Science.gov

Sample records for defuddle parsing engine

  1. Mapping Physical Formats to Logical Models to Extract Data and Metadata: The Defuddle Parsing Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Talbott, Tara D.; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Stephan, Eric G.; Myers, James D.

    2006-07-25

    Scientists, fueled by the desire for systems-level understanding of phenomena, increasingly need to share their results across multiple disciplines. Accomplishing this requires data to be annotated, contextualized, and readily searchable and translated into other formats. While these requirements can be addressed by custom programming or obviated by community standardization, neither approach has ‘solved’ the problem. In this paper, we describe a complementary approach – a general capability for articulating the format of arbitrary textual and binary data using a logical data model, expressed in XML-Schema, which can be used to provide annotation and context, extract metadata, and enable translation. This work is based on the draft specification for the Data Format Description Language and our open source “Defuddle” parser. We present an overview of the specification, detail the design of Defuddle, and discuss the benefits and challenges of this general approach to enabling discovery and sharing of diverse data sets.

  2. A Template Engine for Parsing Objects from Textual Representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajković, Milan; Stanković, Milena; Marković, Ivica

    2011-09-01

    Template engines are widely used for separation of business and presentation logic. They are commonly used in web applications for clean rendering of HTML pages. Another area of usage is message formatting in distributed applications where they transform objects to appropriate representations. This paper explores the possibility of using templates for a reverse process—for creating objects starting from their representations. We present the prototype of engine that we have developed, and describe benefits and drawbacks of this approach.

  3. The Parsing of Prosody.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckman, Mary E.

    1996-01-01

    Considers the fact that prosody is a grammatical (phonological) structure that must be parsed. The article describes prosodic categories marked by intonational pattern for English and Japanese, concentrates on "pitch accent" and tonally marked "phrases," and discusses potential ambiguities in parsing these categories. (60 references) (Author/CK)

  4. HEPA and PARSE

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qing-Wen; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Xiao-Song

    2013-01-01

    The effective discovery of tumor-specific antigens (TSAs) holds the key for the development of new diagnostic assays and immunotherapeutic approaches against cancer. Here, we discuss our recently developed technologies, HEPA and PARSE, which allow for the systematic identification of TSAs, generating a reservoir of immunologically and clinically relevant targets. PMID:23802073

  5. voevent-parse: Parse, manipulate, and generate VOEvent XML packets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staley, Tim D.

    2014-11-01

    voevent-parse, written in Python, parses, manipulates, and generates VOEvent XML packets; it is built atop lxml.objectify. Details of transients detected by many projects, including Fermi, Swift, and the Catalina Sky Survey, are currently made available as VOEvents, which is also the standard alert format by future facilities such as LSST and SKA. However, working with XML and adhering to the sometimes lengthy VOEvent schema can be a tricky process. voevent-parse provides convenience routines for common tasks, while allowing the user to utilise the full power of the lxml library when required. An earlier version of voevent-parse was part of the pysovo (ascl:1411.002) library.

  6. Parsing the Practice of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Teacher education programs typically teach novices about one part of teaching at a time. We might offer courses on different topics--cultural foundations, learning theory, or classroom management--or we may parse teaching practice itself into a set of discrete techniques, such as core teaching practices, that can be taught individually. Missing…

  7. Retrieving Similar Styles to Parse Clothing.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Kota; Kiapour, M Hadi; Ortiz, Luis E; Berg, Tamara L

    2015-05-01

    Clothing recognition is a societally and commercially important yet extremely challenging problem due to large variations in clothing appearance, layering, style, and body shape and pose. In this paper, we tackle the clothing parsing problem using a retrieval-based approach. For a query image, we find similar styles from a large database of tagged fashion images and use these examples to recognize clothing items in the query. Our approach combines parsing from: pre-trained global clothing models, local clothing models learned on the fly from retrieved examples, and transferred parse-masks (Paper Doll item transfer) from retrieved examples. We evaluate our approach extensively and show significant improvements over previous state-of-the-art for both localization (clothing parsing given weak supervision in the form of tags) and detection (general clothing parsing). Our experimental results also indicate that the general pose estimation problem can benefit from clothing parsing. PMID:26353326

  8. Method for endobronchial video parsing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrnes, Patrick D.; Higgins, William E.

    2016-03-01

    Endoscopic examination of the lungs during bronchoscopy produces a considerable amount of endobronchial video. A physician uses the video stream as a guide to navigate the airway tree for various purposes such as general airway examinations, collecting tissue samples, or administering disease treatment. Aside from its intraoperative utility, the recorded video provides high-resolution detail of the airway mucosal surfaces and a record of the endoscopic procedure. Unfortunately, due to a lack of robust automatic video-analysis methods to summarize this immense data source, it is essentially discarded after the procedure. To address this problem, we present a fully-automatic method for parsing endobronchial video for the purpose of summarization. Endoscopic- shot segmentation is first performed to parse the video sequence into structurally similar groups according to a geometric model. Bronchoscope-motion analysis then identifies motion sequences performed during bronchoscopy and extracts relevant information. Finally, representative key frames are selected based on the derived motion information to present a drastically reduced summary of the processed video. The potential of our method is demonstrated on four endobronchial video sequences from both phantom and human data. Preliminary tests show that, on average, our method reduces the number of frames required to represent an input video sequence by approximately 96% and consistently selects salient key frames appropriately distributed throughout the video sequence, enabling quick and accurate post-operative review of the endoscopic examination.

  9. Automatic Parsing of Parental Verbal Input

    PubMed Central

    Sagae, Kenji; MacWhinney, Brian; Lavie, Alon

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate theoretical proposals regarding the course of child language acquisition, researchers often need to rely on the processing of large numbers of syntactically parsed utterances, both from children and their parents. Because it is so difficult to do this by hand, there are currently no parsed corpora of child language input data. To automate this process, we developed a system that combined the MOR tagger, a rule-based parser, and statistical disambiguation techniques. The resultant system obtained nearly 80% correct parses for the sentences spoken to children. To achieve this level, we had to construct a particular processing sequence that minimizes problems caused by the coverage/ambiguity trade-off in parser design. These procedures are particularly appropriate for use with the CHILDES database, an international corpus of transcripts. The data and programs are now freely available over the Internet. PMID:15190707

  10. Deep Human Parsing with Active Template Regression.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiaodan; Liu, Si; Shen, Xiaohui; Yang, Jianchao; Liu, Luoqi; Dong, Jian; Lin, Liang; Yan, Shuicheng

    2015-12-01

    In this work, the human parsing task, namely decomposing a human image into semantic fashion/body regions, is formulated as an active template regression (ATR) problem, where the normalized mask of each fashion/body item is expressed as the linear combination of the learned mask templates, and then morphed to a more precise mask with the active shape parameters, including position, scale and visibility of each semantic region. The mask template coefficients and the active shape parameters together can generate the human parsing results, and are thus called the structure outputs for human parsing. The deep Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) is utilized to build the end-to-end relation between the input human image and the structure outputs for human parsing. More specifically, the structure outputs are predicted by two separate networks. The first CNN network is with max-pooling, and designed to predict the template coefficients for each label mask, while the second CNN network is without max-pooling to preserve sensitivity to label mask position and accurately predict the active shape parameters. For a new image, the structure outputs of the two networks are fused to generate the probability of each label for each pixel, and super-pixel smoothing is finally used to refine the human parsing result. Comprehensive evaluations on a large dataset well demonstrate the significant superiority of the ATR framework over other state-of-the-arts for human parsing. In particular, the F1-score reaches 64.38 percent by our ATR framework, significantly higher than 44.76 percent based on the state-of-the-art algorithm [28]. PMID:26539846

  11. Perceiving Event Dynamics and Parsing Hollywood Films

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutting, James E.; Brunick, Kaitlin L.; Candan, Ayse

    2012-01-01

    We selected 24 Hollywood movies released from 1940 through 2010 to serve as a film corpus. Eight viewers, three per film, parsed them into events, which are best termed subscenes. While watching a film a second time, viewers scrolled through frames and recorded the frame number where each event began. Viewers agreed about 90% of the time. We then…

  12. A Semantic Constraint on Syntactic Parsing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crain, Stephen; Coker, Pamela L.

    This research examines how semantic information influences syntactic parsing decisions during sentence processing. In the first experiment, subjects were presented lexical strings having syntactically identical surface structures but with two possible underlying structures: "The children taught by the Berlitz method," and "The teachers taught by…

  13. Image portion identification methods, image parsing methods, image parsing systems, and articles of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Lassahn, Gordon D.; Lancaster, Gregory D.; Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S.

    2013-01-08

    Image portion identification methods, image parsing methods, image parsing systems, and articles of manufacture are described. According to one embodiment, an image portion identification method includes accessing data regarding an image depicting a plurality of biological substrates corresponding to at least one biological sample and indicating presence of at least one biological indicator within the biological sample and, using processing circuitry, automatically identifying a portion of the image depicting one of the biological substrates but not others of the biological substrates.

  14. Parsing polarization squeezing into Fock layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Christian R.; Madsen, Lars S.; Klimov, Andrei B.; Sánchez-Soto, Luis L.; Leuchs, Gerd; Marquardt, Christoph; Andersen, Ulrik L.

    2016-03-01

    We investigate polarization squeezing in squeezed coherent states with varying coherent amplitudes. In contrast to the traditional characterization based on the full Stokes parameters, we experimentally determine the Stokes vector of each excitation subspace separately. Only for states with a fixed photon number do the methods coincide; when the photon number is indefinite, we parse the state in Fock layers, finding that substantially higher squeezing can be observed in some of the single layers. By capitalizing on the properties of the Husimi Q function, we map this notion onto the Poincaré space, providing a full account of the measured squeezing.

  15. Domain Adaption of Parsing for Operative Notes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Pakhomov, Serguei; Ryan, James O.; Melton, Genevieve B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Full syntactic parsing of clinical text as a part of clinical natural language processing (NLP) is critical for a wide range of applications, such as identification of adverse drug reactions, patient cohort identification, and gene interaction extraction. Several robust syntactic parsers are publicly available to produce linguistic representations for sentences. However, these existing parsers are mostly trained on general English text and often require adaptation for optimal performance on clinical text. Our objective was to adapt an existing general English parser for the clinical text of operative reports via lexicon augmentation, statistics adjusting, and grammar rules modification based on a set of biomedical text. Method The Stanford unlexicalized probabilistic context-free grammar (PCFG) parser lexicon was expanded with SPECIALIST lexicon along with statistics collected from a limited set of operative notes tagged with a two of POS taggers (GENIA tagger and MedPost). The most frequently occurring verb entries of the SPECIALIST lexicon were adjusted based on manual review of verb usage in operative notes. Stanford parser grammar production rules were also modified based on linguistic features of operative reports. An analogous approach was then applied to the GENIA corpus to test the generalizability of this approach to biomedical text. Results The new unlexicalized PCFG parser extended with the extra lexicon from SPECIALIST along with accurate statistics collected from an operative note corpus tagged with GENIA POS tagger improved the parser performance by 2.26% from 87.64% to 89.90%. There was a progressive improvement with the addition of multiple approaches. Most of the improvement occurred with lexicon augmentation combined with statistics from the operative notes corpus. Application of this approach on the GENIA corpus showed that parsing performance was boosted by 3.81% with a simple new grammar and the addition of the GENIA corpus lexicon

  16. Semantic support and parallel parsing in Chinese.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yufen; Boland, Julie E

    2015-06-01

    Two eye-tracking experiments were conducted using written Chinese sentences that contained a multi-word ambiguous region. The goal was to determine whether readers maintained multiple interpretations throughout the ambiguous region or selected a single interpretation at the point of ambiguity. Within the ambiguous region, we manipulated the strength of support for the complement clause (CC) analysis and the relative clause (RC) analysis of the ambiguous construction Verb NP1 de NP2. In Experiment 1, the critical sentences were disambiguated to the dispreferred CC interpretation; in Experiment 2, the sentences were disambiguated as the preferred RC interpretation. Unsurprisingly, processing difficulty at the point of disambiguation was observed only in Experiment 1. As predicted by a parallel mechanism, greater processing difficulty arose at disambiguation when the RC interpretation was much more strongly supported by semantic cues relative to the CC alternative, than when the two analyses were semantically supported to a similar degree. Regression analyses confirmed that the degree of semantic support predicted processing difficulty at disambiguation. The findings provide evidence for a parallel constraint-based parsing mechanism. PMID:24723010

  17. Natural language parsing in a hybrid connectionist-symbolic architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Adrian; Zell, Andreas

    1991-03-01

    Most connectionist parsers either cannot guarantee the correctness of their derivations or have to simulate a serial flow of control. In the first case, users have to restrict the tasks (e.g. parse less complex or shorter sentences) of the parser or they need to believe in the soundness of the result. In the second case, the resulting network has lost most of its attractivity because seriality needs to be hard-coded into the structure of the net. We here present a hybrid symbolic connectionist parser, which was designed to fulfill the following goals: (1) parsing of sentences without length restriction, (2) soundness and completeness for any context-free grammar, and (3) learning the applicability of parsing rules with a neural network. Our hybrid architecture consists of a serial parsing algorithm and a trainable net. BrainC (Backtracking and Backpropagation in C) combines the well known shift-reduce parsing technique with backtracking with a backpropagation network to learn and represent the typical properties of the trained natural language grammars. The system has been implemented as a subsystem of the Rochester Connectionist Simulator (RCS) on SUN- Workstations and was tested with several grammars for English and German. We discuss how BrainC reached its design goals and what results we observed.

  18. A Heuristic Parsing Procedure for a Language Learning Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Robert K.

    This paper reports a portion of a research effort to develop a program which will simulate the language learning behavior of humans. Here presented is a heuristic parsing procedure which accepts natural language sentences and produces for each a form of analysis called a "labeled dependency tree." The formal grammar on which the procedure is based…

  19. The Sausage Machine: A New Two-Stage Parsing Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Lyn; Fodor, Janet Dean

    1978-01-01

    The human sentence parsing device assigns phrase structure to sentences in two steps. The first stage parser assigns lexical and phrasal nodes to substrings of words. The second stage parser then adds higher nodes to link these phrasal packages together into a complete phrase marker. This model is compared with others. (Author/RD)

  20. Applications of Parsing Theory to Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markosian, Lawrence Z.; Ager, Tryg A.

    1983-01-01

    Applications of an LR-1 parsing algorithm to intelligent programs for computer assisted instruction in symbolic logic and foreign languages are discussed. The system has been adequately used for diverse instructional applications, including analysis of student input, generation of pattern drills, and modeling the student's understanding of the…

  1. Time-Driven Effects on Parsing during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roll, Mikael; Lindgren, Magnus; Alter, Kai; Horne, Merle

    2012-01-01

    The phonological trace of perceived words starts fading away in short-term memory after a few seconds. Spoken utterances are usually 2-3 s long, possibly to allow the listener to parse the words into coherent prosodic phrases while they still have a clear representation. Results from this brain potential study suggest that even during silent…

  2. Connectionist natural language parsing with BrainC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Adrian; Zell, Andreas

    1991-08-01

    A close examination of pure neural parsers shows that they either could not guarantee the correctness of their derivations or had to hard-code seriality into the structure of the net. The authors therefore decided to use a hybrid architecture, consisting of a serial parsing algorithm and a trainable net. The system fulfills the following design goals: (1) parsing of sentences without length restriction, (2) soundness and completeness for any context-free language, and (3) learning the applicability of parsing rules with a neural network to increase the efficiency of the whole system. BrainC (backtracktacking and backpropagation in C) combines the well- known shift-reduce parsing technique with backtracking with a backpropagation network to learn and represent typical structures of the trained natural language grammars. The system has been implemented as a subsystem of the Rochester Connectionist Simulator (RCS) on SUN workstations and was tested with several grammars for English and German. The design of the system and then the results are discussed.

  3. Locating and parsing bibliographical references in HTML medical articles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Jie; Le, Daniel; Thoma, George R.

    2009-01-01

    Bibliographical references that appear in journal articles can provide valuable hints for subsequent information extraction. We describe our statistical machine learning algorithms for locating and parsing such references from HTML medical journal articles. Reference locating identifies the reference sections and then decomposes them into individual references. We formulate reference locating as a two-class classification problem based on text and geometric features. An evaluation conducted on 500 articles from 100 journals achieves near perfect precision and recall rates for locating references. Reference parsing is to identify components, e.g. author, article title, journal title etc., from each individual reference. We implement and compare two reference parsing algorithms. One relies on sequence statistics and trains a Conditional Random Field. The other focuses on local feature statistics and trains a Support Vector Machine to classify each individual word, and then a search algorithm systematically corrects low confidence labels if the label sequence violates a set of predefined rules. The overall performance of these two reference parsing algorithms is about the same: above 99% accuracy at the word level, and over 97% accuracy at the chunk level.

  4. A novel argument for the Universality of Parsing principles.

    PubMed

    Grillo, Nino; Costa, João

    2014-10-01

    Previous work on Relative Clause attachment has overlooked a crucial grammatical distinction across both the languages and structures tested: the selective availability of Pseudo Relatives. We reconsider the literature in light of this observation and argue that, all else being equal, local attachment is found with genuine Relative Clauses and that non-local attachment emerges when their surface identical imposters, Pseudo Relatives, are available. Hence, apparent cross-linguistic variation in parsing preferences is reducible to grammatical factors. The results from two novel experiments in Italian are presented in support of these conclusions. PMID:25032904

  5. Parsed and fixed block representations of visual information for image retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Soo Hyun; Juang, Biing-Hwang

    2009-02-01

    The theory of linguistics teaches us the existence of a hierarchical structure in linguistic expressions, from letter to word root, and on to word and sentences. By applying syntax and semantics beyond words, one can further recognize the grammatical relationship between among words and the meaning of a sequence of words. This layered view of a spoken language is useful for effective analysis and automated processing. Thus, it is interesting to ask if a similar hierarchy of representation of visual information does exist. A class of techniques that have a similar nature to the linguistic parsing is found in the Lempel-Ziv incremental parsing scheme. Based on a new class of multidimensional incremental parsing algorithms extended from the Lempel-Ziv incremental parsing, a new framework for image retrieval, which takes advantage of the source characterization property of the incremental parsing algorithm, was proposed recently. With the incremental parsing technique, a given image is decomposed into a number of patches, called a parsed representation. This representation can be thought of as a morphological interface between elementary pixel and a higher level representation. In this work, we examine the properties of two-dimensional parsed representation in the context of imagery information retrieval and in contrast to vector quantization; i.e. fixed square-block representations and minimum average distortion criteria. We implemented four image retrieval systems for the comparative study; three, called IPSILON image retrieval systems, use parsed representation with different perceptual distortion thresholds and one uses the convectional vector quantization for visual pattern analysis. We observe that different perceptual distortion in visual pattern matching does not have serious effects on the retrieval precision although allowing looser perceptual thresholds in image compression result poor reconstruction fidelity. We compare the effectiveness of the use of the

  6. Toward a theory of distributed word expert natural language parsing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieger, C.; Small, S.

    1981-01-01

    An approach to natural language meaning-based parsing in which the unit of linguistic knowledge is the word rather than the rewrite rule is described. In the word expert parser, knowledge about language is distributed across a population of procedural experts, each representing a word of the language, and each an expert at diagnosing that word's intended usage in context. The parser is structured around a coroutine control environment in which the generator-like word experts ask questions and exchange information in coming to collective agreement on sentence meaning. The word expert theory is advanced as a better cognitive model of human language expertise than the traditional rule-based approach. The technical discussion is organized around examples taken from the prototype LISP system which implements parts of the theory.

  7. Motion based parsing for video from observational psychology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokaram, Anil; Doyle, Erika; Lennon, Daire; Joyeux, Laurent; Fuller, Ray

    2006-01-01

    In Psychology it is common to conduct studies involving the observation of humans undertaking some task. The sessions are typically recorded on video and used for subjective visual analysis. The subjective analysis is tedious and time consuming, not only because much useless video material is recorded but also because subjective measures of human behaviour are not necessarily repeatable. This paper presents tools using content based video analysis that allow automated parsing of video from one such study involving Dyslexia. The tools rely on implicit measures of human motion that can be generalised to other applications in the domain of human observation. Results comparing quantitative assessment of human motion with subjective assessment are also presented, illustrating that the system is a useful scientific tool.

  8. The lived experience of serenity: using Parse's research method.

    PubMed

    Kruse, B G

    1999-04-01

    Parse's research method was used to investigate the meaning of serenity for survivors of a life-threatening illness or traumatic event. Ten survivors of cancer told their stories of the meaning of serenity as they had lived it in their lives. Descriptions were aided by photographs chosen by each participant to represent the meaning of serenity for them. The structure of serenity was generated through the extraction-synthesis process. Four main concepts--steering-yielding with the flow, savoring remembered visions of engaging surroundings, abiding with aloneness-togetherness, and attesting to a loving presence--emerged and led to a theoretical structure of serenity from the human becoming perspective. Findings confirm serenity as a multidimensional process. PMID:11847681

  9. Parsing interindividual drug variability: an emerging role for systems pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Richard M; Park, B Kevin; Pirmohamed, Munir

    2015-01-01

    There is notable interindividual heterogeneity in drug response, affecting both drug efficacy and toxicity, resulting in patient harm and the inefficient utilization of limited healthcare resources. Pharmacogenomics is at the forefront of research to understand interindividual drug response variability, but although many genotype-drug response associations have been identified, translation of pharmacogenomic associations into clinical practice has been hampered by inconsistent findings and inadequate predictive values. These limitations are in part due to the complex interplay between drug-specific, human body and environmental factors influencing drug response and therefore pharmacogenomics, whilst intrinsically necessary, is by itself unlikely to adequately parse drug variability. The emergent, interdisciplinary and rapidly developing field of systems pharmacology, which incorporates but goes beyond pharmacogenomics, holds significant potential to further parse interindividual drug variability. Systems pharmacology broadly encompasses two distinct research efforts, pharmacologically-orientated systems biology and pharmacometrics. Pharmacologically-orientated systems biology utilizes high throughput omics technologies, including next-generation sequencing, transcriptomics and proteomics, to identify factors associated with differential drug response within the different levels of biological organization in the hierarchical human body. Increasingly complex pharmacometric models are being developed that quantitatively integrate factors associated with drug response. Although distinct, these research areas complement one another and continual development can be facilitated by iterating between dynamic experimental and computational findings. Ultimately, quantitative data-derived models of sufficient detail will be required to help realize the goal of precision medicine. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2015, 7:221–241. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1302 PMID:25950758

  10. Consistency of stochastic context-free grammars and application to stochastic parsing of GMTI tracker data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaji, Bhashyam

    2012-06-01

    Conventional trackers provide the human operator with estimated target tracks. It is desirable to make higher level inference of the target behaviour/intent (e.g., trajectory inference) in an automated manner. One such approach is to use stochastic context-free grammars and the Earley-Stoelcke parsing algorithm. The problem of inference is reformulated as one of parsing. In this paper, the consistency of stochastic context-free grammars is reviewed. Some examples illustrating the constraints on SCFGs due to consistency are presented, including a toy SCFG that has been used to successfully parse real GMTI radar data.

  11. Performance evaluation of continuity of care records (CCRs): parsing models in a mobile health management system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hung-Ming; Liou, Yong-Zan

    2014-10-01

    In a mobile health management system, mobile devices act as the application hosting devices for personal health records (PHRs) and the healthcare servers construct to exchange and analyze PHRs. One of the most popular PHR standards is continuity of care record (CCR). The CCR is expressed in XML formats. However, parsing is an expensive operation that can degrade XML processing performance. Hence, the objective of this study was to identify different operational and performance characteristics for those CCR parsing models including the XML DOM parser, the SAX parser, the PULL parser, and the JSON parser with regard to JSON data converted from XML-based CCR. Thus, developers can make sensible choices for their target PHR applications to parse CCRs when using mobile devices or servers with different system resources. Furthermore, the simulation experiments of four case studies are conducted to compare the parsing performance on Android mobile devices and the server with large quantities of CCR data. PMID:25086611

  12. Parsing (malicious) pleasures: schadenfreude and gloating at others’ adversity

    PubMed Central

    Leach, Colin Wayne; Spears, Russell; Manstead, Antony S. R.

    2015-01-01

    We offer the first empirical comparison of the pleasure in seeing (i.e., schadenfreude) and in causing (i.e., gloating) others’ adversity. In Study 1, we asked participants to recall and report on an (individual or group) episode of pleasure that conformed to our formal definition of schadenfreude, gloating, pride, or joy, without reference to an emotion word. Schadenfreude and gloating were distinct in the situational features of the episode, participants’ appraisals of it, and their expressions of pleasure (e.g., smiling, boasting). In Study 2, we had participants imagine being in an (individual or group) emotion episode designed to fit our conceptualization of schadenfreude or gloating. Individual and group versions of the emotions did not differ much in either study. However, the two pleasures differed greatly in their situational features, appraisals, experience, and expression. This parsing of the particular pleasures of schadenfreude and gloating brings nuance to the study of (malicious) pleasure, which tends to be less finely conceptualized and examined than displeasure despite its importance to social relations. PMID:25767455

  13. Robust learning-based parsing and annotation of medical radiographs.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yimo; Peng, Zhigang; Krishnan, Arun; Zhou, Xiang Sean

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a learning-based algorithm for automatic medical image annotation based on robust aggregation of learned local appearance cues, achieving high accuracy and robustness against severe diseases, imaging artifacts, occlusion, or missing data. The algorithm starts with a number of landmark detectors to collect local appearance cues throughout the image, which are subsequently verified by a group of learned sparse spatial configuration models. In most cases, a decision could already be made at this stage by simply aggregating the verified detections. For the remaining cases, an additional global appearance filtering step is employed to provide complementary information to make the final decision. This approach is evaluated on a large-scale chest radiograph view identification task, demonstrating a very high accuracy ( > 99.9%) for a posteroanterior/anteroposterior (PA-AP) and lateral view position identification task, compared with the recently reported large-scale result of only 98.2% (Luo, , 2006). Our approach also achieved the best accuracies for a three-class and a multiclass radiograph annotation task, when compared with other state of the art algorithms. Our algorithm was used to enhance advanced image visualization workflows by enabling content-sensitive hanging-protocols and auto-invocation of a computer aided detection algorithm for identified PA-AP chest images. Finally, we show that the same methodology could be utilized for several image parsing applications including anatomy/organ region of interest prediction and optimized image visualization. PMID:20876012

  14. Parsing (malicious) pleasures: schadenfreude and gloating at others' adversity.

    PubMed

    Leach, Colin Wayne; Spears, Russell; Manstead, Antony S R

    2015-01-01

    We offer the first empirical comparison of the pleasure in seeing (i.e., schadenfreude) and in causing (i.e., gloating) others' adversity. In Study 1, we asked participants to recall and report on an (individual or group) episode of pleasure that conformed to our formal definition of schadenfreude, gloating, pride, or joy, without reference to an emotion word. Schadenfreude and gloating were distinct in the situational features of the episode, participants' appraisals of it, and their expressions of pleasure (e.g., smiling, boasting). In Study 2, we had participants imagine being in an (individual or group) emotion episode designed to fit our conceptualization of schadenfreude or gloating. Individual and group versions of the emotions did not differ much in either study. However, the two pleasures differed greatly in their situational features, appraisals, experience, and expression. This parsing of the particular pleasures of schadenfreude and gloating brings nuance to the study of (malicious) pleasure, which tends to be less finely conceptualized and examined than displeasure despite its importance to social relations. PMID:25767455

  15. Earth Sciences data user community feedbacks to PARSE.Insight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giaretta, David; Guidetti, Veronica

    2010-05-01

    The presentation in point reports on the topic of long term availability of environmental data as perceived by the Earth Science data user community. In the context of the European strategy for preserving Earth Observation (EO) data and as partner of the EU FP7 PARSE.Insight project (http://www.parse-insight.eu/), the European Space Agency (ESA) issued a public consultation on-line targeting its EO data user base. The timely and active participation confirmed the high interest in the addressed topic. Primary target of such an action is to provide ESA teams dedicated to environmental data access, archiving and re-processing with the first insight from the Earth Science community on the preservation of space data in the long-term. As a significant example, ESA's Climate Change Initiative requires activities like long-term preservation, recalibration and re-processing of data records. The time-span of EO data archives extends from a few years to decades and their value as scientific time-series increases considerably regarding the topic of global change. Future research in the field of Earth Sciences is of invaluable importance: to carry it on researchers worldwide must be enabled to find and access data of interest quickly. At present several thousands of scientists, principal investigators and operators, access EO missions' metadata, data and derived information daily. Main objectives may be to study the global climate change, to check the status of the instrument and the quality of EO data. There is a huge worldwide scientific community calling for the need to keep EO data accessible without time constrains, easily and quickly. The scientific community's standpoint is given over the stewardship of environmental data and the appropriateness of current EO data access systems as enabling digital preservation and offering HPC capabilities. This insight in the Earth Sciences community provides a comprehensive illustration of the users' responses over topics like use

  16. Deep PDF parsing to extract features for detecting embedded malware.

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, Miles Arthur; Cross, Jesse S.

    2011-09-01

    The number of PDF files with embedded malicious code has risen significantly in the past few years. This is due to the portability of the file format, the ways Adobe Reader recovers from corrupt PDF files, the addition of many multimedia and scripting extensions to the file format, and many format properties the malware author may use to disguise the presence of malware. Current research focuses on executable, MS Office, and HTML formats. In this paper, several features and properties of PDF Files are identified. Features are extracted using an instrumented open source PDF viewer. The feature descriptions of benign and malicious PDFs can be used to construct a machine learning model for detecting possible malware in future PDF files. The detection rate of PDF malware by current antivirus software is very low. A PDF file is easy to edit and manipulate because it is a text format, providing a low barrier to malware authors. Analyzing PDF files for malware is nonetheless difficult because of (a) the complexity of the formatting language, (b) the parsing idiosyncrasies in Adobe Reader, and (c) undocumented correction techniques employed in Adobe Reader. In May 2011, Esparza demonstrated that PDF malware could be hidden from 42 of 43 antivirus packages by combining multiple obfuscation techniques [4]. One reason current antivirus software fails is the ease of varying byte sequences in PDF malware, thereby rendering conventional signature-based virus detection useless. The compression and encryption functions produce sequences of bytes that are each functions of multiple input bytes. As a result, padding the malware payload with some whitespace before compression/encryption can change many of the bytes in the final payload. In this study we analyzed a corpus of 2591 benign and 87 malicious PDF files. While this corpus is admittedly small, it allowed us to test a system for collecting indicators of embedded PDF malware. We will call these indicators features throughout

  17. How a Search Engine Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddy, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Explains how a search engine, or information retrieval system, operates. Four modules are described: the document processor, including term stemming, term weight assignment, and creating an index; the query processor, including parsing and query term weighting; the search and match function; and ranking capability. (LRW)

  18. Effects of Prosodic and Lexical Constraints on Parsing in Young Children (and Adults)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snedeker, Jesse; Yuan, Sylvia

    2008-01-01

    Prior studies of ambiguity resolution in young children have found that children rely heavily on lexical information but persistently fail to use referential constraints in online parsing [Trueswell, J.C., Sekerina, I., Hill, N.M., & Logrip, M.L, (1999). The kindergarten-path effect: Studying on-line sentence processing in young children.…

  19. Native and Non-Native Processing of English "Wh-"Questions: Parsing Strategies and Plausibility Constraints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John N.; Mobius, Peter; Kim, Choonkyong

    2001-01-01

    Investigated processing of English wh-questions by native speakers of English and advanced Chinese, German, and Korean learners of English as a Second Language. Performance was evaluated in relation to parsing strategies and sensitivity to plausibility constraints. Results suggest native and nonnative speakers employ similar strategies in…

  20. Word Category and Verb-Argument Structure Information in the Dynamics of Parsing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisch, Stefan; Hahne, Anja; Friederici, Angela D.

    2004-01-01

    One of the core issues in psycholinguistic research concerns the relationship between word category information and verb-argument structure (e.g. transitivity) information of verbs in the process of sentence parsing. In two experiments (visual versus auditory presentation) using event-related brain potentials (ERPs), we addressed this question by…

  1. Learning to Parse Liaison-Initial Words: An Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Annie

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the processing of resyllabified words by native English speakers at three proficiency levels in French and by native French speakers. In particular, it examines non-native listeners' development of a parsing procedure for recognizing vowel-initial words in the context of liaison, a process that creates a misalignment of the…

  2. HEPA and PARSE: Systematic discovery of clinically relevant tumor-specific antigens.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qing-Wen; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Xiao-Song

    2013-03-01

    The effective discovery of tumor-specific antigens (TSAs) holds the key for the development of new diagnostic assays and immunotherapeutic approaches against cancer. Here, we discuss our recently developed technologies, HEPA and PARSE, which allow for the systematic identification of TSAs, generating a reservoir of immunologically and clinically relevant targets. PMID:23802073

  3. The Effect of Exposure on Syntactic Parsing in Spanish-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dussias, Paola E.; Sagarra, Nuria

    2007-01-01

    An eye tracking experiment examined how exposure to a second language (L2) influences sentence parsing in the first language. Forty-four monolingual Spanish speakers, 24 proficient Spanish-English bilinguals with limited immersion experience in the L2 environment and 20 proficient Spanish-English bilinguals with extensive L2 immersion experience…

  4. A knowledge model for the interpretation and visualization of NLP-parsed discharged summaries.

    PubMed

    Krauthammer, M; Hripcsak, G

    2001-01-01

    At our institution, a Natural Language Processing (NLP) tool called MedLEE is used on a daily basis to parse medical texts including complete discharge summaries. MedLEE transforms written text into a generic structured format, which preserves the richness of the underlying natural language expressions by the use of concept modifiers (like change, certainty, degree and status). As a tradeoff, extraction of application-specific medical information is difficult without a clear understanding of how these modifiers combine. We report on a knowledge model for MedLEE modifiers that is helpful for a high level interpretation of NLP data and is used for the generation of two distinct views on NLP-parsed discharge summaries: A physician view offering a condensed overview of the severity of patient problems and a data mining view featuring binary problem states useful for machine learning. PMID:11825207

  5. Revise and resubmit: How real-time parsing limitations influence grammar acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Pozzan, Lucia; Trueswell, John C.

    2015-01-01

    We present the results from a three-day artificial language learning study on adults. The study examined whether sentence-parsing limitations, in particular, difficulties revising initial syntactic/semantic commitments during comprehension, shape learners’ ability to acquire a language. Findings show that both comprehension and production of morphology pertaining to sentence argument structure are delayed when this morphology consistently appears at the end, rather than at the beginning, of sentences in otherwise identical grammatical systems. This suggests that real-time processing constraints impact acquisition; morphological cues that tend to guide linguistic analyses are easier to learn than cues that revise these analyses. Parallel performance in production and comprehension indicates that parsing constraints affect grammatical acquisition, not just real-time commitments. Properties of the linguistic system (e.g., ordering of cues within a sentence) interact with the properties of the cognitive system (cognitive control and conflict-resolution abilities) and together affect language acquisition. PMID:26026607

  6. A Reordering Model Using a Source-Side Parse-Tree for Statistical Machine Translation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Kei; Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Okuma, Hideo; Sumita, Eiichiro; Tokuda, Keiichi

    This paper presents a reordering model using a source-side parse-tree for phrase-based statistical machine translation. The proposed model is an extension of IST-ITG (imposing source tree on inversion transduction grammar) constraints. In the proposed method, the target-side word order is obtained by rotating nodes of the source-side parse-tree. We modeled the node rotation, monotone or swap, using word alignments based on a training parallel corpus and source-side parse-trees. The model efficiently suppresses erroneous target word orderings, especially global orderings. Furthermore, the proposed method conducts a probabilistic evaluation of target word reorderings. In English-to-Japanese and English-to-Chinese translation experiments, the proposed method resulted in a 0.49-point improvement (29.31 to 29.80) and a 0.33-point improvement (18.60 to 18.93) in word BLEU-4 compared with IST-ITG constraints, respectively. This indicates the validity of the proposed reordering model.

  7. 'Visual' parsing can be taught quickly without visual experience during critical periods.

    PubMed

    Reich, Lior; Amedi, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Cases of invasive sight-restoration in congenital blind adults demonstrated that acquiring visual abilities is extremely challenging, presumably because visual-experience during critical-periods is crucial for learning visual-unique concepts (e.g. size constancy). Visual rehabilitation can also be achieved using sensory-substitution-devices (SSDs) which convey visual information non-invasively through sounds. We tested whether one critical concept--visual parsing, which is highly-impaired in sight-restored patients--can be learned using SSD. To this end, congenitally blind adults participated in a unique, relatively short (~70 hours), SSD-'vision' training. Following this, participants successfully parsed 2D and 3D visual objects. Control individuals naïve to SSDs demonstrated that while some aspects of parsing with SSD are intuitive, the blind's success could not be attributed to auditory processing alone. Furthermore, we had a unique opportunity to compare the SSD-users' abilities to those reported for sight-restored patients who performed similar tasks visually, and who had months of eyesight. Intriguingly, the SSD-users outperformed the patients on most criteria tested. These suggest that with adequate training and technologies, key high-order visual features can be quickly acquired in adulthood, and lack of visual-experience during critical-periods can be somewhat compensated for. Practically, these highlight the potential of SSDs as standalone-aids or combined with invasive restoration approaches. PMID:26482105

  8. 'Visual’ parsing can be taught quickly without visual experience during critical periods

    PubMed Central

    Reich, Lior; Amedi, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Cases of invasive sight-restoration in congenital blind adults demonstrated that acquiring visual abilities is extremely challenging, presumably because visual-experience during critical-periods is crucial for learning visual-unique concepts (e.g. size constancy). Visual rehabilitation can also be achieved using sensory-substitution-devices (SSDs) which convey visual information non-invasively through sounds. We tested whether one critical concept – visual parsing, which is highly-impaired in sight-restored patients – can be learned using SSD. To this end, congenitally blind adults participated in a unique, relatively short (~70 hours), SSD-‘vision’ training. Following this, participants successfully parsed 2D and 3D visual objects. Control individuals naïve to SSDs demonstrated that while some aspects of parsing with SSD are intuitive, the blind’s success could not be attributed to auditory processing alone. Furthermore, we had a unique opportunity to compare the SSD-users’ abilities to those reported for sight-restored patients who performed similar tasks visually, and who had months of eyesight. Intriguingly, the SSD-users outperformed the patients on most criteria tested. These suggest that with adequate training and technologies, key high-order visual features can be quickly acquired in adulthood, and lack of visual-experience during critical-periods can be somewhat compensated for. Practically, these highlight the potential of SSDs as standalone-aids or combined with invasive restoration approaches. PMID:26482105

  9. Summarization of Text Document Using Query Dependent Parsing Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokade, P. P.; Mrunal, Bewoor; Patil, S. H.

    2010-11-01

    World Wide Web is the largest source of information. Huge amount of data is present on the Web. There has been a great amount of work on query-independent summarization of documents. However, due to the success of Web search engines query-specific document summarization (query result snippets) has become an important problem. In this paper a method to create query specific summaries by identifying the most query-relevant fragments and combining them using the semantic associations within the document is discussed. In particular, first a structure is added to the documents in the preprocessing stage and converts them to document graphs. The present research work focuses on analytical study of different document clustering and summarization techniques currently the most research is focused on Query-Independent summarization. The main aim of this research work is to combine the both approaches of document clustering and query dependent summarization. This mainly includes applying different clustering algorithms on a text document. Create a weighted document graph of the resulting graph based on the keywords. And obtain the document graph to get the summary of the document. The performance of the summary using different clustering techniques will be analyzed and the optimal approach will be suggested.

