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Sample records for degeneracies leave recognizable

  1. Scoring recognizability of faces for security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, Simone; Ciocca, Gianluigi; Guarnera, Giuseppe Claudio; Scaggiante, Andrea; Schettini, Raimondo

    2014-03-01

    In security applications the human face plays a fundamental role, however we have to assume non-collaborative subjects. A face can be partially visible or occluded due to common-use accessories such as sunglasses, hats, scarves and so on. Also the posture of the head influence the face recognizability. Given a video sequence in input, the proposed system is able to establish if a face is depicted in a frame, and to determine its degree of recognizability in terms of clearly visible facial features. The system implements features filtering scheme combined with a skin-based face detection to improve its the robustness to false positives and cartoon-like faces. Moreover the system takes into account the recognizability trend over a customizable sliding time window to allow a high level analysis of the subject behaviour. The recognizability criteria can be tuned for each specific application. We evaluate our system both in qualitative and quantitative terms, using a data set of manually annotated videos. Experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed system.

  2. Leaving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robyn L.

    2011-01-01

    Within this article, the author presents a personal story, "Leaving," which highlights the problematic experience of opposing established practice. The tale tells of the difficulty faced by creative agency when confronted by a constraining structural hegemony. Specifically, it draws attention to the professionalization of academic life through a…

  3. Change deafness and object encoding with recognizable and unrecognizable sounds.

    PubMed

    Gregg, Melissa K; Irsik, Vanessa C; Snyder, Joel S

    2014-08-01

    Change deafness is the failure to notice changes in an auditory scene. In this study, we sought to determine if change deafness is a perceptual error, rather than only a reflection of verbal memory limitations. We also examined how successful encoding of objects within a scene is related to successful detection of changes. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while listeners completed a change-detection and an object-encoding task with scenes composed of recognizable sounds or unrecognizable temporally scrambled versions of the recognizable sounds. More change deafness occurred for the unrecognizable, compared to recognizable sounds, indicating that change deafness is a perceptual error and not solely a product of verbal memory. ERPs from both the recognizable and unrecognizable scenes revealed an enhanced P3b (at PZ/1/2, POZ/3/4 from 350 to 750ms) to detected changes, a marker that conscious change detection has occurred. Recognizable scenes resulted in an enhanced T400 (at T8/TP8, C6/CP6 from 315 to 660ms) to detected changes, possibly indicating activation of established memory representations. Unrecognizable scenes elicited an enhanced P3a (at FCZ/1/2 from 280 to 600ms) to detected changes, indicating enhanced orienting to acoustic change. Performance on the object-encoding task revealed that change deafness was reduced, but not eliminated, when performance on the object-encoding task was accurate. PMID:24937187

  4. 32 CFR 884.4 - Release on bail or recognizance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Classification. 3 If contact cannot be made with the member's commander, the Air Force unit, activity, or... 884.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE MILITARY... recognizance. (a) Before delivering an Air Force member to a civilian authority, the commander or...

  5. 32 CFR 884.4 - Release on bail or recognizance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Classification. 3 If contact cannot be made with the member's commander, the Air Force unit, activity, or... 884.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE MILITARY... recognizance. (a) Before delivering an Air Force member to a civilian authority, the commander or...

  6. Accidental degeneracies in string compactification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bais, F. A.; Taormina, A.

    1986-11-01

    The equivalence of the torus and group manifold compactification of strings is established. Accidental degeneracies are shown to occur for a large class of compactifications. This way many examples are obtained in which modular invariance does not uniquely fix the representation content of the spectrum.

  7. Overcoming Degeneracies in Exoplanet Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benneke, Björn

    2015-08-01

    Spectroscopic observations of exoplanets can provide invaluable insights into the planets’ compositions, their formation and evolution histories, and even their habitability. Obtaining exoplanet spectra is observationally challenging; however, and we are generally limited to relatively low signal-to-noise, low spectral resolution, disk-integrated observations , often with relatively narrow wavelength coverage. This low data situation results in strong correlations and degeneracies between the different planet and atmospheric parameters of interest. In this talk, I will present a conceptual picture of how vital information about the planet is encoded in its observable spectrum. I will then give an overview about the wide range of correlations and degeneracies relevant to today’s exoplanet observations. Finally, I will demonstrate how some degeneracies can be overcome and improved constraints can be obtained by including prior knowledge of atmospheric chemistry and physics in the retrieval. I present a new atmospheric retrieval framework, SCARLET, that combines observational data and our prior (limited) knowledge of atmospheric processes in a statistical robust Bayesian framework. New results for hot Jupiters will be presented.

  8. Coping with degeneracies in Delaunay triangulation

    SciTech Connect

    Beichl, I.; Sullivan, F.

    1995-12-31

    Degeneracy is a serious issue in geometry. In their original form, many geometric algorithms simply assume that there is no degeneracy. As a result, when these methods are used on data that is degenerate or nearly degenerate, they either fail to complete or else give nonsensical results. We will describe a new method that removes only those 3-d degeneracies that cause ambiguity in determining Delaunay tetrahedra and only those 3-d degeneracies that cause ambiguity in determining Delaunay triangles. The mathematical justification is based on classical results of real analysis. The proof identifies degeneracies with the polynomial derived from the determinants that express geometrical primitives. Our result is a probabilistic statement about the real numbers; with probability one, degeneracies are removed in real arithmetic. In floating-point arithmetic, detection of degeneracies is based on relative error criteria that we describe here.

  9. Auditory Sketches: Very Sparse Representations of Sounds Are Still Recognizable

    PubMed Central

    Isnard, Vincent; Taffou, Marine; Viaud-Delmon, Isabelle; Suied, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Sounds in our environment like voices, animal calls or musical instruments are easily recognized by human listeners. Understanding the key features underlying this robust sound recognition is an important question in auditory science. Here, we studied the recognition by human listeners of new classes of sounds: acoustic and auditory sketches, sounds that are severely impoverished but still recognizable. Starting from a time-frequency representation, a sketch is obtained by keeping only sparse elements of the original signal, here, by means of a simple peak-picking algorithm. Two time-frequency representations were compared: a biologically grounded one, the auditory spectrogram, which simulates peripheral auditory filtering, and a simple acoustic spectrogram, based on a Fourier transform. Three degrees of sparsity were also investigated. Listeners were asked to recognize the category to which a sketch sound belongs: singing voices, bird calls, musical instruments, and vehicle engine noises. Results showed that, with the exception of voice sounds, very sparse representations of sounds (10 features, or energy peaks, per second) could be recognized above chance. No clear differences could be observed between the acoustic and the auditory sketches. For the voice sounds, however, a completely different pattern of results emerged, with at-chance or even below-chance recognition performances, suggesting that the important features of the voice, whatever they are, were removed by the sketch process. Overall, these perceptual results were well correlated with a model of auditory distances, based on spectro-temporal excitation patterns (STEPs). This study confirms the potential of these new classes of sounds, acoustic and auditory sketches, to study sound recognition. PMID:26950589

  10. Nodal surfaces and interdimensional degeneracies

    SciTech Connect

    Loos, Pierre-François; Bressanini, Dario

    2015-06-07

    The aim of this paper is to shed light on the topology and properties of the nodes (i.e., the zeros of the wave function) in electronic systems. Using the “electrons on a sphere” model, we study the nodes of two-, three-, and four-electron systems in various ferromagnetic configurations (sp, p{sup 2}, sd, pd, p{sup 3}, sp{sup 2}, and sp{sup 3}). In some particular cases (sp, p{sup 2}, sd, pd, and p{sup 3}), we rigorously prove that the non-interacting wave function has the same nodes as the exact (yet unknown) wave function. The number of atomic and molecular systems for which the exact nodes are known analytically is very limited and we show here that this peculiar feature can be attributed to interdimensional degeneracies. Although we have not been able to prove it rigorously, we conjecture that the nodes of the non-interacting wave function for the sp{sup 3} configuration are exact.

  11. The effective degeneracy of protein normal modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Hyuntae; Song, Guang

    2016-06-01

    Normal modes are frequently computed and used to portray protein dynamics and interpret protein conformational changes. In this work, we investigate the nature of normal modes and find that the normal modes of proteins, especially those at the low frequency range (0–600 cm‑1), are highly susceptible to degeneracy. Two or more modes are degenerate if they have the same frequency and consequently any orthogonal transformation of them also is a valid representation of the mode subspace. Thus, degenerate modes can no longer characterize unique directions of motions as regular modes do. Though the normal modes of proteins are usually of different frequencies, the difference in frequency between neighboring modes is so small that, under even slight structural uncertainty that unavoidably exists in structure determination, it can easily vanish and as a result, a mode becomes effectively degenerate with its neighboring modes. This can be easily observed in that some modes seem to disappear and their matching modes cannot be found when the structure used to compute the modes is modified only slightly. We term this degeneracy the effective degeneracy of normal modes. This work is built upon our recent discovery that the vibrational spectrum of globular proteins is universal. The high density of modes observed in the vibrational frequency spectra of proteins renders their normal modes highly susceptible to degeneracy, under even the smallest structural uncertainty. Indeed, we find the degree of degeneracy of modes is proportional to the density of modes in the vibrational spectrum. This means that for modes at the same frequency, degeneracy is more severe for larger proteins. Degeneracy exists also in the modes of coarse-grained models, but to a much lesser extent than those of all-atom models. In closing, we discuss the implications of the effective degeneracy of normal modes: how it may significantly affect the ways in which normal modes are used in various normal modes

  12. The effective degeneracy of protein normal modes.

    PubMed

    Na, Hyuntae; Song, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Normal modes are frequently computed and used to portray protein dynamics and interpret protein conformational changes. In this work, we investigate the nature of normal modes and find that the normal modes of proteins, especially those at the low frequency range (0-600 cm(-1)), are highly susceptible to degeneracy. Two or more modes are degenerate if they have the same frequency and consequently any orthogonal transformation of them also is a valid representation of the mode subspace. Thus, degenerate modes can no longer characterize unique directions of motions as regular modes do. Though the normal modes of proteins are usually of different frequencies, the difference in frequency between neighboring modes is so small that, under even slight structural uncertainty that unavoidably exists in structure determination, it can easily vanish and as a result, a mode becomes effectively degenerate with its neighboring modes. This can be easily observed in that some modes seem to disappear and their matching modes cannot be found when the structure used to compute the modes is modified only slightly. We term this degeneracy the effective degeneracy of normal modes. This work is built upon our recent discovery that the vibrational spectrum of globular proteins is universal. The high density of modes observed in the vibrational frequency spectra of proteins renders their normal modes highly susceptible to degeneracy, under even the smallest structural uncertainty. Indeed, we find the degree of degeneracy of modes is proportional to the density of modes in the vibrational spectrum. This means that for modes at the same frequency, degeneracy is more severe for larger proteins. Degeneracy exists also in the modes of coarse-grained models, but to a much lesser extent than those of all-atom models. In closing, we discuss the implications of the effective degeneracy of normal modes: how it may significantly affect the ways in which normal modes are used in various normal modes

  13. Quantum adiabatic evolution with energy degeneracy levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    A classical-kind phase-space formalism is developed to address the tiny intrinsic dynamical deviation from what is predicted by Wilczek-Zee theorem during quantum adiabatic evolution on degeneracy levels. In this formalism, the Hilbert space and the aggregate of degenerate eigenstates become the classical-kind phase space and a high-dimensional subspace in the phase space, respectively. Compared with the previous analogous study by a different method, the current result is qualitatively different in that the first-order deviation derived here is always perpendicular to the degeneracy subspace. A tripod-scheme Hamiltonian with two degenerate dark states is employed to illustrate the adiabatic deviation with degeneracy levels.

  14. A new method to break the mass-sheet degeneracy using aperture moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rexroth, Markus; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Kneib, Jean-Paul

    2016-08-01

    Mass determinations from gravitational lensing shear and the higher order estimator flexion are both subject to the mass-sheet degeneracy. Mass sheet degeneracy refers to a transformation that leaves the reduced shear and flexion invariant. In general, this transformation can be approximated by the addition of a constant surface mass density sheet. We propose a new technique to break the mass-sheet degeneracy. The method uses mass moments of the shear or flexion fields in combination with convergence information derived from number counts which exploit the magnification bias. The difference between the measured mass moments provides an estimator for the magnitude of the additive constant that is the mass sheet. For demonstrating this, we derive relations that hold true in general for nth order moments and show how they can be employed effectively to break the degeneracy. We investigate the detectability of this degeneracy parameter from our method and find that the degeneracy parameter can be feasibly determined from stacked galaxy-galaxy lensing data and cluster lensing data. Furthermore, we compare the signal-to-noise ratios of convergence information from number counts with shear and flexion for singular isothermal sphere and Navarro-Frenk-White models. We find that the combination of shear and flexion performs best on galaxy and cluster scales and the convergence information can therefore be used to break the mass-sheet degeneracy without quality loss in the mass reconstruction. In summary, there is power in the combination of shear, flexion, convergence and their higher order moments. With the anticipated wealth of lensing data from upcoming and future satellite missions - EUCLID and WFIRST - this technique will be feasible.

  15. Robust topological degeneracy of classical theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaezi, Mohammad-Sadegh; Ortiz, Gerardo; Nussinov, Zohar

    2016-05-01

    We challenge the hypothesis that the ground states of a physical system whose degeneracy depends on topology must necessarily realize topological quantum order and display nonlocal entanglement. To this end, we introduce and study a classical rendition of the Toric Code model embedded on Riemann surfaces of different genus numbers. We find that the minimal ground state degeneracy (and those of all levels) depends on the topology of the embedding surface alone. As the ground states of this classical system may be distinguished by local measurements, a characteristic of Landau orders, this example illustrates that topological degeneracy is not a sufficient condition for topological quantum order. This conclusion is generic and, as shown, it applies to many other models. We also demonstrate that certain lattice realizations of these models, and other theories, display a ground state entropy (and those of all levels) that is "holographic", i.e., extensive in the system boundary. We find that clock and U (1 ) gauge theories display topological (in addition to gauge) degeneracies.

  16. Degeneracy Breaking for K2 Microlens Parallaxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Andrew; Yee, Jennifer; Carey, Sean

    2015-10-01

    By adding Spitzer observations to microlensing targets being observed from Kepler and Earth, we will create the first interplanetary network of microlensing observatories. This 3-observatory configuration has the unique potential to break the famous 4-fold degeneracy for space-based microlensing parallaxes. This is crucial both for the interpretation of some individual events and to rigorously validate the statistical methods that are used when (as is usually the case) this special 3-observatory configuration is not possible. The Kepler K2 C9 microlensing campaign will monitor about 4 square degrees of the Bulge from 6 Apr to 29 Jun, with the aim of measuring microlens parallaxes. Spitzer can observe this K2 field from 18 Jun to 26 Jul. The 11-day overlap between the two campaigns will allow us to break the 4-fold degeneracy of about 50 microlensing events. Some of these events will be well-covered over the peak from K2, with Spitzer observations of the falling wing providing the necessary information to break the degeneracy in the K2-Earth parallax. Others will be the reverse, with K2 observations of the rising event breaking the degeneracy in Spitzer-Earth parallaxes (i.e., for events peaking during the Spitzer campaign). Breaking this degeneracy leads to a definitive measurement of the magnitude of the microlens parallax vector, which will enable measurements of the masses and distances of the lens systems, including events with planets that contribute to the ~12 needed to make a first measurement of the Galactic distribution of planets, binaries, and many single-lens events, some of which could be black holes, brown dwarfs, or other interesting objects. The distance distribution of the ensemble of lenses can serve as a probe of Galactic structure. All lightcurves will be reduced using our customized software and then made public (for unrestricted use), within two months of the completion of observations (as we did for our 2015 observations).

  17. On dark degeneracy and interacting models

    SciTech Connect

    Carneiro, S.; Borges, H.A. E-mail: humberto@ufba.br

    2014-06-01

    Cosmological background observations cannot fix the dark energy equation of state, which is related to a degeneracy in the definition of the dark sector components. Here we show that this degeneracy can be broken at perturbation level by imposing two observational properties on dark matter. First, dark matter is defined as the clustering component we observe in large scale structures. This definition is meaningful only if dark energy is unperturbed, which is achieved if we additionally assume, as a second condition, that dark matter is cold, i.e. non-relativistic. As a consequence, dark energy models with equation-of-state parameter −1 ≤ ω < 0 are reduced to two observationally distinguishable classes with ω = −1, equally competitive when tested against observations. The first comprises the ΛCDM model with constant dark energy density. The second consists of interacting models with an energy flux from dark energy to dark matter.

  18. Scalar non-degeneracy and flavor unification

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, Kentaro

    2008-05-13

    Grand unified models of the strong and electroweak forces generally predict some types of flavor unification. The flavor structure in unified theory is probed with superparticle mass spectrum observed in future particle experiments. It is shown that the generation dependence of sfermion mass non-degeneracy provides direct imprints of unification of the standard model matter multiplets. The implication from flavor-violating rare process is also discussed.

  19. The degeneracy of the free Dirac equation

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, V. . School of Physics Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Bombay ); McKellar, B.H.J. . School of Physics); Wu, D.D. . School of Physics Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing, BJ . Electron LINAC Dept. General Atomics, San Diego, CA )

    1991-08-01

    Parity-mixed solutions of the free Dirac equation with the same 4-momentum are considered. The first-order EM energy has an electric dipole moment term whose value depends on the mixing angle. Further implications of this degeneracy to perturbative calculations are discussed. It is argued that the properties of the Dirac equation with the Coulomb potential can be used to decide the mixing angle, which should be zero.

  20. Dark degeneracy and interacting cosmic components

    SciTech Connect

    Aviles, Alejandro; Cervantes-Cota, Jorge L.

    2011-10-15

    We study some properties of the dark degeneracy, which is the fact that what we measure in gravitational experiments is the energy-momentum tensor of the total dark sector, and any split into components (as in dark matter and dark energy) is arbitrary. In fact, just one dark fluid is necessary to obtain exactly the same cosmological and astrophysical phenomenology as the {Lambda}CDM model. We work explicitly the first-order perturbation theory and show that beyond the linear order the dark degeneracy is preserved under some general assumptions. Then we construct the dark fluid from a collection of interacting fluids. Finally, we try to break the degeneracy with a general class of couplings to baryonic matter. Nonetheless, we show that these interactions can also be understood in the context of the {Lambda}CDM model as between dark matter and baryons. For this last investigation we choose two independent parametrizations for the interactions, one inspired by electromagnetism and the other by chameleon theories. Then, we constrain them with a joint analysis of CMB and supernovae observational data.

  1. Hidden in plain view: degeneracy in complex systems.

    PubMed

    Mason, P H; Domínguez D, J F; Winter, B; Grignolio, A

    2015-02-01

    Degeneracy is a word with two meanings. The popular usage of the word denotes deviance and decay. In scientific discourse, degeneracy refers to the idea that different pathways can lead to the same output. In the biological sciences, the concept of degeneracy has been ignored for a few key reasons. Firstly, the word "degenerate" in popular culture has negative, emotionally powerful associations that do not inspire scientists to consider its technical meaning. Secondly, the tendency of searching for single causes of natural and social phenomena means that scientists can overlook the multi-stranded relationships between cause and effect. Thirdly, degeneracy and redundancy are often confused with each other. Degeneracy refers to dissimilar structures that are functionally similar while redundancy refers to identical structures. Degeneracy can give rise to novelty in ways that redundancy cannot. From genetic codes to immunology, vaccinology and brain development, degeneracy is a crucial part of how complex systems maintain their functional integrity. This review article discusses how the scientific concept of degeneracy was imported into genetics from physics and was later introduced to immunology and neuroscience. Using examples of degeneracy in immunology, neuroscience and linguistics, we demonstrate that degeneracy is a useful way of understanding how complex systems function. Reviewing the history and theoretical scope of degeneracy allows its usefulness to be better appreciated, its coherency to be further developed, and its application to be more quickly realized. PMID:25543071

  2. Ultracold polar molecules near quantum degeneracy.

    PubMed

    Ospelkaus, S; Ni, K K; de Miranda, M H G; Neyenhuis, B; Wang, D; Kotochigova, S; Julienne, P S; Jin, D S; Ye, J

    2009-01-01

    We report the creation and characterization of a near quantum-degenerate gas of polar 40K-87Rb molecules in their absolute rovibrational ground state. Starting from weakly bound heteronuclear KRb Feshbach molecules, we implement precise control of the molecular electronic, vibrational, and rotational degrees of freedom with phase-coherent laser fields. In particular, we coherently transfer these weakly bound molecules across a 125 THz frequency gap in a single step into the absolute rovibrational ground state of the electronic ground potential. Phase coherence between lasers involved in the transfer process is ensured by referencing the lasers to two single components of a phase-stabilized optical frequency comb. Using these methods, we prepare a dense gas of 4 x 10(4) polar molecules at a temperature below 400 nK. This fermionic molecular ensemble is close to quantum degeneracy and can be characterized by a degeneracy parameter of T/T(F) = 3. We have measured the molecular polarizability in an optical dipole trap where the trap lifetime gives clues to interesting decay mechanisms. Given the large measured dipole moment of the KRb molecules of 0.5 Debye, the study of quantum degenerate molecular gases interacting via strong dipolar interactions is now within experimental reach. PACS numbers: 37.10.Mn, 37.10.Pq. PMID:20151553

  3. Degeneracy and discreteness in cosmological model fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Huan-Yu; Huang, Yuan; Zhang, Tong-Jie

    2016-03-01

    We explore the problems of degeneracy and discreteness in the standard cosmological model (ΛCDM). We use the Observational Hubble Data (OHD) and the type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) data to study this issue. In order to describe the discreteness in fitting of data, we define a factor G to test the influence from each single data point and analyze the goodness of G. Our results indicate that a higher absolute value of G shows a better capability of distinguishing models, which means the parameters are restricted into smaller confidence intervals with a larger figure of merit evaluation. Consequently, we claim that the factor G is an effective way of model differentiation when using different models to fit the observational data.

  4. Defects and degeneracies in supersymmetry protected phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fokkema, Thessa; Schoutens, Kareljan

    2015-08-01

    We analyse a class of 1D lattice models, known as \\text{M}k models, which are characterised by an order-k clustering of spin-less fermions and by N}=2 lattice supersymmetry. Our main result is the identification of a class of (bulk or edge) defects, that are in one-to-one correspondence with so-called spin fields in a corresponding {Z}k parafermion CFT. In the gapped regime, injecting such defects leads to ground-state degeneracies that are protected by the supersymmetry. The defects, which are closely analogous to quasi-holes over the fermonic Read-Rezayi quantum Hall states, display characteristic fusion rules, which are of Ising type for k = 2 and of Fibonacci type for k = 3.

  5. Neutrino degeneracy and cosmological nucleosynthesis, revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olive, K. A.; Schramm, David N.; Thomas, D.; Walker, T. P.

    1991-01-01

    A reexamination of the effects of non-zero degeneracies on Big Bang Nucleosynthesis is made. As previously noted, non-trivial alterations of the standard model conclusions can be induced only if excess lepton numbers L sub i, comparable to photon number densities eta sub tau, are assumed (where eta sub tau is approx. 3 times 10(exp 9) eta sub b). Furthermore, the required lepton number densities (L sub i eta sub tau) must be different for upsilon sub e than for upsilon sub mu and epsilon sub tau. It is shown that this loophole in the standard model of nucleosynthesis is robust and will not vanish as abundance and reaction rate determinations improve. However, it is also argued that theoretically (L sub e) approx. (L sub mu) approx. (L sub tau) approx. eta sub b is much less than eta sub tau which would preclude this loophole in standard unified models.

  6. Breaking a dark degeneracy with gravitational waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombriser, Lucas; Taylor, Andy

    2016-03-01

    We identify a scalar-tensor model embedded in the Horndeski action whose cosmological background and linear scalar fluctuations are degenerate with the concordance cosmology. The model admits a self-accelerated background expansion at late times that is stable against perturbations with a sound speed attributed to the new field that is equal to the speed of light. While degenerate in scalar fluctuations, self-acceleration of the model implies a present cosmological tensor mode propagation at lesssim95 % of the speed of light with a damping of the wave amplitude that is gtrsim5 % less efficient than in general relativity. We show that these discrepancies are endemic to self-accelerated Horndeski theories with degenerate large-scale structure and are tested with measurements of gravitational waves emitted by events at cosmological distances. Hence, gravitational-wave cosmology breaks the dark degeneracy in observations of the large-scale structure between two fundamentally different explanations of cosmic acceleration—a cosmological constant and a scalar-tensor modification of gravity. The gravitational wave event GW150914 recently detected with the aLIGO instruments and its potential association with a weak short gamma-ray burst observed with the Fermi GBM experiment may have provided this crucial measurement.

  7. Statistical description of the black hole degeneracy spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Barbero G, J. Fernando; Villasenor, Eduardo J. S.

    2011-05-15

    We use mathematical methods based on generating functions to study the statistical properties of the black hole degeneracy spectrum in loop quantum gravity. In particular we will study the persistence of the observed effective quantization of the entropy as a function of the horizon area. We will show that this quantization disappears as the area increases despite the existence of black hole configurations with a large degeneracy. The methods that we describe here can be adapted to the study of the statistical properties of the black hole degeneracy spectrum for all the existing proposals to define black hole entropy in loop quantum gravity.

  8. Challenges and recognizable patterns in the en-face OCT of the retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Richard B.; Podoleanu, Adrian G.; Rogers, John A.; Garcia, Patricia; Lydon, Chris; Dunne, Shane; Dobre, George M.; Cucu, Radu G.; Jackson, David A.; Gentile, Ronald C.; Rosenthal, Jeanne L.; Muldoon, Thomas; Walsh, Joseph B.; Orlock, Dennis A.; Fisher, Yale; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A.

    2004-07-01

    Using an advanced prototype of en-face OCT/cSLO instrument, an extensive array of clinic pathologies were studied including macular degeneration, central serous retinopathy (CSR), macular hole, macular pucker, cystoid macular edema (CME), diabetic maculopathy, and macular trauma. We report observation of reoccurring patterns in the en-face OCT images which could be identified with different diseases. Uniquely specific and reoccurring patterns could be characterized for macular hole ("Chrysanthemum flower"), CME ("Swiss cheese wheel"), Macular Pucker ("Star"), CSR ("Target") and RPE Detachment ("Ring of Light"). Other entities such as polypoidal choroidopathy and diabetic edema residues had easily recognizable features but were variable enough to defy specific descriptive comparison. To facilitate the interpretation of the en-face OCT images, a three dimensional interactive simulation was designed which allows the demonstration of characteristic features and artifacts encountered in the acquisition of transverse images.

  9. High Resolution Ultrasonic Method for 3D Fingerprint Recognizable Characteristics in Biometrics Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maev, R. Gr.; Bakulin, E. Yu.; Maeva, A.; Severin, F.

    Biometrics is a rapidly evolving scientific and applied discipline that studies possible ways of personal identification by means of unique biological characteristics. Such identification is important in various situations requiring restricted access to certain areas, information and personal data and for cases of medical emergencies. A number of automated biometric techniques have been developed, including fingerprint, hand shape, eye and facial recognition, thermographic imaging, etc. All these techniques differ in the recognizable parameters, usability, accuracy and cost. Among these, fingerprint recognition stands alone since a very large database of fingerprints has already been acquired. Also, fingerprints are key evidence left at a crime scene and can be used to indentify suspects. Therefore, of all automated biometric techniques, especially in the field of law enforcement, fingerprint identification seems to be the most promising. We introduce a newer development of the ultrasonic fingerprint imaging. The proposed method obtains a scan only once and then varies the C-scan gate position and width to visualize acoustic reflections from any appropriate depth inside the skin. Also, B-scans and A-scans can be recreated from any position using such data array, which gives the control over the visualization options. By setting the C-scan gate deeper inside the skin, distribution of the sweat pores (which are located along the ridges) can be easily visualized. This distribution should be unique for each individual so this provides a means of personal identification, which is not affected by any changes (accidental or intentional) of the fingers' surface conditions. This paper discusses different setups, acoustic parameters of the system, signal and image processing options and possible ways of 3-dimentional visualization that could be used as a recognizable characteristic in biometric identification.

  10. The degeneracy problem in non-canonical inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Easson, Damien A.; Powell, Brian A. E-mail: brian.powell007@gmail.com

    2013-03-01

    While attempting to connect inflationary theories to observational physics, a potential difficulty is the degeneracy problem: a single set of observables maps to a range of different inflaton potentials. Two important classes of models affected by the degeneracy problem are canonical and non-canonical models, the latter marked by the presence of a non-standard kinetic term that generates observables beyond the scalar and tensor two-point functions on CMB scales. The degeneracy problem is manifest when these distinguishing observables go undetected. We quantify the size of the resulting degeneracy in this case by studying the most well-motivated non-canonical theory having Dirac-Born-Infeld Lagrangian. Beyond the scalar and tensor two-point functions on CMB scales, we then consider the possible detection of equilateral non-Gaussianity at Planck-precision and a measurement of primordial gravitational waves from prospective space-based laser interferometers. The former detection breaks the degeneracy with canonical inflation but results in poor reconstruction prospects, while the latter measurement enables a determination of n{sub T} which, while not breaking the degeneracy, can be shown to greatly improve the non-canonical reconstruction.

  11. Degeneracies in long-baseline neutrino experiments from nonstandard interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Jiajun; Marfatia, Danny; Whisnant, Kerry

    2016-05-01

    We study parameter degeneracies that can occur in long-baseline neutrino appearance experiments due to nonstandard interactions (NSI) in neutrino propagation. For a single off-diagonal NSI parameter, and neutrino and antineutrino measurements at a single L /E , there exists a continuous four-fold degeneracy (related to the mass hierarchy and θ23 octant) that renders the mass hierarchy, octant, and C P phase unknowable. Even with a combination of NO ν A and T2K data, which in principle can resolve the degeneracy, both NSI and the C P phase remain unconstrained because of experimental uncertainties. A wide-band beam experiment like DUNE will resolve this degeneracy if the nonzero off-diagonal NSI parameter is ɛe μ. If ɛe τ is nonzero, or the diagonal NSI parameter ɛe e is O (1 ), a wrong determination of the mass hierarchy and of C P violation can occur at DUNE. The octant degeneracy can be further complicated by ɛe τ, but is not affected by ɛe e.

  12. Large degeneracy of excited hadrons and quark models

    SciTech Connect

    Bicudo, P.

    2007-11-01

    The pattern of a large approximate degeneracy of the excited hadron spectra (larger than the chiral restoration degeneracy) is present in the recent experimental report of Bugg. Here we try to model this degeneracy with state of the art quark models. We review how the Coulomb Gauge chiral invariant and confining Bethe-Salpeter equation simplifies in the case of very excited quark-antiquark mesons, including angular or radial excitations, to a Salpeter equation with an ultrarelativistic kinetic energy with the spin-independent part of the potential. The resulting meson spectrum is solved, and the excited chiral restoration is recovered, for all mesons with J>0. Applying the ultrarelativistic simplification to a linear equal-time potential, linear Regge trajectories are obtained, for both angular and radial excitations. The spectrum is also compared with the semiclassical Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization relation. However, the excited angular and radial spectra do not coincide exactly. We then search, with the classical Bertrand theorem, for central potentials producing always classical closed orbits with the ultrarelativistic kinetic energy. We find that no such potential exists, and this implies that no exact larger degeneracy can be obtained in our equal-time framework, with a single principal quantum number comparable to the nonrelativistic Coulomb or harmonic oscillator potentials. Nevertheless we find it plausible that the large experimental approximate degeneracy will be modeled in the future by quark models beyond the present state of the art.

  13. ARCN1 Mutations Cause a Recognizable Craniofacial Syndrome Due to COPI-Mediated Transport Defects.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Kosuke; Brett, Maggie; Nishi, Eriko; Drunat, Séverine; Tan, Ee-Shien; Fujiki, Katsunori; Lebon, Sophie; Cham, Breana; Masuda, Koji; Arakawa, Michiko; Jacquinet, Adeline; Yamazumi, Yusuke; Chen, Shu-Ting; Verloes, Alain; Okada, Yuki; Katou, Yuki; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Akiyama, Tetsu; Gressens, Pierre; Foo, Roger; Passemard, Sandrine; Tan, Ene-Choo; El Ghouzzi, Vincent; Shirahige, Katsuhiko

    2016-08-01

    Cellular homeostasis is maintained by the highly organized cooperation of intracellular trafficking systems, including COPI, COPII, and clathrin complexes. COPI is a coatomer protein complex responsible for intracellular protein transport between the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. The importance of such intracellular transport mechanisms is underscored by the various disorders, including skeletal disorders such as cranio-lenticulo-sutural dysplasia and osteogenesis imperfect, caused by mutations in the COPII coatomer complex. In this article, we report a clinically recognizable craniofacial disorder characterized by facial dysmorphisms, severe micrognathia, rhizomelic shortening, microcephalic dwarfism, and mild developmental delay due to loss-of-function heterozygous mutations in ARCN1, which encodes the coatomer subunit delta of COPI. ARCN1 mutant cell lines were revealed to have endoplasmic reticulum stress, suggesting the involvement of ER stress response in the pathogenesis of this disorder. Given that ARCN1 deficiency causes defective type I collagen transport, reduction of collagen secretion represents the likely mechanism underlying the skeletal phenotype that characterizes this condition. Our findings demonstrate the importance of COPI-mediated transport in human development, including skeletogenesis and brain growth. PMID:27476655

  14. An emerging, recognizable facial phenotype in association with mutations in GLI-similar 3 (GLIS3).

    PubMed

    Dimitri, Paul; De Franco, Elisa; Habeb, Abdelhadi M; Gurbuz, Fatih; Moussa, Khairya; Taha, Doris; Wales, Jerry K H; Hogue, Jacob; Slavotinek, Anne; Shetty, Ambika; Balasubramanian, Meena

    2016-07-01

    Neonatal diabetes and hypothyroidism (NDH) syndrome was first described in 2003 in a consanguineous Saudi Arabian family where two out of four siblings were reported to have presented with proportionate IUGR, neonatal non-autoimmune diabetes mellitus, severe congenital hypothyroidism, cholestasis, congenital glaucoma, and polycystic kidneys. Liver disease progressed to hepatic fibrosis. The renal disease was characterized by enlarged kidneys and multiple small cysts with deficient cortico-medullary junction differentiation and normal kidney function. There was minor facial dysmorphism (depressed nasal bridge, large anterior fontanelle, long philtrum) reported but no facial photographs were published. Mutations in the transcription factor GLI-similar 3 (GLIS3) gene in the original family and two other families were subsequently reported in 2006. All affected individuals had neonatal diabetes, congenital hypothyroidism but glaucoma and liver and kidney involvement were less consistent features. Detailed descriptions of the facial dysmorphism have not been reported previously. In this report, we describe the common facial dysmorphism consisting of bilateral low-set ears, depressed nasal bridge with overhanging columella, elongated, upslanted palpebral fissures, persistent long philtrum with a thin vermilion border of the upper lip in a cohort of seven patients with GLIS3 mutations and report the emergence of a distinct, probably recognizable facial gestalt in this group which evolves with age. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27148679

  15. Identification of a Recognizable Progressive Skeletal Dysplasia Caused by RSPRY1 Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Faden, Maha; AlZahrani, Fatema; Mendoza-Londono, Roberto; Dupuis, Lucie; Hartley, Taila; Kannu, Peter; Raiman, Julian A.; Howard, Andrew; Qin, Wen; Tetreault, Martine; Xi, Joan Qiongchao; Al-Thamer, Imadeddin; Maas, Richard L.; Boycott, Kym; Alkuraya, Fowzan S.

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal dysplasias are highly variable Mendelian phenotypes. Molecular diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias is complicated by their extreme clinical and genetic heterogeneity. We describe a clinically recognizable autosomal-recessive disorder in four affected siblings from a consanguineous Saudi family, comprising progressive spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, short stature, facial dysmorphism, short fourth metatarsals, and intellectual disability. Combined autozygome/exome analysis identified a homozygous frameshift mutation in RSPRY1 with resulting nonsense-mediated decay. Using a gene-centric “matchmaking” system, we were able to identify a Peruvian simplex case subject whose phenotype is strikingly similar to the original Saudi family and whose exome sequencing had revealed a likely pathogenic homozygous missense variant in the same gene. RSPRY1 encodes a hypothetical RING and SPRY domain-containing protein of unknown physiological function. However, we detect strong RSPRY1 protein localization in murine embryonic osteoblasts and periosteal cells during primary endochondral ossification, consistent with a role in bone development. This study highlights the role of gene-centric matchmaking tools to establish causal links to genes, especially for rare or previously undescribed clinical entities. PMID:26365341

  16. Accidental degeneracy of double Dirac cones in a phononic crystal

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ze-Guo; Ni, Xu; Wu, Ying; He, Cheng; Sun, Xiao-Chen; Zheng, Li-Yang; Lu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Artificial honeycomb lattices with Dirac cone dispersion provide a macroscopic platform to study the massless Dirac quasiparticles and their novel geometric phases. In this paper, a quadruple-degenerate state is achieved at the center of the Brillouin zone in a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice phononic crystal, which is a result of accidental degeneracy of two double-degenerate states. In the vicinity of the quadruple-degenerate state, the dispersion relation is linear. Such quadruple degeneracy is analyzed by rigorous representation theory of groups. Using method, a reduced Hamiltonian is obtained to describe the linear Dirac dispersion relations of this quadruple-degenerate state, which is well consistent with the simulation results. Near such accidental degeneracy, we observe some unique properties in wave propagating, such as defect-insensitive propagating character and the Talbot effect. PMID:24714512

  17. Pervasive flexibility in living technologies through degeneracy-based design.

    PubMed

    Whitacre, James; Bender, Axel

    2013-01-01

    The capacity to adapt can greatly influence the success of systems that need to compensate for damaged parts, learn how to achieve robust performance in new environments, or exploit novel opportunities that originate from new technological interfaces or emerging markets. Many of the conditions in which technology is required to adapt cannot be anticipated during its design stage, thus creating a challenge for the designer. Inspired by the study of a range of biological systems, we propose that degeneracy-the realization of multiple, functionally versatile components with contextually overlapping functional redundancy-will support adaptation in technologies, because it effects pervasive flexibility, evolutionary innovation, and homeostatic robustness. We provide examples of degeneracy in a number of rudimentary living technologies, from military sociotechnical systems to swarm robotics, and we present design principles-including shared protocols, loose regulatory coupling, and functional versatility-that allow degeneracy to arise in both biological and man-made systems. PMID:23834594

  18. Robust Topological and Holographic Degeneracies of Classical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaezi, Seyyed Mohammad Sadegh; Nussinov, Zohar; Ortiz, Gerardo

    We challenge the hypothesis that the ground states of a physical system whose degeneracy depends on topology must necessarily realize topological quantum order and display non-local entanglement. To this end, we introduce and study a classical rendition of the Toric Code model embedded on Riemann surfaces of different genus numbers. We find that the minimal ground state degeneracy (and those of all levels) depends on the topology of the embedding surface alone. As the ground states of this classical system may be distinguished by local measurements, a characteristic of Landau orders, this example illustrates that topological degeneracy is not a sufficient condition for topological quantum order. This conclusion is generic and, as shown, it applies to many other models. We also demonstrate that in certain lattice realizations of these models, and other theories, one can find a ground state entropy that is ''holographic'', i.e., extensive in the system's boundary.

  19. Reducing Degeneracy in Maximum Entropy Models of Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvát, Szabolcs; Czabarka, Éva; Toroczkai, Zoltán

    2015-04-01

    Based on Jaynes's maximum entropy principle, exponential random graphs provide a family of principled models that allow the prediction of network properties as constrained by empirical data (observables). However, their use is often hindered by the degeneracy problem characterized by spontaneous symmetry breaking, where predictions fail. Here we show that degeneracy appears when the corresponding density of states function is not log-concave, which is typically the consequence of nonlinear relationships between the constraining observables. Exploiting these nonlinear relationships here we propose a solution to the degeneracy problem for a large class of systems via transformations that render the density of states function log-concave. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated on examples.

  20. Degeneracy between warm and coupled cold dark matter: A clarifying note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velten, Hermano; Borges, Humberto A.; Caramês, Thiago R. P.

    2016-03-01

    Wei et al. [Phys. Rev. D 88, 043510 (2013)] have proposed the existence of a cosmological degeneracy between warm dark matter (WDM), modified gravity and coupled cold dark matter (CDM) cosmologies at both the background expansion and the growth of density perturbation levels; i.e., corresponding cosmological data would not be able to differentiate such scenarios. Here, we will focus on the specific indistinguishability between warm dark matter plus cosmological constant (Λ ) and coupled scalar field CDM scenarios. Although the statement of Wei et al. is true for very specific conditions we present a more complete discussion on this issue and show in more detail that these models are indeed distinguishable. We show that the degeneracy breaks down since coupled models leave a specific signature in the redshift space distortion data which is absent in the uncoupled warm dark matter cosmologies. Furthermore, we complement our claim by providing the reasons which suggest that even at nonlinear level a breaking of such apparent equivalence is also expected.

  1. Degeneracy of energy levels of pseudo-Gaussian oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Iacob, Theodor-Felix; Iacob, Felix; Lute, Marina

    2015-12-07

    We study the main features of the isotropic radial pseudo-Gaussian oscillators spectral properties. This study is made upon the energy levels degeneracy with respect to orbital angular momentum quantum number. In a previous work [6] we have shown that the pseudo-Gaussian oscillators belong to the class of quasi-exactly solvable models and an exact solution has been found.

  2. The simplicity of perfect atoms: Degeneracies in supersymmetric hydrogen

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rube, Tomas; Wacker, Jay G.

    2011-06-07

    In this study, supersymmetric QED hydrogen-like bound states are remarkably similar to nonsupersymmetric hydrogen, including an accidental degeneracy of the fine structure and is broken by the Lamb shift. This article classifies the states, calculates the leading order spectrum, and illustrates the results in several limits. The relation to other nonrelativistic bound states is explored.

  3. The simplicity of perfect atoms: Degeneracies in supersymmetric hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Rube, Tomas; Wacker, Jay G.

    2011-06-15

    Supersymmetric QED hydrogen-like bound states are remarkably similar to nonsupersymmetric hydrogen, including an accidental degeneracy of the fine structure and is broken by the Lamb shift. This article classifies the states, calculates the leading order spectrum, and illustrates the results in several limits. The relation to other nonrelativistic bound states is explored.

  4. Quantification of degeneracy in Hodgkin-Huxley neurons on Newman-Watts small world network.

    PubMed

    Man, Menghua; Zhang, Ya; Ma, Guilei; Friston, Karl; Liu, Shanghe

    2016-08-01

    Degeneracy is a fundamental source of biological robustness, complexity and evolvability in many biological systems. However, degeneracy is often confused with redundancy. Furthermore, the quantification of degeneracy has not been addressed for realistic neuronal networks. The objective of this paper is to characterize degeneracy in neuronal network models via quantitative mathematic measures. Firstly, we establish Hodgkin-Huxley neuronal networks with Newman-Watts small world network architectures. Secondly, in order to calculate the degeneracy, redundancy and complexity in the ensuing networks, we use information entropy to quantify the information a neuronal response carries about the stimulus - and mutual information to measure the contribution of each subset of the neuronal network. Finally, we analyze the interdependency of degeneracy, redundancy and complexity - and how these three measures depend upon network architectures. Our results suggest that degeneracy can be applied to any neuronal network as a formal measure, and degeneracy is distinct from redundancy. Qualitatively degeneracy and complexity are more highly correlated over different network architectures, in comparison to redundancy. Quantitatively, the relationship between both degeneracy and redundancy depends on network coupling strength: both degeneracy and redundancy increase with complexity for small coupling strengths; however, as coupling strength increases, redundancy decreases with complexity (in contrast to degeneracy, which is relatively invariant). These results suggest that the degeneracy is a general topologic characteristic of neuronal networks, which could be applied quantitatively in neuroscience and connectomics. PMID:27155043

  5. The Simplicity of Perfect Atoms: Degeneracies in Supersymmetric Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Rube, Tomas; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC /Stanford U., ITP

    2011-08-19

    Supersymmetric QED hydrogen-like bound states are remarkably similar to non-supersymmetric hydrogen, including an accidental degeneracy of the fine structure and which is broken by the Lamb shift. This article classifies the states, calculates the leading order spectrum, and illustrates the results in several limits. The relation to other non-relativistic bound states is explored. Supersymmetric bound states provide a laboratory for studying dynamics in supersymmetric theories. Bound states like hydrogen provide a framework for understanding the qualitative dynamics of QCD mesons, a supersymmetric version of QED can provide a qualitative picture for the symmetries and states of superQCD mesons. Furthermore, recent interest in dark matter as a composite state, leads to asking how supersymmetry acts upon these composite states [4-7]. This article calculates the leading order corrections to a hydrogen-like atoms in an exactly supersymmetric version of QED. Much of the degeneracy is broken by the fine structure and a seminal calculation was performed in [1] for positronium, see [2] for an N = 2 version of positronium. Supersymmetric hydrogen is a similar except for the absence of annihilation diagrams, see [3] for an independent calculation. In the heavy proton mass limit, the supersymmetric interactions of the theory become irrelevant operators, suppressed by powers of the proton mass like the magnetic moment operator in QED and the fine structure is identical to the non-supersymmetric theory. This article finds that fine structure spectrum of supersymmetric spectrum of hydrogen has an accidental degeneracy which is exactly analogous to the accidental degeneracy of the l = 0 and l = 1 levels of the n = 2; j = 1/2 state of hydrogen. The supersymmetric version of the Lamb shift lifts the residual degeneracy and this article computes the logarithmically enhanced breaking.

  6. Mitral annular disjunction in myxomatous mitral valve disease: a relevant abnormality recognizable by transthoracic echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    were no differences between groups regarding functional class, severity of mitral regurgitation, LV volumes, and LV systolic function. Conclusions MAD is a common finding in myxomatous mitral valve disease patients, easily recognizable by transthoracic echocardiography. It is more prevalent in women and often associated with chest pain. MAD significantly disturbs mitral annular function and when severe predicts the occurrence of NSVT. PMID:21143934

  7. Oscillation degeneracy in non-standard neutrino interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Warren

    2016-06-01

    The standard theory describing neutrino oscillations only uses the interactions predicted by the Standard Model of particle physics. However, there is plenty of room for non-standard interactions (NSI) to exist. This is because extra interactions are allowed by experimental error bars and even expected at some level from effective theory arguments. This research is focused on examining the phenomenological consequences of the new physics of NSI at large atmospheric neutrino detectors like IceCube DeepCore. Of particular focus are the degeneracies between and within the standard neutrino oscillation parameters and the NSI parameters. These degeneracies will be explored both analytically and numerically, and strategies to lift them will also be discussed. This research is largely based on [1].

  8. Topological entanglement entropy, ground state degeneracy and holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parnachev, Andrei; Poovuttikul, Napat

    2015-10-01

    Topological entanglement entropy, a measure of the long-ranged entanglement, is related to the degeneracy of the ground state on a higher genus surface. The exact relation depends on the details of the topological theory. We consider a class of holographic models where such relation might be similar to the one exhibited by Chern-Simons theory in a certain large N limit. Both the non-vanishing topological entanglement entropy and the ground state degeneracy in these holographic models are consequences of the topological Gauss-Bonnet term in the dual gravitational description. A soft wall holographic model of confinement is used to generate finite correlation length but keep the disk topology of the entangling surface in the bulk, necessary for nonvanishing topological entanglement entropy.

  9. A quantum spin liquid with a large topological degeneracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchernyshyov, Oleg; Wang, Haoyu; Wan, Yuan

    We present a model of a quantum spin liquid in two dimensions with a large topological degeneracy. The model has spins of length S = 1 / 2 on sites of a triangular lattice interacting via a 6-spin term. As in models of Kitaev and Wen [1-3], elementary building blocks in our model are strings of several distinct types. Ends of these strings are elementary particles: 4 bosons and 3 fermions. Particles of different types are mutual semions. The degeneracy of the ground state on a torus is 2 7 - 1 = 64 . Elementary excitations of the model are boson-fermion pairs, which come in 3 × 4 = 12 distinct types Research funding comes from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under Award DE-FG02-08ER46544.

  10. A backtracking algorithm that deals with particle filter degeneracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baarsma, Rein; Schmitz, Oliver; Karssenberg, Derek

    2016-04-01

    Particle filters are an excellent way to deal with stochastic models incorporating Bayesian data assimilation. While they are computationally demanding, the particle filter has no problem with nonlinearity and it accepts non-Gaussian observational data. In the geoscientific field it is this computational demand that creates a problem, since dynamic grid-based models are often already quite computationally demanding. As such it is of the utmost importance to keep the amount of samples in the filter as small as possible. Small sample populations often lead to filter degeneracy however, especially in models with high stochastic forcing. Filter degeneracy renders the sample population useless, as the population is no longer statistically informative. We have created an algorithm in an existing data assimilation framework that reacts to and deals with filter degeneracy based on Spiller et al. [2008]. During the Bayesian updating step of the standard particle filter, the algorithm tests the sample population for filter degeneracy. If filter degeneracy has occurred, the algorithm resets to the last time the filter did work correctly and recalculates the failed timespan of the filter with an increased sample population. The sample population is then reduced to its original size and the particle filter continues as normal. This algorithm was created in the PCRaster Python framework, an open source tool that enables spatio-temporal forward modelling in Python [Karssenberg et al., 2010] . The framework already contains several data assimilation algorithms, including a standard particle filter and a Kalman filter. The backtracking particle filter algorithm has been added to the framework, which will make it easy to implement in other research. The performance of the backtracking particle filter is tested against a standard particle filter using two models. The first is a simple nonlinear point model, and the second is a more complex geophysical model. The main testing

  11. 32 CFR 720.10 - Members released by civil authorities on bail or on their own recognizance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... absence, shall grant liberty or leave to permit appearance for trial, unless this would have a serious negative impact on the command. In the event that liberty or leave is not granted, a judge advocate of...

  12. 32 CFR 720.10 - Members released by civil authorities on bail or on their own recognizance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... absence, shall grant liberty or leave to permit appearance for trial, unless this would have a serious negative impact on the command. In the event that liberty or leave is not granted, a judge advocate of...

