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1

Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis and its imposters: three case studies  

PubMed Central

Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis causing neurogenic claudicaton is a common condition impacting walking ability in older adults. There are other highly prevalent conditions in this patient population that have similar signs and symptoms and cause limited walking ability. The purpose of this study is to highlight the diagnostic challenges using three case studies of older adults who present with limited walking ability who have imaging evidence of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. PMID:25202160

Ammendolia, Carlo

2014-01-01

2

Effects of Transforaminal Injection for Degenerative Lumbar Scoliosis Combined with Spinal Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Objective The objectives of this study were to clarify the short-term effects of transforaminal epidural steroid injection (TFESI) for degenerative lumbar scoliosis combined with spinal stenosis (DLSS), and to extrapolate factors relating to the prognosis of treatment. Method Thirty-six patients with lumbar radicular pain from DLSS were enrolled. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two groups (steroid or lidocaine group). We compared the effect of pain suppression at 2, 4 and 12 weeks after the procedure between the two groups. Radiographic analysis included measurement of the Cobb's angle, the upper endplate obliquities of L3 and L4, and maximal lateral olisthy between two adjacent lumbar vertebrae. Sagittal plane measurement included lumbar lordosis, and thoracolumbar kyphosis. Statistical analysis of both radiographic and clinical parameters along with treatment outcome was performed to determine any significant correlations between the two. Results There were no significant differences in the demographic data, initial visual analogue scale (VAS) or Oswestry disability index (ODI) between the steroid group (n=17) and the lidocaine group (n=19). Two, 4, and 12 weeks after injection VAS, ODI showed a significantly greater improvement in the steroid group compared to the lidocaine group (p<0.05). The radiographic and clinical parameters were not significantly correlated with treatment outcome. Conclusion Our findings suggest that fluoroscopic transforaminal epidural steroid injections appear to be an effective non-surgical treatment option for patients with degenerative lumbar scoliosis combined with spinal stenosis (DLSS) and radicular pain. PMID:22506167

Nam, Hee-Seung

2011-01-01

3

Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 9: lumbar fusion for stenosis with spondylolisthesis.  

PubMed

Patients presenting with stenosis associated with a spondylolisthesis will often describe signs and symptoms consistent with neurogenic claudication, radiculopathy, and/or low-back pain. The primary objective of surgery, when deemed appropriate, is to decompress the neural elements. As a result of the decompression, the inherent instability associated with the spondylolisthesis may progress and lead to further misalignment that results in pain or recurrence of neurological complaints. Under these circumstances, lumbar fusion is considered appropriate to stabilize the spine and prevent delayed deterioration. Since publication of the original guidelines there have been a significant number of studies published that continue to support the utility of lumbar fusion for patients presenting with stenosis and spondylolisthesis. Several recently published trials, including the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial, are among the largest prospective randomized investigations of this issue. Despite limitations of study design or execution, these trials have consistently demonstrated superior outcomes when patients undergo surgery, with the majority undergoing some type of lumbar fusion procedure. There is insufficient evidence, however, to recommend a standard approach to achieve a solid arthrodesis. When formulating the most appropriate surgical strategy, it is recommended that an individualized approach be adopted, one that takes into consideration the patient's unique anatomical constraints and desires, as well as surgeon's experience. PMID:24980586

Resnick, Daniel K; Watters, William C; Sharan, Alok; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Dailey, Andrew T; Wang, Jeffrey C; Choudhri, Tanvir F; Eck, Jason; Ghogawala, Zoher; Groff, Michael W; Dhall, Sanjay S; Kaiser, Michael G

2014-07-01

4

Decompressive lumbar laminectomy for spinal stenosis.  

PubMed

A total of 258 consecutive decompressive lumbar laminectomies performed on 244 individuals presenting with spinal stenosis were analyzed retrospectively. Spinal fusion was avoided in all but two patients. Outcome in terms of pain relief and return to normal activity was evaluated in two stages, one derived from patient charts and having a relatively short-term follow-up time (mean 8.4 months) and a second derived from patient responses to a questionnaire (which also scored for satisfaction with the results of surgery), which had a longer follow-up time (mean 4.7 years). More than 20 clinical and operative parameters were analyzed. Overall, a high degree of success (93% pain relief, 95% return to normal activity) was achieved in the short term, which was supported by the longer-term follow-up data (64% pain relief, 56% activity return, 75% satisfaction). The following factors were not significantly correlated with outcome: patient age; sex; worker's compensation or no-fault insurance status; employed versus not employed; a history of back surgery prior to the laminectomy studied; existence of degenerative spondylolisthesis or scoliosis; complete versus incomplete myelographic block; or the level of the lumbar spine undergoing surgery. The major conclusions arising from these data are: 1) for all age groups through at least the eighth decade of life, decompressive lumbar laminectomy is a relatively safe operation having a high medium-to-long-term success rate; 2) lumbar instability following laminectomy is rare, even in individuals presenting prior to surgery with degenerative instability conditions; and 3) lumbar fusion in addition to the decompressive laminectomy procedure is rarely required for degenerative spinal stenosis. PMID:8468598

Silvers, H R; Lewis, P J; Asch, H L

1993-05-01

5

Clinical Outcomes and Radiologic Changes Following Microsurgical Bilateral Decompression via a Unilateral Approach in Patients With Lumbar Canal Stenosis and Grade I Degenerative Spondylolisthesis With a Minimum 3-year Follow-up.  

PubMed

STUDY DESIGN:: A retrospective study. OBJECTIVE:: To analyze the clinical outcomes and radiologic changes following microsurgical bilateral decompression via a unilateral approach in patients with lumbar canal stenosis and degenerative spondylolisthesis. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:: Satisfactory short-term results have been observed following minimally invasive decompressive procedures, but intermediate and long-term outcomes have not been assessed. It is not yet clear whether decompressive laminectomy with concomitant fusion is the optimal surgical treatment for spinal stenosis combined with mild degenerative spondylolisthesis. We therefore evaluated minimum 3-year clinical outcomes and radiologic changes in patients with lumbar canal stenosis and grade 1 degenerative spondylolisthesis who underwent microsurgical bilateral decompression via a unilateral approach, without fusion. METHODS:: We assessed 21 consecutive patients who underwent surgery conducted by a single surgeon of our hospital, between 2005 and 2007. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) was determined preoperatively, just before discharge, and at last follow-up. Plain dynamic x-rays were used to determine slip percentages. RESULTS:: Average patient age and clinical and radiologic follow-up periods were 67 years, 49.3 months, and 18 months, respectively. Preoperative, immediate postoperative, and last follow-up average ODIs were 59.52±9.00, 50.19±7.23, and 26.19±12.42, respectively. But one patient experienced aggravated symptoms and later underwent a fusion procedure. Of the 22 levels with spondylolisthesis, 15 had no sagittal motion as the difference in slip percentage on dynamic x-rays but 7 showed sagittal motion. Average slip percentages increased from 13.90±5.41% to 14.60±5.78% for levels without sagittal motion on dynamic x-ray and from 13.12±3.48% to 18.58±4.55% for levels with sagittal motion. CONCLUSIONS:: Despite small case series with retrospective design and the absence of a control group, our study suggest that bilateral decompression via a unilateral approach in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis and grade 1 degenerative spondylolisthesis showed good mid-term clinical outcomes, despite an increase in slip percentage.However, more marked increases in slippage were observed in patients with sagittal motion in spondylolisthesis levels on preoperative dynamic x-ray than in patients without sagittal motion. Therefore bilateral decompression via a unilateral approach can aggravate symptom related to instability in patients with preoperative sagittal motion on dynamic x-ray and needs longer term follow-up than in our study. PMID:23073148

Jang, Jun-Won; Park, Jin-Hun; Hyun, Seung-Jae; Rhim, Seung-Chul

2012-10-15

6

Minimally Invasive Laminectomy in Spondylolisthetic Lumbar Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Background Degenerative lumbar stenosis associated with spondylolisthesis is common in elderly patients. The most common symptoms are those of neurogenic claudication with leg pain. Surgery is indicated for those who fail conservative management. The generally accepted recommendation is to perform a laminectomy and a fusion at the involved level. Methods We reviewed our results for minimally invasive single-level decompression without fusion performed by the senior author in patients with symptomatic lumbar stenosis with spondylolisthesis with no dynamic instability from 2008 to 2011 at a single institution. Outcomes were measured using the visual analog scale (VAS), Prolo Economic Functional Rating Scale, and revised Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) at initial presentation and at 3-month, 6-month, and 1-year follow-up time points. Results Records for 28 patients (19 males, 9 females) were reviewed. The success rate, defined as improvement in pain and functional outcome without the need for surgical fusion, was 86%. VAS scores decreased by 6.3 points, Prolo scores increased by 3.5 points, and the ODI decreased by 31% at 1 year. All changes were statistically significant. Conclusion Minimally invasive decompression alone can be a reasonable alternative to decompression and fusion for patients with spondylolisthetic lumbar stenosis and neurogenic claudication with leg pain. Decompression without fusion should be considered for older patients and for patients who are not ideal fusion candidates. PMID:24688331

Caralopoulos, Ilias N.; Bui, Cuong J.

2014-01-01

7

Partial Facetectomy for Lumbar Foraminal Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Background. Several different techniques exist to address the pain and disability caused by isolated nerve root impingement. Failure to adequately decompress the lumbar foramen may lead to failed back surgery syndrome. However, aggressive treatment often causes spinal instability or may require fusion for satisfactory results. We describe a novel technique for decompression of the lumbar nerve root and demonstrate its effectiveness in relief of radicular symptoms. Methods. Partial facetectomy was performed by removal of the medial portion of the superior facet in patients with lumbar foraminal stenosis. 47 patients underwent the procedure from 2001 to 2010. Those who demonstrated neurogenic claudication without spinal instability or central canal stenosis and failed conservative management were eligible for the procedure. Functional level was recorded for each patient. These patients were followed for an average of 3.9 years to evaluate outcomes. Results. 27 of 47 patients (57%) reported no back pain and no functional limitations. Eight of 47 patients (17%) reported moderate pain, but had no limitations. Six of 47 patients (13%) continued to experience degenerative symptoms. Five of 47 patients (11%) required additional surgery. Conclusions. Partial facetectomy is an effective means to decompress the lumbar nerve root foramen without causing spinal instability. PMID:25110591

Kang, Kevin; Rodriguez-Olaverri, Juan Carlos; Razi, Afshin; Farcy, Jean Pierre

2014-01-01

8

Atherosclerosis, degenerative aortic stenosis and statins.  

PubMed

Aortic stenosis is the most common valvular heart disease among adult subjects in western countries The current treatment for aortic stenosis is aortic valve replacement. The possibility of a medical treatment that can slow the progression of aortic stenosis is very fascinating and statins have been tested to reduce the progression of degenerative aortic stenosis (DAS). The rationale for statin treatment in DAS has a deep pathophysiological substrate, in fact inflammation and lipid infiltration constitute the same histopathological pattern of both aortic stenosis and atherosclerosis and these two conditions have the same risk factors. Whether retrospective studies have shown some efficacy of statins in halting the progression of DAS, prospective trials have shown controversial results. A recently published large and randomized controlled trial SEAS found that statins have no significant effect on the progression of aortic stenosis, the ASTRONOMER, recently confirmed this data. The most plausible hypothesis is that coronary artery disease and DAS, have a common pathogenetic background and a distinct evolution due to different factors (mechanical stress, genetic factors, interaction between inflammatory cells and calcification mediators). Thus, treatment with statins is not recommended in patients with valvular aortic stenosis and without conventional indications to lipid-lowering treatment. PMID:20863278

Novo, Giuseppina; Fazio, Giovanni; Visconti, Claudia; Carità, Patrizia; Maira, Ermanno; Fattouch, Khalil; Novo, Salvatore

2011-01-01

9

Lumbar spinal stenosis: who should be fused? An updated review.  

PubMed

Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is mostly caused by osteoarthritis (spondylosis). Clinically, the symptoms of patients with LSS can be categorized into two groups; regional (low back pain, stiffness, and so on) or radicular (spinal stenosis mainly presenting as neurogenic claudication). Both of these symptoms usually improve with appropriate conservative treatment, but in refractory cases, surgical intervention is occasionally indicated. In the patients who primarily complain of radiculopathy with an underlying biomechanically stable spine, a decompression surgery alone using a less invasive technique may be sufficient. Preoperatively, with the presence of indicators such as failed back surgery syndrome (revision surgery), degenerative instability, considerable essential deformity, symptomatic spondylolysis, refractory degenerative disc disease, and adjacent segment disease, lumbar fusion is probably recommended. Intraoperatively, in cases with extensive decompression associated with a wide disc space or insufficient bone stock, fusion is preferred. Instrumentation improves the fusion rate, but it is not necessarily associated with improved recovery rate and better functional outcome. PMID:25187873

Omidi-Kashani, Farzad; Hasankhani, Ebrahim Ghayem; Ashjazadeh, Amir

2014-08-01

10

Cantilever Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion for Upper Lumbar Degenerative Diseases (Minimum 2 Years Follow Up)  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the clinical outcomes of cantilever transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (c-TLIF) for upper lumbar diseases. Materials and Methods Seventeen patients (11 males, 6 females; mean ± SD age: 62 ± 14 years) who underwent c-TLIF using kidney type spacers between 2002 and 2008 were retrospectively evaluated, at a mean follow-up of 44.1 ± 12.3 months (2 year minimum). The primary diseases studied were disc herniation, ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL), degenerative scoliosis, lumbar spinal canal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, and degeneration of adjacent disc after operation. Fusion areas were L1-L2 (5 patients), L2-L3 (9 patients), L1-L3 (1 patient), and L2-L4 (2 patients). Operation time, blood loss, complications, Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score for back pain, bone union, sagittal alignment change of fusion level, and degeneration of adjacent disc were evaluated. Results JOA score improved significantly after surgery, from 12 ± 2 to 23 ± 3 points (p < 0.01). We also observed significant improvement in sagittal alignment of the fusion levels, from - 1.0 ± 7.4 to 5.2 ± 6.1 degrees (p < 0.01). Bony fusion was obtained in all cases. One patient experienced a subcutaneous infection, which was cured by irrigation. At the final follow-up, three patients showed degenerative changes in adjacent discs, and one showed corrective loss of fusion level. Conclusion c-TLIF is a safe procedure, providing satisfactory results for patients with upper lumbar degenerative diseases. PMID:21319352

Hioki, Akira; Hosoe, Hideo; Sugiyama, Seiichi; Suzuki, Naoki; Shimizu, Katsuji

2011-01-01

11

Lumbar spinal stenosis: therapeutic options review.  

PubMed

Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) functionally impacts significant numbers of Americans per year. Current estimates place the number of Americans suffering from senescent lumbar spinal stenosis at 400,000. The prevalence of this disorder in patients ranging from 60 to 69 years of age is very high. Forty-seven percent of this age group have mild to moderate stenosis, and 19.7% have severe stenosis. As the baby boomer generation gets older, 10,000 individuals attain the age of 65 years every day in United States. LSS is becoming very common and will be a major healthcare issue as the population ages. Although LSS is not life threatening, it can cause substantial disability with limitations to performing daily activities, and thus, the associated negative impact on quality of life (QOL). This article reviews the pathophysiology and current treatment options for LSS, focusing on evidence-based treatment options. PMID:24725422

Costandi, Shrif; Chopko, Bohdan; Mekhail, Mena; Dews, Teresa; Mekhail, Nagy

2015-01-01

12

Outcomes of Fluoroscopically Guided Lumbar Transforaminal Epidural Steroid Injections in Degenerative Lumbar Spondylolisthesis Patients  

PubMed Central

Study Design A prospective cohort. Purpose To report the short and long term outcomes of fluoroscopically guided lumbar transforaminal epidural steroid injection (TFESI) in degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis (DLS) patients. Overview of Literature TFESI has been widely used for the treatment of lumbosacral radicular pains. However, to our knowledge, there has been no study which has evaluated the outcomes of TFESI in patients with DLS. Methods The DLS patients received fluoroscopically guided lumbar TFESI with 80 mg of methylprednisolone and 2 mL of 1% lidocaine hydrochloride. Patients were evaluated by an independent observer before the initial injection, at 2 weeks, at 6 weeks, at 3 months, and at 12 months after the injections. Visual analog scale (VAS), Roland 5-point pain scale, standing tolerance, walking tolerance, and patient satisfaction scale were evaluated for outcomes. Results Thirty three DLS patients treated with TFESI, who were completely followed up, were included in this study. The average number of injections per patient was 1.9 (range from 1 to 3 injections per patient). Significant improvements in VAS and Roland 5-point pain scale were observed over the follow up period from 2 weeks to 12 months. However, the standing and walking tolerance were not significantly improved after 2 weeks. At 2 weeks, the patient satisfaction scale was highest, although, these outcomes declined with time. The DLS patients with one level of spinal stenosis showed significantly better outcome than the DLS patients with two levels of spinal stenosis. Five patients (13%) underwent surgical treatment during the 3 to 12 months follow up. Conclusions TFESI provides short term improvements in VAS and Roland 5-point pain scale, standing tolerance, walking tolerance and patient satisfaction scale in DLS patients. In the long term, it improves VAS but limits the improvements in Roland 5-point pain scale, standing tolerance, walking tolerance and patient satisfaction scale. PMID:24761192

Wechmongkolgorn, Supaporn; Chatriyanuyok, Bangon; Woratanarat, Patarawan; Udomsubpayakul, Umaporn; Chanplakorn, Pongsathorn; Keorochana, Gun; Wajanavisit, Wiwat

2014-01-01

13

Spectrum of magnetic resonance imaging findings in congenital lumbar spinal stenosis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate whether congenital lumbar spinal stenosis (CLSS) is associated with a specific degenerative changes of the lumbar spine. METHODS: The lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging studies of 52 subjects with CLSS and 48 control subjects were retrospectively evaluated. In each examination, the five lumbar levels were assessed for the presence or absence of circumferential or shallow annular bulges, annular tears, anterior or posterior disc herniations, epidural lipomatosis, Schmorl’s nodes, spondylolisthesis, pars defects, and stress reactions of the posterior vertebral elements. RESULTS: Compared to control individuals, subjects with CLSS exhibited increased incidence of circumferential and shallow annular bulges, annular tears, disc herniations and spondylolisthesis (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: CLSS is associated with increased incidence of degenerative changes in specific osseous and soft-tissue elements of the lumbar spine. PMID:25516864

Soldatos, Theodoros; Chalian, Majid; Thawait, Shrey; Belzberg, Alan J; Eng, John; Carrino, John A; Chhabra, Avneesh

2014-01-01

14

Correlative radiological, self-assessment and clinical analysis of evolution in instrumented dorsal and lateral fusion for degenerative lumbar spine disease. Autograft versus coralline hydroxyapatite  

Microsoft Academic Search

This prospective longitudinal randomized clinical and radiological study compared the evolution of instrumented posterolateral lumbar and lumbosacral fusion using either coralline hydroxyapatite (CH), or iliac bone graft (IBG) or both in three comparable groups, A, B and C, which included 19, 18 and 20 patients, respectively, who suffered from symptomatic degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis and underwent decompression and fusion. The

Panagiotis Korovessis; Georgios Koureas; Spyridon Zacharatos; Zisis Papazisis; Elias Lambiris

2005-01-01

15

Revision Surgery Following Operations for Lumbar Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Background: For carefully selected patients with lumbar stenosis, decompression surgery is more efficacious than nonoperative treatment. However, some patients undergo repeat surgery, often because of complications, the failure to achieve solid fusion following arthrodesis procedures, or persistent symptoms. We assessed the probability of repeat surgery following operations for the treatment of lumbar stenosis and examined its association with patient age, comorbidity, previous surgery, and the type of surgical procedure. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of Medicare claims. The index operation was performed in 2004 (n = 31,543), with follow-up obtained through 2008. Operations were grouped by complexity as decompression alone, simple arthrodesis (one or two disc levels and a single surgical approach), or complex arthrodesis (more than two disc levels or combined anterior and posterior approach). Reoperation rates were calculated for each follow-up year, and the time to reoperation was analyzed with proportional hazards models. Results: The probability of repeat surgery fell with increasing patient age or comorbidity. Aside from age, the strongest predictor was previous lumbar surgery: at four years the reoperation rate was 17.2% among patients who had had lumbar surgery prior to the index operation, compared with 10.6% among those with no prior surgery (p < 0.001). At one year, the reoperation rate for patients who had been managed with decompression alone was slightly higher than that for patients who had been managed with simple arthrodesis, but by four years the rates for these two groups were identical (10.7%) and were lower than the rate for patients who had been managed with complex arthrodesis (13.5%) (p < 0.001). This difference persisted after adjusting for demographic and clinical features (hazard ratio for complex arthrodesis versus decompression 1.56, 95% confidence interval, 1.26 to 1.92). A device-related complication was reported at the time of 29.2% of reoperations following an initial arthrodesis procedure. Conclusions: The likelihood of repeat surgery for spinal stenosis declined with increasing age and comorbidity, perhaps because of concern for greater risks. The strongest clinical predictor of repeat surgery was a lumbar spine operation prior to the index operation. Arthrodeses were not significantly associated with lower rates of repeat surgery after the first postoperative year, and patients who had had complex arthrodeses had the highest rate of reoperations. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:22048092

Deyo, Richard A.; Martin, Brook I.; Kreuter, William; Jarvik, Jeffrey G.; Angier, Heather; Mirza, Sohail K.

2011-01-01

16

Controversies about Interspinous Process Devices in the Treatment of Degenerative Lumbar Spine Diseases: Past, Present, and Future  

PubMed Central

A large number of interspinous process devices (IPD) have been recently introduced to the lumbar spine market as an alternative to conventional decompressive surgery in managing symptomatic lumbar spinal pathology, especially in the older population. Despite the fact that they are composed of a wide range of different materials including titanium, polyetheretherketone, and elastomeric compounds, the aim of these devices is to unload spine, restoring foraminal height, and stabilize the spine by distracting the spinous processes. Although the initial reports represented the IPD as a safe, effective, and minimally invasive surgical alternative for relief of neurological symptoms in patients with low back degenerative diseases, recent studies have demonstrated less impressive clinical results and higher rate of failure than initially reported. The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview on interspinous implants, their mechanisms of action, safety, cost, and effectiveness in the treatment of lumbar stenosis and degenerative disc diseases. PMID:24822224

Galarza, Marcelo

2014-01-01

17

Cervical and lumbar MRI in asymptomatic older male lifelong athletes: Frequency of degenerative findings  

SciTech Connect

The athletic activity of the adult U.S. population has increased markedly in the last 20 years. To evaluate the possible long-term effects of such activity on the cervical and lumbar spine, we studied a group of asymptomatic currently very active lifelong male athletes over age 40 (41-69 years old, av. age 53). Nineteen active, lifelong male athletes were studied with MRI and the results compared with previous imaging studies of other populations. An athletic history and a spine history were also taken. Evidence of asymptomatic degenerative spine disease was similar to that seen in published series of other populations. Degenerative changes including disk protrusion and herniation, spondylosis, and spinal stenosis were present and increased in incidence with increasing patient age. In this group, all MRI findings proved to be asymptomatic and did not limit athletic activity. The incidence of lumbar degenerative changes in our study population of older male athletes was similar to those seen in other populations. 14 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

Healy, J.F.; Healy, B.B.; Wong, W.H.M.; Olson, E.M. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)] [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

1996-01-01

18

Predicting Lumbar Central Canal Stenosis – A Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Low back pain is a common complaint among adults, worldwide. Lumbar canal stenosis is frequently diagnosed as a cause for low back pain. In this study we evaluate morphometric measures using MRI sections to predict the occurrence of lumbar central canal stenosis. Settings and Design: One hundred and fifty four lumbar spinal MRI sagital and axial section images, 77 males and females each were evaluated from the Department of Radiology, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Manipal University. The study design was a prospective study. Materials and Methods: Various measurements were taken and two constant ratios were calculated. The Canal Body Ratio and the Ratio between the area of the dural sac and the vertebral body was evaluated. Statistical analysis: Unpaired t-test analysis was conducted using SPSS software. Results: A canal body ratio less than 0.6 from L1 to L3 levels and less than 0.5 at L4 and L5 levels were found. The ratio between area of dural sac and vertebral body was found to be a constant at 0.2 at all levels. It was found that maximum central canal stenosis occurred at the L5 lumbar vertebral level in 15.6% males and 13% females. This was followed by stenosis at the L4 and L3 lumbar vertebral levels with 5.1% males having stenosis at both levels and 3.9% and 5.1% females in L4 and L3 lumbar levels respectively. Conclusion: These morphometrical findings of the lumbar vertebrae could be of use in evaluating the possible cases of lumbar canal stenosis.