  10. Syntactic parsing of clinical text: guideline and corpus development with handling ill-formed sentences

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jung-wei; Yang, Elly W; Jiang, Min; Prasad, Rashmi; Loomis, Richard M; Zisook, Daniel S; Denny, Josh C; Xu, Hua; Huang, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop, evaluate, and share: (1) syntactic parsing guidelines for clinical text, with a new approach to handling ill-formed sentences; and (2) a clinical Treebank annotated according to the guidelines. To document the process and findings for readers with similar interest. Methods Using random samples from a shared natural language processing challenge dataset, we developed a handbook of domain-customized syntactic parsing guidelines based on iterative annotation and adjudication between two institutions. Special considerations were incorporated into the guidelines for handling ill-formed sentences, which are common in clinical text. Intra- and inter-annotator agreement rates were used to evaluate consistency in following the guidelines. Quantitative and qualitative properties of the annotated Treebank, as well as its use to retrain a statistical parser, were reported. Results A supplement to the Penn Treebank II guidelines was developed for annotating clinical sentences. After three iterations of annotation and adjudication on 450 sentences, the annotators reached an F-measure agreement rate of 0.930 (while intra-annotator rate was 0.948) on a final independent set. A total of 1100 sentences from progress notes were annotated that demonstrated domain-specific linguistic features. A statistical parser retrained with combined general English (mainly news text) annotations and our annotations achieved an accuracy of 0.811 (higher than models trained purely with either general or clinical sentences alone). Both the guidelines and syntactic annotations are made available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/medicaltreebank. Conclusions We developed guidelines for parsing clinical text and annotated a corpus accordingly. The high intra- and inter-annotator agreement rates showed decent consistency in following the guidelines. The corpus was shown to be useful in retraining a statistical parser that achieved moderate accuracy. PMID:23907286

  11. PyParse: A semiautomated system for scoring spoken recall data

    PubMed Central

    Solway, Alec; Geller, Aaron S.; Sederberg, Per B.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of human memory often generate data on the sequence and timing of recalled items, but scoring such data using conventional methods is difficult or impossible. We describe a Python-based semiautomated system that greatly simplifies this task. This software, called PyParse, can easily be used in conjunction with many common experiment authoring systems. Scored data is output in a simple ASCII format and can be accessed with the programming language of choice, allowing for the identification of features such as correct responses, prior-list intrusions, extra-list intrusions, and repetitions. PMID:20160294

  12. Acoustic landmarks drive delta-theta oscillations to enable speech comprehension by facilitating perceptual parsing

    PubMed Central

    Doelling, Keith; Arnal, Luc; Ghitza, Oded; Poeppel, David

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research suggests that intrinsic neuronal slow (< 10 Hz) oscillations in auditory cortex appear to track incoming speech and other spectro-temporally complex auditory signals. Within this framework, several recent studies have identified critical-band temporal envelopes as the specific acoustic feature being reflected by the phase of these oscillations. However, how this alignment between speech acoustics and neural oscillations might underpin intelligibility is unclear. Here we test the hypothesis that the ‘sharpness’ of temporal fluctuations in the critical band envelope acts as a temporal cue to speech syllabic rate, driving delta-theta rhythms to track the stimulus and facilitate intelligibility. We interpret our findings as evidence that sharp events in the stimulus cause cortical rhythms to re-align and parse the stimulus into syllable-sized chunks for further decoding. Using magnetoencephalographic recordings, we show that by removing temporal fluctuations that occur at the syllabic rate, envelope-tracking activity is reduced. By artificially reinstating these temporal fluctuations, envelope-tracking activity is regained. These changes in tracking correlate with intelligibility of the stimulus. Together, the results suggest that the sharpness of fluctuations in the stimulus, as reflected in the cochlear output, drive oscillatory activity to track and entrain to the stimulus, at its syllabic rate. This process likely facilitates parsing of the stimulus into meaningful chunks appropriate for subsequent decoding, enhancing perception and intelligibility. PMID:23791839

  13. FastaValidator: an open-source Java library to parse and validate FASTA formatted sequences

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Advances in sequencing technologies challenge the efficient importing and validation of FASTA formatted sequence data which is still a prerequisite for most bioinformatic tools and pipelines. Comparative analysis of commonly used Bio*-frameworks (BioPerl, BioJava and Biopython) shows that their scalability and accuracy is hampered. Findings FastaValidator represents a platform-independent, standardized, light-weight software library written in the Java programming language. It targets computer scientists and bioinformaticians writing software which needs to parse quickly and accurately large amounts of sequence data. For end-users FastaValidator includes an interactive out-of-the-box validation of FASTA formatted files, as well as a non-interactive mode designed for high-throughput validation in software pipelines. Conclusions The accuracy and performance of the FastaValidator library qualifies it for large data sets such as those commonly produced by massive parallel (NGS) technologies. It offers scientists a fast, accurate and standardized method for parsing and validating FASTA formatted sequence data. PMID:24929426

  14. Effects of prosodic and lexical constraints on parsing in young children (and adults)

    PubMed Central

    Snedeker, Jesse

    2008-01-01

    Prior studies of ambiguity resolution in young children have found that children rely heavily on lexical information but persistently fail to use referential constraints in online parsing (Trueswell, Sekerina, Hill & Logrip, 1999; Snedeker & Trueswell, 2004). This pattern is consistent with either a modular parsing system driven by stored lexical information or an interactive system which has yet to acquire low-validity referential constraints. In two experiments we explored whether children could use a third constraint—prosody—to resolve globally ambiguous prepositional-phrase attachments (“You can feel the frog with the feather”). Four to six years olds and adults were tested using the visual world paradigm. In both groups the fixation patterns were influenced by lexical cues by around 200ms after the onset of the critical PP-object noun (“feather”). In adults the prosody manipulation had an effect in this early time window. In children the effect of prosody was delayed by approximately 500 ms. The effects of lexical and prosodic cues were roughly additive: prosody influenced the interpretation of utterances with strong lexical cues and lexical information had an effect on utterances with strong prosodic cues. We conclude that young children, like adults, can rapidly use both of these information sources to resolve structural ambiguities. PMID:19190721

  15. Envisioning nursing in 2050 through the eyes of nurse theorists: Rosemarie Rizzo Parse and Martha E. Rogers.

    PubMed

    Pilkington, F Beryl

    2007-10-01

    Rosemarie Rizzo Parse and Rogerian scholar, Violet Malinski, on behalf of Martha E. Rogers, envision how their respective theoretical ideas will be expressed in 2050. Parse introduces several changes highlighting the idea of indivisible cocreation in the ontology of the humanbecoming school of thought and concomitant changes in the wording of its principles. Notions of human freedom and dignity will be extremely important given increasingly mechanized healthcare. Malinski describes Rogerian formulations for practice and research that will continue to facilitate well-being for humankind and the environment. She also addresses challenges and opportunities for an evolving science of unitary human beings. PMID:17911325

  16. Parsing clinical text: how good are the state-of-the-art parsers?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Parsing, which generates a syntactic structure of a sentence (a parse tree), is a critical component of natural language processing (NLP) research in any domain including medicine. Although parsers developed in the general English domain, such as the Stanford parser, have been applied to clinical text, there are no formal evaluations and comparisons of their performance in the medical domain. Methods In this study, we investigated the performance of three state-of-the-art parsers: the Stanford parser, the Bikel parser, and the Charniak parser, using following two datasets: (1) A Treebank containing 1,100 sentences that were randomly selected from progress notes used in the 2010 i2b2 NLP challenge and manually annotated according to a Penn Treebank based guideline; and (2) the MiPACQ Treebank, which is developed based on pathology notes and clinical notes, containing 13,091 sentences. We conducted three experiments on both datasets. First, we measured the performance of the three state-of-the-art parsers on the clinical Treebanks with their default settings. Then we re-trained the parsers using the clinical Treebanks and evaluated their performance using the 10-fold cross validation method. Finally we re-trained the parsers by combining the clinical Treebanks with the Penn Treebank. Results Our results showed that the original parsers achieved lower performance in clinical text (Bracketing F-measure in the range of 66.6%-70.3%) compared to general English text. After retraining on the clinical Treebank, all parsers achieved better performance, with the best performance from the Stanford parser that reached the highest Bracketing F-measure of 73.68% on progress notes and 83.72% on the MiPACQ corpus using 10-fold cross validation. When the combined clinical Treebanks and Penn Treebank was used, of the three parsers, the Charniak parser achieved the highest Bracketing F-measure of 73.53% on progress notes and the Stanford parser reached the highest F

  17. Parsing Strategies in L1 and L2 Sentence Processing: A Study of Relative Clause Attachment in Greek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulou, Despina; Clahsen, Harald

    2003-01-01

    To contribute to a better understanding of second language (L2) sentence processing, the present study examines how L2 learners parse temporarily ambiguous sentences containing relative clauses. Results are reported from both off-line and on-line experiments with three groups of advanced learners of Greek whose native languages (L1s) were Spanish,…

  18. Parsing and translation of (attributed) expansive graph languages for scene analysis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Q Y; Fu, K S

    1983-05-01

    In this paper, we suggest a class of (attributed) expansive graph grammars which generate languages contained in a graph family ¿. It turns out that by means of node renumbering using a very effi-cient algorithm, any graph in ¿ can be converted into a standard form, which enables the use of related string representation for that graph to facilitate the syntax analysis. As a consequence, the syntax analysis of (attributed) expansive graph language is very efficient and almost like the parsing of tree languages. Furthermore, a syntax-directed transla-tion can be established for mapping one (attributed) expansive graph language to another. Finally, since many relational graphs for scene analysis can be considered as belonging to these graph languages, the proposed graph grammar model appears to be quite attractive from the application point of view. PMID:21869132

  19. Basal Ganglia Subcircuits Distinctively Encode the Parsing and Concatenation of Action Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xin; Tecuapetla, Fatuel; Costa, Rui M

    2014-01-01

    Chunking allows the brain to efficiently organize memories and actions. Although basal ganglia circuits have been implicated in action chunking, little is known about how individual elements are concatenated into a behavioral sequence at the neural level. Using a task where mice learn rapid action sequences, we uncovered neuronal activity encoding entire sequences as single actions in basal ganglia circuits. Besides start/stop activity signaling sequence parsing, we found neurons displaying inhibited or sustained activity throughout the execution of an entire sequence. This sustained activity covaried with the rate of execution of individual sequence elements, consistent with motor concatenation. Direct and indirect pathways of basal ganglia were concomitantly active during sequence initiation, but behaved differently during sequence performance, revealing a more complex functional organization of these circuits than previously postulated. These results have important implications for understanding the functional organization of basal ganglia during the learning and execution of action sequences. PMID:24464039

  20. The value of parsing as feature generation for gene mention recognition

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Larry H; Wilbur, W John

    2009-01-01

    We measured the extent to which information surrounding a base noun phrase reflects the presence of a gene name, and evaluated seven different parsers in their ability to provide information for that purpose. Using the GENETAG corpus as a gold standard, we performed machine learning to recognize from its context when a base noun phrase contained a gene name. Starting with the best lexical features, we assessed the gain of adding dependency or dependency-like relations from a full sentence parse. Features derived from parsers improved performance in this partial gene mention recognition task by a small but statistically significant amount. There were virtually no differences between parsers in these experiments. PMID:19345281

  1. Excemplify: a flexible template based solution, parsing and managing data in spreadsheets for experimentalists.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lei; Jong, Lenneke; Wittig, Ulrike; Lucarelli, Philippe; Stepath, Markus; Mueller, Stephanie; D'Alessandro, Lorenza Alice; Klingmüller, Ursula; Müller, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    In systems biology, quantitative experimental data is the basis of building mathematical models. In most of the cases, they are stored in Excel files and hosted locally. To have a public database for collecting, retrieving and citing experimental raw data as well as experimental conditions is important for both experimentalists and modelers. However, the great effort needed in the data handling procedure and in the data submission procedure becomes the crucial limitation for experimentalists to contribute to a database, thereby impeding the database to deliver its benefit. Moreover, manual copy and paste operations which are commonly used in those procedures increase the chance of making mistakes. Excemplify, a web-based application, proposes a flexible and adaptable template-based solution to solve these problems. Comparing to the normal template based uploading approach, which is supported by some public databases, rather than predefining a format that is potentiall impractical, Excemplify allows users to create their own experiment-specific content templates in different experiment stages and to build corresponding knowledge bases for parsing. Utilizing the embedded knowledge of used templates, Excemplify is able to parse experimental data from the initial setup stage and generate following stages spreadsheets automatically. The proposed solution standardizes the flows of data traveling according to the standard procedures of applying the experiment, cuts down the amount of manual effort and reduces the chance of mistakes caused by manual data handling. In addition, it maintains the context of meta-data from the initial preparation manuscript and improves the data consistency. It interoperates and complements RightField and SEEK as well. PMID:23549603

  2. SIMD-parallel understanding of natural language with application to magnitude-only optical parsing of text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmalz, Mark S.

    1992-08-01

    A novel parallel model of natural language (NL) understanding is presented which can realize high levels of semantic abstraction, and is designed for implementation on synchronous SIMD architectures and optical processors. Theory is expressed in terms of the Image Algebra (IA), a rigorous, concise, inherently parallel notation which unifies the design, analysis, and implementation of image processing algorithms. The IA has been implemented on numerous parallel architectures, and IA preprocessors and interpreters are available for the FORTRAN and Ada languages. In a previous study, we demonstrated the utility of IA for mapping MEA- conformable (Multiple Execution Array) algorithms to optical architectures. In this study, we extend our previous theory to map serial parsing algorithms to the synchronous SIMD paradigm. We initially derive a two-dimensional image that is based upon the adjacency matrix of a semantic graph. Via IA template mappings, the operations of bottom-up parsing, semantic disambiguation, and referential resolution are implemented as image-processing operations upon the adjacency matrix. Pixel-level operations are constrained to Hadamard addition and multiplication, thresholding, and row/column summation, which are available in magnitude-only optics. Assuming high parallelism in the parse rule base, the parsing of n input symbols with a grammar consisting of M rules of arity H, on an N-processor architecture, could exhibit time complexity of T(n) parsing architectures. Additionally, we show that inference over a semantic net is achievable is parallel in O(m) time, where m corresponds to the depth of the search tree. Results are evaluated in terms of computational cost on SISD and SIMD processors

  3. Engineering Liver

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Linda G.; Wells, Alan; Stolz, Donna Beer

    2014-01-01

    Interest in “engineering liver” arises from multiple communities: therapeutic replacement; mechanistic models of human processes; and drug safety and efficacy studies. An explosion of micro- and nano-fabrication, biomaterials, microfluidic, and other technologies potentially afford unprecedented opportunity to create microphysiological models of human liver, but engineering design principles for how to deploy these tools effectively towards specific applications, including how to define the essential constraints of any given application (including available sources of cells, acceptable cost, and user-friendliness) are still emerging. Arguably less appreciated is the parallel growth in computational systems biology approaches towards these same problems – particularly, in parsing complex disease processes from clinical material, building models of response networks, and in how to interpret the growing compendium of data on drug efficacy and toxicology in patient populations. Here, we provide insight into how the complementary paths of “engineering liver” – experimental and computational – are beginning to interplay towards greater illumination of human disease states and technologies for drug development. PMID:24668880

  4. Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, H.B.

    1984-02-28

    An internal combustion engine has a piston rack depending from each piston. This rack is connected to a power output shaft through a mechanical rectifier so that the power output shaft rotates in only one direction. A connecting rod is pivotally connected at one end to the rack and at the other end to the crank of a reduced function crankshaft so that the crankshaft rotates at the same angular velocity as the power output shaft and at the same frequency as the pistons. The crankshaft has a size, weight and shape sufficient to return the pistons back into the cylinders in position for the next power stroke.

  5. Envisioning human dignity to enhance practice while journeying with Rwandan women: student nurses teaching-learning Parse's theory of humanbecoming.

    PubMed

    Oaks, Geneva; Drummond, Susan

    2009-07-01

    California Baptist University School of Nursing opened in September 2006 as the first baccalaureate nursing education program in Riverside, California. Under the direction of Dr. Constance Milton, the curriculum was cocreated using Parse's humanbecoming school of thought as a framework. In August 2008, nursing students traveled to Rwanda where they bore witness to the transformation after the 1994 genocide. Dimensions and processes of Parse's practice methodology-illuminating meaning by explicating what is with languaging, synchronizing rhythms while dwelling with ups and downs in the struggle of connecting-separating, and mobilizing transcendence as moving beyond with the not-yet while transforming- emerged in the students' journaling as lived all-at-once amid reverence that honored the dignity and worth of the Rwandan people. PMID:19567728

  6. LCM: A new approach to parse XML documents through loose coupling between XML document design and the corresponding application code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandu, Vaddadi P.

    XML (eXtensible Markup Language) is a widely used language for communication between heterogeneous, homogeneous, and internet software applications. Currently available binding and parsing techniques for XML documents involve tight coupling of the document with the application code and require a redesign of the application code for any change in the document design. This paper proposes a 'Loosely Coupled Model (LCM)' for XML document parsing, which eliminates the need to redesign the application code for moderately large changes in the XML document design. LCM takes a token based approach, which is very different from the existing methodologies for XML parsing. LCM is implemented in Java using Sun's JDK 1.5. The dataset includes 24 XML documents categorized into two sets- (a) deeply nested and (b) non-deeply nested XMLs. Each set contains 12 documents ranging from 2 KB up to 4 MB. A performance comparison for LCM is obtained and is noticed to be comparable or better against this dataset with (a) Sun's Java XML Binding (JAXB), (b) Apache's XMLBeans, and (c) JDOM parser.

  7. Parsing fear: A reassessment of the evidence for fear deficits in psychopathy.

    PubMed

    Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S; Bulten, Berend H; Brazil, Inti A

    2016-06-01

    Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by interpersonal manipulation and callousness, and reckless and impulsive antisocial behavior. It is often seen as a disorder in which profound emotional disturbances lead to antisocial behavior. A lack of fear in particular has been proposed as an etiologically salient factor. In this review, we employ a conceptual model in which fear is parsed into separate subcomponents. Important historical conceptualizations of psychopathy, the neuroscientific and empirical evidence for fear deficits in psychopathy are compared against this model. The empirical evidence is also subjected to a meta-analysis. We conclude that most studies have used the term "fear" generically, amassing different methods and levels of measurement under the umbrella term "fear." Unlike earlier claims that psychopathy is related to general fearlessness, we show there is evidence that psychopathic individuals have deficits in threat detection and responsivity, but that the evidence for reduced subjective experience of fear in psychopathy is far less compelling. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26854867

  8. Emotion regulation during threat: Parsing the time course and consequences of safety signal processing.

    PubMed

    Hefner, Kathryn R; Verona, Edelyn; Curtin, John J

    2016-08-01

    Improved understanding of fear inhibition processes can inform the etiology and treatment of anxiety disorders. Safety signals can reduce fear to threat, but precise mechanisms remain unclear. Safety signals may acquire attentional salience and affective properties (e.g., relief) independent of the threat; alternatively, safety signals may only hold affective value in the presence of simultaneous threat. To clarify such mechanisms, an experimental paradigm assessed independent processing of threat and safety cues. Participants viewed a series of red and green words from two semantic categories. Shocks were administered following red words (cue+). No shocks followed green words (cue-). Words from one category were defined as safety signals (SS); no shocks were administered on cue+ trials. Words from the other (control) category did not provide information regarding shock administration. Threat (cue+ vs. cue-) and safety (SS+ vs. SS-) were fully crossed. Startle response and ERPs were recorded. Startle response was increased during cue+ versus cue-. Safety signals reduced startle response during cue+, but had no effect on startle response during cue-. ERP analyses (PD130 and P3) suggested that participants parsed threat and safety signal information in parallel. Motivated attention was not associated with safety signals in the absence of threat. Overall, these results confirm that fear can be reduced by safety signals. Furthermore, safety signals do not appear to hold inherent hedonic salience independent of their effect during threat. Instead, safety signals appear to enable participants to engage in effective top-down emotion regulatory processes. PMID:27088643

  9. Parsing heuristic and forward search in first-graders' game-play behavior.

    PubMed

    Paz, Luciano; Goldin, Andrea P; Diuk, Carlos; Sigman, Mariano

    2015-07-01

    Seventy-three children between 6 and 7 years of age were presented with a problem having ambiguous subgoal ordering. Performance in this task showed reliable fingerprints: (a) a non-monotonic dependence of performance as a function of the distance between the beginning and the end-states of the problem, (b) very high levels of performance when the first move was correct, and (c) states in which accuracy of the first move was significantly below chance. These features are consistent with a non-Markov planning agent, with an inherently inertial decision process, and that uses heuristics and partial problem knowledge to plan its actions. We applied a statistical framework to fit and test the quality of a proposed planning model (Monte Carlo Tree Search). Our framework allows us to parse out independent contributions to problem-solving based on the construction of the value function and on general mechanisms of the search process in the tree of solutions. We show that the latter are correlated with children's performance on an independent measure of planning, while the former is highly domain specific. PMID:25302559

  10. Parsing Social Network Survey Data from Hidden Populations Using Stochastic Context-Free Grammars

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Art F. Y.; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Firestone-Cruz, Michelle; Lozada, Remedios M.; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L.; Heckathorn, Douglas D.; Frost, Simon D. W.

    2009-01-01

    Background Human populations are structured by social networks, in which individuals tend to form relationships based on shared attributes. Certain attributes that are ambiguous, stigmatized or illegal can create a ÔhiddenÕ population, so-called because its members are difficult to identify. Many hidden populations are also at an elevated risk of exposure to infectious diseases. Consequently, public health agencies are presently adopting modern survey techniques that traverse social networks in hidden populations by soliciting individuals to recruit their peers, e.g., respondent-driven sampling (RDS). The concomitant accumulation of network-based epidemiological data, however, is rapidly outpacing the development of computational methods for analysis. Moreover, current analytical models rely on unrealistic assumptions, e.g., that the traversal of social networks can be modeled by a Markov chain rather than a branching process. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we develop a new methodology based on stochastic context-free grammars (SCFGs), which are well-suited to modeling tree-like structure of the RDS recruitment process. We apply this methodology to an RDS case study of injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana, México, a hidden population at high risk of blood-borne and sexually-transmitted infections (i.e., HIV, hepatitis C virus, syphilis). Survey data were encoded as text strings that were parsed using our custom implementation of the inside-outside algorithm in a publicly-available software package (HyPhy), which uses either expectation maximization or direct optimization methods and permits constraints on model parameters for hypothesis testing. We identified significant latent variability in the recruitment process that violates assumptions of Markov chain-based methods for RDS analysis: firstly, IDUs tended to emulate the recruitment behavior of their own recruiter; and secondly, the recruitment of like peers (homophily) was dependent on the number of

  11. A Semantic Analysis Method for Scientific and Engineering Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Mark E. M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper develops a procedure to statically analyze aspects of the meaning or semantics of scientific and engineering code. The analysis involves adding semantic declarations to a user's code and parsing this semantic knowledge with the original code using multiple expert parsers. These semantic parsers are designed to recognize formulae in different disciplines including physical and mathematical formulae and geometrical position in a numerical scheme. In practice, a user would submit code with semantic declarations of primitive variables to the analysis procedure, and its semantic parsers would automatically recognize and document some static, semantic concepts and locate some program semantic errors. A prototype implementation of this analysis procedure is demonstrated. Further, the relationship between the fundamental algebraic manipulations of equations and the parsing of expressions is explained. This ability to locate some semantic errors and document semantic concepts in scientific and engineering code should reduce the time, risk, and effort of developing and using these codes.

  12. Development of an HL7 interface engine, based on tree structure and streaming algorithm, for large-size messages which include image data.

    PubMed

    Um, Ki Sung; Kwak, Yun Sik; Cho, Hune; Kim, Il Kon

    2005-11-01

    A basic assumption of Health Level Seven (HL7) protocol is 'No limitation of message length'. However, most existing commercial HL7 interface engines do limit message length because they use the string array method, which is run in the main memory for the HL7 message parsing process. Specifically, messages with image and multi-media data create a long string array and thus cause the computer system to raise critical and fatal problem. Consequently, HL7 messages cannot handle the image and multi-media data necessary in modern medical records. This study aims to solve this problem with the 'streaming algorithm' method. This new method for HL7 message parsing applies the character-stream object which process character by character between the main memory and hard disk device with the consequence that the processing load on main memory could be alleviated. The main functions of this new engine are generating, parsing, validating, browsing, sending, and receiving HL7 messages. Also, the engine can parse and generate XML-formatted HL7 messages. This new HL7 engine successfully exchanged HL7 messages with 10 megabyte size images and discharge summary information between two university hospitals. PMID:16181703

  13. Pigeons: A Novel GUI Software for Analysing and Parsing High Density Heterologous Oligonucleotide Microarray Probe Level Data

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Hung-Ming; May, Sean T.; Mayes, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Genomic DNA-based probe selection by using high density oligonucleotide arrays has recently been applied to heterologous species (Xspecies). With the advent of this new approach, researchers are able to study the genome and transcriptome of a non-model or an underutilised crop species through current state-of-the-art microarray platforms. However, a software package with a graphical user interface (GUI) to analyse and parse the oligonucleotide probe pair level data is still lacking when an experiment is designed on the basis of this cross species approach. A novel computer program called Pigeons has been developed for customised array data analysis to allow the user to import and analyse Affymetrix GeneChip® probe level data through XSpecies. One can determine empirical boundaries for removing poor probes based on genomic hybridisation of the test species to the Xspecies array, followed by making a species-specific Chip Description File (CDF) file for transcriptomics in the heterologous species, or Pigeons can be used to examine an experimental design to identify potential Single-Feature Polymorphisms (SFPs) at the DNA or RNA level. Pigeons is also focused around visualization and interactive analysis of the datasets. The software with its manual (the current release number version 1.2.1) is freely available at the website of the Nottingham Arabidopsis Stock Centre (NASC).

  14. Conceptual plural information is used to guide early parsing decisions: Evidence from garden-path sentences with reciprocal verbs

    PubMed Central

    Patson, Nikole D.; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2009-01-01

    In three eyetracking studies, we investigated the role of conceptual plurality in initial parsing decisions in temporarily ambiguous sentences with reciprocal verbs (e.g., While the lovers kissed the baby played alone). We varied the subject of the first clause using three types of plural noun phrases: conjoined noun phrases (the bride and the groom), plural definite descriptions (the lovers), and numerically quantified noun phrases (the two lovers). We found no evidence for garden-path effects when the subject was conjoined (Ferreira & McClure, 1997), but traditional garden-path effects were found with the other plural noun phrases. In addition, we tested plural anaphors that had a plural antecedent present in the discourse. We found that when the antecedent was conjoined, garden-path effects were absent compared to cases in which the antecedent was a plural definite description. Our results indicate that the parser is sensitive to the conceptual representation of a plural constituent. In particular, it appears that a Complex Reference Object (Moxey et al., 2004) automatically activates a reciprocal reading of a reciprocal verb. PMID:20161247

  15. GraFIX: a semiautomatic approach for parsing low- and high-quality eye-tracking data.

    PubMed

    Saez de Urabain, Irati R; Johnson, Mark H; Smith, Tim J

    2015-03-01

    Fixation durations (FD) have been used widely as a measurement of information processing and attention. However, issues like data quality can seriously influence the accuracy of the fixation detection methods and, thus, affect the validity of our results (Holmqvist, Nyström, & Mulvey, 2012). This is crucial when studying special populations such as infants, where common issues with testing (e.g., high degree of movement, unreliable eye detection, low spatial precision) result in highly variable data quality and render existing FD detection approaches highly time consuming (hand-coding) or imprecise (automatic detection). To address this problem, we present GraFIX, a novel semiautomatic method consisting of a two-step process in which eye-tracking data is initially parsed by using velocity-based algorithms whose input parameters are adapted by the user and then manipulated using the graphical interface, allowing accurate and rapid adjustments of the algorithms' outcome. The present algorithms (1) smooth the raw data, (2) interpolate missing data points, and (3) apply a number of criteria to automatically evaluate and remove artifactual fixations. The input parameters (e.g., velocity threshold, interpolation latency) can be easily manually adapted to fit each participant. Furthermore, the present application includes visualization tools that facilitate the manual coding of fixations. We assessed this method by performing an intercoder reliability analysis in two groups of infants presenting low- and high-quality data and compared it with previous methods. Results revealed that our two-step approach with adaptable FD detection criteria gives rise to more reliable and stable measures in low- and high-quality data. PMID:24671827

  16. Parsing of genomic graffiti

    SciTech Connect

    Tibbetts, C.; Golden, J. III; Torgersen, D.

    1996-12-31

    A focal point of modern biology is investigation of wide varieties of phenomena at the level of molecular genetics. The nucleotide sequences of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) define the ultimate resolution of this reductionist approach to understand the determinants of heritable traits. The structure and function of genes, their composite genomic organization, and their regulated expression have been studied in systems representing every class of organism. Many human diseases or pathogenic syndromes can be directly attributed to inherited defects in either the regulated expression, or the quality of the products of specific genes. Genetic determinants of susceptibility to infectious agents or environmental hazards are amply documented. Mapping and sequencing of the DNA molecules encoding human genes have provided powerful technology for pharmaceutical bioengineering and forensic investigations. From an alternative perspective, we may anticipate that voluminous archives of singular DNA sequences alone will not suffice to define and understand the functional determinants of genome organization, allelic diversity and evolutionary plasticity of living organisms. New insights will accumulate pertaining to human evolutionary origins and relationships of human biology to models based on other mammals. Investigators of population genetics and epidemiology now exploit the technology of molecular genetics to more powerfully probe variation within the human gene pool at the level of DNA sequences. 40 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Automated keys to soil orders based on rule engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Lin; Lu, Guonian; Li, Anbo; Sun, Yiqing

    2009-10-01

    Rule engine technique which is firstly used in business realm because of the quickly changing business environment can be a good solution to the management of geographic knowledge. The objective of this paper is to research how to organize geographic knowledge and reason with rule engine. The rules of Keys to Chinese Soil Taxonomy (3rd edition) are taken as an example of geographic knowledge. The researching results are as follows: (1) Through the review of literature and web resources, we know the advancement of rule engine technique, and finally select NxBRE as the rule engine we use; (2) The rules of keys to Soil Orders are analyzed, and represented in the form of RuleML; (3) Rule customization module and RuleML parsing module are developed; (4) Knowledge base which consists of RuleML files is created with rule customization module, and we finally achieve the goal of automated keys to Soil Orders with NxBRE.

  18. Layered Systems Engineering Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breidenthal, Julian C.; Overman, Marvin J.

    2009-01-01

    A notation is described for depicting the relationships between multiple, contemporaneous systems engineering efforts undertaken within a multi-layer system-of-systems hierarchy. We combined the concepts of remoteness of activity from the end customer, depiction of activity on a timeline, and data flow to create a new kind of diagram which we call a "Layered Vee Diagram." This notation is an advance over previous notations because it is able to be simultaneously precise about activity, level of granularity, product exchanges, and timing; these advances provide systems engineering managers a significantly improved ability to express and understand the relationships between many systems engineering efforts. Using the new notation, we obtain a key insight into the relationship between project duration and the strategy selected for chaining the systems engineering effort between layers, as well as insights into the costs, opportunities, and risks associated with alternate chaining strategies.

  19. Design and Implementation of a C++ Software Package to scan for and parse Tsunami Messages issued by the Tsunami Warning Centers for Operational use at the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardina, V.

    2012-12-01

    The US Tsunami Warning Centers (TWCs) have traditionally generated their tsunami message products primarily as blocks of text then tagged with headers that identify them on each particular communications' (comms) circuit. Each warning center has a primary area of responsibility (AOR) within which it has an authoritative role regarding parameters such as earthquake location and magnitude. This means that when a major tsunamigenic event occurs the other warning centers need to quickly access the earthquake parameters issued by the authoritative warning center before issuing their message products intended for customers in their own AOR. Thus, within the operational context of the TWCs the scientists on duty have an operational need to access the information contained in the message products issued by other warning centers as quickly as possible. As a solution to this operational problem we designed and implemented a C++ software package that allows scanning for and parsing the entire suite of tsunami message products issued by the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC), the West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC), and the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). The scanning and parsing classes composing the resulting C++ software package allow parsing both non-official message products(observatory messages) routinely issued by the TWCs, and all official tsunami message products such as tsunami advisories, watches, and warnings. This software package currently allows scientists on duty at the PTWC to automatically retrieve the parameters contained in tsunami messages issued by WCATWC, JMA, or PTWC itself. Extension of the capabilities of the classes composing the software package would make it possible to generate XML and CAP compliant versions of the TWCs' message products until new messaging software natively adds this capabilities. Customers who receive the TWCs' tsunami message products could also use the package to automatically retrieve information from

  20. Engineering and Software Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Michael

    The phrase ‘software engineering' has many meanings. One central meaning is the reliable development of dependable computer-based systems, especially those for critical applications. This is not a solved problem. Failures in software development have played a large part in many fatalities and in huge economic losses. While some of these failures may be attributable to programming errors in the narrowest sense—a program's failure to satisfy a given formal specification—there is good reason to think that most of them have other roots. These roots are located in the problem of software engineering rather than in the problem of program correctness. The famous 1968 conference was motivated by the belief that software development should be based on “the types of theoretical foundations and practical disciplines that are traditional in the established branches of engineering.” Yet after forty years of currency the phrase ‘software engineering' still denotes no more than a vague and largely unfulfilled aspiration. Two major causes of this disappointment are immediately clear. First, too many areas of software development are inadequately specialised, and consequently have not developed the repertoires of normal designs that are the indispensable basis of reliable engineering success. Second, the relationship between structural design and formal analytical techniques for software has rarely been one of fruitful synergy: too often it has defined a boundary between competing dogmas, at which mutual distrust and incomprehension deprive both sides of advantages that should be within their grasp. This paper discusses these causes and their effects. Whether the common practice of software development will eventually satisfy the broad aspiration of 1968 is hard to predict; but an understanding of past failure is surely a prerequisite of future success.

  1. Parsing Aleutian Arc Magma Compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nye, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    The first-order subdivision of Aleutian arc magma compositions is based on SiO2, and the second-order subdivision is usually based on the change of FeOt/MgO as a function of SiO2, resulting in the additional twofold subdivision into (TH) and calcalkaline (CA) magmas. However, additional robust compositional variations exist. The two most important of these are (1) variation of the calcium number [Ca#; Ca/(Na+Ca)] as a function of SiO2, and (2) the Rate of Incompatible Trace-element Enrichment (RITE) at individual volcanic centers. Additionally, the data show that the low FeOt/MgO of CA andesite and dacite is more controlled by MgO excess than FeOt depletion. The Ca# of andesites and dacites is strongly bimodal. The low-Ca# group is "calc-alkalic", while the high-Ca# group is "calcic", using Peacock (1931) criteria. A continuum of Ca#s exists, but lavas intermediate between high-Ca# and low-Ca# are much less abundant. Ca#s merge below about 55% SiO2, and have a simple normal distribution. RITE, with rare but important exceptions, is generally constant at the temporal and spatial scale of a single volcano. Among high-RITE magmas LILE, LREE, HFSE, and Th increase ~3.5-fold, and HREE increase ~2.5-fold from basalt or basaltic-andesite through andesite to dacite. There is no strong indication that RITE is silica-dependant. High-RITE magmas develop a strong negative Eu anomaly, and are qualitatively compatible with an origin primarily involving fractionation of plagioclase-dominated mineral assemblages. Low-RITE magmas, in contrast, have nearly invariant REE and HFSE, and LILE and Th increase merely 1.5-fold over the same silica range. Low-RITE magmas are not compatible with fractionation of a plagioclase-dominant mineral assemblage. Alternative qualitatively plausible explanations (needing rigorous evaluation) include fractionation of an ultramafic mineral assemblage (Alaskan-type mafic-ultramafic bodies may be a model; see USGS Prof Paper 1564); that low-RITE basaltic-andesites through dacites are essentially unfractionated; or that low-RITE compositions are dominated by processes other than crystal fractionation, including remobilization of cumulate sludges and addition of silicic partial melts of crustal-level rocks. Low-RITE magmas are usually crystal-rich, while high-RITE magmas are usually crystal-poor - although existing modal data do not permit quantitative investigation of this relationship. There is a high degree of correlation among these chemical characteristics, resulting in two major endmember groups: Type-O suites typically have, as a function of SiO2, low Ca# (are Peacock calc-alkalic), low Mg# (are Miyashiro tholeiitic), high-RITE, are generally sparsely phyric, and are often relatively mafic on average. Type-A magma suites typically have high Ca# (Peacock calcic), high Mg# (Miyashiro calcalkaline), low-RITE, are generally very porphyritic, and usually andesitic on average. Type-O magma suites are found in the central arc - where the arc-crest appears to be under moderate extension. Type-A suites dominate the eastern arc - where the arc-crest is under compression, and are scattered among the type-O volcanoes of the central arc. The western arc is more diverse, although A-type magmas dominate.

  2. Parsing surrounding space into regions.

    PubMed

    Franklin, N; Henkel, L A; Zangas, T

    1995-07-01

    Surrounding space is not inherently organized, but we tend to treat it as though it consisted of regions (e.g., front, back, right, and left). The current studies show that these conceptual regions have characteristics that reflect our typical interactions with space. Three experiments examined the relative sizes and resolutions of front, back, left, and right around oneself. Front, argued to be the most important horizontal region, was found to be (a) largest, (b) recalled with the greatest precision, and (c) described with the greatest degree pf detao. Our findings suggest that some of the characteristics of the category model proposed by Huttenlocher, Hedges, and Duncan (1991) regarding memory for pictured circular displays may be generalized to space around oneself. More broadly, our results support and extend the spatial framework analysis of representation of surrounding space (Franklin & Tversky, 1990). PMID:7666754

  3. Stirling engines

    SciTech Connect

    Reader, G.T.; Hooper

    1983-01-01

    The Stirling engine was invented by a Scottish clergyman in 1816, but fell into disuse with the coming of the diesel engine. Advances in materials science and the energy crisis have made a hot air engine economically attractive. Explanations are full and understandable. Includes coverage of the underlying thermodynamics and an interesting historical section. Topics include: Introduction to Stirling engine technology, Theoretical concepts--practical realities, Analysis, simulation and design, Practical aspects, Some alternative energy sources, Present research and development, Stirling engine literature.

  4. Neural Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Bin

    About the Series: Bioelectric Engineering presents state-of-the-art discussions on modern biomedical engineering with respect to applications of electrical engineering and information technology in biomedicine. This focus affirms Springer's commitment to publishing important reviews of the broadest interest to biomedical engineers, bioengineers, and their colleagues in affiliated disciplines. Recent volumes have covered modeling and imaging of bioelectric activity, neural engineering, biosignal processing, bionanotechnology, among other topics.

  5. Tags Extarction from Spatial Documents in Search Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borhaninejad, S.; Hakimpour, F.; Hamzei, E.

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays the selective access to information on the Web is provided by search engines, but in the cases which the data includes spatial information the search task becomes more complex and search engines require special capabilities. The purpose of this study is to extract the information which lies in spatial documents. To that end, we implement and evaluate information extraction from GML documents and a retrieval method in an integrated approach. Our proposed system consists of three components: crawler, database and user interface. In crawler component, GML documents are discovered and their text is parsed for information extraction; storage. The database component is responsible for indexing of information which is collected by crawlers. Finally the user interface component provides the interaction between system and user. We have implemented this system as a pilot system on an Application Server as a simulation of Web. Our system as a spatial search engine provided searching capability throughout the GML documents and thus an important step to improve the efficiency of search engines has been taken.

  6. Thinking Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Stu; Sharp, Janet; Zachary, Loren

    2004-01-01

    Most people think that engineering and mathematics go hand in hand. To many, being an engineer means manipulating equations and calculating measurements to design and build structures of all kinds. And they are right. Engineering does involve a great deal of mathematics. But, building structures to withstand certain environmental conditions or…

  7. Stirling engines

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, G.

