1){sub R} is a deformation of quantum affine algebra, where a new deformation parameter is provided with the coefficient of the Wess-Zumino term. Then we consider the relation between the deformed quantum affine algebra and the pair of Yangians from the viewpoint of the left-right duality of monodromy matrices. The integrable structure is also discussed by computing the r/s-matrices that satisfy the extended classical Yang-Baxter equation. Finally, two degenerate limits are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Qianyi; Hamilton, Russell J.; Schowengerdt, Robert A.; Jiang, Steve B.
2007-09-01
A dynamic multi-leaf collimator (DMLC) can be used to track a moving target during radiotherapy. One of the major benefits for DMLC tumor tracking is that, in addition to the compensation for tumor translational motion, DMLC can also change the aperture shape to conform to a deforming tumor projection in the beam's eye view. This paper presents a method that can track a deforming lung tumor in fluoroscopic video using active shape models (ASM) (Cootes et al 1995 Comput. Vis. Image Underst. 61 38-59). The method was evaluated by comparing tracking results against tumor projection contours manually edited by an expert observer. The evaluation shows the feasibility of using this method for precise tracking of lung tumors with deformation, which is important for DMLC-based real-time tumor tracking.
Modeling the electrical resistivity of deformation processed metal-metal composites
Tian, Liang; Anderson, Iver; Riedemann, Trevor; Russell, Alan
2014-09-01
Deformation processed metal–metal (matrix–reinforcement) composites (DMMCs) are high-strength, high-conductivity in situ composites produced by severe plastic deformation. The electrical resistivity of DMMCs is rarely investigated mechanistically and tends to be slightly higher than the rule-of-mixtures prediction. In this paper, we analyze several possible physical mechanisms (i.e. phonons, interfaces, mutual solution, grain boundaries, dislocations) responsible for the electrical resistivity of DMMC systems and how these mechanisms could be affected by processing conditions (i.e. temperature, deformation processing). As an innovation, we identified and assembled the major scattering mechanisms for specific DMMC systems and modeled their electrical resistivity in combination. From this analysis, it appears that filament coarsening rather than dislocation annihilation is primarily responsible for the resistivity drop observed in these materials after annealing and that grain boundary scattering contributes to the resistivity at least at the same magnitude as does interface scattering.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyu, Jhen-Yi; Chang, Yu-Yi; Lee, Chung-Jung; Lin, Ming-Lang
2015-04-01
The depth and character of the overlying earth deposit contribute to fault rupture path. For cohesive soil, for instance, clay, tension cracks on the ground happen during faulting, limiting the propagation of fracture in soil mass. The cracks propagate downwards while the fracture induced by initial displacement of faulting propagates upwards. The connection of cracks and fracture will form a plane that is related to tri-shear zone. However the mechanism of the connection has not been discussed thoroughly. By obtaining the evolution of ground deformation zone we can understand mechanism of fault propagation and crack-fracture connection. A series of centrifuge tests and numerical modeling are conducted at this study with acceleration conditions of 40g, 50g, 80g and dip angle of 60° on normal faulting. The model is with total overburden thick, H, 0.2m, vertical displacement of moving wall, ∆H. At the beginning, hanging wall and the left-boundary wall moves along the plane of fault. When ∆H/H equals to 25%, both of the walls stop moving. We then can calculate the width of ground deformation in different depth of each model by a logic method. Models of this study consist of two different type overburden material to simulate sand and clay in situ. Different from finite element method, with application of distinct element method the mechanism of fault propagation in soil mass and the development of ground deformation zone can be observed directly in numerical analysis of faulting. The information of force and deformation in the numerical model are also easier to be obtained than centrifuge modeling. Therefore, we take the results of centrifuge modeling as the field outcrop then modify the micro-parameter of numerical analysis to make sure both of them have the same attitude. The results show that in centrifuge modeling narrower ground deformation zone appears in clayey overburden model as that of sandy overburden model is wider on footwall. Increasing the strength
Mileto, Achille; Heye, Tobias J; Makar, Ryan A; Hurwitz, Lynne M; Marin, Daniele; Boll, Daniel T
2016-07-01
Purpose To investigate the feasibility of deformable, motion-coherent modeling based on electrocardiography-gated multidetector computed tomographic (CT) angiography of the thoracic aorta and to evaluate whether quantifiable information on aortic wall stress as a function of patient-specific cardiovascular parameters can be gained. Materials and Methods For this institutional review board-approved, HIPAA-compliant study, thoracic electrocardiography-gated dual-source multidetector CT angiographic images were used from 250 prospectively enrolled patients (150 men, 100 women; mean age, 79 years). On reconstructed 50-phase CT angiographic images, aortic strain and deformation were determined at seven cardiac and aortic locations. One-way analysis of variance was used by assessing the magnitude for longitudinal and axial strain and axial deformation, as well as time-resolved peak and maxima count for longitudinal strain and axial deformation. Interdependencies between aortic strain and deformation with extracted hemodynamic parameters were evaluated. Results With increasing heart rates, there was a significant decrease in longitudinal strain (P = .009, R(2) = 0.95) and a decrease in the number of longitudinal strain peaks (P < .001, R(2) = 0.79); however, a significant increase in axial deformation (P < .001, R(2) = 0.31) and axial strain (P = .009, R(2) = 0.61) was observed. Increasing aortic blood velocity led to increased longitudinal strain (P = .018, R(2) = 0.42) and longitudinal strain peak counts (P = .011, R(2) = 0.48). Pronounced motion in the longitudinal direction limited motion in the axial plane (P < .019, R(2) = 0.29-0.31). Conclusion The results of this study render a clinical basis and provide proof of principle for the use of deformable, motion-coherent modeling to provide quantitative information on physiological motion of the aorta under various hemodynamic circumstances. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article
Modeling lithospheric rheology from modern measurements of Bonneville shoreline deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beard, Eric P.
Here I develop a cross-correlation approach to estimating heights of shoreline features, and apply the new method to paleo-shorelines of Pleistocene Lake Bonneville. I calcula
Multiscale model for predicting shear zone structure and permeability in deforming rock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cleary, Paul W.; Pereira, Gerald G.; Lemiale, Vincent; Piane, Claudio Delle; Clennell, M. Ben
2016-04-01
A novel multiscale model is proposed for the evolution of faults in rocks, which predicts their internal properties and permeability as strain increases. The macroscale model, based on smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), predicts system scale deformation by a pressure-dependent elastoplastic representation of the rock and shear zone. Being a continuum method, SPH contains no intrinsic information on the grain scale structure or behaviour of the shear zone, so a series of discrete element method microscale shear cell models are embedded into the macroscale model at specific locations. In the example used here, the overall geometry and kinematics of a direct shear test on a block of intact rock is simulated. Deformation is imposed by a macroscale model where stresses and displacement rates are applied at the shear cell walls in contact with the rock. Since the microscale models within the macroscale block of deforming rock now include representations of the grains, the structure of the shear zone, the evolution of the size and shape distribution of these grains, and the dilatancy of the shear zone can all be predicted. The microscale dilatancy can be used to vary the macroscale model dilatancy both spatially and temporally to give a full two-way coupling between the spatial scales. The ability of this model to predict shear zone structure then allows the prediction of the shear zone permeability using the Lattice-Boltzmann method.
Cubical Mass-Spring Model design based on a tensile deformation test and nonlinear material model.
San-Vicente, Gaizka; Aguinaga, Iker; Tomás Celigüeta, Juan
2012-02-01
Mass-Spring Models (MSMs) are used to simulate the mechanical behavior of deformable bodies such as soft tissues in medical applications. Although they are fast to compute, they lack accuracy and their design remains still a great challenge. The major difficulties in building realistic MSMs lie on the spring stiffness estimation and the topology identification. In this work, the mechanical behavior of MSMs under tensile loads is analyzed before studying the spring stiffness estimation. In particular, the performed qualitative and quantitative analysis of the behavior of cubical MSMs shows that they have a nonlinear response similar to hyperelastic material models. According to this behavior, a new method for spring stiffness estimation valid for linear and nonlinear material models is proposed. This method adjusts the stress-strain and compressibility curves to a given reference behavior. The accuracy of the MSMs designed with this method is tested taking as reference some soft-tissue simulations based on nonlinear Finite Element Method (FEM). The obtained results show that MSMs can be designed to realistically model the behavior of hyperelastic materials such as soft tissues and can become an interesting alternative to other approaches such as nonlinear FEM. PMID:22156291
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zhihao; Schellart, Wouter P.; Duarte, João. C.
2015-01-01
In a subduction system the force and the energy required to deform the overriding plate are generally thought to come from the negative buoyancy of the subducted slab and its potential energy, respectively. Such deformation might involve extension and back-arc basin formation or shortening and mountain building. How much of the slab's potential energy is consumed during overriding plate deformation remains unknown. In this work, we present dynamic three-dimensional laboratory experiments of progressive subduction with an overriding plate to quantify the force (FOPD) that drives overriding plate deformation and the associated energy dissipation rate (ΦOPD), and we compare them with the negative buoyancy (FBU) of the subducted slab and its total potential energy release rate (ΦBU), respectively. We varied the viscosity ratio between the plates and the sublithospheric upper mantle with ηSP/ηUM = 157-560 and the thickness of the overriding plate with TOP = 0.5-2.5 cm (scaling to 25-125 km in nature). The results show that FOPD/FBU has average values of 0.5-2.0%, with a maximum of 5.3%, and ΦOPD/ΦBU has average values of 0.05-0.30%, with a maximum of 0.41%. The results indicate that only a small portion of the negative buoyancy of the slab and its potential energy are used to deform the overriding plate. Our models also suggest that the force required to deform the overriding plate is of comparable magnitude as the ridge push force. Furthermore, we show that in subduction models with an overriding plate bending dissipation at the subduction zone hinge remains low (3-15% during steady state subduction).
Modeling fluid flow in deformation bands with stabilized localization mixed finite elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, W.; Ostien, J. T.; Foulk, J. W.; Abdeljawad, F.
2012-12-01
Deformation bands in geological materials refer to narrow zones of inhomogeneous strain. Their onset and propagation may cause significant changes in microstructures and therefore profoundly enhance or suppress fluid flow and induce anisotropy. These changes in hydraulic properties have strong implications in geotechnical engineering, carbon dioxide sequestration and nuclear waste storage. The difficulty in modeling such multiphysics phenomena is threefold. 1. Monolithically coupled promechanics formulation may lead to non-physical oscillation in pore pressure near the undrained limit if identical mesh and basis functions are used for pore pressure and displacement. 2. Onsets of deformation bands may lead to non-converging mesh-dependent results if no length scale is introduced to the finite element formulation. 3. Modeling anisotropy induced by the deformation band may require a very fine mesh to capture the sharp pore pressure gradient and results in a computational intensive system. In this study, we introduce a projection-based technique to stabilize a large deformation finite element model that eliminates the non-physical oscillation in pore pressure. Using a 1D analytical solution as guideline, we introduce a simple scheme that can adaptively update the optimal value for the stabilization parameter that can restore stability without over-diffusing the system. This stabilized model is coupled with a localization element technique used to introduce proper length scale to regularize the governing equations and resolve the fluid flow jumps across the deformation bands. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the properties and performance of the proposed localized models. *Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000
Interface fracture and composite deformation of model laminates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fox, Matthew R.
Model laminates were studied to improve the understanding of composite mechanical behavior. NiAl/Mo and NiAl/Cr model laminates, with a series of interfaces, were bonded at 1100°C. Reaction layers were present in all laminates, varying in thickness with bonding conditions. Interface fracture strengths and resistances were determined under primarily mode II loading conditions using a novel technique, the asymmetrically-loaded shear (ALS) test, in which one layer of the laminate was loaded in compression, producing a stable interface crack. The NiAl/Mo interface was also fractured in four-point bending. A small amount of plasticity was found to play a role in crack initiation. During steady-state mode II interface fracture of NiAl/Mo model laminates, large-scale slip was observed near the crack tip in the NiAl adjacent to the interface. After testing, the local slope and curvature of the interface were characterized at intervals along the interface and at slip locations to qualitatively describe local stresses present at and just ahead of the crack tip. The greatest percentage of slip occurred where closing forces on the crack tip were below the maximum value and were decreasing with crack growth. A mechanism for crack propagation is presented describing the role of large-scale slip in crack propagation. The mechanical response of structural laminates in 3-D stress states, as would be present in a polycrystalline aggregate composed of lamellar grains, are lacking. In order to understand the response of laminates composed of hard and soft phases, Pb/Zn laminates were prepared and tested in compression with varying lamellar orientation relative to the loading axis. A model describing the mechanical response in a general state assuming elastic-perfectly plastic isotropic layers was developed. For the 90° laminate, a different approach was applied, using the friction hill concepts used in forging analyses. With increasing ratios of cross-sectional radius to layer
Aeroelastic Deformation Measurements of Flap, Gap, and Overhang on a Semispan Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burner, A. W.; Liu, Tian-Shu; Garg, Sanjay; Ghee, Terence A.; Taylor, Nigel J.
2001-01-01
Single-camera, single-view videogrammetry has been used for the first time to determine static aeroelastic deformation of a slotted flap configuration on a semispan model at the National Transonic Facility (NTF). Deformation was determined by comparing wind-off to wind-on spatial data from targets placed on the main element, shroud, and flap of the model. Digitized video images from a camera were recorded and processed to automatically determine target image plane locations that were then corrected for sensor, lens, and frame grabber spatial errors. The videogrammetric technique used for the measurements presented here has been established at NASA facilities as the technique of choice when high-volume static aeroelastic data with minimum impact on data taking is required. However, the primary measurement at the NTF with this technique in the past has been the measurement of the static aeroelastic wing twist of the main wing element on full span models rather than for the measurement of component deformation. Considerations for using the videogrammetric technique for semispan component deformation measurements as well as representative results are presented.
Collision detection and modeling of rigid and deformable objects in laparoscopic simulator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dy, Mary-Clare; Tagawa, Kazuyoshi; Tanaka, Hiromi T.; Komori, Masaru
2015-03-01
Laparoscopic simulators are viable alternatives for surgical training and rehearsal. Haptic devices can also be incorporated with virtual reality simulators to provide additional cues to the users. However, to provide realistic feedback, the haptic device must be updated by 1kHz. On the other hand, realistic visual cues, that is, the collision detection and deformation between interacting objects must be rendered at least 30 fps. Our current laparoscopic simulator detects the collision between a point on the tool tip, and on the organ surfaces, in which haptic devices are attached on actual tool tips for realistic tool manipulation. The triangular-mesh organ model is rendered using a mass spring deformation model, or finite element method-based models. In this paper, we investigated multi-point-based collision detection on the rigid tool rods. Based on the preliminary results, we propose a method to improve the collision detection scheme, and speed up the organ deformation reaction. We discuss our proposal for an efficient method to compute simultaneous multiple collision between rigid (laparoscopic tools) and deformable (organs) objects, and perform the subsequent collision response, with haptic feedback, in real-time.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belferman, Mariana; Katsman, Regina; Agnon, Amotz; Ben Avraham, Zvi
2016-04-01
Understanding the role of the dynamics of water bodies in triggering deformations in the upper crust and subsequently leading to earthquakes has been attracting considerable attention. We suggest that dynamic changes in the levels of the water bodies occupying tectonic depressions along the Dead Sea Transform (DST) cause significant variations in the shallow crustal stress field and affect local fault systems in a way that eventually leads to earthquakes. This mechanism and its spatial and temporal scales differ from those in tectonically-driven deformations. In this study we present a new thermo-mechanical model, constructed using the finite element method, and extended by including a fluid flow component in the upper crust. The latter is modeled on a basis of two-way poroelastic coupling with the momentum equation. This coupling is essential for capturing fluid flow evolution induced by dynamic water loading in the DST depressions and to resolve porosity changes. All the components of the model, namely elasticity, creep, plasticity, heat transfer, and fluid flow, have been extensively verified and presented in the study. The two-way coupling between localized plastic volumetric deformations and enhanced fluid flow is addressed, as well as the role of variability of the rheological and the hydrological parameters in inducing deformations in specific faulting environments. Correlations with historical and contemporary earthquakes in the region are discussed.
An improved tensile deformation model for in-situ dendrite/metallic glass matrix composites
Sun, X. H.; Qiao, J. W.; Jiao, Z. M.; Wang, Z. H.; Yang, H. J.; Xu, B. S.
2015-01-01
With regard to previous tensile deformation models simulating the tensile behavior of in-situ dendrite-reinforced metallic glass matrix composites (MGMCs) [Qiao et al., Acta Mater. 59 (2011) 4126; Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2816], some parameters, such as yielding strength of the dendrites and glass matrix, and the strain-hardening exponent of the dendrites, are estimated based on literatures. Here, Ti48Zr18V12Cu5Be17 MGMCs are investigated in order to improve the tensile deformation model and reveal the tensile deformation mechanisms. The tensile behavior of dendrites is obtained experimentally combining nano-indentation measurements and finite-element-method analysis for the first time, and those of the glass matrix and composites are obtained by tension. Besides, the tensile behavior of the MGMCs is divided into four stages: (1) elastic-elastic, (2) elastic-plastic, (3) plastic-plastic (work-hardening), and (4) plastic-plastic (softening). The respective constitutive relationships at different deformation stages are quantified. The calculated results coincide well with the experimental results. Thus, the improved model can be applied to clarify and predict the tensile behavior of the MGMCs. PMID:26354724
An improved tensile deformation model for in-situ dendrite/metallic glass matrix composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, X. H.; Qiao, J. W.; Jiao, Z. M.; Wang, Z. H.; Yang, H. J.; Xu, B. S.
2015-09-01
With regard to previous tensile deformation models simulating the tensile behavior of in-situ dendrite-reinforced metallic glass matrix composites (MGMCs) [Qiao et al., Acta Mater. 59 (2011) 4126; Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2816], some parameters, such as yielding strength of the dendrites and glass matrix, and the strain-hardening exponent of the dendrites, are estimated based on literatures. Here, Ti48Zr18V12Cu5Be17 MGMCs are investigated in order to improve the tensile deformation model and reveal the tensile deformation mechanisms. The tensile behavior of dendrites is obtained experimentally combining nano-indentation measurements and finite-element-method analysis for the first time, and those of the glass matrix and composites are obtained by tension. Besides, the tensile behavior of the MGMCs is divided into four stages: (1) elastic-elastic, (2) elastic-plastic, (3) plastic-plastic (work-hardening), and (4) plastic-plastic (softening). The respective constitutive relationships at different deformation stages are quantified. The calculated results coincide well with the experimental results. Thus, the improved model can be applied to clarify and predict the tensile behavior of the MGMCs.
Watermarked cardiac CT image segmentation using deformable models and the Hermite transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gomez-Coronel, Sandra L.; Moya-Albor, Ernesto; Escalante-Ramírez, Boris; Brieva, Jorge
2015-01-01
Medical image watermarking is an open area for research and is a solution for the protection of copyright and intellectual property. One of the main challenges of this problem is that the marked images should not differ perceptually from the original images allowing a correct diagnosis and authentication. Furthermore, we also aim at obtaining watermarked images with very little numerical distortion so that computer vision tasks such as segmentation of important anatomical structures do not be impaired or affected. We propose a preliminary watermarking application in cardiac CT images based on a perceptive approach that includes a brightness model to generate a perceptive mask and identify the image regions where the watermark detection becomes a difficult task for the human eye. We propose a normalization scheme of the image in order to improve robustness against geometric attacks. We follow a spread spectrum technique to insert an alphanumeric code, such as patient's information, within the watermark. The watermark scheme is based on the Hermite transform as a bio-inspired image representation model. In order to evaluate the numerical integrity of the image data after watermarking, we perform a segmentation task based on deformable models. The segmentation technique is based on a vector-value level sets method such that, given a curve in a specific image, and subject to some constraints, the curve can evolve in order to detect objects. In order to stimulate the curve evolution we introduce simultaneously some image features like the gray level and the steered Hermite coefficients as texture descriptors. Segmentation performance was assessed by means of the Dice index and the Hausdorff distance. We tested different mark sizes and different insertion schemes on images that were later segmented either automatic or manual by physicians.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babaie, Hassan; Davarpanah, Armita
2016-04-01
We are semantically modeling the structural and dynamic process components of the plastic deformation of minerals and rocks in the Plastic Deformation Ontology (PDO). Applying the Ontology of Physics in Biology, the PDO classifies the spatial entities that participate in the diverse processes of plastic deformation into the Physical_Plastic_Deformation_Entity and Nonphysical_Plastic_Deformation_Entity classes. The Material_Physical_Plastic_Deformation_Entity class includes things such as microstructures, lattice defects, atoms, liquid, and grain boundaries, and the Immaterial_Physical_Plastic_Deformation_Entity class includes vacancies in crystals and voids along mineral grain boundaries. The objects under the many subclasses of these classes (e.g., crystal, lattice defect, layering) have spatial parts that are related to each other through taxonomic (e.g., Line_Defect isA Lattice_Defect), structural (mereological, e.g., Twin_Plane partOf Twin), spatial-topological (e.g., Vacancy adjacentTo Atom, Fluid locatedAlong Grain_Boundary), and domain specific (e.g., displaces, Fluid crystallizes Dissolved_Ion, Void existsAlong Grain_Boundary) relationships. The dynamic aspect of the plastic deformation is modeled under the dynamical Process_Entity class that subsumes classes such as Recrystallization and Pressure_Solution that define the flow of energy amongst the physical entities. The values of the dynamical state properties of the physical entities (e.g., Chemical_Potential, Temperature, Particle_Velocity) change while they take part in the deformational processes such as Diffusion and Dislocation_Glide. The process entities have temporal parts (phases) that are related to each other through temporal relations such as precedes, isSubprocessOf, and overlaps. The properties of the physical entities, defined under the Physical_Property class, change as they participate in the plastic deformational processes. The properties are categorized into dynamical, constitutive
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomas, S.; Willenweber, A.; Cline, C. J.; Sas, M.; Pape, D.; Erickson, B.; Bright, T.; Burnley, P. C.