Premchandran, Divya; Mahale, Ajith

2014-01-01

19

Spinal Stenosis after Total Lumbar Laminectomy for Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of long-term outcome and complications of selective dorsal rhizotomy is limited due to the relatively recent introduction of the procedure. We describe 2 patients with cerebral palsy who developed lumbar spinal stenosis several years after selective dorsal rhizotomy. These patients also had substantial lateral trunk sway during gait and walked for several years with limited assistive devices. This abnormal

Judith L. Gooch; Marion L. Walker

1996-01-01

20

Central Decompressive Laminoplasty for Treatment of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis : Technique and Early Surgical Results  

PubMed Central

Objective Lumbar spinal stenosis is a common degenerative spine disease that requires surgical intervention. Currently, there is interest in minimally invasive surgery and various technical modifications of decompressive lumbar laminectomy without fusion. The purpose of this study was to present the author's surgical technique and results for decompression of spinal stenosis. Methods The author performed surgery in 57 patients with lumbar spinal stenosis between 2006 and 2010. Data were gathered retrospectively via outpatient interviews and telephone questionnaires. The operation used in this study was named central decompressive laminoplasty (CDL), which allows thorough decompression of the lumbar spinal canal and proximal two foraminal nerve roots by undercutting the lamina and facet joint. Kyphotic prone positioning on elevated curvature of the frame or occasional use of an interlaminar spreader enables sufficient interlaminar working space. Pain was measured with a visual analogue scale (VAS). Surgical outcome was analyzed with the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Data were analyzed preoperatively and six months postoperatively. Results The interlaminar window provided by this technique allowed for unhindered access to the central canal, lateral recess, and upper/lower foraminal zone, with near-total sparing of the facet joint. The VAS scores and ODI were significantly improved at six-month follow-up compared to preoperative levels (p<0.001, respectively). Excellent pain relief (>75% of initial VAS score) of back/buttock and leg was observed in 75.0% and 76.2% of patients, respectively. Conclusion CDL is easily applied, allows good field visualization and decompression, maintains stability by sparing ligament and bony structures, and shows excellent early surgical results. PMID:25368762

2014-01-01

21

Diagnostic value of the lumbar extension-loading test in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background The gait-loading test is a well known, important test with which to assess the involved spinal level in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. The lumbar extension-loading test also functions as a diagnostic loading test in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis; however, its efficacy remains uncertain. The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic value of the lumbar extension-loading test with that of the gait-loading test in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. Methods A total of 116 consecutive patients (62 men and 54 women) diagnosed with lumbar spinal stenosis were included in this cross-sectional study of the lumbar extension-loading test. Subjective symptoms and objective neurological findings (motor, sensory, and reflex) were examined before and after the lumbar extension-loading and gait-loading tests. The efficacy of the lumbar extension-loading test for establishment of a correct diagnosis of the involved spinal level was assessed and compared with that of the gait-loading test. Results There were no significant differences between the lumbar extension-loading test and the gait-loading test in terms of subjective symptoms, objective neurological findings, or changes in the involved spinal level before and after each loading test. Conclusions The lumbar extension-loading test is useful for assessment of lumbar spinal stenosis pathology and is capable of accurately determining the involved spinal level. PMID:25080292

2014-01-01

22

Surgical Treatment of Spinal Stenosis with and without Degenerative Spondylolisthesis: Cost-Effectiveness after 2 Years  

PubMed Central

Background The SPORT (Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial) reported favorable surgery outcomes over 2 years among patients with stenosis with and without degenerative spondylolisthesis, but the economic value of these surgeries is uncertain. Objective To assess the short-term cost-effectiveness of spine surgery relative to nonoperative care for stenosis alone and for stenosis with spondylolisthesis. Design Prospective cohort study. Data Sources Resource utilization, productivity, and EuroQol EQ-5D score measured at 6 weeks and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after treatment among SPORT participants. Target Population Patients with image-confirmed spinal stenosis, with and without degenerative spondylolisthesis. Time Horizon 2 years. Perspective Societal. Intervention Nonoperative care or surgery (primarily decompressive laminectomy for stenosis and decompressive laminectomy with fusion for stenosis associated with degenerative spondylolisthesis). Outcome Measures Cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. Results of Base-Case Analysis Among 634 patients with stenosis, 394 (62%) had surgery, most often decompressive laminectomy (320 of 394 [81%]). Stenosis surgeries improved health to a greater extent than nonoperative care (QALY gain, 0.17 [95% CI, 0.12 to 0.22]) at a cost of $77 600 (CI, $49 600 to $120 000) per QALY gained. Among 601 patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis, 368 (61%) had surgery, most including fusion (344 of 368 [93%]) and most with instrumentation (269 of 344 [78%]). Degenerative spondylolisthesis surgeries significantly improved health versus non-operative care (QALY gain, 0.23 [CI, 0.19 to 0.27]), at a cost of $115 600 (CI, $90 800 to $144 900) per QALY gained. Result of Sensitivity Analysis Surgery cost markedly affected the value of surgery. Limitation The study used self-reported utilization data, 2-year time horizon, and as-treated analysis to address treatment non-adherence among randomly assigned participants. Conclusion The economic value of spinal stenosis surgery at 2 years compares favorably with many health interventions. Degenerative spondylolisthesis surgery is not highly cost-effective over 2 years but could show value over a longer time horizon. PMID:19075203

Tosteson, Anna N.A.; Lurie, Jon D.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Skinner, Jonathan S.; Herkowitz, Harry; Albert, Todd; Boden, Scott D.; Bridwell, Keith; Longley, Michael; Andersson, Gunnar B.; Blood, Emily A.; Grove, Margaret R.; Weinstein, James N.

2009-01-01

23

Amyloid deposits derived from transthyretin in the ligamentum flavum as related to lumbar spinal canal stenosis.  

PubMed

Amyloidosis is a protein conformational disorder with the distinctive feature of extracellular accumulation of amyloid fibrils that come from different proteins. In the ligamentum flavum of the lumbar spine, amyloid deposits were frequently found in elderly patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis and were at least partially formed by wild-type transthyretin. However, how amyloid deposits in the ligamentum flavum affect lumbar spinal canal stenosis has remained unclear. In this study, we analyzed clinical, pathologic, and radiologic findings of patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis who had amyloid deposits in the ligamentum flavum. We studied 95 ligamentum flavum specimens obtained from 56 patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis and 21 ligamentum flavum specimens obtained from 19 patients with lumbar disk herniation. We evaluated histopathologic findings and clinicoradiologic manifestations, such as thickness of the ligamentum flavum and lumbar spinal segmental instability. We found that all 95 ligamentum flavum specimens resected from patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis had amyloid deposits, which we classified into two types, transthyretin-positive and transthyretin-negative, and that transthyretin amyloid formation in the ligamentum flavum of patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis was an age-associated phenomenon. The amount of amyloid in the ligamentum flavum was related to clinical manifestations of lumbar spinal canal stenosis, such as thickness of the ligamentum flavum and lumbar spinal segmental instability, in the patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis with transthyretin-positive amyloid deposits. To our knowledge, this report is the first to show clinicopathologic correlations in transthyretin amyloid deposits of the ligamentum flavum. In conclusion, transthyretin amyloid deposits in the ligamentum flavum may be related to the pathogenesis of lumbar spinal canal stenosis in elderly patients. PMID:25189643

Yanagisawa, Akihiro; Ueda, Mitsuharu; Sueyoshi, Takanao; Okada, Tatsuya; Fujimoto, Toru; Ogi, Yasuhiro; Kitagawa, Keisuke; Tasaki, Masayoshi; Misumi, Yohei; Oshima, Toshinori; Jono, Hirofumi; Obayashi, Konen; Hirakawa, Kei; Uchida, Hitoshi; Westermark, Per; Ando, Yukio; Mizuta, Hiroshi

2015-02-01

24

Characteristics of Back Muscle Strength in Patients with Scheduled for Lumbar Fusion Surgery due to Symptomatic Lumbar Degenerative Diseases  

PubMed Central

Study Design Cross sectional study. Purpose To evaluate characteristics of back muscle strength in patients scheduled for lumbar fusion surgery. Overview of Literature Little is known regarding muscle strength in patients with symptomatic lumbar degenerative diseases who require fusion surgery. Methods Consecutive 354 patients scheduled for posterior lumbar interbody fusion due to symptomatic degenerative diseases were approached for participation. 316 patients were enrolled. Before surgery, muscle strength was assessed by measuring maximal isometric extension strength at seven angular positions (0°, 12°, 24°, 36°, 48°, 60°, and 72°) and mean isometric strength was calculated. The Oswestry Disability Index (0-100) and visual analogue scale (0-100) for back pain were recorded. Muscle strength was compared according to gender, age (<60, 60-70, and ?70 years) and scheduled fusion level (short, <3; long, ?3). Results Isometric strength was significantly decreased compared with previously reported results of healthy individuals, particularly at extension positions (0°-48°, p<0.05). Mean isometric strength was significantly lower in females (p<0.001) and older patients (p<0.05). Differences of isometric strength between short and long level fusion were not significantly different (p>0.05). Isometric strengths showed significant, but weak, inverse correlations with age and Oswestry Disability Index (r<0.4, p<0.05). Conclusions In patients with symptomatic lumbar degenerative diseases, back muscle strength significantly decreased, particularly at lumbar extension positions, and in females and older patients. PMID:25346820

Park, Won Hah; Lee, Chong Suh; Kang, Kyung Chung

2014-01-01

25

Complications following Surgery for Lumbar Stenosis in a Veteran Population  

PubMed Central

Study Design Secondary analysis of the prospectively collected Veterans Affairs National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (VASQIP) database. Objective Determine rates of major medical complications, wound complications, and mortality among patients undergoing surgery for lumbar stenosis; and examine risk factors for these complications. Summary of Background Data Surgery for spinal stenosis is concentrated among older adults, for whom complications are more frequent than among middle-aged patients. Many studies have focused on infections or device complications, but fewer have focused on major cardiopulmonary complications, using prospectively collected data. Methods We identified patients who underwent surgery for a primary diagnosis of lumbar stenosis between 1998 and 2009 from the VASQIP database. We created a composite of major medical complications, including acute myocardial infarction, stroke, pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, systemic sepsis, coma, and cardiac arrest. Results Among 12,154 eligible patients, major medical complications occurred in 2.1% ; wound complications in 3.2%; and 90-day mortality in 0.6%. Major medical complications, but not wound complications, were strongly associated with age. American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class was a strong predictor of complications. Insulin use, chronic corticosteroid use, and preoperative functional status were also significant predictors. Fusion procedures were associated with higher complication rates than decompression alone. In logistic regressions, ASA class and age were the strongest predictors of major medical complications (OR for ASA class 4 vs. classes 1 or 2: 2.97, 95% CI 1.68, 5.25, p=0.0002). After adjustment for comorbidity, age, and functional status, fusion procedures remained associated with higher medical complication rates than decompression alone (OR 2.85, 95% CI 2.14, 3.78, p<0.0001). Conclusion ASA class, age, type of surgery, insulin or corticosteroid use, and functional status were independent risk factors for major medical complications. These factors may help in selecting patients and planning procedures, improving patient safety. PMID:23778366

Deyo, Richard A.; Hickam, David; Duckart, Jonathan P.; Piedra, Mark

2013-01-01

26

VALIDATION OF PLASMA BIOMARKERS IN DEGENERATIVE CALCIFIC AORTIC STENOSIS  

PubMed Central

Introduction Calcific aortic stenosis (CAS) is the most common acquired valvular disorder in industrialized countries. This study investigates the correlation of different known biomarkers for CAS as a first step towards the development of a panel of biomarkers that can be used in prognostic staging. Methods Venous blood samples were obtained from both patients with CAS scheduled for surgery and healthy individuals. Plasma levels of fetuin-A, NT-proBNP, BNP, Homocysteine and Osteopontin were measured by ELISA. CAS was measured by echocardiography and was defined as an aortic valve area of less than 2.0 cm2. Non-paired t tests were used for comparison. Results CAS was present in 33 subjects (mean age 75.9 years) and absent in 11 subjects (mean age 55.36 years). Individuals with CAS exhibited higher plasma levels of NT-proBNP (1.33 vs 0.73 pmol/ml, p<0.05), BNP fragment (1.47 vs 0.34 ng/ml p<0.05) and Osteopontin (60.79 vs 25.42 ng/ml p<0.05) compared to controls. Fetuin-A levels were lower in individuals with CAS than in healthy controls (0.25 vs 0.34g/l, p<0.05). Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) were lower (1.08 vs 1.1 ?mol/l, p>0.05) while homocysteine levels (20.34±2.14 Vs 19.23±4.19 p>0.05) were higher in the CAS patients. Discussion This study demonstrates a direct correlation of NT-pro-BNP, BNP and Osteopontin and the presence of CAS while Fetuin A showed an inverse correlation. Plasma ADMA and homocysteine levels were comparable in the CAS patients and healthy individuals. This is the first study in which several biomarkers previously studied independently in patients with CAS have been investigated simultaneously in the same study population. PMID:20599226

Ferrari, Giovanni; Sainger, Rachana; Beckmann, Erik; Keller, Gianluca; Yu, Pey-Jen; Monti, Maria Cristina; Galloway, Aubrey C.; Weiss, Richard L.; Vernick, William; Grau, Juan B.

2010-01-01

27

The 2-Year Cost-Effectiveness of 3 options to Treat Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Patients.  

PubMed

Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) may result from degenerative changes of the spine, which lead to neural ischemia, neurogenic claudication, and a significant decrease in quality of life. Treatments for LSS range from conservative management including epidural steroid injections (ESI) to laminectomy surgery. Treatments vary greatly in cost and success. ESI is the least costly treatment may be successful for early stages of LSS but often must be repeated frequently. Laminectomy surgery is more costly and has higher complication rates. Minimally invasive lumbar decompression (mild(®) ) is an alternative. Using a decision-analytic model from the Medicare perspective, a cost-effectiveness analysis was performed comparing mild(®) to ESI or laminectomy surgery. The analysis population included patients with LSS who have moderate to severe symptoms and have failed conservative therapy. Costs included initial procedure, complications, and repeat/revision or alternate procedure after failure. Effects measured as change in quality-adjusted life years (QALY) from preprocedure to 2 years postprocedure. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were determined, and sensitivity analysis conducted. The mild(®) strategy appears to be the most cost-effective ($43,760/QALY), with ESI the next best alternative at an additional $37,758/QALY. Laminectomy surgery was the least cost-effective ($125,985/QALY). PMID:24393198

Udeh, Belinda L; Costandi, Shrif; Dalton, Jarrod E; Ghosh, Raktim; Yousef, Hani; Mekhail, Nagy

2015-02-01

28

Priapism associated with lumbar stenosis in a dog.  

PubMed

Priapism, a persistent long-lasting involuntary erection of the penis, is uncommon in dogs. In this report, the case of a 13-year-old male Pointer, referred to our services due to persistent exposition of the penis, is described. This condition was consecutive to an intermittent priapism situation lasting for several days, which has been initially attributed to the inflammation and haematoma associated with a perianal bite. The owners became unable to retract the penis into the prepuce. At presentation, the dog was anorectic for 48 h, intolerant to manipulation, and showed poor body condition and unsteady locomotion. During physical evaluation, a marked engorgement of the local vessels in the prepuce and penis was found. An abdominal X-ray was asked under the suspicion of a neurogenic origin for the clinical situation, which showed evidences of spondylosis. After discussion of the clinical condition, the owners asked for euthanasia. The necropsy confirmed the engorgement of the regional vessels deriving from the pudendal arteries and blood accumulation within all the cavernous spaces, accompanied by congestion and thrombosis within the erectile structures of the penis. No significant changes were observed in the pelvic organs that could be at the origin of priapism. The lumbar-sacral spinal regions were carefully inspected and evidenced signs of L7-S1 stenosis due to spondylosis. The case presented herein is a rare situation of priapism of neurogenic origin in a dog. Necropsy findings suggest that it was consecutive to cauda equina compression due to lumbar spinal stenosis. PMID:23551292

Payan-Carreira, R; Colaço, B; Rocha, C; Albuquerque, C; Luis, M; Abreu, H; Pires, M A

2013-08-01

29

Percutaneous Decompression of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis with a New Interspinous Device  

SciTech Connect

Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of the implantation of a new interspinous device (Falena) in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. The clinical outcomes and imaging results were assessed by orthostatic MR during an up to 6-month follow-up period. Methods: Between October 2008 and February 2010, the Falena was implanted at a single level in 26 patients (17 men; mean age, 69 (range, 54-82) years) who were affected by degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. All of the patients were clinically evaluated before the procedure and at 1 and 3 months. Furthermore, 20 patients have completed a 6-month follow-up. Pain was assessed before and after the intervention using the Visual Analogue Scale score and the Oswestry Disability Index questionnaire. Orthostatic MR imaging was performed before the implantation and at 3 months to assess the correlation with the clinical outcome. Results: The mean ODI score decreased from 48.9 before the device implantation to 31.2 at 1 month (p < 0.0001). The mean VAS score decreased from 7.6 before to 3.9 (p < 0.0001) at 1 month and 3.6 at 3 months after the procedure (p = 0.0115). These values were stable at 6 months evaluation. No postimplantation major complications were recorded. MRI evaluation documented in most cases an increased size of the spinal canal area. Similarly a bilateral foraminal area improvement was found. The variation of the intervertebral space height measured on the posterior wall was not significant. Conclusions: In our preliminary experience with the Falena in a small cohort of patients, we obtained clinical and imaging results aligned to those reported with similar interspinous devices.

Masala, Salvatore; Fiori, Roberto; Bartolucci, Dario Alberto, E-mail: bartolucci.md@gmail.com; Volpi, Tommaso; Calabria, Eros [University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Interventional Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Therapy (Italy); Novegno, Federica [University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Department of Neurosurgery (Italy); Simonetti, Giovanni [University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Interventional Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Therapy (Italy)

2012-04-15

30

Acute spinal pain during an attempted lumbar epidural blood patch in congenital lumbar spinal stenosis and epidural lipomatosis.  

PubMed

Congenital lumbar spinal stenosis is an uncommon condition that is often asymptomatic in young adults. Herein, we document the first reported occurrence of acute radicular back pain and associated congenital lumbar spinal stenosis in a healthy 24-year-old woman undergoing an epidural blood patch for treatment of a post-dural puncture headache related to an accidental dural puncture sustained during placement of a labor epidural catheter. The acute pain symptoms were elicited twice with injection of less than 1 mL of fluid into the epidural space during the fluoroscopically assisted epidural blood patch. Subsequent magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine demonstrated shortened pedicle length consistent with severe congenital lumbar spinal stenosis and prominent epidural fat. We speculate that the transient increase in pressure within the epidural compartment following injection of a small amount of fluid could have compressed neural structures resulting in severe radicular pain. The prominent epidural fat could have prevented rapid disbursement of the injected fluid which could have further served to propagate the pressure increase throughout the epidural compartment. The unique radiographic features of congenital spinal stenosis could predispose some patients with this unrecognized condition to develop acute pain upon injection of a small amount of fluid into the epidural compartment. Unrecognized congenital lumbar spinal stenosis is an important addition to the differential diagnosis of acute radicular pain elicited during an epidural blood patch in previously asymptomatic patients. PMID:18196174

Hooten, W Michael; Hogan, Michael S; Sanemann, Thomas C; Maus, Timothy J

2008-01-01

31

Computer aided diagnosis of degenerative intervertebral disc diseases from lumbar MR images.  

PubMed

This paper presents a novel method for the automated diagnosis of the degenerative intervertebral disc disease in midsagittal MR images. The approach is based on combining distinct disc features under a machine learning framework. The discs in the lumbar MR images are first localized and segmented. Then, intensity, shape, context, and texture features of the discs are extracted with various techniques. A Support Vector Machine classifier is applied to classify the discs as normal or degenerated. The method is tested and validated on a clinical lumbar spine dataset containing 102 subjects and the results are comparable to the state of the art. PMID:24972858

Oktay, Ayse Betul; Albayrak, Nur Banu; Akgul, Yusuf Sinan

2014-10-01

32

Epidural steroid injections in the treatment of symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis associated with epidural lipomatosis.  

PubMed

Epidural lipomatosis has been implicated as a cause or contributor of symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis. Although epidural steroid injections have been very successful for symptomatic treatment of spinal stenosis; their role in treatment of symptomatic stenosis secondary to epidural lipomatosis is unclear. A review literature (MEDLINE, PubMed) found no reports justifying the use of steroids. We present two patients with lumbar epidural lipomatosis causing or contributing to symptomatic spinal stenosis. Both patients presented with unilateral lower limb radicular symptoms unrelieved with conservative measures such as medications and physical therapy. They were treated with a single transforaminal epidural steroid injection at the symptomatic level. Both had 80-85% pain relief. These reports suggest a beneficial role of epidural steroid injections for patients with symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis caused by or contributing to epidural lipomatosis. PMID:15624572

Botwin, Kenneth P; Sakalkale, Durgadas P

2004-12-01

33

A minimally invasive posterior lumbar interbody fusion using percutaneous long arm pedicle screw system for degenerative lumbar disease  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study is to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of patients with lumbar degeneration and instability treated with percutaneous pedicle screw fixation and minimally invasive lumbar interbody fusion. Twenty-one patients were selected in our hospital from November, 2012 to March, 2013. The patients with an average age 55.62 years, including 8 vertebral spondylolisthesis, 4 lumbar intervertebral disc herniation, and 9 lumbar spinal canal stenosis cases. All the patients were managed to take the lumbar MRI and radiographs. The comparison of preoperative and postoperative (3 days, 2 weeks, 3 months) VAS and ODI score were analyzed. The results indicated that VAS scores were 7.14 ± 0.79 before operation, and 5.19 ± 0.81 in 3 days after operation, 4 ± 0.84 after 2 weeks, and 2.67 ± 0.66 after 3 months. The pain was relieved, and the postoperative VAS score was lower than that before treatment (P < 0.05). ODI score was 55.8 ± 11.4 before operation, 47.38 ± 9.38 after 3 days, 41.38 ± 8.09 after 2 weeks, 35.76 ± 4.50 after 3 months. ODI score was obviously decreased (P < 0.05). In conclusion, percutaneous pedicle screw fixation combined with minimally invasive interbody fusion is a safe, effective, feasible minimally invasive spine operation, with worthy for spreading.

He, Er-Xing; Cui, Ji-Hao; Yin, Zhi-Xun; Li, Chuang; Tang, Cheng; He, Yi-Qian; Liu, Cheng-Wei

2014-01-01

34

Rare ligamentum flavum cyst causing incapacitating lumbar spinal stenosis: Experience with 3 Chinese patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three Chinese patients suffered from severe lumbar spinal stenosis with debilitating symptoms due to a rare condition of ligamentum flavum cysts in the midline of the lumbar spine. This disease is distinct from synovial cyst of the facet joints or ganglion cysts, both intraoperatively and histopathologically. Magnetic Resonance imaging features of the ligamentum flavum cyst are also demonstrated. We share

Alexander Pak-Hin Chan; Tsz Cheung Wong; Koon-Man Sieh; Simon Siu-Man Leung; Kai-Yin Cheung; Kwai-Yau Fung

2010-01-01

35

Incidental Dural Tears During Lumbar Spine Surgery: A Retrospective Case Study of 84 Degenerative Lumbar Spine Patients  

PubMed Central

Study Design A retrospective case study. Purpose To retrospectively review all incidental dural tears (DTs) that occurred at a single institution, classify them anatomically and evaluate the clinical significance of each subgroup. Overview of Literature Dural tears are considered the most commonly encountered complication during lumbar spine surgery. In contrast to the high frequency of DTs, reports on the characteristic location and mechanism are sparse. Methods We retrospectively retrieved all cases of degenerative lumbar spine surgery performed over a 9-year period and classified all identified DTs according to two independent planes. The coronal plane was divided into lower, middle and upper surgical fields, and the sagittal plane into posterior, lateral and ventral occurring tears. Demographic and clinical variables were retrieved and analyzed to search for significant associations. Results From 2003 to 2011, 1,235 cases of degenerative lumbar spine conditions were treated surgically at our institution. In 84 operations (6.8%), an incidental DT was either identified intraoperatively or suspected retrospectively. The most commonly involved location was the lower surgical field (n=39, 46.4%; p=0.002), followed equally by the middle and upper fields (n=16, 19%). In the sagittal plane, the most commonly involved locations were those in close proximity to the nerve root (n=35, 41.6%), followed by the dorsal aspect of the dural sac (n=24, 28.6%). None of the variables recorded was found to be associated with a particular location. Conclusions In our series, incidental DTs were found to occur most commonly in the lower surgical field. We hypothesize that local anatomic feature, such as the lordotic and broadening lumbar dura, may play a role in the observed DT tendency to occur in the lower surgical field. In light of the high frequency and potentially substantial resulting morbidity of incidental DTs, a better characterization of its location and mechanism may optimize both prevention and management. PMID:25346817

Anekstein, Yoram; Mirovsky, Yigal

2014-01-01

36

Lumbar spinal stenosis CAD from clinical MRM and MRI based on inter- and intra-context features with a two-level classifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An imaging test has an important role in the diagnosis of lumbar abnormalities since it allows to examine the internal structure of soft tissues and bony elements without the need of an unnecessary surgery and recovery time. For the past decade, among various imaging modalities, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has taken the significant part of the clinical evaluation of the lumbar spine. This is mainly due to technological advancements that lead to the improvement of imaging devices in spatial resolution, contrast resolution, and multi-planar capabilities. In addition, noninvasive nature of MRI makes it easy to diagnose many common causes of low back pain such as disc herniation, spinal stenosis, and degenerative disc diseases. In this paper, we propose a method to diagnose lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS), a narrowing of the spinal canal, from magnetic resonance myelography (MRM) images. Our method segments the thecal sac in the preprocessing stage, generates the features based on inter- and intra-context information, and diagnoses lumbar disc stenosis. Experiments with 55 subjects show that our method achieves 91.3% diagnostic accuracy. In the future, we plan to test our method on more subjects.

Koh, Jaehan; Alomari, Raja S.; Chaudhary, Vipin; Dhillon, Gurmeet

2011-03-01

37

Congenital lumbar spinal stenosis with ossification of the ligamentum flavum in achondroplasia: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Achondroplasia is a genetic disorder of bone growth. Congenital spinal stenosis is a well-known complication of this disease, but, to the best of our knowledge, no cases involving combined stenosis with congenital lumbar spinal stenosis and ossification of the ligamentum flavum in achondroplasia have been reported previously. In this report, we describe a case of a patient with congenital spinal stenosis with achondroplasia combined with ossification of the ligamentum flavum at the lumbar spine, which we treated with decompressive surgery. Case presentation A 75-year-old Japanese woman with achondroplasia was unable to walk due to a neurological deficit of the lower extremities caused by congenital spinal stenosis that resulted from achondroplasia and ossification of the ligamentum flavum at the lumbar spine. Congenital spinal stenosis was observed from L1 to L5, and ossification of the ligamentum flavum was identified from L1/2 to L3/4. A decompressive laminectomy from L1 to L5 and removal of the ossification of the ligamentum flavum were performed. The patient’s neurological symptoms improved after surgery. She could walk with T-cane at the time of her four-year follow-up examination. Conclusion In this report, we describe what is, to the best of our knowledge, the first known published case of ossification of the ligamentum flavum in congenital spinal stenosis associated with achondroplasia at the lumbar spine. Although resection of the ossification of the ligamentum flavum at the congenital spinal stenosis at the lumbar spine was technically difficult because of congenital narrowing of the spinal canal, thickening of the lamina and adhesion of the ossified ligamentum flavum, a wide laminectomy and resection of the ossification of the ligamentum flavum resulted in acceptable improvement of the patient’s neurological symptoms. PMID:24597928

2014-01-01

38

Variation in the PTH2R gene is associated with age-related degenerative changes in the lumbar spine.  

