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1

Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis and lumbar spine configuration.  

PubMed

As life expectancy increases, degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS) becomes a common health problem among the elderly. DLSS is usually caused by degenerative changes in bony and/or soft tissue elements. The poor correlation between radiological manifestations and the clinical picture emphasizes the fact that more studies are required to determine the natural course of this syndrome. Our aim was to reveal the association between lower lumbar spine configuration and DLSS. Two groups were studied: the first included 67 individuals with DLSS (mean age 66 ± 10) and the second 100 individuals (mean age 63.4 ± 13) without DLSS-related symptoms. Both groups underwent CT images (Philips Brilliance 64) and the following measurements were performed: a cross-section area of the dural sac, vertebral body dimensions (height, length and width), AP diameter of the bony spinal canal, lumbar lordosis and sacral slope angles. All measurements were taken at L3 to S1. Vertebral body lengths were significantly greater in the DLSS group at all levels compared to the control, whereas anterior vertebral body heights (L3, L4, L5) and middle vertebral heights (L3, L5) were significantly smaller in the LSS group. Lumbar lordosis, sacral slope and bony spinal canal were significantly smaller in the DLSS compared to the control. We conclude that the size and shape of vertebral bodies and canals significantly differed between the study groups. A tentative model is suggested to explain the association between these characteristics and the development of degenerative spinal stenosis. PMID:20652366

Abbas, J; Hamoud, K; May, H; Hay, O; Medlej, B; Masharawi, Y; Peled, N; Hershkovitz, I

2010-11-01

2

Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis and its imposters: three case studies  

PubMed Central

Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis causing neurogenic claudicaton is a common condition impacting walking ability in older adults. There are other highly prevalent conditions in this patient population that have similar signs and symptoms and cause limited walking ability. The purpose of this study is to highlight the diagnostic challenges using three case studies of older adults who present with limited walking ability who have imaging evidence of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis.

Ammendolia, Carlo

2014-01-01

3

Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis and lumbar spine configuration  

PubMed Central

As life expectancy increases, degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS) becomes a common health problem among the elderly. DLSS is usually caused by degenerative changes in bony and/or soft tissue elements. The poor correlation between radiological manifestations and the clinical picture emphasizes the fact that more studies are required to determine the natural course of this syndrome. Our aim was to reveal the association between lower lumbar spine configuration and DLSS. Two groups were studied: the first included 67 individuals with DLSS (mean age 66 ± 10) and the second 100 individuals (mean age 63.4 ± 13) without DLSS-related symptoms. Both groups underwent CT images (Philips Brilliance 64) and the following measurements were performed: a cross-section area of the dural sac, vertebral body dimensions (height, length and width), AP diameter of the bony spinal canal, lumbar lordosis and sacral slope angles. All measurements were taken at L3 to S1. Vertebral body lengths were significantly greater in the DLSS group at all levels compared to the control, whereas anterior vertebral body heights (L3, L4, L5) and middle vertebral heights (L3, L5) were significantly smaller in the LSS group. Lumbar lordosis, sacral slope and bony spinal canal were significantly smaller in the DLSS compared to the control. We conclude that the size and shape of vertebral bodies and canals significantly differed between the study groups. A tentative model is suggested to explain the association between these characteristics and the development of degenerative spinal stenosis. PMID:20652366

Hamoud, K.; May, H.; Hay, O.; Medlej, B.; Masharawi, Y.; Peled, N.; Hershkovitz, I.

2010-01-01

4

Socioeconomic and physical characteristics of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis individuals.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT: Study Design. A descriptive study of the association between demographic factors, and physical characteristics, and degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS).Objective. To shed light on the association of socioeconomic parameters and physical characteristics with DLSS.Summary of Background Data. Lumbar spinal stenosis is a prevalent and disabling condition in the aging population. DLSS is considered to be the most common type and is essentially associated with disc disease, facet joint arthrosis, ligamentum flavum thickening and osteophyte formation. While there is ample information regarding the association between BMI, cardiovascular disorders, smoking habits and disc disease, very little is known about their association with DLSS. Data on the association of body physique (e.g., height and weight) and DLSS are limited.Methods. Two sample populations were studied. The first included 165 individuals with DLSS (mean age 64 ± 9.9 years) and the second 180 individuals without spinal stenosis related symptoms (mean age 62.5 ± 12.6 years). An evaluation of the cross-sectional area of the dural sac and degenerative listhesis for all participants was performed on CT lumbar spine images, utilizing Philips EBW station (Brilliance 64, Philips Medical System, Cleveland Ohio). All participants were interviewed in order to obtain demographic, physical and health data. Independent T- test, Mann-Whitney and Chi-square tests were used to determine the association between parametric and non-parametric variables and DLSS. Logistic regression analysis was carried out in order to reveal predicting variables for DLSS.Results. Stenosis females were significantly heavier and shorter compared to their counterparts in the control group. We also noticed that they delivered babies more often than those in the control group. Prevalence of individuals suffering from diabetes mellitus was significantly higher in the stenosis males compared to control group. In the stenosis group, the frequencies of individuals engaged in heavy manual labor (males) and housekeeping (females) were significantly higher compared to their counterparts in the control group.Conclusions. Heavy manual labor and diabetes mellitus in males and housekeeping (females) play major roles in the genesis of DLSS. PMID:23380820

Abbas, J; Hamoud, K; May, H; Peled, N; Sarig, R; Stein, D; Alperovitch-Najenson, D; Hershkovitz, I

2013-02-01

5

Patient-based outcomes for the operative treatment of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design: A retrospective surgical case series was conducted using a condition-specific, patient-based outcomes assessment. Objective: The goal of this study was to describe the outcome predictors of decompressive surgery for degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS). Summary of background data: Surgical decompression is the recommended treatment for patients with moderate to severe DLSS. Previous studies have reported that factors such

Samo K. Fokter; Scott A. Yerby

2006-01-01

6

Lumbar Laminectomy for the Resection of Synovial Cysts and Coexisting Lumbar Spinal Stenosis or Degenerative Spondylolisthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surgeon-based evaluations and various patient-based questionnaires have been used to report the outcome of lumbar laminectomy to treat spinal stenosis alone. Sur- geon-based outcome data reveal a 56.6% to 75% inci- dence of good to excellent results.1-5 Few studies have reported on the long-term outcomes using the patient- based Oswestry Disability Questionnaire.2,6 Lumbar spinal stenosis may be further complicated by

Nancy E. Epstein

7

Effects of Transforaminal Injection for Degenerative Lumbar Scoliosis Combined with Spinal Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Objective The objectives of this study were to clarify the short-term effects of transforaminal epidural steroid injection (TFESI) for degenerative lumbar scoliosis combined with spinal stenosis (DLSS), and to extrapolate factors relating to the prognosis of treatment. Method Thirty-six patients with lumbar radicular pain from DLSS were enrolled. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two groups (steroid or lidocaine group). We compared the effect of pain suppression at 2, 4 and 12 weeks after the procedure between the two groups. Radiographic analysis included measurement of the Cobb's angle, the upper endplate obliquities of L3 and L4, and maximal lateral olisthy between two adjacent lumbar vertebrae. Sagittal plane measurement included lumbar lordosis, and thoracolumbar kyphosis. Statistical analysis of both radiographic and clinical parameters along with treatment outcome was performed to determine any significant correlations between the two. Results There were no significant differences in the demographic data, initial visual analogue scale (VAS) or Oswestry disability index (ODI) between the steroid group (n=17) and the lidocaine group (n=19). Two, 4, and 12 weeks after injection VAS, ODI showed a significantly greater improvement in the steroid group compared to the lidocaine group (p<0.05). The radiographic and clinical parameters were not significantly correlated with treatment outcome. Conclusion Our findings suggest that fluoroscopic transforaminal epidural steroid injections appear to be an effective non-surgical treatment option for patients with degenerative lumbar scoliosis combined with spinal stenosis (DLSS) and radicular pain. PMID:22506167

Nam, Hee-Seung

2011-01-01

8

Decompression and nonfusion dynamic stabilization for spinal stenosis with degenerative lumbar scoliosis.  

PubMed

Object Spinal stenosis with degenerative lumbar scoliosis (DLS) mostly occurs in the elderly population (typically > 65 years old), causing pain in the legs and back, claudication, and spinal deformity. The surgical strategy for DLS is controversial concerning the surgical approach, fusion area, decompression area, correction methods, and ideal angle of curve correction. A nonfusion stabilization system with motion preservation has been recently used for degenerative spinal diseases with favorable outcomes. This study attempted to analyze surgical outcomes after decompression and nonfusion stabilization for spinal stenosis with a mild to moderate degree of DLS. Methods Twenty-eight patients (21 women and 7 men, with a mean age of 65.3 years) with spinal stenosis and DLS who underwent decompressive surgery and nonfusion stabilization with the Dynesys system were included in this study. Medical records and radiological studies were reviewed to access clinical and radiological outcomes and surgery-related complications. Results Fifty-nine segments were decompressed and stabilized without fusion in 28 patients, consisting of 1 segmental stabilization in 8 patients (28.6%, L4-5), 2 segmental stabilizations in 11 patients (39.3%, L3-5), 3 segmental stabilizations in 7 patients (25.0%, L2-5 in 6 patients, L3-S1 in 1 patient), and 4 segmental stabilizations in 2 patients (7.1%, L2-S1 in 1 patient, L1-5 in 1 patient). The mean follow-up period was 30.7 months. Radiologically, the mean lumbar scoliotic angle was 13.7° before surgery, 5.1° at 3 months postoperatively, 3.8° at 12 months postoperatively, 4.2° at 24 months postoperatively, and 3.9° at the last follow-up, which was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Lumbar lordosis and range of motion were preserved. The score on the visual analog scale for leg and back pain significantly decreased, and the Oswestry Disability Index significantly improved after surgery. There were no newly developed neurological deficits or aggravation of neurological symptoms. A radiolucent line around the pedicle screw was observed in 4 patients (14.2%) with 5 screws (2.8%). Conclusions Adding nonfusion stabilization after decompressive surgery resulted in a safe and effective procedure for elderly patients with lumbar stenosis with a mild to moderate scoliosis angle (< 30°). Statistically significant improvement of the clinical outcome was obtained at the last follow-up evaluation with no progression of the degenerative scoliosis. PMID:25084033

Lee, Soo Eon; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Kim, Hyun-Jib

2014-10-01

9

Sequence variations in the collagen IX and XI genes are associated with degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis  

PubMed Central

Background: Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is usually caused by disc herniation or degeneration. Several genetic factors have been implicated in disc disease. Tryptophan alleles in COL9A2 and COL9A3 have been shown to be associated with lumbar disc disease in the Finnish population, and polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) (FokI and TaqI), the matrix metalloproteinase-3 gene (MMP-3) and an aggrecan gene (AGC1) VNTR have been reported to be associated with disc degeneration. In addition, an IVS6-4 a>t polymorphism in COL11A2 has been found in connection with stenosis caused by ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament in the Japanese population. Objective: To study the role of genetic factors in LSS. Methods: 29 Finnish probands were analysed for mutations in the genes coding for intervertebral disc matrix proteins, COL1A1, COL1A2, COL2A1, COL9A1, COL9A2, COL9A3, COL11A1, COL11A2, and AGC1. VDR and MMP-3 polymorphisms were also analysed. Sequence variations were tested in 56 Finnish controls. Results: Several disease associated alleles were identified. A splice site mutation in COL9A2 leading to a premature translation termination codon and the generation of a truncated protein was identified in one proband, another had the Trp2 allele, and four others the Trp3 allele. The frequency of the COL11A2 IVS6-4 t allele was 93.1% in the probands and 72.3% in controls (p = 0.0016). The differences in genotype frequencies for this site were less significant (p = 0.0043). Conclusions: Genetic factors have an important role in the pathogenesis of LSS. PMID:14644861

Noponen-Hietala, N; Kyllonen, E; Mannikko, M; Ilkko, E; Karppinen, J; Ott, J; Ala-Kokko, L

2003-01-01

10

Efficacy of surgery and type of fusion in patients with degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis.  

PubMed

Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS) can be treated by several surgical procedures. However, the choice of procedure and use of instrumentation remain controversial. In this retrospective study of 81 patients with DLSS, 43 patients received decompression and posterolateral fusion without instrumentation, and the surgery for 38 patients was supplemented with posterior transpedicular screw fixation. Both surgeon-based (Fischgrund criteria) and patient-based (Medical Outcome Trust Short-Form 36 [SF-36] questionnaire) standards were used to assess the clinical outcomes. An excellent to good result was achieved in 71.6% of patients and there was no significant difference 6.2 years later between groups with or without instrumentation (Z=0.0358, p>0.05). SF-36 data revealed significant postoperative improvement (p<0.01), and there was no significant difference between the two groups (t=1.67, p>0.05). Successful fusion occurred in 87% of patients with instrumentation versus 67% of the patients without instrumentation (chi(2)=4.23, p<0.05). Thus, surgical treatment of DLSS generally results in satisfactory outcomes. Transpedicular screw fixation may not improve clinical outcomes and the use of posterior instrumentation should be adopted cautiously. PMID:19577930

Gu, Yong; Chen, Liang; Yang, Hui-Lin; Chen, Xiao-Qing; Dong, Ren-Bin; Han, Guo-Sheng; Tang, Tian-Si; Zhang, Zhi-Ming

2009-10-01

11

Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis: correlation with Oswestry Disability Index and MR Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because neither the degree of constriction of the spinal canal considered to be symptomatic for lumbar spinal stenosis nor\\u000a the relationship between the clinical appearance and the degree of a radiologically verified constriction is clear, a correlation\\u000a of patient’s disability level and radiographic constriction of the lumbar spinal canal is of interest. The aim of this study\\u000a was to establish

Mustafa Sirvanci; Mona Bhatia; Kursat Ali Ganiyusufoglu; Cihan Duran; Mehmet Tezer; Cagatay Ozturk; Mehmet Aydogan; Azmi Hamzaoglu

2008-01-01

12

Interspinous Implant with Unilateral Laminotomy for Bilateral Decompression of Degenerative Lumbar Spinal Stenosis in Elderly Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective This study assessed the safety and efficacy of one level unilateral laminotomy bilateral decompression (ULBD) with the placement of a device for intervertebral assisted motion (DIAM) compared with one level ULBD only in elderly patients with degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS). Methods A non randomized prospective analysis was performed on 16 patients who underwent one level ULBD with DIAM (Group A) and 20 patients with one level ULBD only (Group B) between February 2007 and March 2008. Radiographic imaging, visual analog scale (VAS) and MacNab outcome scale were obtained before and after surgery at a mean interval of 21 months (range 17-27 months). Results The disc height, interpedicular distance, slip distance and segmental lordotic angle were similar between two groups. In the group A, there was no significant difference between the pre- and post-operative imaging in terms of the sagittal balance and disc height. Both groups showed significant improvement in the clinical outcomes. In addition, there was significantly less low-back pain in the group A than in the group B at the last follow up, while the clinical improvement of the leg pain and MacNab outcome scale showed no significant difference in the two groups. There were no major complications or DIAM associated complications. Conclusion ULBD with DIAM is a safe and efficacious treatment for selective elderly patients with DLSS, particularly for relieving low back pain comparing to ULBD. ULBD with DIAM did not alter the disc height or sagittal alignment at the mean 21 months follow-up interval. PMID:20539792

Ryu, Sung-Joo

2010-01-01

13

Interlaminar Epidural Steroid Injection for Degenerative Lumbar Spinal Canal Stenosis: Does the Intervertebral Level of Performance Matter?  

PubMed Central

Background Interlaminar epidural steroid injections (ILESIs) are commonly employed in the management of patients with symptomatic degenerative lumbar spinal canal stenosis despite little experimental evidence to guide technique optimization. One untested performance parameter is the intervertebral level at which the ILESI should be performed for maximum patient relief. Methods This study randomized patients with symptomatic degenerative lumbar spinal canal stenosis to receive an ILESI at the level of maximal spinal canal stenosis or at a normal/less stenotic intervertebral site 2 intervertebral levels cephalad to the level of maximal stenosis. Pain with ambulation and Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire scores were collected prior to the procedure and at 1-, 4-, and 12-week follow-ups. Results Fifty-seven patients were enrolled. Thirty patients (Group 1) received an ILESI at the level of maximal stenosis; 27 patients (Group 2) received an ILESI at a less stenotic level. The mean baseline preprocedural maximal pain with ambulation and disability scores for the 2 groups were not significantly different (P=0.94 and P=0.13, respectively). Patients' pain with ambulation scores were significantly lower in Group 1 compared to Group 2 at 1 and 4 weeks postinjection, but they were not significantly lower at 12 weeks (1 week, P=0.045; 4 weeks, P=0.049; 12 weeks, P=0.08). The mean Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire scores at 1, 4, and 12 weeks postinjection were significantly lower in Group 1 as compared to Group 2 (P=0.001, P=0.009, P=0.003, respectively). Conclusion Results suggest that patient symptom improvement is optimized when the ILESI is performed at the intervertebral level of maximal stenosis. PMID:24688335

Milburn, James; Freeman, Jeffrey; Steven, Andrew; Altmeyer, Wilson; Kay, Dennis

2014-01-01

14

Lumbar spinal stenosis.  

PubMed Central

Lumbar spinal stenosis, the results of congenital and degenerative constriction of the neural canal and foramina leading to lumbosacral nerve root or cauda equina compression, is a common cause of disability in middle-aged and elderly patients. Advanced neuroradiologic imaging techniques have improved our ability to localize the site of nerve root entrapment in patients presenting with neurogenic claudication or painful radiculopathy. Although conservative medical management may be successful initially, surgical decompression by wide laminectomy or an intralaminar approach should be done in patients with serious or progressive pain or neurologic dysfunction. Because the early diagnosis and treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis may prevent intractable pain and the permanent neurologic sequelae of chronic nerve root entrapment, all physicians should be aware of the different neurologic presentations and the treatment options for patients with spinal stenosis. Images PMID:8434469

Ciricillo, S F; Weinstein, P R

1993-01-01

15

Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 10: lumbar fusion for stenosis without spondylolisthesis.  

PubMed

Lumbar stenosis is one of the more common radiographic manifestations of the aging process, leading to narrowing of the spinal canal and foramen. When stenosis is clinically relevant, patients often describe activity-related low-back or lower-extremity pain, known as neurogenic claudication. For those patients who do not improve with conservative care, surgery is considered an appropriate treatment alternative. The primary objective of surgery is to reconstitute the spinal canal. The role of fusion, in the absence of a degenerative deformity, is uncertain. The previous guideline recommended against the inclusion of lumbar fusion in the absence of spinal instability or a likelihood of iatrogenic instability. Since the publication of the original guidelines, numerous studies have demonstrated the role of surgical decompression in this patient population; however, few have investigated the utility of fusion in patients without underlying instability. The majority of studies contain a heterogeneous cohort of subjects, often combining patients with and without spondylolisthesis who received various surgical interventions, limiting fusions to those patients with instability. It is difficult if not impossible, therefore, to formulate valid conclusions regarding the utility of fusion for patients with uncomplicated stenosis. Lower-level evidence exists, however, that does not demonstrate an added benefit of fusion for these patients; therefore, in the absence of deformity or instability, the inclusion of a fusion is not recommended. PMID:24980587

Resnick, Daniel K; Watters, William C; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Dailey, Andrew T; Choudhri, Tanvir F; Eck, Jason C; Sharan, Alok; Groff, Michael W; Wang, Jeffrey C; Ghogawala, Zoher; Dhall, Sanjay S; Kaiser, Michael G

2014-07-01

16

Treatment of multilevel degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis with spondylolisthesis using a combination of microendoscopic discectomy and minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion  

PubMed Central

Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS) has become increasingly common and is characterized by multilevel disc herniation and lumbar spondylolisthesis, which are difficult to treat. The current study aimed to evaluate the short-term clinical outcomes and value of the combined use of microendoscopic discectomy (MED) and minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF) for the treatment of multilevel DLSS with spondylolisthesis, and to compare the combination with traditional posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). A total of 26 patients with multilevel DLSS and spondylolisthesis underwent combined MED and MI-TLIF surgery using a single cage and pedicle rod-screw system. These cases were compared with 27 patients who underwent traditional PLIF surgery during the same period. Data concerning incision length, surgery time, blood loss, time of bed rest and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score prior to and following surgery were analyzed statistically. Statistical significance was reached in terms of incision length, blood loss and the time of bed rest following surgery (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference between the surgery time and ODI scores of the two groups. The combined use of MED and MI-TLIF has the advantages of reduced blood loss, less damage to the paraspinal soft tissue, shorter length of incision, shorter bed rest time, improved outcomes and shorter recovery times and has similar short-term clinical outcomes to traditional PLIF. PMID:23403827

WU, HAN; YU, WEI-DONG; JIANG, RUI; GAO, ZHONG-LI

2013-01-01

17

Treatment of multilevel degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis with spondylolisthesis using a combination of microendoscopic discectomy and minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion.  

PubMed

Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS) has become increasingly common and is characterized by multilevel disc herniation and lumbar spondylolisthesis, which are difficult to treat. The current study aimed to evaluate the short-term clinical outcomes and value of the combined use of microendoscopic discectomy (MED) and minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF) for the treatment of multilevel DLSS with spondylolisthesis, and to compare the combination with traditional posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). A total of 26 patients with multilevel DLSS and spondylolisthesis underwent combined MED and MI-TLIF surgery using a single cage and pedicle rod-screw system. These cases were compared with 27 patients who underwent traditional PLIF surgery during the same period. Data concerning incision length, surgery time, blood loss, time of bed rest and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score prior to and following surgery were analyzed statistically. Statistical significance was reached in terms of incision length, blood loss and the time of bed rest following surgery (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference between the surgery time and ODI scores of the two groups. The combined use of MED and MI-TLIF has the advantages of reduced blood loss, less damage to the paraspinal soft tissue, shorter length of incision, shorter bed rest time, improved outcomes and shorter recovery times and has similar short-term clinical outcomes to traditional PLIF. PMID:23403827

Wu, Han; Yu, Wei-Dong; Jiang, Rui; Gao, Zhong-Li

2013-02-01

18

Physical Therapy Interventions for Degenerative Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background Physical therapy is commonly prescribed for patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS); however, little is known about its effectiveness. Purpose The purpose of this study was to systematically review randomized controlled trials (RCTs), controlled trials, and cohort studies evaluating the effectiveness of physical therapy for LSS. Data Sources Studies were searched on electronic databases to January 2012. Study Selection Inclusion criteria were: clinical diagnosis of LSS with confirmatory imaging, evaluation of physical therapy treatment, presence of a comparison group, and outcomes of pain, disability, function, or quality of life. Data Extraction Outcomes were extracted and, when possible, pooled using RevMan 5, a freely available review program from the Cochrane Library. Data Synthesis Ten studies were included: 5 RCTs, 2 controlled trials, 2 mixed-design studies, and 1 longitudinal cohort study. Pooled effects of 2 studies revealed that the addition of a physical therapy modality to exercise had no statistically significant effect on outcome. Pooled effects results of RCTs evaluating surgery versus physical therapy demonstrated that surgery was better than physical therapy for pain and disability at long term (2 years) only. Other results suggested that exercise is significantly better than no exercise, that cycling and body-weight–supported treadmill walking have similar effects, and that corsets are better than no corsets. Limitations The limitations of this review include the low quality and small number of studies, as well as the heterogeneity in outcomes and treatments. Conclusions No conclusions could be drawn from the review regarding which physical therapy treatment is superior for LSS. There was low-quality evidence suggesting that modalities have no additional effect to exercise and that surgery leads to better long-term (2 years) outcomes for pain and disability, but not walking distance, than physical therapy in patients with LSS. PMID:23886845

Macedo, Luciana Gazzi; Hum, Abraham; Kuleba, Laura; Mo, Joey; Truong, Linda; Yeung, Mankeen

2013-01-01

19

Degenerative lumbosacral stenosis in dogs.  

PubMed

Degenerative lumbosacral stenosis (DLSS) is the most common disorder of the caudal lumbar spine in dogs. This article reviews the management of this disorder and highlights the most important new findings of the last decade. Dogs with DLSS are typically neuro-orthopedic patients and can be presented with varying clinical signs, of which the most consistent is lumbosacral pain. Due to the availability of advanced imaging techniques such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging that allow visualization of intervertebral disc degeneration, cauda equina compression, and nerve root entrapment, tailor-made treatments can be adopted for the individual patient. Current therapies include conservative treatment, decompressive surgery, and fixation-fusion of the L7-S1 junction. New insight into the biomechanics and pathobiology of DLSS and developments in minimally invasive surgical techniques will influence treatment options in the near future. PMID:20732601

Meij, Björn P; Bergknut, Niklas

2010-09-01

20

Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 9: lumbar fusion for stenosis with spondylolisthesis.  

PubMed

Patients presenting with stenosis associated with a spondylolisthesis will often describe signs and symptoms consistent with neurogenic claudication, radiculopathy, and/or low-back pain. The primary objective of surgery, when deemed appropriate, is to decompress the neural elements. As a result of the decompression, the inherent instability associated with the spondylolisthesis may progress and lead to further misalignment that results in pain or recurrence of neurological complaints. Under these circumstances, lumbar fusion is considered appropriate to stabilize the spine and prevent delayed deterioration. Since publication of the original guidelines there have been a significant number of studies published that continue to support the utility of lumbar fusion for patients presenting with stenosis and spondylolisthesis. Several recently published trials, including the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial, are among the largest prospective randomized investigations of this issue. Despite limitations of study design or execution, these trials have consistently demonstrated superior outcomes when patients undergo surgery, with the majority undergoing some type of lumbar fusion procedure. There is insufficient evidence, however, to recommend a standard approach to achieve a solid arthrodesis. When formulating the most appropriate surgical strategy, it is recommended that an individualized approach be adopted, one that takes into consideration the patient's unique anatomical constraints and desires, as well as surgeon's experience. PMID:24980586

Resnick, Daniel K; Watters, William C; Sharan, Alok; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Dailey, Andrew T; Wang, Jeffrey C; Choudhri, Tanvir F; Eck, Jason; Ghogawala, Zoher; Groff, Michael W; Dhall, Sanjay S; Kaiser, Michael G

2014-07-01

21

Complications in patients undergoing combined transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion and posterior instrumentation with deformity correction for degenerative scoliosis and spinal stenosis  

PubMed Central

Background: Utilization of the transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) approach for scoliosis offers the patients deformity correction and interbody fusion without the additional morbidity associated with more invasive reconstructive techniques. Published reports on complications associated with these surgical procedures are limited. The purpose of this study was to quantify the intra- and postoperative complications associated with the TLIF surgical approach in patients undergoing surgery for spinal stenosis and degenerative scoliosis correction. Methods: This study included patients undergoing TLIF for degenerative scoliosis with neurogenic claudication and painful lumbar degenerative disc disease. The TLIF technique was performed along with posterior pedicle screw instrumentation. The average follow-up time was 30 months (range, 15–47). Results: A total of 29 patients with an average age of 65.9 years (range, 49–83) were evaluated. TLIFs were performed at 2.2 levels on average (range, 1–4) in addition to 6.0 (range, 4–9) levels of posterolateral instrumented fusion. The preoperative mean lumbar lordosis was 37.6° (range, 16°–55°) compared to 40.5° (range, 26°–59.2°) postoperatively. The preoperative mean coronal Cobb angle was 32.3° (range, 15°–55°) compared to 15.4° (range, 1°–49°) postoperatively. The mean operative time was 528 min (range, 276–906), estimated blood loss was 1091.7 mL (range, 150–2500), and hospitalization time was 8.0 days (range, 3–28). A baseline mean Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score of 7.6 (range, 4–10) decreased to 3.6 (range, 0–8) postoperatively. There were a total of 14 (49%) hardware and/or surgical technique related complications, and 8 (28%) patients required additional surgeries. Five (17%) patients developed pseudoarthrosis. The systemic complications (31%) included death (1), cardiopulmonary arrest with resuscitation (1), myocardial infarction (1), pneumonia (5), and pulmonary embolism (1). Conclusion: This study suggests that although the TLIF approach is a feasible and effective method to treat degenerative adult scoliosis, it is associated with a high rate of intra- and postoperative complications and a long recovery process. PMID:22439116

Burneikiene, Sigita; Nelson, E. Lee; Mason, Alexander; Rajpal, Sharad; Serxner, Benjamin; Villavicencio, Alan T.

2012-01-01

22

Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 7: lumbar fusion for intractable low-back pain without stenosis or spondylolisthesis.  

PubMed

Establishing an appropriate treatment strategy for patients presenting with low-back pain, in the absence of stenosis or spondylolisthesis, remains a controversial subject. Inherent to this situation is often an inability to adequately identify the source of low-back pain to justify various treatment recommendations, such as lumbar fusion. The current evidence does not identify a single best treatment alternative for these patients. Based on a number of prospective, randomized trials, comparable outcomes, for patients presenting with 1- or 2-level degenerative disc disease, have been demonstrated following either lumbar fusion or a comprehensive rehabilitation program with a cognitive element. Limited access to such comprehensive rehabilitative programs may prove problematic when pursuing this alternative. For patients whose pain is refractory to conservative care, lumbar fusion is recommended. Limitations of these studies preclude the ability to present the most robust recommendation in support of lumbar fusion. A number of lesser-quality studies, primarily case series, also support the use of lumbar fusion in this patient population. PMID:24980584

Eck, Jason C; Sharan, Alok; Ghogawala, Zoher; Resnick, Daniel K; Watters, William C; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Dailey, Andrew T; Choudhri, Tanvir F; Groff, Michael W; Wang, Jeffrey C; Dhall, Sanjay S; Kaiser, Michael G

2014-07-01

23

Diagnosis and conservative management of degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) is a disorder that causes the slip of one vertebral body over the one below due to degenerative\\u000a changes in the spine. Lumbar DS is a major cause of spinal canal stenosis and is often related to low back and leg pain. We\\u000a reviewed the symptoms, prognosis and conservative treatments for symptoms associated with DS. PubMed and

Leonid Kalichman; David J. Hunter

2008-01-01

24

Does obesity affect outcomes of treatment for lumbar stenosis and degenerative spondylolisthesis? Analysis of the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT)  

PubMed Central

Study Design Retrospective subgroup analysis of prospectively collected data according to treatment received. Objective The purpose of this study is to determine if obesity affects treatment outcomes for lumbar stenosis (SpS) and degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). Summary of Background Data Obesity is thought to be associated with increased complications and potentially less favorable outcomes following the treatment of degenerative conditions of the lumbar spine. This, however, remains a matter of debate in the existing literature. Methods An as-treated analysis was performed on patients enrolled in the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT) for the treatment of SpS or DS. A comparison was made between patients with a body mass index (BMI) <30 (“non-obese”, n=373 SpS, 376 DS) and those with a BMI ? 30 (“obese”, n=261 SpS, 225 DS). Baseline patient characteristics, intraoperative data, and complications were documented. Primary and secondary outcomes were measured at baseline and regular follow-up time intervals up to 4 years. The difference in improvement over baseline between surgical and nonsurgical treatment (i.e. treatment effect) was determined at each follow-up interval for the obese and nonobese groups. Results At 4-years follow-up, operative and nonoperative treatment provided improvement in all primary outcome measures over baseline in patients with BMI of < 30 and ? 30. For SpS patients, there were no differences in the surgical complication or reoperation rates between groups. DS patients with BMI ? 30 had a higher postoperative infection rate (5% vs. 1%, p=0.05) and twice the reoperation rate at 4-years follow-up (20% vs. 11%, p=0.01) than those with BMI < 30. At 4-years, surgical treatment of SpS and DS was equally effective in both BMI groups in terms of the primary outcome measures, with the exception that obese DS patients had less improvement from baseline in the SF36 physical function score compared to nonobese patients (22.6 vs. 27.9, p=0.022). With nonoperative treatment, SpS patients with BMI ? 30 did worse in regards to all three primary outcome measures, and DS patients with BMI ? 30 had similar SF-36 bodily pain scores but less improvement over baseline in the SF-36 physical function and ODI scores. Treatment effects for SpS and DS were significant within each BMI group for all primary outcome measures, in favor of surgery. Obese patients had a significantly greater treatment effect compared to nonobese patients with SpS (ODI, p=0.037) and DS (SF36 PF, p=0.004), largely due to the relatively poor outcome of nonoperative treatment in obese patients. Conclusion Obesity does not affect the clinical outcome of operative treatment for SpS. There are higher rates of infection and reoperation and less improvement from baseline in the SF-36 physical function score in obese patients following surgery for DS. Nonoperative treatment may not be as effective in obese patients with SpS or DS. PMID:22614793

Rihn, Jeffrey A.; Radcliff, Kristen; Hilibrand, Alan S.; Anderson, David T.; Zhao, Wenyan; Lurie, Jon; Vaccaro, Alexander R.; Freedman, Mitch K.; Albert, Todd J.; Weinstein, James N.

2013-01-01

25

Stabilising effect of dynamic interspinous spacers in degenerative low-grade lumbar instability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to investigate the stabilising effect of dynamic interspinous spacers (IS) in combination with interlaminar\\u000a decompression in degenerative low-grade lumbar instability with lumbar spinal stenosis and to compare its clinical effect\\u000a to patients with lumbar spinal stenosis in stable segments treated by interlaminar decompression only. Fifty consecutive patients\\u000a with a minimum age of 60 years were

Johannes Holinka; Petra Krepler; Michael Matzner; Josef G. Grohs

2011-01-01

26

Percutaneous endoscopic decompression for lumbar spinal stenosis.  

PubMed

Percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy has become a representative minimally invasive spine surgery for lumbar disc herniation. Due to the remarkable evolution in the techniques available, the paradigm of spinal endoscopy is shifting from treatments of soft disc herniation to those of lumbar spinal stenosis. Lumbar spinal stenosis can be classified into three categories according to pathological zone as follows: central stenosis, lateral recess stenosis and foraminal stenosis. Moreover, percutaneous endoscopic decompression (PED) techniques may vary according to the type of lumbar stenosis, including interlaminar PED, transforaminal PED and endoscopic lumbar foraminotomy. However, these techniques are continuously evolving. In the near future, PED for lumbar stenosis may be an efficient alternative to conventional open lumbar decompression surgery. PMID:25033889

Ahn, Yong

2014-11-01

27

Efficacy of a Human Amniotic Tissue-derived Allograft, NuCel, in Patients Undergoing Posteriolateral Lumbar Fusions for Degenerative Disc Disease  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease; Spinal Stenosis; Spondylolisthesis; Spondylosis; Intervertebral Disk Displacement; Intervertebral Disk Degeneration; Spinal Diseases; Bone Diseases; Musculoskeletal Diseases; Spondylolysis

2014-04-15

28

Partial facetectomy for lumbar foraminal stenosis.  

PubMed

Background. Several different techniques exist to address the pain and disability caused by isolated nerve root impingement. Failure to adequately decompress the lumbar foramen may lead to failed back surgery syndrome. However, aggressive treatment often causes spinal instability or may require fusion for satisfactory results. We describe a novel technique for decompression of the lumbar nerve root and demonstrate its effectiveness in relief of radicular symptoms. Methods. Partial facetectomy was performed by removal of the medial portion of the superior facet in patients with lumbar foraminal stenosis. 47 patients underwent the procedure from 2001 to 2010. Those who demonstrated neurogenic claudication without spinal instability or central canal stenosis and failed conservative management were eligible for the procedure. Functional level was recorded for each patient. These patients were followed for an average of 3.9 years to evaluate outcomes. Results. 27 of 47 patients (57%) reported no back pain and no functional limitations. Eight of 47 patients (17%) reported moderate pain, but had no limitations. Six of 47 patients (13%) continued to experience degenerative symptoms. Five of 47 patients (11%) required additional surgery. Conclusions. Partial facetectomy is an effective means to decompress the lumbar nerve root foramen without causing spinal instability. PMID:25110591

Kang, Kevin; Rodriguez-Olaverri, Juan Carlos; Schwab, Frank; Hashem, Jenifer; Razi, Afshin; Farcy, Jean Pierre

2014-01-01

29

Partial Facetectomy for Lumbar Foraminal Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Background. Several different techniques exist to address the pain and disability caused by isolated nerve root impingement. Failure to adequately decompress the lumbar foramen may lead to failed back surgery syndrome. However, aggressive treatment often causes spinal instability or may require fusion for satisfactory results. We describe a novel technique for decompression of the lumbar nerve root and demonstrate its effectiveness in relief of radicular symptoms. Methods. Partial facetectomy was performed by removal of the medial portion of the superior facet in patients with lumbar foraminal stenosis. 47 patients underwent the procedure from 2001 to 2010. Those who demonstrated neurogenic claudication without spinal instability or central canal stenosis and failed conservative management were eligible for the procedure. Functional level was recorded for each patient. These patients were followed for an average of 3.9 years to evaluate outcomes. Results. 27 of 47 patients (57%) reported no back pain and no functional limitations. Eight of 47 patients (17%) reported moderate pain, but had no limitations. Six of 47 patients (13%) continued to experience degenerative symptoms. Five of 47 patients (11%) required additional surgery. Conclusions. Partial facetectomy is an effective means to decompress the lumbar nerve root foramen without causing spinal instability. PMID:25110591

Kang, Kevin; Rodriguez-Olaverri, Juan Carlos; Razi, Afshin; Farcy, Jean Pierre

2014-01-01

30

Characteristics of Postural Sway during Quiet Standing Before and After the Occurrence of Neurogenic Intermittent Claudication in Female Patients with Degenerative Lumbar Spinal Canal Stenosis.  

PubMed

[Purpose] This study investigated the effect of neurological symptoms and/or signs after the occurrence of neurogenic intermittent claudication (NC) on postural sway during quiet standing of patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSS). [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-two female patients with LSS at the L4/5 level were studied. We measured the path of center of foot pressure (COP) during quiet standing with eyes open for 30?s using a stabilometer before and after the occurrence of NC. [Results] The total path length of COP (LC) and area surrounded by the outline of the path of COP (AC) significantly increased after NC. Body mass index (BMI) correlated with both the NC rate (after NC/before NC) of LC and that of AC. The average lateral COP displacement from the center of the base of support (COPRL) before NC was located on the asymptomatic side from the center of the base of support in 29 of 32 patients. After NC, COPRL moved to the symptomatic side in 31 patients. [Conclusion] These results suggest that patients with LSS are at risk of falling after NC, especially those with high BMI. PMID:24259826

Sasaki, Kentaro; Senda, Masuo; Katayama, Yoshimi; Ota, Haruyuki; Matsuyama, Yoshiyuki

2013-06-01

31

Characteristics of Postural Sway during Quiet Standing Before and After the Occurrence of Neurogenic Intermittent Claudication in Female Patients with Degenerative Lumbar Spinal Canal Stenosis  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study investigated the effect of neurological symptoms and/or signs after the occurrence of neurogenic intermittent claudication (NC) on postural sway during quiet standing of patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSS). [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-two female patients with LSS at the L4/5 level were studied. We measured the path of center of foot pressure (COP) during quiet standing with eyes open for 30?s using a stabilometer before and after the occurrence of NC. [Results] The total path length of COP (LC) and area surrounded by the outline of the path of COP (AC) significantly increased after NC. Body mass index (BMI) correlated with both the NC rate (after NC/before NC) of LC and that of AC. The average lateral COP displacement from the center of the base of support (COPRL) before NC was located on the asymptomatic side from the center of the base of support in 29 of 32 patients. After NC, COPRL moved to the symptomatic side in 31 patients. [Conclusion] These results suggest that patients with LSS are at risk of falling after NC, especially those with high BMI. PMID:24259826

Sasaki, Kentaro; Senda, Masuo; Katayama, Yoshimi; Ota, Haruyuki; Matsuyama, Yoshiyuki

2013-01-01

32

Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: Who Should Be Fused? An Updated Review  

PubMed Central

Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is mostly caused by osteoarthritis (spondylosis). Clinically, the symptoms of patients with LSS can be categorized into two groups; regional (low back pain, stiffness, and so on) or radicular (spinal stenosis mainly presenting as neurogenic claudication). Both of these symptoms usually improve with appropriate conservative treatment, but in refractory cases, surgical intervention is occasionally indicated. In the patients who primarily complain of radiculopathy with an underlying biomechanically stable spine, a decompression surgery alone using a less invasive technique may be sufficient. Preoperatively, with the presence of indicators such as failed back surgery syndrome (revision surgery), degenerative instability, considerable essential deformity, symptomatic spondylolysis, refractory degenerative disc disease, and adjacent segment disease, lumbar fusion is probably recommended. Intraoperatively, in cases with extensive decompression associated with a wide disc space or insufficient bone stock, fusion is preferred. Instrumentation improves the fusion rate, but it is not necessarily associated with improved recovery rate and better functional outcome.

Hasankhani, Ebrahim Ghayem; Ashjazadeh, Amir

2014-01-01

33

Step activity monitoring in lumbar stenosis patients undergoing decompressive surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symptomatic degenerative central lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is a frequent indication for decompressive spinal surgery, to\\u000a reduce spinal claudication. No data are as yet available on the effect of surgery on the level of activity measured with objective\\u000a long-term monitoring. The aim of this prospective, controlled study was to objectively quantify the level of activity in central\\u000a LSS patients before

Tobias L. Schulte; Tim Schubert; Corinna Winter; Mirko Brandes; Lars Hackenberg; Hansdetlef Wassmann; Dennis Liem; Dieter Rosenbaum; Viola Bullmann

2010-01-01

34

Neurogenic claudication without spinal stenosis arising as a result of lumbar epidural varices.  

PubMed

Neurogenic claudication is most frequently observed in patients with degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. We describe a patient with lumbar epidural varices secondary to obstruction of the inferior vena cava by pathological lymph nodes presenting with this syndrome. Following a diagnosis of follicular lymphoma, successful chemotherapy led to the resolution of the varices and the symptoms of neurogenic claudication. The lumbar epidural venous plexus may have an important role in the pathogenesis of spinal stenosis. Although rare, epidural venous engorgement can induce neurogenic claudication without spinal stenosis. Further investigations should be directed at identifying an underlying cause. PMID:22933506

Dabasia, H; Rahim, N; Marshall, R

2012-09-01

35

Spinal stenosis and posterior lumbar interbody fusion.  

PubMed

One hundred forty-two patients with the common types of spinal stenosis were treated by posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). The majority of the patients had one or more decompressive procedures prior to PLIF. The results were excellent or good in 78%. A review of the literature concerning long-term results of decompressive procedures indicates a short-term failure rate of 15%-20% and about 50% failure by ten or more years after the operation. Anterior fusion in primary disc lesions produces admirable results but is of little value in spinal stenosis. Long-term reports of the success rates of posterior lumbar interbody fusion indicate that this operation combines the success rate of an anterior interbody fusion with the benefits of posterior decompression. PMID:3971609

Hutter, C G

1985-03-01

36

Effects of interspinous spacers on lumbar degenerative disease  

PubMed Central

The present study aimed to evaluate the early effects of interspinous spacers on lumbar degenerative disease. The clinical outcomes of 23 patients with lumbar degenerative disease, treated using interspinous spacer implantation alone or combined with posterior lumbar fusion, were retrospectively studied and assessed with a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Pre-operative and post-operative interspinous distance, disc space height, foraminal width and height and segmental lordosis were determined. The early effects and complications associated with the interspinous spacers were recorded. The surgical procedures performed with the in-space treatment were easy and minimally invasive. The VAS scores and ODI were improved post-operatively compared with pre-operatively. Significant changes in the interspinous distance, disc space height, foraminal width and height and segmental lordosis were noted. In-space treatment for degenerative lumbar disease is easy and safe, with good early effects. The in-space system provides an alternative treatment for lumbar degenerative disease. PMID:23407682

ZHOU, DONG; NONG, LU-MING; DU, RUI; GAO, GONG-MING; JIANG, YU-QING; XU, NAN-WEI

2013-01-01

37

[Progress on dynamic neutralization system in treating lumbar degenerative diseases].  

PubMed

Dynamic stabilization technology has increasingly become the hot spot in basic and clinical research for treating lumbar degenerative diseases. As one kind of dynamic stabilization technology,dynamic neutralization system (Dynesys) keeps the spinal motion ability and improve clinical symptoms of patients, moreover, it shows a certain advantage in delaying the degeneration of adjacent segments. From the available documents,the preliminary biomechanical and clinical results of Dynesys were optimistically, it has become another choice in treating the lumbar degenerative diseases besides the lumbar fusion, and it primarily applies to the treatment of mild to moderate lumbar degenerative disease. However, it lacks a mechanism to maintain and restore the lumbar lordosis and patients need active stretching to achieve lordosis. What's more, how to extend the service life and prevent complications remain to be solved, the long-term effect and the mechanism of delaying the adjacent segment degeneration need further investigation. In this article, the design principle, biomechanical research, clinical outcome and clinical application of Dynesys was reviewed. PMID:24015664

Chen, Xi-Jun; Fan, Shun-Wu

2013-06-01

38

Degenerative disease in lumbar spine of military parachuting instructors.  

PubMed

Parachuting, be it static line or skydiving, places enormous stresses on the human spine. It is, therefore, important to determine the prevalence and severity of degenerative changes in the lumbar spine of subjects who practice this sport activity. Seventy four parachuting instructors, mean age 33 years and with an average of 410 static line and skydiving jumps, were included in the study. Past radiographs were examined and compared to current anterolateral and lateral views of the lumbar spine, in order to determine the prevalence of degenerative changes and document possible progression. Doubtful radiographic changes in the lumbar spine were identified in 47.4 percent of the parachuting instructors, mild degeneration in 9.6 percent, moderate degenerative disease in 10.9 percent and severe radiographic changes in 5.5 percent. Schmorll nodes were found in 8.1 percent of the subjects. Traction spurs--osteophytes were identified in 6.8 percent. The degenerative changes correlated with age and the number of jumps. Spondylolysis of L5-S1 and L3-L4 segments were observed in 12.2 and 1.4 percent respectively. Progressive spondylolisthesis was found in 2 subjects. No correlation was found between the severity of radiographic changes and either the prevalence and the severity of low back pain. The present findings provide a rational for considering repeated sheer stress as an etiology of degenerative changes in the spinal cord, and as a possible contributing factor to the pathogenesis of spondylolysis. Further study has to be done comparing parachuting instructors to a non-parachuting group, or equivalent physically active individuals, in order to assess the effect of sport-background on the development of degenerative changes. PMID:15015796

Bar-Dayan, Y; Weisbort, M; Bar-Dayan, Y; Velan, G J; Ravid, M; Hendel, D; Shemer, J

2003-12-01

39

Controversies about Interspinous Process Devices in the Treatment of Degenerative Lumbar Spine Diseases: Past, Present, and Future  

PubMed Central

A large number of interspinous process devices (IPD) have been recently introduced to the lumbar spine market as an alternative to conventional decompressive surgery in managing symptomatic lumbar spinal pathology, especially in the older population. Despite the fact that they are composed of a wide range of different materials including titanium, polyetheretherketone, and elastomeric compounds, the aim of these devices is to unload spine, restoring foraminal height, and stabilize the spine by distracting the spinous processes. Although the initial reports represented the IPD as a safe, effective, and minimally invasive surgical alternative for relief of neurological symptoms in patients with low back degenerative diseases, recent studies have demonstrated less impressive clinical results and higher rate of failure than initially reported. The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview on interspinous implants, their mechanisms of action, safety, cost, and effectiveness in the treatment of lumbar stenosis and degenerative disc diseases. PMID:24822224

Galarza, Marcelo

2014-01-01

40

Basic aspects in MR imaging of degenerative lumbar disk disease.  

PubMed

Degenerative disease may lead to spinal canal stenosis and long-lasting pain. It is among the leading cause of disability that may affect the ability to work. It has become more common in an increasingly aging population. MRI is the most comprehensive imaging modality and provides detailed morphologic information. A standardized terminology facilitates communication with referring physicians. Yet imaging findings need careful interpretation in conjunction with the results of clinical tests and symptoms to truly help guide therapeutic decision making. This review summarizes aspects of normal anatomy of the intervertebral disk, pathologic mechanisms, terminology, and examples of the imaging spectrum of disk degeneration and herniation. PMID:24896740

Heuck, Andreas; Glaser, Christian

2014-07-01

41

Lumbar Spinal Stenosis-Specific Symptom Scale  

PubMed Central

Study Design. Cross-sectional study. Objectives. To test the validity and responsiveness of the lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS)–specific symptom scale (FLS-25 [Fukushima LSS Scale 25]). Summary of Background Data. The FLS-25, a self-administered questionnaire designed to comprehensively cover various symptoms of LSS, has been developed to address the need to measure symptoms specific to this disorder. Methods. One hundred sixty-seven patients with confirmed LSS who required conservative therapy were asked to complete a questionnaire including questions regarding walking capacity and the FLS-25. These patients also underwent a lumbar extension test and a walking stress test, which are stress tests designed to objectively evaluate LSS symptoms, to measure standing time, walking distance, and walking time. Relationship between the FLS-25 scores and these external standards was analyzed to evaluate the criterion validity of the FLS-25. The patients underwent the same evaluations after 8 weeks of conservative therapy. The relationship between changes from baseline to week 8 in FLS-25 scores and changes in the 3 external standards was analyzed to evaluate the responsiveness of the FLS-25. Results. The distribution of FLS-25 scores among patients was symmetric, and there were no ceiling or floor effects. FLS-25 scores increased as self-reported walking capacity decreased (P = 0.006). The mean standing time in the lumbar extension test was 165 (SD = 109) seconds, and FLS-25 scores increased as standing time decreased (P = 0.003). In the walking stress test, mean walking distance and mean walking time were 213 (SD = 154) m and 236 (SD = 114) seconds. FLS-25 scores increased as walking distance (P = 0.002) and walking time (P = 0.054) decreased. Changes from baseline to week 8 in FLS-25 scores correlated with changes in the stress test standing time (P = 0.014), walking distance (P < 0.001), and walking time (P < 0.001). Conclusion. The criterion validity and responsiveness of the FLS-25 were confirmed. The use of FLS-25 in clinical and investigational settings is warranted to monitor patients and evaluate therapeutic efficacy. Level of Evidence: 3

Wakita, Takafumi; Otani, Koji; Onishi, Yoshihiro; Fukuhara, Shunichi; Kikuchi, Shin-ichi; Konno, Shin-ichi

2014-01-01

42

X-STOP surgical implant for the treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis: clinical practice recommendations for neurosurgical nurse practitioners.  

PubMed

Lumbar spinal stenosis is a common condition that affects the aging population because of the natural degenerative changes the spine undergoes during the aging process. The symptoms cause decreased functionality and quality of life. Traditional surgical treatment has been a decompressive laminectomy with or without a fusion. However, a newer less-invasive surgical technique called X-STOP interspinous process device is available for the treatment of neurogenic intermittent claudication because of lumbar spinal stenosis. The main goal of this procedure is to allow the patient to restore functional ability and improve quality of life, which bears significant importance in the aging population. Knowledge of the X-STOP interspinous process device can assist neurosurgical advanced practice nurses in providing optimum care for patients with lumbar spinal stenosis when nonsurgical therapies have failed. PMID:23291871

Nielsen, Magan

2013-02-01

43

Artificial Discs for Lumbar and Cervical Degenerative Disc Disease -Update  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary Objective To assess the safety and efficacy of artificial disc replacement (ADR) technology for degenerative disc disease (DDD). Clinical Need Degenerative disc disease is the term used to describe the deterioration of 1 or more intervertebral discs of the spine. The prevalence of DDD is roughly described in proportion to age such that 40% of people aged 40 years have DDD, increasing to 80% among those aged 80 years or older. Low back pain is a common symptom of lumbar DDD; neck and arm pain are common symptoms of cervical DDD. Nonsurgical treatments can be used to relieve pain and minimize disability associated with DDD. However, it is estimated that about 10% to 20% of people with lumbar DDD and up to 30% with cervical DDD will be unresponsive to nonsurgical treatments. In these cases, surgical treatment is considered. Spinal fusion (arthrodesis) is the process of fusing or joining 2 bones and is considered the surgical gold standard for DDD. Artificial disc replacement is the replacement of the degenerated intervertebral disc with an artificial disc in people with DDD of the lumbar or cervical spine that has been unresponsive to nonsurgical treatments for at least 6 months. Unlike spinal fusion, ADR preserves movement of the spine, which is thought to reduce or prevent the development of adjacent segment degeneration. Additionally, a bone graft is not required for ADR, and this alleviates complications, including bone graft donor site pain and pseudoarthrosis. It is estimated that about 5% of patients who require surgery for DDD will be candidates for ADR. Review Strategy The Medical Advisory Secretariat conducted a computerized search of the literature published between 2003 and September 2005 to answer the following questions: What is the effectiveness of ADR in people with DDD of the lumbar or cervical regions of the spine compared with spinal fusion surgery? Does an artificial disc reduce the incidence of adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) compared with spinal fusion? What is the rate of major complications (device failure, reoperation) with artificial discs compared with surgical spinal fusion? One reviewer evaluated the internal validity of the primary studies using the criteria outlined in the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Injuries Group Quality Assessment Tool. The quality of concealment allocation was rated as: A, clearly yes; B, unclear; or C, clearly no. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system was used to evaluate the overall quality of the body of evidence (defined as 1 or more studies) supporting the research questions explored in this systematic review. A random effects model meta-analysis was conducted when data were available from 2 or more randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and when there was no statistical and or clinical heterogeneity among studies. Bayesian analyses were undertaken to do the following: Examine the influence of missing data on clinical success rates; Compute the probability that artificial discs were superior to spinal fusion (on the basis of clinical success rates); Examine whether the results were sensitive to the choice of noninferiority margin. Summary of Findings The literature search yielded 140 citations. Of these, 1 Cochrane systematic review, 1 RCT, and 10 case series were included in this review. Unpublished data from an RCT reported in the grey literature were obtained from the manufacturer of the device. The search also yielded 8 health technology assessments evaluating ADR that are also included in this review. Six of the 8 health technology assessments concluded that there is insufficient evidence to support the use of either lumbar or cervical ADR. The results of the remaining 2 assessments (one each for lumbar and cervical ADR) led to a National Institute for Clinical Excellence guidance document supporting the safety and effectiveness of lumbar and cervical ADR with the proviso that an ongoing audit of all clinical outcomes be undertaken owing to a lack of long-term outcome data from clinical trials. Regard

2006-01-01

44

Lumbar spinal stenosis: treatment options for an aging population.  

PubMed

The fastest growing age group in the United States is the 45 and older population. Due to the nature of the aging lumbar spine, a significant majority of this population will experience low back pain (LBP) and symptoms associated with lumbar spinal stenosis. Accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment is required if this particular aging group of our population is to maintain an active and productive life into their later years. PMID:23362650

Jackson, Roger P; McManus, Anne C; Moore, Jill

2012-01-01

45

Degenerative lumbosacral stenosis in working dogs: current concepts and review.  