2012-12-01
The deformation behavior of fine-grained polycrystalline quartz (novaculite) was studied experimentally using in-situ X-ray diffraction and theoretically by elastic plastic self consistent modeling (EPSC). Previous experimental work has shown that different subpopulations of crystals experience different stress levels during high pressure deformation and reflection stresses may lead to poor approximations of macroscopic sample stresses, since in-situ diffraction data originates from grain scale phenomena rather than macroscopic sample properties [1]. In this context EPSC models have been utilized to interpret diffraction data, i.e., to independently derive the macroscopic sample load and to directly compare results with diffraction data. In our study a series of novaculite samples with 645 ± 50 wt ppm H2O was deformed in different regimes of disclocation-creep, at 2.5 GPa and up to ~1000 °C, in the D-DIA apparatus at the NSLS X17B2 beamline. In-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used to monitor the sample stress state during controlled deformation and to observe the strain behavior of the individual lattice reflections of novaculite. Lattice strains were calculated from measured lattice spacings. The macroscopic sample strain was determined by sample radiographs. The strains provide information about how individual grains or grain populations react to stress depending on their orientation within the aggregate. We observe a reproducible elastic slope across the series of experiments and a temperature dependence of individual lattice strains and yield strength. In addition, EPSC models were calculated to theoretically determine macroscopic sample stresses and to match measured rheological sample properties with simulations. Depending on deformation conditions measured elastic lattice strains could be matched by activating basal and/or prism and/or pyramidal slip systems of the crystal structure. Here, we present EPSC models, compare macroscopic stresses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wdowinski, Shimon; O'Connell, Richard J.; England, Philip
1989-01-01
A continuum model of continental deformation above subduction zones was developed that combines the viscous sheet and the corner flow models; the continental lithosphere is described by a two-dimensional sheet model that considers basal drag resulting from the viscous asthenosphere flow underneath, and a corner flow model with a deforming overlying plate and a rigid subducting plate is used to calculate the shear traction that acts on the base of the lithosphere above a subduction zone. The continuum model is applied to the Andes and the Aegean deformations, which represent, respectively, compressional and extensional tectonic environments above subduction zones. The models predict that, in a compressional environment, a broad region of uplifted topography will tend to develop above a more steeply dippping slab, rather than above a shallower slab, in agreement with observations in the various segments of the central Andes. For an extensional environment, the model predicts that a zone of compression can develop near the trench, and that extensional strain rate can increase with distance from the trench, as is observed in the Aegean.
Modelling long-term deformation of granular soils incorporating the concept of fractional calculus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Yifei; Xiao, Yang; Zheng, Changjie; Hanif, Khairul Fikry
2016-02-01
Many constitutive models exist to characterise the cyclic behaviour of granular soils but can only simulate deformations for very limited cycles. Fractional derivatives have been regarded as one potential instrument for modelling memory-dependent phenomena. In this paper, the physical connection between the fractional derivative order and the fractal dimension of granular soils is investigated in detail. Then a modified elasto-plastic constitutive model is proposed for evaluating the long-term deformation of granular soils under cyclic loading by incorporating the concept of factional calculus. To describe the flow direction of granular soils under cyclic loading, a cyclic flow potential considering particle breakage is used. Test results of several types of granular soils are used to validate the model performance.
A deformable model for hippocampus segmentation: Improvements and extension to 3D
Ghanei, A.; Soltanian-Zadeh, H. |; Windham, J.P.
1996-12-31
In this work, the application of a deformable model to the segmentation of hippocampus in brain MRI has been investigated. Common problems of the model in this case and similar cases have been discussed and solved. A new method for extracting discontinuous boundaries of an object with multiple unwanted edges has been developed. This method is based on detecting and following the edge by external forces. For improving the contour stability, its movement has been limited. Also, adaptive values for internal force weights have been used. In the next step, the model has been extended to 3D which is a Deformable Surface Model. A geometric structure used for this purpose. This helps in definition of normal vectors and internal forces. Finally, a method for generating the initial volume from individual initial polygons has been developed.
Protopsaltis, Themistocles; Patel, Ashish; Yoo, Andrew; Lonner, Baron
2015-01-01
Background For the Adult Degenerative Scoliosis (ADS) patient with radiculopathy, there is no clear data in the literature to guide the spine surgeon's decision making in choosing between limited decompression alone, short segment fusion, or longer arthrodesis of the deformity. This study investigates the differences in operative planning, for patients with ADS and radiculopathy, between two groups of spine surgeons based on fellowship experience and practice composition. Methods Six Degenerative Spine surgeons (Group 1) and 6 Spinal Deformity surgeons (Group 2) were shown 7 cases of patients with ADS and radiculopathy. Surgeons completed a questionnaire detailing their planned operative intervention including the number of fusion levels, if any, approach, choice of bone graft, and interbody device. Pearson Correlation was used to investigate the association between fellowship training, practice composition, number of levels fused, and other variables. Intraclass correlation (ICC) analysis was used to investigate the internal consistency among the groups. Results There was a direct correlation between fellowship deformity experience and practice composition (r=0.75, p<0.01), and between deformity practice composition and the number of planned fusion levels (r=0.90, p<0.001). Group 1 surgeons fused a mean 3.7 vertebral levels (range 0-6.7), while Group 2 surgeons fused a mean 10.8 levels (range 4-16.5). Group 2 surgeons fused a significantly greater number of levels for each case than degenerative surgeons on paired student t-test (p=0.002). Group 1 surgeons chose decompression alone more commonly than deformity surgeons (p<0.05). Group 2 surgeons had significantly higher group consistency by ICC analysis (p=0.004). Conclusions Fellowship and practice composition influence the physician's surgical planning in ADS. There is a lack of standardized treatment paradigms for the management of radiculopathy in patients with ADS. PMID:26114090
A new steerable pressure force for parametric deformable models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kong, Jun; Cooper, Lee; Sharma, Ashish; Kurc, Tahsin; Brat, Daniel; Saltz, Joel
2011-03-01
Active contour models have been widely used in various image analysis applications. Despite their usefulness, there are problems limiting their utility, such as capture range, concavity conformation, and convergence rate. This paper presents a new pressure-like force that not only improves contour convergence rate, but also encourages contours to conform to concave regions. Unlike the traditional pressure force, this new force does not require users' input for the force direction and is steerable according to the image content. Better convergence rate as well as force normalization consistency of this new force are presented when compared with those of the gradient vector flow force field on synthetic images. Accuracies of these two methods are compared against the manual markups on a set of cardiac MRI images. Moreover, results on a MRI image smoothed at different levels demonstrate the robustness of this new force to noise.
Indenter growth in analogue models of Alpine-type deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonini, Marco; Sokoutis, Dimitrios; Talbot, Christopher J.; Boccaletti, Mario; Milnes, Alan G.
1999-02-01
A series of analogue experiments were carried out to simulate continental convergence, as seen in a profile through the Central Alps. A rigid indenter, representing the Adriatic plate, was driven laterally into a sand pack representing the brittle upper crust of Europe, detached and thickening above its subducting ductile lower crust. The rigid indenter advanced at the same steady rate in each experiment, but the dip of its front face was steepened in 15° increments from 15° to 90°. Where the rigid indenter face dipped at 45° or less, a sand wedge rose and was bound by a series of forekinks that nucleated at the toe of the indenter. Where the face of the rigid indenter dipped 60° or more, the wedge was defined by a single forekink and one or more backkinks that nucleated from a point advancing in front of the indenter toe. We interpret these results as indicating that slices of the sand pack and rising wedge are transferred across kink bands to build an "effective" indenter with a frontal dip closer to that dictated by the changing shear strength of the sand pile, which thickens vertically as it shortens laterally. One of our models (with a rigid indenter dipping 75°) simulates most of the major structures shown in recent syntheses of surface geology and deep seismic data in the Central Alps, without the isostatic lithospheric depression. This model accounts for the late collisional stage (Oligocene to Present) complex strain and metamorphic histories in the core of the orogenic wedge, the rapid rise and extrusion of small pips of Alpine eclogites, and the current passivity of the Insubric Line. It also emphasizes that lateral extension along gently dipping "thrusts" (orogen-normal horizontal escape) is confined to the extruded portion of the rising wedge.
Three-dimensional multi-scale model of deformable platelets adhesion to vessel wall in blood flow.
Wu, Ziheng; Xu, Zhiliang; Kim, Oleg; Alber, Mark
2014-08-01
When a blood vessel ruptures or gets inflamed, the human body responds by rapidly forming a clot to restrict the loss of blood. Platelets aggregation at the injury site of the blood vessel occurring via platelet-platelet adhesion, tethering and rolling on the injured endothelium is a critical initial step in blood clot formation. A novel three-dimensional multi-scale model is introduced and used in this paper to simulate receptor-mediated adhesion of deformable platelets at the site of vascular injury under different shear rates of blood flow. The novelty of the model is based on a new approach of coupling submodels at three biological scales crucial for the early clot formation: novel hybrid cell membrane submodel to represent physiological elastic properties of a platelet, stochastic receptor-ligand binding submodel to describe cell adhesion kinetics and lattice Boltzmann submodel for simulating blood flow. The model implementation on the GPU cluster significantly improved simulation performance. Predictive model simulations revealed that platelet deformation, interactions between platelets in the vicinity of the vessel wall as well as the number of functional GPIbα platelet receptors played significant roles in platelet adhesion to the injury site. Variation of the number of functional GPIbα platelet receptors as well as changes of platelet stiffness can represent effects of specific drugs reducing or enhancing platelet activity. Therefore, predictive simulations can improve the search for new drug targets and help to make treatment of thrombosis patient-specific. PMID:24982253
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roberts, M. A.; Graymer, R. W.; McPhee, D.
2015-12-01
During the late Miocene, a small change in the relative motion of the Pacific plate resulted in compressive as well as translational deformation along the central San Andreas Fault (SAF), creating thrust faults and folds throughout this region of California. We constructed a 3D model of an upper crustal volume between Pinnacles National Park and Gold Hill by assembling geologic map data and cross sections, geophysical data, and petroleum well logs in MoveTm, software which has the ability to forward and reverse model movement along faults and folds. For this study, we chose a blind thrust fault west of the SAF near Parkfield to compare deformation produced by MoveTm's forward modeling algorithm with that observed. We chose various synclines east of the SAF to explore the software's ability to unfold (reverse model) units. For the initial round of modeling, strike-slip movement has been omitted as the fault algorithm was designed primarily for extensional or compressional environments. Preliminary forward modeling of originally undeformed strata along the blind thrust produced geometries similar to those in the present-day 3D geologic model. The modeled amount of folding produced in hanging wall strata was less severe, suggesting these units were slightly folded before displacement. Based on these results, the algorithm shows potential in predicting deformation related to blind thrusts. Contraction in the region varies with fold axis location and orientation. MoveTm's unfolding algorithm can allow researchers to measure the amount of contraction a fold represents, and compare that amount across the modeled area as a way of observing regional stress patterns. The unfolding algorithm also allows for passive deformation of strata unconformably underlying the fold; one example reveals a steeper orientation of Cretaceous units prior to late Miocene deformation. Such modeling capabilities can allow for a better understanding of the structural history of the region.
Microplate model for the present-day deformation of Tibet
Thatcher, W.
2007-01-01
Site velocities from 349 Global Positioning System (GPS) stations are used to construct an 11-element quasi-rigid block model of the Tibetan Plateau and its surroundings. Rigid rotations of five major blocks are well determined, and average translation velocities of six smaller blocks can be constrained. Where data are well distributed the velocity field can be explained well by rigid block motion and fault slip across block boundaries. Residual misfits average 1.6 mm/yr compared to typical one standard deviation velocity uncertainties of 1.3 mm/yr. Any residual internal straining of the blocks is small and heterogeneous. However, residual substructure might well represent currently unresolved motions of smaller blocks. Although any smaller blocks must move at nearly the same rate as the larger blocks within which they lie, undetected relative motions between them could be significant, particularly where there are gaps in GPS coverage. Predicted relative motions between major blocks agree with the observed sense of slip and along-strike partitioning of motion across major faults. However, predicted slip rates across Tibet's major strike-slip faults are low, only 5-12 mm/yr, a factor of 2-3 smaller than most rates estimated from fault offset features dated by radiometric methods as ???2000 to ???100,000 year old. Previous work has suggested that both GPS data and low fault slip rates are incompatible with rigid block motions of Tibet. The results reported here overcome these objections.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naliboff, J. B.; Billen, M. I.; Gerya, T.; Saunders, J. K.
2012-12-01
During subduction, bending and flexure of oceanic lithosphere generates a topographic bulge seaward of the trench known as the outer rise, which commonly exhibits extensional deformation attributed to slab pull forces and bending stresses. The resulting brittle and viscous deformation may play a significant role in long-term geodynamic processes by limiting the ability of subducted oceanic lithosphere to act as a stress guide driving surface plate motions through slab pull. Recent numerical studies provide varying estimates of slab pull's contribution to surface plate motions [e.g., van Summeren et al. 2012, Ghosh & Holt 2012], while observational constraints suggest old oceanic lithosphere may weaken by 3-4 orders of magnitude as it bends and descends beneath the overriding plate [Arredondo & Billen, 2012]. Preliminary numerical models of outer rise deformation during oceanic-continental convergence (40 Myr oceanic lithosphere) exhibit 10x-150x viscous weakening in the upper plate near the trench, with time-dependent variations related to both changes in slab depth and downgoing-overriding plate coupling (Naliboff et al., in prep). In order to more closely examine the relationship between outer rise deformation, geophysical observations and plate velocities, we consider 2D subduction models of the Tonga subduction system where flow will be strictly driven by upper mantle slab buoyancy as defined by the Slab1.0 model [Hayes et al. 2012]. The resulting subducting plate deformation patterns are compared to observations of outer rise faulting, elastic thickness measurements and outer rise seismicity. While keeping buoyancy forces fixed, we will examine the role of brittle rheology, hydration and downgoing-overriding plate coupling in patterns of subducting plate deformation. These results will provide improved physical understanding of the relationship between slab pull, plate velocities and downgoing plate weakening, and a basis for future work examining the role of
Multicomponent model of deformation and detachment of a biofilm under fluid flow
Tierra, Giordano; Pavissich, Juan P.; Nerenberg, Robert; Xu, Zhiliang; Alber, Mark S.
2015-01-01
A novel biofilm model is described which systemically couples bacteria, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and solvent phases in biofilm. This enables the study of contributions of rheology of individual phases to deformation of biofilm in response to fluid flow as well as interactions between different phases. The model, which is based on first and second laws of thermodynamics, is derived using an energetic variational approach and phase-field method. Phase-field coupling is used to model structural changes of a biofilm. A newly developed unconditionally energy-stable numerical splitting scheme is implemented for computing the numerical solution of the model efficiently. Model simulations predict biofilm cohesive failure for the flow velocity between and m s−1 which is consistent with experiments. Simulations predict biofilm deformation resulting in the formation of streamers for EPS exhibiting a viscous-dominated mechanical response and the viscosity of EPS being less than . Higher EPS viscosity provides biofilm with greater resistance to deformation and to removal by the flow. Moreover, simulations show that higher EPS elasticity yields the formation of streamers with complex geometries that are more prone to detachment. These model predictions are shown to be in qualitative agreement with experimental observations. PMID:25808342
Multi-step deformations - a stringent test for constitutive models for polymer glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Medvedev, Grigori; Caruthers, James
A number of constitutive models have been proposed to describe mechanical behavior of polymer glasses, where the focus has been on the stress-strain curve observed in a constant strain rate deformation. The stress-strain curve possesses several prominent features, including yield, post-yield softening, flow, and hardening, which have proven challenging to predict. As a result, both viscoplastic and nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive models have become quite intricate, where a new mechanism is invoked for each bend of the stress-strain curve. We demonstrate on several examples that when the models are used to describe the multi-step deformations vs. the more common single strain rate deformation, they produce responses that are qualitatively incorrect, revealing the existing models to be parameterizations of a single-step curve. A recently developed stochastic constitutive model has fewer problems than the traditional viscoelastic/viscoplastic models, but it also has difficulties. The implications for the mechanics and physics of glassy polymers will be discussed.
Multicomponent model of deformation and detachment of a biofilm under fluid flow.
Tierra, Giordano; Pavissich, Juan P; Nerenberg, Robert; Xu, Zhiliang; Alber, Mark S
2015-05-01
A novel biofilm model is described which systemically couples bacteria, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and solvent phases in biofilm. This enables the study of contributions of rheology of individual phases to deformation of biofilm in response to fluid flow as well as interactions between different phases. The model, which is based on first and second laws of thermodynamics, is derived using an energetic variational approach and phase-field method. Phase-field coupling is used to model structural changes of a biofilm. A newly developed unconditionally energy-stable numerical splitting scheme is implemented for computing the numerical solution of the model efficiently. Model simulations predict biofilm cohesive failure for the flow velocity between [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] m s(-1) which is consistent with experiments. Simulations predict biofilm deformation resulting in the formation of streamers for EPS exhibiting a viscous-dominated mechanical response and the viscosity of EPS being less than [Formula: see text]. Higher EPS viscosity provides biofilm with greater resistance to deformation and to removal by the flow. Moreover, simulations show that higher EPS elasticity yields the formation of streamers with complex geometries that are more prone to detachment. These model predictions are shown to be in qualitative agreement with experimental observations. PMID:25808342
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Y.; Di, H. S.; Misra, R. D. K.; Zhang, Jiecen
2014-12-01
The hot deformation behavior of a Fe-Ni-Cr austenitic Alloy 800H was explored in the intermediate temperature range of 825-975 °C and strain rate range of 0.01-10 s-1. The study indicates that dynamic recrystallization (DRX) occurred at 875-975 °C for strain rates of 0.01-0.1 s-1 and adiabatic heating generated at high strain rates accelerated the DRX process. Based on the experimental data, the Johnson-Cook, modified Johnson-Cook, and Arrhenius-type constitutive models were established to predict the flow stress during hot deformation. A comparative study was made on the accuracy and effectiveness of the above three developed models. The microstructure analysis indicated that all the deformation structures exhibited elongated grains and evidence of some degree of DRX. The multiple DRX at 975 °C and 0.01 s-1 led to an increase in the intensity of {001} <100> "cube" texture component and a significant reduction in the intensity of {011} <211> "brass" component. Additionally, the average values of grain average misorientation and grain orientation spread for deformed microstructure were inversely proportional to the fraction of DRX.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parker, Amanda; Rottler, Jörg
Thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) can be formed by exploiting the nanostructured morphology of triblock copolymers. Glassy end-blocks phase separate to form spherical regions which act as physical cross-links for the soft rubbery phase. Molecular dynamics simulations of TPEs allow us to relate the microscopic mechanisms active during plastic deformation to the macroscopic stress response. A coarse-grained bead-spring model of linear ABA triblock copolymers which forms the desired spherical morphology is used for pure stress and pure strain uniaxial deformations. The systems are first equilibrated using a soft pair potential. We observe increased strain hardening in triblocks when compared to homopolymers of the same chain length in accordance with experiments. We connect variations in the stress response for systems of different chain lengths to the non-affine deformation of chains and to the scale of phase separated regions. The stress response is also compared to rubbery elasticity models, taking into account the evolution of chain entanglements during deformation. We observe void formation at the interfaces of glassy regions or where these regions have broken up at large strain.
Deformation twinning in small-sized face-centred cubic single crystals: Experiments and modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Z. Y.; Huang, M. X.