PubMed

In the elderly, degenerative changes in the lumbar spine are common, contributing to falsely elevated bone mineral density (BMD) values. The parathyroid hormone (PTH) system plays an important role in the regulation of bone turnover and we explore the hypothesis that polymorphisms (SNPs) within genes in this pathway (PTH, PTHLH, PTH1R and PTH2R) contribute to degenerative manifestations of the spine in elderly women. The study included 1,004 Swedish women aged 75 years from the population-based OPRA cohort who attended follow-up at 5 and 10 years. Lumbar spine BMD was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and each individual vertebra was evaluated visually on the DXA image for apparent degenerative manifestations. Six SNPs in PTH and 3 SNPs each in PTH1R, PTH2R and PTHLH were analysed. Among women with degenerative manifestations at the lumbar spine, there was an over-representation at baseline of those carrying the PTH2R SNP rs897083 A-allele (p = 0.0021; odds ratio 1.5 95 % CI 1.2-2.0) and across the duration of follow-up (p = 0.0008). No association was observed between degenerative manifestations and variation in the other genes. None of the PTH hormone system genes were associated with vertebral fracture. Variation in the PTH2R gene (Chr2q34, rs897083) may contribute to the age-associated degenerative manifestations that develop at the lumbar spine. PMID:24378925

Åkesson, Kristina; Tenne, Max; Gerdhem, Paul; Luthman, Holger; McGuigan, Fiona E

2015-01-01

39

Dynamic Stabilization for Challenging Lumbar Degenerative Diseases of the Spine: A Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Fusion and rigid instrumentation have been currently the mainstay for the surgical treatment of degenerative diseases of the spine over the last 4 decades. In all over the world the common experience was formed about fusion surgery. Satisfactory results of lumbar spinal fusion appeared completely incompatible and unfavorable within years. Rigid spinal implants along with fusion cause increased stresses of the adjacent segments and have some important disadvantages such as donor site morbidity including pain, wound problems, infections because of longer operating time, pseudarthrosis, and fatigue failure of implants. Alternative spinal implants were developed with time on unsatisfactory outcomes of rigid internal fixation along with fusion. Motion preservation devices which include both anterior and posterior dynamic stabilization are designed and used especially in the last two decades. This paper evaluates the dynamic stabilization of the lumbar spine and talks about chronologically some novel dynamic stabilization devices and thier efficacies. PMID:23662211

Kaner, Tuncay; Ozer, Ali Fahir

2013-01-01

40

The "tract" of history in the treatment of lumbar degenerative disc disease.  

PubMed

In this paper past, present, and future treatments of degenerative disc disease (DDD) of the lumbar spine are outlined in a straight forward manner. This is done to review previous knowledge of the disease, define current treatment procedures, and discuss future perspectives. An analysis of a subject of this magnitude dictates that one describes as accurate a history as possible: an anatomical/historical "tract" with emphasis on all possible deviations. Although spinal disorders have been recognized for a long time, the view of DDD as a particular disease entity is a more recent development. In this paper, the authors attempt to outline the history of DDD of the lumbar spine in an unbiased and scientific fashion. Physiological, diagnostic, and therapeutic implications will all be addressed in this study. PMID:15264785

Chedid, Khalil J; Chedid, Mokbel K

2004-01-15

41

Arteriovenous Fistula of the Filum Terminale Misdiagnosed and Previously Operated as Lower Lumbar Degenerative Disease  

PubMed Central

Filum terminale arteriovenous fistula (FTAVF) presenting as a cause of failed back surgery syndrome is a rare entity. We report a 48-year-old male patient who presented with clinical features of a conus medullaris/cauda equina lesion. He had upper and lower motor neuron signs in both the lower limbs with autonomic dysfunction. The patient was misdiagnosed and was operated twice earlier for lumbar canal stenosis and disc prolapse. After reviewing his clinical and radiological findings a diagnosis of FTAVF was made. He underwent surgery and there was a significant improvement in his neurological functions. We discuss the case and review the literature on FTAVF's. PMID:24967053

Ranjan, Alok; Lath, Rahul

2014-01-01

42

Study Protocol- Lumbar Epidural Steroid Injections for Spinal Stenosis (LESS): a double-blind randomized controlled trial of epidural steroid injections for lumbar spinal stenosis among older adults  

PubMed Central

Background Lumbar spinal stenosis is one of the most common causes of low back pain among older adults and can cause significant disability. Despite its prevalence, treatment of spinal stenosis symptoms remains controversial. Epidural steroid injections are used with increasing frequency as a less invasive, potentially safer, and more cost-effective treatment than surgery. However, there is a lack of data to judge the effectiveness and safety of epidural steroid injections for spinal stenosis. We describe our prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial that tests the hypothesis that epidural injections with steroids plus local anesthetic are more effective than epidural injections of local anesthetic alone in improving pain and function among older adults with lumbar spinal stenosis. Methods We will recruit up to 400 patients with lumbar central canal spinal stenosis from at least 9 clinical sites over 2 years. Patients with spinal instability who require surgical fusion, a history of prior lumbar surgery, or prior epidural steroid injection within the past 6 months are excluded. Participants are randomly assigned to receive either ESI with local anesthetic or the control intervention (epidural injections with local anesthetic alone). Subjects receive up to 2 injections prior to the primary endpoint at 6 weeks, at which time they may choose to crossover to the other intervention. Participants complete validated, standardized measures of pain, functional disability, and health-related quality of life at baseline and at 3 weeks, 6 weeks, and 3, 6, and 12 months after randomization. The primary outcomes are Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire and a numerical rating scale measure of pain intensity at 6 weeks. In order to better understand their safety, we also measure cortisol, HbA1c, fasting blood glucose, weight, and blood pressure at baseline, and at 3 and 6 weeks post-injection. We also obtain data on resource utilization and costs to assess cost-effectiveness of epidural steroid injection. Discussion This study is the first multi-center, double-blind RCT to evaluate the effectiveness of epidural steroid injections in improving pain and function among older adults with lumbar spinal stenosis. The study will also yield data on the safety and cost-effectiveness of this procedure for older adults. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01238536 PMID:22458343

2012-01-01

43

Minimally invasive surgery through endoscopic laminotomy and foraminotomy for the treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis  

PubMed Central

Background Lumbar spinal stenosis is a common cause of radicular and generalized back pain among older adults. Endoscopic minimally invasive surgery, in contrast to open decompression, may provide the opportunity for a less invasive surgical intervention. Thus, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety (operative complications, estimated blood loss, operative room time) and effectiveness (pre- versus postoperative level of disability and pain severity) of minimally invasive surgery using endoscopic laminotomy and foraminotomy among a large sample of patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. Methods This study is composed of 320 consecutive patients with lumbar spinal stenosis who underwent posterior lumbar laminotomy and foraminotomy between 2008 and 2011. Outcome measures consisted of perioperative complications, estimated blood loss, operative room time, level of disability, and pain severity. Pain severity and level of disability were prospectively analyzed to an average of 18 months (12–36 months) post-surgery. Results There was an average estimated blood loss of 39.3 cc and a mean operative room time of 74 min. Seven patients experienced minor operative complications. All patients were discharged the same day as surgery and reported a significantly lower level of disability (p = 0.00) and pain severity (p = 0.00) postoperative compared to preoperative. Conclusions Minimally invasive surgery using endoscopy for the treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis has a short operative time, a low operative complication rate, and minimal estimated blood loss. This study also indicates that MIS for the treatment of LSS can significantly reduce pain and disability level. Thus, minimally invasive surgery using endoscopic laminotomy and foraminotomy appears to be a safe and effective alternative surgical treatment for open decompression surgery in adult patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. PMID:24403742

Polikandriotis, John A.; Hudak, Elizabeth M.; Perry, Michael W.

2013-01-01

44

Transthyretin-derived amyloidosis: Probably a common cause of lumbar spinal stenosis  

PubMed Central

Background Senile systemic amyloidosis (SSA) derived from wild-type transthyretin is a fairly common condition of old individuals, particularly men. The main presentation is by cardiac involvement, which can lead to severe restrictive cardiomyopathy. SSA is, however, a systemic disease, and amyloid deposits may appear in many other tissues but are thought to be without clinical symptoms outside the heart. Amyloid is a very common finding in cartilage and ligaments of elderly subjects, and transthyretin has been demonstrated in some deposits. Lumbar spinal stenosis is also a condition of usually elderly individuals in whom narrowing of the lumbar spinal canal leads to compression of nerves to the lower limbs. Results We questioned whether lumbar spinal stenosis sometimes could be a manifestation of undiagnosed SSA. In this first report we have studied the presence of amyloid in material obtained at surgery for spinal stenosis in 26 patients. Amyloid was found in 25 subjects. Transthyretin was demonstrated immunohistochemically in 5 out of 15 studied resected tissues. Four of the positive materials were analyzed with Western blot revealing both full-length transthyretin (TTR) and C-terminal TTR fragments, typically seen in SSA. Conclusion We conclude that lumbar spinal stenosis quite frequently may be a consequence of SSA and that further studies are warranted. PMID:24620715

Suhr, Ole B.; Berg, Svante

2014-01-01

45

Spinal stenosis  

MedlinePLUS

... spinal stenosis; Foraminal spinal stenosis; Degenerative spine disease; Back pain - spinal stenosis ... help your pain during flare-ups. Treatments for back pain caused by spinal stenosis include: Medicines that may ...

46

Preoperative MRI Findings Predict Two-Year Postoperative Clinical Outcome in Lumbar Spinal Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Purpose To study the predictive value of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings for the two-year postoperative clinical outcome in lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Methods 84 patients (mean age 63±11 years, male 43%) with symptoms severe enough to indicate LSS surgery were included in this prospective observational single-center study. Preoperative MRI of the lumbar spine was performed with a 1.5-T unit. The imaging protocol conformed to the requirements of the American College of Radiology for the performance of MRI of the adult spine. Visual and quantitative assessment of MRI was performed by one experienced neuroradiologist. At the two-year postoperative follow-up, functional ability was assessed with the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI 0–100%) and treadmill test (0–1000 m), pain symptoms with the overall Visual Analogue Scale (VAS 0–100 mm), and specific low back pain (LBP) and specific leg pain (LP) separately with a numeric rating scale from 0–10 (NRS-11). Satisfaction with the surgical outcome was also assessed. Results Preoperative severe central stenosis predicted postoperatively lower LP, LBP, and VAS when compared in patients with moderate central stenosis (p<0.05). Moreover, severe stenosis predicted higher postoperative satisfaction (p?=?0.029). Preoperative scoliosis predicted an impaired outcome in the ODI (p?=?0.031) and lowered the walking distance in the treadmill test (p?=?0.001). The preoperative finding of only one stenotic level in visual assessment predicted less postoperative LBP when compared with patients having 2 or more stenotic levels (p?=?0.026). No significant differences were detected between quantitative measurements and the patient outcome. Conclusions Routine preoperative lumbar spine MRI can predict the patient outcome in a two-year follow up in patients with LSS surgery. Severe central stenosis and one-level central stenosis are predictors of good outcome. Preoperative finding of scoliosis may indicate worse functional ability. PMID:25229343

Kuittinen, Pekka; Sipola, Petri; Leinonen, Ville; Saari, Tapani; Sinikallio, Sanna; Savolainen, Sakari; Kröger, Heikki; Turunen, Veli; Airaksinen, Olavi; Aalto, Timo

2014-01-01

47

Successful operative management of an upper lumbar spinal canal stenosis resulting in multilevel lower nerve root radiculopathy.  

PubMed

Lumbar stenosis is a common disorder, usually characterized clinically by neurogenic claudication with or without lumbar/sacral radiculopathy corresponding to the level of stenosis. We present a case of lumbar stenosis manifesting as a multilevel radiculopathy inferior to the nerve roots at the level of the stenosis. A 55-year-old gentleman presented with bilateral lower extremity pain with neurogenic claudication in an L5/S1 distribution (posterior thigh, calf, into the foot) concomitant with dorsiflexion and plantarflexion weakness. Imaging revealed grade I spondylolisthesis of L3 on L4 with severe spinal canal stenosis at L3-L4, mild left L4-L5 disc herniation, no stenosis at L5-S1, and no instability. EMG revealed active and chronic L5 and S1 radiculopathy. The patient underwent bilateral L3-L4 hemilaminotomy with left L4-L5 microdiscectomy for treatment of his L3-L4 stenosis. Postoperatively, he exhibited significant improvement in dorsiflexion and plantarflexion. The L5-S1 level was not involved in the operative decompression. Patients with radiculopathy and normal imaging at the level corresponding to the radiculopathy should not be ruled out for operative intervention should they have imaging evidence of lumbar stenosis superior to the expected affected level. PMID:25552866

McClelland, Shearwood; Kim, Stefan S

2015-01-01

48

Successful operative management of an upper lumbar spinal canal stenosis resulting in multilevel lower nerve root radiculopathy  

PubMed Central

Lumbar stenosis is a common disorder, usually characterized clinically by neurogenic claudication with or without lumbar/sacral radiculopathy corresponding to the level of stenosis. We present a case of lumbar stenosis manifesting as a multilevel radiculopathy inferior to the nerve roots at the level of the stenosis. A 55-year-old gentleman presented with bilateral lower extremity pain with neurogenic claudication in an L5/S1 distribution (posterior thigh, calf, into the foot) concomitant with dorsiflexion and plantarflexion weakness. Imaging revealed grade I spondylolisthesis of L3 on L4 with severe spinal canal stenosis at L3-L4, mild left L4-L5 disc herniation, no stenosis at L5-S1, and no instability. EMG revealed active and chronic L5 and S1 radiculopathy. The patient underwent bilateral L3-L4 hemilaminotomy with left L4-L5 microdiscectomy for treatment of his L3-L4 stenosis. Postoperatively, he exhibited significant improvement in dorsiflexion and plantarflexion. The L5-S1 level was not involved in the operative decompression. Patients with radiculopathy and normal imaging at the level corresponding to the radiculopathy should not be ruled out for operative intervention should they have imaging evidence of lumbar stenosis superior to the expected affected level. PMID:25552866

McClelland, Shearwood; Kim, Stefan S.

2015-01-01

49

Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Minimally Invasive Treatment with Bilateral Transpedicular Facet Augmentation System  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new pedicle screw-based posterior dynamic stabilization device PDS Percudyn System Trade-Mark-Sign Anchor and Stabilizer (Interventional Spine Inc., Irvine, CA) as alternative minimally invasive treatment for patients with lumbar spine stenosis. Methods. Twenty-four consecutive patients (8 women, 16 men; mean age 61.8 yr) with lumbar spinal stenosis underwent implantation of the minimally invasive pedicle screw-based device for posterior dynamic stabilization. Inclusion criteria were lumbar stenosis without signs of instability, resistant to conservative treatment, and eligible to traditional surgical posterior decompression. Results. Twenty patients (83 %) progressively improved during the 1-year follow-up. Four (17 %) patients did not show any improvement and opted for surgical posterior decompression. For both responder and nonresponder patients, no device-related complications were reported. Conclusions. Minimally invasive PDS Percudyn System Trade-Mark-Sign has effectively improved the clinical setting of 83 % of highly selected patients treated, delaying the need for traditional surgical therapy.

Masala, Salvatore, E-mail: salva.masala@tiscali.it [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy, University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging (Italy); Tarantino, Umberto [University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology (Italy); Nano, Giovanni, E-mail: gionano@gmail.com [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy, University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging (Italy); Iundusi, Riccardo [University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology (Italy); Fiori, Roberto, E-mail: fiori.r@libero.it; Da Ros, Valerio, E-mail: valeriodaros@hotmail.com; Simonetti, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy, University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging (Italy)

2013-06-15

50

Short term outcome of posterior dynamic stabilization system in degenerative lumbar diseases  

PubMed Central

Background: Decompression and fusion is considered as the ‘gold standard’ for the treatment of degenerative lumbar diseases, however, many disadvantages have been reported in several studies, recently like donor site pain, pseudoarthrosis, nonunion, screw loosening, instrumentation failure, infection, adjacent segment disease (ASDis) and degeneration. Dynamic neutralization system (Dynesys) avoids many of these disadvantages. This system is made up of pedicle screws, polyethylene terephthalate cords, and polycarbonate urethane spacers to stabilize the functional spinal unit and preserve the adjacent motion after surgeries. This was a retrospective cohort study to compare the effect of Dynesys for treating degenerative lumbar diseases with posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) based on short term followup. Materials and Methods: Seventy five consecutive patients of lumbar degenerative disease operated between October 2010 and November 2012 were studied with a minimum followup of 2 years. Patients were divided into two groups according to the different surgeries. 30 patients underwent decompression and implantation of Dynesys in two levels (n = 29) or three levels (n = 1) and 45 patients underwent PLIF in two levels (n = 39) or three levels (n = 6). Clinical and radiographic outcomes between two groups were reviewed. Results: Thirty patients (male:17, female:13) with a mean age of 55.96 ± 7.68 years were included in Dynesys group and the PLIF group included 45 patients (male:21, female:24) with a mean age of 54.69 ± 3.26 years. The average followup in Dynesys group and PLIF group was 2.22 ± 0.43 year (range 2-3.5 year) and 2.17 ± 0.76 year (range 2-3 year), respectively. Dynesys group showed a shorter operation time (141.06 ± 11.36 min vs. 176.98 ± 6.72 min, P < 0.001) and less intraoperative blood loss (386.76 ± 19.44 ml vs. 430.11 ± 24.72 ml, P < 0.001). For Dynesys group, visual analogue scale (VAS) for back and leg pain improved from 6.87 ± 0.80 to 2.92 ± 0.18 and 6.99 ± 0.81 to 3.25 ± 0.37, (both P < 0.001) and for PLIF, VAS for back and leg pain also improved significantly (6.97 ± 0.84–3.19 ± 0.19 and 7.26 ± 0.76–3.56 ± 0.38, both P < 0.001). Significant improvement was found at final followup in both groups in Oswestry disability index (ODI) score (both P < 0.001). Besides, Dynesys group showed a greater improvement in ODI and VAS back and leg pain scores compared with the PLIF group (P < 0.001, P = 0.009 and P = 0.031, respectively). For radiological, height of the operated level was found increased in both groups (both P < 0.001), but there was no difference between two groups (P = 0.93). For range of motion (ROM) of operated level, significant decrease was found in both groups (P < 0.001), but Dynesys showed a higher preservation of motion at the operative levels (P < 0.001). However, no significant difference was found in the percentage change of ROM of adjacent levels between Dynesys and PLIF (0.74 ± 8.92% vs. 0.92 ± 4.52%, P = 0.91). Some patients suffered from degeneration of adjacent intervertebral disc at final followup, but there was no significant difference in adjacent intervertebral disc degeneration between two groups (P = 0.71). Moreover, there were no differences in complications between Dynesys and PLIF (P = 0.90), although the incidence of complication in Dynesys was lower than PLIF (16.67% vs. 17.78%). Conclusion: Dynamic stabilization system treating lumbar degenerative disease showed clinical benefits with motion preservation of the operated segments, but does not have the significant advantage on motion preservation at adjacent segments, to avoid the degeneration of adjacent intervertebral disk. PMID:25404769

Yang, Mingyuan; Li, Chao; Chen, Ziqiang; Bai, Yushu; Li, Ming

2014-01-01

51

Surgical treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis with microdecompression and interspinous distraction device insertion. A case series  

PubMed Central

Background Interspinous distraction devices (IPDD) are indicated as stand-alone devices for the treatment of spinal stenosis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the results of patients undergoing surgery for spinal stenosis with a combination of unilateral microdecompression and interspinous distraction device insertion. Methods This is a prospective clinical and radiological study of minimum 2 years follow-up. Twenty-two patients (average age 64.5 years) with low-back pain and unilateral sciatica underwent decompressive surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis. Visual Analogue Scale, Oswestry Disability Index and walking capacity plus radiologic measurements of posterior disc height of the involved level and lumbar lordosis Cobb angle were documented both preoperatively and postoperatively. One-sided posterior subarticular and foraminal decompression was conducted followed by dynamic stabilization of the diseased level with an IPDD (X-STOP). Results The average follow-up time was 27.4 months. Visual Analogue Scale and Oswestry Disability Index improved statistically significantly (p < 0.001) in the last follow-up exam. Also, the walking distance increased in all patients but two. Posterior intervertebral disc height of the diseased level widened average 1.8 mm in the postoperative radiograph compared to the preoperative. No major complication, including implant failure or spinous process breakage, has been observed. Conclusions The described surgical technique using unilateral microdecompression and IPDD insertion is a clinically effective and radiologically viable treatment method for symptoms of spinal stenosis resistant to non-operative treatment. PMID:23107358

2012-01-01

52

Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 2: assessment of functional outcome following lumbar fusion.  

PubMed

Assessment of functional patient-reported outcome following lumbar spinal fusion continues to be essential for comparing the effectiveness of different treatments for patients presenting with degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. When assessing functional outcome in patients being treated with lumbar spinal fusion, a reliable, valid, and responsive outcomes instrument such as the Oswestry Disability Index should be used. The SF-36 and the SF-12 have emerged as dominant measures of general health-related quality of life. Research has established the minimum clinically important difference for major functional outcomes measures, and this should be considered when assessing clinical outcome. The results of recent studies suggest that a patient's pretreatment psychological state is a major independent variable that affects the ability to detect change in functional outcome. PMID:24980579

Ghogawala, Zoher; Resnick, Daniel K; Watters, William C; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Dailey, Andrew T; Choudhri, Tanvir F; Eck, Jason C; Sharan, Alok; Groff, Michael W; Wang, Jeffrey C; Dhall, Sanjay S; Kaiser, Michael G

2014-07-01

53

Surgical versus Nonsurgical Therapy for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Surgery for spinal stenosis is widely performed, but its effectiveness as compared with nonsurgical treatment has not been shown in controlled trials. METHODS Surgical candidates with a history of at least 12 weeks of symptoms and spinal stenosis without spondylolisthesis (as confirmed on imaging) were enrolled in either a randomized cohort or an observational cohort at 13 U.S. spine clinics. Treatment was decompressive surgery or usual nonsurgical care. The primary outcomes were measures of bodily pain and physical function on the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form General Health Survey (SF-36) and the modified Oswestry Disability Index at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 and 2 years. RESULTS A total of 289 patients were enrolled in the randomized cohort, and 365 patients were enrolled in the observational cohort. At 2 years, 67% of patients who were randomly assigned to surgery had undergone surgery, whereas 43% of those who were randomly assigned to receive nonsurgical care had also undergone surgery. Despite the high level of nonadherence, the intention-to-treat analysis of the randomized cohort showed a significant treatment effect favoring surgery on the SF-36 scale for bodily pain, with a mean difference in change from baseline of 7.8 (95% confidence interval, 1.5 to 14.1); however, there was no significant difference in scores on physical function or on the Oswestry Disability Index. The as-treated analysis, which combined both cohorts and was adjusted for potential confounders, showed a significant advantage for surgery by 3 months for all primary outcomes; these changes remained significant at 2 years. CONCLUSIONS In the combined as-treated analysis, patients who underwent surgery showed significantly more improvement in all primary outcomes than did patients who were treated nonsurgically. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00000411.) PMID:18287602

Weinstein, James N.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Lurie, Jon D.; Tosteson, Anna N.A.; Blood, Emily; Hanscom, Brett; Herkowitz, Harry; Cammisa, Frank; Albert, Todd; Boden, Scott D.; Hilibrand, Alan; Goldberg, Harley; Berven, Sigurd; An, Howard

2008-01-01

54

Lumbar Ureteral Stenosis due to Endometriosis: Our Experience and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Endometriosis is a chronic gynaecological disorder characterized by the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterus. The disease most often affects the ovaries, uterine ligaments, fallopian tubes, and cervical-vaginal region. Urinary tract involvement is rare, accounting for around 1%-2% of all cases, of which 84% are in the bladder. We report a case of isolated lumbar ureteral stenosis due to endometriosis in a 37-year-old patient. The patient came to our observation complaining from lumbar back pain and presented with severe fever. The urological examination found monolateral left positive sign of Giordano. Blood tests evidenced marked lymphocytosis and increased valued of C-reactive protein. Urologic ultrasound showed hydronephrosis of first degree in the left kidney and absence of images related to stones bilaterally. Uro-CT scan evidenced ureteral stenosis at the transition between the iliac and pelvic tracts. We addressed the patient to surgery, and performed laparoscopic excision of the paraureteral bulk, endoscopic mechanical ureteral dilation, and stenting. The histological examination evidenced glandular structures lined by simple epithelium and surrounded by stroma. Immunohistochemical test of the glandular epithelium showed positivity for estrogen and progesterone receptors and moreover stromal cells were positive for CD10. The finding suggested a very rare diagnosis of isolated lumbar ureteral endometriosis. PMID:23738189

Butticè, Salvatore; Barresi, Valeria; Inferrera, Antonino; Mucciardi, Giuseppe; Di Benedetto, Antonina; D'Amico, Carmela Emanuela; Magno, Carlo

2013-01-01

55

A Multi-center Clinical Study of Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion with the Expandable Stand-alone Cage (Tyche® Cage) for Degenerative Lumbar Spinal Disorders  

PubMed Central

Objective This multi-center clinical study was designed to determine the long-term results of patients who received a one-level posterior lumbar interbody fusion with expandable cage (Tyche® cage) for degenerative spinal diseases during the same period in each hospital. Methods Fifty-seven patients with low back pain who had a one-level posterior lumbar interbody fusion using a newly designed expandable cage were enrolled in this study at five centers from June 2003 to December 2004 and followed up for 24 months. Pain improvement was checked with a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and their disability was evaluated with the Oswestry Disability Index. Radiographs were obtained before and after surgery. At the final follow-up, dynamic stability, quality of bone fusion, interveretebral disc height, and lumbar lordosis were assessed. In some cases, a lumbar computed tomography scan was also obtained. Results The mean VAS score of back pain was improved from 6.44 points preoperatively to 0.44 at the final visit and the score of sciatica was reduced from 4.84 to 0.26. Also, the Oswestry Disability Index was improved from 32.62 points preoperatively to 18.25 at the final visit. The fusion rate was 92.5%. Intervertebral disc height, recorded as 9.94±2.69 mm before surgery was increased to 12.23±3.31 mm at postoperative 1 month and was stabilized at 11.43±2.23 mm on final visit. The segmental angle of lordosis was changed significantly from 3.54±3.70° before surgery to 6.37±3.97° by 24 months postoperative, and total lumbar lordosis was 20.37±11.30° preoperatively and 24.71±11.70° at 24 months postoperative. Conclusion There have been no special complications regarding the expandable cage during the follow-up period and the results of this study demonstrates a high fusion rate and clinical success. PMID:19096552

Kim, Jin Wook; Yoon, Seung Hwan; Oh, Seong Hoon; Roh, Sung Woo; Rim, Dae Cheol; Kim, Tae Sung

2007-01-01

56

Symmetry of paraspinal muscle denervation in clinical lumbar spinal stenosis: Support for a hypothesis of posterior primary ramus stretching?  