PubMed

Degenerative lumbosacral stenosis (DLSS) is characterised by intervertebral disc degeneration, with secondary bony and soft-tissue changes leading to compression of the cauda equina. Large-breed, active and working dogs are the most commonly affected by DLSS. Specific manipulative tests allow the clinician to form a high suspicion of DLSS, and initiate investigation. Changes seen using conventional radiography are unreliable, and although contrast radiography represents an improvement, advanced imaging is accepted as the diagnostic method of choice. Treatment involves decompression and/or stabilisation procedures in working dogs, although conservative management may be acceptable in pet dogs with mild signs. Prognosis for return to work is only fair, and there is a high rate of recurrence following conventional surgery. Stabilisation procedures are associated with the potential for failure of the implant, and their use has not gained universal acceptance. A new surgical procedure, dorsolateral foramenotomy, offers a potential advance in the management of DLSS. everal aspects of the pathogenesis, heritability and optimal treatment approach remain uncertain. PMID:19966891

Worth, A J; Thompson, D J; Hartman, A C

2009-12-01

46

Step activity monitoring in lumbar stenosis patients undergoing decompressive surgery  

PubMed Central

Symptomatic degenerative central lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is a frequent indication for decompressive spinal surgery, to reduce spinal claudication. No data are as yet available on the effect of surgery on the level of activity measured with objective long-term monitoring. The aim of this prospective, controlled study was to objectively quantify the level of activity in central LSS patients before and after surgery, using a continuous measurement device. The objective data were correlated with subjective clinical results and the radiographic degree of stenosis. Forty-seven patients with central LSS and typical spinal claudication scheduled for surgery were included. The level of activity (number of gait cycles) was quantified for 7 consecutive days using the StepWatch Activity Monitor (SAM). Visual analogue scales (VAS) for back and leg pain, Oswestry disability index and Roland–Morris score were used to assess the patients’ clinical status. The patients were investigated before surgery and 3 and 12 months after surgery. In addition, the radiographic extent of central LSS was measured digitally on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography. The following results were found preoperatively: 3,578 gait cycles/day, VAS for back pain 5.7 and for leg pain 6.5. Three months after surgery, the patients showed improvement: 4,145 gait cycles/day, VAS for back pain 4.0 and for leg pain 3.0. Twelve months after surgery, the improvement continued: 4,335 gait cycles/day, VAS for back pain 4.1 and for leg pain 3.3. The clinical results and SAM results showed significant improvement when preoperative data were compared with data 3 and 12 months after surgery. The results 12 months after surgery did not differ significantly from those 3 months after surgery. The level of activity correlated significantly with the degree of leg pain. The mean cross-sectional area of the spinal canal at the central LSS was 94 mm2. The radiographic results did not correlate either with objective SAM results or with clinical outcome parameters. In conclusion, this study is the first to present objective data on continuous activity monitoring/measurements in patients with central LSS. The SAM could be an adequate tool for performing these measurements in spine patients. Except for leg pain, the objective SAM results did not correlate with the clinical results or with the radiographic extent of central LSS. PMID:20186442

Schubert, Tim; Winter, Corinna; Brandes, Mirko; Hackenberg, Lars; Wassmann, Hansdetlef; Liem, Dennis; Rosenbaum, Dieter; Bullmann, Viola

2010-01-01

47

Prognostic factors in lumbar spinal stenosis surgery  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose A considerable number of patients who undergo surgery for spinal stenosis have residual symptoms and inferior function and health-related quality of life after surgery. There have been few studies on factors that may predict outcome. We tried to find predictors of outcome in surgery for spinal stenosis using patient- and imaging-related factors. Patients and methods 109 patients in the Swedish Spine Register with central spinal stenosis that were operated on by decompression without fusion were prospectively followed up 1 year after surgery. Clinical outcome scores included the EQ-5D, the Oswestry disability index, self-estimated walking distance, and leg and back pain levels (VAS). Central dural sac area, number of levels with stenosis, and spondylolisthesis were included in the MRI analysis. Multivariable analyses were performed to search for correlation between patient-related and imaging factors and clinical outcome at 1-year follow-up. Results Several factors predicted outcome statistically significantly. Duration of leg pain exceeding 2 years predicted inferior outcome in terms of leg and back pain, function, and HRLQoL. Regular and intermittent preoperative users of analgesics had higher levels of back pain at follow-up than those not using analgesics. Low preoperative function predicted low function and dissatisfaction at follow-up. Low preoperative EQ-5D scores predicted a high degree of leg and back pain. Narrow dural sac area predicted more gains in terms of back pain at follow-up and lower absolute leg pain. Interpretation Multiple factors predict outcome in spinal stenosis surgery, most importantly duration of symptoms and preoperative function. Some of these are modifiable and can be targeted. Our findings can be used in the preoperative patient information and aid the surgeon and the patient in a shared decision making process. PMID:23083437

2012-01-01

48

Central Decompressive Laminoplasty for Treatment of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis : Technique and Early Surgical Results  

PubMed Central

Objective Lumbar spinal stenosis is a common degenerative spine disease that requires surgical intervention. Currently, there is interest in minimally invasive surgery and various technical modifications of decompressive lumbar laminectomy without fusion. The purpose of this study was to present the author's surgical technique and results for decompression of spinal stenosis. Methods The author performed surgery in 57 patients with lumbar spinal stenosis between 2006 and 2010. Data were gathered retrospectively via outpatient interviews and telephone questionnaires. The operation used in this study was named central decompressive laminoplasty (CDL), which allows thorough decompression of the lumbar spinal canal and proximal two foraminal nerve roots by undercutting the lamina and facet joint. Kyphotic prone positioning on elevated curvature of the frame or occasional use of an interlaminar spreader enables sufficient interlaminar working space. Pain was measured with a visual analogue scale (VAS). Surgical outcome was analyzed with the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Data were analyzed preoperatively and six months postoperatively. Results The interlaminar window provided by this technique allowed for unhindered access to the central canal, lateral recess, and upper/lower foraminal zone, with near-total sparing of the facet joint. The VAS scores and ODI were significantly improved at six-month follow-up compared to preoperative levels (p<0.001, respectively). Excellent pain relief (>75% of initial VAS score) of back/buttock and leg was observed in 75.0% and 76.2% of patients, respectively. Conclusion CDL is easily applied, allows good field visualization and decompression, maintains stability by sparing ligament and bony structures, and shows excellent early surgical results. PMID:25368762

2014-01-01

49

Diagnostic value of the lumbar extension-loading test in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background The gait-loading test is a well known, important test with which to assess the involved spinal level in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. The lumbar extension-loading test also functions as a diagnostic loading test in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis; however, its efficacy remains uncertain. The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic value of the lumbar extension-loading test with that of the gait-loading test in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. Methods A total of 116 consecutive patients (62 men and 54 women) diagnosed with lumbar spinal stenosis were included in this cross-sectional study of the lumbar extension-loading test. Subjective symptoms and objective neurological findings (motor, sensory, and reflex) were examined before and after the lumbar extension-loading and gait-loading tests. The efficacy of the lumbar extension-loading test for establishment of a correct diagnosis of the involved spinal level was assessed and compared with that of the gait-loading test. Results There were no significant differences between the lumbar extension-loading test and the gait-loading test in terms of subjective symptoms, objective neurological findings, or changes in the involved spinal level before and after each loading test. Conclusions The lumbar extension-loading test is useful for assessment of lumbar spinal stenosis pathology and is capable of accurately determining the involved spinal level. PMID:25080292

2014-01-01

50

The Microendoscopic Decompression of Lumbar Stenosis: A Review of the Current Literature and Clinical Results  

PubMed Central

Lumbar stenosis is a well-defined pathologic condition with excellent surgical outcomes. Empiric evidence as well as randomized, prospective trials has demonstrated the superior efficacy of surgery compared to medical management for lumbar stenosis. Traditionally, lumbar stenosis is decompressed with open laminectomies. This involves removal of the spinous process, lamina, and the posterior musculoligamentous complex (posterior tension band). This approach provides excellent improvement in symptoms, but is also associated with potential postoperative spinal instability. This may result in subsequent need for spinal fusion. Advances in technology have enabled the application of minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS) as an acceptable alternative to open lumbar decompression. Recent studies have shown similar to improved perioperative outcomes when comparing MISS to open decompression for lumbar stenosis. A literature review of MISS for decompression of lumbar stenosis with tubular retractors was performed to evaluate the outcomes of this modern surgical technique. In addition, a discussion of the advantages and limitations of this technique is provided. PMID:22900163

Wong, Albert P.; Smith, Zachary A.; Lall, Rohan R.; Bresnahan, Lacey E.; Fessler, Richard G.

2012-01-01

51

Characteristics of Back Muscle Strength in Patients with Scheduled for Lumbar Fusion Surgery due to Symptomatic Lumbar Degenerative Diseases  

PubMed Central

Study Design Cross sectional study. Purpose To evaluate characteristics of back muscle strength in patients scheduled for lumbar fusion surgery. Overview of Literature Little is known regarding muscle strength in patients with symptomatic lumbar degenerative diseases who require fusion surgery. Methods Consecutive 354 patients scheduled for posterior lumbar interbody fusion due to symptomatic degenerative diseases were approached for participation. 316 patients were enrolled. Before surgery, muscle strength was assessed by measuring maximal isometric extension strength at seven angular positions (0°, 12°, 24°, 36°, 48°, 60°, and 72°) and mean isometric strength was calculated. The Oswestry Disability Index (0-100) and visual analogue scale (0-100) for back pain were recorded. Muscle strength was compared according to gender, age (<60, 60-70, and ?70 years) and scheduled fusion level (short, <3; long, ?3). Results Isometric strength was significantly decreased compared with previously reported results of healthy individuals, particularly at extension positions (0°-48°, p<0.05). Mean isometric strength was significantly lower in females (p<0.001) and older patients (p<0.05). Differences of isometric strength between short and long level fusion were not significantly different (p>0.05). Isometric strengths showed significant, but weak, inverse correlations with age and Oswestry Disability Index (r<0.4, p<0.05). Conclusions In patients with symptomatic lumbar degenerative diseases, back muscle strength significantly decreased, particularly at lumbar extension positions, and in females and older patients. PMID:25346820

Park, Won Hah; Lee, Chong Suh; Kang, Kyung Chung

2014-01-01

52

Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion and posterior lumbar interbody fusion utilizing BMP-2 in treatment of degenerative spondylolisthesis: neither safe nor cost effective  

PubMed Central

Background: With the rise of health care costs, there is increased emphasis on evaluating the cost of a particular surgical procedure for quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Recent data have shown that surgical intervention for the treatment of degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) is as cost-effective as total joint arthroplasty. Despite these excellent outcomes, some argue that the addition of interbody fusion supplemented with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) enhances the value of this procedure. Methods: This review examines the current research regarding the cost-effectiveness of the surgical management of lumbar DS utilizing interbody fusion along with BMP. Results: Posterolateral spinal fusion with instrumentation for focal lumbar spinal stenosis with DS can provide and maintain improvement in self-reported quality of life. Based on the available literature, including nonrandomized comparative studies and case series, the addition of interbody fusion along with BMP does not lead to significantly better clinical outcomes and increases costs when compared with more routine posterolateral fusion techniques. Conclusions: To enhance the value of the surgical management for DS, costs must decrease or there should be substantial improvement in effectiveness as measured by clinical outcomes. To date, there is insufficient evidence to support the use of interbody fusion devices along with BMP to treat routine cases of focal stenosis accompanied by DS, which are routinely adequately treated utilizing posterolateral fusion techniques. PMID:23646277

Moatz, Bradley; Tortolani, P. Justin

2013-01-01

53

Pedicle marrow signal intensity changes in the lumbar spine: a manifestation of facet degenerative joint disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Signal intensity changes in lumbar pedicles, similar to those described in vertebral body endplates adjacent to degenerated\\u000a discs, have been described as an ancillary sign of spondylolysis on MRI. The purpose of this study was to determine whether\\u000a pedicle marrow signal intensity changes also occur in association with facet degenerative joint disease.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design. Eighty-nine lumbar spine MRI examinations without

Jennifer L. Morrison; Phoebe A. Kaplan; Robert G. Dussault; Mark W. Anderson

2000-01-01

54

[Lumbar spinal stenosis: clinical course, pathophysiology and treatment].  

PubMed

The lumbar spinal stenosis is a radiological description of a pathology that can present clinically by a neurogenic intermittent claudication; its diagnosis is mainly clinical. After listing the main criteria allowing the clinician to make a diagnosis, a review of available treatments is proposed. There are few quality studies and an empirical approach is often necessary. In severe cases, very disabling despite correct treatment, a surgical approach may be considered and discussed with the patient to avoid failure, sometimes linked to excessive expectations. PMID:22455152

Genevay, S; Chevallier-Ruggeri, P; Faundez, A

2012-03-14

55

Minimum 2-Year Follow-Up Result of Degenerative Spinal Stenosis Treated with Interspinous U (Coflex(TM))  

PubMed Central

Objective Clinical and radiological results of posterior dynamic stabilization using interspinous U (ISU, Coflex™, Paradigm Spine Inc.®, NY, USA) were analyzed in comparison with posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) in degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Methods A retrospective study was conducted for a consecutive series of 61 patients with degenerative LSS between May 2003 and December 2005. We included only the patients completed minimum 24 months follow up evaluation. Among them, 30 patients were treated with implantation of ISU after decompressive laminectomy (Group ISU) and 31 patients were treated with wide decompressive laminectomy and posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF; Group PLIF). We evaluated visual analogue scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) for clinical outcomes (VAS, ODI), disc height ratio disc height (DH), disc height/vertebral body length ×100), static vertebral slip (VS) and depth of maximal radiolucent gap between ISU and spinous process) in preoperative, immediate postoperative and last follow up. Results The mean age of group ISU (66.2 ± 6.7 years) was 6.2 years older than the mean age of group PLIF (60.4 ± 8.1 years; p = 0.003 ). In both groups, clinical measures improved significantly than preoperative values (p < 0.001). Operation time and blood loss was significantly shorter and lower in group ISU than group PLIF (p < 0.001). In group ISU, the DH increased transiently in immediate postoperative period (15.7 ± 4.5% ? 18.6 ± 5.9%), however decreased significantly in last follow up (13.8 ± 6.6%, p = 0.027). Vertebral slip (VS) of spondylolisthesis in group ISU increased during postoperative follow-up (2.3 ± 3.3 ? 8.7 ± 6.2, p = 0.040). Meanwhile, the postoperatively improved DH and VS was maintained in group PLIF in last follow up. Conclusion According to our result, implantation of ISU after decompressive laminectomy in degenerative LSS is less invasive and provides similar clinical outcome in comparison with the instrumented fusion. However, the device has only transient effect on the postoperative restoration of disc height and reduction of slip in spondylolisthesis. Therefore, in the biomechanical standpoint, it is hard to expect that use of Interspinous U in decompressive laminectomy for degenerative LSS had long term beneficial effect. PMID:19893715

Park, Seong-cheol; Yoon, Sang Hoon; Hong, Yong-Pyo; Chung, Sang-Ki; Kim, Hyun-Jib

2009-01-01

56

Current concepts on spinal arthrodesis in degenerative disorders of the lumbar spine  

PubMed Central

Back pain is a common chronic disorder that represents a large burden for the health care system. There is a broad spectrum of available treatment options for patients suffering from chronic lower back pain in the setting of degenerative disorders of the lumbar spine, including both conservative and operative approaches. Lumbar arthrodesis techniques can be divided into sub-categories based on the part of the vertebral column that is addressed (anterior vs posterior). Furthermore, one has to differentiate between approaches aiming at a solid fusion in contrast to motion-sparing techniques with the proposed advantage of a reduced risk of developing adjacent disc disease. However, the field of application and long-term outcomes of these novel motion-preserving surgical techniques, including facet arthroplasty, nucleus replacement, and lumbar disc arthroplasty, need to be more precisely evaluated in long-term prospective studies. Innovative surgical treatment strategies involving minimally invasive techniques, such as lateral lumbar interbody fusion or transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, as well as percutaneous implantation of transpedicular or transfacet screws, have been established with the reported advantages of reduced tissue invasiveness, decreased collateral damage, reduced blood loss, and decreased risk of infection. The aim of this study was to review well-established procedures for lumbar spinal fusion with the main focus on current concepts on spinal arthrodesis and motion-sparing techniques in degenerative disorders of the lumbar spine. PMID:24303453

Lykissas, Marios G; Aichmair, Alexander

2013-01-01

57

Efficacy of percutaneous laser disc decompression on lumbar spinal stenosis.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to observe the effect of percutaneous laser disc decompression (PLDD) on lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Thirty-two LSS patients were treated using pulsed Nd: YAG laser, of which 21 cases (11 males and 10 females with an average age of 64 years old) were followed up for 2 years. All of the 21 patients had intermittent claudication with negative straight leg raising test results. Fifteen patients suffered from anterior central disc herniation which often compressed the cauda equina but seldom compressed the posterior part; six patients suffered from posterior ligamentum flavum hypertrophy which often compressed the cauda equina but seldom compressed the anterior part. The efficacy was evaluated 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after surgery on 21 patients using the performance evaluation criteria of the lumbago treatment by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA 29 scores). The fineness (i.e. excellent and good treatment outcome) rate 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after the operation were 46.7%, 66.7%, 66.7%, 66.7% and 66.7%, respectively, in patients with severe anterior compression and 16.7%, 33.3%, 33.3%, 33.3% and 33.3%, respectively, in patients with severe posterior compression. PLDD had certain positive efficacy on the treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis, which was more significant on LSS dominated by the anterior compression than that by the posterior compression. PMID:23996073

Ren, Longxi; Han, Zhengfeng; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhang, Tongtong; Yin, Jian; Liang, Xibin; Guo, Han; Zeng, Yanjun

2014-05-01

58

Complications following Surgery for Lumbar Stenosis in a Veteran Population  

PubMed Central

Study Design Secondary analysis of the prospectively collected Veterans Affairs National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (VASQIP) database. Objective Determine rates of major medical complications, wound complications, and mortality among patients undergoing surgery for lumbar stenosis; and examine risk factors for these complications. Summary of Background Data Surgery for spinal stenosis is concentrated among older adults, for whom complications are more frequent than among middle-aged patients. Many studies have focused on infections or device complications, but fewer have focused on major cardiopulmonary complications, using prospectively collected data. Methods We identified patients who underwent surgery for a primary diagnosis of lumbar stenosis between 1998 and 2009 from the VASQIP database. We created a composite of major medical complications, including acute myocardial infarction, stroke, pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, systemic sepsis, coma, and cardiac arrest. Results Among 12,154 eligible patients, major medical complications occurred in 2.1% ; wound complications in 3.2%; and 90-day mortality in 0.6%. Major medical complications, but not wound complications, were strongly associated with age. American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class was a strong predictor of complications. Insulin use, chronic corticosteroid use, and preoperative functional status were also significant predictors. Fusion procedures were associated with higher complication rates than decompression alone. In logistic regressions, ASA class and age were the strongest predictors of major medical complications (OR for ASA class 4 vs. classes 1 or 2: 2.97, 95% CI 1.68, 5.25, p=0.0002). After adjustment for comorbidity, age, and functional status, fusion procedures remained associated with higher medical complication rates than decompression alone (OR 2.85, 95% CI 2.14, 3.78, p<0.0001). Conclusion ASA class, age, type of surgery, insulin or corticosteroid use, and functional status were independent risk factors for major medical complications. These factors may help in selecting patients and planning procedures, improving patient safety. PMID:23778366

Deyo, Richard A.; Hickam, David; Duckart, Jonathan P.; Piedra, Mark

2013-01-01

59

Percutaneous Decompression of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis with a New Interspinous Device  

SciTech Connect

Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of the implantation of a new interspinous device (Falena) in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. The clinical outcomes and imaging results were assessed by orthostatic MR during an up to 6-month follow-up period. Methods: Between October 2008 and February 2010, the Falena was implanted at a single level in 26 patients (17 men; mean age, 69 (range, 54-82) years) who were affected by degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. All of the patients were clinically evaluated before the procedure and at 1 and 3 months. Furthermore, 20 patients have completed a 6-month follow-up. Pain was assessed before and after the intervention using the Visual Analogue Scale score and the Oswestry Disability Index questionnaire. Orthostatic MR imaging was performed before the implantation and at 3 months to assess the correlation with the clinical outcome. Results: The mean ODI score decreased from 48.9 before the device implantation to 31.2 at 1 month (p < 0.0001). The mean VAS score decreased from 7.6 before to 3.9 (p < 0.0001) at 1 month and 3.6 at 3 months after the procedure (p = 0.0115). These values were stable at 6 months evaluation. No postimplantation major complications were recorded. MRI evaluation documented in most cases an increased size of the spinal canal area. Similarly a bilateral foraminal area improvement was found. The variation of the intervertebral space height measured on the posterior wall was not significant. Conclusions: In our preliminary experience with the Falena in a small cohort of patients, we obtained clinical and imaging results aligned to those reported with similar interspinous devices.

Masala, Salvatore; Fiori, Roberto; Bartolucci, Dario Alberto, E-mail: bartolucci.md@gmail.com; Volpi, Tommaso; Calabria, Eros [University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Interventional Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Therapy (Italy); Novegno, Federica [University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Department of Neurosurgery (Italy); Simonetti, Giovanni [University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Interventional Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Therapy (Italy)

2012-04-15

60

The High Prevalence of Symptomatic Degenerative Lumbar Osteoarthritis in Chinese Adults  

PubMed Central

Study Design. A population-based study. Objective. To study the prevalence and features of symptomatic degenerative lumbar osteoarthritis in adults. Summary of Background Data. Lumbar osteoarthritis adversely affects individuals and is a heavy burden. There are limited data on the prevalence of lumbar osteoarthritis. Methods. A representative, multistage sample of adults was collected. Symptomatic degenerative lumbar osteoarthritis was diagnosed by clinical symptoms, physical examinations, and imaging examinations. Personal information was obtained by face-to-face interview. Information included the place of residence, age, sex, income, type of medical insurance, education level, body mass index, habits of smoking and drinking, type of work, working posture, duration of the same working posture during the day, mode of transportation, exposure to vibration, and daily amount of sleep. Crude and adjusted prevalence was calculated. The features of populations were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression in total and subgroup populations. Results. The study included 3859 adults. The crude and adjusted prevalence of lumbar osteoarthritis was 9.02% and 8.90%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of lumbar osteoarthritis between urban, suburban, and rural populations (7.66%, 9.97%, and 9.44%) (P = 0.100). The prevalence of lumbar osteoarthritis was higher in females (10.05%) than in males (9.1%, P = 0.021). The prevalence of lumbar osteoarthritis increased with increasing age. Obese people (body mass index >28 kg/m2), those engaged in physical work, those who maintained the same work posture for 1 to 1.9 hours per day, those who were exposed to vibration during daily work, and those who got less than 7 hours of sleep per day had a higher prevalence. These features differed by subgroup. Conclusion. This study established epidemiological baseline data for degenerative lumbar osteoarthritis in adults, especially for people younger than 45 years. Lumbar osteoarthritis is epidemic in Beijing and will become a more severe problem in aging society. Different populations have different features that require targeted interventions. Level of Evidence: 2 PMID:24825154

Liu, Yajun; Xiao, Bin; Han, Xiao

2014-01-01

61

Interspinous spacers in the treatment of degenerative lumbar spinal disease: our experience with DIAM and Aperius devices.  

PubMed

Insertion of an interspinous devices has became a common procedure for the treatment of different clinical picture of degenerative spinal disease. We present our experience in 1,575 patients with the use of two different interspinous spacers: Device for Intervertebral Assisted Motion (DIAM) and Aperius PercLID system. From 2000 through 2008, 1,315 consecutive patients underwent DIAM implantation and 260 had an Aperius PercLID procedure. The main surgical indications included: degenerative disc disease (478 patients), canal and/or foraminal stenosis (347 patients), disc herniation (283 patients), black disc and facet syndrome (143) and topping-off (64 patients). 1,100 patients underwent a single level implant and 475 had a multiple level implant. Mean operating time was 35 min for DIAM and 7 min for Aperius. Complications were detected in 20 patients (10 cases of infections, 10 fractures of the posterior spinous processes). 40 patients were subsequently treated with posterior arthrodesis (n = 30) or total disc replacement (n = 10). Patient's postoperative clinical status was rated according to the modified Macnab criteria: symptoms resolution or improvement was achieved in 1,505 patients; and unchanged or unsatisfactory results in 70. Both techniques are safe, simple and less technically demanding. These approaches appear to be an effective alternative in selected cases, although conventional posterior lumbar decompression and fusion still may be required. PMID:21409561

Fabrizi, Antonio P; Maina, Raffaella; Schiabello, Luigi

2011-05-01

62

Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease: Current and Future Concepts of Diagnosis and Management  

PubMed Central

Low back pain as a result of degenerative disc disease imparts a large socioeconomic impact on the health care system. Traditional concepts for treatment of lumbar disc degeneration have aimed at symptomatic relief by limiting motion in the lumbar spine, but novel treatment strategies involving stem cells, growth factors, and gene therapy have the theoretical potential to prevent, slow, or even reverse disc degeneration. Understanding the pathophysiological basis of disc degeneration is essential for the development of treatment strategies that target the underlying mechanisms of disc degeneration rather than the downstream symptom of pain. Such strategies ideally aim to induce disc regeneration or to replace the degenerated disc. However, at present, treatment options for degenerative disc disease remain suboptimal, and development and outcomes of novel treatment options currently have to be considered unpredictable. PMID:22567411

Taher, Fadi; Essig, David; Lebl, Darren R.; Hughes, Alexander P.; Sama, Andrew A.; Cammisa, Frank P.; Girardi, Federico P.

2012-01-01

63

Lumbar spinal stenosis in older adults: current understanding and future directions.  

PubMed

Lumbar spinal stenosis is a common cause of low back pain in the elderly. Surgical and nonsurgical treatments have been used with varying success. This article aims to characterize the growing unmet need for the treatment of neurogenic intermittent claudication in the elderly population with lumbar spinal stenosis and reviews the current understanding of this condition with an eye toward framing a research agenda for nonsurgical treatments. PMID:18387461

Markman, John D; Gaud, Kristina G

2008-05-01

64

Stenosis of the lumbar vertebral canal and sciatica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Stenosis of the vertebral canal is a form of compressive stenosis in contrast to transport stenosis of vessels or other channels. The concept, definition and pathomorphological properties are discussed. As it is a form of compressive stenosis, the diagnosis is based on measurements of diameters rather than of cross-sectional surfaces. The biomechanical action of compressive stenosis is compression of

H. Verbiest

1980-01-01

65

Incidental Dural Tears During Lumbar Spine Surgery: A Retrospective Case Study of 84 Degenerative Lumbar Spine Patients  

PubMed Central

Study Design A retrospective case study. Purpose To retrospectively review all incidental dural tears (DTs) that occurred at a single institution, classify them anatomically and evaluate the clinical significance of each subgroup. Overview of Literature Dural tears are considered the most commonly encountered complication during lumbar spine surgery. In contrast to the high frequency of DTs, reports on the characteristic location and mechanism are sparse. Methods We retrospectively retrieved all cases of degenerative lumbar spine surgery performed over a 9-year period and classified all identified DTs according to two independent planes. The coronal plane was divided into lower, middle and upper surgical fields, and the sagittal plane into posterior, lateral and ventral occurring tears. Demographic and clinical variables were retrieved and analyzed to search for significant associations. Results From 2003 to 2011, 1,235 cases of degenerative lumbar spine conditions were treated surgically at our institution. In 84 operations (6.8%), an incidental DT was either identified intraoperatively or suspected retrospectively. The most commonly involved location was the lower surgical field (n=39, 46.4%; p=0.002), followed equally by the middle and upper fields (n=16, 19%). In the sagittal plane, the most commonly involved locations were those in close proximity to the nerve root (n=35, 41.6%), followed by the dorsal aspect of the dural sac (n=24, 28.6%). None of the variables recorded was found to be associated with a particular location. Conclusions In our series, incidental DTs were found to occur most commonly in the lower surgical field. We hypothesize that local anatomic feature, such as the lordotic and broadening lumbar dura, may play a role in the observed DT tendency to occur in the lower surgical field. In light of the high frequency and potentially substantial resulting morbidity of incidental DTs, a better characterization of its location and mechanism may optimize both prevention and management.

Anekstein, Yoram; Mirovsky, Yigal

2014-01-01

66

Modified fenestration with restorative spinoplasty for lumbar spinal stenosis.  

PubMed

The authors developed an original procedure, modified fenestration with restorative spinoplasty (MFRS) for the treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis. The first step is to cut the spinous process in an L-shape, which is caudally reflected. This procedure allows easy access to the spinal canal, including lateral recesses, and makes it easy to perform a trumpet-style decompression of the nerve roots without violating the facet joints. After the decompression of neural tissues, the spinous process is anatomically restored (spinoplasty). The clinical outcomes at 2 years were evaluated using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scale and patients' satisfaction. Radiological follow-up included radiographs and CT. Between January 2000 and December 2002, 109 patients with neurogenic intermittent claudication with or without mild spondylolisthesis underwent MFRS. Of these, 101 were followed up for at least 2 years (follow-up rate 93%). The average score on the self-administered JOA scale in 89 patients without comorbidity causing gait disturbance improved from 13.3 preoperatively to 22.9 at 2 years' follow-up. Neurogenic intermittent claudication disappeared in all cases. The patients' assessment of treatment satisfaction was "satisfied" in 74 cases, "slightly satisfied" in 12, "slightly dissatisfied" in 2, and "dissatisfied" in 1 case. In 16 cases (18%), a minimum progression of slippage occurred, but no symptomatic instability or recurrent stenosis was observed. Computed tomography showed that the lateral part of the facet joints was well preserved, and the mean residual ratio was 80%. The MFRS technique produces an adequate and safe decompression of the spinal canal, even in patients with narrow and steep facet joints in whom conventional fenestration is technically demanding. PMID:19558293

Matsudaira, Ko; Yamazaki, Takashi; Seichi, Atsushi; Hoshi, Kazuto; Hara, Nobuhiro; Ogiwara, Satoshi; Terayama, Sei; Chikuda, Hirotaka; Takeshita, Katsushi; Nakamura, Kozo

2009-06-01

67

Arthrodesis to L5 versus S1 in long instrumentation and fusion for degenerative lumbar scoliosis.  

PubMed

There is a debate regarding the distal fusion level for degenerative lumbar scoliosis. Whether a healthy L5-S1 motion segment should be included or not in the fusion remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal indication for the fusion to the sacrum, and to compare the results of distal fusion to L5 versus the sacrum in the long instrumented fusion for degenerative lumbar scoliosis. A total of 45 patients who had undergone long instrumentation and fusion for degenerative lumbar scoliosis were evaluated with a minimum 2 year follow-up. Twenty-four patients (mean age 63.6) underwent fusion to L5 and 21 patients (mean age 65.6) underwent fusion to the sacrum. Supplemental interbody fusion was performed in 12 patients in the L5 group and eleven patients in the sacrum group. The number of levels fused was 6.08 segments (range 4-8) in the L5 group and 6.09 (range 4-9) in the sacrum group. Intraoperative blood loss (2,754 ml versus 2,938 ml) and operative time (220 min versus 229 min) were similar in both groups. The Cobb angle changed from 24.7 degrees before surgery to 6.8 degrees after surgery in the L5 group, and from 22.8 degrees to 7.7 degrees in the sacrum group without statistical difference. Correction of lumbar lordosis was statistically better in the sacrum group (P = 0.03). Less correction of lumbar lordosis in the L5 group seemed to be associated with subsequent advanced L5-S1 disc degeneration. The change of coronal and sagittal imbalance was not different in both groups. Subsequent advanced L5-S1 disc degeneration occurred in 58% of the patients in the L5 group. Symptomatic adjacent segment disease at L5-S1 developed in five patients. Interestingly, the development of adjacent segment disease was not related to the preoperative grade of disc degeneration, which proved minimal degeneration in the five patients. In the L5 group, there were nine patients of complications at L5-S1 segment, including adjacent segment disease at L5-S1 and loosening of L5 screws. Seven of the nine patients showed preoperative sagittal imbalance and/or lumbar hypolordosis, which might be risk factors of complications at L5-S1. For the patients with sagittal imbalance and lumbar hypolordosis, L5-S1 should be included in the fusion even if L5-S1 disc was minimal degeneration. PMID:19165507

Cho, Kyu-Jung; Suk, Se-Il; Park, Seung-Rim; Kim, Jin-Hyok; Choi, Sung-Wook; Yoon, Young-Hyun; Won, Man-Hee

2009-04-01

68

Rare ligamentum flavum cyst causing incapacitating lumbar spinal stenosis: Experience with 3 Chinese patients.  

PubMed

Three Chinese patients suffered from severe lumbar spinal stenosis with debilitating symptoms due to a rare condition of ligamentum flavum cysts in the midline of the lumbar spine. This disease is distinct from synovial cyst of the facet joints or ganglion cysts, both intraoperatively and histopathologically. Magnetic Resonance imaging features of the ligamentum flavum cyst are also demonstrated. We share our surgical experiences of identification of the ligamentum flavum cysts, decompression and excision for two of the patients with demonstrably good recovery. This disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of an extradural instraspinal mass in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. PMID:21047439

Chan, Alexander Pak-Hin; Wong, Tsz Cheung; Sieh, Koon-Man; Leung, Simon Siu-Man; Cheung, Kai-Yin; Fung, Kwai-Yau

2010-01-01

69

Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion using unilateral pedicle screw fixation plus contralateral translaminar facet screw fixation in lumbar degenerative diseases  

PubMed Central

Background: Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) has been used in lumbar degenerative diseases. Some researchers have applied unilateral fixation in TLIF to reduce operational trauma without compromising the clinical outcome, but it is always suspected biomechanically unstable. The supplementary contralateral translaminar facet screw (cTLFS) seemed to be able to overcome the inherent drawbacks of unilateral pedicle screw (uPS) fixation theoretically. This study evaluates the safety, feasibility and efficacy of TLIF using uPS with cTLFS fixation in the treatment of lumbar degenerative diseases (LDD). Materials and Methods: 50 patients (29 male) underwent the aforementioned surgical technique for their LDD between December 2009 and April 2012. The results were evaluated based on visual analogue scale (VAS) of the leg and back, Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) were recorded. The radiographic examinations in form of X-ray, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging was done preoperatively and 1 week, 3 months, 6 months, 12 months and 24 months postoperatively. The student t-test was used for comparison between the preoperative values and postoperative counterparts. P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Among 50 patients, 22 received one level fusion and 28 two level's, with corresponding operation time and estimated blood loss being approximately 90 min, 150 ml and 120 min, 200 ml, respectively. No severe complications happened perioperatively. The mean VAS (back, leg) scores dropped from (7.6, 7.5) preoperatively to (2.1, 0.6) at 12 months’ followup, ODI from 49.1 preoperatively to 5.6 and JOA score raised from 10.6 preoperatively to 28.5, all P < 0.001, suggesting of good clinical outcome. From the three-dimensional reconstructed CT, 62 out of 70 segments displayed solid fusion with fusion rate of 88.6% at 12 months postoperatively. Conclusions: TLIF using uPS fixation plus cTLFS fixation is a safe, feasible and effective technique in the treatment of one or two level lumbar degenerative diseases short termly. PMID:25143640

Liu, Fubing; Jiang, Chun; Cao, Yuanwu; Jiang, Xiaoxing; Feng, Zhenzhou

2014-01-01

70

[Results of decompressive-stabilizing procedures via unilateral approach in lumbar spinal stenosis].  

PubMed

Aim of this study was to investigate the capabilities, advantages and limitations of bilateral decompression via unilateral approach in decompressive-stabilizing procedures in patients with degenerative lumbar spine disease, and to develop the technology and its technical performance. The controlled study included 372 patients (age range was 27-74 years). All of them were operated due to clinical manifestation of lumbar spinal stenosis. The main group consisted of 44 patients who underwent bilateral decompression via unilateral approach with stabilization of involved segments. The control group included 328 patients who were operated using standard bilateral technique with stabilization. A total of 52 segments were treated in the first group and 351 in the second one. In all patients with neurogenic intermittent claudication symptoms relieved after decompressive-stabilizing surgery. Analysis of duration of surgery (considering 1 segment) demonstrated that less invasive technique requires as much time as conventional. However mean intraoperative blood loss in the first group was twice as low as the second. Neither patient from the first group required hemotransfusion while in the second group in 57 (17.4%) cases hemotransfusion was performed due to blood loss. In the early postoperative period in both groups intensity of pain (according to VAS) gradually decreased. Mean hospital stay was 9.9 +/- 3.1 day in the main group and 14.7 +/- 4.7 days in the control group. Bilateral spinal canal decompression via unilateral approach decreases surgical trauma, blood loss, complication rate and hospital stay. Postoperative results are comparable with conventional technique. PMID:22708433

Krut'ko, A V

2012-01-01

71

Diagnostic challenge: bilateral infected lumbar facet cysts--a rare cause of acute lumbar spinal stenosis and back pain.  

PubMed

Symptomatic synovial lumbar facet cysts are a relatively rare cause of radiculopathy and spinal stenosis. This case and brief review of the literature, details a patient who presented with acutely symptomatic bilateral spontaneously infected synovial facet (L4/5) cysts. This report highlights diagnostic clues for identifying infection of a facet cyst. PMID:20205727

Freedman, Brett A; Bui, Tuan L; Yoon, S Timothy

2010-01-01

72

Lumbar spinal stenosis CAD from clinical MRM and MRI based on inter- and intra-context features with a two-level classifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An imaging test has an important role in the diagnosis of lumbar abnormalities since it allows to examine the internal structure of soft tissues and bony elements without the need of an unnecessary surgery and recovery time. For the past decade, among various imaging modalities, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has taken the significant part of the clinical evaluation of the lumbar spine. This is mainly due to technological advancements that lead to the improvement of imaging devices in spatial resolution, contrast resolution, and multi-planar capabilities. In addition, noninvasive nature of MRI makes it easy to diagnose many common causes of low back pain such as disc herniation, spinal stenosis, and degenerative disc diseases. In this paper, we propose a method to diagnose lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS), a narrowing of the spinal canal, from magnetic resonance myelography (MRM) images. Our method segments the thecal sac in the preprocessing stage, generates the features based on inter- and intra-context information, and diagnoses lumbar disc stenosis. Experiments with 55 subjects show that our method achieves 91.3% diagnostic accuracy. In the future, we plan to test our method on more subjects.

Koh, Jaehan; Alomari, Raja S.; Chaudhary, Vipin; Dhillon, Gurmeet

2011-03-01

73

Dynamic Stabilization for Challenging Lumbar Degenerative Diseases of the Spine: A Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Fusion and rigid instrumentation have been currently the mainstay for the surgical treatment of degenerative diseases of the spine over the last 4 decades. In all over the world the common experience was formed about fusion surgery. Satisfactory results of lumbar spinal fusion appeared completely incompatible and unfavorable within years. Rigid spinal implants along with fusion cause increased stresses of the adjacent segments and have some important disadvantages such as donor site morbidity including pain, wound problems, infections because of longer operating time, pseudarthrosis, and fatigue failure of implants. Alternative spinal implants were developed with time on unsatisfactory outcomes of rigid internal fixation along with fusion. Motion preservation devices which include both anterior and posterior dynamic stabilization are designed and used especially in the last two decades. This paper evaluates the dynamic stabilization of the lumbar spine and talks about chronologically some novel dynamic stabilization devices and thier efficacies. PMID:23662211

Kaner, Tuncay; Ozer, Ali Fahir

2013-01-01

74

Arteriovenous fistula of the filum terminale misdiagnosed and previously operated as lower lumbar degenerative disease.  

PubMed

Filum terminale arteriovenous fistula (FTAVF) presenting as a cause of failed back surgery syndrome is a rare entity. We report a 48-year-old male patient who presented with clinical features of a conus medullaris/cauda equina lesion. He had upper and lower motor neuron signs in both the lower limbs with autonomic dysfunction. The patient was misdiagnosed and was operated twice earlier for lumbar canal stenosis and disc prolapse. After reviewing his clinical and radiological findings a diagnosis of FTAVF was made. He underwent surgery and there was a significant improvement in his neurological functions. We discuss the case and review the literature on FTAVF's. PMID:24967053

Sharma, Pankaj; Ranjan, Alok; Lath, Rahul

2014-06-01

75

Association of COL2A1 Gene Polymorphism with Degenerative Lumbar Scoliosis  

PubMed Central

Background Degenerative lumbar scoliosis (DLS) progresses with aging after 50-60 years, and the genetic association of DLS remains largely unclear. In this study, the genetic association between collagen type II alpha 1 (COL2A1) gene and DLS was investigated. Methods COL2A1 gene polymorphism was investigated in DLS subjects compared to healthy controls to investigate the possibility of its association with COL2A1 gene. Based on a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) database, SNP (rs2276454) in COL2A1 were selected and genotyped using direct sequencing in 51 patients with DLS and 235 healthy controls. The SNP effects were analyzed using three models of codominant, dominant, and recessive. Logistic regression models were calculated for odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and corresponding p-values, controlling age and gender as co-variables. Results SNP (rs2276454) in COL2A1 was significantly associated with the degenerative lumbar scoliosis in the codominant (OR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.17 to 3.10; p = 0.008) and dominant models (OR, 3.58; 95% CI, 1.59 to 9.29; p = 0.001). Conclusions The results suggest that COL2A1 is associated with the risk of DLS in Korean population.

Hwang, Dae Woo; Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Jung Youn; Kim, Dong Hwan

2014-01-01

76

Comparison of the Oswestry Disability Index and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Lumbar Canal Stenosis: An Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Study Design Cross-sectional study. Purpose The aim of the study was to determine relationship between the degrees of radiologically demonstrated anatomical lumbar canal stenosis using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and its correlation with the patient's disability level, using the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Overview of Literature The relationship between the imaging studies and clinical symptoms has been uncertain in patients suffering from symptomatic lumbar canal stenosis. There is a limited number of studies which correlates the degree of stenosis with simple reproducible scoring methods. Methods Fifty patients were selected from 350 patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The patients answered the national-language translated form of ODI. The ratio of disability was interpreted, and the patients were grouped accordingly. They were subjected to MRI; and the anteroposterior diameters of the lumbar intervertebral disc spaces and the thecal sac cross sectional area were measured. Comparison was performed between the subdivisions of the degree of lumbar canal stenosis, based on the following: anteroposterior diameter (three groups: normal, relative stenosis and absolute stenosis); subdivisions of the degree of central canal stenosis, based on the thecal sac cross-sectional area, measured on axial views (three groups: normal, moderately stenotic and severely stenotic); and the ODI outcome, which was also presented in 20 percentiles. Results No significant correlation was established between the radiologically depicted anatomical lumbar stenosis and the Oswestry Disability scores. Conclusions Magnetic resonance imaging alone should not be considered in isolation when assessing and treating patients diagnosed with lumbar canal stenosis. PMID:24596604

Goni, Vijay G; Hampannavar, Aravind; Singh, Paramjeet; Sudesh, Pebam; Logithasan, Rajesh Kumar; Sharma, Anurag; BK, Shashidhar; Sament, Radheshyam

2014-01-01

77

Dynamic electrophysiological examination in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis: Is it useful in clinical practice?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurogenic claudication (NC) is typical of lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). One suspected pathophysiological mechanism underlying NC is intermittent hypoxia of cauda equina fibres resulting from venous pooling, which may lead to ischaemic nerve conduction failure and to transient clinical and electrophysiological changes after exercise. The aim of this study was to evaluate the appearance of significant transient electrophysiological abnormalities after

B. Adamova; S. Vohanka; L. Dusek

2005-01-01

78

Application of X STOP device in the treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis.  

PubMed

Low back pain is exceptionally ubiquitous, complex, and costly. Nevertheless, lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) with neurogenic intermittent claudication (NIC) is a frequent cause of low back and lower extremity pain. Although the phenomena and pathophisiology of lumbar spinal stenosis has been described for decades, therapeutic treatment options remain considerably limited. Current care consists of conservative measures including physical therapy, rest, medications, and epidural steroid injection therapy or invasive surgical treatment including laminectomy with or without fusion. Despite standard of care intervention, many patients are often left inadequately treated and suffer from debilitating low back and lower extremity pain as a result of lumbar spinal stenosis. Interspinous process distraction (IPD) devices were originally described in the 1950s, but technological advances, which have contributed to improved safety and efficacy, have rekindled an interest in IPD implantation. By mimicking lumbar flexion at affected levels of stenosis, it is thought these devices decompress neural structures within the neural foramina and therefore provide pain relief. X-STOP is one such device that is currently approved in the United States for the treatment of mild to moderate NIC resulting from LSS. This manuscript presents a focused review of NIC and LSS and comprehensively presents literature related to the use of the X-STOP IPD device. PMID:20859324

Yi, Xiaobin; McPherson, Bradley

2010-01-01

79

Synovial Cysts of the Lumbar Facet Joints: A Retrospective Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study Investigating their Relation with Degenerative Spondylolisthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with synovial cysts of the facet joints were compared with patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS), based on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of their spondyloses. The lumbar MRI of 30 patients with DS (group 1) 24 patients with synovial cysts of the facet joints (group 2) were studied. All patients were evaluated in terms of facet joint arthritis,

2009-01-01

80

Spinal stenosis  

MedlinePLUS

... spinal stenosis; Foraminal spinal stenosis; Degenerative spine disease; Back pain - spinal stenosis ... help your pain during flare-ups. Treatments for back pain caused by spinal stenosis include: Medicines that may ...

81

Spinous Process Distraction with Allograft in the Treatment of Spondylolisthesis with Spinal Stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many years the standard treatment for symptomatic degenerative spondylolisthesis and spinal canal stenosis has been lumbar decompression and spinal fusion to decompress the nerve roots and\\/or spinal cord and to stabilize the spine. In recent years, several different methods have been devised as alternative treatments for degenerative spondylolisthesis and spinal stenosis. One of these is known as spinous process

Christopher M. Weinman

2006-01-01

82

Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 11: interbody techniques for lumbar fusion.  

PubMed

Interbody fusion techniques have been promoted as an adjunct to lumbar fusion procedures in an effort to enhance fusion rates and potentially improve clinical outcome. The medical evidence continues to suggest that interbody techniques are associated with higher fusion rates compared with posterolateral lumbar fusion (PLF) in patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis who demonstrate preoperative instability. There is no conclusive evidence demonstrating improved clinical or radiographic outcomes based on the different interbody fusion techniques. The addition of a PLF when posterior or anterior interbody lumbar fusion is performed remains an option, although due to increased cost and complications, it is not recommended. No substantial clinical benefit has been demonstrated when a PLF is included with an interbody fusion. For lumbar degenerative disc disease without instability, there is moderate evidence that the standalone anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) has better clinical outcomes than the ALIF plus instrumented, open PLF. With regard to type of interbody spacer used, frozen allograft is associated with lower pseudarthrosis rates compared with freeze-dried allograft; however, this was not associated with a difference in clinical outcome. PMID:24980588

Mummaneni, Praveen V; Dhall, Sanjay S; Eck, Jason C; Groff, Michael W; Ghogawala, Zoher; Watters, William C; Dailey, Andrew T; Resnick, Daniel K; Choudhri, Tanvir F; Sharan, Alok; Wang, Jeffrey C; Kaiser, Michael G

2014-07-01

83

Preoperative MRI Findings Predict Two-Year Postoperative Clinical Outcome in Lumbar Spinal Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Purpose To study the predictive value of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings for the two-year postoperative clinical outcome in lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Methods 84 patients (mean age 63±11 years, male 43%) with symptoms severe enough to indicate LSS surgery were included in this prospective observational single-center study. Preoperative MRI of the lumbar spine was performed with a 1.5-T unit. The imaging protocol conformed to the requirements of the American College of Radiology for the performance of MRI of the adult spine. Visual and quantitative assessment of MRI was performed by one experienced neuroradiologist. At the two-year postoperative follow-up, functional ability was assessed with the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI 0–100%) and treadmill test (0–1000 m), pain symptoms with the overall Visual Analogue Scale (VAS 0–100 mm), and specific low back pain (LBP) and specific leg pain (LP) separately with a numeric rating scale from 0–10 (NRS-11). Satisfaction with the surgical outcome was also assessed. Results Preoperative severe central stenosis predicted postoperatively lower LP, LBP, and VAS when compared in patients with moderate central stenosis (p<0.05). Moreover, severe stenosis predicted higher postoperative satisfaction (p?=?0.029). Preoperative scoliosis predicted an impaired outcome in the ODI (p?=?0.031) and lowered the walking distance in the treadmill test (p?=?0.001). The preoperative finding of only one stenotic level in visual assessment predicted less postoperative LBP when compared with patients having 2 or more stenotic levels (p?=?0.026). No significant differences were detected between quantitative measurements and the patient outcome. Conclusions Routine preoperative lumbar spine MRI can predict the patient outcome in a two-year follow up in patients with LSS surgery. Severe central stenosis and one-level central stenosis are predictors of good outcome. Preoperative finding of scoliosis may indicate worse functional ability. PMID:25229343

Kuittinen, Pekka; Sipola, Petri; Leinonen, Ville; Saari, Tapani; Sinikallio, Sanna; Savolainen, Sakari; Kroger, Heikki; Turunen, Veli; Airaksinen, Olavi; Aalto, Timo

2014-01-01

84

Short term outcome of posterior dynamic stabilization system in degenerative lumbar diseases  

PubMed Central

Background: Decompression and fusion is considered as the ‘gold standard’ for the treatment of degenerative lumbar diseases, however, many disadvantages have been reported in several studies, recently like donor site pain, pseudoarthrosis, nonunion, screw loosening, instrumentation failure, infection, adjacent segment disease (ASDis) and degeneration. Dynamic neutralization system (Dynesys) avoids many of these disadvantages. This system is made up of pedicle screws, polyethylene terephthalate cords, and polycarbonate urethane spacers to stabilize the functional spinal unit and preserve the adjacent motion after surgeries. This was a retrospective cohort study to compare the effect of Dynesys for treating degenerative lumbar diseases with posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) based on short term followup. Materials and Methods: Seventy five consecutive patients of lumbar degenerative disease operated between October 2010 and November 2012 were studied with a minimum followup of 2 years. Patients were divided into two groups according to the different surgeries. 30 patients underwent decompression and implantation of Dynesys in two levels (n = 29) or three levels (n = 1) and 45 patients underwent PLIF in two levels (n = 39) or three levels (n = 6). Clinical and radiographic outcomes between two groups were reviewed. Results: Thirty patients (male:17, female:13) with a mean age of 55.96 ± 7.68 years were included in Dynesys group and the PLIF group included 45 patients (male:21, female:24) with a mean age of 54.69 ± 3.26 years. The average followup in Dynesys group and PLIF group was 2.22 ± 0.43 year (range 2-3.5 year) and 2.17 ± 0.76 year (range 2-3 year), respectively. Dynesys group showed a shorter operation time (141.06 ± 11.36 min vs. 176.98 ± 6.72 min, P < 0.001) and less intraoperative blood loss (386.76 ± 19.44 ml vs. 430.11 ± 24.72 ml, P < 0.001). For Dynesys group, visual analogue scale (VAS) for back and leg pain improved from 6.87 ± 0.80 to 2.92 ± 0.18 and 6.99 ± 0.81 to 3.25 ± 0.37, (both P < 0.001) and for PLIF, VAS for back and leg pain also improved significantly (6.97 ± 0.84–3.19 ± 0.19 and 7.26 ± 0.76–3.56 ± 0.38, both P < 0.001). Significant improvement was found at final followup in both groups in Oswestry disability index (ODI) score (both P < 0.001). Besides, Dynesys group showed a greater improvement in ODI and VAS back and leg pain scores compared with the PLIF group (P < 0.001, P = 0.009 and P = 0.031, respectively). For radiological, height of the operated level was found increased in both groups (both P < 0.001), but there was no difference between two groups (P = 0.93). For range of motion (ROM) of operated level, significant decrease was found in both groups (P < 0.001), but Dynesys showed a higher preservation of motion at the operative levels (P < 0.001). However, no significant difference was found in the percentage change of ROM of adjacent levels between Dynesys and PLIF (0.74 ± 8.92% vs. 0.92 ± 4.52%, P = 0.91). Some patients suffered from degeneration of adjacent intervertebral disc at final followup, but there was no significant difference in adjacent intervertebral disc degeneration between two groups (P = 0.71). Moreover, there were no differences in complications between Dynesys and PLIF (P = 0.90), although the incidence of complication in Dynesys was lower than PLIF (16.67% vs. 17.78%). Conclusion: Dynamic stabilization system treating lumbar degenerative disease showed clinical benefits with motion preservation of the operated segments, but does not have the significant advantage on motion preservation at adjacent segments, to avoid the degeneration of adjacent intervertebral disk.

Yang, Mingyuan; Li, Chao; Chen, Ziqiang; Bai, Yushu; Li, Ming

2014-01-01

85

Loading is more effective than posture in lumbar spinal stenosis: a study with a treadmill equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to assess the correlation between neurogenic intermittent claudication (NIC) in LSS and different\\u000a positions as well as loading status, using the treadmill device. The study was a prospective clinical trial on lumbar spinal\\u000a stenosis (LSS) using a treadmill equipment. The study population comprised of 80 LSS patients with a mean age of 61. The

Hasan O?uz; Funda Levendo?lu; Tunç Cevat Ö?ün; Aysenur Tantu?

2007-01-01

86

Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Minimally Invasive Treatment with Bilateral Transpedicular Facet Augmentation System  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new pedicle screw-based posterior dynamic stabilization device PDS Percudyn System Trade-Mark-Sign Anchor and Stabilizer (Interventional Spine Inc., Irvine, CA) as alternative minimally invasive treatment for patients with lumbar spine stenosis. Methods. Twenty-four consecutive patients (8 women, 16 men; mean age 61.8 yr) with lumbar spinal stenosis underwent implantation of the minimally invasive pedicle screw-based device for posterior dynamic stabilization. Inclusion criteria were lumbar stenosis without signs of instability, resistant to conservative treatment, and eligible to traditional surgical posterior decompression. Results. Twenty patients (83 %) progressively improved during the 1-year follow-up. Four (17 %) patients did not show any improvement and opted for surgical posterior decompression. For both responder and nonresponder patients, no device-related complications were reported. Conclusions. Minimally invasive PDS Percudyn System Trade-Mark-Sign has effectively improved the clinical setting of 83 % of highly selected patients treated, delaying the need for traditional surgical therapy.

Masala, Salvatore, E-mail: salva.masala@tiscali.it [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy, University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging (Italy); Tarantino, Umberto [University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology (Italy); Nano, Giovanni, E-mail: gionano@gmail.com [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy, University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging (Italy); Iundusi, Riccardo [University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology (Italy); Fiori, Roberto, E-mail: fiori.r@libero.it; Da Ros, Valerio, E-mail: valeriodaros@hotmail.com; Simonetti, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy, University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging (Italy)

2013-06-15

87

Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 8: lumbar fusion for disc herniation and radiculopathy.  

PubMed

Patients suffering from a lumbar herniated disc will typically present with signs and symptoms consistent with radiculopathy. They may also have low-back pain, however, and the source of this pain is less certain, as it may be from the degenerative process that led to the herniation. The surgical alternative of choice remains a lumbar discectomy, but fusions have been performed for both primary and recurrent disc herniations. In the original guidelines, the inclusion of a fusion for routine discectomies was not recommended. This recommendation continues to be supported by more recent evidence. Based on low-level evidence, the incorporation of a lumbar fusion may be considered an option when a herniation is associated with evidence of spinal instability, chronic low-back pain, and/or severe degenerative changes, or if the patient participates in heavy manual labor. For recurrent disc herniations, there is low-level evidence to support the inclusion of lumbar fusion for patients with evidence of instability or chronic low-back pain. PMID:24980585

Wang, Jeffrey C; Dailey, Andrew T; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Ghogawala, Zoher; Resnick, Daniel K; Watters, William C; Groff, Michael W; Choudhri, Tanvir F; Eck, Jason C; Sharan, Alok; Dhall, Sanjay S; Kaiser, Michael G

2014-07-01

88

Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 2: assessment of functional outcome following lumbar fusion.  