2015-12-01
Small-sized crystals generally show deformation behaviour distinct from their bulk counterparts. In addition to dislocation slip, deformation twinning in small-sized face-centred cubic (FCC) single crystals has been reported to follow a different mechanism which involves coherent emission of partial dislocations on successive { 111 } planes from free surface. The present work employed a twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel with a low stacking fault energy to systematically investigate the twin evolution in small-sized FCC single crystals. Micrometre-sized single crystal pillars of TWIP steel were fabricated by focus ion beam and then strained to different levels by compression experiments. Detailed transmission electron microscopy characterization was carried out to obtain a quantitative evaluation of the deformation twins, which contribute to most of the plastic strain. Emissions of partial dislocations from free surface (surface sources) and pre-existing perfect dislocations inside the pillar (inner sources) are found as the essential processes for the formation of deformation twins. Accordingly, a physically-based model, which integrates source introduction methods and source activation criterions for partial dislocation emission, is developed to quantitatively predict the twin evolution. The model is able to reproduce the experimental twin evolution, in terms of the total twin formation, the twin morphology and the occurrence of twinning burst.
Comparing approaches for numerical modelling of tsunami generation by deformable submarine slides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Rebecca C.; Hill, Jon; Collins, Gareth S.; Piggott, Matthew D.; Kramer, Stephan C.; Parkinson, Samuel D.; Wilson, Cian
2016-04-01
Tsunami generated by submarine slides are arguably an under-considered risk in comparison to earthquake-generated tsunami. Numerical simulations of submarine slide-generated waves can be used to identify the important factors in determining wave characteristics. Here we use Fluidity, an open source finite element code, to simulate waves generated by deformable submarine slides. Fluidity uses flexible unstructured meshes combined with adaptivity which alters the mesh topology and resolution based on the simulation state, focussing or reducing resolution, when and where it is required. Fluidity also allows a number of different numerical approaches to be taken to simulate submarine slide deformation, free-surface representation, and wave generation within the same numerical framework. In this work we use a multi-material approach, considering either two materials (slide and water with a free surface) or three materials (slide, water and air), as well as a sediment model (sediment, water and free surface) approach. In all cases the slide is treated as a viscous fluid. Our results are shown to be consistent with laboratory experiments using a deformable submarine slide, and demonstrate good agreement when compared with other numerical models. The three different approaches for simulating submarine slide dynamics and tsunami wave generation produce similar waveforms and slide deformation geometries. However, each has its own merits depending on the application. Mesh adaptivity is shown to be able to reduce the computational cost without compromising the accuracy of results.
Ren, W
2001-08-24
Time-dependent deformation behavior of a polymeric composite with chopped-glass-fiber reinforcement was investigated for automotive applications, The material under stress was exposed to representative automobile service environments. Results show that environment has substantial effects on time-dependent deformation behavior of the material. The data were analyzed and experimentally-based models developed for the time-dependent deformation behavior as a basis for automotive structural durability design criteria.
Bayesian estimation of regularization parameters for deformable surface models
Cunningham, G.S.; Lehovich, A.; Hanson, K.M.
1999-02-20
In this article the authors build on their past attempts to reconstruct a 3D, time-varying bolus of radiotracer from first-pass data obtained by the dynamic SPECT imager, FASTSPECT, built by the University of Arizona. The object imaged is a CardioWest total artificial heart. The bolus is entirely contained in one ventricle and its associated inlet and outlet tubes. The model for the radiotracer distribution at a given time is a closed surface parameterized by 482 vertices that are connected to make 960 triangles, with nonuniform intensity variations of radiotracer allowed inside the surface on a voxel-to-voxel basis. The total curvature of the surface is minimized through the use of a weighted prior in the Bayesian framework, as is the weighted norm of the gradient of the voxellated grid. MAP estimates for the vertices, interior intensity voxels and background count level are produced. The strength of the priors, or hyperparameters, are determined by maximizing the probability of the data given the hyperparameters, called the evidence. The evidence is calculated by first assuming that the posterior is approximately normal in the values of the vertices and voxels, and then by evaluating the integral of the multi-dimensional normal distribution. This integral (which requires evaluating the determinant of a covariance matrix) is computed by applying a recent algorithm from Bai et. al. that calculates the needed determinant efficiently. They demonstrate that the radiotracer is highly inhomogeneous in early time frames, as suspected in earlier reconstruction attempts that assumed a uniform intensity of radiotracer within the closed surface, and that the optimal choice of hyperparameters is substantially different for different time frames.
Seismicity and coupled deformation modeling at the Coso Geothermal Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaven, J. O.; Hickman, S. H.; Davatzes, N. C.
2015-12-01
Micro-seismicity in geothermal reservoirs, in particular in enhanced geothermal systems (EGS), is a beneficial byproduct of injection and production, as it can indicate the generation of high-permeability pathways on either pre-existing or newly generated faults and fractures. The hazard of inducing an earthquake large enough to be felt at the surface, however, is not easily avoided and has led to termination of some EGS projects. To explore the physical processes leading to permeability creation and maintenance in geothermal systems and the physics of induced earthquakes , we investigated the evolution of seismicity and the factors controlling the migration, moment release rate, and timing of seismicity in the Coso Geothermal Field (CGF). We report on seismicity in the CGF that has been relocated with high precision double-difference relocation techniques and simultaneous velocity inversions to understand hydrologic reservoir compartmentalization and the nature of subsurface boundaries to fluid flow. We find that two distinct compartments are present within the CGF, which are divided by an aseismic gap showing a relatively low Vp/Vs ratio, likely indicating lower temperatures or lower pore pressures within the gap than in the adjacent reservoir compartments. Well-located events with Mw> 3.5 tend to map onto reactivated fault structures that were revealed when imaged by the relocated micro-seismicity. We relate the temporal and spatial migration of moment release rate to the injection and production histories in the reservoir by employing a thermo-poro-elastic finite element model that takes into account the compartment boundaries defined by the seismicity. We find that pore pressure effects alone are not responsible for the migration of seismicity and that poro-elastic and thermo-elastic stress changes are needed in addition to fluid pressure effects to account for the observed moment release rates.
Correction of the axial and appendicular deformities in a patient with Silver-Russel syndrome
Al Kaissi, Ali; Ganger, Rudolf; Mindler, Gabriel; Karner, Christoph; Klaushofer, Klaus; Grill, Franz
2015-01-01
Background: Scoliosis and limb length discrepancy are the major orthopaedic abnormalities in patients with Silver-Russel syndrome (SRS). In this paper, we describe a series of orthopaedic interventions in an attempt to overcome the progressive pathologic mechanism in a 7-year-old girl who manifested the full phenotypic features of SRS. Materials and Methods: Unilateral hip dislocation, progressive scoliosis and limb length discrepancy have been dealt with through Pemberton osteotomy, spinal fusion and Taylor-Spatial-Frame respectively. Results: In order to correct the axial and the appendicular deformities a sum of seven operations were performed (between the age of 7 years and 13 years). Pemberton osteotomy was performed to treat dislocation of her right hip because of developmental dysplasia of the hip. Spinal fusion (spondylodesis) of segments Th3-L5 was done to correct her scoliosis. And, to overcome the limb length discrepancy of 15-cm we used Taylor-Spatial-Frame with percutaneous distal corticotomy of the femur, and the proximal tibia, as well as the foot, were performed. We were able to minimize the limb length discrepancy to 5 cm. The girl became able to walk with the aid of a below knee orthosis and through lifting the left limb with 5-cm height shoe. Conclusion: Limb lengthening surgery in patients with multiple malformation complex as in SRS is associated with high recurrence risk because of; muscular hypotonia, overtubulation of the long bones, and the poor bone regenerative quality. Our interventions were principally directed towards improving the cosmetic outlook, functions and the biomechanics. PMID:25659548
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McPherson, E. E.; Mattioli, G. S.
2013-05-01
Soufriere Hills Volcano (SHV), Montserrat, in the Lesser Antilles island arc, became active in 1995, and for nearly two decades, ground breaking geodetic surveys have been conducted using both continuous GPS and campaign GPS sites. Data have been collected and processed using the latest and most advanced geodetic instruments and technique available. The NSF- funded CALIPSO and SEA-CALIPSO projects have allowed for some of the most in depth studies of the ongoing SHV eruptions to date, and many models for surface deformation and magmatic chamber configuration have resulted. Research for this study is constrained to data gathered from the early stages of eruption in 1996 through 2010 from two continuous GPS sites, Hermitage Peak (HERM - located ~1.6 km from the vent) and Montserrat Volcano Observatory 1 (MVO1- located ~7.6 km away from the vent) and have been reprocessed using GIPSY-OASIS II (v. 6.1.2) with final, precise IGS08 orbits, clocks, and earth orientation parameters using an absolute point positioning (APP) strategy. Our study is being conducted to re-examine spatial and temporal changes in surface deformation, constrained by GPS, and to better illuminate the short term (i.e. sub-daily to weekly) deformation signals noted amongst the longer, cyclic deformation signals (i.e. monthly to annually) that have been previously reported and modeled. The reprocessed time-series show lower variance for daily APP solutions over the entire temporal data set; trends in the long-term inflation and deflation patterns are similar to those previously published (e.g. Elsworth et al., 2008; Mattioli et al., 2010; Odbert et al., 2012), but now superimposed, shorter term signals are more clearly visible. New elastic deformation models are being developed and will be presented for these short-term signals.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadovskii, V. M.; Sadovskaya, O. V.
2015-10-01
Based on the generalized rheological method, the mathematical model describing small deformations of a single-phase porous medium without regard to the effects of a fluid or gas in pores is constructed. The change in resistance of a material to the external mechanical impacts at the moment of pore collapse is taken into account by means of the von Mises-Schleicher strength condition. In order to consider irreversible deformations, alongside with the classical yield conditions by von Mises and Tresca- Saint-Venant, the special condition modeling the plastic loss of stability of a porous skeleton is used. The random nature of the pore size distribution is taken into account. It is shown that the proposed mathematical model satisfies the principles of thermodynamics of irreversible processes. Phenomenological parameters of the model are determined on the basis of the approximate calculation of the problem on quasi-static loading of a cubic periodicity cell with spherical voids. In the framework of the obtained model, the process of propagation of plane longitudinal waves of the compression in a homogenous porous medium, accompanied by the plastic deformation of a skeleton and the collapse of pores, is analyzed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, Sendong; Zhang, Liwen; Zhang, Chi; Shen, Wenfei
2016-03-01
The hot deformation characteristics of nickel-based alloy Nimonic 80A were investigated by isothermal compression tests conducted in the temperature range of 1,000-1,200°C and the strain rate range of 0.01—5 s-1 on a Gleeble-1500 thermomechanical simulator. In order to establish the constitutive models for dynamic recrystallization (DRX) behavior and flow stress of Nimonic 80A, the material constants α, n and DRX activation energy Q in the constitutive models were calculated by the regression analysis of the experimental data. The dependences of initial stress, saturation stress, steady-state stress, dynamic recovery (DRV) parameter, peak strain, critical strain and DRX grain size on deformation parameters were obtained. Then, the Avrami equation including the critical strain for DRX and the peak strain as a function of strain was established to describe the DRX volume fraction. Finally, the constitutive model for flow stress of Nimonic 80A was developed in DRV region and DRX region, respectively. The flow stress values predicted by the constitutive model are in good agreement with the experimental ones, which indicates that the constitutive model can give an accurate estimate for the flow stress of Nimonic 80A under the deformation conditions.
Sadovskii, V. M. Sadovskaya, O. V.
2015-10-28
Based on the generalized rheological method, the mathematical model describing small deformations of a single-phase porous medium without regard to the effects of a fluid or gas in pores is constructed. The change in resistance of a material to the external mechanical impacts at the moment of pore collapse is taken into account by means of the von Mises–Schleicher strength condition. In order to consider irreversible deformations, alongside with the classical yield conditions by von Mises and Tresca– Saint-Venant, the special condition modeling the plastic loss of stability of a porous skeleton is used. The random nature of the pore size distribution is taken into account. It is shown that the proposed mathematical model satisfies the principles of thermodynamics of irreversible processes. Phenomenological parameters of the model are determined on the basis of the approximate calculation of the problem on quasi-static loading of a cubic periodicity cell with spherical voids. In the framework of the obtained model, the process of propagation of plane longitudinal waves of the compression in a homogenous porous medium, accompanied by the plastic deformation of a skeleton and the collapse of pores, is analyzed.
Performance Analysis of Tandem-L Mission for Modeling Volcanic and Seismic Deformation Sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ansari, Homa; Goel, Kanika; Parizzi, Alessandro; Sudhaus, Henriette; Adam, Nico; Eineder, Michael
2015-04-01
Although a great number of publications have focused on the application of InSAR in deformation source modeling as well as the development of different algorithms in this regard, little investigation has been dedicated to the sensitivity analysis of the InSAR in deformation source modeling. Our purpose is to address this issue by analyzing the reliability of InSAR in modeling the deformation sources due to landslides, seismic and volcanic activities, with special focus on the L band SAR measurements. The sensitivity analysis is considered for three commonly used geophysical models in case of subsidence, seismic and volcanic activities; namely, the Gaussian subsidence bowl, Okada and Mogi point source, respectively. In each of the cases, the InSAR sensitivity is analytically formulated and its performance is investigated using simulated SAR data. The investigations are carried out using stochastic error propagation approaches to infer the precision of the models' parameters as well as their mutual covariance. The limiting factors in SAR interferometry are categorized in two groups and investigated separately in sensitivity analysis; with the first dealing with the geometrical limits imposed by the side looking geometry of the SAR measurements and the second focusing on the InSAR stochastic characteristics in the L band.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, Qingguo; Li, Xiaojie; Ge, Baozhen
2009-10-01
Digital human modeling and skin deformation is the most challenging and widely used computer animation technology. In all existing methods the skinning algorithm has many advantages such as fast implement speed and simple operating process, but it also has the flaws such as local 'collapse' and 'drape' phenomena. An improved skinning method is presented that can effectively reduce traditional flaws of this method. After the key terminologies are introduced the improvement for skinning deformation is illustrated in detail. The main measures include that (1) adding extra joints on JSL to minimize the distance between adjacent joints and thus joint's importance attribute is introduced, (2) using joint cluster to replace single joint, and (3) creating the corresponding relationship between skin and JSLs based on flexible model and multi-joints-binding method (MJBM), that is to say binding one skin vertex to several joints using distance criterion and weight coefficient is the function of distances between the skin vertex to its related joints. All these improvements can make the skin deformation more smoothing. In order to verify the validity of the method we implement the algorithm above proposed using Visual C++ 6.0 and OpenGL language, and the digital hand finger bending and leg kicking deformation are achieved. The experimental results show that the skin deformation is very natural and meets the habit of human self.
Multi-object segmentation framework using deformable models for medical imaging analysis.
Namías, Rafael; D'Amato, Juan Pablo; Del Fresno, Mariana; Vénere, Marcelo; Pirró, Nicola; Bellemare, Marc-Emmanuel
2016-08-01
Segmenting structures of interest in medical images is an important step in different tasks such as visualization, quantitative analysis, simulation, and image-guided surgery, among several other clinical applications. Numerous segmentation methods have been developed in the past three decades for extraction of anatomical or functional structures on medical imaging. Deformable models, which include the active contour models or snakes, are among the most popular methods for image segmentation combining several desirable features such as inherent connectivity and smoothness. Even though different approaches have been proposed and significant work has been dedicated to the improvement of such algorithms, there are still challenging research directions as the simultaneous extraction of multiple objects and the integration of individual techniques. This paper presents a novel open-source framework called deformable model array (DMA) for the segmentation of multiple and complex structures of interest in different imaging modalities. While most active contour algorithms can extract one region at a time, DMA allows integrating several deformable models to deal with multiple segmentation scenarios. Moreover, it is possible to consider any existing explicit deformable model formulation and even to incorporate new active contour methods, allowing to select a suitable combination in different conditions. The framework also introduces a control module that coordinates the cooperative evolution of the snakes and is able to solve interaction issues toward the segmentation goal. Thus, DMA can implement complex object and multi-object segmentations in both 2D and 3D using the contextual information derived from the model interaction. These are important features for several medical image analysis tasks in which different but related objects need to be simultaneously extracted. Experimental results on both computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging show that the proposed
Computational Study of Uniaxial Deformations in Silica Aerogel Using a Coarse-Grained Model.
Ferreiro-Rangel, Carlos A; Gelb, Lev D
2015-07-01
Simulations of a flexible coarse-grained model are used to study silica aerogels. This model, introduced in a previous study (J. Phys. Chem. C 2007, 111, 15792), consists of spherical particles which interact through weak nonbonded forces and strong interparticle bonds that may form and break during the simulations. Small-deformation simulations are used to determine the elastic moduli of a wide range of material models, and large-deformation simulations are used to probe structural evolution and plastic deformation. Uniaxial deformation at constant transverse pressure is simulated using two methods: a hybrid Monte Carlo approach combining molecular dynamics for the motion of individual particles and stochastic moves for transverse stress equilibration, and isothermal molecular dynamics simulations at fixed Poisson ratio. Reasonable agreement on elastic moduli is obtained except at very low densities. The model aerogels exhibit Poisson ratios between 0.17 and 0.24, with higher-density gels clustered around 0.20, and Young's moduli that vary with aerogel density according to a power-law dependence with an exponent near 3.0. These results are in agreement with reported experimental values. The models are shown to satisfy the expected homogeneous isotropic linear-elastic relationship between bulk and Young's moduli at higher densities, but there are systematic deviations at the lowest densities. Simulations of large compressive and tensile strains indicate that these materials display a ductile-to-brittle transition as the density is increased, and that the tensile strength varies with density according to a power law, with an exponent in reasonable agreement with experiment. Auxetic behavior is observed at large tensile strains in some models. Finally, at maximum tensile stress very few broken bonds are found in the materials, in accord with the theory that only a small fraction of the material structure is actually load-bearing. PMID:26039801
Ductile bookshelf faulting: A new kinematic model for Cenozoic deformation in northern Tibet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zuza, A. V.; Yin, A.
2013-12-01
It has been long recognized that the most dominant features on the northern Tibetan Plateau are the >1000 km left-slip strike-slip faults (e.g., the Atyn Tagh, Kunlun, and Haiyuan faults). Early workers used the presence of these faults, especially the Kunlun and Haiyuan faults, as evidence for eastward lateral extrusion of the plateau, but their low documented offsets--100s of km or less--can not account for the 2500 km of convergence between India and Asia. Instead, these faults may result from north-south right-lateral simple shear due to the northward indentation of India, which leads to the clockwise rotation of the strike-slip faults and left-lateral slip (i.e., bookshelf faulting). With this idea, deformation is still localized on discrete fault planes, and 'microplates' or blocks rotate and/or translate with little internal deformation. As significant internal deformation occurs across northern Tibet within strike-slip-bounded domains, there is need for a coherent model to describe all of the deformational features. We also note the following: (1) geologic offsets and Quaternary slip rates of both the Kunlun and Haiyuan faults vary along strike and appear to diminish to the east, (2) the faults appear to kinematically link with thrust belts (e.g., Qilian Shan, Liupan Shan, Longmen Shan, and Qimen Tagh) and extensional zones (e.g., Shanxi, Yinchuan, and Qinling grabens), and (3) temporal relationships between the major deformation zones and the strike-slip faults (e.g., simultaneous enhanced deformation and offset in the Qilian Shan and Liupan Shan, and the Haiyuan fault, at 8 Ma). We propose a new kinematic model to describe the active deformation in northern Tibet: a ductile-bookshelf-faulting model. With this model, right-lateral simple shear leads to clockwise vertical axis rotation of the Qaidam and Qilian blocks, and left-slip faulting. This motion creates regions of compression and extension, dependent on the local boundary conditions (e.g., rigid
Pekmezci, Murat; Karaeminogulları, Oguz; Acaroglu, Emre; Yazıcı, Muharrem; Cil, Akın; Pijnenburg, Bas; Genç, Yasemin; Oner, Fethullah C.
2007-01-01
Cobb method has been shown to be the most reliable technique with a reasonable measurement error to determine the kyphosis in fresh fractures of young patients. However, measurement errors may be higher for elderly patients as it may be difficult to determine the landmarks due to osteopenia and the degenerative changes. The aim of this study is to investigate the intrinsic error for different techniques used in evaluation of local sagittal plane deformity caused by OVCF. Lateral X-rays of OVCF patients were randomly selected. Patient group was composed of 28 females and 7 males and the mean age was 62.7 (55–75) years. The kyphosis angle and the vertebral body height were analyzed to reveal the severity of sagittal plane deformity. Kyphotic deformity was measured by using four different techniques; and the vertebral body heights (VBH) were measured at three different points. The mean intra-observer agreement interval for kyphosis angle measurement techniques ranged from ±7.1 to ±9.3° while it ranged from ±4.5 to ±6.5 mm for VBH measurement techniques. The mean interobserver agreement interval for kyphosis angle ranged from ±8.2 to ±11.1°, while it was between ±4.5 to ±6.5 mm for vertebral body height measurement techniques. This study revealed that although the intra and interobserver agreement were similar for all techniques, they are still higher than expected. These high intervals for measurement errors should be taken into account when interpreting the results of correction in local sagittal plane deformities of OVCF patients after surgical procedures such as vertebral augmentation techniques. PMID:17912558
Three-dimensional modeling of flow and deformation in idealized mild and moderate arterial vessels.