PubMed Central

Introduction Denervation of the paraspinal muscles in spinal disorders is frequently attributed to radiculopathy. Therefore, persons with lumbar spinal stenosis causing asymmetrical symptoms should have asymmetrical paraspinal denervation. Methods 73 persons with clinical lumbar spinal stenosis, aged 55 to 85, completed a pain drawing and underwent masked electrodiagnostic testing including bilateral paraspinal mapping and testing of 6 muscles on the most symptomatic (or randomly chosen) limb. Results With the exception of 10 subjects with unilateral thigh pain (p=0.043), there was no relationship between side of pain and paraspinal mapping score for any subgroups (symmetrical pain, pain into one calf only). Among those with positive limb EMG (tested on one side), no relationship between side of pain and paraspinal EMG score was found. Discussion The evidence suggests that paraspinal denervation in spinal stenosis may not be due to radiculopathy, but rather due to stretch or damage to the posterior primary ramus. PMID:23813584

Haig, Andrew J.; London, Zachary; Sandella, Danielle E.; Yamakawa, Karen S.J.

2014-01-01

57

Trends, Major Medical Complications, and Charges Associated with Surgery for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Context In recent decades, the fastest growth in lumbar surgery occurred in older patients with spinal stenosis. Trials indicate that for selected patients, decompressive surgery offers an advantage over non-operative treatment, but surgeons often recommend more invasive fusion procedures. Comorbidity is common in elderly patients, so benefits and risks must be carefully weighed in the choice of surgical procedure. Objective Examine trends in use of different types of stenosis operations and the association of complications and resource use with surgical complexity. Design, Setting, and Patients Retrospective cohort analysis of Medicare claims for 2002–2007, focusing on 2007 to assess complications and resource use in U.S. hospitals. Operations for Medicare recipients undergoing surgery for lumbar stenosis (n=32,152 in the first 11 months of 2007) were grouped into 3 gradations of invasiveness: decompression alone, simple fusion (one or two disc levels, single surgical approach) or complex fusion (more than 2 disc levels or combined anterior and posterior approach). Main Outcome Measures Rates of the 3 types of surgery, major complications, postoperative mortality, and resource use. Results Overall, surgical rates declined slightly from 2002–2007, but the rate of complex fusion procedures increased 15-fold, from 1.3 to 19.9 per 100,000 beneficiaries. Life-threatening complications increased with increasing surgical invasiveness, from 2.3% among patients having decompression alone to 5.6% among those having complex fusions. After adjustment for age, comorbidity, previous spine surgery, and other features, the odds ratio (OR) of life-threatening complications for complex fusion compared to decompression alone was 2.95 (95% CI 2.50–3.49). A similar pattern was observed for rehospitalization within 30 days, which occurred for 7.8% of patients undergoing decompression and 13.0% having a complex fusion (adjusted OR 1.94; 95% CI 1.74–2.17). Adjusted mean hospital charges for complex fusion procedures were $80,888 compared to $23,724 for decompression alone. Conclusions Among Medicare recipients, between 2002 and 2007, the frequency of complex fusion procedures for spinal stenosis increased, while the frequency of decompression surgery and simple fusions decreased. In 2007, compared with decompression, simple fusion and complex fusion were associated with increased risk of major complications, 30-day mortality, and resource use. PMID:20371784

Deyo, Richard A.; Mirza, Sohail K.; Martin, Brook I.; Kreuter, William; Goodman, David C.; Jarvik, Jeffrey G.

2010-01-01

58

A less invasive surgical approach in the lumbar lateral recess stenosis: direct approach to the medial wall of the pedicle  

PubMed Central

The lateral recess is one of the main compression sites in lumbar spinal canal stenosis. Lumbar nerve root is mainly entrapped by bony tissue in compression syndrome. The patient has a long history of back pain in conjunction with claudication symptoms. Besides laminotomy and facetectomy techniques, several specific surgical approaches to treat the lateral recess stenosis have been described. The surgical technique of bilateral lateral recess decompression via subarticular fenestrations used in this study is a less invasive technique, which enables to decompress the neural structures while preserving as much of the bony structures and ligamentum flavum as preferred. In 16 patients, we measured lateral recess heights with computerized tomography. The number of involved lumbar segments was one in 11 patients and two in 5 patients. The visual analogue scale (VAS) results were maintained before, 3 and 12 months after the operation. All patients benefited from the operations. Mean VAS scores were 7.0, 5.5, and 4.0, respectively. There were not any surgery-related complications. Mean follow-up period is 22.6 months. The surgical technique described and used in this study provides easy access to every zone of lateral recess and is safe and effective in treating the lumbar lateral recess stenosis syndrome. PMID:18830635

Çolak, Ahmet; Topuz, K?vanç; Kutlay, Murat; Kaya, Serdar; Çetinkal, Ahmet; Demircan, Mehmet N.

2008-01-01

59

The value of adding posterior interbody fusion in the surgical treatment of degenerative lumbar spine disorders: A systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Posterolateral fusion (PF) is a common method by which to achieve fusion in lumbar spine surgery. It has been reported that posterior interbody fusion (PIF) yields a higher fusion rate and a better functional and clinical outcome. Our objective was to determine whether PIF improves the clinical and radiologic outcomes in adults surgically treated for degenerative lumbar spine conditions compared with PF. Methods We performed a systematic search of electronic databases, bibliographies, and relevant journals and meta-analyses. Results Of 2798 citations identified, 5 studies met our inclusion criteria (none of which was a randomized controlled trial), with a total of 148 patients in the PIF group (intervention) and 159 in the PF group (control). Pooled meta-analyses showed that nonunion rates were lower in the intervention group (relative risk, 0.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.08–0.62). The intervention group had a significantly higher disc height (weighted mean difference, 3.2 mm; 95% CI, 1.9–4.4 mm) and lower residual percent slippage (weighted mean difference, 6.3%; 95% CI, 3.9%–8.7%) at final follow-up. There were no significant differences in segmental or total lumbar lordosis. Because of heterogeneity of results, no conclusions could be made with regard to functional benefits. Conclusions This review suggests that PIF achieves a higher fusion rate and better correction of certain radiographic aspects of deformity over PF. It also showed a slight but not significant trend toward a better functional outcome in the PIF group. The lack of randomized controlled trials and the methodologic limitations of the available studies call for the planning and conduct of a sufficiently sized, methodologically sound study with clinically relevant outcome measures. Until this has been done, the current evidence regarding the beneficial effects of PIF should be interpreted with caution.

Fallatah, Salah; Wai, Eugene; Baily, Christopher S.

2013-01-01

60

Comparative effectiveness of microdecompression and laminectomy for central lumbar spinal stenosis: study protocol for an observational study  

PubMed Central

Introduction This observational study is designed to test the equivalence between the clinical effectiveness of microdecompression and laminectomy in the surgical treatment of central lumbar spinal stenosis. Lumbar spinal stenosis is the most frequent indication for spinal surgery in the elderly, and as the oldest segment of the population continues to grow its prevalence is likely to increase. However, data on surgical outcomes are limited. Open or wide decompressive laminectomy, often combined with medial facetectomy and foraminotomy, was formerly the standard treatment. In recent years a growing tendency towards less invasive decompressive procedures has emerged. At present, many spine surgeons perform microdecompression for central lumbar spinal stenosis. Methods and analysis Prospectively registered treatment and outcome data are obtained from the Norwegian Registry for Spine Surgery. The primary outcome measure is change in Oswestry disability index between baseline and 12-month follow-up. Secondary outcome measures are changes in health-related quality of life measured by the Euro-Qol-5D between baseline and 12-month follow-up, perioperative complications, and duration of surgical procedures and length of hospital stay. Ethics and dissemination The study has been evaluated and approved by the regional committee for medical research in central Norway and all participants provided written informed consent. The findings of this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications. Trial registration number Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02006901). PMID:24650809

Nerland, Ulf S; Jakola, Asgeir S; Solheim, Ole; Weber, Clemens; Rao, Vidar; Lønne, Greger; Solberg, Tore K; Salvesen, Øyvind; Carlsen, Sven M; Nygaard, Øystein P; Gulati, Sasha

2014-01-01

61

Comparison of Spinous Process-Splitting Laminectomy versus Conventional Laminectomy for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Study Design Seventy-five patients who had been treated for lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) were reviewed retrospectively. Purpose Invasion into the paravertebral muscle can cause major problems after laminectomy for LSS. To address these problems, we performed spinous process-splitting laminectomy. We present a comparative study of decompression of LSS using 2 approaches. Overview of Literature There are no other study has investigated the lumbar spinal instability after spinous process-splitting laminectomy. Methods This study included 75 patients who underwent laminectomy for the treatment of LSS and who were observed through follow-ups for more than 2 years. Fifty-five patients underwent spinous process-splitting laminectomy (splitting group) and 20 patients underwent conventional laminectomy (conventional group). We evaluated the clinical and radiographic results of each surgical procedure. Results Japanese Orthopaedic Association score improved significantly in both groups two years postoperatively. The following values were all significantly lower, as shown with p-values, in the splitting group compared to the conventional group: average operating time (p=0.002), postoperative C-reactive protein level (p=0.006), the mean postoperative number of days until returning to normal body temperature (p=0.047), and the mean change in angulation 2 years postoperatively (p=0.007). The adjacent segment degeneration occurred in 6 patients (10.9%) in the splitting group and 11 patients (55.0%) in the conventional group. Conclusions In this study, the spinous process-splitting laminectomy was shown to be less invasive and more stable for patients with LSS, compared to the conventional laminectomy.

Uehara, Masashi; Hashidate, Hiroyuki; Mukaiyama, Keijiro; Kuraishi, Shugo; Shimizu, Masayuki; Ikegami, Shota; Futatsugi, Toshimasa; Ogihara, Nobuhide; Hirabayashi, Hiroki; Kato, Hiroyuki

2014-01-01

62

Combined spinal-epidural anesthesia for lumbar discectomy in a patient with asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis: a case report  

PubMed Central

The use of neuraxial anesthesia has traditionally been contraindicated in patients with severe aortic stenosis. However, general anesthesia can be riskier than neuraxial anesthesia for severe aortic stenosis patients undergoing spinal surgeries in the prone position as this can cause a major reduction in cardiac output secondary to diminished preload. In addition, general anesthesia, muscle relaxation, and positive-pressure ventilation can decrease venous return and reduce vascular tone, further compromising cardiac output. Combined spinal-epidural anesthesia with closely monitored, careful titration of the local anesthetic dose can be an efficient and safe anesthetic method for managing such patients. We describe the successful management of combined spinal-epidural anesthesia in an asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis patient scheduled for lumbar discectomy. PMID:25237450

Kim, Young Sung; Park, Ji Hye; Lee, Shin Young; Kim, Heezoo; Lee, Il-ok; Kong, Myoung-Hoon

2014-01-01

63

Risk Factors and Incidence for Peripheral Arterial Disease in Patients with Typical Lumbar Spinal Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Objective Intermittent claudication (IC) is a typical symptom of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). In order to prevent misdiagnosis of vascular disease, it is important to know the incidence of and risk factors for PAD in patients with LSS. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate the incidence of and risk factors for PAD in patients with typical and severe LSS who underwent spinal surgical treatment. Methods The occurrence of PAD was examined retrospectively in 171 consecutive patients with LSS and severe IC who underwent surgical treatment at our hospital from June 2012 to June 2013. Data were collected on background characteristics (sex, age) and known risk factors for PAD, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, hyperlipidemia, stroke, and ischemic heart disease. Results Of the 171 patients enrolled, 7 had an abnormal ankle-brachial index (ABI). Computed tomography angiography (CTA) was performed in these patients, and a final diagnosis of PAD was established for all 7 patients. The incidence of PAD in all patients with LSS was 4.1%(7 of 171). Stroke and ischemic heart disease were significantly more common in the LSSPAD group compared with the LSS group. Multiple logistic regression analyses with a forced-entry method revealed that age and stroke (p<0.05) were independent risk factors for PAD. Conclusion To prevent misdiagnosis of fatal PAD, we recommend ABI be assessed in patients with LSS and history of stroke. PMID:25346766

Han, Min-Hee; Lee, Dong-Hyun; Park, Ki-Su; Lee, Young-Seok; Kim, Kyoung-Tae; Sung, Joo-Kyung; Kim, Hyung-Kee

2014-01-01

64

Microendoscopic Decompression Surgery for Lumbar Spinal Canal Stenosis via the Paramedian Approach: Preliminary Results  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a microendoscopic spinal decompression surgical technique using a novel approach for the treatment of lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSCS). The following modifications were made to the conventional microendoscopic bilateral decompression via the unilateral approach: the base of the spinous process was first resected partially to secure a working space, so as not to separate the spinous process from the lamina. The tip of the tubular retractor was placed at the midline of the lamina, where laminectomy was performed microendoscopically. A total of 126 stenotic levels were decompressed in 70 patients. The mean operating time per level was 77.0 minutes, and the mean intraoperative blood loss per level was 15.0 mL. There were no dural tears or neurological injuries intraoperatively. Fracture of the spinous process was detected postoperatively in two patients, both of whom were asymptomatic. All patients could be followed up for at least 12 months. Their median Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score improved significantly from 16 points preoperatively to 27.5 points after the surgery (p?

Nomura, Kazunori; Yoshida, Munehito

2012-01-01

65

Nocturnal Cramps in Patients with Lumbar Spinal Canal Stenosis Treated Conservatively: A Prospective Study  

PubMed Central

Study Design Prospective cohort study with questionnaire. Purpose To compare the treatment outcome of nocturnal leg cramps in lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSCS) patients on conservative treatment with historical surgical cohorts and to determine the sensitivity and specificity as well as positive predictive value and negative predictive value of knee flexion test suggested for LSCS patient. Overview of Literature True prevalence of nocturnal leg cramps in LSCS patients as well as the clinical outcome of its surgical treatment have been reported. Methods A questionnaire suggested from previous study with minor modifications was used in this study. Clinical data was collected. Knee flexion test was performed in two groups. Results The prevalence of nocturnal leg cramp was higher in the LSCS group compared to the control group (second group). In LSCS patients, 38 (88%) had improved leg cramps after the conservative treatment, 3 (6.97%) remained unchanged, and 2 (4.6%) had worsened leg cramps. Of the 43 patients, 21 (48.8%) had no disturbance to their activities of daily living. In the LSCS group, the sensitivity and specificity of the knee flexion test was 53.5% and 33.3%, respectively. The knee flexion test in the LSCS group had a positive predictive value and a negative predictive value of 65.71% and 23.1%, respectively. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that nocturnal leg cramps were significantly more frequent in LSCS patients than in the control group. PMID:25346815

Chhabra, Harvinder Singh; Kapoor, Kulwant Singh

2014-01-01

66

Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 14: brace therapy as an adjunct to or substitute for lumbar fusion.  

PubMed

The utilization of orthotic devices for lumbar degenerative disease has been justified from both a prognostic and therapeutic perspective. As a prognostic tool, bracing is applied prior to surgery to determine if immobilization of the spine leads to symptomatic relief and thus justify the performance of a fusion. Since bracing does not eliminate motion, the validity of this assumption is questionable. Only one low-level study has investigated the predictive value of bracing prior to surgery. No correlation between response to bracing and fusion outcome was observed; therefore a trial of preoperative bracing is not recommended. Based on low-level evidence, the use of bracing is not recommended for the prevention of low-back pain in a general working population, since the incidence of low-back pain and impact on productivity were not reduced. However, in laborers with a history of back pain, a positive impact on lost workdays was observed when bracing was applied. Bracing is recommended as an option for treatment of subacute low-back pain, as several higher-level studies have demonstrated an improvement in pain scores and function. The use of bracing following instrumented posterolateral fusion, however, is not recommended, since equivalent outcomes have been demonstrated with or without the application of a brace. PMID:24980591

Dailey, Andrew T; Ghogawala, Zoher; Choudhri, Tanvir F; Watters, William C; Resnick, Daniel K; Sharan, Alok; Eck, Jason C; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Wang, Jeffrey C; Groff, Michael W; Dhall, Sanjay S; Kaiser, Michael G

2014-07-01

67

Conservative and Surgical Treatment Improves Pain and Ankle-Brachial Index in Patients with Lumbar Spinal Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Purpose The pathological mechanism of lumbar spinal stenosis is reduced blood flow in nerve roots and degeneration of nerve roots. Exercise and prostaglandin E1 is used for patients with peripheral arterial disease to increase capillary flow around the main artery and improve symptoms; however, the ankle-brachial index (ABI), an estimation of blood flow in the main artery in the leg, does not change after treatment. Lumbar spinal nerve roots contain somatosensory, somatomotor, and unmyelinated autonomic nerves. Improved blood flow by medication with prostaglandin E1 and decompression surgery in these spinal nerve roots may improve the function of nerve fibers innervating muscle, capillary, and main vessels in the lower leg, resulting in an increased ABI. The purpose of the study was to examine whether these treatments can improve ABI. Materials and Methods One hundred and seven patients who received conservative treatment such as exercise and medication (n=56) or surgical treatment (n=51) were included. Low back pain and leg pain scores, walking distance, and ABI were measured before treatment and after 3 months of conservative treatment alone or surgical treatment followed by conservative treatment. Results Low back pain, leg pain, and walking distance significantly improved after both treatments (p<0.05). ABI significantly increased in each group (p<0.05). Conclusion This is the first investigation of changes in ABI after treatment in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. Improvement of the spinal nerve roots by medication and decompression surgery may improve the supply of blood flow to the lower leg in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. PMID:23709437

Yamashita, Masaomi; Murata, Yasuaki; Eguchi, Yawara; Aoki, Yasuchika; Ataka, Hiromi; Hirayama, Jiro; Ozawa, Tomoyuki; Morinaga, Tatsuo; Arai, Hajime; Mimura, Masaya; Kamoda, Hiroto; Orita, Sumihisa; Miyagi, Masayuki; Miyashita, Tomohiro; Okamoto, Yuzuru; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Sameda, Hiroaki; Kinoshita, Tomoaki; Hanaoka, Eiji; Suzuki, Miyako; Suzuki, Munetaka; Aihara, Takato; Ito, Toshinori; Inoue, Gen; Yamagata, Masatsune; Toyone, Tomoaki; Kubota, Gou; Sakuma, Yoshihiro; Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

2013-01-01

68

Non-fusion stabilization of the lumbar spine in the case of degenerative diseases with a dynamic pedicle screw rod Estabilização dinâmica da coluna lombar no tratamento das doenças degenerativas ARTIGO ORIGINAL \\/ ORIGINAL ARTICLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare the results of the posterior non-fusion stabilizations and fusion in the treatment of painful degenerative diseases of the lumbar spine. Methods: Cosmic is a dynamic non-fusion pedicle screw rod system for the stabilization of the lumbar vertebral column. The hinged pedicle screw provides for the load being shared between the implant and the vertebral column and allows

Archibald von Strempel; Christoph Stoss; Dieter Moosmann; Arno Martin

69

Modeling degenerative disk disease in the lumbar spine: a combined experimental, constitutive, and computational approach.  

PubMed

Using a continuum approach for modeling the constitutive mechanical behavior of the intervertebral disk's annulus fibrosus holds the potential for facilitating the correlation of morphology and biomechanics of this clinically important tissue. Implementation of a continuum representation of the disk's tissues into computational models would yield a particularly valuable tool for investigating the effects of degenerative disease. However, to date, relevant efforts in the literature towards this goal have been limited due to the lack of a computationally tractable and implementable constitutive function. In order to address this, annular specimens harvested from a total of 15 healthy and degenerated intervertebral disks were tested under planar biaxial tension. Predictions of a strain energy function, which was previously shown to be unconditionally convex, were fit to the experimental data, and the optimized coefficients were used to modify a previously validated finite element model of the L4/L5 functional spinal unit. Optimization of material coefficients based on experimental results indicated increases in the micro-level orientation dispersion of the collagen fibers and the mechanical nonlinearity of these fibers due to degeneration. On the other hand, the finite element model predicted a progressive increase in the stress generation in annulus fibrosus due to stepwise degeneration of initially the nucleus and then the entire disk. Range of motion was predicted to initially increase with the degeneration of the nucleus and then decrease with the degeneration of the annulus in all rotational loading directions, except for axial rotation. Overall, degeneration was observed to specifically impact the functional effectiveness of the collagen fiber network of the annulus, leading to changes in the biomechanical behavior at both the tissue level and the motion-segment level. PMID:23083194

Ayturk, Ugur M; Gadomski, Benjamin; Schuldt, Dieter; Patel, Vikas; Puttlitz, Christian M

2012-10-01

70

Quality of life of patients operated on for lumbar stenosis: a long-term follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Background. We evaluated a sample of 28 patients surgically treated for lumbar stenosis (LS) four years after the first evaluation (length\\u000a of the first follow-up mean 44.6 months, range 15–88) in order to evaluate the long-term follow-up of Quality of Life (QoL)\\u000a after surgical treatment as LS may greatly impair the patients’ QoL. We previously assessed QoL in 30

L. Padua; P. Caliandro; R. Padua; V. Prezioso; A. G. Aulisa; G. Mastantuoni; C. Pazzaglia; L. Aulisa

2007-01-01

71

Correlation of lateral stenosis in MRI with symptoms, walking capacity and EMG findings in patients with surgically confirmed lateral lumbar spinal canal stenosis  

PubMed Central

Background To evaluate the clinical significance of lateral lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LLSCS), found by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), through correlating the imaging findings with patient symptoms, walking capacity and electromyography (EMG) measurements. Method 102 patients with symptoms of LSS referred for operative treatment were studied in this uncontrolled study. Of these patients, subjects with distinct only lateral LSS were included. Accordingly, 140 roots in 14 patients (mean age 58, range 48-76 years, male 43%) were evaluated. In MR images the entrance and mid zones of the lateral lumbar nerve root canal were graded as normal, narrowed but not compressed, or compressed. In quantitative analysis, the minimal widths of the lateral recess and mid zone area were measured. Clinical symptoms were recorded with the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), overall Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), specific low back pain (LBP; NRS-11), specific leg pain (LP NRS-11), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and walking distance in the treadmill test. Lumbar paraspinal (L2- L5) and lower limb (L3 – S1) needle EMG studies were performed. The findings were classified root by root as 1 = normal, 2 = abnormal. The associations between radiological, EMG and clinical findings were tested with each other. Results EMG findings were normal in 92 roots and abnormal in 48 roots. All of the patients had at least one abnormal nerve root finding. Severity of the mid zone stenosis in MRI correlated with abnormal EMG findings (p = 0.015). Patients with abnormal EMG had also higher scores in the VAS (41.9 ± 25.7 vs 31.5 ± 18.1; p = 0.018), NRS leg pain (7.5 ± 1.5 vs 6.3 ± 2.1; p = 0.000) and BDI (9.8 ± 3.8 vs 8.0 ± 3.9; p = 0.014). However, no statistically significant correlations between MRI findings and clinical symptoms or walking capacity were found. Conclusions Among persons previously selected for surgery, lateral stenosis seen on MRI correlates with EMG, and thus may be a clinically significant finding. Our EMG findings were also associated with patient symptoms. However, no relationships between the MRI findings and symptoms or walking capacity were found, suggesting their multifactorial etiology. PMID:25051886

2014-01-01

72

Assessment of Effectiveness of Percutaneous Adhesiolysis in Managing Chronic Low Back Pain Secondary to Lumbar Central Spinal Canal Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Background: Chronic persistent low back and lower extremity pain secondary to central spinal stenosis is common and disabling. Lumbar surgical interventions with decompression or fusion are most commonly performed to manage severe spinal stenosis. However, epidural injections are also frequently performed in managing central spinal stenosis. After failure of epidural steroid injections, the next sequential step is percutaneous adhesiolysis and hypertonic saline neurolysis with a targeted delivery. The literature on the effectiveness of percutaneous adhesiolysis in managing central spinal stenosis after failure of epidural injections has not been widely studied. Study Design: A prospective evaluation. Setting: An interventional pain management practice, a specialty referral center, a private practice setting in the United States. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of percutaneous epidural adhesiolysis in patients with chronic low back and lower extremity pain with lumbar central spinal stenosis. Methods: Seventy patients were recruited. The initial phase of the study was randomized, double-blind with a comparison of percutaneous adhesiolysis with caudal epidural injections. The 25 patients from the adhesiolysis group continued with follow-up, along with 45 additional patients, leading to a total of 70 patients. All patients received percutaneous adhesiolysis and appropriate placement of the Racz catheter, followed by an injection of 5 mL of 2% preservative-free lidocaine with subsequent monitoring in the recovery room. In the recovery room, each patient also received 6 mL of 10% hypertonic sodium chloride solution, and 6 mg of non-particulate betamethasone, followed by an injection of 1 mL of sodium chloride solution and removal of the catheter. Outcomes Assessment: Multiple outcome measures were utilized including the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), the Oswestry Disability Index 2.0 (ODI), employment status, and opioid intake with assessment at 3, 6, and 12, 18 and 24 months post treatment. The primary outcome measure was 50% or more improvement in pain scores and ODI scores. Results: Overall, a primary outcome or significant pain relief and functional status improvement of 50% or more was seen in 71% of patients at the end of 2 years. The overall number of procedures over a period of 2 years were 5.7 ± 2.73. Limitations: The lack of a control group and a prospective design. Conclusions: Significant relief and functional status improvement as seen in 71% of the 70 patients with percutaneous adhesiolysis utilizing local anesthetic steroids and hypertonic sodium chloride solution may be an effective management strategy in patients with chronic function limiting low back and lower extremity pain with central spinal stenosis after failure of conservatie management and fluoroscopically directed epidural injections. PMID:23289005

Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Cash, Kimberly A.; McManus, Carla D.; Pampati, Vidyasagar

2013-01-01

73

Appropriate selection of patients with lumbar spinal stenosis for interspinous process decompression with the X STOP device.  