PubMed

Assessment of functional patient-reported outcome following lumbar spinal fusion continues to be essential for comparing the effectiveness of different treatments for patients presenting with degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. When assessing functional outcome in patients being treated with lumbar spinal fusion, a reliable, valid, and responsive outcomes instrument such as the Oswestry Disability Index should be used. The SF-36 and the SF-12 have emerged as dominant measures of general health-related quality of life. Research has established the minimum clinically important difference for major functional outcomes measures, and this should be considered when assessing clinical outcome. The results of recent studies suggest that a patient's pretreatment psychological state is a major independent variable that affects the ability to detect change in functional outcome. PMID:24980579

Ghogawala, Zoher; Resnick, Daniel K; Watters, William C; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Dailey, Andrew T; Choudhri, Tanvir F; Eck, Jason C; Sharan, Alok; Groff, Michael W; Wang, Jeffrey C; Dhall, Sanjay S; Kaiser, Michael G

2014-07-01

89

Percutaneous treatment of lumbar compression fracture with canal stenosis and neurogenic intermittent claudication: combining kyphoplasty and interspinous spacer.  

PubMed

Vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) can cause symptomatic spinal canal stenosis secondary to posterior wall retropulsion. This report describes four patients with VCF and lumbar stenosis secondary to posterior wall retropulsion who were treated with combined kyphoplasty and percutaneous interspinous spacer (IS) placement. Clinical and imaging follow-up ranged from 12-36 months. Outcomes were favorable. Combined kyphoplasty and percutaneous IS implant represents a minimally invasive, safe, and efficient option to treat VCF with symptomatic spinal stenosis. PMID:23101915

Bonaldi, Giuseppe; Cianfoni, Alessandro

2012-11-01

90

Surgical treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis with microdecompression and interspinous distraction device insertion. A case series  

PubMed Central

Background Interspinous distraction devices (IPDD) are indicated as stand-alone devices for the treatment of spinal stenosis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the results of patients undergoing surgery for spinal stenosis with a combination of unilateral microdecompression and interspinous distraction device insertion. Methods This is a prospective clinical and radiological study of minimum 2 years follow-up. Twenty-two patients (average age 64.5 years) with low-back pain and unilateral sciatica underwent decompressive surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis. Visual Analogue Scale, Oswestry Disability Index and walking capacity plus radiologic measurements of posterior disc height of the involved level and lumbar lordosis Cobb angle were documented both preoperatively and postoperatively. One-sided posterior subarticular and foraminal decompression was conducted followed by dynamic stabilization of the diseased level with an IPDD (X-STOP). Results The average follow-up time was 27.4 months. Visual Analogue Scale and Oswestry Disability Index improved statistically significantly (p < 0.001) in the last follow-up exam. Also, the walking distance increased in all patients but two. Posterior intervertebral disc height of the diseased level widened average 1.8 mm in the postoperative radiograph compared to the preoperative. No major complication, including implant failure or spinous process breakage, has been observed. Conclusions The described surgical technique using unilateral microdecompression and IPDD insertion is a clinically effective and radiologically viable treatment method for symptoms of spinal stenosis resistant to non-operative treatment. PMID:23107358

2012-01-01

91

Lumbar spinal stenosis in a young individual as a result of ligamantum flavum ossification: A case report  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Symtomatic lumbar ligamantum flavum calcification is quite rare in the young age group. PRESENTATION OF CASE The authors report a case of young adult with diagnosis of lumbar spinal stenosis, presenting with leg pain and neurological deficits. Computerized tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies revealed ossification of the ligamantum flavum as the causative factor of the disease and the patient recovered completely after the decompressive operation. DISCUSSION It is emphasized that attention should be given to this rare etiological factor of lumbar spinal stenosis. CONCLUSION Complete relief can be achieved with early and adequate surgery. PMID:23774332

Yilmaz, Murat; Kalemci, Orhan; Yilmaz, Hakan; Palaz, Necdet M.

2013-01-01

92

Factors affecting disability and physical function in degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis of L4-5: evaluation with axially loaded MRI.  

PubMed

Few studies have investigated the factors related to the disability and physical function in degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis using axially loaded magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of axial loading on the morphology of the spine and the spinal canal in patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis of L4-5 and to correlate morphologic changes to their disability and physical functions. From March 2003 to January 2004, 32 consecutive cases (26 females, 6 males) with degenerative L4-5 spondylolisthesis, grade 1-2, intermittent claudication, and low back pain without sciatica were included in this study. All patients underwent unloaded and axially loaded MRI of the lumbo-sacral spine in supine position to elucidate the morphological findings and to measure the parameters of MRI, including disc height (DH), sagittal translation (ST), segmental angulation (SA), dural sac cross-sectional area (DCSA) at L4-5, and lumbar lordotic angles (LLA) at L1-5 between the unloaded and axially loaded condition. Each patient's disability was evaluated by the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) questionnaire, and physical functioning (PF) was evaluated by the Physical Function scale proposed by Stucki et al. (Spine 21:796-803, 1996). Three patients were excluded due to the presence of neurologic symptoms found with the axially loaded MRI. Finally, a total of 29 (5 males, 24 females) consecutive patients were included in this study. Comparisons and correlations were done to determine which parameters were critical to the patient's disability and PF. The morphologies of the lumbar spine changed after axially loaded MRI. In six of our patients, we observed adjacent segment degeneration (4 L3-L4 and 2 L5-S1) coexisting with degenerative spondylolisthesis of L4-L5 under axially loaded MRI. The mean values of the SA under pre-load and post-load were 7.14 degrees and 5.90 degrees at L4-L5 (listhetic level), respectively. The mean values of the LLA under pre-load and post-load were 37.03 degrees and 39.28 degrees , respectively. There were significant correlations only between the ODI, PF, and the difference of SA, and between PF and the post-loaded LLA. The changes in SA (L4-L5) during axial loading were well correlated to the ODI and PF scores. In addition, the LLA (L1-L5) under axial loading was well correlated to the PF of patients with degenerative L4-L5 spondylolisthesis. We suggest that the angular instability of the intervertebral disc may play a more important role than neurological compression in the pathogenesis of disability in degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis. PMID:19526378

Huang, Kuo-Yuan; Lin, Ruey-Mo; Lee, Yung-Ling; Li, Jenq-Daw

2009-12-01

93

Minimum 3-Year Outcomes in Patients with Lumbar Spinal Stenosis after Bilateral Microdecompression by Unilateral or Bilateral Laminotomy  

PubMed Central

Objective Lumbar spine stenosis (LSS) can result in symptomatic compression of the neural elements, requiring surgical treatment if conservative management fails. Minimally invasive surgery has come to be more commonly used for the treatment of LSS. The current study describes outcomes of bilateral microdecompression by unilateral or bilateral laminotomy (BML) for degenerative LSS after a minimum follow-up period of 3 years and investigates factors that result in a poor outcome. Methods Twenty-one patients who were followed-up for at least 3 years were included in this study. For clinical evaluation, the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scoring system for low back pain was used. The modified grading system of Finneson and Cooper was used for outcome assessment. Radiographic evaluation was also performed for spondylolisthesis, sagittal rotation angle, and disc height. Results Twenty-one patients (10 men, 11 women) aged 53-82 years (64.1±8.9 years) were followed-up for a minimum of 3 years (36-69 months). During follow-up, two patients underwent reoperation. Average preoperative JOA score and clinical symptoms, except persistent low back pain, improved significantly at the latest follow-up. There were no significant differences in radiological findings preoperatively and postoperatively. Thirteen patients (61.9%) had excellent to fair outcomes. Conclusion BML resulted in a favorable and persistent outcome for patients with degenerative LSS without radiological instability over a mid-term follow-up period. Persistent low back pain unrelated to postoperative instability adversely affects mid-term outcomes. PMID:24278647

Yang, Sang-Mi; Chang, Jae-chil; Kim, Ra-Sun; Park, Sukh-Que; Cho, Sung-Jin

2013-01-01

94

Design of the Verbiest trial: cost-effectiveness of surgery versus prolonged conservative treatment in patients with lumbar stenosis  

PubMed Central

Background Degenerative changes of lumbar spine anatomy resulting in the encroachment of neural structures are often regarded progressive, ultimately necessitating decompressive surgery. However the natural course is not necessarily progressive and the efficacy of a variety of nonsurgical interventions has also been described. At present there is insufficient data to compare surgical and nonsurgical interventions in terms of their relative benefit and safety. Previous attempts failed to provide clear clinical recommendations or to distinguish subgroups that substantially benefit from a certain treatment strategy. We present the design of a randomized controlled trial on (cost-) effectiveness of surgical decompression versus prolonged conservative treatment in patients with neurogenic intermittent claudication caused by lumbar stenosis. Methods/Design The aim of the Verbiest trial is to evaluate the effectiveness of prolonged conservative treatment compared to decompressive surgery. The study is a multi-center randomized controlled trial with two parallel groups design. Patients (age over 50) presenting to the neurologist or neurosurgeon with at least 3 months complaints of neurogenic intermittent claudication and considering surgical treatment are eligible for inclusion. Participants are randomly allocated to either prolonged conservative treatment, receiving further treatment from their general practitioner and physical therapist, or allocated to surgery and operated within 4 weeks. Primary outcome measure is the functional assessment of the patient as measured by the Zurich Claudication Questionnaire at 24 months of follow-up. Data is analyzed according to the intention to treat principle. Discussion With a cost-effectiveness analysis the trade off between the costs of prolonged conservative treatment and delayed surgery in a smaller number of patients are compared with the current policy of surgical management. As surgery is expected to be inevitable in certain subgroups of patients, the distinction of and classification by predictive patient characteristics is most relevant to clinical practice. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register (NTR): NTR2216 PMID:21371314

2011-01-01

95

Risk for Adjacent Segment and Same Segment Reoperation After Surgery for Lumbar Stenosis: A subgroup analysis of the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT)  

PubMed Central

Study Design Subgroup analysis of prospective, randomized database. Objective The purpose of this study was to compare surgical or patient characteristics, such as fusion, instrumentation, or obesity, to identify whether these factors were associated with increased risk of reoperation for spinal stenosis. This prognostic information would be valuable to patients, healthcare professionals, and society as strategies to reduce reoperation, such as motion preservation, are developed. Summary of Background Data Reoperation due to recurrence of index level pathology or adjacent segment disease is a common clinical problem. Despite multiple studies on the incidence of reoperation, there have been few comparative studies establishing risk factors of reoperation after spinal stenosis surgery. The hypothesis of this subgroup analysis was that lumbar fusion or particular patient characteristics, such as obesity, would render patients with lumbar stenosis more susceptible to reoperation at the index or adjacent levels. Methods The study population combined the randomized and observational cohorts enrolled in SPORT for treatment of spinal stenosis. The surgically treated patients were stratified according to those who had reoperation (n=54) or no-reoperation (n= 359). Outcome measures were assessed at baseline, 1 year, 2 years, 3 years, and 4 years. The difference in improvement between those who had reoperation and those who did not was determined at each follow-period. Results Of the 413 patients who underwent surgical treatment for spinal stenosis, 54 patients had a reoperation within four years. At baseline, there were no significant differences in demographic characteristics or clinical outcome scores between reoperation and non-reoperation groups. Furthermore, between groups there were no differences in the severity of symptoms, obesity, physical examination signs, levels of stenosis, location of stenosis, stenosis severity, levels of fusion, levels of laminectomy, levels decompressed, operation time, intraoperative or postoperative complications. There was an increased percentage of patients with duration of symptoms greater than 12 months in the reoperation group (56% reoperation vs 36% no-reoperation, p<0.008). At final follow-up, there was significantly less improvement in the outcome of the reoperation group in SF36 PF (14.4 vs 22.6, p < 0.05), ODI (?12.4 vs. ?21.1, p < 0.01), and Sciatica Bothersomeness Index (?5 vs ?8.1, p < 0.006). Conclusion Lumbar fusion and instrumentation were not associated with increased rate of reoperation at index or adjacent levels compared to nonfusion techniques. The only specific risk factor for reoperation after treatment of spinal stenosis was duration of pretreatment symptoms > 12 months. The overall incidence of reoperations for spinal stenosis surgery was 13% and reoperations were equally distributed between index and adjacent lumbar levels. Reoperation may be related to the natural history of spinal degenerative disease. PMID:23154835

Radcliff, Kris; Curry, Patrick; Hilibrand, Alan; Kepler, Chris; Lurie, Jon; Zhao, Wenyan; Albert, Todd; Weinstein, James

2013-01-01

96

Calcific extension towards the mitral valve causes non-rheumatic mitral stenosis in degenerative aortic stenosis: real-time 3D transoesophageal echocardiography study  

PubMed Central

Objective Mitral annular/leaflet calcification (MALC) is frequently observed in patients with degenerative aortic stenosis (AS). However, the impact of MALC on mitral valve function has not been established. We aimed to investigate whether MALC reduces mitral annular area and restricts leaflet opening, resulting in non-rheumatic mitral stenosis. Methods Real-time three-dimensional transoesophageal images of the mitral valve were acquired in 101 patients with degenerative AS and 26 control participants. The outer and inner borders of the mitral annular area (MAA) and the maximal leaflet opening angle were measured at early diastole. The mitral valve area (MVA) was calculated as the left ventricular stroke volume divided by the velocity time integral of the transmitral flow velocity. Results Although the outer MAA was significantly larger in patients with AS compared to control participants (8.2±1.3 vs 7.3±0.9?cm2, p<0.001), the inner MAA was significantly smaller (4.5±1.1 vs 5.9±0.9?cm2, p<0.001), resulting in an average decrease of 45% in the effective MAA. The maximal anterior and posterior leaflet opening angle was also significantly smaller in patients with AS (64±10 vs 72±8°, p<0.001, 71±12 vs 87±7°, p<0.001). Thus, MVA was significantly smaller in patients with AS (2.5±1.0 vs 3.8±0.8?cm2, p<0.001). Twenty-four (24%) patients with AS showed MVA <1.5?cm2. Multivariate regression analysis including parameters for mitral valve geometry revealed that a decrease in effective MAA and a reduced posterior leaflet opening angle were independent predictors for MVA. Conclusions Calcific extension to the mitral valve in patients with AS reduced effective MAA and the leaflet opening, resulting in a significant non-rheumatic mitral stenosis in one-fourth of the patients. PMID:25332828

Iwataki, Mai; Takeuchi, Masaaki; Otani, Kyoko; Kuwaki, Hiroshi; Yoshitani, Hidetoshi; Abe, Haruhiko; Lang, Roberto M; Levine, Robert A; Otsuji, Yutaka

2014-01-01

97

Lumbar Ureteral Stenosis due to Endometriosis: Our Experience and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Endometriosis is a chronic gynaecological disorder characterized by the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterus. The disease most often affects the ovaries, uterine ligaments, fallopian tubes, and cervical-vaginal region. Urinary tract involvement is rare, accounting for around 1%-2% of all cases, of which 84% are in the bladder. We report a case of isolated lumbar ureteral stenosis due to endometriosis in a 37-year-old patient. The patient came to our observation complaining from lumbar back pain and presented with severe fever. The urological examination found monolateral left positive sign of Giordano. Blood tests evidenced marked lymphocytosis and increased valued of C-reactive protein. Urologic ultrasound showed hydronephrosis of first degree in the left kidney and absence of images related to stones bilaterally. Uro-CT scan evidenced ureteral stenosis at the transition between the iliac and pelvic tracts. We addressed the patient to surgery, and performed laparoscopic excision of the paraureteral bulk, endoscopic mechanical ureteral dilation, and stenting. The histological examination evidenced glandular structures lined by simple epithelium and surrounded by stroma. Immunohistochemical test of the glandular epithelium showed positivity for estrogen and progesterone receptors and moreover stromal cells were positive for CD10. The finding suggested a very rare diagnosis of isolated lumbar ureteral endometriosis. PMID:23738189

Buttice, Salvatore; Barresi, Valeria; Inferrera, Antonino; Mucciardi, Giuseppe; Di Benedetto, Antonina; D'Amico, Carmela Emanuela; Magno, Carlo

2013-01-01

98

Dynamic lumbar spinal stenosis : the usefulness of axial loaded MRI in preoperative evaluation.  

PubMed

Two cases of dynamic lumbar spinal stenosis were identified by the authors using axial loaded magnetic resonance image (MRI). In both cases, the patients presented with neurogenic claudication but MRI in decumbency showed no definite pathologic condition associated with their symptoms. In contrast, axial loaded MRI demonstrated constrictive spinal stenosis and a significantly decreased dural sac caused by epidural fat buckling and thickening of the ligamentum flavum in both cases. In the second case, a more prominent disc protrusion was also demonstrated compared with decumbent MRI. After decompressive surgery, both patients had satisfactory outcomes. Axial loaded MRI can therefore give decisive information in dynamic spinal disorders by allowing simulation of an upright position. PMID:19844630

Choi, Kyung-Chul; Kim, Jin-Sung; Jung, Byungjoo; Lee, Sang-Ho

2009-09-01

99

Leg weakness in a patient with lumbar stenosis and adrenal insufficiency.  

PubMed

Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is a common spinal disease in the elderly. The cardinal symptom of LSS is neurogenic claudication, but not all patients present with such typical symptom. The clinical symptoms are often confused with symptoms of peripheral neuropathy, musculo-skeletal disease and other medical conditions in elderly patients. In particular, LSS presenting with rapid progression of leg weakness must be distinguished from other combined diseases. We report a case of rapid progressive leg weakness in a patient with LSS and iatrogenic adrenal insufficiency that was induced by obscure health supplement. PMID:21607184

Kim, Kyoung-Tae; Ahn, Suk-Won; Kwon, Jeong-Taik; Kim, Young-Baeg

2011-04-01

100

Foot Drop Caused by Lumbar Degenerative Disease: Clinical Features, Prognostic Factors of Surgical Outcome and Clinical Stage  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical features and prognostic factors of surgical outcome of foot drop caused by lumbar degenerative disease and put forward the clinical stage. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 135 patients with foot drop due to lumbar degenerative disease. The clinical features and mechanism were analyzed. Age, sex, duration of palsy, preoperative muscle strength of tibialis anterior (TA), sensation defect of affected lower limb, affected foot, diagnosis and compressed nerve roots were recorded and compared with surgical outcome. Results Foot drop was observed in 8.1% of all inpatients of lumbar degenerative disease. L5 nerve root compression was observed in 126 of all 135 patients (93.3%). Single, double and triple roots compression was observed respectively in 43, 83, and 9 patients (31.9%, 61.5%, and 6.6%). But there was no significant relationship between preoperative muscle strength of TA and the number of compressed roots. The muscle strength of TA was improved in 113 (83.7%) patients after surgery, but it reached to >=4 in only 21 (15.6%) patients. Improvement of the muscle strength of TA was almost stable at the 6-month follow-up. At the last follow-up, the muscle strength of TA was 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 respectively in 28, 24, 62, 13, 8 patients. Multivariate logistic regression showed duration of palsy (p=0.0360, OR=2.543), preoperative muscle strength of TA (p=0.0064, OR=5.528) and age (p=0.0309, OR=3.208) were factors that influenced recovery following an operation. Conclusions L5 nerve root was most frequently affected. The muscle strength of TA improved in most patients after surgery, but few patients can get a good recovery from foot drop. Patients of shorter duration of palsy, better preoperative muscle strength of TA and younger age showed a better surgical outcome. PMID:24224052

Shi, Jiangang; Jia, Lianshun; Shi, Guodong; Wang, Yuan; Liu, Ning

2013-01-01

101

Scoliosis and interspinous decompression with the X-STOP: prospective minimum 1-year outcomes in lumbar spinal stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background contextThe X-STOP interspinous decompression device, as a treatment for neurogenic intermittent claudication (NIC) because of lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS), has been shown to be superior to nonoperative control treatment. Current Food and Drug Administration labeling limits X-STOP use to NIC patients with a maximum of 25° concomitant lumbar scoliosis. This value was arrived at arbitrarily by the device developers

Kevin W. Rolfe; James F. Zucherman; Dimitriy G. Kondrashov; Ken Y. Hsu; Emily Nosova

2010-01-01

102

Lumbar Spinal Stenosis with Exacerbation of Back Pain with Extension: Potential Contraindication For Supine MRI With Sedation  

PubMed Central

A 71-year-old male with lumbar spinal stenosis developed exacerbation of lower back pain and leg paresthesias while attempting to undergo a spinal MRI scan in the supine position. After undergoing sedation for the MRI, he developed an acute cauda equina syndrome that required surgical decompression. MRI may be contraindicated in the supine position for patients with spinal stenosis and back pain exacerbated by mild to moderate extension, since it may further compress the neural tissue. PMID:19490371

Kuramoto, Alan; Chang, Linda; Grahm, Jon; Holmes, Stephen

2011-01-01

103

Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 1: introduction and methodology.  

PubMed

Fusion procedures are an accepted and successful management strategy to alleviate pain and/or neurological symptoms associated with degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. In 2005, the first version of the "Guidelines for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine" was published in the Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine. In an effort to incorporate evidence obtained since the original publication of these guidelines, an expert panel of neurosurgical and orthopedic spine specialists was convened in 2009. Topics reviewed were essentially identical to the original publication. Selected manuscripts from the first iteration of these guidelines as well as relevant publications between 2005 through 2011 were reviewed. Several modifications to the methodology of guideline development were adopted for the current update. In contrast to the 2005 guidelines, a 5-tiered level of evidence strategy was employed, primarily allowing a distinction between lower levels of evidence. The qualitative descriptors (standards/guidelines/options) used in the 2005 recommendations were abandoned and replaced with grades to reflect the strength of medical evidence supporting the recommendation. Recommendations that conflicted with the original publication, if present, were highlighted at the beginning of each chapter. As with the original guideline publication, the intent of this update is to provide a foundation from which an appropriate treatment strategy can be formulated. PMID:24980578

Kaiser, Michael G; Eck, Jason C; Groff, Michael W; Watters, William C; Dailey, Andrew T; Resnick, Daniel K; Choudhri, Tanvir F; Sharan, Alok; Wang, Jeffrey C; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Dhall, Sanjay S; Ghogawala, Zoher

2014-07-01

104

Pedicle-Screw-Based Dynamic Systems and Degenerative Lumbar Diseases: Biomechanical and Clinical Experiences of Dynamic Fusion with Isobar TTL  

PubMed Central

Dynamic systems in the lumbar spine are believed to reduce main fusion drawbacks such as pseudarthrosis, bone rarefaction, and mechanical failure. Compared to fusion achieved with rigid constructs, biomechanical studies underlined some advantages of dynamic instrumentation including increased load sharing between the instrumentation and interbody bone graft and stresses reduction at bone-to-screw interface. These advantages may result in increased fusion rates, limitation of bone rarefaction, and reduction of mechanical complications with the ultimate objective to reduce reoperations rates. However published clinical evidence for dynamic systems remains limited. In addition to providing biomechanical evaluation of a pedicle-screw-based dynamic system, the present study offers a long-term (average 10.2 years) insight view of the clinical outcomes of 18 patients treated by fusion with dynamic systems for degenerative lumbar spine diseases. The findings outline significant and stable symptoms relief, absence of implant-related complications, no revision surgery, and few adjacent segment degenerative changes. In spite of sample limitations, this is the first long-term report of outcomes of dynamic fusion that opens an interesting perspective for clinical outcomes of dynamic systems that need to be explored at larger scale. PMID:25031874

Barrey, Cedric; Perrin, Gilles; Champain, Sabina

2013-01-01

105

Analysis of Factors Contributing to Postoperative Spinal Instability after Lumbar Decompression for Spinal Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Objective Decompressive laminectomy is one of the most commonly used surgical methods for the treatment of spinal stenosis. We retrospectively examined the risk factors that induce spinal instability, including slippage (spondylolisthesis) and/or segmental angulation after decompressive laminectomy on the lumbar spine. Methods From January 1, 2006 to June 30, 2010, 94 consecutive patients underwent first-time single level decompressive laminectomy without fusion and discectomy. Of these 94 patients, 42 with a follow-up period of at least 2 years were selected. We measured the segmental angulation and slippage in flexion and extension dynamic lumbar radiographs. We analyzed the following contributing factors to spinal instability: age/sex, smoking history, disc space narrowing, body mass index (kg/m2), facet joint tropism, effect of the lordotic angle on lumbar spine, asymmetrical paraspinal muscle volume, and surgical method and level. Results Female patients, normal lordotic angle, and asymmetrical paraspinal muscle volume were factors more significantly associated with spondylolisthesis (p-value=0.026, 0.015, <0.01). Statistical results indicated that patients with facet tropism were more likely to have segmental angulation (p-value=0.046). Facet tropism and asymmetry of paraspinal muscle volume were predisposing factors to spinal instability (p-value=0.012, <0.01). Conclusion Facet joint tropism and asymmetry of paraspinal muscle volume are the most important factors associated with spinal instability; therefore, careful follow-up after decompressive laminectomy in affected patients is necessary. PMID:24757477

Yang, Joo Chul; Kim, Sung Gon; Park, Kwan Ho

2013-01-01

106

Symmetry of paraspinal muscle denervation in clinical lumbar spinal stenosis: Support for a hypothesis of posterior primary ramus stretching?  

PubMed Central

Introduction Denervation of the paraspinal muscles in spinal disorders is frequently attributed to radiculopathy. Therefore, persons with lumbar spinal stenosis causing asymmetrical symptoms should have asymmetrical paraspinal denervation. Methods 73 persons with clinical lumbar spinal stenosis, aged 55 to 85, completed a pain drawing and underwent masked electrodiagnostic testing including bilateral paraspinal mapping and testing of 6 muscles on the most symptomatic (or randomly chosen) limb. Results With the exception of 10 subjects with unilateral thigh pain (p=0.043), there was no relationship between side of pain and paraspinal mapping score for any subgroups (symmetrical pain, pain into one calf only). Among those with positive limb EMG (tested on one side), no relationship between side of pain and paraspinal EMG score was found. Discussion The evidence suggests that paraspinal denervation in spinal stenosis may not be due to radiculopathy, but rather due to stretch or damage to the posterior primary ramus. PMID:23813584

Haig, Andrew J.; London, Zachary; Sandella, Danielle E.; Yamakawa, Karen S.J.

2014-01-01

107

Change in onset times of the abdominal muscles following functional task in lumbar spinal stenosis  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference in the onset times of the abdominal muscle following a rapid arm task in lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). In total, 32 patients with LSS were recruited from W oriental hospital. Muscle activity onset of the internal oblique (IO) and external oblique (EO) muscles was measured by electromyography (EMG) activity with a rapid arm movement and during the performance of a walking task. The LSS group demonstrated a significantly later onset of the IO, EO, and rectus abdominal (RA) muscles than the normal group. The deltoid reaction time of the normal group demonstrated significantly earlier activations of IO and EO, while the deltoid reaction time of the LSS group demonstrated significantly delayed activations of IO and RA. The EMG measurements of the IO, EO, and RA muscles while standing and walking were reliable and they offer empirical information about the trunk muscle activation of LSS patients.

Song, Hyun Seung; Park, Seong Doo

2014-01-01

108

Therapeutic efficacy of pregabalin in patients with leg symptoms due to lumbar spinal stenosis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of pregabalin in patients with leg symptoms due to lumbar spinal stenosis. Study subjects were classified into two groups according to their pharmacotherapy: the pregabalin group, treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug and pregabalin combination therapy, and the control group, treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug monotherapy. The two groups were compared in terms of the duration of pain after the onset of leg symptoms and the type of neurogenic intermittent claudication, whether radicular-, caudal-, or mixed-type. Numerical rating scale and Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire scores were evaluated before and 3 months after treatment. After 3 months of treatment, there were significant differences in the numerical rating scale for radicular- and mixed-types, but not for caudal-type, between the two groups in the subjects with leg symptoms for greater than 3 months. There were significant differences between the two groups in Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire scores for mixed-type, but not for radicular- and caudal-types, in the subjects with leg symptoms for less than 3 months and for radicular- and mixed-types, but not for caudal-type, in the subjects with leg symptoms for greater than 3 months. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug and pregabalin combination therapy may be more effective than nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug monotherapy for the relief of leg symptoms due to lumbar spinal stenosis, preventing aggravation of subjective symptoms and improving quality of life for patients with radicular- and mixed-types in subjects with leg symptoms for greater than 3 months, although it may be necessary to consider alternative therapy for patients with caudal-type. PMID:25030722

Takahashi, Naoto; Arai, Itaru; Kayama, Satoru; Ichiji, Kenji; Fukuda, Hironari; Kaga, Takahiro; Konno, Shin-Ichi

2014-01-01

109

Design of the Verbiest trial: cost-effectiveness of surgery versus prolonged conservative treatment in patients with lumbar stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Degenerative changes of lumbar spine anatomy resulting in the encroachment of neural structures are often regarded progressive,\\u000a ultimately necessitating decompressive surgery. However the natural course is not necessarily progressive and the efficacy\\u000a of a variety of nonsurgical interventions has also been described. At present there is insufficient data to compare surgical\\u000a and nonsurgical interventions in terms of their relative benefit

Gijsbert M Overdevest; Pim AJ Luijsterburg; Ronald Brand; Bart W Koes; Sita MA Bierma-Zeinstra; Just AH Eekhof; Carmen LAM Vleggeert-Lankamp; Wilco C Peul

2011-01-01

110

Comparison of Functional Outcomes following Surgical Decompression and Posterolateral Instrumented Fusion in Single Level Low Grade Lumbar Degenerative versus Isthmic Spondylolisthesis  

PubMed Central

Background The two most common types of surgically treated lumbar spondylolisthesis in adults include the degenerative and isthmic types. The aim of this study was to compare the functional outcomes of surgical decompression and posterolateral instrumented fusion in patients with lumbar degenerative and isthmic spondylolisthesis. Methods In this retrospective study, we reviewed the clinical outcomes in surgically treated patients with single level, low grade lumbar degenerative, and isthmic spondylolisthesis (groups A and B, respectively) from August 2007 to April 2011. We tried to compare paired settings with similar initial conditions. Group A included 52 patients with a mean age of 49.2 ± 6.1 years, and group B included 52 patients with a mean age of 47.3 ± 7.4 years. Minimum follow-up was 24 months. The surgical procedure comprised neural decompression and posterolateral instrumented fusion. Pain and disability were assessed by a visual analog scale (VAS) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), respectively. The Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used to compare indices. Results The most common sites for degenerative and isthmic spondylolisthesis were at the L4-L5 (88.5%) and L5-S1 (84.6%) levels, respectively. Surgery in both groups significantly improved VAS and ODI scores. The efficacy of surgery based on subjective satisfaction rate and pain and disability improvement was similar in the degenerative and isthmic groups. Notable complications were also comparable in both groups. Conclusions Neural decompression and posterolateral instrumented fusion significantly improved pain and disability in patients with degenerative and isthmic spondylolisthesis. The efficacy of surgery for overall subjective satisfaction rate and pain and disability improvement was similar in both groups. PMID:24900900

Hasankhani, Ebrahim Ghayem; Rahimi, Mohammad Dawood; Khanzadeh, Reza

2014-01-01

111

Interspinous distractor devices for the management of lumbar spinal stenosis: a miracle cure for a common problem?  

PubMed

Neurogenic claudication due to lumbar spinal stenosis is the commonest cause of back and leg pain in the elderly. It consumes large amounts of healthcare resource and is a common reason for GP consultations. Surgical management by decompressive laminectomy is the traditional method used for those patients in whom conservative management has failed. However, the advent of minimally invasive interspinous distraction devices, which are designed to alleviate symptoms of neurogenic intermittent claudication without subjecting the patient to a major operation, has potentially revolutionised the management of lumbar spinal stenosis. This review describes the principles of interspinous distraction devices, the rationale for their use in the management of lumbar spinal stenosis, indications and predictors of outcome. Published data on the safety and efficacy of the various devices available is encouraging but long term results are awaited. The superiority of interspinous distraction devices over conservative treatment has already been established, however, the precise indication for this new technology and whether the implants can replace conventional decompressive surgery in some situations has not been clearly defined. PMID:22582741

Borg, Anouk; Nurboja, Besnik; Timothy, Jake; Choi, David

2012-08-01

112

Comparative effectiveness of microdecompression and laminectomy for central lumbar spinal stenosis: study protocol for an observational study  

PubMed Central

Introduction This observational study is designed to test the equivalence between the clinical effectiveness of microdecompression and laminectomy in the surgical treatment of central lumbar spinal stenosis. Lumbar spinal stenosis is the most frequent indication for spinal surgery in the elderly, and as the oldest segment of the population continues to grow its prevalence is likely to increase. However, data on surgical outcomes are limited. Open or wide decompressive laminectomy, often combined with medial facetectomy and foraminotomy, was formerly the standard treatment. In recent years a growing tendency towards less invasive decompressive procedures has emerged. At present, many spine surgeons perform microdecompression for central lumbar spinal stenosis. Methods and analysis Prospectively registered treatment and outcome data are obtained from the Norwegian Registry for Spine Surgery. The primary outcome measure is change in Oswestry disability index between baseline and 12-month follow-up. Secondary outcome measures are changes in health-related quality of life measured by the Euro-Qol-5D between baseline and 12-month follow-up, perioperative complications, and duration of surgical procedures and length of hospital stay. Ethics and dissemination The study has been evaluated and approved by the regional committee for medical research in central Norway and all participants provided written informed consent. The findings of this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications. Trial registration number Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02006901). PMID:24650809

Nerland, Ulf S; Jakola, Asgeir S; Solheim, Ole; Weber, Clemens; Rao, Vidar; L?nne, Greger; Solberg, Tore K; Salvesen, ?yvind; Carlsen, Sven M; Nygaard, ?ystein P; Gulati, Sasha

2014-01-01

113

Combined spinal-epidural anesthesia for lumbar discectomy in a patient with asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis: a case report.  

PubMed

The use of neuraxial anesthesia has traditionally been contraindicated in patients with severe aortic stenosis. However, general anesthesia can be riskier than neuraxial anesthesia for severe aortic stenosis patients undergoing spinal surgeries in the prone position as this can cause a major reduction in cardiac output secondary to diminished preload. In addition, general anesthesia, muscle relaxation, and positive-pressure ventilation can decrease venous return and reduce vascular tone, further compromising cardiac output. Combined spinal-epidural anesthesia with closely monitored, careful titration of the local anesthetic dose can be an efficient and safe anesthetic method for managing such patients. We describe the successful management of combined spinal-epidural anesthesia in an asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis patient scheduled for lumbar discectomy. PMID:25237450

Kim, Young Sung; Park, Ji Hye; Lee, Shin Young; Lim, Byung Gun; Kim, Heezoo; Lee, Il-Ok; Kong, Myoung-Hoon

2014-08-01

114

Combined spinal-epidural anesthesia for lumbar discectomy in a patient with asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis: a case report  

PubMed Central

The use of neuraxial anesthesia has traditionally been contraindicated in patients with severe aortic stenosis. However, general anesthesia can be riskier than neuraxial anesthesia for severe aortic stenosis patients undergoing spinal surgeries in the prone position as this can cause a major reduction in cardiac output secondary to diminished preload. In addition, general anesthesia, muscle relaxation, and positive-pressure ventilation can decrease venous return and reduce vascular tone, further compromising cardiac output. Combined spinal-epidural anesthesia with closely monitored, careful titration of the local anesthetic dose can be an efficient and safe anesthetic method for managing such patients. We describe the successful management of combined spinal-epidural anesthesia in an asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis patient scheduled for lumbar discectomy.

Kim, Young Sung; Park, Ji Hye; Lee, Shin Young; Kim, Heezoo; Lee, Il-ok; Kong, Myoung-Hoon

2014-01-01

115

Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 14: brace therapy as an adjunct to or substitute for lumbar fusion.  

PubMed

The utilization of orthotic devices for lumbar degenerative disease has been justified from both a prognostic and therapeutic perspective. As a prognostic tool, bracing is applied prior to surgery to determine if immobilization of the spine leads to symptomatic relief and thus justify the performance of a fusion. Since bracing does not eliminate motion, the validity of this assumption is questionable. Only one low-level study has investigated the predictive value of bracing prior to surgery. No correlation between response to bracing and fusion outcome was observed; therefore a trial of preoperative bracing is not recommended. Based on low-level evidence, the use of bracing is not recommended for the prevention of low-back pain in a general working population, since the incidence of low-back pain and impact on productivity were not reduced. However, in laborers with a history of back pain, a positive impact on lost workdays was observed when bracing was applied. Bracing is recommended as an option for treatment of subacute low-back pain, as several higher-level studies have demonstrated an improvement in pain scores and function. The use of bracing following instrumented posterolateral fusion, however, is not recommended, since equivalent outcomes have been demonstrated with or without the application of a brace. PMID:24980591

Dailey, Andrew T; Ghogawala, Zoher; Choudhri, Tanvir F; Watters, William C; Resnick, Daniel K; Sharan, Alok; Eck, Jason C; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Wang, Jeffrey C; Groff, Michael W; Dhall, Sanjay S; Kaiser, Michael G

2014-07-01

116

Loading is more effective than posture in lumbar spinal stenosis: a study with a treadmill equipment.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess the correlation between neurogenic intermittent claudication (NIC) in LSS and different positions as well as loading status, using the treadmill device. The study was a prospective clinical trial on lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) using a treadmill equipment. The study population comprised of 80 LSS patients with a mean age of 61. The equipment included a treadmill, unloading station and loading vests. The patients were instructed to walk in five different positions. The initiation time of symptoms and total walking time were recorded. The examination was stopped after 20 min or at the onset of severe symptoms. In order to obtain pretest demographic data on subjects, visual analog scale, Roland-Morris questionnaire, pain disability index, and Beck depression index were used. The initiation time of symptoms (ITS) and total walking time (TWT) were measured during the test. Unloading provided a longer and loading a shorter ITS and TWT. Decline or incline positions did not affect ITS or TWT. The changes in posture had no correlation with the appearance of symptoms in LSS patients with NIC on a treadmill in this study, rather ITS and TWT were determined by axial loading and unloading. PMID:17273837

O?uz, Hasan; Levendo?lu, Funda; O?ün, Tunç Cevat; Tantu?, Aysenur

2007-07-01

117

Pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of intermittent claudication in patients with lumbar canal stenosis.  

PubMed

Spinal nerve roots have a peculiar structure, different from the arrangements in the peripheral nerve. The nerve roots are devoid of lymphatic vessels but are immersed in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the subarachnoid space. The blood supply of nerve roots depends on the blood flow from both peripheral direction (ascending) and the spinal cord direction (descending). There is no hypovascular region in the nerve root, although there exists a so-called water-shed of the bloodstream in the radicular artery itself. Increased mechanical compression promotes the disturbance of CSF flow, circulatory disturbance starting from the venous congestion and intraradicular edema formation resulting from the breakdown of the blood-nerve barrier. Although this edema may diffuse into CSF when the subarachnoid space is preserved, the endoneurial fluid pressure may increase when the area is closed by increased compression. On the other hand, the nerve root tissue has already degenerated under the compression and the numerous macrophages releasing various chemical mediators, aggravating radicular symptoms that appear in the area of Wallerian degeneration. Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) is a potent vasodilator as well as an inhibitor of platelet aggregation and has therefore attracted interest as a therapeutic drug for lumbar canal stenosis. However, investigations in the clinical setting have shown that PGE1 is effective in some patients but not in others, although the reason for this is unclear. PMID:24829876

Kobayashi, Shigeru

2014-04-18

118

Risk Factors and Incidence for Peripheral Arterial Disease in Patients with Typical Lumbar Spinal Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Objective Intermittent claudication (IC) is a typical symptom of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). In order to prevent misdiagnosis of vascular disease, it is important to know the incidence of and risk factors for PAD in patients with LSS. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate the incidence of and risk factors for PAD in patients with typical and severe LSS who underwent spinal surgical treatment. Methods The occurrence of PAD was examined retrospectively in 171 consecutive patients with LSS and severe IC who underwent surgical treatment at our hospital from June 2012 to June 2013. Data were collected on background characteristics (sex, age) and known risk factors for PAD, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, hyperlipidemia, stroke, and ischemic heart disease. Results Of the 171 patients enrolled, 7 had an abnormal ankle-brachial index (ABI). Computed tomography angiography (CTA) was performed in these patients, and a final diagnosis of PAD was established for all 7 patients. The incidence of PAD in all patients with LSS was 4.1%(7 of 171). Stroke and ischemic heart disease were significantly more common in the LSSPAD group compared with the LSS group. Multiple logistic regression analyses with a forced-entry method revealed that age and stroke (p<0.05) were independent risk factors for PAD. Conclusion To prevent misdiagnosis of fatal PAD, we recommend ABI be assessed in patients with LSS and history of stroke.

Han, Min-Hee; Lee, Dong-Hyun; Park, Ki-Su; Lee, Young-Seok; Kim, Kyoung-Tae; Sung, Joo-Kyung; Kim, Hyung-Kee

2014-01-01

119

Nocturnal Cramps in Patients with Lumbar Spinal Canal Stenosis Treated Conservatively: A Prospective Study  

PubMed Central

Study Design Prospective cohort study with questionnaire. Purpose To compare the treatment outcome of nocturnal leg cramps in lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSCS) patients on conservative treatment with historical surgical cohorts and to determine the sensitivity and specificity as well as positive predictive value and negative predictive value of knee flexion test suggested for LSCS patient. Overview of Literature True prevalence of nocturnal leg cramps in LSCS patients as well as the clinical outcome of its surgical treatment have been reported. Methods A questionnaire suggested from previous study with minor modifications was used in this study. Clinical data was collected. Knee flexion test was performed in two groups. Results The prevalence of nocturnal leg cramp was higher in the LSCS group compared to the control group (second group). In LSCS patients, 38 (88%) had improved leg cramps after the conservative treatment, 3 (6.97%) remained unchanged, and 2 (4.6%) had worsened leg cramps. Of the 43 patients, 21 (48.8%) had no disturbance to their activities of daily living. In the LSCS group, the sensitivity and specificity of the knee flexion test was 53.5% and 33.3%, respectively. The knee flexion test in the LSCS group had a positive predictive value and a negative predictive value of 65.71% and 23.1%, respectively. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that nocturnal leg cramps were significantly more frequent in LSCS patients than in the control group.

Chhabra, Harvinder Singh; Kapoor, Kulwant Singh

2014-01-01

120

Comparative cost effectiveness of Coflex(R) interlaminar stabilization versus instrumented posterolateral lumbar fusion for the treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis and spondylolisthesis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Symptomatic chronic low back and leg pain resulting from lumbar spinal stenosis is expensive to treat and manage. A randomized, controlled, multicenter US Food and Drug Administration Investigational Device Exemption clinical trial assessed treatment-related patient outcomes comparing the Coflex® Interlaminar Stabilization Device, an interlaminar stabilization implant inserted following decompressive surgical laminotomy in the lumbar spine, to instrumented posterolateral fusion among patients with moderate to severe spinal stenosis. This study uses patient-reported outcomes and clinical events from the trial along with costs and expected resource utilization to determine cost effectiveness. Methods A decision-analytic model compared outcomes over 5 years. Clinical input parameters were derived from the trial. Oswestry Disability Index scores were converted to utilities. Treatment patterns over 5 years were estimated based on claims analyses and expert opinion. A third-party payer perspective was used; costs (in $US 2013) and outcomes were discounted at 3% annually. Sensitivity analyses examined the influence of key parameters. Analyses were conducted using Medicare payment rates and typical commercial reimbursements. Results Five-year costs were lower for patients implanted with Coflex compared to those undergoing fusion. Average Medicare payments over 5 years were estimated at $15,182 for Coflex compared to $26,863 for the fusion control, a difference of $11,681. Mean quality-adjusted life years were higher for Coflex patients compared to controls (3.02 vs 2.97). Results indicate that patients implanted with the Coflex device derive more utility, on average, than those treated with fusion, but at substantially lower costs. The cost advantage was greater when evaluating commercial insurance payments. Subgroup analyses found that the cost advantage for Coflex relative to fusion was even larger for two-level procedures compared to one-level procedures. Conclusion The Coflex Interlaminar Stabilization Device was found to be cost effective compared to instrumented posterolateral fusion for treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis. It provided higher utility at substantially lower cost. PMID:24672250

Schmier, Jordana Kate; Halevi, Marci; Maislin, Greg; Ong, Kevin

2014-01-01

121

One-Year Follow-Up of a Series of 100 Patients Treated for Lumbar Spinal Canal Stenosis by Means of HeliFix Interspinous Process Decompression Device  

PubMed Central

Purpose. New interspinous process decompression devices (IPDs) provide an alternative to conservative treatment and decompressive surgery for patients with neurogenic intermittent claudication (NIC) due to degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS). HeliFix is a minimally invasive IPD that can be implanted percutaneously. This is a preliminary evaluation of safety and effectiveness of this IPD up to 12 months after implantation. Methods. After percutaneous implantation in 100 patients with NIC due to DLSS, data on symptoms, quality of life, pain, and use of pain medication were obtained for up to 12 months. Results. Early symptoms and physical function improvements were maintained for up to 12 months. Leg, buttock/groin, and back pain were eased throughout, and the use and strength of related pain medication were reduced. Devices were removed from 2% of patients due to lack of effectiveness. Conclusions. Overall, in a period of up to 12-month follow-up, the safety and effectiveness of the HeliFix offered a minimally invasive option for the relief of NIC complaints in a high proportion of patients. Further studies are undertaken in order to provide insight on outcomes and effectiveness compared to other decompression methods and to develop guidance on optimal patient selection. PMID:24822181

Alexandre, Alberto; Alexandre, Andrea Maria; De Pretto, Mario; Coro, Luca; Saggini, Raul

2014-01-01

122

Conservative and Surgical Treatment Improves Pain and Ankle-Brachial Index in Patients with Lumbar Spinal Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Purpose The pathological mechanism of lumbar spinal stenosis is reduced blood flow in nerve roots and degeneration of nerve roots. Exercise and prostaglandin E1 is used for patients with peripheral arterial disease to increase capillary flow around the main artery and improve symptoms; however, the ankle-brachial index (ABI), an estimation of blood flow in the main artery in the leg, does not change after treatment. Lumbar spinal nerve roots contain somatosensory, somatomotor, and unmyelinated autonomic nerves. Improved blood flow by medication with prostaglandin E1 and decompression surgery in these spinal nerve roots may improve the function of nerve fibers innervating muscle, capillary, and main vessels in the lower leg, resulting in an increased ABI. The purpose of the study was to examine whether these treatments can improve ABI. Materials and Methods One hundred and seven patients who received conservative treatment such as exercise and medication (n=56) or surgical treatment (n=51) were included. Low back pain and leg pain scores, walking distance, and ABI were measured before treatment and after 3 months of conservative treatment alone or surgical treatment followed by conservative treatment. Results Low back pain, leg pain, and walking distance significantly improved after both treatments (p<0.05). ABI significantly increased in each group (p<0.05). Conclusion This is the first investigation of changes in ABI after treatment in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. Improvement of the spinal nerve roots by medication and decompression surgery may improve the supply of blood flow to the lower leg in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. PMID:23709437

Yamashita, Masaomi; Murata, Yasuaki; Eguchi, Yawara; Aoki, Yasuchika; Ataka, Hiromi; Hirayama, Jiro; Ozawa, Tomoyuki; Morinaga, Tatsuo; Arai, Hajime; Mimura, Masaya; Kamoda, Hiroto; Orita, Sumihisa; Miyagi, Masayuki; Miyashita, Tomohiro; Okamoto, Yuzuru; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Sameda, Hiroaki; Kinoshita, Tomoaki; Hanaoka, Eiji; Suzuki, Miyako; Suzuki, Munetaka; Aihara, Takato; Ito, Toshinori; Inoue, Gen; Yamagata, Masatsune; Toyone, Tomoaki; Kubota, Gou; Sakuma, Yoshihiro; Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

2013-01-01

123

Long-term follow-up of functional outcomes and radiographic changes at adjacent levels following lumbar spine fusion for degenerative disc disease.  

PubMed

There are very few studies with more than 20 years' follow-up of lumbar spine fusions for disc degeneration. Currently, there is a lot of interest in the subject of degenerative changes above the level of fusion; this study is concerned with such changes in the very long term (30 years). Twenty-eight patients showing sound fusion on radiographs following posterior midline spinal fusion performed by a single surgeon between 1968 and 1970 were compared with an age- and gender-matched group of 28 patients who had undergone surgery for degenerative disc disease without fusion during the same period, by the same surgeon and using similar criteria for evaluation (Short Form 36 and Oswestry Disability Index; functional testing using self-paced walk and timed up-and-go; flexion and extension lateral radiographs of the lumbar spine). In this study, the incidence of radiographic changes at levels above the level of previous involvement was twice as high in the fusion group as in the non-fusion group. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in the outcomes measured using validated scales and functional testing. The study emphasises the importance of complete evaluation of these patients using validated outcome measurement instruments against the background of radiographic changes and subjective assessment of back pain. It also shows that radiographic changes do not necessarily mean functional impairment in all patients following lumbar spine fusion for degenerative disc disease. PMID:11563616

Kumar, M N; Jacquot, F; Hall, H

2001-08-01

124

Instrumented posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) with interbody fusion device (Cage) in degenerative disc disease (DDD): 3 years outcome.  

PubMed

This prospective interventional study carried out at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University and a private hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh during the period from October 2003 to September 2011. Surgical treatment of degenerative disc disease (DDD) should aim to re-expand the interbody space and stabilize until fusion is complete. The present study conducted to find out the efficacy of using interbody fusion device (Cage) to achieve interbody space re-expansion and fusion in surgical management of DDD. We have performed the interventional study on 53 patients, 42 female and 11 male, with age between 40 to 67 years. All the patients were followed up for 36 to 60 months (average 48 months). Forty seven patients were with spondylolisthesis and 06 with desiccated disc. All subjects were evaluated with regard to immediate and long term complications, radiological fusion and interbody space re-expansion and maintenance. The clinical outcome (pain and disability) was scored by standard pre and postoperative questionnaires. Intrusion, extrusion and migration of the interbody fusion cage were also assessed. Forty seven patients were considered to have satisfactory outcome in at least 36 months follow up. Pseudoarthrosis developed in 04 cases and 06 patients developed complications. In this series posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) with interbody cage and instrumentation in DDD showed significant fusion rate and maintenance of interbody space. Satisfactory outcome observed in 88.68% cases. PMID:24292314

Ahsan, M K; Hossain, M A; Sakeb, N; Khan, S I; Zaman, N

2013-10-01

125

Synovial cysts of the lumbar facet joints: a retrospective magnetic resonance imaging study investigating their relation with degenerative spondylolisthesis.  

PubMed

Patients with synovial cysts of the facet joints were compared with patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS), based on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of their spondyloses. The lumbar MRI of 30 patients with DS (group 1) 24 patients with synovial cysts of the facet joints (group 2) were studied. All patients were evaluated in terms of facet joint arthritis, disc degeneration, facet joint effusion, and the thickness of the flaval ligament. 54.1% of the patients with synovial cysts had associated DS. The mean grade of disc degeneration (2.43+/-0.50 and 2.13+/-0.68 in groups 1 and 2, respectively) and the mean thickness of the flaval ligament (3.20+/-1.22 mm and 3.83+/-1.46 mm in groups 1 and 2, respectively) did not differ between the groups (p=0.093 and p=0.097). The mean grade of facet joint osteoarthritis (2.53+/-0.51 and 2.08+/-0.72 in groups 1 and 2, respectively) was significantly higher in group 1 (p=0.18). The co-existance of synovial effusion was significantly higher in cases with synovial cysts. (p=0.008). Synovial cysts are associated with DS and facet joint osteoarthritis. The presence of synovial effusion and the high degree of disc degeneration are prominent features in patients with synovial cysts. Although osteoarthritis and DS are highly concomitant with facet joint synovial cysts, both conditions do not invariably lead to a cyst formation. PMID:20059882

Alicioglu, B; Sut, N

2009-01-01

126

A double-blind, randomized controlled, prospective trial assessing the effectiveness of oral corticoids in the treatment of symptomatic lumbar canal stenosis  

PubMed Central

Background Corticoids have potent anti-inflammatory effects, which may help in relieving pain and dysfunction associated with lumbar canal stenosis. We assessed the effectiveness of a decreasing-dose regimen of oral corticoids in the treatment of lumbar canal stenosis in a prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Results Sixty-one patients with lumbar canal stenosis (50–75 years; canal area??0.05). Obese patients exhibited more severe symptoms compared with non-obese patients. L4/L5 stenosis was associated with more severe symptoms compared with stenosis at other levels. Conclusion The oral corticoid regimen used in this study was not effective in the treatment of lumbar canal stenosis. PMID:25099318

2014-01-01

127

Simvastatin Ameliorates Cauda Equina Compression Injury in a Rat Model of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. LSS pathology is associated with secondary injury caused by inflammation, oxidative damage and cell death. Apart from laminectomy, pharmacological therapy targeting secondary injury is limited. Statins are FDA-approved cholesterol-lowering drug. They also show pleiotropic anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and neuroprotective effects. To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of simvastatin in restoring normal locomotor function after cauda equina compression (CEC) in a rat model of LSS, CEC injury was induced in rats by implanting silicone gels into the epidural spaces of L4 and L6. Experimental group was treated with simvastatin (5 mg/kg body weight), while the injured (vehicle) and sham operated (sham) groups received vehicle solution. Locomotor function in terms of latency on rotarod was measured for 49 days and the threshold of pain was determined for 14 days. Rats were sacrificed on day 3 and 14 and the spinal cord and cauda equina fibers were extracted and studied by histology, immunofluorescence, electron microscopy (EM) and TUNEL assay. Simvastatin aided locomotor functional recovery and enhanced the threshold of pain after the CEC. Cellular Infiltration and demyelination decreased in the spinal cord from the simvastatin group. EM revealed enhanced myelination of cauda equina in the simvastatin group. TUNEL assay showed significantly decreased number of apoptotic neurons in spinal cord from the simvastatin group compared to the vehicle group. Simvastatin hastens the locomotor functional recovery and reduces pain after CEC. These outcomes are mediated through the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties of simvastatin. The data indicate that simvastatin may be a promising drug candidate for LSS treatment in humans. PMID:23188522

Shunmugavel, Anandakumar; Martin, Marcus M.; Khan, Mushfiquddin; Copay, Anne G.; Subach, Brian R.; Schuler, Thomas C.

2012-01-01

128

Role of Coflex as an Adjunct to Decompression for Symptomatic Lumbar Spinal Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Study Design Prospective cohort study. Purpose To assess whether additional implantation of Coflex following spinal decompression provided better clinical outcomes compared to decompression alone for symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) and to determine whether improvement in clinical outcomes correlated with changes in the radiological indices studied. Overview of Literature Literature on benefits of additional Coflex implantation compared to decompression alone for symptomatic LSS is limited. Methods Patients with symptomatic LSS who met the study criteria were offered spinal decompression with Coflex implantation. Those patients who accepted Coflex implantation were placed in the Coflex group (n=22); while those opting for decompression alone, were placed in the comparison group (n=24). Clinical outcomes were assessed preoperatively, six-months, one-year and two-years postoperatively, using the Oswestry disability index, 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS)-back pain and VAS-leg pain, and short form-36 (SF-36). Radiological indices (disc height, foraminal height and sagittal angle) were assessed preoperatively, six months, one year, and two years postoperatively. Results Both groups showed statistically significant (p<0.001) improvement in all the clinical outcome indicators at all points in time as compared to the preoperative status. However, improvement in the Coflex group was significantly greater (p<0.001) than the comparison group. Changes in the radiological indices did not correlate significantly with the improvement in clinical outcome indicators. Conclusions Additional Coflex implantation after spinal decompression in symptomatic LSS offers better clinical outcomes than decompression alone in the short-term. Changes in radiological indices do not correlate with the improvements in clinical outcomes after surgery for symptomatic LSS. PMID:24761198

Shah, Siddarth M; Ng, Yau Hong; Pannierselvam, Vinodh Kumar; DasDe, Sudeep; Shen, Liang

2014-01-01

129

Minimally invasive treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis with a novel interspinous spacer  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess the safety and effectiveness of a novel, minimally invasive interspinous spacer in patients with moderate lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Methods A total of 53 patients (mean age, 70 ± 11 years; 45% female) with intermittent neurogenic claudication secondary to moderate LSS, confirmed on imaging studies, were treated with the Superion® Interspinous Spacer (VertiFlex, Inc, San Clemente, CA) and returned for follow-up visits at 6 weeks, 1 year, and 2 years. Study endpoints included axial and extremity pain severity with an 11-point numeric scale, Zurich Claudication Questionnaire (ZCQ), back function with the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), health-related quality of life with the Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) scores from the SF-12, and adverse events. Results Axial and extremity pain each decreased 54% (both P < 0.001) over the 2-year follow-up period. ZCQ symptom severity scores improved 43% (P < 0.001) and ZCQ physical function improved 44% (P < 0.001) from pre-treatment to 2 years post-treatment. A statistically significant 50% improvement (P < 0.001) also was noted in back function. PCS and MCS each improved 40% (both P < 0.001) from pre-treatment to 2 years. Clinical success rates at 2 years were 83%–89% for ZCQ subscores, 75% for ODI, 78% for PCS, and 80% for MCS. No device infection, implant breakage, migration, or pull-out was observed, although two (3.8%) patients underwent explant with subsequent laminectomy. Conclusion Moderate LSS can be effectively treated with a minimally invasive interspinous spacer. This device is appropriate for select patients who have failed nonoperative treatment measures for LSS and meet strict anatomical criteria. PMID:21966217

Shabat, Shay; Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E; Gepstein, Reuven

2011-01-01

130

The efficacy of epiduroscopic neural decompression with Ho:YAG laser ablation in lumbar spinal stenosis.  