  13. Ultra-broad bandwidth parametric amplification at degeneracy.

    PubMed

    Limpert, J; Aguergaray, C; Montant, S; Manek-Hönninger, I; Petit, S; Descamps, D; Cormier, E; Salin, F

    2005-09-19

    We report on a novel approach of ultra-broad bandwidth parametric amplification around degeneracy. A bandwidth of up to 400 nm centered around 800 nm is amplified in a BBO crystal by using chirped pump pulses with a bandwitdth as broad as 10 nm. A supercontinuum signal is generated in a microstructured fiber, having to first order a quadratic chirp, which is necessary to ensure temporal overlap of the interacting waves over this broad bandwidth. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of this approach for an octave-spanning parametric amplification. PMID:19498762

  14. On uniqueness and non-degeneracy of anisotropic polarons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricaud, Julien

    2016-05-01

    We study the anisotropic Choquard-Pekar equation which describes a polaron in an anisotropic medium. We prove the uniqueness and non-degeneracy of minimizers in a weakly anisotropic medium. In addition, for a wide range of anisotropic media, we derive the symmetry properties of minimizers and prove that the kernel of the associated linearized operator is reduced, apart from three functions coming from the translation invariance, to the kernel on the subspace of functions that are even in each of the three principal directions of the medium.

  15. Large and exact quantum degeneracy in a skyrmion magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douçot, B.; Kovrizhin, D. L.; Moessner, R.

    2016-03-01

    We identify a large family of ground states of a topological C PN -1 skyrmion magnet whose classical degeneracy persists to all orders in a semiclassical expansion. This goes along with an exceptional robustness of the concomitant ground-state configurations, which are not at all dressed by quantum fluctuations. We trace these twin observations back to a common root: this class of topological ground states saturates a Bogomolny inequality. A similar phenomenology occurs in high-energy physics for some field theories exhibiting supersymmetry. We propose quantum Hall ferromagnets, where these skyrmions configurations arise naturally as ground states away from integer filling, as the best available laboratory realisations.

  16. Degeneracy allows for both apparent homogeneity and diversification in populations

    PubMed Central

    Whitacre, James M.; Atamas, Sergei P.

    2013-01-01

    Trait diversity – the substrate for natural selection – is necessary for adaptation through selection, particularly in populations faced with environmental changes that diminish population fitness. In habitats that remain unchanged for many generations, stabilizing selection maximizes exploitation of resources by reducing trait diversity to a narrow optimal range. One might expect that such ostensibly homogeneous populations would have a reduced potential for heritable adaptive responses when faced with fitness-reducing environmental changes. However, field studies have documented populations that, even after long periods of evolutionary stasis, can still rapidly evolve in response to changed environmental conditions. We argue that degeneracy, the ability of diverse population elements to function similarly, can satisfy both the current need to maximize fitness and the future need for diversity. Degenerate ensembles appear functionally redundant in certain environmental contexts and functionally diverse in others. We propose that genetic variation not contributing to the observed range of phenotypes in a current population, also known as cryptic genetic variation (CGV), is a specific case of degeneracy. We argue that CGV, which gradually accumulates in static populations in stable environments, reveals hidden trait differences when environments change. By allowing CGV accumulation, static populations prepare themselves for future rapid adaptations to environmental novelty. A greater appreciation of degeneracy’s role in resolving the inherent tension between current stabilizing selection and future directional selection has implications in conservation biology and may be applied in social and technological systems to maximize current performance while strengthening the potential for future changes. PMID:22910487

  17. Degeneracy, frequency response and filtering in IMRT optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llacer, Jorge; Agazaryan, Nzhde; Solberg, Timothy D.; Promberger, Claus

    2004-07-01

    This paper attempts to provide an answer to some questions that remain either poorly understood, or not well documented in the literature, on basic issues related to intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The questions examined are: the relationship between degeneracy and frequency response of optimizations, effects of initial beamlet fluence assignment and stopping point, what does filtering of an optimized beamlet map actually do and how could image analysis help to obtain better optimizations? Two target functions are studied, a quadratic cost function and the log likelihood function of the dynamically penalized likelihood (DPL) algorithm. The algorithms used are the conjugate gradient, the stochastic adaptive simulated annealing and the DPL. One simple phantom is used to show the development of the analysis tools used and two clinical cases of medium and large dose matrix size (a meningioma and a prostate) are studied in detail. The conclusions reached are that the high number of iterations that is needed to avoid degeneracy is not warranted in clinical practice, as the quality of the optimizations, as judged by the DVHs and dose distributions obtained, does not improve significantly after a certain point. It is also shown that the optimum initial beamlet fluence assignment for analytical iterative algorithms is a uniform distribution, but such an assignment does not help a stochastic method of optimization. Stopping points for the studied algorithms are discussed and the deterioration of DVH characteristics with filtering is shown to be partially recoverable by the use of space-variant filtering techniques.

  18. Epigenomics and the concept of degeneracy in biological systems

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Paul H.; Barron, Andrew B.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers in the field of epigenomics are developing more nuanced understandings of biological complexity, and exploring the multiple pathways that lead to phenotypic expression. The concept of degeneracy—referring to the multiple pathways that a system recruits to achieve functional plasticity—is an important conceptual accompaniment to the growing body of knowledge in epigenomics. Distinct from degradation, redundancy and dilapidation; degeneracy refers to the plasticity of traits whose function overlaps in some environments, but diverges in others. While a redundant system is composed of repeated identical elements performing the same function, a degenerate system is composed of different elements performing similar or overlapping functions. Here, we describe the degenerate structure of gene regulatory systems from the basic genetic code to flexible epigenomic modifications, and discuss how these structural features have contributed to organism complexity, robustness, plasticity and evolvability. PMID:24335757

  19. Valley degeneracy in biaxially strained aluminum arsenide quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhu-Gaunkar, S.; Birner, S.; Dasgupta, S.; Knaak, C.; Grayson, M.

    2011-09-01

    This paper describes a complete analytical formalism for calculating electron subband energy and degeneracy in strained multivalley quantum wells grown along any orientation with explicit results for AlAs quantum wells (QWs). In analogy to the spin index, the valley degree of freedom is justified as a pseudospin index due to the vanishing intervalley exchange integral. A standardized coordinate transformation matrix is defined to transform between the conventional-cubic-cell basis and the QW transport basis whereby effective mass tensors, valley vectors, strain matrices, anisotropic strain ratios, piezoelectric fields, and scattering vectors are all defined in their respective bases. The specific cases of (001)-, (110)-, and (111)-oriented aluminum arsenide (AlAs) QWs are examined, as is the unconventional (411) facet, which is of particular importance in AlAs literature. Calculations of electron confinement and strain for the (001), (110), and (411) facets determine the critical well width for crossover from double- to single-valley degeneracy in each system. The biaxial Poisson ratio is calculated for the high-symmetry lower Miller index (001)-, (110)-, and (111)-oriented QWs. An additional shear-strain component arises in the higher Miller index (411)-oriented QWs and we define and solve for a shear-to-biaxial strain ratio. The notation is generalized to address non-Miller-indexed planes so that miscut substrates can also be treated, and the treatment can be adapted to other multivalley biaxially strained systems. To help classify anisotropic intervalley scattering, a valley scattering primitive unit cell is defined in momentum space, which allows one to distinguish purely in-plane momentum scattering events from those that require an out-of-plane momentum component.

  20. A Prospective Questionnaire Study in 100 Healthy Sleepers: Non-Bothersome Forms of Recognizable Sleep Disorders Are Still Present

    PubMed Central

    Frauscher, Birgit; Mitterling, Thomas; Bode, Aleke; Ehrmann, Laura; Gabelia, David; Biermayr, Marlene; Walters, Arthur Scott; Poewe, Werner; Högl, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Despite several polysomnographic normative studies and multiple surveys of sleep disorders in the general population, few data have been collected on healthy sleepers. We aimed to survey the characteristics of healthy sleep. Methods: We prospectively investigated the sleep history of 100 subjects of a representative population sample who reported undisturbed sleep and in whom relevant sleep disorders were ruled out by a two-step screening procedure. Approximately four subjects had to be contacted for identifying 1 eligible subject who participated. Results: The median reported time in bed was from 23:00 (21:30–02:00) to 07:00 (05:30–11:00). The total sleep duration was 7.3 h (5–10 h), varying from 7.5 h in the age group ≤ 30 years to 7 h in subjects aged 40–60 years and to 8 h in subjects > 60 years (p = 0.002). The median sleep efficiency was high (93.3%, range: 55.6% to 100%). Fifty-one subjects reported occasional snoring. Forty-five subjects reported sporadic non-bothersome sleep-related movement disorders (25 sleep-related leg cramps, 22 lifetime bruxism, 5 restless legs syndrome), and 36 had a history of sporadic non-bothersome parasomnias (27 nightmares, 12 sleepwalking, 1 sleep paralysis). Conclusion: In this population of healthy sleepers, snoring is the most common finding. Moreover, non-bothersome forms of recognizable sleep-related movement disorders and parasomnias are surprisingly common. These findings may suggest that diagnostic criteria of sleep disorders should not only be based on the presence of symptoms but also account for a minimum frequency or discomfort. Citation: Frauscher B, Mitterling T, Bode A, Ehrmann L, Gabelia D, Biermayr M, Walters AS, Poewe W, Högl B. A prospective questionnaire study in 100 healthy sleepers: non-bothersome forms of recognizable sleep disorders are still present. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(6):623-629. PMID:24932141

  1. Predicted Indirectly Recognizable HLA Epitopes Presented by HLA-DRB1 Are Related to HLA Antibody Formation During Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Geneugelijk, K; Hönger, G; van Deutekom, H W M; Thus, K A; Keşmir, C; Hösli, I; Schaub, S; Spierings, E

    2015-12-01

    Pregnancy can prime maternal immune responses against inherited paternal HLA of the fetus, leading to the production of child-specific HLA antibodies. We previously demonstrated that donor-specific HLA antibody formation after kidney transplantation is associated with donor-derived HLA epitopes presented by recipient HLA class II (predicted indirectly recognizable HLA epitopes presented by HLA class II [PIRCHE-II]). In the present study, we evaluated the role of PIRCHE-II in child-specific HLA antibody formation during pregnancy. A total of 229 mother-child pairs were HLA typed. For all mismatched HLA class I molecules of the child, we subsequently predicted the number of HLA epitopes that could be presented by maternal HLA class II molecules. Child-specific antigens were classified as either immunogenic or nonimmunogenic HLA based on the presence of specific antibodies and correlated to PIRCHE-II numbers. Immunogenic HLA contained higher PIRCHE-II numbers than nonimmunogenic HLA. Moreover, the probability of antibody production during pregnancy increased with the number of PIRCHE-II. In conclusion, our data suggest that the number of PIRCHE-II is related to the formation of child-specific HLA antibodies during pregnancy. Present confirmation of the role of PIRCHE-II in antibody formation outside the transplantation setting suggests the PIRCHE-II concept is universal. PMID:26512793

  2. CMB power spectrum parameter degeneracies in the era of precision cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Howlett, Cullan; Lewis, Antony; Hall, Alex; Challinor, Anthony E-mail: antony@cosmologist.info E-mail: adc1000@ast.cam.ac.uk

    2012-04-01

    Cosmological parameter constraints from the CMB power spectra alone suffer several well-known degeneracies. These degeneracies can be broken by numerical artefacts and also a variety of physical effects that become quantitatively important with high-accuracy data e.g. from the Planck satellite. We study degeneracies in models with flat and non-flat spatial sections, non-trivial dark energy and massive neutrinos, and investigate the importance of various physical degeneracy-breaking effects. We test the CAMB power spectrum code for numerical accuracy, and demonstrate that the numerical calculations are accurate enough for degeneracies to be broken mainly by true physical effects (the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect, CMB lensing and geometrical and other effects through recombination) rather than numerical artefacts. We quantify the impact of CMB lensing on the power spectra, which inevitably provides degeneracy-breaking information even without using information in the non-Gaussianity. Finally we check the numerical accuracy of sample-based parameter constraints using CAMB and COSMOMC. In an appendix we document recent changes to CAMB's numerical treatment of massive neutrino perturbations, which are tested along with other recent improvements by our degeneracy exploration results.

  3. Degeneracy, degree, and heavy tails in quantum annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Andrew D.; Hoskinson, Emile; Lanting, Trevor; Andriyash, Evgeny; Amin, Mohammad H.

    2016-05-01

    Both simulated quantum annealing and physical quantum annealing have shown the emergence of "heavy tails" in their performance as optimizers: The total time needed to solve a set of random input instances is dominated by a small number of very hard instances. Classical simulated annealing, in contrast, does not show such heavy tails. Here we explore the origin of these heavy tails, which appear for inputs with high local degeneracy—large isoenergetic clusters of states in Hamming space. This category includes the low-precision Chimera-structured problems studied in recent benchmarking work comparing the D-Wave Two quantum annealing processor with simulated annealing. On similar inputs designed to suppress local degeneracy, performance of a quantum annealing processor on hard instances improves by orders of magnitude at the 512-qubit scale, while classical performance remains relatively unchanged. Simulations indicate that perturbative crossings are the primary factor contributing to these heavy tails, while sensitivity to Hamiltonian misspecification error plays a less significant role in this particular setting.

  4. Dynamics versus structure: breaking the density degeneracy in star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Richard J.

    2014-12-01

    The initial density of individual star-forming regions (and by extension the birth environment of planetary systems) is difficult to constrain due to the `density degeneracy problem': an initially dense region expands faster than a more quiescent region due to two-body relaxation and so two regions with the same observed present-day density may have had very different initial densities. We constrain the initial densities of seven nearby star-forming regions by folding in information on their spatial structure from the {Q}-parameter and comparing the structure and present-day density to the results of N-body simulations. This in turn places strong constraints on the possible effects of dynamical interactions and radiation fields from massive stars on multiple systems and protoplanetary discs. We apply our method to constrain the initial binary population in each of these seven regions and show that the populations in only three - the Orion Nebula Cluster, ρ Oph, and Corona Australis - are consistent with having evolved from the Kroupa universal initial period distribution and a binary fraction of unity.

  5. Electronic orders in multiorbital Hubbard models with lifted orbital degeneracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Shintaro; Werner, Philipp

    2016-04-01

    We study the symmetry-broken phases in two- and three-orbital Hubbard models with lifted orbital degeneracy using dynamical mean-field theory. On the technical level, we explain how symmetry relations can be exploited to measure the four-point correlation functions needed for the calculation of the lattice susceptibilities. In the half-filled two-orbital model with crystal-field splitting, we find an instability of the metallic phase to spin-orbital order with neither spin nor orbital moment. This ordered phase is shown to be related to the recently discovered fluctuating-moment induced spin-triplet superconducting state in the orbitally degenerate model with shifted chemical potential. In the three-orbital case, we consider the effect of a crystal-field splitting on the spin-triplet superconducting state in the model with positive Hund coupling, and the spin-singlet superconducting state in the case of negative Hund coupling. It is demonstrated that for certain crystal-field splittings the higher energy orbitals instead of the lower ones are relevant for superconductivity, and that Tc can be slightly enhanced by the crystal-field effect. We comment on the implications of our results for the superconductivity in strontium ruthenates, and for the recently reported light-enhanced superconducting state in alkali-metal-doped fullerides.

  6. Free electron degeneracy effects on collisional excitation, ionization, de-excitation and three-body recombination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tallents, G. J.

    2016-09-01

    Collisional-radiative models enable average ionization and ionization populations, plus the rates of absorption and emission of radiation to be calculated for plasmas not in thermal equilbrium. At high densities and low temperatures, electrons may have a high occupancy of the free electron quantum states and evaluations of rate coefficients need to take into account the free electron degeneracy. We demonstrate that electron degeneracy can reduce collisional rate coefficients by orders-of-magnitude from values calculated neglecting degeneracy. We show that assumptions regarding the collisional differential cross-section can alter collisional ionization and recombination rate coefficients by a further factor two under conditions relevant to inertial fusion.

  7. Duplication 8q12: confirmation of a novel recognizable phenotype with duane retraction syndrome and developmental delay

    PubMed Central

    Amouroux, Cyril; Vincent, Marie; Blanchet, Patricia; Puechberty, Jacques; Schneider, Anouck; Chaze, Anne Marie; Girard, Manon; Tournaire, Magali; Jorgensen, Christian; Morin, Denis; Sarda, Pierre; Lefort, Geneviève; Geneviève, David

    2012-01-01

    Duane retraction syndrome (DRS) is a rare congenital strabismus condition with genetic heterogeneity. DRS associated with intellectual disability or developmental delay is observed in several genetic diseases: syndromes such as Goldenhar or Wildervanck syndrome and chromosomal anomalies such as 12q12 deletion. We report on the case of a patient with DRS, developmental delay and particular facial features (horizontal and flared eyebrows, long and smooth philtrum, thin upper lip, full lower lip and full cheeks). We identified a duplication of the long arm of chromosome 8 (8q12) with SNP-array. This is the third case of a patient with common clinical features and 8q12 duplication described in the literature. The minimal critical region is 1.2 Mb and encompasses four genes: CA8, RAB2, RLBP1L1 and CHD7. To our knowledge, no information is available in the literature regarding pathological effects caused by to overexpression of these genes. However, loss of function of the CHD7 gene leads to CHARGE syndrome, suggesting a possible role of the overexpression of this gene in the phenotype observed in 8q12 duplication patients. We have observed that patients with 8q12 duplication share a common recognizable phenotype characterized by DRS, developmental delay and facial features. Such data combined to the literature strongly suggest that this entity may define a novel syndrome. We hypothesize that CHD7 duplication is responsible for a part of the features observed in 8q12.2 duplication. PMID:22258531

  8. De novo loss-of-function mutations in WAC cause a recognizable intellectual disability syndrome and learning deficits in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Lugtenberg, Dorien; Reijnders, Margot R F; Fenckova, Michaela; Bijlsma, Emilia K; Bernier, Raphael; van Bon, Bregje W M; Smeets, Eric; Vulto-van Silfhout, Anneke T; Bosch, Danielle; Eichler, Evan E; Mefford, Heather C; Carvill, Gemma L; Bongers, Ernie M H F; Schuurs-Hoeijmakers, Janneke Hm; Ruivenkamp, Claudia A; Santen, Gijs W E; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M; Peeters-Scholte, Cacha M P C D; Kuenen, Sabine; Verstreken, Patrik; Pfundt, Rolph; Yntema, Helger G; de Vries, Petra F; Veltman, Joris A; Hoischen, Alexander; Gilissen, Christian; de Vries, Bert B A; Schenck, Annette; Kleefstra, Tjitske; Vissers, Lisenka E L M

    2016-08-01

    Recently WAC was reported as a candidate gene for intellectual disability (ID) based on the identification of a de novo mutation in an individual with severe ID. WAC regulates transcription-coupled histone H2B ubiquitination and has previously been implicated in the 10p12p11 contiguous gene deletion syndrome. In this study, we report on 10 individuals with de novo WAC mutations which we identified through routine (diagnostic) exome sequencing and targeted resequencing of WAC in 2326 individuals with unexplained ID. All but one mutation was expected to lead to a loss-of-function of WAC. Clinical evaluation of all individuals revealed phenotypic overlap for mild ID, hypotonia, behavioral problems and distinctive facial dysmorphisms, including a square-shaped face, deep set eyes, long palpebral fissures, and a broad mouth and chin. These clinical features were also previously reported in individuals with 10p12p11 microdeletion syndrome. To investigate the role of WAC in ID, we studied the importance of the Drosophila WAC orthologue (CG8949) in habituation, a non-associative learning paradigm. Neuronal knockdown of Drosophila CG8949 resulted in impaired learning, suggesting that WAC is required in neurons for normal cognitive performance. In conclusion, we defined a clinically recognizable ID syndrome, caused by de novo loss-of-function mutations in WAC. Independent functional evidence in Drosophila further supported the role of WAC in ID. On the basis of our data WAC can be added to the list of ID genes with a role in transcription regulation through histone modification. PMID:26757981

  9. DYRK1A haploinsufficiency causes a new recognizable syndrome with microcephaly, intellectual disability, speech impairment, and distinct facies.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jianling; Lee, Hane; Argiropoulos, Bob; Dorrani, Naghmeh; Mann, John; Martinez-Agosto, Julian A; Gomez-Ospina, Natalia; Gallant, Natalie; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Hudgins, Louanne; Slattery, Leah; Isidor, Bertrand; Le Caignec, Cédric; David, Albert; Obersztyn, Ewa; Wiśniowiecka-Kowalnik, Barbara; Fox, Michelle; Deignan, Joshua L; Vilain, Eric; Hendricks, Emily; Horton Harr, Margaret; Noon, Sarah E; Jackson, Jessi R; Wilkens, Alisha; Mirzaa, Ghayda; Salamon, Noriko; Abramson, Jeff; Zackai, Elaine H; Krantz, Ian; Innes, A Micheil; Nelson, Stanley F; Grody, Wayne W; Quintero-Rivera, Fabiola

    2015-11-01

    Dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1 A (DYRK1A ) is a highly conserved gene located in the Down syndrome critical region. It has an important role in early development and regulation of neuronal proliferation. Microdeletions of chromosome 21q22.12q22.3 that include DYRK1A (21q22.13) are rare and only a few pathogenic single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) in the DYRK1A gene have been described, so as of yet, the landscape of DYRK1A disruptions and their associated phenotype has not been fully explored. We have identified 14 individuals with de novo heterozygous variants of DYRK1A; five with microdeletions, three with small insertions or deletions (INDELs) and six with deleterious SNVs. The analysis of our cohort and comparison with published cases reveals that phenotypes are consistent among individuals with the 21q22.12q22.3 microdeletion and those with translocation, SNVs, or INDELs within DYRK1A. All individuals shared congenital microcephaly at birth, intellectual disability, developmental delay, severe speech impairment, short stature, and distinct facial features. The severity of the microcephaly varied from -2 SD to -5 SD. Seizures, structural brain abnormalities, eye defects, ataxia/broad-based gait, intrauterine growth restriction, minor skeletal abnormalities, and feeding difficulties were present in two-thirds of all affected individuals. Our study demonstrates that haploinsufficiency of DYRK1A results in a new recognizable syndrome, which should be considered in individuals with Angelman syndrome-like features and distinct facial features. Our report represents the largest cohort of individuals with DYRK1A disruptions to date, and is the first attempt to define consistent genotype-phenotype correlations among subjects with 21q22.13 microdeletions and DYRK1A SNVs or small INDELs. PMID:25944381

  10. Linear electronic transport in dense plasmas. II. Finite degeneracy contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Léger, D.; Deutsch, C.

    1991-06-01

    The formalism described in the first paper in this series is hereafter specialized to a thorough investigation of finite degeneracy contributions to thermoelectronic and mechanical transport coefficients, conveniently expressed as reduced quantities. Temperature corrections are systematically discussed through the analytical properties of the jellium dielectric function. The Thomas-Fermi one appears as a paradigm of regular behavior at q=2k_F while the Lindhard and its T-dependent extension head a singular class characterized by diverging derivatives. Specific methods are developed for these important cases. Results are presented in terms of analytic expansions in the degeneracy parameter α, and exact expressions for the above-mentioned corrections are derived up to order α2. Finally we display a number of numerical results pertaining to fully ionized proton-helium binary mixtures of Astrophysical interest. The connection of the present formalism and its numerical outputs with other previous treatments is also carefully examined. Le formalisme exposé et détaillé dans le premier article de cette série est ici appliqué à la détermination des contributions de dégénérescence partielle aux coefficients de transport thermoélectroniques et mécanique (viscosité), coefficients préalablement exprimés sous forme d'expressions réduites. Les corrections de température finie sont systématiquement analysées en relation avec les propriétés analytiques de la fonction diélectrique du jellium. Alors que celle de Thomas-Fermi fournit l'exemple type de fonction parfaitement régulière en q=2k_F, celle de Lindhard et sa généralisation à T finie sont au contraire caractérisées par des dérivées divergentes en ce point. Des méthodes spécifiques sont développées pour traiter correctement ces cas importants. Nos résultats sont présentés sous forme de développements analytiques en puissance du paramètre de dégénérescence α, et des expressions

  11. Quantum degeneracy corrections to plasma line emission and to Saha equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinari, V. G.; Mostacci, D.; Rocchi, F.; Sumini, M.

    2003-09-01

    The effect of quantum degeneracy on the electron collisional excitation is investigated, and its effects on line emission evaluated for applications to spectroscopy of dense, cold plasmas. A correction to Saha equation for weakly-degenerate plasmas is also presented.

  12. Degeneracy between mass and spin in black-hole-binary waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, Emily; Fairhurst, Stephen; Hannam, Mark; Murphy, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    We explore the degeneracy between mass and spin in gravitational waveforms emitted by black-hole-binary coalescences. We focus on spin-aligned waveforms and obtain our results using phenomenological models that were tuned to numerical-relativity simulations. A degeneracy is known for low-mass binaries (particularly neutron-star binaries), where gravitational-wave detectors are sensitive to only the inspiral phase, and the waveform can be modeled by post-Newtonian theory. Here, we consider black-hole binaries, where detectors will also be sensitive to the merger and ringdown, and demonstrate that the degeneracy persists across a broad mass range. At low masses, the degeneracy is between mass ratio and the black-hole spins, with chirp mass accurately determined. At higher masses, the degeneracy persists but is not so clearly characterized by constant chirp mass as the merger and ringdown become more significant. We consider the importance of this degeneracy both for performing searches (including searches where only nonspinning templates are used) and in parameter extraction from observed systems. We compare observational capabilities between the early (˜2015) and final (2018 onwards) versions of the Advanced LIGO detector.

  13. The effect of degeneracy parameter on Weibel instability in dense plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Mahdavi, M.; Khodadadi Azadboni, F.

    2013-12-15

    In this paper, the role of degeneracy parameter, in both directions parallel and perpendicular with propagation direction of the laser beam in plasma, on the growth rate of Weibel instability, is studied. Calculations show that with the temperature anisotropy, β = T{sub ∥}/T{sub ⊥} = 0.2 and a 0.75 times reduction of the degeneracy parameter, the increased rate of the the Weibel instability growth rate is 72%. The degeneracy required for minimal growth rate in interaction laser plasma with a density of 1.2 × 10{sup 32}m{sup −3}, is larger than 3. The reduction of temperature and the degeneracy parameter of plasma in parallel direction will also increase growth rate about 30% more than incrossing degeneracy parameter in transverse direction. With the minimum pressure costs of cold compression, subsequent degeneracy parameters, and the minimum value of electron quiver energy, we can expect growth rate of Weibel instability order 0.01.

  14. Parameter degeneracy in neutrino oscillation — Solution network and structural overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minakata, Hisakazu; Uchinami, Shoichi

    2010-04-01

    It is known that there is a phenomenon called “parameter degeneracy” in neutrino oscillation measurement of lepton mixing parameters; A set of the oscillation probabilities, e.g., P( ν μ → ν e ) and its CP-conjugate Pleft( {{{bar ν }_μ } to {{bar ν }_e}} right) at a particular neutrino energy does not determine uniquely the values of θ 13 and δ. With use of the approximate form of the oscillation probability á la Cervera et al., a complete analysis of the eightfold parameter degeneracy is presented. We propose a unified view of the various types of the degeneracy as invariance of the oscillation probabilities under discrete mappings of the mixing parameters. Explicit form of the mapping is obtained either by symmetry argument, or by deriving exact analytic expressions of all the degeneracy solutions for a given true solution. Due to the one-to-one mapping structure the degeneracy solutions are shown to form a network. We extend our analysis into the parameter degeneracy in T- and CPT-conjugate measurement as well as to the setup with the golden and the silver channels, P( ν e → ν μ ) and P( ν e → ν τ ). Some characteristic features of the degeneracy solutions in CP-conjugate measurement, in particular their energy dependences, are illuminated by utilizing the explicit analytic solutions.

  15. A new method to break the mass sheet degeneracy using aperture moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rexroth, Markus; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Kneib, Jean-Paul

    2016-04-01

    Mass determinations from gravitational lensing shear and the higher order estimator flexion are both subject to the mass sheet degeneracy. Mass sheet degeneracy refers to the ambiguity that arises due to the fact that the addition of a constant surface mass density sheet does not alter the lensing observables. We propose a new technique to break the mass sheet degeneracy. The method uses mass moments of the shear or flexion fields in combination with convergence information derived from number counts which exploit the magnification bias. The difference between the measured mass moments provides an estimator for the magnitude of the additive constant that is the mass-sheet. For demonstrating this, we derive relations that hold true in general for n-th order moments and show how they can be employed effectively to break the degeneracy. We investigate the detectability of this degeneracy parameter from our method and find that the degeneracy parameter can be feasibly determined from stacked galaxy-galaxy lensing data and cluster lensing data. Furthermore, we compare the signal-to-noise ratios of convergence information from number counts with shear and flexion for SIS and NFW models. We find that the combination of shear and flexion performs best on galaxy and cluster scales and the convergence information can therefore be used to break the mass sheet degeneracy without quality loss in the mass reconstruction. In summary, there is power in the combination of shear, flexion, convergence and their higher order moments. With the anticipated wealth of lensing data from upcoming and future satellite missions - EUCLID and WFIRST - this technique will be feasible.

  16. Degeneracy in NLP and the development of results motivated by its presence

    SciTech Connect

    Fiacco, A.; Liu, J.

    1994-12-31

    We study notions of nondegeneracy and several levels of increasing degeneracy from the perspective of the local behavior of a local solution of a nonlinear program when problem parameters are slightly perturbed. This overview may be viewed as a structured survey of sensitivity and stability results: the focus is on progressive levels of degeneracy. We note connections of nondegeneracy with the convergence of algorithms and observe the striking parallel between the effects of nondegeneracy and degeneracy on optimality conditions, stability analysis and algorithmic convergence behavior. Although our orientation here is primarily interpretive and noncritical, we conclude that more effort is needed to unify optimality, stability and convergence theory and more results are needed in all three areas for radically degenerate problems.

  17. Split of chiral degeneracy in mechanical and structural properties of oligopeptide-polysaccharide biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Taraban, Marc B; Hyland, Laura L; Yu, Y Bruce

    2013-09-01

    Enantiomeric biomaterials which are mirror images of each other are characterized by chiral degeneracy--identical structural characteristics and bulk material properties. The addition of another chiral component, D-polysaccharide, has been shown to split such degeneracy and result in two distinct biomaterials. Dynamic oscillatory rheometry and small-angle X-ray scattering demonstrate that the natural biochirality combination of L-peptides and D-polysaccharides assembles faster, has higher elastic moduli (G'), and is structurally more beneficial as opposed to the alternative D-peptide and D-polysaccharide combination. Chemical modifications of the OH-groups in α-D-glucose units in D-polysaccharides weaken such splitting of chiral degeneracy. These findings form a basis to design novel biomaterials and provide additional insight on why proteins and polysaccharides have oppoiste chirality in the biological world. PMID:23879188

  18. CP violation effects on the neutrino degeneracy parameters in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gava, Jérôme; Volpe, Cristina

    2010-09-01

    We explore possible CP violating effects, coming from the Dirac phase of the Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata-Pontecorvo matrix, on the neutrino degeneracy parameters, at the epoch of Big-Bang nucleosynthesis. We first demonstrate the conditions under which such effects can arise. In particular it requires that the initial muon and tau neutrino degeneracy parameters ξ differ. Then we solve numerically the kinetic equations for the three flavor neutrino density matrix with the goal of quantifying the impact of the Dirac phase on the electron neutrino degeneracy parameter ξν_e. The calculations include the vacuum term, the coupling to matter, the νν interaction and the collisions. Effects on ξν_e up to almost 1% and on Y of about 0.1% are found, depending on the initial conditions.

  19. Angular-overlap calculation of the Jahn-Teller stabilization energie for f-orbital degeneracies

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, K.D.

    1980-03-01

    The angular-overlap model is applied to the calculation of the linear Jahn-Teller coupling constants for f-orbital degeneracies. The MX/sub 6/, O/sub h/, chromophore is treated as representative of the highest symmetry commonly occurring in the lanthanide and actinide series, and it is shown that, even when spin-orbit effects are taken into account, 5f orbital degeneracies may lead to significant Jahn-Teller stabilization energies. The operation of this effect for F/sup 1/ GAMMA/sub 8/ states is considered. 2 tables.

  20. Spitzer Observations of OGLE-2015-BLG-1212 Reveal a New Path toward Breaking Strong Microlens Degeneracies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozza, V.; Shvartzvald, Y.; Udalski, A.; Calchi Novati, S.; Bond, I. A.; Han, C.; Hundertmark, M.; Poleski, R.; Pawlak, M.; Szymański, M. K.; Skowron, J.; Mróz, P.; Kozłowski, S.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Soszyński, I.; Ulaczyk, K.; OGLE Group; and; Beichman, C.; Bryden, G.; Carey, S.; Fausnaugh, M.; Gaudi, B. S.; Gould, A.; Henderson, C. B.; Pogge, R. W.; Wibking, B.; Yee, J. C.; Zhu, W.; Spitzer Team; Abe, F.; Asakura, Y.; Barry, R. K.; Bennett, D. P.; Bhattacharya, A.; Donachie, M.; Freeman, M.; Fukui, A.; Hirao, Y.; Inayama, K.; Itow, Y.; Koshimoto, N.; Li, M. C. A.; Ling, C. H.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Muraki, Y.; Nagakane, M.; Nishioka, T.; Ohnishi, K.; Oyokawa, H.; Rattenbury, N.; Saito, To.; Sharan, A.; Sullivan, D. J.; Sumi, T.; Suzuki, D.; Tristram, P. J.; Wakiyama, Y.; Yonehara, A.; MOA Group; Choi, J.-Y.; Park, H.; Jung, Y. K.; Shin, I.-G.; Albrow, M. D.; Park, B.-G.; Kim, S.-L.; Lee, C.-U.; Cha, S.-M.; Kim, D.-J.; Lee, Y.; KMTNet Group; Dominik, M.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Andersen, M. I.; Bramich, D. M.; Burgdorf, M. J.; Ciceri, S.; D'Ago, G.; Evans, D. F.; Figuera Jaimes, R.; Gu, S.-H.; Hinse, T. C.; Kains, N.; Kerins, E.; Korhonen, H.; Kuffmeier, M.; Mancini, L.; Popovas, A.; Rabus, M.; Rahvar, S.; Rasmussen, R. T.; Scarpetta, G.; Skottfelt, J.; Snodgrass, C.; Southworth, J.; Surdej, J.; Unda-Sanzana, E.; von Essen, C.; Wang, Y.-B.; Wertz, O.; MiNDSTEp; Maoz, D.; Friedmann, M.; Kaspi, S.; Wise Group

    2016-03-01

    Spitzer microlensing parallax observations of OGLE-2015-BLG-1212 decisively break a degeneracy between planetary and binary solutions that is somewhat ambiguous when only ground-based data are considered. Only eight viable models survive out of an initial set of 32 local minima in the parameter space. These models clearly indicate that the lens is a stellar binary system possibly located within the bulge of our Galaxy, ruling out the planetary alternative. We argue that several types of discrete degeneracies can be broken via such space-based parallax observations.

  1. To leave or not to leave.

    PubMed

    Buchan, James

    2016-06-22

    Lies, damned lies and Brexit statistics. It's not been a good month for anyone espousing evidence-based policy and politics after the chair of the Commons health committee switched from Leave to Remain, citing misuse of data by the Leave campaign. PMID:27332589

  2. Tunable Splitting of the Ground-State Degeneracy in Quasi-One-Dimensional Parafermion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chun; Burnell, F. J.

    2016-03-01

    Systems with topologically protected ground-state degeneracies are currently of great interest due to their potential applications in quantum computing. In practice, this degeneracy is never exact, and the magnitude of the ground-state degeneracy splitting imposes constraints on the time scales over which information is topologically protected. In this Letter, we use an instanton approach to evaluate the splitting of topological ground-state degeneracy in quasi-1D systems with parafermion zero modes, in the specific case where parafermions are realized by inducing a superconducting gap in pairs of fractional quantum Hall edges. We show that, like 1D topological superconducting wires, this splitting has an oscillatory dependence on the chemical potential, which arises from an intrinsic Berry phase that produces interference between distinct instanton tunneling events. These Berry phases can be mapped to chiral phases in a (dual) quantum clock model using a Fradkin-Kadanoff transformation. Comparing our low-energy spectrum to that of phenomenological parafermion models allows us to evaluate the real and imaginary parts of the hopping integral between adjacent parafermionic zero modes as functions of the chemical potential.

  3. Tunable Splitting of the Ground-State Degeneracy in Quasi-One-Dimensional Parafermion Systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun; Burnell, F J

    2016-03-11

    Systems with topologically protected ground-state degeneracies are currently of great interest due to their potential applications in quantum computing. In practice, this degeneracy is never exact, and the magnitude of the ground-state degeneracy splitting imposes constraints on the time scales over which information is topologically protected. In this Letter, we use an instanton approach to evaluate the splitting of topological ground-state degeneracy in quasi-1D systems with parafermion zero modes, in the specific case where parafermions are realized by inducing a superconducting gap in pairs of fractional quantum Hall edges. We show that, like 1D topological superconducting wires, this splitting has an oscillatory dependence on the chemical potential, which arises from an intrinsic Berry phase that produces interference between distinct instanton tunneling events. These Berry phases can be mapped to chiral phases in a (dual) quantum clock model using a Fradkin-Kadanoff transformation. Comparing our low-energy spectrum to that of phenomenological parafermion models allows us to evaluate the real and imaginary parts of the hopping integral between adjacent parafermionic zero modes as functions of the chemical potential. PMID:27015499

  4. Symmetry and Degeneracy in Quantum Mechanics. Self-Duality in Finite Spin Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osacar, C.; Pacheco, A. F.

    2009-01-01

    The symmetry of self-duality (Savit 1980 "Rev. Mod. Phys. 52" 453) of some models of statistical mechanics and quantum field theory is discussed for finite spin blocks of the Ising chain in a transverse magnetic field. The existence of this symmetry in a specific type of these blocks, and not in others, is manifest by the degeneracy of their…

  5. Study Leave in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Arthur

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of statistics since 1994 on the use of study leave as allowed by a 1974 Swedish law indicates that about 1% of the work force takes leave at any time. Women and manual workers benefit more than men and salaried workers. Leave application causes employees few problems with employers but financial assistance is a concern. (Contains 37…

  6. Tuning Spin- and Valley-Degeneracies in Multicomponent Quantum Well Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhu-Gaunkar, Sunanda

    The theme of this thesis is manipulation of spin and valley degeneracies in two-dimensional electron systems (2DES) by locally or globally controlling the energy gaps between the two spin states or multiple valley states. Degeneracies in 2DES can be controlled internally or externally with magnetic, strain, and electrostatic fields. With magneto-transport measurements we can probe these spin and valley energy gaps. Spin degeneracies in quantum wells (QW) can be controlled with magnetic field by changing the tilt angle of the field with respect to the sample. Valley degeneracies can be controlled principally by growing QWs of a certain orientation and width. Furthermore, the valley energies can be controlled externally by applying strain or electrostatic gated devices. We first consider transport signatures of controlled spin degeneracies. Magnetic fields can be used to control spin degeneracies and spin gaps by tuning the tilt angle of the field with respect to the sample plane. These spin dependencies can be observed at different tilt angles by conducting measurements of the longitudinal and Hall resistance. In particular, transport measurements in a Si/SiGe spin-split valley degenerate 2DES demonstrates anomalous rise of the transverse Hall resistance at certain quantized plateaus. With systematic tilted field data we map this anomaly to the longitudinal resistance, and also to directional derivatives of the longitudinal resistance. We also develop a theoretical model for estimating the spin-degenerate and spin-split density of states which we fit using the data on longitudinal resistance. We input the exactly calculated spin gaps at every tilt angle in the edge state model of quantum Hall effect, and we are able to provide a microscopic justification to the experimentally observed anomalous features by introducing a constant energy density of disordered states in our model. We next consider transport signatures of controlled valley degeneracies. Valley

  7. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION Unexpected systematic degeneracy in a system of two coupled Gaudin models with homogeneous couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erbe, B.; Schliemann, J.

    2010-12-01

    We report an unexpected systematic degeneracy between different multiplets in an inversion symmetric system of two coupled Gaudin models with homogeneous couplings, as occurring for example in the context of solid state quantum information processing. We construct the full degenerate subspace (being of macroscopic dimension), which turns out to lie in the kernel of the commutator between the two Gaudin models and the coupling term. Finally we investigate to what extent the degeneracy is related to the inversion symmetry of the system and find that indeed there is a large class of systems showing the same type of degeneracy.

  8. Exceptional point and degeneracy of the neutral Higgs boson system H-A

    SciTech Connect

    Felix-Beltran, O.; Gomez-Bock, M.; Hernandez, E.; Mondragon, A.; Mondragon, M.

    2009-04-20

    We analyze the masses and mixings of the isolated neutral and heavy Higgs fields H and A of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) with CP violation, which have opposite CP parities and nearly degenerate masses. At the degeneracy point, the hypersurfaces that represent the physical masses as functions of the system parameters have a rank one algebraic branch point, and the real and imaginary parts have branch cuts, both starting at the same exceptional point but extending in opposite directions in parameter space. Associated with this singularity, the propagator for the mixed neutral Higgs system H-A has a double pole in the non-physical sheet of the squared energy complex plane s. The continuity of the transition amplitude matrix at the exact degeneracy of the masses is examined.

  9. Afferent hyperexcitability in neuropathic pain and the inconvenient truth about its degeneracy.

    PubMed

    Ratté, Stéphanie; Prescott, Steven A

    2016-02-01

    Neuropathic pain, which arises from damage to the nervous system, is a major unmet clinical challenge. Reversing the neuronal hyperexcitability induced by nerve damage is a logical treatment strategy but has proven frustratingly difficult. Here, we propose a novel explanation for that difficulty. Changes in several different ion channels are individually sufficient to cause hyperexcitability in primary somatosensory neurons. Despite offering multiple drug targets, this scenario is problematic: if multiple sufficient changes are triggered by nerve injury, then no single change is necessary for hyperexcitability. This so-called degeneracy compromises therapeutic interventions because drug effects on any one ion channel can be circumvented by changes occurring in other ion channels. Overcoming degeneracy demands a more integrative approach to drug discovery. PMID:26363576

  10. Split of Chiral Degeneracy in Mechanical and Structural Properties of Oligopeptide-Polysaccharide Biomaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Taraban, Marc B.; Hyland, Laura L.; Yu, Y. Bruce

    2013-09-23

    Enantiomeric biomaterials which are mirror images of each other are characterized by chiral degeneracy—identical structural characteristics and bulk material properties. The addition of another chiral component, d-polysaccharide, has been shown to split such degeneracy and result in two distinct biomaterials. Dynamic oscillatory rheometry and small-angle X-ray scattering demonstrate that the natural biochirality combination of l-peptides and d-polysaccharides assembles faster, has higher elastic moduli (G'), and is structurally more beneficial as opposed to the alternative d-peptide and d-polysaccharide combination. Chemical modifications of the OH-groups in α-d-glucose units in d-polysaccharides weaken such splitting of chiral degeneracy. These findings form a basis to design novel biomaterials and provide additional insight on why proteins and polysaccharides have oppoiste chirality in the biological world.

  11. More about the doubling degeneracy operators associated with Majorana fermions and Yang-Baxter equation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Li-Wei; Ge, Mo-Lin

    2015-01-01

    A new realization of doubling degeneracy based on emergent Majorana operator Γ presented by Lee-Wilczek has been made. The Hamiltonian can be obtained through the new type of solution of Yang-Baxter equation, i.e. -matrix. For 2-body interaction, gives the “superconducting” chain that is the same as 1D Kitaev chain model. The 3-body Hamiltonian commuting with Γ is derived by 3-body -matrix, we thus show that the essence of the doubling degeneracy is due to . We also show that the extended Γ′-operator is an invariant of braid group BN for odd N. Moreover, with the extended Γ′-operator, we construct the high dimensional matrix representation of solution to Yang-Baxter equation and find its application in constructing 2N-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state for odd N. PMID:25631987

  12. Approximate degeneracy of heavy-light mesons with the same L

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuki, Takayuki; Lü, Qi-Fang; Dong, Yubing; Morii, Toshiyuki

    2016-07-01

    Careful observation of the experimental spectra of heavy-light mesons tells us that heavy-light mesons with the same angular momentum L are almost degenerate. The estimate is given how much this degeneracy is broken in our relativistic potential model, and it is analytically shown that expectation values of a commutator between the lowest order Hamiltonian and L→2 are of the order of 1 /mQ with a heavy quark mass mQ. It turns out that nonrelativistic approximation of heavy quark system has a rotational symmetry and hence degeneracy among states with the same L. This feature can be tested by measuring higher orbitally and radially excited heavy-light meson spectra for D /Ds / B /Bs in LHCb and forthcoming BelleII.

  13. SPIN-PRECESSION: BREAKING THE BLACK HOLE-NEUTRON STAR DEGENERACY

    SciTech Connect

    Chatziioannou, Katerina; Cornish, Neil; Klein, Antoine; Yunes, Nicolás

    2015-01-01

    Mergers of compact stellar remnants are prime targets for the LIGO/Virgo gravitational wave detectors. The gravitational wave signals from these merger events can be used to study the mass and spin distribution of stellar remnants, and provide information about black hole horizons and the material properties of neutron stars. However, it has been suggested that degeneracies in the way that the star's mass and spin are imprinted in the waveforms may make it impossible to distinguish between black holes and neutron stars. Here we show that the precession of the orbital plane due to spin-orbit coupling breaks the mass-spin degeneracy, and allows us to distinguish between standard neutron stars and alternative possibilities, such as black holes or exotic neutron stars with large masses and spins.

  14. Line Degeneracy and Strong Spin-Orbit Coupling of Light with Bulk Bianisotropic Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qinghua; Gao, Wenlong; Chen, Jing; Liu, Yongmin; Zhang, Shuang

    2015-08-01

    Propagation of light in a medium is dictated by equifrequency surfaces (EFSs), which play a similar role as Fermi surfaces for electrons in crystals. Engineering the equifrequency surface of light through structuring a photonic medium enables superior control over light propagation that goes beyond natural materials. In this Letter, we show that a bulk metamaterial with a suitably designed bianisotropy can exhibit line degeneracy in its EFSs that consist of two ellipsoids of opposite helicity states intersecting with each other. Very interestingly, light propagating along the direction of the line degeneracy experiences strong spin-dependent photon deflection, or optical spin Hall effect, which may lead to applications in optical signal processing and spin-optical manipulations. We provide a realistic metamaterial design to show that the required bianisotropy can be readily obtained. PMID:26296131

  15. Split of Chiral Degeneracy in Mechanical and Structural Properties of Oligopeptide-Polysaccharide Biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Taraban, Marc B.; Hyland, Laura L.; Yu, Y. Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Enantiomeric biomaterials which are mirror images of each other are characterized by chiral degeneracy—identical structural characteristics and bulk material properties. The addition of another chiral component, D-polysaccharide, has been shown to split such degeneracy and result in two distinct biomaterials. Dynamic oscillatory rheometry and small-angle X-ray scattering demonstrate that the natural biochirality combination of L-peptides and D-polysaccharides assembles faster, has higher elastic moduli (G′), and is structurally more beneficial as opposed to D-peptide and D-polysaccharide combination. Chemical modifications of the OH-groups in α-D-glucose units in D-polysaccharides weaken such splitting of chiral degeneracy. All these findings form a basis to design the approaches to novel biomaterials and provide additional insight on the opposite chirality of proteins and polysaccharides in biological world. PMID:23879188

  16. Effect of valley degeneracy on spin susceptibility of a two-dimensional quantum electron liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Krishan Singh, Gurvinder; Moudgil, R. K.

    2014-04-24

    We investigate theoretically the effect of valley degeneracy on the spin susceptibility of a two-dimensional quantum electron liquid by determining the spin-polarization dependence of the ground-state energy within the selfconsistent mean-field approximation of Singwi et al. Specifically, we have studied a two valley system as realized in the Si (100) inversion layer. In qualitative agreement with the recent quantum Monte Carlo study by Marchi et al., we find that the valley degeneracy results in suppression of spin susceptibility over the single valley case. However, the quality of agreement diminishes with increasing value of the coupling parameter r{sub s}. This indicates the limitation of mean-field theory to deal with the exchange-correlation effects in the strong coupling region. But, our results show considerable improvement over the random-phase approximation which ignores these correlations completely.

  17. Dodging the dark matter degeneracy while determining the dynamics of dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busti, Vinicius C.; Clarkson, Chris

    2016-05-01

    One of the key issues in cosmology is to establish the nature of dark energy, and to determine whether the equation of state evolves with time. When estimating this from distance measurements there is a degeneracy with the matter density. We show that there exists a simple function of the dark energy equation of state and its first derivative which is independent of this degeneracy at all redshifts, and so is a much more robust determinant of the evolution of dark energy than just its derivative. We show that this function can be well determined at low redshift from supernovae using Gaussian Processes, and that this method is far superior to a variety of parameterisations which are also subject to priors on the matter density. This shows that parametrised models give very biased constraints on the evolution of dark energy.

  18. Numerical characterization of DNA sequences in a 2-D graphical representation scheme of low degeneracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaofeng; Nandy, Ashesh

    2003-02-01

    Some 2-D and 3-D graphical representations of DNA sequences have been given by Gate, Nandy, Leong, Randic, and Guo et al. Based on 2-D graphical representation of DNA sequences, Raychaudhury and Nandy introduced the first-order moments of the x and y coordinates and the radius of the plot of a DNA sequence for indexing scheme and similarity measures of DNA sequences. In this Letter, based on Guo's novel 2-D graphical representation of DNA sequences of low degeneracy, we introduce the improved first-order moments of the x and y coordinates and the radius of DNA sequences, and the distance of two DNA sequences. The new descriptors of DNA sequences give a good numerical characterization of DNA sequences, which have lower degeneracy.

  19. Macroscopic degeneracy and order in the 3D plaquette Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Desmond A.; Mueller, Marco; Janke, Wolfhard

    2015-07-01

    The purely plaquette 3D Ising Hamiltonian with the spins living at the vertices of a cubic lattice displays several interesting features. The symmetries of the model lead to a macroscopic degeneracy of the low-temperature phase and prevent the definition of a standard magnetic order parameter. Consideration of the strongly anisotropic limit of the model suggests that a layered, “fuki-nuke” order still exists and we confirm this with multi-canonical simulations. The macroscopic degeneracy of the low-temperature phase also changes the finite-size scaling corrections at the first-order transition in the model and we see this must be taken into account when analyzing our measurements.