    1980-01-01

    Stirling engines exist in a bewildering array of mechanical arrangements. This book attempts to describe and classify the systems in a rational way, to explain the intricacies of the cycle, and to present a large amount of detailed information related to Stirling engines such as design, heat exchangers, working fluids, operation and performance, control equipment, recently developed engines, and current and proposed uses. (LCL)

  8. Engine Lubricant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    PS 212, a plasma-sprayed coating developed by NASA, is used to coat valves in a new rotorcam engine. The coating eliminates the need for a liquid lubricant in the rotorcam, which has no crankshaft, flywheel, distributor or water pump. Developed by Murray United Development Corporation, it is a rotary engine only 10 inches long with four cylinders radiating outward from a central axle. Company officials say the engine will be lighter, more compact and cheaper to manufacture than current engines and will feature cleaner exhaust emissions. A licensing arrangement with a manufacturer is under negotiation. Primary applications are for automobiles, but the engine may also be used in light aircraft.

  9. Shockwave Engine: Wave Disk Engine

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-14

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: MSU is developing a new engine for use in hybrid automobiles that could significantly reduce fuel waste and improve engine efficiency. In a traditional internal combustion engine, air and fuel are ignited, creating high-temperature and high-pressure gases which expand rapidly. This expansion of gases forces the engine’s pistons to pump and powers the car. MSU’s engine has no pistons. It uses the combustion of air and fuel to build up pressure within the engine, generating a shockwave that blasts hot gas exhaust into the blades of the engine’s rotors causing them to turn, which generates electricity. MSU’s redesigned engine would be the size of a cooking pot and contain fewer moving parts—reducing the weight of the engine by 30%. It would also enable a vehicle that could use 60% of its fuel for propulsion.

  10. Saturn Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    This set of photographs illustrates the different engines used on the Saturn IB and Saturn V launch vehicles developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center. The earlier Saturn IB utilized eight H-1 engines on its first stage, the S-IB (top left), while the first stage of the Saturn V, the S-IC, used five F-1 engines (top right). A single J-2 engine propelled the second stage of the Saturn IB's second stage, the S-IVB (bottom left), while five J-2 engines propelled the S-II (second) stage of the Saturn V (bottom right). A single J-2 engine also powered the S-IVB (third) stage (bottom left) of the Saturn V.

  11. Information engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, D.N.

    1997-02-01

    The Information Engineering thrust area develops information technology to support the programmatic needs of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Engineering Directorate. Progress in five programmatic areas are described in separate reports contained herein. These are entitled Three-dimensional Object Creation, Manipulation, and Transport, Zephyr:A Secure Internet-Based Process to Streamline Engineering Procurements, Subcarrier Multiplexing: Optical Network Demonstrations, Parallel Optical Interconnect Technology Demonstration, and Intelligent Automation Architecture.

  12. Engineering Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    This book is intended to acquaint naval engineering officers with their duties in the engineering department. Standard shipboard organizations are analyzed in connection with personnel assignments, division operations, and watch systems. Detailed descriptions are included for the administration of directives, ship's bills, damage control, training…

  13. Women Engineer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neustadtl, Sara Jane

    This booklet is designed to provide information to girls about the nature of and possible career opportunities in engineering. Following a brief introduction in which the characteristics of engineers are outlined (such as ability to solve problems, interest in science/mathematics, and urge to make creative use of their intelligence), answers to…

  14. Electrochemical Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkire, Richard C.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses engineering ramifications of electrochemistry, focusing on current/potential distribution, evaluation of trade-offs between influences of different phenomena, use of dimensionless numbers to assist in scale-over to new operating conditions, and economics. Also provides examples of electrochemical engineering education content related to…

  15. Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellerano, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    This short course provides information on what systems engineering is and how the systems engineer guides requirements, interfaces with the discipline leads, and resolves technical issues. There are many system-wide issues that either impact or are impacted by the thermal subsystem. This course will introduce these issues and illustrate them with real life examples.

  16. Holistic Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grasso, Domenico; Martinelli, David

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss how to prepare high-quality engineers who are better equipped to serve in the changing global marketplace, and suggest educators in pursuing the holistic concept of the "unity of knowledge" that will yield a definition of engineering more fitting for the times ahead. The unity of knowledge is fundamentally…

  17. Corrosion Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Charles V.

    A description is provided for a Corrosion and Corrosion Control course offered in the Continuing Engineering Education Program at the General Motors Institute (GMI). GMI is a small cooperative engineering school of approximately 2,000 students who alternate between six-week periods of academic study and six weeks of related work experience in…

  18. Genetic Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, John

    1973-01-01

    Presents a review of genetic engineering, in which the genotypes of plants and animals (including human genotypes) may be manipulated for the benefit of the human species. Discusses associated problems and solutions and provides an extensive bibliography of literature relating to genetic engineering. (JR)

  19. Engine Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Increasing the operating temperature of turbine engines reduces fuel consumption and increases engine efficiency. However, engine components must be protected from excessive heat. Lewis Research Center has successfully developed thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), which are deposited on the components. They insulate, offer oxidation and corrosion resistance and increase adherence. Surface temperatures can be reduced by 200 degrees centigrade or more. G. E. Aircraft Engines, a Lewis contractor, now uses a TBC based on the one developed at Lewis, on production engines. The system, which consists of a bond and a top coat extends component life from 1.3 to 2 times. The company is also testing TBCs on components that operate at higher temperatures.

  20. Engineering Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Fitzhugh T.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly reviews the increasing application of geologic principles, techniques and data to engineering practices in the areas of land use and zoning controls, resource management energy programs and other fields. (BR)

  1. Engine technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, A. C.

    1982-01-01

    Materials used in a presentation on development of engine technology for electric flight systems are presented. Component and system technology issues, NASA's role, and flight test requirements are outlined.

  2. Harmonic engine

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2009-10-20

    A high efficiency harmonic engine based on a resonantly reciprocating piston expander that extracts work from heat and pressurizes working fluid in a reciprocating piston compressor. The engine preferably includes harmonic oscillator valves capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into and out of the expander, and also preferably includes a shunt line connecting an expansion chamber of the expander to a buffer chamber of the expander for minimizing pressure variations in the fluidic circuit of the engine. The engine is especially designed to operate with very high temperature input to the expander and very low temperature input to the compressor, to produce very high thermal conversion efficiency.

  3. Software engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fridge, Ernest M., III; Hiott, Jim; Golej, Jim; Plumb, Allan

    1993-01-01

    Today's software systems generally use obsolete technology, are not integrated properly with other software systems, and are difficult and costly to maintain. The discipline of reverse engineering is becoming prominent as organizations try to move their systems up to more modern and maintainable technology in a cost effective manner. The Johnson Space Center (JSC) created a significant set of tools to develop and maintain FORTRAN and C code during development of the space shuttle. This tool set forms the basis for an integrated environment to reengineer existing code into modern software engineering structures which are then easier and less costly to maintain and which allow a fairly straightforward translation into other target languages. The environment will support these structures and practices even in areas where the language definition and compilers do not enforce good software engineering. The knowledge and data captured using the reverse engineering tools is passed to standard forward engineering tools to redesign or perform major upgrades to software systems in a much more cost effective manner than using older technologies. The latest release of the environment was in Feb. 1992.

  4. Engineering Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatheway, Allen W.

    1978-01-01

    Engineering geology remains a potpourri of applied classical geology, and 1977 witnessed an upswing in demand for these services. Traditional foundation-related work was slight, but construction related to national needs increased briskly. Major cities turned to concerns of transit waste-water treatment and solid-waste disposal. (Author/MA)

  5. Thermal engine

    SciTech Connect

    Karnes, T.E.; Trupin, R.J.

    1984-01-03

    A thermal engine utilizing a strip of nitinol material or other thermally responsive shape memory effect material to drive a reciprocating output shaft, said strip of material forming a common wall between two different alternating temperature sources which thermally cycle the material.

  6. Adaptive Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanderSteen, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Engineers today cannot meet their professional obligation to the welfare of society if they do not have a broad, multidisciplinary vision, and yet a multidisciplinary vision is becoming enormously difficult to obtain. A new curriculum must emerge that can integrate a focused, discipline-based scientific approach with an integrated approach. To do…

  7. Photoreceptor engineering

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Thea; Möglich, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Sensory photoreceptors not only control diverse adaptive responses in Nature, but as light-regulated actuators they also provide the foundation for optogenetics, the non-invasive and spatiotemporally precise manipulation of cellular events by light. Novel photoreceptors have been engineered that establish control by light over manifold biological processes previously inaccessible to optogenetic intervention. Recently, photoreceptor engineering has witnessed a rapid development, and light-regulated actuators for the perturbation of a plethora of cellular events are now available. Here, we review fundamental principles of photoreceptors and light-regulated allostery. Photoreceptors dichotomize into associating receptors that alter their oligomeric state as part of light-regulated allostery and non-associating receptors that do not. A survey of engineered photoreceptors pinpoints light-regulated association reactions and order-disorder transitions as particularly powerful and versatile design principles. Photochromic photoreceptors that are bidirectionally toggled by two light colors augur enhanced spatiotemporal resolution and use as photoactivatable fluorophores. By identifying desirable traits in engineered photoreceptors, we provide pointers for the design of future, light-regulated actuators. PMID:26137467

  8. Concurrent engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Leger, L.; Hunter, D.; Jones, C.; Sprague, R.; Berke, L.; Newell, J.; Singhal, S.

    1991-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: issues (liquid rocket propulsion - current development approach, current certification process, and costs of engineering changes); state of the art (DICE information management system, key government participants, project development strategy, quality management, and numerical propulsion system simulation); needs identified; and proposed program.

  9. Harmonic engine

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Charles L.; Sewall, Noel; Boroa, Carl

    2014-08-19

    An engine based on a reciprocating piston engine that extracts work from pressurized working fluid. The engine includes a harmonic oscillator inlet valve capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into of the engine. In particular, the inlet valve includes an inlet valve head and a spring arranged together as a harmonic oscillator so that the inlet valve head is moveable from an unbiased equilibrium position to a biased closed position occluding an inlet. Upon releasing the inlet valve the inlet valve head undergoes a single oscillation past the equilibrium positio to a maximum open position and returns to a biased return position close to the closed position to choke the flow and produce a pressure drop across the inlet valve causing the inlet valve to close. Protrusions carried either by the inlet valve head or piston head are used to bump open the inlet valve from the closed position and initiate the single oscillation of the inlet valve head, and protrusions carried either by the outlet valve head or piston head are used to close the outlet valve ahead of the bump opening of the inlet valve.

  10. Engineering seismology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    N.N, Ambraseys

    1991-01-01

    Twenty years have elasped since the first issue of Earthquakes & Volcanoes. Apart from the remarkable increases in the number of scientists actively enagaged in earth sciences, what are the outstanding achievements during the past 20 years in the field of engineering seismology, which is my own speciality?

  11. Software engineering as an engineering discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berard, Edward V.

    1988-01-01

    The following topics are discussed in the context of software engineering: early use of the term; the 1968 NATO conference; Barry Boehm's definition; four requirements fo software engineering; and additional criteria for software engineering. Additionally, the four major requirements for software engineering--computer science, mathematics, engineering disciplines, and excellent communication skills--are discussed. The presentation is given in vugraph form.

  12. Enhancing Engineering Education through Engineering Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pence, Kenneth R.; Rowe, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Engineering Management courses are added to a traditional engineering curriculum to enhance the value of an undergraduate's engineering degree. A four-year engineering degree often leaves graduates lacking in business and management acumen. Engineering management education covers topics enhancing the value of new graduates by teaching management…

  13. Re-engineering Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Bernard M.; Silevitch, Michael B.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, leaders gathered by the National Association of Manufacturers declared yet another "STEM" emergency. In the face of global competition, they argued, the number of bachelor's degrees awarded annually to U.S. students in science, math and engineering must double by 2015. In fact, the need for STEM talent is even more critical today as the…

  14. Engineering Review Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grems, III, Edward G. (Inventor); Henze, James E. (Inventor); Bixby, Jonathan A. (Inventor); Roberts, Mark (Inventor); Mann, Thomas (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A disciplinal engineering review computer information system and method by defining a database of disciplinal engineering review process entities for an enterprise engineering program, opening a computer supported engineering item based upon the defined disciplinal engineering review process entities, managing a review of the opened engineering item according to the defined disciplinal engineering review process entities, and closing the opened engineering item according to the opened engineering item review.

  15. Exoskeletal Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C. (Inventor); Blankson, Isaiah M. (Inventor); Richter, William A. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A turbojet engine is made from a drum-like portion having a circular blade section extending inwardly therefrom, a support member, and a bearing arranged around a circle having a diameter substantially equal to or greater than the diameter of the blade section. The drum-like portion is rotatably mounted within the support member on the bearing. Instead of a turbine spinning on a shaft, a turbine spinning within a drum is employed.

  16. Heat engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rekos, N. F., Jr.; Parsons, E. L., Jr.

    1989-09-01

    For the past decade, the Department of Energy (DOE) has sponsored projects to develop diesel and gas turbine engines capable of operating on low-cost, coal-based fuels. Much of the current work addresses the use of coal-water fuel (CWF) in diesel and turbines, although there is some work with dry coal feed and other coal fuels. Both the diesel and gas turbine portions of the program include proof-of-concept and support projects. Specific highlights of the program include: engine tests and economic analyses have shown that CWF can replace 70 percent of the diesel oil used in the duty cycle of a typical main-line locomotive; A. D. Little and Cooper-Bessemer completed a system and economic study of coal-fueled diesel engines for modular power and industrial cogeneration markets. The coal-fueled diesel was found to be competitive at fuel oil prices of $5.50 per million British thermal units (MBtu); Over 200 hours of testing have been completed using CWF in full-scale, single-cylinder diesel engines. Combustion efficiencies have exceeded 99 percent; Both CWF and dry coal fuel forms can be burned in short residence time in-line combustors and in off-base combustors with a combustion efficiency of over 99 percent; Rich/lean combustion systems employed by the three major DOE contractors have demonstrated low NO(sub x) emissions levels; Contractors have also achieved promising results for controlling sulfur oxide (SO(sub x)) emissions using calcium-based sorbents; Slagging combustors have achieved between 65 and 95 percent slag capture, which will limit particulate loading on pre-turbine cleanup devices. For many of the gas turbine and diesel applications emission standards do not exist. Our goal is to develop coal-fueled diesels and gas turbines that not only meet all applicable emission standards that do exist, but also are capable of meeting possible future standards.

  17. Web Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    White, Bebo

    2003-06-23

    Web Engineering is the application of systematic, disciplined and quantifiable approaches to development, operation, and maintenance of Web-based applications. It is both a pro-active approach and a growing collection of theoretical and empirical research in Web application development. This paper gives an overview of Web Engineering by addressing the questions: (a) why is it needed? (b) what is its domain of operation? (c) how does it help and what should it do to improve Web application development? and (d) how should it be incorporated in education and training? The paper discusses the significant differences that exist between Web applications and conventional software, the taxonomy of Web applications, the progress made so far and the research issues and experience of creating a specialization at the master's level. The paper reaches a conclusion that Web Engineering at this stage is a moving target since Web technologies are constantly evolving, making new types of applications possible, which in turn may require innovations in how they are built, deployed and maintained.

  18. Planetary engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollack, James B.; Sagan, Carl

    Assuming commercial fusion power, heavy lift vehicles and major advances in genetic engineering, the authors survey possible late-21st century methods of working major transformations in planetary environments. Much more Earthlike climates may be produced on Mars by generating low freezing point greenhouse gases from indigenous materials; on Venus by biological conversion of CO2 to graphite, by canceling the greenhouse effect with high-altitude absorbing fine particles, or by a sunshield at the first Lagrangian point; and on Titan by greenhouses and/or fusion warming. However, in our present state of ignorance we cannot guarantee a stable endstate or exclude unanticipated climatic feedbacks or other unintended consequences. Moreover, as the authors illustrate by several examples, many conceivable modes of planetary engineering are so wasteful of scarce solar system resources and so destructive of important scientific information as to raise profound ethical issues, even if they were economically feasible, which they are not. Global warming on Earth may lead to calls for mitigation by planetary engineering, e.g., emplacement and replenishment of anti-greenhouse layers at high altitudes, or sunshields in space. But here especially we must be concerned about precision, stability, and inadvertent side-effects. The safest and most cost-effective means of countering global warming - beyond, e.g., improved energy efficiency, CFC bans and alternative energy sources - is the continuing reforestation of approximately 2 times 107 sq km of the Earth's surface. This can be accomplished with present technology and probably at the least cost.

  19. Planetary engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, James B.; Sagan, Carl

    1991-01-01

    Assuming commercial fusion power, heavy lift vehicles and major advances in genetic engineering, the authors survey possible late-21st century methods of working major transformations in planetary environments. Much more Earthlike climates may be produced on Mars by generating low freezing point greenhouse gases from indigenous materials; on Venus by biological conversion of CO2 to graphite, by canceling the greenhouse effect with high-altitude absorbing fine particles, or by a sunshield at the first Lagrangian point; and on Titan by greenhouses and/or fusion warming. However, in our present state of ignorance we cannot guarantee a stable endstate or exclude unanticipated climatic feedbacks or other unintended consequences. Moreover, as the authors illustrate by several examples, many conceivable modes of planetary engineering are so wasteful of scarce solar system resources and so destructive of important scientific information as to raise profound ethical issues, even if they were economically feasible, which they are not. Global warming on Earth may lead to calls for mitigation by planetary engineering, e.g., emplacement and replenishment of anti-greenhouse layers at high altitudes, or sunshields in space. But here especially we must be concerned about precision, stability, and inadvertent side-effects. The safest and most cost-effective means of countering global warming - beyond, e.g., improved energy efficiency, CFC bans and alternative energy sources - is the continuing reforestation of approximately 2 times 107 sq km of the Earth's surface. This can be accomplished with present technology and probably at the least cost.

  20. Engineering organs.

    PubMed

    Atala, Anthony

    2009-10-01

    Applications of regenerative medicine technology may offer novel therapies for patients with injuries, end-stage organ failure, or other clinical problems. Currently, patients suffering from diseased and injured organs can be treated with transplanted organs. However, there is a severe shortage of donor organs that is worsening yearly as the population ages and new cases of organ failure increase. Scientists in the field of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering are now applying the principles of cell transplantation, material science, and bioengineering to construct biological substitutes that will restore and maintain normal function in diseased and injured tissues. The stem cell field is also advancing rapidly, opening new avenues for this type of therapy. For example, therapeutic cloning and cellular reprogramming may one day provide a potentially limitless source of cells for tissue engineering applications. Although stem cells are still in the research phase, some therapies arising from tissue engineering endeavors have already entered the clinical setting successfully, indicating the promise regenerative medicine holds for the future. PMID:19896823

  1. Biocommodity Engineering.

    PubMed

    Lynd; Wyman; Gerngross

    1999-10-01

    The application of biotechnology to the production of commodity products (fuels, chemicals, and materials) offering benefits in terms of sustainable resource supply and environmental quality is an emergent area of intellectual endeavor and industrial practice with great promise. Such "biocommodity engineering" is distinct from biotechnology motivated by health care at multiple levels, including economic driving forces, the importance of feedstocks and cost-motivated process engineering, and the scale of application. Plant biomass represents both the dominant foreseeable source of feedstocks for biotechnological processes as well as the only foreseeable sustainable source of organic fuels, chemicals, and materials. A variety of forms of biomass, notably many cellulosic feedstocks, are potentially available at a large scale and are cost-competitive with low-cost petroleum whether considered on a mass or energy basis, and in terms of price defined on a purchase or net basis for both current and projected mature technology, and on a transfer basis for mature technology. Thus the central, and we believe surmountable, impediment to more widespread application of biocommodity engineering is the general absence of low-cost processing technology. Technological and research challenges associated with converting plant biomass into commodity products are considered relative to overcoming the recalcitrance of cellulosic biomass (converting cellulosic biomass into reactive intermediates) and product diversification (converting reactive intermediates into useful products). Advances are needed in pretreatment technology to make cellulosic materials accessible to enzymatic hydrolysis, with increased attention to the fundamental chemistry operative in pretreatment processes likely to accelerate progress. Important biotechnological challenges related to the utilization of cellulosic biomass include developing cellulase enzymes and microorganisms to produce them, fermentation of

  2. Analysis of the phase transition in the two-dimensional Ising ferromagnet using a Lempel-Ziv string-parsing scheme and black-box data-compression utilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melchert, O.; Hartmann, A. K.

    2015-02-01

    In this work we consider information-theoretic observables to analyze short symbolic sequences, comprising time series that represent the orientation of a single spin in a two-dimensional (2D) Ising ferromagnet on a square lattice of size L2=1282 for different system temperatures T . The latter were chosen from an interval enclosing the critical point Tc of the model. At small temperatures the sequences are thus very regular; at high temperatures they are maximally random. In the vicinity of the critical point, nontrivial, long-range correlations appear. Here we implement estimators for the entropy rate, excess entropy (i.e., "complexity"), and multi-information. First, we implement a Lempel-Ziv string-parsing scheme, providing seemingly elaborate entropy rate and multi-information estimates and an approximate estimator for the excess entropy. Furthermore, we apply easy-to-use black-box data-compression utilities, providing approximate estimators only. For comparison and to yield results for benchmarking purposes, we implement the information-theoretic observables also based on the well-established M -block Shannon entropy, which is more tedious to apply compared to the first two "algorithmic" entropy estimation procedures. To test how well one can exploit the potential of such data-compression techniques, we aim at detecting the critical point of the 2D Ising ferromagnet. Among the above observables, the multi-information, which is known to exhibit an isolated peak at the critical point, is very easy to replicate by means of both efficient algorithmic entropy estimation procedures. Finally, we assess how good the various algorithmic entropy estimates compare to the more conventional block entropy estimates and illustrate a simple modification that yields enhanced results.

  3. Engineering Lessons Learned and Systems Engineering Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Paul S.; Garcia, Danny; Vaughan, William W.

    2005-01-01

    Systems Engineering is fundamental to good engineering, which in turn depends on the integration and application of engineering lessons learned. Thus, good Systems Engineering also depends on systems engineering lessons learned from within the aerospace industry being documented and applied. About ten percent of the engineering lessons learned documented in the NASA Lessons Learned Information System are directly related to Systems Engineering. A key issue associated with lessons learned datasets is the communication and incorporation of this information into engineering processes. As part of the NASA Technical Standards Program activities, engineering lessons learned datasets have been identified from a number of sources. These are being searched and screened for those having a relation to Technical Standards. This paper will address some of these Systems Engineering Lessons Learned and how they are being related to Technical Standards within the NASA Technical Standards Program, including linking to the Agency's Interactive Engineering Discipline Training Courses and the life cycle for a flight vehicle development program.

  4. Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Bolger, S.R.

    1992-03-17

    This patent describes an engine. It comprises at least two variable volume compartments joined by a porous medium regenerator; heat exchangers in heat exchange relationships with the variable volume compartments; a fixed quantity of gas in the compartments; a piston in each of the compartments; means to control the pistons to vary the volumes of the gas transferring between the compartments in the form of overlapping quadrilateral waveforms to compress the gas in both compartments through the same cycle pressure ratio during a cycle compression step, to shift the gas between compartments and to expand the gas in both compartments through the same cycle pressure ratio during a cycle expansion step.

  5. Engine construction

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, C.L.

    1984-03-06

    An engine has at least two piston-cylinder assemblies each comprising a cylinder formed in an engine block with a cylinder head and a piston therein in sliding relationship toward and away from the head, a piston rod operatively connected to the piston and to a crankshaft, motion producing member of shape-memory material, e.g. Nitinol, having a transformation temperature range, secured to the cylinder head and the side of the piston opposite from the connecting rod, the motion producing member having a heat treated high temperature extended shape memory position and a low temperature low energy compressed position, the Nitinol member being of hollow tubular form and having pressure and return hoses connected thereto for supplying and removing cooling fluid into and from the Nitinol member, an electrical heating device connected to the Nitinol member, whereby the Nitinol member is easily compressed with relatively little force from the extended shape memory position to the compressed position when cooling fluid is supplied thereto to reduce the temperature of the Nitinol member to or below the lower limit of the transformation temperature range and the Nitinol member is automatically extended with relatively great force from the compressed position to the shape memory position when heated by the heating device to or above the upper limit of the transformation temperature range.

  6. Software engineering as an engineering discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, Norman

    1988-01-01

    The goals of the Software Engineering Institute's Education Program are as follows: to increase the number of highly qualified software engineers--new software engineers and existing practitioners; and to be the leading center of expertise for software engineering education and training. A discussion of these goals is presented in vugraph form.

  7. Reciprocating engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akkerman, J. W. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An intake valve arrangement for positively controlling the opening and closing of the poppet valve in a hot gas cylinder in a hydrazine powered engine is described. The poppet valve is operated by the piston and gas pressure only. The poppet valve uses a pneumatic spring which holds the poppet valve against the piston while the valve is opened and closed. To accomplish this, a poppet valve is slidably mounted in a pneumatic spring chamber which reaches a pressure approaching the gas supply pressure and, during the opening of the valve, the spring chamber retains enough pressure to hold the poppet valve onto the piston. In addition, the bottom of the poppet valve can have a suction cup type configuration to hold the poppet valve on the piston during the down stroke.

  8. How Engineers Engineer: Lessons from My First Big Engineering Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2008-01-01

    Little did the author realize how much his first engineering project would change his career path, but when it came, he was hooked forever on doing R&D-type engineering. In this article, the author takes the reader back to his first really important electrical engineering project. While the technology he worked on back then is antiquated by…

  9. Stirling engine application study

    SciTech Connect

    Teagan, W.P.; Cunningham, D.R.

    1983-03-01

    The potential for Stirling engine applications in the 0.5 to 5000 hp output range is assessed. The following are included: a market survey of potential engine applications, classification of applications, conventional engine markets and performance characteristics, status of Sterling engine systems, selection of application classes for Stirling engines, and the possible effects of technology, economic conditions, and regulatory changes. (MHR)

  10. The Engineering Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryoo, Jaewoo; Rosen, Sherwin

    2004-01-01

    This paper develops a dynamic supply and demand model of occupational choice and applies it to the engineering profession. The model is largely successful in understanding data in the U.S. engineering labor market. The engineering market responds strongly to economic forces. The demand for engineers responds to the price of engineering services…

  11. Industrial Education. "Small Engines".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parma City School District, OH.

    Part of a series of curriculum guides dealing with industrial education in junior high schools, this guide provides the student with information and manipulative experiences on small gasoline engines. Included are sections on shop adjustment, safety, small engines, internal combustion, engine construction, four stroke engines, two stroke engines,…

  12. Metabolic Engineering X Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Flach, Evan

    2015-05-07

    The International Metabolic Engineering Society (IMES) and the Society for Biological Engineering (SBE), both technological communities of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), hosted the Metabolic Engineering X Conference (ME-X) on June 15-19, 2014 at the Westin Bayshore in Vancouver, British Columbia. It attracted 395 metabolic engineers from academia, industry and government from around the globe.

  13. Engineering Allostery

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Srivatsan; Taylor, Noah; Genuth, Naomi; Fields, Stanley; Church, George M.

    2014-01-01

    Allosteric proteins have great potential in synthetic biology, but our limited understanding of the molecular underpinnings of allostery has hindered the development of designer molecules, including transcription factors with new DNA-binding or ligand-binding specificities that respond appropriately to inducers. Such allosteric proteins could function as novel switches in complex circuits, metabolite sensors, or orthogonal regulators for independent, inducible control of multiple genes. Advances in DNA synthesis and next-generation sequencing technologies have enabled the assessment of millions of mutants in a single experiment, providing new opportunities to study allostery. Using the classic LacI protein as an example, we describe a genetic selection system using a bidirectional reporter to capture mutants in both allosteric states, allowing the positions most critical for allostery to be identified. This approach is not limited to bacterial transcription factors, and could reveal new mechanistic insights and facilitate engineering of other major classes of allosteric proteins such as nuclear receptors, two-component systems, G-protein coupled receptors and protein kinases. PMID:25306102

  14. Parsing abnormal grain growth in specialty aluminas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Abigail Kremer

    Grain growth in alumina is strongly affected by the impurities present in the material. Certain impurity elements are known to have characteristic effects on abnormal grain growth in alumina. Specialty alumina powders contain multiple impurity species including MgO, CaO, SiO2, and Na 2O. In this work, sintered samples made from alumina powders containing various amounts of the impurities in question were characterized by their grain size and aspect ratio distributions. Multiple quantitative methods were used to characterize and classify samples with varying microstructures. The grain size distributions were used to partition the grain size population into subpopulations depending on the observed deviation from normal behavior. Using both grain size and aspect ratio a new visual representation for a microstructure was introduced called a morphology frequency map that gives a fingerprint for the material. The number of subpopulations within a sample and the shape of the distribution on the morphology map provided the basis for a classification scheme for different types of microstructures. Also using the two parameters a series of five metrics were calculated that describe the character of the abnormal grains in the sample, these were called abnormal character values. The abnormal character values describe the fraction of grains that are considered abnormal, the average magnitude of abnormality (including both grain size and aspect ratio), the average size, and variance in size. The final metric is the correlation between grain size and aspect ratio for the entire population of grains. The abnormal character values give a sense of how different from "normal" the sample is, given the assumption that a normal sample has a lognormal distribution of grain size and a Gaussian distribution of aspect ratios. In the second part of the work the quantified measures of abnormality were correlated with processing parameters such as composition and heat treatment conditions. A multivariate statistical tool called canonical correlation analysis was adopted to seek out relationships between a set of input variables and the abnormal character values. The input variables include the MgO, CaO, Na 2O, and SiO2 contents, the ratio of MgO:(CaO+SiO2), and the annealing time and temperature. The analysis was applied to 33 different samples and showed that the composition ratio and MgO content were the strongest processing variables. These variables are most closely related to the correlation between grain size and aspect ratio, the average magnitude of abnormality, and the variance in grain size. The physical implications of these relationships are explored for a number of samples with different abnormal grain growth behaviors. Several of the samples contained a beta"-alumina phase that is shown to have a dampening effect on abnormal grain growth. TEM investigation provides evidence that there is a grain boundary complexion with a different composition and structure than the second phase. A series of samples are compared after annealing for different times and are shown to have very different behaviors as a result of the second phase competing with complexions for control over the microstructure.

  15. Semantic Support and Parallel Parsing in Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Yufen; Boland, Julie E.

    2015-01-01

    Two eye-tracking experiments were conducted using written Chinese sentences that contained a multi-word ambiguous region. The goal was to determine whether readers maintained multiple interpretations throughout the ambiguous region or selected a single interpretation at the point of ambiguity. Within the ambiguous region, we manipulated the…

  16. Prosody, Phonology, and Parsing in Closure Ambiguities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Paul; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This paper investigated the relationship of syntactic structure with prosodic and phonological information, focusing on distinctions between early and late closure sentences in terms both of intonational phrasing and of stress placement on stress shift items such as "Hong Kong." Contains 63 references. (MDM)

  17. Implications of Connectionist Parsing for Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Cottrell, Garrison W.

    1985-01-01

    The relation of a neural network model of the human sentence processing mechanism to the syndrome of agrammatic aphasia is explored. The model is shown to be adequate for accounting for some recent results, and suggests further experiments. The model is submitted as evidence of the potential of Cognitive Science for generating fruitful interaction between disciplines.

  18. Parsing Reward and Aversion in the Amygdala.

    PubMed

    Maren, Stephen

    2016-04-20

    The basolateral amygdala (BLA) is critical for encoding the value of stimuli. Beyeler et al. (2016) now show that distinct populations of BLA neurons, which are defined by their efferent targets, code reward and aversion. This arrangement promotes parallel processing of biologically relevant events. PMID:27100192

  19. Genetically engineered foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... plants or animals) inserted into their genetic codes. Genetic engineering can be done with plants, animals, or bacteria ... have been genetically engineering plants since the 1990s. Genetic engineering allows scientists to speed this process up by ...

  20. Environmental Engineering in Mining Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahamud-Lopez, Manuel Maria; Menendez-Aguado, Juan Maria

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the current profile of the environmental engineer and the programming of the subject "Environmental Engineering and Technology" corresponding to the studies of Mining Engineering at the University of Oviedo in Spain, is discussed. Professional profile, student knowledge prior to and following instruction as well as available…

  1. Engineering Encounters: Blasting off with Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dare, Emily A.; Childs, Gregory T.; Cannaday, E. Ashley; Roehrig, Gillian H

    2014-01-01

    What better way to engage young students in physical science concepts than to have them engineer flying toy rockets? The integration of engineering into science classrooms is advocated by the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS) and researchers alike (Brophy et al. 2008), as engineering provides: (1) A "real-world…

  2. Re-Engineering the Engineering Degree Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Rodney

    Students enrolled to degree programs in 1997 will become the first graduates of the 21st century. Engineering courses in the School of Engineering at Leeds Metropolitan University have changed immensely in the last two years, so as to support new markets. Disciplines such as industrial engineering, electronics and computing have enjoyed their…

  3. Software engineering as an engineering discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, Glenn B.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this panel is to explore the emerging field of software engineering from a variety of perspectives: university programs; industry training and definition; government development; and technology transfer. In doing this, the panel will address the issues of distinctions among software engineering, computer science, and computer hardware engineering as they relate to the challenges of large, complex systems.

  4. Space engine safety system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, William A.; Meyer, Claudia M.

    1991-01-01

    A rocket engine safety system is designed to initiate control procedures which will minimize damage to the engine and vehicle or test stand in the event of an engine failure. This report describes the features and the implementation issues associated with rocket engine safety systems. Specific concerns of safety systems applied to a space-based engine and long duration space missions are discussed. Examples of safety system features and architectures are given from recent safety monitoring investigations conducted for the Space Shuttle Main Engine and for future liquid rocket engines. Also, a general design and implementation process for rocket engine safety systems is presented.

  5. Space engine safety system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, William A.; Meyer, Claudia M.

    1991-01-01

    A rocket engine safety system was designed to initiate control procedures to minimize damage to the engine or vehicle or test stand in the event of an engine failure. The features and the implementation issues associated with rocket engine safety systems are discussed, as well as the specific concerns of safety systems applied to a space-based engine and long duration space missions. Examples of safety system features and architectures are given, based on recent safety monitoring investigations conducted for the Space Shuttle Main Engine and for future liquid rocket engines. Also, the general design and implementation process for rocket engine safety systems is presented.

  6. Using Collaborative Engineering to Inform Collaboration Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Lynne P.

    2012-01-01

    Collaboration is a critical competency for modern organizations as they struggle to compete in an increasingly complex, global environment. A large body of research on collaboration in the workplace focuses both on teams, investigating how groups use teamwork to perform their task work, and on the use of information systems to support team processes ("collaboration engineering"). This research essay presents collaboration from an engineering perspective ("collaborative engineering"). It uses examples from professional and student engineering teams to illustrate key differences in collaborative versus collaboration engineering and investigates how challenges in the former can inform opportunities for the latter.

  7. Alternative Automobile Engines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David Gordon

    1978-01-01

    Requirements for cleaner and more efficient engines have stimulated a search for alternatives to the conventional spark-ignition engine. So far, the defects of the alternative engines are clearer than the virtues. The following engines are compared: spark ignition, diesel, vapor-cycle, Stirling, and gas turbine. (Author/MA)

  8. The Stirling engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This video describes the Stirling engine, an external combustion engine which creates heat energy to power the motor, and can use many types of fuel. It can be used for both stationary and propulsion purposes and has advantages of better fuel economy and cleaner exhaust than internal combustion engines. The engine is shown being road tested at Langley Air Force Base.

  9. Engineering Lessons Learned and Systems Engineering Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Paul S.; Garcia, Danny; Vaughan, William W.

    2005-01-01

    Systems Engineering is fundamental to good engineering, which in turn depends on the integration and application of engineering lessons learned and technical standards. Thus, good Systems Engineering also depends on systems engineering lessons learned from within the aerospace industry being documented and applied. About ten percent of the engineering lessons learned documented in the NASA Lessons Learned Information System are directly related to Systems Engineering. A key issue associated with lessons learned datasets is the communication and incorporation of this information into engineering processes. Systems Engineering has been defined (EINIS-632) as "an interdisciplinary approach encompassing the entire technical effort to evolve and verify an integrated and life-cycle balanced set of system people, product, and process solutions that satisfy customer needs". Designing reliable space-based systems has always been a goal for NASA, and many painful lessons have been learned along the way. One of the continuing functions of a system engineer is to compile development and operations "lessons learned" documents and ensure their integration into future systems development activities. They can produce insights and information for risk identification identification and characterization. on a new project. Lessons learned files from previous projects are especially valuable in risk

  10. Exo-Skeletal Engine: Novel Engine Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Cristos C.; Blankson, Isaiah M.

    2004-01-01

    The exo-skeletal engine concept represents a new radical engine technology with the potential to substantially revolutionize engine design. It is an all-composite drum-rotor engine in which conventionally heavy shafts and discs are eliminated and are replaced by rotating casings that support the blades in spanwise compression. Thus the rotating blades are in compression rather than tension. The resulting open channel at the engine centerline has immense potential for jet noise reduction and can also accommodate an inner combined-cycle thruster such as a ramjet. The exo-skeletal engine is described in some detail with respect to geometry, components, and potential benefits. Initial evaluations and results for drum rotors, bearings, and weights are summarized. Component configuration, assembly plan, and potential fabrication processes are also identified. A finite element model of the assembled engine and its major components is described. Preliminary results obtained thus far show at least a 30-percent reduction of engine weight and about a 10-dB noise reduction, compared with a baseline conventional high-bypass-ratio engine. Potential benefits in all aspects of this engine technology are identified and tabulated. Quantitative assessments of potential benefits are in progress.

  11. High School Engineering: Pre-Engineering for Future Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutter, Gary R.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a course that bridges the gap between pure science and pure technology called Pre-Engineering. This course gives junior and senior students a chance to investigate the possibility of choosing engineering as a major in college as well as to experience hands-on activities, projects, laboratories, problem solving, and computer simulations…

  12. Space Transportation Main Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Jan C.

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) definition, design philosophy, robust design, maximum design condition, casting vs. machined and welded forgings, operability considerations, high reliability design philosophy, engine reliability enhancement, low cost design philosophy, engine systems requirements, STME schematic, fuel turbopump, liquid oxygen turbopump, main injector, and gas generator. The major engine components of the STME and the Space Shuttle Main Engine are compared.

  13. Software Engineering Guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John; Wenneson, Greg

    1993-01-01

    The Software Engineering Guidebook describes SEPG (Software Engineering Process Group) supported processes and techniques for engineering quality software in NASA environments. Three process models are supported: structured, object-oriented, and evolutionary rapid-prototyping. The guidebook covers software life-cycles, engineering, assurance, and configuration management. The guidebook is written for managers and engineers who manage, develop, enhance, and/or maintain software under the Computer Software Services Contract.

  14. Teaching Engineering Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Christine M.; Carlsen, William S.

    2014-03-01

    Engineering is featured prominently in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and related reform documents, but how its nature and methods are described is problematic. This paper is a systematic review and critique of that representation, and proposes that the disciplinary core ideas of engineering (as described in the NGSS) can be disregarded safely if the practices of engineering are better articulated and modeled through student engagement in engineering projects. A clearer distinction between science and engineering practices is outlined, and prior research is described that suggests that precollege engineering design can strengthen children's understandings about scientific concepts. However, a piecemeal approach to teaching engineering practices is unlikely to result in students understanding engineering as a discipline. The implications for science teacher education are supplemented with lessons learned from a number of engineering education professional development projects.