PubMed

Although epiduroscopy is one of the popular interventions for the management of lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS), only a part of these patients show improvement in pain and functional level. Consequently, the authors thought that holmium:YAG (Ho:YAG) laser can be a reasonable alternative as an adjunct of epiduroscopic procedure, but has not been thoroughly determined yet which influence is resulted by it. This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the efficacy of epiduroscopic neural decompression (END) and END with Ho:YAG laser (ELND) in patients with LSS. Forty-seven patients with LSS were enrolled, all of whom underwent END or ELND and were followed up for 2 years or more. Clinical outcomes were evaluated using the visual analog scale (VAS) for back and leg pain and the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ). Procedure-related complications, especially including laser-related complications, were also evaluated. The only laser-related complication that occurred was transient mild motor paralysis in one case (3.1 %). In the END group, clinical score is exhibiting V-shaped upward trend that ended after procedure with the almost similar score obtained with preoperative status. However, in the ELND group, it is exhibiting relatively consistent improvement after procedure. There was a statistically significant improvement in the VAS and RMDQ score after 6 months after ELND procedure compared with END procedure (p = 0.01, 0.03, respectively). ELND could produce significant improvement of low back pain (LBP) at the last follow-up time (p = 0.01), but radiating pain of leg could not be improved significantly (p = 0.09). In conclusion, the current study suggests that performing Ho:YAG laser ablation concurrently with END could produce more decreased intensity of pain and prolonged effect of pain relief compared with END in LSS patients. LSS patients with LBP would be an ideal candidate for ELND, but radiating pain of LSS might not be managed effectively with ELND. PMID:24398702

Lee, Gun Woo; Jang, Soo-Jin; Kim, Jae-Do

2014-07-01

131

Comparison of Treatment Methods in Lumbar Spinal Stenosis for Geriatric Patient: Nerve Block Versus Radiofrequency Neurotomy Versus Spinal Surgery  

PubMed Central

Objective The incidence of spinal treatment, including nerve block, radiofrequency neurotomy, instrumented fusions, is increasing, and progressively involves patients of age 65 and older. Treatment of the geriatric patients is often a difficult challenge for the spine surgeon. General health, sociofamilial and mental condition of the patients as well as the treatment techniques and postoperative management are to be accurately evaluated and planned. We tried to compare three treatment methods of spinal stenosis for geriatric patient in single institution. Methods The cases of treatment methods in spinal stenosis over than 65 years old were analyzed. The numbers of patients were 371 underwent nerve block, radiofrequency neurotomy, instrumented fusions from January 2009 to December 2012 (nerve block: 253, radiofrequency neurotomy: 56, instrumented fusions: 62). The authors reviewed medical records, operative findings and postoperative clinical results, retrospectively. Simple X-ray were evaluated and clinical outcome was measured by Odom's criteria at 1 month after procedures. Results We were observed excellent and good results in 162 (64%) patients with nerve block, 40 (71%) patient with radIofrequency neurotomy, 46 (74%) patient with spinal surgery. Poor results were 20 (8%) patients in nerve block, 2 (3%) patients in radiofrequency neurotomy, 3 (5%) patient in spinal surgery. Conclusion We reviewed literatures and analyzed three treatment methods of spinal stenosis for geriatric patients. Although the long term outcome of surgical treatment was most favorable, radiofrequency neurotomy and nerve block can be considered for the secondary management of elderly lumbar spinals stenosis patients.

Park, Chang Kyu; Kim, Min Ki; Park, Bong Jin; Choi, Seok Geun; Lim, Young Jin; Kim, Tae Sung

2014-01-01

132

Correlation of lateral stenosis in MRI with symptoms, walking capacity and EMG findings in patients with surgically confirmed lateral lumbar spinal canal stenosis  

PubMed Central

Background To evaluate the clinical significance of lateral lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LLSCS), found by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), through correlating the imaging findings with patient symptoms, walking capacity and electromyography (EMG) measurements. Method 102 patients with symptoms of LSS referred for operative treatment were studied in this uncontrolled study. Of these patients, subjects with distinct only lateral LSS were included. Accordingly, 140 roots in 14 patients (mean age 58, range 48-76 years, male 43%) were evaluated. In MR images the entrance and mid zones of the lateral lumbar nerve root canal were graded as normal, narrowed but not compressed, or compressed. In quantitative analysis, the minimal widths of the lateral recess and mid zone area were measured. Clinical symptoms were recorded with the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), overall Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), specific low back pain (LBP; NRS-11), specific leg pain (LP NRS-11), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and walking distance in the treadmill test. Lumbar paraspinal (L2- L5) and lower limb (L3 – S1) needle EMG studies were performed. The findings were classified root by root as 1 = normal, 2 = abnormal. The associations between radiological, EMG and clinical findings were tested with each other. Results EMG findings were normal in 92 roots and abnormal in 48 roots. All of the patients had at least one abnormal nerve root finding. Severity of the mid zone stenosis in MRI correlated with abnormal EMG findings (p = 0.015). Patients with abnormal EMG had also higher scores in the VAS (41.9 ± 25.7 vs 31.5 ± 18.1; p = 0.018), NRS leg pain (7.5 ± 1.5 vs 6.3 ± 2.1; p = 0.000) and BDI (9.8 ± 3.8 vs 8.0 ± 3.9; p = 0.014). However, no statistically significant correlations between MRI findings and clinical symptoms or walking capacity were found. Conclusions Among persons previously selected for surgery, lateral stenosis seen on MRI correlates with EMG, and thus may be a clinically significant finding. Our EMG findings were also associated with patient symptoms. However, no relationships between the MRI findings and symptoms or walking capacity were found, suggesting their multifactorial etiology. PMID:25051886

2014-01-01

133

Biomechanical Evaluation of the X-Stop Device for Surgical Treatment of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Study Design Controlled experimental study. Objective To evaluate the kinematical effects of X-Stop device on the spinal process at the operated and the adjacent segments before and after X-Stop surgeries during various weight-bearing postures in elderly patients with lumbar spine stenosis. Summary of Background Data The mechanism of interspinous process (ISP) devices is to directly distract the ISP of the implanted level to indirectly decompress the intervertebra foramen and spinal canal. Few studies have investigated the changes of ISP gap caused by X-Stop implantation using magnetic resonance imaging or radiography, but the effect of X-Stop surgery on the kinematics of spinous processes during functional activities is still unclear. Methods Eight patients were tested before and, on average, 7 months after surgical implantation of the X-Stop devices using a combined computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging and dual fluoroscopic imaging system during weight-bearing standing, flexion-extension, left-right bending, and left-right twisting positions of the torso. The shortest distances of the ISPs at the operated and the adjacent levels were measured using iterative closest point method and was dissected into vertical (gap) and horizontal (lateral translation) components. Results At the operated levels, the shortest vertical ISP distances (gap) significantly (P <0.05) increased by 1.5mm during standing, 1.2mm during left twist, 1.3mm during extension, and 1.1mm during flexion, whereas they also increased yet not significantly (P>0.05) in right twist, left bend, and right bend after the X-Stop implantation. The lateral translations were not significantly affected. At both cephalad and caudad adjacent levels, the ISP distances (vertical and horizontal) were not significantly affected during all postures after X-Stop implantation. Conclusion The findings of this study indicate that implantation of the X-Stop devices can effectively distract the ISP space at the diseased level without causing apparent kinematic changes at the adjacent segments during the studied postures. PMID:22015626

Wan, Zongmiao; Wang, Shaobai; Kozanek, Michal; Passias, Peter G.; Mansfield, Frederick L.; Wood, Kirkham B.; Li, Guoan

2013-01-01

134

Does This Older Adult With Lower Extremity Pain Have the Clinical Syndrome of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis?  

PubMed Central

Context The clinical syndrome of lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is a common diagnosis in older adults presenting with lower extremity pain. Objective To systematically review the accuracy of the clinical examination for the diagnosis of the clinical syndrome of LSS. Data Sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL searches of articles published from January 1966 to September 2010. Study Selection Studies were included if they contained adequate data on the accuracy of the history and physical examination for diagnosing the clinical syndrome of LSS, using a reference standard of expert opinion with radiographic or anatomic confirmation. Data Extraction Two authors independently reviewed each study to determine eligibility, extract data, and appraise levels of evidence. Data Synthesis Four studies evaluating 741 patients were identified. Among patients with lower extremity pain, the likelihood of the clinical syndrome of LSS was increased for individuals older than 70 years (likelihood ratio [LR], 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6–2.5), and was decreased for those younger than 60 years (LR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.29–0.57). The most useful symptoms for increasing the likelihood of the clinical syndrome of LSS were having no pain when seated (LR, 7.4; 95% CI, 1.9–30), improvement of symptoms when bending forward (LR, 6.4; 95% CI, 4.1–9.9), the presence of bilateral buttock or leg pain (LR, 6.3; 95% CI, 3.1–13), and neurogenic claudication (LR, 3.7; 95% CI, 2.9–4.8). Absence of neurogenic claudication (LR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.17–0.31) decreased the likelihood of the diagnosis. A wide-based gait (LR, 13; 95% CI, 1.9–95) and abnormal Romberg test result (LR, 4.2; 95% CI, 1.4–13) increased the likelihood of the clinical syndrome of LSS. A score of 7 or higher on a diagnostic support tool including history and examination findings increased the likelihood of the clinical syndrome of LSS (LR, 3.3; 95% CI, 2.7–4.0), while a score lower than 7 made the diagnosis much less likely (LR, 0.10; 95% CI, 0.06–0.16). Conclusions The diagnosis of the clinical syndrome of LSS requires the appropriate clinical picture and radiographic findings. Absence of pain when seated and improvement of symptoms when bending forward are the most useful individual findings. Combinations of findings are most useful for identifying patients who are unlikely to have the diagnosis. PMID:21156951

Suri, Pradeep; Rainville, James; Kalichman, Leonid; Katz, Jeffrey N.

2012-01-01

135

Percutaneous surgical treatment in lumbar spinal stenosis with Aperius-PercLID: indications, surgical technique and results.  

PubMed

Interspinous spacers have recently been used in the treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis. In vitro studies have demonstrated a reduction in facet joint forces by 68% and annulus pressures by 63%. MRI studies have demonstrated increased canal and neural foraminal area after implantation of these devices. Previous studies by Zucherman et al. (Spine 30:1351-1358, 2005) demonstrated patient satisfaction rates of 71-73%.We carried out a multicentric retrospective study to assess the clinical outcomes following percutaneous posterior decompression using an interspinous spacer device (Aperius™-PercLID™ System; Kyphon-Medtronic). A total of 70 patients were included in the study. All of them had evidence of radiologically and clinically proven lumbar stenosis. The average age was 63.5 years. Patients completed the Zurich Claudication Questionnaire (ZCQ) and recorded pain levels on a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Average stay in hospital was 2 days. The average improvement in ZCQ included both symptomatic pain disappearance and functional ambulatory recovery. The average VAS pain score improved from 8.2 to 3.6 (scale of 1 to 10). The overall patient satisfaction rate was 76%. No complications were detected at 6 months' follow-up. PMID:21107956

Menchetti, P P M; Postacchini, F; Bini, W; Canero, G

2011-01-01

136

Comparison of Dynesys posterior stabilization and posterior lumbar interbody fusion for spinal stenosis L4L5.  

PubMed

The aim of this prospective randomized study was to compare the radiological and clinical outcome after treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis L4L5 with or without spondylolisthesis, with either posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) (26 patients) or Dynesys posterior stabilization (27 patients). Demographic characteristics were comparable in both groups. Dynesys stabilization resulted in significantly higher preservation of motion at the index level (p < 0.001), and significantly less (p < 0.05) hypermobility at the adjacent segments. Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and VAS for back and leg pain improved significantly (p < 0.05) with both methods, but there was no significant difference between groups. Operation time, blood loss, and length of hospital stay were all significantly (p < 0.001) less in the Dynesys group. The latter benefits may be of particular importance for elderly patients, or those with significant comorbidities. Complications were comparable in both groups. Dynesys posterior stabilization was effective for treating spinal stenosis L4L5 with or without spondylolisthesis. PMID:22696995

Yu, Shang-Won; Yang, Shih-Chieh; Ma, Ching-Hou; Wu, Chin-Hsien; Yen, Cheng-Yo; Tu, Yuan-Kun

2012-04-01

137

Spinal Stenosis  

MedlinePLUS

... stenosis most often results from a gradual, degenerative aging process. Either structural changes or inflammation can begin ... spinal cord or nerve roots at that place. Aging with secondary changes is the most common cause ...

138

A prospective randomized multi-center study for the treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis with the X STOP interspinous implant: 1-year results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients suffering from neurogenic intermittent claudication secondary to lumbar spinal stenosis have historically been limited to a choice between a decompressive laminectomy with or without fusion or a regimen of non-operative therapies. The X STOP Interspinous Process Distraction System (St. Francis Medical Technologies, Concord, Calif.), a new interspinous implant for patients whose symptoms are exacerbated in extension and relieved in

J. F. Zucherman; K. Y. Hsu; C. A. Hartjen; T. F. Mehalic; D. A. Implicito; M. J. Martin; D. R. Johnson II; G. A. Skidmore; P. P. Vessa; J. W. Dwyer; S. Puccio; J. C. Cauthen; R. M. Ozuna

2004-01-01

139

Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 13: injection therapies, low-back pain, and lumbar fusion.  

PubMed

The medical literature continues to fail to support the use of lumbar epidural injections for long-term relief of chronic back pain without radiculopathy. There is limited support for the use of lumbar epidural injections for shortterm relief in selected patients with chronic back pain. Lumbar intraarticular facet injections are not recommended for the treatment of chronic lower-back pain. The literature does suggest the use of lumbar medial nerve blocks for short-term relief of facet-mediated chronic lower-back pain without radiculopathy. Lumbar medial nerve ablation is suggested for 3-6 months of relief for chronic lower-back pain without radiculopathy. Diagnostic medial nerve blocks by the double-injection technique with an 80% improvement threshold are an option to predict a favorable response to medial nerve ablation for facet-mediated chronic lower-back pain without radiculopathy, but there is no evidence to support the use of diagnostic medial nerve blocks to predict the outcomes in these same patients with lumbar fusion. There is insufficient evidence to support or refute the use of trigger point injections for chronic lowerback pain without radiculopathy. PMID:24980590

Watters, William C; Resnick, Daniel K; Eck, Jason C; Ghogawala, Zoher; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Dailey, Andrew T; Choudhri, Tanvir F; Sharan, Alok; Groff, Michael W; Wang, Jeffrey C; Dhall, Sanjay S; Kaiser, Michael G

2014-07-01

140

Appropriate selection of patients with lumbar spinal stenosis for interspinous process decompression with the X STOP device.  

PubMed

With the aging of the population, the number of patients suffering from progressive lumbar spinal stenosis with symptomatic neurogenic intermittent claudication is projected to increase. Unfortunately, these patients are limited to a choice between nonsurgical conservative care and more invasive decompressive surgical procedures such as laminectomy with or without fusion. The X STOP interspinous process decompression system is a commercially available device that provides a minimally invasive alternative treatment, an intermediate option within the continuum of care for these patients. The X STOP is appropriate for patients with moderately severe functional impairment whose symptoms are exacerbated in extension and relieved in flexion. Implanted between the spinous processes without disrupting the normal anatomical structures, the X STOP limits narrowing of the spinal canal and neural foramina by reducing extension at the symptomatic level(s). In this report the author details the approved indications for use of the X STOP and discusses several illustrative cases. PMID:17608339

Lauryssen, Carl

2007-01-01

141

Does the duration of symptoms in patients with spinal stenosis and degenerative spondylolisthesis affect outcomes? Analysis of the Spine Outcomes Research Trial  

PubMed Central

Study Design Retrospective subgroup analysis of prospectively collected data according to treatment received. Objective The purpose of this study is to determine if the duration of symptoms affects outcomes following the treatment of spinal stenosis (SS) or degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). Summary of Background Data The Spine Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT) study was designed to provide scientific evidence on the effectiveness of spinal surgery versus a variety of non-operative treatments. Methods An as-treated analysis was performed on patients enrolled in the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT) for the treatment of SS or DS. A comparison was made between patients with SS with ?12 months (n=405) and those with >12 months (n=227) duration of symptoms. A comparison was also made between patients with DS with ?12 months (n=397) and those with >12 months (n=204) duration of symptoms. Baseline patient characteristics were documented. Primary and secondary outcomes were measured at baseline and at regular follow-up time intervals up to 4 years. The difference in improvement among patients whose surgical or nonsurgical treatment began less than or greater than 12 months after the onset of symptoms was measured. In addition, the difference in improvement with surgical versus nonsurgical treatment (treatment effect) was determined at each follow-period for each group. Results At final followup, there was significantly less improvement in primary outcome measures in SS patients with >12 months symptom duration. Primary and secondary outcome measures within the DS group did not differ according to symptom duration. There were no statistically significant differences in treatment effect of surgery in SS or DS patients. Conclusions Patients with spinal stenosis with fewer than twelve months of symptoms experienced significantly better outcomes with surgical and nonsurgical treatment relative to those with symptom duration greater than twelve months. There was no difference in outcome of patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis according to symptom duration. PMID:21912308

Radcliff, Kristen; Rihn, Jeff; Hilibrand, Alan; DiIorio, Timothy; Tosteson, Tor; Lurie, Jon; Zhao, Wenyan; Vaccaro, Alex; Albert, Todd; Weinstein, James N.

2011-01-01

142

Three-dimensional fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition MRI and its diagnostic value for lumbar foraminal stenosis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of three-dimensional (3D) fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (3D FIESTA) in the diagnosis of lumbar foraminal stenosis (LFS). Fifteen patients with LFS and 10 healthy volunteers were studied. All patients met the following criteria: (1) single L5 radiculopathy without compressive lesion in the spinal canal, (2) pain reproduction during provocative radiculography, and (3) improvement of symptoms after surgery. We retrospectively compared the symptomatic nerve roots to the asymptomatic nerve roots on fast spin-echo (FSE) T1 sagittal, FSE T2 axial and reconstituted 3D FIESTA images. The ? values for interobserver agreement in determining the presence of LFS were 0.525 for FSE T1 sagittal images, 0.735 for FSE T2 axial images, 0.750 for 3D FIESTA sagittal, 0.733 for axial images, and 0.953 for coronal images. The sensitivities and specificities were 60 and 86 % for FSE T1 sagittal images, 27 and 91 % for FSE T2 axial images, 60 and 97 % for 3D FIESTA sagittal images, 60 and 94 % for 3D FIESTA axial images, and 100 and 97 % for 3D FIESTA coronal images, respectively. 3D FIESTA can provide more reliable and additional information for the running course of lumbar nerve root, compared with conventional magnetic resonance imaging. Particularly, use of 3D FIESTA coronal images enables accurate diagnosis for LFS. PMID:24292491

Nemoto, Osamu; Fujikawa, Akira; Tachibana, Atsuko

2014-07-01

143

Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 5: correlation between radiographic outcome and function.  

PubMed

In an effort to diminish pain or progressive instability, due to either the pathological process or as a result of surgical decompression, one of the primary goals of a fusion procedure is to achieve a solid arthrodesis. Assuming that pain and disability result from lost mechanical integrity of the spine, the objective of a fusion across an unstable segment is to eliminate pathological motion and improve clinical outcome. However, conclusive evidence of this correlation, between successful fusion and clinical outcome, remains elusive, and thus the necessity of documenting successful arthrodesis through radiographic analysis remains debatable. Although a definitive cause and effect relationship has not been demonstrated, there is moderate evidence that demonstrates a positive association between radiographic presence of fusion and improved clinical outcome. Due to this growing body of literature, it is recommended that strategies intended to enhance the potential for radiographic fusion are considered when performing a lumbar arthrodesis for degenerative spine disease. PMID:24980582

Dhall, Sanjay S; Choudhri, Tanvir F; Eck, Jason C; Groff, Michael W; Ghogawala, Zoher; Watters, William C; Dailey, Andrew T; Resnick, Daniel K; Sharan, Alok; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Wang, Jeffrey C; Kaiser, Michael G

2014-07-01

144

Treatment of neurogenic claudication by interspinous decompression: application of the X STOP device in patients with lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Object. Interspinous process decompression (IPD) theoretically relieves narrowing of the spinal canal and neur- al foramen in extension and thus reduces the symptoms of neurogenic intermittent claudication (NIC). The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of IPD with nonoperative treatment in patients with NIC secondary to degenerative spondylolisthesis. Methods. The authors conducted a randomized controlled study in

Paul A. Anderson; Cliff B. Tribus; Scott H. Kitchel

2006-01-01

145

Two-year results of interspinous spacer (X-Stop) implantation in 175 patients with neurologic intermittent claudication due to lumbar spinal stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical outcome of patients with symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) was assessed during a follow-up period of 2 years\\u000a after X-Stop implantation. The X-Stop is the most commonly used interspinous distraction device in patients with neurogenic\\u000a intermittent claudication due to LSS. Between 2003 and 2007, more than 1,000 patients were examined in our centre with symptoms\\u000a of intermittent claudication due

Johannes Kuchta; Rolf Sobottke; Peer Eysel; Patrick Simons

2009-01-01

146

Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 15: electrophysiological monitoring and lumbar fusion.  

PubMed

Intraoperative monitoring (IOM) is commonly used during lumbar fusion surgery for the prevention of nerve root injury. Justification for its use stems from the belief that IOM can prevent nerve root injury during the placement of pedicle screws. A thorough literature review was conducted to determine if the use of IOM could prevent nerve root injury during the placement of instrumentation in lumbar or lumbosacral fusion. There is no evidence to date that IOM can prevent injury to the nerve roots. There is limited evidence that a threshold below 5 mA from direct stimulation of the screw can indicate a medial pedicle breach by the screw. Unfortunately, once a nerve root injury has taken place, changing the direction of the screw does not alter the outcome. The recommendations formulated in the original guideline effort are neither supported nor refuted with the evidence obtained with the current studies. PMID:24980592

Sharan, Alok; Groff, Michael W; Dailey, Andrew T; Ghogawala, Zoher; Resnick, Daniel K; Watters, William C; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Choudhri, Tanvir F; Eck, Jason C; Wang, Jeffrey C; Dhall, Sanjay S; Kaiser, Michael G

2014-07-01

147

Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 6: discography for patient selection.  

PubMed

Identifying the etiology of pain for patients suffering from chronic low-back pain remains problematic. Noninvasive imaging modalities, used in isolation, have not consistently provided sufficient evidence to support performance of a lumbar fusion. Provocative testing has been used as an adjunct in this assessment, either alone or in combination with other modalities, to enhance the diagnostic capabilities when evaluating patients with low-back pain. There have been a limited number of studies investigating this topic since the publication of the original guidelines. Based primarily on retrospective studies, discography, as a stand-alone test, is not recommended to formulate treatment strategies for patients with low-back pain. A single randomized cohort study demonstrated an improved potential of discoblock over discography as a predictor of success following lumbar fusion. It is therefore recommended that discoblock be considered as a diagnostic option. There is a possibility, based on a matched cohort study, that an association exists between progression of degenerative disc disease and the performance of a provocative discogram. It is therefore recommended that patients be counseled regarding this potential development prior to undergoing discography. PMID:24980583

Eck, Jason C; Sharan, Alok; Resnick, Daniel K; Watters, William C; Ghogawala, Zoher; Dailey, Andrew T; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Groff, Michael W; Wang, Jeffrey C; Choudhri, Tanvir F; Dhall, Sanjay S; Kaiser, Michael G

2014-07-01

148

Posterior Transpedicular Dynamic Stabilization versus Total Disc Replacement in the Treatment of Lumbar Painful Degenerative Disc Disease: A Comparison of Clinical Results  

PubMed Central

Study Design. Prospective clinical study. Objective. This study compares the clinical results of anterior lumbar total disc replacement and posterior transpedicular dynamic stabilization in the treatment of degenerative disc disease. Summary and Background Data. Over the last two decades, both techniques have emerged as alternative treatment options to fusion surgery. Methods. This study was conducted between 2004 and 2010 with a total of 50 patients (25 in each group). The mean age of the patients in total disc prosthesis group was 37,32 years. The mean age of the patients in posterior dynamic transpedicular stabilization was 43,08. Clinical (VAS and Oswestry) and radiological evaluations (lumbar lordosis and segmental lordosis angles) of the patients were carried out prior to the operation and 3, 12, and 24 months after the operation. We compared the average duration of surgery, blood loss during the surgery and the length of hospital stay of both groups. Results. Both techniques offered significant improvements in clinical parameters. There was no significant change in radiologic evaluations after the surgery for both techniques. Conclusion. Both dynamic systems provided spine stability. However, the posterior dynamic system had a slight advantage over anterior disc prosthesis because of its convenient application and fewer possible complications. PMID:23401784

Oktenoglu, Tunc; Ozer, Ali Fahir; Sasani, Mehdi; Ataker, Yaprak; Gomleksiz, Cengiz; Celebi, Irfan

2013-01-01

149

Interspinous Spacers Compared to Decompression or Fusion for Lumbar Stenosis: Complications and Repeat Operations in the Medicare Population  

PubMed Central

Study Design Retrospective cohort analysis of Medicare claims for 2006-2009. Objective To examine whether interspinous distraction procedures are used selectively in patients with more advanced age or comorbidity; and whether they are associated with fewer complications, lower costs, and less revision surgery than laminectomy or fusion surgery. Summary of Background Data A manufacturer-sponsored randomized trial suggested an advantage of interspinous spacer surgery over non-surgical care, but there are few comparisons with other surgical procedures. Furthermore, there are few population-based data evaluating patterns of use of these devices. Methods We used Medicare inpatient claims data to compare age and comorbidity for patients with spinal stenosis having surgery (n=99,084) with (1) an interspinous process spacer alone; (2) laminectomy and a spacer; (3) decompression alone; or (4) lumbar fusion (1-2 level). We also compared these four groups for cost of surgery and rates of revision surgery, major medical complications, wound complications, mortality, and 30-day readmission rates. Results Patients who received spacers were older than those receiving decompression or fusion, but had little evidence of greater comorbidity. Patients receiving a spacer alone had fewer major medical complications than those undergoing decompression or fusion surgery (1.2% versus 1.8% and 3.3% respectively), but had higher rates of further inpatient lumbar surgery (16.7% versus 8.5% for decompression and 9.8% for fusion at 2 years). Hospital payments for spacer surgery were greater than for decompression alone, but less than for fusion procedures. These associations persisted in multivariate models adjusting for patient age, sex, comorbidity score, and previous hospitalization. Conclusions Compared to decompression or fusion, interspinous distraction procedures pose a trade-off in outcomes: fewer complications for the index operation, but higher rates of revision surgery. This information should help patients make more informed choices, but further research is needed to define optimal indications for these new devices. PMID:23324936

Deyo, Richard A.; Martin, Brook I.; Ching, Alex; Tosteson, Anna N. A.; Jarvik, Jeffrey G.; Kreuter, William; Mirza, Sohail K.

2013-01-01

150

Radiological Significance of Ligamentum Flavum Hypertrophy in the Occurrence of Redundant Nerve Roots of Central Lumbar Spinal Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Objective There were previous reports of redundant nerve roots (RNRs) focused on their clinical significance and pathogenesis. In this study, we investigated the significant radiologic findings that correlate with RNRs occurrence. These relations would provide an advanced clue for clinical significance and pathogenesis of RNRs. Methods Retrospective research was performed with data from 126 patients who underwent surgery for central lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Finally, 106 patients with common denominators (inter-observer accuracy : 84%) were included on this study. We divided the patients into two groups by MRI, patients with RNRs and those with no RNRs (NRNRs). Comparative analyses were performed with clinical and radiologic parameters. Results RNRs were found in 45 patients (42%) with central LSS. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in severity of symptoms. On the other hand, we found statistically significant differences in duration of symptom and number of level included (p<0.05). In the maximal stenotic level, ligamentum flavum (LF) thickness, LF cross-sectional area (CSA), dural sac CSA, and segmental angulation are significantly different in RNRs group compared to NRNRs group (p<0.05). Conclusion RNRs patients showed clinically longer duration of symptoms and multiple levels included. We also confirmed that wide segmental angulation and LF hypertrophy play a major role of the development of RNRs in central LSS. Together, our results suggest that wide motion in long period contribute to LF hypertrophy, and it might be the key factor of RNRs formation in central LSS. PMID:23115664

Hur, Junseok W; Hur, Junho K; Kwon, Taek-Hyun; Park, Youn Kwan; Chung, Hung Seob

2012-01-01

151

Interspinous Spacer Implant in Patients with Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: Preliminary Results of a Multicenter, Randomized, Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

A prospective, randomized, controlled trial was conducted to compare clinical outcomes in patients treated with an investigational interspinous spacer (Superion) versus those treated with an FDA-approved spacer (X-STOP). One hundred sixty-six patients with moderate lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) unresponsive to conservative care were treated randomly with the Superion (n = 80) or X-STOP (n = 86) interspinous spacer. Study subjects were followed through 6 months posttreatment. Zurich Claudication Questionnaire (ZCQ) symptom severity scores improved 30% with Superion and 25% with X-STOP (both P < 0.001). Similar changes were noted in ZCQ physical function with improvements of 32% with Superion and 27% with X-STOP (both P < 0.001). Mean ZCQ patient satisfaction score ranged from 1.7 to 2.0 in both groups at all follow-up visits. The proportion of subjects that achieved at least two of three ZCQ clinical success criteria at 6 months was 75% with Superion and 67% with X-STOP. Axial pain decreased from 55 ± 27?mm at pretreatment to 22 ± 26?mm at 6 months in the Superion group (P < 0.001) and from 54 ± 29?mm to 32 ± 31?mm with X-STOP (P < 0.001). Extremity pain decreased from 61 ± 26?mm at pretreatment to 18 ± 27?mm at 6 months in the Superion group (P < 0.001) and from 64 ± 26?mm to 22 ± 30?mm with X-STOP (P < 0.001). Back function improved from 38 ± 13% to 21 ± 19% with Superion (P < 0.001) and from 40 ± 13% to 25 ± 16% with X-STOP (P < 0.001). Preliminary results suggest that the Superion interspinous spacer and the X-STOP each effectively alleviate pain and improve back function in patients with moderate LSS who are unresponsive to conservative care. PMID:22448323

Miller, Larry E.; Block, Jon E.

2012-01-01

152

Effects of a Home Exercise Program on the Self-report Disability Index and Gait Parameters in Patients with Lumbar Spinal Stenosis  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The present study was performed to identify the effect of a home exercise program on the self-reported disability index and gait parameters in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). [Methods] Fifteen patients with LSS were enrolled in this study and were trained in a 4-week home exercise program (40?min/day). All patients were evaluated with three self-reported disability indices (Oswestry Disability Index, Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, and Spinal Stenosis Scale), and gait parameters were assessed using a GAITRite system before and after the home exercise program. [Results] Patients with LSS showed significant decreases in the self-reported questionnaire scores and pain intensity after the home exercise program. However, the gait parameters did not significantly change. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that home exercise programs can improve self-reported questionnaire scores and decrease pain in patients with LSS. PMID:24648654

Kim, Eui-Ryong; Kang, Min-Hyeok; Kim, Yang-Gon; Oh, Jae-Seop

2014-01-01

153

Role of death receptor, mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum pathways in different stages of degenerative human lumbar disc.  

PubMed

Intervertebral disc (IVD) cell apoptosis has been suggested to play an important role in promoting the degeneration process. It has been demonstrated that IVD cell apoptosis occurs through either death receptor, mitochondrial or endoplasmic reticulum (ER) pathway. Our study aimed to explore the relationship among these three pathways and grade of IVD degeneration (IVDD). IVDs were collected from patients with lumbar fracture, vertebral tumor, disc herniation or spondylolisthesis. IVDs were distinguished by MRI and histomorphological examination, cell apoptosis was detected by TUNEL staining. Biomarkers of these three apoptosis pathways were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot. Furthermore, the correlation between apoptosis pathways biomarkers and disc pathology were analyzed. Nucleus pulposus cell density decreased with degeneration process, and increased apoptotic ratio. ER pathway was predominant in mild stage of IVDD (GRP78, GADD153 upregulation and caspase-4 activation), death receptor pathway was predominant in mild and moderate stages (Fas, FasL up-regulation and caspase-8 activation) and mitochondrial pathway was predominant in moderate and severe stages (Bcl-2 down-regulation, Bax up-regulation, cytochrome-c accumulation in cytoplasm and caspase-9 activation). There were significant differences in the expressions of Fas, FasL, Bax, GADD153, cytochrome-c and cleaved caspase-8/9/3 between contained and non-contained discs. In conclusion, apoptosis occurs via these three apoptosis pathways together in IVDD. ER pathway plays a more critical role in the mild compared to moderate and severe stages, death receptor pathway in mild and moderate, and mitochondrial pathway in moderate and severe stages of IVDD. Disc cells apoptosis may progress rapidly after herniation, and may depend on the type of herniation. PMID:21879322

Wang, Hua; Liu, Hui; Zheng, Zhao-Min; Zhang, Kui-Bo; Wang, Tai-Ping; Sribastav, Shilabant-Sen; Liu, Wen-Sheng; Liu, Ting

2011-10-01

154

Effects of Spinal Stabilization Exercise on the Cross-sectional Areas of the Lumbar Multifidus and Psoas Major Muscles, Pain Intensity, and Lumbar Muscle Strength of Patients with Degenerative Disc Disease.  

PubMed

[Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of using spinal stabilizing exercise to reduce atrophy of the multifidus and psoas major muscles, reduce the levels of pain and disability, and increase paraspinal muscle strength in patients with degenerative disc disease (DDD). [Subjects and Methods] In 33 patients (Age range: 25-65?years) diagnosed with DDD, spinal stabilization exercise was conducted for 8 weeks. The levels of pain and disability were measured before and after exercise using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Paraspinal muscular strength in four directions was evaluated with a CENTAUR 3D Spatial Rotation Device. Cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of both the left and right multifidus and the psoas major at the upper endplate of L4 were measured before and after exercise using computed tomography (CT). [Results] After 8 weeks of spinal stabilization exercise, the pain and lumbar disability in subjects decreased significantly from 6.12±1.24 to 2.43±1.14. The ODI score also improved from 20.18±7.14 to 8.81±5.73. In addition, paraspinal muscle strength increased significantly, while the CSAs of the left and right multifidus and psoas major widened as compared with the pre-exercise size. [Conclusion] Spinal stabilization exercise was effective for reducing pain and disability in DDD patients. It was an effective adjunct to aid rehabilitation in these cases. PMID:24764637

Kim, Seongho; Kim, Hyungguen; Chung, Jaeyeop

2014-04-01

155

Interspinous Spacer versus Traditional Decompressive Surgery for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Dynamic interspinous spacers, such as X-stop, Coflex, DIAM, and Aperius, are widely used for the treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis. However, controversy remains as to whether dynamic interspinous spacer use is superior to traditional decompressive surgery. Methods Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched during August 2013. A track search was performed on February 27, 2014. Study was included in this review if it was: (1) a randomized controlled trial (RCT) or non-randomized prospective comparison study, (2) comparing the clinical outcomes for interspinous spacer use versus traditional decompressive surgery, (3) in a minimum of 30 patients, (4) with a follow-up duration of at least 12 months. Results Two RCTs and three non-randomized prospective studies were included, with 204 patients in the interspinous spacer (IS) group and 217 patients in the traditional decompressive surgery (TDS) group. Pooled analysis showed no significant difference between the IS and TDS groups for low back pain (WMD: 1.2; 95% CI: ?10.12, 12.53; P?=?0.03; I2?=?66%), leg pain (WMD: 7.12; 95% CI: ?3.88, 18.12; P?=?0.02; I2?=?70%), ODI (WMD: 6.88; 95% CI: ?14.92, 28.68; P?=?0.03; I2?=?79%), RDQ (WMD: ?1.30, 95% CI: ?3.07, 0.47; P?=?0.00; I2?=?0%), or complications (RR: 1.39; 95% CI: 0.61, 3.14; P?=?0.23; I2?=?28%). The TDS group had a significantly lower incidence of reoperation (RR: 3.34; 95% CI: 1.77, 6.31; P?=?0.60; I2?=?0%). Conclusion Although patients may obtain some benefits from interspinous spacers implanted through a minimally invasive technique, interspinous spacer use is associated with a higher incidence of reoperation and higher cost. The indications, risks, and benefits of using an interspinous process device should be carefully considered before surgery. PMID:24809680

Wu, Ai-Min; Zhou, Yong; Li, Qing-Long; Wu, Xin-Lei; Jin, Yong-Long; Luo, Peng; Chi, Yong-Long; Wang, Xiang-Yang

2014-01-01

156

Assessment of NMDA receptor genes (GRIN2A, GRIN2B and GRIN2C) as candidate genes in the development of degenerative lumbar scoliosis  

PubMed Central

Degenerative lumbar scoliosis (DLS) progresses with aging after 50–60 years. The genetic association of DLS remains largely unclear. In this study, the genetic association between glutamate receptor, ionotropic, N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA, GRIN) receptor genes and DLS was investigated. A total of 9 coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (cSNPs) in NMDA receptor genes [GRIN2A (rs8049651, Leu425Leu; rs9806806, Tyr730Tyr); GRIN2B (rs7301328, Pro122Pro; rs35025065, Asp447Asp; rs1805522, Ile602Ile; rs1806201, Thr888Thr; rs1805247, His1399His); and GRIN2C (rs689730, Ala33Ala; rs3744215, Arg1209Ser)] were selected and genotyped using direct sequencing in 70 patients with DLS and 141 healthy controls. Multiple logistic models (codominant, dominant and recessive) were calculated for the odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI) and corresponding P-values. The SNPStats, SNPAnalyzer and HelixTree programs were used for the evaluation of the genetic data. Among the SNPs examined, no significant associations were observed between the NMDA receptor genes and DLS. When the patients were divided into two groups according to clinical characteristics based on Cobb’s angle (<20° or ?20°) and lateral listhesis (<6 mm or ?6 mm), associations were observed between rs689730 of GRIN2C and Cobb’s angle (codominant, P=0.038; dominant, P=0.022) and between rs7301328 of GRIN2B and lateral listhesis (codominant, P=0.003; dominant, P=0.015; recessive, P=0.015). These results indicate that the GRIN2A, GRIN2B and GRIN2C genes do not affect the development of DLS. However, the GRIN2C gene may be associated with Cobb’s angle, while the GRIN2B gene may be associated with lateral listhesis. PMID:23408766

KIM, KI-TACK; KIM, JINSUNG; HAN, YOO JIN; KIM, JUN HO; LEE, JONG SEOK; CHUNG, JOO-HO

2013-01-01

157

Adult's Degenerative Scoliosis: Midterm Results of Dynamic Stabilization without Fusion in Elderly Patients--Is It Effective?  

PubMed Central

Study Design. A retrospective study. Purpose. Posterolateral fusion with pedicle screw instrumentation used for degenerative lumbar scoliosis can lead to several complications. In elderly patients without sagittal imbalance, dynamic stabilization could represent an option to avoid these adverse events. Methods. 57 patients treated by dynamic stabilization without fusion were included. All patients had degenerative lumbar de novo scoliosis (average Cobb angle 17.2°), without sagittal imbalance, associated in 52 cases (91%) with vertebral canal stenosis and in 24 (42%) with degenerative spondylolisthesis. Nineteen patients (33%) had previously undergone lumbar spinal surgery. Results. At an average followup of 77 months, clinical results improved with statistical significance. Scoliosis Cobb angle was 17.2° (range, 12° to 38°) before surgery and 11.3° (range, 4° to 26°) at last follow-up. In the patients with associated spondylolisthesis, anterior vertebral translation was 19.5% (range, 12% to 27%) before surgery, 16.7% (range, 0% to 25%) after surgery, and 17.5% (range, 0% to 27%) at followup. Complications incidence was low (14%), and few patients required revision surgery (4%). Conclusions. In elderly patients with mild degenerative lumbar scoliosis without sagittal imbalance, pedicle screw-based dynamic stabilization is an effective option, with low complications incidence, granting curve stabilization during time and satisfying clinical results. PMID:23781342

Di Silvestre, Mario; Lolli, Francesco; Greggi, Tiziana; Vommaro, Francesco; Baioni, Andrea

2013-01-01

158

Degenerative Scoliosis: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degenerative lumbar scoliosis is a coronal deviation of the spine that is prevalent in the elderly population. Although the\\u000a etiology is unclear, it is associated with progressive and asymmetric degeneration of the disc, facet joints, and other structural\\u000a spinal elements typically leading to neural element compression. Clinical presentation varies and is frequently associated\\u000a with axial back pain and neurogenic claudication.

Suhel Kotwal; Matthias Pumberger; Alex Hughes; Federico Girardi

159

Two-year results of interspinous spacer (X-Stop) implantation in 175 patients with neurologic intermittent claudication due to lumbar spinal stenosis.  

PubMed

The clinical outcome of patients with symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) was assessed during a follow-up period of 2 years after X-Stop implantation. The X-Stop is the most commonly used interspinous distraction device in patients with neurogenic intermittent claudication due to LSS. Between 2003 and 2007, more than 1,000 patients were examined in our centre with symptoms of intermittent claudication due to spinal stenosis. Between February 2003 and June 2007, in 175 of these patients an X-Stop device was implanted in one or two levels. Patients were clinically evaluated regularly during a follow-up period of up to 4 years using the VAS (leg pain) score and the Oswestry disability index. The mean VAS (leg pain) score in these 175 patients was reduced from 61.2% preoperatively to 39.0% at the first clinical follow-up examination at 6 weeks postoperatively. The mean VAS score at 24 months postoperatively was 39.0%. Oswestry score was 32.6% preoperatively, 22.7% at 6 weeks, and 20.3% at 24 months postoperatively on average. In eight out of the implanted 175 patients, the X-Stop had to be removed and a microsurgical decompression had to be performed because of unsatisfactory effect of the interspinous distraction device. Our single-centre results indicate not only a satisfactory short-term, but also a good long-term effect during a follow-up period of 2 years. Functional MRI examinations provide helpful, positional-dependent preoperative information. More than any radiological feature, the typical clinical picture of positional-dependent claudication with a relief of symptoms during flexion is the most important factor for appropriate patient selection. The interspinous device does not replace microsurgical decompression in patients with massive stenosis and continuous claudication, but offers a save, effective and less invasive alternative in selected patients with spinal stenosis. Concerning the operative technique, a minimally invasive implantation with preservation of the interspinous ligament is appropriate. Functional (upright-) MRI examinations were able to demonstrate the positional-dependent stenosis. If available, fMRI represents the most helpful radiologic examination in assessing the outcome of interspinous spacer implantation. PMID:19387698

Kuchta, Johannes; Sobottke, Rolf; Eysel, Peer; Simons, Patrick

2009-06-01

160

The impact of bone mineral density and disc degeneration on shear strength and stiffness of the lumbar spine following laminectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Laminectomy is a standard surgical procedure for elderly patients with symptomatic degenerative lumbar stenosis. The procedure\\u000a aims at decompression of the affected nerves, but it also causes a reduction of spinal shear strength and shear stiffness.\\u000a The magnitude of this reduction and the influence of bone mineral density (BMD) and disc degeneration are unknown. We studied\\u000a the influence of laminectomy,

Arno Bisschop; Margriet G. Mullender; Idsart Kingma; Timothy U. Jiya; Albert J. van der Veen; Jan C. Roos; Jaap H. van Dieën; Barend J. van Royen

161

Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion  

PubMed Central

Background: The use of minimally invasive surgical (MIS) techniques represents the most recent modification of methods used to achieve lumbar interbody fusion. The advantages of minimally invasive spinal instrumentation techniques are less soft tissue injury, reduced blood loss, less postoperative pain and shorter hospital stay while achieving clinical outcomes comparable with equivalent open procedure. The aim was to study the clinicoradiological outcome of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted on 23 patients, 17 females and 6 males, who underwent MIS-transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) followed up for a mean 15 months. The subjects were evaluated for clinical and radiological outcome who were manifested by back pain alone (n = 4) or back pain with leg pain (n = 19) associated with a primary diagnosis of degenerative spondylolisthesis, massive disc herniation, lumbar stenosis, recurrent disc herniation or degenerative disc disease. Paraspinal approach was used in all patients. The clinical outcome was assessed using the revised Oswestry disability index and Macnab criteria. Results: The mean age of subjects was 55.45 years. L4-L5 level was operated in 14 subjects, L5-S1 in 7 subjects; L3-L4 and double level was fixed in 1 patient each. L4-L5 degenerative listhesis was the most common indication (n = 12). Average operative time was 3 h. Fourteen patients had excellent results, a good result in 5 subjects, 2 subjects had fair results and 2 had poor results. Three patients had persistent back pain, 4 patients had residual numbness or radiculopathy. All patients had a radiological union except for 1 patient. Conclusion: The study demonstrates a good clinicoradiological outcome of minimally invasive TLIF. It is also superior in terms of postoperative back pain, blood loss, hospital stay, recovery time as well as medication use.

Jhala, Amit; Singh, Damandeep; Mistry, MS

2014-01-01

162

Interspinous Process Decompression With the X-STOP Device for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis A 4Year Follow-Up Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

X-STOP is the first interspinous process decompres- sion device that was shown to be superior to nonoperative therapy in patients with neurogenic intermittent claudication secondary to spinal stenosis in the multicenter randomized study at 1 and 2 years. We present 4-year follow-up data on the X-STOP patients. Patient records were screened to identify potentially eligible subjects who underwent X-STOP implanta-

Dimitriy G. Kondrashov; Matthew Hannibal; Ken Y. Hsu; James F. Zucherman

163

Comparisons on Efficacy of Elcatonin and Limaprost Alfadex in Patients with Lumbar Spinal Stenosis and Concurrent Osteoporosis: A Preliminary Study Using a Crossover Design  

PubMed Central

Study Design Multicenter prospective study with a crossover design. Purpose The objective of this study is to compare the efficacy of limaprost alfadex (LP) and elcatonin (EL) for lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) patients with concurrent osteoporosis. Overview of Literature It has been increasingly important to improve quality of life by establishing appropriate conservative treatments for LSS patients with concurrent osteoporosis who will presumably continue to increase due to the percentage of the aging elevations, however there is no prospective study. Methods A total of 19 patients with LSS and concurrent osteoporosis were enrolled in this study. The patients were divided into two groups and compared using a crossover design. The Japanese Orthopaedic Association Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire (JOABPEQ) and short-form (SF)-8 health survey scale were used for clinical evaluations. Results There was a significant improvement of buttock-leg pain and numbness in the EL group. A significant improvement of impaired walking function was noted for the LP group according to the JOABPEQ while the rest of the items in the JOABPEQ showed no significant differences. The SF-8 health survey revealed that somatic pains and physical summary scores in the EL group and physical functioning and physical summary scores in the LP group tended to improve but not to any statistically significant extents. Conclusions Concomitant uses of EL may be useful in patients who do not respond satisfactorily to the treatments of LP for 6-8 weeks.

Imajo, Yasuaki; Suzuki, Hidenori; Yoshida, Yuichiro; Taguchi, Toshihiko; Tominaga, Toshikatsu; Toyoda, Koichiro

2014-01-01

164

Life dissatisfaction burden is associated with a poor surgical outcome among lumbar spinal stenosis patients: a 5-year follow-up study.  

PubMed

Dissatisfaction with life has been found to be associated with somatic health and the short-term surgery outcome in lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) patients. This study investigated the effects of the long-term life dissatisfaction burden on the surgery outcome in LSS patients with a 5-year follow-up. This was a prospective clinical study. Altogether, 102 patients who underwent decompressive surgery completed a set of questionnaires preoperatively, 3 and 6 months, and 1, 2 and 5 years after the surgery. The final study population at the 5-year follow-up included 67 patients. The mean age of the patients was 67 years and 35% of the patients were men. Life satisfaction was evaluated using a four-item Life Satisfaction Scale. The life dissatisfaction burden was the sum of all six life satisfaction scores recorded during the follow-up. The outcome of surgery was evaluated using the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), pain evaluation (Visual Analogue Scale; VAS), overall satisfaction with the surgery and self-reported walking capacity. In linear regression, the long-term life dissatisfaction burden was associated with the 5-year ODI, even after adjusting for age, sex, marital status, preoperative ODI and the 5-year VAS. It was not associated with the 5-year VAS score. Monitoring the life satisfaction of surgically treated LSS patients may enable detection of those at risk of a poorer surgery outcome. PMID:24135635

Pakarinen, Maarit; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Sinikallio, Sanna; Lehto, Soili M; Aalto, Timo; Airaksinen, Olavi; Viinamäki, Heimo

2014-03-01

165

Postoperative rehabilitation does not improve functional outcome in lumbar spinal stenosis: a prospective study with 2-year postoperative follow-up.  

PubMed

The aim was to study if postoperative rehabilitation improves functional outcome in lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Surgically treated LSS patients (n = 102) were randomized to rehabilitation-group (A) and "standard postoperative treatment"--group (B). Intervention for A-group started 3 months postoperatively, consisting of once a week outpatient visits for 12 weeks (1.5 h per visit; 1-6 patients per one physiotherapist). Physiotherapist guided stretching and strengthening exercises. A-group performed individually estimated exercises at those visits with guiding and at home up to 24-month postoperative follow-up. Physiotherapeutic guidance (12 times) was repeated after 12 months, in order to update exercises and motivate patients to keep training. For B-group, the "standard treatment" thus included normal postoperative treatment, or no treatment/self-management. Outcome measures were measured at the start and the end of the first physiotherapeutic intervention (3 and 6 months postoperatively), and at 12- and 24-month postoperative follow-ups. Oswestry Disability Index (ODI, 0-100%) was the main outcome measure. The other outcome measures were back- and leg pain separately (NRS-11); satisfaction (7-point scale) and treadmill test (0-1,000 m; not at 6 month). The intervention consisting of 12 + 12 physiotherapeutic sessions with further home exercises did not influence the course ODI in the 24-month postoperative follow-up (p = 0.95 for ODI; "as-rehabilitated" analysis). No influence on any other outcome measures was observed. After LSS surgery, routinely performed outpatient rehabilitation did not improve functional outcome compared to standard treatment. In addition, it had no impact on the back and leg pain, satisfaction and walking ability. PMID:21523459

Aalto, Timo J; Leinonen, Ville; Herno, Arto; Alen, Markku; Kröger, Heikki; Turunen, Veli; Savolainen, Sakari; Saari, Tapani; Airaksinen, Olavi

2011-08-01

166

Spinous Process Osteotomy to Facilitate the Access to the Spinal Canal When Decompressing the Spinal Canal in Patients with Lumbar Spinal Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose The main purpose of this study was to investigate the union-rate of the spinous process after performing a spinous process osteotomy and whether union affects the clinical results after surgery. Overview of Literature In the present study, spinous process osteotomy was used to facilitate access to the spinal canal when performing a decompressive procedure for lumbar spinal stenosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the union rate of the spinous process and its effect on the clinical results of the procedure. Methods All patients were included in the study that underwent a decompressive procedure through spinous process osteotomy be between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2007. Operation protocols were reviewed. A computed tomography (CT) scan was performed to evaluate the union of the osteotomies of the spinous process. According to the CT-scans, patients were divided into three groups: "complete-union," "partial-union," and "non-union." Patients reported their clinical results through a self-administered questionnaire. Results The mean period of follow up was 21.6 months (range, 16-28 months). A total of 44% of the performed osteotomies were considered as united. Ten patients (18%) were classified as "complete-union," 30 patients (55%) as "partial-union," and 15 patients (27%) as "non-union." The "complete-union" group showed better clinical results and scored significantly better in the Oswestry Disability Index and EQ-5D. However, no statistical difference was found in the pain-scores. There were no differences between the "partial-union" group and the "no-union" group. Conclusions We found a radiologic union for 60 out of 135 (44%) spinous process osteotomies. PMID:24761194

Moen, Gunnar; Fenstad, Anne Marie; Birketvedt, Rune; Indrekvam, Kari

2014-01-01

167

Two-year clinical outcomes of a multicenter randomized controlled trial comparing two interspinous spacers for treatment of moderate lumbar spinal stenosis  

PubMed Central

Background Interspinous spacers are a minimally invasive surgical alternative for patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) unresponsive to conservative care. The purpose of this prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial was to compare 2-year clinical outcomes in patients with moderate LSS treated with the Superion® (Experimental) or the X-Stop®, a FDA-approved interspinous spacer (Control). Methods A total of 250 patients with moderate LSS unresponsive to conservative care were randomly allocated to treatment with the Experimental (n?=?123) or Control (n?=?127) interspinous spacer and followed through 2 years post-treatment. Complication data were available for all patients and patient-reported outcomes were available for 192 patients (101 Experimental, 91 Control) at 2 years. Results Zurich Claudication Questionnaire (ZCQ) Symptom Severity and Physical Function scores improved 34% to 36% in both groups through 2 years (all p?

2014-01-01

168

Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 4: radiographic assessment of fusion status.  

PubMed

The ability to identify a successful arthrodesis is an essential element in the management of patients undergoing lumbar fusion procedures. The hypothetical gold standard of intraoperative exploration to identify, under direct observation, a solid arthrodesis is an impractical alternative. Therefore, radiographic assessment remains the most viable instrument to evaluate for a successful arthrodesis. Static radiographs, particularly in the presence of instrumentation, are not recommended. In the absence of spinal instrumentation, lack of motion on flexion-extension radiographs is highly suggestive of a successful fusion; however, motion observed at the treated levels does not necessarily predict pseudarthrosis. The degree of motion on dynamic views that would distinguish between a successful arthrodesis and pseudarthrosis has not been clearly defined. Computed tomography with fine-cut axial images and multiplanar views is recommended and appears to be the most sensitive for assessing fusion following instrumented posterolateral and anterior lumbar interbody fusions. For suspected symptomatic pseudarthrosis, a combination of techniques including static and dynamic radiographs as well as CT images is recommended as an option. Lack of facet fusion is considered to be more suggestive of a pseudarthrosis compared with absence of bridging posterolateral bone. Studies exploring additional noninvasive modalities of fusion assessment have demonstrated either poor potential, such as with (99m)Tc bone scans, or provide insufficient information to formulate a definitive recommendation. PMID:24980581

Choudhri, Tanvir F; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Dhall, Sanjay S; Eck, Jason C; Groff, Michael W; Ghogawala, Zoher; Watters, William C; Dailey, Andrew T; Resnick, Daniel K; Sharan, Alok; Wang, Jeffrey C; Kaiser, Michael G

2014-07-01

169

Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 3: assessment of economic outcome.  