PubMed

With the aging of the population, the number of patients suffering from progressive lumbar spinal stenosis with symptomatic neurogenic intermittent claudication is projected to increase. Unfortunately, these patients are limited to a choice between nonsurgical conservative care and more invasive decompressive surgical procedures such as laminectomy with or without fusion. The X STOP interspinous process decompression system is a commercially available device that provides a minimally invasive alternative treatment, an intermediate option within the continuum of care for these patients. The X STOP is appropriate for patients with moderately severe functional impairment whose symptoms are exacerbated in extension and relieved in flexion. Implanted between the spinous processes without disrupting the normal anatomical structures, the X STOP limits narrowing of the spinal canal and neural foramina by reducing extension at the symptomatic level(s). In this report the author details the approved indications for use of the X STOP and discusses several illustrative cases. PMID:17608339

Lauryssen, Carl

2007-01-01

74

Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 13: injection therapies, low-back pain, and lumbar fusion.  

PubMed

The medical literature continues to fail to support the use of lumbar epidural injections for long-term relief of chronic back pain without radiculopathy. There is limited support for the use of lumbar epidural injections for shortterm relief in selected patients with chronic back pain. Lumbar intraarticular facet injections are not recommended for the treatment of chronic lower-back pain. The literature does suggest the use of lumbar medial nerve blocks for short-term relief of facet-mediated chronic lower-back pain without radiculopathy. Lumbar medial nerve ablation is suggested for 3-6 months of relief for chronic lower-back pain without radiculopathy. Diagnostic medial nerve blocks by the double-injection technique with an 80% improvement threshold are an option to predict a favorable response to medial nerve ablation for facet-mediated chronic lower-back pain without radiculopathy, but there is no evidence to support the use of diagnostic medial nerve blocks to predict the outcomes in these same patients with lumbar fusion. There is insufficient evidence to support or refute the use of trigger point injections for chronic lowerback pain without radiculopathy. PMID:24980590

Watters, William C; Resnick, Daniel K; Eck, Jason C; Ghogawala, Zoher; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Dailey, Andrew T; Choudhri, Tanvir F; Sharan, Alok; Groff, Michael W; Wang, Jeffrey C; Dhall, Sanjay S; Kaiser, Michael G

2014-07-01

75

Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 6: discography for patient selection.  

PubMed

Identifying the etiology of pain for patients suffering from chronic low-back pain remains problematic. Noninvasive imaging modalities, used in isolation, have not consistently provided sufficient evidence to support performance of a lumbar fusion. Provocative testing has been used as an adjunct in this assessment, either alone or in combination with other modalities, to enhance the diagnostic capabilities when evaluating patients with low-back pain. There have been a limited number of studies investigating this topic since the publication of the original guidelines. Based primarily on retrospective studies, discography, as a stand-alone test, is not recommended to formulate treatment strategies for patients with low-back pain. A single randomized cohort study demonstrated an improved potential of discoblock over discography as a predictor of success following lumbar fusion. It is therefore recommended that discoblock be considered as a diagnostic option. There is a possibility, based on a matched cohort study, that an association exists between progression of degenerative disc disease and the performance of a provocative discogram. It is therefore recommended that patients be counseled regarding this potential development prior to undergoing discography. PMID:24980583

Eck, Jason C; Sharan, Alok; Resnick, Daniel K; Watters, William C; Ghogawala, Zoher; Dailey, Andrew T; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Groff, Michael W; Wang, Jeffrey C; Choudhri, Tanvir F; Dhall, Sanjay S; Kaiser, Michael G

2014-07-01

76

Single level Lumbar Fusion for Degenerative Disc Disease is Associated with Worse outcomes compared to Fusion for Spondylolisthesis in a Workers' Compensation Setting.  

PubMed

Study Design. Retrospective cohort studyObjective. Compare lumbar fusion outcomes, return to work (RTW) status in particular, between workers' compensation (WC) subjects undergoing single level posterolateral fusion for either spondylolisthesis or degenerative disc disease (DDD)Summary of Background Data. Lumbar fusion for spondylolisthesis tends to yield more consistent outcomes than fusion for DDD and discogenic low back pain. Within the clinically distinct WC population, relatively few studies exist which evaluate lumbar fusion outcomes.Methods. 869 Ohio WC subjects were identified that underwent single level posterolateral lumbar fusion with or without posterior interbody fusion between 1993-2010 using CPT procedural and ICD-9 diagnostic codes. 269 underwent fusion for spondylolisthesis, and 620 of underwent fusion for DDD.Subjects were considered returned to work within a reasonable timeline if they made a stable RTW within 2 years of fusion and remained working for greater than 6 months of the following year. To determine predictors of RTW status, we performed a multivariate logistic regression analysis. We measured a number of secondary outcomes.Results. Fusion for spondylolisthesis was positively associated with RTW status (p = 0.050; OR 1.42,CI 1.00-2.00). 36.4% of the spondylolisthesis cohort and 24.4% of the DDD cohort returned to work in a reasonable timeline postoperatively.Other negative predictors included: age >50 at fusion (OR 0.66,CI 0.45-0.95), >2 years between injury and index fusion (OR 0.59,CI 0.41-0.84), permanent disability (OR 0.61,CI 0.43-0.86), legal representation (OR 0.67,CI 0.46-0.97), and psychological comorbidity before fusion (OR 0.30,CI 0.14-0.62).Subjects in the DDD cohort were prescribed opioid analgesics for an average of 294 of additional days postoperatively (p<0.001), which equated to 24,759 additional milligrams of morphine equivalents (p<0.001).Conclusions. Our study is supportive of the conclusion that DDD is a questionable indication for spinal fusion. Given the generally poor outcomes of this study, future studies should determine if lumbar fusion surgery is an effective treatment modality in similar WC patients. PMID:25494321

Anderson, Joshua T; Haas, Arnold R; Percy, Rick; Woods, Stephen T; Ahn, Uri M; Ahn, Nicholas U

2014-12-01

77

Clinical and radiographic outcomes of extreme lateral approach to interbody fusion with ?-tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite composite for lumbar degenerative conditions  

PubMed Central

Background Historically, iliac crest bone graft has been used as the graft of choice for lumbar spine fusion procedures. Because fusion techniques have become less invasive, the demand for minimally disruptive grafting options has increased. This prospective study was performed to assess clinical and radiographic outcomes of patients treated with an iliac crest bone graft alternative and lateral lumbar interbody fusion. Methods Fifty degenerative lumbar patients were treated with the extreme lateral approach to interbody fusion and a ?-tricalcium phosphate–hydroxyapatite graft with bone marrow aspirate (BMA) at 1 or 2 adjacent levels. BMA was collected from the iliac crest with a bone aspiration needle and applied to the FormaGraft (NuVasive, Inc., San Diego, California) in a 1:1 ratio. Radiolucent cages were filled with FormaGraft strips, granules, or blocks and implanted in a standard fashion. Clinical data were collected at baseline, 6 weeks, and 3, 6, and 12 months and included visual analog scale, Oswestry Disability Index, and Short Form 36 patient-reported assessments. Fusion assessments were made from neutral anteroposterior/lateral radiographs, lateral flexion/extension radiographs, and computed tomography images taken at least 12 months after surgery. Results Forty-four patients treated at 49 levels completed follow-up. The mean patient age was 54.7 ± 10.8 years, and mean body mass index was 30.8 ± 7.7 kg/m2. Radiographic fusion was observed in 41 of 44 assessed levels (93.2%). Blood loss was less than 100 mL in 95.5% of patients. Of the patients, 93.2% spent 1 night or less in the hospital. By the 6-week follow-up, all clinical outcomes were significantly improved (P < .05). Improvements were maintained or increased throughout the course of follow-up. Conclusions This report shows that the technique of extreme lateral approach to interbody fusion in combination with FormaGraft and BMA in the interbody space is a safe and effective treatment option for interbody fusion of the lumbar spine when compared with other approaches and biologic options.

Rodgers, W. Blake; Gerber, Edward J.; Rodgers, Jody A.

2012-01-01

78

Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 16: bone graft extenders and substitutes as an adjunct for lumbar fusion.  

PubMed

In an attempt to enhance the potential to achieve a solid arthrodesis and avoid the morbidity of harvesting autologous iliac crest bone (AICB) for a lumbar fusion, numerous alternatives have been investigated. The use of these fusion adjuncts has become routine despite a lack of convincing evidence demonstrating a benefit to justify added costs or potential harm. Potential alternatives to AICB include locally harvested autograft, calcium-phosphate salts, demineralized bone matrix (DBM), and the family of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). In particular, no option has created greater controversy than the BMPs. A significant increase in the number of publications, particularly with respect to the BMPs, has taken place since the release of the original guidelines. Both DBM and the calciumphosphate salts have demonstrated efficacy as a graft extender or as a substitute for AICB when combined with local autograft. The use of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) as a substitute for AICB, when performing an interbody lumbar fusion, is considered an option since similar outcomes have been observed; however, the potential for heterotopic bone formation is a concern. The use of rhBMP-2, when combined with calcium phosphates, as a substitute for AICB, or as an extender, when used with local autograft or AICB, is also considered an option as similar fusion rates and clinical outcomes have been observed. Surgeons electing to use BMPs should be aware of a growing body of literature demonstrating unique complications associated with the use of BMPs. PMID:24980593

Kaiser, Michael G; Groff, Michael W; Watters, William C; Ghogawala, Zoher; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Dailey, Andrew T; Choudhri, Tanvir F; Eck, Jason C; Sharan, Alok; Wang, Jeffrey C; Dhall, Sanjay S; Resnick, Daniel K

2014-07-01

79

Complete cage migration/subsidence into the adjacent vertebral body after posterior lumbar interbody fusion.  

PubMed

A variety of implant-related short and long-term complications after lumbar fusion surgery are recognized. Mid to long-term complications due to cage migration and/or cage subsidence are less frequently reported. Here, we report a patient with a complete cage migration into the superior adjacent vertebral body almost 20years after the initial posterior lumbar interbody fusion procedure. In this patient, the cage migration/subsidence was clinically silent, but a selective decompression for adjacent segment degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis was performed. We discuss the risk factors for cage migration/subsidence in view of the current literature. PMID:25455736

Corniola, Marco V; Jägersberg, Max; Stienen, Martin N; Gautschi, Oliver P

2014-11-01

80

Incidence of Nocturnal Leg Cramps in Patients with Lumbar Spinal Stenosis before and after Conservative and Surgical Treatment  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine the effects of conservative and surgical treatments for nocturnal leg cramps in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Nocturnal leg cramps is frequently observed in patients with peripheral neuropathy. However, there have been few reports on the relationship between nocturnal leg cramps and LSS, and it remains unknown whether conservative or surgical intervention has an impact on leg cramps in patients with LSS. Materials and Methods The subjects were 130 LSS patients with low back and leg pain. Conservative treatment such as exercise, medication, and epidural block was used in 66 patients and surgical treatment such as decompression or decompression and fusion was performed in 64 patients. Pain scores and frequency of nocturnal leg cramps were evaluated based on self-reported questionnaires completed before and 3 months after treatment. Results The severity of low back and leg pain was higher and the incidence of nocturnal leg cramps was significantly higher before treatment in the surgically treated group compared with the conservatively treated group. Pain scores improved in both groups after the intervention. The incidence of nocturnal leg cramps was significantly improved by surgical treatment (p=0.027), but not by conservative treatment (p=0.122). Conclusion The findings of this prospective study indicate that the prevalence of nocturnal leg cramps is associated with LSS and severity of symptoms. Pain symptoms were improved by conservative or surgical treatment, but only surgery improved nocturnal leg cramps in patients with LSS. Thus, these results indicate that the prevalence of nocturnal leg cramps is associated with spinal nerve compression by LSS. PMID:24719148

Yamashita, Masaomi; Murata, Yasuaki; Eguchi, Yawara; Aoki, Yasuchika; Ataka, Hiromi; Hirayama, Jiro; Ozawa, Tomoyuki; Morinaga, Tatsuo; Arai, Hajime; Mimura, Masaya; Kamoda, Hiroto; Orita, Sumihisa; Miyagi, Masayuki; Miyashita, Tomohiro; Okamoto, Yuzuru; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Sameda, Hiroaki; Kinoshita, Tomoaki; Hanaoka, Eiji; Suzuki, Miyako; Suzuki, Munetaka; Aihara, Takato; Ito, Toshinori; Inoue, Gen; Yamagata, Masatsune; Toyone, Tomoaki; Kubota, Gou; Sakuma, Yoshihiro; Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Sato, Jun; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

2014-01-01

81

Effects of a Home Exercise Program on the Self-report Disability Index and Gait Parameters in Patients with Lumbar Spinal Stenosis  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The present study was performed to identify the effect of a home exercise program on the self-reported disability index and gait parameters in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). [Methods] Fifteen patients with LSS were enrolled in this study and were trained in a 4-week home exercise program (40?min/day). All patients were evaluated with three self-reported disability indices (Oswestry Disability Index, Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, and Spinal Stenosis Scale), and gait parameters were assessed using a GAITRite system before and after the home exercise program. [Results] Patients with LSS showed significant decreases in the self-reported questionnaire scores and pain intensity after the home exercise program. However, the gait parameters did not significantly change. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that home exercise programs can improve self-reported questionnaire scores and decrease pain in patients with LSS. PMID:24648654

Kim, Eui-Ryong; Kang, Min-Hyeok; Kim, Yang-Gon; Oh, Jae-Seop

2014-01-01

82

Effects of Spinal Stabilization Exercise on the Cross-sectional Areas of the Lumbar Multifidus and Psoas Major Muscles, Pain Intensity, and Lumbar Muscle Strength of Patients with Degenerative Disc Disease  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of using spinal stabilizing exercise to reduce atrophy of the multifidus and psoas major muscles, reduce the levels of pain and disability, and increase paraspinal muscle strength in patients with degenerative disc disease (DDD). [Subjects and Methods] In 33 patients (Age range: 25–65?years) diagnosed with DDD, spinal stabilization exercise was conducted for 8 weeks. The levels of pain and disability were measured before and after exercise using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Paraspinal muscular strength in four directions was evaluated with a CENTAUR 3D Spatial Rotation Device. Cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of both the left and right multifidus and the psoas major at the upper endplate of L4 were measured before and after exercise using computed tomography (CT). [Results] After 8 weeks of spinal stabilization exercise, the pain and lumbar disability in subjects decreased significantly from 6.12±1.24 to 2.43±1.14. The ODI score also improved from 20.18±7.14 to 8.81±5.73. In addition, paraspinal muscle strength increased significantly, while the CSAs of the left and right multifidus and psoas major widened as compared with the pre-exercise size. [Conclusion] Spinal stabilization exercise was effective for reducing pain and disability in DDD patients. It was an effective adjunct to aid rehabilitation in these cases. PMID:24764637

Kim, Seongho; Kim, Hyungguen; Chung, Jaeyeop

2014-01-01

83

Epidural Steroid Injections Are Associated with Less Improvement in the Treatment of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: A subgroup analysis of the SPORT  

PubMed Central

Summary of Background Data Lumbar spinal stenosis is a common incidental finding among adults over the age of 60, The use of ESI in these patients is common, although there is little evidence in the literature to demonstrate the long-term benefit of ESI in the treatment of lumbar stenosis. Objective The hypothesis of this study was that patients who received epidural steroid injections (ESI) during initial treatment as part of the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT) would have improved clinical outcomes and a lower rate of crossover to surgery compared to patients who did not receive ESI. Methods Patients with lumbar spinal stenosis who received epidural steroid injections within the first three months of enrollment in SPORT (ESI) were compared to patients who did not receive epidural injections during the first three months of the study (No ESI). Results There were 69 ESI patients and 207 No-ESI patients. There were no significant differences in demographic factors, baseline clinical outcome scores, or operative details although there was a significant increase in baseline preference for nonsurgical treatment among ESI patients (62% vs. 33%, p <0.001). There was an average 26 minute increase in operative time and an increased length of stay by 0.9 days among the ESI patients who ultimately underwent surgical treatment. Averaged over four years, there was significantly less improvement in SF36 PF among surgically treated ESI patients (ESI 14.8 vs. No-ESI 22.5, p=0.025). In addition, there was also significantly less improvement among the nonsurgically treated patients in SF36 BP (ESI 7.3 vs. No-ESI 16.7, p=0.007) and SF36 PF (ESI 5.5 vs. No-ESI 15.2, p=0.009). Of the patients assigned to surgical treatment, there was a significantly increased crossover to nonsurgical treatment among patients who received an ESI (ESI 33% vs. No ESI 11%, p=0.012). Of the patients assigned to non-operative treatment, there was a significantly increased crossover to surgical treatment in the ESI patients (ESI 58% vs. No ESI 32%, p=0.003). Conclusion Despite equivalent baseline status, ESI were associated with significantly less improvement at four years among all patients with spinal stenosis in SPORT. Furthermore, ESI were associated with longer duration of surgery and longer hospital stay. There was no improvement in outcome with ESI whether patients were treated surgically or nonsurgically. PMID:23238485

Radcliff, Kris; Kepler, Christopher; Hilibrand, Alan; Rihn, Jeffrey; Zhao, Wenyan; Lurie, Jon; Tosteson, Tor; Vaccaro, Alexander; Albert, Todd; Weinstein, James

2013-01-01

84

“Outside-in” Technique, Clinical Results, and Indications with Transforaminal Lumbar Endoscopic Surgery: a Retrospective Study on 220 Patients on Applied Radiographic Classification of Foraminal Spinal Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Objective To analyze and describe appropriate surgical indications for endoscopically performed transforaminal decompression with the outside-in technique with foraminoplasty in patients with lateral stenosis with and without herniated disc. Background and Significance Endoscopic microdiscectomy is growing in popularity for the removal of lumbar disc herniations. Recent advances in surgical techniques allow for percutaneous endoscopically assisted bony decompression as well. Materials and Methods A retrospective study of 220 consecutive patients undergoing percutaneous endoscopic transforaminal foraminoplasty and microdiscectomy at 228 levels was conducted with intent of identifying appropriate surgical indications in patients with monoradiculopathy. The mean follow up was 46 months ranging from 26 to 54 months. Preoperatively, foraminal and lateral recess stenosis was graded on preoperative MRI and CT scans by dividing the lumbar neuroforamen into three zones: a) entry zone, b) middle zone, and c) exit zone. In addition, the presence of disc herniation causing neural element compression in the lateral recess and neuroforamen was noted. Disc herniations, if present, were recorded as either extruded and contained disc herniations. Surgical outcomes were classified according to the Macnab criteria. In addition, reductions in VAS scores were assessed. Results According to the Macnab criteria, excellent and good results were obtained in 85% (186/220) of patients with monoradiculopathy. The mean VAS score decreased from 7.5 ± 1.5 preoperatively to 2.8 ± 1.9 at the final follow-up (P < 0.01). Concomitant extruded disc herniations and contained disc bulges were recorded in 24 and 82 patients, respectively. There were no approach-related complications. Clinical failures occurred in patients with bony stenosis in the lateral recess and entry zone of the neuroforamen. Less favorable outcomes were observed in patients with concomitant contained disc herniations when compared to extruded disc herniations (P < 0.03) as well in patients older than 50 years of age (P < 0.021). Conclusions Percutaneous, endoscopic decompression using outside-in technique works well in patients with monoradiculopathy due to lateral stenosis in the mid and exit zone of the neuroforamen. Decompression in the entry zone maybe inadequate using the transforaminal outside-in approach. Future studies with greater statistical power should determine as to whether pain relief was achieved via microdiscectomy or foraminoplasty.

2014-01-01

85

Prevalence and Risk factors for Development of Venous Thromboembolism after Degenerative Spinal Surgery.  

PubMed

Study Design. Prospective clinical study.Objective. To identify the incidence and risk factors for VTE associated with degenerative spinal surgery procedures at the different spinal levels for various pathologies.Background. Spinal surgery includes procedures for treatment of various pathologies at different spinal levels. There have been no studies on venous thromboembolism (VTE) after degenerative spinal surgery with respect to screening patients for both deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary thromboembolism (PE).Methods. We prospectively investigated the occurrence of VTE after degenerative spinal surgery in 459 patients who were divided into five groups: group 1, patients with cervical degenerative disease treated with posterior decompression; group 2, patients with cervical degenerative disease treated with instrumentation for spinal fusion; group 3, patients with thoracolumbar degenerative disease treated with instrumentation for spinal fusion; group 4, patients with lumbar spinal stenosis treated with posterior decompression; group 5, patients with lumbar spondylolisthesis treated with one level posterior lumbar interbody fusion. A DVT and PE screening was performed for all patients. Binomial logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association of risk factors.Results. The incidence of VTE was 2.8%, 3.4%, 10.8%, 12.5%, and 10.1% in group 1,2,3,4, and 5, respectively. Female gender, advanced age, spinal level, and neurologic deficits, were all risk factors. Cervical spinal surgery in particular had an associated low risk. In patients with PE, three of the four had no DVT, indicating that screening for PE is also needed in high-risk patients.Conclusions. The prevalence of VTE following elective spinal surgery was different in each group. PMID:25494320

Yoshioka, Katsuhito; Murakami, Hideki; Demura, Satoru; Kato, Satoshi; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

2014-12-01

86

Transforaminal Endoscopic Lumbar Decompression & Foraminoplasty: A 10 Year prospective survivability outcome study of the treatment of foraminal stenosis and failed back surgery  

PubMed Central

Background Conventional diagnosis between axial and foraminal stenosis is suboptimal and long-term outcomes limited to posterior decompression. Aware state Transforaminal Endoscopic Lumbar Decompression and Foraminoplasty (TELDF) offers a direct aware state means of localizing and treating neuro-claudicant back pain, referred pain and weakness associated with stenosis failing to respond to conventional rehabilitation, pain management or surgery. This prospective survivability study examines the outcomes 10 years after TELDF in patients with foraminal stenosis arising from degeneration or failed back surgery. Methods For 10 years prospective data were collected on 114 consecutive patients with multilevel spondylosis and neuro-claudicant back pain, referred pain and weakness with or without failed back surgery whose symptoms had failed to respond to conventional rehabilitation and pain management and who underwent TELDF. The level responsible for the predominant presenting symptoms of foraminal stenosis, determined on clinical grounds, MRI and or CT scans, was confirmed by transforaminal probing and discography. Patients underwent TELDF at the spinal segment at which the predominant presenting symptoms were reproduced. Those that required treatment at an additional segment were excluded. Outcomes were assessed by postal questionnaire with failures being examined by the independent authors using the Visual Analogue Pain Scale (VAPS), the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and the Prolo Activity Score. Results Cohort integrity was 69%. 79 patients were available for evaluation after removal of the deceased (12), untraceable (17) and decliners (6) from the cohort. VAP scores improved from a pre-operative mean of 7.3 to 2.4 at year 10. The ODI improved from a mean of 58.5 at baseline to 17.5 at year 10. 72% of reviewed patients fulfilled the definition of an “Excellent” or “Good Clinical Impact” at review using the Spinal Foundation Outcome Score. Based on the Prolo scale, 61 patients (77%) were able to return and continue in full or part-time work or retirement activity post-TELDF. Complications of TELDF were limited to transient nerve irritation, which affected 19% of the cohort for 2 – 4 weeks. TELDF was equally beneficial in those with failed back surgery. Conclusions TELDF is a beneficial intervention for the long-term treatment of severely disabled patients with neuro-claudicant symptoms arising from spinal or foraminal stenosis with a dural diameter of more than 3mm, who have failed to respond to conventional rehabilitation or chronic pain management. It results in considerable improvements in symptoms and function sustained 10 years later despite co-morbidity, ageing or the presence of failed back surgery. Clinical Relevance The long term outcome of TELDF in severely disabled patients with neuro-claudicant symptoms arising from foraminal stenosis which had failed to respond to conventional rehabilitation, surgery or chronic pain management suggests that foraminal pathology is a major cause of lumbar axial and referred pain and that TELDF should be offered as primary treatment for these conditions even in the elderly and infirm. The application of TELDF at multiple levels may further widen the benefits of this technique.

Knight, Martin TN; Jago, Ingrid; Norris, Christopher; Midwinter, Lynne; Boynes, Christopher

2014-01-01

87

Validation of the Polish language version of the SF-36 Health Survey in patients suffering from lumbar spinal stenosis.  