  15. Humanitarian engineering in the engineering curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandersteen, Jonathan Daniel James

    There are many opportunities to use engineering skills to improve the conditions for marginalized communities, but our current engineering education praxis does not instruct on how engineering can be a force for human development. In a time of great inequality and exploitation, the desire to work with the impoverished is prevalent, and it has been proposed to adjust the engineering curriculum to include a larger focus on human needs. This proposed curriculum philosophy is called humanitarian engineering. Professional engineers have played an important role in the modern history of power, wealth, economic development, war, and industrialization; they have also contributed to infrastructure, sanitation, and energy sources necessary to meet human need. Engineers are currently at an important point in time when they must look back on their history in order to be more clear about how to move forward. The changing role of the engineer in history puts into context the call for a more balanced, community-centred engineering curriculum. Qualitative, phenomenographic research was conducted in order to understand the need, opportunity, benefits, and limitations of a proposed humanitarian engineering curriculum. The potential role of the engineer in marginalized communities and details regarding what a humanitarian engineering program could look like were also investigated. Thirty-two semi-structured research interviews were conducted in Canada and Ghana in order to collect a pool of understanding before a phenomenographic analysis resulted in five distinct outcome spaces. The data suggests that an effective curriculum design will include teaching technical skills in conjunction with instructing about issues of social justice, social location, cultural awareness, root causes of marginalization, a broader understanding of technology, and unlearning many elements about the role of the engineer and the dominant economic/political ideology. Cross-cultural engineering development

  16. Service Cart For Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Gim Shek

    1995-01-01

    Cart supports rear-mounted air-cooled engine from Volkswagen or Porsche automobile. One person removes, repairs, tests, and reinstalls engine of car, van, or home-built airplane. Consists of framework of wood, steel, and aluminum components supported by four wheels. Engine lifted from vehicle by hydraulic jack and gently lowered onto waiting cart. Jack removed from under engine. Rear of vehicle raised just enough that engine can be rolled out from under it. Cart easily supports 200-lb engine. Also used to hold transmission. With removable sheet-metal top, cart used as portable seat.

  17. Improving engineering effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiero, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    Methodologies to improve engineering productivity were investigated. The rocky road to improving engineering effectiveness is reviewed utilizing a specific semiconductor engineering organization as a case study. The organization had a performance problem regarding new product introductions. With the help of this consultant as a change agent the engineering team used a systems approach to through variables that were effecting their output significantly. Critical factors for improving this engineering organization's effectiveness and the roles/responsibilities of management, the individual engineers and the internal consultant are discussed.

  18. The Phillips Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hargreaves, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    This book is about the Stirling engine and its development from the heavy cast-iron machine of the 19th century to that of today. It is a history of a research effort spanning nearly 50 years, together with an outline of principles, and some technical details and descriptions of the more important engines. Contents include: the hot-air engine; the 20th-century revival; the Stirling cycle; rhombic-drive engines; heating and cooling; pistons and seals; electric generators and heat pumps; exotic heat sources; the engine and the environment; swashplate engines; and the past and the future.

  19. Tripropellant engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, D. B.

    1978-01-01

    Engine performance data, combustion gas thermodynamic properties, and turbine gas parameters were determined for various high power cycle engine configurations derived from the space shuttle main engine that will allow sequential burning of LOX/hydrocarbon and LOX/hydrogen fuels. Both stage combustion and gas generator pump power cycles were considered. Engine concepts were formulated for LOX/RP-1, LOX/CH4, and LOX/C3H8 propellants. Flowrates and operating conditions were established for this initial set of engine systems, and the adaptability of the major components of shuttle main engine was investigated.

  20. Infusing Engineering Concepts: Teaching Engineering Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    Engineering has gained considerable traction in many K-12 schools. However, there are several obstacles or challenges to an effective approach that leads to student learning. Questions such as where engineering best fits in the curriculum; how to include it authentically and appropriately; toward what educational end; and how best to prepare…

  1. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, Edward

    2014-03-31

    The objective of the Cummins ARES program, in partnership with the US Department of Energy (DOE), is to develop advanced natural gas engine technologies that increase engine system efficiency at lower emissions levels while attaining lower cost of ownership. The goals of the project are to demonstrate engine system achieving 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) in three phases, 44%, 47% and 50% (starting baseline efficiency at 36% BTE) and 0.1 g/bhp-hr NOx system out emissions (starting baseline NOx emissions at 2 – 4 g/bhp-hr NOx). Primary path towards above goals include high Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP), improved closed cycle efficiency, increased air handling efficiency and optimized engine subsystems. Cummins has successfully demonstrated each of the phases of this program. All targets have been achieved through application of a combined set of advanced base engine technologies and Waste Heat Recovery from Charge Air and Exhaust streams, optimized and validated on the demonstration engine and other large engines. The following architectures were selected for each Phase: Phase 1: Lean Burn Spark Ignited (SI) Key Technologies: High Efficiency Turbocharging, Higher Efficiency Combustion System. In production on the 60/91L engines. Over 500MW of ARES Phase 1 technology has been sold. Phase 2: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) System Key Technologies: Advanced Ignition System, Combustion Improvement, Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Base engine technologies intended for production within 2 to 3 years Phase 3: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust and Charge Air Waste Heat Recovery System Key Technologies: Lower Friction, New Cylinder Head Designs, Improved Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Intended for production within 5 to 6 years Cummins is committed to the launch of next generation of large advanced NG engines based on ARES technology to be commercialized worldwide.

  2. Engineering Ethics in the Subject of Engineering History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isohata, Hiroshi

    Engineering ethics has been focused in the field of engineering education since the introduction of accreditation system of engineering education. In this paper, contents of the subject of engineering history are examined and discussed from the viewpoints of education of engineering ethics through a practical case of civil engineering history in a college. For the first step, codes of engineering ethics regulated in various engineering organizations are analyzed and the common contents are extracted to set the requirements for the education of engineering ethics. Then contents of the subject of engineering history are examined according to the requirements. Finally, conditions of engineering history for engineering ethics are discussed.

  3. Structural Engineering: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, Edgar

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation presents the work of the Structural Engineering Division of the Engineering Directorate. The work includes: providing technical expertise and leadership for the development, evaluation, and operation of structural, mechanical, and thermal spaceflight systems.

  4. Chemical Engineering Education Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodore, Louis

    1978-01-01

    The opinion is presented that chemical engineering education seems to emphasize the professor's research and/or professional interests with little regard for the real needs of the student who intends to become a practicing engineer. (BB)

  5. Chemical Engineering Division Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical Engineering Education, 1978

    1978-01-01

    The 1978 ASEE Chemical Engineering Division Lecturer was Theodore Vermeulen of the University of California at Berkeley. Other chemical engineers who received awards or special recognition at a recent ASEE annual conference are mentioned. (BB)

  6. Twin engine synchronizer

    SciTech Connect

    Kobus, J.R.

    1988-05-03

    This patent describes an apparatus for synchronizing the speeds of two engines, each having its own throttle level connected by an associated cable to a respective hand throttle lever, comprising moving means carried by the throttle lever of one of the engines for moving the throttle lever of the one engine independently of its associated cable and its respective hand throttle lever to increase or decrease the speed of the one engine until the speed of the one engine matches the speed of the other engine. The moving means moves the throttle lever of the one engine without moving its associated cable or its respective hand throttle lever, and actuating means mounted remote from the throttle lever of the one engine for actuating the moving means.

  7. Aircraft Engine Emissions. [conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A conference on a aircraft engine emissions was held to present the results of recent and current work. Such diverse areas as components, controls, energy efficient engine designs, and noise and pollution reduction are discussed.

  8. Russian Rocket Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA engineers successfully tested a Russian-built rocket engine on November 4, 1998 at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Engine Test Facility, which had been used for testing the Saturn V F-1 engines and Space Shuttle Main engines. The MSFC was under a Space Act Agreement with Lockheed Martin Astronautics of Denver to provide a series of test firings of the Atlas III propulsion system configured with the Russian-designed RD-180 engine. The tests were designed to measure the performance of the Atlas III propulsion system, which included avionics and propellant tanks and lines, and how these components interacted with the RD-180 engine. The RD-180 is powered by kerosene and liquid oxygen, the same fuel mix used in Saturn rockets. The RD-180, the most powerful rocket engine tested at the MSFC since Saturn rocket tests in the 1960s, generated 860,000 pounds of thrust.

  9. Engineering students' sustainability approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, S.

    2014-05-01

    Sustainability issues are increasingly important in engineering work all over the world. This article explores systematic differences in self-assessed competencies, interests, importance, engagement and practices of newly enrolled engineering students in Denmark in relation to environmental and non-environmental sustainability issues. The empirical base of the article is a nation-wide, web-based survey sent to all newly enrolled engineering students in Denmark commencing their education in the fall term 2010. The response rate was 46%. The survey focused on a variety of different aspects of what can be conceived as sustainability. By means of cluster analysis, three engineering student approaches to sustainability are identified and described. The article provides knowledge on the different prerequisites of engineering students in relation to the role of sustainability in engineering. This information is important input to educators trying to target new engineering students and contribute to the provision of engineers equipped to meet sustainability challenges.

  10. Carburetion in aviation engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    POINCARE

    1923-01-01

    This report tries to solve the problem of supplying the engine cylinders with a mixture of fuel and air in the right ratio to obtain the greatest power from the engine with the least consumption of fuel.

  11. Rotorcraft convertible engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, J. C.; Earle, R. V.; Mar, H. M.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of the Rotorcraft Convertible Engine Study was to define future research and technology effort required for commercial development by 1988 of convertible fan/shaft gas turbine engines for unconventional rotorcraft transports. Two rotorcraft and their respective missions were defined: a Fold Tilt Rotor aircraft and an Advancing Blade Concept (ABC) rotorcraft. Sensitivity studies were conducted with these rotorcraft to determine parametrically the influence of propulsion characteristics on aircraft size, mission fuel requirements, and direct operating costs (DOC). The two rotorcraft were flown with conventional propulsion systems (separate lift/cruise engines) and with convertible propulsion systems to determine the benefits to be derived from convertible engines. Trade-off studies were conducted to determine the optimum engine cycle and staging arrangement for a convertible engine. Advanced technology options applicable to convertible engines were studied. Research and technology programs were identified which would ensure technology readiness for commercial development of convertible engines by 1988.

  12. Educating the Engineer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Melanie; Wallace, Mack

    2003-01-01

    Presented as a conversation between a teacher and engineer about school design, addresses educators' preferences and engineers' perspectives on issues, such as windows, sustainable design, sinks, acoustics, and natural ventilation. (EV)

  13. Liquid piston Stirling engines

    SciTech Connect

    West, C.D.

    1983-01-01

    This book is a presentation on piston stirling engines. Topics covered include: liquid piston engines; basic design and power calculations; more advanced power calculations; design example; and past research work and some present research needs.

  14. BENCHMARKING SUSTAINABILITY ENGINEERING EDUCATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goals of this project are to develop and apply a methodology for benchmarking curricula in sustainability engineering and to identify individuals active in sustainability engineering education.

  15. NASA Systems Engineering Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shishko, Robert; Aster, Robert; Chamberlain, Robert G.; Mcduffee, Patrick; Pieniazek, Les; Rowell, Tom; Bain, Beth; Cox, Renee I.; Mooz, Harold; Polaski, Lou

    1995-01-01

    This handbook brings the fundamental concepts and techniques of systems engineering to NASA personnel in a way that recognizes the nature of NASA systems and environment. It is intended to accompany formal NASA training courses on systems engineering and project management when appropriate, and is designed to be a top-level overview. The concepts were drawn from NASA field center handbooks, NMI's/NHB's, the work of the NASA-wide Systems Engineering Working Group and the Systems Engineering Process Improvement Task team, several non-NASA textbooks and guides, and material from independent systems engineering courses taught to NASA personnel. Five core chapters cover systems engineering fundamentals, the NASA Project Cycle, management issues in systems engineering, systems analysis and modeling, and specialty engineering integration. It is not intended as a directive. Superseded by: NASA/SP-2007-6105 Rev 1 (20080008301).

  16. COBRA Main Engine Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snoddy, Jim; Sides, Steve; Lyles, Garry M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The COBRA (CO-Optimized Booster for Reusable Applications) project include the following: 1. COBRA main engine project team. 2. COBRA and RLX cycles selected. 3. COBRA proto-type engine approach enables mission success. 4. COBRA provides quick, low cost demo of cycle and technologies. 5. COBRA cycle I risk reduction supports. 6. Achieving engine safety. 6. RLX cycle I risk reduction supports. 7. Flight qualification. 9. Life extension engine testing.

  17. Cruise Missile Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Williams International's F107 fanjet engine is used in two types of cruise missiles, Navy-sponsored Tomahawk and the Air Force AGM-86B Air Launched Cruise Missile (ALCM). Engine produces about 600 pounds thrust, is one foot in diameter and weighs only 141 pounds. Design was aided by use of a COSMIC program in calculating airflows in engine's internal ducting, resulting in a more efficient engine with increased thrust and reduced fuel consumption.

  18. Deployable Engine Air Brake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    On approach, next-generation aircraft are likely to have airframe noise levels that are comparable to or in excess of engine noise. ATA Engineering, Inc. (ATA) is developing a novel quiet engine air brake (EAB), a device that generates "equivalent drag" within the engine through stream thrust reduction by creating a swirling outflow in the turbofan exhaust nozzle. Two Phase II projects were conducted to mature this technology: (1) a concept development program (CDP) and (2) a system development program (SDP).

  19. F-1 Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    This photograph shows F-1 engines being stored in the F-1 Engine Preparation Shop, building 4666, at the Marshall Space Flight Center. Each F-1 engine produced a thrust of 1,500,000 pounds. A cluster of five engines was mounted on the thrust structure of the S-IC stage of a 364-foot long Saturn V launch vehicle that ultimately took astronauts to the Moon.

  20. Experimentation in software engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, V. R.; Selby, R. W.; Hutchens, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    Experimentation in software engineering supports the advancement of the field through an iterative learning process. In this paper, a framework for analyzing most of the experimental work performed in software engineering over the past several years is presented. A variety of experiments in the framework is described and their contribution to the software engineering discipline is discussed. Some useful recommendations for the application of the experimental process in software engineering are included.

  1. Data management in engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browne, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    An introduction to computer based data management is presented with an orientation toward the needs of engineering application. The characteristics and structure of data management systems are discussed. A link to familiar engineering applications of computing is established through a discussion of data structure and data access procedures. An example data management system for a hypothetical engineering application is presented.

  2. Program (systems) engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baroff, Lynn E.; Easter, Robert W.; Pomphrey, Richard B.

    2004-01-01

    Program Systems Engineering applies the principles of Systems Engineering at the program level. Space programs are composed of interrelated elements which can include collections of projects, advanced technologies, information systems, etc. Some program elements are outside traditional engineering's physical systems, such as education and public outreach, public relations, resource flow, and interactions within the political environments.

  3. Educating More Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Indicates that there will be a substantially increased demand for environmental engineers during the next few years, especially in the areas of water pollution control and sanitary engineering. Educators see the need for additional engineering graduates and for improved environmental training programs in schools. (JR)

  4. Graduate Engineering Education Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettit, Joseph M.; Gere, James M.

    1969-01-01

    Describes rapid growth of graduate education in engineering between 1900 and 1969. Points out need for graduate curricula in engineering that are both practical and research-oriented. Adapted from paper presented at International Conference on the Trends in the Teaching and Training of Engineers, Paris, France, December 9-13, 1968, and at Second…

  5. Personality Characteristics of Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Molen, Henk T.; Schmidt, Henk G.; Kruisman, Gerard

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to investigate the personality characteristics of a group of engineers with a variety of years of experience. It was executed to remedy shortcomings of the literature concerning this issue and to produce suggestions for a postgraduate training programme for engineers. A total of 103 engineers were tested with…

  6. Principles of Naval Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    Fundamentals of shipboard machinery, equipment, and engineering plants are presented in this text prepared for engineering officers. A general description is included of the development of naval ships, ship design and construction, stability and buoyancy, and damage and casualty control. Engineering theories are explained on the background of ship…

  7. Engineering for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lottero-Perdue, Pamela S.; Lovelidge, Sarah; Bowling, Erin

    2010-01-01

    As calls for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education at the elementary level become more vociferous, elementary teachers may be wondering whether engineering is meant for "all" students. However, the authors assert that engineering can be taught in inclusive environments. It may be especially empowering for those who…

  8. 40 CFR 90.116 - Certification procedure-determining engine displacement, engine class, and engine families.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... engine displacement, engine class, and engine families. 90.116 Section 90.116 Protection of Environment...-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Emission Standards and Certification Provisions § 90.116 Certification procedure—determining engine displacement, engine class, and engine families. (a)...

  9. 40 CFR 90.116 - Certification procedure-determining engine displacement, engine class, and engine families.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... engine displacement, engine class, and engine families. 90.116 Section 90.116 Protection of Environment...-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Emission Standards and Certification Provisions § 90.116 Certification procedure—determining engine displacement, engine class, and engine families. (a)...

  10. 20. Engine identified as a 'single cylinder vacuum assist engine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Engine identified as a 'single cylinder vacuum assist engine for the Tod tandem compound engine' showing crank end. - Carnegie Steel-Ohio Works, Steam Engines, 912 Salt Springs Road, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  11. 21. Engine identified as a 'single cylinder vacuum assist engine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Engine identified as a 'single cylinder vacuum assist engine for Tod tandem compound engine' showing compressor. - Carnegie Steel-Ohio Works, Steam Engines, 912 Salt Springs Road, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  12. Optimized hydrogen piston engines

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.

    1994-05-10

    Hydrogen piston engines can be simultaneously optimized for improved thermal efficiency and for extremely low emissions. Using these engines in constant-speed, constant-load systems such as series hybrid-electric automobiles or home cogeneration systems can result in significantly improved energy efficiency. For the same electrical energy produced, the emissions from such engines can be comparable to those from natural gas-fired steam power plants. These hydrogen-fueled high-efficiency, low-emission (HELE) engines are a mechanical equivalent of hydrogen fuel cells. HELE engines could facilitate the transition to a hydrogen fuel cell economy using near-term technology.

  13. Diesel engine combustion processes

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Diesel Engine Combustion Processes guides the engineer and research technician toward engine designs which will give the ``best payoff`` in terms of emissions and fuel economy. Contents include: Three-dimensional modeling of soot and NO in a direct-injection diesel engine; Prechamber for lean burn for low NOx; Modeling and identification of a diesel combustion process with the downhill gradient search method; The droplet group micro-explosions in W/O diesel fuel emulsion sprays; Combustion process of diesel spray in high temperature air; Combustion process of diesel engines at regions with different altitude; and more.

  14. Armored Geomembrane Cover Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Foye, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Geomembranes are an important component of modern engineered barriers to prevent the infiltration of stormwater and runoff into contaminated soil and rock as well as waste containment facilities—a function generally described as a geomembrane cover. This paper presents a case history involving a novel implementation of a geomembrane cover system. Due to this novelty, the design engineers needed to assemble from disparate sources the design criteria for the engineering of the cover. This paper discusses the design methodologies assembled by the engineering team. This information will aid engineers designing similar cover systems as well as environmental and public health professionals selecting site improvements that involve infiltration barriers. PMID:21776229

  15. Solar powered Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Meijer, R.J.

    1987-11-24

    In a solar dish module which comprises a dish which receives incident solar rays and reflects them to a focus at which is located the combination of a receiver and a heat engine organized and arranged so that the heat energy of the reflected solar rays collected at the receiver powers the engine, and wherein the receiver and heat engine are supported from the dish by a framework, the improvement is described which comprises journal means for journaling at least the engine on the framework to maintain certain predetermined spatial orientation for the engine in relation to the direction of gravity irrespective of spatial orientation of the dish.

  16. Diagnosing diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, L.

    1992-03-01

    This paper reports that problems with diesel engines that have reciprocating parts have long defied a systematic approach to analysis. Engine phenomena such as combustion pressures, valve seating impacts, and piston vibrations reflect directly on how an engine is performing and would be useful to measure. However, these occur inside an engine block and for the most part are not possible to measure directly with sensors. Diesel engine manufacturers are finding new ways to troubleshoot machinery by using sophisticated signal-processing techniques that detect combustion anomalies and high-speed data-acquisition units that sample multiple measurement parameters.

  17. Diesel engine catalytic combustor system. [aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ream, L. W. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A low compression turbocharged diesel engine is provided in which the turbocharger can be operated independently of the engine to power auxiliary equipment. Fuel and air are burned in a catalytic combustor to drive the turbine wheel of turbine section which is initially caused to rotate by starter motor. By opening a flapper value, compressed air from the blower section is directed to catalytic combustor when it is heated and expanded, serving to drive the turbine wheel and also to heat the catalytic element. To start, engine valve is closed, combustion is terminated in catalytic combustor, and the valve is then opened to utilize air from the blower for the air driven motor. When the engine starts, the constituents in its exhaust gas react in the catalytic element and the heat generated provides additional energy for the turbine section.

  18. Stirling engine application study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teagan, W. P.; Cunningham, D.

    1983-01-01

    A range of potential applications for Stirling engines in the power range from 0.5 to 5000 hp is surveyed. Over one hundred such engine applications are grouped into a small number of classes (10), with the application in each class having a high degree of commonality in technical performance and cost requirements. A review of conventional engines (usually spark ignition or Diesel) was then undertaken to determine the degree to which commercial engine practice now serves the needs of the application classes and to detemine the nature of the competition faced by a new engine system. In each application class the Stirling engine was compared to the conventional engines, assuming that objectives of ongoing Stirling engine development programs are met. This ranking process indicated that Stirling engines showed potential for use in all application classes except very light duty applications (lawn mowers, etc.). However, this potential is contingent on demonstrating much greater operating life and reliability than has been demonstrated to date by developmental Stirling engine systems. This implies that future program initiatives in developing Stirling engine systems should give more emphasis to life and reliability issues than has been the case in ongoing programs.

  19. Engineered phages for electronics.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yue

    2016-11-15

    Phages are traditionally widely studied in biology and chemistry. In recent years, engineered phages have attracted significant attentions for functionalization or construction of electronic devices, due to their specific binding, catalytic, nucleating or electronic properties. To apply the engineered phages in electronics, these are a number of interesting questions: how to engineer phages for electronics? How are the engineered phages characterized? How to assemble materials with engineered phages? How are the engineered phages micro or nanopatterned? What are the strategies to construct electronics devices with engineered phages? This review will highlight the early attempts to address these questions and explore the fundamental and practical aspects of engineered phages in electronics, including the approaches for selection or expression of specific peptides on phage coat proteins, characterization of engineered phages in electronics, assembly of electronic materials, patterning of engineered phages, and construction of electronic devices. It provides the methodologies and opens up ex-cit-ing op-por-tu-ni-ties for the development of a variety of new electronic materials and devices based on engineered phages for future applications. PMID:27322923

  20. Institute for Mechanical Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Institute of Mechanical Engineering has the objectives of supporting in Canada the following activities: improvement of vehicles, propulsion systems, and transportation-related facilities and services; improvements in the design and operation of maritime engineering works; protection of the environment; enhancement of energy flexibility; advancement of firms engaged in manufacturing and resource extraction; and related programs of other government departments and agencies. In 1990-91 the Institute, which had changed its name that year from the Division of Mechanical Engineering, consolidated its research activities from nine laboratories to six programs. Activities in these six programs are described: Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Coastal Zone Engineering, Cold Regions Engineering, Combustion and Fluids Engineering, Ground Transportation Technology, and Machinery and Engine Technology.

  1. Energy efficient aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, R.; Miller, B.

    1979-01-01

    The three engine programs that constitute the propulsion portion of NASA's Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program are described, their status indicated, and anticipated improvements in SFC discussed. The three engine programs are (1) Engine Component Improvement--directed at current engines, (2) Energy Efficiency Engine directed at new turbofan engines, and (3) Advanced Turboprops--directed at technology for advanced turboprop--powered aircraft with cruise speeds to Mach 0.8. Unique propulsion system interactive ties to the airframe resulting from engine design features to reduce fuel consumption are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the advanced turboprop since it offers the largest potential fuel savings of the three propulsion programs and also has the strongest interactive ties to the airframe.

  2. Energy efficient aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, R.; Miller, B.

    1979-01-01

    The three engine programs that constitute the propulsion portion of NASA's Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program are described, their status indicated, and anticipated improvements in SFC discussed. The three engine programs are: (1) engine component improvement, directed at current engines, (2) energy efficient engine, directed at new turbofan engines, and (3) advanced turboprops, directed at technology for advanced turboprop-powered aircraft with cruise speeds to Mach 0.8. Unique propulsion system interactive ties to the airframe resulting from engine design features to reduce fuel consumption are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the advanced turboprop since it offers the largest potential fuel savings of the three propulsion programs and also has the strongest interactive ties to the airframe.

  3. What Chemistry To Teach Engineers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkes, Stephen J.

    2000-01-01

    Examines possible general chemistry topics that would be most relevant and practical for engineering majors. Consults the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET), engineering textbooks, texts from other required subjects, and practicing engineers for recommendations. (Contains 24 references.) (WRM)

  4. Mechanical Engineering Department technical review

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, R.B.; Abrahamson, L.; Denney, R.M.; Dubois, B.E

    1982-01-01

    Technical achievements and publication abstracts related to research in the following Divisions of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory are reported in this biannual review: Nuclear Fuel Engineering; Nuclear Explosives Engineering; Weapons Engineering; Energy Systems Engineering; Engineering Sciences; Magnetic Fusion Engineering; and Material Fabrication. (LCL)

  5. A Powerful New Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) funding from NASA's Glenn Research Center, Moller International created a new coating for rotary engines, which significantly improves the fuel consumption of a vehicle while reducing emissions. The new coatings are offered in the new Rotapower(R) engine, which is produced and distributed by Moller subsidiary, Freedom Motors, Inc. The coating allows the Rotapower engine to function smoother than other models, reducing wear and protecting the engine. The Rotapower engine has the ability to operate on a variety of fuels, including gasoline, natural gas, diesel, alcohol, and kerosene. A small and lightweight engine, it is projected to replace many of today's bulkier versions. The 10 horsepower model fits in the palm of one's hand, while the 160 horsepower model fits into a 5-gallon bucket. The clean running Rotapower engine is environmentally appealing, because it eliminates over 98 percent of the total emissions given off by traditional piston engines. Fewer pollutants are spewed into the air, making it especially attractive in areas where air pollution is a major problem. Due to the clean-burning nature of the engine, it meets the stringent standards set by the California Air Resources Board. The engine also has numerous commercial benefits in several types of recreational, industrial, and transportation applications, including personal watercraft, snowmobiles, portable generators. and pumps.

  6. Teaching cellular engineering.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Daniel A; Waugh, Richard E

    2006-02-01

    Cellular engineering is one of the fastest growing subdisciplines in the field of Biomedical Engineering. It involves the application of engineering analysis to understand and control cellular behavior, with the ultimate objective of developing novel therapeutic or diagnostic approaches for the clinic or harnessing cellular function for commercial applications. Well-educated students in this area need strong foundational knowledge in engineering science, chemistry, and cell and molecular biology. In undergraduate curricula, the challenge is to include essential engineering skills plus appropriate levels of training in chemistry and biology while satisfying accreditation-mandated breadth in engineering training. At the graduate level, educators must accommodate students with diverse backgrounds and provide them with both a state-of-the-art understanding of the life sciences and the most advanced engineering skills. Engineering curricular content should include mechanics and materials, physical chemistry, transport phenomena, and control theory. Training from faculty with appointments and research programs in the life sciences is generally recommended, and additional life science content should also be integrated within the engineering curriculum. A capstone course in cellular engineering that includes opportunities for students to have hands-on experiences with state-of-the-art laboratory techniques is highly recommended. PMID:16450196

  7. Liquid rocket engine test facility engineering challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellerbrock, Hartwig; Ziegenhagen, Stefan

    2006-12-01

    Liquid rocket engines for launch vehicles and space crafts as well as their subsystems need to be verified and qualified during hot-runs. A high test cadence combined with a flexible test team helps to reduce the cost for test verification during development/qualification as well as during acceptance testing for production. Test facility intelligence allows to test subsystems in the same manner as during complete engine system tests and will therefore reduce development time and cost. This paper gives an overview of the maturing of test engineering know how for rocket engine test stands as well as high altitude test stands for small propulsion thrusters at EADS-ST in Ottobrunn and Lampoldshausen and is split into two parts: Part 1 gives a historical overview of the EADS-ST test stands at Ottobrunn and Lampoldshausen since the beginning of Rocket propulsion activities in the 1960s. Part 2 gives an overview of the actual test capabilities and the test engineering know-how for test stand construction/adaptation and their use during running programs. Examples of actual realised facility concepts are given to demonstrate cost saving potential for test programs in both cases for development/qualification issues as well as for production purposes.

  8. Performance of Stirling Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, Shoichi; Hirata, Koichi; Toda, Fujio

    We have developed five kinds of high- and low-temperature differential Stirling engines and their engine performance was investigated experimentally. In order to determine the parameters that affect engine performance, experimental results were discussed and compared with results calculated using analytical methods. We show an arranging method for the experimental results, and consider the performance of general Stirling engines. After using the arranging method with nondimensional numbers obtained by a dimensional analysis, a prediction method, which is used at the early design stage, is formulated. One of the nondimensional numbers in this prediction method is calculated based on engine specifications, including the properties of the working gas. The prediction method can predict engine speed, output power, the effect of working gas and operating conditions.

  9. Staged combustion with piston engine and turbine engine supercharger

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, Larry E.; Anderson, Brian L.; O'Brien, Kevin C.

    2011-11-01

    A combustion engine method and system provides increased fuel efficiency and reduces polluting exhaust emissions by burning fuel in a two-stage combustion system. Fuel is combusted in a piston engine in a first stage producing piston engine exhaust gases. Fuel contained in the piston engine exhaust gases is combusted in a second stage turbine engine. Turbine engine exhaust gases are used to supercharge the piston engine.

  10. Staged combustion with piston engine and turbine engine supercharger

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, Larry E.; Anderson, Brian L.; O'Brien, Kevin C.

    2006-05-09

    A combustion engine method and system provides increased fuel efficiency and reduces polluting exhaust emissions by burning fuel in a two-stage combustion system. Fuel is combusted in a piston engine in a first stage producing piston engine exhaust gases. Fuel contained in the piston engine exhaust gases is combusted in a second stage turbine engine. Turbine engine exhaust gases are used to supercharge the piston engine.

  11. Advanced rotary engine studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C.

    1980-01-01

    A review of rotary engine developments relevant to a stratified charge rotary aircraft engine is presented. Advantages in module size and weight, fuel efficiency, reliability, and multi-fuel capability are discussed along with developments in turbocharging, increased mean effective pressure, improved apex seal/trochoid wear surfacing materials, and high strength and temperature aluminum casting alloys. A carbureted prototype aircraft engine is also described.

  12. Engineered human vaccines

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, J.S. . Div. of Immunology and Neurobiology)

    1994-01-01

    The limitations of human vaccines in use at present and the design requirements for a new generation of human vaccines are discussed. The progress in engineering of human vaccines for bacteria, viruses, parasites, and cancer is reviewed, and the data from human studies with the engineered vaccines are discussed, especially for cancer and AIDS vaccines. The final section of the review deals with the possible future developments in the field of engineered human vaccines and the requirement for effective new human adjuvants.

  13. Advanced rotary engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C.

    1983-01-01

    The broad objectives of this paper are the following: (1) to summarize the Curtiss-Wright design, development and field testing background in the area of rotary aircraft engines; (2) to briefly summarize past activity and update development work in the area of stratified charge rotary combustion engines; and (3) to discuss the development of a high-performance direct injected unthrottled stratified charge rotary combustion aircraft engine. Efficiency improvements through turbocharging are also discussed.

  14. [Bone tissue engineering scaffolds].

    PubMed

    Fang, Liru; Weng, Wenjian; Shen, Ge; Han, Gaorong; Santos, J D; Du, Peiyi

    2003-03-01

    Bone tissue engineering may provide an alternative to the repairs to skeletal defects resulting from disease, trauma or surgery. Scaffold has played an important role in bone tissue engineering, which functions as the architecture for bone in growth. In this paper, the authors gave a brief introduction about the requirement of bone tissue engineering scaffold, the key of the design of scaffolds and the current research on this subject. PMID:12744187

  15. Stirling engine heating system

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, L.N.; Houtman, W.H.; Percival, W.H.

    1988-06-28

    A hot gas engine is described wherein a working gas flows back and forth in a closed path between a relatively cooler compression cylinder side of the engine and a relatively hotter expansion cylinder side of the engine and the path contains means including a heat source and a heat sink acting upon the gas in cooperation with the compression and expansion cylinders to cause the gas to execute a thermodynamic cycle wherein useful mechanical output power is developed by the engine, the improvement in the heat source which comprises a plurality of individual tubes each forming a portion of the closed path for the working gas.

  16. Stirling Engine Heat Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagawa, Noboru

    Recent advances in the feasibility studies related to the Stirling engines and Stirling engine heat pumps which have been considered attractive due to their promising role in helping to solve the global environmental and energy problems,are reviewed. This article begins to describe the brief history of the Stirling engines and theoretical thermodynamic analysis of the Stirling cycle in order to understand several advantages on the Stirling engine. Furthermore,they could throw light on our question why the dream engines had not been promoted to practical applications during two hundred years. The present review shows that the Stirling engines with several unique advantages including 30 to 40% thermal efficiency and preferable exhaust characteristics,had been designed and constructed by recent tackling for the development of the advanced automobile and other applications using them. Based on the current state of art,it is being provided to push the Stirling engines combined with heat pumps based on the reversed Rankine cycle to the market. At present,however, many problems, especially for the durability, cost, and delicate engine parts must be enforced to solve. In addition,there are some possibilities which can increase the attractiveness of the Stirling engines and heat pumps. The review closes with suggestions for further research.

  17. Russian Rocket Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA engineers successfully tested a Russian-built rocket engine on November 4, 1998 at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Engine Test Facility, which had been used for testing the Saturn V F-1 engines and Space Shuttle Main engines. The MSFC was under a Space Act Agreement with Lockheed Martin Astronautics of Denver to provide a series of test firings of the Atlas III propulsion system configured with the Russian-designed RD-180 engine. The tests were designed to measure the performance of the Atlas III propulsion system, which included avionics and propellant tanks and lines, and how these components interacted with the RD-180 engine. The RD-180 is powered by kerosene and liquid oxygen, the same fuel mix used in Saturn rockets. The RD-180, the most powerful rocket engine tested at the MSFC since Saturn rocket tests in the 1960s, generated 860,000 pounds of thrust. The test was the first test ever anywhere outside Russia of a Russian designed and built engine.

  18. Diesel Engine Alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, T

    2003-08-24

    There are basically three different modes of combustion possible for use in reciprocating engines. These include, diffusion burning, as occurs in current diesel engines, flame propagation combustion such as used in conventional SI engines, and homogeneous combustion such as is used in the SwRI HCCI engine. Diesel engines currently offer significant fuel consumption benefits relative to other powerplants for on and off road applications; however, costs and efficiency may become problems as the emissions standards become even more stringent. This presentation presents a discussion of the potentials of HCCI and flame propagation engines as alternatives to the diesel engines. It is suggested that as the emissions standards become more and more stringent, the advantages of the diesel may disappear. The potential for HCCI is limited by the availability of the appropriate fuel. The potential of flame propagation engines is limited by several factors including knock, EGR tolerance, high BMEP operation, and throttling. These limitations are discussed in the context of potential for improvement of the efficiency of the flame propagation engine.

  19. Helicopter engine core noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vonglahn, U. H.

    1982-07-01

    Calculated engine core noise levels, based on NASA Lewis prediction procedures, for five representative helicopter engines are compared with measured total helicopter noise levels and ICAO helicopter noise certification requirements. Comparisons are made for level flyover and approach procedures. The measured noise levels are generally significantly greater than those predicted for the core noise levels, except for the Sikorsky S-61 and S-64 helicopters. However, the predicted engine core noise levels are generally at or within 3 dB of the ICAO noise rules. Consequently, helicopter engine core noise can be a significant contributor to the overall helicopter noise signature.

  20. Engine fuels from biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, H. W.

    1981-01-01

    Sources of biomass fuels for engines are compared to other synfuels. Biomass can be converted to gaseous and liquid engine fuels by the same processes utilized for coal conversion such as gasification, direct liquefaction, and indirect liquefaction. Alternatively, biomass can be converted into liquid fuels by fermentation to methane or ethanol. The quantities of biomass derived engine fuels potentially available in the next decade are relatively small, and the anticipated costs are significantly greater than for liquid engine fuels made from coal or oil shale.

  1. Automatic engine control system

    SciTech Connect

    Geary, W.C.; Mirsaiidi, M.V.; Redfern, T.; Wolfe, D.W.

    1986-01-14

    This patent describes an automatic control circuit for an internal combustion engine and clutch assembly. One component of this circuit is a timer for determining the time the engine is allowed to run and the clutch is engaged and a second period of time when the clutch is automatically disengaged. Associated with the timer is a starter means to start the engine during the first time period and a clutch actuating mechanism for engaging the clutch near the first time period initiation after the starter starts the engine. An engine shut down and clutch disengagement mechanism is also responsive to the first timer. The patent then goes on to describe a supplemental timer mechanism for determining a third and fourth period of time within the second time period such that the third period being when the engine is shut off and the fourth period being when the engine runs with clutch disengaged. The starter mechanism is responsive to the supplemental timer to start the engine at the beginning of the fourth period. A shut down means stops the engine at the beginning of the third period in response to the timer.

  2. Rotary engine cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Charles (Inventor); Gigon, Richard M. (Inventor); Blum, Edward J. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A rotary engine has a substantially trochoidal-shaped housing cavity in which a rotor planetates. A cooling system for the engine directs coolant along a single series path consisting of series connected groups of passages. Coolant enters near the intake port, passes downwardly and axially through the cooler regions of the engine, then passes upwardly and axially through the hotter regions. By first flowing through the coolest regions, coolant pressure is reduced, thus reducing the saturation temperature of the coolant and thereby enhancing the nucleate boiling heat transfer mechanism which predominates in the high heat flux region of the engine during high power level operation.

  3. Flight Test Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlock, Kate Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Although the scope of flight test engineering efforts may vary among organizations, all point to a common theme: flight test engineering is an interdisciplinary effort to test an asset in its operational flight environment. Upfront planning where design, implementation, and test efforts are clearly aligned with the flight test objective are keys to success. This chapter provides a top level perspective of flight test engineering for the non-expert. Additional research and reading on the topic is encouraged to develop a deeper understanding of specific considerations involved in each phase of flight test engineering.

  4. F-1 Engine Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    A complete F-1 engine assembly is shown in this photograph. Designed and developed by Rocketdye under the direction of the Marshall Space Flight Center, the engine measured 19-feet tall by 12.5 feet at the nozzle exit, and each engine produced a 1,500,000-pound thrust using liquid oxygen and kerosene as the propellant. A cluster of five F-1 engines was mounted on the Saturn V S-IC (first) stage and burned 15 tons of liquid oxygen and kerosene each second to produce 7,500,000 pounds of thrust.

  5. Tripropellant engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, D. B.; Kirby, F. M.

    1978-01-01

    The potential for converting the space shuttle main engine (SSME) to a dual-fuel, dual-mode engine using LOX/hydrocarbon propellants in mode 1 and LOX/H2 in mode 2 was examined. Various engine system concepts were formulated that included staged combustion and gas generator turbine power cycles, and LOX/RP-1, LOX/CH4, and LOX/C3H8 mode 1 propellants. Both oxidizer and fuel regenerative cooling were considered. All of the SSME major components were examined to determine their adaptability to the candidate dual-fuel engines.

  6. SOFIA Engineer Thomas Keilig

    NASA Video Gallery

    Thomas Keilig, the German Aerospace Agency's (DLR) chief telescope engineer for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), comments on technical details of the high-tech primary ...