PubMed

A comprehensive economic analysis generally involves the calculation of indirect and direct health costs from a societal perspective as opposed to simply reporting costs from a hospital or payer perspective. Hospital charges for a surgical procedure must be converted to cost data when performing a cost-effectiveness analysis. Once cost data has been calculated, quality-adjusted life year data from a surgical treatment are calculated by using a preference-based health-related quality-of-life instrument such as the EQ-5D. A recent cost-utility analysis from a single study has demonstrated the long-term (over an 8-year time period) benefits of circumferential fusions over stand-alone posterolateral fusions. In addition, economic analysis from a single study has found that lumbar fusion for selected patients with low-back pain can be recommended from an economic perspective. Recent economic analysis, from a single study, finds that femoral ring allograft might be more cost-effective compared with a specific titanium cage when performing an anterior lumbar interbody fusion plus posterolateral fusion. PMID:24980580

Ghogawala, Zoher; Whitmore, Robert G; Watters, William C; Sharan, Alok; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Dailey, Andrew T; Choudhri, Tanvir F; Eck, Jason C; Groff, Michael W; Wang, Jeffrey C; Resnick, Daniel K; Dhall, Sanjay S; Kaiser, Michael G

2014-07-01

170

Prevalence of low back pain and lumbar spine degenerative disorders. Questionnaire survey and clinical-radiological analysis of a representative Hungarian population.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional epidemiological study via personal interviews was performed regarding low back pain and its related clinical aspects in a Hungarian sample of 10,000 people. Joining the international campaign of the "Bone and Joint Decade", our aim was to give data on low back pain prevalence and to explore the underlying possible clinical conditions in a Central European adult and adolescent population. Ten thousand people aged 14-65, selected randomly by the Hungarian central office of statistics from three counties of the south-western Hungarian region, were surveyed using a special questionnaire focusing on low back pain and other degenerative spinal symptoms. People with low back pain complaints and written consent were asked to participate in a further clinical investigation, where radiological and clinical assessment was performed. A total of 4,389 persons (44.1%) reported low back pain in the last month at the time of the survey. Work absenteeism due to low back pain affected 2,140 persons (21.5%). A total of 292 people (2.9%) had already undergone spinal surgery. Upon request 682 people came for a clinical follow-up, where thorough physical examination and radiological analysis was performed and results were statistically interpreted. The Oswestry disability index (ODI) in the examined group of patients averaged 35.1%; radiological degenerative signs were observed in 392/682 (57.5%). Individuals with signs of radiological degeneration had a statistically significant higher ODI value, age, and a higher, yet not significantly increased BMI value than radiographically negative patients (p?

Horváth, Gábor; Koroknai, Gabriella; Acs, Barnabás; Than, Péter; Illés, Tamás

2010-12-01

171

Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 12: pedicle screw fixation as an adjunct to posterolateral fusion.  

PubMed

The utilization of pedicle screw fixation as an adjunct to posterolateral lumbar fusion (PLF) has become routine, but demonstration of a definitive benefit remains problematic. The medical evidence indicates that the addition of pedicle screw fixation to PLF increases fusion rates when assessed with dynamic radiographs. More recent evidence, since publication of the 2005 Lumbar Fusion Guidelines, suggests a stronger association between radiographic fusion and clinical outcome, although, even now, no clear correlation has been demonstrated. Although several reports suggest that clinical outcomes are improved with the addition of pedicle screw fixation, there are conflicting findings from similarly classified evidence. Furthermore, the largest contemporary, randomized, controlled study on this topic failed to demonstrate a significant clinical benefit with the use of pedicle screw fixation in patients undergoing PLF for chronic low-back pain. This absence of proof should not, however, be interpreted as proof of absence. Several limitations continue to compromise these investigations. For example, in the majority of studies the sample size is insufficient to detect small increments in clinical outcome that may be observed with pedicle screw fixation. Therefore, no definitive statement regarding the efficacy of pedicle screw fixation as a means to improve functional outcomes in patients undergoing PLF for chronic low-back pain can be made. There appears to be consistent evidence suggesting that pedicle screw fixation increases the costs and complication rate of PLF. High-risk patients, including (but not limited to) patients who smoke, patients who are undergoing revision surgery, or patients who suffer from medical conditions that may compromise fusion potential, may appreciate a greater benefit with supplemental pedicle screw fixation. It is recommended, therefore, that the use of pedicle screw fixation as a supplement to PLF be reserved for those patients in whom there is an increased risk of nonunion when treated with only PLF. PMID:24980589

Groff, Michael W; Dailey, Andrew T; Ghogawala, Zoher; Resnick, Daniel K; Watters, William C; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Choudhri, Tanvir F; Eck, Jason C; Sharan, Alok; Wang, Jeffrey C; Dhall, Sanjay S; Kaiser, Michael G

2014-07-01

172

Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion for the Correction of Spondylolisthesis and Adult Degenerative Scoliosis in High-Risk Patients: Early Radiographic Results and Complications  

PubMed Central

Background Lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) is not associated with many of the complications seen in other interbody fusion techniques. This study used computed tomography (CT) scans, the radiographic gold standard, to assess interbody fusion rates achieved utilizing the LLIF technique in high-risk patients. Methods We performed a retrospective review of patients who underwent LLIF between January 2008 and July 2013. Forty-nine patients underwent nonstaged or staged LLIF on 119 levels with posterior correction and augmentation. Per protocol, patients received CT scans at their 1-year follow-up. Of the 49 patients, 21 patients with LLIF intervention on 54 levels met inclusion criteria. Two board-certified musculoskeletal radiologists and the senior surgeon (JZ) assessed fusion. Results Of the 21 patients, 6 patients had had previous lumbar surgery, and the cohort's comorbidities included osteoporosis, diabetes, obesity, and smoking, among others. Postoperative complications occurred in 12 (57.1%) patients and included anterior thigh pain and weakness in 6 patients, all of which resolved by 6 months. Two cases of proximal junctional kyphosis occurred, along with 1 case of hardware pullout. Two cases of abdominal atonia occurred. By CT scan assessment, each radiologist found fusion was achieved in 53 of 54 levels (98%). The radiologists' findings were in agreement with the senior surgeon. Conclusion Several studies have evaluated LLIF fusion and reported fusion rates between 88%-96%. Our results demonstrate high fusion rates using this technique, despite multiple comorbidities in the patient population. Spanning the ring apophysis with large LLIF cages along with supplemental posterior pedicle screw augmentation can enhance stability of the fusion segment and increase fusion rates. PMID:24688329

Waddell, Brad; Briski, David; Qadir, Rabah; Godoy, Gustavo; Houston, Allison Howard; Rudman, Ernest; Zavatsky, Joseph

2014-01-01

173

Clinical Experience of the Dynamic Stabilization System for the Degenerative Spine Disease  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of the present study was to assess the safety and efficacy of the dynamic stabilization system in the treatment of degenerative spinal diseases. Methods The study population included 20 consecutive patients (13 females, 7 males) with a mean age of 61±6.98 years (range 46-70) who underwent decompression and dynamic stabilization with the Dynesys system between January 2005 and August 2006. The diagnoses included spinal stenosis with degenerative spondylolisthesis (9/20, 45%), degenerative spinal stenosis (5/20, 25%), adjacent segmental disease after fusion (3/20, 15%), spinal stenosis with degenerative scoliosis (2/20, 10%) and recurrent intervertebral lumbar disc herniation (1/20, 5%). All of the patients completed the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Korean version of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). The following radiologic parameters were measured in all patients : global lordotic angles and segmental lordotic angles (stabilized segments, above and below adjacent segments). The range of motion (ROM) was then calculated. Results The mean follow-up period was 27.25±5.16 months (range 16-35 months), and 19 patients (95%) were available for follow-up. One patient had to have the implant removed. There were 30 stabilized segments in 19 patients. Monosegmental stabilization was performed in 9 patients (47.3%), 9 patients (47.3%) underwent two segmental stabilizations and one patient (5.3%) underwent three segmental stabilizations. The most frequently treated segment was L4-5 (15/30, 50%), followed by L3-4 (12/30, 40%) and L5-S1 (3/30, 10%). The VAS decreased from 8.55±1.21 to 2.20±1.70 (p<0.001), and the patients' mean score on the Korean version of the ODI improved from 79.58%±15.93% to 22.17%±17.24% (p<0.001). No statistically significant changes were seen on the ROM at the stabilized segments (p=0.502) and adjacent segments (above segments, p=0.453, below segments, p=0.062). There were no patients with implant failure. Conclusion The results of this study show that the Dynesys system could preserve the motion of stabilized segments and provide clinical improvement in patients with degenerative spinal stenosis with instability. Thus, dynamic stabilization systems with adequate decompression may be an alternative surgical option to conventional fusion in selected patients. PMID:19096600

Lee, Soo-Eon; Park, Sung-Bae; Chung, Chun-Kee; Kim, Hyun-Jib

2008-01-01

174

Influence of single-level lumbar degenerative disc disease on the behavior of the adjacent segments--a finite element model study.  

PubMed

The current study investigated mechanical predictors for the development of adjacent disc degeneration. A 3-D finite element model of a lumbar spine was modified to simulate two grades of degeneration at the L4-L5 disc. Degeneration was modeled by changes in geometry and material properties. All models were subjected to follower preloads of 800N and moment loads in the three principal directions of motion using a hybrid protocol. Degeneration caused changes in the loading and motion patterns of the segments above and below the degenerated disc. At the level (L3-L4) above the degenerated disc, the motion increased due to moderate degeneration by 21% under lateral bending, 26% under axial rotation and 28% under flexion/extension. At the level (L5-S1) below the degenerated disc, motion increased only during lateral bending by 20% due to moderate degeneration. Both the L3-L4 and L5-S1 segment showed a monotonic increase in both the maximum von Mises stress and shear stress in the annulus as degeneration progressed for all loading directions, expect extension at L3-L4. The most significant increase in stress was observed at the L5-S1 level during axial rotation with nearly a ten-fold increase in the maximum shear stress and 103% increase in the maximum von Mises stress. The L5-S1 segment also showed a progressive increase in facet contact force for all loading directions with degeneration. Nucleus pressure did not increase significantly for any loading direction at either the caudal or cephalic adjacent segment. Results suggest that single-level degeneration can increase the risk for injury at the adjacent levels. PMID:19136113

Ruberté, Lissette M; Natarajan, Raghu N; Andersson, Gunnar Bj

2009-02-01

175

Fracture of the L-4 vertebral body after use of a stand-alone interbody fusion device in degenerative spondylolisthesis for anterior L3-4 fixation.  

PubMed

Many studies attest to the excellent results achieved using anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) for degenerative spondylolisthesis. The purpose of this report is to document a rare instance of L-4 vertebral body fracture following use of a stand-alone interbody fusion device for L3-4 ALIF. The patient, a 55-year-old man, had suffered intractable pain of the back, right buttock, and left leg for several weeks. Initial radiographs showed Grade I degenerative spondylolisthesis, with instability in the sagittal plane (upon 15° rotation) and stenosis of central and both lateral recesses at the L3-4 level. Anterior lumbar interbody fusion of the affected vertebrae was subsequently conducted using a stand-alone cage/plate system. Postoperatively, the severity of spondylolisthesis diminished, with resolution of symptoms. However, the patient returned 2 months later with both leg weakness and back pain. Plain radiographs and CT indicated device failure due to anterior fracture of the L-4 vertebral body, and the spondylolisthesis had recurred. At this point, bilateral facetectomies were performed, with reduction/fixation of L3-4 by pedicle screws. Again, degenerative spondylolisthesis improved postsurgically and symptoms eased, with eventual healing of the vertebral body fracture. This report documents a rare instance of L-4 vertebral body fracture following use of a stand-alone device for ALIF at L3-4, likely as a consequence of angular instability in degenerative spondylolisthesis. Under such conditions, additional pedicle screw fixation is advised. PMID:24725181

Kwon, Yoon-Kwang; Jang, Ju-Hee; Lee, Choon-Dae; Lee, Sang-Ho

2014-06-01

176

Chronic pain coping styles in patients with herniated lumbar discs and coexisting spondylotic changes treated surgically: Considering clinical pain characteristics, degenerative changes, disability, mood disturbances, and beliefs about pain control  

PubMed Central

Background Pain catastrophizing, appraisals of pain control, styles of coping, and social support have been suggested to affect functioning in patients with low back pain. We investigated the relation of chronic pain coping strategies to psychological variables and clinical data, in patients treated surgically due to lumbar disc herniation and coexisting spondylotic changes. Material/Methods The average age of study participants (n=90) was 43.47 years (SD 10.21). Patients completed the Polish versions of the Chronic Pain Coping Inventory-42 (PL-CPCI-42), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-PL), Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ-PL), Beliefs about Pain Control Questionnaire (BPCQ-PL), and Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMQ-PL). Results In the PL-CPCI-42 results, resting, guarding and coping self-statements were frequently used as coping strategies (3.96 SD 1.97; 3.72 SD 1.72; 3.47 SD 2.02, respectively). In the CSQ-PL domains, catastrophizing and praying/hoping were frequently used as coping strategies (3.62 SD 1.19). The mean score obtained from the BDI-PL was 11.86 SD 7.23, and 12.70 SD 5.49 from the RMDQ-PL. BPCQ-PL results indicate that the highest score was in the subscale measuring beliefs that powerful others can control pain (4.36 SD 0.97). Exercise correlated significantly with beliefs about internal control of pain (rs=0.22). We identified associations between radiating pain and guarding (p=0.038) and between sports recreation and guarding (p=0.013) and task persistence (p=0.041). Conclusions Back pain characteristics, depressive mood, disability, and beliefs about personal control of pain are related to chronic LBP coping styles. Most of the variables related to advancement of degenerative changes were not associated with coping efforts. PMID:24370564

Misterska, Ewa; Jankowski, Roman; Glowacki, Maciej

2013-01-01

177

[Dynamic instrumentation of the lumbar spine. Clinical and biomechanical analysis of success factors].  

PubMed

Total disc replacement and posterior dynamic stabilization represent alternatives to lumbar spinal fusion which should reduce the risk of adjacent segment degeneration. Disc replacement is indicated for pure discopathy without facet joint degeneration. Spinopelvic balance influences the implant's biomechanics. Therefore pelvic incidence, sacral slope, segmental lordosis and the mean axis of rotation need to be considered. Dynamic stabilization is indicated in moderate discopathy and facet joint degeneration, in degenerative spondylolisthesis grade I with a hypermobile segment and in dynamic lumbar stenosis. The combination of caudal fusion and cranial dynamic stabilization allows a better maintenance of lordosis with multiple level instrumentation and prevents adjacent segment degeneration. If pelvic incidence and sacral slope are high, L5-S1 should be fused because of elevated shear forces. PMID:21681502

Charles, Y P; Walter, A; Schuller, S; Steib, J-P

2011-08-01

178

Pyloric stenosis  

MedlinePLUS

Congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis; Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis; Gastric outlet obstruction ... intestine through a valve called the pylorus. With pyloric stenosis, the muscles of the pylorus are thickened. This ...

179

Combination of lumbar kyphosis, epidural lipomatosis, and perineural cyst as a cause of neurological deficit: a case report.  

PubMed

We describe the rare simultaneous occurrence of epidural lipomatosis and a perineural cyst at the same level, lumbar kyphosis, osteoporotic vertebral fractures, and neurological deficits. A 75-year-old corticosteroid-dependent female farmer presented with severe low back pain, progressive lumbar kyphosis, and inability to stand because of numbness and muscle weakness of both legs. Plain radiographs displayed markedly decreased bone density, significant lumbar kyphosis, and vertebral compression fractures of L2, L3, and L4. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine revealed a perineural cyst at the L2-3 level, extensive epidural lipomatosis, and spinal canal stenosis. Laminectomy from L3 to L5 with resection of epidural fatty tissue restored her walking ability. We postulate that the osteoporotic fractures and epidural lipomatosis were induced by corticosteroid therapy. Preexisting degenerative lumbar kyphosis of the type commonly seen in elderly farmers could have promoted osteoporotic lumbar vertebral fractures at points where bending stress had been strongly exerted. The combination of a perineural cyst and epidural lipomatosis at the same level has not been reported previously. PMID:12486480

Miyakoshi, Naohisa; Shimada, Yoichi; Murai, Hajime; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Hongo, Michio; Itoi, Eiji

2002-01-01

180

Radiographic predisposing factors for degenerative spondylolisthesis.  

PubMed

This study was a retrospective radiographic study involving analysis of computed tomography scans obtained for patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis of the L4-L5 segment and a control group. The purpose of the study was to identify radiological predisposing factors for degenerative spondylolisthesis of the L4-L5 segment. The authors reviewed all computed tomography scans (N=3370) performed at their institution between January 2005 and December 2008. Eighty-four patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis were identified and compared with a control group regarding facet joint orientation, the presence of sacralization of the L5 vertebra, the presence of major degenerative changes in the L5-S1 disk space, and the location of the intercrestal line. There was a statistically significant difference between the 2 groups regarding facet joint orientation, with more sagittal facet joints in the degenerative spondylolisthesis group (56° and 54° in the right and left facets, respectively, in the study group, and 46° and 42° in the right and left facets, respectively, in the control group) (P<.001). There was no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups regarding the presence of sacralization of the L5 vertebra, the presence of major degenerative changes in the L5-S1 disk space, and the location of the intercrestal line relative to the lumbar spine. There is an association between sagittal orientation of the facet joints at the L4-L5 segment and degenerative spondylolisthesis at the same level. PMID:24762153

Smorgick, Yossi; Mirovsky, Yigal; Fischgrund, Jeffrey S; Baker, Kevin C; Gelfer, Yael; Anekstein, Yoram

2014-03-01

181

Spontaneous hemorrhage into a lumbar synovial cyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lumbar synovial cysts frequently present with back pain, chronic radiculopathy and\\/or progressive symptoms of spinal canal\\u000a compromise. These cysts generally appear in the context of degenerative lumbar spinal disease. Few cases of spontaneous hemorrhage\\u000a into synovial cysts have been reported in the literature.

Marta CicuendezJose; Jose F. Alen; Ana Ramos; Ramiro D. Lobato; Alfonso Lagares

2010-01-01

182

Spontaneous hemorrhage into a lumbar synovial cyst.  

PubMed

Lumbar synovial cysts frequently present with back pain, chronic radiculopathy and/or progressive symptoms of spinal canal compromise. These cysts generally appear in the context of degenerative lumbar spinal disease. Few cases of spontaneous hemorrhage into synovial cysts have been reported in the literature. PMID:20174835

Cicuendez, Marta; Alen, Jose F; Ramos, Ana; Lobato, Ramiro D; Lagares, Alfonso

2010-07-01

183

Evaluation of Functional Outcomes in Individuals 10 Years after Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion with Corundum Implants and Decompression: A Comparison of 2 Surgical Techniques  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate lumbar spine-related functional disability in individuals 10 years after lumbar decompression and lumbar decompression with posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) with corundum implants surgery for degenerative stenosis and to compare the long-term outcome of these 2 surgical techniques. Material/Methods From 1998 to 2002, 100 patients with single-level lumbar stenosis were surgically treated. The patients were randomly divided into 2 groups that did not differ in terms of clinical or neurological symptoms. Group A consisted of 50 patients who were treated with PLIF and the use of porous ceramic corundum implants; the mean age was 57.74 and BMI was 27.34. Group B consisted of 50 patients treated with decompression by fenestration; mean age was 51.28 and the mean BMI was 28.84. Results There was no statistical significance regarding age, BMI, and sex. Both treatments revealed significant improvements. In group A, ODI decreased from 41.01% to 14.3% at 1 year and 16.3 at 10 years. In group B, ODI decreased from 63.8% to 18.36% at 1 year and 22.36% at 10 years. The difference between groups was statistically significant. There were no differences between the groups regarding the Rolland-Morris disability questionnaire and VAS at 1 and 10 years after surgery. Conclusions Long-term results evaluated according to the ODI, the Rolland-Morris disability questionnaire, and the VAS showed that the both methods significantly reduce patient disability, and this was maintained during next 10 years. The less invasive fenestration procedure was only slightly less favorable than surgical treatment of stenosis by both PLIF with corundum implants and decompression. PMID:25106708

Truszczynska, Aleksandra; Rapala, Kazimierz; Lukawski, Stanislaw; Trzaskoma, Zbigniew; Tarnowski, Adam; Drzal-Grabiec, Justyna; Cabak, Anna

2014-01-01

184

Treatment of degenerative spondylolisthesis: potential impact of dynamic stabilization based on imaging analysis  

PubMed Central

Intraspinous and pedicle screw-based (PSB) dynamic instrumentation systems have been in use for a decade now. By direct or indirect decompression, these devices theoretically establish less painful segmental motion by diminishing pathologic motion and unloading painful disks. Ideally, dynamics should address instability in the early stages of degenerative spondylolisthesis before excessive translation occurs. Evidence to date indicates that Grade II or larger slips requiring decompression should be fused. In addition, multiple segment listhesis, severe coronal plane deformities, increasing age, and osteoporosis have all been listed as potential contraindications to dynamic stabilization. We reviewed the exclusion and inclusion criteria found in various dynamic stabilization studies and investigational drug exemption (IDE) protocols. We summarize the reported limitations for both pedicle- and intraspinous-based systems. We then conducted a retrospective chart and imaging review of 100 consecutive cases undergoing fusion for degenerative spondylolisthesis. All patients in our cohort had been indicated for and eventually underwent decompression of lumbar stenosis secondary to spondylolisthesis. We estimated how many patients in our population would have been candidates for dynamic stabilization with either interspinous or pedicle-based systems. Using the criteria for instability outlined in the literature, 32 patients demonstrated translation requiring fusion surgery and 24 patients had instability unsuitable for dynamic stabilization. Six patients had two-level slips and were excluded. Two patients had coronal imbalance too great for dynamic systems. Twelve patients were over the age of 80 and 16 demonstrated osteoporosis as diagnosed by bone scan. Finally, we found two of our patients to have vertebral compression fractures adjacent to the site of instrumentation, which is a strict exclusion criteria in all dynamic trials. Thirty-four patients had zero exclusion criteria for intraspinous devices and 23 patients had none for PSB dynamic stabilization. Therefore, we estimate that 34 and 23% of degenerative spondylolisthesis patients indicated for surgery could have been treated with either intraspinous or pedicle-based dynamic devices, respectively. PMID:19330364

Lawhorne, Thomas W.; Girardi, Federico P.; Pappou, Iaonnis; Cammisa, Frank P.

2009-01-01

185

Pyloric stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infantile pyloric stenosis is the most frequently encountered infant gastrointestinal obstruction in most general hospitals.\\u000a Although the primary therapy for pyloric stenosis is surgical, it is essential to realize that pyloric stenosis is a medical\\u000a and not a surgical emergency. Preoperative preparation is the primary factor contributing to the low perioperative complication\\u000a rates and the necessity to recognize fluid and

Bruno Bissonnette; Patrick J. Sullivan

1991-01-01

186

Kinematic evaluation of the adjacent segments after lumbar instrumented surgery: a comparison between rigid fusion and dynamic non-fusion stabilization.  

PubMed

The aim of the current study was to evaluate changes in lumbar kinematics after lumbar monosegmental instrumented surgery with rigid fusion and dynamic non-fusion stabilization. A total of 77 lumbar spinal stenosis patients with L4 degenerative spondylolisthesis underwent L4-5 monosegmental posterior instrumented surgery. Of these, 36 patients were treated with rigid fusion (transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion) and 41 with dynamic stabilization [segmental spinal correction system (SSCS)]. Lumbar kinematics was evaluated with functional radiographs preoperatively and at final follow-up postoperatively. We defined the contribution of each segmental mobility to the total lumbar mobility as the percent segmental mobility [(sagittal angular motion of each segment in degrees)/(total sagittal angular motion in degrees) × 100]. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed on all patients preoperatively and at final follow-up postoperatively. The discs were classified into five grades based on the previously reported system. We defined the progress of disc degeneration as (grade at final follow-up) - (grade at preoperatively). No significant kinematical differences were shown at any of the lumbar segments preoperatively; however, significant differences were observed at the L2-3, L4-5, and L5-S1 segments postoperatively between the groups. At final follow-up, all of the lumbar segments with rigid fusion demonstrated significantly greater disc degeneration than those with dynamic stabilization. Our results suggest that the SSCS preserved 14% of the kinematical operations at the instrumented segment. The SSCS may prevent excessive effects on adjacent segmental kinematics and may prevent the incidence of adjacent segment disorder. PMID:21301893

Morishita, Yuichiro; Ohta, Hideki; Naito, Masatoshi; Matsumoto, Yoshiyuki; Huang, George; Tatsumi, Masato; Takemitsu, Yoshiharu; Kida, Hirotaka

2011-09-01

187

Skipping Posterior Dynamic Transpedicular Stabilization for Distant Segment Degenerative Disease  

PubMed Central

Objective. To date, there is still no consensus on the treatment of spinal degenerative disease. Current surgical techniques to manage painful spinal disorders are imperfect. In this paper, we aimed to evaluate the prospective results of posterior transpedicular dynamic stabilization, a novel surgical approach that skips the segments that do not produce pain. This technique has been proven biomechanically and radiologically in spinal degenerative diseases. Methods. A prospective study of 18 patients averaging 54.94 years of age with distant spinal segment degenerative disease. Indications consisted of degenerative disc disease (57%), herniated nucleus pulposus (50%), spinal stenosis (14.28%), degenerative spondylolisthesis (14.28%), and foraminal stenosis (7.1%). The Oswestry Low-Back Pain Disability Questionnaire and visual analog scale (VAS) for pain were recorded preoperatively and at the third and twelfth postoperative months. Results. Both the Oswestry and VAS scores showed significant improvement postoperatively (P < 0.05). We observed complications in one patient who had spinal epidural hematoma. Conclusion. We recommend skipping posterior transpedicular dynamic stabilization for surgical treatment of distant segment spinal degenerative disease. PMID:23091736

Solmaz, Bilgehan; Aydin, Ahmet Levent; Gomleksiz, Cengiz; Ataker, Yaprak; Sasani, Mehdi; Oktenoglu, Tunc; Ozer, Ali Fahir

2012-01-01

188

Synovial cysts of the lumbar spine: CT and MRI correlations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intraspinal synovial cysts were diagnosed in six patients during a 5-year period and retrospectively studied. Plain films of the lumbar spine showed degenerative changes in all patients. Lumbar myelography showed a posterior and lateral defect caused by extradural compression. Using CT without constrast enhancement established the diagnosis in five of the six-patients. in four cases MRI was performed, three before

P. Reginster; J. Collignon; R. F. Dondelinger

1994-01-01

189

Effect of a novel interspinous implant on lumbar spinal range of motion  

PubMed Central

Interspinous devices have been introduced to provide a minimally invasive surgical alternative for patients with lumbar spinal stenosis or foraminal stenosis. Little is known however, of the effect of interspinous devices on intersegmental range of motion (ROM). The aim of this in vivo study was to investigate the effect of a novel minimally invasive interspinous implant, InSwing®, on sagittal plane ROM of the lumbar spine using an ovine model. Ten adolescent Merino lambs underwent a destabilization procedure at the L1–L2 level simulating a stenotic degenerative spondylolisthesis (as described in our earlier work; Spine 15:571–576, 1990). All animals were placed in a side-lying posture and lateral radiographs were taken in full flexion and extension of the trunk in a standardized manner. Radiographs were repeated following the insertion of an 8-mm InSwing® interspinous device at L1–L2, and again with the implant secured by means of a tension band tightened to 1 N/m around the L1 and L2 spinous processes. ROM was assessed in each of the three conditions and compared using Cobb’s method. A paired t-test compared ROM for each of the experimental conditions (P < 0.05). After instrumentation with the InSwing® interspinous implant, the mean total sagittal ROM (from full extension to full flexion) was reduced by 16% from 6.3° to 5.3 ± 2.7°. The addition of the tension band resulted in a 43% reduction in total sagittal ROM to 3.6 ± 1.9° which approached significance. When looking at flexion only, the addition of the interspinous implant without the tension band did not significantly reduce lumbar flexion, however, a statistically significant 15% reduction in lumbar flexion was observed with the addition of the tension band (P = 0.01). To our knowledge, this is the first in vivo study radiographically showing the advantage of using an interspinous device to stabilize the spine in flexion. These results are important findings particularly for patients with clinical symptoms related to instable degenerative spondylolisthesis. PMID:19198894

Szpalski, Marek; Callary, Stuart A.; Colloca, Christopher J.; Kosmopoulos, Victor; Harrison, Deed; Moore, Robert J.

2009-01-01

190

Pulmonary valve stenosis  

MedlinePLUS

... valve pulmonary stenosis; Pulmonary stenosis; Stenosis - pulmonary valve; Balloon valvuloplasty - pulmonary ... water pills) Treat abnormal heartbeats and rhythms Percutaneous balloon pulmonary dilation (valvuloplasty) may be performed when no ...

191

Limited Laminectomy and Restorative Spinoplasty in Spinal Canal Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Study Design Prospective cohort study. Purpose Evaluation of the clinico-radiological outcome and complications of limited laminectomy and restorative spinoplasty in spinal canal stenosis. Overview of Literature It is critical to achieve adequate spinal decompression, while maintaining spinal stability. Methods Forty-four patients with degenerative lumbar canal stenosis underwent limited laminectomy and restorative spinoplasty at our centre from July 2008 to December 2010. Four patients were lost to follow-up leaving a total of 40 patients at an average final follow-up of 32 months (range, 24-41 months). There were 26 females and 14 males. The mean±standard deviation (SD) of the age was 64.7±7.6 years (range, 55-88 years). The final outcome was assessed using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score. Results At the time of the final follow-up, all patients recorded marked improvement in their symptoms, with only 2 patients complaining of occasional mild back pain and 1 patient complaining of occasional mild leg pain. The mean±SD for the preoperative claudication distance was 95.2±62.5 m, which improved to 582±147.7 m after the operation, and the preoperative anterio-posterior canal diameter as measured on the computed tomography scan was 8.3±2.1 mm, which improved to 13.2±1.8 mm postoperatively. The JOA score improved from a mean±SD of 13.3±4.1 to 22.9±4.1 at the time of the final follow-up. As for complications, dural tears occurred in 2 patients, for which repair was performed with no additional treatment needed. Conclusions Limited laminectomy and restorative spinoplasty is an efficient surgical procedure which relieves neurogenic claudication by achieving sufficient decompression of the cord with maintenance of spinal stability.

Sangwan, Sukhbir Singh; Garg, Rakesh; Kundu, Zile Singh; Gupta, Vinay; Kamboj, Pradeep

2014-01-01

192

Surgical Treatment of Adult Degenerative Scoliosis  

PubMed Central

The rapid increase of elderly population has resulted in increased prevalence of adult scoliosis. Adult scoliosis is divided into adult idiopathic scoliosis and adult degenerative scoliosis. These two types of scoliosis vary in patient age, curve pattern and clinical symptoms, which necessitate different surgical indications and options. Back pain and deformity are major indications for surgery in adult idiopathic scoliosis, whereas radiating pain to the legs due to foraminal stenosis is what often requires surgery in adult degenerative scoliosis. When selecting a surgical method, major symptoms and underlying medical diseases should be carefully evaluated, not only to relieve symptoms but also to minimize postoperative complications. Surgical options for adult degenerative scoliosis include: decompression alone; decompression and limited short fusion; and decompression coupled with long fusion and correction of deformity. Decompression and limited short fusion can be applied to patients with a small Cobb's angle and normal sagittal imbalance. For those with a large Cobb's angle and positive sagittal imbalance, long fusion with correction of deformity is required. When long fusion is applied, a careful decision regarding the extent of fusion level should be made when selecting L5 or S1 as the distal fusion level and T10 or the thoracolumbar junction as the proximal fusion level. For the fusion extending to the sacrum, restoration of sagittal balance and rigid fixation with additional iliac screws should be considered. Any surgical procedures for adult degenerative scoliosis are known to have relatively high occurrences of complications; therefore, risks and benefits should be meticulously considered before selecting a surgical procedure. PMID:24967054

Kim, Young-Tae; Shin, Sang-hyun; Suk, Se-Il

2014-01-01

193

The Effect of Iliac Crest Autograft on the Outcome of Fusion in the Setting of Degenerative Spondylolisthesis  

PubMed Central

Background: There is considerable controversy about the long-term morbidity associated with the use of posterior autologous iliac crest bone graft for lumbar spine fusion procedures compared with the use of bone-graft substitutes. The hypothesis of this study was that there is no long-term difference in outcome for patients who had posterior lumbar fusion with or without iliac crest autograft. Methods: The study population includes patients enrolled in the degenerative spondylolisthesis cohort of the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial who underwent lumbar spinal fusion. Patients were divided according to whether they had or had not received posterior autologous iliac crest bone graft. Results: There were 108 patients who had fusion with iliac crest autograft and 246 who had fusion without iliac crest autograft. There were no baseline differences between groups in demographic characteristics, comorbidities, or baseline clinical scores. At baseline, the group that received iliac crest bone graft had an increased percentage of patients who had multilevel fusions (32% versus 21%; p = 0.033) and L5-S1 surgery (37% versus 26%; p = 0.031) compared with the group without iliac crest autograft. Operative time was higher in the iliac crest bone-graft group (233.4 versus 200.9 minutes; p < 0.001), and there was a trend toward increased blood loss (686.9 versus 582.3; p = 0.057). There were no significant differences in postoperative complications, including infection or reoperation rates, between the groups. On the basis of the numbers available, no significant differences were detected between the groups treated with or without iliac crest bone graft with regard to the scores on Short Form-36, Oswestry Disability Index, Stenosis Bothersomeness Index, and Low Back Pain Bothersomeness Scale or the percent of patient satisfaction with symptoms averaged over the study period. Conclusions: The outcome scores associated with the use of posterior iliac crest bone graft for lumbar spinal fusion were not significantly lower than those after fusion without iliac crest autograft. Conversely, iliac crest bone-grafting was not associated with an increase in the complication rates or rates of reoperation. On the basis of these results, surgeons may choose to use iliac crest bone graft on a case-by-case basis for lumbar spinal fusion. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:22878599

Radcliff, Kristen; Hwang, Raymond; Hilibrand, Alan; Smith, Harvey E.; Gruskay, Jordan; Lurie, Jon D.; Zhao, Wenyan; Albert, Todd; Weinstein, James

2012-01-01

194

Minimally Invasive Cervical Foraminotomy and Decompression of Stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Many types of degenerative cervical spine disease can be treated with well-established posterior decompressive procedures.1–4 Even as anterior cervical procedures have gained prominence, posterior cervical laminoforaminotomy still provides symptomatic\\u000a relief in 92–97% of patients with radiculopathy from foraminal stenosis or lateral herniated discs.3, 5 Similarly, posterior cervical decompression for cervical stenosis achieves neurological improvement in 62.5–83% of myelopathic\\u000a patients undergoing

John E. O’Toole; Kurt M. Eichholz; Richard G. Fessler

195

Posterior dynamic stabilization of the lumbar spine with the Accuflex rod system as a stand-alone device: experience in 20 patients with 2-year follow-up  

PubMed Central

Decompression surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis is a common procedure. After surgery, segmental instability sometimes occurs, therefore, different methods for restabilization have been developed. Dynamic stabilization systems have been designed to improve segmental stability. In this study, clinical results of patients with lumbar spinal stenosis that underwent decompression and stabilization with the Accuflex dynamic system are presented; clinical, radiographic, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings are fully described. Improvements in all clinical measurements, including visual analog scale for back and leg pain, Oswestry disability index, and SF-36 health status survey were noticed. At a 2-year follow-up, 22.22% of patients required hardware removal due to fatigue while in 83% of them no progression of disk degeneration was observed after implantation of the Accuflex system. Additionally, as demonstrated by the MRI images at follow up, three patients (16%) showed disk rehydration with one grade higher on the Pfirmann classification. Although a relatively high hardware failure was observed (22.22%), the use of the dynamic stabilization system Accuflex posterior to decompression procedures, showed clinical benefits and stopped the degenerative process in 83% the patients. PMID:20496039

Reyes-Sanchez, Alejandro; Ramirez-Mora, Isabel; Rosales-Olivarez, Luis Miguel; Alpizar-Aguirre, Armando; Sanchez-Bringas, Guadalupe

2010-01-01

196

Degenerative spinal disease in large felids.  

PubMed

Degenerative spinal disorders, including intervertebral disc disease and spondylosis, seldom occur in domestic cats. In contrast, a retrospective study of 13 lions (Panthera leo), 16 tigers (Panthera tigris), 4 leopards (Panthera pardis), 1 snow leopard (Panthera uncia), and 3 jaguars (Panthera onca) from the Knoxville Zoo that died or were euthanatized from 1976 to 1996 indicated that degenerative spinal disease is an important problem in large nondomestic felids. The medical record, radiographic data, and the necropsy report of each animal were examined for evidence of intervertebral disc disease or spondylosis. Eight (three lions, four tigers, and one leopard) animals were diagnosed with degenerative spinal disease. Clinical signs included progressively decreased activity, moderate to severe rear limb muscle atrophy, chronic intermittent rear limb paresis, and ataxia. The age at onset of clinical signs was 10-19 yr (median = 18 yr). Radiographic evaluation of the spinal column was useful in assessing the severity of spinal lesions, and results were correlated with necropsy findings. Lesions were frequently multifocal, included intervertebral disc mineralization or herniation with collapsed intervertebral disc spaces, and were most common in the lumbar area but also involved cervical and thoracic vertebrae. Marked spondylosis was present in the cats with intervertebral disc disease, presumably subsequent to vertebral instability. Six of the animals' spinal cords were examined histologically, and five had acute or chronic damage to the spinal cord secondary to disc protrusion. Spinal disease should be suspected in geriatric large felids with decreased appetite or activity. Radiographic evaluation of the spinal column is the most useful method to assess the type and severity of spinal lesions. PMID:10884118

Kolmstetter, C; Munson, L; Ramsay, E C

2000-03-01

197

Extradural Corticosteroid Injection in Management of Lumbar Nerve Root Compression  

PubMed Central

The effect of extradural corticosteroid injection in patients with nerve root compression syndromes associated with degenerative disease of the lumbar intervertebral discs was assessed in a double-blind controlled trial on 100 consecutive inpatients assigned by random allocation to treatment and control groups. Assessment during admission and at three months revealed statistically highly significant differences in respect of relief of pain and resumption of normal occupation in favour of the group treated by extradural injection. This treatment seems to be a valuable adjunct to the management of lumbar nerve root compression syndromes associated with degenerative disc disease. PMID:4577015

Dilke, T. F. W.; Burry, H. C.; Grahame, R.

1973-01-01

198

Myenteric plexus neuropathy in infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The myenteric plexus and intramuscular nerve bundles in the circular muscle layer of the pylorus from 37 children with infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) obtained at pyloromyotomy were studied by light and electron microscopy and compared to six control cases without clinical evidence of IHPS. In certain IHPS cases degenerative alterations of the axons predominated. The axonal changes consisted of

R. Dieler; J. M. Schröder

1989-01-01

199

Health economic evaluation in lumbar spinal fusion: a systematic literature review anno 2005.  

PubMed

The goal of this systematic literature review was to assess the evidence for cost-effectiveness of various surgical techniques in lumbar spinal fusion in conformity with the guidelines provided by the Cochrane Back Review Group. As new technology continuously emerges and divergent directions in clinical practice are present, economic evaluation is needed in order to facilitate the decision-makers' budget allocations. NHS Economic Evaluation Database, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library were searched. Two independent reviewers (one clinical content expert and one economic content expert) applied the eligibility criteria. A list of criteria for methodological quality assessment was established by merging the criteria recommended by leading health economists with the criteria recommended by the Cochrane Back Review Group. The two reviewers independently scored the selected literature and the disagreement was resolved by means of consensus following discussion. Key data were extracted and the level of evidence concluded. Seven studies were eligible; these studies reflected the diversified choices of economic methodology, study populations (diagnosis), outcome measures and comparators. At the conclusion of quality assessment, the methodological quality of three studies was judged credible. Two studies investigated posteolateral fusion (PLF) +/- instrumentation in different populations: one investigated non-specific low back pain and one investigated degenerative stenosis + spondylolisthesis. Both studies reflected that cost-effectiveness of instrumentation in PLF is not convincing. The third study concerned the question of circumferential vs anterior lumbar interbody fusion and found a non-significant difference between the techniques. In conclusion, the literature is limited and, in view of the fact that the clinical effects are statistically synonymous, it does not support the use of high-cost techniques. There is a great potential for improvement of methodological quality in economic evaluations of lumbar spinal fusion and further research is imperative. PMID:16369828

Soegaard, Rikke; Christensen, Finn B

2006-08-01

200

Outcome of percutaneous rupture of lumbar synovial cysts: a case series of 101 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background contextLumbar facet joint synovial cysts are benign degenerative abnormalities of the lumbar spine. Previous reports have supported operative and nonoperative management. Facet joint steroid injection with cyst rupture is occasionally performed, but there has been no systematic evaluation of this treatment option.

Julia F. Martha; Bryan Swaim; David A. Wang; David H. Kim; James Hill; Rita Bode; Carolyn E. Schwartz

2009-01-01

201

Detrusor Overactivity and Penile Erection in Patients with Lower Lumbar Spine Lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To investigate urodynamically detrusor overactivity and evaluate surgical outcome in patients with lower lumbar spine lesions. Methods: Eighty patients with spine lesions below the third lumbar spine including 31 patients with intervertebral disc prolapse (IDP) (mean age: 38.2 years) and 49 patients with spinal canal stenosis (SCS) (mean age: 56.7 years) were studied. Urinary symptoms and urodynamic data were

Tomonori Yamanishi; Kosaku Yasuda; Ryuji Sakakibara; Naoto Murayama; Takamichi Hattori; Haruo Ito

1998-01-01

202

Clinical applications of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar foraminal nerve root entrapment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can provide valuable structural information about tissues that may be useful for clinical\\u000a applications in evaluating lumbar foraminal nerve root entrapment. Our purpose was to visualize the lumbar nerve root and\\u000a to analyze its morphology, and to measure its apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in healthy volunteers and patients with\\u000a lumbar foraminal stenosis using 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging.

Yawara Eguchi; Seiji Ohtori; Masaomi Yamashita; Kazuyo Yamauchi; Munetaka Suzuki; Sumihisa Orita; Hiroto Kamoda; Gen Arai; Tetsuhiro Ishikawa; Masayuki Miyagi; Nobuyasu Ochiai; Shunji Kishida; Yoshitada Masuda; Shigehiro Ochi; Takashi Kikawa; Masashi Takaso; Yasuchika Aoki; Tomoaki Toyone; Takane Suzuki; Kazuhisa Takahashi

2010-01-01

203

Wallis interspinous implantation to treat degenerative spinal disease: description of the method and case series.  

PubMed

The Wallis interspinous implant is most commonly used in the treatment of intervertebral disc herniation and for tears in the outer layer of the disc. The dynamic vertebral fixation concept was first initiated in 1984 with the goal of imitating the physiologic spinal kinetic. A total of 15 years later, a second generation of implant has been developed, termed the 'Wallis interspinous Implant', which aims to preserve the mobility of the operated spinal segment. To underline our own experience, a retrospective review of 15 patients that were treated with 'Wallis implantation' at our institution between January 2006 and March 2008. Our main inclusion criterion for Wallis implantation was low back pain because of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis associated with segmental instability along with Modic changes 0-1 and with UCLA arthritic grade lumbar surgery, severe osteoporosis or degeneration UCLA grade >II in the adjacent two segments cephalad to implantation. The outcome was analyzed according to clinical and radiological parameters. One (n = 9), two (n = 4) and three levels (n = 2) were operated on using Wallis implantation, ranging from L2-L3 to L5-S1. We used implants of 8-14 mm in size. There was a reduction in low back pain (73 vs 43%) and gait disturbances (73 vs 14%) at the 3-month follow-up compared with preoperative values. In line with these results, the modified Japan Orthopedic Association Score (mJAOS) was increased from 12 preoperatively to 18 at 3 months and 20 at 12 months postoperatively. A reduction in low back pain could only be demonstrated for implants that were 10 mm in size or greater at 3 months and 12-15 months postoperatively. An improvement was seen in Modic grades after the operations as compared with those observed at preoperative MRI. The outcome in our patients was rated as good or excellent according to Odom's criteria in all cases, independent of the levels that were used. Wallis implantation is therefore a safe procedure with a good to excellent outcome in the short- and mid-term follow-up and can lead to disc rehydration, as confirmed by postoperative MRI. Principal postoperative (clinical) success is based on the correct implant size. PMID:21651328

Sandu, Nora; Schaller, Bernhard; Arasho, Belachew; Orabi, Michael

2011-06-01

204

Lumbar spine CT scan  

MedlinePLUS

... lumbar spine; Computed axial tomography scan - lumbar spine; Computed tomography scan - lumbar spine; CT - lower back ... 2008:chap 2. Shaw AS, Dixon AK. Multidetector computed tomography. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, eds. Grainger & Allison's ...

205

Critical analysis of lumbar interspinous devices failures: a retrospective study.  

PubMed

Interspinous devices (IDs) were introduced in the 90s. Since then, they have rapidly become very popular for the minimally invasive treatment of lumbar pain disorders. They feature different shapes and biomechanical characteristics, and are used in the spine degenerative pathologies or as motion segment stabilizers (dynamic stabilization) or to obtain the decompression of neurological structures. The indications seem to be rather narrow and still to be verified in terms of their clinical efficacy. However, IDs are being extensively utilized beyond their classical indications with the inevitable risk of a clinical failure. The aim of the present work was to carry out a critical analysis of the causes of failure in a series of 19 patients. From January 2007 to March 2009, 19 patients with residual painful syndrome after the implantation of IDs were observed. The series includes 11 males and 8 females with a mean age of 53.6 years (range 38-84 years) who were operated on elsewhere and who underwent revision surgery at our hospital. The inclusion criteria were low back pain and/or radiculopathy after the device implantation without improvement of the painful symptomatology, radiculopathy with signs of sensory and motor deficit, intermittent neurogenic claudication, and infection. All patients were thoroughly re-assessed with new standard imaging examinations such as MRI and CT scans, considering the following image features: the position of the device with respect to the spinous processes (X-ray), the intervertebral disc disease of the level operated upon or of the adjacent levels (MRI), the segmental instability (dynamic X-rays), the severity of the canal stenosis (CT). The accurate evaluation of the clinical and imaging parameters revealed three main causes of failure: errors of indication, technical errors and the structural failure of the ID. The most frequent cause of failure was a wrong indication. The results of the study are presented and the causes of failure are discussed in detail. PMID:21404029

Tamburrelli, Francesco Ciro; Proietti, Luca; Logroscino, Carlo Ambrogio

2011-05-01

206

Radiographic changes in the lumbar spine in former professional football players: a comparative and matched controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy physical work and activity lead to degenerative changes, especially in the lumbar spine. We aimed to find out the occurence\\u000a of radiographic changes (vertebral osteophytes, heights of lumbar dicsc, concavity index) and abnormalities of the lumbar\\u000a spine in former professional football (association football or soccer) players according to their specialization (goalkeeper,\\u000a defender, midfielder, forward) in their past professional sport

Alpaslan Öztürk; Yüksel Özkan; Recai M. Özdemir; Nazan Yalç?n; Semra Akgöz; Vedat Saraç; Serkan Aykut

2008-01-01

207

Morphological cervical disc analysis applied to traumatic and degenerative lesions.  

PubMed

Trauma and degenerative pathologies at the lower cervical spine are different from lumbar spine pathologies. However, the description of cervical discs is classically taught similarly to that of the lumbar discs. Recent studies have raised this issue, and in 1999, Mercer and Bogduk described ventral annulus fibrosus as a crescent-shaped interosseous ligament. We propose a metric analysis of the different components of the cervical disc to examine this description. We analyzed 140 sagittal and coronal transections of 35 discs. These discs were taken from seven cervical spines at the five lower levels, C2-C3, C3-C4, C4-C5, C5-C6 and C6-C7. We measured quantitative parameters on sagittal, para-sagittal, ventral coronal and dorsal coronal colored transections: disc length (L), ventral annulus thickness (VAF), lateral annulus thickness (LAF), dorsal annulus thickness (DAF), length of the fibrocartilaginous tissue (FC), sagittal and coronal fibrocartilaginous core ratio (% Core) and intra-disc cleft length (Cleft). We also measured two qualitative parameters: degenerative disease of cartilaginous end plates and total intra-disc cleft. Finally, we examined 114 transections, and 18.5% were ruled out. The results showed thick ventral annulus fibrosus, thin lateral annulus and a very thin dorsal annulus. Fibrocartilaginous tissue filled the dorsal sagittal half of the disc. Intra-disc cleft split the fibrocartilaginous tissue and spread through the ventral annulus only six times. The shape of the ventral annulus at the lower cervical spine is compared to a pivot-hinge device. The aspect is functionally discussed in regard to teardrop fractures, unilateral locked facet syndrome and degenerative changes in the unco-vertebral area. PMID:15682275

Tonetti, J; Potton, L; Riboud, R; Peoc'h, M; Passagia, J-G; Chirossel, J-P

2005-08-01

208

Continuation of medically necessary platelet aggregation inhibitors - acetylsalicylic acid and clopidogrel - during surgery for spinal degenerative disorders: Results in 100 patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Patients undergoing spinal surgery while under anticoagulation therapy are at risk of developing bleeding complications, even though lower incidences have been reported for joint arthroplasty surgery. There is a gap in the medical literature examining the incidence of postoperative spinal bleeding in patients who were under anticoagulation medication at the time of surgery. Methods: We prospectively followed a consecutive cohort of 100 patients (58 male, 42 female) undergoing spinal surgery. The average patient age was 48.7 years and the minimum follow up time was 12 months. Diagnosis was lumbar spinal stenosis in 20, herniated lumbar discs in 63, degenerative cervical disc disease in 3, and cervical disc herniation in 14 cases. In our study, platelet aggregation inhibitors (clopidogrel and/or acetylsalicylic acid) were given for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular thrombotic events, to reduce risk of stroke in patients who have had transient ischemia of the brain or acute coronary syndrome, and as secondary prevention of atherosclerotic events (fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI). A cessation of anticoagulants (acetylsalicylic acid or clopidogrel) in our patients in the peri- and postoperative period was contraindicated. Results: Sixty-three patients were on both clopidogrel and acetylsalicylic acid and 37 on acetylsalicylic acid only. None of the patients suffered any postoperative bleeding complication. Three patients suffered postoperative wound dehiscence and one patient had an infection that required reoperation. Conclusion: The question of whether preoperative platelet aggregation inhibitors must be stopped before elective spinal surgery has never been answered in the literature. In our prospective series, we have found no increase in the risk of postoperative spinal bleeding with the use of clopidogrel or acetylsalicylic acid. This finding suggests that spine surgery can be done without stopping anticoagulation. Lacking specific guidelines, each patient should be treated on an individual basis, and the potential benefits of anticoagulation should be compared with the potential risks (risk–benefit ratio). PMID:25289165

Akhavan-Sigari, Reza; Rohde, Veit; Abili, Mehdi

2014-01-01

209

Clinical applications of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar foraminal nerve root entrapment  

PubMed Central

Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can provide valuable structural information about tissues that may be useful for clinical applications in evaluating lumbar foraminal nerve root entrapment. Our purpose was to visualize the lumbar nerve root and to analyze its morphology, and to measure its apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in healthy volunteers and patients with lumbar foraminal stenosis using 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging. Fourteen patients with lumbar foraminal stenosis and 14 healthy volunteers were studied. Regions of interest were placed at the fourth and fifth lumbar root at dorsal root ganglia and distal spinal nerves (at L4 and L5) and the first sacral root and distal spinal nerve (S1) on DWI to quantify mean ADC values. The anatomic parameters of the spinal nerve roots can also be determined by neurography. In patients, mean ADC values were significantly higher in entrapped roots and distal spinal nerve than in intact ones. Neurography also showed abnormalities such as nerve indentation, swelling and running transversely in their course through the foramen. In all patients, leg pain was ameliorated after selective decompression (n = 9) or nerve block (n = 5). We demonstrated the first use of DWI and neurography of human lumbar nerves to visualize and quantitatively evaluate lumbar nerve entrapment with foraminal stenosis. We believe that DWI is a potential tool for diagnosis of lumbar nerve entrapment. PMID:20632042

Ohtori, Seiji; Yamashita, Masaomi; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Suzuki, Munetaka; Orita, Sumihisa; Kamoda, Hiroto; Arai, Gen; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Miyagi, Masayuki; Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Kishida, Shunji; Masuda, Yoshitada; Ochi, Shigehiro; Kikawa, Takashi; Takaso, Masashi; Aoki, Yasuchika; Toyone, Tomoaki; Suzuki, Takane; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

2010-01-01

210

Clinical applications of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar foraminal nerve root entrapment.  