  20. Lifting of the Landau level degeneracy in graphene devices in a tilted magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiappini, F.; Wiedmann, S.; Novoselov, K.; Mishchenko, A.; Geim, A. K.; Maan, J. C.; Zeitler, U.

    2015-11-01

    We report on transport and capacitance measurements of graphene devices in magnetic fields up to 30 T. In both techniques, we observe the full splitting of Landau levels and we employ tilted field experiments to address the origin of the observed broken symmetry states. In the lowest energy level, the spin degeneracy is removed at filling factors ν =±1 and we observe an enhanced energy gap. In the higher levels, the valley degeneracy is removed at odd filling factors while spin polarized states are formed at even ν . Although the observation of odd filling factors in the higher levels points towards the spontaneous origin of the splitting, we find that the main contribution to the gap at ν =-4 ,-8 , and -12 is due to the Zeeman energy.

  1. Interaction of characteristic waves in a plasma in the case of triple degeneracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viatkin, V. M.; Novikov, V. V.

    1989-06-01

    The paper investigates waves transformation in an inhomogeneous magnetoplasma in regions where the three roots of the Booker quartic are equal. It is shown that an extraordinary wave incident on the interaction region splits into an ordinary wave and an extraordinary wave traveling in the same direction and a reflected ordinary wave. An ordinary wave incident on the triple-degeneracy point is completely transformed into an extraordinary wave.

  2. Degeneracy between primordial tensor modes and cosmic strings in future CMB data from the Planck satellite

    SciTech Connect

    Urrestilla, Jon; Mukherjee, Pia; Liddle, Andrew R.; Hindmarsh, Mark; Kunz, Martin; Bevis, Neil

    2008-06-15

    While observations indicate that the predominant source of cosmic inhomogeneities are adiabatic perturbations, there are a variety of candidates to provide auxiliary trace effects, including inflation-generated primordial tensors and cosmic defects which both produce B-mode cosmic microwave background polarization. We investigate whether future experiments may suffer confusion as to the true origin of such effects, focusing on the ability of Planck to distinguish tensors from cosmic strings, and show that there is no significant degeneracy.

  3. Red queen dynamics and the evolution of translational redundancy and degeneracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krakauer, David C.; Jansen, Vincent A. A.; Nowak, Martin

    We explore adaptive theories for the diversity of protein translation based on the genetic code viewed as a primitive immune system. Immunity is acquired through a genetic mechanism of non-recognition of parasite genomes. Modifying the set of codons bound by tRNA anticodon molecules or changing the specificity of binding, reduces the replication rate of translational parasites such as viruses. Changing the binding specifity can be thought of in terms of varying degrees of redundancy an d degeneracy. Redundancy in the genetic code is commonly attributed to using a four base triplet mechanism to encode the 20 amino acids. This has been referred to as synonym redundancy. There are however at least a further two forms of redundancy associated with the code and one source of degeneracy. A first form of redundancy arises from decoding all 61 possible sense codons using fewer than 61 anticodons. Such a strategy involves reduced binding specificity. A second source of redundancy is present in the multiplicity of copies of each unique tRNA (tRNA copy redundancy). Degeneracy arises when different anticodons become associated with a single amino acid to increase specificity. Variation in these strategies across taxa ensures that the translational machinery is diverse whereas the code remains approximately constant. We construct a red queen theory for translational diversity: a theory in which host translational strategies - as defined by the degree of redundancy or degeneracy of anticodons - are const antly shifting through time to evade parasitism but where neither parasite nor host gains a systematic advantage.

  4. Halogenated benzene radical cations and ground state degeneracy splitting by asymmetric substitution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bondybey, V.E.; Vaughn, C.R.; Miller, T.A.; English, J.H.; Shiley, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    The absorption and laser induced fluorescence of several halogenated benzene radical cations were studied in solid Ne matrices. The spectra of 1,2,4-trifluorobenzene, l,3-dichloro-5-fluorobenzene, and l-chloro-3,5- difluorobenzene radical cations are observed and analyzed. Studies of fluorescence polarization and a photoselection technique were used to examine the splitting of the degeneracy of the benzene cation ground state by asymmetric subsitution. ?? 1981 American Institute of Physics.

  5. Single-centered black hole microstate degeneracies from instantons in supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, Sameer; Reys, Valentin

    2016-04-01

    We obtain holographic constraints on the microscopic degeneracies of black holes by computing the exact macroscopic quantum entropy using localization, including the effects of string worldsheet instantons in the supergravity effective action. For 1/4 -BPS black holes in type II string theory on K3 × T 2, the constraints can be explicitly checked against expressions for the microscopic BPS counting functions that are known in terms of certain mock modular forms. We find that the effect of including the infinite sum over instantons in the holomorphic prepotential of the supergravity leads to a sum over Bessel functions with successively sub-leading arguments as in the Rademacher expansion of Jacobi forms — but begins to disagree with such a structure near an order where the mock modular nature becomes relevant. This leads to a systematic method to recover the polar terms of the microscopic degeneracies from the degeneracy of instantons (the Gromov-Witten invariants). We check explicitly that our formula agrees with the known microscopic answer for the first seven values of the magnetic charge invariant.

  6. Problematising Early School Leaving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Alistair; Leathwood, Carole

    2013-01-01

    Early school leaving has been identified as a key policy priority across Europe. In this article, we critically discuss the underpinning assumptions and rationale for this policy focus, challenging the association that is made between early school leaving, economic growth and employment. We suggest that ESL is important, not because it is…

  7. Delineation of a recognizable phenotype for the recurrent LCR22-C to D/E atypical 22q11.2 deletion.

    PubMed

    Bengoa-Alonso, Amaya; Artigas-López, Mercè; Moreno-Igoa, María; Cattalli, Claudio; Hernández-Charro, Blanca; Ramos-Arroyo, Maria Antonia

    2016-06-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is typically caused by haploinsufficiency of a 3 Mb region that extends from LCR22-A until LCR22-D, while the recurrent recombination between any of the LCR22-D to H causes the 22q11.2 distal deletion syndrome. Here, we describe three patients with a de novo atypical ∼1.4 Mb 22q11.2 deletion that involves LCR22-C to a region beyond D (LCR22-C to D/E), encompassing the distal portion of the typical deleted region and the proximal portion of the distal deletion. We also review six previous published patients with the same rearrangement and compare their features with those found in patients with overlapping deletions. Patients with LCR22-C to D/E deletion present a recognizable phenotype characterized by facial dysmorphic features, high frequency of cardiac defects, including conotruncal defects, prematurity, growth restriction, microcephaly, and mild developmental delay. Genotype-phenotype analysis of the patients indicates that CRKL and MAPK1 genes play an important role as causative factors for the main clinical features of the syndrome. In particular, CRKL gene seems to be involved in the occurrence of conotruncal cardiac anomalies, mainly tetralogy of Fallot. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26991864

  8. QR-on-a-chip: a computer-recognizable micro-pattern engraved microfluidic device for high-throughput image acquisition.

    PubMed

    Yun, Kyungwon; Lee, Hyunjae; Bang, Hyunwoo; Jeon, Noo Li

    2016-02-21

    This study proposes a novel way to achieve high-throughput image acquisition based on a computer-recognizable micro-pattern implemented on a microfluidic device. We integrated the QR code, a two-dimensional barcode system, onto the microfluidic device to simplify imaging of multiple ROIs (regions of interest). A standard QR code pattern was modified to arrays of cylindrical structures of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Utilizing the recognition of the micro-pattern, the proposed system enables: (1) device identification, which allows referencing additional information of the device, such as device imaging sequences or the ROIs and (2) composing a coordinate system for an arbitrarily located microfluidic device with respect to the stage. Based on these functionalities, the proposed method performs one-step high-throughput imaging for data acquisition in microfluidic devices without further manual exploration and locating of the desired ROIs. In our experience, the proposed method significantly reduced the time for the preparation of an acquisition. We expect that the method will innovatively improve the prototype device data acquisition and analysis. PMID:26728124

  9. Eccentricity Inferences in Multi-planet systems with Transit Timing: Degeneracies and Apsidal Alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jontof-Hutter, Daniel; Van Laerhoven, Christa L.; Ford, Eric B.

    2016-05-01

    Hundreds of multi-transiting systems discovered by the Kepler mission show Transit Timing Variations (TTV). In cases where the TTVs are uniquely attributable to transiting planets, the TTVs enable precise measurements of planetary masses and orbital parameters. Of particular interest are the constraints on eccentricity vectors that can be inferred in systems of low-mass exoplanets.The TTVs in these systems are dominated by a signal caused by near-resonant mean motions. This causes the well-known near-degeneracy between planetary masses and orbital eccentricities. In addition, it causes a degeneracy between the eccentricities of interacting planet pairs.For many systems, the magnitude of individual eccentricities are weakly constrained, yet the data typically provide a tight constraint on the posterior joint distribution for the eccentricity vector components. This permits tight constraints on the relative eccentricity and degree of alignment of interacting planets.For a sample of two and three-planet systems with TTVs, we highlight the effects of these correlations. While the most eccentric orbital solutions for these systems show apsidal alignment, this is often due to the degeneracy that causes correlated constraints on the eccentricity vector components. We compare the likelihood of apsidal alignment for two choices of eccentricity prior: a wide prior using a Rayleigh distribution of scale length 0.1 and a narrower prior with scale length 0.02. In all cases the narrower prior decreased the fraction of samples that exhibited apsidal alignment. However, apsidal alignment persisted in the majority of cases with a narrower eccentricity prior. For a sample of our TTV solutions, we ran simulations of these systems over secular timescales, and decomposed their eccentricity eigenmodes over time, confirming that in most cases, the eccentricities were dominated by parallel eigenmodes which favor apsidal alignment.

  10. Internal parity symmetry and degeneracy of Bethe Ansatz strings in the isotropic heptagonal magnetic ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milewski, J.; Lulek, B.; Lulek, T.; Łabuz, M.; Stagraczyński, R.

    2014-02-01

    The exact Bethe eigenfunctions for the heptagonal ring within the isotropic XXX model exhibit a doubly degenerated energy level in the three-deviation sector at the centre of the Brillouin zone. We demonstrate an explicit construction of these eigenfunctions by use of algebraic Bethe Ansatz, and point out a relation of degeneracy to parity conservation, applied to the configuration of strings for these eigenfunctions. Namely, the internal structure of the eigenfunctions (the 2-string and the 1-string, with opposite quasimomenta) admits generation of two mutually orthogonal eigenfunctions due to the fact that the strings which differ by their length are distinguishable objects.

  11. Elimination of depth degeneracy in optical frequency-domain imaging through polarization-based optical demodulation.

    PubMed

    Vakoc, B J; Yun, S H; Tearney, G J; Bouma, B E

    2006-02-01

    A novel optical frequency-domain imaging system is demonstrated that employs a passive optical demodulation circuit and a chirped digital acquisition clock derived from a voltage-controlled oscillator. The demodulation circuit allows the separation of signals from positive and negative depths to better than 50 dB, thereby eliminating depth degeneracy and doubling the imaging depth range. Our system design is compatible with dual-balanced and polarization-diverse detection, important techniques in the practical biomedical application of optical frequency-domain imaging. PMID:16480209

  12. Cluster-Void Degeneracy Breaking: Dark Energy, Planck, and the Largest Cluster and Void

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahlén, Martin; Zubeldía, Íñigo; Silk, Joseph

    2016-03-01

    Combining galaxy cluster and void abundances breaks the degeneracy between mean matter density {{{Ω }}}{{m}} and power-spectrum normalization {σ }8. For the first time for voids, we constrain {{{Ω }}}{{m}}=0.21+/- 0.10 and {σ }8=0.95+/- 0.21 for a flat Λ CDM universe, using extreme-value statistics on the claimed largest cluster and void. The Planck-consistent results detect dark energy with two objects, independently of other dark energy probes. Cluster-void studies are also complementary in scale, density, and nonlinearity, and are of particular interest for testing modified-gravity models.

  13. A novel 2-D graphical representation of DNA sequences of low degeneracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaofeng; Randic, Milan; Basak, Subhash C.

    2001-12-01

    Some 2-D and 3-D graphical representations of DNA sequences have been given by Nandy, Leong and Mogenthaler, and Randic et al., which give visual characterizations of DNA sequences. In this Letter, we introduce a novel graphical representation of DNA sequences by taking four special vectors in 2-D space to represent the four nucleic acid bases in DNA sequences, so that a DNA sequence is denoted on a plane by a successive vector sequence, which is also a directed walk on the plane. It is showed that the novel graphical representation of DNA sequences has lower degeneracy and less overlapping.

  14. Falling for Clay Leaves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, Christine

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art project that integrated science and art education. Explains that students create ceramic bowls by using real leaves. Discusses the process of creating the ceramic bowls, including how to glaze the bowls. Includes a list of materials. (CMK)

  15. Proton stopping using a full conserving dielectric function in plasmas at any degeneracy

    SciTech Connect

    Barriga-Carrasco, Manuel D.

    2010-10-15

    In this work, we present a dielectric function including the three conservation laws (density, momentum and energy) when we take into account electron-electron collisions in a plasma at any degeneracy. This full conserving dielectric function (FCDF) reproduces the random phase approximation (RPA) and Mermin ones, which confirms this outcome. The FCDF is applied to the determination of the proton stopping power. Differences among diverse dielectric functions in the proton stopping calculation are minimal if the plasma electron collision frequency is not high enough. These discrepancies can rise up to 2% between RPA values and the FCDF ones, and to 8% between the Mermin ones and FCDF ones. The similarity between RPA and FCDF results is not surprising, as all conservation laws are also considered in RPA dielectric function. Even for plasmas with low collision frequencies, those discrepancies follow the same behavior as for plasmas with higher frequencies. Then, discrepancies do not depend on the plasma degeneracy but essentially do on the value of the plasma collision frequency.

  16. Resolving the degeneracy in single Higgs production with Higgs pair production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Qing-Hong; Yan, Bin; Zhang, Dong-Ming; Zhang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The Higgs boson production can be affected by several anomalous couplings, e.g. ct and cg anomalous couplings. Precise measurement of gg → h production yields two degenerate parameter spaces of ct and cg; one parameter space exhibits the SM limit while the other does not. Such a degeneracy could be resolved by Higgs boson pair production. In this work we adapt the strategy suggested by the ATLAS collaboration to explore the potential of distinguishing the degeneracy at the 14 TeV LHC. If the ct anomalous coupling is induced only by the operator H† HQbarL H ˜ tR, then the non-SM-like band could be excluded with an integrated luminosity of ˜ 210 fb-1. Making use of the fact that the Higgs boson pair is mainly produced through an s-wave scattering, we propose an analytical function to describe the fraction of signal events surviving a series of experimental cuts for a given invariant mass of Higgs boson pair. The function is model independent and can be applied to estimate the discovery potential of various NP models.

  17. Quantum degeneracy effect on the work output from a Stirling cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saygin, Hasan; Şişman, Altuǧ

    2001-09-01

    The effect of quantum degeneracy on the work output from a Stirling cycle working at quantum degeneracy conditions (QDCs) is analyzed. Expressions for net work outputs of Stirling power cycles working with monatomic ideal Bose and Fermi gases are derived by using the quantum ideal gas equation of state. Ratios of net work outputs of Stirling cycles working with Bose and Fermi gases to the net work output of a classical Stirling cycle (RWB and RWF, respectively) are obtained. Variations of RWB and RWF with TH are examined for a given temperature ratio (τ=TL/TH) and a specific volume ratio (rν=νH/νL). At QDC, it is seen that RWB has a maximum value, which is greater than unity. On the other hand, there is no maximum or minimum point for RWF and RWF⩽1 for any values of TH. Consequently, the use of Bose gas as a working fluid in a Stirling cycle provides an advantage since it causes the net work output per cycle to increase by consuming more heat energy. This fact is seen to be in the opposite direction for a Stirling cycle working with Fermi gas.

  18. Gutzwiller approach to the Anderson lattice model with no orbital degeneracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vulović, Vladimir Z.; Abrahams, Elihu

    1987-08-01

    A new technique is used to obtain the Gutzwiller ground-state energy functional for the Anderson lattice model with no orbital degeneracy (ALM). For the Hubbard model, known expressions are derived with ease and simplicity. For the ALM, we derive the ground-state energy functional of Varma, Weber, and Randall. As a check on our Gutzwiller functional, we find an independent analytical upper bound for the ground-state energy of ALM with a dispersionless f band. For the case of a dispersionless f band and momentum-independent hybridization, in the Kondo regime, we derive analytical expressions for the ground-state energy, charge, and magnetic susceptibilities. For the special case of infinite Coulomb repulsion, we recover results of Rice and Ueda and of Fazekas and Brandow, notably the negative value of the magnetic susceptibility. The negative magnetic susceptibility persists in the entire Kondo region, i.e., finite-U effects do not stabilize the nonmagnetic Kondo state. This suggests that nonzero orbital degeneracy in the Anderson lattice model must be retained to describe heavy-fermion materials with a normal Fermi liquid ground state.

  19. Unhappy vertices in artificial spin ice: new degeneracies from vertex frustration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Muir J.; Nelson, Tammie R.; Nisoli, Cristiano

    2013-04-01

    In 1935, Pauling estimated the residual entropy of water ice with remarkable accuracy by considering the degeneracy of the ice rule solely at the vertex level. Indeed, his estimate works well for both the three-dimensional pyrochlore lattice and the two-dimensional six-vertex model, solved by Lieb in 1967. A similar estimate can be done for the honeycomb artificial spin. Indeed, its pseudo-ice rule, like the ice rule in Pauling and Lieb's systems, simply extends to the global ground state a degeneracy which is already present in the vertices. Unfortunately, the anisotropy of the magnetic interaction limits the design of inherently degenerate vertices in artificial spin ice, and the honeycomb is the only degenerate array produced so far. In this paper we show how to engineer artificial spin ice in a virtually infinite variety of degenerate geometries built out of non-degenerate vertices. In this new class of vertex models, the residual entropy follows not from a freedom of choice at the vertex level, but from the nontrivial relative arrangement of the vertices themselves. In such arrays not all of the vertices can be chosen in their lowest energy configuration. They are therefore vertex-frustrated and contain unhappy vertices. This can lead to residual entropy and to a variety of exotic states, such as sliding phases, smectic phases and emerging chirality. These new geometries will finally allow for the fabrication of many novel, extensively degenerate versions of artificial spin ice.

  20. On the Degeneracies of the Mass-Squared Differences for Three-Neutrino Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latimer, D. C.; Ernst, D. J.

    Using an algebraic formulation, we explore two well-known degeneracies involving the mass-squared differences for three-neutrino oscillations assuming CP symmetry is conserved. For vacuum oscillation, we derive the expression for the mixing angles that permit invariance under the interchange of two mass-squared differences. This symmetry is most easily expressed in terms of an ascending mass order. This can be used to reduce the parameter space by one half in the absence of the MSW effect. For oscillations in matter, we derive within our formalism the known approximate degeneracy between the standard and inverted mass hierarchies in the limit of vanishing θ13. This is done with a mass ordering that permits the map Δ31↦-Δ31. Our techniques allow us to translate mixing angles in this mass order convention into their values for the ascending order convention. Using this dictionary, we demonstrate that the vacuum symmetry and the approximate symmetry invoked for oscillations in matter are distinctly different.

  1. Kagami-Ogata syndrome: a clinically recognizable upd(14)pat and related disorder affecting the chromosome 14q32.2 imprinted region.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Tsutomu; Kagami, Masayo

    2016-02-01

    Human chromosome 14q32.2 carries paternally expressed genes including DLK1 and RTL1, and maternally expressed genes including MEG3 and RTL1as, along with the germline-derived DLK1-MEG3 intergenic differentially methylated region (IG-DMR) and the postfertilization-derived MEG3-DMR. Consistent with this, paternal uniparental disomy 14 (upd(14)pat), and epimutations (hypermethylations) and microdeletions affecting the IG-DMR and/or the MEG3-DMR of maternal origin, result in a unique phenotype associated with characteristic face, a small bell-shaped thorax with coat-hanger appearance of the ribs, abdominal wall defects, placentomegaly and polyhydramnios. Recently, the name 'Kagami-Ogata syndrome' (KOS) has been approved for this clinically recognizable disorder. Here, we review the current knowledge about KOS. Important findings include the following: (1) the facial 'gestalt' and the increased coat-hanger angle constitute pathognomonic features from infancy through childhood/puberty; (2) the unmethylated IG-DMR and MEG3-DMR of maternal origin function as the imprinting control centers in the placenta and body respectively, with a hierarchical interaction regulated by the IG-DMR for the methylation pattern of the MEG3-DMR in the body; (3) RTL1 expression level becomes ~2.5 times increased in the absence of functional RTL1as-encoded microRNAs that act as a trans-acting repressor for RTL1; (4) excessive RTL1 expression and absent MEG expression constitute the primary underlying factor for the phenotypic development; and (5) upd(14)pat accounts for approximately two-thirds of KOS patients, and epimutations and microdeletions are identified with a similar frequency. Furthermore, we refer to diagnostic and therapeutic implications. PMID:26377239

  2. Kagami–Ogata syndrome: a clinically recognizable upd(14)pat and related disorder affecting the chromosome 14q32.2 imprinted region

    PubMed Central

    Ogata, Tsutomu; Kagami, Masayo

    2016-01-01

    Human chromosome 14q32.2 carries paternally expressed genes including DLK1 and RTL1, and maternally expressed genes including MEG3 and RTL1as, along with the germline-derived DLK1-MEG3 intergenic differentially methylated region (IG-DMR) and the postfertilization-derived MEG3-DMR. Consistent with this, paternal uniparental disomy 14 (upd(14)pat), and epimutations (hypermethylations) and microdeletions affecting the IG-DMR and/or the MEG3-DMR of maternal origin, result in a unique phenotype associated with characteristic face, a small bell-shaped thorax with coat-hanger appearance of the ribs, abdominal wall defects, placentomegaly and polyhydramnios. Recently, the name ‘Kagami–Ogata syndrome' (KOS) has been approved for this clinically recognizable disorder. Here, we review the current knowledge about KOS. Important findings include the following: (1) the facial ‘gestalt' and the increased coat-hanger angle constitute pathognomonic features from infancy through childhood/puberty; (2) the unmethylated IG-DMR and MEG3-DMR of maternal origin function as the imprinting control centers in the placenta and body respectively, with a hierarchical interaction regulated by the IG-DMR for the methylation pattern of the MEG3-DMR in the body; (3) RTL1 expression level becomes ~2.5 times increased in the absence of functional RTL1as-encoded microRNAs that act as a trans-acting repressor for RTL1; (4) excessive RTL1 expression and absent MEG expression constitute the primary underlying factor for the phenotypic development; and (5) upd(14)pat accounts for approximately two-thirds of KOS patients, and epimutations and microdeletions are identified with a similar frequency. Furthermore, we refer to diagnostic and therapeutic implications. PMID:26377239

  3. Conformal symmetry breaking and degeneracy of high-lying unflavored mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchbach, Mariana; Pallares-Rivera, Adrian; Compean, Cliffor; Raya, Alfredo

    2012-08-01

    We show that though conformal symmetry can be broken by the dilaton, such can happen without breaking the conformal degeneracy patterns in the spectra. Our argumentation goes as follows: We departure from the gauge-gravity duality which predicts on the boundaries of the AdS5 geometry a conformal theory, associated with QCD at high temperatures, and consider S1 × S3 slicing. The inverse radius, R, of S3 relates to the temperature of the deconfinement phase transition and has to satisfy, hslashc/R gg ΛQCD. On S3, whose isometry group is SO(4), we then focus on the eigenvalue problem of the conformal Laplacian there, given by , with standing for the Casimir invariant of the so(4) algebra. This eigenvalue problem describes the spectrum of a scalar particle, to be associated with a qbar q system. Such a spectrum is characterized by a (K + l)2-fold degeneracy of its levels, with K in [0, ∞). We then break the conformal S3 metric, ds2 = dχ2 + sin2 χ(dθ2 + sin2θdvarphi2) -in polar chi,θ, and azimuthal varphi coordinates- according to, ds~2 = e-bχ((1 + b2/4)dχ2 + sin2 chi(dθ2 + sin2θdvarphi2)), and attribute the symmetry breaking scale bhslash2c2/R2 to the dilaton. Next we show that the above metric deformation is equivalent to a breaking of the conformal curvature of S3 by a term proportional to b cot χ, and that the perturbed conformal Laplacian is equivalent to , with cκ a representation constant, and being again an so(4) Casimir invariant, but this time in a representation unitarily nonequivalent to the 4D rotational one. As long as the spectra before and after the symmetry breaking happen to be determined each by eigenvalues of a Casimir invariant of an so(4), no matter whether or not in a representation that generates the orthogonal group SO(4) as a subgroup of the conformal group SO(2,4), the degeneracy patterns remain unaltered though the conformal symmetry breaks at the level of the representation of the algebra. We fit the S3 radius and the hslash2c

  4. Hyperspherical theory of the quantum Hall effect: The role of exceptional degeneracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daily, K. M.; Wooten, R. E.; Greene, Chris H.

    2015-09-01

    By separating the Schrödinger equation for N noninteracting spin-polarized fermions in two-dimensional hyperspherical coordinates, we demonstrate that fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states emerge naturally from degeneracy patterns of the antisymmetric free-particle eigenfunctions. In the presence of Coulomb interactions, the FQH states split off from a degenerate manifold and become observable as distinct quantized energy eigenstates with an energy gap. This alternative classification scheme is based on an approximate separability of the interacting N -fermion Schrödinger equation in the hyperradial coordinate, which sheds light on the emergence of Laughlin states as well as other FQH states. An approximate good collective quantum number, the grand angular momentum K from K -harmonic few-body theory, is shown to correlate with known FQH states at many filling factors observed experimentally.

  5. Degeneracy of Majorana bound states and fractional Josephson effect in a dirty SNS junction.

    PubMed

    Ikegaya, S; Asano, Y

    2016-09-21

    We theoretically study the stability of more than one Majorana fermion appearing in a p-wave superconductor/dirty normal metal/p-wave superconductor junction in two-dimensions by using the chiral symmetry of a Hamiltonian. At the phase difference across the junction φ being π, we will show that all of the Majorana bound states in the normal metal belong to the same chirality. Due to this pure chiral feature, the Majorana bound states retain their high degree of degeneracy at zero energy even in the presence of a random potential. As a consequence, the resonant transmission of a Cooper pair via the degenerate Majorana bound states carries the Josephson current at [Formula: see text], which explains the fractional current-phase relationship discussed in a number of previous papers. PMID:27420174

  6. Degeneracies and exotic phases in an isotropic frustrated spin-1/2 chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parvej, Aslam; Kumar, Manoranjan

    2016-03-01

    In the presence of an axial magnetic field, a frustrated isotropic J1 - J2 model system shows many exotic phases, such as vector chiral and multipolar phases. In this paper, the phase boundaries of these exotic phases are calculated based on the order parameters, energy level crossings and magnetization jumps in the system. The order parameter of the vector chiral phase is calculated using the broken symmetry states at a finite magnetic field. The exact diagonalization and the density matrix renormalization group results are used to show that the vector chiral phase exists only in a narrow range of J2/J1 parameter space. In the quadrupolar phase, the magnetization jumps can be associated with the binding energy of two magnons localized at two different legs of the zigzag chain. The energy level crossings and degeneracies in the presence of the axial magnetic field are studied in detail using the exact diagonalization method.

  7. Influence of quantum degeneracy on the performance of a gas Stirling engine cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ji-Zhou; Mao, Zhi-Yuan; Wang, Jian-Hui

    2006-09-01

    Based on the state equation of an ideal quantum gas, the regenerative loss of a Stirling engine cycle working with an ideal quantum gas is calculated. Thermal efficiency of the cycle is derived. Furthermore, under the condition of quantum degeneracy, several special thermal efficiencies are discussed. Ratios of thermal efficiencies versus the temperature ratio and volume ratio of the cycle are made. It is found that the thermal efficiency of the cycle not only depends on high and low temperatures but also on maximum and minimum volumes. In a classical gas state the thermal efficiency of the cycle is equal to that of the Carnot cycle. In an ideal quantum gas state the thermal efficiency of the cycle is smaller than that of the Carnot cycle. This will be significant for deeper understanding of the gas Stirling engine cycle.

  8. Protein evolution. Pervasive degeneracy and epistasis in a protein-protein interface.

    PubMed

    Podgornaia, Anna I; Laub, Michael T

    2015-02-01

    Mapping protein sequence space is a difficult problem that necessitates the analysis of 20(N) combinations for sequences of length N. We systematically mapped the sequence space of four key residues in the Escherichia coli protein kinase PhoQ that drive recognition of its substrate PhoP. We generated a library containing all 160,000 variants of PhoQ at these positions and used a two-step selection coupled to next-generation sequencing to identify 1659 functional variants. Our results reveal extensive degeneracy in the PhoQ-PhoP interface and epistasis, with the effect of individual substitutions often highly dependent on context. Together, epistasis and the genetic code create a pattern of connectivity of functional variants in sequence space that likely constrains PhoQ evolution. Consequently, the diversity of PhoQ orthologs is substantially lower than that of functional PhoQ variants. PMID:25657251

  9. Giant and tunable valley degeneracy splitting in MoTe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao; Qi, Jingshan; Niu, Qian; Feng, Ji

    Valleys in monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides seamlessly connect two basic carriers of quantum information, namely, the electron spin and photon helicity. Lifting the valley degeneracy is an attractive route to achieve further optoelectronic manipulations. However, the magnetic field only creates a very small valley splitting. We propose a strategy to create giant valley splitting by the proximity-induced Zeeman effect. Our first principles calculations of monolayer MoTe2 on a EuO substrate show that valley splitting over 300 meV can be generated. Interband transition energies become valley dependent, leading to selective spin-photon coupling by optical frequency tuning. The valley splitting is also continuously tunable by rotating the substrate magnetization. The giant and tunable valley splitting adds a different dimension to the exploration of unique optoelectronic devices based on magneto-optical coupling and magnetoelectric coupling.

  10. Partially ferromagnetic electromagnet for trapping and cooling neutral atoms to quantum degeneracy

    SciTech Connect

    Fauquembergue, M.; Riou, J-F.; Guerin, W.; Rangwala, S.; Moron, F.; Villing, A.; Le Coq, Y.; Bouyer, P.; Aspect, A.; Lecrivain, M.

    2005-10-15

    We have developed a compact partially ferromagnetic electromagnet to produce an Ioffe-Pritchard trap for neutral atoms. Our structure permits strong magnetic confinement with low power consumption. Compared to the previous iron-core electromagnet [B. Desruelle, V. Boyer, P. Bouyer, G. Birkl, M. Lecrivain, F. Alves, C. Westbrook, and A. Aspect, Eur. Phys. J. D 1, 255 (1998)], it allows for easy compensation of remnant fields and very high stability, along with cost-effective realization and compactness. We describe and characterize our apparatus and demonstrate trapping and cooling of {sup 87}Rb atoms to quantum degeneracy. Pure Bose-Einstein condensates containing 10{sup 6} atoms are routinely realized on a half-minute cycle. In addition we test the stability of the magnetic trap by producing atom lasers.

  11. Degeneracy of Majorana bound states and fractional Josephson effect in a dirty SNS junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikegaya, S.; Asano, Y.

    2016-09-01

    We theoretically study the stability of more than one Majorana fermion appearing in a p-wave superconductor/dirty normal metal/p-wave superconductor junction in two-dimensions by using the chiral symmetry of a Hamiltonian. At the phase difference across the junction φ being π, we will show that all of the Majorana bound states in the normal metal belong to the same chirality. Due to this pure chiral feature, the Majorana bound states retain their high degree of degeneracy at zero energy even in the presence of a random potential. As a consequence, the resonant transmission of a Cooper pair via the degenerate Majorana bound states carries the Josephson current at \\varphi =π -{{0}+} , which explains the fractional current-phase relationship discussed in a number of previous papers.

  12. Coexistence of orbital degeneracy lifting and superconductivity in iron-based superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Hu; Richard, Pierre; Wu, Shangfei; Ma, Jun; Qian, Tian; Xing, Lingyi; Wang, Xiancheng; Jin, Changqing; Ding, Hong; Chou, Chungpin; Wang, Limin; Ku, Wei; Wang, Ziqiang

    2014-03-01

    In iron-based superconductors, local orbital fluctuations have been proposed to be directly responsible for the structural phase transition and closely related to the observed giant magnetic anisotropy and electronic nematicity. However, whether superconductivity can emerge from, or even coexist with orbital fluctuations, remains unclear. Here we report the angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy observation of the lifting of symmetry-protected band degeneracy, and consequently the breakdown of local tetragonal symmetry in the SC state of Li(Fe1-xCox)As. Supported by theoretical simulations, we analyse the doping and temperature dependences of this band-splitting and demonstrate an intimate connection between ferro-orbital correlations and superconductivity. This work was supported by grants from CAS, MOST and NSFC. Theoretical study is supported by US DOE. This work is based in part on research conducted at the Synchrotron Radiation Center, which is primarily funded by the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

  13. Spectrum of pontocerebellar hypoplasia in 13 girls and boys with CASK mutations: confirmation of a recognizable phenotype and first description of a male mosaic patient

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    recognizable although variable phenotype consisting of a specific form of pontocerebellar hypoplasia. In addition, we report the second male patient to present with a severe MICPCH phenotype and a de novo CASK mutation and describe for the first time a mildly affected male patient harboring a mosaic mutation. In our reference centre, CASK related PCH is the second most frequent cause of PCH. The identification of a de novo mutation in these patients enables accurate and reassuring genetic counselling. PMID:22452838

  14. Leaves: Nature's Solar Collectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isabelle, Aaron D.; de Groot, Cornelis

    2009-01-01

    One of the most captivating things about plants is the way they capture the Sun's energy, but this can be a difficult topic to cover with elementary students. Therefore, to help students to make a concrete connection to this abstract concept, this series of solar-energy lessons focuses on leaves and how they act as "solar collectors." As students…

  15. Bemoans, Belittles, and Leaves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch-Biniek, Amy

    2005-01-01

    In this article, I examine Lynn Truss's book of punctuation rules and faux pas, "Eats, Shoots & Leaves," contemplating the complex relationships among class, academics, and language snobbery. I don't refute Truss's lessons on punctuation. Instead, I use her text as a jumping-off point for discussion of the social issues embedded in her guide and…

  16. Maternity Leave in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2011-01-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk versus formula. We found that the time when mothers returned to work coincided with the duration of guaranteed leave. In particular, mothers with a labor pension plan resumed work significantly earlier than mothers with no pension plan, and mothers with no pension plan returned to work significantly later than those with pension plans. The short leave of absence guaranteed under existing policies translated into mothers spending less time with their children and being more likely to exclusively use formula by 6 months after birth. In contrast, mothers who resumed work later than 6 months after birth were more likely to have not worked before birth or to have quit their jobs during pregnancy. Implications and recommendations for parental leave policy in Taiwan are discussed. PMID:21603074

  17. Maternity Leave in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2010-01-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

  18. Observation of non-Hermitian degeneracies in a chaotic exciton-polariton billiard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, T.; Estrecho, E.; Bliokh, K. Y.; Liew, T. C. H.; Fraser, M. D.; Brodbeck, S.; Kamp, M.; Schneider, C.; Höfling, S.; Yamamoto, Y.; Nori, F.; Kivshar, Y. S.; Truscott, A. G.; Dall, R. G.; Ostrovskaya, E. A.

    2015-10-01

    Exciton-polaritons are hybrid light-matter quasiparticles formed by strongly interacting photons and excitons (electron-hole pairs) in semiconductor microcavities. They have emerged as a robust solid-state platform for next-generation optoelectronic applications as well as for fundamental studies of quantum many-body physics. Importantly, exciton-polaritons are a profoundly open (that is, non-Hermitian) quantum system, which requires constant pumping of energy and continuously decays, releasing coherent radiation. Thus, the exciton-polaritons always exist in a balanced potential landscape of gain and loss. However, the inherent non-Hermitian nature of this potential has so far been largely ignored in exciton-polariton physics. Here we demonstrate that non-Hermiticity dramatically modifies the structure of modes and spectral degeneracies in exciton-polariton systems, and, therefore, will affect their quantum transport, localization and dynamical properties. Using a spatially structured optical pump, we create a chaotic exciton-polariton billiard--a two-dimensional area enclosed by a curved potential barrier. Eigenmodes of this billiard exhibit multiple non-Hermitian spectral degeneracies, known as exceptional points. Such points can cause remarkable wave phenomena, such as unidirectional transport, anomalous lasing/absorption and chiral modes. By varying parameters of the billiard, we observe crossing and anti-crossing of energy levels and reveal the non-trivial topological modal structure exclusive to non-Hermitian systems. We also observe mode switching and a topological Berry phase for a parameter loop encircling the exceptional point. Our findings pave the way to studies of non-Hermitian quantum dynamics of exciton-polaritons, which may uncover novel operating principles for polariton-based devices.

  19. Observation of non-Hermitian degeneracies in a chaotic exciton-polariton billiard.

    PubMed

    Gao, T; Estrecho, E; Bliokh, K Y; Liew, T C H; Fraser, M D; Brodbeck, S; Kamp, M; Schneider, C; Höfling, S; Yamamoto, Y; Nori, F; Kivshar, Y S; Truscott, A G; Dall, R G; Ostrovskaya, E A

    2015-10-22

    Exciton-polaritons are hybrid light-matter quasiparticles formed by strongly interacting photons and excitons (electron-hole pairs) in semiconductor microcavities. They have emerged as a robust solid-state platform for next-generation optoelectronic applications as well as for fundamental studies of quantum many-body physics. Importantly, exciton-polaritons are a profoundly open (that is, non-Hermitian) quantum system, which requires constant pumping of energy and continuously decays, releasing coherent radiation. Thus, the exciton-polaritons always exist in a balanced potential landscape of gain and loss. However, the inherent non-Hermitian nature of this potential has so far been largely ignored in exciton-polariton physics. Here we demonstrate that non-Hermiticity dramatically modifies the structure of modes and spectral degeneracies in exciton-polariton systems, and, therefore, will affect their quantum transport, localization and dynamical properties. Using a spatially structured optical pump, we create a chaotic exciton-polariton billiard--a two-dimensional area enclosed by a curved potential barrier. Eigenmodes of this billiard exhibit multiple non-Hermitian spectral degeneracies, known as exceptional points. Such points can cause remarkable wave phenomena, such as unidirectional transport, anomalous lasing/absorption and chiral modes. By varying parameters of the billiard, we observe crossing and anti-crossing of energy levels and reveal the non-trivial topological modal structure exclusive to non-Hermitian systems. We also observe mode switching and a topological Berry phase for a parameter loop encircling the exceptional point. Our findings pave the way to studies of non-Hermitian quantum dynamics of exciton-polaritons, which may uncover novel operating principles for polariton-based devices. PMID:26458102

  20. Communication: Effect of accidental mode degeneracy on Raman intensity in 2D materials: Hybrid functional study of bilayer phosphorene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yi-Yang; Zhang, Shengbai

    2016-07-01

    Bulk black phosphorus has two optical phonon modes labeled as Ag2 and B2u, respectively, that are nearly degenerate in frequency. However, density functional theory calculations using local or semi-local functionals cannot reproduce this degeneracy. Here, we propose a hybrid functional approach aided by van der Waals (vdW) force fields, which can accurately describe the lattice dynamic and electronic properties of both bulk and few-layer black phosphorus (phosphorene). Using this approach we show that in bilayer phosphorene, the two Raman modes derived from the B2u and Ag2 modes could exhibit strong resonance as a result of the accidental degeneracy so that both modes could be observed in Raman experiment. Without the mode degeneracy, however, the Raman intensity of the B2u-derived mode would be too weak to be observed. We further show that the accidental degeneracy is correlated to the applied strain, which enables Raman spectroscopy to be a powerful tool for characterizing built-in strains in 2D materials, e.g., due to the interaction with substrates, which has emerged as an important issue in vdW epitaxy.

  1. Communication: Effect of accidental mode degeneracy on Raman intensity in 2D materials: Hybrid functional study of bilayer phosphorene.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi-Yang; Zhang, Shengbai

    2016-07-14

    Bulk black phosphorus has two optical phonon modes labeled as Ag (2) and B2u, respectively, that are nearly degenerate in frequency. However, density functional theory calculations using local or semi-local functionals cannot reproduce this degeneracy. Here, we propose a hybrid functional approach aided by van der Waals (vdW) force fields, which can accurately describe the lattice dynamic and electronic properties of both bulk and few-layer black phosphorus (phosphorene). Using this approach we show that in bilayer phosphorene, the two Raman modes derived from the B2u and Ag (2) modes could exhibit strong resonance as a result of the accidental degeneracy so that both modes could be observed in Raman experiment. Without the mode degeneracy, however, the Raman intensity of the B2u-derived mode would be too weak to be observed. We further show that the accidental degeneracy is correlated to the applied strain, which enables Raman spectroscopy to be a powerful tool for characterizing built-in strains in 2D materials, e.g., due to the interaction with substrates, which has emerged as an important issue in vdW epitaxy. PMID:27421389

  2. Employer Provisions for Parental Leave.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisenheimer, Joseph R., II

    1989-01-01

    Slightly more than one-third of full-time employees in medium and large firms in private industry were covered by maternity- or paternity-leave policies; days off were usually leave without pay. (Author)

  3. Transient potassium channels augment degeneracy in hippocampal active dendritic spectral tuning.

    PubMed

    Rathour, Rahul Kumar; Malik, Ruchi; Narayanan, Rishikesh

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal pyramidal neurons express an intraneuronal map of spectral tuning mediated by hyperpolarization-activated cyclic-nucleotide-gated nonspecific-cation channels. Modeling studies have predicted a critical regulatory role for A-type potassium (KA) channels towards augmenting functional robustness of this map. To test this, we performed patch-clamp recordings from soma and dendrites of rat hippocampal pyramidal neurons, and measured spectral tuning before and after blocking KA channels using two structurally distinct pharmacological agents. Consistent with computational predictions, we found that blocking KA channels resulted in a significant reduction in resonance frequency and significant increases in input resistance, impedance amplitude and action-potential firing frequency across the somato-apical trunk. Furthermore, across all measured locations, blocking KA channels enhanced temporal summation of postsynaptic potentials and critically altered the impedance phase profile, resulting in a significant reduction in total inductive phase. Finally, pair-wise correlations between intraneuronal percentage changes (after blocking KA channels) in different measurements were mostly weak, suggesting differential regulation of different physiological properties by KA channels. Our results unveil a pivotal role for fast transient channels in regulating theta-frequency spectral tuning and intrinsic phase response, and suggest that degeneracy with reference to several coexisting functional maps is mediated by cross-channel interactions across the active dendritic arbor. PMID:27094086

  4. Transient potassium channels augment degeneracy in hippocampal active dendritic spectral tuning

    PubMed Central

    Rathour, Rahul Kumar; Malik, Ruchi; Narayanan, Rishikesh

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal pyramidal neurons express an intraneuronal map of spectral tuning mediated by hyperpolarization-activated cyclic-nucleotide-gated nonspecific-cation channels. Modeling studies have predicted a critical regulatory role for A-type potassium (KA) channels towards augmenting functional robustness of this map. To test this, we performed patch-clamp recordings from soma and dendrites of rat hippocampal pyramidal neurons, and measured spectral tuning before and after blocking KA channels using two structurally distinct pharmacological agents. Consistent with computational predictions, we found that blocking KA channels resulted in a significant reduction in resonance frequency and significant increases in input resistance, impedance amplitude and action-potential firing frequency across the somato-apical trunk. Furthermore, across all measured locations, blocking KA channels enhanced temporal summation of postsynaptic potentials and critically altered the impedance phase profile, resulting in a significant reduction in total inductive phase. Finally, pair-wise correlations between intraneuronal percentage changes (after blocking KA channels) in different measurements were mostly weak, suggesting differential regulation of different physiological properties by KA channels. Our results unveil a pivotal role for fast transient channels in regulating theta-frequency spectral tuning and intrinsic phase response, and suggest that degeneracy with reference to several coexisting functional maps is mediated by cross-channel interactions across the active dendritic arbor. PMID:27094086

  5. Linear and nonlinear ion-acoustic waves in nonrelativistic quantum plasmas with arbitrary degeneracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Fernando; Mahmood, Shahzad

    2015-11-01

    Linear and nonlinear ion-acoustic waves are studied in a fluid model for nonrelativistic, unmagnetized quantum plasma with electrons with an arbitrary degeneracy degree. The equation of state for electrons follows from a local Fermi-Dirac distribution function and applies equally well both to fully degenerate and classical, nondegenerate limits. Ions are assumed to be cold. Quantum diffraction effects through the Bohm potential are also taken into account. A general coupling parameter valid for dilute and dense plasmas is proposed. The linear dispersion relation of the ion-acoustic waves is obtained and the ion-acoustic speed is discussed for the limiting cases of extremely dense or dilute systems. In the long-wavelength limit, the results agree with quantum kinetic theory. Using the reductive perturbation method, the appropriate Korteweg-de Vries equation for weakly nonlinear solutions is obtained and the corresponding soliton propagation is analyzed. It is found that soliton hump and dip structures are formed depending on the value of the quantum parameter for the degenerate electrons, which affect the phase velocities in the dispersive medium.

  6. New families of superintegrable systems from k-step rational extensions, polynomial algebras and degeneracies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquette, Ian

    2015-04-01

    Four new families of two-dimensional quantum superintegrable systems are constructed from k-step extension of the harmonic oscillator and the radial oscillator. Their wavefunctions are related with Hermite and Laguerre exceptional orthogonal polynomials (EOP) of type III. We show that ladder operators obtained from alternative construction based on combinations of supercharges in the Krein-Adler and Darboux Crum (or state deleting and creating) approaches can be used to generate a set of integrals of motion and a corresponding polynomial algebra that provides an algebraic derivation of the full spectrum and total number of degeneracies. Such derivation is based on finite dimensional unitary representations (unirreps) and doesn't work for integrals build from standard ladder operators in supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SUSYQM) as they contain singlets isolated from excited states. In this paper, we also rely on a novel approach to obtain the finite dimensional unirreps based on the action of the integrals of motion on the wavefunctions given in terms of these EOP. We compare the results with those obtained from the Daskaloyannis approach and the realizations in terms of deformed oscillator algebras for one of the new families in the case of 1-step extension. This communication is a review of recent works.

  7. 0-π quantum transition in a carbon nanotube Josephson junction: Universal phase dependence and orbital degeneracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delagrange, R.; Weil, R.; Kasumov, A.; Ferrier, M.; Bouchiat, H.; Deblock, R.

    2016-05-01

    In a π -Josephson junction, the supercurrent's sign is reversed due to the dephasing of superconducting pairs upon their traversal of the nonsuperconducting part. 0-π quantum transitions are extremely sensitive to electronic and magnetic correlations, providing powerful exploration tools of competing orders. In a quantum dot connected to superconducting reservoirs, the transition is governed by gate voltage. As shown recently, it can also be controlled by the superconducting phase in the case of strong competition between the superconducting proximity effect and Kondo correlations. We investigated here the current-phase relation in a clean carbon nanotube quantum dot, close to orbital degeneracy, in a regime of strong competition between local electronic correlations and superconducting proximity effect. We show that the nature of the transition depends crucially on the occupation and the width of the orbital levels, which determine their respective contribution to transport. When the transport of Cooper pairs takes place through only one of these levels, we find that the phase diagram of the phase-dependent 0-π transition is a universal characteristic of a discontinuous level-crossing quantum transition at zero temperature. In the case where the two levels are involved, the nanotube Josephson current exhibits a continuous 0-π transition, independent of the superconducting phase, revealing a different physical mechanism of the transition.

  8. Absence of Hole Confinement in Transition Metal Oxides with Orbital Degeneracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daghofer, Maria; Wohlfeld, Krzysztof; Oles, Andrzej M.; Arrigoni, Enrico; Horsch, Peter

    2008-03-01

    The compounds with orbital degrees of freedom exhibit many possible scenarios for hole propagation which in most cases lead to hole localization [1]. Here we investigate the spectral properties of a hole moving in a two-dimensional Hubbard model for strongly correlated t2g electrons. Although superexchange interactions are Ising-like, a quasi-one-dimensional coherent hole motion arises due to effective three-site terms. This mechanism is fundamentally different either from the hole motion via quantum fluctuations in the conventional spin model with SU(2) symmetry or from the eg orbital model [2]. The present orbital model describes also propagation of a hole in some eg compounds [3], and we argue that orbital degeneracy alone does not lead to hole self-localization. [1] J. Zaanen and A.M. Ole's, Phys. Rev. B 48, 7197 (1993). [2] J. van den Brink, P. Horsch, and A.M. Ole's, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5174 (2000). [3] M. Daghofer, A.M. Ole's, and W. von der Linden, Phys. Rev. B 70, 184430 (2004).

  9. CCDM model with spatial curvature and the breaking of ``dark degeneracy''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesus, J. F.; Andrade-Oliveira, F.

    2016-01-01

    Creation of Cold Dark Matter (CCDM), in the context of Einstein Field Equations, leads to a negative creation pressure, which can be used to explain the accelerated expansion of the Universe. Recently, it has been shown that the dynamics of expansion of such models can not be distinguished from the concordance ΛCDM model, even at higher orders in the evolution of density perturbations, leading at the so called ``dark degeneracy''. However, depending on the form of the CDM creation rate, the inclusion of spatial curvature leads to a different behavior of CCDM when compared to ΛCDM, even at background level. With a simple form for the creation rate, namely, Γ∝1/H , we show that this model can be distinguished from ΛCDM, provided the Universe has some amount of spatial curvature. Observationally, however, the current limits on spatial flatness from CMB indicate that neither of the models are significantly favored against the other by current data, at least in the background level.

  10. Semiclassical degeneracies and ordering for highly frustrated magnets in a field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, S. R.; Moessner, R.

    2006-03-01

    We discuss ground-state selection by quantum fluctuations in frustrated magnets in a strong magnetic field. We show that there exist dynamical symmetries—one a generalization of Henley’s gauge like symmetry for collinear spins, the other the quantum relict of non collinear weathervane modes—which ensure a partial survival of the classical degeneracies. We illustrate these for the case of the kagome magnet, where we find zero-point energy differences to be rather small everywhere except near the collinear “up-up-down” configurations, where there is rotational but not translational symmetry breaking. In the effective Hamiltonian, we demonstrate the presence of a term sensitive to a topological “flux.” We discuss the connection of such problems to gauge theories by casting the frustrated lattices as medial lattices of appropriately chosen simplex lattices, and in particular we show how the magnetic field can be used to tune the physical sector of the resulting gauge theories.