  7. Rocket Engine Oscillation Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesman, Tom; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Rocket engine oscillating data can reveal many physical phenomena ranging from unsteady flow and acoustics to rotordynamics and structural dynamics. Because of this, engine diagnostics based on oscillation data should employ both signal analysis and physical modeling. This paper describes an approach to rocket engine oscillation diagnostics, types of problems encountered, and example problems solved. Determination of design guidelines and environments (or loads) from oscillating phenomena is required during initial stages of rocket engine design, while the additional tasks of health monitoring, incipient failure detection, and anomaly diagnostics occur during engine development and operation. Oscillations in rocket engines are typically related to flow driven acoustics, flow excited structures, or rotational forces. Additional sources of oscillatory energy are combustion and cavitation. Included in the example problems is a sampling of signal analysis tools employed in diagnostics. The rocket engine hardware includes combustion devices, valves, turbopumps, and ducts. Simple models of an oscillating fluid system or structure can be constructed to estimate pertinent dynamic parameters governing the unsteady behavior of engine systems or components. In the example problems it is shown that simple physical modeling when combined with signal analysis can be successfully employed to diagnose complex rocket engine oscillatory phenomena.

  8. Product engineering guide

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, C.E.

    1989-12-01

    The semiconductor product engineers job requires knowledge and expertise related to many different subjects. This report provides guidance for newcomers to product engineering and is a consise reference for all others involved in product engineering. Subjects addressed are Customer/Supplier interactions, component development sequence, production schedule support, component characterization, product specifications, test equipment requirements, product qualification, characterization and development reports, preferred parts list, standard packaging, and finally, classification and security considerations. This guide is intended to help standardize and simplify the component development sequence presently used in the semiconductor product engineering department. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Helicopter engine core noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonglahn, U. H.

    1982-01-01

    Calculated engine core noise levels, based on NASA Lewis prediction procedures, for five representative helicopter engines are compared with measured total helicopter noise levels and ICAO helicopter noise certification requirements. Comparisons are made for level flyover and approach procedures. The measured noise levels are generally significantly greater than those predicted for the core noise levels, except for the Sikorsky S-61 and S-64 helicopters. However, the predicted engine core noise levels are generally at or within 3 dB of the ICAO noise rules. Consequently, helicopter engine core noise can be a significant contributor to the overall helicopter noise signature.

  10. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, Doris; Boucher, Cheryl

    2009-09-30

    Energy independence and fuel savings are hallmarks of the nation’s energy strategy. The advancement of natural gas reciprocating engine power generation technology is critical to the nation’s future. A new engine platform that meets the efficiency, emissions, fuel flexibility, cost and reliability/maintainability targets will enable American manufacturers to have highly competitive products that provide substantial environmental and economic benefits in the US and in international markets. Along with Cummins and Waukesha, Caterpillar participated in a multiyear cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy to create a 50% efficiency natural gas powered reciprocating engine system with a 95% reduction in NOx emissions by the year 2013. This platform developed under this agreement will be a significant contributor to the US energy strategy and will enable gas engine technology to remain a highly competitive choice, meeting customer cost of electricity targets, and regulatory environmental standard. Engine development under the Advanced Reciprocating Engine System (ARES) program was divided into phases, with the ultimate goal being approached in a series of incremental steps. This incremental approach would promote the commercialization of ARES technologies as soon as they emerged from development and would provide a technical and commercial foundation of later-developing technologies. Demonstrations of the Phase I and Phase II technology were completed in 2004 and 2008, respectively. Program tasks in Phase III included component and system development and testing from 2009-2012. Two advanced ignition technology evaluations were investigated under the ARES program: laser ignition and distributed ignition (DIGN). In collaboration with Colorado State University (CSU), a laser ignition system was developed to provide ignition at lean burn and high boost conditions. Much work has been performed in Caterpillar’s DIGN program under the ARES program. This work

  11. Engine and method for operating an engine

    DOEpatents

    Lauper, Jr., John Christian; Willi, Martin Leo; Thirunavukarasu, Balamurugesh; Gong, Weidong

    2008-12-23

    A method of operating an engine is provided. The method may include supplying a combustible combination of reactants to a combustion chamber of the engine, which may include supplying a first hydrocarbon fuel, hydrogen fuel, and a second hydrocarbon fuel to the combustion chamber. Supplying the second hydrocarbon fuel to the combustion chamber may include at least one of supplying at least a portion of the second hydrocarbon fuel from an outlet port that discharges into an intake system of the engine and supplying at least a portion of the second hydrocarbon fuel from an outlet port that discharges into the combustion chamber. Additionally, the method may include combusting the combustible combination of reactants in the combustion chamber.

  12. Perturbing engine performance measurements to determine optimal engine control settings

    DOEpatents

    Jiang, Li; Lee, Donghoon; Yilmaz, Hakan; Stefanopoulou, Anna

    2014-12-30

    Methods and systems for optimizing a performance of a vehicle engine are provided. The method includes determining an initial value for a first engine control parameter based on one or more detected operating conditions of the vehicle engine, determining a value of an engine performance variable, and artificially perturbing the determined value of the engine performance variable. The initial value for the first engine control parameter is then adjusted based on the perturbed engine performance variable causing the engine performance variable to approach a target engine performance variable. Operation of the vehicle engine is controlled based on the adjusted initial value for the first engine control parameter. These acts are repeated until the engine performance variable approaches the target engine performance variable.

  13. Students' Changing Images of Engineering and Engineers. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jocuns, Andrew; Stevens, Reed; Garrison, Lari; Amos, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzes the images of engineers and engineering that students construct over the course of their undergraduate engineering educations. Students in their first year of study to become engineers knew very little about the work they would be doing as an engineer and their expectations were more specific, hopeful, and high status than…

  14. Engineering Sustainable Engineers through the Undergraduate Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weatherton, Yvette Pearson; Sattler, Melanie; Mattingly, Stephen; Chen, Victoria; Rogers, Jamie; Dennis, Brian

    2012-01-01

    In order to meet the challenges of sustainable development, our approach to education must be modified to equip students to evaluate alternatives and devise solutions that meet multi-faceted requirements. In 2009, faculty in the Departments of Civil, Industrial and Mechanical Engineering at the University of Texas at Arlington began implementation…

  15. Courseware Engineering Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uden, Lorna

    2002-01-01

    Describes development of the Courseware Engineering Methodology (CEM), created to guide novices in designing effective courseware. Discusses CEM's four models: pedagogical (concerned with the courseware's pedagogical aspects), conceptual (dealing with software engineering), interface (relating to human-computer interaction), and hypermedia…

  16. Stirling engine design manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martini, W. R.

    1978-01-01

    This manual is intended to serve both as an introduction to Stirling engine analysis methods and as a key to the open literature on Stirling engines. Over 800 references are listed and these are cross referenced by date of publication, author and subject. Engine analysis is treated starting from elementary principles and working through cycles analysis. Analysis methodologies are classified as first, second or third order depending upon degree of complexity and probable application; first order for preliminary engine studies, second order for performance prediction and engine optimization, and third order for detailed hardware evaluation and engine research. A few comparisons between theory and experiment are made. A second order design procedure is documented step by step with calculation sheets and a worked out example to follow. Current high power engines are briefly described and a directory of companies and individuals who are active in Stirling engine development is included. Much remains to be done. Some of the more complicated and potentially very useful design procedures are now only referred to. Future support will enable a more thorough job of comparing all available design procedures against experimental data which should soon be available.

  17. Biological handbook for engineers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Microbiological background information is compiled in handbook for engineers and scientists working on bio-related projects. It is intended as aid in - /1/ evaluating effects of engineering procedures on microbial life, /2/ determining effects of decontamination and sterilization on performance of overall systems, and /3/ understanding language of microbiologists.

  18. NASA Engineering Network (NEN)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Topousis, Daria; Trevarthen, Ellie; Yew, Manson

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the NASA Engineering Network (NEN). NEN is designed to search documents over multiple repositories, submit and browse NASA Lessons Learned, collaborate and share ideas with other engineers via communities of practice, access resources from one portal, and find subject matter experts via the People, Organizations, Projects, Skills (POPS) locator.

  19. Diesel Engine Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Diesel engine technicians maintain and repair the engines that power transportation equipment such as heavy trucks, trains, buses, and locomotives. Some technicians work mainly on farm machines, ships, compressors, and pumps. Others work mostly on construction equipment such as cranes, power shovels, bulldozers, and paving machines. This article…

  20. Ann Wagner, Mechanical Engineer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Betsy K.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a profile of Ann Wagner, a mechanical engineer at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland, and her job responsibilities there. Also includes a brief history of mechanical engineering as well as a sample graph and data activity sheet with answers. (AIM)

  1. Mechanical Engineering Technology Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Univ., Atlanta. Dept. of Vocational and Career Development.

    This guide offers information and procedures necessary to train mechanical engineering technicians. Discussed first are the rationale and objectives of the curriculum. The occupational field of mechanical engineering technology is described. Next, a curriculum model is set forth that contains information on the standard mechanical engineering…

  2. The Engineering Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Society for Engineering Education, Washington, DC.

    Occupational and educational information concerning 12 categories of engineering technicians and engineering technology is presented. This information covers the role of the technicians, student qualifications, typical job titles, and typical educational programs. The categories presented are (1) air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration, (2)…

  3. Searches Conducted for Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenz, Patricia

    This paper reports an industrial information specialist's experience in performing online searches for engineers and surveys the databases used. Engineers seeking assistance fall into three categories: (1) those who recognize the value of online retrieval; (2) referrals by colleagues; and (3) those who do not seek help. As more successful searches…

  4. Computers in Engineering Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushby, N. J.

    This bibliography cites 26 books, papers, and reports dealing with various uses of computers in engineering education; and describes several computer programs available for use in teaching aeronautical, chemical, civil, electrical and electronic, mechanical, and nuclear engineering. Each computer program entry is presented by name, author,…

  5. Test Pilot and Engineer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1920-01-01

    Goggles at the ready, this Langley test pilot and engineer conducted research business high above the ground. In the early years the flight research team was usually made up of a test pilot (Thomas Carroll, front cockpit) and an engineer (John W. Gus Crowley, Jr.).

  6. Family Style Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smetana, Lara K.; Schumaker, Joan Chadde; Goldfien, Wendy Severin; Nelson, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Cunningham and Lachapelle (2011) found that most students have a naive understanding of the field of engineering, mistaking it for the work of technicians or artisans and neglecting to see the contributions engineers make to people's daily lives. In general, public (and teacher) understanding is not much more refined. These misconceptions about…

  7. SOFTWARE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE (SEI)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Software Engineering Institute (SEI) is a federally funded research and development center established in 1984 by the U.S. Department of Defense and operated by Carnegie Mellon University. SEI has a broad charter to provide leadership in the practice of software engineering t...

  8. Small Gas Engine Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Div. of Vocational-Technical Schools.

    Instructional materials are provided for a small gas engine course. A list of objectives appears first, followed by a list of internal parts and skills/competencies related to those parts for engine work, ignition and electrical systems, fuel system, crankcase lubrication system, arc welding skills, and gas welding skills. Outlines are provided…

  9. Knowledge Engineering and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Antonio M., Jr.; Donlon, James

    2001-01-01

    Discusses knowledge engineering, computer software, and possible applications in the field of education. Highlights include the distinctions between data, information, and knowledge; knowledge engineering as a subfield of artificial intelligence; knowledge acquisition; data mining; ontology development for subject terms; cognitive apprentices; and…

  10. Engineering Design Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Mike

    2004-01-01

    In the author's opinion, the separation of content between science, math, engineering, and technology education should not exist. Working with the relationship between these content areas enhances students' efforts to learn about the physical world. In teaching students about design, technology, and engineering, attention should be given to the…

  11. Engineering for Everyone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Christine M.; Higgins, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    The new Next Generation Science Standards make it a priority for schools to focus more on the E in STEM, to help students learn the skills and practices of engineering. Schools that are doing so face a challenge, however: How to design educational experiences in engineering that engage all students--including girls and minorities, who are…

  12. Make Room for Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boesdorfer, Sarah; Greenhalgh, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS Lead States 2013) urge science teachers to include engineering practices and ideas in their already full science curriculum, but many teachers do not know where to start. Only 7% of high school science teachers report feeling "very well prepared" to teach engineering. The…

  13. Teaching Engineering Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Christine M.; Carlsen, William S.

    2014-01-01

    Engineering is featured prominently in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and related reform documents, but how its nature and methods are described is problematic. This paper is a systematic review and critique of that representation, and proposes that the disciplinary core ideas of engineering (as described in the NGSS) can be…

  14. Free piston stirling engines

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, C.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents a basic introduction to free piston Stirling engine technology through a review of specialized background material. It also includes information based on actual construction and operation experience with these machines, as well as theoretical and analytical insights into free piston Stirling engine technology.

  15. SCSE organic Rankine engine

    SciTech Connect

    Boda, F.P.

    1981-01-01

    The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) engine is described which has been developed by FACC for the Small Community Solar Thermal Power Experiment (SCSE). This engine is part of a Power Conversion Subsystem (PCS) located at the focal plant of a sun-tracking parabolic dish concentrator.

  16. Mathematical Education of Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    The seminar reported in this document examined the university mathematics courses which should be available to future engineers, and was especially concerned with the introduction of computer science education. There are four major sections. The first reports a survey of electrical engineers in the United Kingdom which investigated how often they…

  17. Engine monitoring display study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornsby, Mary E.

    1992-01-01

    The current study is part of a larger NASA effort to develop displays for an engine-monitoring system to enable the crew to monitor engine parameter trends more effectively. The objective was to evaluate the operational utility of adding three types of information to the basic Boeing Engine Indicating and Crew Alerting System (EICAS) display formats: alphanumeric alerting messages for engine parameters whose values exceed caution or warning limits; alphanumeric messages to monitor engine parameters that deviate from expected values; and a graphic depiction of the range of expected values for current conditions. Ten training and line pilots each flew 15 simulated flight scenarios with five variants of the basic EICAS format; these variants included different combinations of the added information. The pilots detected engine problems more quickly when engine alerting messages were included in the display; adding a graphic depiction of the range of expected values did not affect detection speed. The pilots rated both types of alphanumeric messages (alert and monitor parameter) as more useful and easier to interpret than the graphic depiction. Integrating engine parameter messages into the EICAS alerting system appears to be both useful and preferred.

  18. Diesel Engine Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foutes, William A.

    Written in student performance terms, this curriculum guide on diesel engine repair is divided into the following eight sections: an orientation to the occupational field and instructional program; instruction in operating principles; instruction in engine components; instruction in auxiliary systems; instruction in fuel systems; instruction in…

  19. Diesel engine exhaust oxidizer

    SciTech Connect

    Kammel, R.A.

    1992-06-16

    This patent describes a diesel engine exhaust oxidizing device. It comprises: an enclosure having an inlet for receiving diesel engine exhaust, a main flow path through the enclosure to an outlet of the enclosure, a by-ass through the enclosure, and a microprocessor control means.

  20. Think Engineer, Think Male?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Male, Sally A.; Bush, Mark B.; Murray, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Engineering education needs to develop the competencies required for engineering work, and attract and retain students from diverse backgrounds. This study investigated the possibility that the perceived importance of competencies is subconsciously influenced by gendered assumptions, and as a consequence, this lowers the status given to…

  1. Thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, Steven L.

    2012-06-01

    Thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators use gas inertia and compressibility to eliminate many of the mechanical contrivances required by traditional engines and refrigerators while providing potentially attractive options that might reduce environmental impacts. The operation of both standing-wave and traveling-wave devices will be described and illustrated with thermoacoustic devices that have been used outside the laboratory.

  2. The WSRC Engineering Analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Beckmeyer, R.R.; Buckner, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes a multi-platform, multi-program engineering analysis tool that runs in either real-time or post-process modes, providing the analyst with a consistent, adaptable interface for 2-d color animation of time-oriented engineering data on any X-terminal.

  3. Concurrent Software Engineering Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankovic, Nenad; Tillo, Tammam

    2009-01-01

    Concurrent engineering or overlapping activities is a business strategy for schedule compression on large development projects. Design parameters and tasks from every aspect of a product's development process and their interdependencies are overlapped and worked on in parallel. Concurrent engineering suffers from negative effects such as excessive…

  4. First-Grade Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bautista, Nazan Uludag; Peters, Kari Nichole

    2010-01-01

    Can students build a house that is cost effective and strong enough to survive strong winds, heavy rains, and earthquakes? First graders in Ms. Peter's classroom worked like engineers to answer this question. They participated in a design challenge that required them to plan like engineers and build strong and cost-effective houses that would fit…

  5. Engineering Technology Curriculum Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gershon, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    Summarizes curriculum guidelines for the following engineering technologies: chemical, industrial, mining, petroleum, nuclear, civil, mechanical, electrical, automotive, and manufacturing. In a few years, these Engineering Council for Professional Development committee guidelines are intended to become the criteria by which programs will be judged…

  6. Stirling engine piston ring

    DOEpatents

    Howarth, Roy B.

    1983-01-01

    A piston ring design for a Stirling engine wherein the contact pressure between the piston and the cylinder is maintained at a uniform level, independent of engine conditions through a balancing of the pressure exerted upon the ring's surface and thereby allowing the contact pressure on the ring to be predetermined through the use of a preloaded expander ring.

  7. Electronics Engineering Technology Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Univ., Atlanta. Dept. of Vocational and Career Development.

    This guide offers information and procedures necessary to train electronics engineering technicians. Discussed first are the rationale and objectives of the curriculum. The occupational field of electronics engineering technology is described. Next, a curriculum model is set forth that contains information on the standard electronics engineering…

  8. Holographic heat engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Clifford V.

    2014-10-01

    It is shown that in theories of gravity where the cosmological constant is considered a thermodynamic variable, it is natural to use black holes as heat engines. Two examples are presented in detail using AdS charged black holes as the working substance. We notice that for static black holes, the maximally efficient traditional Carnot engine is also a Stirling engine. The case of negative cosmological constant supplies a natural realization of these engines in terms of the field theory description of the fluids to which they are holographically dual. We first propose a precise picture of how the traditional thermodynamic dictionary of holography is extended when the cosmological constant is dynamical and then conjecture that the engine cycles can be performed by using renormalization group flow. We speculate about the existence of a natural dual field theory counterpart to the gravitational thermodynamic volume.

  9. Thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, G.

    1996-12-31

    This report is a transcript of a practice lecture given in preparation for a review lecture on the operation of thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators. The author begins by a brief review of the thermodynamic principles underlying the operation of thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators. Remember from thermodynamics class that there are two kinds of heat engines, the heat engine or the prime mover which produces work from heat, and the refrigerator or heat pump that uses work to pump heat. The device operates between two thermal reservoirs at temperatures T{sub hot} and T{sub cold}. In the heat engine, heat flows into the device from the reservoir at T{sub hot}, produces work, and delivers waste heat into the reservoir at T{sub cold}. In the refrigerator, work flows into the device, lifting heat Q{sub cold} from reservoir at T{sub cold} and rejecting waste heat into the reservoir at T{sub hot}.

  10. Metabolic Engineering VII Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Korpics

    2012-12-04

    The aims of this Metabolic Engineering conference are to provide a forum for academic and industrial researchers in the field; to bring together the different scientific disciplines that contribute to the design, analysis and optimization of metabolic pathways; and to explore the role of Metabolic Engineering in the areas of health and sustainability. Presentations, both written and oral, panel discussions, and workshops will focus on both applications and techniques used for pathway engineering. Various applications including bioenergy, industrial chemicals and materials, drug targets, health, agriculture, and nutrition will be discussed. Workshops focused on technology development for mathematical and experimental techniques important for metabolic engineering applications will be held for more in depth discussion. This 2008 meeting will celebrate our conference tradition of high quality and relevance to both industrial and academic participants, with topics ranging from the frontiers of fundamental science to the practical aspects of metabolic engineering.

  11. Aircraft engine pollution reduction.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines. An experimental program designed to develop and demonstrate these and other advanced, low pollution combustor design methods is described. Results that have been obtained to date indicate considerable promise for reducing advanced engine exhaust pollutants to levels significantly below current engines.

  12. Aircraft Engine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veres, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    This report outlines the detailed simulation of Aircraft Turbofan Engine. The objectives were to develop a detailed flow model of a full turbofan engine that runs on parallel workstation clusters overnight and to develop an integrated system of codes for combustor design and analysis to enable significant reduction in design time and cost. The model will initially simulate the 3-D flow in the primary flow path including the flow and chemistry in the combustor, and ultimately result in a multidisciplinary model of the engine. The overnight 3-D simulation capability of the primary flow path in a complete engine will enable significant reduction in the design and development time of gas turbine engines. In addition, the NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) multidisciplinary integration and analysis are discussed.

  13. Engineered cardiac tissues

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Rohin K.; Chiu, Loraine L. Y.; Reis, Lewis A.; Radisic, Milica

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac tissue engineering offers the promise of creating functional tissue replacements for use in the failing heart or for in vitro drug screening. The last decade has seen a great deal of progress in this field with new advances in interdisciplinary areas such as developmental biology, genetic engineering, biomaterials, polymer science, bioreactor engineering, and stem cell biology. We review here a selection of the most recent advances in cardiac tissue engineering, including the classical cell-scaffold approaches, advanced bioreactor designs, cell sheet engineering, whole organ decellularization, stem-cell based approaches, and topographical control of tissue organization and function. We also discuss current challenges in the field, such as maturation of stem cell-derived cardiac patches and vascularization. PMID:21530228

  14. Mod II engine performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richey, Albert E.; Huang, Shyan-Cherng

    1987-01-01

    The testing of a prototype of an automotive Stirling engine, the Mod II, is discussed. The Mod II is a one-piece cast block with a V-4 single-crankshaft configuration and an annular regenerator/cooler design. The initial testing of Mod II concentrated on the basic engine, with auxiliaries driven by power sources external to the engine. The performance of the engine was tested at 720 C set temperature and 820 C tube temperature. At 720 C, it is observed that the power deficiency is speed dependent and linear, with a weak pressure dependency, and at 820 C, the power deficiency is speed and pressure dependent. The effects of buoyancy and nozzle spray pattern on the heater temperature spread are investigated. The characterization of the oil pump and the operating cycle and temperature spread tests are proposed for further evaluation of the engine.

  15. Systems engineering management plans.

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Tamara S.

    2009-10-01

    The Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is a comprehensive and effective tool used to assist in the management of systems engineering efforts. It is intended to guide the work of all those involved in the project. The SEMP is comprised of three main sections: technical project planning and control, systems engineering process, and engineering specialty integration. The contents of each section must be tailored to the specific effort. A model outline and example SEMP are provided. The target audience is those who are familiar with the systems engineering approach and who have an interest in employing the SEMP as a tool for systems management. The goal of this document is to provide the reader with an appreciation for the use and importance of the SEMP, as well as provide a framework that can be used to create the management plan.

  16. Adaptive Heat Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allahverdyan, A. E.; Babajanyan, S. G.; Martirosyan, N. H.; Melkikh, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    A major limitation of many heat engines is that their functioning demands on-line control and/or an external fitting between the environmental parameters (e.g., temperatures of thermal baths) and internal parameters of the engine. We study a model for an adaptive heat engine, where—due to feedback from the functional part—the engine's structure adapts to given thermal baths. Hence, no on-line control and no external fitting are needed. The engine can employ unknown resources; it can also adapt to results of its own functioning that make the bath temperatures closer. We determine resources of adaptation and relate them to the prior information available about the environment.

  17. Elements of Engineering Excellence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, J. C.; Ryan, R. S.; Schutzenhofer

    2012-01-01

    The inspiration for this Contract Report (CR) originated in discussions with the director of Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Engineering who asked that we investigate the question: "How do you achieve excellence in aerospace engineering?" Engineering a space system is a complex activity. Avoiding its inherent potential pitfalls and achieving a successful product is a challenge. This CR presents one approach to answering the question of how to achieve Engineering Excellence. We first investigated the root causes of NASA major failures as a basis for developing a proposed answer to the question of Excellence. The following discussions integrate a triad of Technical Understanding and Execution, Partnership with the Project, and Individual and Organizational Culture. The thesis is that you must focus on the whole process and its underlying culture, not just on the technical aspects. In addition to the engineering process, emphasis is given to the need and characteristics of a Learning Organization as a mechanism for changing the culture.

  18. Adaptive Heat Engine.

    PubMed

    Allahverdyan, A E; Babajanyan, S G; Martirosyan, N H; Melkikh, A V

    2016-07-15

    A major limitation of many heat engines is that their functioning demands on-line control and/or an external fitting between the environmental parameters (e.g., temperatures of thermal baths) and internal parameters of the engine. We study a model for an adaptive heat engine, where-due to feedback from the functional part-the engine's structure adapts to given thermal baths. Hence, no on-line control and no external fitting are needed. The engine can employ unknown resources; it can also adapt to results of its own functioning that make the bath temperatures closer. We determine resources of adaptation and relate them to the prior information available about the environment. PMID:27472104

  19. Engineering Complex Tissues

    PubMed Central

    MIKOS, ANTONIOS G.; HERRING, SUSAN W.; OCHAREON, PANNEE; ELISSEEFF, JENNIFER; LU, HELEN H.; KANDEL, RITA; SCHOEN, FREDERICK J.; TONER, MEHMET; MOONEY, DAVID; ATALA, ANTHONY; VAN DYKE, MARK E.; KAPLAN, DAVID; VUNJAK-NOVAKOVIC, GORDANA

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes the views expressed at the third session of the workshop “Tissue Engineering—The Next Generation,” which was devoted to the engineering of complex tissue structures. Antonios Mikos described the engineering of complex oral and craniofacial tissues as a “guided interplay” between biomaterial scaffolds, growth factors, and local cell populations toward the restoration of the original architecture and function of complex tissues. Susan Herring, reviewing osteogenesis and vasculogenesis, explained that the vascular arrangement precedes and dictates the architecture of the new bone, and proposed that engineering of osseous tissues might benefit from preconstruction of an appropriate vasculature. Jennifer Elisseeff explored the formation of complex tissue structures based on the example of stratified cartilage engineered using stem cells and hydrogels. Helen Lu discussed engineering of tissue interfaces, a problem critical for biological fixation of tendons and ligaments, and the development of a new generation of fixation devices. Rita Kandel discussed the challenges related to the re-creation of the cartilage-bone interface, in the context of tissue engineered joint repair. Frederick Schoen emphasized, in the context of heart valve engineering, the need for including the requirements derived from “adult biology” of tissue remodeling and establishing reliable early predictors of success or failure of tissue engineered implants. Mehmet Toner presented a review of biopreservation techniques and stressed that a new breakthrough in this field may be necessary to meet all the needs of tissue engineering. David Mooney described systems providing temporal and spatial regulation of growth factor availability, which may find utility in virtually all tissue engineering and regeneration applications, including directed in vitro and in vivo vascularization of tissues. Anthony Atala offered a clinician’s perspective for functional tissue

  20. 19. Engine identified as a single cylinder vacuum assist engine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Engine identified as a single cylinder vacuum assist engine for the Filer and Stowell 15-inch continuous mill. - Carnegie Steel-Ohio Works, Steam Engines, 912 Salt Springs Road, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  1. 5. Engine room, general view looking east, engine #2 in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Engine room, general view looking east, engine #2 in foreground (1895, now cannibalized for parts), engine #3 is in the background - East Boston Pumping Station, Chelsea Street at Chelsea Creek, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  2. 1. EXTERIOR OF ENGINE ROOM, CONTAINING UNITEDTOD TWINTANDEM ENGINE, FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR OF ENGINE ROOM, CONTAINING UNITED-TOD TWIN-TANDEM ENGINE, FOR 40" BLOOMING MILL - Republic Iron & Steel Company, Youngstown Works, Blooming Mill & Blooming Mill Engines, North of Poland Avenue, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  3. 2. EXTERIOR OF ENGINE ROOM, CONTAINING MESTACORLISS CROSSCOMPOUND ENGINE, FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EXTERIOR OF ENGINE ROOM, CONTAINING MESTA-CORLISS CROSS-COMPOUND ENGINE, FOR 40" BLOOMING MILL - Republic Iron & Steel Company, Youngstown Works, Blooming Mill & Blooming Mill Engines, North of Poland Avenue, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  4. Technician Career Opportunities in Engineering Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineers' Council for Professional Development, New York, NY.

    Career opportunities for engineering technicians are available in the technologies relating to air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration, aviation and aerospace, building construction, chemical engineering, civil engineering, electrical engineering, electronics, industrial engineering, instrumentation, internal combustion engines, mechanical…

  5. E85 Optimized Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Bower, Stanley

    2011-12-31

    A 5.0L V8 twin-turbocharged direct injection engine was designed, built, and tested for the purpose of assessing the fuel economy and performance in the F-Series pickup of the Dual Fuel engine concept and of an E85 optimized FFV engine. Additionally, production 3.5L gasoline turbocharged direct injection (GTDI) EcoBoost engines were converted to Dual Fuel capability and used to evaluate the cold start emissions and fuel system robustness of the Dual Fuel engine concept. Project objectives were: to develop a roadmap to demonstrate a minimized fuel economy penalty for an F-Series FFV truck with a highly boosted, high compression ratio spark ignition engine optimized to run with ethanol fuel blends up to E85; to reduce FTP 75 energy consumption by 15% - 20% compared to an equally powered vehicle with a current production gasoline engine; and to meet ULEV emissions, with a stretch target of ULEV II / Tier II Bin 4. All project objectives were met or exceeded.

  6. Developing Data System Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnke, J.; Byrnes, J. B.; Kobler, B.

    2011-12-01

    In the early days of general computer systems for science data processing, staff members working on NASA's data systems would most often be hired as mathematicians. Computer engineering was very often filled by those with electrical engineering degrees. Today, the Goddard Space Flight Center has special position descriptions for data scientists or as they are more commonly called: data systems engineers. These staff members are required to have very diverse skills, hence the need for a generalized position description. There is always a need for data systems engineers to develop, maintain and operate the complex data systems for Earth and space science missions. Today's data systems engineers however are not just mathematicians, they are computer programmers, GIS experts, software engineers, visualization experts, etc... They represent many different degree fields. To put together distributed systems like the NASA Earth Observing Data and Information System (EOSDIS), staff are required from many different fields. Sometimes, the skilled professional is not available and must be developed in-house. This paper will address the various skills and jobs for data systems engineers at NASA. Further it explores how to develop staff to become data scientists.

  7. Heavy Truck Engine Program

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Christopher

    2009-01-08

    The Heavy Duty Truck Engine Program at Cummins embodied three significant development phases. All phases of work strove to demonstrate a high level of diesel engine efficiency in the face of increasingly stringent emission requirements. Concurrently, aftertreatment system development and refinement was pursued in support of these efficiency demonstrations. The program's first phase focused on the demonstration in-vehicle of a high level of heavy duty diesel engine efficiency (45% Brake Thermal Efficiency) at a typical cruise condition while achieving composite emissions results which met the 2004 U.S. EPA legislated standards. With a combination of engine combustion calibration tuning and the development and application of Urea-based SCR and particulate aftertreatment, these demonstrations were successfully performed by Q4 of 2002. The second phase of the program directed efforts towards an in-vehicle demonstration of an engine system capable of meeting 2007 U.S. EPA legislated emissions requirements while achieving 45% Brake Thermal Efficiency at cruise conditions. Through further combustion optimization, the refinement of Cummins Cooled EGR architecture, the application of a high pressure common rail fuel system and the incorporation of optimized engine parasitics, Cummins Inc. successfully demonstrated these deliverables in Q2 of 2004. The program's final phase set a stretch goal of demonstrating 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency from a heavy duty diesel engine system capable of meeting 2010 U.S. EPA legislated emissions requirements. Cummins chose to pursue this goal through further combustion development and refinement of the Cooled EGR system architecture and also applied a Rankine cycle Waste Heat Recovery technique to convert otherwise wasted thermal energy to useful power. The engine and heat recovery system was demonstrated to achieve 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency while operating at a torque peak condition in second quarter, 2006. The 50% efficient engine

  8. Philosophical Foundations of Biological Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Arthur T.; Phillips, Winfred M.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses a philosophy from which biological engineering curriculums can emerge. Discusses competencies, basic engineering and biological concepts, common courses, interfacing between engineers and biologists, and employment. Contains 28 references. (JRH)

  9. New Directions for Biomedical Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plonsey, Robert

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the definition of "biomedical engineering" and the development of educational programs in the field. Includes detailed descriptions of the roles of bioengineers, medical engineers, and chemical engineers. (CC)

  10. Engineering the LISA Project: Systems Engineering Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Jordan P.

    2006-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is a joint NASA/ESA mission to detect and measure gravitational waves with periods from 1 s to 10000 s. The systems engineering challenges of developing a giant interferometer, 5 million kilometers on a side, an: numerous. Some of the key challenges are presented in this paper. The organizational challenges imposed by sharing the engineering function between three centers (ESA ESTEC, NASA GSFC, and JPL) across nine time zones are addressed. The issues and approaches to allocation of the acceleration noise and measurement sensitivity budget terms across a traditionally decomposed system are discussed. Additionally, using LISA to detect gravitational waves for the first time presents significant data analysis challenges, many of which drive the project system design. The approach to understanding the implications of science data analysis on the system is also addressed.

  11. CSM petroleum Engineering Department

    SciTech Connect

    Van Kirk, C.

    1984-10-01

    The Petroleum Engineering (PE) Department at the Colorado School of Mines is the second oldest such engineering department in the world, having been founded in 1918, one year after the program at Penn State University was begun. The PE Department at CSM has enjoyed a strong worldwide reputation from its earliest beginnings to the present time. The discipline of petroleum engineering is taught in only a few universities, generally in American oil producing states and foreign countries having significant interests in petroleum. Approximately 25 US universities offer degrees in PE, while an equal number of universities in foreign countries do so. The operation of the Department is discussed.

  12. Advanced engine study program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, A. I.; Galler, D. E.; Denman, T. F.; Shied, R. A.; Black, J. R.; Fierstein, A. R.; Clark, G. L.; Branstrom, B. R.

    1993-01-01

    A design and analysis study was conducted to provide advanced engine descriptions and parametric data for space transfer vehicles. The study was based on an advanced oxygen/hydrogen engine in the 7,500 to 50,000 lbf thrust range. Emphasis was placed on defining requirements for high-performance engines capable of achieving reliable and versatile operation in a space environment. Four variations on the expander cycle were compared, and the advantages and disadvantages of each were assessed. Parametric weight, envelope, and performance data were generated over a range of 7,500 to 50,000 lb thrust and a wide range of chamber pressure and nozzle expansion ratio.

  13. Model Driven Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaševic, Dragan; Djuric, Dragan; Devedžic, Vladan

    A relevant initiative from the software engineering community called Model Driven Engineering (MDE) is being developed in parallel with the Semantic Web (Mellor et al. 2003a). The MDE approach to software development suggests that one should first develop a model of the system under study, which is then transformed into the real thing (i.e., an executable software entity). The most important research initiative in this area is the Model Driven Architecture (MDA), which is Model Driven Architecture being developed under the umbrella of the Object Management Group (OMG). This chapter describes the basic concepts of this software engineering effort.

  14. Test pilot and engineer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1922-01-01

    Goggles at the ready, this Langley test pilot and engineer conducted research business high above the ground. Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication, by James Schultz (page 24). This photograph is also published in Engineer in Charge: A History of the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, 1917-1958 by James R. Hansen (page 163). In the early years the flight research team was usually made up of a test pilot (Thomas Carroll, front cockpit) and an engineer (John W. Gus Crowley,Jr.).

  15. Nuclear propulsion systems engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, W.W.; Neuman, J.E.: Van Haaften, D.H.

    1992-12-31

    The Nuclear Energy for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program of the 1960`s and early 1970`s was dramatically successful, with no major failures during the entire testing program. This success was due in large part to the successful development of a systems engineering process. Systems engineering, properly implemented, involves all aspects of the system design and operation, and leads to optimization of theentire system: cost, schedule, performance, safety, reliability, function, requirements, etc. The process must be incorporated from the very first and continued to project completion. This paper will discuss major aspects of the NERVA systems engineering effort, and consider the implications for current nuclear propulsion efforts.

  16. Nuclear propulsion systems engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, W.W.; Neuman, J.E.: Van Haaften, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Energy for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program of the 1960's and early 1970's was dramatically successful, with no major failures during the entire testing program. This success was due in large part to the successful development of a systems engineering process. Systems engineering, properly implemented, involves all aspects of the system design and operation, and leads to optimization of theentire system: cost, schedule, performance, safety, reliability, function, requirements, etc. The process must be incorporated from the very first and continued to project completion. This paper will discuss major aspects of the NERVA systems engineering effort, and consider the implications for current nuclear propulsion efforts.

  17. Turbo compound engine

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, M.; Sekiyama, S.

    1988-06-07

    A turbo compound engine is described comprising: an engine having an exhaust gas passage and a crankshaft; a power turbine disposed in the exhaust gas passage so as to recover the exhaust gas energy; driving power transmission means for drivingly connecting the power turbine and the crankshaft so as to transmit the driving power; a fluid passage connected to a portion of the exhaust passage which lies between the power turbine and the engine; and fluid passage switching means for closing the exhaust passage upstream of the fluid passage while opening the fluid passage during exhaust braking.

  18. Aircraft engine pollution reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines.

  19. Aircraft engines. II

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.G. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    An account is given of the design features and prospective performance gains of ultrahigh bypass subsonic propulsion configurations and various candidate supersonic commercial aircraft powerplants. The supersonic types, whose enhanced thermodynamic cycle efficiency is considered critical to the economic viability of a second-generation SST, are the variable-cycle engine, the variable stream control engine, the turbine-bypass engine, and the supersonic-throughflow fan. Also noted is the turboramjet concept, which will be applicable to hypersonic aircraft whose airframe structure materials can withstand the severe aerothermodynamic conditions of this flight regime.

  20. Improving Search Engine Reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruthi, Jyoti; Kumar, Ela

    2010-11-01

    Search engines on the Internet are used daily to access and find information. While these services are providing an easy way to find information globally, they are also suffering from artificially created false results. This paper describes two techniques that are being used to manipulate the search engines: spam pages (used to achieve higher rankings on the result page) and cloaking (used to feed falsified data into search engines). This paper also describes two proposed methods to fight this kind of misuse, algorithms for both of the formerly mentioned cases of spamdexing.

  1. Principles of models based engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Dolin, R.M.; Hefele, J.

    1996-11-01

    This report describes a Models Based Engineering (MBE) philosophy and implementation strategy that has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Center for Advanced Engineering Technology. A major theme in this discussion is that models based engineering is an information management technology enabling the development of information driven engineering. Unlike other information management technologies, models based engineering encompasses the breadth of engineering information, from design intent through product definition to consumer application.

  2. Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nightingale, N.; Ernst, W.; Richey, A.; Simetkosky, M.; Smith, G.; Antonelli, M. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Mod I engine testing and test results, the test of a Mod I engine in the United States, Mod I engine characterization and analysis, Mod I Transient Test Bed fuel economy, Mod I-A engine performance are discussed. Stirling engine reference engine manufacturing and reduced size studies, components and subsystems, and the study and test of low-cost casting alloys are also covered. The overall program philosophy is outlined, and data and results are presented.

  3. Stennis certifies final shuttle engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Steam blasts out of the A-2 Test Stand at Stennis Space Center on Oct. 22 as engineers begin a certification test on engine 2061, the last space shuttle main flight engine scheduled to be built. Since 1975, Stennis has tested every space shuttle main engine used in the program - about 50 engines in all. Those engines have powered more than 120 shuttle missions - and no mission has failed as a result of engine malfunction. For the remainder of 2008 and throughout 2009, Stennis will continue testing of various space shuttle main engine components.

  4. PROFESSIONAL REGISTRATION OF GOVERNMENT ENGINEERS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchanan, Thomas J.

    1985-01-01

    The American Society of Civil Engineers views professional registration as an appropriate requirement for engineers, including those in government. The National Society of Professional Engineers makes registration a requirement for the grade of member and full privileges in the society. Some Federal agencies require engineering registration for certain positions in their agencies. Engineers in government service should consider the value of engineering registration to themselves and to their agencies and take pride in their professions and in their own capabilities by becoming registered engineers. They should also take steps to encourage their agencies to give more attention to engineering registration.