PubMed

Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can provide valuable structural information about tissues that may be useful for clinical applications in evaluating lumbar foraminal nerve root entrapment. Our purpose was to visualize the lumbar nerve root and to analyze its morphology, and to measure its apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in healthy volunteers and patients with lumbar foraminal stenosis using 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging. Fourteen patients with lumbar foraminal stenosis and 14 healthy volunteers were studied. Regions of interest were placed at the fourth and fifth lumbar root at dorsal root ganglia and distal spinal nerves (at L4 and L5) and the first sacral root and distal spinal nerve (S1) on DWI to quantify mean ADC values. The anatomic parameters of the spinal nerve roots can also be determined by neurography. In patients, mean ADC values were significantly higher in entrapped roots and distal spinal nerve than in intact ones. Neurography also showed abnormalities such as nerve indentation, swelling and running transversely in their course through the foramen. In all patients, leg pain was ameliorated after selective decompression (n = 9) or nerve block (n = 5). We demonstrated the first use of DWI and neurography of human lumbar nerves to visualize and quantitatively evaluate lumbar nerve entrapment with foraminal stenosis. We believe that DWI is a potential tool for diagnosis of lumbar nerve entrapment. PMID:20632042

Eguchi, Yawara; Ohtori, Seiji; Yamashita, Masaomi; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Suzuki, Munetaka; Orita, Sumihisa; Kamoda, Hiroto; Arai, Gen; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Miyagi, Masayuki; Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Kishida, Shunji; Masuda, Yoshitada; Ochi, Shigehiro; Kikawa, Takashi; Takaso, Masashi; Aoki, Yasuchika; Toyone, Tomoaki; Suzuki, Takane; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

2010-11-01

211

Normal values of the sagittal diameter of the lumbar spine (vertebral body and dural sac) in children measured by MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The definition of normal values is a prerequisite for the reliable evaluation of abnormality in the lumbar spine, such as spinal canal stenosis or dural ectasia in patients with Marfan syndrome. Values for vertebral body diameter (VBD) and dural sac diameter (DSD) for the lumbar spine have been published in adults. In children, normal values have been established using

Walter Knirsch; Claudia Kurtz; Nicole Häffner; Mathias Langer; Deniz Kececioglu

2005-01-01

212

Grading of degenerative disk disease and functional impairment: imaging versus patho-anatomical findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degenerative instability affecting the functional spinal unit is discussed as a cause of symptoms. The value of imaging signs\\u000a for assessing the resulting functional impairment is still unclear. To determine the relationship between slight degrees of\\u000a degeneration and function, we performed a biomechanical study with 18 multisegmental (L2-S2) human lumbar cadaveric specimens.\\u000a The multidirectional spinal deformation was measured during the

Ulrich Quint; Hans-Joachim Wilke

2008-01-01

213

Facet-sparing lumbar decompression with a minimally invasive flexible MicroBlade Shaver® versus traditional decompression: quantitative radiographic assessment  

PubMed Central

Background Laminectomy/laminotomy and foraminotomy are well established surgical techniques for treatment of symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis. However, these procedures have significant limitations, including limited access to lateral and foraminal compression and postoperative instability. The purpose of this cadaver study was to compare bone, ligament, and soft tissue morphology following lumbar decompression using a minimally invasive MicroBlade Shaver® instrument versus hemilaminotomy with foraminotomy (HL). Methods The iO-Flex® system utilizes a flexible over-the-wire MicroBlade Shaver instrument designed for facet-sparing, minimally invasive “inside-out” decompression of the lumbar spine. Unilateral decompression was performed at 36 levels in nine human cadaver specimens, six with age-appropriate degenerative changes and three with radiographically confirmed multilevel stenosis. The iO-Flex system was utilized on alternating sides from L2/3 to L5/S1, and HL was performed on the opposite side at each level by the same investigator. Spinal canal, facet joint, lateral recess, and foraminal morphology were assessed using computed tomography. Results Similar increases in soft tissue canal area and decreases in ligamentum flavum area were noted in nondiseased specimens, although HL required removal of 83% more laminar area (P < 0.01) and 95% more bone resection, including the pars interarticularis and facet joints (P < 0.001), compared with the iO-Flex system. Similar increases in lateral recess diameter were noted in nondiseased specimens using each procedure. In stenotic specimens, the increase in lateral recess diameter was significantly (P = 0.02) greater following use of the iO-Flex system (43%) versus HL (7%). The iO-Flex system resulted in greater facet joint preservation in nondiseased and stenotic specimens. In stenotic specimens, the iO-Flex system resulted in a significantly greater increase in foraminal width compared with HL (24% versus 4%, P = 0.01), with facet joint preservation. Conclusion The iO-Flex system resulted in significantly better decompression of the lateral recess and foraminal areas compared with HL, while preserving posterior spinal elements, including the facet joint. PMID:22879740

Lauryssen, Carl; Berven, Sigurd; Mimran, Ronnie; Summa, Christopher; Sheinberg, Michael; Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E

2012-01-01

214

Imaging of spinal stenosis: neurogenic intermittent claudication and cervical spondylotic myelopathy.  

PubMed

Spinal stenosis in either the cervical or lumbar spinal segments is one of the most common indications for spine imaging and intervention, particularly among the elderly. This article examines the pathophysiology and imaging of the corresponding clinical syndromes, cervical spondylotic myelopathy or neurogenic intermittent claudication. The specificity fault of spine imaging is readily evident in evaluation of spinal stenosis, as many patients with anatomic cervical or lumbar central canal narrowing are asymptomatic. Imaging also may be insensitive to dynamic lesions. Those imaging features that identify symptomatic patients, or predict response to interventions, are emphasized. PMID:22643390

Maus, Timothy P

2012-07-01

215

Comparison of posterior dynamic and posterior rigid transpedicular stabilization with fusion to treat degenerative spondylolisthesis.  

PubMed

This article describes the clinical and radiological outcomes of a comparison of posterior dynamic transpedicular stabilization and posterior rigid transpedicular stabilization with fusion after decompression in the treatment of degenerative spondylolisthesis. This prospective clinical and radiologic study was conducted between 2004 and 2007 and included 46 patients, of whom 33 were women (71.7%) and 13 were men (28.3%). Mean patient age was 61.67+/-10.80 years (range, 45-89 years). Twenty-six patients who underwent lumbar decompression and posterior dynamic transpedicular stabilization were followed for a mean of 38 months (range, 24-55 months). In the fusion group, 20 patients who underwent lumbar decompression and rigid stabilization with fusion were followed for a mean of 44 months (range, 26-64 months). The intervertebral space measurements of the dynamic group at the preoperative examination and at 12 and 24 months postoperatively were statistically significantly higher than the intervertebral space measurements of the fusion group (P<.05). In the dynamic group, complications occurred in 2 patients; the first was a screw malposition, which was improved with revision surgery within 1 month of the initial surgery, and the second was a fusion performed in the second year in 1 patient because the patient reported continued pain. In the fusion group, adjacent segment disease was observed in 1 patient, with subsequent reoperation. Lumbar decompression and posterior dynamic transpedicular stabilization yield satisfactory results in the treatment of degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis and can be considered a valid alternative to fusion. PMID:20506953

Kaner, Tuncay; Dalbayrak, Sedat; Oktenoglu, Tunc; Sasani, Mehdi; Aydin, Ahmet Levent; Ozer, Ali Fahir

2010-05-01

216

Retrospective study of 77 patients harbouring lumbar synovial cysts: Functional and neurological outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Background. Synovial cysts represent an uncommon and probably underestimated pathological entity of the degenerative lumbar spine. The\\u000a authors report a retrospective analysis of the clinical presentation, radiological studies and operative findings in 77 patients\\u000a surgically treated for symptomatic lumbar synovial cysts at their institution.\\u000a \\u000a Materials and method. Between January 1992 and June 1998, a total of 77 patients presenting with

P. Métellus; S. Fuentes; T. Adetchessi; O. Levrier; I. Flores-Parra; D. Talianu; H. Dufour; C. Bouvier; L. Manera; F. Grisoli

2006-01-01

217

Lumbar intraspinal synovial cyst containing gas as a cause for low-back pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To discuss intraspinal synovial cysts caused by degenerative changes involving the posterior articular facets in the lumbar spine and to provide differential considerations for patients with low-back pain.Clinical Features: A 70-year-old man with low-back and gluteal pain demonstrating eventual progression of radiating pain into the left thigh, calf, ankle, and foot over a 5-month period. Radiographs of the lumbar

Ronnie L. Firth

2000-01-01

218

Relationship between New Osteoporotic Vertebral Fracture and Instrumented Lumbar Arthrodesis  

PubMed Central

Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose To evaluate the relationship between a new osteoporotic vertebral fracture and instrumented lumbar arthrodesis. Overview of Literature In contrast to the growing recognition of the importance of adjacent segment disease after lumbar arthrodesis, relatively little attention has been paid to the relationship between osteoporotic vertebral fractures and instrumented lumbar arthrodesis. Methods Twenty five patients with a thoracolumbar vertebral fracture following instrumented arthrodesis for degenerative lumbar disorders (study group) were investigated. The influence of instrumented lumbar arthrodesis was examined by comparing the bone mineral density (BMD) of the femoral neck in the study group with that of 28 patients (control group) who had sustained a simple osteoporotic vertebral fracture. The fracture after instrumented arthrodesis was diagnosed at a mean 47 months (range, 7 to 100 months) after the surgery. Results There was a relatively better BMD in the study group, 0.67 ± 0.12 g/cm2 compared to the control group, 0.60 ± 0.13 g/cm2 (p = 0.013). The level of back pain improved from a mean of 7.5 ± 1.0 at the time of the fracture to a mean of 4.9 ± 2.0 at 1 year after the fracture (p = 0.001). However, 12 (48%) patients complained of severe back pain 1 year after the fracture. There was negative correlation between the BMD of the femoral neck and back pain at the last follow up (r = - 0.455, p = 0.022). Conclusions Osteoporotic vertebral fractures after instrumented arthrodesis contribute to the aggravation of back pain and the final outcome of degenerative lumbar disorders. Therefore, it is important to examine the possibility of new osteoporotic vertebral fractures for new-onset back pain after lumbar instrumented arthrodesis. PMID:21165309

Kim, Bung-Hak; Choi, Dong-Hyuk; Jeon, Seong-Hun

2010-01-01

219

Critical analysis of lumbar interspinous devices failures: a retrospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interspinous devices (IDs) were introduced in the 90s. Since then, they have rapidly become very popular for the minimally\\u000a invasive treatment of lumbar pain disorders. They feature different shapes and biomechanical characteristics, and are used\\u000a in the spine degenerative pathologies or as motion segment stabilizers (dynamic stabilization) or to obtain the decompression\\u000a of neurological structures. The indications seem to be

Francesco Ciro Tamburrelli; Luca Proietti; Carlo Ambrogio Logroscino

2011-01-01

220

MR imaging of lumbar facet joint synovial cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The increasing application of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the spine has raised the awareness of lumbar facet synovial\\u000a cysts (LFSC). This well recognised, yet uncommon condition, presents with low back pain and radiculopathy due to the presence\\u000a of an extradural mass. The commonest affected level is L4\\/5 with a mild degenerative spondylolisthesis a frequent associated\\u000a finding. MR imaging

E. Apostolaki; A. M. Davies; N. Evans; V. N. Cassar-Pullicino

2000-01-01

221

Spontaneous hemorrhage in an upper lumbar synovial cyst causing subacute cauda equina syndrome.  

PubMed

Lumbar spine synovial cysts are becoming more frequent, and they are generally associated with degenerative lumbar spinal disease. They are common in lower lumbar lesions but rare in upper lumbar lesions. Several cases of hemorrhage into lower lumbar juxtafacet cysts after trauma or anticoagulation therapy have been reported in the literature. This article describes a case of subacute cauda equina syndrome resulting from spontaneous hemorrhage into an upper lumbar synovial cyst. A 65-year-old man presented with a 3-month history of intermittent bilateral lumbar pain. One week before, he experienced a sudden exacerbation of lumbar pain and began falling frequently; he also reported weakness and tingling in his lower limbs. A hematic collection associated with a large juxtafacet cyst at L2-L3 was suspected on magnetic resonance imaging. He underwent surgical decompression, and the cyst was resected. Microscopic examination was consistent with the diagnosis of a synovial cyst. Two days postoperatively, he was walking independently. Although several descriptions exist of hemorrhagic lumbar juxtafacet cysts after trauma or anticoagulant therapy, to the authors' knowledge, this is the first documented case of hemorrhage in an upper lumbar synovial cyst with no previous traumatic event or medication use. Magnetic resonance imaging was essential in making the preoperative diagnosis. Surgical removal of the cyst was an effective treatment. PMID:22955421

Machino, Masaaki; Yukawa, Yasutsugu; Ito, Keigo; Kanbara, Shunsuke; Kato, Fumihiko

2012-09-01

222

Dynamic Stabilisation in the Treatment of Degenerative Disc Disease with Modic Changes  

PubMed Central

Objective. Posterior dynamic stabilization is an effective alternative to fusion in the treatment of chronic instability and degenerative disc disease (DDD) of the lumbar spine. This study was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of dynamic stabilization in chronic degenerative disc disease with Modic types 1 and 2. Modic types 1 and 2 degeneration can be painful. Classic approach in such cases is spine fusion. We operated 88 DDD patients with Modic types 1 and 2 via posterior dynamic stabilization. Good results were obtained after 2 years of followup. Methods. A total of 88 DDD patients with Modic types 1 and 2 were selected for this study. The patients were included in the study between 2004 and 2010. All of them were examined with lumbar anteroposterior (AP) and lateral X-rays. Lordosis of the lumbar spine, segmental lordosis, and ratio of the height of the intervertebral disc spaces (IVSs) were measured preoperatively and at 3, 12, and 24 months after surgery. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis was carried out, and according to the data obtained, the grade of disc degeneration was classified. The quality of life and pain scores were evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS) score and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) preoperatively and at 3, 12, and 24 months after surgery. Appropriate statistical method was chosen. Results. The mean 3- and 12-month postoperative IVS ratio was significantly greater than that of the preoperative group (P < 0.001). However, the mean 1 and 2 postoperative IVS ratio was not significantly different (P > 0.05). Furthermore, the mean preoperative and 1 and 2 postoperative angles of lumbar lordosis and segmental lordosis were not significantly different (P > 0.05). The mean VAS score and ODI, 3, 12, and 24 months after surgery, decreased significantly, when compared with the preoperative scores in the groups (P = 0.000). Conclusion. Dynamic stabilization in chronic degenerative disc disease with Modic types 1 and 2 was effective. PMID:23781343

Eser, Olcay; Gomleksiz, Cengiz; Sasani, Mehdi; Oktenoglu, Tunc; Aydin, Ahmet Levent; Ataker, Yaprak; Suzer, Tuncer; Ozer, Ali Fahir

2013-01-01

223

Infundibulopelvic stenosis in children  

SciTech Connect

Of 11,500 children who underwent excretory urography during a 17-year period, three were found to have the rare renal malformation infundibulopelvic stenosis, characterized by caliceal dilatation, infundibular stenosis, and hypoplasia or stenosis of the renal pelvis. The contralateral kidney was absent in two cases and normal in the other. Voiding cystourethrograms were normal in all three. Renal sonography showed a variable degree of caliceal dilatation without associated pelvic dilatation. The diagnosis was confirmed by retrograde ureteropyelography in one case. Two patients were followed for 12 and 18 months, respectively; both remained asymptomatic with normal renal function, and sequential sonographic examinations of their kidneys have shown no significant changes. The third patient died of an unrelated condition. Infundibulopelvic stenosis has highly characteristic radiographic features, and prognosis is good for most affected patients.

Lucaya, J.; Enriquez, G.; Delgado, R.; Castellote, A.

1984-03-01

224

Instrumented Minimally Invasive spinal-Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion (MIS-TLIF); Minimum 5-years Follow-up With Clinical and Radiologic Outcomes.  

PubMed

STUDY DESIGN:: A retrospective study. OBJECTIVE:: To determine the clinical and radiological outcomes of the long-term results of instrumented MIS-TLIF in unstable, single level, low-grade, isthmic spondylolisthesis (IS) or degenerative spondylosis (DS) including degenerative spondylolisthesis, foraminal stenosis with central stenosis, degenerative disc disease, and recurrent disc herniation. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:: MIS-TLIF is a common surgical procedure to treat lumbar spondylolisthesis. However, there are no studies that have documented the long-term results of MIS-TLIF. METHODS:: Forty-four patients who had undergone instrumented MIS-TLIF between July 2003 and January 2005, were retrospectively reviewed. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), patient satisfaction rate (PSR), and the patient's return-to-work status were used to assess clinical and functional outcomes. Radiological follow-up were carried out in patients to check for adjacent segmental degeneration (ASD). The plain radiographs, CT and MRI were used in all patients in last follow-up period. RESULTS:: The mean VAS scores for back and leg pain decreased from 5.8 and 7 to 3.5 and 3.7 respectively in the DS group (n=19) and from 6.8 and 6.9 to 1.8 and 2.0 respectively in the IS group (n=25) (P<0.001). The mean ODI scores improved from 61.7% to 21.5% in the DS group and from 53.9% to 16% in the IS group (P<0.001). PSR was 80% and 81% in the DS and IS groups, respectively. Evidence of fusion was observed radiologically in 24 (96%) and 19 (100%) of the patients in the IS and the DS group respectively, giving an overall fusion rate of 97.7% (43/44). The final ASD rate, observed using radiography, was 68.4% (13/19) in the DS, and 40% (10/25) in the IS group. However, 15.8% (3/19) in the DS and 4% (1/25) in the IS group had symptoms associated with ASD. CONCLUSIONS:: The long-term clinical and radiologic outcomes after instrumented MIS-TLIF in patients with unstable single-level spine are favorable. PMID:23027364

Kim, Jin-Sung; Jung, Byungjoo; Lee, Sang-Ho

2012-09-28

225

Ligamentum flavum cyst in the lumbar spine: a case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Degenerative changes in the lumbar spine can be followed by cystic changes. Most reported intraspinal cysts are ganglion or synovial cysts. Ligamentum flavum pseudocyst, as a cystic lesion in the lumbar spine, is a rare and unusual cause of neurologic signs and symptoms and is usually seen in elderly persons (due to degenerative changes). They are preferentially located in the lower lumbar region, while cervical localization is rare. Complete removal of the cyst leads to excellent results and seems to preclude recurrence. We report the case of a right-sided ligamentum flavum cyst occurring at L3-L4 level in a 70-year-old woman, which was surgically removed with excellent postoperative results and complete resolution of symptoms. In addition, we discuss and review reports in the literature. PMID:20582448

Taha, H; Bareksei, Y; Albanna, W; Schirmer, M

2010-06-01

226

Prevalence of Disc Degeneration in Asymptomatic Korean Subjects. Part 3 : Cervical and Lumbar Relationship  

PubMed Central

Objective There are many cases in which degenerative changes are prevalent in both the cervical and lumbar spine, and the relation between both spinal degenerative findings of MRI is controversial. The authors analyzed the prevalence of abnormal findings on MRI, and suggested a model to explain the relationship between cervical and lumbar disc in asymptomatic Korean subjects. Methods We performed 3 T MRI sagittal scans on 102 asymptomatic subjects (50 men and 52 women) who visited our hospital between the ages of 14 and 82 years (mean age 46.3 years). Scores pertaining to herniation (HN), annular fissure (AF), and nucleus degeneration (ND) were analyzed. The total scores for the cervical and lumbar spine were analyzed using correlation coefficients and multiple linear regression with various predictive parameters, including weight, height, sex, age, smoking, occupation, and sedentary fashion. Results The correlation coefficients of HN, AF, and ND were 0.44, 0.50, and 0.59, respectively. We made the best model for relationship by using multiple linear regression. Conclusion The results of the current study showed that there was a close relationship between the cervical score (CS) and lumbar score (LS). In addition, the correlation between CS and LS, as well as the LS value itself, can be altered by other explanatory variables. Although not absolute, there was also a linear relationship between degenerative changes of the cervical and lumbar spine. Based on these results, it can be inferred that degenerative changes of the lumbar spine will be useful in predicting the degree of cervical spine degeneration in an actual clinical setting. PMID:23634267

Lee, Tae Hoon; Yi, Seong

2013-01-01

227

Infantile yloric stenosis - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Pyloric stenosis is a congenital defect in which the opening of the pylorus is too narrow. Food is ... unable to pass into the duodenum. Children with pyloric stenosis usually manifest forceful, "projectile" vomiting within the first ...

228

Lumbar intersegmental spacing and angulation in the modified lateral decubitus position versus variants of prone positioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background ContextInterspinous process devices represent an emerging treatment for neurogenic intermittent claudication resulting from lumbar spinal stenosis. Most published descriptions of the operative technique involve treatment of patients in the modified lateral decubitus knee-chest position (modified lateral decubitus), and yet many surgeons have begun to perform the procedure in various prone positions. The patient's positioning on the operating room table

Vijay Agarwal; Michael Wildstein; John B. Tillman; William L. Pelkey; Todd F. Alamin

2009-01-01

229

End Plate Disproportion and Degenerative Disc Disease: A Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Study Design Case-control. Purpose To determine whether a disproportion between two neighboring vertebral end plates is associated with degenerative disc disease. Overview of Literature Recently, it has been suggested that disproportion of the end plates of two adjacent vertebrae may increase the risk of disc herniation. Methods Magnetic resonance (MR) images (n=160) with evidence of grades I-II lumbar degenerative disc disease (modified Pfirrmann's classification) and normal MR images of the lumbar region (n=160) were reviewed. On midsagittal sections, the difference of anteroposterior diameter of upper and lower end plates neighboring a degenerated (in the case group) or normal (in the control group) intervertebral disc was calculated (difference of end plates [DEP]). Results Mean DEP was significantly higher in the case group at the L5-S1 level (2.73±0.23 mm vs. 2.21±0.12 mm, p=0.03). Differences were not statistically significant at L1-L2 (1.31±0.13 mm in the cases vs. 1.28±0.08 mm in the controls, p=0.78), L2-L3 (1.45±0.12 mm in the cases vs. 1.37±0.08 mm in the controls, p=0.58), L3-L4 (1.52±0.13 mm in the cases vs. 1.49±0.10 mm in the controls, p=0.88), and L4-L5 (2.15±0.21 mm in the cases vs. 2.04±0.20 mm in the controls, p=0.31) levels. The difference at the L5-S1 level did not remain significant after adjusting for body mass index (BMI), which was significantly higher in the patients. Conclusions End plate disproportion may be a significant, BMI-dependent risk factor for lumbar degenerative disc disease.

Poureisa, Masoud; Daghighi, Mohammad Hossein; Mesbahi, Sepideh; Hagigi, Amir

2014-01-01

230

Trumpet laminectomy microdecompression for lumbal canal stenosis.  

PubMed

Microsurgery techniques are useful innovations towards minimizing the insult of canal stenosis. Here, we describe the trumpet laminectomy microdecompression (TLM) technique, advantages and disadvantages. Sixty-two TLM patients with lumbar disc herniation, facet hypertrophy or yellow ligament or intracanal granulation tissue. The symptoms are low back pain, dysesthesia and severe pain on both legs. Spine levels operated Th11-S1; the patients who had trumpet-type fenestration, 62.9% had hypertrophy of the facet joint, 11.3% had intracanal granulation tissue, 79.1% had hypertrophy of the yellow ligament and 64.5% had disc herniation. The average of procedure duration was 68.9 min and intraoperative blood loss was 47.4 mL. Intraoperative complications were found in 3.2% of patients, with dural damage but without cerebrospinal fluid leakage. The TLM can be performed for all ages and all levels of spinal canal stenosis, without the complication of spondilolistesis. The TLM has a shorter duration, with minimal intraoperative blood loss. PMID:25346821

Henky, Jefri; Yasuda, Muneyoshi; Arifin, Muhammad Zafrullah; Takayasu, Masakazu; Faried, Ahmad

2014-10-01

231

Trumpet Laminectomy Microdecompression for Lumbal Canal Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Microsurgery techniques are useful innovations towards minimizing the insult of canal stenosis. Here, we describe the trumpet laminectomy microdecompression (TLM) technique, advantages and disadvantages. Sixty-two TLM patients with lumbar disc herniation, facet hypertrophy or yellow ligament or intracanal granulation tissue. The symptoms are low back pain, dysesthesia and severe pain on both legs. Spine levels operated Th11-S1; the patients who had trumpet-type fenestration, 62.9% had hypertrophy of the facet joint, 11.3% had intracanal granulation tissue, 79.1% had hypertrophy of the yellow ligament and 64.5% had disc herniation. The average of procedure duration was 68.9 min and intraoperative blood loss was 47.4 mL. Intraoperative complications were found in 3.2% of patients, with dural damage but without cerebrospinal fluid leakage. The TLM can be performed for all ages and all levels of spinal canal stenosis, without the complication of spondilolistesis. The TLM has a shorter duration, with minimal intraoperative blood loss. PMID:25346821

Yasuda, Muneyoshi; Arifin, Muhammad Zafrullah; Takayasu, Masakazu; Faried, Ahmad

2014-01-01

232

Bicuspidization for Tricuspid Stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bicuspidization technique for rheumatic tricuspid stenosis based on the concept that the tricuspid valve has a straight (septal) and a curved (mural) leaflet is described. The fused commissures on either side of the septal leaflet are divided, resulting in separation of the two leaflets. The related anatomic and pathologic features are discussed.

Solomon Victor; Vijaya M. Nayak

1998-01-01

233

The first lumbar puncture.  

PubMed

In this article it is argued that Heinrich Irenäus Quincke who should be credited with the discovery of lumbar puncture. Although some authors mention the names of James Leonard Corning and Walter Essex Wynter as well, it is demonstrated, by comparing the relevant publications, that the discovery, the application for diagnostic purposes and the introduction in clinical practice of the lumbar puncture were done by Quincke. At first, the purposes for performing a lumbar puncture were purely therapeutic, for instance CSF-drainage in hydrocephalus and meningitis. But, soon after, it was applied for diagnostic aims as well. PMID:11619518

Frederiks, J A; Koehler, P J

1997-08-01

234

Frequency by Decades of Unicuspid, Bicuspid, and Tricuspid Aortic Valves in Adults Having Isolated Aortic Valve Replacement for Aortic Stenosis, With or Without Associated Aortic Regurgitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Aortic valve stenosis (with or without aortic regurgitation and without associated mitral stenosis) in adults in the Western world has been considered in recent years to most commonly be the result of degenerative or atherosclerotic disease. Methods and Results—We examined operatively excised, stenotic aortic valves from 932 patients aged 26 to 91 years (meanSD, 7012), and none had associated mitral

William C. Roberts; Jong M. Ko

235

Dynesys fixation for lumbar spine degeneration.  

PubMed

The dynamic fixation system Dynesys is utilized in the last 10 years for treatment of degenerative segmental disease of the lumbar spine. Dynesys is a semi-rigid fixation system that allows minimal lengthening and shortening between two segmental pedicle screws as opposed to a rigid metal bar. Thus, the system is regarded to maintain stability and near physiological motion patterns of the lumbar spine. The theoretical advantage of this system is to stabilize the treated segment and to prevent adjacent segment degeneration. The goal of this prospective trial was to evaluate clinical, radiographic, and computed tomography (CT) scan outcomes in 54 consecutive cases. Postoperative complications are discussed in detail. Forty cases were recruited with a mean follow-up of 16 months (range, 12 to 37). Postoperative pain scores (Hannover Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire and VAS for back and leg pain) improved in 29 cases (73%) and was best when dynamic fusion was combined with nerve root decompression. Outcome data were not superior to conventional rigid fusion systems and had a considerable number of complications requiring revision surgery in 27.5% of cases. PMID:17906883

Bothmann, Matthias; Kast, Erich; Boldt, Gerald Jens; Oberle, Joachim

2008-04-01

236

[Clinical case of the month. An uncommon cause of sciatica: lumbar synovial cyst].  

PubMed

We describe the case of a 46-year-old woman suffering from an hyperalgic sciatica caused by a lumbar synovial cyst. These are uncommon lesions associated with degenerative spine disease. They may be asymptomatic or may produce symptoms resulting from nervous structures compression. They are commonly found at the L4-L5 level, the site of maximum mobility. Their etiopathogeny is still unclear but degenerative spinal instability is the strongest factor for their growth. MRI is the most effective for the diagnosis. Conservative management is usually unsuccessful. Resection with or without fusion remains the more appropriate therapeutic option. PMID:21287759

Lommers, E; Gillet, P

2010-12-01

237

Long-Term Outcome After Monosegmental L4/5 Stabilization for Degenerative Spondylolisthesis With the Dynesys Device.  

PubMed

STUDY DESIGN:: retrospective analysis of prospectively collected clinical data. OBJECTIVE:: To assess the long-term outcome of patients with monosegmental L4/5 degenerative spondylolisthesis treated with the dynamic Dynesys device. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:: The Dynesys® system has been used as a semirigid, lumbar dorsal pedicular stabilization device since 1994. Good short-term results have been reported, but little is known about the long-term outcome following treatment for degenerative spondylolisthesis at the L4/5 level. METHODS:: 39 consecutive patients with symptomatic degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis at the L4/5 level were treated with bilateral decompression and Dynesys instrumentation. At a mean follow-up of 7.2 years (range 5.0-11.2?y) they underwent clinical and radiographic evaluation and quality of life assessment. RESULTS:: At final follow-up back pain improved in 89% and leg pain improved in 86% of patients compared to preoperative status. 83% of patients reported global subjective improvement. 92% would undergo the surgery again. 8 patients (21%) required further surgery due to symptomatic adjacent segment disease (6 cases), late onset infection (1 case), and screw breakage (1 case). In 9 cases radiological progression of spondylolisthesis at the operated segment was found. 74% of operated segments showed limited flexion-extension range of less than 4°. Adjacent segment pathology, though without clinical correlation, was diagnosed at the L5/S1 (17.9%) and L3/4 (28.2%) segments. In 4 cases asymptomatic screw loosening was observed. CONCLUSION:: Monosegmental Dynesys instrumentation of degenerative spondylolisthesis at L4/5 shows good long-term results. The rate of secondary surgeries is comparable to other dorsal instrumentation devices. Residual range of motion in the stabilized segment is reduced, and the rate of radiological and symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration is low. Patient satisfaction is high. Dynesys stabilization of symptomatic L4/5 degenerative spondylolisthesis is a possible alternative to other stabilization devices. PMID:23075857

Hoppe, Sven; Schwarzenbach, Othmar; Aghayev, Emin; Bonel, Harald; Berlemann, Ulrich

2012-10-16

238

Exploring the utility of axial lumbar MRI for automatic diagnosis of intervertebral disc abnormalities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we explore the importance of axial lumbar MRI slices for automatic detection of abnormalities. In the past, only the sagittal views were taken into account for lumbar CAD systems, ignoring the fact that a radiologist scans through the axial slices as well, to confirm the diagnosis and quantify various abnormalities like herniation and stenosis. Hence, we present an automatic diagnosis system from axial slices using CNN(Convolutional Neural Network) for dynamic feature extraction and classification of normal and abnormal lumbar discs. We show 80:81% accuracy (with a specificity of 85:29% and sensitivity of 75:56%) on 86 cases (391 discs) using only an axial slice for each disc, which implies the usefulness of axial views for automatic lumbar abnormality diagnosis in conjunction with sagittal views.

Ghosh, Subarna; Chaudhary, Vipin; Dhillon, Gurmeet

2013-03-01

239

A New Electrophysiological Method for the Diagnosis of Extraforaminal Stenosis at L5-S1  

PubMed Central

Study Design A retrospective study. Purpose To examine the effectiveness of using an electrodiagnostic technique as a new approach in the clinical diagnosis of extraforaminal stenosis at L5-S1. Overview of Literature We introduced a new effective approach to the diagnosis of extraforaminal stenosis at the lumbosacral junction using the existing electrophysiological evaluation technique. Methods A consecutive series of 124 patients with fifth lumbar radiculopathy were enrolled, comprising a group of 74 patients with spinal canal stenosis and a second group of 50 patients with extraforaminal stenosis at L5-S1. The technique involved inserting a pair of needle electrodes into the foraminal exit zone of the fifth lumbar spinal nerves, which were used to provide electrical stimulation. The compound muscle action potentials from each of the tibialis anterior muscles were recorded. Results The distal motor latency (DML) of the potentials ranged from 11.2 to 24.6 milliseconds in patients with extraforaminal stenosis. In contrast, the DML in patients with spinal canal stenosis ranged from 10.0 to 17.2 milliseconds. After comparing the DML of each of the 2 groups and at the same time comparing the differences in DML between the affected and unaffected side of each patient, we concluded there were statistically significant differences (p<0.01) between the 2 groups. Using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the cutoff values were calculated to be 15.2 milliseconds and 1.1 milliseconds, respectively. Conclusions This approach using a means of DML measurement enables us to identify and localize lesions, which offers an advantage in diagnosing extraforaminal stenosis at L5-S1. PMID:24761195

Yoshida, Munehito; Yamada, Hiroshi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Minamide, Akihito; Nakagawa, Yukihiro; Kawai, Masaki; Tsutsui, Shunji

2014-01-01

240

Congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis.  

PubMed

Congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, an important cause of intractable vomiting in infants is diagnosed clinically and confirmed ultrasonographically. Other useful interventions are plain radiography and barium study. Differential diagnosis includes pylorospasm and gastroesophageal reflux. Management protocol includes correction of dehydration and electrolyte imbalance and either Fredet Ramstedt pyloromyotomy or medical treatment with atropine sulphate. Atropine is initially given intravenously till vomiting is controlled and then orally at double the effective i.v. done for another 3 weeks. Atropine sulphate is generally well tolerated and side effects are few like tachycardia, raised SGPT and hyperthermia. Atropine sulphate is very effective, cheap, safe and perhaps more acceptable treatment option for CHPS. PMID:12356225

Singh, Utpal Kant; Kumar, Ranjeet

2002-08-01

241

Lumbar Disc Herniation in Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lumbar disc herniation very rarely occurs in adolescence. The aim of this study was to assess the radiological, clinical and surgical features and case outcomes for adolescents with lumbar disc herniation, and to compare with adult cases. The cases of 17 adolescents (7 girls and 10 boys, age range 13–17 years) who were surgically treated for lumbar disc herniation in

Serdar Ozgen; Deniz Konya; O. Zafer Toktas; Adnan Dagcinar; M. Memet Ozek

2007-01-01

242

Ganglion cyst of the posterior longitudinal ligament causing lumbar radiculopathy.  

PubMed

Degenerated conditions such as herniated disc or spinal stenosis are common etiologies of lumbar radiculopathy. Less common etiologies include spinal extradural cyst such as synovial cysts and ganglion cysts. Ganglion cyst of the posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL) of the spine is a rare entity that can result in classical sciatica. Posterior longitudinal ligament cyst has no continuity with the facet joint and has no epithelial lining. Two young male patients presented with unilateral sciatica and were found to have intraspinal cystic lesions causing lumbar radiculopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated rounded, cystic lesions (i.e., hypointense on T1- but hyperintense on T2-weighted images) adjacent to minimally dehydrated, nonherniated disc spaces in both cases. These patients underwent posterior decompression and cysts were excised, and their sciatic symptoms were completely resolved. Histological examination showed typical features of ganglion cysts in these cases. PMID:20461173

Cho, Sung-Min; Rhee, Woo-Tack; Lee, Sang-Youl; Lee, Sang-Bok

2010-04-01

243

Identification and surgical treatment of primary thoracic spinal stenosis.  

PubMed

We report the surgical treatment results for 7 patients (4 men, 3 women; mean age, 49 years) who presented with myelopathy caused exclusively by primary thoracic spinal stenosis, predominantly in the lower thoracic spine. (Patients with concurrent ascending lumbosacral degenerative disease were excluded.) All patients received extensive nonoperative treatment before referral to our center. Surgical treatment consisted of wide posterior decompression and instrumented fusion (5 cases), anterior vertebrectomy and fusion (1), and anterior vertebrectomy with autograft strut followed by wide posterior decompression and instrumented fusion (1). Mean operative time was 313 minutes, mean blood loss was 944 mL, and there were no major postoperative complications. Minimum follow-up was 2 years. Five patients had significant improvement in myelopathy and were ambulating normally, 1 had modest improvement in ambulation, and 1 remained wheelchair-bound. All patients achieved solid radiographic fusions. After presenting these case studies, we review the current literature on treatment effectiveness. Primary thoracic spinal stenosis should be considered in patients who present with isolated lower extremity myelopathy, particularly when no significant pathologic findings are identified in the cervical or lumbosacral spine. Expedient wide decompression with concurrent instrumented fusion is recommended to prevent late development of spinal instability and recurrent spinal stenosis. PMID:19104683

Dimar, John R; Bratcher, Kelly R; Glassman, Steven D; Howard, Jennifer M; Carreon, Leah Y

2008-11-01

244

Pyloric stenosis: evolution from pylorospasm?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a 10-year period, we have performed pyloromyotomy on 260 infants with hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS), 10 of whom had a history suggestive of pyloric stenosis but initially had neither the physical nor radiological findings to confirm the diagnosis. All 10 demonstrated pylorospasm on upper gastrointestinal series (UGIS), were treated medically without improvement, and subsequently developed classic HPS confirmed by

John R. Wesley; Michael A. DiPietro; Arnold G. Coran

1990-01-01

245

Pyloric stenosis: congenital or acquired?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyloric muscle dimensions were measured in 1400 consecutive newborn infants. Nine of these subsequently developed pyloric stenosis. Their pyloric measurements at birth were all within the normal range. Congenital preformed muscular hypertrophy does not appear to be present in babies who later develop pyloric stenosis.

M D Rollins; M D Shields; R J Quinn; M A Wooldridge

1989-01-01

246

Role of conventional lumbar myelography in the management of sciatica: An experience from Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Objectives: A prospective study of 80 patients suffering from sciatica was conducted at Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. The aim of this study was to select patients for lumbar myelography on clinical grounds in the absence of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/computerized tomography (CT) facilities and to know the causes of sciatica. Materials and Methods: All patients underwent conventional lumbar myelography due to lack of MRI facility at a local hospital as well as financial constraints. Myelography was done with radio-opaque dye, Iopamidol, on outpatient basis Results: Lumbar myelograms were positive in 77.5% and negative in 22.5% cases. Minor complications in the form of headache developed in 32.5% patients but no major complication like meningitis and archnoiditis developed. Lumbar disc prolapse and stenosis were found to be common causes of sciatica. Non-filling of nerve roots was seen in 33.87%, blocks (complete/partial) in 54.83%, and stenosis in 11.29% patients. Conclusions: Conventional myelography was found to be safe and an informative diagnostic technique in areas where facility of high-tech investigations like CT/MRI was not available. Conventional lumbar myelography could be recommended and performed with confidence on outdoor basis, in cases of sciatica with positive straight leg raising test, reflex loss, sensory, or motor deficit. PMID:22639688

Bakhsh, Ahmed

2012-01-01

247

Synovial cysts of the lumbar spine: Diagnosis, surgical management, and pathogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDSynovial cysts are uncommon extradural degenerative lesions associated with symptoms of lower back pain and radiculopathy. Most of these lesions occur in the lumbar spine at the L4-5 level and to a lesser extent at the L5-S1 and L3-4 levels.METHODSA retrospective study involving eight patients seen by the neurosurgery service from January 1, 1989, to May 30, 1994, was analyzed.

William L Yarde; Paul M Arnold; John J Kepes; Paul L O'Boynick; Steven B Wilkinson; Solomon Batnitzky

1995-01-01

248

Chordoma of the Lumbar Spine Presenting as Sciatica and Treated with Vertebroplasty  

SciTech Connect

The lumbar spine is a less common location for chordoma. Here we describe a 44-year-old woman presenting with pain due to a L4 vertebral expansile lesion that caused significant canal stenosis and neural foraminal compromise. Vertebroplasty was performed and resulted in immediate pain relief. For patients with painful lumbar chordoma who are unwilling to undergo surgery, vertebroplasty can play a palliative role as in patients with other vertebral lesions. Treating pain and stabilizing vertebra by way of vertebroplasty in a case of chordoma has not yet been reported.

Chatterjee, Somenath; Bodhey, Narendra Kuber, E-mail: narendrakb2001@yahoo.co.in; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Periakaruppan, Alagappan [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Department of Imaging Sciences and Interventional Radiology (India)

2010-12-15

249

The Effect of Zoledronic Acid on the Volume of the Fusion-Mass in Lumbar Spinal Fusion  

PubMed Central

Background Few studies have explored the effects of bisphosphonates on bony healing in patients undergoing spinal fusion surgery. Most previous studies used animal models and found that bisphosphonate shows negative effects on spinal fusion consolidation. We intended to evaluate the effect of a single-dose of zoledronic acid on the volume of the fusion-mass in lumbar spinal fusion. Methods A retrospective review was carried out on 44 patients with symptomatic degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis who underwent one or two-level posterolateral fusion from January 2008 and January 2011. They were divided into 4 groups: group 1, autograft and zoledronic acid; group 2, allograft and zoledronic acid; group 3, autograft alone; and group 4, allograft alone. Functional radiography and three-dimensional computed tomography scans were used to evaluate and quantify the volume of the fusion-mass. The visual analog scale (VAS), the Oswestry disability index (ODI), and the short form 36 (SF-36) were used to evaluate the clinical outcomes. Results The mean volume of the fusion-mass per level was 8,814 mm3, 8,035 mm3, 8,383 mm3, and 7,550 mm3 in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively, but there were no significant differences between the groups (p = 0.829). There were no significant decreases in the volume of the fusion-mass (p = 0.533) in the zoledronic acid groups (groups 1 and 2). The VAS, the ODI, and the SF-36 at the 6-month follow-up after surgery were not significantly different (p > 0.05) among the 4 groups. The VAS, the ODI, and the SF-36 were not correlated with the volume of the fusion-mass (p = 0.120, 0.609, 0.642). Conclusions A single dose of zoledronic acid does not decrease the volume of the fusion-mass in patients undergoing spinal fusion with osteoporosis. Therefore, we recommend that zoledronic acid may be used after spinal fusion in osteoporotic patients. PMID:24340149

Kim, Hong-Sik; Baek, Seung-Wook; Kong, Dong-Yi; Ryu, Jeong-Ah

2013-01-01

250

Patient satisfaction with nursing after surgery due to cervical or lumbar discopathy  

PubMed Central

Background Relationships between patient satisfaction with nursing and patient clinical data have not been fully resolved in a Polish sample. Our objectives were to determine clinical factors associated with patient satisfaction with nursing and investigate differences between patients treated surgically for cervical or lumbar discopathy and degenerative changes. Material/Methods This prospective and cross-sectional study included 63 consecutively selected patients treated surgically for lumbar discopathy and degenerative spine disease and 41 patients undergoing surgery for cervical discopathy and degenerative spine disease from 1st June 2009 to 31st September 2010 in the Department of Neurosurgery and Neurotraumatology of Poznan University of Medical Sciences. In the first stage of this study, socio-demographic data, medical history, and clinical patient characteristics were collected. A minimum 12-month follow-up formed the second part. Nineteen patients with lumbar discopathy were excluded because they were unable to answer the questionnaire. Finally, 44 consecutively selected patients treated surgically for lumbar discopathy and 41 patients undergoing surgery due to cervical discopathy were evaluated with the Polish version of the Newcastle Satisfaction with Nursing Scale (NSNS-PL). Results In patients with cervical and lumbar discopathy, the average Experiences of Nursing Care Subscale (ENCS) scores were 82.0 (SD 15.1) and 79.0 (SD 13.5), respectively, whereas the average Satisfaction with Nursing Care Subscale (SNCS) scores were 75.6 (SD 18.1) and 74.4 (SD 16.8), respectively. The study groups did not differ in regards to NSNS subscales. Associations between ENCS and SNCS scores were confirmed in both patient groups (rS=.73, p<0.001 and rS=.73, p<0.001, respectively). Conclusions Our study highlights the importance of assessing the association between patient characteristics and patient perception of quality of nursing care. Satisfaction with treatment outcome and conviction about undergoing the same treatment affected experiences and satisfaction with nursing in the cervical group only. PMID:24162443

Garczyk, Danuta; Jankowski, Roman; Misterska, Ewa; Glowacki, Maciej; Zukiel, Ryszard; Kowalska, Anna M.

2013-01-01

251

Unilateral versus bilateral pedicle screw instrumentation for single-level minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion.  

PubMed

Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS TLIF) has become an increasingly popular method of lumbar arthrodesis. However, there are few published studies comparing the clinical outcomes between unilateral and bilateral instrumented MIS TLIF. Sixty-five patients with degenerative lumbar spine disease were enrolled in this study. Thirty-one patients were randomized to the unilateral group and 34 to the bilateral group. Recorded demographic data included sex, age, preoperative diagnosis, and degenerated segment. Operative time, blood loss, hospital stay length, complication rates, and fusion rates were also evaluated. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) pain score data were obtained. All patients were asked to follow-up at 3 and 6 months after surgery, and once every 6 months thereafter. The mean follow-up was 26.6 months (range 18-36 months). The two groups were similar in sex, age, preoperative diagnosis, and operated level. The unilateral group had significantly shorter operative time, lower blood loss, and shorter hospital time than the bilateral group. The average postoperative ODI and VAS scores improved significantly in each group. No significant differences were found between the two groups in relation to ODI and VAS. All patients showed evidence of fusion at 12 months postoperatively. The total fusion rate, screw failure, and general complication rate were not significantly different. Results showed that single-level MIS TLIF with unilateral pedicle screw fixation would be sufficient in the management of preoperatively stable patients with lumbar degenerative disease. It seems that MIS TLIF with unilateral pedicle screw instrumentation is a better choice for single-level degenerative lumbar spine disease. PMID:24814852

Shen, Xiaolong; Zhang, Hailong; Gu, Xin; Gu, Guangfei; Zhou, Xu; He, Shisheng

2014-09-01

252

Pathophysiology of inflammatory, degenerative, and compressive radiculopathies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 42-year-old woman presents with the chief complaint of left lower extremity pain that began approximately one month ago after she lifted a bag of groceries. Her discomfort affects the lower lumbar region and but- tock, extends to the lateral thigh and calf, and terminates over the proximal foot dorsum. These complaints are particularly pronounced while sitting or performing bending

Jason S. Lipetz

2002-01-01

253

Dynamic stabilization versus fusion for treatment of degenerative spine conditions  

PubMed Central

Study design:?Comparative effectiveness review. Study rationale:?Spinal fusion is believed to accelerate the degeneration of the vertebral segment above or below the fusion site, a condition called adjacent segment disease (ASD). The premise of dynamic stabilization is that motion preservation allows for less loading on the discs and facet joints at the adjacent, non-fused segments. In theory, this should decrease the rate of ASD. However, clinical evidence of this theoretical decrease in ASD is still lacking. We performed a systematic review to evaluate the evidence in the literature comparing dynamic stabilization with fusion. Clinical question:?In patients 18 years or older with degenerative disease of the cervical or lumbar spine, does dynamic stabilization lead to better outcomes and fewer complications, including ASD, than fusion in the short-term and the long-term? Methods:?A systematic search and review of the literature was undertaken to identify studies published through March 7, 2011. PubMed, Cochrane, and National Guideline Clearinghouse Databases as well as bibliographies of key articles were searched. Two individuals independently reviewed articles based on inclusion and exclusion criteria which were set a priori. Each article was evaluated using a predefined quality-rating scheme. Results:?No significant differences were identified between fusion and dynamic stabilization with regard to VAS, ODI, complications, and reoperations. There are no long-term data available to show whether dynamic stabilization decreases the rate of ASD. Conclusions:?There are no clinical data from comparative studies supporting the use of dynamic stabilization devices over standard fusion techniques. PMID:23526895

Chou, Dean; Lau, Darryl; Skelly, Andrea; Ecker, Erika

2011-01-01

254

Is running associated with degenerative joint disease  

SciTech Connect

Little information is available regarding the long-term effects, if any, of running on the musculoskeletal system. The authors compared the prevalence of degenerative joint disease among 17 male runners with 18 male nonrunners. Running subjects (53% marathoners) ran a mean of 44.8 km (28 miles)/wk for 12 years. Pain and swelling of hips, knees, ankles and feet and other musculoskeletal complaints among runners were comparable with those among nonrunners. Radiologic examinations (for osteophytes, cartilage thickness, and grade of degeneration) also were without notable differences among groups. They did not find an increased prevalence of osteoarthritis among the runners. Our observations suggest that long-duration, high-mileage running need to be associated with premature degenerative joint disease in the lower extremities.

Panush, R.S.; Schmidt, C.; Caldwell, J.R.; Edwards, N.L.; Longley, S.; Yonker, R.; Webster, E.; Nauman, J.; Stork, J.; Pettersson, H.

1986-03-07

255

Microdecompression for lumbar synovial cysts: an independent assessment of long term outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Outcomes of surgical intervention for lumbar synovial cysts have been evaluated in the short and intermediate term. Concerns regarding cyst recurrence, the development of late instability at the involved level, and instability\\/stenosis at adjacent levels (when concomitant) fusion is performed suggest that long term follow-up is needed. This study aims to fill that void. METHODS: Forty-six patients operated by

Bradley K Weiner; Joel Torretti; Michael Stauff

2007-01-01

256

Cervical Stenosis, Myelopathy and Radiculopathy  

MedlinePLUS

... between the vertebrae results in narrowing of the space for the spinal cord and its branches, known ... and cervical stenosis refers to narrowing of the space for the spinal cord or nerve branches in ...

257

The genetics of common degenerative skeletal disorders: osteoarthritis and degenerative disc disease.  

PubMed

Degenerative skeletal disorders are common and serious problems worldwide, especially in aging populations. They are polygenic diseases influenced by both genetic and environmental factors, and hence the identification of susceptibility genes may provide clues to their etiology and pathogenesis, although this is still in its early stages. This review focuses on genetic studies of two representative degenerative skeletal disorders: osteoarthritis and degenerative disc disease. Genetic studies of these two diseases share common features and face similar problems, although their current statuses are very different. The two diseases have common susceptibility alleles--namely, the GDF5 rs143383 single-nucleotide polymorphism and the asporin D14 triplet repeat--which provides hints on how to investigate their genetic factors. The future success of genetic studies of these diseases will depend on accurate and reliable diagnostics, large-scale interpopulation association studies and replications, and consideration of environmental effects and related diseases with similar phenotypes. PMID:24003854

Ikegawa, Shiro

2013-01-01

258

Quality-of-Life Outcomes With Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion Based on Long-Term Analysis of 304 Consecutive Patients  

PubMed Central

Study Design. This was a prospective clinical study that took place in an outpatient spine clinic. Objective. To demonstrate the short-/long-term outcomes from a large cohort of patients undergoing minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MITLIF). Summary of Background Data. Long-term prospective outcomes in patients undergoing minimally invasive spinal fusion for debilitating back pain has not been well studied. Methods. Presenting diagnosis was determined from clinical findings and radiographical (radiograph, magnetic resonance image, computed tomographic scan) evaluations preoperatively. Patients were assessed with outcome measures preoperatively, and postoperatively at 2 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, 12 months, 24 months, and annually 2 to 7 years (mean follow-up: 47 mo) final follow-up. The rate of postoperative complications and reoperations at the initial level of MITLIF and adjacent level(s) were followed. Fusion rates were assessed blinded and independently by radiograph. Results. Visual analogue scale scores decreased significantly from 7.0 preoperatively to 3.5 at mean 47-month follow-up. Oswestry Disability Index scores declined from 43.1 preoperatively to 28.2 at mean 47-month follow-up. Short-Form 36 mental component scores increased from 43.8 preoperatively to 49.7 at 47-month follow-up. Short-Form 36 physical component scores increased from 30.6 preoperatively to 39.6 at 47-month follow-up (P < 0.05). Conclusion. This prospectively collected outcomes study shows long-term statistically significant clinical outcomes improvement after MITLIF in patients with clinically symptomatic spondylolisthesis and degenerative disc disease with or without stenosis. MITLIF resulted in a high rate of spinal fusion and very low rate of interbody fusion failure and/or adjacent segment disease requiring reoperation while reducing postoperative complications. Level of Evidence: 3 PMID:24150437

Hussain, Namath S.; White, G. Zachary; Begun, Evan M.; Collins, Robert A.; Fahim, Daniel K.; Hiremath, Girish K.; Adbi, Fadumo M.; Yacob, Sammy A.

2014-01-01

259

Spontaneous migration of a redundant nerve root accompanied by absorption of lumbar disk herniation. A case report.  

PubMed

A redundant nerve root is defined as a large, elongated and tortuous nerve root commonly associated with severe lumbar spinal canal stenosis. Elongation of nerve roots as a result of mechanical trapping at stenotic level is assumed to be a possible mechanism. Here we present a case in a patient who showed a redundant nerve root above the level of a lumbar canal stenosis caused by disk herniation and redundancy spontaneously migrating to a lower lumbar stenosis level accompanied by absorption of the herniated disk as shown by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A 67-year-old Japanese woman presented with bilateral thigh/leg pain and intermittent claudication. A midsagittal T2-weighted MR image of the lumbar spine revealed severe spinal canal stenosis at the L3-4 and L4-5 levels. At the L3-4 level, central disk herniation compressed the dural tube. An MR image revealed redundant nerve roots just cranial to the severely compressed L3-4 level. A follow-up MRI study revealed regression of disk herniation at the L3-4 level. In contrast, there was no significant change of the stenosis at the L4-5 level. Sagittal T2-weighted MR imaging at follow-up revealed redundant nerve roots just cranial to the L4-5 level, whereas the redundant nerve roots cranial to the L3-4 level had disappeared. The MRI findings of the present case support the "squeeze" hypothesis as causative of redundant nerve roots. PMID:24029099

Koda, M; Rokkaku, T; Mannoji, C; Okamoto, Y; Kon, T; Murakami, M; Furuya, T; Yamazaki, M

2012-11-01

260

Adult degenerative scoliosis: evaluation and management.  

PubMed

Degenerative scoliosis is a prevalent issue among the aging population. Controversy remains over the role of surgical intervention in patients with this disease. The authors discuss a suitable approach to help guide surgical treatment, including decompression, instrumented posterior spinal fusion, anterior spinal fusion, and osteotomy. These treatment options are based on clinical analysis, radiographic analysis of the mechanical stability of the deformity, given pain generators, and necessary sagittal balance. The high potential complication rates appear to be outweighed by the eventual successful clinical outcomes in patients suitable for operative intervention. This approach has had favorable outcomes and could help resolve the controversy. PMID:20192655

Silva, Fernando E; Lenke, Lawrence G

2010-03-01

261

Modified posterior lumbar interbody fusion for radiculopathy following healed vertebral collapse of the middle-lower lumbar spine.  

PubMed

Study Design?Retrospective study. Objectives?Lumbar radiculopathy is rarely observed in patients who have achieved bony healing of vertebral fractures in the middle-lower lumbar spine. The objectives of the study were to clarify the clinical features of such radiculopathy and to evaluate the preliminary outcomes of treatment using a modified posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) procedure. Methods?Fourteen patients with at least 2-year follow-up were enrolled in this study. The radiologic and clinical features of radiculopathy were retrospectively reviewed. As part of our modified PLIF procedure, a bone block was laid on chipped bone to fill the cavity of the fractured end plate and to flatten the cage-bone interface. Results?The morphologic features of spinal deformity in our patients typically consisted of the intradiscal vacuum phenomenon, spondylolisthesis, and a retropulsed intervertebral disk with a vertebral rim in the damaged segment. Cranial end plate fracture resulted in radiculopathy of the traversing nerve roots due to lateral recess stenosis. On the other hand, caudal end plate fracture led to unilateral radiculopathy of the exiting nerve root due to foraminal stenosis. The mean recovery rate based on the Japanese Orthopaedic Association score was 65.0%. Solid fusion was achieved in all but one case. Conclusions?Because of severe deterioration of the anterior column following end plate fracture, the foraminal zone must be decompressed in caudal end plate fractures. The modified PLIF procedure yielded satisfactory clinical outcomes due to anterior reconstruction and full decompression for both foraminal and lateral recess stenoses. PMID:25396106

Yamashita, Tomoya; Sakaura, Hironobu; Miwa, Toshitada; Ohwada, Tetsuo

2014-12-01

262

Spinal stenosis: assessment of motor function, VEGF expression and angiogenesis in an experimental model in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduction of blood flow in compressed nerve roots is considered as one important mechanism of induction of neurogenic intermittent\\u000a claudication in lumbar spinal canal stenosis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent stimulator of angiogenesis,\\u000a and is increased in expression in hypoxic conditions. The objective of this study was to examine if cauda equina compression\\u000a affects motor function and

Kazuyuki Watanabe; Shin-ichi Konno; Miho Sekiguchi; Shin-ichi Kikuchi

2007-01-01

263

Hemorrhagic lumbar synovial cyst.  

PubMed

Synovial cysts of the lumbar spine are an uncommon cause of back and radicular pain. These cysts most frequently present as back pain, followed by chronic progressive radiculopathy or gradual onset of symptoms secondary to spinal canal compromise. Although less common, they can also present with acute spinal cord or root compression symptoms. We report of a case in which hemorrhaging into a right L2-3 facet synovial cyst caused an acute onset of back pain and radiculopathy, requiring surgical excision. PMID:23346333

Park, Hyun Seok; Sim, Hong Bo; Kwon, Soon Chan; Park, Jun Bum

2012-12-01

264

Hemorrhagic Lumbar Synovial Cyst  

PubMed Central

Synovial cysts of the lumbar spine are an uncommon cause of back and radicular pain. These cysts most frequently present as back pain, followed by chronic progressive radiculopathy or gradual onset of symptoms secondary to spinal canal compromise. Although less common, they can also present with acute spinal cord or root compression symptoms. We report of a case in which hemorrhaging into a right L2-3 facet synovial cyst caused an acute onset of back pain and radiculopathy, requiring surgical excision. PMID:23346333

Park, Hyun Seok; Kwon, Soon Chan; Park, Jun Bum

2012-01-01

265

Degenerative joint disease in female ballet dancers.  