  11. RESOLVING THE sin(I) DEGENERACY IN LOW-MASS MULTI-PLANET SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Batygin, Konstantin; Laughlin, Gregory

    2011-04-01

    Long-term orbital evolution of multi-planet systems under tidal dissipation often converges to a stationary state, known as the tidal fixed point. The fixed point is characterized by a lack of oscillations in the eccentricities and apsidal alignment among the orbits. Quantitatively, the nature of the fixed point is dictated by mutual interactions among the planets as well as non-Keplerian effects. We show that if a roughly coplanar system hosts a hot, sub-Saturn mass planet, and is tidally relaxed, separation of planet-planet interactions and non-Keplerian effects in the equations of motion leads to a direct determination of the true masses of the planets. Consequently, a 'snap-shot' observational determination of the orbital state resolves the sin(I) degeneracy and opens up a direct avenue toward identification of the true lowest-mass exoplanets detected. We present an approximate, as well as a general, mathematical framework for computation of the line-of-sight inclination of secular systems, and apply our models illustratively to the 61 Vir system. We conclude by discussing the observability of planetary systems to which our method is applicable and we set our analysis into a broader context by presenting a current summary of the various possibilities for determining the physical properties of planets from observations of their orbital states.

  12. Cognitive Aging and Time Perception: Roles of Bayesian Optimization and Degeneracy.

    PubMed

    Turgeon, Martine; Lustig, Cindy; Meck, Warren H

    2016-01-01

    This review outlines the basic psychological and neurobiological processes associated with age-related distortions in timing and time perception in the hundredths of milliseconds-to-minutes range. The difficulty in separating indirect effects of impairments in attention and memory from direct effects on timing mechanisms is addressed. The main premise is that normal aging is commonly associated with increased noise and temporal uncertainty as a result of impairments in attention and memory as well as the possible reduction in the accuracy and precision of a central timing mechanism supported by dopamine-glutamate interactions in cortico-striatal circuits. Pertinent to these findings, potential interventions that may reduce the likelihood of observing age-related declines in timing are discussed. Bayesian optimization models are able to account for the adaptive changes observed in time perception by assuming that older adults are more likely to base their temporal judgments on statistical inferences derived from multiple trials than on a single trial's clock reading, which is more susceptible to distortion. We propose that the timing functions assigned to the age-sensitive fronto-striatal network can be subserved by other neural networks typically associated with finely-tuned perceptuo-motor adjustments, through degeneracy principles (different structures serving a common function). PMID:27242513

  13. Cognitive Aging and Time Perception: Roles of Bayesian Optimization and Degeneracy

    PubMed Central

    Turgeon, Martine; Lustig, Cindy; Meck, Warren H.

    2016-01-01

    This review outlines the basic psychological and neurobiological processes associated with age-related distortions in timing and time perception in the hundredths of milliseconds-to-minutes range. The difficulty in separating indirect effects of impairments in attention and memory from direct effects on timing mechanisms is addressed. The main premise is that normal aging is commonly associated with increased noise and temporal uncertainty as a result of impairments in attention and memory as well as the possible reduction in the accuracy and precision of a central timing mechanism supported by dopamine-glutamate interactions in cortico-striatal circuits. Pertinent to these findings, potential interventions that may reduce the likelihood of observing age-related declines in timing are discussed. Bayesian optimization models are able to account for the adaptive changes observed in time perception by assuming that older adults are more likely to base their temporal judgments on statistical inferences derived from multiple trials than on a single trial’s clock reading, which is more susceptible to distortion. We propose that the timing functions assigned to the age-sensitive fronto-striatal network can be subserved by other neural networks typically associated with finely-tuned perceptuo-motor adjustments, through degeneracy principles (different structures serving a common function). PMID:27242513

  14. Halting the 'sad degenerationist parade': medical concerns about heredity and racial degeneracy in New Zealand psychiatry, 1853-99.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Maree

    2012-01-01

    Historians have focused on early twentieth-century positive eugenics in New Zealand In this article, I argue that the response came from a tradition of concern about heredity and white racial degeneracy, which extended beyond the British Empire. This article focuses on concerns about heredity at the Auckland Mental Hospital between 1850 and 1899, and contextualises these concerns in New Zealand mental hospital statistics from the late-nineteenth century. This article also considers Australasian, British, North and South American medical and immigration legislation history, and contrasts this with the legislation and medical discourses which formed part of a fear of heredity, racial degeneracy, immigration and mental illness in New Zealand. PMID:23066601

  15. Parental Leave Policies and Parents’ Employment and Leave-Taking

    PubMed Central

    Han, Wen-Jui; Ruhm, Christopher; Waldfogel, Jane

    2009-01-01

    We describe trends in maternal employment and leave-taking after birth of a newborn and analyze the extent to which these behaviors are influenced by parental leave policies. Data are from the June Current Population Survey (CPS) Fertility Supplements, merged with other months of the CPS, and cover the period 1987 to 1994. This time-span is one during which parental leave legislation expanded at both the state and federal level. We also provide the first comprehensive examination of employment and leave-taking by fathers of infants. Our main finding is that leave expansions are associated with increased leave-taking by both mothers and fathers. The magnitudes of the changes are small in absolute terms but large relative to the baseline for men and much greater for college-educated or married mothers than for their less-educated or single counterparts. PMID:19090048

  16. Network, degeneracy and bow tie. Integrating paradigms and architectures to grasp the complexity of the immune system.

    PubMed

    Tieri, Paolo; Grignolio, Andrea; Zaikin, Alexey; Mishto, Michele; Remondini, Daniel; Castellani, Gastone C; Franceschi, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the network paradigm, an application of graph theory to biology, has proven to be a powerful approach to gaining insights into biological complexity, and has catalyzed the advancement of systems biology. In this perspective and focusing on the immune system, we propose here a more comprehensive view to go beyond the concept of network. We start from the concept of degeneracy, one of the most prominent characteristic of biological complexity, defined as the ability of structurally different elements to perform the same function, and we show that degeneracy is highly intertwined with another recently-proposed organizational principle, i.e. 'bow tie architecture'. The simultaneous consideration of concepts such as degeneracy, bow tie architecture and network results in a powerful new interpretative tool that takes into account the constructive role of noise (stochastic fluctuations) and is able to grasp the major characteristics of biological complexity, i.e. the capacity to turn an apparently chaotic and highly dynamic set of signals into functional information. PMID:20701759

  17. Network, degeneracy and bow tie. Integrating paradigms and architectures to grasp the complexity of the immune system

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the network paradigm, an application of graph theory to biology, has proven to be a powerful approach to gaining insights into biological complexity, and has catalyzed the advancement of systems biology. In this perspective and focusing on the immune system, we propose here a more comprehensive view to go beyond the concept of network. We start from the concept of degeneracy, one of the most prominent characteristic of biological complexity, defined as the ability of structurally different elements to perform the same function, and we show that degeneracy is highly intertwined with another recently-proposed organizational principle, i.e. 'bow tie architecture'. The simultaneous consideration of concepts such as degeneracy, bow tie architecture and network results in a powerful new interpretative tool that takes into account the constructive role of noise (stochastic fluctuations) and is able to grasp the major characteristics of biological complexity, i.e. the capacity to turn an apparently chaotic and highly dynamic set of signals into functional information. PMID:20701759

  18. Water isotopologues in leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuntz, M.; Ogée, J.; Farquhar, G. D.; Cernusak, L. A.; Peylin, P.; Bariac, T.

    2007-12-01

    Leaf water isotope enrichment is a cornerstone of a variety of isotopic applications. It imprints on different substances such as atmospheric CO2, O2, and plant organic matter. But different applications use enrichment in different parts of the leaf and weighted by different fluxes. For example, leaf organic matter is determined by the assimilation-weighted average bulk water enrichment. Atmospheric CO2 and O2 are determined by the enrichment near the evaporating sites, either weighted by the one-way CO2 flux from the stomata to the atmosphere or by electron transport, resp. These applications of leaf water enrichment are used from the leaf level up to global scales. It is therefore essential to understand the time course of leaf water enrichment at both the evaporating sites and in the mesophyll but also to asses the suitability of simple models such as the Craig & Gordon (1965) steady-state prediction or the Dongmann et al. (1974) non-steady-state model. We describe here advection and diffusion of water isotopologues in leaves in the non-steady state. We first show how this relates to earlier non-steady state bulk leaf water enrichment models. The adv.-diff. model compares very well with observations of bulk mesophyll water during the whole diel cycle. It compares well with the enrichment at the evaporative sites during the day but shows some deviations at night. It is clear that night-time stomatal conductance should be measured in the future. However, varying mesophyll water volume did not seem critical for a good prediction. In addition, observations of single diurnal cycles do not constrain the effective length in the mesophyll. Finally, we show when simpler models of leaf water enrichment are suitable for applications of leaf water isotopes once weighted with the appropriate gas exchange flux. We then present a two-dimensional adv.-diff. description of leaf water enrichment along monocot leaves. The model reproduces well all published measurements along

  19. 5 CFR 630.1205 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1205 Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Intermittent leave or reduced leave... reduced leave schedule unless the employee and the agency agree to do so. (b) Leave under §...

  20. 5 CFR 630.1204 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1204 Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Intermittent leave or reduced leave... reduced leave schedule unless the employee and the agency agree to do so. (b) Leave under § 630.1203(a)...

  1. 5 CFR 630.1205 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1205 Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Intermittent leave or reduced leave... reduced leave schedule unless the employee and the agency agree to do so. (b) Leave under §...

  2. 5 CFR 630.1205 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1205 Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Intermittent leave or reduced leave... reduced leave schedule unless the employee and the agency agree to do so. (b) Leave under §...

  3. 5 CFR 630.1204 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1204 Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intermittent leave or reduced leave... reduced leave schedule unless the employee and the agency agree to do so. (b) Leave under § 630.1203(a)...

  4. Convergence behavior of multireference perturbation theory: Forced degeneracy and optimization partitioning applied to the beryllium atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finley, James P.; Chaudhuri, Rajat K.; Freed, Karl F.

    1996-07-01

    High-order multireference perturbation theory is applied to the 1S states of the beryllium atom using a reference (model) space composed of the \\|1s22s2> and the \\|1s22p2> configuration-state functions (CSF's), a system that is known to yield divergent expansions using Mo/ller-Plesset and Epstein-Nesbet partitioning methods. Computations of the eigenvalues are made through 40th order using forced degeneracy (FD) partitioning and the recently introduced optimization (OPT) partitioning. The former forces the 2s and 2p orbitals to be degenerate in zeroth order, while the latter chooses optimal zeroth-order energies of the (few) most important states. Our methodology employs simple models for understanding and suggesting remedies for unsuitable choices of reference spaces and partitioning methods. By examining a two-state model composed of only the \\|1s22p2> and \\|1s22s3s> states of the beryllium atom, it is demonstrated that the full computation with 1323 CSF's can converge only if the zeroth-order energy of the \\|1s22s3s> Rydberg state from the orthogonal space lies below the zeroth-order energy of the \\|1s22p2> CSF from the reference space. Thus convergence in this case requires a zeroth-order spectral overlap between the orthogonal and reference spaces. The FD partitioning is not capable of generating this type of spectral overlap and thus yields a divergent expansion. However, the expansion is actually asymptotically convergent, with divergent behavior not displayed until the 11th order because the \\|1s22s3s> Rydberg state is only weakly coupled with the \\|1s22p2> CSF and because these states are energetically well separated in zeroth order. The OPT partitioning chooses the correct zeroth-order energy ordering and thus yields a convergent expansion that is also very accurate in low orders compared to the exact solution within the basis.

  5. Starch metabolism in leaves.

    PubMed

    Orzechowski, Sławomir

    2008-01-01

    Starch is the most abundant storage carbohydrate produced in plants. The initiation of transitory starch synthesis and degradation in plastids depends mainly on diurnal cycle, post-translational regulation of enzyme activity and starch phosphorylation. For the proper structure of starch granule the activities of all starch synthase isoenzymes, branching enzymes and debranching enzymes are needed. The intensity of starch biosynthesis depends mainly on the activity of AGPase (adenosine 5'-diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase). The key enzymes in starch degradation are beta-amylase, isoamylase 3 and disproportionating enzyme. However, it should be underlined that there are some crucial differences in starch metabolism between heterotrophic and autotrophic tissues, e.g. is the ability to build multiprotein complexes responsible for biosynthesis and degradation of starch granules in chloroplasts. The observed huge progress in understanding of starch metabolism was possible mainly due to analyses of the complete Arabidopsis and rice genomes and of numerous mutants with altered starch metabolism in leaves. The aim of this paper is to review current knowledge on transient starch metabolism in higher plants. PMID:18787712

  6. Probing Radial age/metallicity degeneracy in early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, David R.; Elston, Richard

    1994-06-01

    It has been generally concluded that the optical broad band color and line index gradients observed in early-type galaxies are driven by metallicity. Yet, this conclusion remains uncertain due to the age/metallicity degeneracy inherent in most optical data. Furthermore, optical broad-band colors are susceptible to reddening in the presence of dust. Near-infrared colors, on the other hand, are significantly less age sensitive than optical colors in old stellar populations and are much less affected by dust. In principle, the combination of optical and near-IR data should provide less ambivalent age and metallicity discrimination than using optical or near-IR data alone. To investigate this possibility, near-IR images of early-type galaxies with significant U-R gradients have been measured. Comparison of the optical and near-IR results leads to the primary conclusion that broad-band optical and near-IR gradients are not tracing metallicity in concert but are affected by different astrophysical parameters. Three general possibilites are discussed: reddening, radial age gradients, and differing metallicity sensitivities. Proving the absence or presence of significant reddening is difficult from broad-band colors alone. In the absence of reddening, the optical color gradients would suggest that age decreases wit radius, leading to somewhat contrived evolution scenarios. Alternatively, it is proposed that the optical color gradients may be tracing light element (e.g. CNO) abundances while the near-IR gradients are tracing Fe- peak element abundances. This scenario leads to the conclusion that many of these galaxies have enhanced nuclear (light/FE) ratios, consistent with the recently published studies of nuclear line indices in these galaxies. Given the quality of the current available data, these hypotheses remain somewhat unconstrained. Nevertheless, this study reinforces the necessity of obtaining data over a long spectral baseline to properly interpret the ensemble

  7. Revising the solution of the neutrino oscillation parameter degeneracies at neutrino factories

    SciTech Connect

    Gago, A. M.; Jones Perez, J.

    2007-02-01

    In the context of neutrino factories, we review the solution of the degeneracies in the neutrino oscillation parameters. In particular, we have set limits to sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 13} in order to accomplish the unambiguous determination of {theta}{sub 23} and {delta}. We have performed two different analysis. In the first, at a baseline of 3000 km, we simulate a measurement of the channels {nu}{sub e}{yields}{nu}{sub {mu}}, {nu}{sub e}{yields}{nu}{sub {tau}}, and {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub {mu}}, combined with their respective conjugate ones, with a muon energy of 50 GeV and a running time of five years. In the second, we merge the simulated data obtained at L=3000 km with the measurement of {nu}{sub e}{yields}{nu}{sub {mu}} channel at 7250 km, the so-called 'magic baseline.' In both cases, we have studied the impact of varying the {nu}{sub {tau}} detector efficiency-mass product ({epsilon}{sub {nu}{tau}xM{tau}}), at 3000 km, keeping unchanged the {nu}{sub {mu}} detector mass and its efficiency. At L=3000 km, we found the existence of degenerate zones, that correspond to values of {theta}{sub 13}, which are equal or almost equal to the true ones. These zones are extremely difficult to discard, even when we increase the number of events. However, in the second scenario, this difficulty is overcome, demonstrating the relevance of the 'magic baseline'. From this scenario, the best limits of sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 13}, reached at 3{sigma}, for sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 23}=0.95, 0.975, and 0.99 are: 0.008, 0.015, and 0.045, respectively, obtained at {delta}=0, and considering ({epsilon}{sub {nu}{tau}xM{tau}}){approx_equal}125, which is 5 times the initial efficiency-mass combination.

  8. 29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.202 Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule. (a) Definition. FMLA... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule....

  9. 5 CFR 630.1003 - Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishing leave banks and leave bank... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1003 Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards. (a) Each agency that participates in the voluntary leave bank program shall, in accordance...

  10. 5 CFR 630.1003 - Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Establishing leave banks and leave bank... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1003 Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards. (a) Each agency that participates in the voluntary leave bank program shall, in accordance...

  11. 5 CFR 630.1003 - Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Establishing leave banks and leave bank... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1003 Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards. (a) Each agency that participates in the voluntary leave bank program shall, in accordance...

  12. 5 CFR 630.1003 - Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Establishing leave banks and leave bank... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1003 Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards. (a) Each agency that participates in the voluntary leave bank program shall, in accordance...

  13. 5 CFR 630.1003 - Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Establishing leave banks and leave bank... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1003 Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards. (a) Each agency that participates in the voluntary leave bank program shall, in accordance...

  14. Experimental demonstration of broadband femtosecond optical parametric amplification based on YCOB crystal at near critical wavelength degeneracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaoyang; Leng, Yuxin; Li, Yanyan; Li, Wenkai; Lu, Xiaoming; Xu, Yi; Li, Ruxin

    2016-07-01

    Broadband optical parametric amplification (OPA) in the near-infrared region (1.3-1.8 μm) is demonstrated in YCOB crystal pumped by 1 kHz Ti:sapphire based femtosecond laser at near critical wavelength degeneracy phase matching condition at first time. The gain bandwidth is closed to BIBO or BBO crystal OPA gain bandwidth. The energy obtained with 3.5 mm-thick YCOB reached 20 μJ with RMS 1.9%. After second harmonic generation, 17.6 fs pulse is obtained, and the pulse compressibility is demonstrated.

  15. The relationship between noise correlation and the Green's function in the presence of degeneracy and the absence of equipartition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tsai, V.C.

    2010-01-01

    Recent derivations have shown that when noise in a physical system has its energy equipartitioned into the modes of the system, there is a convenient relationship between the cross correlation of time-series recorded at two points and the Green's function of the system. Here, we show that even when energy is not fully equipartitioned and modes are allowed to be degenerate, a similar (though less general) property holds for equations with wave equation structure. This property can be used to understand why certain seismic noise correlation measurements are successful despite known degeneracy and lack of equipartition on the Earth. No claim to original US government works Journal compilation ?? 2010 RAS.

  16. Organ-Level Analysis of Idioblast Patterning in Egeria densa Planch. Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Takuya; Kobayashi, Emi; Ohtsubo, Kohei; Kumada, Shogo; Kanazawa, Mikako; Abe, Tomoko; Itoh, Ryuuichi D.; Fujiwara, Makoto T.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf tissues of plants usually contain several types of idioblasts, defined as specialized cells whose shape and contents differ from the surrounding homogeneous cells. The spatial patterning of idioblasts, particularly of trichomes and guard cells, across the leaf epidermis has received considerable attention as it offers a useful biological model for studying the intercellular regulation of cell fate and patterning. Excretory idioblasts in the leaves of the aquatic monocotyledonous plant Egeria densa produced light blue autofluorescence when irradiated with ultraviolet light. The use of epifluorescence microscopy to detect this autofluorescence provided a simple and convenient method for detecting excretory idioblasts and allowed tracking of those cells across the leaf surfaces, enabling quantitative measurement of the clustering and spacing patterns of idioblasts at the whole leaf level. Occurrence of idioblasts was coordinated along the proximal–distal, medial–lateral, and adaxial–abaxial axes, producing a recognizable consensus spatial pattern of idioblast formation among fully expanded leaves. Idioblast clusters, which comprised up to nine cells aligned along the proximal–distal axis, showed no positional bias or regularity in idioblast-forming areas when compared with singlet idioblasts. Up to 75% of idioblasts existed as clusters on every leaf side examined. The idioblast-forming areas varied between leaves, implying phenotypic plasticity. Furthermore, in young expanding leaves, autofluorescence was occasionally detected in a single giant vesicle or else in one or more small vesicles, which eventually grew to occupy a large portion of the idioblast volume as a central vacuole. Differentiation of vacuoles by accumulating the fluorescence substance might be an integral part of idioblast differentiation. Red autofluorescence from chloroplasts was not detected in idioblasts of young expanding leaves, suggesting idioblast differentiation involves an

  17. Key Obama officials leave administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-01-01

    Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar is one of the latest members of the Obama administration to announce that he is leaving his position near the start of President Obama's second term in office. Salazar, who has served as interior secretary since January 2009, intends to leave the department by the end of March, the department noted on 16 January. Salazar joins a number of other key officials who are planning to leave the administration. They include Environmental Protection Agency administrator Lisa Jackson, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration administrator Jane Lubchenco, and U.S. Geological Survey director Marcia McNutt.

  18. Charge 2e/3 Superconductivity and Topological Degeneracies without Localized Zero Modes in Bilayer Fractional Quantum Hall States.

    PubMed

    Barkeshli, Maissam

    2016-08-26

    It has been recently shown that non-Abelian defects with localized parafermion zero modes can arise in conventional Abelian fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states. Here we propose an alternate route to creating, manipulating, and measuring topologically protected degeneracies in bilayer FQH states coupled to superconductors, without the creation of localized parafermion zero modes. We focus mainly on electron-hole bilayers, with a ±1/3 Laughlin FQH state in each layer, with boundaries that are proximity coupled to a superconductor. We show that the superconductor induces charge 2e/3 quasiparticle-pair condensation at each boundary of the FQH state, and that this leads to (i) topologically protected degeneracies that can be measured through charge sensing experiments and (ii) a fractional charge 2e/3 ac Josephson effect. We demonstrate that an analog of non-Abelian braiding is possible, despite the absence of a localized zero mode. We discuss several practical advantages of this proposal over previous work, and also several generalizations. PMID:27610873

  19. 46 CFR 310.8 - Leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (7) days. (3) Annual leave shall not exceed thirty (30) days. (4) Christmas and Easter leave shall..., as authorized by the school, not to exceed four (4) months. (2) Christmas and Easter leave and...

  20. 46 CFR 310.8 - Leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (7) days. (3) Annual leave shall not exceed thirty (30) days. (4) Christmas and Easter leave shall..., as authorized by the school, not to exceed four (4) months. (2) Christmas and Easter leave and...

  1. 46 CFR 310.8 - Leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (7) days. (3) Annual leave shall not exceed thirty (30) days. (4) Christmas and Easter leave shall..., as authorized by the school, not to exceed four (4) months. (2) Christmas and Easter leave and...

  2. 46 CFR 310.8 - Leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (7) days. (3) Annual leave shall not exceed thirty (30) days. (4) Christmas and Easter leave shall..., as authorized by the school, not to exceed four (4) months. (2) Christmas and Easter leave and...

  3. 46 CFR 310.8 - Leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (7) days. (3) Annual leave shall not exceed thirty (30) days. (4) Christmas and Easter leave shall..., as authorized by the school, not to exceed four (4) months. (2) Christmas and Easter leave and...

  4. Space-based Microlens Parallax Observation as a Way to Resolve the Severe Degeneracy between Microlens-parallax and Lens-orbital Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, C.; Udalski, A.; Lee, C.-U.; Gould, A.; Bozza, V.; Szymański, M. K.; Soszyński, I.; Skowron, J.; Mróz, P.; Poleski, R.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Kozłowski, S.; Ulaczyk, K.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Pawlak, M.; The OGLE Collaboration; Albrow, M. D.; Chung, S.-J.; Kim, S.-L.; Cha, S.-M.; Jung, Y. K.; Kim, D.-J.; Lee, Y.; Park, B.-G.; Ryu, Y.-H.; Shin, I.-G.; Yee, J. C.; The KMTNet Collaboration

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the severity of the degeneracy between the microlens-parallax and lens-orbital effects by presenting the analysis of the gravitational binary-lens event OGLE-2015-BLG-0768. Despite the obvious deviation from the model based on the linear observer motion and the static binary, it is found that the residual can be almost equally well explained by either the parallactic motion of the Earth or the rotation of the binary-lens axis, resulting in the severe degeneracy between the two effects. We show that the degeneracy can be readily resolved with the additional data provided by space-based microlens parallax observations. By enabling us to distinguish between the two higher-order effects, space-based microlens parallax observations will not only make it possible to accurately determine the physical lens parameters but also to further constrain the orbital parameters of binary lenses.

  5. Topological degeneracy (Majorana zero-mode) and 1 + 1D fermionic topological order in a magnetic chain on superconductor via spontaneous Z₂(f) symmetry breaking.

    PubMed

    Klassen, Joel; Wen, Xiao-Gang

    2015-10-14

    We study a chain of ferromagnetic sites, ie nano-particles, molecules or atoms, on a substrate of fully gapped superconductors. We find that under quite realistic conditions, the fermion-number-parity symmetry Z₂(f) can spontaneously break. In other words, such a chain can realize a 1  +  1D fermionic topologically ordered state and the corresponding two-fold topological degeneracy on an open chain. Such a topological degeneracy becomes the so called Majorana zero mode in the non-interacting limit. PMID:26401725

  6. Exploring the effect of fractional degeneracy and the emergence of ray-wave duality in solid-state lasers with off-axis pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. F.; Tung, J. C.; Chiang, P. Y.; Liang, H. C.; Huang, K. F.

    2013-07-01

    We employ the inhomogeneous Helmholtz equation to explore the influence of the fractional degeneracy and the pump distribution on the resonant lasing mode. Theoretical analyses clearly reveal the relationship between the fractional degeneracy and the emergence of the ray-wave duality. Furthermore, we perform thorough laser experiments to confirm the theoretical exploration that the resonant modes near the degenerate cavities are well localized on the ray trajectories under the condition of the off-axis pumping. We also exploit the derived wave functions to calculate the resonant strengths that can noticeably manifest the enhancements of the output powers in the degenerate cavities.

  7. 75 FR 70845 - Absence and Leave; Qualifying Exigency Leave

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... NDAA legislation. DOL issued its final regulations on November 17, 2008, (73 FR 67934) to implement the... proposed FMLA regulations on August 26, 2009, (74 FR 43064, at http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/2009/pdf/E9... leave may be found in the DOL proposed regulations published on February 11, 2008, at 73 FR 7876...

  8. 75 FR 75363 - Absence and Leave; Sick Leave

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... regulations are in response to only a portion of OPM's proposed regulations (74 FR 43064) issued on August 26... regulations (75 FR 33491) amending the definition of family member for sick leave purposes to now cover..., guardianship, and other relationships. The final regulations are available at...

  9. MicroRNA degeneracy and pluripotentiality within a Lavallière-tie architecture confers robustness to gene expression networks.

    PubMed

    Bhajun, Ricky; Guyon, Laurent; Gidrol, Xavier

    2016-08-01

    Modularity, feedback control, functional redundancy and bowtie architecture have been proposed as key factors that confer robustness to complex biological systems. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are highly conserved but functionally dispensable. These antinomic properties suggest that miRNAs fine-tune gene expression rather than act as genetic switches. We synthesize published and unpublished data and hypothesize that miRNA pluripotentiality acts to buffer gene expression, while miRNA degeneracy tunes the expression of targets, thus providing robustness to gene expression networks. Furthermore, we propose a Lavallière-tie architecture by integrating signal transduction, miRNAs and protein expression data to model complex gene expression networks. PMID:27038488

  10. Accidental degeneracy in photonic bands and topological phase transitions in two-dimensional core-shell dielectric photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lin; Wang, Hai-Xiao; Xu, Ya-Dong; Chen, Huan-Yang; Jiang, Jian-Hua

    2016-08-01

    A simple core-shell two-dimensional photonic crystal is studied where the triangle lattice symmetry and $C_{6v}$ rotation symmetry leads to rich physics in the study of accidental degeneracy's in photonic bands. We systematically evaluate different types of accidental nodal points, depending on the dispersions around them and their topological properties, when the geometry and permittivity are continuously changed. These accidental nodal points can be the critical states lying between a topological phase and a normal phase and are thus important for the study of topological photonic states. In time-reversal systems, this leads to the photonic quantum spin Hall insulator where the spin is defined upon the orbital angular momentum for transverse-magnetic polarization. We study the topological phase transition as well as the properties of the edge and bulk states and their application potentials in optics.

  11. Macroscopic Degeneracy of Zero-Mode Rotating Surface States in 3D Dirac and Weyl Semimetals under Radiation.

    PubMed

    González, José; Molina, Rafael A

    2016-04-15

    We investigate the development of novel surface states when 3D Dirac or Weyl semimetals are placed under circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation. We find that the hybridization between inverted Floquet bands opens, in general, a gap, which closes at so-called exceptional points found for complex values of the momentum. This corresponds to the appearance of midgap surface states in the form of evanescent waves decaying from the surface exposed to the radiation. We observe a phenomenon reminiscent of Landau quantization by which the midgap surface states get a large degeneracy proportional to the radiation flux traversing the surface of the semimetal. We show that all of these surface states carry angular current, leading to an angular modulation of their charge that rotates with the same frequency of the radiation, which should manifest in the observation of a macroscopic chiral current in the irradiated surface. PMID:27127980

  12. Electronic Degeneracy and Intrinsic Magnetic Properties of EpitaxialNb: SrTiO3 Thin Films Controlled by Defects.

    PubMed

    Sarantopoulos, A; Ferreiro-Vila, E; Pardo, V; Magén, C; Aguirre, M H; Rivadulla, F

    2015-10-16

    We report thermoelectric power experiments in e-doped thin films of SrTiO3 (STO) which demonstrate that the electronic band degeneracy can be lifted through defect management during growth. We show that even small amounts of cationic vacancies, combined with epitaxial stress, produce a homogeneous tetragonal distortion of the films, resulting in a Kondo-like resistance upturn at low temperature, large anisotropic magnetoresistance, and nonlinear Hall effect. Ab initio calculations confirm a different occupation of each band depending on the degree of tetragonal distortion. The phenomenology reported in this Letter for tetragonally distorted e-doped STO thin films, is similar to that observed in LaAlO3/STO interfaces and magnetic STO quantum wells. PMID:26550891

  13. Macroscopic Degeneracy of Zero-Mode Rotating Surface States in 3D Dirac and Weyl Semimetals under Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, José; Molina, Rafael A.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the development of novel surface states when 3D Dirac or Weyl semimetals are placed under circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation. We find that the hybridization between inverted Floquet bands opens, in general, a gap, which closes at so-called exceptional points found for complex values of the momentum. This corresponds to the appearance of midgap surface states in the form of evanescent waves decaying from the surface exposed to the radiation. We observe a phenomenon reminiscent of Landau quantization by which the midgap surface states get a large degeneracy proportional to the radiation flux traversing the surface of the semimetal. We show that all of these surface states carry angular current, leading to an angular modulation of their charge that rotates with the same frequency of the radiation, which should manifest in the observation of a macroscopic chiral current in the irradiated surface.

  14. A direct measurement of the mean occupation function of quasars: Breaking degeneracies between halo occupation distribution models

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Suchetana; Nguyen, My L.; Myers, Adam D.; Zheng, Zheng

    2013-12-20

    Recent work on quasar clustering suggests a degeneracy in the halo occupation distribution constrained from two-point correlation functions. To break this degeneracy, we make the first empirical measurement of the mean occupation function (MOF) of quasars at z ∼ 0.2 by matching quasar positions with groups and clusters identified in the MaxBCG sample. We fit two models to the MOF, a power law and a four-parameter model. The number distribution of quasars in host halos is close to Poisson, and the slopes of the MOF obtained from our best-fit models (for the power-law case) favor an MOF that monotonically increases with halo mass. The best-fit slopes are 0.53 ± 0.04 and 1.03 ± 1.12 for the power-law model and the four-parameter model, respectively. We measure the radial distribution of quasars within dark matter halos and find it to be adequately described by a power law with a slope –2.3 ± 0.4. We measure the conditional luminosity function (CLF) of quasars and show that there is no evidence that quasar luminosity depends on host halo mass, similar to the inferences drawn from clustering measurements. We also measure the conditional black hole mass function (CMF) of our quasars. Although the results are consistent with no dependence on halo mass, we observe a slight indication of downsizing of the black hole mass function. The lack of halo mass dependence in the CLF and CMF shows that quasars residing in galaxy clusters have characteristic luminosity and black hole mass scales.

  15. The mass-sheet degeneracy and time-delay cosmography: analysis of the strong lens RXJ1131-1231

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birrer, Simon; Amara, Adam; Refregier, Alexandre

    2016-08-01

    We present extended modelling of the strong lens system RXJ1131-1231 with archival data in two HST bands in combination with existing line-of-sight contribution and velocity dispersion estimates. Our focus is on source size and its influence on time-delay cosmography. We therefore examine the impact of mass-sheet degeneracy and especially the degeneracy pointed out by Schneider & Sluse (2013) [1] using the source reconstruction scale. We also extend on previous work by further exploring the effects of priors on the kinematics of the lens and the external convergence in the environment of the lensing system. Our results coming from RXJ1131-1231 are given in a simple analytic form so that they can be easily combined with constraints coming from other cosmological probes. We find that the choice of priors on lens model parameters and source size are subdominant for the statistical errors for H0 measurements of this systems. The choice of prior for the source is sub-dominant at present (2% uncertainty on H0) but may be relevant for future studies. More importantly, we find that the priors on the kinematic anisotropy of the lens galaxy have a significant impact on our cosmological inference. When incorporating all the above modeling uncertainties, we find H0 = 86.6+6.8‑6.9 km s‑1 Mpc‑1, when using kinematic priors similar to other studies. When we use a different kinematic prior motivated by Barnabè et al. (2012) [2] but covering the same anisotropic range, we find H0 = 74.5+8.0‑7.8 km s‑1 Mpc‑1. This means that the choice of kinematic modeling and priors have a significant impact on cosmographic inferences. The way forward is either to get better velocity dispersion measures which would down weight the impact of the priors or to construct physically motivated priors for the velocity dispersion model.

  16. How to leave your job.

    PubMed

    Gurden, Dean

    2016-08-10

    'Leaving a job is never a decision you should take lightly,' says Nick Simpson, CEO of health recruitment agency MSI Group. 'Every nursing professional has things about their job they find frustrating and daily tasks they may not necessarily enjoy doing, but it's important to consider the positive aspects of your current role before you make a decision.' PMID:27507390

  17. Leaves: Elevated CO2 levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Burning fossil fuels and land use changes such as deforestation and urbanization have led to a dramatic rise in the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere since the onset of the Industrial Revolution. The highly dilute CO2 from the atmosphere enters plant leaves where it is concentr...

  18. 5 CFR 630.1004 - Application to become a leave contributor and leave bank member.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to the leave bank board to become a leave contributor. The application shall specify the number of hours of annual leave to be contributed and any other information the leave bank board may reasonably... section during an open enrollment period established by the leave bank board under paragraphs (d) and...

  19. Carnivorous leaves from Baltic amber

    PubMed Central

    Sadowski, Eva-Maria; Seyfullah, Leyla J.; Sadowski, Friederike; Fleischmann, Andreas; Behling, Hermann; Schmidt, Alexander R.

    2015-01-01

    The fossil record of carnivorous plants is very scarce and macrofossil evidence has been restricted to seeds of the extant aquatic genus Aldrovanda of the Droseraceae family. No case of carnivorous plant traps has so far been reported from the fossil record. Here, we present two angiosperm leaves enclosed in a piece of Eocene Baltic amber that share relevant morphological features with extant Roridulaceae, a carnivorous plant family that is today endemic to the Cape flora of South Africa. Modern Roridula species are unique among carnivorous plants as they digest prey in a complex mutualistic association in which the prey-derived nutrient uptake depends on heteropteran insects. As in extant Roridula, the fossil leaves possess two types of plant trichomes, including unicellular hairs and five size classes of multicellular stalked glands (or tentacles) with an apical pore. The apices of the narrow and perfectly tapered fossil leaves end in a single tentacle, as in both modern Roridula species. The glandular hairs of the fossils are restricted to the leaf margins and to the abaxial lamina, as in extant Roridula gorgonias. Our discovery supports current molecular age estimates for Roridulaceae and suggests a wide Eocene distribution of roridulid plants. PMID:25453067

  20. Carnivorous leaves from Baltic amber.

    PubMed

    Sadowski, Eva-Maria; Seyfullah, Leyla J; Sadowski, Friederike; Fleischmann, Andreas; Behling, Hermann; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2015-01-01

    The fossil record of carnivorous plants is very scarce and macrofossil evidence has been restricted to seeds of the extant aquatic genus Aldrovanda of the Droseraceae family. No case of carnivorous plant traps has so far been reported from the fossil record. Here, we present two angiosperm leaves enclosed in a piece of Eocene Baltic amber that share relevant morphological features with extant Roridulaceae, a carnivorous plant family that is today endemic to the Cape flora of South Africa. Modern Roridula species are unique among carnivorous plants as they digest prey in a complex mutualistic association in which the prey-derived nutrient uptake depends on heteropteran insects. As in extant Roridula, the fossil leaves possess two types of plant trichomes, including unicellular hairs and five size classes of multicellular stalked glands (or tentacles) with an apical pore. The apices of the narrow and perfectly tapered fossil leaves end in a single tentacle, as in both modern Roridula species. The glandular hairs of the fossils are restricted to the leaf margins and to the abaxial lamina, as in extant Roridula gorgonias. Our discovery supports current molecular age estimates for Roridulaceae and suggests a wide Eocene distribution of roridulid plants. PMID:25453067

  1. Universal IMF versus dark halo response in early-type galaxies: breaking the degeneracy with the Fundamental Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutton, Aaron A.; Macciò, Andrea V.; Mendel, J. Trevor; Simard, Luc

    2013-07-01

    We use the relations between aperture stellar velocity dispersion (σap), stellar mass (MSPS) and galaxy size (Re) for a sample of ˜150 000 early-type galaxies from Sloan Digital Sky Survey/DR7 to place constraints on the stellar initial mass function (IMF) and dark halo response to galaxy formation. We build λ cold dark matter-based mass models that reproduce, by construction, the relations between galaxy size, light concentration and stellar mass, and use the spherical Jeans equations to predict σap. Given our model assumptions (including those in the stellar population synthesis models), we find that reproducing the median σap versus MSPS relation is not possible with both a universal IMF and a universal dark halo response. Significant departures from a universal IMF and/or dark halo response are required, but there is a degeneracy between these two solutions. We show that this degeneracy can be broken using the strength of the correlation between residuals of the velocity-mass (Δlog σap) and size-mass (Δlog Re) relations. The slope of this correlation, ∂VR ≡ Δlog σap/Δlog Re, varies systematically with galaxy mass from ∂VR ≃ -0.45 at MSPS ˜ 1010 M⊙ to ∂VR ≃ -0.15 at MSPS ˜ 1011.6 M⊙. The virial Fundamental Plane (FP) has ∂VR = -1/2, and thus we find that the tilt of the observed FP is mass dependent. Reproducing this tilt requires both a non-universal IMF and a non-universal halo response. Our best model has mass-follows-light at low masses (MSPS ≲ 1011.2 M⊙) and unmodified Navarro, Frenk and White haloes at MSPS ˜ 1011.5 M⊙. The stellar masses imply a mass-dependent IMF which is `lighter' than Salpeter at low masses and `heavier' than Salpeter at high masses.

  2. Leaving the hospital - your discharge plan

    MedlinePlus

    ... patientinstructions/000867.htm Leaving the hospital - your discharge plan To use the sharing features on this page, ... once you leave. This is called a discharge plan. Your health care providers at the hospital will ...

  3. Effects of spin transitions degeneracy in pulsed EPR of the fullerene C70 triplet state produced by continuous light illumination.

    PubMed

    Uvarov, Mikhail N; Kulik, Leonid V; Pichugina, Tatiana I; Dzuba, Sergei A

    2011-05-01

    X-band echo-detected electron paramagnetic resonance (ED EPR) spectra of triplet state of fullerene C(70) generated by continuous light illumination were found to correspond below 30K to a non-equilibrium electron spin polarization. Above 30K spectra are characteristic of Boltzmann equilibrium. Spectra were simulated fairly well with zero-field splitting parameters D=153 MHz and E and distributed within the range of 6-42 MHz. The origin of E distribution is attributed to the Jahn-Teller effect, which in glassy matrix is expected to depend on the local surrounding of a fullerene molecule (a so-called E-strain). In the center of ED EPR spectra a narrow hole was observed. With increase of the microwave pulse turning angle this hole transforms into a single narrow absorptive line. Numerical simulations by density matrix formalism confirm that central hole originates from a simultaneous excitation of both allowed electron spin transitions of the triplet (T(0)↔T(+) and T(0)↔T(-)), because of their degeneracy at this spectral position. Also explanations are given why this hole has not been observed in the previously reported experiments on continuous wave EPR and on ED EPR under laser pulse excitation. PMID:21339084

  4. Degeneracy and Effective Mass in the Valence Band of Two-Dimensional (100)-GaAs Quantum Well Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarquini, Vinicio; Knighton, Talbot; Wu, Zhe; Huang, Jian; Pfeifer, Loren; West, Ken

    2014-03-01

    Quantum Hall measurement of two-dimensional high-mobility (μ ~ 2 × 106 cm2/(V .s)) hole systems confined in a 20 nm wide (100)-GaAs quantum well have been performed for charge densities between 4 - 5 × 1010 cm-2 in a temperature range of 10-160 mK. The Fourier analysis of the Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations of the magnetoresistance vs. the inverse of the magnetic field 1 /B⊥ reveals a single peak, indicating a degenerate heavy hole (HH) band. The corresponding hole density p =(e / h) . f agrees with the Hall measurement result within 3 % . The HH degeneracy is understood through the diminishing Rashba spin-orbit interaction due to the low charge density and the nearly symmetric confinement. SdH oscillations fitted for 0.1 T <=B⊥ <= 0 . 25 T to the Dingle parameters yield an effective mass (m*) between 0.39 me and 0.51 me that increases moderately with increasing magnetic field and charge density, in very good agreement with previous cyclotron resonance measurements. NSF DMR-1105183

  5. Degeneracy and effective mass in the valence band of two-dimensional (100)-GaAs quantum well systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarquini, Vinicio; Knighton, Talbot; Wu, Zhe; Huang, Jian; Pfeiffer, Loren; West, Ken

    2014-03-01

    Quantum Hall measurement of two-dimensional high-mobility [μ ˜2×106 cm2/(V.s)] hole systems confined in a 20 nm wide (100)-GaAs quantum well have been performed for charge densities between 4 and 5 × 1010 cm-2 in a temperature range of 10-160 mK. The Fourier analysis of the Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations of the magnetoresistance vs. the inverse of the magnetic field 1/B reveals a single peak, indicating a degenerate heavy hole (HH) band. The hole density p =(e/h).f agrees with the Hall measurement result within 3%. The HH band degeneracy is understood through the diminishing spin-orbit interaction due to the low charge density and the nearly symmetric confinement. SdH oscillations fitted for 0.08 T ≤ B ≤ 0.24 T to the Dingle parameters yield an effective mass between 0.30 and 0.50 me in good agreement with previous cyclotron resonance results.

  6. Kinetic and electron-electron energies for convex sums of ground state densities with degeneracies and fractional electron number

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, Mel E-mail: mlevy@tulane.edu; Anderson, James S. M.; Zadeh, Farnaz Heidar; Ayers, Paul W. E-mail: mlevy@tulane.edu

    2014-05-14

    Properties of exact density functionals provide useful constraints for the development of new approximate functionals. This paper focuses on convex sums of ground-level densities. It is observed that the electronic kinetic energy of a convex sum of degenerate ground-level densities is equal to the convex sum of the kinetic energies of the individual degenerate densities. (The same type of relationship holds also for the electron-electron repulsion energy.) This extends a known property of the Levy-Valone Ensemble Constrained-Search and the Lieb Legendre-Transform refomulations of the Hohenberg-Kohn functional to the individual components of the functional. Moreover, we observe that the kinetic and electron-repulsion results also apply to densities with fractional electron number (even if there are no degeneracies), and we close with an analogous point-wise property involving the external potential. Examples where different degenerate states have different kinetic energy and electron-nuclear attraction energy are given; consequently, individual components of the ground state electronic energy can change abruptly when the molecular geometry changes. These discontinuities are predicted to be ubiquitous at conical intersections, complicating the development of universally applicable density-functional approximations.

  7. A study of the charge and potential distribution at the semiconductor/electrolyte interface for the condition of degeneracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerischer, Heinz; McIntyre, Robert

    1985-08-01

    We have calculated the differential surface capacitance for two different semiconductors MoSe2(0001) and WSe2(0001), as a function of applied potential, for the condition of degeneracy. The calculated curves are compared with the experimentally measured capacitance for the systems, MoSe2(0001) in propylene carbonate containing 0.1 M LiClO4, for a range of crystal conductivities, and WSe2(0001) in acetonitrile containing 0.2 M (C3H7)4N BF4. As expected the experimental values are significantly lower than the calculated values, since the measured capacitance is the total capacitance for the system which is described by the surface capacitance of the semiconductor in series with the Helmholtz capacitance. Calculations based on this model, using the data for the Helmholtz capacitance for a mercury electrode in the same electrolyte, are shown to be in good agreement with the measured values. The results are discussed with particular reference to the screening distance for the semiconductor surface charge in the degenerate region.

  8. Effects of refraction on transmission spectra of gas giants: decrease of the Rayleigh scattering slope and breaking of retrieval degeneracies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bétrémieux, Yan

    2016-03-01

    Detection of the signature of Rayleigh scattering in the transmission spectrum of an exoplanet is increasingly becoming the target of observational campaigns because the spectral slope of the Rayleigh continuum enables one to determine the scaleheight of its atmosphere in the absence of hazes. However, this is only true when one ignores the refractive effects of the exoplanet's atmosphere. I illustrate with a suite of simple isothermal clear Jovian H2-He atmosphere models with various abundances of water that refraction can decrease significantly the spectral slope of the Rayleigh continuum and that it becomes flat in the infrared. This mimics a surface, or an optically thick cloud deck, at much smaller pressures than one can probe in the non-refractive case. The relative impact of refraction on an exoplanet's transmission spectrum decreases with atmospheric temperatures and increases with stellar temperature. Refraction is quite important from a retrieval's perspective for Jovian-like planets even at the highest atmospheric temperatures (1200 K) considered in this paper, and for all stellar spectral types. Indeed, refraction breaks in large part the retrieval degeneracy between abundances of chemical species and the planet's radius because the size of spectral features increases significantly with abundances, in stark contrast with the non-refractive case which simply shifts them to a larger or smaller effective radius. Abundances inferred assuming that the atmosphere is cloud-free are lower limits. These results show how important it is to include refraction in retrieval algorithms to interpret transmission spectra of gas giants accurately.

  9. Degeneracy and effective mass in the valence band of two-dimensional (100)-GaAs quantum well systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tarquini, Vinicio Knighton, Talbot; Wu, Zhe; Huang, Jian; Pfeiffer, Loren; West, Ken

    2014-03-03

    Quantum Hall measurement of two-dimensional high-mobility [μ∼2×10{sup 6} cm{sup 2}/(V·s)] hole systems confined in a 20 nm wide (100)-GaAs quantum well have been performed for charge densities between 4 and 5 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −2} in a temperature range of 10–160 mK. The Fourier analysis of the Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations of the magnetoresistance vs. the inverse of the magnetic field 1/B reveals a single peak, indicating a degenerate heavy hole (HH) band. The hole density p=(e/h)·f agrees with the Hall measurement result within 3%. The HH band degeneracy is understood through the diminishing spin-orbit interaction due to the low charge density and the nearly symmetric confinement. SdH oscillations fitted for 0.08 T ≤ B ≤ 0.24 T to the Dingle parameters yield an effective mass between 0.30 and 0.50 m{sub e} in good agreement with previous cyclotron resonance results.

  10. As Above, So Below: Exploiting Mass Scaling in Black Hole Accretion to Break Degeneracies in Spectral Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markoff, Sera; Nowak, Michael A.; Gallo, Elena; Hynes, Robert; Wilms, Jörn; Plotkin, Richard M.; Maitra, Dipankar; Silva, Catia V.; Drappeau, Samia

    2015-10-01

    Over the past decade, evidence has mounted that several aspects of black hole (BH) accretion physics proceed in a mass-invariant way. One of the best examples of this scaling is the empirical “fundamental plane of BH accretion” relation linking mass, radio, and X-ray luminosity over eight orders of magnitude in BH mass. The currently favored theoretical interpretation of this relation is that the physics governing power output in weakly accreting BHs depends more on relative accretion rate than on mass. In order to test this theory, we explore whether a mass-invariant approach can simultaneously explain the broadband spectral energy distributions from two BHs at opposite ends of the mass scale but that are at similar Eddington accretion fractions. We find that the same model, with the same value of several fitted physical parameters expressed in mass-scaling units to enforce self-similarity, can provide a good description of two data sets from V404 Cyg and M81*, a stellar and supermassive BH, respectively. Furthermore, only one of several potential emission scenarios for the X-ray band is successful, suggesting it is the dominant process driving the fundamental plane relation at this accretion rate. This approach thus holds promise for breaking current degeneracies in the interpretation of BH high-energy spectra and for constructing better prescriptions of BH accretion for use in various local and cosmological feedback applications.

  11. Investigation of Yb2Pt6Al15 single crystals: heavy fermion system with a large local moment degeneracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deppe, M.; Hartmann, S.; Macovei, M. E.; Oeschler, N.; Nicklas, M.; Geibel, C.

    2008-09-01

    We grew single crystals of Yb2Pt6Al15 and investigated the magnetic properties of this compound by means of susceptibility χ(T), specific heat C(T), resistivity ρ (T) and thermoelectric power S(T) measurements. While all properties follow in general the behavior typical for Kondo-lattice systems, χ(T) and C(T)/T present broad maxima in the T range 17 35 K, which matches nicely the prediction of the Coqblin Schrieffer model for J= 7/2. A large degeneracy of the local moment is also supported by a reduced Kadowaki Woods ratio. Thus, the analysis of all investigated properties evidences Yb2Pt6Al15 to be a paramagnetic Kondo-lattice system with the whole J= 7/2 multiplet involved in the formation of the Kondo state, a Kondo temperature of the order of 60 K, and a heavy Fermi-liquid ground state with a Sommerfeld coefficient γ 0 = 0.33 J (mol-Yb)-1 K-2 corresponding to a mass enhancement of the order of 30.