  5. Wave rotor demonstrator engine assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Philip H.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the program was to determine a wave rotor demonstrator engine concept using the Allison 250 series engine. The results of the NASA LERC wave rotor effort were used as a basis for the wave rotor design. A wave rotor topped gas turbine engine was identified which incorporates five basic requirements of a successful demonstrator engine. Predicted performance maps of the wave rotor cycle were used along with maps of existing gas turbine hardware in a design point study. The effects of wave rotor topping on the engine cycle and the subsequent need to rematch compressor and turbine sections in the topped engine were addressed. Comparison of performance of the resulting engine is made on the basis of wave rotor topped engine versus an appropriate baseline engine using common shaft compressor hardware. The topped engine design clearly demonstrates an impressive improvement in shaft horsepower (+11.4%) and SFC (-22%). Off design part power engine performance for the wave rotor topped engine was similarly improved including that at engine idle conditions. Operation of the engine at off design was closely examined with wave rotor operation at less than design burner outlet temperatures and rotor speeds. Challenges identified in the development of a demonstrator engine are discussed. A preliminary design was made of the demonstrator engine including wave rotor to engine transition ducts. Program cost and schedule for a wave rotor demonstrator engine fabrication and test program were developed.

  6. Turbo compound engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, H.

    1988-05-24

    A turbo compound engine having a first exhaust turbine coupled to an exhaust pipe of an internal combustion engine and a second exhaust turbine coupled to an exhaust port of the first exhaust turbine is described comprising: a first generator drivable by the first exhaust turbine; a second generator drivable by the second exhaust turbine; a motor operatively coupled to an output shaft of the internal combustion engine; speed detecting means for detecting the speed of rotation of the internal combustion engine; and control means for controlling the frequency of electric power, which is the sum of electric power outputs from the first and second generators and supplied to the motor, based on a signal from the speed detecting means, in order to control operation of the motor.

  7. Engine speed control apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, M.; Miyazaki, M.; Nakamura, N.; Kakinuma, H.

    1986-11-04

    This patent describes an engine speed control apparatus. The system comprises an actuator for adjusting an engine speed, a first unit for computing a desired engine speed, a second unit for detecting the actual engine speed, and a third unit for detecting the difference between the outputs of the first and second units. The system also includes a fourth unit for computing a control pulse width for the actuator in accordance with the output of the third unit, a fifth unit for generating a control signal, a sixth unit for driving the actuator in response to the output of the fifth unit, and a seventh unit for computing an optimal halt time to interrupt the driving of the actuator. The actuator is driven intermittently in conformity in the control pulse width and the halt time.

  8. J-2 Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Smokeless flame juts from the diffuser of a unique vacuum chamber in which the upper stage rocket engine, the hydrogen fueled J-2, was tested at a simulated space altitude in excess of 60,000 feet. The smoke you see is actually steam. In operation, vacuum is established by injecting steam into the chamber and is maintained by the thrust of the engine firing through the diffuser. The engine was tested in this environment for start, stop, coast, restart, and full-duration operations. The chamber was located at Rocketdyne's Propulsion Field Laboratory, in the Santa Susana Mountains, near Canoga Park, California. The J-2 engine was developed by Rocketdyne for the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  9. NASA Now: Engineering Spacesuits

    NASA Video Gallery

    Mallory Jennings, a Technology Development Engineer who develops components for the next-generation spacesuit, explains how the design for the spacesuit is dependent upon the mission that the astro...

  10. A sublimation heat engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Gary G.; Ledesma-Aguilar, Rodrigo; McHale, Glen; Sefiane, Khellil

    2015-03-01

    Heat engines are based on the physical realization of a thermodynamic cycle, most famously the liquid-vapour Rankine cycle used for steam engines. Here we present a sublimation heat engine, which can convert temperature differences into mechanical work via the Leidenfrost effect. Through controlled experiments, quantified by a hydrodynamic model, we show that levitating dry-ice blocks rotate on hot turbine-like surfaces at a rate controlled by the turbine geometry, temperature difference and solid material properties. The rotational motion of the dry-ice loads is converted into electric power by coupling to a magnetic coil system. We extend our concept to liquid loads, generalizing the realization of the new engine to both sublimation and the instantaneous vapourization of liquids. Our results support the feasibility of low-friction in situ energy harvesting from both liquids and ices. Our concept is potentially relevant in challenging situations such as deep drilling, outer space exploration or micro-mechanical manipulation.

  11. Rocket engine numerical simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Ken

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in view graph form and include the following: a definition of the rocket engine numerical simulator (RENS); objectives; justification; approach; potential applications; potential users; RENS work flowchart; RENS prototype; and conclusions.

  12. Continuous detonation reaction engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, O. H.; Stein, R. J.; Tubbs, H. E.

    1968-01-01

    Reaction engine operates on the principles of a controlled condensed detonation rather than on the principles of gas expansion. The detonation results in reaction products that are expelled at a much higher velocity.

  13. Web document engineering

    SciTech Connect

    White, B.

    1996-05-01

    This tutorial provides an overview of several document engineering techniques which are applicable to the authoring of World Wide Web documents. It illustrates how pre-WWW hypertext research is applicable to the development of WWW information resources.

  14. Robust Rocket Engine Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.

    1995-01-01

    The potential for a revolutionary step in the durability of reusable rocket engines is made possible by the combination of several emerging technologies. The recent creation and analytical demonstration of life extending (or damage mitigating) control technology enables rapid rocket engine transients with minimum fatigue and creep damage. This technology has been further enhanced by the formulation of very simple but conservative continuum damage models. These new ideas when combined with recent advances in multidisciplinary optimization provide the potential for a large (revolutionary) step in reusable rocket engine durability. This concept has been named the robust rocket engine concept (RREC) and is the basic contribution of this paper. The concept also includes consideration of design innovations to minimize critical point damage.

  15. To Teach Chemists Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinbaum, Baruch; Semiat, Raphael

    1998-01-01

    Cites the shortcomings of the traditional educational experiences of chemists. Focuses on their training in engineering and concludes that training is lacking in the areas of mass balances in flow processes, heat balances, reactors, separation processes, and scaleup. (DDR)

  16. Combustion engine system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, John (Inventor); Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A flow through catalytic reactor which selectively catalytically decomposes methanol into a soot free hydrogen rich product gas utilizing engine exhaust at temperatures of 200 to 650 C to provide the heat for vaporizing and decomposing the methanol is described. The reactor is combined with either a spark ignited or compression ignited internal combustion engine or a gas turbine to provide a combustion engine system. The system may be fueled entirely by the hydrogen rich gas produced in the methanol decomposition reactor or the system may be operated on mixed fuels for transient power gain and for cold start of the engine system. The reactor includes a decomposition zone formed by a plurality of elongated cylinders which contain a body of vapor permeable, methanol decomposition catalyst preferably a shift catalyst such as copper-zinc.

  17. LIFE CYCLE ENGINEERING GUIDELINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document provides guidelines for the implementation of LCE concepts, information, and techniques in engineering products, systems, processes, and facilities. To make this document as practical and useable as possible, a unifying LCE framework is presented. Subsequent topics ...

  18. Hydrogen-fueled engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laumann, E. A.; Reynolds, R. K. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A hydrogen-oxygen fueled internal combustion engine is described, which utilizes an inert gas, such as argon, as a working fluid to increase the efficiency of the engine, eliminate pollution, and facilitate operation of a closed cycle energy system. In a system where sunlight or other intermittent energy source is available to separate hydrogen and oxygen from water, the oxygen and inert gas are taken into a diesel engine into which hydrogen is injected and ignited. The exhaust is cooled so that it contains only water and the inert gas. The inert gas in the exhaust is returned to the engine for use with fresh oxygen, while the water in the exhaust is returned to the intermittent energy source for reconversion to hydrogen and oxygen.

  19. Engineering Capabilities and Partnerships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulos, Steve

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the engineering capabilities at Johnson Space Center, The presentation also reviews the partnerships that have resulted in successfully designed and developed projects that involved commercial and educational institutions.

  20. Web Search Engines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Candy

    1998-01-01

    Looks briefly at the history of World Wide Web search engine development and considers the current state of affairs. Reflects on future directions in terms of personalization, summarization, query expansion, coverage, and metadata. (Author/AEF)

  1. Course Syllabus: Engineering Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitcham, Carl

    1987-01-01

    Describes a course offered at Polytechnic University (New York) which is designed to provide an introduction to professional engineerig ethics as presented through the history of engineering, codes of conduct of professional societies, case studies and hypothetical situations. (TW)

  2. Chemical Engineering at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation is a review of the career paths for chemicals engineer at NASA (specifically NASA Johnson Space Center.) The author uses his personal experience and history as an example of the possible career options.

  3. Gasoline engine choking arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Armes, P.W.

    1987-10-13

    In combination with a gasoline engine including a fuel tank having a fuel inlet and outlet, an automatic choke is described having a pivotal choke butterfly plate, an air filter, and a rod mounting the air filter. A choking arrangement comprises means immobilizing the pivotal choke butterfly plate at an open position and means communicating with the fuel inlet selectively urging fuel passage from the fuel tank outlet during gasoline engine starting.

  4. Stirling engine power control

    DOEpatents

    Fraser, James P.

    1983-01-01

    A power control method and apparatus for a Stirling engine including a valved duct connected to the junction of the regenerator and the cooler and running to a bypass chamber connected between the heater and the cylinder. An oscillating zone of demarcation between the hot and cold portions of the working gas is established in the bypass chamber, and the engine pistons and cylinders can run cold.

  5. Liquid metal thermoacoustic engine

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.; Wheatley, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    We are studying a liquid metal thermoacoustic engine both theoretically and experimentally. This type of engine promises to produce large quantities of electrical energy from heat at modest efficiency with no moving parts. A sound wave is usually thought of as consisting of pressure oscillations, but always attendant to the pressure oscillation are temperature oscillations. The combination produces a rich variety of ''thermoacoustic'' effects. These effects are usually so small that they are never noticed in everyday life; nevertheless under the right circumstances they can be harnessed to produce powerful heat engines, heat pumps, and refrigerators. In our liquid metal thermoacoustic engine, heat flow from a high temperature source to a low temperature sink generates a high-amplitude standing acoustic wave in liquid sodium. This acoustic power is converted to electric power by a simple magnetohydrodynamic effect at the acoustic oscillation frequency. We have developed a detailed thermoacoustic theory applicable to this engine, and find that a reasonably designed liquid sodium engine operating between 700/sup 0/C and 100/sup 0/C should generate about 60 W/cm/sup 2/ of acoustic power at about 1/3 of Carnot's efficiency. Construction of a 3000 W-thermal laboratory model engine has just been completed, and we have exciting preliminary experimental results as of the time of preparation of this manuscript showing, basically, that the engine works. We have also designed and built a 1 kHz liquid sodium magnetohydrodynamic generator and have extensive measurements on it. It is now very well characterized both experimentally and theoretically. The first generator of its kind, it already converts acoustic power to electric power with 40% efficiency. 16 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Computer aided photographic engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hixson, Jeffrey A.; Rieckhoff, Tom

    1988-01-01

    High speed photography is an excellent source of engineering data but only provides a two-dimensional representation of a three-dimensional event. Multiple cameras can be used to provide data for the third dimension but camera locations are not always available. A solution to this problem is to overlay three-dimensional CAD/CAM models of the hardware being tested onto a film or photographic image, allowing the engineer to measure surface distances, relative motions between components, and surface variations.

  7. Engine Removal Projection Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Ferryman, Thomas A.; Matzke, Brett D.; Wilson, John E.; Sharp, Julia L.; Greitzer, Frank L.

    2005-06-02

    The US Navy has over 3500 gas turbine engines used throughout the surface fleet for propulsion and the generation of electrical power. Past data is used to forecast the number of engine removals for the next ten years and determine engine down times between removals. Currently this is done via a FORTRAN program created in the early 1970s. This paper presents results of R&D associated with creating a new algorithm and software program. We tested over 60 techniques on data spanning 20 years from over 3100 engines and 120 ships. Investigated techniques for the forecast basis including moving averages, empirical negative binomial, generalized linear models, Cox regression, and Kaplan Meier survival curves, most of which are documented in engineering, medical and scientific research literature. We applied those techniques to the data, and chose the best algorithm based on its performance on real-world data. The software uses the best algorithm in combination with user-friendly interfaces and intuitively understandable displays. The user can select a specific engine type, forecast time period, and op-tempo. Graphical displays and numerical tables present forecasts and uncertainty intervals. The technology developed for the project is applicable to other logistic forecasting challenges.

  8. Lifing of Engine Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The successful development of advanced aerospace engines depends greatly on the capabilities of high performance materials and structures. Advanced materials, such as nickel based single crystal alloys, metal foam, advanced copper alloys, and ceramics matrix composites, have been engineered to provide higher engine temperature and stress capabilities. Thermal barrier coatings have been developed to improve component durability and fuel efficiency, by reducing the substrate hot wall metal temperature and protecting against oxidation and blanching. However, these coatings are prone to oxidation and delamination failures. In order to implement the use of these materials in advanced engines, it is necessary to understand and model the evolution of damage of the metal substrate as well as the coating under actual engine conditions. The models and the understanding of material behavior are utilized in the development of a life prediction methodology for hot section components. The research activities were focused on determining the stress and strain fields in an engine environment under combined thermo-mechanical loads to develop life prediction methodologies consistent with the observed damage formation of the coating and the substrates.

  9. Tissue engineered periodontal products.

    PubMed

    Bartold, P M; Gronthos, S; Ivanovski, S; Fisher, A; Hutmacher, D W

    2016-02-01

    Attainment of periodontal regeneration is a significant clinical goal in the management of advanced periodontal defects arising from periodontitis. Over the past 30 years numerous techniques and materials have been introduced and evaluated clinically and have included guided tissue regeneration, bone grafting materials, growth and other biological factors and gene therapy. With the exception of gene therapy, all have undergone evaluation in humans. All of the products have shown efficacy in promoting periodontal regeneration in animal models but the results in humans remain variable and equivocal concerning attaining complete biological regeneration of damaged periodontal structures. In the early 2000s, the concept of tissue engineering was proposed as a new paradigm for periodontal regeneration based on molecular and cell biology. At this time, tissue engineering was a new and emerging field. Now, 14 years later we revisit the concept of tissue engineering for the periodontium and assess how far we have come, where we are currently situated and what needs to be done in the future to make this concept a reality. In this review, we cover some of the precursor products, which led to our current position in periodontal tissue engineering. The basic concepts of tissue engineering with special emphasis on periodontal tissue engineering products is discussed including the use of mesenchymal stem cells in bioscaffolds and the emerging field of cell sheet technology. Finally, we look into the future to consider what CAD/CAM technology and nanotechnology will have to offer. PMID:25900048

  10. Compression relief engine brake

    SciTech Connect

    Meneely, V.A.

    1987-10-06

    A compression relief brake is described for four cycle internal-combustion engines, comprising: a pressurized oil supply; means for selectively pressurizing a hydraulic circuit with oil from the oil supply; a master piston and cylinder communicating with a slave piston and cylinder via the hydraulic circuit; an engine exhaust valve mechanically coupled to the engine and timed to open during the exhaust cycle of the engine the exhaust valve coupled to the slave piston. The exhaust valve is spring-based in a closed state to contact a valve seat; a sleeve frictionally and slidably disposed within a cavity defined by the slave piston which cavity communicates with the hydraulic circuit. When the hydraulic circuit is selectively pressurized and the engine is operating the sleeve entraps an incompressible volume of oil within the cavity to generate a displacement of the slave piston within the slave cylinder, whereby a first gap is maintained between the exhaust valve and its associated seat; and means for reciprocally activating the master piston for increasing the pressure within the previously pressurized hydraulic circuit during at least a portion of the expansion cycle of the engine whereby a second gap is reciprocally maintained between the exhaust valve and its associated seat.

  11. F-1 Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    This close-up view of the F-1 engine for the Saturn V S-IC (first) stage shows the engine's complexity, and also its large size as it dwarfs the technician. Developed by Rocketdyne, under the direction of the Marshall Space Flight Center, the F-1 engine was utilized in a cluster of five engines to propel the Saturn V's first stage, the S-IC. Liquid oxygen and kerosene were used as its propellant. Initially rated at 1,500,000 pounds of thrust, the engine was later uprated to 1,522,000 pounds of thrust after the third Saturn V launch (Apollo 8, the first marned Saturn V mission) in December 1968. The cluster of five F-1 engines burned over 15 tons of propellant per second, during its two and one-half minutes of operation, to take the vehicle to a height of about 36 miles and to a speed of about 6,000 miles per hour.

  12. Intrinsically irreversible heat engine

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1984-12-25

    A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. The second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat. 11 figs.

  13. Intrinsically irreversible heat engine

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1984-01-01

    A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. The second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat.

  14. Intrinsically irreversible heat engine

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, John C.; Swift, Gregory W.; Migliori, Albert

    1984-01-01

    A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. the second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat.

  15. A Study of Engineering and Engineering Technology Education in Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terman, F. E.; Higdon, Archie

    This study reviews engineering education in Florida and investigates programs and plans for engineering technology. A questionnaire was prepared to obtain statistical data on the engineering activities at individual institutions. Deans of engineering schools responded to the questionnaires and site visits were made by consultants to each school.…

  16. High School Teachers' Conceptions of Engineers and Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoh, Yin Kiong

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a workshop activity the author has carried out with 80 high school science teachers to enable them to overcome their stereotypical perceptions of engineers and engineering. The activity introduced them to the biographies of prominent women in engineering, and raised their awareness of these female engineers' contributions to…

  17. Start Your Engines: Surfing with Search Engines for Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byerly, Greg; Brodie, Carolyn S.

    1999-01-01

    Suggests that to be an effective educator and user of the Web it is essential to know the basics about search engines. Presents tips for using search engines. Describes several search engines for children and young adults, as well as some general filtered search engines for children. (AEF)

  18. Chemical Engineering Students: A Distinct Group among Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin, Allison; Potvin, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores differences between chemical engineering students and students of other engineering disciplines, as identified by their intended college major. The data used in this analysis was taken from the nationally representative Sustainability and Gender in Engineering (SaGE) survey. Chemical engineering students differ significantly…

  19. 16. INTERIOR OF ENGINE ROOM, CONTAINING MESTACORLISS CROSSCOMPOUND ENGINE, FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. INTERIOR OF ENGINE ROOM, CONTAINING MESTA-CORLISS CROSS-COMPOUND ENGINE, FOR 40" BLOOMING MILL. THIS VIEW IS TAKEN FROM THE HIGH-PRESSURE SIDE OF THE ENGINE SHOWING THE SERVICE PLATFORM - Republic Iron & Steel Company, Youngstown Works, Blooming Mill & Blooming Mill Engines, North of Poland Avenue, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  20. Engineering Employment and Unemployment, 1971. Engineering Manpower Bulletin Number 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alden, John D.

    Statistics concerning employment of scientists were obtained from 59,300 scientists responding to an Engineers Joint Council questionnaire. Findings reported are: (1) the overall unemployment rate was 3 percent for engineers compared to a rate of 5.8 percent for all other workers; (2) considering engineers not having engineering jobs, the…

  1. Engineering the Way to Becoming a Federal Engineer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgans, Carl J.

    1991-01-01

    Federal engineer tells engineering students how to become federal engineers and discusses the potential rewards and disadvantages of a civil service career. Notes that federal jobs are available for engineering graduates who are knowledgeable in the search process and who are persistent in seeking out such jobs. (NB)

  2. 4. Engine room, east end looking east toward engine #4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Engine room, east end looking east toward engine #4 (Enterprise Diesel; reduction gear in foreground; in left rear, two D.C. generators with Ames Ironworks horizontal engine and sturtevant vertical engine - East Boston Pumping Station, Chelsea Street at Chelsea Creek, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  3. Engine systems and methods of operating an engine

    DOEpatents

    Scotto, Mark Vincent

    2015-08-25

    One embodiment of the present invention is a unique method for operating an engine. Another embodiment is a unique engine system. Other embodiments include apparatuses, systems, devices, hardware, methods, and combinations for engines and engine systems. Further embodiments, forms, features, aspects, benefits, and advantages of the present application will become apparent from the description and figures provided herewith.

  4. Electronic engine controls

    SciTech Connect

    Hodges, S.

    1991-07-01

    This paper reports that pioneered in the mid-80s to manage and optimize engine performance under continually changing conditions, electronic controls have made a significant impact on truck maintenance. But they also served another important purpose: they curbed emissions enough to meet EPA's new heavy-truck standards set in 1985 (see sidebar). In that same year, Detroit Diesel introduced its Detroit Diesel Electronic Controls (DDEC) system, and a trend was born. Suddenly horsepower rating, torque curve, and maximum engine and road speed could be governed by electronics. Engine-mounted sensors could provide drivers with precise information about fluid and pressure levels, inside and outside temperatures, and a host of other information. The advent of electronic engine controls signaled the dawn of a revolution in trucking. For company owners who wanted greater control of their operations, electronics were wonderful news. But new controls meant new engine designs and radical changes in engine maintenance and repair. So for many members of the waste-hauling industry, electronics were far from wonderful. It's not that haulers didn't want cleaner air or trucks that were increasingly fuel efficient. It's more that they winced at the thought of retraining their mechanics - already hard to find and retain - to work on a new breed of engine. Then there were other considerations. drivers, for example, might not cotton to the fancy electronic dashboard displays. They might also rebel at having their maximum road speed present at a rate they couldn't change. Then there was the cost factor: Electronics and other provisions used to meet Clean Air Act reductions of oxides of nitrogen between 1991, 94 and 98 model years could add as much as $10,000 to $15,000 to the cost of each truck.

  5. Magnetic Lens For Plasma Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sercel, Joel C.

    1992-01-01

    Low-field electromagnet coils placed downstream of plasma engine, polarized oppositely to higher-field but smaller radius coil in nozzle of engine, reduces divergence of plasma jet, thereby increasing efficiency of engine. Concept tested by computer simulation based on simplified mathematical model of plasma, engine, and coils.

  6. Small Engine Repair Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeClouet, Fred

    Small engines as referred to here are engines used on lawn mowers, chain saws, power plants, outboards, and cycles. It does not include engines used on automobiles. The course outlined is intended to show how small two-cycle and four-cycle gas engines are constructed, how they operate, what goes wrong, and how to service and repair them. It is…

  7. Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nightingale, N.; Ernst, W.; Richey, A.; Simetkosky, M.; Smith, G.; Rohdenburg, C.; Antonelli, M. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Program status and plans are discussed for component and technology development; reference engine system design, the upgraded Mod 1 engine; industry test and evaluation; and product assurance. Four current Mod 1 engines reached a total of 2523 operational hours, while two upgraded engines accumulated 166 hours.

  8. Low vibration polymeric composite engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimond, David P.; Muench, Rolf K.

    1994-12-01

    An internal combustion engine is constructed with metallic parts in its regions which are subjected to high stress (temperature, pressure) during combustion and polymeric materials in its regions which are subjected to relatively lower stresses. The integrated construction helps realize increased power densities and reductions on engine noise without compromising engine performance. V-configuration Diesel engines particularly benefit from this construction.

  9. Development of detonation reaction engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, O. H.; Stein, R. J.; Tubbs, H. E.

    1968-01-01

    Reaction engine operates on the principle of a controlled condensed detonation. In this engine the gas products that are expelled from the engine to produce thrust are generated by the condensed detonation reaction. The engine is constructed of two basic sections consisting of a detonation wave generator section and a condensed detonation reaction section.

  10. Custom Search Engines: Tools & Tips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notess, Greg R.

    2008-01-01

    Few have the resources to build a Google or Yahoo! from scratch. Yet anyone can build a search engine based on a subset of the large search engines' databases. Use Google Custom Search Engine or Yahoo! Search Builder or any of the other similar programs to create a vertical search engine targeting sites of interest to users. The basic steps to…

  11. Fuel conservative aircraft engine technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nored, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Technology developments for more fuel-efficiency subsonic transport aircraft are reported. Three major propulsion projects were considered: (1) engine component improvement - directed at current engines; (2) energy efficient engine - directed at new turbofan engines; and (3) advanced turboprops - directed at technology for advanced turboprop-powered aircraft. Each project is reviewed and some of the technologies and recent accomplishments are described.

  12. Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nightingale, N.; Ernst, W.; Richey, A.; Simetkosky, M.; Antonelli, M. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Activities performed on Mod I engine testing and test results; the manufacture, assembly, and test of a Mod I engine in the United States; design initiation of the Mod I-A engine system; transient performance testing; Stirling reference engine manufacturing and reduced size studies; components and subsystems; and the study and test of low cost alloys are summarized.

  13. A Process for Design Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Clark

    2004-01-01

    The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Design Engineering Technical Committee has developed a draft Design Engineering Process with the participation of the technical community. This paper reviews similar engineering activities, lays out common terms for the life cycle and proposes a Design Engineering Process.

  14. Automotive Stirling engine development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernst, W.; Piller, S.; Richey, A.; Simetkosky, M.; Antonelli, M. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Activities performed on Mod I engine testing and test results, progress in manufacturing, assembling and testing of a Mod I engine in the United States, P40 Stirling engine dynamometer and multifuels testing, analog/digital controls system testing, Stirling reference engine manufacturing and reduced size studies, components and subsystems, and computer code development are summarized.

  15. Problem Decomposition and Recomposition in Engineering Design: A Comparison of Design Behavior between Professional Engineers, Engineering Seniors, and Engineering Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Ting; Becker, Kurt; Gero, John; DeBerard, Scott; DeBerard, Oenardi; Reeve, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated the differences in using problem decomposition and problem recomposition between dyads of engineering experts, engineering seniors, and engineering freshmen. Participants worked in dyads to complete an engineering design challenge within 1 hour. The entire design process was video and audio recorded. After the design…

  16. Knowledge Integration and Wise Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Jennifer L.; Linn, M. C.

    2011-01-01

    Recent efforts in engineering education focus on introducing engineering into secondary math and science courses to improve science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education (NAS, 2010). Infusing engineering into secondary classrooms can increase awareness of and interest in STEM careers, help students see the relevance of science and…

  17. Civil Engineering in Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Martin; Strong, Alan

    2010-01-01

    For many children of primary school age, an engineer is the man who comes to service the central heating system or who fixes the family car when it breaks down. Most have never met a "real" professional engineer, and have no idea of what is involved in the exciting world of engineering. Most assume that engineers are men. To try to remove these…

  18. COMPUTER SCIENCES IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Engineering Education, Washington, DC.

    THE COMMITTEE ON COMPUTER SCIENCES IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (COSINE COMMITTEE) OF THE COMMISSION ON ENGINEERING REPORTS ITS EXPLORATION OF THE ROLE OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING IN COMPUTER SCIENCES. GREATER FLEXIBILITY IN ENGINEERING CURRICULA IS FELT ESSENTIAL TO MEET THE EDUCATIONAL NEEDS IN SUCH A RAPIDLY CHANGING AND DIVERSE FIELD. THE MAJOR…

  19. Automotive Engine Maintenance and Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide students with an understanding of automotive engine maintenance and repair. The course contains six study units covering automotive engine maintenance and repair; design classification; engine malfunction, diagnosis, and repair; engine disassembly; engine…

  20. Fermilab's Satellite Refrigerator Expansion Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Thomas J.

    1983-01-01

    Each of Fermilab's 24 satellite refrigerators includes two reciprocating expanders, a "wet" engine and a "dry" engine. The wet engines and all but eleven of the dry engines were manufactured by Koch Process Systems (Westboro, Massachusetts). These are basically Koch Model 1400 expaaders installed in cryostats designed by Fermilab. The other eleven dry engines are an in-hou~e design referred to as "Gardner-Fermi" engines since they evolved from the GX3-2500 engines purchas~d from Gardner Cryogenics. Table I surmnarizes the features of our three types of expanders....

  1. Airbreathing engines for space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassman, A. J.; Stewart, W. L.; Nosek, S. M.

    1972-01-01

    The requirements imposed on the airbreathing engines by the shuttle mission and some results from engine design studies are discussed. In particular, some of the engine system weight study results are presented, potential problem areas and required engine modifications are identified, and testing requirements for a development and qualification program are discussed. The engines of interest for the shuttle are engines that are currently being developed for other applicatons. The potential problems, engine modifications, and testing requirements result primarily from the new environments associated with launch, space residence, and reentry.

  2. DENTAL PULP TISSUE ENGINEERING

    PubMed Central

    Demarco, FF; Conde, MCM; Cavalcanti, B; Casagrande, L; Sakai, V; Nör, JE

    2013-01-01

    Dental pulp is a highly specialized mesenchymal tissue, which have a restrict regeneration capacity due to anatomical arrangement and post-mitotic nature of odontoblastic cells. Entire pulp amputation followed by pulp-space disinfection and filling with an artificial material cause loss of a significant amount of dentin leaving as life-lasting sequelae a non-vital and weakened tooth. However, regenerative endodontics is an emerging field of modern tissue engineering that demonstrated promising results using stem cells associated with scaffolds and responsive molecules. Thereby, this article will review the most recent endeavors to regenerate pulp tissue based on tissue engineering principles and providing insightful information to readers about the different aspects enrolled in tissue engineering. Here, we speculate that the search for the ideal combination of cells, scaffolds, and morphogenic factors for dental pulp tissue engineering may be extended over future years and result in significant advances in other areas of dental and craniofacial research. The finds collected in our review showed that we are now at a stage in which engineering a complex tissue, such as the dental pulp, is no longer an unachievable and the next decade will certainly be an exciting time for dental and craniofacial research. PMID:21519641

  3. Genetically Engineering Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H; Lovett, B; Fang, W

    2016-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi have been developed as environmentally friendly alternatives to chemical insecticides in biocontrol programs for agricultural pests and vectors of disease. However, mycoinsecticides currently have a small market share due to low virulence and inconsistencies in their performance. Genetic engineering has made it possible to significantly improve the virulence of fungi and their tolerance to adverse conditions. Virulence enhancement has been achieved by engineering fungi to express insect proteins and insecticidal proteins/peptides from insect predators and other insect pathogens, or by overexpressing the pathogen's own genes. Importantly, protein engineering can be used to mix and match functional domains from diverse genes sourced from entomopathogenic fungi and other organisms, producing insecticidal proteins with novel characteristics. Fungal tolerance to abiotic stresses, especially UV radiation, has been greatly improved by introducing into entomopathogens a photoreactivation system from an archaean and pigment synthesis pathways from nonentomopathogenic fungi. Conversely, gene knockout strategies have produced strains with reduced ecological fitness as recipients for genetic engineering to improve virulence; the resulting strains are hypervirulent, but will not persist in the environment. Coupled with their natural insect specificity, safety concerns can also be mitigated by using safe effector proteins with selection marker genes removed after transformation. With the increasing public concern over the continued use of synthetic chemical insecticides and growing public acceptance of genetically modified organisms, new types of biological insecticides produced by genetic engineering offer a range of environmentally friendly options for cost-effective control of insect pests. PMID:27131325

  4. Internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Breckenfeld, P.W.; Broughton, G.L.; Forquer, D.W.

    1990-02-19

    This patent describes a two-stroke internal combustion engine. It comprises: an engine block including an exterior planar surface portion having therein a pair of spaced bearing surfaces and a crankcase-defining cavity which includes a pair of spaced semi-cylindrical surfaces, a crankshaft including a pair of spaced bearing portions and a central part which is located between the bearing portions and which includes a pair of spaced and enlarged cylindrical surfaces, a pair of bearing blocks respectively including bearing surfaces, means fixing the bearing blocks to the exterior planar surface portion with each of the crankshaft bearing portions retained between a respective one of the bearing surfaces of the engine block and a respective one of the bearing surfaces of the bearing blocks and with each of the crankshaft cylindrical surfaces in coplanar relation to a respective one of the semi-cylindrical surfaces of the engine block, a crankcase cover including a mounting surface having therein a crankcase-defining cavity including a pair of spaced semi-cylindrical surfaces, and means fixedly connecting the mounting surface of the crankcase cover to the exterior planar surface portion of block with each of the semi-cylindrical surfaces of the crankcase cover in generally coplanar relation to a respective one of the semi-cylindrical surfaces of the engine block.

  5. Single rotor turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Platts, David A.

    2002-01-01

    There has been invented a turbine engine with a single rotor which cools the engine, functions as a radial compressor, pushes air through the engine to the ignition point, and acts as an axial turbine for powering the compressor. The invention engine is designed to use a simple scheme of conventional passage shapes to provide both a radial and axial flow pattern through the single rotor, thereby allowing the radial intake air flow to cool the turbine blades and turbine exhaust gases in an axial flow to be used for energy transfer. In an alternative embodiment, an electric generator is incorporated in the engine to specifically adapt the invention for power generation. Magnets are embedded in the exhaust face of the single rotor proximate to a ring of stationary magnetic cores with windings to provide for the generation of electricity. In this alternative embodiment, the turbine is a radial inflow turbine rather than an axial turbine as used in the first embodiment. Radial inflow passages of conventional design are interleaved with radial compressor passages to allow the intake air to cool the turbine blades.

  6. Bioinspired engineering of exploration systems for NASA and DoD.

    PubMed

    Thakoor, Sarita; Chahl, Javaan; Srinivasan, M V; Young, L; Werblin, Frank; Hine, Butler; Zornetzer, Steven

    2002-01-01

    A new approach called bioinspired engineering of exploration systems (BEES) and its value for solving pressing NASA and DoD needs are described. Insects (for example honeybees and dragonflies) cope remarkably well with their world, despite possessing a brain containing less than 0.01% as many neurons as the human brain. Although most insects have immobile eyes with fixed focus optics and lack stereo vision, they use a number of ingenious, computationally simple strategies for perceiving their world in three dimensions and navigating successfully within it. We are distilling selected insect-inspired strategies to obtain novel solutions for navigation, hazard avoidance, altitude hold, stable flight, terrain following, and gentle deployment of payload. Such functionality provides potential solutions for future autonomous robotic space and planetary explorers. A BEES approach to developing lightweight low-power autonomous flight systems should be useful for flight control of such biomorphic flyers for both NASA and DoD needs. Recent biological studies of mammalian retinas confirm that representations of multiple features of the visual world are systematically parsed and processed in parallel. Features are mapped to a stack of cellular strata within the retina. Each of these representations can be efficiently modeled in semiconductor cellular nonlinear network (CNN) chips. We describe recent breakthroughs in exploring the feasibility of the unique blending of insect strategies of navigation with mammalian visual search, pattern recognition, and image understanding into hybrid biomorphic flyers for future planetary and terrestrial applications. We describe a few future mission scenarios for Mars exploration, uniquely enabled by these newly developed biomorphic flyers. PMID:12650645

  7. Bioinspired engineering of exploration systems for NASA and DoD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Sarita; Chahl, Javaan; Srinivasan, M. V.; Young, L.; Werblin, Frank; Hine, Butler; Zornetzer, Steven

    2002-01-01

    A new approach called bioinspired engineering of exploration systems (BEES) and its value for solving pressing NASA and DoD needs are described. Insects (for example honeybees and dragonflies) cope remarkably well with their world, despite possessing a brain containing less than 0.01% as many neurons as the human brain. Although most insects have immobile eyes with fixed focus optics and lack stereo vision, they use a number of ingenious, computationally simple strategies for perceiving their world in three dimensions and navigating successfully within it. We are distilling selected insect-inspired strategies to obtain novel solutions for navigation, hazard avoidance, altitude hold, stable flight, terrain following, and gentle deployment of payload. Such functionality provides potential solutions for future autonomous robotic space and planetary explorers. A BEES approach to developing lightweight low-power autonomous flight systems should be useful for flight control of such biomorphic flyers for both NASA and DoD needs. Recent biological studies of mammalian retinas confirm that representations of multiple features of the visual world are systematically parsed and processed in parallel. Features are mapped to a stack of cellular strata within the retina. Each of these representations can be efficiently modeled in semiconductor cellular nonlinear network (CNN) chips. We describe recent breakthroughs in exploring the feasibility of the unique blending of insect strategies of navigation with mammalian visual search, pattern recognition, and image understanding into hybrid biomorphic flyers for future planetary and terrestrial applications. We describe a few future mission scenarios for Mars exploration, uniquely enabled by these newly developed biomorphic flyers.

  8. Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-08-01

    The Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Program evaluated the application of advanced ceramic materials to an automotive Stirling engine. The objective of the program was to evaluate the technical feasibility of utilizing advanced ceramics to increase peak engine operating temperature, and to evaluate the performance benefits of such an increase. Manufacturing cost estimates were also developed for various ceramic engine components and compared with conventional metallic engine component costs.

  9. Automotive Stirling engine development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, R.; Hindes, C.; Battista, R.; Connelly, M.; Cronin, M.; Howarth, R.; Donahue, A.; Slate, E.; Stotts, R.; Lacy, R.

    1988-01-01

    The study of high power kinematic Stirling engines for transportation use, testing of Mod I and Mod II Stirling engines, and component development activities are summarized. Mod II development testing was performed to complete the development of the basic engine and begin characterization of performance. Mod I engines were used for Mod II component development and to obtain independent party (U.S. Air Force) evaluation of Stirling engine vehicle performance.

  10. Ceramic automotive Stirling engine program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Program evaluated the application of advanced ceramic materials to an automotive Stirling engine. The objective of the program was to evaluate the technical feasibility of utilizing advanced ceramics to increase peak engine operating temperature, and to evaluate the performance benefits of such an increase. Manufacturing cost estimates were also developed for various ceramic engine components and compared with conventional metallic engine component costs.

  11. Automotive Stirling engine development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nightingale, N.; Ernst, W.; Richey, A.; Simetkosky, M.; Smith, G.; Rohdenburg, C.; Vatsky, A.; Antonelli, M. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Activities performed on Mod I engine testing and test results, testing of the Mod I engine in the United States, Mod I engine characterization and analyses, Mod I Transient Test Bed fuel economy, upgraded Mod I performance and testing, Stirling engine reference engine manufacturing and reduced size studied, components and subsystems, and the study and test of low cost casting alloys are summarized. The overall program philosophy is outlined, and data and results are presented.

  12. Stationary engineering handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Petrocelly, K.L.

    1989-01-01

    Years ago, the only qualifications you needed to become to become an operating engineer were the ability to shovel large chunks of coal through small furnace doors and the fortitude to sweat profusely for hours without fainting. As a consequence of technological evolution, the engineer's coal shovels have been replaced with computers and now perspiration is more the result of job stress than exposure to high temperatures. The domain of the operator has been extended far beyond the smoke-filled caverns that once encased him, out into the physical plant, and his responsibilities have been expanded accordingly. Unlike his less sophisticated predecessor, today's technician must be well versed in all aspects of the operation. The field of power plant operations has become a full-fledged profession and its principals are called Stationary Engineers. This book addresses the areas of responsibility and the education and skills needed for successful operation of building services equipment.

  13. The Synergistic Engineering Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    The Synergistic Engineering Environment (SEE) is a system of software dedicated to aiding the understanding of space mission operations. The SEE can integrate disparate sets of data with analytical capabilities, geometric models of spacecraft, and a visualization environment, all contributing to the creation of an interactive simulation of spacecraft. Initially designed to satisfy needs pertaining to the International Space Station, the SEE has been broadened in scope to include spacecraft ranging from those in low orbit around the Earth to those on deep-space missions. The SEE includes analytical capabilities in rigid-body dynamics, kinematics, orbital mechanics, and payload operations. These capabilities enable a user to perform real-time interactive engineering analyses focusing on diverse aspects of operations, including flight attitudes and maneuvers, docking of visiting spacecraft, robotic operations, impingement of spacecraft-engine exhaust plumes, obscuration of instrumentation fields of view, communications, and alternative assembly configurations. .