Gu, Xi; Yeoh, Guan Heng; Timchenko, Victoria
2016-10-01
Three-dimensional numerical calculations of mild and moderate stenosed blood vessels have been performed. Large eddy simulation through a dynamic subgrid scale Smagorinsky model is applied to model the transitional and turbulent pulsatile flow. For the compliant stenosed model, fluid-structure interaction is realized through a two-way coupling between the fluid flow and the deforming vessel through the change in the external diameter due to the increment of circumferential pressure via a novel moving boundary approach. Model predictions compare very well against measured and numerical data for the centerline velocities, thickness of the flow separation zones and radial wall displacements. PMID:26863528
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grennerat, F.; Montagnat, M.; Castelnau, O.; Vacher, P.; Suquet, P.; Moulinec, H.; Duval, P.
2011-12-01
Similarly as minerals from the Earth mantle, ice exhibits a strongly anisotropic rheology resulting from the small number of independent slip systems for dislocations. Therefore, a significant heterogeneity of stress and strain distributions is expected at the inter- and intra-granular scale during polycrystal deformation, owing to the mechanical interaction between adjacent grains. A Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique has been adapted to polycrystalline ice specimens in order to characterize the development of strain heterogeneities at an intragranular scale during transient creep deformation. Specimens exhibit a columnar microstructure so that plastic deformation is essentially 2-D with no in-depth gradients, and therefore surface DIC analyses are representative for the whole specimen volume. Local misorientations at the intragranular scale were also extracted from microstructure analyses carried out with an automatic texture analyzer before and after deformation. Highly localized strain patterns are evidenced by the DIC technique. Local equivalent strain can reach values as high as one order of magnitude larger than the macroscopic average. The structure of the strain pattern does not evolve with strain in the transient creep regime. Almost no correlation between the measured local strain and the Schmid factor of the slip plane of the underlying grain is observed, highlighting the importance of the mechanical interactions between neighboring grains resulting from the very large viscoplastic anisotropy of ice crystals. Finally, the experimental microstructure was introduced in a full-field FFT polycrystal model; simulated strain fields are in good match with experimental ones.
Bridge Deformation Monitoring: Instight From InSAR Time-Series And Finite Element Modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shamshiri, Roghayeh; Motagh, Mahdi; Baes, Marzieh; Sharifi, Mohammad-Ali
2013-12-01
This paper presents the capability of advanced InSAR time-series techniques such as Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) for monitoring of civil engineering structures like bridge. Deformation monitoring of bridges are essential to mitigate not only the financial and human losses, but also ecological and environmental-related problems. Assessment of deformation during bridge lifespan can provide invaluable insight for better planning and management. The study area, Lake Urmia Causeway (LUC) in northwest Iran, consists of one bridge and two embankments on both sides of it. The difference between the deformation rate of the embankments on both sides of the bridge may seriously damage the bridge itself, so it is very important to accurately monitor them in space and time in order to assess the state of the bridge concerning deformations. In this study we apply the InSAR time-series technique of SBAS for 58 SAR images including 10 ALOS, 30 Envisat and 18 TerraSAR-X (TSX) to assess deflation of embankments of Urmia bridge during 2003-2013. The InSAR results are used in a 2D Finite Element Model (FEM) to assess structural stability of the embankments.
Gomberg, J.; Felzer, K.
2008-01-01
We have used observations from Felzer and Brodsky (2006) of the variation of linear aftershock densities (i.e., aftershocks per unit length) with the magnitude of and distance from the main shock fault to derive constraints on how the probability of a main shock triggering a single aftershock at a point, P(r, D), varies as a function of distance, r, and main shock rupture dimension, D. We find that P(r, D) becomes independent of D as the triggering fault is approached. When r ??? D P(r, D) scales as Dm where m-2 and decays with distance approximately as r-n with n = 2, with a possible change to r-(n-1) at r > h, where h is the closest distance between the fault and the boundaries of the seismogenic zone. These constraints may be used to test hypotheses about the types of deformations and mechanisms that trigger aftershocks. We illustrate this using dynamic deformations (i.e., radiated seismic waves) and a posited proportionality with P(r, D). Deformation characteristics examined include peak displacements, peak accelerations and velocities (proportional to strain rates and strains, respectively), and two measures that account for cumulative deformations. Our model indicates that either peak strains alone or strain rates averaged over the duration of rupture may be responsible for aftershock triggering.
Schnabel, Julia A; Heinrich, Mattias P; Papież, Bartłomiej W; Brady, Sir J Michael
2016-10-01
Over the past 20 years, the field of medical image registration has significantly advanced from multi-modal image fusion to highly non-linear, deformable image registration for a wide range of medical applications and imaging modalities, involving the compensation and analysis of physiological organ motion or of tissue changes due to growth or disease patterns. While the original focus of image registration has predominantly been on correcting for rigid-body motion of brain image volumes acquired at different scanning sessions, often with different modalities, the advent of dedicated longitudinal and cross-sectional brain studies soon necessitated the development of more sophisticated methods that are able to detect and measure local structural or functional changes, or group differences. Moving outside of the brain, cine imaging and dynamic imaging required the development of deformable image registration to directly measure or compensate for local tissue motion. Since then, deformable image registration has become a general enabling technology. In this work we will present our own contributions to the state-of-the-art in deformable multi-modal fusion and complex motion modelling, and then discuss remaining challenges and provide future perspectives to the field. PMID:27364430
The strain path dependence of plastic deformation response of AA5754: Experiment and modeling
Pham, Minh-Son; Hu, Lin; Iadicola, Mark; Creuziger, Adam; Rollett, Anthony D.
2013-12-16
This work presents modeling of experiments on a balanced biaxial (BB) pre-strained AA5754 alloy, subsequently reloaded uniaxially along the rolling direction and transverse direction. The material exhibits a complex plastic deformation response during the change in strain path due to 1) crystallographic texture, 2) aging (interactions between dislocations and Mg atoms) and 3) recovery (annihilation and re-arrangement of dislocations). With a BB prestrain of about 5 %, the aging process is dominant, and the yield strength for uniaxially deformed samples is observed to be higher than the flow stress during BB straining. The strain hardening rate after changing path is, however, lower than that for pre-straining. Higher degrees of pre-straining make the dynamic recovery more active. The dynamic recovery at higher strain levels compensates for the aging effect, and results in: 1) a reduction of the yield strength, and 2) an increase in the hardening rate of re-strained specimens along other directions. The yield strength of deformed samples is further reduced if these samples are left at room temperature to let static recovery occur. The synergistic influences of texture condition, aging and recovery processes on the material response make the modeling of strain path dependence of mechanical behavior of AA5754 challenging. In this study, the influence of crystallographic texture is taken into account by incorporating the latent hardening into a visco-plastic self-consistent model. Different strengths of dislocation glide interaction models in 24 slip systems are used to represent the latent hardening. Moreover, the aging and recovery effects are also included into the latent hardening model by considering strong interactions between dislocations and dissolved atom Mg and the microstructural evolution. These microstructural considerations provide a powerful capability to successfully describe the strain path dependence of plastic deformation behavior of AA5754.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heap, M. J.; Baud, P.; Meredith, P. G.; Vinciguerra, S.; Reuschlé, T.
2014-01-01
The accuracy of ground deformation modelling at active volcanoes is a principal requirement in volcanic hazard mitigation. However, the reliability of such models relies on the accuracy of the rock physical property (permeability and elastic moduli) input parameters. Unfortunately, laboratory-derived values on representative rocks are usually rare. To this end we have performed a systematic laboratory study on the influence of pressure and temperature on the permeability and elastic moduli of samples from the two most widespread lithified pyroclastic deposits at the Campi Flegrei volcanic district, Italy. Our data show that the water permeability of Neapolitan Yellow Tuff and a tuff from the Campanian Ignimbrite differ by about 1.5 orders of magnitude. As pressure (depth) increases beyond the critical point for inelastic pore collapse (at an effective pressure of 10-15 MPa, or a depth of about 750 m), permeability and porosity decrease significantly, and ultrasonic wave velocities and dynamic elastic moduli increase significantly. Increasing the thermal stressing temperature increases the permeability and decreases the ultrasonic wave velocities and dynamic elastic moduli of the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff; whereas the tuff from the Campanian Ignimbrite remains unaffected. This difference is due to the presence of thermally unstable zeolites within the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff. For both rocks we also find, under the same pressure conditions, that the dynamic (calculated from ultrasonic wave velocities) and static (calculated from triaxial stress-strain data) elastic moduli differ significantly. The choice of elastic moduli in ground deformation modelling is therefore an important consideration. While we urge that these new laboratory data should be considered in routine ground deformation modelling, we highlight the challenges for ground deformation modelling based on the heterogeneous nature (vertically and laterally) of the rocks that comprise the caldera at Campi
Landslide deformation forecasting model based on the time series of groundwater level
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yun, C.; Jiming, K.
2012-12-01
In the usual way, the prediction and warning of landslide are mainly by monitoring the surface displacement of the slope. However, for the loose deposit landslide which is relatively flat and covered with dense vegetation, it is difficult to directly monitor displacements, because the vegetation can easily constitute an obstacle on the signal reception for the surface displacement observation. The loose deposit landslide is significantly influenced by the groundwater level which is easily monitored and changed before the slope surface moving. Therefore, the monitoring of the time series of groundwater level changes is an important entry point for prediction of landslide deformation, and it can be used as a complement of landslide monitoring program. Based on this view, fistly, typical case study of Jinlongshan landslide near Ertan Hydropower Station of China based on the data of years observation. With the method of correlation and regression analysis of the data series, analyze the response relationship between surface displacement and groundwater level; reveal response characteristics and the lagged effects of the response process. Then, based on the above response characteristics and by BP neural network model, construct the nonlinear prediction model of the landslide deformation forecasting. Moreover, the validation of the prediction model gives a good result. The conclusion and the model construction method from the research can provide a new idea for the prediction of landslide deformation.
A mechanical model for deformable and mesh pattern wheel of lunar roving vehicle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Zhongchao; Wang, Yongfu; Chen, Gang (Sheng); Gao, Haibo
2015-12-01
As an indispensable tool for astronauts on lunar surface, the lunar roving vehicle (LRV) is of great significance for manned lunar exploration. An LRV moves on loose and soft lunar soil, so the mechanical property of its wheels directly affects the mobility performance. The wheels used for LRV have deformable and mesh pattern, therefore, the existing mechanical theory of vehicle wheel cannot be used directly for analyzing the property of LRV wheels. In this paper, a new mechanical model for LRV wheel is proposed. At first, a mechanical model for a rigid normal wheel is presented, which involves in multiple conventional parameters such as vertical load, tangential traction force, lateral force, and slip ratio. Secondly, six equivalent coefficients are introduced to amend the rigid normal wheel model to fit for the wheels with deformable and mesh-pattern in LRV application. Thirdly, the values of the six equivalent coefficients are identified by using experimental data obtained in an LRV's single wheel testing. Finally, the identified mechanical model for LRV's wheel with deformable and mesh pattern are further verified and validated by using additional experimental results.
Schunk, Peter Randall; Cairncross, Richard A.; Madasu, S.
2004-03-01
This report summarizes research advances pursued with award funding issued by the DOE to Drexel University through the Presidential Early Career Award (PECASE) program. Professor Rich Cairncross was the recipient of this award in 1997. With it he pursued two related research topics under Sandia's guidance that address the outstanding issue of fluid-structural interactions of liquids with deformable solid materials, focusing mainly on the ubiquitous dynamic wetting problem. The project focus in the first four years was aimed at deriving a predictive numerical modeling approach for the motion of the dynamic contact line on a deformable substrate. A formulation of physical model equations was derived in the context of the Galerkin finite element method in an arbitrary Lagrangian/Eulerian (ALE) frame of reference. The formulation was successfully integrated in Sandia's Goma finite element code and tested on several technologically important thin-film coating problems. The model equations, the finite-element implementation, and results from several applications are given in this report. In the last year of the five-year project the same physical concepts were extended towards the problem of capillary imbibition in deformable porous media. A synopsis of this preliminary modeling and experimental effort is also discussed.
A post-seismic deformation model after the 2010 earthquakes in Latin America
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sánchez, Laura; Drewes, Hermann; Schmidt, Michael
2015-04-01
The Maule 2010 earthquake in Chile generated the largest displacements of geodetic observation stations ever observed in terrestrial reference systems. Coordinate changes came up to 4 meters, and deformations were measurable in distances up to more than 1000 km from the epicentre. The station velocities in the regions adjacent to the epicentre changed dramatically after the seism; while they were oriented eastward with approximately 2 cm/year before the event, they are now directed westward with about 1 cm/year. The 2010 Baja California earthquake in Mexico produced displacements in the decimetre level also followed by anomalous velocity changes. The main problem in geodetic applications is that there is no reliable reference system to be used practically in the region. For geophysical applications we have to redefine the tectonic structure in South America. The area south of 35° S … 40° S was considered as a stable part of the South American plate. Now we see that there are large and extended crustal deformations. The paper presents a new multi-year velocity model computed from the Geocentric Reference System of the Americas (SIRGAS) including only the four years after the seismic events (mid-2010 … mid-2014). These velocities are used to derive a continuous deformation model of the entire Latin American region from Mexico to Tierra de Fuego. The model is compared with the same velocity model for SIRGAS (VEMOS2009) before the earthquakes.
Modeling Of Microstructure Evolution Of BCC Metals Subjected To Severe Plastic Deformation
Svyetlichnyy, Dmytro; Majta, Janusz; Muszka, Krzysztof; Lach, Lukasz
2011-01-17
Prediction of microstructure evolution and properties of ultrafine-grained materials is one of the most significant, current problems in materials science. Several advanced methods of analysis can be applied for this issue: vertex models, phase field models, Monte Carlo Potts, finite element method (FEM) discrete element method (DEM) and finally cellular automata (CA). The main asset of the CA is ability for a close correlation of the microstructure with the mechanical properties in micro- and meso-scale simulation. Joining CA with the DEM undoubtedly improves accuracy of modeling of coupled phenomena during the innovative forming processes in both micro- and macro-scale. Deformation in micro-scale shows anisotropy, which connected with that the polycrystalline material contains grains with different crystallographic orientation, and grain deformation is depended from configuration of directions of main stresses and axis of grain. Then, CA and DEM must be joint solutions of crystal plasticity theory. In the present model, deformation in macro-scale is transferred to meso-sale, where a block contains several, score or hundreds grains, and then is applied in micro-scale to each grain. Creation of low-angle boundaries and their development into high-angle boundaries are simulated by the cellular automata on the base of calculations using finite element method and crystal plasticity theory. The idea proposed in this study and particular solutions are discussed for the case of ultrafine-grained low-carbon steel.
Hippocampal Shape Modeling Based on a Progressive Template Surface Deformation and its Verification.
Kim, Jaeil; Valdes-Hernandez, Maria Del C; Royle, Natalie A; Park, Jinah
2015-06-01
Accurately recovering the hippocampal shapes against rough and noisy segmentations is as challenging as achieving good anatomical correspondence between the individual shapes. To address these issues, we propose a mesh-to-volume registration approach, characterized by a progressive model deformation. Our model implements flexible weighting scheme for model rigidity under a multi-level neighborhood for vertex connectivity. This method induces a large-to-small scale deformation of a template surface to build the pairwise correspondence by minimizing geometric distortion while robustly restoring the individuals' shape characteristics. We evaluated the proposed method's (1) accuracy and robustness in smooth surface reconstruction, (2) sensitivity in detecting significant shape differences between healthy control and disease groups (mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease), (3) robustness in constructing the anatomical correspondence between individual shape models, and (4) applicability in identifying subtle shape changes in relation to cognitive abilities in a healthy population. We compared the performance of the proposed method with other well-known methods--SPHARM-PDM, ShapeWorks and LDDMM volume registration with template injection--using various metrics of shape similarity, surface roughness, volume, and shape deformity. The experimental results showed that the proposed method generated smooth surfaces with less volume differences and better shape similarity to input volumes than others. The statistical analyses with clinical variables also showed that it was sensitive in detecting subtle shape changes of hippocampus. PMID:25532173
Epithelial cell deformation during surfactant-mediated airway reopening: a theoretical model.
Naire, Shailesh; Jensen, Oliver E
2005-08-01
A theoretical model is presented describing the reopening by an advancing air bubble of an initially liquid-filled collapsed airway lined with deformable epithelial cells. The model integrates descriptions of flow-structure interaction (accounting for nonlinear deformation of the airway wall and viscous resistance of the airway liquid flow), surfactant transport around the bubble tip (incorporating physicochemical parameters appropriate for Infasurf), and cell deformation (due to stretching of the airway wall and airway liquid flows). It is shown how the pressure required to drive a bubble into a flooded airway, peeling apart the wet airway walls, can be reduced substantially by surfactant, although the effectiveness of Infasurf is limited by slow adsorption at high concentrations. The model demonstrates how the addition of surfactant can lead to the spontaneous reopening of a collapsed airway, depending on the degree of initial airway collapse. The effective elastic modulus of the epithelial layer is shown to be a key determinant of the relative magnitude of strains generated by flow-induced shear stresses and by airway wall stretch. The model also shows how epithelial-layer compressibility can mediate strains arising from flow-induced normal stresses and stress gradients. PMID:15802368
Evaluating Topographic Effects on Ground Deformation: Insights from Finite Element Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ronchin, Erika; Geyer, Adelina; Martí, Joan
2015-07-01
Ground deformation has been demonstrated to be one of the most common signals of volcanic unrest. Although volcanoes are commonly associated with significant topographic relief, most analytical models assume the Earth's surface as flat. However, it has been confirmed that this approximation can lead to important misinterpretations of the recorded surface deformation data. Here we perform a systematic and quantitative analysis of how topography may influence ground deformation signals generated by a spherical pressure source embedded in an elastic homogeneous media and how these variations correlate with the different topographic parameters characterizing the terrain form (e.g., slope, aspect, curvature). For this, we bring together the results presented in previous published papers and complement them with new axisymmetric and 3D finite element (FE) model results. First, we study, in a parametric way, the influence of a volcanic edifice centered above the pressure source axis. Second, we carry out new 3D FE models simulating the real topography of three different volcanic areas representative of topographic scenarios common in volcanic regions: Rabaul caldera (Papua New Guinea) and the volcanic islands of Tenerife and El Hierro (Canary Islands). The calculated differences are then correlated with a series of topographic parameters. The final aim is to investigate the artifacts that might arise from the use of half-space models at volcanic areas due to diverse topographic features (e.g., collapse caldera structures, prominent central edifices, large landslide scars).
Modeling surface deformation due to CO2 injection at an enhanced oil recovery field in Texas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Q.; Abdollahzadeh, M.; Dixon, T. H.; Malservisi, R.; Hosseini, S.
2013-12-01
The Geodesy Laboratory at the University of South Florida has operated 3 C-GPS stations at an enhanced oil recovery field in Texas since October 2011. Our GPS sites recorded vertical uplift during the injection phase when the reservoir was initially pressurized, and localized subsidence in phase with reservoir pressure after oil extraction started. In this study, we use analytical and numerical models to better understand the small-scale surface deformation observed by GPS due to CO2 injection. First, we use an analytical model of a pressurized horizontal circular crack in an elastic half-space to fit the surface deformation data. Then, constrained by the analytical modeling results, we develop a poroelastic Finite Element Model (FEM) to investigate the influence of reservoir geometry and overlying stratigraphy on surface displacement. A sensitivity study is carried out to understand the effects of realistic geometry and material properties on surface deformation. Our preliminary results show that a poroelastic FEM can explain the location-dependant time delay between the injection and surface response.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burkett, Michael; Clancy, Sean; Maudlin, Paul; Holian, Kathleen
2001-06-01
: Previously developed constitutive models and solution algorithms for anisotropic elastoplastic material strength has been implemented in the three-dimensional CONEJO hydrodynamics code. CONEJO is an explicit, Eulerian continuum mechanics code that is utilized to predict formation processes associated with material deformation at elevated strain-rates and is a code development project under the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) program. Some special features of CONEJO include a high-order advection algorithm, a material interface tracking scheme, and van Leer monotonic advection-limiting. The anisotropic constitutive modeling is posed in an unrotated material frame using the theorem of polar decomposition to describe rigid body rotation. An Euler-Rodrigues description is used to quantify the rigid body rotations. Continuous quadratic yield functions fitted from polycrystal simulations for a metallic hexagonal-close-packed structure were utilized. Associative flow formulations incorporating these yield functions were solved using a geometric normal return method. Simple rectangular shear problems, "R-value" problems, and Taylor cylinder impact test data were utilized to verify and validate the implementation of the anisotropic model. A "stretching rod" problem (involving large strain and strain-rate deformation) was selected to investigate the effects of material anisotropy for this deformation process. The rod necking rate and topology was compared for CONEJO simulations using several isotropic and anisotropic descriptions that utilized the Mechanical Threshold Stress (MTS) model.