  12. Resource capture by single leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Long, S.P.

    1992-05-01

    Leaves show a variety of strategies for maximizing CO{sub 2} and light capture. These are more meaningfully explained if they are considered in the context of maximizing capture relative to the utilization of water, nutrients and carbohydrates reserves. There is considerable variation between crops in their efficiency of CO{sub 2} and light capture at the leaf level. Understanding of these mechanisms indicate some ways in which efficiency of resource capture could be level cannot be meaningfully considered without simultaneous understanding of implications at the canopy level. 36 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  13. 29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... employee to take more leave than is necessary to address the circumstances that precipitated the need for... for any other type of leave. For example, if an employer accounts for the use of annual leave in... in shorter increments than used for other forms of leave. For example, an employer that accounts...

  14. 5 CFR 630.1104 - Donations from a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Donations from a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program. 630.1104 Section 630.1104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1104...

  15. 5 CFR 630.1104 - Donations from a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Donations from a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program. 630.1104 Section 630.1104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1104...

  16. 5 CFR 630.1104 - Donations from a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Donations from a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program. 630.1104 Section 630.1104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1104...

  17. 5 CFR 630.1104 - Donations from a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Donations from a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program. 630.1104 Section 630.1104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1104...

  18. 5 CFR 630.1104 - Donations from a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Donations from a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program. 630.1104 Section 630.1104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1104...

  19. New look at the degeneracies in the neutrino oscillation parameters, and their resolution by T2K, NO ν A and ICAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Monojit; Ghoshal, Pomita; Goswami, Srubabati; Nath, Newton; Raut, Sushant K.

    2016-01-01

    The three major unknown neutrino oscillation parameters at the present juncture are the mass hierarchy, the octant of the mixing angle θ23 and the C P phase δC P . It is well known that the presence of hierarchy-δC P and octant degeneracies affects the unambiguous determination of these parameters. In this paper, we show that a comprehensive way to study the remaining parameter degeneracies is in the form of a generalized hierarchy-θ23-δC P degeneracy. This is best depicted as contours in the test (θ23-δC P ) plane for different representative true values of parameters. We show that the wrong-hierarchy and/or wrong-octant solutions can be further classified into eight different solutions depending on whether they occur with the wrong or right value of δC P. These eight solutions are different from the original eightfold degenerate solutions and can exist, in principle, even if θ13 is known. These multiple solutions, apart from affecting the determination of the true hierarchy and octant, also affect the accurate estimation of δC P. We identify which of these eight different degenerate solutions can occur in the test (θ23-δC P) parameter space, taking the long-baseline experiment NO ν A running in the neutrino mode as an example. The inclusion of the NO ν A antineutrino run removes the wrong-octant solutions appearing with both right and wrong hierarchy. Adding T2K data to this resolves the wrong hierarchy-right octant solutions to a large extent. The remaining wrong-hierarchy solutions can be removed by combining NO ν A +T 2 K with atmospheric neutrino data. We demonstrate this using ICAL@INO as the prototype atmospheric neutrino detector. We find that the degeneracies can be resolved at the 2 σ level by the combined data set, for the true parameter space considered in the study.

  20. Phytic acid in green leaves.

    PubMed

    Hadi Alkarawi, H; Zotz, G

    2014-07-01

    Phytic acid or phytate, the free-acid form of myo-inositolhexakiphosphate, is abundant in many seeds and fruits, where it represents the major storage form of phosphorus. Although also known from other plant tissues, available reports on the occurrence of phytic acid, e.g. in leaves, have never been compiled, nor have they been critically reviewed. We found 45 published studies with information on phytic acid content in leaves. Phytic acid was almost always detected when studies specifically tried to detect it, and accounted for up to 98% of total P. However, we argue that such extreme values, which rival findings from storage organs, are dubious and probably result from measurement errors. Excluding these high values from further quantitative analysis, foliar phytic acid-P averaged 2.3 mg·g(-1) , and represented, on average, 7.6% of total P. Remarkably, the ratio of phytic acid-P to total P did not increase with total P, we even detected a negative correlation of the two variables within one species, Manihot esculenta. This enigmatic finding warrants further attention. PMID:24341824

  1. Mercury uptake into poplar leaves.

    PubMed

    Assad, Mohamad; Parelle, Julien; Cazaux, David; Gimbert, Frédéric; Chalot, Michel; Tatin-Froux, Fabienne

    2016-03-01

    Tailings dumps require mercury stabilization to prevent air pollution by evaporated mercury, which can be achieved through plant covers. Plants are considered a net sink for atmospheric Hg via incorporation into leaf tissues. However, most studies related to Hg uptake by plants have considered plants exposed to only atmospheric Hg, whereas in the case of tailings dumps, plants are potentially exposed to both soil and atmospheric Hg. The goal of this work is to evaluate the relative contributions of root and atmospheric pathways by growing poplar (Populus trichocarpa X Populus maximowiczii/var Skado) cuttings on either control or polluted substrates and under either natural or controlled exposure conditions. We showed that foliar Hg concentrations significantly increased with age, reaching 120 ng g(-1) dry mass when poplars were exposed to Hg-contaminated substrate under natural exposure. Remarkably, we did not observe significantly different Hg concentrations in poplar leaves grown on either the control or polluted substrates when cultivated together in growth chambers. Our set of data prompted us to conclude that Hg entry into poplar leaves is exclusively through an atmospheric pathway. Our results are discussed in line with existing literature. PMID:26694893

  2. Seawater spray injury to Quercus acutissima leaves: crystal deposition, stomatal clogging, and chloroplast degeneration.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Woo; Koo, Kyosang; Kim, Pan-Gi

    2011-05-01

    Effects of seawater spray on leaf structure were investigated in Quercus acutissima by electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis. Two-year-old seedlings of Q. acutissima were sprayed with seawater and kept in a greenhouse maintained at 25°C. The most recognizable symptoms of seawater-sprayed seedlings included leaf necrosis, crystal deposition, stomatal clogging, and chloroplast degeneration. Field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed that the leaf surface was covered with additional layers of remnants of seawater spray. Composed of sodium and chloride, cube-shaped crystals (halite) were prevalently found on trichomes and epidermis, and formed aggregates. Meanwhile, wedge-shaped crystals were deposited on epidermis and consisted of calcium and sulfur. As a result of stomatal clogging by crystal deposition on the abaxial surface, it was conceivable that plant respiration became severely hampered. Transmission electron microscopy showed degenerated cytoplasm of seawater-sprayed leaves. It was common to observe severe plasmolysis and disrupted chloroplasts with a reduced number of thylakoids in grana. These results indicate that foliar applications of seawater were sufficient to induce necrosis of Q. acutissima seedlings as an abiotic disturbance factor. PMID:20931628

  3. Degeneracy relations in QCD and the equivalence of two systematic all-orders methods for setting the renormalization scale

    SciTech Connect

    Bi, Huan -Yu; Wu, Xing -Gang; Ma, Yang; Ma, Hong -Hao; Brodsky, Stanley J.; Mojaza, Matin

    2015-06-26

    The Principle of Maximum Conformality (PMC) eliminates QCD renormalization scale-setting uncertainties using fundamental renormalization group methods. The resulting scale-fixed pQCD predictions are independent of the choice of renormalization scheme and show rapid convergence. The coefficients of the scale-fixed couplings are identical to the corresponding conformal series with zero β-function. Two all-orders methods for systematically implementing the PMC-scale setting procedure for existing high order calculations are discussed in this article. One implementation is based on the PMC-BLM correspondence (PMC-I); the other, more recent, method (PMC-II) uses the Rδ-scheme, a systematic generalization of the minimal subtraction renormalization scheme. Both approaches satisfy all of the principles of the renormalization group and lead to scale-fixed and scheme-independent predictions at each finite order. In this work, we show that PMC-I and PMC-II scale-setting methods are in practice equivalent to each other. We illustrate this equivalence for the four-loop calculations of the annihilation ratio Re+e and the Higgs partial width I'(H→bb¯). Both methods lead to the same resummed (‘conformal’) series up to all orders. The small scale differences between the two approaches are reduced as additional renormalization group {βi}-terms in the pQCD expansion are taken into account. In addition, we show that special degeneracy relations, which underly the equivalence of the two PMC approaches and the resulting conformal features of the pQCD series, are in fact general properties of non-Abelian gauge theory.

  4. Degeneracy relations in QCD and the equivalence of two systematic all-orders methods for setting the renormalization scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Huan-Yu; Wu, Xing-Gang; Ma, Yang; Ma, Hong-Hao; Brodsky, Stanley J.; Mojaza, Matin

    2015-09-01

    The Principle of Maximum Conformality (PMC) eliminates QCD renormalization scale-setting uncertainties using fundamental renormalization group methods. The resulting scale-fixed pQCD predictions are independent of the choice of renormalization scheme and show rapid convergence. The coefficients of the scale-fixed couplings are identical to the corresponding conformal series with zero β-function. Two all-orders methods for systematically implementing the PMC-scale setting procedure for existing high order calculations are discussed in this article. One implementation is based on the PMC-BLM correspondence (PMC-I); the other, more recent, method (PMC-II) uses the Rδ-scheme, a systematic generalization of the minimal subtraction renormalization scheme. Both approaches satisfy all of the principles of the renormalization group and lead to scale-fixed and scheme-independent predictions at each finite order. In this work, we show that PMC-I and PMC-II scale-setting methods are in practice equivalent to each other. We illustrate this equivalence for the four-loop calculations of the annihilation ratio Re+e- and the Higgs partial width Γ (H → b b bar). Both methods lead to the same resummed ('conformal') series up to all orders. The small scale differences between the two approaches are reduced as additional renormalization group {βi }-terms in the pQCD expansion are taken into account. We also show that special degeneracy relations, which underly the equivalence of the two PMC approaches and the resulting conformal features of the pQCD series, are in fact general properties of non-Abelian gauge theory.

  5. Autumn leaves seen through herbivore eyes

    PubMed Central

    Döring, Thomas F; Archetti, Marco; Hardie, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Why leaves of some trees turn red in autumn has puzzled biologists for decades, as just before leaf fall the pigments causing red coloration are newly synthesized. One idea to explain this apparently untimely investment is that red colour signals the tree's quality to herbivorous insects, particularly aphids. However, it is unclear whether red leaves are indeed less attractive to aphids than green leaves. Because aphids lack a red photoreceptor, it was conjectured that red leaves could even be indiscernable from green ones for these insects. Here we show, however, that the colour of autumnal tree leaves that appear red to humans are on average much less attractive to aphids than green leaves, whereas yellow leaves are much more attractive. We conclude that, while active avoidance of red leaves by aphids is unlikely, red coloration in autumn could still be a signal of the tree's quality, or alternatively serve to mask the over-attractive yellow that is unveiled when the green chlorophyll is recovered from senescing leaves. Our study shows that in sensory ecology, receiver physiology alone is not sufficient to reveal the whole picture. Instead, the combined analysis of behaviour and a large set of natural stimuli unexpectedly shows that animals lacking a red photoreceptor may be able to differentiate between red and green leaves. PMID:18782744

  6. Phenolics of Moringa oleifera leaves.

    PubMed

    Manguro, Lawrence Onyango Arot; Lemmen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Five flavonol glycosides characterised as kaempferide 3-O-(2'',3''-diacetylglucoside), kaempferide 3-O-(2''-O-galloylrhamnoside), kaempferide 3-O-(2''-O-galloylrutinoside)-7-O-alpha-rhamnoside, kaempferol 3-O-[beta-glucosyl-(1 --> 2)]-[alpha-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 6)]-beta-glucoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnoside and kaempferol 3-O-[alpha-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 2)]-[alpha-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 4)]-beta-glucoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnoside together with benzoic acid 4-O-beta-glucoside, benzoic acid 4-O-alpha-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-glucoside and benzaldehyde 4-O-beta-glucoside have been isolated from methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves. Also obtained from the same extract were known compounds, kaempferol 3-O-alpha-rhamnoside, kaempferol, syringic acid, gallic acid, rutin and quercetin 3-O-beta-glucoside. Their structures were determined using spectroscopic methods as well as comparison with data from known compounds. PMID:17365690

  7. The cardioprotective power of leaves

    PubMed Central

    Boncler, Magdalena; Watala, Cezary

    2015-01-01

    Lack of physical activity, smoking and/or inappropriate diet can contribute to the increase of oxidative stress, in turn affecting the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases. Strong anti-oxidant properties of plant polyphenolic compounds might underlie their cardioprotective activity. This paper reviews recent findings on the anti-oxidant activity of plant leaf extracts and emphasizes their effects on blood platelets, leukocytes and endothelial cells – the targets orchestrating the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. We also review the evidence linking supplementation with plant leaf extracts and the risk factors defining the metabolic syndrome. The data point to the importance of leaves as an alternative source of polyphenolic compounds in the human diet and their role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26322095

  8. Convergence, Degeneracy, and Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, David W.; Crinion, Jenny; Price, Cathy J.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the neural representation and control of language in normal bilingual speakers provides insights into the factors that constrain the acquisition of another language, insights into the nature of language expertise, and an understanding of the brain as an adaptive system. We illustrate both functional and structural brain changes…

  9. Convergence, degeneracy and control.

    PubMed

    Green, David W; Crinion, J; Price, Cathy J

    2006-07-01

    Understanding the neural representation and control of language in normal bilingual speakers provides insights into the factors that constrain the acquisition of another language, insights into the nature of language expertise and an understanding of the brain as an adaptive system. We illustrate both functional and structural brain changes associated with acquiring other languages and discuss the value of neuroimaging data in identifying individual differences and different phenotypes. Understanding normal variety is vital too if we are to understand the consequences of brain-damage in bilingual and polyglot speakers. PMID:18273402

  10. Convergence, degeneracy and control

    PubMed Central

    Green, David W.; Crinion, J.; Price, Cathy J.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the neural representation and control of language in normal bilingual speakers provides insights into the factors that constrain the acquisition of another language, insights into the nature of language expertise and an understanding of the brain as an adaptive system. We illustrate both functional and structural brain changes associated with acquiring other languages and discuss the value of neuroimaging data in identifying individual differences and different phenotypes. Understanding normal variety is vital too if we are to understand the consequences of brain-damage in bilingual and polyglot speakers. PMID:18273402

  11. Paid Sick Leave and Job Stability

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Heather D.

    2013-01-01

    A compelling, but unsubstantiated, argument for paid sick leave legislation is that workers with leave are better able to address own and family member health needs without risking a voluntary or involuntary job separation. This study tests that claim using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and regression models controlling for a large set of worker and job characteristics, as well as with propensity score techniques. Results suggest that paid sick leave decreases the probability of job separation by at least 2.5 percentage points, or 25%. The association is strongest for workers without paid vacation leave and for mothers. PMID:24235780

  12. Paid Sick Leave and Job Stability.

    PubMed

    Hill, Heather D

    2013-05-01

    A compelling, but unsubstantiated, argument for paid sick leave legislation is that workers with leave are better able to address own and family member health needs without risking a voluntary or involuntary job separation. This study tests that claim using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and regression models controlling for a large set of worker and job characteristics, as well as with propensity score techniques. Results suggest that paid sick leave decreases the probability of job separation by at least 2.5 percentage points, or 25%. The association is strongest for workers without paid vacation leave and for mothers. PMID:24235780

  13. Developments in Educational Leave of Absence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    The document evaluates present international developments in the area of leave of absence during working hours for educational purposes. Part 1, Educational Leave of Absence: A Comparative Analysis, contains five chapters: (1) Towards a New Right to Education, discussing recurrent education, the world of work, the International Labor Organization,…

  14. Developing an Alternative Sabbatical Leave Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holleman, John J.

    A study was conducted at Vista College to compare the sabbatical leave policy of the Peralta Community College District with those of other districts and to develop alternative policies that would permit a greater number of faculty to obtain sabbatical leaves. Policy statements were received from nine of the twelve districts surveyed, and…

  15. Resilience and Young People Leaving Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Mike

    2008-01-01

    How do we promote the resilience of young people leaving care? This article explores this question by bringing together research findings on the resilience of young people from disadvantaged family backgrounds with research studies on young people leaving care. These findings are applied to young people during their journey to adulthood: their…

  16. A Feminist Perspective on Parental Leave Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallee, Margaret W.

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the ways that three feminist theories--liberal feminism, cultural feminism, and feminist poststructuralism--might be used to craft parental leave policies. After examining each theory in detail, the article concludes by offering one example of an ideal parental leave policy that combines the best features of each theory to…

  17. Ensiling Characteristics of Alfalfa Leaves and Stems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The separate harvesting of alfalfa leaves and stems would provide farmers more flexibility in the harvesting and utilization of alfalfa, but a key issue is storage. In three trials, unwilted alfalfa leaves were ensiled alone or with cell wall degrading enzymes, formic acid or lactic acid bacterial i...

  18. 29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family... also be taken to provide care or psychological comfort to a covered family member with a serious health... reduced schedule leave may be taken for absences where the employee or family member is incapacitated...

  19. Changes in spectral properties of detached leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daughtry, C. S. T.; Biehl, L. L.

    1984-01-01

    If leaf senescence can be delayed for several days without significant changes in spectral properties, then samples of leaves at remote test sites could be prepared and shipped to laboratories to measure spectral properties. The changes in spectral properties of detached leaves were determined. Leaves from red birch and red pine were immersed in water or 0.001 M benzylaminopurine (BAP) and stored in plastic bags in the dark at either 5 or 25 C. Total directional-hemispherical reflectance and transmittance of the adaxial surface of birch leaves were measured over the 400 to 1100 nm wavelength region with a spectroradiometer and integrating sphere. Pine needles were taped together and reflectance of the mat of needles was measured. Spectral properties changed less than 5% of initial values during the first week when leaves were stored at 5 C. Storage at 25 C promoted rapid senescence and large changes in spectral properties. BAP delayed, but did not stop, senescence at 25 C.

  20. Unveiling Inherent Degeneracies in Determining Population-Weighted Ensembles of Interdomain Orientational Distributions Using NMR Residual Dipolar Couplings: Application to RNA Helix Junction Helix Motifs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shan; Al-Hashimi, Hashim M

    2015-07-30

    A growing number of studies employ time-averaged experimental data to determine dynamic ensembles of biomolecules. While it is well-known that different ensembles can satisfy experimental data to within error, the extent and nature of these degeneracies, and their impact on the accuracy of the ensemble determination remains poorly understood. Here, we use simulations and a recently introduced metric for assessing ensemble similarity to explore degeneracies in determining ensembles using NMR residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) with specific application to A-form helices in RNA. Various target ensembles were constructed representing different domain-domain orientational distributions that are confined to a topologically restricted (<10%) conformational space. Five independent sets of ensemble averaged RDCs were then computed for each target ensemble and a "sample and select" scheme used to identify degenerate ensembles that satisfy RDCs to within experimental uncertainty. We find that ensembles with different ensemble sizes and that can differ significantly from the target ensemble (by as much as ∑Ω ∼ 0.4 where ∑Ω varies between 0 and 1 for maximum and minimum ensemble similarity, respectively) can satisfy the ensemble averaged RDCs. These deviations increase with the number of unique conformers and breadth of the target distribution, and result in significant uncertainty in determining conformational entropy (as large as 5 kcal/mol at T = 298 K). Nevertheless, the RDC-degenerate ensembles are biased toward populated regions of the target ensemble, and capture other essential features of the distribution, including the shape. Our results identify ensemble size as a major source of uncertainty in determining ensembles and suggest that NMR interactions such as RDCs and spin relaxation, on their own, do not carry the necessary information needed to determine conformational entropy at a useful level of precision. The framework introduced here provides a general

  1. Degeneracy Lifting Effect in the FTIR Spectrum of Fluoroform Trapped in a Nitrogen Matrix. An Experimental and Car-Parrinello Molecular Dynamics Study.

    PubMed

    Asfin, Ruslan E; Melikova, Sona M; Domanskaya, Alexandra V; Rodziewicz, Paweł; Rutkowski, Konstantin S

    2016-05-26

    The FTIR spectra of fluoroform trapped in argon and nitrogen matrixes are studied at T ∼ 10-30 K. The bands of E symmetry show the splitting effect in a nitrogen matrix, which is absent in an argon matrix. The effect is the most prominent in the case of the ν4 CH bending vibration. It decreases slightly with increasing temperature. Both static and Car-Parrinello molecular dynamic simulations suggest that the degeneracy lifting is due to C3v symmetry lowering caused by interactions between fluoroform and all neighbor N2 matrix molecules. PMID:27149085

  2. Influence of pesticides on yeasts colonizing leaves.

    PubMed

    Vadkertiová, Renata; Sláviková, Elena

    2011-01-01

    The effect of nine different pesticides on the growth of yeasts isolated from the leaves of fruit and forest trees was investigated. Four insecticides (with the active ingredients: thiacloprid, deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, and thiamethoxam) and five fungicides (with the effective substances: bitertanol, kresoxim-methyl, mancozeb, trifloxystrobin, and cupric oxychloride) were tested. The concentrations of chemicals were those recommended by the manufacturers for the spraying of trees. The yeast strains isolated from the leaves of fruit trees were not sensitive to any of the insecticides. The majority of yeast strains isolated from the leaves of forest trees were either not sensitive or only to a small extent. While Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Pichia anomala were not affected by any insecticide, the strains of Cryptococcus laurentii and Rhodotorula glutinis showed the highest sensitivity. The effects of fungicides on the growth of isolated yeasts were more substantial. The fungicide Dithane DG (mancozeb) completely inhibited the growth of all yeasts. All strains isolated from fruit tree leaves were more resistant to the tested fungicides than those isolated from the leaves of forest trees. The most resistant strains from the leaves of fruit trees belonged to the species Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia anomala, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whereas Cryptococcus albidus and C. laurentii, originating from the leaves of forest trees, showed the highest sensitivity to fungicides. PMID:22351984

  3. Paid Sick Leave and Nonfatal Occupational Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Pana-Cryan, Regina; Rosa, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the association between US workers’ access to paid sick leave and the incidence of nonfatal occupational injuries from the employer’s perspective. We also examined this association in different industries and occupations. Methods. We developed a theoretical framework to examine the business value of offering paid sick leave. Data from the National Health Interview Survey were used to test the hypothesis that offering paid sick leave is associated with a reduced incidence of occupational injuries. We used data on approximately 38 000 working adults to estimate a multivariate model. Results. With all other variables held constant, workers with access to paid sick leave were 28% (95% confidence interval = 0.52, 0.99) less likely than workers without access to paid sick leave to be injured. The association between the availability of paid sick leave and the incidence of occupational injuries varied across sectors and occupations, with the greatest differences occurring in high-risk sectors and occupations. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that, similar to other investments in worker safety and health, introducing or expanding paid sick leave programs might help businesses reduce the incidence of nonfatal occupational injuries, particularly in high-risk sectors and occupations. PMID:22720767

  4. 5 CFR 630.911 - Restoration of transferred annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...' Compensation Programs under 20 CFR 10.202 and 10.310, and the annual leave was leave transferred under § 630... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Restoration of transferred annual leave... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Transfer Program § 630.911 Restoration of transferred...

  5. 5 CFR 630.911 - Restoration of transferred annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...' Compensation Programs under 20 CFR 10.202 and 10.310, and the annual leave was leave transferred under § 630... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Restoration of transferred annual leave... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Transfer Program § 630.911 Restoration of transferred...

  6. 5 CFR 630.911 - Restoration of transferred annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...' Compensation Programs under 20 CFR 10.202 and 10.310, and the annual leave was leave transferred under § 630... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Restoration of transferred annual leave... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Transfer Program § 630.911 Restoration of transferred...

  7. 5 CFR 630.911 - Restoration of transferred annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...' Compensation Programs under 20 CFR 10.202 and 10.310, and the annual leave was leave transferred under § 630... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restoration of transferred annual leave... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Transfer Program § 630.911 Restoration of transferred...

  8. 5 CFR 630.606 - Grant of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grant of home leave. 630.606 Section 630... LEAVE Home Leave § 630.606 Grant of home leave. (a) Entitlement. Except as otherwise authorized by statute, an employee is entitled to home leave only when he has completed a basic service period of...

  9. 5 CFR 630.605 - Computation of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computation of home leave. 630.605... AND LEAVE Home Leave § 630.605 Computation of home leave. (a) For each month of service abroad, an employee earns home leave under the rates fixed by § 630.604(a) in the amounts set forth in the...

  10. 5 CFR 630.606 - Grant of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grant of home leave. 630.606 Section 630... LEAVE Home Leave § 630.606 Grant of home leave. (a) Entitlement. Except as otherwise authorized by statute, an employee is entitled to home leave only when he has completed a basic service period of...

  11. 5 CFR 630.605 - Computation of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Computation of home leave. 630.605... AND LEAVE Home Leave § 630.605 Computation of home leave. (a) For each month of service abroad, an employee earns home leave under the rates fixed by § 630.604(a) in the amounts set forth in the...

  12. 5 CFR 630.308 - Scheduling of annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scheduling of annual leave. 630.308... AND LEAVE Annual Leave § 630.308 Scheduling of annual leave. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b... for advance scheduling of annual leave in paragraph (a) of this section shall not apply to an...

  13. 5 CFR 630.605 - Computation of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Computation of home leave. 630.605... AND LEAVE Home Leave § 630.605 Computation of home leave. (a) For each month of service abroad, an employee earns home leave under the rates fixed by § 630.604(a) in the amounts set forth in the...

  14. 5 CFR 630.605 - Computation of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Computation of home leave. 630.605... AND LEAVE Home Leave § 630.605 Computation of home leave. (a) For each month of service abroad, an employee earns home leave under the rates fixed by § 630.604(a) in the amounts set forth in the...

  15. 5 CFR 630.606 - Grant of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grant of home leave. 630.606 Section 630... LEAVE Home Leave § 630.606 Grant of home leave. (a) Entitlement. Except as otherwise authorized by statute, an employee is entitled to home leave only when he has completed a basic service period of...

  16. 5 CFR 630.606 - Grant of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grant of home leave. 630.606 Section 630... LEAVE Home Leave § 630.606 Grant of home leave. (a) Entitlement. Except as otherwise authorized by statute, an employee is entitled to home leave only when he has completed a basic service period of...

  17. 5 CFR 630.605 - Computation of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Computation of home leave. 630.605... AND LEAVE Home Leave § 630.605 Computation of home leave. (a) For each month of service abroad, an employee earns home leave under the rates fixed by § 630.604(a) in the amounts set forth in the...

  18. 5 CFR 630.606 - Grant of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grant of home leave. 630.606 Section 630... LEAVE Home Leave § 630.606 Grant of home leave. (a) Entitlement. Except as otherwise authorized by statute, an employee is entitled to home leave only when he has completed a basic service period of...

  19. Phytochemical and antifungal activities of Uvaria. chamae leaves and roots, Spondias mombin leaves and bark and Combretum racemosum leaves.

    PubMed

    Okwuosa, O M T B; Chukwura, E I; Chukwuma, G O; Okwuosa, C N; Enweani, I B; Agbakoba, N R; Chukwuma, C M; Manafa, P O; Umedum, C U

    2012-12-01

    The effects of crude and dilutions of aqueous, methanolic and n-hexane extracts of Uvaria chamae (roots and leaves), Spondias mombin (leaves and bark) and Combretum racemosum (Leaves), on pathogenic candida albicans and aspergillus niger was studied. The aim was to contribute to the search for a cheaper, conventional cure for both fungi. Phytochemical analysis revealed varying degrees of alkaloids, glycosides, saponin, lipid and oil, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids and acids. Agar diffusion method was used for anti fungal assay. Minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) used was 10 mg/ml of extract and dilutions of the non polar solvents of 10 (-1) and 10(-2) was used. Results showed that none of the plant parts was active against aspergillus niger. Combretum racemosum had no antifungal effect on tested organisms as well as the different dilutions. However crude methanolic extract of uvaria (roots and leaves), spondias ( bark and leaves ), and n-hexane extracts of uvaria (leaves and roots), produced anti candidal effects with diameters in this order 14.67 +/- 0.72mm, 10.67 +/- 0.52 mm, 11.00 +/- 0.47 mm, 15.00 +/- 0.47 mm, and 14.67 +/- 0.72 mm respectively. Some of the plant parts especially uvaria had zones of inhibition at a confidence limit comparable with control drug which is ketoconazole and it had inhibitory effects at a diameter of 20.06 +/- 0.40 mm. PMID:23678643

  20. The Chromatography of Leaves and Inks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemecology, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Describes the use of a simple process known as chromatography to separate and observe the color pigments in leaves, inks, and other materials. Provides some historical background and detailed procedures. (DDR)

  1. ["Paternity leave"? Retrospective view on a delayed reform of maternity leave in Austria].

    PubMed

    Munz, R

    1984-01-01

    Only 1 of 3 Austrian fathers involves himself daily in child rearing, and the younger the children, the less likely he is to be involved. Austria is among those European countries with the greatest pregnancy benefits. New mothers may take up to 1 year of paid maternity leave without fear of losing their jobs. This article uses 1982 Institute of Demography survey data to determine support for similar paternity leave for fathers. In the last few years, both Social Democrat and Conservative women have worked for this leave, although the movement has also found opposition by women in trade unions, as well as from conservative groups. Survey results show that 46% of married Austrian women, under age 40, favor paternity leave; 1 or 4 women can imagine their husbands taking such leave. Among husbands, 34% favored the leave option, and 1 of 4 could imagine taking the leave for a least part of the baby's first year. The study attempts to identify those husbands most likely to take advantage of paternity leave. At present, most men will not choose to stay with their children at the expense of earnings reduction. Compensation reforms for both mothers and fathers must first occur before men and women in a position to make real decisions on maternity and paternity leave. PMID:12339587

  2. Cadmium accumulation in leaves of leafy vegetables.

    PubMed

    Baldantoni, Daniela; Morra, Luigi; Zaccardelli, Massimo; Alfani, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Leafy vegetables have a relatively high potential for Cd uptake and translocation, and are thus considered Cd accumulators. For this reason, leaves and roots of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and endive (Cichorium endivia L.) plants, grown on different agricultural soils in Campania region (southern Italy), subjected to different fertilisation treatments (unfertilisation, compost amendment and mineral fertilisation), were analysed for Cd concentrations. Moreover, to clarify if the highest concentrations found are linked to older and inedible or to younger and edible leaves, external and internal endive leaves were separately analysed. All the leafy vegetables analysed showed on average 2-fold higher Cd concentrations in leaves than in roots. Leaf Cd concentrations in both lettuce and endive plants significantly differed among fertilisation treatments, with values highest in the plants grown on mineral fertilised soils. Apart from the soil fertilisation treatments, however, Cd leaf concentrations were often higher (up to 4-fold) than the threshold deduced by the EU 420/2011 Regulation, although the plants grew on unpolluted soils. Anyway, external leaves of endive plants showed significantly higher concentrations than internal leaves (in some cases the values were 3-fold higher), partly reassuring on the consumption of the younger leaves. Moreover, this study points out two major drawbacks in the Italian and European regulatory frameworks: (1) metal concentration (as total and/or available fraction) limits in agricultural soils are lacking; (2) metal concentration thresholds (currently existing only for Cd and Pb in crops) reported in the EU 420/2011 Regulation, expressed on the fresh weight basis rather than on the dry weight basis, appear not suitable. PMID:26004982

  3. The extraction of characteristic wavebands for radish leaves and rice leaves based on LCTF imaging method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Peng-fei; Feng, Jie; Li, Hong-ning

    2013-08-01

    In order to identify and classify horticultural crops rapidly, it is great importance of selecting effective characteristic wavebands from a large number of imaging data. Extracting effective characteristic wavebands can nearly represent holistic information of the research target from rich imaging spectral data, mainly used for rapid characteristic identification, cluster analysis and establishing database, especially in high spectral sensing to recognize targets for a long distance. The experiment chooses radish leaves and rice leaves as research samples so as to obtain spectral information from the surface of samples by interval of 5nm based on LCTF imaging; then, the standard deviation and correlation coefficient of the gray images are calculated for these two kinds of leaves; next, we calculate the value of waveband index according to standard deviation and correlation coefficient, and extract the effective characteristic wavebands for radish leaves and rice leaves through the sorting of waveband index. By those, the experimental results show there are six ideal wavebands at 530nm, 550nm, 555nm, 715nm, 510nm and 565nm for radish leaves, 645nm, 675nm, 685nm, 670nm, 690nm and 660nm for rice leaves separately. Further, according to the principle of Euclidean distance, we also give an assessment of classification accuracy for these two samples by comparing characteristic wavebands with full wavebands, and the classification accuracy of radish leaves and rice leaves is 80.00% and 86.67% respectively. Therefore, choosing these wavebands can be used as effective characteristic wavebands for radish leaves and rice leaves.

  4. Parenthood and Leaving Home in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Hofferth, Sandra L.; Curtin, Sally C.

    2014-01-01

    With increases in nonmarital fertility, the sequencing of transitions in early adulthood has become even more complex. Once the primary transition out of the parental home, marriage was first replaced by nonfamily living and cohabitation; more recently, many young adults have become parents before entering a coresidential union. Studies of leaving home, however, have not examined the role of early parenthood. Using the Young Adult Study of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n = 4,674), we use logistic regression to analyze parenthood both as a correlate of leaving home and as a route from the home. We find that even in mid-adolescence, becoming a parent is linked with leaving home. Coming from a more affluent family is linked with leaving home via routes that do not involve children rather than those that do, and having a warm relationship with either a mother or a father retards leaving home, particularly to nonfamily living, but is not related to parental routes out of the home. PMID:25544790

  5. Shubnikov-de Haas Oscillations of High-Mobility Holes in Monolayer and Bilayer WSe2 : Landau Level Degeneracy, Effective Mass, and Negative Compressibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallahazad, Babak; Movva, Hema C. P.; Kim, Kyounghwan; Larentis, Stefano; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Banerjee, Sanjay K.; Tutuc, Emanuel

    2016-02-01

    We study the magnetotransport properties of high-mobility holes in monolayer and bilayer WSe2 , which display well defined Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations, and quantum Hall states in high magnetic fields. In both mono- and bilayer WSe2 , the SdH oscillations and the quantum Hall states occur predominantly at even filling factors, evincing a twofold Landau level degeneracy. The Fourier transform analysis of the SdH oscillations in bilayer WSe2 reveals the presence of two subbands localized in the top or the bottom layer, as well as negative compressibility. From the temperature dependence of the SdH oscillations we determine a hole effective mass of 0.45 m0 for both mono- and bilayer WSe2 .

  6. Decision to Leave Scale: Perceived Reasons to Stay in or Leave Violent Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendy, Helen M.; Eggen, Doreen; Gustitus, Cheryl; McLeod, Kelli C.; Ng, Phillip

    2003-01-01

    The 30-item Decision to Leave Scale (DLS) was developed with 631 college women and 420 college women and women in shelters. Seven DLS subscales emerged for concerns in deciding to stay or leave: Fear of Loneliness, Child Care Needs, Financial Problems, Social Embarrassment, Poor Social Support, Fear of Harm, Hopes Things Change. Mean internal…

  7. University Students Leaving Relationships (USLR): Scale Development and Gender Differences in Decisions to Leave Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendy, Helen M.; Can, S. Hakan; Joseph, Lauren J.; Scherer, Cory R.

    2013-01-01

    The University Students Leaving Relationships scale was developed to identify student concerns when contemplating dissolution of romantic relationships. Participants included 1,106 students who rated the importance of issues when deciding to leave relationships. Factor analysis produced three dimensions: Missing the Relationship, Social…

  8. Effects of Flexitime on Sick Leave, Vacation Leave, Anxiety, Performance, and Satisfaction in a Library Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Carol Stoak; Saunders, Russell

    1985-01-01

    Results of study using pretest and posttest control group design in public university library setting to study impact of flexitime indicate that: satisfaction with promotions decreased with significant effect, sick leaves decreased, average length of vacation leaves increased, and results were mixed on performance and approached significance for…

  9. Atomic-level Pseudo-degeneracy of Atomic Levels Giving Transitions Induced by Magnetic Fields, of Importance for Determining the Field Strengths in the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenxian; Yang, Yang; Tu, Bingsheng; Xiao, Jun; Grumer, Jon; Brage, Tomas; Watanabe, Tetsuya; Hutton, Roger; Zou, Yaming

    2016-08-01

    We present a measured value for the degree of pseudo-degeneracy between two fine-structure levels in Fe9+ from line intensity ratios involving a transition induced by an external magnetic field. The extracted fine-structure energy difference between the 3{p}43d{}4{D}5/2 and {}4{D}7/2 levels, where the latter is the upper state for the magnetic-field induced line, is needed in our recently proposed method to measure magnetic-field strengths in the solar corona. The intensity of the 3{p}43d{}4{D}7/2\\to 3{p}5{}2{P}3/2 line at 257.262 Å is sensitive to the magnetic field external to the ion. This sensitivity is in turn strongly dependent on the energy separation in the pseudo-degeneracy through the mixing induced by the external magnetic field. Our measurement, which uses an Electron Beam Ion Trap with a known magnetic-field strength, indicates that this energy difference is 3.5 cm‑1. The high abundance of Fe9+ and the sensitivity of the line’s transition probability to field strengths below 0.1 T opens up the possibility of diagnosing coronal magnetic fields. We propose a new method to measure the magnetic field in the solar corona, from similar intensity ratios in Fe9+. In addition, the proposed method to use the line ratio of the blended line 3{p}43d{}4{D}7/{2,5/2}\\to 3{p}5{}2{P}3/2 with another line from Fe x as the density diagnostic should evaluate the effect of the magnetic-field-induced transition line.

  10. Leaves Antimicrobial Activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra L.

    PubMed

    Irani, Mahboubeh; Sarmadi, Marziyeh; Bernard, Françoise; Ebrahimi Pour, Gholam Hossein; Shaker Bazarnov, Hossein

    2010-01-01

    Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) is an important medicinal plant. In this study, the antimicrobial activities of ethanolic and aqueous extracts from licorice leaves were studied compared to root extracts activities. Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans were used as test organisms. Antimicrobial activity was tested by paper disc agar diffusion and serial dilution methods in order to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The root and leave extracts showed activity against Candida albicans, and tested gram-positive bacteria in a dose dependent manner. The ethanolic extract of the leaves was the most active extract against gram-positive bacteria. Its effectiveness against strains provides hope that it can serve as an alternative therapeutic agent. PMID:24381608

  11. Phenolic profile of Cydonia oblonga Miller leaves.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Andreia P; Pereira, José A; Andrade, Paula B; Valentão, Patrícia; Seabra, Rosa M; Silva, Branca M

    2007-09-19

    Cydonia oblonga Miller leaves phenolic compounds were analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC/DAD and HPLC/UV. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of phenolics were carried out in a total of 36 samples of quince leaves from three different geographical origins of Northern (Bragança and Carrazeda de Ansiães) and Central Portugal (Covilhã) and three collection months (June, August, and October of 2006). These leaves presented a common phenolic profile composed by nine compounds: 3- O-, 4- O- and 5- O-caffeoylquinic acids, 3,5- O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, quercetin-3- O-galactoside, quercetin-3- O-rutinoside, kaempferol-3- O-glycoside, kaempferol-3- O-glucoside, and kaempferol-3- O-rutinoside. 5- O-caffeoylquinic acid was the major phenolic compound (36.2%), followed by quercetin 3- O-rutinoside (21.1%). Quince leaves are characterized by higher relative contents of kaempferol derivatives than fruits (pulps, peels, and seeds), especially in what concerns kaempferol-3- O-rutinoside (12.5%). C. oblonga leaves total phenolic content was very high, varying from 4.9 to 16.5 g/kg dry matter (mean value of 10.3 g/kg dry matter), indicating that these leaves can be used as a good and cheap source of bioactive constituents. Significantly differences were observed in 3- O-caffeoylquinic and 3,5- O-dicaffeoylquinic acids contents, according to geographical provenance and harvesting month, suggesting a possible use of these compounds as geographical origin and/or maturity markers. PMID:17711340

  12. The geometry of unfolding tree leaves

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, H.; Kresling, B.; Vincent, J. F. V.

    1998-01-01

    Leaves of hornbeam (Carpinus betulus) and beech (Fagus sylvaticus) were modelled to a first approximation as plane surfaces, with straight parallel folds, using numerical methods. In both species the lateral veins, when the leaves are outstretched, are angled at 30 to 50 degrees from the centre vein. A higher angle allows the leaf to be folded more compactly within the bud, but it takes longer to expand. This may allow the plant to optimize the timing of leaf deployment with ecological and physiological conditions.

  13. 5 CFR 630.502 - Sick leave recredit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sick leave recredit. 630.502 Section 630.502 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Recredit of Leave § 630.502 Sick leave recredit. (a) When an employee transfers between...

  14. 38 CFR 21.342 - Leave accounting policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Leave accounting policy. 21.342 Section 21.342 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS.... Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.342 Leave accounting policy. (a) Amount of leave. A veteran pursuing...

  15. 38 CFR 21.342 - Leave accounting policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Leave accounting policy. 21.342 Section 21.342 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS.... Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.342 Leave accounting policy. (a) Amount of leave. A veteran pursuing...

  16. 38 CFR 21.342 - Leave accounting policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leave accounting policy. 21.342 Section 21.342 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS.... Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.342 Leave accounting policy. (a) Amount of leave. A veteran pursuing...

  17. Practical Approaches for Teaching Leave No Trace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attarian, Aram

    As participation in outdoor recreation grows, natural resources suffer a variety of environmental and social impacts. A minimum-impact back country educational program first developed during the 1970s, Leave No Trace (LNT), has been revitalized by the National Outdoor Leadership School, six federal agencies, and members of the outdoor products…

  18. Why Do Teachers Leave? CenterView

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for the Future of Teaching and Learning, 2007

    2007-01-01

    While California has made substantial progress in easing its teacher shortage and reducing the concentration of the least prepared teachers in the lowest achieving schools, the effort to strengthen schools for all students is hampered by the large number of teachers who leave the profession prematurely. Policymakers at the state and local levels…

  19. Sun and Shade Leaves: Some Field Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomley, David

    1983-01-01

    Several simple experiments illustrating how the light regime affects the final form of dog's mercury (Mercurialis perennis) are provided. These experiments, which can also be done with other plants, focus on differences in the anatomy, morphology, and physiology of sun and shade leaves. (JN)

  20. Limonoids from the leaves of Cipadessa baccifera.

    PubMed

    Ning, Jing; Di, Ying-Tong; Fang, Xin; He, Hong-Pin; Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Yan; Li, Shun-Lin; Hao, Xiao-Jiang

    2010-08-27

    Eight new limonoids with four different structural frameworks, including gedunin (1, 2), havanensin (3, 4), mexicanolide (5, 6), and methyl angolensate types (7, 8), together with six known limonoids, were isolated from the leaves of Cipadessa baccifera. Compounds 2 and 5 exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against the HL-60 cell line with an IC(50) value of 20 microM. PMID:20666364

  1. Paid Educational Leave: A Partnership Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerton, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Humberside (England) City Council and Hull University collaborated on a project to offer paid educational leave to manual and lower-grade white-collar council staff. The program was aimed at those who had derived little benefit from formal education and provided a supportive environment for working class women who made up the bulk of the…

  2. Furanoheliangolides from leaves of Neurolaena macrocephala.

    PubMed

    Passreiter, C M; Stöber, S; Ortega, A

    2000-01-01

    Six sesquiterpene lactones, two new (3 and 6) and four known (1, 2, 4 and 5) were isolated from the leaves of the Mexican Neurolaena macrocephala (Asteraceae). The furanoheliangolide 6, containing 4beta,5-dihydro-9alpha-hydroxy-atripliciolide as basic structure, was found for the first time in nature. The chemotaxonomic importance of this phytochemical work is discussed. PMID:11204181

  3. Terpenes from leaves of Guarea macrophylla (Meliaceae).

    PubMed

    Lago, J H; Brochini, C B; Roque, N F

    2000-12-01

    The dichloromethane extract from the leaves of Guarea macrophylla (Meliaceae) was submitted to adsorption chromatography. Guai-6-en-10beta-ol, isopimara-7,15-dien-2alpha-ol and cycloarta-23,25-dien-3-one were isolated and identified by spectroscopic data, mainly by 1H and 13C NMR analyses; eight other known terpenoids were also isolated. PMID:11190388

  4. Ladybugs and Lettuce Leaves. Teachers' Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Tracy; And Others

    This is a guide for use with "Ladybugs and Lettuce Leaves" activity cards which are activities for elementary school students (grades 4 to 6) focusing on gardening. It includes educational objectives for each topic as well as lists of vocabulary words, comments, questions for discussion, additional activities, and resources. An interdisciplinary…

  5. Cardanols from leaves of Rhus thyrsiflora.

    PubMed

    Franke, K; Masaoud, M; Schmidt, J

    2001-07-01

    A mixture of 3-substituted alkyl- and alkenylphenols including nine new compounds (cardanols) was isolated from leaves of the Yemenian plant Rhus thyrsiflora (Anacardiaceae) and identified by GC-MS. The position of the double bond in the compounds bearing a monolefinic side chain was determined by their typical MS fragmentation patterns after hydroxylation and trimethylsilylation. PMID:11488469

  6. Sabbatical Leave: Who Gains and How Much?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Oranit B.; Eden, Dov; Westman, Mina; Cohen-Charash, Yochi; Hammer, Leslie B.; Kluger, Avraham N.; Krausz, Moshe; Maslach, Christina; O'Driscoll, Michael; Perrewe, Pamela L.; Quick, James Campbell; Rosenblatt, Zehava; Spector, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    A rigorous quasi-experiment tested the ameliorative effects of a sabbatical leave, a special case of respite from routine work. We hypothesized that (a) respite increases resource level and well-being and (b) individual differences and respite features moderate respite effects. A sample of 129 faculty members on sabbatical and 129 matched controls…

  7. Why Nannies Leave Their Employing Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Glenn

    The position of nanny as a career option for child care/child development/early childhood education graduates is examined. This study surveyed nannies randomly selected from the 1991 International Nanny Association Directory to determine why nannies leave their employing families. Surveys were mailed to 160 nannies; 62 (39%) nannies responded.…

  8. Ecojustice in Science Education: Leaving the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Eduardo Dopico and Eva Garcia-Vazquez's article enriched the ecojustice literature with an interesting metaphor of leaving the classroom, which I argue for here. Glasson and Boggs help to highlight the challenges and fortitude of working ecojustice perspectives in science education and the ways that a dialogical conversation addresses the world at…

  9. Diterpenoids from Leaves of Rubus chingii.

    PubMed

    Shu, Jicheng; Huang, Yingzheng; Cui, Hangqing; Peng, Caiying; Liu, Jianqun; Huang, Huilian

    2016-03-01

    The leaves of Rubus chingii were examined for their phytochemical composition and anti-yeast activity. In the process, seven diterpenoids (compounds 1-7), including a new natural compound (14β, 16-epoxy-7-pimarene-3α, 15β-diol, 1), were isolated and elucidated. Compound 1 exhibited moderate anti-Candida activity. PMID:27169185

  10. The Biology of Ageing in Leaves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, John; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures for observing the progressive change deciduous leaves undergo prior to abscission. Outlines the starch test, sugar test, extraction and chromatography of pigments, and experimental results. States that obtained results enable the events of leaf senescence to be correlated with the carbohydrate economy of a tree in…

  11. Maternity leave duration and postpartum mental and physical health: implications for leave policies.

    PubMed

    Dagher, Rada K; McGovern, Patricia M; Dowd, Bryan E

    2014-04-01

    This study examines the association of leave duration with depressive symptoms, mental health, physical health, and maternal symptoms in the first postpartum year, using a prospective cohort design. Eligible employed women, eighteen years or older, were interviewed in person at three Minnesota hospitals while hospitalized for childbirth in 2001. Telephone interviews were conducted at six weeks (N = 716), twelve weeks (N = 661), six months (N = 625), and twelve months (N = 575) after delivery. Depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale), mental and physical health (SF-12 Health Survey), and maternal childbirth-related symptoms were measured at each time period. Two-stage least squares analysis showed that the relationship between leave duration and postpartum depressive symptoms is U-shaped, with a minimum at six months. In the first postpartum year, an increase in leave duration is associated with a decrease in depressive symptoms until six months postpartum. Moreover, ordinary least squares analysis showed a marginally significant linear positive association between leave duration and physical health. Taking leave from work provides time for mothers to rest and recover from pregnancy and childbirth. Findings indicate that the current leave duration provided by the Family and Medical Leave Act, twelve weeks, may not be sufficient for mothers at risk for or experiencing postpartum depression. PMID:24305845

  12. Youth leaving care: how do they fare?

    PubMed

    Tweddle, Anne

    2007-01-01

    This chapter summarizes recent Canadian and international research on the outcomes for youth after they age out of the child welfare system. It paints a disturbing picture for this small and vulnerable population. Youth leaving care face many challenges in making the transition from state care to independence and adulthood. They bear the emotional scars of childhood neglect or abuse. They do not have a family support network, have limited or no financial resources, are often lacking in life skills, and usually have not completed school. Despite these setbacks, we expect them to function independently once they reach age eighteen. Research shows that once youth leave care, they do not fare as well as their peers. They are at much greater risk of relying on social assistance, becoming homeless, engaging in substance abuse, becoming single parents, experiencing mental health problems, or coming into contact with the criminal justice system. Some youth aging out, however, have more successful transitions. These typically have completed high school, have role models, have access to postsecondary opportunities, refrain from alcohol or drug use, and obtain life skills and independent living training. Having stable placements while in care is also critical in ensuring more positive outcomes. Canada does not have the capacity to track the outcomes of youth as they leave the child welfare system, nor can it identify the types of interventions showing the most promise in helping them achieve better outcomes. Canadian governments need to improve their transitional planning for youth in care who are approaching the age of majority. Some recommendations include extending the age for services and financial assistance to age twenty-four, developing standards to prepare youth for leaving care, and exploring ways to enable youth to pursue higher education or training. Finally, Canada should develop a national longitudinal survey to monitor the outcomes of youth after they leave care

  13. 29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., son, or daughter with a serious health condition, or to care for a covered servicemember with a...) Intermittent leave may be taken for a serious health condition of a spouse, parent, son, or daughter, for...