  14. Engineering control into medicine.

    PubMed

    Stone, David J; Celi, Leo Anthony; Csete, Marie

    2015-06-01

    The human body is a tightly controlled engineering miracle. However, medical training generally does not cover "control" (in the engineering sense) in physiology, pathophysiology, and therapeutics. A better understanding of how evolved controls maintain normal homeostasis is critical for understanding the failure mode of controlled systems, that is, disease. We believe that teaching and research must incorporate an understanding of the control systems in physiology and take advantage of the quantitative tools used by engineering to understand complex systems. Control systems are ubiquitous in physiology, although often unrecognized. Here we provide selected examples of the role of control in physiology (heart rate variability, immunity), pathophysiology (inflammation in sepsis), and therapeutic devices (diabetes and the artificial pancreas). We also present a high-level background to the concept of robustly controlled systems and examples of clinical insights using the controls framework. PMID:25680579

  15. Rotorcraft convertible engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, D. N.; Hirschkron, R.; Smith, C. E.

    1983-01-01

    Convertible propulsion systems for advanced rotorcraft are evaluated in terms of their impact on aircraft operating economics and fuel consumption. A variety of propulsion system concepts, including separate thrust and power producing engines, convertible fan/shaft engines, and auxiliary propeller configurations are presented. The merits of each are evaluated in two different rotorcraft missions: an intercity, commercial transport of the ABC(TM) type, and an offshore oil ring supply ship of the X-wing type. The variable inlet guide vane fan/shaft converting engine and auxiliary propeller configurations are shown to offer significant advantages over all the other systems evaluated, in terms of both direct operating cost and fuel consumption.

  16. Strutjet RBCC Engine Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulman, Mel; Neill, Todd; Yam, Clement

    1999-01-01

    In the past two years Strutjet Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine has been tested extensively under the Advanced Reusable Technology (ART) contract from NASA MSFC. RBCC Engines combine the high thrust to weight of the rocket with the high efficiency of the ramjet engine. This propulsion system has the potential to reduce the cost of launching payloads to orbit by up to a factor of 100. In the ART program we have conducted over 100 hot fire tests. The propellants have been hydrogen and oxygen. The Modes tested have included the Air Augmented Rocket (AAR) from M = 0 to 2.4, the Ramjet at M = 2.4 & 6, Scramjet at M = 6 & 8, Scram/Rocket at Mach 8 and Ascent Rocket in Vacuum. This invited paper will present an overview of these test results and plans for future development of this propulsion cycle.

  17. Engineering Cellular Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Jens; Keasling, Jay D

    2016-03-10

    Metabolic engineering is the science of rewiring the metabolism of cells to enhance production of native metabolites or to endow cells with the ability to produce new products. The potential applications of such efforts are wide ranging, including the generation of fuels, chemicals, foods, feeds, and pharmaceuticals. However, making cells into efficient factories is challenging because cells have evolved robust metabolic networks with hard-wired, tightly regulated lines of communication between molecular pathways that resist efforts to divert resources. Here, we will review the current status and challenges of metabolic engineering and will discuss how new technologies can enable metabolic engineering to be scaled up to the industrial level, either by cutting off the lines of control for endogenous metabolism or by infiltrating the system with disruptive, heterologous pathways that overcome cellular regulation. PMID:26967285

  18. Needle Federated Search Engine

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2009-12-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has combined a number of technologies, tools, and resources to accomplish a new means of federating search results. The resulting product is a search engine called Needle, an open-source-based tool that the INL uses internally for researching across a wide variety of information repositories. Needle has a flexible search interface that allows end users to point at any available data source. A user can select multiple sources such as commercialmore » databases (Web of Science, Engineering Index), external resources (WorldCat, Google Scholar), and internal corporate resources (email, document management system, library collections) in a single interface with one search query. In the future, INL hopes to offer this open-source engine to the public. This session will outline the development processes for making Needle™s search interface and simplifying the federation of internal and external data sources.« less

  19. Harmonic uniflow engine

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2016-03-22

    A reciprocating-piston uniflow engine includes a harmonic oscillator inlet valve capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into the engine. In particular, the inlet valve includes an inlet valve head and a spring arranged together as a harmonic oscillator so that the inlet valve head is moveable from an unbiased equilibrium position to a biased closed position occluding an inlet. When released, the inlet valve head undergoes a single oscillation past the equilibrium position to a maximum open position and returns to a biased return position close to the closed position to choke the flow and produce a pressure drop across the inlet valve causing the inlet valve to close. In other embodiments, the harmonic oscillator arrangement of the inlet valve enables the uniflow engine to be reversibly operated as a uniflow compressor.

  20. Superradiant Quantum Heat Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardal, Ali Ü. C.; Müstecaplıoğlu, Özgür E.

    2015-08-01

    Quantum physics revolutionized classical disciplines of mechanics, statistical physics, and electrodynamics. One branch of scientific knowledge however seems untouched: thermodynamics. Major motivation behind thermodynamics is to develop efficient heat engines. Technology has a trend to miniaturize engines, reaching to quantum regimes. Development of quantum heat engines (QHEs) requires emerging field of quantum thermodynamics. Studies of QHEs debate whether quantum coherence can be used as a resource. We explore an alternative where it can function as an effective catalyst. We propose a QHE which consists of a photon gas inside an optical cavity as the working fluid and quantum coherent atomic clusters as the fuel. Utilizing the superradiance, where a cluster can radiate quadratically faster than a single atom, we show that the work output becomes proportional to the square of the number of the atoms. In addition to practical value of cranking up QHE, our result is a fundamental difference of a quantum fuel from its classical counterpart.

  1. Magnesium: Engineering the Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X. B.; Yang, H. Y.; Abbott, T. B.; Easton, M. A.; Birbilis, N.

    2012-06-01

    Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys provide numerous benefits as lightweight materials; however, industrial deployment of Mg in most instances requires anticorrosion coatings. Engineering the Mg surface is an area that has been undergoing intense research recently. Surface engineering commences with the "pretreatment" step, which can be used to modify the surface composition and morphology, resulting in surface enrichment or depletion of alloying elements. Following this, electrochemical plating (including electro- and electroless plating) and conversion coatings have emerged as common means of coating Mg. In this study, we present the key aspects relating to the science and technology associated with pretreatment, electrochemical plating, and conversion coatings. This is followed by experimental examples of engineered surfaces of industrial relevance.

  2. Superradiant Quantum Heat Engine

    PubMed Central

    Hardal, Ali Ü. C.; Müstecaplıoğlu, Özgür E.

    2015-01-01

    Quantum physics revolutionized classical disciplines of mechanics, statistical physics, and electrodynamics. One branch of scientific knowledge however seems untouched: thermodynamics. Major motivation behind thermodynamics is to develop efficient heat engines. Technology has a trend to miniaturize engines, reaching to quantum regimes. Development of quantum heat engines (QHEs) requires emerging field of quantum thermodynamics. Studies of QHEs debate whether quantum coherence can be used as a resource. We explore an alternative where it can function as an effective catalyst. We propose a QHE which consists of a photon gas inside an optical cavity as the working fluid and quantum coherent atomic clusters as the fuel. Utilizing the superradiance, where a cluster can radiate quadratically faster than a single atom, we show that the work output becomes proportional to the square of the number of the atoms. In addition to practical value of cranking up QHE, our result is a fundamental difference of a quantum fuel from its classical counterpart. PMID:26260797

  3. Silence Amenity Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Hajime

    Engineering civilization brought convenient and comfortable life to us. However, some environmental problems such as various pollutions have also been developed with it. Acoustical noise is one of the major problems in modern life. Noise is generated from a noise source and propagates through transmitting medium such as the air and eventually reaches a receiver, usually a human being. The noise problem can be avoided, therefore, if one of those three elements in the noise problem is removed completely. In actual case, engineers are looking for most efficient way combining the controls for these three elements. In this article, basic characteristics of noise is reviewed briefly at first, then sound field analysis to predict sound transmission is discussed Aerodynamic noise is one of the major problems in silence amenity engineering today. Basic concept of the aerodynamic noise generation mechanism is discussed in detail with applications to turbo-machinery and high speed train noise control technology.

  4. Engineering scalable biological systems

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Synthetic biology is focused on engineering biological organisms to study natural systems and to provide new solutions for pressing medical, industrial and environmental problems. At the core of engineered organisms are synthetic biological circuits that execute the tasks of sensing inputs, processing logic and performing output functions. In the last decade, significant progress has been made in developing basic designs for a wide range of biological circuits in bacteria, yeast and mammalian systems. However, significant challenges in the construction, probing, modulation and debugging of synthetic biological systems must be addressed in order to achieve scalable higher-complexity biological circuits. Furthermore, concomitant efforts to evaluate the safety and biocontainment of engineered organisms and address public and regulatory concerns will be necessary to ensure that technological advances are translated into real-world solutions. PMID:21468204

  5. General Education for Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Kunihiko

    The basic program of general education of engineers is based on European culture from the times of ancient Greece to the 20th century. However, when considering its results, such as colonialism and the World Wars, this system can be said to lack the most important goal of “culture,” which is “to accept the existence of others.” In particular, the cooperation of European culture and engineering has ravaged the weaker cultures and is currently causing severe environmental problems in nature. Therefore, when considering the general education of engineers, it is indispensable to doubt European scholarship and to analyze what is lacking in current Japanese educational programs. Then, it is desirable that the relationship between the mind and the body, the characteristics of the Japanese climate, and the essence of Japanese artisanship be taken into consideration. It may also be beneficial to study the Ainu culture for its qualities as a peaceful culture.

  6. Mars methane engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bui, Hung; Coletta, Chris; Debois, Alain

    1994-01-01

    The feasibility of an internal combustion engine operating on a mixture of methane, carbon dioxide, and oxygen has been verified by previous design groups for the Mars Methane Engine Project. Preliminary stoichiometric calculations examined the theoretical fuel-air ratios needed for the combustion of methane. Installation of a computer data acquisition system along with various ancillary components will enable the performance of the engine, running on the described methane mixture, to be optimized with respect to minimizing excess fuel. Theoretical calculations for stoichiometric combustion of methane-oxygen-carbon dioxide mixtures yielded a ratio of 1:2:4.79 for a methane-oxygen-carbon dioxide mixture. Empirical data shows the values to be closer to 1:2.33:3.69 for optimum operation.

  7. Needle Federated Search Engine

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has combined a number of technologies, tools, and resources to accomplish a new means of federating search results. The resulting product is a search engine called Needle, an open-source-based tool that the INL uses internally for researching across a wide variety of information repositories. Needle has a flexible search interface that allows end users to point at any available data source. A user can select multiple sources such as commercial databases (Web of Science, Engineering Index), external resources (WorldCat, Google Scholar), and internal corporate resources (email, document management system, library collections) in a single interface with one search query. In the future, INL hopes to offer this open-source engine to the public. This session will outline the development processes for making Needle™s search interface and simplifying the federation of internal and external data sources.

  8. Software Engineering Improvement Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    In performance of this task order, bd Systems personnel provided support to the Flight Software Branch and the Software Working Group through multiple tasks related to software engineering improvement and to activities of the independent Technical Authority (iTA) Discipline Technical Warrant Holder (DTWH) for software engineering. To ensure that the products, comments, and recommendations complied with customer requirements and the statement of work, bd Systems personnel maintained close coordination with the customer. These personnel performed work in areas such as update of agency requirements and directives database, software effort estimation, software problem reports, a web-based process asset library, miscellaneous documentation review, software system requirements, issue tracking software survey, systems engineering NPR, and project-related reviews. This report contains a summary of the work performed and the accomplishments in each of these areas.

  9. Free-piston engine

    DOEpatents

    Van Blarigan, Peter

    2001-01-01

    A combustion system which can utilize high compression ratios, short burn durations, and homogeneous fuel/air mixtures in conjunction with low equivalence ratios. In particular, a free-piston, two-stroke autoignition internal combustion engine including an electrical generator having a linear alternator with a double-ended free piston that oscillates inside a closed cylinder is provided. Fuel and air are introduced in a two-stroke cycle fashion on each end, where the cylinder charge is compressed to the point of autoignition without spark plugs. The piston is driven in an oscillating motion as combustion occurs successively on each end. This leads to rapid combustion at almost constant volume for any fuel/air equivalence ratio mixture at very high compression ratios. The engine is characterized by high thermal efficiency and low NO.sub.x emissions. The engine is particularly suited for generating electrical current in a hybrid automobile.

  10. Engineering antibody therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Mark L; Gilliland, Gary L

    2016-06-01

    The successful introduction of antibody-based protein therapeutics into the arsenal of treatments for patients has within a few decades fostered intense innovation in the production and engineering of antibodies. Reviewed here are the methods currently used to produce antibodies along with how our knowledge of the structural and functional characterization of immunoglobulins has resulted in the engineering of antibodies to produce protein therapeutics with unique properties, both biological and biophysical, that are leading to novel therapeutic approaches. Antibody engineering includes the introduction of the antibody combining site (variable regions) into a host of architectures including bi and multi-specific formats that further impact the therapeutic properties leading to further advantages and successes in patient treatment. PMID:27525816

  11. ENGINEERING CONTROL INTO MEDICINE

    PubMed Central

    Stone, David J.; Celi, Leo Anthony; Csete, Marie

    2015-01-01

    The human body is a tightly controlled engineering miracle. However, medical training generally does not cover ‘control’ (in the engineering sense) in physiology, pathophysiology and therapeutics. A better understanding of how evolved controls maintain normal homeostasis is critical for understanding the failure mode of controlled systems, i.e., disease. We believe that teaching and research must incorporate an understanding of the control systems in physiology, and take advantage of the quantitative tools used by engineering to understand complex systems. Control systems are ubiquitous in physiology, though often unrecognized. Here we provide selected examples of the role of control in physiology (heart rate variability, immunity), pathophysiology (inflammation in sepsis), and therapeutic devices (diabetes and the artificial pancreas). We also present a high level background to the concept of robustly controlled systems and examples of clinical insights using the controls framework. PMID:25680579

  12. Superradiant Quantum Heat Engine.

    PubMed

    Hardal, Ali Ü C; Müstecaplıoğlu, Özgür E

    2015-01-01

    Quantum physics revolutionized classical disciplines of mechanics, statistical physics, and electrodynamics. One branch of scientific knowledge however seems untouched: thermodynamics. Major motivation behind thermodynamics is to develop efficient heat engines. Technology has a trend to miniaturize engines, reaching to quantum regimes. Development of quantum heat engines (QHEs) requires emerging field of quantum thermodynamics. Studies of QHEs debate whether quantum coherence can be used as a resource. We explore an alternative where it can function as an effective catalyst. We propose a QHE which consists of a photon gas inside an optical cavity as the working fluid and quantum coherent atomic clusters as the fuel. Utilizing the superradiance, where a cluster can radiate quadratically faster than a single atom, we show that the work output becomes proportional to the square of the number of the atoms. In addition to practical value of cranking up QHE, our result is a fundamental difference of a quantum fuel from its classical counterpart. PMID:26260797

  13. SNF Project Engineering Process Improvement Plan

    SciTech Connect

    DESAI, S.P.

    2000-02-09

    This plan documents the SNF Project activities and plans to support its engineering process. It describes five SNF Project Engineering initiatives: new engineering procedures, qualification cards process; configuration management, engineering self assessments, and integrated schedule for engineering activities.

  14. Externally heated valve engine -- An alternative to the Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kazimierski, Z.; Brzeski, L.

    1996-12-31

    A new concept of the Externally Heated Valve (EHV) engine is presented. The principle of the engine operation is described in the introduction to the paper. Heat delivered to the working medium (air) in the heater, or several heaters working commutatively, can come from a combustion chamber or other heat generator such as nuclear reactors or solar collectors. The engine construction is original entirely different from the well-known Stirling engine. New results of the EHV engine computer modeling are presented. This is connected with a new kind of the annular heater applied to the EHV engine. A whirl motion inside the heater is caused to ensure the proper condition of the heat exchanger during the whole engine cycle. Three heaters working commutatively have been considered in this model. Comparisons between the power and efficiency of the Stirling engine and EHV engine have been performed for the same engine capacity, rotational frequency, maximum and minimum temperatures of the working gas and for the same mean pressures of both the engine cycles. The power of the EHV engine is in this case over three times higher than the Stirling engine power, while the efficiency of both the engines is almost the same.

  15. Google Earth Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelick, N.

    2012-12-01

    The Google Earth Engine platform is a system designed to enable petabyte-scale, scientific analysis and visualization of geospatial datasets. Earth Engine provides a consolidated environment including a massive data catalog co-located with thousands of computers for analysis. The user-friendly front-end provides a workbench environment to allow interactive data and algorithm development and exploration and provides a convenient mechanism for scientists to share data, visualizations and analytic algorithms via URLs. The Earth Engine data catalog contains a wide variety of popular, curated datasets, including the world's largest online collection of Landsat scenes (> 2.0M), numerous MODIS collections, and many vector-based data sets. The platform provides a uniform access mechanism to a variety of data types, independent of their bands, projection, bit-depth, resolution, etc..., facilitating easy multi-sensor analysis. Additionally, a user is able to add and curate their own data and collections. Using a just-in-time, distributed computation model, Earth Engine can rapidly process enormous quantities of geo-spatial data. All computation is performed lazily; nothing is computed until it's required either for output or as input to another step. This model allows real-time feedback and preview during algorithm development, supporting a rapid algorithm development, test, and improvement cycle that scales seamlessly to large-scale production data processing. Through integration with a variety of other services, Earth Engine is able to bring to bear considerable analytic and technical firepower in a transparent fashion, including: AI-based classification via integration with Google's machine learning infrastructure, publishing and distribution at Google scale through integration with the Google Maps API, Maps Engine and Google Earth, and support for in-the-field activities such as validation, ground-truthing, crowd-sourcing and citizen science though the Android Open Data

  16. Google Earth Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelick, Noel

    2013-04-01

    The Google Earth Engine platform is a system designed to enable petabyte-scale, scientific analysis and visualization of geospatial datasets. Earth Engine provides a consolidated environment including a massive data catalog co-located with thousands of computers for analysis. The user-friendly front-end provides a workbench environment to allow interactive data and algorithm development and exploration and provides a convenient mechanism for scientists to share data, visualizations and analytic algorithms via URLs. The Earth Engine data catalog contains a wide variety of popular, curated datasets, including the world's largest online collection of Landsat scenes (> 2.0M), numerous MODIS collections, and many vector-based data sets. The platform provides a uniform access mechanism to a variety of data types, independent of their bands, projection, bit-depth, resolution, etc..., facilitating easy multi-sensor analysis. Additionally, a user is able to add and curate their own data and collections. Using a just-in-time, distributed computation model, Earth Engine can rapidly process enormous quantities of geo-spatial data. All computation is performed lazily; nothing is computed until it's required either for output or as input to another step. This model allows real-time feedback and preview during algorithm development, supporting a rapid algorithm development, test, and improvement cycle that scales seamlessly to large-scale production data processing. Through integration with a variety of other services, Earth Engine is able to bring to bear considerable analytic and technical firepower in a transparent fashion, including: AI-based classification via integration with Google's machine learning infrastructure, publishing and distribution at Google scale through integration with the Google Maps API, Maps Engine and Google Earth, and support for in-the-field activities such as validation, ground-truthing, crowd-sourcing and citizen science though the Android Open Data

  17. Engine Test and Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wey, Chown Chou

    1999-01-01

    Although the importance of aerosols and their precursors are now well recognized, the characterization of current subsonic engines for these emissions is far from complete. Furthermore, since the relationship of engine operating parameters to aerosol emissions is not known, extrapolation to untested and unbuilt engines necessarily remains highly uncertain. 1997 NASA LaRC engine test, as well as the parallel 1997 NASA LaRC flight measurement, attempts to address both issues by expanding measurements of aerosols and aerosol precursors with fuels containing different levels of fuel sulfur content. The specific objective of the 1997 engine test is to obtain a database of sulfur oxides emissions as well as the non-volatile particulate emission properties as a function of fuel sulfur and engine operating conditions. Four diagnostic systems, extractive and non-intrusive (optical), will be assembled for the gaseous and particulate emissions characterization measurements study. NASA is responsible for the extractive gaseous emissions measurement system which contains an array of analyzers dedicated to examining the concentrations of specific gases (NO, NO(x), CO, CO2, O2, THC, SO2) and the smoke number. University of Missouri-Rolla uses the Mobile Aerosol Sampling System to measure aerosol/particulate total concentration, size distribution, volatility and hydration property. Air Force Research Laboratory uses the Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer to measure SO2, SO3/H2SO4, and HN03 Aerodyne Research, Inc. uses Infrared Tunable Diode Laser system to measure SO2, SO3, NO, H2O, and CO2.

  18. Engine costs for reusability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schindler, Carla M.; Lansaw, John

    1990-01-01

    The advanced Launch System (ALS) program goals demand an order-of-magnitude reduction in costs over existing launch vehicle propulsion systems. Studies suggest that reusable engines provide cost advantages over expendable propulsion systems. Early studies are quantifying operations costs, and cost sensitivities to engine production and operations variables. ALS production and operations philosophies enhance the potential of an affordable, operationally flexible launch vehicle propulsion system. The assumptions made and criteria set during the initial planning for the operations phase of the ALS highlight the changes for implementing such a system.

  19. Intelligent Engine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie, Ming

    2008-01-01

    A high bypass jet engine fan case represents one of the largest, heaviest single components in an engine. In addition to supporting the inlet and providing the fan flowpath, the most critical function is the containment of a failed fan blade. In this development program, a lightweight, low-cost composite containment case with diagnostic capabilities was developed, fabricated, and tested. The fan case design, containment methods, and diagnostic concepts evaluated in the initial Propulsion 21 program were improved and scaled up to a full case design.

  20. Earthquake engineering in Peru

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vargas, N.J

    1983-01-01

    During the last decade, earthquake engineering research in Peru has been carried out at the Catholic University of Peru and at the Universidad Nacional de Ingeniera (UNI). The Geophysical Institute (IGP) under the auspices of the Organization of American States (OAS) has initiated in Peru other efforts in regional seismic hazard assessment programs with direct impact to the earthquake engineering program. Further details on these programs have been reported by L. Ocola in the Earthquake Information Bulletin, January-February 1982, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 33-38. 

  1. Readings in Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoban, Francis T. (Editor); Lawbaugh, William M. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This present collection was inspired by seven papers prepared by the NASA Alumni League, illustrating the members' systems engineering experience. These papers make up the heart of this collection. We have supplemented them with papers describing industry processes and other governmental practices to illustrate the diversity of systems engineering as it is formulated and practiced. This is one discipline that clearly benefits from cross-fertilization and infusion of new ideas. There is also a wide variety of tools and techniques described herein, some standard and some unique.

  2. Genetically Engineered Cyanobacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Ruanbao (Inventor); Gibbons, William (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The disclosed embodiments provide cyanobacteria spp. that have been genetically engineered to have increased production of carbon-based products of interest. These genetically engineered hosts efficiently convert carbon dioxide and light into carbon-based products of interest such as long chained hydrocarbons. Several constructs containing polynucleotides encoding enzymes active in the metabolic pathways of cyanobacteria are disclosed. In many instances, the cyanobacteria strains have been further genetically modified to optimize production of the carbon-based products of interest. The optimization includes both up-regulation and down-regulation of particular genes.

  3. Advancing cardiovascular tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Truskey, George A.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular tissue engineering offers the promise of biologically based repair of injured and damaged blood vessels, valves, and cardiac tissue. Major advances in cardiovascular tissue engineering over the past few years involve improved methods to promote the establishment and differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), scaffolds from decellularized tissue that may produce more highly differentiated tissues and advance clinical translation, improved methods to promote vascularization, and novel in vitro microphysiological systems to model normal and diseased tissue function. iPSC technology holds great promise, but robust methods are needed to further promote differentiation. Differentiation can be further enhanced with chemical, electrical, or mechanical stimuli. PMID:27303643

  4. Engineering approaches to biomanipulation.

    PubMed

    Desai, Jaydev P; Pillarisetti, Anand; Brooks, Ari D

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a review on the existing techniques for manipulating biological cells. Because biomanipulation involves a wide range of disciplines, from biology to engineering, we concentrate on some of the key methodologies that would result in an efficient biomanipulation system. Some of the key methodologies discussed in this article for cell manipulation relate to the use of magnetics, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based approaches, optics, electric field, and mechanical techniques. Recent advances in engineering have allowed researchers worldwide to address the problems arising from conventional manipulation techniques. This paper assimilates significance and limitations of biomanipulation techniques described in the literature. PMID:17362196

  5. Computer Aided Engineering Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Anupam; Sahay, Birendra

    This book amalgamates geometric modelling, analysis and optimization, the three important aspects in Computer Aided Engineering Design. While the three subjects are well developed by themselves, a detailed discussion on engineering visualization (transformations and projections) and mathematical background of free form, parametric and piecewise design of curves and surfaces is provided. A topological basis is given when discussing wireframe, boundary representation and constructive solid geometry as solid modelling techniques. http://www.springeronline.com/alert/article?a=3D1_1fva7w_9hjul_18j_6

  6. What is systems engineering?

    SciTech Connect

    Bahill, A.T.

    1995-08-01

    Systems Engineering is an interdisciplinary process that ensures that the customers` needs are satisfied throughout a system`s entire life cycle. This process includes: understanding customer needs; stating the problem; specifying requirements; defining performance and cost measures, prescribing tests, validating requirements, conducting design reviews, exploring alternative concepts, sensitivity analyses, functional decomposition, system design, designing and managing interfaces, system integration, total system test, configuration management, risk management, reliability analysis; total quality management; project management; and documentation. Material for this paper was gathered from senior Systems Engineers at Sandia National Laboratories.

  7. Engineering within ecological constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Shulze, P.C.

    1996-08-01

    The volume looks at the concepts of scale, resilience, and chaos as they apply to the points where the ecological life support system of nature interacts with the technological life support system created by humankind. Among the questions addressed are: What are the implications of differences between ecological and engineering concepts of efficiency and stability; how can engineering solutions to immediate problems be made compatible with long-term ecological concerns; and how can we transfer ecological principles to economic systems. The book also includes important case studies on such topics as water management in southern Florida and California and oil exploration in rain forests.

  8. Neovascularization in Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jennifer C.-Y.; Shum-Tim, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    A prerequisite for successful tissue engineering is adequate vascularization that would allow tissue engineering constructs to survive and grow. Angiogenic growth factors, alone and in combination, have been used to achieve this, and gene therapy has been used as a tool to enable sustained release of these angiogenic proteins. Cell-based therapy using endothelial cells and their precursors presents an alternative approach to tackling this challenge. These studies have occurred on a background of advancements in scaffold design and assays for assessing neovascularization. Finally, several studies have already attempted to translate research in neovascularization to clinical use in the blossoming field of therapeutic angiogenesis. PMID:24710553

  9. Student Engineers and Engineer Identity: Campus Engineer Identities as Figured World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonso, Karen L.

    2006-09-01

    The research reported here contributes to understanding how student engineers on an engineering campus in the US mid-continent not only talked about the kinds of people recognized as engineers on campus, but also juxtaposes their talk about "campus engineer identities" with two students' ways of presenting themselves as engineers through engineering project teamwork to argue that campus engineer identities framed on-campus interpretations of actions, and ultimately that identity production was a complicated process through which campus engineer identities (cultural knowledge learned on campus) provided a lens of meaning through which to "recognize" (or not) performances of engineer selves as engineers. This research adds to conversations about identity in practice, especially identity production in science education, by suggesting the importance of cultural forms for belonging, especially at an obdurate site of science practice like the campus studied.

  10. Engine systems analysis results of the Space Shuttle Main Engine redesigned powerhead initial engine level testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sander, Erik J.; Gosdin, Dennis R.

    1992-07-01

    Engineers regularly analyze SSME ground test and flight data with respect to engine systems performance. Recently, a redesigned SSME powerhead was introduced to engine-level testing in part to increase engine operational margins through optimization of the engine internal environment. This paper presents an overview of the MSFC personnel engine systems analysis results and conclusions reached from initial engine level testing of the redesigned powerhead, and further redesigns incorporated to eliminate accelerated main injector baffle and main combustion chamber hot gas wall degradation. The conclusions are drawn from instrumented engine ground test data and hardware integrity analysis reports and address initial engine test results with respect to the apparent design change effects on engine system and component operation.

  11. 78 FR 775 - Goodman Networks, Inc. Core Network Engineering (Deployment Engineering) Division Alpharetta, GA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    ... Employment and Training Administration Goodman Networks, Inc. Core Network Engineering (Deployment Engineering) Division Alpharetta, GA; Goodman Networks, Inc. Core Network Engineering (Deployment Engineering) Division Hunt Valley, MD; Goodman Networks, Inc. Core Network Engineering (Deployment Engineering)...

  12. 78 FR 12359 - Goodman Networks, Inc., Core Network Engineering (Deployment Engineering) Division Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... Employment and Training Administration Goodman Networks, Inc., Core Network Engineering (Deployment Engineering) Division Including Workers in the Core Network Engineering (Deployment Engineering) Division in... of Goodman Networks, Inc., Core Network Engineering (Deployment Engineering) Division,...

  13. E-Alerts: Combustion, engines, and propellants (reciprocation and rotating combustion engines). E-mail newsletter

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    Design, performance, and testing of reciprocating and rotating engines of various configurations for all types of propulsion. Includes internal and external combustion engines; engine exhaust systems; engine air systems components; engine structures; stirling and diesel engines.

  14. 14. INTERIOR OF ENGINE ROOM, CONTAINING MESTACORLISS CROSSCOMPOUND ENGINE, FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR OF ENGINE ROOM, CONTAINING MESTA-CORLISS CROSS-COMPOUND ENGINE, FOR 40" BLOOMING MILL. THIS VIEW HIGHLIGHTS THE CRANK AND 24' DIAMETER FLYWHEEL. THE ENGINE IS A 7,940 HP MESTA-CORLISS CROSS-COMPOUND STEAM ENGINE ITS BORE AND STROKE ARE 32"X84"X60". NOTE FLY BALL GOVERNOR ON ENGINE. MILL DRIVE SHAFT ATTACHED TO PULLEY ON LOCATED ON CRANK. - Republic Iron & Steel Company, Youngstown Works, Blooming Mill & Blooming Mill Engines, North of Poland Avenue, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  15. Aerospace engineering educational program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craft, William; Klett, David; Lai, Steven

    1992-01-01

    The principle goal of the educational component of NASA CORE is the creation of aerospace engineering options in the mechanical engineering program at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. To accomplish this goal, a concerted effort during the past year has resulted in detailed plans for the initiation of aerospace options in both the BSME and MSME programs in the fall of 1993. All proposed new courses and the BSME aerospace option curriculum must undergo a lengthy approval process involving two cirriculum oversight committees (School of Engineering and University level) and three levels of general faculty approval. Assuming approval is obtained from all levels, the options will officially take effect in Fall '93. In anticipation of this, certain courses in the proposed curriculum are being offered during the current academic year under special topics headings so that current junior level students may graduate in May '94 under the BSME aerospace option. The proposed undergraduate aerospace option curriculum (along with the regular mechanical engineering curriculum for reference) is attached at the end of this report, and course outlines for the new courses are included in the appendix.

  16. Fuel for diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, M.

    1983-09-20

    A fuel is disclosed for a diesel engine which comprises a mixture of (A) an alcohol, (B) gas oil and (C) castor oil, wherein the contents of the respective components satisfy requirements represented by the following formulae: 0% by volume < A 80% by volume, 10% by volume B < 50% by volume, and 10% by volume C < 50% by volume.

  17. Liquid rocket engine turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Criteria for the design and development of turbines for rocket engines to meet specific performance, and installation requirements are summarized. The total design problem, and design elements are identified, and the current technology pertaining to these elements is described. Recommended practices for achieving a successful design are included.

  18. Facilities Engineering in NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagluiso, M. A.

    1970-01-01

    An overview of NASA facilities is given outlining some of the more interesting and unique aspects of engineering and facilities associated with the space program. Outlined are some of the policies under which the Office of Facilities conducts its business. Included are environmental quality control measures.

  19. NSI engineering review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, Mark

    1991-01-01

    An engineering review is given of NASA Science Internet (NSI). An outline of the review is presented along with a list of new connections. A map is illustrated of NSI installations. And a listing is given of upgrade scheduling for 1991, 1992, and 1993.

  20. Comprehensive Small Engine Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hires, Bill; And Others

    This curriculum guide contains the basic information needed to repair all two- and four-stroke cycle engines. The curriculum covers four areas, each consisting of one or more units of instruction that include performance objectives, suggested activities for teacher and students, information sheets, assignment sheets, job sheets, visual aids,…

  1. Solid state heat engine

    SciTech Connect

    Cory, J.S.

    1981-12-15

    A compact solid state turbine heat engine can be devised by pairing the nitinol elements. Each element is characterized by being in thermal contact with at least one hot water and one cold water bath and mechanically coupled to at least one driven pulley and driver pulley. A second nitinol element is similarly configured with a driver pulley, driven pulley, hot and cold water bath. The driver pulley associated with the first nitinol element is mechanically coupled to the driven pulley of the second nitinol element. Similarly, the driver pulley of the second nitinol element is mechanically coupled to the driven pulley of the first nitinol element. The paired nitinol elements form a compound solid state turbine engine wherein each nitinol element lies in a single plane and wherein the engine may be combined with a plurality of such pairs for increased power output. The nitinol elements may also incorporate a snubber to limit the strain on the element and the engine may further incorporate a variable radius pulley to increase the efficiency of mechanical conversion.

  2. Engineering Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Lindsay B.; Whitworth, Brooke A.; Gonczi, Amanda L.

    2014-01-01

    The number of students majoring in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) is declining due in part to a lack of student interest (Fairweather 2008; NRC 2012; PCAST 2010). One reason may be the difference between how science is done in school and how it is done in the field (Osborne, Simon, and Collins 2003). An interdisciplinary…

  3. Ethics of Reproductive Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buuck, R. John

    1977-01-01

    Artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, artificial placentas, and cloning are examined from a ethical viewpoint. The moral, social, and legal implications of reproductive engineering are considered important to biology as well as medicine. The author suggests that these ethical issues should be included in the biology curriculum and lists…

  4. Ethics and Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucciarelli, L. L.

    2008-01-01

    In the US, Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) recommends the study of ethics so that students acquire "an understanding of professional and ethical responsibility". For the most part, teaching of the subject relies upon the use of scenarios--both hypothetical and "real"--and open discussion framed by the codes. These…

  5. Fundamentals of Diesel Engines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the fundamentals of diesel engine mechanics. Addressed in the three individual units of the course are the following topics: basic principles of diesel mechanics; principles, mechanics, and…

  6. Engineering Technician Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA. Langley Research Center.

    The booklet describes the program offerings, requirements, training, and pay schedules of the Langley Research Center Technician Training Program. Training schedules and the duties expected upon completion of each of the training areas are specified, along with on-the-job and academic requirements. The areas of training are: engineering draftsman,…

  7. A sublimation heat engine

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Gary G.; Ledesma-Aguilar, Rodrigo; McHale, Glen; Sefiane, Khellil

    2015-01-01

    Heat engines are based on the physical realization of a thermodynamic cycle, most famously the liquid–vapour Rankine cycle used for steam engines. Here we present a sublimation heat engine, which can convert temperature differences into mechanical work via the Leidenfrost effect. Through controlled experiments, quantified by a hydrodynamic model, we show that levitating dry-ice blocks rotate on hot turbine-like surfaces at a rate controlled by the turbine geometry, temperature difference and solid material properties. The rotational motion of the dry-ice loads is converted into electric power by coupling to a magnetic coil system. We extend our concept to liquid loads, generalizing the realization of the new engine to both sublimation and the instantaneous vapourization of liquids. Our results support the feasibility of low-friction in situ energy harvesting from both liquids and ices. Our concept is potentially relevant in challenging situations such as deep drilling, outer space exploration or micro-mechanical manipulation. PMID:25731669

  8. A sublimation heat engine.

    PubMed

    Wells, Gary G; Ledesma-Aguilar, Rodrigo; McHale, Glen; Sefiane, Khellil

    2015-01-01

    Heat engines are based on the physical realization of a thermodynamic cycle, most famously the liquid-vapour Rankine cycle used for steam engines. Here we present a sublimation heat engine, which can convert temperature differences into mechanical work via the Leidenfrost effect. Through controlled experiments, quantified by a hydrodynamic model, we show that levitating dry-ice blocks rotate on hot turbine-like surfaces at a rate controlled by the turbine geometry, temperature difference and solid material properties. The rotational motion of the dry-ice loads is converted into electric power by coupling to a magnetic coil system. We extend our concept to liquid loads, generalizing the realization of the new engine to both sublimation and the instantaneous vapourization of liquids. Our results support the feasibility of low-friction in situ energy harvesting from both liquids and ices. Our concept is potentially relevant in challenging situations such as deep drilling, outer space exploration or micro-mechanical manipulation. PMID:25731669

  9. Careers in Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This booklet briefly describes occupational opportunities in engineering in the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Section headings are: "Preserving Our Future Today"; "Introduction to EPA..."; "Setting Standards"; "Enforcement and Monitoring"; "Trends for the Future"; "Job Requirements"; "A Day in the Life of..."; "Geographic Locations";…

  10. Plasma engineering for MARS

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, G.A.; Baldwin, D.E.; Barr, W.L.

    1983-03-24

    The two-year Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) has resulted in the conceptual design of a commercial, electricity-producing fusion reactor based on tandem mirror confinement. The physics basis for the MARS reactor was developed through work in two highly coupled areas of plasma engineering: magnetics and plasma performance.

  11. Stirling engines for automobiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beremand, D. G.

    1979-01-01

    The results of recent and ongoing automobile Stirling engine development efforts are reviewed and technology status and requirements are identified. Key technology needs include those for low cost, high temperature (1300 - 1500 F) metal alloys for heater heads, and reliable long-life, low-leakage shaft seals. Various fuel economy projections for Stirling powered automobiles are reviewed and assessed.

  12. Engineer Equipment Operator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by engineer equipment operators. Addressed in the seven individual units of the course are the following topics: introduction to Military Occupation Specialty (MOS) 1345…

  13. Engineer Equipment Chief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by engineer equipment chiefs. Addressed in the five individual units of the course are the following topics: construction management (planning, scheduling, and supervision);…

  14. Engineering a Classroom Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Walter E.

    1983-01-01

    Describes physical science activities that civil/mechanical engineers (serving as resource persons) can use with students during units on force, work, center of gravity, simple machines, and other basic mechanics concepts. Activities are adapted from Career Oriented Modules to Explore Topics in Science for grades 5-9 (COMETS). (Author/JN)

  15. SSC Engineering Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Harry; Junell, Justin; Albasini, Colby; O'Rourke, William; Le, Thang; Strain, Ted; Stiglets, Tim

    2011-01-01

    A package for the automation of the Engineering Analysis (EA) process at the Stennis Space Center has been customized. It provides the ability to assign and track analysis tasks electronically, and electronically route a task for approval. It now provides a mechanism to keep these analyses under configuration management. It also allows the analysis to be stored and linked to the engineering data that is needed to perform the analysis (drawings, etc.). PTC s (Parametric Technology Corp o ration) Windchill product was customized to allow the EA to be created, routed, and maintained under configuration management. Using Infoengine Tasks, JSP (JavaServer Pages), Javascript, a user interface was created within the Windchill product that allows users to create EAs. Not only does this interface allow users to create and track EAs, but it plugs directly into the out-ofthe- box ability to associate these analyses with other relevant engineering data such as drawings. Also, using the Windchill workflow tool, the Design and Data Management System (DDMS) team created an electronic routing process based on the manual/informal approval process. The team also added the ability for users to notify and track notifications to individuals about the EA. Prior to the Engineering Analysis creation, there was no electronic way of creating and tracking these analyses. There was also a feature that was added that would allow users to track/log e-mail notifications of the EA.