Spatiotemporal processing of gated cardiac SPECT images using deformable mesh modeling
Brankov, Jovan G.; Yang Yongyi; Wernick, Miles N.
2005-09-15
In this paper we present a spatiotemporal processing approach, based on deformable mesh modeling, for noise reduction in gated cardiac single-photon emission computed tomography images. Because of the partial volume effect (PVE), clinical cardiac-gated perfusion images exhibit a phenomenon known as brightening--the myocardium appears to become brighter as the heart wall thickens. Although brightening is an artifact, it serves as an important diagnostic feature for assessment of wall thickening in clinical practice. Our proposed processing algorithm aims to preserve this important diagnostic feature while reducing the noise level in the images. The proposed algorithm is based on the use of a deformable mesh for modeling the cardiac motion in a gated cardiac sequence, based on which the images are processed by smoothing along space-time trajectories of object points while taking into account the PVE. Our experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can yield significantly more-accurate results than several existing methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rogovoi, A. A.
2015-09-01
The dependence of a scalar measure of the structural changes occurring in a material under plastic deformation on a plastic strain measure and the dependence of a free energy measure on a structural change measure are constructed using experimental data that allow the expended plastic work to be divided into a latent part and a thermal part. The obtained dependences, kinematic relations, a constitutive equation, and a heat-conduction equation that satisfy the principles of thermodynamics and objectivity are used to construct a model of thermo-elastic-inelastic processes in the presence of finite deformations and structural changes in the material. The model is tested on the problem of temperature changes in the process of adiabatic elastic-plastic compression, which has experimental support.
Projected shell model for Gamow-Teller transitions in heavy, deformed nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Long-Jun; Sun, Yang; Gao, Zao-Chun; Kiran Ghorui, Surja
2016-02-01
Calculations of Gamow-Teller (GT) transition rates for heavy, deformed nuclei, which are useful input for nuclear astrophysics studies, are usually done with the quasiparticle random-phase approximation. We propose a shell-model method by applying the Projected Shell Model (PSM) based on deformed bases. With this method, it is possible to perform a state-by-state calculation for nuclear matrix elements for β-decay and electron-capture in heavy nuclei. Taking β- decay from 168Dy to 168Ho as an example, we show that the known experimental B(GT) from the ground state of the mother nucleus to the low-lying states of the daughter nucleus could be well described. Moreover, strong transitions to high-lying states are predicted to occur, which may considerably enhance the total decay rates once these nuclei are exposed to hot stellar environments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, Guo-Ying; Gupta, Ujjaval; Zhu, Jian; Zhu, Li-Min; Zhu, Xiang-Yang
2015-07-01
In the practical applications of actuators, the control of their deformation or driving force is a key issue. Most of recent studies on dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) focus on issues of mechanics, physics, and material science, whereas less importance is given to the control of these soft actuators. In this paper, we underline the importance of a nonlinear dynamic model as the basis for a feedforward deformation control approach of a rubber-based DEA. Experimental evidence shows the effectiveness of the feedforward controller. The present study confirms that a DEA's trajectory can be finely controlled with a solid nonlinear dynamic model despite the presence of material nonlinearities and electromechanical coupling. The effective control of DEAs may pave the way for extensive emerging applications to soft robots.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goren, L.; Castelltort, S.; Klinger, Y.
2014-12-01
The Dead Sea Fault System changes its orientation across Lebanon and forms a restraining bend. The oblique deformation along the Lebanese restraining bend is characterized by a complex suite of tectonic structures, among which, the Yammouneh Fault (YF), is believed to be the main strand that relays deformation from the southern section to the northern section of the Dead Sea Fault System. However, uncertainties regarding slip rates and strain partitioning in Lebanon still prevail. Here, we use morphometric analysis together with analytical and numerical models to constrain rates and modes of distributed and localized deformation along the Lebanese restraining bend.The rivers that drain the western flank of Mount Lebanon show a consistent counterclockwise rotation with respect to an expected orogen perpendicular orientation. Moreover, a pattern of divide disequilibrium in between these rivers emerges from an application of the χ mapping technique, which aims at estimating the degree of geometrical and topological disequilibrium in river networks. These geometrical patterns are compatible with simulation results using a landscape evolution model, which imposes a distributed velocity field along a domain that represents the western flank of Mount Lebanon. We further develop an analytical model that relates the river orientation to a set of kinematic parameters that represents a combined pure and simple shear strain field, and we find the parameters that best explain the present orientation of the western Lebanon rivers. Our results indicate that distributed deformation to the west of the YF takes as much as 30% of the relative Arabia-Sinai plate velocity since the late Miocene, and that the average slip rate along the YF during the same time interval has been 3.8-4.4 mm/yr. The theoretical model can further explain the inferred rotation from Paleomagnetic measurements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdelmalak, M.; Mourgues, R.; Bureau, D.
2012-04-01
The analysis of surface deformation in response to approaching intrusion is important for assessing volcanic hazards. In this paper, we present results from 2D scaled models of magma intrusion, in which we discuss the propagation mode and related surface deformation during dyke growth. Our experiments consist in the injection of analogue magma (Golden syrup) into cohesive fine-grained silica powder, simulating the brittle upper crust. Using an optical image correlation technique (Particle Imaging Velocimetry), we were able to follow the surface deformation, the displacements within the country rock and to calculate strains induced by the magma emplacement. We identified two kinds of intrusion morphologies resulting from different interactions between the dyke and plastic deformations occurring in the country rock near the surface. In both morphologies, the dyke is vertical at depth. Our analysis demonstrates that both hydraulic tensile opening and shear-related propagation operate during this first stage of vertical growth. At the same time, the surface lifted up and formed a smooth symmetrical dome. Both types of morphologies differ in the upper part. During a second stage of evolution, the first type of intrusion inclined at a dip between 45 to 65°. This inclination is not caused by shear deformations and is attributed to stress rotation near the tip. Closer to the surface, the growth of the inclined sheet creates shear bands which conduct the fluid toward the surface. The surface uplift becomes asymmetric. The second type of intrusion does not rotate at depth and continues its vertical propagation by catching vertical tensile cracks. The intrusion of magma in these cracks creates horizontal stresses which are responsible for the closure of fractures and the formation of reverse faults. At the surface the dome remains symmetrical. For both intrusions, the surface uplift accelerates during the second stage and it is strongly influenced by the presence or the
Modeling and deformation analyzing of InSb focal plane arrays detector under thermal shock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xiaoling; Meng, Qingduan; Zhang, Liwen; Lv, Yanqiu
2014-03-01
A higher fracture probability appearing in indium antimonide (InSb) infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPAs) subjected to the thermal shock test, restricts its final yield. In light of the proposed equivalent method, where a 32 × 32 array is employed to replace the real 128 × 128 array, a three-dimensional modeling of InSb IRFPAs is developed to explore its deformation rules. To research the damage degree to the mechanical properties of InSb chip from the back surface thinning process, the elastic modulus of InSb chip along the normal direction is lessened. Simulation results show when the out-of-plane elastic modulus of InSb chip is set with 30% of its Young's modulus, the simulated Z-components of strain distribution agrees well with the top surface deformation features in 128 × 128 InSb IRFPAs fracture photographs, especially with the crack origination sites, the crack distribution and the global square checkerboard buckling pattern. Thus the Z-components of strain are selected to explore the deformation rules in the layered structure of InSb IRFPAs. Analyzing results show the top surface deformation of InSb IRFPAs originates from the thermal mismatch between the silicon readout integrated circuits (ROIC) and the intermediate layer above, made up of the alternating indium bump array and the reticular underfill. After passing through both the intermediate layer and the InSb chip, the deformation amplitude is reduced firstly from 2.23 μm to 0.24 μm, finally to 0.09 μm. Finally, von Mises stress criterion is employed to explain the causes that cracks always appear in the InSb chip.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lebensohn, Ricardo A.; Dawson, Paul R.; Kern, Hartmut M.; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf
2003-07-01
Modeling the plastic deformation and texture evolution in halite is challenging due to its high plastic anisotropy at the single crystal level and to the influence this exerts on the heterogeneity of deformation over halite polycrystals. Three different assumptions for averaging the single crystal responses over the polycrystal were used: a Taylor hypothesis, a self-consistent viscoplastic model, and a finite element methodology. The three modeling approaches employ the same single crystal relations, but construct the polycrystal response differently. The results are compared with experimental data for extension at two temperatures: 20 and 100 °C. These comparisons provide new insights of how the interplay of compatibility and local equilibrium affects the overall plastic behavior and the texture development in highly anisotropic polycrystalline materials. Neither formulation is able to completely simulate the texture development of halite polycrystals while, at the same time, giving sound predictions of microstructural evolution. Results obtained using the finite element methodology are promising, although they point to the need for greater resolution of the individual crystals to capture the full impact of deformation heterogeneities.
Unhinging an indenter: A new tectonic model for the internal deformation of Panama
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rockwell, Thomas K.; Bennett, Richard A.; Gath, Eldon; Franceschi, Pastora
2010-08-01
New paleoseismic results from Panama, conducted as part of the seismic hazard assessment for the expansion of the Panama Canal, have led to a reevaluation of the tectonic framework and geologic history of the isthmus of Central America. We propose a soft block indenter model wherein the collision of Central America and South America has resulted in significant internal deformation of the isthmus. Deformation is accommodated by both rapid slip on conjugate strike-slip faults within the isthmus, as well as the generally assumed flexure and northward buckling of Panama. The model is kinematically self-consistent in that there are little or no space problems created with 3 Ma of retrodeformation. Sparse GPS velocity data are consistent to within uncertainties with the new geologically constrained block model, supporting the rapid and extensive internal deformation of Panama. Together, the paleoseismologic and geodetic data suggest that central Panama is an area of high risk due to earthquakes, which is consistent with the historical occurrence of several moderate to large earthquakes in this region. However, this is generally counter to the current perception in central Panama where most people live and where there have been no large, damaging earthquakes for over 100 years.
Medical image segmentation using minimal path deformable models with implicit shape priors.
Yan, Pingkun; Kassim, Ashraf A
2006-10-01
This paper presents a new method for segmentation of medical images by extracting organ contours, using minimal path deformable models incorporated with statistical shape priors. In our approach, boundaries of structures are considered as minimal paths, i.e., paths associated with the minimal energy, on weighted graphs. Starting from the theory of minimal path deformable models, an intelligent "worm" algorithm is proposed for segmentation, which is used to evaluate the paths and finally find the minimal path. Prior shape knowledge is incorporated into the segmentation process to achieve more robust segmentation. The shape priors are implicitly represented and the estimated shapes of the structures can be conveniently obtained. The worm evolves under the joint influence of the image features, its internal energy, and the shape priors. The contour of the structure is then extracted as the worm trail. The proposed segmentation framework overcomes the short-comings of existing deformable models and has been successfully applied to segmenting various medical images. PMID:17044401
Real-time tumor tracking in B-mode images using respiratory signal and deformed liver models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hwang, Youngkyoo; Oh, Young-Taek; Kim, Jung-Bae; Bang, Won-Chul; Lee, Heesae; Kim, James D. K.; Kim, Chang Yeong
2013-03-01
Tumor tracking is very important to deal with a cancer in a moving organ in clinical applications such as radiotherapy, HIFU etc. Respiratory monitoring systems are widely used to find location of the cancers in the organs because respiratory signal is highly correlated with the movement of organs such as the lungs and liver. However the conventional respiratory system doesn't have enough accuracy to track the location of a tumor as well as they need additional effort or devices to use. In this paper, we propose a novel method to track a liver tumor in real time by extracting respiratory signals directly from B-mode images and using a deformed liver model generated from CT images of the patient. Our method has several advantages. 1) There is no additional radiation dose and is cost effective due to use of an ultrasound device. 2) A high quality respiratory signal can be directly extracted from 2D images of the diaphragm. 3) Using a deformed liver model to track a tumor's 3D position, our method has an accuracy of 3.79mm in tracking error.
Forst, Thomas; Weber, Matthias M; Löbig, Mirjam; Lehmann, Ute; Müller, Jürgen; Hohberg, Cloth; Friedrich, Christiane; Fuchs, Winfried; Pfützner, Andreas
2010-10-01
The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of PIO (pioglitazone) or GLIM (glimepiride) on erythrocyte deformability in T2DM (Type 2 diabetes mellitus). The study covered 23 metformin-treated T2DM patients with an HbA1c (glycated haemoglobin) >6.5%. Patients were randomized to receive either PIO (15 mg, twice a day) or GLIM (1 mg, twice a day) in combination with metformin (850 mg, twice a day) for 6 months. Blood samples were taken for the measurement of fasting glucose, HbA1c, fasting insulin, intact proinsulin, adiponectin and Hct (haematocrit). In addition, the erythrocyte EI (elongation index) was measured using laser diffractoscopy. Both treatments significantly improved HbA1c levels (PIO, -0.9+/-1.1%; GLIM, -0.6+/-0.4%; both P<0.05) and resulted in comparable HbA1c levels after 6 months (PIO, 6.5+/-1.2%; GLIM, 6.2+/-0.4%) Treatment with PIO reduced fasting insulin levels (-8.7+/-15.8 milli-units/l; P=0.098), intact proinsulin levels (-11.8+/-9.5 pmol/l; P<0.05) and Hct (-1.3+/-2.3%; P=0.09), whereas adiponectin levels increased (8.2+/-4.9 microg/ml; P<0.05). No significant change in these parameters was observed during GLIM treatment. PIO improved the EI, resulting in a significant increase in EI at all physiological shear stress ranges (0.6-6.0 Pa; P<0.05). The improvement in EI correlated with the increase in adiponectin levels (r=0.74; P<0.001), and inversely with intact proinsulin levels (r=-0.47; P<0.05). This is the first study showing an improvement in EI during treatment with PIO, which was associated with an increase in adiponectin and a decrease in intact proinsulin levels, but independent of glycaemic control. PMID:20509857
Nonrigid 3D medical image registration and fusion based on deformable models.
Liu, Peng; Eberhardt, Benjamin; Wybranski, Christian; Ricke, Jens; Lüdemann, Lutz
2013-01-01
For coregistration of medical images, rigid methods often fail to provide enough freedom, while reliable elastic methods are available clinically for special applications only. The number of degrees of freedom of elastic models must be reduced for use in the clinical setting to archive a reliable result. We propose a novel geometry-based method of nonrigid 3D medical image registration and fusion. The proposed method uses a 3D surface-based deformable model as guidance. In our twofold approach, the deformable mesh from one of the images is first applied to the boundary of the object to be registered. Thereafter, the non-rigid volume deformation vector field needed for registration and fusion inside of the region of interest (ROI) described by the active surface is inferred from the displacement of the surface mesh points. The method was validated using clinical images of a quasirigid organ (kidney) and of an elastic organ (liver). The reduction in standard deviation of the image intensity difference between reference image and model was used as a measure of performance. Landmarks placed at vessel bifurcations in the liver were used as a gold standard for evaluating registration results for the elastic liver. Our registration method was compared with affine registration using mutual information applied to the quasi-rigid kidney. The new method achieved 15.11% better quality with a high confidence level of 99% for rigid registration. However, when applied to the quasi-elastic liver, the method has an averaged landmark dislocation of 4.32 mm. In contrast, affine registration of extracted livers yields a significantly (P = 0.000001) smaller dislocation of 3.26 mm. In conclusion, our validation shows that the novel approach is applicable in cases where internal deformation is not crucial, but it has limitations in cases where internal displacement must also be taken into account. PMID:23690883
Moghaddam, Mahsa Bidgoli; Brown, Trevor M; Clausen, April; DaSilva, Trevor; Ho, Emily; Forrest, Christopher R
2014-02-01
Deformational plagiocephaly (DP) is a multifactorial non-synostotic cranial deformity with a reported incidence as high as 1 in 7 infants in North America. Treatment options have focused on non-operative interventions including head repositioning and the use of an orthotic helmet device. Previous studies have used linear and two dimensional outcome measures to assess changes in cranial symmetry after helmet therapy. Our objective was to demonstrate improvement in head shape after treatment with a cranial molding helmet by using Root Mean Square (RMS), a measure unique to 3D photogrammetry, which takes into account both changes in volume and shape over time. Three dimensional photographs were obtained before and after molding helmet treatment in 40 infants (4-10 months old) with deformational plagiocephaly. Anatomical reference planes and measurements were recorded using the 3dMD Vultus(®) analysis software. RMS was used to quantify symmetry by superimposing left and right quadrants and calculating the mean value of aggregate distances between surfaces. Over 95% of the patients demonstrated an improvement in symmetry with helmet therapy. Furthermore, when the sample of infants was divided into two treatment subgroups, a statistically significant correlation was found between the age at the beginning of treatment and the change in the RMS value. When helmet therapy was started before 7 months of age a greater improvement in symmetry was seen. This work represents application of the technique of RMS analysis to demonstrate the efficacy of treatment of deformational plagiocephaly with a cranial molding helmet. PMID:24411583
The 3D model: explaining densification and deformation mechanisms by using 3D parameter plots.
Picker, Katharina M
2004-04-01
The aim of the study was to analyze very differently deforming materials using 3D parameter plots and consequently to gain deeper insights into the densification and deformation process described with the 3D model in order to define an ideal tableting excipient. The excipients used were dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), sodium chloride (NaCl), microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), xylitol, mannitol, alpha-lactose monohydrate, maltose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC), cellulose acetate (CAC), maize starch, potato starch, pregelatinized starch, and maltodextrine. All of the materials were tableted to graded maximum relative densities (rhorel, max) using an eccentric tableting machine. The data which resulted, namely force, displacement, and time, were analyzed by the application of 3D modeling. Different particle size fractions of DCPD, CAC, and MCC were analyzed in addition. Brittle deforming materials such as DCPD exhibited a completely different 3D parameter plot, with low time plasticity, d, and low pressure plasticity, e, and a strong decrease in omega values when densification increased, in contrast to the plastically deforming MCC, which had much higher d, e, and omega values. e and omega values changed only slightly when densification increased for MCC. NaCl showed less of a decrease in omega values than DCPD did, and the d and e values were between those of MCC and DCPD. The sugar alcohols, xylitol and mannitol, behaved in a similar fashion to sodium chloride. This is also valid for the crystalline sugars, alpha-lactose monohydrate, and maltose. However, the sugars are more brittle than the sugar alcohols. The cellulose derivatives, HPMC, NaCMC, and CAC, are as plastic as MCC, however, their elasticity depends on substitution indicated by lower (more elastic) or higher (less elastic) omega values. The native starches, maize starch and potato starch, are very elastic, and pregelatinized starch and maltodextrine are
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flesch, L. M.; Holt, W. E.; Haines, A. J.
2003-04-01
The deformation of continental lithosphere is controlled by a variety of factors, including (1) body forces, (2) basal tractions, (3) boundary forces, and (4) rheology. Obtaining unique solutions that describe the dynamics of continental lithosphere is extremely challenging. Limitations are associated with inadequate observations that can uniquely constrain the dynamics as well as inadequate numerical methods. However, the compilation of space geodetic, seismic, and geologic data over the past 10-15 years have made it possible to make significant strides toward understanding the dynamics of large-scale continental deformation. The first step in making inferences about continental dynamics involves a quantification of the kinematics of active deformation (measurement of the velocity gradient tensor field). We interpolate both GPS velocity vectors and Quaternary strain rates with continuous spline functions (bi-cubic Bessel interpolation) to define a model velocity gradient tensor field solution (strain rates, rotation rates, and relative motions). In our methodology grid areas can be defined to be small enough such that fault zones are narrow and regions between faults (crustal blocks) possess rigid behavior. Our dynamic models are solutions to equations for a thin sheet, accounting for body forces associated with horizontal density variations and edge forces associated with accommodation of relative plate motion. The formalism can also include basal tractions associated with coupling between lithosphere and deeper mantle circulation. These dynamic models allow for lateral variations of viscosity and they allow for different power-law rheologies with power law exponents ranging from n = 1-9. Thus our dynamic models account for possible block-like behavior (high effective viscosity) as well as concentrated strain within shear zones. Kinematic results to date for central Asia show block-like behavior for large regions such as South China, Tarim Basin, Amurian block
A study of the coefficients in yield functions modeling metal powder deformation
Tszeng, T.C.; Wu, W.T.