PubMed

introduction and objective. Patient-reported outcome (PRO) questionnaires have become the standard measure for treatment effectiveness after spinal surgery. One of the most widely used generic PROs is the SF-36 Health Survey. The aim of this study was to specifically focus on validating the SF-36 Health Survey to confirm that the tool is an acceptable and psychometrically robust measure to collect HRQoL data in Polish patients with spinal stenosis. materials and methods. Patients were eligible if they were above 18 years of age and had been qualified for spine surgery of the lumbar region due to either discopathy or non-traumatic spinal stenosis. All patients filled-in the Polish version of the SF-36 and a demographic questionnaire. Standard validity and reliability analyses were performed. results. 192 patients (83 women - 43.2%) agreed to take part in the study (mean age: 57.5±11.4 years). In 47 patients (24.5%), using MRI, ossification of the ligamenta flava were found. Cronbach's alpha coefficients showed positive internal consistency (0.70-0.92). Interclass correlations for the SF-36 ranged from 0.72 - 0.86 and proved appropriate test-retest reliability. Satisfactory convergent and discriminant validity in multi-trait scaling analyses was seen. conclusions. The Polish version of the SF-36 is a reliable and valid tool for measuring HRQoL in patients with spinal stenosis. It can be recommended for use in clinical and epidemiological settings in the Polish population. However, caution is warranted when interpreting the results of the 'role limitations due to physical health problems' and the 'role limitations due to emotional problems' scales because of floor and ceiling effects. PMID:25528936

K?osi?ski, Micha?; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A; Tomaszewska, Iwona M; K?osi?ski, Piotr; Skrzat, Janusz; Walocha, Jerzy A

2014-11-26

88

Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion  

PubMed Central

Background: The use of minimally invasive surgical (MIS) techniques represents the most recent modification of methods used to achieve lumbar interbody fusion. The advantages of minimally invasive spinal instrumentation techniques are less soft tissue injury, reduced blood loss, less postoperative pain and shorter hospital stay while achieving clinical outcomes comparable with equivalent open procedure. The aim was to study the clinicoradiological outcome of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted on 23 patients, 17 females and 6 males, who underwent MIS-transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) followed up for a mean 15 months. The subjects were evaluated for clinical and radiological outcome who were manifested by back pain alone (n = 4) or back pain with leg pain (n = 19) associated with a primary diagnosis of degenerative spondylolisthesis, massive disc herniation, lumbar stenosis, recurrent disc herniation or degenerative disc disease. Paraspinal approach was used in all patients. The clinical outcome was assessed using the revised Oswestry disability index and Macnab criteria. Results: The mean age of subjects was 55.45 years. L4-L5 level was operated in 14 subjects, L5-S1 in 7 subjects; L3-L4 and double level was fixed in 1 patient each. L4-L5 degenerative listhesis was the most common indication (n = 12). Average operative time was 3 h. Fourteen patients had excellent results, a good result in 5 subjects, 2 subjects had fair results and 2 had poor results. Three patients had persistent back pain, 4 patients had residual numbness or radiculopathy. All patients had a radiological union except for 1 patient. Conclusion: The study demonstrates a good clinicoradiological outcome of minimally invasive TLIF. It is also superior in terms of postoperative back pain, blood loss, hospital stay, recovery time as well as medication use. PMID:25404767

Jhala, Amit; Singh, Damandeep; Mistry, MS

2014-01-01

89

Quantitative morphometric analysis of the lumbar vertebral facets and evaluation of feasibility of lumbar spinal nerve root and spinal canal decompression using the Goel intraarticular facetal spacer distraction technique: A lumbar/cervical facet comparison  

PubMed Central

Objective: The authors evaluate the anatomic subtleties of lumbar facets and assess the feasibility and effectiveness of use of ‘Goel facet spacer’ in the treatment of degenerative spinal canal stenosis. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five lumbar vertebral cadaveric dried bones were used for the purpose. A number of morphometric parameters were evaluated both before and after the introduction of Goel facet spacers within the confines of the facet joint. Results: The spacers achieved distraction of facets that was more pronounced in the vertical perspective. Introduction of spacers on both sides resulted in an increase in the intervertebral foraminal height and a circumferential increase in the spinal canal dimensions. Additionally, there was an increase in the disc space or intervertebral body height. The lumbar facets are more vertically and anteroposteriorly oriented when compared to cervical facets that are obliquely and transversely oriented. Conclusions: Understanding the anatomical peculiarities of the lumbar and cervical facets can lead to an optimum utilization of the potential of Goel facet distraction arthrodesis technique in the treatment of spinal degenerative canal stenosis.

Satoskar, Savni R.; Goel, Aimee A.; Mehta, Pooja H.; Goel, Atul

2014-01-01

90

Percutaneous interspinous distraction device for the treatment of lumbar spinal canal stenosis: Clinical and radiographic results at 2-year follow-up  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of the In- space (Synthes, Umkirch, Germany) and the correlation between radiographic parameters and clinical outcome in patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSS). Methods Between June 2009 and May 2013, 56 patients with LSS underwent In-space by one senior surgeon. All of the patients were evaluated both clinically and radiographic measurements before the procedure and each visit at the postoperative follow-up. Preoperative and postoperative X-ray imaging was performed before the procedure and at follow-up to assess the correlation with the clinical outcome. Radiological measurements and clinical outcomes were recorded to establish a relationship between the radiographic parameters and clinical outcome of this procedure. All patients had at least 2 years of follow-up. Results The mean VAS score of back pain decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Conclusions Our data suggest that percutaneous interspinous devices are a good alternative to treat LSS. The device offers significant decrease in back pain, leg pain and ODI score with 2-year lasting relief from symptoms. The increased intervertebral foramenal space explains the improvement of leg pain, but the mechanism of back pain relief remains unclear. A very weak correlation between the radiographic changes and improvement of pain was found. PMID:25694917

Chaichankul, Chaiyos; Limthongkul, Worawat

2014-01-01

91

Degenerative Changes of Spine in Helicopter Pilots  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the relationship between whole body vibration (WBV) induced helicopter flights and degenerative changes of the cervical and lumbar spine. Methods We examined 186 helicopter pilots who were exposed to WBV and 94 military clerical workers at a military hospital. Questionnaires and interviews were completed for 164 of the 186 pilots (response rate, 88.2%) and 88 of the 94 clerical workers (response rate, 93.6%). Radiographic examinations of the cervical and the lumbar spines were performed after obtaining informed consent in both groups. Degenerative changes of the cervical and lumbar spines were determined using four radiographs per subject, and diagnosed by two independent, blinded radiologists. Results There was no significant difference in general and work-related characteristics except for flight hours and frequency between helicopter pilots and clerical workers. Degenerative changes in the cervical spine were significantly more prevalent in the helicopter pilots compared with control group. In the cervical spine multivariate model, accumulated flight hours (per 100 hours) was associated with degenerative changes. And in the lumbar spine multivariate model, accumulated flight hours (per 100 hours) and age were associated with degenerative changes. Conclusion Accumulated flight hours were associated with degenerative changes of the cervical and lumbar spines in helicopter pilots. PMID:24236259

Byeon, Joo Hyeon; Kim, Jung Won; Jeong, Ho Joong; Sim, Young Joo; Kim, Dong Kyu; Choi, Jong Kyoung; Im, Hyoung June

2013-01-01

92

Superion Interspinous Process Spacer for Intermittent Neurogenic Claudication Secondary to Moderate Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: Two-Year Results From a Randomized Controlled FDA-IDE Pivotal Trial.  

PubMed

Study Design. Prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled, investigational device exemption (IDE) noninferiority trial.Objective. To determine 2-year outcomes in patients with intermittent neurogenic claudication secondary to moderate lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) who were treated with the Superion interspinous process spacer.Summary of Background Data. Interspinous spacers are a less invasive treatment alternative compared to surgical decompression for patients with LSS unresponsive to conservative care. High-quality comparative data with these devices are lacking.Methods. Patients presenting with intermittent neurogenic claudication secondary to moderate LSS who failed at least 6 months of nonsurgical management were randomly allocated to treatment with the Superion spacer or a control spacer (X-STOP) and followed for 2 years.Results. A total of 391 randomized patients were implanted with Superion (n = 190) or control (n = 201) spacers at 29 sites in the US between August 2008 and December 2011. Implants were successfully implanted in 99.5% of Superion patients and 99.0% of control patients. The primary composite endpoint of this study was met, which demonstrated that the Superion spacer was noninferior to the X-Stop spacer. Leg pain, the predominant patient complaint, decreased in severity by 70% over 2 years in each group. Most (77%) patients achieved leg pain clinical success (improvement ? 20 mm) at 2 years. Back pain clinical success (improvement ? 20 mm) was 68%, with no differences between groups. ODI clinical success (?15 percentage point improvement) was achieved in 65% of patients. The rates of complications and reoperations were similar between groups.Conclusions. The Superion interspinous process spacer relieves symptoms of intermittent neurogenic claudication secondary to moderate LSS in the majority of patients through 2 years. PMID:25494323

Patel, Vikas V; Whang, Peter G; Haley, Thomas R; Bradley, W Daniel; Nunley, Pierce D; Davis, Raphael P; Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E; Geisler, Fred H

2014-12-01

93

Spinous Process Osteotomy to Facilitate the Access to the Spinal Canal When Decompressing the Spinal Canal in Patients with Lumbar Spinal Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose The main purpose of this study was to investigate the union-rate of the spinous process after performing a spinous process osteotomy and whether union affects the clinical results after surgery. Overview of Literature In the present study, spinous process osteotomy was used to facilitate access to the spinal canal when performing a decompressive procedure for lumbar spinal stenosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the union rate of the spinous process and its effect on the clinical results of the procedure. Methods All patients were included in the study that underwent a decompressive procedure through spinous process osteotomy be between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2007. Operation protocols were reviewed. A computed tomography (CT) scan was performed to evaluate the union of the osteotomies of the spinous process. According to the CT-scans, patients were divided into three groups: "complete-union," "partial-union," and "non-union." Patients reported their clinical results through a self-administered questionnaire. Results The mean period of follow up was 21.6 months (range, 16-28 months). A total of 44% of the performed osteotomies were considered as united. Ten patients (18%) were classified as "complete-union," 30 patients (55%) as "partial-union," and 15 patients (27%) as "non-union." The "complete-union" group showed better clinical results and scored significantly better in the Oswestry Disability Index and EQ-5D. However, no statistical difference was found in the pain-scores. There were no differences between the "partial-union" group and the "no-union" group. Conclusions We found a radiologic union for 60 out of 135 (44%) spinous process osteotomies. PMID:24761194

Moen, Gunnar; Fenstad, Anne Marie; Birketvedt, Rune; Indrekvam, Kari

2014-01-01

94

Two-year clinical outcomes of a multicenter randomized controlled trial comparing two interspinous spacers for treatment of moderate lumbar spinal stenosis  

PubMed Central

Background Interspinous spacers are a minimally invasive surgical alternative for patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) unresponsive to conservative care. The purpose of this prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial was to compare 2-year clinical outcomes in patients with moderate LSS treated with the Superion® (Experimental) or the X-Stop®, a FDA-approved interspinous spacer (Control). Methods A total of 250 patients with moderate LSS unresponsive to conservative care were randomly allocated to treatment with the Experimental (n?=?123) or Control (n?=?127) interspinous spacer and followed through 2 years post-treatment. Complication data were available for all patients and patient-reported outcomes were available for 192 patients (101 Experimental, 91 Control) at 2 years. Results Zurich Claudication Questionnaire (ZCQ) Symptom Severity and Physical Function scores improved 34% to 36% in both groups through 2 years (all p?

2014-01-01

95

Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 12: pedicle screw fixation as an adjunct to posterolateral fusion.  

PubMed

The utilization of pedicle screw fixation as an adjunct to posterolateral lumbar fusion (PLF) has become routine, but demonstration of a definitive benefit remains problematic. The medical evidence indicates that the addition of pedicle screw fixation to PLF increases fusion rates when assessed with dynamic radiographs. More recent evidence, since publication of the 2005 Lumbar Fusion Guidelines, suggests a stronger association between radiographic fusion and clinical outcome, although, even now, no clear correlation has been demonstrated. Although several reports suggest that clinical outcomes are improved with the addition of pedicle screw fixation, there are conflicting findings from similarly classified evidence. Furthermore, the largest contemporary, randomized, controlled study on this topic failed to demonstrate a significant clinical benefit with the use of pedicle screw fixation in patients undergoing PLF for chronic low-back pain. This absence of proof should not, however, be interpreted as proof of absence. Several limitations continue to compromise these investigations. For example, in the majority of studies the sample size is insufficient to detect small increments in clinical outcome that may be observed with pedicle screw fixation. Therefore, no definitive statement regarding the efficacy of pedicle screw fixation as a means to improve functional outcomes in patients undergoing PLF for chronic low-back pain can be made. There appears to be consistent evidence suggesting that pedicle screw fixation increases the costs and complication rate of PLF. High-risk patients, including (but not limited to) patients who smoke, patients who are undergoing revision surgery, or patients who suffer from medical conditions that may compromise fusion potential, may appreciate a greater benefit with supplemental pedicle screw fixation. It is recommended, therefore, that the use of pedicle screw fixation as a supplement to PLF be reserved for those patients in whom there is an increased risk of nonunion when treated with only PLF. PMID:24980589

Groff, Michael W; Dailey, Andrew T; Ghogawala, Zoher; Resnick, Daniel K; Watters, William C; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Choudhri, Tanvir F; Eck, Jason C; Sharan, Alok; Wang, Jeffrey C; Dhall, Sanjay S; Kaiser, Michael G

2014-07-01

96

Measurement of Intervertebral Motion Using Quantitative Fluoroscopy: Report of an International Forum and Proposal for Use in the Assessment of Degenerative Disc Disease in the Lumbar Spine  

PubMed Central

Quantitative fluoroscopy (QF) is an emerging technology for measuring intervertebral motion patterns to investigate problem back pain and degenerative disc disease. This International Forum was a networking event of three research groups (UK, US, Hong Kong), over three days in San Francisco in August 2009. Its aim was to reach a consensus on how best to record, analyse, and communicate QF information for research and clinical purposes. The Forum recommended that images should be acquired during regular trunk motion that is controlled for velocity and range, in order to minimise externally imposed variability as well as to correlate intervertebral motion with trunk motion. This should be done in both the recumbent passive and weight bearing active patient configurations. The main recommended outputs from QF were the true ranges of intervertebral rotation and translation, neutral zone laxity and the consistency of shape of the motion patterns. The main clinical research priority should initially be to investigate the possibility of mechanical subgroups of patients with chronic, nonspecific low back pain by comparing their intervertebral motion patterns with those of matched healthy controls. PMID:22666606

Breen, Alan C.; Teyhen, Deydre S.; Mellor, Fiona E.; Breen, Alexander C.; Wong, Kris W. N.; Deitz, Adam

2012-01-01

97

Does 360° lumbar spinal fusion improve long-term clinical outcomes after failure of conservative treatment in patients with functionally disabling single-level degenerative lumbar disc disease? Results of 5-year follow-up in 75 postoperative patients  

PubMed Central

Background Surgical treatment of patients with mechanical degenerative disc disease has been controversial, but improvements in clinical outcomes have been shown in properly selected patients with disease-specific diagnoses, with fusion arguably now becoming the “gold standard” for surgical management of these patients. No published study thus far has been designed for prospective enrollment of patients with specific inclusion/exclusion criteria in whom at least 6 months of conservative therapy has failed and who are then offered a standardized surgical procedure and are followed up for 5 years. Methods The study group was composed of the patients in the prospective, randomized Food and Drug Administration Investigational Device Exemption trial comparing ProDisc-L (Synthes Spine, West Chester, Pennsylvania) with 360° fusion for the treatment of single-level symptomatic disc degeneration. Of 80 patients randomized to 360° fusion after failure of non-operative care, 75 were treated on protocol with single-level fusions. Follow-up of this treatment cohort was 97% at 2 years and 75% at 5 years and serves as the basis for this report. Patients in the trial were required to have failure of at least 6 months of nonoperative care and in fact had failure of an average of 9 months of nonoperative treatment. The mean Oswestry Disability Index score indicated greater than 60% impairment. The mean entry-level pain score on a visual analog scale was greater than 8 of 10. Results After fusion, not only did patients have significant improvements in measurable clinical outcomes such as the Oswestry Disability Index score and pain score on a visual analog scale but there were also substantial improvements in their functional status and quality of life. Specifically, over 80% of patients in this study had improvements in recreational status that was maintained 5 years after index surgery, indicating substantial improvements in life quality that were not afforded by months of conservative care. The percentage of patients using narcotics at the 5-year follow-up visit was less than half the percentage of patients who had used narcotics as part of their prior conservative treatment. Conclusions The 5-year results of this post hoc analysis of 75 patients involved in a multicenter, multi-surgeon trial support 360° fusion surgery as a predictable and lasting treatment option to improve pain and function in properly selected patients with mechanical degenerative disc disease. These improvements occurred dramatically immediately after surgery and have been maintained through the scope of this follow-up period, with 98% follow-up at 2 years and 75% of patients available at 5 years.

Zigler, Jack E.; Delamarter, Rick B.

2013-01-01

98

Combination of lumbar kyphosis, epidural lipomatosis, and perineural cyst as a cause of neurological deficit: a case report.  

PubMed

We describe the rare simultaneous occurrence of epidural lipomatosis and a perineural cyst at the same level, lumbar kyphosis, osteoporotic vertebral fractures, and neurological deficits. A 75-year-old corticosteroid-dependent female farmer presented with severe low back pain, progressive lumbar kyphosis, and inability to stand because of numbness and muscle weakness of both legs. Plain radiographs displayed markedly decreased bone density, significant lumbar kyphosis, and vertebral compression fractures of L2, L3, and L4. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine revealed a perineural cyst at the L2-3 level, extensive epidural lipomatosis, and spinal canal stenosis. Laminectomy from L3 to L5 with resection of epidural fatty tissue restored her walking ability. We postulate that the osteoporotic fractures and epidural lipomatosis were induced by corticosteroid therapy. Preexisting degenerative lumbar kyphosis of the type commonly seen in elderly farmers could have promoted osteoporotic lumbar vertebral fractures at points where bending stress had been strongly exerted. The combination of a perineural cyst and epidural lipomatosis at the same level has not been reported previously. PMID:12486480

Miyakoshi, Naohisa; Shimada, Yoichi; Murai, Hajime; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Hongo, Michio; Itoi, Eiji

2002-01-01

99

Spontaneous hemorrhage into a lumbar synovial cyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lumbar synovial cysts frequently present with back pain, chronic radiculopathy and\\/or progressive symptoms of spinal canal\\u000a compromise. These cysts generally appear in the context of degenerative lumbar spinal disease. Few cases of spontaneous hemorrhage\\u000a into synovial cysts have been reported in the literature.

Marta CicuendezJose; Jose F. Alen; Ana Ramos; Ramiro D. Lobato; Alfonso Lagares

2010-01-01

100

Stemming the Degeneration: IVD Stem Cells and Stem Cell Regenerative Therapy for Degenerative Disc Disease  

PubMed Central

The intervertebral disc (IVD) is immensely important for the integrity of vertebral column function. The highly specialized IVD functions to confer flexibility and tensile strength to the spine and endures various types of biomechanical force. Degenerative disc disease (DDD) is a prevalent musculoskeletal disorder and is the major cause of low back pain and includes the more severe degenerative lumbar scoliosis, disc herniation and spinal stenosis. DDD is a multifactorial disorder whereby an imbalance of anabolic and catabolic factors, or alterations to cellular composition, or biophysical stimuli and genetic background can all play a role in its genesis. However, our comprehension of IVD formation and theetiology of disc degeneration (DD) are far from being complete, hampering efforts to formulate appropriate therapies to tackle DD. Knowledge of the stem cells and various techniques to manipulate and direct them to particular fates have been promising in adopting a stem-cell based regenerative approach to DD. Moreover, new evidence on the residence of stem/progenitor cells within particular IVD niches has emerged holding promise for future therapeutic applications. Existing issues pertaining to current therapeutic approaches are also covered in this review. PMID:23951558

Sivakamasundari, V; Lufkin, Thomas

2013-01-01

101

Evaluation of Functional Outcomes in Individuals 10 Years after Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion with Corundum Implants and Decompression: A Comparison of 2 Surgical Techniques  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate lumbar spine-related functional disability in individuals 10 years after lumbar decompression and lumbar decompression with posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) with corundum implants surgery for degenerative stenosis and to compare the long-term outcome of these 2 surgical techniques. Material/Methods From 1998 to 2002, 100 patients with single-level lumbar stenosis were surgically treated. The patients were randomly divided into 2 groups that did not differ in terms of clinical or neurological symptoms. Group A consisted of 50 patients who were treated with PLIF and the use of porous ceramic corundum implants; the mean age was 57.74 and BMI was 27.34. Group B consisted of 50 patients treated with decompression by fenestration; mean age was 51.28 and the mean BMI was 28.84. Results There was no statistical significance regarding age, BMI, and sex. Both treatments revealed significant improvements. In group A, ODI decreased from 41.01% to 14.3% at 1 year and 16.3 at 10 years. In group B, ODI decreased from 63.8% to 18.36% at 1 year and 22.36% at 10 years. The difference between groups was statistically significant. There were no differences between the groups regarding the Rolland-Morris disability questionnaire and VAS at 1 and 10 years after surgery. Conclusions Long-term results evaluated according to the ODI, the Rolland-Morris disability questionnaire, and the VAS showed that the both methods significantly reduce patient disability, and this was maintained during next 10 years. The less invasive fenestration procedure was only slightly less favorable than surgical treatment of stenosis by both PLIF with corundum implants and decompression. PMID:25106708

Truszczy?ska, Aleksandra; R?pa?a, Kazimierz; ?ukawski, Stanislaw; Trzaskoma, Zbigniew; Tarnowski, Adam; Drzal-Grabiec, Justyna; Cabak, Anna

2014-01-01

102

Treatment of degenerative spondylolisthesis: potential impact of dynamic stabilization based on imaging analysis  

PubMed Central

Intraspinous and pedicle screw-based (PSB) dynamic instrumentation systems have been in use for a decade now. By direct or indirect decompression, these devices theoretically establish less painful segmental motion by diminishing pathologic motion and unloading painful disks. Ideally, dynamics should address instability in the early stages of degenerative spondylolisthesis before excessive translation occurs. Evidence to date indicates that Grade II or larger slips requiring decompression should be fused. In addition, multiple segment listhesis, severe coronal plane deformities, increasing age, and osteoporosis have all been listed as potential contraindications to dynamic stabilization. We reviewed the exclusion and inclusion criteria found in various dynamic stabilization studies and investigational drug exemption (IDE) protocols. We summarize the reported limitations for both pedicle- and intraspinous-based systems. We then conducted a retrospective chart and imaging review of 100 consecutive cases undergoing fusion for degenerative spondylolisthesis. All patients in our cohort had been indicated for and eventually underwent decompression of lumbar stenosis secondary to spondylolisthesis. We estimated how many patients in our population would have been candidates for dynamic stabilization with either interspinous or pedicle-based systems. Using the criteria for instability outlined in the literature, 32 patients demonstrated translation requiring fusion surgery and 24 patients had instability unsuitable for dynamic stabilization. Six patients had two-level slips and were excluded. Two patients had coronal imbalance too great for dynamic systems. Twelve patients were over the age of 80 and 16 demonstrated osteoporosis as diagnosed by bone scan. Finally, we found two of our patients to have vertebral compression fractures adjacent to the site of instrumentation, which is a strict exclusion criteria in all dynamic trials. Thirty-four patients had zero exclusion criteria for intraspinous devices and 23 patients had none for PSB dynamic stabilization. Therefore, we estimate that 34 and 23% of degenerative spondylolisthesis patients indicated for surgery could have been treated with either intraspinous or pedicle-based dynamic devices, respectively. PMID:19330364

Lawhorne, Thomas W.; Girardi, Federico P.; Pappou, Iaonnis; Cammisa, Frank P.

2009-01-01

103

Density of lumbar muscles 4 years after decompressive spinal surgery.  

PubMed

Results of decompressive surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis vary. We evaluated the density of lumbar muscles by computed tomography (CT) at the L2-L4 levels in patients 4 years after they had undergone surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis. Twenty of these patients had an excellent outcome clinically, and 16 patients had very poor outcome. The residual stenosis and density of lumbar muscles in Hounsfield units were measured on CT images. The clinical evaluation of outcome also included the Oswestry questionnaire and a walking test. The density of lumbar flexors was higher in the group with excellent results than in the group with poor results. The density of lumbar extensors showed a marked decrease in the operated area. These results suggest that the decrease of muscular density can be partially explained by disuse or inactivity. The decrease in the operated area probably reflects muscular atrophy caused by muscle denervation. PMID:8831123

Airaksinen, O; Herno, A; Kaukanen, E; Saari, T; Sihvonen, T; Suomalainen, O

1996-01-01

104

Minimally invasive procedures on the lumbar spine.  