  14. 29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., son, or daughter with a serious health condition, or to care for a covered servicemember with a...) Intermittent leave may be taken for a serious health condition of a spouse, parent, son, or daughter, for...

  15. Texture and wettability of metallic lotus leaves.

    PubMed

    Frankiewicz, C; Attinger, D

    2016-02-21

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with the self-cleaning behavior of lotus leaves are sought for drag reduction and phase change heat transfer applications. These superrepellent surfaces have traditionally been fabricated by random or deterministic texturing of a hydrophobic material. Recently, superrepellent surfaces have also been made from hydrophilic materials, by deterministic texturing using photolithography, without low-surface energy coating. Here, we show that hydrophilic materials can also be made superrepellent to water by chemical texturing, a stochastic rather than deterministic process. These metallic surfaces are the first analog of lotus leaves, in terms of wettability, texture and repellency. A mechanistic model is also proposed to describe the influence of multiple tiers of roughness on wettability and repellency. This demonstrated ability to make hydrophilic materials superrepellent without deterministic structuring or additional coatings opens the way to large scale and robust manufacturing of superrepellent surfaces. PMID:26537609

  16. Texture and wettability of metallic lotus leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankiewicz, C.; Attinger, D.

    2016-02-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with the self-cleaning behavior of lotus leaves are sought for drag reduction and phase change heat transfer applications. These superrepellent surfaces have traditionally been fabricated by random or deterministic texturing of a hydrophobic material. Recently, superrepellent surfaces have also been made from hydrophilic materials, by deterministic texturing using photolithography, without low-surface energy coating. Here, we show that hydrophilic materials can also be made superrepellent to water by chemical texturing, a stochastic rather than deterministic process. These metallic surfaces are the first analog of lotus leaves, in terms of wettability, texture and repellency. A mechanistic model is also proposed to describe the influence of multiple tiers of roughness on wettability and repellency. This demonstrated ability to make hydrophilic materials superrepellent without deterministic structuring or additional coatings opens the way to large scale and robust manufacturing of superrepellent surfaces.Superhydrophobic surfaces with the self-cleaning behavior of lotus leaves are sought for drag reduction and phase change heat transfer applications. These superrepellent surfaces have traditionally been fabricated by random or deterministic texturing of a hydrophobic material. Recently, superrepellent surfaces have also been made from hydrophilic materials, by deterministic texturing using photolithography, without low-surface energy coating. Here, we show that hydrophilic materials can also be made superrepellent to water by chemical texturing, a stochastic rather than deterministic process. These metallic surfaces are the first analog of lotus leaves, in terms of wettability, texture and repellency. A mechanistic model is also proposed to describe the influence of multiple tiers of roughness on wettability and repellency. This demonstrated ability to make hydrophilic materials superrepellent without deterministic structuring or additional

  17. Green leaves are the stuff of life.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Children, pregnant women, nursing mothers, and the elderly need to eat dark green leafy vegetables. These vegetables provide vitamin A which prevents night blindness and increases resistance to illness. The vitamin is also transferred to babies in breast milk; so mothers, in particular, need to consume these vegetables. Vitamin A is also contained in squash, sweet potatoes, carrots, mangoes, milk, eggs, and liver. Iron, which prevents tiredness and weakness, is found in meat, peas, beans, spinach, cassava leaves, and pumpkin leaves. Folic acid, which is necessary for healthy blood, is also found in dark green leafy vegetables. Pregnant women and the elderly especially need it. Protein is needed by all. Children need it for growth. Sources include meat, fish, eggs, milk, and cheese. However, protein is also found in dark green leafy vegetables, which can be grown or foraged, when the aforementioned sources are in short supply. Cultivated vegetable sources of protein include spinach, leeks, and the leaves of okra, cassava, papaya, hot peppers, beets, taro, and sweet potatoes. Wild vegetable sources are also available; however, care must be taken concerning plants that are poisonous or bitter. Some may require special preparation before eating. Vitamins and minerals escape with cooking, so a lid should be used and the time allotted should be as short as possible. Cooking water may be used for stew or soup, except when the leaves are poisonous before they are cooked (An example of this is cassava.). Children should begin eating these vegetables as soon as they stop breastfeeding. The vegetables can be mashed, ground, sieved or pureed in order for the children to eat them. PMID:12345402

  18. Morphology of leaves cuticle by fringe projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Amalia; Rayas Alvarez, J. A.; Cordero, Raúl; Balieiro R., Daniela

    2011-10-01

    The development of this work is important in the morphological study of plant parts, specifically in the study of the cuticle of fruits or leaves. The implemented optical technique for fringe projection can identify potential fracture zones which damage the presentation of the fruits impacting business as well as producing them. Specifically, we obtained information on the thickness of a cuticle corresponding to the abaxial surface of a leaf of apple (Malus domestica) of the variety Golden Delicious.

  19. [Polyphenolic glycosides from Cistus creticus L. leaves].

    PubMed

    Demetzos, C; Mitaku, S; Hotellier, F; Harvala, A

    1989-01-01

    Five flavonoids: kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-beta-D-rutinoside, myricetin 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside, myricetin 3-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside and one coumarin: esculin have been isolated from the leaves of Cistus creticus. Their structures have been elucidated on the basis of their spectral data mainly mass spectrometry (DCI) and 1H NMR. PMID:2637651

  20. Metabolism of 2'-carboxyarabinitol in leaves.

    PubMed

    Moore, B D; Seemann, J R

    1992-08-01

    Results presented here indicate that 2'-carboxyarabinitol (CA) is the in vivo precursor and product of 2'-carboxyarabinitol 1-phosphate (CA1P) metabolism in leaves. When [2-(14)C]CA was fed in the light to leaves of five species known to be highly active in CA1P metabolism (Phaseolus vulgaris, Lycopersicon esculentum, Helianthus annuus, Petunia hybrida, and Beta vulgaris), [(14)C]CA1P was formed in the dark. Reillumination of a Phaseolus leaf caused this [(14)C]CA1P to be rapidly metabolized to [(14)C]CA (t((1/2)) = 1 min). The epimer 2'-carboxyribitol could not substitute for CA in the dark synthesis of CA1P, and CA in the anionic form was a better substrate than CA in the lactone form. In leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris, the active CA pool size used in the dark synthesis of CA1P is between about 70 and 110 nanomoles per milligram of chlorophyll. The photosynthetic electron transport inhibitor diuron did not affect the dark synthesis of [(14)C]CA1P, but did greatly reduce the rate of its subsequent light degradation (t((1/2)) = approximately 10 min). Dark synthesis of [(14)C]CA1P was inhibited by dithiothreitol and NaF. From the present data, we suggest that CA1P and CA participate in a metabolic substrate cycle in vivo. PMID:16669073

  1. Differential Localization of Antioxidants in Maize Leaves.

    PubMed Central

    Doulis, A. G.; Debian, N.; Kingston-Smith, A. H.; Foyer, C. H.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the compartmentation of antioxidants between the bundle-sheath and mesophyll cells of maize (Zea mays L.) leaves. Rapid fractionation of the mesophyll compartment was used to minimize modifications in the antioxidant status and composition due to extraction procedures. The purity of the mesophyll isolates was assessed via the distribution of enzyme and metabolite markers. Ribulose-1,5 bisphosphate and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase were used as bundle-sheath markers and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase was used as the mesophyll marker enzyme. Glutathione reductase and dehydroascorbate reductase were almost exclusively localized in the mesophyll tissue, whereas ascorbate, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase were largely absent from the mesophyll fraction. Catalase, reduced glutathione, and monodehydroascorbate reductase were found to be approximately equally distributed between the two cell types. It is interesting that, whereas H2O2 levels were relatively high in maize leaves, this oxidant was largely restricted to the mesophyll compartment. We conclude that the antioxidants in maize leaves are partitioned between the two cell types according to the availability of reducing power and NADPH and that oxidized glutathione and dehydroascorbate produced in the bundle-sheat tissues have to be transported to the mesophyll for re-reduction to their reduced forms. PMID:12223757

  2. The maize fused leaves1 (fdl1) gene controls organ separation in the embryo and seedling shoot and promotes coleoptile opening.

    PubMed

    La Rocca, Nicoletta; Manzotti, Priscilla S; Cavaiuolo, Marina; Barbante, Alessandra; Dalla Vecchia, Francesca; Gabotti, Damiano; Gendrot, Ghislaine; Horner, David S; Krstajic, Jelena; Persico, Martina; Rascio, Nicoletta; Rogowsky, Peter; Scarafoni, Alessio; Consonni, Gabriella

    2015-09-01

    The fdl1-1 mutation, caused by an Enhancer/Suppressor mutator (En/Spm) element insertion located in the third exon of the gene, identifies a novel gene encoding ZmMYB94, a transcription factor of the R2R3-MYB subfamily. The fdl1 gene was isolated through co-segregation analysis, whereas proof of gene identity was obtained using an RNAi strategy that conferred less severe, but clearly recognizable specific mutant traits on seedlings. Fdl1 is involved in the regulation of cuticle deposition in young seedlings as well as in the establishment of a regular pattern of epicuticular wax deposition on the epidermis of young leaves. Lack of Fdl1 action also correlates with developmental defects, such as delayed germination and seedling growth, abnormal coleoptile opening and presence of curly leaves showing areas of fusion between the coleoptile and the first leaf or between the first and the second leaf. The expression profile of ZmMYB94 mRNA-determined by quantitative RT-PCR-overlaps the pattern of mutant phenotypic expression and is confined to a narrow developmental window. High expression was observed in the embryo, in the seedling coleoptile and in the first two leaves, whereas RNA level, as well as phenotypic defects, decreases at the third leaf stage. Interestingly several of the Arabidopsis MYB genes most closely related to ZmMYB94 are also involved in the activation of cuticular wax biosynthesis, suggesting deep conservation of regulatory processes related to cuticular wax deposition between monocots and dicots. PMID:26093144

  3. Shedding Light on the EOS-Gravity Degeneracy and Constraining the Nuclear Symmetry Energy from the Gravitational Binding Energy of Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiao-Tao; Fattoyev, F. J.; Li, Bao-An; Newton, W. G.

    2016-02-01

    A thorough understanding of properties of neutron stars requires both a reliable knowledge of the equation of state (EOS) of super-dense nuclear matter and the strong-field gravity theories simultaneously. To provide information that may help break this EOS-gravity degeneracy, we investigate effects of nuclear symmetry energy on the gravitational binding energy of neutron stars within GR and the scalar-tensor subset of alternative gravity models. We focus on effects of the slope L of nuclear symmetry energy at saturation density and the high-density behavior of nuclear symmetry energy. We find that the variation of either the density slope L or the high-density behavior of nuclear symmetry energy leads to large changes in the binding energy of neutron stars. The difference in predictions using the GR and the scalar-tensor theory appears only for massive neutron stars, and even then is significantly smaller than the difference resulting from variations in the symmetry energy.

  4. BREAKING THE {sigma}{sub 8}-{Omega} {sub m} DEGENERACY USING THE CLUSTERING OF HIGH-z X-RAY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Basilakos, Spyros; Plionis, Manolis

    2010-05-10

    The clustering of X-ray selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) appears to be a valuable tool for extracting cosmological information. Using the recent high-precision angular clustering results of {approx}30,000 XMM-Newton soft (0.5-2 keV) X-ray sources, which have a median redshift of z {approx} 1, and assuming a flat geometry, a constant in comoving coordinates AGN clustering evolution, and the AGN bias evolution model of Basilakos et al., we manage to break the {sigma}{sub 8}-{Omega} {sub m} degeneracy. The resulting cosmological constraints are {Omega} {sub m} = 0.27{sup +0.03} {sub -0.05}, w = -0.90{sup +0.10} {sub -0.16}, and {sigma}{sub 8} = 0.74{sup +0.14} {sub -0.12}, while the dark matter host halo mass, in which the X-ray selected AGNs are presumed to reside, is M = 2.50{sup +0.50} {sub -1.50} x 10{sup 13} h {sup -1} M {sub sun}. For the constant {Lambda} model (w = -1) we find {Omega} {sub m} = 0.24 {+-} 0.06 and {sigma}{sub 8} = 0.83{sup +0.11} {sub -0.16}, in good agreement with recent studies based on cluster abundances, weak lensing, and the cosmic microwave background, but in disagreement with the recent bulk flow analysis.

  5. The Schottky-type specific heat as an indicator of relative degeneracy between ground and first-excited states: The case study of regular Ising polyhedra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karľová, Katarína; Strečka, Jozef; Madaras, Tomáš

    2016-05-01

    The specific heat of regular Ising polyhedra is investigated in detail as a function of temperature and magnetic field. It is shown that the regular Ising polyhedra display diverse double-peak temperature dependences of the specific heat whenever the magnetic field approaches a level-crossing field. The Schottky theory of a two-level system often provides a plausible explanation of a height and position of low-temperature peak, which emerges in the specific heat of a regular Ising polyhedron due to low-lying excitations from a ground state to a first-excited state. The height and position of Schottky-type maximum depends essentially on a relative degeneracy of the ground state and first-excited state, which are in general quite distinct in geometrically frustrated Ising spin clusters. Low-temperature variations of the specific heat with the magnetic field exhibit multipeak structure with two peaks (of generally different height) symmetrically placed around each level-crossing field.

  6. Paid Family Leave Tied to Decline in Child Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157492.html Paid Family Leave Tied to Decline in Child Abuse California ... 2016 FRIDAY, Feb. 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Paid family leave might lead to reduced risk of abuse- ...

  7. 29 CFR 825.301 - Designation of FMLA leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... leave to provide care for a son or daughter with a serious health condition believing it would not count... alternative caregiver for the seriously ill son or daughter if the leave had been designated timely....

  8. 29 CFR 825.301 - Designation of FMLA leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... leave to provide care for a son or daughter with a serious health condition believing it would not count... alternative caregiver for the seriously-ill son or daughter if the leave had been designated timely....

  9. 29 CFR 825.301 - Designation of FMLA leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... leave to provide care for a son or daughter with a serious health condition believing it would not count... alternative caregiver for the seriously ill son or daughter if the leave had been designated timely....

  10. Interaction of Salmonella enterica with Fresh Produce Leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Attachment and colonization of Salmonella enterica serovars to fresh produce leaves was investigated. Biofilm assay and attachment of Salmonella serovars to intact and cut leaves were determined. Salmonella Tennessee and Salmonella Thompson produced stronger biofilms compared to Salmonella Newpor...

  11. 5 CFR 630.208 - Reduction in leave credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reduction in leave credits. 630.208... credits. (a) When the number of hours in a nonpay status in a full-time employee's leave year equals the number of basepay hours in a pay period, the agency shall reduce his credits for leave by an amount...

  12. 5 CFR 630.208 - Reduction in leave credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reduction in leave credits. 630.208... credits. (a) When the number of hours in a nonpay status in a full-time employee's leave year equals the number of basepay hours in a pay period, the agency shall reduce his credits for leave by an amount...

  13. Early School Leaving and the Cultural Geography of High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyth, John; Hattam, Robert

    2002-01-01

    States early school leaving is a protracted educational problem throughout the world. Examines early school leaving from the position of young Australians (n=209) who left school or were considering leaving. Provides tentative theorizing traversing aspects of the cultural geography of high school as partial explanation of what is occurring. (BT)

  14. Keep on growing: building and patterning leaves in the grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monocot leaves have unique features that arise early in their development. Maturing leaves protectively enclose younger leaves and the meristem, the pool of founder cells from which a leaf emerges. Through the maturation process, proximal sheath and distal blade tissues differentiate and are separat...

  15. 5 CFR 630.208 - Reduction in leave credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reduction in leave credits. 630.208... credits. (a) When the number of hours in a nonpay status in a full-time employee's leave year equals the number of basepay hours in a pay period, the agency shall reduce his credits for leave by an amount...

  16. 5 CFR 630.208 - Reduction in leave credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reduction in leave credits. 630.208... credits. (a) When the number of hours in a nonpay status in a full-time employee's leave year equals the number of basepay hours in a pay period, the agency shall reduce his credits for leave by an amount...

  17. Why Band Directors Leave: From the Mouths of Maestros

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheib, John W.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the results of a survey conducted by the author asking music teachers why they leave their jobs. The author compiled an e-mail survey and sent it to instrumental music teachers who were making plans to leave their jobs for new positions or to leave the music education profession entirely. In order to widen the pool of…

  18. 5 CFR 630.208 - Reduction in leave credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reduction in leave credits. 630.208... credits. (a) When the number of hours in a nonpay status in a full-time employee's leave year equals the number of basepay hours in a pay period, the agency shall reduce his credits for leave by an amount...

  19. Self-Funded Leave and Life Role Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furbish, Dale S.

    2009-01-01

    Self-funded leave is an employee benefit that provides a time resource to those who wish to develop interests and other life roles. Semistructured interviews were used for this qualitative study to explore the motivations for enrolling in the self-funded leave program, how the leave contributed to work-life balance through development of other…

  20. Keep on growing: building and patterning leaves int he grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monocot leaves have unique features that arise early in their development. Maturing leaves protectively enclose younger leaves and the meristem, the pool of founder cells from which a leaf emerges. Through the maturation process, proximal sheath and distal blade tissues differentiate and are separat...

  1. 5 CFR 630.911 - Restoration of transferred annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...' Compensation Programs under 20 CFR 10.202 and 10.310, and the annual leave was leave transferred under § 630... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Restoration of transferred annual leave. 630.911 Section 630.911 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL...

  2. Constituents of the Leaves of Pandanus utilis.

    PubMed

    Loa, I-Wen; Cheng, Yuan-Bin; Haung, Chen-Chang; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Wu, Chin-Chung; Liou, Jing-Ru; Hou, Ming-Feng; Yuan, Shyng-Shiou; Chang, Fang-Rong; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2016-02-01

    Nineteen compounds, including seven triterpenoids (1-7), five steroids (8-12), four cyclohexenone derivatives (13-16), two benzenoid glycosides (17 and 18) and one lignan (19), were isolated and separated from the leaves of Pandanus utilis through bioactivity-guided fractionation. Among them, one new lanosterol- type triterpenoid was found and named as (24R)-24-methyl-5a-4-demethyllanosta-9(11),25-dien-3β-ol (1). The structures of the isolates were determined by mass and spectroscopic analyses, and the compounds were subjected to anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and cytotoxic assays. PMID:27032193

  3. 5 CFR 630.1111 - Limitation on the amount of donated annual leave received by an emergency leave recipient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limitation on the amount of donated annual leave received by an emergency leave recipient. 630.1111 Section 630.1111 Administrative Personnel... Program § 630.1111 Limitation on the amount of donated annual leave received by an emergency...

  4. 5 CFR 630.1111 - Limitation on the amount of donated annual leave received by an emergency leave recipient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limitation on the amount of donated annual leave received by an emergency leave recipient. 630.1111 Section 630.1111 Administrative Personnel... Program § 630.1111 Limitation on the amount of donated annual leave received by an emergency...

  5. 5 CFR 630.1111 - Limitation on the amount of donated annual leave received by an emergency leave recipient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Limitation on the amount of donated annual leave received by an emergency leave recipient. 630.1111 Section 630.1111 Administrative Personnel... Program § 630.1111 Limitation on the amount of donated annual leave received by an emergency...

  6. 5 CFR 630.1111 - Limitation on the amount of donated annual leave received by an emergency leave recipient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Limitation on the amount of donated annual leave received by an emergency leave recipient. 630.1111 Section 630.1111 Administrative Personnel... Program § 630.1111 Limitation on the amount of donated annual leave received by an emergency...

  7. 5 CFR 630.1111 - Limitation on the amount of donated annual leave received by an emergency leave recipient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Limitation on the amount of donated annual leave received by an emergency leave recipient. 630.1111 Section 630.1111 Administrative Personnel... Program § 630.1111 Limitation on the amount of donated annual leave received by an emergency...

  8. [Chemical constituents of Sapium sebiferum leaves].

    PubMed

    Gao, Li; Tian, Hua; Lv, Pei-jun; Wang, Jia-ping; Wang, Yi-fen

    2015-04-01

    Chemical constituents of ethyl acetate extract of Sapium sebiferum leaves were isolated and purified by various chromatographic methods, including column chromatographies over silica gel, macroporous adsorption resin, and Sephadex LH-20, as well as preparative TLC and semi preparative HPLC. As a results, 15 compounds were separated from Sapium sebiferum leaves and their structures were examined by spectral analysis including NMR and MS data and identified as( + )-(7R,7'R,7"S,7'"S,8S,8'S,8"S,8'"S)-4", 4"'-dihydroxy-3,3',3",3',5,5'-hexamethoxy-7,9';7',9-diepoxy-4,8";4',8'"-bisoxy-8,8'-dineo-lignan-7",7"',9",9"'-tetraol(1) ,1-(4'- hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-2-[4"-(3-hydroxypropyl) -2", 6"-dimethoxyphenoxy] propane-1, 3-diol (2), Thero-2, 3-bis-(4-hydroxy-3- methoxypheyl)-3-methoxy-propanol(3) , threo-5-hydroxy-3,7-dimethoxyphenyl propane-8,9-diol (4), boropinol B (5), threo-8S-7-methoxysyringylglycerol(6), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural(7), 5-( methoxy-methyl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde (8), quercetin (9) , kaempferol (10), ethyl gallate(11), coniferaldehyde(12), vanillin(13), 7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-2H-1-henzopyran-2-one(14),and 1-heptacosanol (15). All compounds except for compounds 9-11,14 were separated from this plant for the first time. PMID:26281591

  9. Ecojustice in science education: leaving the classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Michael P.

    2011-06-01

    Eduardo Dopico and Eva Garcia-Vázquez's article enriched the ecojustice literature with an interesting metaphor of leaving the classroom, which I argue for here. Glasson and Boggs help to highlight the challenges and fortitude of working ecojustice perspectives in science education and the ways that a dialogical conversation addresses the world at large rather than focusing narrowly and exclusively on science education. Considering the metaphor of `leaving the classroom' I want to explore the tensions that can be experienced by science educators who do research focused on ecosocial justice. While it is not a new idea to suggest that there are gatekeepers in science education who try to maintain what counts in terms of impact in the classroom and what counts or not for the purposes of doing good work in science education, I anticipate highlighting the tensions that ecojustice educators may experience and why they can and should persevere with the incisive work that they are doing to conserve the prospects of future generations. Ecojustice no longer belongs constrained under the confines of environmental sciences or environmental education in science education. It is a separate and distinct field of study that should be generally accepted for the ways it brings clarity and conversation to ideas, curriculum studies, and thick descriptions of how people engage in eco-justice and ethics.

  10. Antiamnesic potential of Murraya koenigii leaves.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Mani; Parle, Milind

    2009-03-01

    Murraya koenigii leaves commonly known as curry patta are added routinely to Indian gravy and vegetarian dishes as a favorite condiment. The effects of Murraya koenigii leaves (MKL) on cognitive functions, total serum cholesterol level and brain cholinesterase activity in young and aged mice fed orally with a diet containing 2%, 4% and 8% w/w of MKL for 30 days consecutively, were investigated. The memory scores were measured using various exteroceptive and interoceptive behavioral models. The MKL diets produced a significant dose-dependent improvement in the memory scores of young and aged mice and significantly reduced the amnesia induced by scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, i.p.) and diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.). Also, brain cholinesterase activity and total cholesterol levels were reduced by the MKL diets. The underlying mechanism of action for the observed nootropic effect may be attributed to pro-cholinergic activity and a cholesterol lowering property. Therefore, it would be worthwhile to investigate specifically the therapeutic potential of MKL in the management of Alzheimer patients. PMID:18844259

  11. Reconfiguration of broad leaves into cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Laura

    2013-11-01

    Flexible plants, fungi, and sessile animals are thought to reconfigure in the wind and water to reduce the drag forces that act upon them. Simple mathematical models of a flexible beam immersed in a two-dimensional flow will also exhibit this behavior. What is less understood is how the mechanical properties of a leaf in a three-dimensional flow will passively allow roll up and reduce drag. This presentation will begin by examining how leaves roll up into drag reducing shapes in strong flow. The dynamics of the flow around the leaf of the wild ginger Hexastylis arifolia are described using particle image velocimetry. The flows around the leaves are compared with those of simplified sheets using 3D numerical simulations and physical models. For some reconfiguration shapes, large forces and oscillations due to strong vortex shedding are produced. In the actual leaf, a stable recirculation zone is formed within the wake of the reconfigured cone. In physical and numerical models that reconfigure into cones, a similar recirculation zone is observed with both rigid and flexible tethers. These results suggest that the three-dimensional cone structure in addition to flexibility is significant to both the reduction of vortex-induced vibrations and the forces experienced by the leaf.

  12. Breaking The Quasar L-z Degeneracy Using PDF-weighted Quasar-galaxy Cross-correlations In Deep, Wide NASA Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Nicholas M.; Myers, A. D.; White, M.; Hickox, R. C.; Brunner, R. J.

    2010-01-01

    We present a new method for measuring the two-point correlation function, as described by Myers, White, and Ball (2009). The method is an augmentation of previous techniques that use a heterogeneous set of spectroscopic objects to anchor the distance scale, and a well-controlled set of photometric detections to reduce noise. Our new approach weights by the information present in the full photometric redshift probability density function (PDF) to dramatically improve the clustering signal. For instance, an initial test yielded a factor of 5 improvement for quasar clustering in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The extra signal arises because we neither express the photometric redshift as a single value nor assign a simplified PDF functional form such as a single Gaussian. Our technique is generally applicable and should be particularly useful where complex spectroscopic data sets (e.g., BOSS) are overlapped by deep photometry (e.g., Pan-STARRS, DES, or LSST). Our method depends only on photometric detections in a single survey, but additional multi-wavelength data can be used to refine the information in the PDF weighting. This makes our approach also highly suited to regions of the sky where deep, multiwavelength space surveys overlap ground-based spectroscopy (e.g., COSMOS or the Bootes Survey). We assign photometric redshift PDFs to photometrically classified galaxies detected in the optical component of COSMOS, and use PDF weights to cross-correlate them against a spectroscopically confirmed AGN sample. We also report on similar results in the Bootes Survey. The deep spectroscopy and photometry in fields such as COSMOS and Bootes will allow new investigations of how AGN cluster as a function of luminosity and type, potentially breaking the so-called L-z degeneracy. Finally, we address the often computationally intensive requirements of utilizing full PDFs. This research was funded in part by NASA ADP grant NNX08AJ28G.

  13. The Carina Project. VII. Toward the Breaking of the Age-Metallicity Degeneracy of Red Giant Branch Stars Using the C U, B, I Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monelli, M.; Milone, A. P.; Fabrizio, M.; Bono, G.; Stetson, P. B.; Walker, A. R.; Cassisi, S.; Gallart, C.; Nonino, M.; Aparicio, A.; Buonanno, R.; Dall'Ora, M.; Ferraro, I.; Iannicola, G.; Pulone, L.; Thévenin, F.

    2014-12-01

    We present an analysis of photometric and spectroscopic data of the Carina dSph galaxy, testing a new approach similar to that used to disentangle multiple populations in Galactic globular clusters (GCs). We show that a proper color combination is able to separate a significant fraction of the red giant branch (RGB) of the two main Carina populations (the old one, ~12 Gyr, and the intermediate-age one, 4-8 Gyr). In particular, the c U, B, I = (U - B) - (B - I) pseudo-color allows us to follow the RGB of both populations along a relevant portion of the RGB. We find that the oldest stars have a more negative c U, B, I pseudo-color than intermediate-age ones. We correlate the pseudo-color of RGB stars with their chemical properties, finding a significant trend between the iron content and the c U, B, I. Stars belonging to the old population are systematically more metal-poor ([Fe/H] =-2.32 ± 0.08 dex) than the intermediate-age ones ([Fe/H] =-1.82 ± 0.03 dex). This gives solid evidence of the chemical evolution history of this galaxy, and we have a new diagnostic that can allow us to break the age-metallicity degeneracy of H-burning advanced evolutionary phases. We compared the distribution of stars in the c U, B, I plane with theoretical isochrones, finding that no satisfactory agreement can be reached with models developed in a theoretical framework based on standard heavy element distributions. Finally, we discuss possible systematic differences when compared with multiple populations in GCs.

  14. The Carina project. VII. Toward the breaking of the age-metallicity degeneracy of red giant branch stars using the C {sub U,} {sub B,} {sub I} index

    SciTech Connect

    Monelli, M.; Milone, A. P.; Gallart, C.; Aparicio, A.; Bono, G.; Stetson, P. B.; Walker, A. R.; Nonino, M.; Dall'Ora, M.; Ferraro, I.; Iannicola, G.; Pulone, L.; Thévenin, F.

    2014-12-01

    We present an analysis of photometric and spectroscopic data of the Carina dSph galaxy, testing a new approach similar to that used to disentangle multiple populations in Galactic globular clusters (GCs). We show that a proper color combination is able to separate a significant fraction of the red giant branch (RGB) of the two main Carina populations (the old one, ∼12 Gyr, and the intermediate-age one, 4-8 Gyr). In particular, the c {sub U,} {sub B,} {sub I} = (U – B) – (B – I) pseudo-color allows us to follow the RGB of both populations along a relevant portion of the RGB. We find that the oldest stars have a more negative c {sub U,} {sub B,} {sub I} pseudo-color than intermediate-age ones. We correlate the pseudo-color of RGB stars with their chemical properties, finding a significant trend between the iron content and the c {sub U,} {sub B,} {sub I}. Stars belonging to the old population are systematically more metal-poor ([Fe/H] =–2.32 ± 0.08 dex) than the intermediate-age ones ([Fe/H] =–1.82 ± 0.03 dex). This gives solid evidence of the chemical evolution history of this galaxy, and we have a new diagnostic that can allow us to break the age-metallicity degeneracy of H-burning advanced evolutionary phases. We compared the distribution of stars in the c {sub U,} {sub B,} {sub I} plane with theoretical isochrones, finding that no satisfactory agreement can be reached with models developed in a theoretical framework based on standard heavy element distributions. Finally, we discuss possible systematic differences when compared with multiple populations in GCs.

  15. Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy: the most recognizable laminopathy.

    PubMed

    Madej-Pilarczyk, A; Kochański, A

    2016-01-01

    Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD), a rare inherited disease, is characterized clinically by humero-peroneal muscle atrophy and weakness, multijoint contractures, spine rigidity and cardiac insufficiency with conduction defects. There are at least six types of EDMD known so far, of which five have been associated with mutations in genes encoding nuclear proteins. The majority of the EDMD cases described so far are of the emerinopathy (EDMD1) kind, with a recessive X-linked mode of inheritance, or else laminopathy (EDMD2), with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. In the work described here, the authors have sought to describe the history by which EDMD came to be distinguished as a separate entity, as well as the clinical and genetic characteristics of the disease, the pathophysiology of lamin-related muscular diseases and, finally, therapeutic issues, prevention and ethical aspects. PMID:27179216

  16. Recognizable cerebellar dysplasia associated with mutations in multiple tubulin genes.

    PubMed

    Oegema, Renske; Cushion, Thomas D; Phelps, Ian G; Chung, Seo-Kyung; Dempsey, Jennifer C; Collins, Sarah; Mullins, Jonathan G L; Dudding, Tracy; Gill, Harinder; Green, Andrew J; Dobyns, William B; Ishak, Gisele E; Rees, Mark I; Doherty, Dan

    2015-09-15

    Mutations in alpha- and beta-tubulins are increasingly recognized as a major cause of malformations of cortical development (MCD), typically lissencephaly, pachygyria and polymicrogyria; however, sequencing tubulin genes in large cohorts of MCD patients has detected tubulin mutations in only 1-13%. We identified patients with a highly characteristic cerebellar dysplasia but without lissencephaly, pachygyria and polymicrogyria typically associated with tubulin mutations. Remarkably, in seven of nine patients (78%), targeted sequencing revealed mutations in three different tubulin genes (TUBA1A, TUBB2B and TUBB3), occurring de novo or inherited from a mosaic parent. Careful re-review of the cortical phenotype on brain imaging revealed only an irregular pattern of gyri and sulci, for which we propose the term tubulinopathy-related dysgyria. Basal ganglia (100%) and brainstem dysplasia (80%) were common features. On the basis of in silico structural predictions, the mutations affect amino acids in diverse regions of the alpha-/beta-tubulin heterodimer, including the nucleotide binding pocket. Cell-based assays of tubulin dynamics reveal various effects of the mutations on incorporation into microtubules: TUBB3 p.Glu288Lys and p.Pro357Leu do not incorporate into microtubules at all, whereas TUBB2B p.Gly13Ala shows reduced incorporation and TUBA1A p.Arg214His incorporates fully, but at a slower rate than wild-type. The broad range of effects on microtubule incorporation is at odds with the highly stereotypical clinical phenotype, supporting differential roles for the three tubulin genes involved. Identifying this highly characteristic phenotype is important due to the low recurrence risk compared with the other (recessive) cerebellar dysplasias and the apparent lack of non-neurological medical issues. PMID:26130693

  17. Radiation-induced cerebral meningioma: a recognizable entity

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, A.B.; Shalit, M.N.; Cohen, M.L.; Zandbank, U.; Reichenthal, E.

    1984-11-01

    The authors retrospectively analyzed the clinical and histopathological findings in 201 patients with intracranial meningiomas operated on in the period 1978 to 1982. Forty-three of the patients (21.4%) had at some previous time received radiation treatment to their scalp, the majority for tinea capitis. The findings in these 43 irradiated patients were compared with those in the 158 non-irradiated patients. Several distinctive clinical and histological features were identified in the irradiated group, which suggest that radiation-induced meningiomas can be defined as a separate nosological subgroup. The use of irradiation in large numbers of children with tinea capitis in the era prior to the availability of griseofulvin may be responsible for a significantly increased incidence of intracranial meningiomas.

  18. 29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... employee who would otherwise work 40 hours a week takes off 8 hours, the employee would use 1/5 of a week... per week, but works only 20 hours a week under a reduced leave schedule, the employee's ten hours of... employee would normally be required to work for 48 hours in a particular week, but due to a......

  19. Intention to Leave, Anticipated Reasons for Leaving, and 12-Month Turnover of Child Care Center Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manlove, Elizabeth E.; Guzell, Jacqueline R.

    1997-01-01

    Job turnover among a sample of child care workers was examined in relation to demographic, work-related, and nonwork-related factors. Findings indicated that the perceived choice of other jobs and job tenure both have an impact on intention to leave, as well as on actual 12-month turnover. (Author)

  20. Influenza in workplaces: transmission, workers’ adherence to sick leave advice and European sick leave recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Tomba, Gianpaolo Scalia; de Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben

    2016-01-01

    Background: Knowledge about influenza transmission in the workplace and whether staying home from work when experiencing influenza-like illness can reduce the spread of influenza is crucial for the design of efficient public health initiatives. Aim: This review synthesizes current literature on sickness presenteeism and influenza transmission in the workplace and provides an overview of sick leave recommendations in Europe for influenza. Methods: A search was performed on Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, Cinahl, Web of Science, Scopus and SweMed to identify studies related to workplace contacts, -transmission, -interventions and compliance with recommendations to take sick leave. A web-based survey on national recommendations and policies for sick leave during influenza was issued to 31 European countries. Results: Twenty-two articles (9 surveys; 13 modelling articles) were eligible for this review. Results from social mixing studies suggest that 20–25% of weekly contacts are made in the workplace, while modelling studies suggest that on average 16% (range 9–33%) of influenza transmission occurs in the workplace. The effectiveness of interventions to reduce workplace presenteeism is largely unknown. Finally, estimates from studies reporting expected compliance with sick leave recommendations ranged from 71 to 95%. Overall, 18 countries participated in the survey of which nine (50%) had issued recommendations encouraging sick employees to stay at home during the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic, while only one country had official recommendations for seasonal influenza. Conclusions: During the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic, many European countries recommended ill employees to take sick leave. Further research is warranted to quantify the effect of reduced presenteeism during influenza illness. PMID:27060594

  1. Degeneracy and English Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felderhof, Marius

    2010-01-01

    Nietzsche accused Socrates of being degenerate. The question is posed whether practitioners of contemporary religious education may be suffering from this condition, in particular through the modern practice of associating religion with secular philosophies or "beliefs". Through the examination of tolerance and "respect for all" in the…

  2. Sabbatical leave: who gains and how much?

    PubMed

    Davidson, Oranit B; Eden, Dov; Westman, Mina; Cohen-Charash, Yochi; Hammer, Leslie B; Kluger, Avraham N; Krausz, Moshe; Maslach, Christina; O'Driscoll, Michael; Perrewé, Pamela L; Quick, James Campbell; Rosenblatt, Zehava; Spector, Paul E

    2010-09-01

    A rigorous quasi-experiment tested the ameliorative effects of a sabbatical leave, a special case of respite from routine work. We hypothesized that (a) respite increases resource level and well-being and (b) individual differences and respite features moderate respite effects. A sample of 129 faculty members on sabbatical and 129 matched controls completed measures of resource gain, resource loss, and well-being before, during, and after the sabbatical. Among the sabbatees, resource loss declined and resource gain and well-being rose during the sabbatical. The comparison group showed no change. Moderation analysis revealed that those who reported higher respite self-efficacy and greater control, were more detached, had a more positive sabbatical experience, and spent their sabbatical outside their home country enjoyed more enhanced well-being than others. PMID:20718526

  3. Photosynthesis by sugar-cane leaves

    PubMed Central

    Hatch, M. D.; Slack, C. R.

    1966-01-01

    1. Radioactive products in detached leaf segments were examined after periods of steady-state photosynthesis in 14CO2. 2. After exposure to 14CO2 for approx. 1sec. more than 93% of the fixed radioactivity was located in malate, aspartate and oxaloacetate. After longer periods large proportions of the radioactivity appeared in 3-phosphoglycerate, hexose monophosphates and sucrose. Similar results were obtained with leaves still attached to the plant. 3. Radioactivity appeared first in C-4 of the dicarboxylic acids and C-1 of 3-phosphoglycerate. The labelling pattern in hexoses was consistent with their formation from 3-phosphoglycerate. 4. The reaction giving rise to C4 dicarboxylic acid appears to be the only quantitatively significant carboxylation reaction. 5. Evidence is provided that the radioactivity incorporated into the C4 dicarboxylic acid pool is transferred to sugars via 3-phosphoglycerate. A scheme is proposed to account for these observations. PMID:5971771

  4. Antiviral sesquiterpenes from leaves of Nicotiana tabacum.

    PubMed

    Shang, Shan-Zhai; Zhao, Wei; Tang, Jian-Guo; Xu, Xing-Meng; Sun, Han-Dong; Pu, Jian-Xin; Liu, Zhi-Hua; Miao, Ming-Ming; Chen, Yong-Kuan; Yang, Guang-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Three unreported sesquiterpenes possessing two new skeletons, tabasesquiterpenes A-C (1-3), together with three known sesquiterpenes (3-6) were isolated from the leaves of Nicotiana tabacum. Their structures were determined mainly by spectroscopic methods, including extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques. Compounds 1-6 were evaluated for their anti-tobacco mosaic virus (anti-TMV) activities. The results showed that compound 2 exhibited high anti-TMV activity with inhibition rate of 35.2%, which were higher than that of positive control (ningnanmycin). The other compounds also showed potential anti-TMV activity with inhibition rates in the range of 20.5-28.6%. PMID:26581121

  5. Medicinal properties of neem leaves: a review.

    PubMed

    Subapriya, R; Nagini, S

    2005-03-01

    Azadirachta indica, commonly known as neem, has attracted worldwide prominence in recent years, owing to its wide range of medicinal properties. Neem has been extensively used in Ayurveda, Unani and Homoeopathic medicine and has become a cynosure of modern medicine. Neem elaborates a vast array of biologically active compounds that are chemically diverse and structurally complex. More than 140 compounds have been isolated from different parts of neem. All parts of the neem tree- leaves, flowers, seeds, fruits, roots and bark have been used traditionally for the treatment of inflammation, infections, fever, skin diseases and dental disorders. The medicinal utilities have been described especially for neem leaf. Neem leaf and its constituents have been demonstrated to exhibit immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycaemic, antiulcer, antimalarial, antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, antioxidant, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties. This review summarises the wide range of pharmacological activities of neem leaf. PMID:15777222

  6. Evolutionary biology. Chewed leaves reveal ancient relationship.

    PubMed

    Pennisi, E

    2000-07-14

    On page 291, researchers describe a new beetle fossil based not on traces of the insect skeleton but on the distinctive gouges the beetles left when they munched on 11 ginger leaves many millions of years ago. The chew marks of the newly described Cephaloleichnites strongi prove that leaf beetles underwent rapid evolution and diversification more than 65 million years ago, possibly taking advantage of (and perhaps influencing) the rapid diversification among flowering plants occurring at the same time. What's more, C. strongi represents the earliest known rolled-leaf beetle species, hundreds of which today still prefer just one of the ginger- and heliconia-like plants in the Zingiberales order. PMID:10917840

  7. Photoperiodic Flowering: Time Measurement Mechanisms in Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Song, Young Hun; Shim, Jae Sung; Kinmonth-Schultz, Hannah A.; Imaizumi, Takato

    2015-01-01

    Many plants use information about changing day length (photoperiod) to align their flowering time with seasonal changes to increase reproductive success. A mechanism for photoperiodic time measurement is present in leaves, and the day-length-specific induction of the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene, which encodes florigen, is a major final output of the pathway. Here, we summarize the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which photoperiodic information is perceived in order to trigger FT expression in Arabidopsis as well as in the primary cereals wheat, barley, and rice. In these plants, the differences in photoperiod are measured by interactions between circadian-clock-regulated components, such as CONSTANS (CO), and light signaling. The interactions happen under certain day length conditions, as previously predicted by the external coincidence model. In these plants, the coincidence mechanisms are governed by multilayered regulation with numerous conserved as well as unique regulatory components, highlighting the breadth of photoperiodic regulation across plant species. PMID:25534513

  8. Joint resolution on maternity leave of 22 August 1989.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    On August 22, 1989 the USSR Council of Ministers and the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions adopted a joint resolution extending partially paid maternity leave and unpaid supplemental maternity leave. The former may be taken until the child reaches the age of 1 1/2 and the latter until the child reaches the age of 3. The period of additional leave is to be included in the calculation of the total and continuous time spent working in any job and served in one's specialty. During maternity leave, women workers are to maintain their pension and social security entitlements. If a mother decides to return to work before her maternity leave expires, the father or relative responsible for the care of the child is entitled to take the leave. PMID:12344571

  9. Adolescent home-leaving and the transition to adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Egondi, Thaddaeus; Kabiru, Caroline; Beguy, Donatien; Kanyiva, Muindi; Jessor, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Home-leaving is considered an important marker of the transition to adulthood and is usually framed as an individual decision. We move beyond this limited assumption to examine a broader conceptualization that might better illuminate home-leaving among youth in impoverished circumstances. We adopt the Problem Behavior Theory-framework to investigate the association of home-leaving with behavioral and psychosocial variables and with other transitions. We use data on adolescents aged 14–22 years from a three-wave study conducted between 2007 and 2010. We used variable- and person-centered cross-sectional analyses, as well as predictive analysis of home-leaving by subsequent waves. Parental controls protection predicted home-leaving by subsequent waves. Overall, protective factors moderated the association of problem behavior involvement with leaving home in Nairobi’s slums. PMID:24089582

  10. Oil from Tobacco Leaves: FOLIUM - Installation of Hydrocarbon Accumulating Pathways in Tobacco Leaves

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    PETRO Project: LBNL is modifying tobacco to enable it to directly produce fuel molecules in its leaves for use as a biofuel. Tobacco is a good crop for biofuels production because it is an outstanding biomass crop, has a long history of cultivation, does not compete with the national food supply, and is highly responsive to genetic manipulation. LBNL will incorporate traits for hydrocarbon biosynthesis from cyanobacteria and algae, and enhance light utilization and carbon uptake in tobacco, improving the efficiency of photosynthesis so more fuel can be produced in the leaves. The tobacco-generated biofuels can be processed for gasoline, jet fuel or diesel alternatives. LBNL is also working to optimize methods for planting, cultivating and harvesting tobacco to increase biomass production several-fold over the level of traditional growing techniques.

  11. Disabled Veteran Leave and Other Miscellaneous Changes. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    The Office of Personnel Management is issuing final regulations to implement the Wounded Warriors Federal Leave Act of 2015, which establishes a separate new leave category, to be known as "disabled veteran leave," available during a 12-month period beginning on the first day of employment to be used by an employee who is a veteran with a service-connected disability rated at 30 percent or more for purposes of undergoing medical treatment for such disability. We are also rescinding two obsolete leave-related regulations. PMID:27529899

  12. Anomalous Hyperfine Structure of NSF3 in the Degenerate Vibrational State v5=1: Lifting of the Parity Degeneracy by the Fluorine Spin-Rotation Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harder, H.; Macholl, S.; Maeder, H.; Fusina, L.; Ozier, I.

    2010-06-01

    For the principal isotopomer 14N32S19F3 of thiazyl trifluoride in the degenerate fundamental state (v5=1), the hyperfine structure has been investigated in the Q-branch spectrum between 8 and 26.5 GHz using microwave Fourier transform waveguide spectrometers with a resolution limit of ≈ 30 kHz. In addition to l% -type doubling spectra and l-type resonance transitions with (Δ k =% Δ l=± 2), perturbation-allowed spectra were measured with Δ % (k-l) =± 3, ± 6. The range in J was from 13 to 61; for the lower states, kl=-3, -2, -1, 0, +1. For all the transitions, the hyperfine patterns observed are predicted to be doublets when only the nitrogen quadrupole Hamiltonian HQN is taken into account. Doublets were indeed measured for transitions with Γ RV=% A1rightarrow A2, where Γ RV is the rovibrational symmetry. However, when Γ RV=Erightarrow E, triplets and quartets were observed in addition to doublets. These anomalous hyperfine patterns are shown to be due to the (Δ k=± 1) and (Δ k=% ± 2) matrix elements of the fluorine spin-rotation Hamiltonian H% NF characterized by the fluorine spin-rotation constants % c(1)=(cxz+czxast ) and c(2)=(cxx-cyy), respectively. These terms in HNF lift the parity degeneracy for Γ RV=E. The rovibrational Hamiltonian HRV was adopted from an earlier partner study. A good fit to the hyperfine data was obtained with a standard deviation of 3.1 kHz. In the fitting process, 12 rovibrational parameters were varied, while the remaining constants in HRV were left at the values of Ref. (1). In addition, 6 hyperfine parameters were determined: four in HQN, and two in HNF. It was found that \\vert c(1)\\vert =7.48(24) kHz and \\vert c(2)\\vert =2.423(22) kHz. This determination of \\vert c(1)\\vert is the first to be reported based on frequency measurements. The key to the observation of the parity doubling lies in the severe mixing into the eigenvectors of basis vectors with several different values of kl as a result of the clustering1

  13. Work-family balance after childbirth: the association between employer-offered leave characteristics and maternity leave duration.

    PubMed

    Guendelman, Sylvia; Goodman, Julia; Kharrazi, Martin; Lahiff, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Early return to work after childbirth has been increasing among working mothers in the US. We assessed the relationship between access to employer-offered maternity leave (EOML) (both paid and unpaid) and uptake and duration of maternity leave following childbirth in a socio-economically diverse sample of full-time working women. We focus on California, a state that has long provided more generous maternity leave benefits than those offered by federal maternity leave policies through the State Disability Insurance program. The sample included 691 mothers who gave birth in Southern California in 2002-2003. Using weighted logistic regression, we examined the EOML-maternity leave duration relationship, controlling for whether the leave was paid, as well as other occupational, personality and health-related covariates. Compared with mothers who were offered more than 12 weeks of maternity leave, mothers with <6 weeks of EOML and those offered 6-12 weeks had five times higher odds of returning to work within 12 weeks; those offered no leave had six times higher odds of an early return. These relationships were similar after controlling for whether the leave was paid and after controlling for other occupational and health characteristics. Access to and duration of employer-offered maternity leave significantly determine timing of return to work following childbirth, potentially affecting work-family balance. Policy makers should recognize the pivotal role of employers in offering job security during and after maternity leave and consider widening the eligibility criteria of the Family and Medical Leave Act. PMID:23504130

  14. Sick Leave and Factors Influencing Sick Leave in Adult Patients with Atopic Dermatitis: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    van Os-Medendorp, Harmieke; Appelman-Noordermeer, Simone; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla; de Bruin-Weller, Marjolein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the prevalence of sick leave due to atopic dermatitis (AD). The current literature on factors influencing sick leave is mostly derived from other chronic inflammatory diseases. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sick leave due to AD and to identify influencing factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in adult patients with AD. Outcome measures: sick leave during the two-week and one-year periods, socio-demographic characteristics, disease severity, quality of life and socio-occupational factors. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine influencing factors on sick leave over the two-week period. Results: In total, 253 patients were included; 12% of the patients had to take sick leave in the last two weeks due to AD and 42% in the past year. A higher level of symptom interference (OR 1.26; 95% CI 1.13–1.40) or perfectionism/diligence (OR 0.90; 95% CI 0.83–0.96) may respectively increase or decrease the number of sick leave days. Conclusion: Sick leave in patients with AD is a common problem and symptom interference and perfectionism/diligence appeared to influence it. Novel approaches are needed to deal with symptoms at work or school to reduce the amount of sick leave due to AD. PMID:26239345

  15. Parental leave for residents and pediatric training programs.

    PubMed

    2013-02-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is committed to the development of rational, equitable, and effective parental leave policies that are sensitive to the needs of pediatric residents, families, and developing infants and that enable parents to spend adequate and good-quality time with their young children. It is important for each residency program to have a policy for parental leave that is written, that is accessible to residents, and that clearly delineates program practices regarding parental leave. At a minimum, a parental leave policy for residents and fellows should conform legally with the Family Medical Leave Act as well as with respective state laws and should meet institutional requirements of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education for accredited programs. Policies should be well formulated and communicated in a culturally sensitive manner. The AAP advocates for extension of benefits consistent with the Family Medical Leave Act to all residents and interns beginning at the time that pediatric residency training begins. The AAP recommends that regardless of gender, residents who become parents should be guaranteed 6 to 8 weeks, at a minimum, of parental leave with pay after the infant's birth. In addition, in conformance with federal law, the resident should be allowed to extend the leave time when necessary by using paid vacation time or leave without pay. Coparenting, adopting, or fostering of a child should entitle the resident, regardless of gender, to the same amount of paid leave (6-8 weeks) as a person who takes maternity/paternity leave. Flexibility, creativity, and advanced planning are necessary to arrange schedules that optimize resident education and experience, cultivate equity in sharing workloads, and protect pregnant residents from overly strenuous work experiences at critical times of their pregnancies. PMID:23359582

  16. Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Andreas P.M.