PubMed

The relationship between long-term ballet dancing and eventual arthrosis of the hip, ankle, subtalar, and first metatarsophalangeal joint was examined in 19 former professional female dancers, aged 50 to 70 years. The dancers were compared with pair-matched controls. All 38 women underwent medical history taking, clinical examination, and roentgenography of the joints studied. The roentgenographs were independently judged by two investigators and grouped according to a modified classification of Hermodsson. We found a statistically significant increase in roentgenologic arthrosis of the ankle, subtalar, and first metatarsophalangeal joints in the ballet group compared with the control group. There was no significant difference regarding degenerative changes of the hip joint. However, subjects in the dance group who had evidence of degenerative changes on roentgenographs had no clinical complaints. There was a statistically significant increase in hallux valgus deformity in the ballet group (P < 0.05). The dancers also showed a statistically significant increase in flexion, external rotation, and abduction of the hip joint, dorsal flexion of the first metatarsophalangeal joint, and inversion and eversion of subtalar joint. But the control group had statistically significant increased plantar flexion of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. The most important cause of the statistically significant increase of arthrosis of the ankle and first metatarsophalangeal joints must be explained by repetitive microtrauma. PMID:7661255

van Dijk, C N; Lim, L S; Poortman, A; Strübbe, E H; Marti, R K

1995-01-01

266

An infrequent cause of colonic stenosis.  

PubMed

We present the case of a young woman with intestinal endometriosis, in which colonic stenosis unusually represents the clinical onset; diagnostic workup allows to highlight the role of gastrointestinal ultrasounds that suggest the nature of the stenosis. PMID:23432989

Greco, S; Signorelli, S; Indriolo, A; Fagiuoli, S; Ravelli, P

2012-12-01

267

Primary Lumbar Hernia Repair: The Open Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Lumbar hernias arise through posterolateral abdominal wall defects, named inferior triangle (Petit) and superior triangle (Grynfelt). Most of the lumbar hernias are secondary to trauma or previous surgery, while primary lumbar hernias are rare. There are two possible surgical approaches: the anterior approach with lumbar incision and the laparoscopic (transabdominal or totally extraperitoneal) approach. Methods: We present a series

G. Cavallaro; A. Sadighi; M. Miceli; A. Burza; G. Carbone; A. Cavallaro

2007-01-01

268

Lumbar synovial cysts.  

PubMed

Synovial spinal cysts are typically found in the lumbar spine, most often at the L4-L5 level. Magnetic resonance imaging is the diagnostic imaging of choice in the workup of suspected synovial cysts. This study consisted of 24 patients with lumbar synovial cysts treated by cyst excision and nerve root decompression through partial or complete facetectomy and primary posterolateral fusion. The most common location of the cysts was the L4-L5 segment. Synovial tissue was found in histological sections of 18 cysts. At a mean follow-up of 12 (range, 8 to 24) months, 20 patients (83%) had excellent or good results; two patients (8.3%) had fair and two patients (8.3%) had poor improvement. Operative complications included dural tear in two patients and postoperative wound dehiscence in one patient, which were treated accordingly. To eliminate the risk of recurrence synovial cyst excision through partial or complete facetectomy is required. In addition, since synovial cysts reflect disruption of the facet joint and some degree of instability, primary spinal fusion is recommended. PMID:23327848

Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J; Sapkas, George S; Korres, Demetrios S; Pneumaticos, Spyridon G

2012-01-01

269

A case of idiopathic tracheal stenosis  

PubMed Central

Acquired tracheal stenosis is a condition that often results from trauma, neoplasm, infection, vasculitis, inflammatory or infiltrative processes. Idiopathic tracheal stenosis is a rare entity and represents a diagnosis of exclusion. We report a case of severe localized extrathoracic tracheal stenosis in a 35 year old female who was initially suspected to have asthma as the cause of several months of chronic dyspnea.

Apostolova, M.; Zeidan, B.

2013-01-01

270

Predicting Stenosis in Blood Vessels  

E-print Network

Predicting Stenosis in Blood Vessels Aneesh Bapat Advisors: Prof. Julie Young Dr. Craig Steeves Prof. Wole Soboyejo #12;Background The heart is a pump that sends oxygenated blood throughout the body) #12;Atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis is the hardening and narrowing of blood vessels caused by buildup

Petta, Jason

271

Degenerative meniscus: Pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment options  

PubMed Central

The symptomatic degenerative meniscus continues to be a source of discomfort for a significant number of patients. With vascular penetration of less than one-third of the adult meniscus, healing potential in the setting of chronic degeneration remains low. Continued hoop and shear stresses upon the degenerative meniscus results in gross failure, often in the form of complex tears in the posterior horn and midbody. Patient history and physical examination are critical to determine the true source of pain, particularly with the significant incidence of simultaneous articular pathology. Joint line tenderness, a positive McMurray test, and mechanical catching or locking can be highly suggestive of a meniscal source of knee pain and dysfunction. Radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging are frequently utilized to examine for osteoarthritis and to verify the presence of meniscal tears, in addition to ruling out other sources of pain. Non-operative therapy focused on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and physical therapy may be able to provide pain relief as well as improve mechanical function of the knee joint. For patients refractory to conservative therapy, arthroscopic partial meniscectomy can provide short-term gains regarding pain relief, especially when combined with an effective, regular physiotherapy program. Patients with clear mechanical symptoms and meniscal pathology may benefit from arthroscopic partial meniscectomy, but surgery is not a guaranteed success, especially with concomitant articular pathology. Ultimately, the long-term outcomes of either treatment arm provide similar results for most patients. Further study is needed regarding the short and long-term outcomes regarding conservative and surgical therapy, with a particular focus on the economic impact of treatment as well.

Howell, Richard; Kumar, Neil S; Patel, Nimit; Tom, James

2014-01-01

272

Lumbar peritoneal shunt.  

PubMed

A lumbar peritoneal (LP) shunt is a technique of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion from the lumbar thecal sac to the peritoneal cavity. It is indicated under a large number of conditions such as communicating hydrocephalus, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, normal pressure hydrocephalus, spinal and cranial CSF leaks, pseudomeningoceles, slit ventricle syndrome, growing skull fractures which are difficult to treat by conventional methods (when dural defect extends deep in the cranial base or across venous sinuses and in recurrent cases after conventional surgery), raised intracranial pressure following chronic meningitis, persistent bulging of craniotomy site after operations for intracranial tumors or head trauma, syringomyelia and failed endoscopic third ventriculostomy with a patent stoma. In spite of the large number of indications of this shunt and being reasonably good, safe, and effective, very few reports about the LP shunt exist in the literature. This procedure did not get its due importance due to some initial negative reports. This review article is based on search on Google and PubMed. This article is aimed to review indications, complications, results, and comparison of the LP shunt with the commonly practiced ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt. Shunt blocks, infections, CSF leaks, overdrainage and acquired Chiari malformation (ACM) are some of the complications of the LP shunt. Early diagnosis of overdrainage complications and ACM as well as timely appropriate treatment especially by programmable shunts could decrease morbidity. Majority of recent reports suggest that a LP shunt is a better alternative to the VP shunt in communicating hydrocephalus. It has an advantage over the VP shunt of being completely extracranial and can be used under conditions other than hydrocephalus when the ventricles are normal sized or chinked. More publications are required to establish its usefulness in the treatment of wide variety of indications. PMID:20508332

Yadav, Yad R; Parihar, Vijay; Sinha, Mallika

2010-01-01

273

Postoperative Flat Back: Contribution of Posterior Accessed Lumbar Interbody Fusion and Spinopelvic Parameters  

PubMed Central

Objective Posterior accessed lumbar interbody fusion (PALIF) has a clear objective to restore disc height and spinal alignment but surgeons may occasionally face the converse situation and lose lumbar lordosis. We analyzed retrospective data for factors contributing to a postoperative flat back. Methods A total of 105 patients who underwent PALIF for spondylolisthesis and stenosis were enrolled. The patients were divided according to surgical type [posterior lumbar inter body fusion (PLIF) vs. unilateral transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF)], number of levels (single vs. multiple), and diagnosis (spondylolisthesis vs. stenosis). We measured perioperative index level lordosis, lumbar lordosis, pelvic tilt, sacral slope, pelvic incidence, and disc height in standing lateral radiographs. The change and variance in each parameter and comparative group were analyzed with the paired and Student t-test (p<0.05), correlation coefficient, and regression analysis. Results A significant perioperative reduction was observed in index-level lordosis following TLIF at the single level and in patients with spondylolisthesis (p=0.002, p=0.005). Pelvic tilt and sacral slope were significantly restored following PLIF multilevel surgery (p=0.009, p=0.003). Sacral slope variance was highly sensitive to perioperative variance of index level lordosis in high sacral sloped pelvis. Perioperative variance of index level lordosis was positively correlated with disc height variance (R2=0.286, p=0.0005). Conclusion Unilateral TLIF has the potential to cause postoperative flat back. PLIF is more reliable than unilateral TLIF to restore spinopelvic parameters following multilevel surgery and spondylolisthesis. A high sacral sloped pelvis is more vulnerable to PALIF in terms of a postoperative flat back. PMID:25371781

Kim, Jin Kwon; Kim, Deok Ryeng; Kim, Joo Seung

2014-01-01

274

Pars Stress Fracture (Lumbar Spondylolysis)  

MedlinePLUS

... Neck and Back) > Pars Stress Fracture Pars Stress Fracture Page Content Pars stress fractures occur in young athletes involved in repetitive bending ... an episode of low back pain Pars stress fracture, also called lumbar spondylolysis, is one of the ...

275

Central vein stenosis: a nephrologist's perspective.  

PubMed

Central vein stenosis is commonly associated with placement of central venous catheters and devices. Central vein stenosis can jeopardize the future of arteriovenous fistula and arteriovenous graft in the ipsilateral extremity. Occurrence of central vein stenosis in association with indwelling intravascular devices including short-term, small-diameter catheters such as peripherally inserted central catheters, long-term hemodialysis catheters, as well as pacemaker wires, has been recognized for over two decades. Placement of multiple catheters, longer duration, location in subclavian vein, and placement on the left-hand side of neck seem to predispose to the development of central vein stenosis. Endothelial injury with subsequent changes in the vessel wall results in development of microthrombi, smooth muscle proliferation, and central vein stenosis. Central vein stenosis is often asymptomatic in nondialysis patients, but can result in edema of ipsilateral extremity and breast when challenged by increased flow from an arteriovenous fistula or arteriovenous graft. Bilateral central vein stenosis or superior vena cava stenosis can produce a clinical picture of superior vena cava syndrome, associated with engorgement of face and neck. Endovascular interventions are the mainstay of management of central vein stenosis. Percutaneous angioplasty and stent placement for elastic and recurring lesions can restore the functionality of the vascular access, at least temporarily. Frequent or multiple interventions are usually required. In recalcitrant cases, surgical bypass of the obstruction is an option. In resistant cases with severe symptoms, occlusion of the functioning vascular access will usually provide relief of symptoms. Further study of mechanisms of development of central vein stenosis and search for a targeted therapy is likely to lead to better ways of managing central vein stenosis. Prevention of central vein stenosis is the key to avoid access failure and other complications from central vein stenosis and relies upon avoidance of central vein stenosis placement and timely placement of arteriovenous fistula in prospective dialysis patient. PMID:17244123

Agarwal, Anil K; Patel, Bhairavi M; Haddad, Nabil J

2007-01-01

276

A Meta-Analysis of Unilateral versus Bilateral Pedicle Screw Fixation in Minimally Invasive Lumbar Interbody Fusion  

PubMed Central

Study Design Meta-analysis. Background Bilateral pedicle screw fixation (PS) after lumbar interbody fusion is a widely accepted method of managing various spinal diseases. Recently, unilateral PS fixation has been reported as effective as bilateral PS fixation. This meta-analysis aimed to comparatively assess the efficacy and safety of unilateral PS fixation and bilateral PS fixation in the minimally invasive (MIS) lumbar interbody fusion for one-level degenerative lumbar spine disease. Methods MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, BIOSIS Previews, and Cochrane Library were searched through March 30, 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) on unilateral versus bilateral PS fixation in MIS lumbar interbody fusion that met the inclusion criteria and the methodological quality standard were retrieved and reviewed. Data on participant characteristics, interventions, follow-up period, and outcomes were extracted from the included studies and analyzed by Review Manager 5.2. Results Six studies (5 RCTs and 1 CCT) involving 298 patients were selected. There were no significant differences between unilateral and bilateral PS fixation procedures in fusion rate, complications, visual analogue score (VAS) for leg pain, VAS for back pain, Oswestry disability index (ODI). Both fixation procedures had similar length of hospital stay (MD?=?0.38, 95% CI?=??0.83 to 1.58; P?=?0.54). In contrast, bilateral PS fixation was associated with significantly more intra-operative blood loss (P?=?0.002) and significantly longer operation time (P?=?0.02) as compared with unilateral PS fixation. Conclusions Unilateral PS fixation appears as effective and safe as bilateral PS fixation in MIS lumbar interbody fusion but requires less operative time and causes less blood loss, thus offering a simple alternative approach for one-level lumbar degenerative disease. PMID:25375315

Liu, Zheng; Fei, Qi; Wang, Bingqiang; Lv, Pengfei; Chi, Cheng; Yang, Yong; Zhao, Fan; Lin, Jisheng; Ma, Zhao

2014-01-01

277

Clinical efficacy of Eranda Muladi Yapana Basti in the management of Kati Graha (Lumbar spondylosis)  

PubMed Central

Low back pain affects approximately 60.85% of adults during some point of their life and 10% of this is because of Lumbar Spondylosis (LS). Kati Graha which is correlated with LS is a degenerative condition affecting the discs, vertebral bodies, and/or associated joints of the lumbar spine. In current study, assessment of Eranda Muladi Yapana Basti in the management of Kati Graha with special reference to LS has been attempted. 23 patients of either sex in the age between 20 to 65 years having signs and symptoms of LS were selected and were administered Yapana Basti for a period of 15 days. Highly significant results were observed and improvement in cardinal symptoms of Kati Graha was observed. It also provided highly significant results in improving Oswestry Disability Index Scale, range of movements and pain intensity This procedure appears to provide good clinical improvement in pacifying pure Vataja or Vata Kaphaja type of Kati Graha. PMID:24049403

Damayanthie Fernando, K. P.; Thakar, Anup B.; Shukla, Vageesha Datta

2013-01-01

278

Minimally invasive versus open transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion: evaluating initial experience  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to compare our experience with minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MITLIF) and open midline transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). A total of 36 patients suffering from isthmic spondylolisthesis or degenerative disc disease were operated with either a MITLIF (n?=?18) or an open TLIF technique (n?=?18) with an average follow-up of 22 and 24 months, respectively. Clinical outcome was assessed using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Oswestry disability index (ODI). There was no difference in length of surgery between the two groups. The MITLIF group resulted in a significant reduction of blood loss and had a shorter length of hospital stay. No difference was observed in postoperative pain, initial analgesia consumption, VAS or ODI between the groups. Three pseudarthroses were observed in the MITLIF group although this was not statistically significant. A steeper learning effect was observed for the MITLIF group. PMID:19023571

Tzinieris, Nicolas; Tsiridis, Elefterios; Kosmopoulos, Victor

2008-01-01

279

Protective Effect of Ligustrazine on Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Degeneration of Rats Induced by Prolonged Upright Posture  

PubMed Central

Most chronic low back pain is the result of degeneration of the lumbar intervertebral disc. Ligustrazine, an alkaloid from Chuanxiong, reportedly is able to relieve pain, suppress inflammation, and treat osteoarthritis and it has the protective effect on cartilage and chondrocytes. Therefore, we asked whether ligustrazine could reduce intervertebral disc degeneration. To determine the effect of ligustrazine on disc degeneration, we applied a rat model. The intervertebral disc degeneration of the rats was induced by prolonged upright posture. We found that pretreatment with ligustrazine for 1 month recovered the structural distortion of the degenerative disc; inhibited the expression of type X collagen, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13, and MMP3; upregulated type II collagen; and decreased IL-1?, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. In conclusion, ligustrazine is a promising agent for treating lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration disease. PMID:24872832

Liang, Qian-Qian; Ding, Dao-Fang; Xi, Zhi-Jie; Chen, Yan; Li, Chen-Guang; Liu, Shu-Fen; Lu, Sheng; Zhao, Yong-Jian; Shi, Qi; Wang, Yong-Jun

2014-01-01

280

Stroke risk and critical carotid stenosis.  

PubMed Central

The risk of stroke from carotid stenosis is proportionate to the degree of stenosis, but whether this is a direct and linear relationship is unknown. Using the degree of carotid stenosis in 500 patients with asymptomatic carotid bruits as a continuous variable, we plotted the frequency distribution and related this to the risk of ischaemic cerebral events and the progression of the arterial lesion. There was a bi-modal distribution, with the junction of the two populations at 85% stenosis. The frequency of ischaemic cerebral events was maximal at 75-90% stenosis. Our data suggest that there is a critical degree of carotid stenosis at which stroke risk becomes maximal. This may represent a window of therapeutic opportunity. PMID:2182782

Norris, J W; Zhu, C Z

1990-01-01

281

Investigation of biomechanical behavior of lumbar vertebral segments with dynamic stabilization device using finite element approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Degenerative disc disease is a major source of lower back pain and significantly alters the biomechanics of the lumbar spine. Dynamic stabilization device is a remedial technique which uses flexible materials to stabilize the affected lumbar region while preserving the natural anatomy of the spine. The main objective of this research work is to investigate the stiffness variation of dynamic stabilization device under various loading conditions under compression, axial rotation and flexion. Three dimensional model of the two segment lumbar spine is developed using computed tomography (CT) scan images. The lumbar structure developed is analyzed in ANSYS workbench. Two types of dynamic stabilization are considered: one with stabilizing device as pedicle instrumentation and second with stabilization device inserted around the inter-vertebral disc. Analysis suggests that proper positioning of the dynamic stabilization device is of paramount significance prior to the surgery. Inserting the device in the posterior region indicates the adverse effects as it shows increase in the deformation of the inter-vertebral disc. Analysis executed by positioning stabilizing device around the inter-vertebral disc yields better result for various stiffness values under compression and other loadings. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

Deoghare, Ashish B.; Kashyap, Siddharth; Padole, Pramod M.

2013-03-01

282

A Musculoskeletal model for the lumbar spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new musculoskeletal model for the lumbar spine is described in this paper. This model features a rigid pelvis and sacrum,\\u000a the five lumbar vertebrae, and a rigid torso consisting of a lumped thoracic spine and ribcage. The motion of the individual\\u000a lumbar vertebrae was defined as a fraction of the net lumbar movement about the three rotational degrees of

Miguel Christophy; Nur Adila Faruk Senan; Jeffrey C. Lotz; Oliver M. O’Reilly

283

Treatment of Degenerative Diseases of the Spine by Physiotherapy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three methods of treating degenerative diseases of the spine by physiotherapy are reviewed. Specific examples involving patients are discussed which demonstrate the effectiveness of different heat, physiotherapy, and exercise treatments. The uses of physi...

W. Koch, A. Lynn

1985-01-01

284

Lumbar and sacral radiofrequency neurotomy.  

PubMed

Radiofrequency (RF) neurotomy is an interventional procedure used to alleviate certain types of low back pain. RF energy is used to thermally coagulate the specific nerves that transmit pain signals. Recent evidence has shown that this procedure demonstrates significant efficacy in relieving low back pain in lumbar zygapophysial joints, and research is ongoing to determine if pain relief for the sacroiliac joint is also possible. This article provides an evidence-based background for performing RF neurotomy, discusses the relevant anatomy, and highlights the indications and technique for lumbar and sacral RF neurotomy. PMID:20977967

Mazin, David A; Sullivan, Joseph P

2010-11-01

285

Endovascular treatment of carotid stenosis.  

PubMed

Carotid artery angioplasty and stenting (CAS) has experienced an astonishing rate of development over the last 2 decades, becoming a viable alternative to carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in the management of carotid stenosis. Many trials have attempted to compare both treatment modalities and establish indications for each, depending on clinical and anatomic features. In this article, the authors review the historical evolution of carotid stenting; its main technical aspects, indications, and contraindications; as well as the most important clinical trials comparing CAS and CEA. PMID:24994091

Eller, Jorge L; Snyder, Kenneth V; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Levy, Elad I; Hopkins, L Nelson

2014-07-01

286

Cervical Bruits: Clinical Correlates of Stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To analyze the relationship among characteristics of buits, degree of under lying stenosis, and neurologic symptom complexes, the authors studied 157 patients with bruits undergoing digital subtraction angiography. Symptom status assignment (definite lateralizing, possible lateralizing, vertebrobasilar, diffuse, and asymptomatic) and cervical auscultation for location, duration, and other bruit characteristics were performed independently. Bruit occurrence was asso ciated with stenosis of

Linda Goldman; Richard L. Koller; Steven S. Lebow; Ruth B. Loewenson; David C. Anderson

1991-01-01

287

The changing presentation of pyloric stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolic abnormalities described in pyloric stenosis are now rare, probably because of prompter recognition of the disease. This report reviews the trend in presentation over three decades. All infants treated for pyloric stenosis during three mid-decade target periods were reviewed. Comparison between the 1975 group and the 1985 group and between the 1995 group and previous decades were designed to

Konstantinos Papadakis; E. Alexandria Chen; François I Luks; Marc S Lessin; Conrad W Wesselhoeft; Frank G Deluca

1999-01-01

288

Who should have surgery for degenerative spondylolisthesis?  

PubMed Central

Study Design Combined prospective randomized controlled trial and observational cohort study of degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) with an as-treated analysis. Objective To determine modifiers of the treatment effect (TE) of surgery (the difference between surgical and nonoperative outcomes) for DS using subgroup analysis. Summary of Background Data SPORT demonstrated a positive surgical TE for DS at the group level. However, individual characteristics may affect TE. Methods DS patients were treated with either surgery (n=395) or nonoperative care (n=206) and were analyzed according to treatment received. Fifty-five baseline variables were used to define subgroups for calculating the time-weighted average TE for the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) over 4 years (TE=?ODIsurgery-?ODInonoperative). Variables with significant subgroup-by-treatment interactions (p<0.05) were simultaneously entered into a multivariate model to select independent TE predictors. Results All analyzed subgroups that included at least 50 patients improved significantly more with surgery than with nonoperative treatment (p<0.05). Multivariate analyses demonstrated that age ? 67 (TE ?15.7 vs. ?11.8 for age>67, p=0.014); female gender (TE ?15.6 vs. ?11.2 for males, p=0.01); the absence of stomach problems (TE ?15.2 vs. ?11.3 for those with stomach problems, p=0.035); neurogenic claudication (TE ?15.3 vs. ?9.0 for those without claudication, p=0.004); reflex asymmetry (TE ?17.3 vs. ?13.0 for those without asymmetry, p=0.016); opioid use (TE ?18.4 vs. ?11.7 for those not using opioids, p<0.001); not taking antidepressants (TE ?14.5 vs. ?5.4 for those on antidepressants, p=0.014); dissatisfaction with symptoms (TE ?14.5 vs. ?8.3 for those satisfied or neutral, p=0.039); and anticipating a high likelihood of improvement with surgery (TE ?14.8 vs. ?5.1 for anticipating a low likelihood of improvement with surgery, p=0.019) were independently associated with greater TE. Conclusions Patients who met strict inclusion criteria improved more with surgery than with nonoperative treatment, regardless of other specific characteristics. However, TE varied significantly across certain subgroups. PMID:23846502

Pearson, Adam M.; Lurie, Jon D.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Zhao, Wenyan; Abdu, William A.; Weinstein, James N.

2013-01-01

289

Supravalvular aortic stenosis: elastin arteriopathy.  

PubMed

Supravalvular aortic stenosis is a systemic elastin (ELN) arteriopathy that disproportionately affects the supravalvular aorta. ELN arteriopathy may be present in a nonsyndromic condition or in syndromic conditions such as Williams-Beuren syndrome. The anatomic findings include congenital narrowing of the lumen of the aorta and other arteries, such as branches of pulmonary or coronary arteries. Given the systemic nature of the disease, accurate evaluation is recommended to establish the degree and extent of vascular involvement and to plan appropriate interventions, which are indicated whenever hemodynamically significant stenoses occur. ELN arteriopathy is genetically heterogeneous and occurs as a consequence of haploinsufficiency of the ELN gene on chromosome 7q11.23, owing to either microdeletion of the entire chromosomal region or ELN point mutations. Interestingly, there is a prevalence of premature termination mutations resulting in null alleles among ELN point mutations. The identification of the genetic defect in patients with supravalvular aortic stenosis is essential for a definitive diagnosis, prognosis, and genetic counseling. PMID:23250899

Merla, Giuseppe; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Piccolo, Pasquale; Micale, Lucia; Loviglio, Maria Nicla

2012-12-01

290

Aortic Perforation During Lumbar Laminectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

umbar laminectomy is a common and usually routine operation, but it can occasionally result in sudden, life-threatening complications. Such events usually require rapid therapy, so it is essential that anesthesiologists be aware of these potential com- plications, as well as their manifestations and treat- ment. We report the occurrence of aortic perforation, an uncommon but potentially fatal complication of lumbar

Christian W. Hiinemann; Gerhard Brodner; Hugo Van Aken; Ulrich Ruta; Marcel E. Durieux; Thomas Mollhoff

1998-01-01

291

Biomechanical evaluation of posterior lumbar dynamic stabilization: an in vitro comparison between Universal Clamp and Wallis systems  

PubMed Central

Treatment of chronic low back pain due to degenerative lumbar spine conditions often involves fusion of the symptomatic level. A known risk of this procedure is accelerated adjacent level degeneration. Motion preservation devices have been designed to provide stabilization to the symptomatic motion segment while preserving some physiologic motion. The aim of this study was to compare the changes in relative range of motion caused as a result of application of two non-fusion, dynamic stabilization devices: the Universal Clamp (UC) and the Wallis device. Nine fresh, frozen human lumbar spines (L1–Sacrum) were tested in flexion–extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation with a custom spine simulator. Specimens were tested in four conditions: (1) intact, (2) the Universal Clamp implanted at L3–4 (UC), (3) the UC with a transverse rod added (UCTR), and (4) the Wallis device implanted at L3–4. Total range of motion at 7.5 N-m was determined for each device and compared to intact condition. The UC device (with or without a transverse rod) restricted motion in all planes more than the Wallis. The greatest restriction was observed in flexion. The neutral position of the L3–4 motion segment shifted toward extension with the UC and UCTR. Motion at the adjacent levels remained similar to that observed in the intact spine for all three constructs. These results suggest that the UC device may be an appropriate dynamic stabilization device for degenerative lumbar disorders. PMID:21132335

Ilharreborde, Brice; Shaw, Miranda N.; Berglund, Lawrence J.; Zhao, Kristin D.; An, Kai-Nan

2010-01-01

292

[Surgical treatment of degenerative cervical spine diseases: analyses of 90 patients clinical study].  

PubMed

The effect of degenerative cervical spine surgery depends on good understanding of the pathogenesis and clinical course of disease with a detailed neurological and neuroradiological examination. Surgical approach should be considered separately for each pathological substrate in order to avoid additional morbidity. The aim of our study is to present the results of treatment through analysis of large clinical series focusing on anterior surgical approach with iliac crest graft fusion without cervical plating. The retrospective analysis of 90 patients operated on Neurosurgery of CHC Zemun, from 2008 to 2011, was done. In 81 patients cervical disc herniation was found in one or two levels, and 9 patients had spinal canal stenosis with polydiscopathy. Preoperatively 50 patients had cervical myelopathy, and 40 patients had radiculopathy as dominating clinical sign. Anterior cervical approach was performed in 79 patients, and 11 patients were operated by posterior approach. The treatment outcome was as follows: good outcome 16 (16.8%) patients, improved condition 65 (72.2%), without improvement 6 (6.7%), bad outcome 3 (4.3%). The anterior cervical approach with iliac crest autologous graft fusion, and without additional cervical plating, is reliable treatment option with results comparable to reported clinical series with sintetic graft placement and anterior cervical plate stabilisation. PMID:23654008

Markovi?, M; Zivkovi?, N; Stojanovi?, D; Samardzi?, M

2012-01-01

293

Cauda equina redundant nerve roots are associated to the degree of spinal stenosis and to spondylolisthesis.  

PubMed

To evaluate the association of redundant nerve roots of cauda equina (RNRCE) with the degree of lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) and with spondylolisthesis. Method After Institutional Board approval, 171 consecutive patients were retrospectively enrolled, 105 LSS patients and 66 patients without stenosis. The dural sac cross-sectional area (CSA) was measured on T2w axial MRI at the level of L2-3, L3-4 and L4-5 intervertebral discs. Two blinded radiologists classified cases as exhibiting or not RNRCE in MRI. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility was assessed. Results RNRCE were associated with LSS. RRNCE was more frequent when maximum stenosis<55 mm2. Substantial intra- observer agreement and moderate inter-observer agreement were obtained in the classification of RNRCE. Spondylolisthesis was identified in 27 patients and represented increased risk for RRNCE. Conclusion LSS is a risk factor for RNRCE, especially for dural sac CSA<55 mm2. LSS and spondylolisthesis are independent risk factors for RNRCE. PMID:25337731

Savarese, Leonor Garbin; Ferreira-Neto, Geraldo Dias; Herrero, Carlos Fernando Pereira da Silva; Defino, Helton Luiz Aparecido; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello H

2014-10-01

294

Anesthesia for subglottic stenosis in pediatrics  

PubMed Central

Any site in the upper airway can get obstructed and cause noisy breathing as well as dyspnea. These include nasal causes such as choanal atresia or nasal stenosis; pharyngeal causes including lingual thyroid; laryngeal causes such as laryngomalacia; tracheobronchial causes such as tracheal stenosis; and subglottic stenosis. Lesions in the oropharynx may cause stertor, while lesions in the laryngotracheal tree will cause stridor. Subglottic stenosis is the third leading cause of congenital stridors in the neonate. Subglottic Stenosis presents challenges to the anesthesiologist. Therefore, It is imperative to perform a detailed history, physical examination, and characterization of the extent and severity of stenosis. Rigid endoscopy is essential for the preoperative planning of any of the surgical procedures that can be used for correction. Choice of operation is dependent on the surgeon's comfort, postoperative capabilities, and severity of disease. For high-grade stenosis, single-stage laryngotracheal resection or cricotracheal resection are the best options. It has to be borne in mind that the goal of surgery is to allow for an adequate airway for normal activity without the need for tracheostomy. Anesthesia for airway surgery could be conducted safely with either sevofluraneor propofol-based total intravenous anesthesia. PMID:20532108

Eid, Essam A.

2009-01-01

295

[Congenital duodenal stenosis in adulthood].  

PubMed

A high-grade duodenal stenosis in adults can, in rare cases, be congenital, and its cause is found in an intraduodenally sited membrane. The anamnesis reveals growth disorders with vomiting and meteorism and abdominal complaints. A perforation opening in this membrane is the reason for survival into adulthood. The X-ray appearance and deep duodenoscopy make the diagnosis easy. Volvulus in cases of malrotation, Ladd's ligaments, annular pancreas, and compression of the duodenum by mesenteric vessels must be considered in the differential diagnosis. When the intraduodenal membrane is resected it is most important to expose the papilla Vateri, since this not uncommonly ends in the area of the septum. If necessary, a duodenoduodenostomy is performed. If the windsock web abnormality is present the duodenum should be opened at the point of attachment of the diaphragm. The construction of a gastrojejunostomy should be avoided. PMID:8145619

Klein, P; Anetsberger, R; Stangl, R; Hümmer, H P

1994-01-01

296

Adjacent Lumbar Disc Herniation after Lumbar Short Spinal Fusion  

PubMed Central

A 70-year-old outpatient presented with a chief complaint of sudden left leg motor weakness and sensory disturbance. He had undergone L4/5 posterior interbody fusion with L3–5 posterior fusions for spondylolisthesis 3 years prior, and the screws were removed 1 year later. He has been followed up for 3 years, and there had been no adjacent segment problems before this presentation. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a large L2/3 disc hernia descending to the L3/4 level. Compared to the initial MRI, this hernia occurred in an “intact” disc among multilevel severely degenerated discs. Right leg paresis and bladder dysfunction appeared a few days after admission. Microscopic lumbar disc herniotomy was performed. The right leg motor weakness improved just after the operation, but the moderate left leg motor weakness and difficulty in urination persisted. PMID:25276453

Iwatsuki, Koichi; Ohnishi, Yu-ichiro; Yoshimine, Toshiki

2014-01-01

297

Stem cell-based therapeutic applications in retinal degenerative diseases  

PubMed Central

Retinal degenerative diseases that target photoreceptors or the adjacent retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) affect millions of people worldwide. Retinal degeneration (RD) is found in many different forms of retinal diseases including retinitis pigmentosa (RP), age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy, cataracts, and glaucoma. Effective treatment for retinal degeneration has been widely investigated. Gene-replacement therapy has been shown to improve visual function in inherited retinal disease. However, this treatment was less effective with advanced disease. Stem cell-based therapy is being pursued as a potential alternative approach in the treatment of retinal degenerative diseases. In this review, we will focus on stem cell-based therapies in the pipeline and summarize progress in treatment of retinal degenerative disease. PMID:20859770

Huang, Yiming; Enzmann, Volker; Ildstad, Suzanne T.

2012-01-01

298

Surgical management of supravalvar aortic stenosis with coronary artery involvement.  

PubMed

Supravalvar aortic stenosis is characterized by an obstruction of the left ventricular outflow tract distal to the aortic valve. Its association with left main coronary artery stenosis is well known but right coronary artery involvement has not been reported. We describe two cases of supravalvar aortic stenosis with coronary artery stenosis and its surgical management. PMID:23016886

Gajjar, Trushar; Rao, Jinaga Nageswar; Desai, Neelam

2012-11-01

299

Efficacy of glucosamine, chondroitin, and methylsulfonylmethane for spinal degenerative joint disease and degenerative disc disease: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background: Nutritional supplements are commonly used for a variety of musculoskeletal conditions, including knee and hip degenerative joint disease. Although these supplements are occasionally recommended for patients with degenerative disc disease and spinal degenerative joint disease, the evidence supporting this use is unknown. Objective: To systematically search and assess the quality of the literature on the use of glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, and methylsulfonylmethane for the treatment of spinal osteoarthritis / degenerative joint disease, and degenerative disc disease. Data Sources: The Index of Chiropractic Literature, AMED, Medline, and CINAHL were searched for randomized controlled trials in English from 1984 to July 2009. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Data from studies meeting the inclusion criteria was extracted and reviewed by three reviewers. The Jadad scale was used to assess study quality. No attempts were made at meta-analysis due to variation in study design. Results: Two articles met the inclusion criteria. One study was found to have good quality but reported negative results for the supplemented group compared with placebo, the other study had low quality but reported significant positive results for the supplemented group when compared with a no intervention control group. Conclusion: There was little literature found to support the use of common nutritional supplements for spinal degeneration, making it difficult to determine whether clinicians should recommend them. PMID:21403782

Stuber, Kent; Sajko, Sandy; Kristmanson, Kevyn

2011-01-01

300

Endovascular advances for extracranial carotid stenosis.  

PubMed

Carotid artery stenting has become a viable alternative to carotid endarterectomy in the management of carotid stenosis. Over the past 20 years, many trials have attempted to compare both treatment modalities and establish the indications for each one, depending on clinical and anatomic features presented by patients. Concurrently, carotid stenting techniques and devices have evolved and made endovascular management of carotid stenosis safe and effective. Among the most important innovations are devices for distal and proximal embolic protection and new stent designs. This paper reviews these advances in the endovascular management of carotid artery stenosis within the context of the historical background. PMID:24402498

Eller, Jorge L; Dumont, Travis M; Sorkin, Grant C; Mokin, Maxim; Levy, Elad I; Snyder, Kenneth V; Nelson Hopkins, L; Siddiqui, Adnan H

2014-02-01

301

A pilot study of the prevalence of lumbar disc degeneration in elite athletes with lower back pain at the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To observe the prevalence of lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration in elite athletes as compared with published literature of changes seen in non-athletes—that is, normal population. Methods: The lumbar spines of 31 Olympic athletes who presented to the Olympic Polyclinic with low back pain and/or sciatica were examined using magnetic resonance imaging. Three criteria were looked at: (a) the loss of disc signal intensity; (b) the loss of disc height; (c) the presence of disc displacement. The results were then recorded and correlated with the lumbar levels. Results: The disc signal intensity was progressively reduced the more caudal the disc space. It was most common at the L5/S1 level, and, of the abnormal group, 36% (n = 11) showed the most degenerative change. Disc height reduction was also found to be most common at the L5/S1 level. However, the most common height reduction was only mild. A similar trend of increased prevalence of disc herniation was noted with more caudal levels. At the L5/S1 level, 58% were found to have an element of disc displacement, most of which were disc bulges. Compared with changes seen in the normal population (non-athletes) as described in the literature, disc degeneration defined by the above criteria was found to be significantly more severe in these Olympic athletes. Conclusions: Although the study was limited, the results suggest that elite athletes have a greater prevalence and greater degree of lumbar disc degeneration than the normal population. A more detailed follow up study should be considered to investigate which particular training activities have the most impact on the lumbar spine, and how to modify training methods so as to avoid the long term sequelae of degenerative disc disease of the lumbar spine. PMID:12782554

Ong, A; Anderson, J; Roche, J

2003-01-01

302

Which portion in a facet is specifically affected by articular cartilage degeneration with aging in the human lumbar zygapophysial joint?  

PubMed

Using 10 osteoligamentous vertebral columns obtained from elderly donated cadavers, we describe in detail degenerative changes of the articular cartilage in lumbar zygapophysial joints to show which portion in a facet is specifically affected. Degenerative changes, including extended cartilage defects, occurred in multiple facets of every specimen. The results demonstrated 5 basic morphologies of degeneration, i.e., 1) marginal dominace in the articular surface, 2) lower segment dominance except for the lowest (L5/S) facet, 3) advancement in the inferior articular process, 4) cranial and caudal dominance rather than the dorsal dominance in the articular surface and 5) progress in a mirror-image manner. These rules seemed to be consistent with differences in size, shape and kinesiological aspects of the facet between segments and between portions in a facet. PMID:12858963

Tanno, Iwao; Oguma, Hiroshi; Murakami, Gen; Sato, Shu-ichi; Yamashita, Toshihiko

2003-05-01

303

49 CFR 572.85 - Lumbar spine flexure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...assembled in an upright position, adjust the lumbar cable by tightening the adjustment nut for the lumbar vertebrae until the spring is compressed...adapter so that at 40 degrees of the lumbar spine flexion the applied force is perpendicular...

2010-10-01

304

49 CFR 572.85 - Lumbar spine flexure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...assembled in an upright position, adjust the lumbar cable by tightening the adjustment nut for the lumbar vertebrae until the spring is compressed...adapter so that at 40 degrees of the lumbar spine flexion the applied force is perpendicular...

2011-10-01

305

49 CFR 572.9 - Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis. 572.9 Section 572.9 Transportation... § 572.9 Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis. (a) The lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis consist of the assemblies designated...

2013-10-01

306

49 CFR 572.9 - Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis. 572.9 Section 572.9 Transportation... § 572.9 Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis. (a) The lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis consist of the assemblies designated...

2012-10-01

307

Posterolateral lumbar and lumbosacral fusion with and without pedicle screw internal fixation.  

PubMed

Forty-seven patients who had lumbar or lumbosacral fusion with or without pedicle screw internal fixation by one surgeon for treatment of degenerative lumbar disease with clinical instability were retrospectively reviewed by an independent observer. Eighteen of the 21 patients whose fusions were internally fixed with the Variable Spinal Plating (VSP) system were available for review. A control group consisted of 27 patients who had fusion without internal fixation. The rate of pseudarthrosis did not significantly differ between the two groups (VSP group, 22%; versus control group, 26%). Twelve (67%) of the 18 patients treated with fusion and VSP instrumentation were considered to have had a good or excellent outcome, whereas 19 (70%) of the 27 patients treated by fusion without internal fixation had good or excellent results. Two VSP-instrumented patients had postoperative leg dysesthesias, whereas this complication was not observed in the control group. Bilateral posterolateral lumbar or lumbosacral fusion without internal fixation is as effective as and safer than fusion with pedicle screw instrumentation. PMID:1395279

Bernhardt, M; Swartz, D E; Clothiaux, P L; Crowell, R R; White, A A

1992-11-01

308

Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion Using an Unilateral Cage: A Prospective Study of Clinical Outcome and Stability  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiological results of instrumented posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) using an unilateral cage. Methods Seventeen patients with unilateral radiculopathy who underwent bilateral percutaneous screw fixation with a single fusion cage inserted on the symptomatic side for treatment of focal degenerative lumbar spine disease were prospectively enrolled in this study. Their clinical results, radiological parameters, and related complications were assessed 10 days, 3 months, and 12 months postoperatively. Results There was no pseudarthrosis, instrumented fusion failure, significant cage subsidence, or retropulsion in any patient. The surgery restored the disc space height and maintained it as of 12 months postoperatively and did not exacerbate the lumbar lordotic and scoliotic angles. All patients had excellent or good outcomes according to the modified MacNab's criteria. The mean pain score according to the visual analogue scale was 7.5 preoperatively but had improved to 2.5 when reassessed 3 months postoperatively. The improvement was maintained as of 12 months postoperatively. Conclusion In cases of uncomplicated unilateral radiculopathy, PLIF using a single cage can be an effective and safe procedure with the advantage of preserving the posterior elements of the contralateral side. A shorter operative time and greater cost-effectiveness than for PLIF using bilateral cages can be expected. PMID:25110483

Lee, Seok Ki; Kim, Seok Won; Ju, Chang Il; Lee, Sung Myung

2014-01-01

309

Lumbar lordosis of extinct hominins.  

PubMed

The lordotic curvature of the lumbar spine (lumbar lordosis) in humans is a critical component in the ability to achieve upright posture and bipedal gait. Only general estimates of the lordotic angle (LA) of extinct hominins are currently available, most of which are based on the wedging of the vertebral bodies. Recently, a new method for calculating the LA in skeletal material has become available. This method is based on the relationship between the lordotic curvature and the orientation of the inferior articular processes relative to vertebral bodies in the lumbar spines of living primates. Using this relationship, we developed new regression models in order to calculate the LAs in hominins. The new models are based on primate group-means and were used to calculate the LAs in the spines of eight extinct hominins. The results were also compared with the LAs of modern humans and modern nonhuman apes. The lordotic angles of australopithecines (41° ± 4), H. erectus (45°) and fossil H. sapiens (54° ± 14) are similar to those of modern humans (51° ± 11). This analysis confirms the assumption that human-like lordotic curvature was a morphological change that took place during the acquisition of erect posture and bipedalism as the habitual form of locomotion. Neandertals have smaller lordotic angles (LA = 29° ± 4) than modern humans, but higher angles than nonhuman apes (22° ± 3). This suggests possible subtle differences in Neandertal posture and locomotion from that of modern humans. PMID:22052243

Been, Ella; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Kramer, Patricia A

2012-01-01

310

Congenital esophageal stenosis owing to tracheobronchial remnants  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To emphasize the need of an accurate diagnosis of congenital esophageal stenosis due to tracheobronchial remnants, since its treatment differs from other types of congenital narrowing. CASE DESCRIPTION Four cases of lower congenital esophageal stenosis due to tracheobronchial remnants, whose definitive diagnosis was made by histopathology. Except for the last case, in which a concomitant anti-reflux surgery was not performed, all had a favorable outcome after resection and anastomosis of the esophagus. COMMENTS The congenital esophageal stenosis is an intrinsic narrowing of the organâ€(tm)s wall associated with its structural malformation. The condition can be caused by tracheobronchial remnants, fibromuscular stenosis or membranous diaphragm and the first symptom is dysphagia after the introduction of solid food in the diet. The first-choice treatment to tracheobronchial remnants cases is the surgical resection and end-to-end anastomosis of the esophagus. PMID:24142326

Rebelo, Priscila Guyt; Ormonde, Joao Victor C.; Ormonde, Joao Baptista C.

2013-01-01

311

Congenital tracheobronchial stenosis in monozygotic twins  

Microsoft Academic Search

  \\u000a \\u000a Conclusion This case report shows that tracheobronchial stenosis may present in monozygotic twins. The pattern of malformation in twins\\u000a differs from cases described previously.

K. S. Wong; R. Lien; T. Y. Lin

1998-01-01

312

Exercise echocardiography in severe asymptomatic aortic stenosis.  

PubMed

The management of asymptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis is challenging. Unfortunately, evaluation of symptoms such as dyspnoea remains subjective. The use of exercise echocardiography may help to predict major events in patients with asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis. This article explains how to perform the test and discusses which echocardiographic measurements should be obtained, focusing on the diagnostic and prognostic value of these measurements. An increase in mean transaortic pressure gradient >or= 18 mmHg predicts a worse prognosis in patients with severe aortic stenosis. The absence of left ventricular contractile reserve also has an important prognostic impact. Evaluation of filling pressures and looking for a worsening or a new mitral regurgitation are also part of the exam. Further studies are required to determine whether surgery should be recommended in the presence of an abnormal exercise echocardiogram in severe asymptomatic aortic stenosis. PMID:20656637

O'Connor, Kim; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Donal, Erwan; Piérard, Luc A

2010-04-01

313

Angioplasty in stenosis of the innominate artery  

SciTech Connect

We describe a successful percutaneous transluminal dilatation (PTD) of an innominate artery stenosis in a 40-year-old patient with aortic arch syndrome. Five years earlier both a left central carotid artery occlusion and an innominate and left subclavian artery stenosis were treated by grafting from the aorta to the distal vessels. At recurrence of the neurological symptoms, reocclusion of the graft to the innominate artery and subtotal stenosis of the left carotid anastomosis were noted. To prevent the hazards of a reoperation, the innominate artery stenosis was dilated by means of PTD via the right brachial artery. Success of the procedure was demonstrated by Doppler sonography and angiography. It appears that PTD serves as an excellent method of treating stenoses of the aortic arch branches in aortic arch syndrome.

Kobinia, G.S.; Bergmann, H. Jr.

1983-06-01

314

Laparoscopic total extraperitoneal repair of lumbar hernia  

PubMed Central

Lumbar hernia is a rare surgical entity without a standard method of repair. With advancements in laparoscopic techniques, successful lumbar herniorrhaphy can be achieved by the creation of a completely extraperitoneal working space and secure fixation of a wide posterior mesh. We present a total extraperitoneal laparoendoscopic repair of lumbar hernia, which allowed for minimal invasiveness while providing excellent anatomical identification, easy mobilization of contents and wide secure mesh fixation. A total extraperitoneal method of lumbar hernia repair by laparoscopic approach is feasible and may be an ideal option. PMID:22111086

Lim, Man Sup; Lee, Hae Wan; Yu, Chang Hee

2011-01-01

315

Symptomatic Pneumocephalus Associated with Lumbar Dural Tear and Reverse Trendelenburg Positioning: A Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Symptomatic pneumocephalus is a rare complication of degenerative lumbar spine surgery. This is a case report of a patient who developed transient diplopia associated with pneumocephalus following lumbar spine surgery complicated by a dural tear. The diplopia improved as the pneumocephalus resolved. Factors involved in the development of pneumocephalus include an unintended durotomy and intraoperative reverse Trendelenburg positioning that was utilized to decrease the risk of postoperative vision loss. When encountering cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage intraoperatively, spine surgeons should level the operating table until closure of the dural defect to prevent potential complications associated with pneumocephalus. If postoperative patients complain of severe headaches or display a focal cranial neurologic deficit, then a computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain should be ordered and evaluated. Consulting neurologists should be aware of the circumstances surrounding this rare complication. PMID:24455345

Pirris, Stephen M.; Nottmeier, Eric W.

2013-01-01

316

Hemodynamics of Curved Vessels with Stenosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In hemodialysis access, the brachiocephalic or upper-arm fistula has less than optimal functional rates. The cause of this reduced patency is stenosis due to intimal hyperplasia in the cephalic vein. Stenosis typically leads to thrombosis and ultimately failure of the fistula. To increase our understanding of this process, numerical simulations of the unsteady, two-dimensional, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved for the flow in an infinite channel having curvature and stenosis. Physiologically relevant Reynolds numbers ranging from 300 to 1500 and stenosis percentages of 0, 25, 50, and 75 are modeled. The post-stenotic flow is characterized by strong shear layers and recirculation regions. The largest shear stresses are found just upstream of the stenosis apex. The maximum shear stress increases with increasing Reynolds number and percent stenosis. The results indicate that hemodynamic conditions in the vein after fistula creation combined with curvature of the cephalic arch lead to shear stresses that exceed normal physiological values (both minimum and maximum). In some cases, the shear stresses are sufficiently large to cause damage to the endothelium and possibly denudation.

Boghosian, Michael E.; Cassel, Kevin W.

2007-11-01

317

Progressive Agraphia Can Be a Harbinger of Degenerative Dementia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By investigating three patients with progressive agraphia, we explored the possibility that this entity is an early sign of degenerative dementia. Initially, these patients complained primarily of difficulties writing Kanji (Japanese morphograms) while other language and cognitive impairments were relatively milder. Impairments in writing Kana…

Fukui, Toshiya; Lee, Eiyai

2008-01-01

318

Mitochondrial DNA mutations associated with aging and degenerative diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accumulating evidence has emphasized the role of genetic factors in the development of aging and degenerative diseases. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), that codes for protein subunits essential for the maintenance of mitochondrial ATP synthesis, acquires mutations at a much higher rate than that of nuclear DNA. Recent studies have shown that somatically acquired mutations such as deletions in mtDNA are caused

Takayuki Ozawa

1995-01-01

319

Change of Lumbar Motion after Multi-Level Posterior Dynamic Stabilization with Bioflex System : 1 Year Follow Up  

PubMed Central

Objective This study examined the change of range of motion (ROM) at the segments within the dynamic posterior stabilization, segments above and below the system, the clinical course and analyzed the factors influencing them. Methods This study included a consecutive 27 patients who underwent one-level to three-level dynamic stabilization with Bioflex system at our institute. All of these patients with degenerative disc disease underwent decompressive laminectomy with/without discectomy and dynamic stabilization with Bioflex system at the laminectomy level without fusion. Visual analogue scale (VAS) scores for back and leg pain, whole lumbar lordosis (from L1 to S1), ROMs from preoperative, immediate postoperative, 1.5, 3, 6, 12 months at whole lumbar (from L1 to S1), each instrumented levels, and one segment above and below this instrumentation were evaluated. Results VAS scores for leg and back pain decreased significantly throughout the whole study period. Whole lumbar lordosis remained within preoperative range, ROM of whole lumbar and instrumented levels showed a significant decrease. ROM of one level upper and lower to the instrumentation increased, but statistically invalid. There were also 5 cases of complications related with the fixation system. Conclusion Bioflex posterior dynamic stabilization system supports operation-induced unstable, destroyed segments and assists in physiological motion and stabilization at the instrumented level, decrease back and leg pain, maintain preoperative lumbar lordotic angle and reduce ROM of whole lumbar and instrumented segments. Prevention of adjacent segment degeneration and complication rates are something to be reconsidered through longer follow up period. PMID:19893714

Park, Hunho; Cho, Bo Young; Park, Jeong Yoon

2009-01-01

320

Coronal oblique turbo STIR imaging of the sacrum and sacroiliac joints at routine MR imaging of the lumbar spine.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to evaluate the clinical impact of coronal oblique imaging of the lumbrosacral junction and the sacrum at initial presentation for MR imaging of the lumbar spine in patients presenting with low back pain or sciatic pain. Two hundred and sixty consecutive patients attending for MRI of the lumbar spine underwent simultaneous coronal oblique turbo short tau inversion recovery (STIR; TR 2500, TE 40, TI 150, echo train length 7, number of scan acquisitions 2) imaging of the sacrum and the sacroiliac joints with a field of view of 30-cm and 3-mm slices (acquisition time 3 min and 20 s). Images were reviewed by two experienced radiologists to determine the cause of back pain, with and without images of the sacrum and sacroiliac joints. The added value of the additional sequence was assessed. Correlation was made with surgery, response to nerve root injection or clinical follow-up at 3 months. Subgroup analysis was performed to determine if patient stratification according to sex or symptoms would be useful. In total, in 19 of 260 patients (7.3%), abnormalities were identified at coronal STIR imaging. In 7 of 260 patients (2.7%), pathology was identified in the sacrum thought to account for back pain, altering the diagnosis made on the standard sequences. These diagnoses were sacroiliitis (n=2), sacral stress fracture (n=1), degenerative sacroiliac joints (n=1), degenerative accessory articulation between the lumbar spine and the sacrum (n=1), Tarlov cyst of nerve root (n=1) and retroverted uterus causing sciatic pain (n=1). Patient stratification according to sex or the presence or absence of sciatic symptoms was not useful in predicting the added benefit of the additional sequence. Routine coronal STIR imaging of the sacrum as part of lumbar spine MRI improves assessment of patients presenting with low back pain or sciatica in only a small number of patients. PMID:16333609

Gleeson, Tadhg G; O'Connell, Martin J; Duke, Deirdre; Ryan, Martin; Ennis, Rachel; Eustace, Stephen J

2005-12-01

321

Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 17: bone growth stimulators as an adjunct for lumbar fusion.  

PubMed

The relationship between the formation of a solid arthrodesis and electrical and electromagnetic energy is well established; most of the information on the topic, however, pertains to the healing of long bone fractures. The use of both invasive and noninvasive means to supply this energy and supplement spinal fusions has been investigated. Three forms of electrical stimulation are routinely used: direct current stimulation (DCS), pulsed electromagnetic field stimulation (PEMFS), and capacitive coupled electrical stimulation (CCES). Only DCS requires the placement of electrodes within the fusion substrate and is inserted at the time of surgery. Since publication of the original guidelines, few studies have investigated the use of bone growth stimulators. Based on the current review, no conflict with the previous recommendations was generated. The use of DCS is recommended as an option for patients younger than 60 years of age, since a positive effect on fusion has been observed. The same, however, cannot be stated for patients over 60, because DCS did not appear to have an impact on fusion rates in this population. No study was reviewed that investigated the use of CCES or the routine use of PEMFS. A single low-level study demonstrated a positive impact of PEMFS on patients undergoing revision surgery for pseudarthrosis, but this single study is insufficient to recommend for or against the use of PEMFS in this patient population. PMID:24980594

Kaiser, Michael G; Eck, Jason C; Groff, Michael W; Ghogawala, Zoher; Watters, William C; Dailey, Andrew T; Resnick, Daniel K; Choudhri, Tanvir F; Sharan, Alok; Wang, Jeffrey C; Dhall, Sanjay S; Mummaneni, Praveen V

2014-07-01

322

Reconstruction of the lumbar spine using AO DCP plate internal fixation.  

PubMed

Augmentation of lumbar spine fusion with internal fixation using pedicle screw systems has gained wide currency because it offers rigid stabilization to foster fusion healing. The AO DCP plate has been employed in Europe as a spinal implant with pedicle fixation using 6.5 mm, full-threaded cancellous bone screws with success. This report details the experience of using this device for lumbar spine fusion in a series of 46 North American patients with a mean follow-up of 1.25 years (range 1-2.5 years). Thirty-one patients had had prior lumbar spine surgery with poor outcomes, and 15 had had no prior surgery. All were treated surgically for lumbar degenerative disease with canal decompression, internal fixation with AO plates, and fusion with autologous bone grafting posterolaterally. Complications included two early and one delayed wound infection; five cases of screw loosening; three cases of screw breakage; and three cases of screw impingement upon a nerve. Results of surgery in 17 patients with failed interbody fusion included good to excellent pain relief in 59%, and solid fusion in 76%. In 14 patients with failed posterior surgery the good to excellent pain relief rate was 79%, and the fusion rate was 86%. In 15 patients undergoing primary surgery there was 89% good to excellent pain relief and a solid fusion rate of 87%. The benefits accruing from augmentation of the fusion with internal fixation using AO DCP plates are positive and justify its continued use. Complications encountered in the early experience have been significantly reduced in subsequent series, indicating the existence of a "learning curve" effect which would mandate specific training of spinal surgeons in the technique. PMID:2913675

Thalgott, J S; LaRocca, H; Aebi, M; Dwyer, A P; Razza, B E

1989-01-01

323

Lumbar intraspinal extradural ganglion cysts.  