PubMed

Degenerative disease of the lumbar spine is a common and increasingly prevalent condition that is often implicated as the primary reason for chronic low back pain and the leading cause of disability in the western world. Surgical management of lumbar degenerative disease has historically been approached by way of open surgical procedures aimed at decompressing and/or stabilizing the lumbar spine. Advances in technology and surgical instrumentation have led to minimally invasive surgical techniques being developed and increasingly used in the treatment of lumbar degenerative disease. Compared to the traditional open spine surgery, minimally invasive techniques require smaller incisions and decrease approach-related morbidity by avoiding muscle crush injury by self-retaining retractors, preventing the disruption of tendon attachment sites of important muscles at the spinous processes, using known anatomic neurovascular and muscle planes, and minimizing collateral soft-tissue injury by limiting the width of the surgical corridor. The theoretical benefits of minimally invasive surgery over traditional open surgery include reduced blood loss, decreased postoperative pain and narcotics use, shorter hospital length of stay, faster recover and quicker return to work and normal activity. This paper describes the different minimally invasive techniques that are currently available for the treatment of degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. PMID:25610845

Skovrlj, Branko; Gilligan, Jeffrey; Cutler, Holt S; Qureshi, Sheeraz A

2015-01-16

105

Minimally invasive procedures on the lumbar spine  

PubMed Central

Degenerative disease of the lumbar spine is a common and increasingly prevalent condition that is often implicated as the primary reason for chronic low back pain and the leading cause of disability in the western world. Surgical management of lumbar degenerative disease has historically been approached by way of open surgical procedures aimed at decompressing and/or stabilizing the lumbar spine. Advances in technology and surgical instrumentation have led to minimally invasive surgical techniques being developed and increasingly used in the treatment of lumbar degenerative disease. Compared to the traditional open spine surgery, minimally invasive techniques require smaller incisions and decrease approach-related morbidity by avoiding muscle crush injury by self-retaining retractors, preventing the disruption of tendon attachment sites of important muscles at the spinous processes, using known anatomic neurovascular and muscle planes, and minimizing collateral soft-tissue injury by limiting the width of the surgical corridor. The theoretical benefits of minimally invasive surgery over traditional open surgery include reduced blood loss, decreased postoperative pain and narcotics use, shorter hospital length of stay, faster recover and quicker return to work and normal activity. This paper describes the different minimally invasive techniques that are currently available for the treatment of degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. PMID:25610845

Skovrlj, Branko; Gilligan, Jeffrey; Cutler, Holt S; Qureshi, Sheeraz A

2015-01-01

106

Spinal Stenosis  

MedlinePLUS

... For example: Continued followup of participants in the SPORT trial will assess long-term outcomes and the cost effectiveness of surgical or nonsurgical management of spinal stenosis and other back problems. SPORT ...

107

Factors associated with lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration in the elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background contextLumbar intervertebral disc degeneration (DD) precedes degenerative diseases of the lumbar spine. Various factors in addition to normal aging are reported to be associated with DD, and recently atherosclerosis and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (cardiovascular risk factors) have received much attention; however, the links between these risk factors and DD are unclear.

Mika Hangai; Koji Kaneoka; Shinya Kuno; Shiro Hinotsu; Masataka Sakane; Naotaka Mamizuka; Shinsuke Sakai; Naoyuki Ochiai

2008-01-01

108

Pulmonary valve stenosis  

MedlinePLUS

... stenosis; Heart valve pulmonary stenosis; Pulmonary stenosis; Stenosis - pulmonary valve; Balloon valvuloplasty - pulmonary ... water pills) Treat abnormal heartbeats and rhythms Percutaneous balloon pulmonary dilation (valvuloplasty) may be performed when no other ...

109

Endoscopic transforaminal decompression, interbody fusion, and percutaneous pedicle screw implantation of the lumbar spine: A case series report  

PubMed Central

Background On the basis of the experiences gained from conventional open spinal procedures, a long list of desirable objectives have emerged with the evolution of the lesser invasive spinal procedures. At the top of that list is the desire to minimize the trauma of surgery. The rest of the objectives, which include reductions of operating time, surgical blood loss, hospital stay, postoperative narcotic medication, convalescence, complication rates, and escalating health care costs, as well as the desire of elderly patients to continue rigorous physical activities, largely depend on the ability to minimize the trauma of surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of the least invasive lumbar decompression, interbody fusion and percutaneous pedicle screw implantation, to minimize surgical trauma without compromising the quality of the treatment outcome, as well as to minimize risk of complications. Methods In this case series, 60 patients with diagnoses of degenerative disc disease, degenerative motion segments with stenosis, and spondylolisthesis, in whom nonoperative treatments failed, were treated with endoscopic transforaminal decompression and interbody fusion by 1 surgeon in 2 centers. The outcome measures were as follows: operating time, intraoperative blood loss, hospital stay, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores for back and leg pain, scores on the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, and postoperative imaging studies. A consecutive series of patients who met the treatment criteria completed VAS forms and Roland-Morris questionnaires preoperatively. Surgical procedures included arthroscopic decompression of the foramina and the discs; endplate preparation and implantation of allograft bone chips and bone morphogenetic protein 2 on absorbable collagen sponge into the disc space; and percutaneous implantation of pedicle screws. Postoperatively, the patients again completed the VAS forms and Roland-Morris questionnaires. Their charts were reviewed for office notes, operative notes, hospital stay, medications, and imaging studies. The latest X-ray and computed tomography scan films were reviewed and analyzed. Patients were followed up for a minimum of 6 months. The literature was reviewed for comparison of outcomes. Results Sixty patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean age was 52.8 years. The duration of illness averaged 5 years. Follow-up ranged from 6 to 25 months, with a mean of 12 months. Preoperative diagnoses included degenerative disc disease, degenerative motion segments with stenosis, and spondylolisthesis. The mean time in the operating room was 2 hours 54 minutes. Estimated blood loss averaged 57.6 mL. The duration of the hospital stay averaged 2.6 days. Preoperative back pain and leg pain were significantly reduced (P < .005). Forty-seven imaging studies obtained at the last visit, including X-ray and computed tomography scans, showed solid fusion in 28 patients (59.6%), stable fixation in 17 (36.2%), and osteolysis around the pedicle screws in 2 (4.2%). All patients had improvement of motor function, whereas 2 patients complained of residual numbness. In addition, 8 patients (13%) complained of residual discomfort on extension of the lumbar spine. Two patients had pedicle screw–related complications requiring surgery. A review of the literature showed that endoscopic transforaminal decompression and interbody fusion performed better than open transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion/posterior lumbar interbody fusion, minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, and extreme lateral lumbar interbody fusion, with regard to most parameters studied. Conclusions The endoscopic transforaminal lumbar decompression, interbody fusion, and percutaneous pedicle screw instrumentation consistently produced satisfactory results in all demographics. It performed better than the alternative procedures for most parameters studied.

Osman, Said G.

2012-01-01

110

Limited Laminectomy and Restorative Spinoplasty in Spinal Canal Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Study Design Prospective cohort study. Purpose Evaluation of the clinico-radiological outcome and complications of limited laminectomy and restorative spinoplasty in spinal canal stenosis. Overview of Literature It is critical to achieve adequate spinal decompression, while maintaining spinal stability. Methods Forty-four patients with degenerative lumbar canal stenosis underwent limited laminectomy and restorative spinoplasty at our centre from July 2008 to December 2010. Four patients were lost to follow-up leaving a total of 40 patients at an average final follow-up of 32 months (range, 24-41 months). There were 26 females and 14 males. The mean±standard deviation (SD) of the age was 64.7±7.6 years (range, 55-88 years). The final outcome was assessed using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score. Results At the time of the final follow-up, all patients recorded marked improvement in their symptoms, with only 2 patients complaining of occasional mild back pain and 1 patient complaining of occasional mild leg pain. The mean±SD for the preoperative claudication distance was 95.2±62.5 m, which improved to 582±147.7 m after the operation, and the preoperative anterio-posterior canal diameter as measured on the computed tomography scan was 8.3±2.1 mm, which improved to 13.2±1.8 mm postoperatively. The JOA score improved from a mean±SD of 13.3±4.1 to 22.9±4.1 at the time of the final follow-up. As for complications, dural tears occurred in 2 patients, for which repair was performed with no additional treatment needed. Conclusions Limited laminectomy and restorative spinoplasty is an efficient surgical procedure which relieves neurogenic claudication by achieving sufficient decompression of the cord with maintenance of spinal stability. PMID:25187863

Sangwan, Sukhbir Singh; Garg, Rakesh; Kundu, Zile Singh; Gupta, Vinay; Kamboj, Pradeep

2014-01-01

111

Endoscopic Foraminal Decompression Preceding Oblique Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion To Decrease The Incidence Of Post Operative Dysaesthesia  

PubMed Central

Background Lumbar interbody fusion has become a well established method to diminish axial back pain as well as radiculopathy in patients with degenerative disc disease, stenosis, and instability. The concept of indirect decompression of the neural foramen and spinal canal while performing fusion became popular in the mid 1990’s with description of ALIF techniques. Morphometric analysis confirmed the extent of decompression of posterior elements with interbody height restoration. In an attempt to diminish potential complications associated with anterior or posterior approaches to the spine for interbody fusion, and with the hope of accomplishing fusion in a less invasive manner, lateral lumbar interbody fusion has become quite popular. This transpsoas approach to the disc space has been associated with a high incidence of neurologic complications. Even though this is the first technique to routinely recommend EMG monitoring to increase safety in the approach, neurologic injuries still occur. A newer oblique lateral lumbar interbody (OLLIF) approach has recently been described to lessen the incidence of neurologic injury. This technique also advocates use of EMG testing to lessen neurologic trauma. In spite of this precaution, neurologic insult has not been eliminated. In fact, even in patients whose electrical stimulation thresholds suggested a safe entry space into the disc, transient dysaesthesia continues to occur in 20-25 percent of cases. Purpose This pilot study reflects data and observations of a subset of patients treated with endoscopic foraminotomy preceding oblique lateral lumbar interbody fusion (OLLIF) to assess specifically potential improvements in dysaesthesia rates. Methods A select subset of patients undergoing OLLIF failed to meet electrodiagnostic criteria for safe disc access through Kambin’s triangle. These patients underwent an endoscopic foraminotomy and exiting nerve decompression prior to discectomy, endplate preparation and cage insertion. Results Dysaesthesia did not occur in these patients whom otherwise would have likely been at risk for neurologic deficit. Conclusions These findings suggest that patients at risk for neurologic insult during oblique lateral lumbar interbody fusion can be protected by foraminoplasty. PMID:25694923

Katzell, Jeffrey

2014-01-01

112

Surgical Treatment of Adult Degenerative Scoliosis  

PubMed Central

The rapid increase of elderly population has resulted in increased prevalence of adult scoliosis. Adult scoliosis is divided into adult idiopathic scoliosis and adult degenerative scoliosis. These two types of scoliosis vary in patient age, curve pattern and clinical symptoms, which necessitate different surgical indications and options. Back pain and deformity are major indications for surgery in adult idiopathic scoliosis, whereas radiating pain to the legs due to foraminal stenosis is what often requires surgery in adult degenerative scoliosis. When selecting a surgical method, major symptoms and underlying medical diseases should be carefully evaluated, not only to relieve symptoms but also to minimize postoperative complications. Surgical options for adult degenerative scoliosis include: decompression alone; decompression and limited short fusion; and decompression coupled with long fusion and correction of deformity. Decompression and limited short fusion can be applied to patients with a small Cobb's angle and normal sagittal imbalance. For those with a large Cobb's angle and positive sagittal imbalance, long fusion with correction of deformity is required. When long fusion is applied, a careful decision regarding the extent of fusion level should be made when selecting L5 or S1 as the distal fusion level and T10 or the thoracolumbar junction as the proximal fusion level. For the fusion extending to the sacrum, restoration of sagittal balance and rigid fixation with additional iliac screws should be considered. Any surgical procedures for adult degenerative scoliosis are known to have relatively high occurrences of complications; therefore, risks and benefits should be meticulously considered before selecting a surgical procedure. PMID:24967054

Kim, Young-Tae; Shin, Sang-hyun; Suk, Se-Il

2014-01-01

113

Surgical treatment of adult degenerative scoliosis.  

PubMed

The rapid increase of elderly population has resulted in increased prevalence of adult scoliosis. Adult scoliosis is divided into adult idiopathic scoliosis and adult degenerative scoliosis. These two types of scoliosis vary in patient age, curve pattern and clinical symptoms, which necessitate different surgical indications and options. Back pain and deformity are major indications for surgery in adult idiopathic scoliosis, whereas radiating pain to the legs due to foraminal stenosis is what often requires surgery in adult degenerative scoliosis. When selecting a surgical method, major symptoms and underlying medical diseases should be carefully evaluated, not only to relieve symptoms but also to minimize postoperative complications. Surgical options for adult degenerative scoliosis include: decompression alone; decompression and limited short fusion; and decompression coupled with long fusion and correction of deformity. Decompression and limited short fusion can be applied to patients with a small Cobb's angle and normal sagittal imbalance. For those with a large Cobb's angle and positive sagittal imbalance, long fusion with correction of deformity is required. When long fusion is applied, a careful decision regarding the extent of fusion level should be made when selecting L5 or S1 as the distal fusion level and T10 or the thoracolumbar junction as the proximal fusion level. For the fusion extending to the sacrum, restoration of sagittal balance and rigid fixation with additional iliac screws should be considered. Any surgical procedures for adult degenerative scoliosis are known to have relatively high occurrences of complications; therefore, risks and benefits should be meticulously considered before selecting a surgical procedure. PMID:24967054

Cho, Kyu-Jung; Kim, Young-Tae; Shin, Sang-Hyun; Suk, Se-Il

2014-06-01

114

Ligamentum flavum cyst in the lumbar spine: a case report and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degenerative changes in the lumbar spine can be followed by cystic changes. Most reported intraspinal cysts are ganglion or\\u000a synovial cysts. Ligamentum flavum pseudocyst, as a cystic lesion in the lumbar spine, is a rare and unusual cause of neurologic\\u000a signs and symptoms and is usually seen in elderly persons (due to degenerative changes). They are preferentially located in\\u000a the

H. Taha; Y. Bareksei; W. Albanna; M. Schirmer

2010-01-01

115

Evaluation of unilateral cage-instrumented fixation for lumbar spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To investigate how unilateral cage-instrumented posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) affects the three-dimensional flexibility in degenerative disc disease by comparing the biomechanical characteristics of unilateral and bilateral cage-instrumented PLIF. METHODS: Twelve motion segments in sheep lumbar spine specimens were tested for flexion, extension, axial rotation, and lateral bending by nondestructive flexibility test method using a nonconstrained testing apparatus. The

Ti-Sheng Chang; Jia-Hao Chang; Chien-Shiung Wang; Hung-Yi Chen; Ching-Wei Cheng

2010-01-01

116

Lumbar Spine Disc Herniation Diagnosis with a Joint Shape Model  

E-print Network

Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA, gdhillon@proscan.com, Abstract. Lower Back Pain (LBP) is the second most common. Keywords: Lumbar Spine Diagnosis, MRI, Disc Degenerative Disease 1 Introduction Low Back Pain has a major Alomari et al. for Low Back Pain [2]. Low back Pain has high societal impact as it disrupts individ- uals

Corso, Jason J.

117

Critical analysis of lumbar interspinous devices failures: a retrospective study.  

PubMed

Interspinous devices (IDs) were introduced in the 90s. Since then, they have rapidly become very popular for the minimally invasive treatment of lumbar pain disorders. They feature different shapes and biomechanical characteristics, and are used in the spine degenerative pathologies or as motion segment stabilizers (dynamic stabilization) or to obtain the decompression of neurological structures. The indications seem to be rather narrow and still to be verified in terms of their clinical efficacy. However, IDs are being extensively utilized beyond their classical indications with the inevitable risk of a clinical failure. The aim of the present work was to carry out a critical analysis of the causes of failure in a series of 19 patients. From January 2007 to March 2009, 19 patients with residual painful syndrome after the implantation of IDs were observed. The series includes 11 males and 8 females with a mean age of 53.6 years (range 38-84 years) who were operated on elsewhere and who underwent revision surgery at our hospital. The inclusion criteria were low back pain and/or radiculopathy after the device implantation without improvement of the painful symptomatology, radiculopathy with signs of sensory and motor deficit, intermittent neurogenic claudication, and infection. All patients were thoroughly re-assessed with new standard imaging examinations such as MRI and CT scans, considering the following image features: the position of the device with respect to the spinous processes (X-ray), the intervertebral disc disease of the level operated upon or of the adjacent levels (MRI), the segmental instability (dynamic X-rays), the severity of the canal stenosis (CT). The accurate evaluation of the clinical and imaging parameters revealed three main causes of failure: errors of indication, technical errors and the structural failure of the ID. The most frequent cause of failure was a wrong indication. The results of the study are presented and the causes of failure are discussed in detail. PMID:21404029

Tamburrelli, Francesco Ciro; Proietti, Luca; Logroscino, Carlo Ambrogio

2011-05-01

118

[The narrow lumbar canal: 53 operated cases (author's transl)].  

PubMed

These 53 operated patients were divided into 2 groups: 29 had an intermittent claudication as Verbiest first described it soon as 1949, whereas 24 had permanent radicular pain in legs as Epstein emphasized it. We think emulsified Duroliopaque myelography to be the best investigation to make sure the diagnosis and to forecast the operative tactics: we gave up Dimer X myelography which occasioned serious complications in 2 cases and gas myelography which seems to us inadequate to this radicular pathology. Total-Body Scanner is rather an elegant method but a discontinuous one. The radiographic and operative findings have shown the stenosis of the lumbar canal to be congenital in 5 cases, development in 20 cases, degenerative in 27 cases (with 15 pseudo-spondylolisthesis) and tabetic in one case. A disc herniation was found in 25 cases over 53. The extent of the bone resection has been in relation with clinical picture, myelography and mainly operative findings, aiming at a "cut-to-measure costum". In every case the initial laminectomy was made easier by trenching the thickened laminae on each side of the spinal process prior to remove it. Only soft disc hernations were removed; the dura was never opened; no vertebral fusion was performed; for 2 years we have tried to avoid the "laminectomy membrane" by interposing an autogenous fat and aponevrotic graft between the dura and the overlying paraspinal muscles. The operative results are satisfactory with 75% of excellent and good; they are much better in patients with intermittent claudication than in those with permanent radicular pain. It is a question of functional surgery in one case, of pain surgery in the other. The major trick seems to us to be that of the associated disc hernation with the risk of missing the narrow canal. PMID:547193

Rousseaux, P; Bernard, M H; Scherpereel, B; Guyot, J F

1979-01-01

119

Mitral Stenosis Reversed by Medical Treatment for Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

It is reported that functional mitral stenosis frequently develops after ring annuloplasty for ischemic mitral regurgitation. The mechanism is a combination of annular size reduction by surgery and diastolic mitral valve tethering, restricting the anterior leaflet opening due to posteriorly displaced papillary muscles with left ventricular dilatation. We report the case of a 57-year-old man who had a history of successful mitral valve plasty for degenerative mitral regurgitation. Four years later he developed heart failure, severe hypertension, mild mitral regurgitation, and significant mitral stenosis, which were reversed by aggressive medical treatment for heart failure. PMID:24182508

Yukawa, Sawami; Takeuchi, Masaaki; Nakazono, Akemi; Sakamoto, Kyoko; Araya, Kiyoshi; Eto, Masataka; Nishimura, Yosuke; Harada, Masaru; Levine, Robert A.; Otsuji, Yutaka

2014-01-01

120

[Degenerative and age-related alterations of the spine].  

PubMed

Degenerative alterations of the spine occur in an individual-specific manner with increasing age. This is not only dependent on external factors, such as hard physical labor over many years but can also be genetically influenced as demonstrated in recent studies. The spinal cord is well-protected within the spinal canal but can be impaired by degenerative alterations of the intervertebral discs and functional spinal segments. Depositions or narrowing of nerve structures can cause lasting pain or focal neurological deficits, such as paralysis or sensitivity disorders. These complaints can slowly develop over years, e.g. by a gradually increasing bony narrowing of the spinal canal (spinal canal stenosis) or can occur suddenly, e.g. an acute herniated disc. However, low back pain is much more common and occurs in approximately 80?% of people sometime during their lifetime. It is necessary to recognize the normal age-related anatomical alterations in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), particularly for intervertebral discs in order to interpret these correctly. Knowledge of the spectrum of the various age-related degenerative processes which can occur in intervertebral discs and vertebral bodies is necessary to be able to differentiate them from pathological alterations. This is important because therapy decisions are often made as a direct result of MRI. PMID:25398568

Reith, W; Bodea, S; Kettner, M; Mühl-Benninghausen, R; Simgen, A

2014-11-01

121

Facet-sparing lumbar decompression with a minimally invasive flexible MicroBlade Shaver® versus traditional decompression: quantitative radiographic assessment  

PubMed Central

Background Laminectomy/laminotomy and foraminotomy are well established surgical techniques for treatment of symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis. However, these procedures have significant limitations, including limited access to lateral and foraminal compression and postoperative instability. The purpose of this cadaver study was to compare bone, ligament, and soft tissue morphology following lumbar decompression using a minimally invasive MicroBlade Shaver® instrument versus hemilaminotomy with foraminotomy (HL). Methods The iO-Flex® system utilizes a flexible over-the-wire MicroBlade Shaver instrument designed for facet-sparing, minimally invasive “inside-out” decompression of the lumbar spine. Unilateral decompression was performed at 36 levels in nine human cadaver specimens, six with age-appropriate degenerative changes and three with radiographically confirmed multilevel stenosis. The iO-Flex system was utilized on alternating sides from L2/3 to L5/S1, and HL was performed on the opposite side at each level by the same investigator. Spinal canal, facet joint, lateral recess, and foraminal morphology were assessed using computed tomography. Results Similar increases in soft tissue canal area and decreases in ligamentum flavum area were noted in nondiseased specimens, although HL required removal of 83% more laminar area (P < 0.01) and 95% more bone resection, including the pars interarticularis and facet joints (P < 0.001), compared with the iO-Flex system. Similar increases in lateral recess diameter were noted in nondiseased specimens using each procedure. In stenotic specimens, the increase in lateral recess diameter was significantly (P = 0.02) greater following use of the iO-Flex system (43%) versus HL (7%). The iO-Flex system resulted in greater facet joint preservation in nondiseased and stenotic specimens. In stenotic specimens, the iO-Flex system resulted in a significantly greater increase in foraminal width compared with HL (24% versus 4%, P = 0.01), with facet joint preservation. Conclusion The iO-Flex system resulted in significantly better decompression of the lateral recess and foraminal areas compared with HL, while preserving posterior spinal elements, including the facet joint. PMID:22879740

Lauryssen, Carl; Berven, Sigurd; Mimran, Ronnie; Summa, Christopher; Sheinberg, Michael; Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E

2012-01-01

122

Idiopathic subglottic stenosis.  

PubMed

A 2 1/2-year-old child was found to have subglottic stenosis with no obvious etiology. He initially responded well to dilatation, injection of triamcinolone and intermittent stenting of the airway, but four months later developed a marked, unyielding subglottic stenosis requiring tracheostomy. He had a gradual good response to dilatations and injections with triamcinolone and acquired a good subglottic lumen. However, he developed a recurrence following an episode of croup. Systemic steroids were added to the regimen leading to gradual resolution of the stenosis and successful decannulation. The embryogenesis of subglottic stenosis and the correlation with the known anatomy and histology are discussed. Subglottic stenosis may be congenital, traumatic, inflammatory, neoplastic or neurogenic. An additional group of patients has no obvious etiology and are classified as idiopathic. Treatment consists of various combinations of stents, systemic and intralesional steroids, dilatations and various operative procedures in the more refractory cases. PMID:911144

Jazbi, B; Goodwin, C; Tackett, D; Faulkner, S

1977-01-01

123

Taking it to the next level: lumbar radiculopathy from thoracic nerve schwannoma.  

PubMed

Compression or irritation of the sciatic nerve and its branches, the common fibular and tibial nerves, causes sciatica which is a common syndrome characterized most often by radiating pain from the lower back down the legs and also manifesting as sensory and motor deficits. Sciatica is a common presentation of lumbosacral disc prolapse and degenerative disease of the lumbar spine in ambulatory settings. Schwannomas rarely cause sciatica; hence, it is seldom considered in evaluation of a patient with radiculopathy. Our patient presented with lumbar radiculopathy, mild degenerative changes on lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, and failed conservative treatment. Myelopathy was confirmed with electromyogram (EMG). Thoracolumbar spine MRI revealed the schwannoma in the thoracic region. He recovered neurologic function after tumor excision. This case highlights the diagnostic challenge that may arise in evaluating a patient with lumbar radiculopathy, negative lumbosacral spine imaging, and failure of conservative therapy. PMID:25656663

Ukaigwe, Anene; Olugbodi, Akintomi; Alweis, Richard L

2015-01-01

124

Spine imaging after lumbar disc replacement: pitfalls and current recommendations  

PubMed Central

Background Most lumbar artificial discs are still composed of stainless steel alloys, which prevents adequate postoperative diagnostic imaging of the operated region when using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Thus patients with postoperative radicular symptoms or claudication after stainless steel implants often require alternative diagnostic procedures. Methods Possible complications of lumbar total disc replacement (TDR) are reviewed from the available literature and imaging recommendations given with regard to implant type. Two illustrative cases are presented in figures. Results Access-related complications, infections, implant wear, loosening or fracture, polyethylene inlay dislodgement, facet joint hypertrophy, central stenosis, and ankylosis of the operated segment can be visualised both in titanium and stainless steel implants, but require different imaging modalities due to magnetic artifacts in MRI. Conclusion Alternative radiographic procedures should be considered when evaluating patients following TDR. Postoperative complications following lumbar TDR including spinal stenosis causing radiculopathy and implant loosening can be visualised by myelography and radionucleotide techniques as an adjunct to plain film radiographs. Even in the presence of massive stainless steel TDR implants lumbar radicular stenosis and implant loosening can be visualised if myelography and radionuclide techniques are applied. PMID:19619332

Robinson, Yohan; Sandén, Bengt

2009-01-01

125

MR imaging of lumbar facet joint synovial cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The increasing application of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the spine has raised the awareness of lumbar facet synovial\\u000a cysts (LFSC). This well recognised, yet uncommon condition, presents with low back pain and radiculopathy due to the presence\\u000a of an extradural mass. The commonest affected level is L4\\/5 with a mild degenerative spondylolisthesis a frequent associated\\u000a finding. MR imaging

E. Apostolaki; A. M. Davies; N. Evans; V. N. Cassar-Pullicino

2000-01-01

126

What Is Spinal Stenosis?  

MedlinePLUS

... publication. To order the Spinal Stenosis Q&A full-text version, please contact NIAMS using the contact information above. To view the complete text or to order online, visit ... NIAMS Site NIH… Turning Discovery Into Health ® Home | ...

127

[Traumatic, infectious or degenerative pathology].  