1996-09-01
In the past, several phenomenological constitutive models have been proposed for modeling the compaction processes of sintered metal powders on the basis of continuum mechanics. Compared with the sintered metal powders, the loose metal powders behave very differently in many aspects and therefore need a different constitutive model. In this paper, the authors study such a constitutive model and the approach to determine the needed coefficients for describing the behavior of metal powder systems during a general compaction process. The model has been applied to a proportional triaxial compaction as well as the standard triaxial compaction of two metal powders which possess vastly different particle morphology. The characteristics and limitation of the model have been studied by detailed examination of the calculated results. The authors further propose a new constitutive model which uses a state variable to account for the combined influence of particle morphology and stress state on the deformation characteristics.
Vincent, P; Walter, B; Zucca, J; Larsen, S; Goldstein, P; Foxall, W; Ryerson, F
2002-01-29
This final report summarizes the accomplishments of the 2-year LDRD-ER project ''MEDIOS: Modeling Earth Deformation using Interferometric Observations from Space'' (00-ERD-056) which began in FY00 and ended in FY01. The structure of this report consists of this summary part plus two separate journal papers, each having their own UCRL number, which document in more detail the major results in two (of three) major categories of this study. The two categories and their corresponding paper titles are (1) Seismic Hazard Mitigation (''Aseismic Creep Events along the Southern San Andreas Fault System''), and (2) Ground-based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring, or GNEM (''New Signatures of Underground Nuclear Tests Revealed by Satellite Radar Interferometry''). The third category is Energy Exploitation Applications and does not have a separate journal article associated with it but is described briefly. The purpose of this project was to develop a capability within the Geophysics and Global Security Division to process and analyze InSAR data for the purposes of constructing more accurate ground deformation source models relevant to Hazards, Energy, and NAI applications. Once this was accomplished, an inversion tool was to be created that could be applied to many different types (sources) of surface deformation so that accurate source parameters could be determined for a variety of subsurface processes of interest to customers of the GGS Division. This new capability was desired to help attract new project funding for the division.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhi; Brand, Uwe; Ahbe, Thomas
2014-04-01
Contact stylus-based surface profilometry is capable of topography measurement whilst being independent of the physical, electrical and optical properties of the materials under test, and has therefore become an indispensable tool for dimensional measurement of transparent specimens. However, large measurement deviations will appear when soft specimens, especially specimens made of polymers, are measured by contact stylus profilometry. In this paper the surface deformation behaviour of two polymers for molding and one photoresist, i.e. Ormocomp, Ormoclad and SU-8, under different tactile measurement conditions have been experimentally investigated. An empirical analytical model is hereby proposed for the prediction of surface deformation of soft specimens under tactile (sliding) contact. Preliminary experimental results demonstrate that the proposed five-parameter model is applicable for describing the deformation behaviour of these thermoplastic materials under the scanning speed ranging from 2 to 200 μm s-1 and the probing force varying from 5 to 500 μN. In addition, thanks to quantitative topographical measurements of the layer thickness of the aforementioned photoresists, the scratch behaviour and the time-dependent mechanical properties of these materials have also been experimentally determined.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hooper, Russell; Toose, Matthijs; Macosko, Christopher W.; Derby, Jeffrey J.
2001-12-01
A modified boundary element method (BEM) and the DEVSS-G finite element method (FEM) are applied to model the deformation of a polymeric drop suspended in another fluid subjected to start-up uniaxial extensional flow. The effects of viscoelasticity, via the Oldroyd-B differential model, are considered for the drop phase using both FEM and BEM and for both the drop and matrix phases using FEM. Where possible, results are compared with the linear deformation theory. Consistent predictions are obtained among the BEM, FEM, and linear theory for purely Newtonian systems and between FEM and linear theory for fully viscoelastic systems. FEM and BEM predictions for viscoelastic drops in a Newtonian matrix agree very well at short times but differ at longer times, with worst agreement occurring as critical flow strength is approached. This suggests that the dominant computational advantages held by the BEM over the FEM for this and similar problems may diminish or even disappear when the issue of accuracy is appropriately considered. Fully viscoelastic problems, which are only feasible using the FEM formulation, shed new insight on the role of viscoelasticity of the matrix fluid in drop deformation. Copyright
Modeling of the recrystallization textures of Al-alloys after hot deformation
Engler, O.; Vatne, H.E.
1998-12-01
The recrystallization textures of Al-alloys can be explained by a growth selection of grains with an approximate 40{degree}<111> orientation relationship out of a limited spectrum of preferentially formed nucleus orientations. Accordingly, recrystallization textures can be modeled by the multiplication of a function f(g){sup nucl} describing the probability of nucleation of the various orientations with a function f(g){sup grow} representing their growth probability. Whereas the growth probability can be accounted for by a 40{degree}<111> transformation of the rolling texture, the nucleation probability of the respective grains is given by the distribution of potential nucleus orientations, which is known from local texture analysis for the most important nucleation sites in rolled Al-alloys, cube-bands, grain boundaries and second-phase particles. The contribution of each of these nucleation sites are determined according to an approach to calculate the number of nuclei forming at each nucleation site, which is based on microstructural investigations on the evolution of the various nucleation sites during deformation. The paper describes the model for recrystallization texture simulation in Al-alloys and gives examples of recrystallization textures of AA3004 deformed in plane strain compression at a variety of different deformation temperatures and strain rates.
Low-Dimensional Generalized Coordinate Models of Large-Deformation Elastic Joints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Odhner, Lael; Dollar, Aaron
2012-02-01
In the field of robotics, it is increasingly common to use elastic elements such as rods, beams or sheets to allow motion between the rigid links of a robot, rather than conventional sliding mechanisms such as pin joints. Although these elastic joints are simpler to manufacture, especially at meso- and micro-scales, representational simplicity is sacrificed. It is far easier to compute the Lagrangian of a robot using joint angles as generalized coordinates, rather than by considering the large-deformation continuum behavior of elastic joints. In this talk, we will discuss our work toward finding accurate, low-dimensional discretizations of elastic joint mechanics, suitable for use in generalized coordinate models of robot kinematics and dynamics. We use modally parameterized backbone curves to describe the kinematic configuration of the elastic joints, and compute the energy associated with deformation using rod and shell theory. In the plane, only three smooth deformation modes are sufficient to describe Euler-Bernoulli bending of 90 degrees to within 1 percent. Parametric models for the three-dimensional motion of sheet hinges are more complex, but can be simplified significantly using boundary conditions and constraints imposed by ruled surface assumptions.
Deformed Matrix Models, Supersymmetric Lattice Twists and N=1/4 Supersymmetry
Unsal, Mithat
2008-09-24
A manifestly supersymmetric nonperturbative matrix regularization for a twisted version of N = (8, 8) theory on a curved background (a two-sphere) is constructed. Both continuum and the matrix regularization respect four exact scalar supersymmetries under a twisted version of the supersymmetry algebra. We then discuss a succinct Q = 1 deformed matrix model regularization of N = 4 SYM in d = 4, which is equivalent to a non-commutative A*{sub 4} orbifold lattice formulation. Motivated by recent progress in supersymmetric lattices, we also propose a N = 1/4 supersymmetry preserving deformation of N = 4 SYM theory on R{sup 4}. In this class of N = 1/4 theories, both the regularized and continuum theory respect the same set of (scalar) supersymmetry. By using the equivalence of the deformed matrix models with the lattice formulations, we give a very simple physical argument on why the exact lattice supersymmetry must be a subset of scalar subalgebra. This argument disagrees with the recent claims of the link approach, for which we give a new interpretation.
Wang, L.; Barabash, R. I.; Yang, Y.; Bieler, T. R.; Crimp, M. A.; Eisenlohr, P.; Liu, W.; Ice, G. E.
2011-03-01
Grain-level heterogeneous deformation was studied in a polycrystalline {alpha}-Ti specimen deformed by four-point bending. Dislocation slip activity in the microstructure was investigated by surface slip trace analysis. Three-dimensional-X-ray diffraction (3D-XRD) was used to investigate subsurface lattice rotations and to identify geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs). The slip systems of local GNDs were analyzed by studying the streaking directions of reflections in corresponding Laue patterns. The analysis performed in one grain indicated that the subsurface GNDs were from the same slip system identified using slip trace analysis in backscattered electron images. A crystal plasticity finite element (CPFE) model was used to simulate deformation of the same microstructural region. The predictions of dislocation slip activity match the general aspects of the experimental observations, including the ability to simulate the activation of different slip systems in grains where multiple slip systems were activated. Prediction of local crystal rotations, however, was the least accurate aspect of the CPFE model.
Wang, Leyun; Barabash, Rozaliya; Yang, Y; Bieler, Prof T R; Crimp, Prof M A; Eisenlohr, P; Liu, W.; Ice, Gene E
2011-01-01
Grain-level heterogeneous deformation was studied in a polycrystalline {alpha}-Ti specimen deformed by four-point bending. Dislocation slip activity in the microstructure was investigated by surface slip trace analysis. Three-dimensional-X-ray diffraction (3D-XRD) was used to investigate subsurface lattice rotations and to identify geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs). The slip systems of local GNDs were analyzed by studying the streaking directions of reflections in corresponding Laue patterns. The analysis performed in one grain indicated that the subsurface GNDs were from the same slip system identified using slip trace analysis in backscattered electron images. A crystal plasticity finite element (CPFE) model was used to simulate deformation of the same microstructural region. The predictions of dislocation slip activity match the general aspects of the experimental observations, including the ability to simulate the activation of different slip systems in grains where multiple slip systems were activated. Prediction of local crystal rotations, however, was the least accurate aspect of the CPFE model.
Lebensohn, Ricardo A; Montagnat, Maurine; Mansuy, Philippe; Duval, Paul; Philip, A
2008-01-01
A full-field formulation based on Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT) has been adapted and used to predict the micromechanical fields that develop in columnar Ih ice polycrystals deforming in compression by dislocation creep. The predicted intragranular mechanical fields are in qualitative good agreement with experimental observations, in particular those involving the formation of shear and kink bands. These localization bands are associated with the large internal stresses that develop during creep in such anisotropic material, and their location, intensity, morphology and extension are found to depend strongly on the crystallographic orientation of the grains and on their interaction with neighbor crystals. The predictions of the model are also discussed in relation with the deformation of columnar sea and lake ice, and with the mechanical behavior of granular ice of glaciers and polar ice sheets, as well.
DEFORMATION MODELING OF IRIDIUM DOP-26 ALLOY TO DETERMINE POTENTIAL FOR SECONDARY RECRYSTALLIZATION
Ohriner, Evan Keith; Sabau, Adrian S; Ulrich, George B; George, Easo P
2008-01-01
The DOP-26 iridium alloy (Ir-0.3%W-0.006%Th-0.005% Al) contains a distribution of thorium-containing intermetallic particles, typically less than 1 micrometer in size, which serve to pin grain boundaries. The alloy is thus subject to secondary recrystallization during long-term exposure at elevated temperature if prior plastic strains are within a critical range. A finite element method was used to model the deformation and resulting local plastic strains introduced by sizing operations on recrystallized iridium alloy cups. The results of the analysis show that local strains introduced by the deformation of cups are in all cases maintained below 0.025, the lower critical level for secondary recrystallization at 1600 K. The effects of die clearance and applied load on local plastic strain values were also treated.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bell, James H.; Burner, Alpheus W.
2004-01-01
As the benefit-to-cost ratio of advanced optical techniques for wind tunnel measurements such as Video Model Deformation (VMD), Pressure-Sensitive Paint (PSP), and others increases, these techniques are being used more and more often in large-scale production type facilities. Further benefits might be achieved if multiple optical techniques could be deployed in a wind tunnel test simultaneously. The present study discusses the problems and benefits of combining VMD and PSP systems. The desirable attributes of useful optical techniques for wind tunnels, including the ability to accommodate the myriad optical techniques available today, are discussed. The VMD and PSP techniques are briefly reviewed. Commonalties and differences between the two techniques are discussed. Recent wind tunnel experiences and problems when combining PSP and VMD are presented, as are suggestions for future developments in combined PSP and deformation measurements.
Modeling the Stress Transfer between Carbon Nanotubes and a Polymer Matrix during Cyclic Deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kao, C. C.; Young, R. J.
Raman spectroscopy was used in this study to investigate the cyclic deformation behavior of the single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs)/epoxy composites. The stress transfer between the nanotube and epoxy resin has been followed through the stress-induced variation of the G' Raman band position of the nan-otubes. A hysteresis loop was found between the loading and unloading cycles and its size decreased with the increase of the deformation cycles. The energy dissipated in the composite and at the interface between the nanotube and matrix has been modeled from the loop area. The amount of interface damaged for each loading cycle was further predicted from the estimated dissipation energy.
Three-dimensional computational modeling of multiple deformable cells flowing in microvessels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doddi, Sai K.; Bagchi, Prosenjit
2009-04-01
Three-dimensional (3D) computational modeling and simulation are presented on the motion of a large number of deformable cells in microchannels. The methodology is based on an immersed boundary method, and the cells are modeled as liquid-filled elastic capsules. The model retains two important features of the blood flow in the microcirculation, that is, the particulate nature of blood and deformation of the erythrocytes. The tank-treading and tumbling motion and the lateral migration, as observed for erythrocytes in dilute suspension, are briefly discussed. We then present results on the motion of multiple cells in semidense suspension and study how their collective dynamics leads to various physiologically relevant processes such as the development of the cell-free layer and the Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect. We analyze the 3D trajectory and velocity fluctuations of individual cell in the suspension and the plug-flow velocity profile as functions of the cell deformability, hematocrit, and vessel size. The numerical results allow us to directly obtain various microrheological data, such as the width of the cell-free layer, and the variation in the apparent blood viscosity and hematocrit over the vessel cross section. We then use these results to calculate the core and plasma-layer viscosity and show that the two-phase (or core-annular) model of blood flow in microvessels underpredicts the blood velocity obtained in the simulations by as much as 40%. Based on a posteriori analysis of the simulation data, we develop a three-layer model of blood flow by taking into consideration the smooth variation in viscosity and hematocrit across the interface of the cell-free layer and the core. We then show that the blood velocity predicted by the three-layer model agrees very well with that obtained from the simulations.
Automatic 3D segmentation of spinal cord MRI using propagated deformable models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Leener, B.; Cohen-Adad, J.; Kadoury, S.
2014-03-01
Spinal cord diseases or injuries can cause dysfunction of the sensory and locomotor systems. Segmentation of the spinal cord provides measures of atrophy and allows group analysis of multi-parametric MRI via inter-subject registration to a template. All these measures were shown to improve diagnostic and surgical intervention. We developed a framework to automatically segment the spinal cord on T2-weighted MR images, based on the propagation of a deformable model. The algorithm is divided into three parts: first, an initialization step detects the spinal cord position and orientation by using the elliptical Hough transform on multiple adjacent axial slices to produce an initial tubular mesh. Second, a low-resolution deformable model is iteratively propagated along the spinal cord. To deal with highly variable contrast levels between the spinal cord and the cerebrospinal fluid, the deformation is coupled with a contrast adaptation at each iteration. Third, a refinement process and a global deformation are applied on the low-resolution mesh to provide an accurate segmentation of the spinal cord. Our method was evaluated against a semi-automatic edge-based snake method implemented in ITK-SNAP (with heavy manual adjustment) by computing the 3D Dice coefficient, mean and maximum distance errors. Accuracy and robustness were assessed from 8 healthy subjects. Each subject had two volumes: one at the cervical and one at the thoracolumbar region. Results show a precision of 0.30 +/- 0.05 mm (mean absolute distance error) in the cervical region and 0.27 +/- 0.06 mm in the thoracolumbar region. The 3D Dice coefficient was of 0.93 for both regions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spaans, K.; Auriac, A.; Sigmundsson, F.; Hooper, A. J.; Bjornsson, H.; Pálsson, F.; Pinel, V.; Feigl, K. L.
2014-12-01
Icelandic ice caps, covering ~11% of the country, are known to be surging glaciers. Such process implies an important local crustal subsidence due to the large ice mass being transported to the ice edge during the surge in a few months only. In 1993-1995, a glacial surge occurred at four neighboring outlet glaciers in the southwestern part of Vatnajökull ice cap, the largest ice cap in Iceland. We estimated that ~16±1 km3 of ice have been moved during this event while the fronts of some of the outlet glaciers advanced by ~1 km.Surface deformation associated with this surge has been surveyed using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) acquisitions from 1992-2002, providing high resolution ground observations of the study area. The data show about 75 mm subsidence at the ice edge of the outlet glaciers following the transport of the large volume of ice during the surge (Fig. 1). The long time span covered by the InSAR images enabled us to remove ~12 mm/yr of uplift occurring in this area due to glacial isostatic adjustment from the retreat of Vatnajökull ice cap since the end of the Little Ice Age in Iceland. We then used finite element modeling to investigate the elastic Earth response to the surge, as well as confirm that no significant viscoelastic deformation occurred as a consequence of the surge. A statistical approach based on Bayes' rule was used to compare the models to the observations and obtain an estimate of the Young's modulus (E) and Poisson's ratio (v) in Iceland. The best-fitting models are those using a one-kilometer thick top layer with v=0.17 and E between 12.9-15.3 GPa underlain by a layer with v=0.25 and E from 67.3 to 81.9 GPa. Results demonstrate that InSAR data and finite element models can be used successfully to reproduce crustal deformation induced by ice mass variations at Icelandic ice caps.Fig. 1: Interferograms spanning 1993 July 31 to 1995 June 19, showing the surge at Tungnaárjökull (Tu.), Skaftárjökull (Sk.) and S
The f-deformed Jaynes-Cummings model and its nonlinear coherent states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de los Santos-Sánchez, O.; Récamier, J.
2012-01-01
Based on the f-oscillator formalism, we introduce a nonlinear Jaynes-Cummings model (NJCM) which is constructed from the standard JCM by deforming the single-mode field operators. Such a generalization of the JCM describes the interaction of a two-level atom with a single mode of the electromagnetic field in the presence of a nonlinear Kerr-like medium. Since the medium is modelled as an f-oscillator, it is possible to consider the field f-coherent states (nonlinear coherent states) and their evolution.
Modeling of high homologous temperature deformation behavior for stress and life-time analyses
Krempl, E.
1997-12-31
Stress and lifetime analyses need realistic and accurate constitutive models for the inelastic deformation behavior of engineering alloys at low and high temperatures. Conventional creep and plasticity models have fundamental difficulties in reproducing high homologous temperature behavior. To improve the modeling capabilities {open_quotes}unified{close_quotes} state variable theories were conceived. They consider all inelastic deformation rate-dependent and do not have separate repositories for creep and plasticity. The viscoplasticity theory based on overstress (VBO), one of the unified theories, is introduced and its properties are delineated. At high homologous temperature where secondary and tertiary creep are observed modeling is primarily accomplished by a static recovery term and a softening isotropic stress. At low temperatures creep is merely a manifestation of rate dependence. The primary creep modeled at low homologous temperature is due to the rate dependence of the flow law. The model is unaltered in the transition from low to high temperature except that the softening of the isotropic stress and the influence of the static recovery term increase with an increase of the temperature.
Effect of Shear Deformation and Continuity on Delamination Modelling with Plate Elements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glaessgen, E. H.; Riddell, W. T.; Raju, I. S.
1998-01-01
The effects of several critical assumptions and parameters on the computation of strain energy release rates for delamination and debond configurations modeled with plate elements have been quantified. The method of calculation is based on the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT), and models that model the upper and lower surface of the delamination or debond with two-dimensional (2D) plate elements rather than three-dimensional (3D) solid elements. The major advantages of the plate element modeling technique are a smaller model size and simpler geometric modeling. Specific issues that are discussed include: constraint of translational degrees of freedom, rotational degrees of freedom or both in the neighborhood of the crack tip; element order and assumed shear deformation; and continuity of material properties and section stiffness in the vicinity of the debond front, Where appropriate, the plate element analyses are compared with corresponding two-dimensional plane strain analyses.
A patient alignment solution for lung SBRT setups based on a deformable registration technique
Lu Bo; Mittauer, Kathryn; Li, Jonathan; Samant, Sanjiv; Dagan, Roi; Okunieff, Paul; Kahler, Darren; Liu, Chihray
2012-12-15
Purpose: In this work, the authors propose a novel registration strategy for translation-only correction scenarios of lung stereotactic body radiation therapy setups, which can achieve optimal dose coverage for tumors as well as preserve the consistency of registrations with minimal human interference. Methods: The proposed solution (centroid-to-centroidor CTC solution) uses the average four-dimensional CT (A4DCT) as the reference CT. The cone-beam CT (CBCT) is deformed to acquire a new centroid for the internal target volume (ITV) on the CBCT. The registration is then accomplished by simply aligning the centroids of the ITVs between the A4DCT and the CBCT. Sixty-seven cases using 64 patients (each case is associated with separate isocenters) have been investigated with the CTC method and compared with the conventional gray-value (G) mode and bone (B) mode registration methods. Dosimetric effects among the tree methods were demonstrated by 18 selected cases. The uncertainty of the CTC method has also been studied. Results: The registration results demonstrate the superiority of the CTC method over the other two methods. The differences in the D99 and D95 ITV dose coverage between the CTC method and the original plan is small (within 5%) for all of the selected cases except for one for which the tumor presented significant growth during the period between the CT scan and the treatment. Meanwhile, the dose coverage differences between the original plan and the registration results using either the B or G method are significant, as tumor positions varied dramatically, relative to the rib cage, from their positions on the original CT. The largest differences between the D99 and D95 dose coverage of the ITV using the B or G method versus the original plan are as high as 50%. The D20 differences between any of the methods versus the original plan are all less than 2%. Conclusions: The CTC method can generate optimal dose coverage to tumors with much better consistency
Applying Evidence In The Care Of Patients With Rheumatoid Hand And Wrist Deformities
Rehim, Shady A.; Chung, Kevin C.