    2008-04-25

    Transitory starch builds up in photosynthesizing leaves during the day and is then degraded each night. It has recently been shown through mutant analysis and genetically engineered plants that transitory starch is required for maximal rates of photosynthesis, especially in high carbon dioxide atmospheres. Understanding the pathway by which carbon is exported from chloroplasts at night is limited. Previous work has shown that starch conversion to sucrose at night involves maltose export from chloroplasts. This pathway for carbon export from chloroplasts normally does not occur during the day. The regulation of maltose formation, the transporters that allow export of maltose from the chloroplast, and the cytosolic reactions by which maltose is converted to sucrose remain obscure. Genomic and biochemical approaches are proposed here to address maltose metabolism and transport. The research will cover three areas (1) how are hydrolytic and phosphorylytic starch degradation regulated, (2) how is maltose exported from chloroplasts, and (3) how is maltose converted to sucrose in the cytosol? It is expected that this research will lead to new insights about photosynthesis at high carbon dioxide levels, how carbon is partitioned in plants, and how partitioning can be altered to adapt plants to human needs.

  17. Diterpene constituents of leaves from Juniperus brevifolia.

    PubMed

    Seca, Ana M L; Silva, Artur M S; Bazzocchi, Isabel L; Jimenez, Ignacio A

    2008-01-01

    The dichloromethane extract from leaves of Juniperus brevifolia, through chromatographic fractionations yield six compounds: 3beta-hydroxy-abieta-8,11,13-trien-7-one, 18-hydroxy-sandaracopimara-8(14),15-dien-7-one, sandaracopimara-8(14),15-dien-18-yl formate; and the first examples of sandaracopimaranes and abieta-8,11,13-triene diterpenoids with a large aliphatic chain on C-18, abieta-8,11,13-trien-18-yl hexadecanoate, 7-oxoabieta-8,11,13-trien-18-yl hexadecanoate, sandaracopimara-8(14),15-dien-18-yl hexadecanoate. Moreover fifteen known compounds were also isolated, some of them for the first time identified on Juniperus genus. The compound abieta-8,11,13-trien-18-yl formate is reported for the first time as a natural product. All the structures were established by spectroscopic methods. 2D NMR techniques have allowed the revision of certain previously reported (13)C NMR assignments. Studies on the isolated new compounds showed those possessing a diterpenol ester of a long-chain fatty acid present lipophilicity very distinct from other diterpenoid compounds. PMID:17854850

  18. The energetic characterization of pineapple crown leaves.

    PubMed

    Braga, R M; Queiroga, T S; Calixto, G Q; Almeida, H N; Melo, D M A; Melo, M A F; Freitas, J C O; Curbelo, F D S

    2015-12-01

    Energetic characterization of biomass allows for assessing its energy potential for application in different conversion processes into energy. The objective of this study is to physicochemically characterize pineapple crown leaves (PC) for their application in energy conversion processes. PC was characterized according to ASTM E871-82, E1755-01, and E873-82 for determination of moisture, ash, and volatile matter, respectively; the fixed carbon was calculated by difference. Higher heating value was determined by ASTM E711-87 and ash chemical composition was determined by XRF. The thermogravimetric and FTIR analyses were performed to evaluate the thermal decomposition and identify the main functional groups of biomass. PC has potential for application in thermochemical processes, showing high volatile matter (89.5%), bulk density (420.8 kg/m(3)), and higher heating value (18.9 MJ/kg). The results show its energy potential justifying application of this agricultural waste into energy conversion processes, implementing sustainability in the production, and reducing the environmental liabilities caused by its disposal. PMID:26233737

  19. Ethylene Formation in Sugar Beet Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Elstner, Erich F.; Konze, Jörg R.; Selman, Bruce R.; Stoffer, Claus

    1976-01-01

    Ethylene production by sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaf discs is inhibited by white (or red, >610 nm) light or by wounding. In contrast, in wounded leaf discs, ethylene production is stimulated by light. The effect of light on wounded leaf discs has been studied by using an in vitro system which mimics the loss of compartmentation in the wounded leaf. Chlorophyll-free extracts from sugar beet leaves stimulate the production of the superoxide free radical ion (as a prerequisite for ethylene formation) by illuminated chloroplast lamellae. The substance from the crude leaf extracts which is active in stimulating the production of the superoxide free radical ion has been identified as 3-hydroxytyramine (dopamine). Exogenous dopamine between 5 μm and 100 μm stimulates ethylene formation by illuminated chloroplast lamellae from methional. It also stimulates the production of the superoxide free radical ion, the formation of which apparently involves both a lamellar phenoloxidase and photosynthetic electron transport as a 1-electron donor, and is cyanide-sensitive. PMID:16659639

  20. Knowledge about AIDS among Leaving Certificate students.

    PubMed

    Fogarty, J

    1990-03-01

    A self-administered anonymous questionnaire on knowledge about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was administered to 2,614 Leaving Certificate students in 50 Galway second-level schools. Levels of knowledge regarding routes of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission and non-transmission were assessed together with student opinion on related lifestyle issues and awareness of local services. Although 91% had heard of HIV infection only 61% knew that there is a difference between this and AIDS. Over 95% of respondants were aware of the epidemiologically proven means of transmission and between 73% and 98% understood that no transmission risk existed in a range of ordinary social contact situations. Fifty-one per cent of students believed in a HIV transmission risk from receiving blood transfusions in Ireland and 24% doubted the safety of blood donation. Seventy-four per cent of students indicated the media as their main information source on AIDS. Preference for further AIDS information were Health Education sources (30%) and teachers (20%). Only 22% and 23% of respondants respectively were aware of the local Sexually Transmitted Diseases Clinic and AIDS telephone information service. These data indicate areas in which information on AIDS should be improved by education in the school setting. PMID:2361831

  1. TGF-β can leave you breathless

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Bi-Feng; Wahl, Sharon M.

    2009-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), a ubiquitous and multifunctional cytokine, is central to the evolution and modulation of host defense. Early on, TGF-β was recognized for its chemotactic and pro-inflammatory properties, but then identification of its powerful suppressive activities focused attention on dissecting its mechanisms of immune inhibition. Just as quickly as TGF-β-mediated regulation of a population of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells became the rage, a surprising finding that TGF-β was the impetus behind a subset of pro-inflammatory T helper(Th)17 cells brought back a re-emphasis on its broader ability to dictate inflammatory events. Emerging evidence indicates that much remains to be discovered regarding the complex and intertwined roles of TGF-β in inflammation, T cell lineage commitment, antibody generation, immune suppression and tolerance. While it may appear that TGF-β has multiple, ill-defined, contradictory and overlapping modes of activity that are impossible to unravel, the current excitement for dissecting how TGF-β controls immunity defines a challenge worthy of pursuit. The lung is particularly vulnerable to the influences of TGF-β, which is produced by its immune and non-immune cell populations. In its absence, lung pathology becomes lethal, whereas TGF-β overproduction also has untoward consequences, potentially leaving one breathless, and underscoring the paradoxical, but essential contribution of TGF-β to tissue and immune homeostasis. PMID:19467929

  2. Crystal Structures of HLA-A*0201 Complexed with Melan-A/MART-1[subscript 26(27L)-35] Peptidomimetics Reveal Conformational Heterogeneity and Highlight Degeneracy of T Cell Recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Douat-Casassus, Celine; Borbulevych, Oleg; Tarbe, Marion; Gervois, Nadine; Jotereau, Francine; Baker, Brian M.; Quideau, Stphane

    2010-10-07

    There is growing interest in using tumor associated antigens presented by class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC-I) proteins as cancer vaccines. As native peptides are poorly stable in biological fluids, researchers have sought to engineer synthetic peptidomimetics with greater biostability. Here, we demonstrate that antigenic peptidomimetics of the Melan-A/MART-1{sub 26(27L)-35} melanoma antigen adopt strikingly different conformations when bound to MHC-I, highlighting the degeneracy of T cell recognition and revealing the challenges associated with mimicking native peptide conformation.

  3. Leaves as composites of latent developmental and evolutionary shapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Across plants, leaves exhibit profound diversity in shape. As a single leaf expands, its shape is in constant flux. Additionally, plants may also produce leaves with different shapes at successive nodes. Because leaf shape can vary in many different ways, theoretically the effects of distinct proces...

  4. 48 CFR 752.7031 - Leave and holidays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Leave and holidays. 752.7031 Section 752.7031 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of USAID Contract Clauses 752.7031 Leave and holidays. For use in all...

  5. Postharvest quarantine treatments for Diaphorina citri on infested curry leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted to evaluate treatments that reduce survival and attachment of Diaphorina citri nymphs on infested curry leaves (Bergera koenigii). Decontamination of curry leaves infested with D. citri in relation to disinfectant (none or Pro-San), temperature (0, 40, and 50°C), and treatment...

  6. Footprints and Fingerprints in Cyberspace: The Trail You Leave Behind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dern, Daniel P.

    1997-01-01

    Online users leave traces that others can find and use. Provides an overview of where and how users leave traces and what users can do to protect their privacy. Discusses Internet accounts; special files ("signature,""plan,""project,""file,""finger,""whois," and "vacation"); online use; e-mail and Usenet; patterns and trends; Web footprints and…

  7. 25 CFR 38.12 - Leave system for education personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Leave system for education personnel. 38.12 Section 38.12... system for education personnel. (a) Full-time school-term employees. Employees on a full-time school-term... accrued leave balance immediately before conversion to a contract education position or appointment...

  8. 25 CFR 38.12 - Leave system for education personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leave system for education personnel. 38.12 Section 38.12... system for education personnel. (a) Full-time school-term employees. Employees on a full-time school-term... accrued leave balance immediately before conversion to a contract education position or appointment...

  9. 25 CFR 38.12 - Leave system for education personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Leave system for education personnel. 38.12 Section 38.12... system for education personnel. (a) Full-time school-term employees. Employees on a full-time school-term... accrued leave balance immediately before conversion to a contract education position or appointment...

  10. 25 CFR 38.12 - Leave system for education personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Leave system for education personnel. 38.12 Section 38.12... system for education personnel. (a) Full-time school-term employees. Employees on a full-time school-term... accrued leave balance immediately before conversion to a contract education position or appointment...

  11. 25 CFR 38.12 - Leave system for education personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Leave system for education personnel. 38.12 Section 38.12... system for education personnel. (a) Full-time school-term employees. Employees on a full-time school-term... accrued leave balance immediately before conversion to a contract education position or appointment...

  12. Reasons that Orthodontic Faculty Teach and Consider Leaving Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kula, Katherine; Glaros, Alan; Larson, Brent; Tuncay, Orhan

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed full-time (FT) and part-time (PT) orthodontic faculty about reasons for considering leaving academia. About 38 percent FT and 25 percent PT were currently considering leaving. The factors most important for FT were work-related: salary support, financial support of department, and control over work or destiny. For PTs, the reasons were:…

  13. Genotoxicity of Nicotiana tabacum leaves on Helix aspersa

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Fernanda R.; Erdtmann, Bernardo; Dalpiaz, Tiago; Nunes, Emilene; Ferraz, Alexandre; Martins, Tales L.C.; Dias, Johny F.; da Rosa, Darlan P.; Porawskie, Marilene; Bona, Silvia; da Silva, Juliana

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco farmers are routinely exposed to complex mixtures of inorganic and organic chemicals present in tobacco leaves. In this study, we examined the genotoxicity of tobacco leaves in the snail Helix aspersa as a measure of the risk to human health. DNA damage was evaluated using the micronucleus test and the Comet assay and the concentration of cytochrome P450 enzymes was estimated. Two groups of snails were studied: one fed on tobacco leaves and one fed on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) leaves (control group). All of the snails received leaves (tobacco and lettuce leaves were the only food provided) and water ad libitum. Hemolymph cells were collected after 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. The Comet assay and micronucleus test showed that exposure to tobacco leaves for different periods of time caused significant DNA damage. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes occurred only in the tobacco group. Chemical analysis indicated the presence of the alkaloid nicotine, coumarins, saponins, flavonoids and various metals. These results show that tobacco leaves are genotoxic in H. aspersa and inhibit cytochrome P450 activity, probably through the action of the complex chemical mixture present in the plant. PMID:23885210

  14. 29 CFR 825.200 - Amount of leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... impending call or order to active duty) in support of a contingency operation. (b) An employer is permitted... method be implemented in order to avoid the Act's leave requirements. (2) An exception to this required... employee, the fact that a holiday may occur within the week taken as FMLA leave has no effect; the week...

  15. 5 CFR 630.502 - Sick leave recredit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....502 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND... service is entitled to a recredit of sick leave (without regard to the date of his or her separation), if... a recredit of sick leave (without regard to the date of his or her separation), if he or she...

  16. 33 CFR 401.47 - Leaving a lock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leaving a lock. 401.47 Section 401.47 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.47 Leaving a lock. (a)...

  17. Chicoric Acid Found in Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) Leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report to identify the presence of chicoric acid (cichoric acid; also known as dicaffeoyltartaric acid) in basil leaves. Rosmarinic acid, chicoric acid, and caftaric acid (in the order of most abundant to least; all derivatives of caffeic acid) were identified in fresh basil leaves...

  18. Predicting Turnover: Validating the Intent to Leave Child Welfare Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Charles; Schudrich, Wendy Zeitlin; Lawrence, Catherine K.; Claiborne, Nancy; McGowan, Brenda G.

    2014-01-01

    A number of proxies have been used in child welfare workforce research to represent actual turnover; however, there have been no psychometric studies to validate a scale specifically designed for this purpose. The Intent to Leave Child Welfare Scale is a proxy for actual turnover that measures workers' intention to leave. This scale was…

  19. Secondary metabolite profiles in HLB-affected sweet orange leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preliminary analyses of methanolic extracts of orange leaves that are either healthy or symptomatic of citrus greening (HLB) have shown consistent differences in the profiles of important classes of phytochemicals. The main flavonoids in symptomatic and healthy leaves were monitored in the HPLC chro...

  20. The Meaning of Korean Women's Career-Leaving Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yu-Jin

    2010-01-01

    What is the meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience? To answer this question, this study adopted a hermeneutic phenomenology approach. My intention was to search for the deeper meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience from their perspective. Ten Korean women who had left their careers due to their domestic roles in their…

  1. Optical Parameters of Leaves of 30 Plant Species 1

    PubMed Central

    Gausman, H. W.; Allen, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    Optical parameters (absorption coefficient k, infinite reflectance R∞, scattering coefficient 8) are tabulated for seven wavelengths and analyzed for statistical differences for 30 plant species. The wavelengths are: 550 nm (green reflectance peak), 650 nm (chlorophyll absorption band), 850 nm (infrared reflectance plateau), 1450 nm (water absorption band), 1650 nm (reflectance peak following water absorption band at 1450 nm), 1950 nm (water absorption band), and 2200 nm (reflectance peak following water absorption band at 1950 nm). Thick, complex dorsiventral (bifacial mesophyll) leaves such as rubber plant, begonia, sedum, and privet had lower R∞ values than thinner, less complex dorsiventral leaves (i.e., soybean, peach, bean, rose) or essentially centric (undifferentiated mesophyll) sorghum and corn leaves. Infinite reflectance was negatively correlated with leaf thickness (−0.734**). Thick, complex dorsiventral leaves (crinum, oleander, privet, rubber plant, sedum) had higher (p 0.01) k values than thinner, less complex dorsiventral leaves (i.e., soybean, rose, peach) or essentially centric sorghum, sugarcane, and corn leaves. A coefficient of 0.718** was obtained for the correlation of k values with leaf thickness values. Complex dorsiventral oleander, orange, and crinum leaves had higher (p 0.01) 8 values than less complex dorsiventral (i.e., onion, begonia, banana) or centric leaves (i.e., corn and sugarcane). The scattering coefficient was not correlated with leaf thickness. PMID:16658499

  2. Early School-Leaving in Spain: Evolution, Intensity and Determinants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Macias, Enrique; Anton, Jose-Ignacio; Brana, Francisco-Javier; De Bustillo, Rafael Munoz

    2013-01-01

    Spain has one of the highest levels of early school leaving and educational failure of the European Union. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the anatomy of early school leaving in Spain and its characteristics. In order to do so, in the first part we discuss the measurement problems related with this concept and the evolution of drop-out…

  3. Organizational Justice and Social Workers' Intentions to Leave Agency Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Tae Kuen; Solomon, Phyllis; Jang, Cinjae

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated the impact of organizational justice on social workers' intention to leave Korean social service agencies. Specifically, this study concentrated on the moderating effect of organizational justice on the relationship between burnout and intention to leave. The authors surveyed 218 front-line social workers from 51 social…

  4. Evaluation of the Danish Leave Schemes. Summary of a Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Dines; Appeldorn, Alice; Weise, Hanne

    An evaluation examined how the Danish leave schemes, an offer to employed and unemployed persons who qualify for unemployment benefits, were functioning and to what extent the objectives have been achieved. It was found that 60 percent of those taking leave had previously been unemployed; women accounted for two-thirds of those joining the scheme;…

  5. 29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Leave for pregnancy or birth. 825.120 Section 825.120 Labor... pregnancy or birth. (a) General rules. Eligible employees are entitled to FMLA leave for pregnancy or birth... condition. Note, too, that many State pregnancy disability laws specify a period of disability either...

  6. 29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Leave for pregnancy or birth. 825.120 Section 825.120 Labor... pregnancy or birth. (a) General rules. Eligible employees are entitled to FMLA leave for pregnancy or birth..., that many State pregnancy disability laws specify a period of disability either before or after...

  7. 29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Leave for pregnancy or birth. 825.120 Section 825.120 Labor... pregnancy or birth. (a) General rules. Eligible employees are entitled to FMLA leave for pregnancy or birth..., that many State pregnancy disability laws specify a period of disability either before or after...

  8. 29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Leave for pregnancy or birth. 825.120 Section 825.120 Labor... pregnancy or birth. (a) General rules. Eligible employees are entitled to FMLA leave for pregnancy or birth... condition. Note, too, that many State pregnancy disability laws specify a period of disability either...

  9. 29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leave for pregnancy or birth. 825.120 Section 825.120 Labor... pregnancy or birth. (a) General rules. Eligible employees are entitled to FMLA leave for pregnancy or birth... condition. Note, too, that many State pregnancy disability laws specify a period of disability either...

  10. Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Malus domestica Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Viškelis, Pranas; Uselis, Norbertas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the composition and content of phenolic compounds in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves and to evaluate the antioxidant activity of these extracts. The total phenolic content was determined spectrophotometrically, as well as the total flavonoid content in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves and the antioxidant activity of these extracts, by the ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays. The highest amount of phenolic compounds and flavonoids as well as the highest antioxidant activity was determined in the ethanol extracts obtained from the apple leaves of the cv. Aldas. The analysis by the HPLC method revealed that phloridzin was a predominant component in the ethanol extracts of the apple leaves of all cultivars investigated. The following quercetin glycosides were identified and quantified in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves: hyperoside, isoquercitrin, avicularin, rutin, and quercitrin. Quercitrin was the major compound among quercetin glycosides. PMID:25302319

  11. 4-Methyleneglutamine Amidohydrolase from Peanut Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Harry C.; Dekker, Eugene E.

    1991-01-01

    4-Methyleneglutamine amidohydrolase has been extracted and purified over 1000-fold from 14-day-old peanut (Arachis hypogaea) leaves by modification of methods described previously. The purified enzyme shows two bands of activity and three to four bands of protein after electrophoresis on nondenaturing gels. Each of the active bands is readily eluted from gel slices and migrates to its original position on subsequent electrophoresis. Although they are electrophoretically distinct, the two forms of the enzyme are immunologically identical by Ouchterlony double-diffusion techniques and have similar catalytic properties. Activity toward glutamine that has a threefold lower Vmax and a four-fold higher Km value copurifies with MeGln aminohydrolase activity. 4-Methyleneglutamine and 4-methyleneglutamic acid inhibit the hydrolysis of glutamine while glutamine inhibits 4-methyleneglutamine hydrolysis, further indicating the identity of the activity toward both substrates. Amidohydrolase activity is stimulated up to threefold by preincubation with either ionic or non-ionic detergents (0.1%) and also by added proteins (0.5% bovine serum albumin or whole rabbit serum); it is inhibited 50% by 1 millimolar borate or the glutamine analog, albizziin (10 millimolar). Rabbit antiserum to the purified peanut enzyme cross-reacts with one or more proteins in extracts of some plants but not others; in no instance, however, was 4-methyleneglutamine amidohydrolase activity detected in other species. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that 4-methyleneglutamine supplies N, via its hydrolysis by the amidohydrolase, to the growing shoots of peanut plants, whereas glutamine hydrolysis is prevented by the prepon-derance of the preferred substrate. Some results also suggest that this amidohydrolase activity may be regulated by metabolites and/or by association with other cellular components. Images Figure 2 PMID:16667952

  12. Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Sharkey, Thomas D

    2012-05-03

    Starch is a desirable plant product for both food and biofuel. Leaf starch is ideal for use in biofuels because it does not compete with grain starch, which is used for food. Starch is accumulated in plant leaves during the day and broken down at night. If we can manipulate leaf starch breakdown it may be possible to design a plant that provides both grain starch for food and leaf starch for biofuel. The pathway of leaf starch breakdown was not known when this work started. Preliminary evidence had shown that maltose was the primary product of leaf starch breakdown (Weise, Weber & Sharkey, 2004) and that it was metabolized by a disproportionating enzyme called amylomaltase but given the initials DPE2 (Lu & Sharkey, 2004). In this work we showed that only one form of maltose was metabolically active (Weise et al., 2005a) and that maltose was located in two different places when the amylomaltase was knocked out but only inside the chloroplast when the maltose transporter was knocked out (Lu et al., 2006a). This allowed us to estimate the energetics of maltose export and to show that maltose export is more efficient than glucose export (Weise et al., 2005b). We examined how daylength affected starch breakdown rate and found that starch breakdown rate could respond to changes in daylength within one day (Lu, Gehan & Sharkey, 2005). We also were able to show a second starch breakdown pathway by chloroplastic starch phosphorylase (Weise et al., 2006). Work to this point was summarized in a review (Lu & Sharkey, 2006). We were able to show that the amylomaltase in plants could substitute for the amylomaltase in bacteria (Lu et al., 2006b). In this paper we also showed the importance of a second enzyme called alpha-glucan phosphorylase in starch breakdown. Finally, we were able to determine the enzymatic mechanism of the amylomaltase (Steichen, Petty & Sharkey, 2008). These results have laid the groundwork for manipulating plants for improved biofuel production.

  13. Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas D. Sharkey

    2010-01-28

    Final Technical Report for DOE grant DE-FG02-04ER15565 Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves PI Thomas D. Sharkey University of Wisconsin-Madison Starch is a desirable plant product for both food and biofuel. Leaf starch is ideal for use in biofuels because it does not compete with grain starch, which is used for food. Starch is accumulated in plant leaves during the day and broken down at night. If we can manipulate leaf starch breakdown it may be possible to design a plant that provides both grain starch for food and leaf starch for biofuel. The pathway of leaf starch breakdown was not known when this work started. Preliminary evidence had shown that maltose was the primary product of leaf starch breakdown (Weise, Weber & Sharkey, 2004) and that it was metabolized by a disproportionating enzyme called amylomaltase but given the initials DPE2 (Lu & Sharkey, 2004). In this work we showed that only one form of maltose was metabolically active (Weise et al., 2005a) and that maltose was located in two different places when the amylomaltase was knocked out but only inside the chloroplast when the maltose transporter was knocked out (Lu et al., 2006a). This allowed us to estimate the energetics of maltose export and to show that maltose export is more efficient than glucose export (Weise et al., 2005b). We examined how daylength affected starch breakdown rate and found that starch breakdown rate could respond to changes in daylength within one day (Lu, Gehan & Sharkey, 2005). We also were able to show a second starch breakdown pathway by chloroplastic starch phosphorylase (Weise et al., 2006). Work to this point was summarized in a review (Lu & Sharkey, 2006). We were able to show that the amylomaltase in plants could substitute for the amylomaltase in bacteria (Lu et al., 2006b). In this paper we also showed the importance of a second enzyme called alpha-glucan phosphorylase in starch breakdown. Finally, we were able to determine the enzymatic mechanism of

  14. Paid Educational Leave and Self-Directed Learning: Implications for Legislation on the Learning Leave Scheme in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Jeong Rok; Park, Cho Hyun; Jo, Sung Jun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study are to explore paid educational leave (PEL), self-directed learning (SDL) and the relationship between them; and to identify the implications for legislation on the learning leave scheme in South Korea. Design/Methodology/Approach: The research method of the study is a literature review. Articles were identified…

  15. The phenotype of grape leaves caused by acetochlor or fluoroglycofen, and effects of latter herbicide on grape leaves.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wei; Liang, Ting; Li, Qingliang; Du, Yuanpeng; Zhai, Heng

    2014-09-01

    Fluoroglycofen and acetochlor are two different herbicides used in vineyards to eradicate weeds. This present study first characterized the effects of these chemicals on phenotype of grape leaves. Results showed that acetochlor caused the middle- and upper-node grape leaves become yellow at 60th day after treatment, while fluoroglycofen caused the ones became dark green. Then the effects of fluoroglycofen on photosynthetic pigments and chloroplast ultrastructure were characterized. Results showed that fluoroglycofen increased the chlorophyll and carotenoid contents by different extent in different node leaves, while it did not affect the net photosynthesis rate significantly. Chloroplast ultrastructure analysis showed that the gap between thylakoids layers in few chloroplasts of middle-node leaves increased, which was also observed in ones of upper-node leaves; the number and size of chloroplast increased. Analysis on the deformed leaves of grapevines treated with 375 g ai ha(-1) fluoroglycofen showed that the starch grain per cell was much more and larger than that in the same size control leaves; the dark green and yellow parts had more or fewer chloroplast than the control, respectively, but both with more grana per chloroplast and less layers per granum. Chloroplasts went larger and round. Taken together, these results suggested that fluoroglycofen caused the grape leaves become dark green, which might be associated with the changes of chloroplast; the growth inhibition in the second year might be due to accumulation of starch. PMID:25175657

  16. Anomalous hyperfine structure of NSF3 in the degenerate vibrational state v5=1: Lifting of the parity degeneracy by the fluorine spin-rotation interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harder, Hauke; Macholl, Sven; Mäder, Heinrich; Fusina, Luciano; Ozier, Irving

    2010-03-01

    For the principal isotopologue N14S32F193 of thiazyl trifluoride in the degenerate fundamental state (v5=1), the hyperfine structure has been investigated in the Q-branch spectrum between 8 and 26.5 GHz using microwave Fourier transform waveguide spectrometers with a resolution limit of ≈30 kHz. In addition to l-type doubling spectra and l-type resonance transitions with (Δk=Δl=±2), perturbation-allowed spectra were measured with Δ(k-l)=±3,±6. The range in J was from 13 to 61; for the lower states, kl=-3,-2,-1,0,+1. For all the transitions, the hyperfine patterns observed are predicted to be doublets when only the nitrogen quadrupole Hamiltonian HQN is taken into account. Doublets were indeed measured for transitions with ΓRV=A1↔A2, where ΓRV is the rovibrational symmetry. However, when ΓRV=E↔E, triplets and quartets were observed in addition to doublets. These anomalous hyperfine patterns are shown to be due to the (Δk=±1) and (Δk=±2) matrix elements of the fluorine spin-rotation Hamiltonian HSRF characterized by the fluorine spin-rotation constants c(1)=(1)/(2)(cxz+czx*) and c(2)=(1)/(2)(cxx-cyy), respectively. These terms in HSRF lift the parity degeneracy for ΓRV=E. The rovibrational Hamiltonian HRV was adopted from an earlier partner study [S. Macholl , J. Phys. Chem. A 113, 668 (2009)]. A good fit to the hyperfine data was obtained with a standard deviation of 3.1 kHz. In the fitting process, 12 rovibrational parameters were varied, while the remaining constants in HRV were left at the values of Macholl In addition, six hyperfine parameters were determined: four in HQN, and two in HSRF. It was found that |c(1)|=7.48(24) kHz and |c(2)|=2.423(22) kHz. This determination of c(1) is the first to be reported based on frequency measurements. In all the previous detections of parity doubling where the splittings were accounted for quantitatively, the levels involved had K=|k|=1 in studies of the ground vibrational state or G≡|k-l|=1 in

  17. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using extracts of Artocarpus Lakoocha fruit and its leaves, and Eriobotrya Japonica leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ankita; Dhiman, Naresh; Singh, Bhanu P.; Gathania, Arvind K.

    2014-04-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) synthesis is demonstrated successfully using fresh young leaves of Artocarpus Lakoocha (A. Lakoocha), fruit pulp of A. Lakoocha and loquat (Eriobotrya Japonica) leaves. We have also compared green synthesis with chemical assisted tri-n-octyl-phosphine (TOP) stabilized gold nanoparticles. Samples were characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV-Visible spectroscopy. TEM images have shown that the average size of the particles is 15.06, 36.8 and 25.08 nm for A. Lakoocha fruits, A. Lakoocha leaves and loquat leaves assisted gold nanoparticles, respectively. Hydrogen tetrachloroaurate is reduced and AuNPs are stabilized by phenols, hydroxyls and carboxyls groups such as terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins etc, present in young leaves and fruit extracts. It was observed that green synthesis using botanical extracts is a cost effective and non- toxic way for nanoparticle preparation.

  18. Phloem unloading in developing leaves of sugar beet

    SciTech Connect

    Schmalstig, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    Physiological and transport data support a symplastic pathway for phloem unloading in developing leaves of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. Klein E, multigerm). The sulfhydryl inhibitor parachloromercuribenzene sulfonic acid (PCMBS) inhibited uptake of (/sup 14/C)-sucrose added to the free space of developing leaves, but did not affect import of (/sup 14/C)-sucrose during steady-state /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ labeling of a source leaf. The passively-transported xenobiotic sugar, (/sup 14/C)-L-glucose did not readily enter mesophyll cells when supplied through the cut end of the petiole of a sink leaf as determined by whole leaf autoradiography. In contrast, (/sup 14/C)-L-glucose translocated through the phloem from a mature leaf, rapidly entered mesophyll cells, and was evenly distributed between mesophyll and veins. Autoradiographs of developing leaves following a pulse of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ to a source leaf revealed rapid passage of phloem translocated into progressively higher order veins as the leaf developed. Entry into V order veins occurred during the last stage of import through the phloem. Import into developing leaves was inhibited by glyphosate (N-phosphomethylglycine), a herbicide which inhibits the aromatic amino acid pathway and hence protein synthesis. Glyphosate also stopped net starch accumulation in sprayed mature leaves, but did not affect export of carbon from treated leaves during the time period that import into developed leaves was inhibited.

  19. Phytotoxic steroidal saponins from Agave offoyana leaves.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Andy J; Simonet, Ana M; Calle, Juan M; Pecio, Łukasz; Guerra, José O; Stochmal, Anna; Macías, Francisco A

    2014-09-01

    A bioassay-guided fractionation of Agave offoyana leaves led to the isolation of five steroidal saponins (1-5) along with six known saponins (6-11). The compounds were identified as (25R)-spirost-5-en-2α,3β-diol-12-one 3-O-{α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (1), (25R)-spirost-5-en-3β-ol-12-one 3-O-{α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (2), (25R)-spirost-5-en-3β-ol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (3), (25R)-26-O-β-d-glucopyranosylfurost-5-en-3β,22α,26-triol-12-one 3-O-{α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (4) and (25R)-26-O-β-d-glucopyranosylfurost-5-en-3β,22α,26-triol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (5) by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis, including one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques, mass spectrometry and chemical methods. The phytotoxicity of the isolated compounds on the standard target species Lactuca sativa was evaluated. PMID:24939800

  20. [Improvement on microwave technology of extracting polysaccharide from yacon leaves].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing-wei; Liu, Jian; Yang, Yong; Zheng, Ming-min; Rong, Ting-zhao

    2007-11-01

    According to the extraction ratio of polysaccharide in yacon leaves, the comparison between microwave extraction and traditional hot water extraction was conducted, and the two-factor and three-level experiment on the microwave extraction of polysaccharide from yacon leaves was investigated. The result showed that the extraction ratio of polysaccharide by using microwave extraction was better than that by using traditional hot water extraction. Moreover, according to the result of variance analysis and multiple comparison, the optimum conditions for extraction of polysaccharide by using microwave technology from yacon leaves were as follows: 280W microwave power for 2 times and 15 minutes at every time. PMID:18323219

  1. Huygens space probe ready to leave Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-03-01

    the Earth, before settling down to prolonged observations of Saturn and its rings and moons. European and American scientists are partners in all the experiments, both in the Orbiter and in the Huygens Probe. Farthest out for Europe Huygens will travel to a greater distance from the Sun than any previous ESA mission, out to the orbit of Saturn at 1400 million kilometres, or nearly ten times the Sun Earth distance. For comparison, the farthest ranging mission at present is Ulysses, orbiting over the poles of the Sun and out to the orbit of Jupiter, 800 million kilometres from the Sun. As no other mission planned or contemplated by ESA at present will go as far as Saturn, Huygens is likely to hold the European record for many years. HUYGENS READY TO LEAVE EUROPE PRESS BRIEFING Wednesday 26 March, 10:00 hrs. Location : Daimler-Benz Aerospace/ Dornier Satellitensysteme Gate 2, Building 5.1 Ludwig-B>lkow-Allee Ottobrunn (Munich) Programme: 10h00 Registration of press 10h15 Huygens video introduction 10h20 Welcoming addresses: Klaus Ensslin, President, Dornier Satellitensysteme Roger Bonnet, Director of Science, ESA Michel Delaye, President, Aerospatiale Espace & Defense 10h30 NASA News and Cassini status Wesly T. Huntress, Associate Administrator of Space Science, NASA Richard Spehalski, Head of Cassini Project, NASA/JPL 10h40 The Huygens Project: Hamid Hassan, Head of the Huygens Project, ESA/ESTEC Hans-Joachim Hoffman, Head of the Huygens Project, Dornier Satellitensysteme Gerard Huttin, Head of the Huygens Project, Aerospatiale 11h00 The Huygens Scientific Programme: Jean-Pierre Lebreton, Huygens Project Scientist, ESA supported by European and American scientists. 11h15 The ESA Science programme, current and future missions Roger Bonnet, Director of Science, ESA 11h25 Question and Answer session 11h55 Visit to the Huygens spacecraft (access inside the clean room limited to photographers and TV teams only). 12h45 Buffet lunch 14h00 End of activties HUYGENS READY TO

  2. 5 CFR 630.908 - Limitations on donation of annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limitations on donation of annual leave... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Transfer Program § 630.908 Limitations on donation of annual... amount of annual leave he or she would be entitled to accrue during the leave year in which the...

  3. 5 CFR 630.908 - Limitations on donation of annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Limitations on donation of annual leave... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Transfer Program § 630.908 Limitations on donation of annual... amount of annual leave he or she would be entitled to accrue during the leave year in which the...

  4. 5 CFR 630.908 - Limitations on donation of annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Limitations on donation of annual leave... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Transfer Program § 630.908 Limitations on donation of annual... amount of annual leave he or she would be entitled to accrue during the leave year in which the...

  5. 5 CFR 630.908 - Limitations on donation of annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limitations on donation of annual leave... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Transfer Program § 630.908 Limitations on donation of annual... amount of annual leave he or she would be entitled to accrue during the leave year in which the...

  6. 5 CFR 630.908 - Limitations on donation of annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Limitations on donation of annual leave... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Transfer Program § 630.908 Limitations on donation of annual... amount of annual leave he or she would be entitled to accrue during the leave year in which the...

  7. 29 CFR 825.203 - Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.203 Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave. Eligible... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave....

  8. 29 CFR 825.203 - Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.203 Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave. Eligible... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave....

  9. 29 CFR 825.203 - Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.203 Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave. Eligible... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave....

  10. 29 CFR 825.203 - Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.203 Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave. Eligible... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave....

  11. 5 CFR 630.607 - Transfer and recredit of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfer and recredit of home leave. 630... ABSENCE AND LEAVE Home Leave § 630.607 Transfer and recredit of home leave. An employee is entitled to have his home leave account transferred or recredited to his account when he moves between agencies...

  12. 5 CFR 630.607 - Transfer and recredit of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transfer and recredit of home leave. 630... ABSENCE AND LEAVE Home Leave § 630.607 Transfer and recredit of home leave. An employee is entitled to have his home leave account transferred or recredited to his account when he moves between agencies...

  13. 5 CFR 630.607 - Transfer and recredit of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transfer and recredit of home leave. 630... ABSENCE AND LEAVE Home Leave § 630.607 Transfer and recredit of home leave. An employee is entitled to have his home leave account transferred or recredited to his account when he moves between agencies...

  14. 5 CFR 630.607 - Transfer and recredit of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transfer and recredit of home leave. 630... ABSENCE AND LEAVE Home Leave § 630.607 Transfer and recredit of home leave. An employee is entitled to have his home leave account transferred or recredited to his account when he moves between agencies...

  15. Why Leaves Turn Red in Autumn. The Role of Anthocyanins in Senescing Leaves of Red-Osier Dogwood1

    PubMed Central

    Feild, Taylor S.; Lee, David W.; Holbrook, N. Michele

    2001-01-01

    Why the leaves of many woody species accumulate anthocyanins prior to being shed has long puzzled biologists because it is unclear what effects anthocyanins may have on leaf function. Here, we provide evidence for red-osier dogwood (Cornus stolonifera) that anthocyanins form a pigment layer in the palisade mesophyll layer that decreases light capture by chloroplasts. Measurements of leaf absorbance demonstrated that red-senescing leaves absorbed more light of blue-green to orange wavelengths (495–644 nm) compared with yellow-senescing leaves. Using chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements, we observed that maximum photosystem II (PSII) photon yield of red-senescing leaves recovered from a high-light stress treatment, whereas yellow-senescing leaves failed to recover after 6 h of dark adaptation, which suggests photo-oxidative damage. Because no differences were observed in light response curves of effective PSII photon yield for red- and yellow-senescing leaves, differences between red- and yellow-senescing cannot be explained by differences in the capacities for photochemical and non-photochemical light energy dissipation. A role of anthocyanins as screening pigments was explored further by measuring the responses PSII photon yield to blue light, which is preferentially absorbed by anthocyanins, versus red light, which is poorly absorbed. We found that dark-adapted PSII photon yield of red-senescing leaves recovered rapidly following illumination with blue light. However, red light induced a similar, prolonged decrease in PSII photon yield in both red- and yellow-senescing leaves. We suggest that optical masking of chlorophyll by anthocyanins reduces risk of photo-oxidative damage to leaf cells as they senesce, which otherwise may lower the efficiency of nutrient retrieval from senescing autumn leaves. PMID:11598230

  16. A geranylacetophenone from the leaves of Melicope ptelefolia.

    PubMed

    Shaari, Khozirah; Safri, Suryati; Abas, Faridah; Lajis, Nordin Hj; Israf, D A

    2006-05-10

    The leaves of Melicope ptelefolia (Rutaceae) afforded a new acetophenone named 2,4,6-trihydroxy-3-geranylacetophenone. The structure of the compound was established by mass and NMR spectroscopy. PMID:16644538

  17. Anti-diabetes constituents in leaves of Smallanthus sonchifolius.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Zheng; He, Fan; Kang, Ting-Guo; Dou, De-Qiang; Gai, Kuo; Shi, Yu-Yuan; Kim, Young-Ho; Dong, Feng

    2010-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of smallanthaditerpenic acids A, B, C and D previously isolated from leaves of Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon) on alpha-glucosidase were examined and their IC50 were determined to be 0.48 mg/mL, 0.59 mg/mL, 1.00 mg/mL, and 1.17 mg/mL respectively. In addition, a rapid, reliable RP-HPLC method for the analysis of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and smallanthaditerpenic acids A and C in yacon leaves was established, and the variation in their contents in leaves from plants cultivated in different places and collected at different times of the year were compared. The established analytical method for determining smallanthaditerpenic acids A and C, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid presented good results and could be used as a method for the quality control of S. sonchifolius leaves. PMID:20184030

  18. 31 CFR 29.332 - Unused sick leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Satisfied by June 30, 1997 § 29.332 Unused sick leave. (a) For employees separated for retirement as of June... the applicable plan. (b) For employees separated for retirement after June 30, 1997, no unused...

  19. A new prenylated biflavonoid from the leaves of Garcinia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Saelee, Arun; Phongpaichit, Souwalak; Mahabusarakam, Wilawan

    2015-01-01

    A new prenylated biflavonoid, named dulcisbiflavonoid A, together with five biflavonoids were isolated from the leaves of Garcinia dulcis. Their structures were elucidated by analysing their spectroscopic data, especially 1D and 2D NMR. PMID:25675112

  20. Paid Sick Leave May Help Health of Whole Family

    MedlinePlus

    ... Paid Sick Leave May Help Health of Whole Family Study finds workers without it forgo or delay ... to forego medical care for themselves or their family when they're ill. Not surprisingly, they also ...

  1. Keep on growing: building and patterning leaves in the grasses.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Michael W; Hake, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    Monocot leaves have unique features that arise early in their development. Maturing leaves protectively enclose younger leaves and the meristem, the pool of founder cells from which a leaf emerges. Through the maturation process, proximal sheath and distal blade tissues differentiate and are separated by the ligule and auricle structures. Here we review current research focusing on the contribution of gene regulatory factors and phytohormones on the patterning and differentiation of monocot leaves primarily focusing on research in the grasses (Poaceae). The 10000 members of the grasses include the true grain cereals (wheat, rice, maize, etc.), biofuel crops such as sugarcane, pasture grasses, and bamboo. They are the most studied of the monocots due to their tremendous agricultural and agronomic importance. PMID:26751036

  2. 38 CFR 21.8340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... absence. The VR&E case manager may grant the child leaves of absence for periods during which the child fails to pursue a vocational training program. For prolonged periods of absence, the VR&E case...

  3. IET. Stack interior. Masons lay fire brick liner, leaving air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET. Stack interior. Masons lay fire brick liner, leaving air layer between bricks and concrete wall. Date: May 20, 1955. INEEL negative no. 55-1306 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. 29 CFR 825.301 - Designation of FMLA leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...., if the employee is incapacitated, the employee's spouse, adult child, parent, doctor, etc., may... alternative caregiver for the seriously-ill son or daughter if the leave had been designated timely....

  5. Detail view of gauges that record pressure of gas leaving ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of gauges that record pressure of gas leaving the engine house. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  6. Nurse manager job satisfaction and intent to leave.

    PubMed

    Warshawsky, Nora E; Havens, Donna S

    2014-01-01

    An electronic survey was used to collect data from 291 nurse managers working in U.S. hospitals. Seventy percent were satisfied or very satisfied with their jobs and 68% were either likely or very likely to recommend nursing management as a career choice. Seventy-two percent of these nurse managers were also planning to leave their positions in the next 5 years. The four most common reasons reported for intent to leave included burnout, career change, retirement, and promotion. Burnout was the most common reason cited by the entire sample but the fourth most common reason for leaving cited by those nurse managers who were planning to leave and also satisfied or very satisfied with their positions. Recommendations for nursing leaders include evaluating the workload of nurse managers, providing career counseling, and developing succession plans. PMID:24689156

  7. Changes in spectral properties of detached birch leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daughtry, C. S. T.; Biehl, L. L.

    1985-01-01

    A study conducted in order to determine the rate of changes in spectral properties of detached leaves and to evaluate the effectiveness of low temperature and cytokinins for delaying the changes, is examined. For five minutes, leaves from red birch are immersed in water or 0.001 M BAP, and then stored in plastic bags in the dark at either 5 or 25 C. Using a spectroradiometer and an integrating sphere, total directional-hemispherical reflectance and transmittance of the adaxial surface of the leaves are measured over the 400-1100 nm wavelength region. The results indicate that for leaves stored at 5 C for one week, the changes in the spectral properties are less than 5 percent of the initial values, whereas storage at 25 C promotes rapid senescence and large changes in the spectral properties. It is shown that low temperature is more effective than BAP in delaying senescence.

  8. Antioxidant properties of extracts from Ginkgo biloba leaves in meatballs.

    PubMed

    Kobus-Cisowska, Joanna; Flaczyk, Ewa; Rudzińska, Magdalena; Kmiecik, Dominik

    2014-06-01

    The aim was to determine the effect of Ginkgo leaf extracts on the stability of lipids and cholesterol in pork meatballs over 21days of refrigerated storage. The antioxidants used were characterized by their antioxidant activity towards lipids and cholesterol. Extracts were prepared from green and yellow leaves from Ginkgo biloba L. trees. Water, acetone and ethanol were used as extractants. The extracts showed stabilizing effects on both lipid and cholesterol oxidation processes. The lipid oxidation process of pork meatballs was mostly inhibited by the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the yellow leaves. Their antioxidant activity was higher than that of BHT. All the extracts had a stabilizing effect on cholesterol and most of them inhibited the formation of oxidized derivatives. The acetone and ethanol extracts of green leaves and the ethanol extract of yellow leaves inhibited the formation of cholesterol oxidation products formation most effectively. PMID:24583325

  9. Efficacy of leaves (drumstick, mint and curry leaves) powder as natural preservatives in restructured chicken block.

    PubMed

    Najeeb, A P; Mandal, P K; Pal, U K

    2015-05-01

    The use of natural preservatives to increase the shelf-life of meat products is promising as they possess antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Earlier, a highly acceptable restructured chicken slice without the addition of extra fat was developed in the same laboratory which was acceptable up to 10th day of storage under refrigeration and spoilage was mainly due to oxidation. Hence, the present study was planned to determine the efficacy of certain plant leaves' (drumstick, mint and curry leaves) powder at 1 % level as natural preservatives to enhance the shelf life of restructured chicken slices under refrigerated storage. The quality attributes of the products containing different natural preservativs were compared with the control and reference products. The control product contained no preservative and the reference product contained BHT (200 ppm) only. Incorporation of the leaf powders at 1 % level did not show any significant differences for both cooking yield (99.5-99.6 %) and proximate composition (moisture 72.2-72.3 %, protein 19.2-19.4 %, fat 4.2-4.3 % and total ash 2.3-2.4 %) of the restructured chicken slices compared to both control and reference products during storage. All products containing leaf powders showed significantly (P < 0.01) lower microbial counts (2.9-3.7 log10 CFU/g) compared to both control and BHT added products. Yeast and mould were not detected in any of the products throughout the storage period. Sensory evaluation scores showed that the restructured chicken slices incorporated with the leaf powders were as acceptable as the reference product and rated good to very good for appearance, flavor, juiciness and overall acceptability. Restructured chicken slices with the leaf powders could be safely stored without much loss in quality up to 20 days under refrigeration. PMID:25892820

  10. Contrasts among bidirectional reflectance of leaves, canopies, and soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, J. M.; Walter, E. A.; Welles, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Simple models are presented for predicting the bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) for soils and plant canopies viewed from various directions. BRDFs are predicted for bare soil, individual leaves, and plant canopies, and the results are compared with measurements and a three coefficient empirical equation. BRDF measurements for corn and soybean leaves are presented to contrast with canopy and soil distributions. Estimates of the soil, canopy, and leaf BRDFs are combined into a model called Cupid to predict BRDFs for complex natural surfaces.

  11. Spectra of normal and nutrient-deficient maize leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Abbas, A. H.; Barr, R.; Hall, J. D.; Crane, F. L.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1973-01-01

    Reflectance, transmittance and absorptance spectra of normal and six types of nutrient-deficient (N, P, K, S, Mg, and Ca) maize (Zea mays L.) leaves were analyzed at 30 selected wavelengths from 500 to 2600 nm. The analysis of variance showed significant differences in reflectance, transmittance and absorptance in the visible wavelengths among leaf numbers 3, 4, and 5, among the seven treatments, and among the interactions of leaf number and treatments. In the infrared wavelengths only treatments produced significant differences. The chlorophyll content of leaves was reduced in all nutrient-deficient treatments. Percent moisture was increased in S-, Mg-, and N-deficiencies. Polynomial regression analysis of leaf thickness and leaf moisture content showed that these two variables were significantly and directly related. Leaves from the P- and Ca-deficient plants absorbed less energy in the near infrared than the normal plants; S-, Mg-, K-, and N-deficient leaves absorbed more than the normal. Both S- and N-deficient leaves had higher temperatues than normal maize leaves.