  16. Advanced Engineering Fibers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edie, Dan D.; Dunham, Michael G.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Clemson University's Advanced Engineered Fibers Laboratory, which was established to provide national leadership and expertise in developing the processing equipment and advance fibers necessary for the chemical, fiber, and textile industries to enter the composite materials market. Discusses some of the laboratory's activities in…

  17. Liquid Rocket Engine Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, Shamim

    2005-01-01

    Comprehensive Liquid Rocket Engine testing is essential to risk reduction for Space Flight. Test capability represents significant national investments in expertise and infrastructure. Historical experience underpins current test capabilities. Test facilities continually seek proactive alignment with national space development goals and objectives including government and commercial sectors.

  18. Science & Engineering Indicators--1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. National Science Board.

    This report provides policymakers in both the public and private sectors with a broad base of quantitative information about U.S. science and engineering (S&E) research and education and U.S. technology in a global context. Chapter 1, "Elementary and Secondary Science and Mathematics Education," discusses the student's achievement, interest,…

  19. Diesel Engine Idling Test

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Zirker; James Francfort; Jordon Fielding

    2006-02-01

    In support of the Department of Energy’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technology Program Office goal to minimize diesel engine idling and reduce the consumption of millions of gallons of diesel fuel consumed during heavy vehicle idling periods, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) conducted tests to characterize diesel engine wear rates caused by extended periods of idling. INL idled two fleet buses equipped with Detroit Diesel Series 50 engines, each for 1,000 hours. Engine wear metals were characterized from weekly oil analysis samples and destructive filter analyses. Full-flow and the bypass filter cartridges were removed at four stages of the testing and sent to an oil analysis laboratory for destructive analysis to ascertain the metals captured in the filters and to establish wear rate trends. Weekly samples were sent to two independent oil analysis laboratories. Concurrent with the filter analysis, a comprehensive array of other laboratory tests ascertained the condition of the oil, wear particle types, and ferrous particles. Extensive ferrogram testing physically showed the concentration of iron particles and associated debris in the oil. The tests results did not show the dramatic results anticipated but did show wear trends. New West Technologies, LLC, a DOE support company, supplied technical support and data analysis throughout the idle test.

  20. Metabolic engineering of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ravi R; Prasad, Satish

    2011-07-01

    Yield and productivity are critical for the economics and viability of a bioprocess. In metabolic engineering the main objective is the increase of a target metabolite production through genetic engineering. Metabolic engineering is the practice of optimizing genetic and regulatory processes within cells to increase the production of a certain substance. In the last years, the development of recombinant DNA technology and other related technologies has provided new tools for approaching yields improvement by means of genetic manipulation of biosynthetic pathway. Industrial microorganisms like Escherichia coli, Actinomycetes, etc. have been developed as biocatalysts to provide new or to optimize existing processes for the biotechnological production of chemicals from renewable plant biomass. The factors like oxygenation, temperature and pH have been traditionally controlled and optimized in industrial fermentation in order to enhance metabolite production. Metabolic engineering of bacteria shows a great scope in industrial application as well as such technique may also have good potential to solve certain metabolic disease and environmental problems in near future. PMID:22754024

  1. With News Search Engines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Holly

    2005-01-01

    Although there are many news search engines on the Web, finding the news items one wants can be challenging. Choosing appropriate search terms is one of the biggest challenges. Unless one has seen the article that one is seeking, it is often difficult to select words that were used in the headline or text of the article. The limited archives of…

  2. Paper Genetic Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacClintic, Scott D.; Nelson, Genevieve M.

    Bacterial transformation is a commonly used technique in genetic engineering that involves transferring a gene of interest into a bacterial host so that the bacteria can be used to produce large quantities of the gene product. Although several kits are available for performing bacterial transformation in the classroom, students do not always…

  3. Diesel engine exhaust

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Diesel engine exhaust ; CASRN N.A . Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  4. Stirling cycle piston engine

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, G. R.

    1985-02-12

    This device is an improvement over the conventional type of Stirling cycle engine where the expander piston is connected to a crankshaft and the displacer piston is connected to the same or another crankshaft for operation. The improvement is based on both the expansion and displacer pistons being an integral unit having regenerating means which eliminate the mechanisms that synchronize the regeneration mode.

  5. Internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Beaudsin, N.

    1984-05-22

    An internal combustion engine wherein the rod connecting the piston to the crankshaft has an enlarged portion defining a track which a crankshaft element cooperatingly engages; the track is topologically shaped so that the effect exerted by the crankshaft element on the connecting rod is reduced and/or cancelled for a given travel distance of the crankshaft element in the track.

  6. Vehicle with magnetic engine

    SciTech Connect

    Wortham, C.

    1993-06-15

    A vehicle is described comprising a vehicle frame fitted with axles and wheels rotatably carried by the axles; an engine block mounted on the frame; a plurality of magnetic cylinders provided in the engine block and a plurality of magnetic pistons disposed in the magnetic cylinders, respectively, in reciprocating relationship, the magnetic cylinders having a first magnetic polarity in one end and a second magnetic polarity in the opposite end for alternately attracting and repelling the magnetic pistons, respectively; a crankshaft journalled for rotation in the engine block; power transmission means connecting the crankshaft to at least one of the axles in driving relationship; and connecting rods connecting the crankshaft to the magnetic pistons, respectively, whereby reciprocation of the magnetic pistons in the magnetic cylinders effects rotation of the crankshaft; a cylinder head provided on the engine block and piston electromagnetic means provided in the cylinder head above the magnetic cylinders and the magnetic pistons, respectively for alternately attracting and repelling the magnetic pistons; at least one battery carried by the frame; and polarity timing means electrically connected to the battery and the piston electromagnetic means, for alternating the polarity of the piston electromagnet means, whereby electric current is supplied to the piston electromagnetic means in current-reversing relationship to alternately attract and repel the magnetic pistons in reciprocating relationship responsive to operation of the polarity timing means.

  7. Polymerization Reactor Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaates, J. Michael

    1987-01-01

    Describes a polymerization reactor engineering course offered at Michigan Technological University which focuses on the design and operation of industrial polymerization reactors to achieve a desired degree of polymerization and molecular weight distribution. Provides a list of the course topics and assigned readings. (TW)

  8. Authority in Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephan, Karl D.

    2012-01-01

    Authority as a philosophical concept is defined both in general and as it applies to engineering education. Authority is shown to be a good and necessary part of social structures, in contrast to some cultural trends that regard it as an unnecessary and outmoded evil. Technical, educational, and organizational authority in their normal functions…

  9. Following Engineering Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feutz, Michael; Zinser, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study provides an in-depth analysis of recent graduates' experience with completing an engineering technology program and entering the profession. It is unique because the study was conducted on a baccalaureate-level program and because it helps fill a gap in the literature. The phenomenological method was used to obtain qualitative data to…

  10. Engineering Design Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lammi, Matthew; Becker, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Engineering design thinking is "a complex cognitive process" including divergence-convergence, a systems perspective, ambiguity, and collaboration (Dym, Agogino, Eris, Frey, & Leifer, 2005, p. 104). Design is often complex, involving multiple levels of interacting components within a system that may be nested within or connected to other systems.…

  11. Neoproteoglycans in tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Weyers, Amanda; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Proteoglycans, comprised of a core protein to which glycosaminoglycan chains are covalently linked, are an important structural and functional family of macromolecules found in the extracellular matrix. Advances in our understanding of biological interactions have lead to a greater appreciation for the need to design tissue engineering scaffolds that incorporate mimetics of key extracellular matrix components. A variety of synthetic and semisynthetic molecules and polymers have been examined by tissue engineers that serve as structural, chemical and biological replacements for proteoglycans. These proteoglycan mimetics have been referred to as neoproteoglycans and serve as functional and therapeutic replacements for natural proteoglycans that are often unavailable for tissue engineering studies. Although neoproteoglycans have important limitations, such as limited signaling ability and biocompatibility, they have shown promise in replacing the natural activity of proteoglycans through cell and protein binding interactions. This review focuses on the recent in vivo and in vitro tissue engineering applications of three basic types of neoproteoglycan structures, protein–glycosaminoglycan conjugates, nano-glycosaminoglycan composites and polymer–glycosaminoglycan complexes. PMID:23399318

  12. Managing Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staiger, Eugene H.

    1983-01-01

    The Ainsworth-Lund transformation process model offers a framework for observing and assessing growth/development by identifying needs and matching them to available resources. The model's four phases are described and an annotated bibliography is provided which documents the engineering education experiences corresponding to each phase. (JN)

  13. Engineering performance metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delozier, R.; Snyder, N.

    1993-03-01

    Implementation of a Total Quality Management (TQM) approach to engineering work required the development of a system of metrics which would serve as a meaningful management tool for evaluating effectiveness in accomplishing project objectives and in achieving improved customer satisfaction. A team effort was chartered with the goal of developing a system of engineering performance metrics which would measure customer satisfaction, quality, cost effectiveness, and timeliness. The approach to developing this system involved normal systems design phases including, conceptual design, detailed design, implementation, and integration. The lessons teamed from this effort will be explored in this paper. These lessons learned may provide a starting point for other large engineering organizations seeking to institute a performance measurement system accomplishing project objectives and in achieving improved customer satisfaction. To facilitate this effort, a team was chartered to assist in the development of the metrics system. This team, consisting of customers and Engineering staff members, was utilized to ensure that the needs and views of the customers were considered in the development of performance measurements. The development of a system of metrics is no different than the development of any type of system. It includes the steps of defining performance measurement requirements, measurement process conceptual design, performance measurement and reporting system detailed design, and system implementation and integration.

  14. Careers in Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes-Guerra, David R.

    This publication, a pamphlet included in the B'nai B'rith Occupational Brief Series, directs its attention to the profession of engineering. It is described as that profession in which knowledge of the mathematical and natural sciences, gained by study, experience, and practice, is applied with judgment to develop ways to utilize economically the…

  15. Ada & the Analytical Engine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Elisabeth

    1996-01-01

    Presents a brief history of Ada Byron King, Countess of Lovelace, focusing on her primary role in the development of the Analytical Engine--the world's first computer. Describes the Ada Project (TAP), a centralized World Wide Web site that serves as a clearinghouse for information related to women in computing, and provides a Web address for…

  16. Basic Engineer Equipment Mechanic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by basic engineer equipment mechanics. Addressed in the four individual units of the course are the following topics: mechanics and their tools (mechanics, hand tools, and power…

  17. Engineer Equipment Mechanic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on engineer equipment mechanics is designed to advance the professional competence of privates through sergeants as equipment mechanics, Military Occupation Specialty 1341, and is adaptable for nonmilitary instruction. Introductory materials include…

  18. Engineering performance metrics

    SciTech Connect

    DeLozier, R. ); Snyder, N. )

    1993-03-31

    Implementation of a Total Quality Management (TQM) approach to engineering work required the development of a system of metrics which would serve as a meaningful msinagement tool for evaluating effectiveness in accomplishing project objectives and in achieving improved customer satisfaction. A team effort was chartered with the goal of developing a system of engineering performance metrics which would measure customer satisfaction, quality, cost effectiveness, and timeliness. The approach to developing this system involved normal systems design phases including, conceptual design, detailed design, implementation, and integration. The lessons teamed from this effort will be explored in this paper. These lessons teamed may provide a starting point for other large engineering organizations seeking to institute a performance measurement system accomplishing project objectives and in achieving improved customer satisfaction. To facilitate this effort, a team was chartered to assist in the development of the metrics system. This team, consisting of customers and Engineering staff members, was utilized to ensure that the needs and views of the customers were considered in the development of performance measurements. The development of a system of metrics is no different than the development of any type of system. It includes the steps of defining performance measurement requirements, measurement process conceptual design, performance measurement and reporting system detailed design, and system implementation and integration.

  19. Engine & Vehicle Mechanics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This competency-based curriculum includes all competencies a student will acquire in an engine and vehicle mechanics educational program. It follows guidelines established for automobile technician training programs leading toward certification and addresses requirements of the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence (ASE). The…

  20. An Automatic Engine Analyzer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tian-Fu, Li; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes an inexpensive, simple, microprocessor-based instrument which quickly and accurately measures and displays the indicated power and the pressure-volume indicator diagram of a reciprocating compressor or internal combustion engine. Hardware requirements, software considerations, and the instrument's educational value are discussed. (JN)

  1. SMS engineering design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The engineering design for the Shuttle Missions Simulator is presented in sections, with each section representing a subsystem development activity. Subsystems covered include: electrical power system; mechanical power system; main propellant and external tank; solid rocket booster; reaction control system; orbital maneuvering system; guidance, navigation, and control; data processing system; mission control center interface; and image display system.

  2. Integrating Multidisciplinary Engineering Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Karin; Luckett, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    In order to design two distinct engineering qualification levels for an existing University of Technology programme, empirical evidence based on the current diploma is necessary to illuminate the nature of and the relationship between the "contextual" and "conceptual" elements underpinning a multidisciplinary engineering…

  3. Blade for turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suciu, Gabriel L. (Inventor); Babu, Michael (Inventor); Murdock, James R. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A blade for a turbine engine having a centerline. The blade comprises: a root section extending at an angle relative to the centerline; and an airfoil section extending from the root section. The root section is directly adjacent said airfoil section. In other words, the blade is neckless. The blade is part of a rotor assembly, and is preferably a fan blade.

  4. Analytics for Metabolic Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Petzold, Christopher J.; Chan, Leanne Jade G.; Nhan, Melissa; Adams, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Realizing the promise of metabolic engineering has been slowed by challenges related to moving beyond proof-of-concept examples to robust and economically viable systems. Key to advancing metabolic engineering beyond trial-and-error research is access to parts with well-defined performance metrics that can be readily applied in vastly different contexts with predictable effects. As the field now stands, research depends greatly on analytical tools that assay target molecules, transcripts, proteins, and metabolites across different hosts and pathways. Screening technologies yield specific information for many thousands of strain variants, while deep omics analysis provides a systems-level view of the cell factory. Efforts focused on a combination of these analyses yield quantitative information of dynamic processes between parts and the host chassis that drive the next engineering steps. Overall, the data generated from these types of assays aid better decision-making at the design and strain construction stages to speed progress in metabolic engineering research. PMID:26442249

  5. Brownian Carnot engine

    PubMed Central

    Dinis, L.; Petrov, D.; Parrondo, J. M. R.; Rica, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    The Carnot cycle imposes a fundamental upper limit to the efficiency of a macroscopic motor operating between two thermal baths1. However, this bound needs to be reinterpreted at microscopic scales, where molecular bio-motors2 and some artificial micro-engines3–5 operate. As described by stochastic thermodynamics6,7, energy transfers in microscopic systems are random and thermal fluctuations induce transient decreases of entropy, allowing for possible violations of the Carnot limit8. Here we report an experimental realization of a Carnot engine with a single optically trapped Brownian particle as the working substance. We present an exhaustive study of the energetics of the engine and analyse the fluctuations of the finite-time efficiency, showing that the Carnot bound can be surpassed for a small number of non-equilibrium cycles. As its macroscopic counterpart, the energetics of our Carnot device exhibits basic properties that one would expect to observe in any microscopic energy transducer operating with baths at different temperatures9–11. Our results characterize the sources of irreversibility in the engine and the statistical properties of the efficiency—an insight that could inspire new strategies in the design of efficient nano-motors. PMID:27330541

  6. Small engine technology programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedzwiecki, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    Described here is the small engine technology program being sponsored at the Lewis Research Center. Small gas turbine research is aimed at general aviation, commuter aircraft, rotorcraft, and cruise missile applications. The Rotary Engine program is aimed at supplying fuel flexible, fuel efficient technology to the general aviation industry, but also has applications to other missions. The Automotive Gas Turbine (AGT) and Heavy-Duty Diesel Transport Technology (HDTT) programs are sponsored by DOE. The Compound Cycle Engine program is sponsored by the Army. All of the programs are aimed towards highly efficient engine cycles, very efficient components, and the use of high temperature structural ceramics. This research tends to be generic in nature and has broad applications. The HDTT, rotary technology, and the compound cycle programs are all examining approaches to minimum heat rejection, or 'adiabatic' systems employing advanced materials. The AGT program is also directed towards ceramics application to gas turbine hot section components. Turbomachinery advances in the gas turbine programs will benefit advanced turbochargers and turbocompounders for the intermittent combustion systems, and the fundamental understandings and analytical codes developed in the research and technology programs will be directly applicable to the system projects.

  7. The Engineered Adjustment Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spilker, George

    Described are the curriculum, behavioral modification program, summer activities, and parent involvement in the Papillion (Nebraska) Title III elementary level "engineered classroom" program for emotionally disturbed students. Noted is program initiation after parents and teachers became upset over poor academic progress and behaviors of an…

  8. Biomedical applications engineering tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laenger, C. J., Sr.

    1976-01-01

    The engineering tasks performed in response to needs articulated by clinicians are described. Initial contacts were made with these clinician-technology requestors by the Southwest Research Institute NASA Biomedical Applications Team. The basic purpose of the program was to effectively transfer aerospace technology into functional hardware to solve real biomedical problems.

  9. Anatomy for Biomedical Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Stephen W.; Robb, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    There is a perceived need for anatomy instruction for graduate students enrolled in a biomedical engineering program. This appeared especially important for students interested in and using medical images. These students typically did not have a strong background in biology. The authors arranged for students to dissect regions of the body that…

  10. Engineering Better Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Peter N.; Petersen, Gary S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the Multiple Engineering Cooperative Program (MECOP) at Oregon State University and how it demonstrates the power of an effective business/education partnership. Examines the history of the program since its inception in 1978 and reviews its current status in 1993, when the program supports 81 students interning among 31 companies…

  11. Brownian Carnot engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, I. A.; Roldán, É.; Dinis, L.; Petrov, D.; Parrondo, J. M. R.; Rica, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    The Carnot cycle imposes a fundamental upper limit to the efficiency of a macroscopic motor operating between two thermal baths. However, this bound needs to be reinterpreted at microscopic scales, where molecular bio-motors and some artificial micro-engines operate. As described by stochastic thermodynamics, energy transfers in microscopic systems are random and thermal fluctuations induce transient decreases of entropy, allowing for possible violations of the Carnot limit. Here we report an experimental realization of a Carnot engine with a single optically trapped Brownian particle as the working substance. We present an exhaustive study of the energetics of the engine and analyse the fluctuations of the finite-time efficiency, showing that the Carnot bound can be surpassed for a small number of non-equilibrium cycles. As its macroscopic counterpart, the energetics of our Carnot device exhibits basic properties that one would expect to observe in any microscopic energy transducer operating with baths at different temperatures. Our results characterize the sources of irreversibility in the engine and the statistical properties of the efficiency--an insight that could inspire new strategies in the design of efficient nano-motors.

  12. Engineering Veterinary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyre, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Calls for a new model for veterinary education, drawn from engineering education, which imparts a strong core of fundamental biomedical knowledge and multi-species clinical experience to all students than allows a genuine opportunity for differentiation into strongly focused subject areas that provide in-depth education and training appropriate to…

  13. Thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, G.W.

    1995-07-01

    We ordinarily think of a sound wave in a gas as consisting of coupled pressure and displacement oscillations. However, temperature oscillations always accompany the pressure changes. The combination of all these oscillations, and their interaction with solid boundaries, produces a rich variety of `thermoacoustic` effects. Although these effects as they occur in every-day life are too small to be noticed, one can harness extremely loud sound waves in acoustically sealed chambers to produce powerful heat engines, heat pumps and refrigerators. Whereas typical engines and refrigerators have crankshaft-coupled pistons or rotating turbines, thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators have at most a single flexing moving part (as in a loudspeaker) with no sliding seals. Thermoacoustic devices may be of practical use where simplicity, reliability or low cost is more important than the highest efficiency (although one cannot say much more about their cost-competitiveness at this early stage). This paper discusses the fundamentals of thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators, research in this field, and their commercial development. 16 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Nurturing Creative, Thinking Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goel, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes some ideas and experiences with training student engineers in creativity and critical thinking. In our survey, a large majority (82%) of respondents felt that as compared to all other kind of academic engagements, their projects had contributed most to develop their creativity. About 50% had also felt that their projects were…

  15. Software engineering ethics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bown, Rodney L.

    1991-01-01

    Software engineering ethics is reviewed. The following subject areas are covered: lack of a system viewpoint; arrogance of PC DOS software vendors; violation od upward compatibility; internet worm; internet worm revisited; student cheating and company hiring interviews; computing practitioners and the commodity market; new projects and old programming languages; schedule and budget; and recent public domain comments.

  16. Engineering Annual Summary 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Dimolitsas, S.

    1997-04-30

    Fiscal year 1996 has been a year of significant change for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in general and for Engineering in particular. Among these changes, the Laboratory`s national security mission was better defined, the stockpile stewardship program objectives became crisper, LLNL`s investment in high-performance computing was re-emphasized with the procurement of a $100 million supercomputer for the Laboratory`s Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) program, two major Laser programs (the National Ignition Facility and Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation) expanded significantly, and DOE`s human genome efforts moved to the next phase of development. In the area of business operations, LLNL`s Cost Cutting Initiative Program (CCIP) was completed and the Laboratory restructured its workforce using a Voluntary Separation Incentive Program (VSIP). Engineering similarly also saw many technical and programmatic successes, as well as changes, starting with completion of its strategic plan, significant consolidation of its facilities, restructuring of its workforce, reduction of its overhead costs, substantial transfers of staff between programs, and finally my personal arrival at Livermore. This report is the first opportunity to capture some of Engineering`s FY96 activities and accomplishments in a succinct fashion, and to relate these to our strategic plan.

  17. Space Electronic Test Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Rodney D.

    2004-01-01

    The Space Power and Propulsion Test Engineering Branch at NASA Glenn Research center has the important duty of controlling electronic test engineering services. These services include test planning and early assessment of Space projects, management and/or technical support required to safely and effectively prepare the article and facility for testing, operation of test facilities, and validation/delivery of data to customer. The Space Electronic Test Engineering Branch is assigned electronic test engineering responsibility for the GRC Space Simulation, Microgravity, Cryogenic, and Combustion Test Facilities. While working with the Space Power and Propulsion Test Engineering Branch I am working on several different assignments. My primary assignment deals with an electrical hardware unit known as Sunny Boy. Sunny Boy is a DC load Bank that is designed for solar arrays in which it is used to convert DC power form the solar arrays into AC power at 60 hertz to pump back into the electricity grid. However, there are some researchers who decided that they would like to use the Sunny Boy unit in a space simulation as a DC load bank for a space shuttle or even the International Space Station hardware. In order to do so I must create a communication link between a computer and the Sunny Boy unit so that I can preset a few of the limits (such power, set & constant voltage levels) that Sunny Boy will need to operate using the applied DC load. Apart from this assignment I am also working on a hi-tech circuit that I need to have built at a researcher s request. This is a high voltage analog to digital circuit that will be used to record data from space ion propulsion rocket booster tests. The problem that makes building this circuit so difficult is that it contains high voltage we must find a way to lower the voltage signal before the data is transferred into the computer to be read. The solution to this problem was to transport the signal using infrared light which will lower

  18. Engineering Living Functional Materials

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Natural materials, such as bone, integrate living cells composed of organic molecules together with inorganic components. This enables combinations of functionalities, such as mechanical strength and the ability to regenerate and remodel, which are not present in existing synthetic materials. Taking a cue from nature, we propose that engineered ‘living functional materials’ and ‘living materials synthesis platforms’ that incorporate both living systems and inorganic components could transform the performance and the manufacturing of materials. As a proof-of-concept, we recently demonstrated that synthetic gene circuits in Escherichia coli enabled biofilms to be both a functional material in its own right and a materials-synthesis platform. To demonstrate the former, we engineered E. coli biofilms into a chemical-inducer-responsive electrical switch. To demonstrate the latter, we engineered E. coli biofilms to dynamically organize biotic-abiotic materials across multiple length scales, template gold nanorods, gold nanowires, and metal/semiconductor heterostructures, and synthesize semiconductor nanoparticles (Chen, A. Y. et al. (2014) Synthesis and patterning of tunable multiscale materials with engineered cells. Nat. Mater.13, 515–523.). Thus, tools from synthetic biology, such as those for artificial gene regulation, can be used to engineer the spatiotemporal characteristics of living systems and to interface living systems with inorganic materials. Such hybrids can possess novel properties enabled by living cells while retaining desirable functionalities of inorganic systems. These systems, as living functional materials and as living materials foundries, would provide a radically different paradigm of materials performance and synthesis–materials possessing multifunctional, self-healing, adaptable, and evolvable properties that are created and organized in a distributed, bottom-up, autonomously assembled, and environmentally sustainable manner. PMID

  19. Composite coatings improve engines

    SciTech Connect

    Funatani, K.; Kurosawa, K. )

    1994-12-01

    About 40% of the power loss in engine systems is attributed to the adverse effects of friction in reciprocating engine components. Over half of this power loss is caused by friction between pistons, piston rings, and cylinder bores. In addition, engine parts may be attacked by corrosive gasoline substitutes such as liquid propane gas and alcohol/gasoline mixtures. To solve both friction and corrosion problems, Nihon Parkerizing Co. has improved the nickel-phosphorus based ceramic composite (NCC) plating technology that was developed for cylinder bores and pistons by Suzuki Motor Co. in the mid 1970s. Iron and nickel-based composite plating technologies have been investigated since the early 1970s, and a few have been used on small two-stroke motorcycle, outboard marine, snowmobile, and some luxury passenger car engine components. Both nickel- and iron-base plating processes are used on cylinders and pistons because they offer excellent wear and corrosion resistance. Nickel-base films have higher corrosion resistance than those based on iron, and are capable of withstanding the corrosive conditions characteristic of high methanol fuels. Unfortunately, they experience a decrease in hardness as operating temperatures increase. However, NCC coatings with phosphorus additions have high hardness even under severe operating conditions, and hardness increases upon exposure to elevated temperatures. In addition to high hardness and corrosion resistance, NCC coatings provide a low friction coefficient, which contributes to the reduction of friction losses between sliding components. When used in low-quality or alcohol fuels, the corrosion resistance of NCC coatings is far higher than that of Fe-P plating. Additionally, the coatings reduce wall and piston temperature, wear of ring groove and skirt, and carbon deposit formation, and they improve output power and torque. These advantages all contribute to the development of light and efficient engines with better fuel mileage.

  20. Engineering living functional materials.

    PubMed

    Chen, Allen Y; Zhong, Chao; Lu, Timothy K

    2015-01-16

    Natural materials, such as bone, integrate living cells composed of organic molecules together with inorganic components. This enables combinations of functionalities, such as mechanical strength and the ability to regenerate and remodel, which are not present in existing synthetic materials. Taking a cue from nature, we propose that engineered 'living functional materials' and 'living materials synthesis platforms' that incorporate both living systems and inorganic components could transform the performance and the manufacturing of materials. As a proof-of-concept, we recently demonstrated that synthetic gene circuits in Escherichia coli enabled biofilms to be both a functional material in its own right and a materials-synthesis platform. To demonstrate the former, we engineered E. coli biofilms into a chemical-inducer-responsive electrical switch. To demonstrate the latter, we engineered E. coli biofilms to dynamically organize biotic-abiotic materials across multiple length scales, template gold nanorods, gold nanowires, and metal/semiconductor heterostructures, and synthesize semiconductor nanoparticles (Chen, A. Y. et al. (2014) Synthesis and patterning of tunable multiscale materials with engineered cells. Nat. Mater. 13, 515-523.). Thus, tools from synthetic biology, such as those for artificial gene regulation, can be used to engineer the spatiotemporal characteristics of living systems and to interface living systems with inorganic materials. Such hybrids can possess novel properties enabled by living cells while retaining desirable functionalities of inorganic systems. These systems, as living functional materials and as living materials foundries, would provide a radically different paradigm of materials performance and synthesis-materials possessing multifunctional, self-healing, adaptable, and evolvable properties that are created and organized in a distributed, bottom-up, autonomously assembled, and environmentally sustainable manner. PMID:25592034

  1. Ion Engine Test Firing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This image of a xenon ion engine, photographed through a port of the vacuum chamber where it was being tested at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, shows the faint blue glow of charged atoms being emitted from the engine. The ion propulsion engine is the first non-chemical propulsion to be used as the primary means of propelling a spacecraft. The first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program, Deep Space 1 is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century. Ion propulsion was first proposed in the 1950s and NASA performed experiments on this highly efficient propulsion system in the 1960s, but it was not used aboard an American spacecraft until the 1990s. Deep Space 1 was launched in October 1998 as part of NASA's New Millennium Program, which is managed by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. The California Institute of Technology in Pasadena manages JPL for NASA. The almost imperceptible thrust from the ion propulsion system is equivalent to the pressure exerted by a sheet of paper held in the palm of your hand. The ion engine is very slow to pick up speed, but over the long haul it can deliver 10 times as much thrust per pound of fuel as more traditional rockets. Unlike the fireworks of most chemical rockets using solid or liquid fuels, the ion drive emits only an eerie blue glow as ionized (electrically charged) atoms of xenon are pushed out of the engine. Xenon is the same gas found in photo flash tubes and many lighthouse bulbs.

  2. Engineering directorate technical facilities catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloy, Joseph E.

    1993-01-01

    The Engineering Directorate Technical Facilities Catalog is designed to provide an overview of the technical facilities available within the Engineering Directorate at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas. The combined capabilities of these engineering facilities are essential elements of overall JSC capabilities required to manage and perform major NASA engineering programs. The facilities are grouped in the text by chapter according to the JSC division responsible for operation of the facility. This catalog updates the facility descriptions for the JSC Engineering Directorate Technical Facilities Catalog, JSC 19295 (August 1989), and supersedes the Engineering Directorate, Principle test and Development Facilities, JSC, 19962 (November 1984).

  3. Rocket engine condition monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Hagar, S.K.; Alcock, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    It is expected that the Rocket Engine Condition Monitoring System (RECMS) program will define engine monitoring technologies and an integration approach which can be applied to engine development in support of advanced launch system objectives. The RECMS program approaches engine monitoring as a system which is fully integrated with the engine controller, vehicle monitoring system, and ground processing systems to ensure mission success in addition to engine reliability. The system components are monitored through health and performance sensors; they are analyzed with the diagnostic and prognostic algorithms and demonstrated by system testing with hardware from other advanced development programs.

  4. Value engineering: A new focus for women in engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.C.

    1990-04-20

    Value Engineering is an organized problem solving technique that utilizes communication and teamwork skills -- skills heralded as strengths for women. Value Engineering offers an excellent career opportunity for women in the engineering profession. It is an expanded career path that is currently being overlooked by women. Value Engineering is supported by SAVE (Society of American Value Engineers) and certification in the process can be achieved in two years. For women in the engineering profession, VE is an ideal place to redirect their existing skills and training. The number of certified women is a minority, creating a wide-open field of opportunity in federal and state agencies as well as private industry. Value Engineering can provide that new avenue for engineering careers -- a new direction where current skills can be applied to a diverse and exciting profession. 1 fig.

  5. 15. INTERIOR OF ENGINE ROOM, CONTAINING MESTACORLISS CROSSCOMPOUND ENGINE, FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. INTERIOR OF ENGINE ROOM, CONTAINING MESTA-CORLISS CROSS-COMPOUND ENGINE, FOR 40" BLOOMING MILL. THIS VIEW IS TAKEN FROM THE HIGH-PRESSURE SIDE OF THE ENGINE SHOWING THE HOUSING EXTENSION; TO THE RIGHT, IN THE BACKGROUND, IS THE 24' CAST-IRON FLYWHEEL. - Republic Iron & Steel Company, Youngstown Works, Blooming Mill & Blooming Mill Engines, North of Poland Avenue, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  6. Wave Engine Topping Cycle Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Gerard E.

    1996-01-01

    The performance benefits derived by topping a gas turbine engine with a wave engine are assessed. The wave engine is a wave rotor that produces shaft power by exploiting gas dynamic energy exchange and flow turning. The wave engine is added to the baseline turboshaft engine while keeping high-pressure-turbine inlet conditions, compressor pressure ratio, engine mass flow rate, and cooling flow fractions fixed. Related work has focused on topping with pressure-exchangers (i.e., wave rotors that provide pressure gain with zero net shaft power output); however, more energy can be added to a wave-engine-topped cycle leading to greater engine specific-power-enhancement The energy addition occurs at a lower pressure in the wave-engine-topped cycle; thus the specific-fuel-consumption-enhancement effected by ideal wave engine topping is slightly lower than that effected by ideal pressure-exchanger topping. At a component level, however, flow turning affords the wave engine a degree-of-freedom relative to the pressure-exchanger that enables a more efficient match with the baseline engine. In some cases, therefore, the SFC-enhancement by wave engine topping is greater than that by pressure-exchanger topping. An ideal wave-rotor-characteristic is used to identify key wave engine design parameters and to contrast the wave engine and pressure-exchanger topping approaches. An aerodynamic design procedure is described in which wave engine design-point performance levels are computed using a one-dimensional wave rotor model. Wave engines using various wave cycles are considered including two-port cycles with on-rotor combustion (valved-combustors) and reverse-flow and through-flow four-port cycles with heat addition in conventional burners. A through-flow wave cycle design with symmetric blading is used to assess engine performance benefits. The wave-engine-topped turboshaft engine produces 16% more power than does a pressure-exchanger-topped engine under the specified topping

  7. Stirling Engine Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaze, Gina M.

    2004-01-01

    Stirling technology is being developed to replace RTG s (Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators), more specifically a stirling convertor, which is a stirling engine coupled to a linear alternator. Over the past three decades, the stirling engine has been designed to perform different functions. Stirling convertors have been designed to decrease fuel consumption in automobiles. They have also been designed for terrestrial and space applications. Currently NASA Glenn is using the convertor for space based applications. A stiring converter is a better means of power for deep space mission and "dusty" mission, like the Mars Rovers, than solar panels because it is not affected by dust. Spirit and Opportunity, two Mars rovers currently navigating the planet, are losing their ability to generate electricity because dust is collecting on their solar panels. Opportunity is losing more energy because its robotic arm has a heater with a switch that can not be turned off. The heater is not needed at night, but yet still runs. This generates a greater loss of electricity and in turn diminishes the performance of the rover. The stirling cycle has the potential to provide very efficient conversion of heat energy to electric a1 energy, more so than RTG's. The stirling engine converts the thermal energy produced by the decaying radioisotope to mechanical energy; the linear alternator converts this into electricity. convertor. Since the early 1990's tests have been performed to maximize the efficiency of the stirling converter. Many months, even years, are dedicated to preparing and performing tests. Currently, two stirling convertors #'s 13 and 14, which were developed by Stirling Technology Company, are on an extended operation test. As of June 7th, the two convertors reached 7,500 hours each of operation. Before the convertors could run unattended, many safety precautions had to be examined. So, special instrumentation and circuits were developed to detect off nominal conditions

  8. Engineering Faculty Attitudes to General Chemistry Courses in Engineering Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garip, Mehmet; Erdil, Erzat; Bilsel, Ayhan

    2006-01-01

    A survey on the attitudes of engineering faculty to chemistry, physics, and mathematics was conducted with the aim of clarifying the attitudes of engineering faculty to chemistry courses in relation to engineering education or curricula and assessing their expectations. The results confirm that on the whole chemistry is perceived as having a…

  9. 13. INTERIOR OF ENGINE ROOM, CONTAINING MESTACORLISS CROSSCOMPOUND ENGINE, FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. INTERIOR OF ENGINE ROOM, CONTAINING MESTA-CORLISS CROSS-COMPOUND ENGINE, FOR 40" BLOOMING MILL. THIS VIEW HIGHLIGHTS THE CRANK AND 24' DIAMETER FLYWHEEL. - Republic Iron & Steel Company, Youngstown Works, Blooming Mill & Blooming Mill Engines, North of Poland Avenue, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  10. 10. Interior detail, original Boiler and Engine Room, Engine Stores ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Interior detail, original Boiler and Engine Room, Engine Stores Building, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to east (90mm lens). Note the pin-connected roof truss system and built-up iron longitudinal roof girders. - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Engine Stores Building, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  11. 9. Interior, original Boiler and Engine Room, Engine Stores Building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Interior, original Boiler and Engine Room, Engine Stores Building, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to south (90mm lens). Note the roof truss system and built-up iron longitudinal roof girders. - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Engine Stores Building, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  12. Software Engineering Laboratory Series: Collected Software Engineering Papers. Volume 15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is an organization sponsored by NASA/GSFC and created to investigate the effectiveness of software engineering technologies when applied to the development of application software. The activities, findings, and recommendations of the SEL are recorded in the Software Engineering Laboratory Series, a continuing series of reports that includes this document.

  13. Software Engineering Laboratory Series: Collected Software Engineering Papers. Volume 14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is an organization sponsored by NASA/GSFC and created to investigate the effectiveness of software engineering technologies when applied to the development of application software. The activities, findings, and recommendations of the SEL are recorded in the Software Engineering Laboratory Series, a continuing series of reports that includes this document.

  14. Engineering Programs of Tomorrow: The Role of Agricultural Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Donald M.

    Due to rapid growth of societal and technological endeavors, engineers of the future will require greater technical competence. At the same time, engineering will become more people oriented with greater emphasis placed on people input into decision making. As a result, engineering education must not only provide improved technical education but…

  15. The Future of Engineering Science & Engineering Technology: Collision or Convergence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, Richard A.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses differences and similarities of engineering (theoretical/abstract) and engineering technology (practical/application-oriented) programs which the author believes are artificially divided. The fields overlap and should be reunited, but this will need more effective interaction among all engineering professionals and revision of…

  16. Software Engineering Laboratory Series: Collected Software Engineering Papers. Volume 13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is an organization sponsored by NASA/GSFC and created to investigate the effectiveness of software engineering technologies when applied to the development of application software. The activities, findings, and recommendations of the SEL are recorded in the Software Engineering Laboratory Series, a continuing series of reports that includes this document.

  17. NASA Systems Engineering Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This handbook is intended to provide general guidance and information on systems engineering that will be useful to the NASA community. It provides a generic description of Systems Engineering (SE) as it should be applied throughout NASA. A goal of the handbook is to increase awareness and consistency across the Agency and advance the practice of SE. This handbook provides perspectives relevant to NASA and data particular to NASA. The coverage in this handbook is limited to general concepts and generic descriptions of processes, tools, and techniques. It provides information on systems engineering best practices and pitfalls to avoid. There are many Center-specific handbooks and directives as well as textbooks that can be consulted for in-depth tutorials. This handbook describes systems engineering as it should be applied to the development and implementation of large and small NASA programs and projects. NASA has defined different life cycles that specifically address the major project categories, or product lines, which are: Flight Systems and Ground Support (FS&GS), Research and Technology (R&T), Construction of Facilities (CoF), and Environmental Compliance and Restoration (ECR). The technical content of the handbook provides systems engineering best practices that should be incorporated into all NASA product lines. (Check the NASA On-Line Directives Information System (NODIS) electronic document library for applicable NASA directives on topics such as product lines.) For simplicity this handbook uses the FS&GS product line as an example. The specifics of FS&GS can be seen in the description of the life cycle and the details of the milestone reviews. Each product line will vary in these two areas; therefore, the reader should refer to the applicable NASA procedural requirements for the specific requirements for their life cycle and reviews. The engineering of NASA systems requires a systematic and disciplined set of processes that are applied recursively and

  18. Understanding Stirling engines. Technical paper

    SciTech Connect

    Beale, W.

    1984-01-01

    The paper describes the basic Stirling engine, as well as some of the most promising modern varieties. The intent is to familiarize people in developing countries with the engine's operation and range of applications.

  19. Simpler valve for reciprocating engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akkerman, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    Simpler design eliminating camshafts, cams, and mechanical springs should improve reliability of hydrazine powered reciprocating engines. Valve is expected to improve efficiency, and reduce weight of engines in range up to 50 horsepower.

  20. ThermoData Engine Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 103 NIST ThermoData Engine Database (PC database for purchase)   ThermoData Engine is the first product fully implementing all major principles of the concept of dynamic data evaluation formulated at NIST/TRC.