2014-01-01
The traditional approach in managing rheumatoid hand deformities is based on the individual surgeon’s experiences. In the current era of evidence-based medicine (EBM), formulating treatment for the rheumatoid hand fits perfectly within the framework of EBM by leveraging the best evidence from the literature, incorporating surgeons’ experience, and considering patients’ preferences. In this special article, we use a case example to illustrate how EBM can be practiced within the framework of treating rheumatoid hand deformities by distilling the best evidence from the literature to guide surgeons in a rational approach for treating this common condition. PMID:23783062
A complete VLBI delay model for deforming radio telescopes: the Effelsberg case
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Artz, T.; Springer, A.; Nothnagel, A.
2014-12-01
Deformations of radio telescopes used in geodetic and astrometric very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations belong to the class of systematic error sources which require correction in data analysis. In this paper we present a model for all path length variations in the geometrical optics of radio telescopes which are due to gravitational deformation. The Effelsberg 100 m radio telescope of the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, Bonn, Germany, has been surveyed by various terrestrial methods. Thus, all necessary information that is needed to model the path length variations is available. Additionally, a ray tracing program has been developed which uses as input the parameters of the measured deformations to produce an independent check of the theoretical model. In this program as well as in the theoretical model, the illumination function plays an important role because it serves as the weighting function for the individual path lengths depending on the distance from the optical axis. For the Effelsberg telescope, the biggest contribution to the total path length variations is the bending of the main beam located along the elevation axis which partly carries the weight of the paraboloid at its vertex. The difference in total path length is almost 100 mm when comparing observations at 90 and at 0 elevation angle. The impact of the path length corrections is validated in a global VLBI analysis. The application of the correction model leads to a change in the vertical position of mm. This is more than the maximum path length, but the effect can be explained by the shape of the correction function.
Modeling Of Small Scale Surface Deformation Based On DInSAR Result
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Furuta, Ryoichi
2012-01-01
Monitoring of small scale surface deformation as subsidence and landslides is very important to protect lifeline, manmade structures, buildings and houses, roads and railways, and so on. In order to monitor subsidence and landslides, several technologies were applied. However, these technologies cannot be applied to broad area and it is difficult to understand spatial distribution of affected area of subsidence and landslides. DInSAR analysis can be understand spatial distribution of affected area of subsidence and landslide, therefore, it has high prospect in Japan because Japan has a lot of sites of subsidence and landslides. However, DInSAR analysis cannot extract sub-surface information like depth of source of deformation. In order to enhance a capability of detection of small scale surface deformation as subsidence and landslide by DInSAR analysis, integration use of DInSAR analysis and numerical model and original model for estimation of small scale surface deformation was proposed in this paper. Proposed model was applied to subsidence which was detected by ALOS PALSAR DInSAR. Target area is located in the North-East part of China. At the target area, large subsidence occurred due to coal mining activity and overuse of ground water. In order to consider way of countermeasure work for subsidence, it is important to know affected area of subsidence, depth of source of subsidence, and so on. Affected area of subsidence can be understood by the DInSAR analysis, however, depth of source of subsidence has difficult to understand by the DInSAR analysis. In order to understand the depth of source of subsidence, numerical model was necessary. Proposed model can be estimating affected area of subsidence and depth of source of subsidence by a few parameters derived from DInSAR analysis. Proposed model was well performed in the simulation of subsidence pattern of 1-D space and it could be estimated depth of subsidence source. However, it wasn't well performed to
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Otake, Y.; Murphy, R. J.; Grupp, R. B.; Sato, Y.; Taylor, R. H.; Armand, M.
2015-03-01
A robust atlas-to-subject registration using a statistical deformation model (SDM) is presented. The SDM uses statistics of voxel-wise displacement learned from pre-computed deformation vectors of a training dataset. This allows an atlas instance to be directly translated into an intensity volume and compared with a patient's intensity volume. Rigid and nonrigid transformation parameters were simultaneously optimized via the Covariance Matrix Adaptation - Evolutionary Strategy (CMA-ES), with image similarity used as the objective function. The algorithm was tested on CT volumes of the pelvis from 55 female subjects. A performance comparison of the CMA-ES and Nelder-Mead downhill simplex optimization algorithms with the mutual information and normalized cross correlation similarity metrics was conducted. Simulation studies using synthetic subjects were performed, as well as leave-one-out cross validation studies. Both studies suggested that mutual information and CMA-ES achieved the best performance. The leave-one-out test demonstrated 4.13 mm error with respect to the true displacement field, and 26,102 function evaluations in 180 seconds, on average.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Jianfeng; Kaus, Boris
2016-04-01
The mechanism of intraplate deformation remains incompletely understood by plate tectonics theory. The India-Asia collision zone is the largest present-day example of continental collision, which makes it an ideal location to study the processes of continental deformation. Existing models of lithospheric deformation are typically quasi two-dimensional and often assume that the lithosphere is a thin viscous sheet, which deforms homogeneously as a result of the collision, or flows above a partially molten lower crust, which explains the exhumation of Himalayan units and lateral spreading of Tibetan plateau. An opposing view is that most deformation localize in shear zones separating less deformed blocks, requiring the lithosphere to have an elasto-plastic rather than a viscous rheology. In order to distinguish which model best fits the observations we develop a 3-D visco-elasto-plastic model, which can model both distributed and highly localized deformation. In our preliminary result, most of the large-scale strike-slips faults including Altyn-Tagh fault, Xianshuihe fault, Red-River fault, Sagaing fault and Jiali fault can be simulated. The topography is consistent with observations that flat plateau in central Tibet and steep, abrupt margins adjacent to Sichuan basin, and gradual topography in southeast Tibet. These models suggest that the localized large-scale strike-slip faults accommodate the continental deformation. These results show the importance of a weak lower crust and topographic effects, as well as the effect of rheology and temperature structure of the lithosphere on the deformation patterns.
A simplified constitutive model for predicting shape memory polymers deformation behavior
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yunxin; Guo, Siu-Siu; He, Yuhao; Liu, Zishun
2015-12-01
Shape memory polymers (SMPs) can keep a temporary shape after pre-deformation at a higher temperature and subsequent cooling. When they are reheated, their original shapes can be recovered. Such special characteristics of SMPs make them widely used in aerospace structures, biomedical devices, functional textiles and other devices. Increasing usefulness of SMPs motivates us to further understand their thermomechanical properties and deformation behavior, of which the development of appropriate constitutive models for SMPs is imperative. There is much work in literatures that address constitutive models of the thermo-mechanical coupling in SMPs. However, due to their complex forms, it is difficult to apply these constitutive models in the real world. In this paper, a three-element model with simple form is proposed to investigate the thermo-mechanical small strain (within 10%) behavior of polyurethane under uniaxial tension. Two different cases of heated recovery are considered: (1) unconstrained free strain recovery and (2) stress recovery under full constraint at a strain level fixed during low temperature unloading. To validate the model, simulated and predicted results are compared with Tobushi's experimental results and good agreement can be observed.
Deformable templates guided discriminative models for robust 3D brain MRI segmentation.
Liu, Cheng-Yi; Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Tu, Zhuowen
2013-10-01
Automatically segmenting anatomical structures from 3D brain MRI images is an important task in neuroimaging. One major challenge is to design and learn effective image models accounting for the large variability in anatomy and data acquisition protocols. A deformable template is a type of generative model that attempts to explicitly match an input image with a template (atlas), and thus, they are robust against global intensity changes. On the other hand, discriminative models combine local image features to capture complex image patterns. In this paper, we propose a robust brain image segmentation algorithm that fuses together deformable templates and informative features. It takes advantage of the adaptation capability of the generative model and the classification power of the discriminative models. The proposed algorithm achieves both robustness and efficiency, and can be used to segment brain MRI images with large anatomical variations. We perform an extensive experimental study on four datasets of T1-weighted brain MRI data from different sources (1,082 MRI scans in total) and observe consistent improvement over the state-of-the-art systems. PMID:23836390
Elementary model of severe plastic deformation by KoBo process
Gusak, A.; Storozhuk, N.; Danielewski, M. Korbel, A.; Bochniak, M.
2014-01-21
Self-consistent model of generation, interaction, and annihilation of point defects in the gradient of oscillating stresses is presented. This model describes the recently suggested method of severe plastic deformation by combination of pressure and oscillating rotations of the die along the billet axis (KoBo process). Model provides the existence of distinct zone of reduced viscosity with sharply increased concentration of point defects. This zone provides the high extrusion velocity. Presented model confirms that the Severe Plastic Deformation (SPD) in KoBo may be treated as non-equilibrium phase transition of abrupt drop of viscosity in rather well defined spatial zone. In this very zone, an intensive lateral rotational movement proceeds together with generation of point defects which in self-organized manner make rotation possible by the decrease of viscosity. The special properties of material under KoBo version of SPD can be described without using the concepts of nonequilibrium grain boundaries, ballistic jumps and amorphization. The model can be extended to include different SPD processes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Revil-Baudard, Benoit; Cazacu, Oana; Flater, Philip; Chandola, Nitin; Alves, J. L.
2016-03-01
In this paper, we present an experimental study on plastic deformation and damage of polycrystalline pure HCP Ti, as well as modeling of the observed behavior. Mechanical characterization data were conducted, which indicate that the material is orthotropic and displays tension-compression asymmetry. The ex-situ and in-situ X-ray tomography measurements conducted reveal that damage distribution and evolution in this HCP Ti material is markedly different than in a typical FCC material such as copper. Stewart and Cazacu (2011) anisotropic elastic/plastic damage model is used to describe the behavior. All the parameters involved in this model have a clear physical significance, being related to plastic properties, and are determined from very few simple mechanical tests. It is shown that this model predicts correctly the anisotropy in plastic deformation, and its strong influence on damage distribution and damage accumulation. Specifically, for a smooth axisymmetric specimen subject to uniaxial tension, damage initiates at the center of the specimen, and is diffuse; the level of damage close to failure being very low. On the other hand, for a notched specimen subject to the same loading the model predicts that damage initiates at the outer surface of the specimen, and further grows from the outer surface to the center of the specimen, which corroborates with the in-situ tomography data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lenkiewicz, Przemyslaw; Pereira, Manuela; Freire, Mário M.; Fernandes, José
2013-12-01
In this article, we propose a novel image segmentation method called the whole mesh deformation (WMD) model, which aims at addressing the problems of modern medical imaging. Such problems have raised from the combination of several factors: (1) significant growth of medical image volumes sizes due to increasing capabilities of medical acquisition devices; (2) the will to increase the complexity of image processing algorithms in order to explore new functionality; (3) change in processor development and turn towards multi processing units instead of growing bus speeds and the number of operations per second of a single processing unit. Our solution is based on the concept of deformable models and is characterized by a very effective and precise segmentation capability. The proposed WMD model uses a volumetric mesh instead of a contour or a surface to represent the segmented shapes of interest, which allows exploiting more information in the image and obtaining results in shorter times, independently of image contents. The model also offers a good ability for topology changes and allows effective parallelization of workflow, which makes it a very good choice for large datasets. We present a precise model description, followed by experiments on artificial images and real medical data.
In vivo imaging of rapid deformation and strain in an animal model of traumatic brain injury*
Bayly, Philip V.; Black, Erin E.; Pedersen, Rachel C.; Leister, Elizabeth P.; Genin, Guy M.
2005-01-01
In traumatic brain injury (TBI) rapid deformation of brain tissue leads to axonal injury and cell death. In vivo quantification of such fast deformations is extremely difficult, but important for understanding the mechanisms of degeneration post-trauma and for development of numerical models of injury biomechanics. In this paper, strain fields in the brain of the perinatal rat were estimated from data obtained in vivo during rapid indentation. Tagged magnetic resonance (MR) images were obtained with high spatial (0.2 mm) and temporal (3.9 ms) resolution by gated image acquisition during and after impact. Impacts were repeated either 64 or 128 times to obtain images of horizontal and vertical tag lines in coronal and sagittal planes. Strain fields were estimated by harmonic phase (HARP) analysis of the tagged images. The original MR data was filtered and Fourier-transformed to obtain HARP images, following a method originally developed by Osman et al. (IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 19(3) (2000) 186). The displacements of material points were estimated from intersections of HARP contours and used to generate estimates of the deformation gradient and Lagrangian strain tensors. Maximum principal Lagrangian strains of >0.20 at strain rates >40/s were observed during indentations of 2 mm depth and 21 ms duration. PMID:16549098
Supersymmetric moose models: An extra dimension from a broken deformed conformal field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erlich, Joshua; Anly Tan, Jong
2006-09-01
We find a class of four dimensional deformed conformal field theories which appear extra dimensional when their gauge symmetries are spontaneously broken. The theories are supersymmetric moose models which flow to interacting conformal fixed points at low energies, deformed by superpotentials. Using a-maximization we give strong nonperturbative evidence that the hopping terms in the resulting latticized action are relevant deformations of the fixed-point theories. These theories have an intricate structure of RG flows between conformal fixed points. Our results suggest that at the stable fixed points each of the bulk gauge couplings and superpotential hopping terms is turned on, in favor of the extra-dimensional interpretation of the theory. However, we argue that the higher-dimensional gauge coupling is generically small compared to the size of the extra dimension. In the presence of a brane the topology of the extra dimension is determined dynamically and depends on the numbers of colors and bulk and brane flavors, which suggests phenomenological applications. The RG flows between fixed points in these theories provide a class of tests of Cardy’s conjectured a-theorem.
Supersymmetric moose models: An extra dimension from a broken deformed conformal field theory
Erlich, Joshua; Anly Tan, Jong
2006-09-15
We find a class of four dimensional deformed conformal field theories which appear extra dimensional when their gauge symmetries are spontaneously broken. The theories are supersymmetric moose models which flow to interacting conformal fixed points at low energies, deformed by superpotentials. Using a-maximization we give strong nonperturbative evidence that the hopping terms in the resulting latticized action are relevant deformations of the fixed-point theories. These theories have an intricate structure of RG flows between conformal fixed points. Our results suggest that at the stable fixed points each of the bulk gauge couplings and superpotential hopping terms is turned on, in favor of the extra-dimensional interpretation of the theory. However, we argue that the higher-dimensional gauge coupling is generically small compared to the size of the extra dimension. In the presence of a brane the topology of the extra dimension is determined dynamically and depends on the numbers of colors and bulk and brane flavors, which suggests phenomenological applications. The RG flows between fixed points in these theories provide a class of tests of Cardy's conjectured a-theorem.
Getting drowned in a swirl: Deformable bead-spring model microswimmers in external flow fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Küchler, Niklas; Löwen, Hartmut; Menzel, Andreas M.
2016-02-01
Deformability is a central feature of many types of microswimmers, e.g., for artificially generated self-propelled droplets. Here, we analyze deformable bead-spring microswimmers in an externally imposed solvent flow field as simple theoretical model systems. We focus on their behavior in a circular swirl flow in two spatial dimensions. Linear (straight) two-bead swimmers are found to circle around the swirl with a slight drift to the outside with increasing activity. In contrast to that, we observe for triangular three-bead or squarelike four-bead swimmers a tendency of being drawn into the swirl and finally getting drowned, although a radial inward component is absent in the flow field. During one cycle around the swirl, the self-propulsion direction of an active triangular or squarelike swimmer remains almost constant, while their orbits become deformed exhibiting an "egglike" shape. Over time, the swirl flow induces slight net rotations of these swimmer types, which leads to net rotations of the egg-shaped orbits. Interestingly, in certain cases, the orbital rotation changes sense when the swimmer approaches the flow singularity. Our predictions can be verified in real-space experiments on artificial microswimmers.
Development of a Two-Phase Model for the Hot Deformation of Highly-Alloyed Aluminum
A. J. Beaudoin; J. A. Dantzig; I. M. Robertson; B. E. Gore; S. F. Harnish; H. A. Padilla
2005-10-31
Conventional processing methods for highly alloyed aluminum consist of ingot casting, followed by hot rolling and thermal treatments. Defects result in lost productivity and wasted energy through the need to remelt and reprocess the material. This research centers on developing a fundamental understanding for deformation of wrought 705X series alloys, a key alloy system used in structural airframe applications. The development of damage at grain boundaries is characterized through a novel test that provides initiation of failure while preserving a controlled deformation response. Data from these mechanical tests are linked to computer simulations of the hot rolling process through a critical measure of damage. Transmission electron microscopy provides fundamental insight into deformation at these high working temperatures, and--in a novel link between microscale and macroscale response--the evolution of microstructure (crystallographic orientation) provides feedback for tuning of friction in the hot rolling process. The key product of this research is a modeling framework for the analysis of industrial hot rolling.
Getting drowned in a swirl: Deformable bead-spring model microswimmers in external flow fields.
Küchler, Niklas; Löwen, Hartmut; Menzel, Andreas M
2016-02-01
Deformability is a central feature of many types of microswimmers, e.g., for artificially generated self-propelled droplets. Here, we analyze deformable bead-spring microswimmers in an externally imposed solvent flow field as simple theoretical model systems. We focus on their behavior in a circular swirl flow in two spatial dimensions. Linear (straight) two-bead swimmers are found to circle around the swirl with a slight drift to the outside with increasing activity. In contrast to that, we observe for triangular three-bead or squarelike four-bead swimmers a tendency of being drawn into the swirl and finally getting drowned, although a radial inward component is absent in the flow field. During one cycle around the swirl, the self-propulsion direction of an active triangular or squarelike swimmer remains almost constant, while their orbits become deformed exhibiting an "egglike" shape. Over time, the swirl flow induces slight net rotations of these swimmer types, which leads to net rotations of the egg-shaped orbits. Interestingly, in certain cases, the orbital rotation changes sense when the swimmer approaches the flow singularity. Our predictions can be verified in real-space experiments on artificial microswimmers. PMID:26986380
Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Jones, Reese E.; Templeton, Jeremy Alan; McDowell, David L.; Mayeur, Jason R.; Tucker, Garritt J.; Bammann, Douglas J.; Gao, Huajian
2008-09-01
Materials with characteristic structures at nanoscale sizes exhibit significantly different mechani-cal responses from those predicted by conventional, macroscopic continuum theory. For example,nanocrystalline metals display an inverse Hall-Petch effect whereby the strength of the materialdecreases with decreasing grain size. The origin of this effect is believed to be a change in defor-mation mechanisms from dislocation motion across grains and pileup at grain boundaries at mi-croscopic grain sizes to rotation of grains and deformation within grain boundary interface regionsfor nanostructured materials. These rotational defects are represented by the mathematical conceptof disclinations. The ability to capture these effects within continuum theory, thereby connectingnanoscale materials phenomena and macroscale behavior, has eluded the research community.The goal of our project was to develop a consistent theory to model both the evolution ofdisclinations and their kinetics. Additionally, we sought to develop approaches to extract contin-uum mechanical information from nanoscale structure to verify any developed continuum theorythat includes dislocation and disclination behavior. These approaches yield engineering-scale ex-pressions to quantify elastic and inelastic deformation in all varieties of materials, even those thatpossess highly directional bonding within their molecular structures such as liquid crystals, cova-lent ceramics, polymers and biological materials. This level of accuracy is critical for engineeringdesign and thermo-mechanical analysis is performed in micro- and nanosystems. The researchproposed here innovates on how these nanoscale deformation mechanisms should be incorporatedinto a continuum mechanical formulation, and provides the foundation upon which to develop ameans for predicting the performance of advanced engineering materials.4 AcknowledgmentThe authors acknowledge helpful discussions with Farid F. Abraham, Youping Chen, Terry J
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reitman, N. G.; Briggs, R.; Gold, R. D.; DuRoss, C. B.