  12. Photosynthesis in lightfleck areas of homobaric and heterobaric leaves

    PubMed Central

    Pieruschka, Roland; Chavarría-Krauser, Andrés; Schurr, Ulrich; Jahnke, Siegfried

    2010-01-01

    Leaves within a canopy are exposed to a spatially and temporally fluctuating light environment which may cause lateral gradients in leaf internal CO2 concentration and diffusion between shaded and illuminated areas. In previous studies it was hypothesized that lateral CO2 diffusion may support leaf photosynthesis, but the magnitude of this effect is still not well understood. In the present study homobaric leaves of Vicia faba or heterobaric leaves of Glycine max were illuminated with lightflecks of different sizes, mimicking sunflecks. Photosynthetic properties of the lightfleck areas were assessed with combined gas exchange measurements and chlorophyll fluorescence imaging. Lateral diffusion in homobaric leaves with an interconnected intercellular air space stimulated photosynthesis and the effect was largest in small lightfleck areas, in particular when plants were under drought stress. Such effects were not observed in the heterobaric leaves with strongly compartmented intercellular gas spaces. It is concluded that lateral diffusion may significantly contribute to photosynthesis of lightfleck areas of homobaric leaves depending on lightfleck size, lateral diffusivity, and stomatal conductance. Since homobaric leaf structures have been reported for many plant species, it is hypothesized that leaf homobary may have an impact on overall plant performance under conditions with a highly heterogeneous light environment. PMID:20008895

  13. Low CO2 Prevents Nitrate Reduction in Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Werner M.; Förster, Jutta

    1989-01-01

    The correlation between CO2 assimilation and nitrate reduction in detached spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves was examined by measuring light-dependent changes in leaf nitrate levels in response to mild water stress and to artificially imposed CO2 deficiency. The level of extractable nitrate reductase (NR) activity was also measured. The results are: (a) In the light, detached turgid spinach leaves reduced nitrate stored in the vacuoles of mesophyll cells at rates between 3 and 10 micromoles per milligram of chlorophyll per hour. Nitrate fed through the petiole was reduced at similar rates as storage nitrate. Nitrate reduction was accompanied by malate accumulation. (b) Under mild water stress which caused stomatal closure, nitrate reduction was prevented. The inhibition of nitrate reduction observed in water stressed leaves was reversed by external CO2 concentrations (10-15%) high enough to overcome stomatal resistance. (c) Nitrate reduction was also inhibited when turgid leaves were kept in CO2-free air or at the CO2-compensation point or in nitrogen. (d) When leaves were illuminated in CO2-free air, activity of NR decreased rapidly. It increased again, when CO2 was added back to the system. The half-time for a 50% change in activity was about 30 min. It thus appears that there is a rapid inactivation/activation mechanism of NR in leaves which couples nitrate reductase to net photosynthesis. PMID:16667163

  14. Light absorption by anthocyanins in juvenile, stressed, and senescing leaves

    PubMed Central

    Merzlyak, Mark N.; Chivkunova, Olga B.; Solovchenko, Alexei E.; Naqvi, K. Razi

    2008-01-01

    The optical properties of leaves from five species, Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.), cotoneaster (Cotoneaster alaunica Golite), hazel (Corylus avellana L.), Siberian dogwood (Cornus alba L.), and Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch.), differing in pigment composition and at different stages of ontogenesis, were studied. Anthocyanin absorption maxima in vivo, as estimated with spectrophotometry of intact anthocyanic versus acyanic leaves and microspectrophotometry of vacuoles in the leaf cross-sections, were found between 537 nm and 542 nm, showing a red shift of 5–20 nm compared with the corresponding maxima in acidic water–methanol extracts. In non-senescent leaves, strong anthocyanin absorption was found between 500 nm and 600 nm (with a 70–80 nm apparent bandwidth). By and large, absorption by anthocyanin in leaves followed a modified form of the Lambert–Beer law, showing a linear trend up to a content of nearly 50 nmol cm−2, and permitting thereby a non-invasive determination of anthocyanin content. The apparent specific absorption coefficients of anthocyanins at 550 nm showed no substantial dependence on the species. Anthocyanin contribution to total light absorption at 550 nm was followed in maple leaves in the course of autumn senescence. Photoprotection by vacuolar anthocyanins is discussed with special regard to their distribution within a leaf; radiation screening by anthocyanins predominantly localized in the epidermal cells in A. platanoides and C. avellana leaves was also evaluated. PMID:18796701

  15. Propensity to Leave versus Probability of Leaving: The Relationship between Intrinsic and Extrinsic Satisfaction in the Voluntary Leaving Behavior of IT Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Christopher S.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents a quantitative analysis of the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction and the voluntary leaving behavior of IT professionals. In addition, the study adds to the validity and reliability of the Udechukwu and Mujtaba Mathematical Turnover Model. Surveyed within the study for their intrinsic and…

  16. Comparative antioxidant effect of aqueous extracts of curry leaves, fenugreek leaves and butylated hydroxytoluene in raw chicken patties.

    PubMed

    Devatkal, Suresh K; Thorat, Pramod R; Manjunatha, M; Anurag, Rahul K

    2012-12-01

    Antioxidant properties and use of aqueous extracts of curry leaves (Murraya koenigii) and fenugreek leaves (Trigonella foenum-graecum) as source of natural antioxidant in raw chicken meat were evaluated. Four treatments viz., I. Control (meat +2% salt), II.BHT (meat +2% salt +0.1% BHT), III. CLE (meat +2% salt +2% curry leaves extract) and IV. FLE (meat +2% salt +2% fenugreek leaves extract) were compared for lipid oxidation during eight days refrigerated storage. The average phenolic content was 59.2 and 52.8 mg/g gallic acid equivalent in CLE and FLE respectively. Free radical scavenging activity was 61.4 and 64.2% in CLE and FLE, respectively. CLE had significantly (P < 0.05) higher reducing activity (2.4) as compared to FLE (2.2). Observation on lipid oxidation showed a significant (p < 0.05) higher TBARS values in control patties than other patties containing BHT, CLE and FLE. Overall percent increase during storage period was highest in control followed by BHT, CLE and FLE. Both synthetic antioxidants and natural extracts significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the TBARS values. The average percent decrease in TBARS values during storage was 18, 25.5 and 27.5 in BHT, CLE and FLE treatments, respectively. Therefore, it was concluded that water extracts obtained from curry leaves and fenugreek leaves could be explored as natural antioxidants in poultry meat and meat products. PMID:24293699

  17. Expanding leaves of mature deciduous forest trees rapidly become autotrophic.

    PubMed

    Keel, Sonja G; Schädel, Christina

    2010-10-01

    Emerging leaves in evergreen tree species are supplied with carbon (C) from the previous year's foliage. In deciduous trees, no older leaves are present, and the early phase of leaf development must rely on C reserves from other tissues. How soon developing leaves become autotrophic and switch from being C sinks to sources has rarely been studied in mature forest trees, and simultaneous comparisons of species are scarce. Using a canopy crane and a simple (13)CO(2)-pulse-labelling technique, we demonstrate that young leaves of mature trees in three European deciduous species (Fagus sylvatica L., Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl., Tilia platyphyllos Scop.) start assimilating CO(2) at a very early stage of development (10-50% expanded). One month after labelling, all leaves were still strongly (13)C enriched, suggesting that recent photosynthates had been incorporated into slow turnover pools such as cellulose or lignin and thus had contributed to leaf growth. In line with previous studies performed at the same site, we found stronger incorporation of recent photosynthates into growing tissues of T. platyphyllos compared with F. sylvatica and Q. petraea. Non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations analysed for one of the three study species (F. sylvatica) showed that sugar and starch pools rapidly increased during leaf development, suggesting that newly developed leaves soon produce more NSC than can be used for growth. In conclusion, our findings indicate that expanding leaves of mature deciduous trees become C autonomous at an early stage of development despite the presence of vast amounts of mobile carbohydrate reserves. PMID:20688879

  18. [Mechanism of cooked blanched garlic leaves against platelet aggregation].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Hua; Di, Yan-Hui

    2014-06-01

    This study was purposed to explore the mechanism of cooked blanched garlic leave juice against platelet aggregation. The juice of blanched garlic leaves was mixed with platelet rich plasma (PRP), the human platelet aggregation, the activation of human platelets induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and collagen were observed; the expression levels of the activated platelets (Fib-R) and P-selectin (CD62P), and the amount of platelet fibrinogen binding were detected by flow cytometry; 10 rabbits were randomly divided into two groups, in addition to the normal diet, they were fed with physiologic saline and cooked blanched garlic leave juice respectively. After 1, 3, 5 , 8 weeks, the maximum ratio of rabbit platelet aggregation induced by ADP and collagen were observed . The results showed that the cooked blanched garlic leave juice could significantly inhibit human platelet aggregation induced by ADP and collagen (P < 0.05), the inhibitory ratio were 87.37% and 86.24% respectively; the juice could not inhibit activated platelets Fib-R and CD62P expression levels (P > 0.05), but was able to inhibit platelet fibrinogen binding capacity (P < 0.05); the rabbit platelet aggregation rate in the group given cooked blanched garlic leave juice was significantly lower than that in control group (P < 0.05). It is concluded that the cooked blanched garlic leave juice can inhibit platelet aggregation in vitro and in vivo, the inhibition of aggregation pathway mainly is blocking the combination of fibrinogen with Fib-R, which finally results in the inhibition of platelet aggregation. Therefore, regular consumption of cooked blanched garlic leaves may prevent cardiovascular thrombotic diseases. PMID:24989289

  19. Abscisic acid biosynthesis in leaves and roots of Xanthium strumarium

    SciTech Connect

    Creelman, R.A.; Gage, D.A.; Stults, J.T.; Zeevaart, J.A.D.

    1987-11-01

    Research on the biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA) has focused primarily on two pathways: (a) the direct pathway from farnesyl pyrophosphate, and (b) the indirect pathway involving a carotenoid precursor. The authors have investigated which biosynthetic pathway is operating in turgid and stressed Xanthium leaves, and in stressed Xanthium roots using long-term incubations in /sup 18/O/sub 2/. It was found that in stressed leaves three atoms of /sup 18/O from /sup 18/O/sub 2/ are incorporated into the ABA molecule, and that the amount of /sup 18/O incorporated increases with time. One /sup 18/O atom is incorporated rapidly into the carboxyl group of ABA, whereas the other two atoms are very slowly incorporated into the ring oxygens. The fourth oxygen atom in the carboxyl group of ABA is derived from water. ABA from stressed roots of Xanthium incubated in /sup 18/O/sub 2/ shows a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA in stressed leaves, but with incorporation of more /sup 18/O into the tertiary hydroxyl group at C-1' after 6 and 12 hours than found in ABA from stressed leaves. It is proposed that the precursors to stress-induced ABA are xanthophylls, and that a xanthophyll lacking an oxygen function at C-6 plays a crucial role in ABA biosynthesis in Xanthium roots. In turgid Xanthium leaves, /sup 18/O is incorporated into ABA to a much lesser extent that it is in stressed leaves, whereas exogenously applied /sup 14/C-ABA is completely catabolized within 48 hours. This suggests that ABA in turgid leaves is either (a) made via a biosynthetic pathway which is different from the one in stressed leaves, or (b) has a half-life on the order of days as compared with a half-life of 15.5 hours in water-stressed Xanthium leaves. Phaseic acid showed a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA, but with an additional /sup 18/O incorporated during 8'-hydroxylation of ABA to phaseic acid.

  20. Drying kinetics of dill leaves in a convective dryer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motevali, A.; Younji, S.; Chayjan, R. Amiri; Aghilinategh, N.; Banakar, A.

    2013-01-01

    Thin layer drying characteristics of dill leaves under fixed, semi-fluidized, and fluidized bed conditions were studied at air temperatures of 30, 40, 50, and 60°C. In order to find a suitable drying curve, 12 thin layer-drying models were fitted to the experimental data of the moisture ratio. Among the applied mathematical models, the Midilli et al. model was the best for drying behavior prediction in thin layer drying of dill leaves. To obtain the optimum network for drying of dill leaves, various numbers of multilayer feed-forward neural networks were made and tested with different numbers of hidden layers and neurons. The best neural network feed-forward back-propagation topology for the prediction of drying of dill leaves (moisture ratio and drying rate) was the 3-45-2 structure with the training algorithm trainlm and threshold functions logsig and purelin. The coefficient of determination for this topology for training, validation, and testing patterns was 0.9998, 0.9981, and 0.9990, respectively. Effective moisture diffusivity of dill leaves during the drying process in different bed types was found to be in the range from 7.10 10-12 to 1.62 10-10 m2 s-1. Also, the values of activation energy were determined to be between 75.435 and 80.118 kJ mol-1

  1. [Phytochemical investigation of Juniper rufescens leaves and fruits].

    PubMed

    Dzharullaeva, S Sh

    2009-03-01

    Seven species of juniper grow in Azerbaijan. The examination of leaves and fruits of Juniperus oxycedrus L. growing in Azerbaijan was conducted. It was found that Juniperus oxycedrus L is widespread in Azerbaijan. The biologically active substances of Juniperus oxycedrus leaves have been studied. It was found that the main biologically active substances in leaves are flavonoids -1,61% and lipids -57,8%; in fruits - ethereal oil 1,2%. The flavonoid composites include luteolin, kaempferol, quercetine, izoquercitrin, rutin. They also possess the diuretic and anti-inflammation effects. Ethereal oil of fruits consist of 20 components, prevailing are alpha-beta-pinen, alpha-fellandren, alpha-terpineol and it also possesses high antimicrobial and antibacterial effect. Lipoid fraction includes tokoferols, karotinoids, xlorofils and lipoid acids: linol, linolen, olein, stearin and palmithin. There are also macroelements K,Ca, Mg,Na,and mikroelements Si, Fe, Al. It was found that the period of maximum accumulation of flavonoids in leaves and ethereal oil in fruit is in Autumn in the period of fruit maturation and ripening. Juniperus oxycedrus L is a good material for new antiseptic remedy. Flavonoids from the leaves of Juniperus oxycedrus L have anti-inflammatory and diuretic effect; fungicide, antimicrobial and antibacterial characteristics. PMID:19359735

  2. Proteomic analysis of strawberry leaves infected with Colletotrichum fragariae.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xianping; Chen, Wenyue; Xin, Ya; Zhang, Hengmu; Yan, Chengqi; Yu, Hong; Liu, Hui; Xiao, Wenfei; Wang, Shuzhen; Zheng, Guizhen; Liu, Hongbo; Jin, Liang; Ma, Huasheng; Ruan, Songlin

    2012-07-16

    Understanding the defense mechanisms used by anthracnose-resistant strawberries against Colletotrichum infection is important for breeding purposes. To characterize cell responses to Colletotrichum infection, proteomes from strawberry seedling leaves that had or had not been infected with Colletotrichum fragariae were characterized at different time points post infection by 2-DE and by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS and database-searching protein identification. Mass spectrometry identified 49 differentially expressed proteins with significant intensity differences (>1.5-fold, p<0.05) in mock- and C. fragariae-infected leaves at least at one time point. Notably, 2-DE analysis revealed that C. fragariae infection increased the expression of well-known and novel pathogen-responsive proteins whose expression patterns tended to correlate with physiological changes in the leaves. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to examine the transcriptional profiles of infected and uninfected strawberry leaves, and western blotting confirmed the induction of β-1,3-glucanase and a low-molecular-weight heat shock protein in response to C. fragariae infection. During the late phase of infection, proteins involved in the Calvin cycle and glycolysis pathway had suppressed expression. The abundance changes, putative functions, and participation in physiological reactions for the identified proteins produce a pathogen-responsive protein network in C. fragariae-infected strawberry leaves. Together, these findings increase our knowledge of pathogen resistance mechanisms, especially those found in non-model plant species. PMID:22634039

  3. A Global Regulation Inducing the Shape of Growing Folded Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Couturier, Etienne; Courrech du Pont, Sylvain; Douady, Stéphane

    2009-01-01

    Shape is one of the important characteristics for the structures observed in living organisms. Whereas biologists have proposed models where the shape is controlled on a molecular level [1], physicists, following Turing [2] and d'Arcy Thomson [3], have developed theories where patterns arise spontaneously [4]. Here, we propose that volume constraints restrict the possible shapes of leaves. Focusing on palmate leaves (with lobes), the central observation is that developing leaves first grow folded inside a bud, limited by the previous and subsequent leaves. We show that the lobe perimeters end at the border of this small volume. This induces a direct relationship between the way it was folded and the final unfolded shape of the leaf. These dependencies can be approximated as simple geometrical relationships that we confirm on both folded embryonic and unfolded mature leaves. We find that independent of their position in the phylogenetic tree, these relationships work for folded species, but do not work for non-folded species. This global regulation for the leaf growth could come from a mechanical steric constraint. Such steric regulation should be more general and considered as a new simple means of global regulation. PMID:19956690

  4. Antimicrobial activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica L. leaves.

    PubMed

    Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Péres-Roses, Renato; Urdaneta-Laffita, Imilci; Camacho-Pozo, Miladis Isabel; Rodríguez-Amado, Jesús; Licea-Jiménez, Irina

    2010-07-01

    Tamarindus indica L. leaves are reported worldwide as antibacterial and antifungal agents; however, this observation is not completely accurate in the case of Cuba. In this article, decoctions from fresh and sun dried leaves, as well as fluid extracts prepared with 30 and 70% ethanol-water and the pure essential oil from tamarind leaves were microbiologically tested against Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomona aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Aqueous and fluid extracts were previously characterized by spectrophotometric determination of their total phenols and flavonoids, while the essential oil was chemically evaluated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Experimental data suggest phenols as active compounds against B. subtilis cultures, but not against other microorganisms. On the other hand, the essential oil exhibited a good antimicrobial spectrum when pure, but its relative low concentrations in common folk preparations do not allow for any good activity in these extracts. PMID:20931087

  5. Antimicrobial activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica L. leaves

    PubMed Central

    Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Péres-Roses, Renato; Urdaneta-Laffita, Imilci; Camacho-Pozo, Miladis Isabel; Rodríguez-Amado, Jesús; Licea-Jiménez, Irina

    2010-01-01

    Tamarindus indica L. leaves are reported worldwide as antibacterial and antifungal agents; however, this observation is not completely accurate in the case of Cuba. In this article, decoctions from fresh and sun dried leaves, as well as fluid extracts prepared with 30 and 70% ethanol-water and the pure essential oil from tamarind leaves were microbiologically tested against Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomona aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Aqueous and fluid extracts were previously characterized by spectrophotometric determination of their total phenols and flavonoids, while the essential oil was chemically evaluated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Experimental data suggest phenols as active compounds against B. subtilis cultures, but not against other microorganisms. On the other hand, the essential oil exhibited a good antimicrobial spectrum when pure, but its relative low concentrations in common folk preparations do not allow for any good activity in these extracts. PMID:20931087

  6. Translocation of Assimilates and Phosphate in Detached Bean Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, O. A.; Glenn, R. K.

    1968-01-01

    14C-assimilates were accumulated by the veins in the blades and transported basipetally into the petioles of detached leaves of Red Kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Neither process was greatly affected by mild moisture stress, age of fully enlarged leaves, or period in the dark prior to exposure to 14CO2. However, both vein loading and transport into petioles were greatly reduced by oxygen deficiency. The basipetal transport of 32PO4 also did not appear to be greatly reduced by 6 or 8 days of darkness prior to the application of phosphate-32P, followed by a transport period of 1 day in the dark. Endothall at 5 × 10−3 m was effective in stopping basipetal flow of 32P. It is considered that transport in leaves may be powered by forces in the plasmodesmata of the cell walls between the border parenchyma and phloem. Images PMID:16656924

  7. An event history analysis of union joining and leaving.

    PubMed

    Buttigieg, Donna M; Deery, Stephen J; Iverson, Roderick D

    2007-05-01

    This article examines parallel models of union joining and leaving using individual-level longitudinal panel data collected over a 5-year period. The authors utilized objective measures of joining and leaving collected from union and organizational records and took into account time by using event history analysis. The results indicated that union joining was negatively related to procedural justice and higher performance appraisals and positively related to partner socialization and extrinsic union instrumentality. Conversely, members were most likely to leave the union when they perceived lower procedural justice, where there was no union representative present in the workplace, and where they had individualistic orientations. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for theory and practice for trade unions. PMID:17484562

  8. Plantlet regeneration from cultured leaves of Cydonia oblonga L. (quince).

    PubMed

    Dolcet-Sanjuan, R; Mok, D W; Mok, M C

    1991-08-01

    Adventitious shoots of Cydonia oblonga Quince A were obtained from leaves cultured on MS-N6 medium containing thidiazuron (TDZ) and α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). The frequency of regeneration was high (78% of the cultured leaves with 3.2 shoots per regenerating leaf) at 32 μM TDZ plus 0.3 μM NAA on young leaves obtained from micropropagated shoots. Shoots were rooted by culturing them first on medium containing 5 μM NAA for one week and then on auxinfree medium for four weeks. The regeneration protocol may be useful for selection of somaclonal variants with increased tolerance to low Fe and for transformation mediated by Agrobacterium. PMID:24221587

  9. Computational Approach to Seasonal Changes of Living Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dong-Yan

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a computational approach to seasonal changes of living leaves by combining the geometric deformations and textural color changes. The geometric model of a leaf is generated by triangulating the scanned image of a leaf using an optimized mesh. The triangular mesh of the leaf is deformed by the improved mass-spring model, while the deformation is controlled by setting different mass values for the vertices on the leaf model. In order to adaptively control the deformation of different regions in the leaf, the mass values of vertices are set to be in proportion to the pixels' intensities of the corresponding user-specified grayscale mask map. The geometric deformations as well as the textural color changes of a leaf are used to simulate the seasonal changing process of leaves based on Markov chain model with different environmental parameters including temperature, humidness, and time. Experimental results show that the method successfully simulates the seasonal changes of leaves. PMID:23533545

  10. The Inheritance of Millenial Students: What They Will Inherit from Their Campus Experience--What Legacy Will They Leave

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagani, Freda

    2008-01-01

    Millennial students can be inspired to create a legacy for future generations by the recognizable actions of campus planners to create more sustainable campuses through smart growth planning, green buildings, transportation planning, and energy- and water-efficiency retrofits. This article describes policies, programs, and projects at The…

  11. Nutritional Composition of Water Spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) Leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umar, K. J.; Hassan, L. G.; Dangoggo, S. M.; Ladan, M. J.

    Analyses of the nutritional composition of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) Forsk leaves were carried out using standard methods of food analysis. The proximate composition as well as mineral elements were determined. The leaves were found on dry weight basis to have high moisture (72.83±0.29%), ash (10.83±0.80%), crude lipid (11.00±0.50%), crude fibre (17.67±0.35%) and available carbohydrate (54.20±0.68%), but low in crude protein content (6.30±0.27%). The leaves also have energy value (300.94±5.31 kcal/100 g) that is within the range reported in some Nigerian leafy vegetables. The mineral element contents were high with remarkable concentration of K (5,458.33±954.70 mg/100 g) and Fe (210.30±2.47 mg/100 g). Also the leaves content moderate concentrations of Na (135.00±2.50 mg/100 g), calcium (416.70±5.77 mg/100 g), Magnesium (301.64±12.69 mg/100 g) and P (109.29±0.55 mg/100 g), with low Cu (0.36±0.01 mg/100 g), Mn (2.14±0.22 mg/100 g) and Zn (2.47±0.27 mg/100 g) contents. Comparing the mineral content with recommended dietary allowance, it was showed that the plant leaves is good sources of K, Mn and Fe for all categories of people, while Mg is adequate enough for adult female and children. From the result, Ipomoea aquatica Forsk leaves could be used for nutritional purposes, due to the amount and diversity of nutrients it contains.

  12. [Beijing common green tree leaves' accumulation capacity for heavy metals].

    PubMed

    Li, Shao-Ning; Kong, Ling-Wei; Lu, Shao-Wei; Chen, Bo; Gao, Chen; Shi, Yuan

    2014-05-01

    Seasonal variation of heavy metal contents in leaves and their relationships with soil heavy metal pollution levels were studied through measuring and analyzing the leaves of the common tree species in Beijing and soil heavy metal contents, to detect heavy metal accumulation ability of plant leaves. The results showed that: (1) the contents of Cu, Pb, Zn in plant leaves first decreased and then increased, again declined with changing the seasons (from spring to winter). Cr concentration showed the trend of first increase and then decrease from spring to winter, and the highest in the autumn; the accumulation capacities of Cu for Babylonica and Japonica were higher in the spring, summer and autumn, while Tabuliformis was in winter; the higher accumulation capacities for Cr, Pb were Japonica and Platycladus, and in winter were Platycladus and Bungeana; the higher accumulation capacities for Zn were Babylonica and Bungeana, while Platycladus in winter; (2) the pollution degree of four kinds of heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn) from downtown to suburbs showed that: Jingshan (C =2.48, C is contamination factor) > Olympic (C = 1.27) > Songshan (C = 1.20) > Shuiguan (C = 1. 18); (3) the heavy metals concentration of same plant leaves in the water of the Great Wall changed larger, but those in the other three areas showed that: Jingshan > Olympic > Songshan; the ability of same species leaf to absorb different sorts of heavy metals showed that: Zn >Cu >Pb >Cr; the difference between Zn content and Cr content was significant (P <0.01); (4) the relationship between heavy metal content in plant leaves and soil heavy metal pollution levels presented a quadratic polynomial relation; the significant correlation was found between other three heavy metal contents of plant samples and soil samples, but they were not the case for the Cu, and the correlation coefficients were above 0. 9. PMID:25055683

  13. Secondary Metabolites from Leaves of Manilkara subsericea (Mart.) Dubard

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Fernanda Borges; Fernandes, Caio Pinho; Romao, Wanderson; Vanini, Gabriela; Costa, Helber Barcelos; França, Hildegardo Seibert; Santos, Marcelo Guerra; Carvalho, José Carlos Tavares; Falcão, Deborah Quintanilha; Rocha, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    Background: Manilkara subsericea (Sapotaceae) is a species widely spread in the sandbanks of Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). It is commonly known as “maçaranduba”, “maçarandubinha” and “guracica”, being used in this locality as food, and timber. However, M. subsericea remains almost unexplored regarding its chemical constituents, including secondary metabolites from the leaves. Objective: Identify the chemical constituents from the leaves of M. subsericea. Materials and Methods: Leaves were macerated with ethanol (96% v/v), and dried crude ethanolic extract was sequentially washed with the organic solvents in order to obtain an ethyl acetate fraction. Substances from this fraction were identified by different techniques, such as negative-ion electrospray ionization Fourier and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Fresh leaves from M. subsericea were also submitted to hydrodistillation in order to obtain volatile substances, which were identified by gas chromatograph coupled to mass spectrometer. Results: NMR1H and 13C spectra allowed for the identification of the compounds myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol from the ethyl acetate fraction. The negative-ion electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry mass spectrum also revealed the presence in this fraction of a polyhydroxytriterpene acid (pomolic acid), and some flavonoids, such as quercitrin, and myricitrin. In all 34 volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, including monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and long chain hydrocarbons. Conclusion: This study describes the first reports concerning the phytochemical information about leaves from M. subsericea. SUMMARY Manilkara subsericea fruits proved to be a rich source of triterpenes. However, no phytochemical studies were carried out with leaves. Thus, we described identification of volatile substances from its essential oils, in addition to

  14. Family and Medical Leave Act; Definition of Spouse. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is revising the definition of spouse in its regulations on the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) as a result of the decision by the United States Supreme Court holding section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) unconstitutional. The new definition replaces the existing definition, which contains language from DOMA that refers to "a legal union between one man and one woman.'' The new definition permits Federal employees with same-sex spouses to use FMLA leave in the same manner as Federal employees with opposite-sex spouses. PMID:27066615

  15. Goniometric observations of light scattered from soils and leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kestner, Joann M.; Leidecker, Henning W.; Irons, James R.; Smith, James A.; Brakke, Thomas W.

    1988-01-01

    The laboratory established at NASA-Goddard to measure and model the light-scattering properties of soil samples and individual plant leaves employs two goniometers: one for the measurement of directional reflectance and transmittance from vertically-mounted leaf samples, and the other for measurement of directional reflectance from such horizontal, semiinfinite particulate surfaces as soil samples. Sample observations of various soil minerals and plant leaves are presented; these goniometric data are compared to the results of a reflectance model from particulate surfaces and those of a ray-tracing model of leaf reflectance and transmittance.

  16. Bioethanol production from Ficus religiosa leaves using microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Klein, Miri; Griess, Ofir; Pulidindi, Indra Neel; Perkas, Nina; Gedanken, Aharon

    2016-07-15

    A microwave assisted feasible process for the production of bioethanol from Ficus religiosa leaves was developed. Under the process conditions (8 min. microwave irradiation, 1 M HCl), 10.1 wt% glucose yield was obtained from the leaves. Microwave based hydrolysis process yielded higher glucose content (10.1 wt%) compared to the conventional hydrothermal process (4.1 wt%). Upon fermentation of the hydrolysate using Baker's yeast, 3 wt% (dry wt. basis) of bioethanol was produced. PMID:27064733

  17. Flavonol Glycosides from the Leaves of Allium macrostemon.

    PubMed

    Nakane, Risa; Iwashina, Tsukasa

    2015-08-01

    Twelve flavonoids were isolated from Allium macrostemon leaves. Five compounds were identified as kaempferol 3,7-di-O-glucoside (1), kaempferol 3,4'-di-O-glucoside (2), quercetin 3-O-glucoside (3), kaempferol 3-0-glucoside (4) and isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside (5) by UV spectra, LC-MS, acid hydrolysis and HPLC comparisons with authentic standards. Other flavonoids were characterized as kaempferol glycosides (6-8, 10 and 11) and quercetin glycosides (9 and 12). Other compounds, such as steroidal saponins, have been already found from the bulbs of A. macrostemon. However, flavonoids were reported for the first time from the leaves. PMID:26434122

  18. Students with Special Educational Needs in Secondary Education: Are They Intending to Learn or to Leave?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pijl, Sip Jan; Frostad, Per; Mjaavatn, Per Egil

    2014-01-01

    During their secondary school years, a considerable number of students seriously consider choosing between learning and leaving. Leaving school early means that students do not complete their education. Early school leaving is the last step in a process in which students gradually lose interest and develop the intention to leave school. This study…

  19. Nest Leaving in Sweden: The Importance of Early Educational and Labor Market Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Karina; Strandh, Mattias

    1999-01-01

    Study looked at the importance of early education and labor market careers for nest leaving and returning to the parental home. The data determined that employment means a high probability of nest leaving but less stability of independent living. The early career was more important for structuring women's nest leaving than men's nest leaving.…

  20. Paid Educational Leave. NIE Papers in Education and Work: Number Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Herbert A.

    This report is a digest of a larger work, "Developments in Paid Leave of Absence," a report including case studies and analysis of the collective experience of nine European countries and the United States with paid educational leave. Section I defines paid educational leave as "leave given to an employee for educational purposes for a specified…

  1. The Effects of California’s Paid Family Leave Program on Mothers’ Leave-Taking and Subsequent Labor Market Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher; Waldfogel, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This analysis uses March Current Population Survey data from 1999–2010 and a differences-in-differences approach to examine how California’s first in the nation paid family leave (PFL) program affected leave-taking by mothers following childbirth, as well as subsequent labor market outcomes. We obtain robust evidence that the California program doubled the overall use of maternity leave, increasing it from an average of three to six weeks for new mothers – with some evidence of particularly large growth for less advantaged groups. We also provide evidence that PFL increased the usual weekly work hours of employed mothers of one-to-three year-old children by 10 to 17% and that their wage incomes may have risen by a similar amount. PMID:23547324

  2. Maize seedling blight induced by Fusarium verticillioides: accumulation of fumonisin B₁ in leaves without colonization of the leaves.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Thomas T; Zitomer, Nicholas C; Mitchell, Trevor R; Zimeri, Anne-Marie; Bacon, Charles W; Riley, Ronald T; Glenn, Anthony E

    2014-03-01

    Fusarium verticillioides produces fumonisin mycotoxins during the colonization of maize, and fumonisin B₁ (FB₁) production is necessary for manifestation of maize seedling blight disease. The objective of this study was to address FB₁ mobility and accumulation in seedlings to determine if proximal infection by F. verticillioides is necessary for FB₁ accumulation. Taking advantage of an aconidial mutant known to have limited capability for seedling infection, tissue and soil samples were analyzed to compare wild-type F. verticillioides against the mutant. Inoculation with either strain caused accumulation of FB₁ in the first and second leaves, but the mutants were unable to colonize aerial tissues. FB₁, FB₂, and FB₃ were detected in the soil and seedling roots, but only FB₁ was detected in the leaves of any treatment. These data suggest root infection by F. verticillioides is necessary for accumulation of FB₁ in leaves, but the mechanism for accumulation does not require colonization of the leaf. PMID:24524621

  3. 77 FR 8959 - The Family and Medical Leave Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... FR 67934. A. What the FMLA Provides The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, 29 U.S.C. 2601 et seq... FR 13394. The Department received comments from a wide variety of stakeholders, and after considering... FR 31794. After publication, the Department invited further public comment on the interim...

  4. Optimal vein density in artificial and real leaves

    PubMed Central

    Noblin, X.; Mahadevan, L.; Coomaraswamy, I. A.; Weitz, D. A.; Holbrook, N. M.; Zwieniecki, M. A.

    2008-01-01

    The long evolution of vascular plants has resulted in a tremendous variety of natural networks responsible for the evaporatively driven transport of water. Nevertheless, little is known about the physical principles that constrain vascular architecture. Inspired by plant leaves, we used microfluidic devices consisting of simple parallel channel networks in a polymeric material layer, permeable to water, to study the mechanisms of and the limits to evaporation-driven flow. We show that the flow rate through our biomimetic leaves increases linearly with channel density (1/d) until the distance between channels (d) is comparable with the thickness of the polymer layer (δ), above which the flow rate saturates. A comparison with the plant vascular networks shows that the same optimization criterion can be used to describe the placement of veins in leaves. These scaling relations for evaporatively driven flow through simple networks reveal basic design principles for the engineering of evaporation–permeation-driven devices, and highlight the role of physical constraints on the biological design of leaves. PMID:18599446

  5. LEAVES AS INDICATORS OF EXPOSURE TO AIRBORNE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in leaves is primarily a product of airborne exposures and dependent upon bioconcentration factors and release rates. The bioconcentration factors for VOCs in grass are found to be related to their partitioning between octan...

  6. 5 CFR 304.106 - Pay and leave administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Act for Federal employees. (See 5 CFR part 551). (d) An expert or consultant may be paid for service... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pay and leave administration. 304.106 Section 304.106 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS...

  7. 5 CFR 304.106 - Pay and leave administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Act for Federal employees. (See 5 CFR part 551). (d) An expert or consultant may be paid for service... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay and leave administration. 304.106 Section 304.106 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS...

  8. Isolation and Characterization of Phosphatidyl Choline from Spinach Leaves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devor, Kenneth A.

    1979-01-01

    This inexpensive but informative experiment for undergraduate biochemistry students involves isolating phosphatidyl choline from spinach leaves. Emphasis is on introducing students to techniques of lipid extraction, separation of lipids, identification using thin layer chromatography, and identification of fatty acids. Three periods of three hours…

  9. Chromatographic profiles of Ginkgo biloba leaves and selected products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An LC-DAD-ESI/MS method was developed to obtain chromatographic profiles for the flavonoids and terpene lactones of Ginkgo biloba leaves and selected G. biloba products. The method was used to identify 46 glycosylated flavonols and flavones, 3 free flavonol aglycones, catechin, 10 biflavones, a dihy...

  10. Chromatographic Profiles of Ginkgo biloba Leaves and Selected Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ginkgo biloba leaves and their extracts are one of the most widely used herbal products or dietary supplements in the world. Their flavonoids and terpene lactones are considered to be the main beneficial components. Many previous studies have focused on specific components, or families of component...

  11. Einstein's Tea Leaves and Pressure Systems in the Atmosphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tandon, Amit; Marshall, John

    2010-01-01

    Tea leaves gather in the center of the cup when the tea is stirred. In 1926 Einstein explained the phenomenon in terms of a secondary, rim-to-center circulation caused by the fluid rubbing against the bottom of the cup. This explanation can be connected to air movement in atmospheric pressure systems to explore, for example, why low-pressure…

  12. 46 CFR 502.68 - Motion for leave to intervene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... leave to intervene may be filed in any proceeding. (b) Procedure for intervention. (1) Upon request, the... the type of intervention sought; (iii) Describe the interest and position of the person seeking intervention, and address the grounds for intervention set forth in paragraph (c) of this section;...

  13. 46 CFR 502.68 - Motion for leave to intervene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... leave to intervene may be filed in any proceeding. (b) Procedure for intervention. (1) Upon request, the... the type of intervention sought; (iii) Describe the interest and position of the person seeking intervention, and address the grounds for intervention set forth in paragraph (c) of this section;...

  14. Morphogenesis of Simple and Compound Leaves: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Efroni, Idan; Eshed, Yuval; Lifschitz, Eliezer

    2010-01-01

    The leaves of seed plants evolved from a primitive shoot system and are generated as determinate dorsiventral appendages at the flanks of radial indeterminate shoots. The remarkable variation of leaves has remained a constant source of fascination, and their developmental versatility has provided an advantageous platform to study genetic regulation of subtle, and sometimes transient, morphological changes. Here, we describe how eudicot plants recruited conserved shoot meristematic factors to regulate growth of the basic simple leaf blade and how subsets of these factors are subsequently re-employed to promote and maintain further organogenic potential. By comparing tractable genetic programs of species with different leaf types and evaluating the pros and cons of phylogenetic experimental procedures, we suggest that simple and compound leaves, and, by the same token, leaflets and serrations, are regulated by distinct ontogenetic programs. Finally, florigen, in its capacity as a general growth regulator, is presented as a new upper-tier systemic modulator in the patterning of compound leaves. PMID:20435903

  15. High throughput sequencing of small RNAs in Potato Leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the role of small RNAs (sRNAs) in gene regulation, function and development is a rapidly evolving field. sRNAs result from transcript degradation and to regulatory micro RNA (miRNA) and small inhibitory RNA (siRNA) classes involved in gene regulation. The sRNAs from potato leaves were...

  16. The reconfiguration of broad leaves in strong winds and currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Laura; Hoover, Alex; Marzuola, Jeremy

    2015-11-01

    Flexible plants, fungi, and sessile animals are thought to reconfigure in the wind and water to reduce the drag forces that act upon them. In strong winds, for example, leaves roll up into cone shapes that reduce flutter and drag when compared to paper cut-outs with similar shape and flexibility. Simple mathematical models of a flexible beam immersed in a two-dimensional flow will also exhibit this behavior. What is less understood is how the mechanical properties of a two-dimensional leaf in a three-dimensional flow will passively allow roll up and reduce drag and flutter. In this project, we use computational fluid dynamics and particle image velocimetry to determine how leaves roll up into drag reducing shapes in extreme conditions. Force and flow measurements are taken on real broad leaves and simplified physical models. Corresponding numerical simulations using the immersed boundary method are used to understand which features of the flexible leaves result in proper reconfiguration and drag reduction.

  17. How and Why the Leaves Fall: A Story Sketch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwood, Bert; Henderson, Bob

    1995-01-01

    A short story compares an old man's tale of why the woodland animals prepare for winter and the leaves change colors with a teacher's science-based explanations. Commentary distinguishes inquiry of wonder (why) and inquiry of power (how), and suggests ways to record the story for oral retelling and adapt it for use with young, older, and…

  18. 42 CFR 31.6 - Personnel absent without leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personnel absent without leave. 31.6 Section 31.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS MEDICAL CARE FOR CERTAIN PERSONNEL OF THE COAST GUARD, NATIONAL OCEAN SURVEY, PUBLIC...

  19. Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Nisar; Fazal, Hina; Ayaz, Muhammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Mohammad, Ijaz; Fazal, Lubna

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of Carica papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. For the treatment of Dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 mL of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with Dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. Before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. Platelets count (PLT), White Blood Cells (WBC) and Neutrophils (NEUT) decreased from 176×103/µL, 8.10×103/µL, 84.0% to 55×103/µL, 3.7×103/µL and 46.0%. Subsequently, the blood samples were rechecked after the administration of leaves extract. It was observed that the PLT count increased from 55×103/µL to 168×103/µL, WBC from 3.7×103/µL to 7.7×103/µL and NEUT from 46.0% to 78.3%. From the patient feelings and blood reports it showed that Carica papaya leaves aqueous extract exhibited potential activity against Dengue fever. Furthermore, the different parts of this valuable specie can be further used as a strong natural candidate against viral diseases. PMID:23569787

  20. Morale Matters: Midlevel Administrators and Their Intent To Leave.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnsrud, Linda K.; Heck, Ronald H.; Rosser, Vicki J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper attempts to define the construct of "morale" empirically and examine it within a broader theory of how organizations affect individuals. It investigates the concept's construct validity by proposing and testing a multilevel structural model to measure the impact of morale on midlevel administrators' intentions to leave their positions.…

  1. Leave or Stay? Battered Women's Decision after Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinseok; Gray, Karen A.

    2008-01-01

    Battered women's reasons for staying with or leaving their male partners are varied and complex. Using data from the Domestic Violence Experience in Omaha, Nebraska, a discrete-time hazard model was employed to examine a woman's decision based on four factors: financial independence, witness of parental violence, psychological factors, and the…

  2. [Constituents of the leaves of Ligustrum delavayanum Hariot].

    PubMed

    Nagy, M; Baróniková, S; Grancai, D; Mucaji, P

    2001-11-01

    From the chloroform part of Ligustrum delavayanum Hariot, leaves five constituents were isolated: tyrosol, esculetine, kempferol-7-O-rhamnoside, quercetine-3-O-glucoside, and quercetine. Further six constituents (probably malvidine, two secoiridoid glycosides, caffeic acid monosaccharide ester, quercetine monoglycoside (no hyperoside), and quercetine diglycoside (no rutinoside)) were isolated from the methanolic part of above mentioned drug. PMID:11797198

  3. Physiological responses of plant leaves to atmospheric ammonia and ammonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, J.; Soares, A.

    Misting of leaves of several plant species with 3 mM aqueous NH +4 at pH 5, or fumigation with 3000 μg m -3 gaseous NH 3 for 1 h, elicits similar biochemical and physiological changes in the species tested. The enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS) was shown to increase its activity in all species, while that of nitrate reductase (NR) was inhibited, at least in those species which possessed the ability to induce foliar NR. At the same time there were marked changes in organic anion concentrations, with malate and citrate in particular being reduced in concentration, following either NH +4 or NH 3 application to leaves. The changes in organic anions are also discussed in the light of pH regulation by the cell. A stimulation of photosynthesis was also evident when leaves were treated with either NH 3 or NH +4. It is argued that, because of the differences in solution chemistry of the two ammonia forms, the aqueous form applied at pH 5 and the gaseous form being an alkali in solution, these changes can only have occurred through the ability of the leaves to readily assimilate both forms of the ammonia. The biochemical changes might have potential as markers for the onset of physiological perturbation by atmospheric ammonia pollution, particularly changes in organic acid concentration; their use in an index of pollution stress is briefly discussed.

  4. Gender Inequality and the Family and Medical Leave Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prohaska, Ariane; Zipp, John F.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we use feminist theories of the state to examine why the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) has had relatively little impact on increasing men's caregiving after the birth or adoption of a child. An analysis of witness testimonies and of the language of the proposed bill at three different stages of its development revealed that…

  5. 38 CFR 21.8340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21.8340 Section 21.8340 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with...

  6. I Can See Clearly Now - Embolism in Leaves.

    PubMed

    Scoffoni, Christine; Jansen, Steven

    2016-09-01

    Deciphering how air enters the plant hydraulic transport tissues represents a major challenge to understanding plant drought responses. Using a non-invasive and cheap visualization technique applied to leaves, the spread of embolism is found to initiate in the midrib, increase with vein order, and is seemingly influenced by vein topology. PMID:27423303

  7. Antimicrobial activity of UV-induced phenylamides from rice leaves.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye Lin; Yoo, Youngchul; Hahn, Tae-Ryong; Bhoo, Seong Hee; Lee, Sang-Won; Cho, Man-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Rice produces a wide array of phytoalexins in response to pathogen attacks and UV-irradiation. Except for the flavonoid sakuranetin, most phytoalexins identified in rice are diterpenoid compounds. Analysis of phenolic-enriched fractions from UV-treated rice leaves showed that several phenolic compounds in addition to sakuranetin accumulated remarkably in rice leaves. We isolated two compounds from UV-treated rice leaves using silica gel column chromatography and preparative HPLC. The isolated phenolic compounds were identified as phenylamide compounds: N-trans-cinnamoyltryptamine and N-p-coumaroylserotonin. Expression analysis of biosynthetic genes demonstrated that genes for arylamine biosynthesis were upregulated by UV irradiation. This result suggested that phenylamide biosynthetic pathways are activated in rice leaves by UV treatment. To unravel the role of UV-induced phenylamides as phytoalexins, we examined their antimicrobial activity against rice fungal and bacterial pathogens. N-trans-Cinnamoyltryptamine inhibited the growth of rice brown spot fungus (Bipolaris oryzae). In addition to the known antifungal activity to the blast fungus, sakuranetin had antimicrobial activity toward B. oryzae and Rhizoctonia solani (rice sheath blight fungus). UV-induced phenylamides and sakuranetin also had antimicrobial activity against rice bacterial pathogens for grain rot (Burkholderia glumae), blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae) and leaf streak (X. oryzae pv. oryzicola) diseases. These findings suggested that the UV-induced phenylamides in rice are phytoalexins against a diverse array of pathogens. PMID:25383752

  8. 20 CFR 416.215 - You leave the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false You leave the United States. 416.215 Section 416.215 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Eligibility Reasons Why You May Not Get Ssi Benefits for Which You Are...

  9. Spectral characteristics of normal and nutrient-deficient maize leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Abbas, A. H.; Barr, R.; Hall, J. D.; Crane, F. L.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1972-01-01

    Reflectance, transmittance and absorbance spectra of normal and six types of mineral-deficient (N,P,K,S,Mg and Ca) maize (Zea mays L.) leaves were analyzed at 30 selected wavelengths along the electromagnetic spectrum from 500 to 2600 nm. Chlorophyll content and percent leaf moisture were also determined. Leaf thermograms were obtained for normal, N- and S- deficient leaves. The results of the analysis of variance showed significant differences in reflectance, transmittance and absorbance in the visible wavelengths among leaf numbers 3, 4, and 5, among the seven nutrient treatments, and among the interactions of leaves and treatments. In the reflective infrared wavelengths only treatments produced significant differences. The chlorophyll content of leaves was reduced in all deficiencies in comparison to controls. Percent moisture was increased in S-, Mg- and N- deficiencies. Positive correlation (r = 0.707) between moisture content and percent absorption at both 1450 and 1930 nm were obtained. Polynomial regression analysis of leaf thickness and leaf moisture content showed that these two variables were significantly and directly related (r = 0.894).

  10. 5 CFR 630.401 - Granting sick leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., dental, or optical examination or treatment; or (ii) Provides care for a family member with a serious... exposure to a communicable disease; or (6) Must be absent from duty for purposes relating to his or her... leave to care for a family member with a serious health condition under paragraph (c) of this...

  11. 50. STARBOARD VIEW LEAVING HOMEPORT IN MEMPHIS TO TRAVEL TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. STARBOARD VIEW LEAVING HOMEPORT IN MEMPHIS TO TRAVEL TO CURTIS BAY, MARYLAND. PRIOR TO CONVERSION TO NEW HOISTING SYSTEM, 1962. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE PINE, U.S. Coast Guard 8th District Base, South Broad Street, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  12. Carolina "Takes It or Leaves It" then "Gives It Up."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koman, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Describes the "Take It or Leave It" (now the "Give It Up") program at the University of South Carolina, in which the materials generated by students moving out of campus housing for the summer, rather than being disposed of as trash, are collected and recycled or donated to local charities. (EV)

  13. Is Your Sick Leave Bank in Good Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Sick leave banks are a common staple of teacher contracts. Although these banks may benefit employees, they expose school districts to a variety of complications and unintended consequences, including administrative complexity, potential cash flow implications, cost disparities, increased absenteeism, instructional instability, privacy issues, and…

  14. 20 CFR 416.215 - You leave the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Eligibility Reasons Why You May Not Get Ssi Benefits for Which You Are Otherwise Eligible § 416.215 You leave the United States. You lose your eligibility for SSI benefits for any month... days in a row. You may again be eligible for SSI benefits in the month in which the 30 days end if...

  15. Triterpenoid glycosides from the leaves of Meliosma henryi.

    PubMed

    Alabdul Magid, Abdulmagid; Morjani, Hamid; Harakat, Dominique; Madoulet, Claudie; Dumontet, Vincent; Lavaud, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Seven triterpenoid glycosides, named meliosmosides A-G, were isolated from the leaves of Meliosma henryi Diels (Sabiaceae). Their structures were elucidated by different spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR experiments as well as HRESIMS analysis. Isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against KB cell line. PMID:25468712

  16. Leaving Medicaid without health insurance: TANF policies and recipients' vulnerabilities.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tyrone

    2007-08-01

    This study identifies factors predicting health insurance coverage of TANF recipients leaving Medicaid programs. A sample of 785 Medicaid spells of enrollment by able-bodied, non-elderly adults is drawn from a national survey. Employing event history analysis and multinomial logistic regression, the study finds that those who left Medicaid were three times more likely to become uninsured than to become privately insured. Recipients leaving TANF were 24 times more likely to leave Medicaid than to remain on Medicaid. The impact of leaving TANF upon becoming uninsured was moderated by restrictive TANF policies. Recipients who were White and employed part-time were 41-42% more likely to become uninsured than were their counterparts. A high unemployment rate increased a recipient's chance of becoming uninsured by 27.5%. Married people, African Americans, those with full-time jobs, and those with earnings above the poverty line were at least 32% more likely to acquire private coverage than their respective counterparts. PMID:17675717

  17. The content of lignan glycosides in Forsythia flowers and leaves.

    PubMed

    Tokar, Magdalena; Klimek, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    Quantitative determination of lignan glucosides in flowers and leaves of three taxons of Forsythia Vahl was performed using the HPLC method. The main lignan compound in the flowers of F. suspensa appeared to be (+)-pinoresinol beta-D-glucopyranoside, whereas in the leaves of this species phillyrin was the predominant lignan. The content of (+)-pinoresinol beta-D-glucopyranoside in F. suspensa flowers amounted to 4.3-7% and that of phillyrin did not reach 1%. The inverse ratio of (+)-pinoresinol beta-D-glucopyranoside to phillyrin occurred in the leaves of F. suspensa, which contained up to 4.3% of phillyrin and 1.6% and less (+)-pinoresinol beta-D-glucopyranoside. The flowers of F. viridissima and F. x intermedia were rich in arctiin: 5.5-10.2% and up to 11.5%, respectively. The leaves of these two species contained less arctiin: up to 4.3% in F. viridissima and up to 2.3% in F. x intermedia. The flowers showed the highest level of lignans at the phase of buds, it decreased during the blooming time. PMID:15575593

  18. Community College Faculty Job Satisfaction and Propensity to Leave.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Susan A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes a survey of 900 community college faculty in 11 southern states regarding the effects of role ambiguity, role conflict, and 10 job satisfaction factors on their propensity to leave their jobs. Indicates that turnover intent increased as satisfaction with growth opportunities, salary, work, policy, administration, and supervision…

  19. Cytology of infection of apple leaves by Diplocarpon mali

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diplocarpon mali, the causal agent of Marssonina leaf blotch of apple, causes severe defoliation during the growing season. Little information is available on the mode of infection and infection process. In this study, the infection strategies of D. mali in apple leaves were investigated using fluor...

  20. Wet fractionation for improved utilization of alfalfa leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Utilization of alfalfa could be greatly improved if protein-rich leaves were efficiently separated and preserved from fibrous stems. This work envisions a new harvest scheme combining three processes: mechanical leaf separation, dewatering, and fermentation. Gross plant fractionation is accomplished...