PubMed

The lumbar intraspinal epidural ganglion cyst has been a rare cause of the low back pain or leg pain. Ganglion cysts and synovial cysts compose the juxtafacet cysts. Extensive studies have been performed about the synovial cysts, however, very little has been known about the ganglion cyst. Current report is about two ganglion cysts associated with implicative findings in young male patients. We discuss about the underlying pathology of the ganglion cyst based on intraoperative evidences, associated disc herniation at the same location or severe degeneration of the ligament flavum that the cyst originated from in young patients. PMID:19707495

Cho, Sung Min; Rhee, Woo Tack; Choi, Soo Jung; Eom, Dae Woon

2009-07-01

324

Ranibizumab for the treatment of degenerative ocular conditions  

PubMed Central

Degenerative ocular conditions, such as age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusions, and myopic degeneration, have become a major public health problem and a leading cause of blindness in developed countries. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drugs seem to be an effective and safe treatment for these conditions. Ranibizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody antigen-binding fragment, which inhibits all biologically active isoforms of VEGF-A, is still the gold standard treatment for the majority of these pathological entities. In this review, we present the results of the most important clinical trials concerning the efficacy and safety of ranibizumab for the treatment of degenerative ocular conditions. PMID:25028531

Triantafylla, Magdalini; Massa, Horace F; Dardabounis, Doukas; Gatzioufas, Zisis; Kozobolis, Vassilios; Ioannakis, Konstantinos; Perente, Irfan; Panos, Georgios D

2014-01-01

325

Outcome in Cloward Anterior Fusion for Degenerative Cervical Spinal Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  ¶?The Cloward ventral interbody fusion is often employed for treatment of cervical degenerative disease. The present study\\u000a was aimed at evaluating results and complications in this classical type of autologous bone graft procedure in a cohort of\\u000a patients with radiculopathy (RP) or myeloradiculopathy (MRP). Indications for and limitations of the technique were investigated\\u000a by retrospective data analysis in a series

V. Heidecke; N. G. Rainov; T. Marx; W. Burkert

2000-01-01

326

Promises of stem cell therapy for retinal degenerative diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of stem cell technology, stem cell-based therapy for retinal degeneration has been proposed to restore\\u000a the visual function. Many animal studies and some clinical trials have shown encouraging results of stem cell-based therapy\\u000a in retinal degenerative diseases. While stem cell-based therapy is a promising strategy to replace damaged retinal cells and\\u000a ultimately cure retinal degeneration, there are

Ian Yat-Hin Wong; Ming-Wai Poon; Rosita Tsz-Wai Pang; Qizhou Lian; David Wong

327

Supravalvular aortic stenosis and coronary ostial stenosis in familial hypercholesterolemia: two-dimensional echocardiographic assessment.  

PubMed

The lesions of the aortic root, which are supravalvular aortic stenosis and coronary ostial stenosis, in familial hypercholesterolemia were studied using two-dimensional echocardiography. The subjects were 25 heterozygotes, six homozygotes and 30 control subjects. The internal diameters of the aortic ring, the sinus of Valsalva and the supravalvular aortic ring were measured. Measurement variation due to body size was avoided by normalizing the latter two values by the diameter of the aortic ring. Four heterozygotes and all homozygotes were judged to have stenosis of the supravalvular aortic ring; none of heterozygotes and four homozygotes had stenosis of the sinus of Valsalva. In three of the four patients with stenosis of both the supravalvular aortic ring and the sinus of Valsalva, a pressure gradient was demonstrated. The degree of supravalvular aortic stenosis correlated with the serum cholesterol level but not with patient age. All homozygotes, even very young ones, had a severe aortic root lesion. In the short-axis view of the aortic root, a lump (raised mass) on the aortic wall indicating atheromatous plaquing was demonstrated in five heterozygotes and all homozygotes. Coronary ostial stenosis was shown in three of the four patients whose plaquing echoes were adjacent to the coronary orifice. We conclude that two-dimensional echocardiography is useful in diagnosing lesions of the aortic root in patients with hypercholesterolemia. PMID:6825243

Beppu, S; Minura, Y; Sakakibara, H; Nagata, S; Park, Y D; Nambu, S; Yamamoto, A

1983-04-01

328

Lumbar spine curvature during office chair sitting.  

PubMed

Prolonged sitting is generally accepted as a high risk factor in low back pain and it is frequently suggested that a lordotic posture of the lumbar spine should be maintained during sitting. We asked whether the sagittal curvature of the lumbar spine during sitting is affected by the seat tilt, backrest and the direction of the synchronised mechanism of the back and seat tilt (synchro tilt). Two office chairs were tested by multibody analysis interfacing a human model with a chair model. Results indicate that a synchronised mechanism of an office chair representing a posterior tilt of the seat while the backrest is reclined maintains an evenly distributed lumbar lordosis. The segmental angles are between 3.1 and 3.6 degrees at the lumbar vertebrae 1/2-4/5 (L1/2-L4/5). These lumbar spine segmental angles are not sensitive to the backrest height. In contrast, a synchro tilt concept with a reduction of the seat's posterior tilt while the backrest is reclined causes a strong reduction of the lumbar lordosis in backrest recline with a maximum reduction from 11.7 to 2.8 degrees in L4/5. As a consequence of these results, a synchro tilt concept with a posterior tilt of the seat while the backrest is reclined is preferable from the lumbar spine kinematics point of view. PMID:11259935

Lengsfeld, M; Frank, A; van Deursen, D L; Griss, P

2000-11-01

329

Percutaneous balloon dilatation in congenital mitral stenosis.  

PubMed Central

A three year old girl with severe congenital mitral stenosis was successfully treated by percutaneous balloon dilatation of the mitral valve. Cardiac catheterisation and cross sectional and Doppler echocardiography indicated that the orifice of the mitral valve had doubled in area. A small atrial septal defect was found at follow up cardiac catheterisation and angiography. Balloon dilatation of the mitral valve is a reasonable alternative to surgical treatment for typical congenital mitral stenosis even in young children. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 PMID:3593619

Alday, L E; Juaneda, E

1987-01-01

330

Clinical diagnosis of pyloric stenosis: a declining art  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To assess whether diagnostic imaging of pyloric stenosis has made a difference in rapidity of diagnosis, duration of pre-operative hydration, and length of stay in hospital. DESIGN--Chart review of infants with confirmed diagnosis of pyloric stenosis. SETTING--Paediatric teaching hospital. SUBJECTS--215 infants with a confirmed diagnosis of pyloric stenosis seen during 1974-7 and 187 infants with pyloric stenosis seen during 1988-91.

J Macdessi; R K Oates

1993-01-01

331

Acute Management of Unsuspected Subglottic Stenosis by Tracheal Dilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

here is scant information in the literature regard- ing the anesthetic management of patients in whom unexpected subglottic stenosis is encoun- tered during tracheal intubation. In two previously reported cases, the stenotic regions were lower in the trachea, enabling smaller tracheal tubes to be placed above the stenosis (1,2). We describe a patient in whom subglottic stenosis immediately below the

Usha Rani Nimmagadda; Ramez M. Salem; Michael Friedman; Richard F. Lenz

1995-01-01

332

Acquired degenerative changes of the intervertebral segments at and suprajacent to the lumbosacral junction. A radioanatomic analysis of the nondiskal structures of the spinal column and perispinal soft tissues.  

PubMed

In earlier evolutionary times, mammals were primarily quadrupeds. However, other bipeds have also been represented during the course of the Earth's several billion year history. In many cases, either the bipedal stance yielded a large tail and hypoplastic upper extremities (e.g., Tyrannosaurus rex and the kangaroo), or it culminated in hypoplasia of the tail and further development and specialization of the upper extremities (e.g., nonhuman primates and human beings). In the human species this relatively recently acquired posture resulted in a more or less pronounced lumbosacral kyphosis. In turn, certain compensatory anatomic features have since occurred. These include the normal characteristic posteriorly directed wedge-shape of the L5 vertebral body and the L5-S1 intervertebral disk; the L4 vertebral body and the L4-L5 disk may be similarly visibly affected. These compensatory mechanisms, however, have proved to be functionally inadequate over the long term of the human life span. Upright posture also leads to increased weight bearing in humans that progressively causes excess stresses at and suprajacent to the lumbosacral junction. These combined factors result in accelerated aging and degenerative changes and a predisposition to frank biomechanical failure of the subcomponents of the spinal column in these spinal segments. One other specific problem that occurs at the lumbosacral junction that predisposes toward premature degeneration is the singular relationship that exists between a normally mobile segment of spine (i.e., the lumbar spine) and a normally immobile one (i.e., the sacrum). It is well known that mobile spinal segments adjacent to congenitally or acquired fused segments have a predilection toward accelerated degenerative changes. The only segment of the spine in which this is invariably normally true is at the lumbosacral junction (i.e., the unfused lumbar spine adjoining the fused sacrum). Nevertheless, biomechanical failures of the human spine are not lethal traits; in most cases today, mankind reaches sexual maturity before spinal biomechanical failure precludes sexual reproduction. For this gene-preserving reason, degenerative spinal disorders will likely be a part of modern societies for the foreseeable eternity of the race. The detailed alterations accruing from the interrelated consequences of and phenomena contributing to acquired degenerative changes of the lumbosacral intervertebral segments as detailed in this discussion highlight the extraordinary problems that are associated with degenerative disease in this region of the spine. Further clinicoradiologic research in this area will progressively determine the clinical applications and clinical efficacy of the various traditional and newer methods of therapy in patients presenting with symptomatic acquired collapse of the intervertebral disks at and suprajacent to the lumbosacral junction and the interrelated degenerative alterations of the nondiskal structures of the spine. PMID:11221507

Jinkins, J R

2001-01-01

333

Dynamic Lumbar Pedicle Screw-Rod Stabilization: Two-Year Follow-Up and Comparison with Fusion  

PubMed Central

Background: A lumbar pedicular dynamic stabilization system (LPDSS) is an alternative to fusion for treatment of degenerative disc disease (DDD). In this study, clinical and radiological results of one LPDSS (Saphinaz, Medikon AS, Turkey) were compared with results of rigid fixation after two-year follow-up. Methods: All patients had anteroposterior and lateral standing x-rays of the lumbar spine preoperatively and at 3 months, 12 months and 24 months after surgery. Lordosis of the lumbar spine, segmental lordosis and ratio of the height of the intervertebral disc spaces (IVS) measured preoperatively and at 3 months, 12 months and 24 months after surgery. All patients underwent MRI and/or CT preoperatively, 3months, 12 months and 24 months postoperatively. The ratio of intervertebral disc space to vertebral body height (IVS) and segmental and lumbar lordosis were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively. Pain scores were evaluated via Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) preoperatively and postoperatively. Results: In both groups, the VAS and ODI scores decreased significantly from preoperatively to postoperatively. There was no difference in the scores between groups except that a lower VAS and ODI scores were observed after 3 months in the LPDSS group. In both groups, the IVS ratio remained unchanged between preoperative and postoperative conditions. The lumbar and segmental lordotic angles decreased insignificantly to preoperative levels in the months following surgery. Conclusions: Patients with LPDSS had equivalent relief of pain and maintenance of sagittal balance to patients with standard rigid screw-rod fixation. LPDSS appears to be a good alternative to rigid fixation. PMID:20448815

Ozer, Ali Fahir; Crawford, Neil R; Sasani, Mehdi; Oktenoglu, Tunc; Bozkus, Hakan; Kaner, Tuncay; Aydin, Sabri

2010-01-01

334

Vacuum epidural cyst with acute neurological presentation. A case report.  

PubMed

The widespread use of MRI in the assessment of low back pain has led to increased detection of degenerative cysts of the spine, which was essentially a surgical diagnosis earlier. The awareness of degenerative cysts, the significance of their role in the etiology of radicular and back pain and their effective management is evolving. We describe a case of bilateral, gas-filled lumbar facet synovial/ ganglion cysts causing focal arachnoid inflammation and lateral lumbar canal stenosis. PMID:23859245

El Beltagi, A H; Swamy, N; Dashti, F

2013-04-01

335

Axial lumbar interbody fusion: a 6-year single-center experience  

PubMed Central

Introduction The aim of this study is to report our 6-year single-center experience with L5–S1 axial lumbar interbody fusion (AxiaLIF). Methods A total of 131 patients with symptomatic degenerative disc disease refractory to nonsurgical treatment were treated with AxiaLIF at L5–S1, and were followed for a minimum of 1 year (mean: 21 months). Main outcomes included back and leg pain severity, Oswestry Disability Index score, working status, analgesic medication use, patient satisfaction, and complications. Computed tomography was used to determine postoperative fusion status. Results No intraoperative complications, including vascular, neural, urologic, or bowel injuries, were reported. Back and leg pain severity decreased by 51% and 42%, respectively, during the follow-up period (both P < 0.001). Back function scores improved 50% compared to baseline. Clinical success, defined as improvement ?30%, was 67% for back pain severity, 65% for leg pain severity, and 71% for back function. The employment rate increased from 47% before surgery to 64% at final follow-up (P < 0.001). Less than one in four patients regularly used analgesic medications postsurgery. Patient satisfaction with the AxiaLIF procedure was 83%. The fusion rate was 87.8% at final follow-up. During follow-up, 17 (13.0%) patients underwent 18 reoperations on the lumbar spine, including pedicle screw fixation (n = 10), total disc replacement of an uninvolved level (n = 3), facet screw fixation (n = 3), facet screw removal (n = 1), and interbody fusion at L4–L5 (n = 1). Eight (6.1%) reoperations were at the index level. Conclusion Single-level AxiaLIF is a safe and effective means to achieve lumbosacral fusion in patients with symptomatic degenerative disc disease. PMID:23976846

Zeilstra, Dick J; Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E

2013-01-01

336

Calcific mitral stenosis in the hemodialysis patient.  

PubMed

The dialysis patient is prone to elevations in the calcium phosphorus product and hyperparathyroidism, which contributes to valvular and vascular calcification. We present the case of a young lady on chronic dialysis that developed mitral calcification complicated by severe mitral stenosis, caseous calcification and retinal embolization. She subsequently required mitral valve replacement. PMID:24015751

Sequeira, Adrian; Morris, Liam; Patel, Brijesh; Duvall, Lucas; Gali, Deepa; Menendez, Denisse; Alexander, Guy

2014-01-01

337

Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis: myopathic type  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smooth muscle cell biopsies obtained at pyloromyotomy from 37 children with infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) were studied by light and electron microscopy and compared with 6 autopsy control cases without any clinical evidence of this disorder. In cases with IHPS an apparently irregular increase in the number of smooth muscle cells by mitosis was accompanied by an increase of

R. Dieler; J. M. Schröder; H. Skopnik; G. Steinau

1990-01-01

338

Recurrent Cervical Stenosis - a Troublesome Clinical Entity  

PubMed Central

Cervical is a troublesome clinical problem. It usually follows surgery on cervix; also seen with endometrial and cervical malignancies. There is a high recurrence rate after the traditional treatment which is cervical dilatation. Various other treatment options have been tired. We report a case of recurrent cervical stenosis successfully treated with a different technique. PMID:22359714

Mathew, Mariam; Mohan, Anita Krishna

2008-01-01

339

Lumbar Epidural Varix Mimicking Perineural Cyst  

PubMed Central

Lumbar epidural varices are rare and usually mimick lumbar disc herniations. Back pain and radiculopathy are the main symptoms of lumbar epidural varices. Perineural cysts are radiologically different lesions and should not be confused with epidural varix. A 36-year-old male patient presented to us with right leg pain. The magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cystic lesion at S1 level that was compressing the right root, and was interpreted as a perineural cyst. The patient underwent surgery via right L5 and S1 hemilaminectomy, and the lesion was coagulated and removed. The histopathological diagnosis was epidural varix. The patient was clinically improved and the follow-up magnetic resonance imaging showed the absence of the lesion. Lumbar epidural varix should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of the cystic lesions which compress the spinal roots. PMID:23741553

Pusat, Serhat; Kural, Cahit; Aslanoglu, Atilla; Kurt, Bulent

2013-01-01

340

Vascular injury during anterior lumbar surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background contextWith the number of anterior lumbar procedures expected to increase significantly over the next few years, it is important for spine surgeons to have a good understanding about the incidence of vascular complications during these operations.

Salvador A Brau; Rick B Delamarter; Michael L Schiffman; Lytton A Williams; Robert G Watkins

2004-01-01

341

Synovial cysts of the lumbar spine--pathological considerations and surgical strategy.  

PubMed

Symptomatic lumbar synovial cysts (LSCs) are a rare cause of degenerative narrowing of the spinal canal, with thecal sac or nerve root compression. True synovial cysts have a thick wall lined by synovial cells, containing granulation tissue, numerous histiocytes, and giant cells. In contrast, pseudo-cysts lack specialized epithelium, have a collagenous capsule filled with myxoid material, and may be classified into ganglion cysts, originating from periarticular fibrous tissues, and ligamentous cysts, arising from the ligamentum flavum or even from the posterior longitudinal ligament. Here we present the surgical series of the Chair of Neurosurgery at the University of Cagliari (Italy) including a total of 17 LSCs. Surgical technique consisted of facet sparing excision of LSC, achieved by simple hemilaminectomy/laminectomy, and diagnosis was always confirmed by histological specimen examination, which detected the typical synovial epithelium, the intracystic presence of hemosiderin, histiocytes, and calcifications. Further immunohistochemical investigation revealed positive staining for cytokeratin: CK5, CK6, and AE1/AE3. Clinically, our cohort experienced rapid and complete resolution of symptoms, without perioperative complications, or recurrence of cysts or vertebral instability at a median follow up of 28 months, when the MacNab score was generally excellent. A review of the literature, retrieving articles published from 1973, collected a total of 101 articles concerning all the cases of LSC scientifically described to date. Both clinical and histological findings described in our study support the theory of degenerative microtraumatic pathogenesis of synovial cysts. PMID:23438660

Ganau, Mario; Ennas, Franco; Bellisano, Giulia; Ganau, Laura; Ambu, Rossano; Faa, Gavino; Maleci, Alberto

2013-01-01

342

In vivo range of motion of the lumbar spinous processes  

PubMed Central

The study design included an in vivo laboratory study. The objective of the study is to quantify the kinematics of the lumbar spinous processes in asymptomatic patients during un-restricted functional body movements with physiological weight bearing. Limited data has been reported on the motion patterns of the posterior spine elements. This information is necessary for the evaluation of traumatic injuries and degenerative changes in the posterior elements, as well as for improving the surgical treatment of spinal diseases using posterior procedures. Eight asymptomatic subjects with an age ranging from 50 to 60 years underwent MRI scans of their lumbar segments in a supine position and 3D models of L2–5 were constructed. Next, each subject was asked to stand and was positioned in the following sequence: standing, 45° flexion, maximal extension, maximal left and right twisting, while two orthogonal fluoroscopic images were taken simultaneously at each of the positions. The MRI models were matched to the osseous outlines of the images from the two orthogonal views to quantify the position of the vertebrae in 3D at each position. The data revealed that interspinous process (ISP) distance decreased from L2 to L3 to L4 to L5 when measured in the supine position; with significantly higher values at L2–3 and L3–4 compared with L4–5. These differences were not seen with weight-bearing conditions. During the maximal extension, the ISP distance at the L2–3 motion segment was significantly reduced, but no significant changes were detected at L3–4 and L4–5. During flexion the ISP distances were not significantly different than those measured in the MRI position at all segments. Going from the left to right twist positions, the L4–5 segment had greater amounts of ISP rotation, while all segments had similar ranges of translation in the transverse plane. The interspinous process distances were dependent on body posture and vertebral level. PMID:19543753

Xia, Qun; Wang, Shaobai; Passias, Peter G.; Kozanek, Michal; Li, Gang; Grottkau, Brian E.; Wood, Kirkham B.

2009-01-01

343

Degenerative myelopathy in a family of Siberian Husky dogs.  

PubMed

Three closely related, Siberian Husky dogs had chronic progressive paresis and ataxia with muscle atrophy in the hindlimbs. Radiologic and myelographic examination of the spine revealed no abnormalities. On histologic examination, disseminated degeneration of the white matter, particularly in the thoracic segments, was seen. The clinical and pathological findings were similar to those described in aging large dogs with so-called degenerative myelopathy. The cause of this disease is unknown but the fact that these 3 Huskies were closely related suggest that hereditary factors may play a role. PMID:12002594

Bichsel, P; Vandevelde, M; Lang, J; Kull-Hächler, S

1983-11-01

344

49 CFR 572.75 - Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis assembly and test procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis assembly and test procedure. 572...572.75 Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis assembly and test procedure. (a) Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis assembly. The lumbar spine,...

2013-10-01

345

Intervertebral disc rehydration after lumbar dynamic stabilization: magnetic resonance image evaluation with a mean followup of four years.  

PubMed

Objective. To compare the clinical and radiographic outcomes in patients of different ages who underwent the Dynesys stabilization. Methods. This retrospective study included 72 patients (mean age 61.4 years) with one- or two-level lumbar spinal stenosis who underwent laminectomy and the Dynesys (Zimmer Spine, Minneapolis) dynamic stabilization system. Thirty-seven patients were younger than 65-year old while the other 35 were older. Mean followup was 46.7 months. Pre- and postoperative radiographic and clinical evaluations were analyzed. Results. The mean calibrated disc signal (CDS) at the index level was significantly improved from 60.2 ± 25.2 preoperatively to 66.9 ± 26.0 postoperatively (P > 0.001). Screw loosening occurred in 22.2% of patients and 5.1% of screws. The improvement in CDS at index level was seen to be significant in younger patients but not in older patients. Overall, the mean visual analogue scale (VAS) of back pain, VAS of leg pain, and the Oswestry disability index (ODI) scores improved significantly after operation. There were no significant differences in pre- and postoperative VAS and ODI and screw loosening rates between the younger and older patients. Conclusions. There is significant clinical improvement after laminectomy and dynamic stabilization for symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis. Intervertebral disc rehydration was seen in younger patients. PMID:23738082

Fay, Li-Yu; Wu, Jau-Ching; Tsai, Tzu-Yun; Tu, Tsung-Hsi; Wu, Ching-Lan; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Cheng, Henrich

2013-01-01

346

Intervertebral Disc Rehydration after Lumbar Dynamic Stabilization: Magnetic Resonance Image Evaluation with a Mean Followup of Four Years  

PubMed Central

Objective. To compare the clinical and radiographic outcomes in patients of different ages who underwent the Dynesys stabilization. Methods. This retrospective study included 72 patients (mean age 61.4 years) with one- or two-level lumbar spinal stenosis who underwent laminectomy and the Dynesys (Zimmer Spine, Minneapolis) dynamic stabilization system. Thirty-seven patients were younger than 65-year old while the other 35 were older. Mean followup was 46.7 months. Pre- and postoperative radiographic and clinical evaluations were analyzed. Results. The mean calibrated disc signal (CDS) at the index level was significantly improved from 60.2 ± 25.2 preoperatively to 66.9 ± 26.0 postoperatively (P > 0.001). Screw loosening occurred in 22.2% of patients and 5.1% of screws. The improvement in CDS at index level was seen to be significant in younger patients but not in older patients. Overall, the mean visual analogue scale (VAS) of back pain, VAS of leg pain, and the Oswestry disability index (ODI) scores improved significantly after operation. There were no significant differences in pre- and postoperative VAS and ODI and screw loosening rates between the younger and older patients. Conclusions. There is significant clinical improvement after laminectomy and dynamic stabilization for symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis. Intervertebral disc rehydration was seen in younger patients. PMID:23738082

Fay, Li-Yu; Wu, Jau-Ching; Tsai, Tzu-Yun; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Cheng, Henrich

2013-01-01

347

Diagnosis and surgical management of intraspinal hemorrhagic juxtafacet cysts in lumbar spine: experience of eight cases.  

PubMed

Hemorrhagic juxtafacet synovial cysts have rarely been reported in the literature. We reviewed case records of eight patients with hemorrhagic juxtafacet cysts treated surgically. Back pain and acute radicular pain were the presenting features in the all patients. The possible cause for hemorrhage could be identified in only three patients. Six patients had medial facetectomy and hemilaminectom and two patients with stenosis had medial facetectomy and laminectomy. Following surgery there was immediate relief from pain with significant improvement of the Oswestry disability index (ODI). Six patients had an excellent outcome while the remaining two patients had a good outcome. During the follow-up there was no progression of slippage, no segment instability, and no recurrence. Hemilaminectomy or laminectomy with medial facetectomy without fusion might serve as an effective and safe management strategy to treat lumbar hemorrhagic juxtrafacet synovial cysts. PMID:20508352

Gong, Kai; Wang, Zhe; Chen, M M Hai; Luo, Zhuojing

2010-01-01

348

Management of a 59-year-old female patient with adult degenerative scoliosis using manipulation under anesthesia  

PubMed Central

Objective Manipulation under anesthesia (MUA) is an outpatient procedure that is performed to restore normal joint kinematics and musculoskeletal function. This article presents a case of a patient with idiopathic lumbar degenerative scoliosis who developed intractable pain as an adult and reports on the outcomes following a trial of MUA. Clinical Features A 59-year-old female patient presented to a chiropractic office with primary subjective symptoms of lower back and bilateral hip pain. Numerical pain rating scores were reported at 8 of 10 for the lower back and 9 of 10 for the sacroiliac joint/gluteal region. A disability score using a functional rating index demonstrated a score of 26 of 40 (or 64% disability). Over the preceding 5 years, the patient had tried a number of conservative therapies to relieve her pain without success. Intervention and Outcome The patient was evaluated for MUA. The patient was scheduled for a serial MUA over 3 days. Numerical pain rating scores 8 weeks after the MUA were 1 of 10 for the lower back and 3 of 10 for the sacroiliac joint. Her disability rating decreased to 11 of 40 (28%). Radiological improvements were also observed. These outcomes were maintained at 6-month follow-up. Conclusion Pain, functional, and radiographic outcomes demonstrated improvements immediately following treatment for this patient. PMID:21629554

Morningstar, Mark W.; Strauchman, Megan N.

2010-01-01

349

Anterior lumbar interbody surgery for spondylosis results from a classically-trained neurosurgeon.  

PubMed

Anterior lumbar surgery for degenerative disc disease (DDD) is a relatively novel technique that can prevent damage to posterior osseous, muscular and ligamentous spinal elements. This study reports the outcomes and complications in 286 patients who underwent fusion - with artificial disc implants or combined fusion and artificial disc implants - by a single-operator neurosurgeon, with up to 24 months of follow-up. The visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Short Form 36 (SF36) and prospective log of adverse events were used to assess the clinical outcome. Radiographic assessments of implant position and bony fusion were analysed. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were also recorded. Irrespective of pre-surgical symptoms (back pain alone or back and leg pain combined), workers' compensation status and type of surgical implant, clinically significant improvements in VAS, ODI and SF36 were primarily observed at 3 and/or 6 month follow-up, and improvements were maintained at 24 months after surgery. A 94% fusion rate was obtained; the overall complication was 9.8% which included 3.5% with vascular complications. The anterior lumbar approach can be used for treating DDD for both back pain and back and leg pain with low complication rates. With appropriate training, single-operator neurosurgeons can safely perform these surgeries. PMID:24786717

Chatha, Gurkirat; Foo, Stacy W L; Lind, Christopher R P; Budgeon, Charley; Bannan, Paul E

2014-09-01

350

Dynamic stabilization of the lumbar spine and its effects on adjacent segments: an in vitro experiment.  

PubMed

In recent years, nonfusion stabilization of the lumbar spine has gained more and more popularity. These nonfusion systems intend to maintain or restore the intersegmental motions to magnitudes of the intact spine and have no negative effects on the segments adjacent to the stabilized one. This study investigated the DYNESYS, a dynamic nonfusion system, which is designed to stabilize the bridged segments while maintaining the disc and the facet joints. To determine the magnitude of stabilization and the effect of the stabilization on the adjacent segment, six lumbar cadaver spines were fixed in a spine tester and loaded with pure moments in the three main motion planes. For each spine, four different stages were tested: intact, defect of the middle segment, fixation with the DYNESYS, and fixation with the internal fixator. Intersegmental motions were measured at all levels. For the bridged segment, the DYNESYS stabilized the spine and was more flexible than the internal fixator. This difference between the internal fixator and the DYNESYS was most pronounced in extension (P < 0.05), with the DYNESYS restoring the motion back to the level of the intact spine. The motion in the adjacent segments was not influenced by either stabilization method. Our results suggest that the DYNESYS provides substantial stability in case of degenerative spinal pathologies and can therefore be considered as an alternative method to fusion surgery in these indications while the motion segment is preserved. PMID:12902959

Schmoelz, W; Huber, J F; Nydegger, T; Dipl-Ing; Claes, L; Wilke, H J

2003-08-01

351

Developmental and Degenerative Features in a Complicated Spastic Paraplegia  

PubMed Central

Objective We sought to explore the genetic and molecular causes of Troyer syndrome, one of several complicated hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs). Troyer syndrome had been thought to be restricted to the Amish; however, we identified 2 Omani families with HSP, short stature, dysarthria and developmental delay—core features of Troyer syndrome—and a novel mutation in the SPG20 gene, which is also mutated in the Amish. In addition, we analyzed SPG20 expression throughout development to infer how disruption of this gene might generate the constellation of developmental and degenerative Troyer syndrome phenotypes. Methods Clinical characterization of 2 non-Amish families with Troyer syndrome was followed by linkage and sequencing analysis. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization analysis of SPG20 expression were carried out in embryonic and adult human and mouse tissue. Results Two Omani families carrying a novel SPG20 mutation displayed clinical features remarkably similar to the Amish patients with Troyer syndrome. SPG20 mRNA is expressed broadly but at low relative levels in the adult brain; however, it is robustly and specifically expressed in the limbs, face, and brain during early morphogenesis. Interpretation Null mutations in SPG20 cause Troyer syndrome, a specific clinical entity with developmental and degenerative features. Maximal expression of SPG20 in the limb buds and forebrain during embryogenesis may explain the developmental origin of the skeletal and cognitive defects observed in this disorder. ANN NEUROL 2010;67:516–525 PMID:20437587

Manzini, M Chiara; Rajab, Anna; Maynard, Thomas M; Mochida, Ganeshwaran H; Tan, Wen-Hann; Nasir, Ramzi; Hill, R Sean; Gleason, Danielle; Al Saffar, Muna; Partlow, Jennifer N; Barry, Brenda J; Vernon, Mike; LaMantia, Anthony-Samuel; Walsh, Christopher A

2010-01-01

352

[Pathogenesis of degenerative-dystrophic changes in the hip joint].  

PubMed

The authors have examined 43 children by the method of radiotropic angiography, 27 of whom had various diseases of the hip joint area. The blood flow in the iliac vessels and the regional blood flow in the area of the affected vessels was studied before and after the operation making use of an osteotropic radiopharmacological drug (RPD) 99mT-phosphon. Independent of the character of the degenerative and dystrophic process in the hip joints there was a reduction in the intensity of the blood flow on the affected side reaching 15-30%, which was more expressed at stage 111 of coxarthrosis with no considerable changes after the operation. In the control group this difference was +/- 5%. The regional blood flow (RBF) in the area of the operation was reduced down to 37% before the operation and increased by 17-35% 6-8 months after the operation with the exception of the cases of dystrophic lesions of the neck when no increase in the RBF was observed. The authors come to the conclusion about a relationship between the deviation from the normal conditions in the intensity of the blood flow and the degenerative and dystrophic processes in the hip joints. PMID:2587059

Kuliev, A M; Dudin, M G; Sokolov, A V; Sadof'eva, V I

1989-08-01

353

Pulsatile spiral blood flow through arterial stenosis.  

PubMed

Pulsatile spiral blood flow in a modelled three-dimensional arterial stenosis, with a 75% cross-sectional area reduction, is investigated by using numerical fluid dynamics. Two-equation k-? model is used for the simulation of the transitional flow with Reynolds numbers 500 and 1000. It is found that the spiral component increases the static pressure in the vessel during the deceleration phase of the flow pulse. In addition, the spiral component reduces the turbulence intensity and wall shear stress found in the post-stenosis region of the vessel in the early stages of the flow pulse. Hence, the findings agree with the results of Stonebridge et al. (2004). In addition, the results of the effects of a spiral component on time-varying flow are presented and discussed along with the relevant pathological issues. PMID:23477498

Linge, Fabian; Hye, Md Abdul; Paul, Manosh C

2014-11-01

354

Interventional Management of Asymptomatic Extracranial Carotid Stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carotid artery stenosis is a major risk factor for stroke and transient ischemic attack. Although carotid endarterectomy is\\u000a the established gold standard for carotid revascularization, carotid artery angioplasty and stenting (CAS)—proven by large\\u000a randomized clinical trials and rigorous registries and supported by improving stent designs, embolic protection, and increasing\\u000a neurointerventionalist experience—is developing into a safer and more efficacious method of

Vincent V. Truong; Alex Abou-Chebl

2011-01-01

355

Fluid dynamics of aortic valve stenosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aortic valve stenosis, which causes considerable constriction of the flow passage, is one of the most frequent cardiovascular diseases and is the most common cause of the valvular replacements which take place for around 100,000 per year in North America. Furthermore, it is considered as the most frequent cardiac disease after arterial hypertension and coronary artery disease. The objective of this study is to develop an analytical model considering the coupling effect between fluid flow and elastic deformation with reasonable boundary conditions to describe the effect of AS on the left ventricle and the aorta. The pulsatile and Newtonian blood flow through aortic stenosis with vascular wall deformability is analyzed and its effects are discussed in terms of flow parameters such as velocity, resistance to flow, shear stress distribution and pressure loss. Meanwhile we developed analytical expressions to improve the comprehension of the transvalvular hemodynamics and the aortic stenosis hemodynamics which is of great interest because of one main reason. To medical scientists, an accurate knowledge of the mechanical properties of whole blood flow in the aorta can suggest a new diagnostic tool.

Keshavarz-Motamed, Zahra; Maftoon, Nima

2009-11-01

356

Anterior pericardial tracheoplasty for congenital tracheal stenosis.  

PubMed

Congenital tracheal stenosis may be a life-threatening anomaly not relieved by airway intubation. Over the past 7 years, anterior pericardial tracheoplasty has been used at our institution for treatment of congenital long-segment tracheal stenosis in infants with impeding airway obstruction. Case histories of eight patients undergoing nine anterior pericardial tracheoplasties have been reviewed to assess this technique. Of these patients, six have required preoperative tracheal intubation before repair to maintain ventilation. The surgical technique of anterior pericardial tracheoplasty includes a median sternotomy approach with partial normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. An anterior tracheotomy through all hypoplastic rings allows enlargement with autologous pericardium to 1.5 times the predicted normal diameter. After insertion, the pericardium and hypoplastic tracheal cartilages are suspended to surrounding mediastinal structures, which prevents airway collapse. Seven of eight infants have survived without tracheoplasty dehiscence or wound infections. Five were ultimately extubated and are currently free of symptoms from 6 months to 5 years after anterior pericardial tracheoplasty. The other two survivors had residual stenosis as a result of complications of prior tracheostomy. One of these patients has undergone a successful second anterior pericardial tracheoplasty and is currently extubated and well. The other is palliated at 6 months with a tracheostomy awaiting a second anterior pericardial tracheoplasty. Our review of anterior pericardial tracheoplasty has demonstrated the safety, utility, and at least medium-term benefit of this procedure in infants of any age and weight. PMID:1943189

Heimansohn, D A; Kesler, K A; Turrentine, M W; Mahomed, Y; Means, L; Matt, B; Weisberger, E; Brown, J W

1991-11-01

357

49 CFR 572.115 - Lumbar spine and pelvis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Side Impact Hybrid Dummy 50th Percentile Male § 572.115 Lumbar spine and pelvis. The specifications and test procedure for the lumbar...

2011-10-01

358

Sense in the lumbar spine Is diminished with flexion  

E-print Network

the change in position sense as a function of altered trunk flexion and moment loading independently. Reposition sense of lumbar angle in seventeen subjects was assessed. Subjects were trained to assume specified lumbar angles using visual feedback...

Gade, Venkata; Wilson, Sara E.

2007-01-01

359

Effects of arterial ischemia and venous congestion on the lumbar nerve root in dogs.  

PubMed

The development of radiculopathy in patients with lumbar canal stenosis is thought to be closely related to intraradicular edema resulting from compression. However, there is little agreement as to question which is more essential for intermittent claudication: ischemia or congestion. The aim of the present experimental investigation was to examine the effect of ischemia and congestion on the nerve root using dogs. The aorta was clamped as an ischemia model of the nerve root and the inferior vena cava was clamped as a congestion model at the sixth costal level for 30 min using forceps transpleurally. Measurements of blood flow, partial oxygen pressure, and conduction velocity in the nerve root were repeated over a period of 1 h after release of clamping. Finally, we examined the status of intraradicular blood-nerve barrier under fluorescence and transmission electron microscope. Immediately after clamping of the inferior vena cava, the central venous pressure increased by about four times and marked extravasation of protein tracers was induced in the lumbar nerve root. Blood flow, partial oxygen pressure, and conduction velocity of the nerve root were more severely affected by aorta clamp, but this ischemia model did not show any intraradicular edema. The blood-nerve barrier in the nerve root was more easily broken by venous congestion than by arterial ishemia. In conclusion, venous congestion may be an essential factor precipitating circulatory disturbance in compressed nerve roots and inducing neurogenic intermittent claudication. PMID:18536056

Kobayashi, Shigeru; Takeno, Kenichi; Miyazaki, Tsuyoshi; Kubota, Masafumi; Shimada, Seichior; Yayama, Takafumi; Uchida, Kenzo; Normura, Eiki; Mwaka, Erisa; Baba, Hisatoshi

2008-11-01

360

Strength gains through lumbar lordosis restoration  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To test the hypothesis that restoring the lumbar lordosis will increase a patient's voluntary muscular strength and decrease back pain symptoms. Clinical Features A patient was diagnosed with mechanical low back pain. The initial radiographic study revealed a loss of the lumbar lordosis. The patient determined his maximum bench press prior to the treatment program. The treatment outcome was based upon post-intervention radiographs, a Borg pain scale, and the patient's post-intervention maximum bench press. Intervention and Outcome The treatment program consisted of warm-up exercises, spinal manipulation, rehabilitative exercises, neuromuscular re-education, and prescribed home care. The treatment period consisted of 12 visits in the first 4 weeks, followed by once weekly for another 12 weeks, for a total of 24 visits in 4 months. In the first month, the Borg scale decreased from 5/10 to 0/10, and after 4 months the lumbar lordosis was increased from 2° to 31°. The sacral base angle (Ferguson's angle) increased from 18° to 31°. The patient's maximum bench press also increased from 245 pounds to 305 pounds. Conclusion Restoration of the lumbar lordosis appears to have a positive effect on muscular strength. This study supports the previous premise that a lumbar lordosis provides an inherent mechanical advantage for strength and stability. PMID:19674610

Morningstar, Mark W

2003-01-01

361

Supervised methods for detection and segmentation of tissues in clinical lumbar MRI.  

PubMed

Lower back pain (LBP) is widely prevalent all over the world and more than 80% of the people suffer from LBP at some point of their lives. Moreover, a shortage of radiologists is the most pressing cause for the need of CAD (computer-aided diagnosis) systems. Automatic localization and labeling of intervertebral discs from lumbar MRI is the first step towards computer-aided diagnosis of lower back ailments. Subsequently, for diagnosis and characterization (quantification and localization) of abnormalities like disc herniation and stenosis, a completely automatic segmentation of intervertebral discs and the dural sac is extremely important. Contribution of this paper towards clinical CAD systems is two-fold. First, we propose a method to automatically detect all visible intervertebral discs in clinical sagittal MRI using heuristics and machine learning techniques. We provide a novel end-to-end framework that outputs a tight bounding box for each disc, instead of simply marking the centroid of discs, as has been the trend in the recent past. Second, we propose a method to simultaneously segment all the tissues (vertebrae, intervertebral disc, dural sac and background) in a lumbar sagittal MRI, using an auto-context approach instead of any explicit shape features or models. Past work tackles the lumbar segmentation problem on a tissue/organ basis, and which tend to perform poorly in clinical scans due to high variability in appearance. We, on the other hand, train a series of robust classifiers (random forests) using image features and sparsely sampled context features, which implicitly represent the shape and configuration of the image. Both these methods have been tested on a huge clinical dataset comprising of 212 cases and show very promising results for both disc detection (98% disc localization accuracy and 2.08mm mean deviation) and sagittal MRI segmentation (dice similarity indices of 0.87 and 0.84 for the dural sac and the inter-vertebral disc, respectively). PMID:24746606

Ghosh, Subarna; Chaudhary, Vipin

2014-10-01

362

Higher risk of dural tears and recurrent herniation with lumbar micro-endoscopic discectomy  

PubMed Central

Existing studies on micro-endoscopic lumbar discectomy report similar outcomes to those of open and microdiscectomy and conflicting results on complications. We designed a randomised controlled trial to investigate the hypothesis of different outcomes and complications obtainable with the three techniques. 240 patients aged 18–65 years affected by posterior lumbar disc herniation and symptoms lasting over 6 weeks of conservative management were randomised to micro-endoscopic (group 1), micro (group 2) or open (group 3) discectomy. Exclusion criteria were less than 6 weeks of pain duration, cauda equina compromise, foraminal or extra-foraminal herniations, spinal stenosis, malignancy, previous spinal surgery, spinal deformity, concurrent infection and rheumatic disease. Surgery and follow-up were made at a single Institution. A biomedical researcher independently collected and reviewed the data. ODI, back and leg VAS and SF-36 were the outcome measures used preoperatively, postoperatively and at 6-, 12- and 24-month follow-up. 212/240 (91%) patients completed the 24-month follow-up period. VAS back and leg, ODI and SF36 scores showed clinically and statistically significant improvements within groups without significant difference among groups throughout follow-up. Dural tears, root injuries and recurrent herniations were significantly more common in group 1. Wound infections were similar in group 2 and 3, but did not affect patients in group 1. Overall costs were significantly higher in group 1 and lower in group 3. In conclusion, outcome measures are equivalent 2 years following lumbar discectomy with micro-endoscopy, microscopy or open technique, but severe complications are more likely and costs higher with micro-endoscopy. PMID:20127495

Lovi, Alessio; Brayda-Bruno, Marco; Zagra, Antonino; Corriero, Andrea; Giudici, Fabrizio; Minoia, Leone

2010-01-01

363

49 CFR 572.9 - Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of this section, the lumbar spine assembly shall...accordance with Figure 11. Flexion (degrees) Force...Assemble the thorax, lumbar spine, pelvic...surface of the pelvic-lumbar adapter. Apply the force...second up to 40° of flexion but no further,...

2011-10-01

364

49 CFR 572.115 - Lumbar spine and pelvis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Lumbar spine and pelvis. 572.115 Section 572.115 Transportation...Male § 572.115 Lumbar spine and pelvis. The specifications and test procedure for the lumbar spine and pelvis are identical to those for the SID...

2013-10-01

365

49 CFR 572.115 - Lumbar spine and pelvis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Lumbar spine and pelvis. 572.115 Section 572.115 Transportation...Male § 572.115 Lumbar spine and pelvis. The specifications and test procedure for the lumbar spine and pelvis are identical to those for the SID...

2012-10-01

366

The incidence and management of coronary ostial stenosis.  

PubMed

Coronary ostial stenosis in the absence of more peripheral coronary artery disease was present in four patients (0.093%) of 4298 angiograms performed on patients with coronary artery disease. Case reports of four patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery for isolated coronary ostial stenosis are presented and surgical techniques discussed. Three patients were young females (mean age 31 years). It is suggested that coronary ostial stenosis is a rare variant of coronary artery disease, more common in young women. PMID:4066742

Hutter, J A; Pasaoglu, I; Williams, B T

1985-01-01

367

Pancreaticoduodenal Artery Aneurysm Formation with Superior Mesenteric Artery Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Celiac stenosis or occlusion is attributed partly to increase blood flow at pancreatic arcade from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) system and may play a causal role in true aneurysm of pancreaticoduodenal artery (PDAA) formation. However, despite possible increased blood flow in the pancreatic arcades like celiac stenosis, PDAAs with a stenotic SMA are extremely rare, with only three cases have been reported in the literature. We report a case of PDAA with SMA stenosis and review the literature.

Kitaoka, Tadashi; Kamiya, Chiaki; Suzuki, Jun; Sato, Osamu

2014-01-01

368

Biomechanical implications of lumbar spinal ligament transection.  

PubMed

Many lumbar spine surgeries either intentionally or inadvertently damage or transect spinal ligaments. The purpose of this work was to quantify the previously unknown biomechanical consequences of isolated spinal ligament transection on the remaining spinal ligaments (stress transfer), vertebrae (bone remodelling stimulus) and intervertebral discs (disc pressure) of the lumbar spine. A finite element model of the full lumbar spine was developed and validated against experimental data and tested in the primary modes of spinal motion in the intact condition. Once a ligament was removed, stress increased in the remaining spinal ligaments and changes occurred in vertebral strain energy, but disc pressure remained similar. All major biomechanical changes occurred at the same spinal level as the transected ligament, with minor changes at adjacent levels. This work demonstrates that iatrogenic damage to spinal ligaments disturbs the load sharing within the spinal ligament network and may induce significant clinically relevant changes in the spinal motion segment. PMID:23477405

Von Forell, Gregory A; Bowden, Anton E

2014-11-01

369

Surgical Timing of Degenerative Mitral Regurgitation: What to Consider  

PubMed Central

Severe primary mitral regurgitation (MR) is a progressive condition which engenders significant mortality and morbidity if left untreated. The optimal timing of surgery in patients with MR of degenerative origin continues to be debated, especially for those who are asymptomatic. Apart from symptoms, current authoritative guidelines recommend intervention when there is incipient left ventricular dysfunction, pulmonary hypertension or new onset atrial fibrillation. This review focuses on the asymptomatic subject with severe MR, and examines contemporary clinical decision-making and management strategies, including the 2012 European guidelines on valvular heart disease. We discuss the rationale for risk stratifying the asymptomatic individual, and highlight current and novel diagnostic tools that may have a useful role, with an emphasis on echocardiographic imaging. PMID:23346284

Dolor-Torres, Maria Consolacion

2012-01-01

370

Biomarkers in Aortic Stenosis - B.A.S.S.  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Aortic Stenosis; Mitral Valve Replacement; Aortic Valve Replacement; Prosthetic Heart Valve Dysfunction; Aortic Insufficiency; Mitral Insufficiency; Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy; Tricuspid Regurgitation With Pacemaker/Defibrillator Leads

2013-01-15

371

Carotid Stenting in a Case of Combined Kinking and Stenosis  

SciTech Connect

Endarterectomy is currently the preferred treatment for severe carotid stenosis. The technique of eversion endarterectomy allows correction of severe vessel elongation and kinking. The latter is generally believed to be a relative contraindication for endovascular stent placement. We report successful percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting of a left internal carotid artery with high-grade stenosis and severe kinking which was not amenable to endarterectomy because of the distal location of the stenosis. Advanced stent technology with flexible materials makes endovascular treatment of carotid stenosis feasible even in cases of kinking.

Ahmadi, Ramazan-Ali; Schillinger, Martin; Haumer, Markus; Willfort, Andrea; Minar, Erich [Department of Internal Medicine II, Angiology, General Hospital Vienna, Medical School, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

2001-05-15

372

Unusual case of lumbar synovial cyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synovial cysts are extradural degenerative lesions associated with symptoms of lower back pain and radiculopathy. To our knowledge, all the reported cases of synovial cysts in literature were posterolateral in location (1–4). This case report describes the previously unreported midline location of the synovial cyst in the spinal canal and to increase the level of awareness of diagnosing these lesions

V. K Gheyi; R. N Uppot; C Flores; Y. U Koyfman

1999-01-01

373

Midsagittal Anatomy of Lumbar Lordosis in Adult Egyptians: MRI Study  

PubMed Central

Despite the increasing recognition of the functional and clinical importance of lumbar lordosis, little is known about its description, particularly in Egypt. At the same time, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been introduced as a noninvasive diagnostic technique. The aim of this study was to investigate the anatomy of the lumbar lordosis using midsagittal MRIs. Normal lumbar spine MRIs obtained from 93 individuals (46 males, 47 females; 25–57 years old) were evaluated retrospectively. The lumbar spine curvature and its segments “vertebrae and discs” were described and measured. The lumbar lordosis angle (LLA) was larger in females than in males. Its mean values increased by age. The lumbar height (LH) was longer in males than in females. At the same time, the lumbar breadth (LB) was higher in females than in males. Lumbar index (LI?=?LB/LH?×?100) showed significant gender differences (P < 0.0001). Lordosis was formed by wedging of intervertebral discs and bodies of lower lumbar vertebrae. In conclusion, MRI might clearly reveal the anatomy of the lumbar lordosis. Use of LI in association with LLA could be useful in evaluation of lumbar lordosis.

Hegazy, Abdelmonem A.; Hegazy, Raafat A.

2014-01-01

374

Factors associated with infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis.  

PubMed

We examined perinatal factors in relation to the rise in incidence of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis among children in Olmsted County, Minnesota, during the period from 1950 through 1984. Primogeniture was associated with male infants but not female infants; some factor related to primogeniture, such as breast-feeding, may be etiologically important. Our data did not support a role for maternal disease, use of doxylamine succinate-pyridoxide hydrochloride (Bendectin), or an infectious process. Further study should be directed toward environmental factors associated with primogeniture. PMID:3344722

Jedd, M B; Melton, L J; Griffin, M R; Kaufman, B; Hoffman, A D; Broughton, D; O'Brien, P C

1988-03-01

375

Advances in infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis.  

PubMed

Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) is a common condition in infancy, characterized by an acquired narrowing of the pylorus, which requires surgery. These infants usually present with projectile, nonbilious vomiting, with a palpable 'olive' in the abdomen and sometimes a 'peristaltic wave' after being fed with formula or breast milk. Although IHPS is a common disorder, its etiology is largely unknown. Surgical intervention is the standard treatment, preoperative preparation, however is essential to optimal outcome. In this review, the latest advances in IHPS regarding epidemiology, etiology, diagnostics and treatment will be discussed. PMID:24716658

Peters, Babette; Oomen, Mathijs W N; Bakx, Roel; Benninga, Marc A

2014-07-01

376

Split Cord Malformations of the Lumbar Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

From a group of 84 patients with split cord malformations presenting to our Department between 1976 and 1990, we have selected 47 cases in whom the split cord was confined to the lower dorsal-lumbar region and in whom there were no other dysraphic features such as meningocele, lipoma or dermoid cyst. We have studied these cases of ‘pure split cord

U. B Andar; W. F. J. Harkness; R. D. Hayward

1997-01-01

377

Acute Sciatic Neuritis following Lumbar Laminectomy  

PubMed Central

It is commonly accepted that the common cause of acute/chronic pain in the distribution of the lumbosacral nerve roots is the herniation of a lumbar intervertebral disc, unless proven otherwise. The surgical treatment of lumbar disc herniation is successful in radicular pain and prevents or limits neurological damage in the majority of patients. Recurrence of sciatica after a successful disc surgery can be due to many possible etiologies. In the clinical setting we believe that the term sciatica might be associated with inflammation. We report a case of acute sciatic neuritis presented with significant persistent pain shortly after a successful disc surgery. The patient is a 59-year-old female with complaint of newly onset sciatica after complete pain resolution following a successful lumbar laminectomy for acute disc extrusion. In order to manage the patient's newly onset pain, the patient had multiple pain management visits which provided minimum relief. Persistent sciatica and consistent physical examination findings urged us to perform a pelvic MRI to visualize suspected pathology, which revealed right side sciatic neuritis. She responded to the electrical neuromodulation. Review of the literature on sciatic neuritis shows this is the first case report of sciatic neuritis subsequent to lumbar laminectomy. PMID:25024708

Hitchon, Patrick; Reddy, Chandan G.

2014-01-01

378

Vision Loss After Lumbar Epidural Steroid Injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

'isual loss associated with retinal hemorrhages after laparoscopy performed under general an- esthesia has been previously reported in the an- esthesiology literature (1). This complication has been reported only once after an epidural steroid injection in the anesthesia literature (2). We report a case of acute monocular vision loss secondary to multiple retinal hemorrhages after a lumbar epidural steroid injection.

ERIG P. PURDY; GURJIT S. AJIMAL

1998-01-01

379

49 CFR 572.187 - Lumbar spine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...it to fall freely to achieve an impact velocity of 6.05 ±0.1 m/s measured at...with its decelerating mechanism. The velocity-time history of the pendulum falls...ES-2re Lumbar Spine Certification Pendulum Velocity Corridor Upper boundary...

2011-10-01

380

49 CFR 572.187 - Lumbar spine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...it to fall freely to achieve an impact velocity of 6.05 ±0.1 m/s measured at...with its decelerating mechanism. The velocity-time history of the pendulum falls...ES-2re Lumbar Spine Certification Pendulum Velocity Corridor Upper boundary...

2013-10-01

381

49 CFR 572.187 - Lumbar spine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...it to fall freely to achieve an impact velocity of 6.05 ±0.1 m/s measured at...with its decelerating mechanism. The velocity-time history of the pendulum falls...ES-2re Lumbar Spine Certification Pendulum Velocity Corridor Upper boundary...

2010-10-01

382

49 CFR 572.187 - Lumbar spine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...it to fall freely to achieve an impact velocity of 6.05 ±0.1 m/s measured at...with its decelerating mechanism. The velocity-time history of the pendulum falls...ES-2re Lumbar Spine Certification Pendulum Velocity Corridor Upper boundary...

2012-10-01

383

Pulmonary Vein Stenosis After Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—This report describes the complication of pulmonary vein stenosis with resultant severe pulmonary hypertension that developed in 2 patients after successful catheter ablation of chronic atrial fibrillation. Methods and Results—Three months after successful catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation, both patients developed progressive dyspnea and pulmonary hypertension. Both were found to have severe stenosis of all 4 pulmonary veins near the

Ivan M. Robbins; Edward V. Colvin; Thomas P. Doyle; W. Evans Kemp; James E. Loyd; William S. McMahon; G. Neal Kay

384

Tracheostomal stenosis after laryngectomy: Incidence and predisposing factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laryngectomy for carcinoma of the larynx has been performed since it was first described in 1880. Since that time the complication of tracheostomal stenosis has plagued both surgeons and patients. The reported incidence of tracheostomal stenosis ranges from 4% to 42%. At West Virginia University Hospitals from 1976 to 1994, 106 patients undergoing laryngectomies on the head and neck oncology

MARK K. WAX; B. JOSEPH TOUMA; HASSAN H. RAMADAN

1995-01-01

385

Risk of atrophy in kidneys with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk of atrophy in kidneys with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis. The goal of this study was to determine the incidence of and risk factors for renal atrophy among kidneys with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS). Participants with at least one ARAS were followed prospectively with duplex scans performed every six months. Renal atrophy was defined as a reduction in renal

Michael T Caps; R Eugene Zierler; Nayak L Polissar; Robert O Bergelin; Kirk W Beach; Kim Cantwell-Gab; Alder Casadei; Robert C Davidson; D Eugene Strandness