2015-12-01
Post-earthquake, field-based assessments of surface displacement commonly underestimate offsets observed with remote sensing techniques (e.g., InSAR, image cross-correlation) because they fail to capture the total deformation field. Modern earthquakes are readily characterized by comparing pre- and post-event remote sensing data, but historical earthquakes often lack pre-event data. To overcome this challenge, we use historical aerial photographs to derive pre-event digital surface models (DSMs), which we compare to modern, post-event DSMs. Our case study focuses on resolving on- and off-fault deformation along the Lost River fault that accompanied the 1983 M6.9 Borah Peak, Idaho, normal-faulting earthquake. We use 343 aerial images from 1952-1966 and vertical control points selected from National Geodetic Survey benchmarks measured prior to 1983 to construct a pre-event point cloud (average ~ 0.25 pts/m2) and corresponding DSM. The post-event point cloud (average ~ 1 pt/m2) and corresponding DSM are derived from WorldView 1 and 2 scenes processed with NASA's Ames Stereo Pipeline. The point clouds and DSMs are coregistered using vertical control points, an iterative closest point algorithm, and a DSM coregistration algorithm. Preliminary results of differencing the coregistered DSMs reveal a signal spanning the surface rupture that is consistent with tectonic displacement. Ongoing work is focused on quantifying the significance of this signal and error analysis. We expect this technique to yield a more complete understanding of on- and off-fault deformation patterns associated with the Borah Peak earthquake along the Lost River fault and to help improve assessments of surface deformation for other historical ruptures.
Modeling viscoelastic networks and cell deformation in the context of the immersed boundary method
Bottino, D.C.
1998-11-20
The author presents a straightforward numerical technique for modeling passive viscoelastic networks, such as the actin cytoskeleton of ameboid cells, in the context of the immersed boundary method. The technique involves modeling the cytoskeletal material as a network of dynamic elastic links immersed in the ambient cytosol. Linking rules of varying complexity allow the numerical network to exhibit varying degrees of viscosity, elasticity, shear thinning, and thixotropy (stress-overshoot). A series of simulated viscometer tests are used to analyze the mechanical properties of the model networks and the effects of input parameters on these properties. The numerical network is then used in the context of a full-cell model involving simulated micropipette aspiration. These micropipette aspiration tests indicate that the immersed boundary method--with the added enhancement of the viscoelastic network model presented here--can be developed into a versatile tool for studying the free-boundary deformations of passively stressed and actively moving ameboid cells.
An internal variable constitutive model for the large deformation of metals at high temperatures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brown, Stuart; Anand, Lallit
1988-01-01
The advent of large deformation finite element methodologies is beginning to permit the numerical simulation of hot working processes whose design until recently has been based on prior industrial experience. Proper application of such finite element techniques requires realistic constitutive equations which more accurately model material behavior during hot working. A simple constitutive model for hot working is the single scalar internal variable model for isotropic thermal elastoplasticity proposed by Anand. The model is recalled and the specific scalar functions, for the equivalent plastic strain rate and the evolution equation for the internal variable, presented are slight modifications of those proposed by Anand. The modified functions are better able to represent high temperature material behavior. The monotonic constant true strain rate and strain rate jump compression experiments on a 2 percent silicon iron is briefly described. The model is implemented in the general purpose finite element program ABAQUS.
Ghatan, Andrew C; Hanel, Douglas P
2013-06-01
Madelung deformity is a rare congenital anomaly of the wrist caused by asymmetric growth at the distal radial physis secondary to a partial ulnar-sided arrest. The deformity is characterized by ulnar and palmar curvature of the distal radius, positive ulnar variance, and proximal subsidence of the lunate. It more commonly occurs in females than males and typically affects both wrists. The deformity can occur in isolation or as part of a genetic syndrome. The pattern of inheritance varies, with some cases following a pseudoautosomal pattern and many others lacking a clear family history. Nonsurgical management is typically advocated in asymptomatic patients. Few studies exist on the natural history of the condition; however, extensor tendon ruptures have been reported in severe and chronic cases. Stiffness, pain, and patient concerns regarding wrist cosmesis have been cited as indications for surgery. Various techniques for surgical management of Madelung deformity have been described, but clear evidence to support the use of any single approach is lacking. PMID:23728962
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Figiel, Łukasz; Dunne, Fionn P. E.; Buckley, C. Paul
2010-01-01
Layered-silicate nanoparticles offer a cost-effective reinforcement for thermoplastics. Computational modelling has been employed to study large deformations in layered-silicate/poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) nanocomposites near the glass transition, as would be experienced during industrial forming processes such as thermoforming or injection stretch blow moulding. Non-linear numerical modelling was applied, to predict the macroscopic large deformation behaviour, with morphology evolution and deformation occurring at the microscopic level, using the representative volume element (RVE) approach. A physically based elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model, describing the behaviour of the PET matrix within the RVE, was numerically implemented into a finite element solver (ABAQUS) using an UMAT subroutine. The implementation was designed to be robust, for accommodating large rotations and stretches of the matrix local to, and between, the nanoparticles. The nanocomposite morphology was reconstructed at the RVE level using a Monte-Carlo-based algorithm that placed straight, high-aspect ratio particles according to the specified orientation and volume fraction, with the assumption of periodicity. Computational experiments using this methodology enabled prediction of the strain-stiffening behaviour of the nanocomposite, observed experimentally, as functions of strain, strain rate, temperature and particle volume fraction. These results revealed the probable origins of the enhanced strain stiffening observed: (a) evolution of the morphology (through particle re-orientation) and (b) early onset of stress-induced pre-crystallization (and hence lock-up of viscous flow), triggered by the presence of particles. The computational model enabled prediction of the effects of process parameters (strain rate, temperature) on evolution of the morphology, and hence on the end-use properties.
Mathematical modeling of the hot-deformation behavior of superalloy IN718
Zhang, J.M.; Gao, Z.Y.; Zhuang, J.Y.; Zhong, Z.Y.
1999-10-01
Isothermal constant-displacement-rate compression tests of superalloy IN718 were conducted using a computer-controlled MTS machine, at temperatures from 960 C to 1,040 C, initial strain rates from 0.001 to 1.0 s{sup {minus}1}, and true strains from 0.105 to 1.204 (corresponding to a relative height reduction from 10 to 70 pct). The flow stress was obtained directly from compression tests using the controlling computer. The grain size was obtained by the intercept method and by comparing microstructures to the ASTM standard grain chart. Based on the results of these tests, a mathematical model showing the hot-deformation behavior of superalloy IN718 was developed in the form of a constitutive equation and a Hall-Petch relationship. Both the flow stress and the grain size calculated from the model were compared to the experimental results. Meanwhile, the effect of hot-deformation parameters such as strain, strain rate, and temperature on the flow stress and on the grain size was analyzed according to the model. It was found that these parameters influenced the flow stress and the grain size. The model developed in this work can be used to explain such effects.
Elastocapillary deformations on partially-wetting substrates: rival contact-line models.
Bostwick, Joshua B; Shearer, Michael; Daniels, Karen E
2014-10-01
A partially-wetting liquid can deform the underlying elastic substrate upon which it rests. This situation requires the development of theoretical models to describe the wetting forces imparted by the drop onto the solid substrate, particularly those at the contact-line. We construct a general solution using a displacement potential function for the elastic deformations within a finite elastic substrate associated with these wetting forces, and compare the results for several different contact-line models. Our work incorporates internal contributions to the surface stress from both liquid/solid Σls and Σsg solid/gas solid surface tensions (surface stress), which results in a non-standard boundary-value problem that we solve using a dual integral equation. We compare our results to relevant experiments and conclude that the generalization of solid surface tension Σls ≠ Σsg is an essential feature in any model of partial-wetting. The comparisons also allow us to systematically eliminate some proposed contact-line models. PMID:25079001
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Yunpeng; Shi, Xueping; Qiu, Kun
2015-08-01
A micromechanics model was employed to investigate the mechanical performance of particle-reinforced bulk metallic glass (BMG) composites. The roles of shear banding in the tensile deformation are accounted for in characterizing the strength and ductility of ductile particle-filled BMGs. For the sake of simplicity and convenience, shear band was considered to be a micro-crack in the present model. The strain-based Weibull probability distribution function and percolation theory were applied to describe the equivalent micro-crack evolution, which results in the progressive failure of BMG composites. Based on the developed model, the influences of shear bands on the plastic deformation were discussed for various microstructures. The predictions were in fairly good agreement with the experimental data from the literatures, which confirms that the developed analytical model is able to successfully describe the mechanical properties, such as yield strength, strain hardening, and stress softening elongation of composites. The present results will shed some light on optimizing the microstructures in effectively improving the tensile ductility of BMG composites.
Modelling the deformation and force balance of anisotropic Arctic Sea Ice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heorton, Harry; Feltham, Daniel; Tsamados, Michel; Schroeder, David
2016-04-01
The movement and spatial distribution of Arctic sea ice is due to its response to external forces. The deformation of Arctic sea ice is observed to have structural alignment on all length scales. By considering the alignment of diamond-shaped sea ice floes an anisotropic rheology has been developed for use in a climate sea ice model. Here we present investigations into the role of anisotropy in calculating the internal stress gradient of Arctic sea ice over climate length and time scales in a state-of-the-art climate sea ice model, the Los Alamos Sea Ice model. Our investigations are focused on the link between the external dynamical forcing and the emergent properties of sea ice such as its drift speed and thickness distribution. We analyse the model's response to external forcing over short time scales showing the characteristics of deformation events for different sea ice states and anisotropic alignment. We show how these events add up to produce the full seasonal stress balance and sea ice state over the Arctic ocean.
Supergravity background of λ-deformed model for AdS2 × S2 supercoset
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borsato, R.; Tseytlin, A. A.; Wulff, L.
2016-04-01
Starting with the F ˆ / G supercoset model corresponding to the AdSn ×Sn superstring one can define the λ-model of arxiv:arXiv:1409.1538 either as a deformation of the F ˆ / F ˆ gauged WZW model or as an integrable one-parameter generalisation of the non-abelian T-dual of the AdSn ×Sn superstring sigma model with respect to the whole supergroup F ˆ . Here we consider the case of n = 2 and find the explicit form of the 4d target space background for the λ-model for the PSU (1 , 1 | 2) / SO (1 , 1) × SO (2) supercoset. We show that this background represents a solution of type IIB 10d supergravity compactified on a 6-torus with only metric, dilaton Φ and the RR 5-form (represented by a 2-form F in 4d) being non-trivial. This implies that the λ-model is Weyl invariant at the quantum level and thus defines a consistent superstring sigma model. The supergravity solution we find is different from the one in arXiv:1410.1886 which should correspond to a version of the λ-model where only the bosonic subgroup of F ˆ is gauged. Still, the two solutions have equivalent scaling limit of arxiv:arXiv:1504.07213 leading to the isometric background for the metric and eΦ F which is related to the η-deformed AdS2 ×S2 sigma model of arXiv:1309.5850. Similar results are expected in the AdS3 ×S3 and AdS5 ×S5 cases.
Neylon, J; Min, Y; Qi, S; Kupelian, P; Santhanam, A
2014-06-15
Purpose: Deformable image registration (DIR) plays a pivotal role in head and neck adaptive radiotherapy but a systematic validation of DIR algorithms has been limited by a lack of quantitative high-resolution groundtruth. We address this limitation by developing a GPU-based framework that provides a systematic DIR validation by generating (a) model-guided synthetic CTs representing posture and physiological changes, and (b) model-guided landmark-based validation. Method: The GPU-based framework was developed to generate massive mass-spring biomechanical models from patient simulation CTs and contoured structures. The biomechanical model represented soft tissue deformations for known rigid skeletal motion. Posture changes were simulated by articulating skeletal anatomy, which subsequently applied elastic corrective forces upon the soft tissue. Physiological changes such as tumor regression and weight loss were simulated in a biomechanically precise manner. Synthetic CT data was then generated from the deformed anatomy. The initial and final positions for one hundred randomly-chosen mass elements inside each of the internal contoured structures were recorded as ground truth data. The process was automated to create 45 synthetic CT datasets for a given patient CT. For instance, the head rotation was varied between +/− 4 degrees along each axis, and tumor volumes were systematically reduced up to 30%. Finally, the original CT and deformed synthetic CT were registered using an optical flow based DIR. Results: Each synthetic data creation took approximately 28 seconds of computation time. The number of landmarks per data set varied between two and three thousand. The validation method is able to perform sub-voxel analysis of the DIR, and report the results by structure, giving a much more in depth investigation of the error. Conclusions: We presented a GPU based high-resolution biomechanical head and neck model to validate DIR algorithms by generating CT equivalent 3D
Modeling static and dynamic thermography of the human breast under elastic deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Li; Zhan, Wang; Loew, Murray H.
2011-01-01
An abnormal thermogram has been shown to be a reliable indicator of increased risk of breast cancer. Numerical modeling techniques for thermography are proposed to quantify the complex relationships between the breast thermal behaviors and the underlying physiological/pathological conditions. Previous thermal modeling techniques did not account for gravity-induced elastic deformation arising from various body postures, nor did they suggest that a dynamic thermal procedure may be used to enhance clinical diagnosis. In this paper, 3D finite element method (FEM)-based thermal and elastic modeling techniques are developed to characterize comprehensively both the thermal and elastic properties of normal and tumorous breast tissues during static and dynamic thermography. In the steady state, gravity-induced breast deformation is found to cause an upper-lower asymmetric surface temperature contrast for sitting/standing up body posture, even though all the thermal and elastic properties are assumed uniform. Additionally, the tumor-induced surface temperature alterations are found to be caused primarily by shallow tumors and to be less sensitive to tumor size than to tumor depth. In the dynamic state, the breast exhibits distinctive temporal patterns that are associated with distinct thermal events: cold stress and thermal recovery induced by changes in the ambient temperature. Specifically, the tumor-induced thermal contrast shows an opposite initial change and delayed peak as compared with the deformation-induced thermal contrast. These findings are expected to provide a stronger foundation for, and greater specificity and precision in, thermographic diagnosis, and treatment of breast cancer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gómez-García, D.; Lorenzo-Martín, C.; Muñoz-Bernabé, A.; Domínguez-Rodríguez, A.
2003-04-01
The possibility of the influence of segregation-induced local electric fields in the bulk diffusion of the species controlling the plastic deformation of nanocrystalline materials has been pointed out. Until now, there is only a model applicable to the case of a monodimensional system. In spite of its simplicity, it predicts a significative influence of a local electric field in creep. Our work develops a different model applicable to three-dimensional systems. It takes as a starting point the diffusional model, and it can be generalized to those systems in which the grain-boundary sliding model accommodated by diffusional processes accurately describes plasticity in the submicron range of grain size. The range of validity, as well as the different behavior of nanocrystalline materials from the submicron ones is discussed. Preliminary results are in good agreement with the published data for yttria tetragonal zirconia (YTZP) nanocrystalline ceramics.
A mathematical model for the deformation of the eyeball by an elastic band.
Keeling, Stephen L; Propst, Georg; Stadler, Georg; Wackernagel, Werner
2009-06-01
In a certain kind of eye surgery, the human eyeball is deformed sustainably by the application of an elastic band. This article presents a mathematical model for the mechanics of the combined eye/band structure along with an algorithm to compute the model solutions. These predict the immediate and the lasting indentation of the eyeball. The model is derived from basic physical principles by minimizing a potential energy subject to a volume constraint. Assuming spherical symmetry, this leads to a two-point boundary-value problem for a non-linear second-order ordinary differential equation that describes the minimizing static equilibrium. By comparison with laboratory data, a preliminary validation of the model is given. PMID:19351791
A mechanics model for the deformation of swirl-mat composites
Elahi, M.; Weitsman, Y.J.
1998-11-01
Swirl-mat polymeric composites are considered as representative materials for application in the automotive industry. This article summarizes a three-year long effort to characterize, model, and predict the deformation of these composites under stress, temperature, cyclic loadings, and the ingress of fluids. The effort involved several hundred characterization tests of various kinds and the formulation of a constitutive model based upon fundamental principles of irreversible thermodynamics and continuum mechanics. The above-mentioned experiments and model development were performed interactively. Subsequently, the model was employed in a predictive manner to anticipate experimental data collected under complex load and temperature histories, as well as to predict long-term behavior from short-term data.
A nonlinear kinematic hardening model for elastoplastic deformations in grey cast iron
Josefson, B.L.; Hjelm, H.E.; Stigh, U.
1995-04-01
A kinematic hardening model including an associated flow rule is proposed for elastoplastic deformations in graphitic grey cast iron. Quantitatively good results are obtained when comparing with previously performed biaxial experiments. Use of a nonassociated flow rule is found to result in an undesirable weakening behavior that can be explained as a deficiency with the combination of kinetic hardening and the present choice of yield potential. The model proposed is also extended to include multilinear kinematic hardening. With this model qualitatively good agreement with experimental cyclic results from the literature is obtained. A three-dimensional FE-analysis of a cylinder head for a heavy duty Diesel engine is performed as an application. To predict initiation of thermal fatigue cracks, it is essential to use an elastoplastic material model.
Exact [ital S] matrix of the deformed [ital c]=1 matrix model
Demeterfi, K.; Klebanov, I.R. ); Rodrigues, J.P. )
1993-11-22
We consider the [ital c]=1 matrix model deformed by the operator 1/2[ital M] [ital Tr][Phi][sup [minus]2], which was conjectured by Jevicki and Yoneya to describe a two-dimensional black hole of mass [ital M]. We calculate the exact nonperturbative [ital S] matrix and show that all the amplitudes involving an odd number of particles vanish at least to all orders of perturbation theory. We conjecture that these amplitudes vanish nonperturbatively and prove this for the 2[ital n][r arrow]1 scattering. For the two- and four-particle amplitudes we give some leading terms of the perturbative expansion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harding, D. J.; Miuller, J. R.
2005-12-01
Modeling the kinematics of the 2004 Great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake is limited in the northern two-thirds of the rupture zone by a scarcity of near-rupture geodetic deformation measurements. Precisely repeated Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) profiles across the Andaman and Nicobar Islands provide a means to more fully document the spatial pattern of surface vertical displacements and thus better constrain geomechanical modeling of the slip distribution. ICESat profiles that total ~45 km in length cross Car Nicobar, Kamorta, and Katchall in the Nicobar chain. Within the Andamans, the coverage includes ~350 km on North, Central, and South Andaman Islands along two NNE and NNW-trending profiles that provide elevations on both the east and west coasts of the island chain. Two profiles totaling ~80 km in length cross South Sentinel Island, and one profile ~10 km long crosses North Sentinel Island. With an average laser footprint spacing of 175 m, the total coverage provides over 2700 georeferenced surface elevations measurements for each operations period. Laser backscatter waveforms recorded for each footprint enable detection of forest canopy top and underlying ground elevations with decimeter vertical precision. Surface elevation change is determined from elevation profiles, acquired before and after the earthquake, that are repeated with a cross-track separation of less than 100 m by precision pointing of the ICESat spacecraft. Apparent elevation changes associated with cross-track offsets are corrected according to local slopes calculated from multiple post-earthquake repeated profiles. The surface deformation measurements recorded by ICESat are generally consistent with the spatial distribution of uplift predicted by a preliminary slip distribution model. To predict co-seismic surface deformation, we apply a slip distribution, derived from the released energy distribution computed by Ishii et al. (2005), as the displacement discontinuity
A GPS and modelling study of deformation in northern Central America
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodriguez, M.; DeMets, C.; Rogers, R.; Tenorio, C.; Hernandez, D.
2009-09-01
We use GPS measurements at 37 stations in Honduras and El Salvador to describe active deformation of the western end of the Caribbean Plate between the Motagua fault and Central American volcanic arc. All GPS sites located in eastern Honduras move with the Caribbean Plate, in accord with geologic evidence for an absence of neotectonic deformation in this region. Relative to the Caribbean Plate, the other stations in the study area move west to west-northwest at rates that increase gradually from 3.3 +/- 0.6 mm yr-1 in central Honduras to 4.1 +/- 0.6 mm yr-1 in western Honduras to as high as 11-12 mm yr-1 in southern Guatemala. The site motions are consistent with slow westward extension that has been inferred by previous authors from the north-striking grabens and earthquake focal mechanisms in this region. We examine the factors that influence the regional deformation by comparing the new GPS velocity field to velocity fields predicted by finite element models (FEMs) that incorporate the regional plate boundary faults and known plate motions. Our modelling suggests that the obliquely convergent (~20°) direction of Caribbean-North American Plate motion relative to the Motagua fault west of 90°W impedes the ENE-directed motion of the Caribbean Plate in southern Guatemala, giving rise to extension in southern Guatemala and western Honduras. The FEM predictions agree even better with the measured velocities if the plate motion west of the Central American volcanic arc is forced to occur over a broad zone rather than along a single throughgoing plate boundary fault. Our analysis confirms key predictions of a previous numerical model for deformation in this region, and also indicates that the curvature of the Motagua fault causes significant along-strike changes in the orientations of the principal strain-rate axes in the fault borderlands, in accord with earthquake focal mechanisms and conclusions reached in a recent synthesis of the structural and morphologic data