PubMed

CRANIO-ENCEPHALIC TRAUMAS: Scanography remains the examination of choice. However, MRI can be useful in diagnosis of diffuse axional lesions, not clearly visualized with scanography, and for screening the subsequent lesions. INFECTIOUS OR INFLAMMATORY LESIONS: Some are very evocative with MRI: cerebral abscesses, notably herpetic encephalitis and Creutzfeldt-Jacob's disease. If multiple sclerosis is suspected, MRI is considered as the principle para-clinical examination able to confirm the diagnosis with the first episode. It also supplies data for the diagnosis of metabolic, toxic and degenerative diseases. PMID:12148375

Meder, J F; Brami-Zylberberg, F; Oppenheim, C; Méary, E; Martinez-Lozano, F; Delvat, D; Frédy, D

2002-06-01

128

Yoga and Lumbar Disc Degeneration Disease: MR Imaging Based Case Control Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yoga is a popular exercise with evidence of var - ious physical and psychological benefits. However, most of these studies are based on subjective scales. To our k nowledge, there are ver y few original studies on MRI analyses of yoga prac - ticing individuals at present. Here we conducted a MRI-based case-control study of yoga and lumbar degenerative disc

Tzu-Chieh Cheng; Fu-Jen Catholic Uiversity; Chin-Ming Jeng

129

Characteristics of lumbar scoliosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis  

PubMed Central

Background Although a substantial percentage of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) experience low back pain, the characteristics of lumbar spine pathology in RA patients has been poorly investigated. In our institutions, lumbar spine radiographs indicated scoliosis in 26 patients. The present study aimed to clarify the characteristics of lumbar scoliosis in RA patients. Methods This is a retrospective study of 26 RA patients with lumbar scoliosis. Patient characteristics such as disease duration, disease stage and class according to Steinbrocker's classification, and medication for RA and osteoporosis were reviewed. Radiologic evaluation of scoliosis was performed at two different time points by measuring Cobb angles. The progression of scoliosis per year was calculated by dividing the change in Cobb angles by the number of years. Apical vertebral rotation, lateral listhesis, and the level of the intercrestal line at the first observation were also measured. The correlation between different factors and changes in the Cobb angles per year was analyzed. Results Majority of the patients had a long disease duration and were classified as stage 3 or 4 according to Steinbrocker's classification. During the observation period, most patients were treated with glucocorticoids. Unlike the previous studies on degenerative scoliosis, apical vertebral rotation, lateral listhesis, and the level of the intercrestal line at initial observation were not significantly related to the progression of scoliosis. Initial Cobb angles were inversely related to the progression of scoliosis. Patients who were treated with bisphosphonates showed slower progression of scoliosis. Conclusions Our results indicate that the characteristics of lumbar scoliosis in RA patients differ from those of degenerative lumbar scoliosis. Bone fragility due to the long disease duration, poor control of disease activity, and osteoporosis is possibly related to its progression. PMID:24767138

2014-01-01

130

Comparing Miniopen and Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Interbody Fusion in Single-Level Lumbar Degeneration  

PubMed Central

Degenerative diseases of the lumbar spine, which are common among elderly people, cause back pain and radicular symptoms and lead to a poor quality of life. Lumbar spinal fusion is a standardized and widely accepted surgical procedure used for treating degenerative lumbar diseases; however, the classical posterior approach used in this procedure is recognized to cause vascular and neurologic damage of the lumbar muscles. Various studies have suggested that using the minimally invasive transforaminal interbody fusion (TLIF) technique provides long-term clinical outcomes comparable to those of open TLIF approaches in selected patients. In this study, we compared the perioperative and short-term advantages of miniopen, MI, and open TLIF. Compared with open TLIF, MI-TLIF and miniopen TLIF were associated with less blood loss, shorter hospital stays, and longer operative times; however, following the use of these procedures, no difference in quality of life was measured at 6 months or 1 year. Whether miniopen TLIF or MI-TLIF can replace traditional TLIF as the surgery of choice for treating degenerative lumbar deformity remains unclear, and additional studies are required for validating the safety and efficiency of these procedures. PMID:25629037

Lo, Wei-Lun; Lin, Chien-Min; Yeh, Yi-Shian; Tseng, Yuan-Yun; Yang, Shun-Tai

2015-01-01

131

[Spinal canal stenosis].  

PubMed

Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal by a combination of bone and soft tissues, which can lead to mechanical compression of spinal nerve roots or the dural sac. The lumbal spinal compression of these nerve roots can be symptomatic, resulting in weakness, reflex alterations, gait disturbances, bowel or bladder dysfunction, motor and sensory changes, radicular pain or atypical leg pain and neurogenic claudication. The anatomical presence of spinal canal stenosis is confirmed radiologically with computerized tomography, myelography or magnetic resonance imaging and play a decisive role in optimal patient-oriented therapy decision-making. PMID:25398571

Papanagiotou, P; Boutchakova, M

2014-11-01

132

Trumpet laminectomy microdecompression for lumbal canal stenosis.  

PubMed

Microsurgery techniques are useful innovations towards minimizing the insult of canal stenosis. Here, we describe the trumpet laminectomy microdecompression (TLM) technique, advantages and disadvantages. Sixty-two TLM patients with lumbar disc herniation, facet hypertrophy or yellow ligament or intracanal granulation tissue. The symptoms are low back pain, dysesthesia and severe pain on both legs. Spine levels operated Th11-S1; the patients who had trumpet-type fenestration, 62.9% had hypertrophy of the facet joint, 11.3% had intracanal granulation tissue, 79.1% had hypertrophy of the yellow ligament and 64.5% had disc herniation. The average of procedure duration was 68.9 min and intraoperative blood loss was 47.4 mL. Intraoperative complications were found in 3.2% of patients, with dural damage but without cerebrospinal fluid leakage. The TLM can be performed for all ages and all levels of spinal canal stenosis, without the complication of spondilolistesis. The TLM has a shorter duration, with minimal intraoperative blood loss. PMID:25346821

Henky, Jefri; Yasuda, Muneyoshi; Arifin, Muhammad Zafrullah; Takayasu, Masakazu; Faried, Ahmad

2014-10-01

133

Trumpet Laminectomy Microdecompression for Lumbal Canal Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Microsurgery techniques are useful innovations towards minimizing the insult of canal stenosis. Here, we describe the trumpet laminectomy microdecompression (TLM) technique, advantages and disadvantages. Sixty-two TLM patients with lumbar disc herniation, facet hypertrophy or yellow ligament or intracanal granulation tissue. The symptoms are low back pain, dysesthesia and severe pain on both legs. Spine levels operated Th11-S1; the patients who had trumpet-type fenestration, 62.9% had hypertrophy of the facet joint, 11.3% had intracanal granulation tissue, 79.1% had hypertrophy of the yellow ligament and 64.5% had disc herniation. The average of procedure duration was 68.9 min and intraoperative blood loss was 47.4 mL. Intraoperative complications were found in 3.2% of patients, with dural damage but without cerebrospinal fluid leakage. The TLM can be performed for all ages and all levels of spinal canal stenosis, without the complication of spondilolistesis. The TLM has a shorter duration, with minimal intraoperative blood loss. PMID:25346821

Yasuda, Muneyoshi; Arifin, Muhammad Zafrullah; Takayasu, Masakazu; Faried, Ahmad

2014-01-01

134

Racial Differences in the Prevalence of Severe Aortic Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Background In an era of expanded treatment options for severe aortic stenosis, it is important to understand risk factors for the condition. It has been suggested that severe aortic stenosis is less common in African Americans, but there are limited data from large studies. Methods and Results The Synthetic Derivative at Vanderbilt University Medical Center, a database of over 2.1 million de?identified patient records, was used to identify individuals who had undergone echocardiography. The association of race with severe aortic stenosis was examined using multivariable logistic regression analyses adjusting for conventional risk factors. Of the 272 429 eligible patients (mean age 45 years, 44% male) with echocardiography, 14% were African American and 82% were Caucasian. Severe aortic stenosis was identified in 106 (0.29%) African?American patients and 2030 (0.91%) Caucasian patients (crude OR 0.32, 95% CI [0.26, 0.38]). This difference persisted in multivariable?adjusted analyses (OR 0.41 [0.33, 0.50], P<0.0001). African?American individuals were also less likely to have severe aortic stenosis due to degenerative calcific disease (adjusted OR 0.47 [0.36, 0.61]) or congenitally bicuspid valve (crude OR 0.13 [0.02, 0.80], adjusted OR dependent on age). Referral bias against those with severe valvular disease was assessed by comparing the prevalence of severe mitral regurgitation in Caucasians and African Americans and no difference was found. Conclusions These findings suggest that African Americans are at significantly lower risk of developing severe aortic stenosis than Caucasians. PMID:24870936

Patel, Devin K.; Green, Kelly D.; Fudim, Marat; Harrell, Frank E.; Wang, Thomas J.; Robbins, Mark A.

2014-01-01

135

Oxygen–Ozone Therapy for Degenerative Spine Disease in the Elderly: A Prospective Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We describe our experience of oxygen–ozone therapy to treat degenerative spine disease in the elderly. From April 2004 to\\u000a March 2008 we selected 129 patients with CT and\\/or MR evidence of spondyloarthrosis and disc degeneration of the lumbar spine.\\u000a All patients enrolled in the study had contraindications to the administration of commonly used analgesic and anti-inflammatory\\u000a drugs.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Oxygen–ozone therapy was

Matteo Bonetti; Alessandro Fontana; Francesco Martinelli; Cosma Andreula

136

Diagnostic Lumbar Puncture.  

PubMed

Diagnostic Lumbar Puncture is one of the most commonly performed invasive tests in clinical medicine. Evaluation of an acute headache and investigation of inflammatory or infectious disease of the nervous system are the most common indications. Serious complications are rare, and correct technique will minimise diagnostic error and maximise patient comfort. We review the technique of diagnostic Lumbar Puncture including anatomy, needle selection, needle insertion, measurement of opening pressure, Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) specimen handling and after care. We also make some quality improvement suggestions for those designing services incorporating diagnostic Lumbar Puncture. PMID:25075138

Doherty, Carolynne M; Forbes, Raeburn B

2014-05-01

137

Treatment of intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis.  

PubMed

Atherosclerotic stenosis of the major intracranial arteries is an important cause of ischemic stroke. Antiplatelet agents and aggressive management of atherosclerotic risk factors, including hypertension, should play a central role in the prevention of vascular events in patients with intracranial arterial stenosis. Angioplasty and stenting are also among current therapeutic options. A randomized controlled trial of intracranial stenting plus aggressive medical therapy versus aggressive medical therapy alone is needed to determine the optimal treatment for patients with severe symptomatic intracranial stenosis. PMID:18838951

Turan, Tanya N; Chimowitz, Marc I

2008-01-01

138

Herniated Lumbar Disc  

MedlinePLUS

... 50. A herniated lumbar disc may also cause back pain, although back pain alone (without leg pain) can have many causes ... 90% success); surgery is less effective in relieving back pain. Nonsurgical treatment Your doctor may prescribe nonsurgical treatments ...

139

A New Electrophysiological Method for the Diagnosis of Extraforaminal Stenosis at L5-S1  

PubMed Central

Study Design A retrospective study. Purpose To examine the effectiveness of using an electrodiagnostic technique as a new approach in the clinical diagnosis of extraforaminal stenosis at L5-S1. Overview of Literature We introduced a new effective approach to the diagnosis of extraforaminal stenosis at the lumbosacral junction using the existing electrophysiological evaluation technique. Methods A consecutive series of 124 patients with fifth lumbar radiculopathy were enrolled, comprising a group of 74 patients with spinal canal stenosis and a second group of 50 patients with extraforaminal stenosis at L5-S1. The technique involved inserting a pair of needle electrodes into the foraminal exit zone of the fifth lumbar spinal nerves, which were used to provide electrical stimulation. The compound muscle action potentials from each of the tibialis anterior muscles were recorded. Results The distal motor latency (DML) of the potentials ranged from 11.2 to 24.6 milliseconds in patients with extraforaminal stenosis. In contrast, the DML in patients with spinal canal stenosis ranged from 10.0 to 17.2 milliseconds. After comparing the DML of each of the 2 groups and at the same time comparing the differences in DML between the affected and unaffected side of each patient, we concluded there were statistically significant differences (p<0.01) between the 2 groups. Using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the cutoff values were calculated to be 15.2 milliseconds and 1.1 milliseconds, respectively. Conclusions This approach using a means of DML measurement enables us to identify and localize lesions, which offers an advantage in diagnosing extraforaminal stenosis at L5-S1. PMID:24761195

Yoshida, Munehito; Yamada, Hiroshi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Minamide, Akihito; Nakagawa, Yukihiro; Kawai, Masaki; Tsutsui, Shunji

2014-01-01

140

Paraplegia after epidural-general anesthesia in a Morquio patient with moderate thoracic spinal stenosis  

PubMed Central

Purpose We describe an instance in which complete paraplegia was evident immediately postoperatively after apparently uneventful lumbar epidural-general anesthesia in a patient with Morquio Type A syndrome (Morquio A) with moderate thoracic spinal stenosis. Clinical features A 16-yr-old male with Morquio A received lumbar epidural-general anesthesia for bilateral distal femoral osteotomies. Preoperative imaging had revealed a stable cervical spine and moderate thoracic spinal stenosis with a mild degree of spinal cord compression. Systolic blood pressure (BP) was maintained within 20% of the pre-anesthetic baseline value. The patient sustained a severe thoracic spinal cord infarction. The epidural anesthetic contributed to considerable delay in the recognition of the diagnosis of paraplegia. Conclusion This experience leads us to suggest that, in patients with Morquio A, it may be prudent to avoid the use of epidural anesthesia without very firm indication, to support BP at or near baseline levels in the presence of even moderate spinal stenosis, and to avoid flexion or extension of the spinal column in intraoperative positioning. If the spinal cord/column status is unknown or if the patient is known to have any degree of spinal stenosis, we suggest that the same rigorous BP support practices that are typically applied in other patients with severe spinal stenosis, especially stenosis with myelomalacia, should apply to patients with Morquio A and that spinal cord neurophysiological monitoring should be employed. In the event that cord imaging is not available, e.g., emergency procedures, it would be prudent to assume the presence of spinal stenosis. PMID:25323122

Krane, Elliot J.; Tomatsu, Shunji; Theroux, Mary C.; Lee, Roland R.

2014-01-01

141

Renal artery stenosis.  

PubMed

Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (RAS) is the single largest cause of secondary hypertension; it is associated with progressive renal insufficiency and causes cardiovascular complications such as refractory heart failure and flash pulmonary edema. Medical therapy, including risk factor modification, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system antagonists, lipid-lowering agents, and antiplatelet therapy, is advised in all patients. Patients with uncontrolled renovascular hypertension despite optimal medical therapy, ischemic nephropathy, and cardiac destabilization syndromes who have severe RAS are likely to benefit from renal artery revascularization. Screening for RAS can be done with Doppler ultrasonography, CT angiography, and magnetic resonance angiography. PMID:25439331

Tafur-Soto, Jose David; White, Christopher J

2015-02-01

142

Anal fissure and stenosis.  

PubMed

Anal fissure is a common anorectal disorder resulting in anal pain and bleeding. Fissures can either heal spontaneously and be classified as acute, or persist for 6 or more weeks and be classified as chronic, ultimately necessitating treatment. Anal stenosis is a challenging problem most commonly resulting from trauma, such as excisional hemorrhoidectomy. This frustrating issue for the patient is equally as challenging to the surgeon. This article reviews these 2 anorectal disorders, covering their etiology, mechanism of disease, diagnosis, and algorithm of management. PMID:24280397

Shawki, Sherief; Costedio, Meagan

2013-12-01

143

Management of idiopathic tracheal stenosis.  

PubMed

Idiopathic laryngotracheal stenosis usually occurs in women, produces stenosis of 1 to 3 cm, is densely collagenous, and is unaccompanied by systemic disease. It may be successfully managed by one stage resection and reconstruction, most often including a portion of the lower larynx. PMID:8934010

Grillo, H C

1996-11-01

144

Treatment of idiopathic laryngotracheal stenosis.  

PubMed

Idiopathic laryngotracheal stenosis is a very rare condition characterized by an inflammatory cicatricial stenosis at the level of the cricoid cartilage and proximal trachea. Treatment options range from conservative short-term solutions to definitive surgical resection and reconstruction. PMID:19942128

Liberman, Moishe; Mathisen, Douglas J

2009-01-01

145

Common surgical complications in degenerative spinal surgery  

PubMed Central

The rapid growth of spine degenerative surgery has led to unrelenting efforts to define and prevent possible complications, the incidence of which is probably higher than that reported and varies according to the region of the spine involved (cervical and thoracolumbar) and the severity of the surgery. Several issues are becoming progressively clearer, such as complication rates in primary versus revision spinal surgery, complications in the elderly, the contribution of minimally invasive surgery to the reduction of complication rate. In this paper the most common surgical complications in degenerative spinal surgery are outlined and discussed. PMID:23610753

Papadakis, Michael; Aggeliki, Lianou; Papadopoulos, Elias C; Girardi, Federico P

2013-01-01

146

Chordoma of the Lumbar Spine Presenting as Sciatica and Treated with Vertebroplasty  

SciTech Connect

The lumbar spine is a less common location for chordoma. Here we describe a 44-year-old woman presenting with pain due to a L4 vertebral expansile lesion that caused significant canal stenosis and neural foraminal compromise. Vertebroplasty was performed and resulted in immediate pain relief. For patients with painful lumbar chordoma who are unwilling to undergo surgery, vertebroplasty can play a palliative role as in patients with other vertebral lesions. Treating pain and stabilizing vertebra by way of vertebroplasty in a case of chordoma has not yet been reported.

Chatterjee, Somenath; Bodhey, Narendra Kuber, E-mail: narendrakb2001@yahoo.co.in; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Periakaruppan, Alagappan [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Department of Imaging Sciences and Interventional Radiology (India)

2010-12-15

147

[Asymptomatic aortic stenosis].  

PubMed

In patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis (AS) therapeutic decision is straightforward and aortic valve replacement is strongly recommended. In asymptomatic AS patients clinical strategy is controversial and challenging. Prospective studies suggest a watchful waiting approach in the majority of patients with regular follow-up exams. Defining symptomatic status related to the disease can be particularly difficult in the elderly and patients with comorbidities. A robust measurement of AS severity is mandatory in this context. Nevertheless some patients with asymptomatic AS benefit from early valve replacement and reliable risk stratification for identification of high-risk patients is of importance. This review article will outline relevant clinical studies and guidelines on management of asymptomatic AS patients. PMID:21674426

Bahlmann, E; Kuck, K-H; Nienaber, C A

2011-06-01

148

The effect of age on sagittal plane profile of the lumbar spine according to standing, supine, and various sitting positions  

PubMed Central

Background The sagittal alignment of the spine changes depending on body posture and degenerative changes. This study aimed to observe changes in sagittal alignment of the lumbar spine with different positions (standing, supine, and various sitting postures) and to verify the effect of aging on lumbar sagittal alignment. Methods Whole-spine lateral radiographs were obtained for young volunteers (25.4?±?2.3 years) and elderly volunteers (66.7?±?1.7 years). Radiographs were obtained in standing, supine, and sitting (30°, 60°, and 90°) positions respectively. We compared the radiological changes in the lordotic and segmental angles in different body positions and at different ages. Upper and lower lumbar lordosis were defined according to differences in anatomical sagittal mobility and kinematic behavior. Results Lumbar lordosis was greater in a standing position (52.79° and 53.90° in young and old groups, respectively) and tended to decrease as position changed from supine to sitting. Compared with the younger group, the older group showed significantly more lumbar lordosis in supine and 60° and 90° sitting positions (P?=?0.043, 0.002, 0.011). Upper lumbar lordosis in the younger group changed dynamically in all changed positions compared with the old group (P?=?0.019). Lower lumbar lordosis showed a decreasing pattern in both age groups, significantly changing as position changed from 30° to 60° (P?=?0.007, 0.007). Conclusions Lumbar lordosis decreases as position changes from standing to 90°sitting. The upper lumbar spine is more flexible in individuals in their twenties compared to those in their sixties. Changes in lumbar lordosis were concentrated in the lower lumbar region in the older group in sitting positions. PMID:24571953

2014-01-01

149

Lumbar Disc Herniation in a Patient With Congenital Vertebral Body Anomaly: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Lumbar disc herniation is characterized with low back and leg pain resulting from the degenerated lumbar disc compressing the spinal nerve root. The etiology of degenerative spine is related to age, smoking, microtrauma, obesity, disorders of familial collagen structure, occupational and sports-related physical activity. However, disc herniations induced by congenital lumbar vertebral anomalies are rarely seen. Vertebral fusion defect is one of the causes of congenital anomalies. The pathogenesis of embryological corpus vertebral fusion anomaly is not fully known. In this paper, a 30-year-old patient who had the complaints of low back and right leg pain after falling from a height is presented. She had right L5-S1 disc herniation that had developed on the basis of S1 vertebra corpus fusion anomaly in Lumbar computed tomography. This case has been discussed in the light of literature based on evaluations of Lumbar Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). This case is unique in that it is the first case with development of lumbar disc herniation associated with S1 vertebral corpus fusion anomaly. Congenital malformations with unusual clinical presentation after trauma should be evaluated through advanced radiological imaging techniques. PMID:25620987

Atabey, Cem; Topuz, Ali Kivanc; Velio?lu, Murat; Demircan, Mehmet Nusret

2014-01-01

150

Lumbar disc herniation in a patient with congenital vertebral body anomaly: a case report.  

PubMed

Lumbar disc herniation is characterized with low back and leg pain resulting from the degenerated lumbar disc compressing the spinal nerve root. The etiology of degenerative spine is related to age, smoking, microtrauma, obesity, disorders of familial collagen structure, occupational and sports-related physical activity. However, disc herniations induced by congenital lumbar vertebral anomalies are rarely seen. Vertebral fusion defect is one of the causes of congenital anomalies. The pathogenesis of embryological corpus vertebral fusion anomaly is not fully known. In this paper, a 30-year-old patient who had the complaints of low back and right leg pain after falling from a height is presented. She had right L5-S1 disc herniation that had developed on the basis of S1 vertebra corpus fusion anomaly in Lumbar computed tomography. This case has been discussed in the light of literature based on evaluations of Lumbar Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). This case is unique in that it is the first case with development of lumbar disc herniation associated with S1 vertebral corpus fusion anomaly. Congenital malformations with unusual clinical presentation after trauma should be evaluated through advanced radiological imaging techniques. PMID:25620987

Atabey, Cem; Ero?lu, Ahmet; Topuz, Ali Kivanc; Velio?lu, Murat; Demircan, Mehmet Nusret

2014-12-01

151

Relationship between alterations of the lumbar spine, visualized with magnetic resonance imaging, and occupational variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the effect of physical workload on the occurrence of low back pain (LBP) has been extensively investigated, few quantitative\\u000a studies have examined the morphological changes visualized via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in relation to occupational\\u000a variables. The relationship between the severity of some abnormalities such as lumbar spinal stenosis or spondylolisthesis\\u000a and physical or psychosocial occupational risk factors has

Massimo Mariconda; Olimpio Galasso; Luigi Imbimbo; Giovanni Lotti; Carlo Milano

2007-01-01

152

Comparison of Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion with Direct Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Clinical and Radiological Results  

PubMed Central

Objective The use of direct lumbar interbody fusion (DLIF) has gradually increased; however, no studies have directly compared DLIF and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). We compared DLIF and TLIF on the basis of clinical and radiological outcomes. Methods A retrospective review was performed on the medical records and radiographs of 98 and 81 patients who underwent TLIF and DLIF between January 2011 and December 2012. Clinical outcomes were compared with a visual analog scale (VAS) and the Oswestry disability index (ODI). The preoperative and postoperative disc heights, segmental sagittal/coronal angles, and lumbar lordosis were measured on radiographs. Fusion rates, operative time, estimated blood loss (EBL), length of hospital stay, and complications were assessed. Results DLIF was superior to TLIF regarding its ability to restore disc height, foraminal height, and coronal balance (p<0.001). As the extent of surgical level increased, DLIF displayed significant advantages over TLIF considering the operative time and EBL. However, fusion rates at 12 months post-operation were lower for DLIF (87.8%) than for TLIF (98.1%) (p=0.007). The changes of VAS and ODI between the TLIF and DLIF were not significantly different (p>0.05). Conclusion Both DLIF and TLIF are less invasive and thus good surgical options for treating degenerative lumber diseases. DLIF has higher potential in increasing neural foramina and correcting coronal balance, and involves a shorter operative time and reduced EBL, in comparison with TLIF. However, DLIF displayed a lower fusion rate than TLIF, and caused complications related to the transpsoas approach. PMID:25628805

Lee, Young Seok; Park, Seung Won; Chung, Chan

2014-01-01

153

Is running associated with degenerative joint disease  

SciTech Connect

Little information is available regarding the long-term effects, if any, of running on the musculoskeletal system. The authors compared the prevalence of degenerative joint disease among 17 male runners with 18 male nonrunners. Running subjects (53% marathoners) ran a mean of 44.8 km (28 miles)/wk for 12 years. Pain and swelling of hips, knees, ankles and feet and other musculoskeletal complaints among runners were comparable with those among nonrunners. Radiologic examinations (for osteophytes, cartilage thickness, and grade of degeneration) also were without notable differences among groups. They did not find an increased prevalence of osteoarthritis among the runners. Our observations suggest that long-duration, high-mileage running need to be associated with premature degenerative joint disease in the lower extremities.

Panush, R.S.; Schmidt, C.; Caldwell, J.R.; Edwards, N.L.; Longley, S.; Yonker, R.; Webster, E.; Nauman, J.; Stork, J.; Pettersson, H.

1986-03-07

154

Is running associated with degenerative joint disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little information is available regarding the long-term effects, if any, of running on the musculoskeletal system. The authors compared the prevalence of degenerative joint disease among 17 male runners with 18 male nonrunners. Running subjects (53% marathoners) ran a mean of 44.8 km (28 miles)\\/wk for 12 years. Pain and swelling of hips, knees, ankles and feet and other musculoskeletal

R. S. Panush; C. Schmidt; J. R. Caldwell; N. L. Edwards; S. Longley; R. Yonker; E. Webster; J. Nauman; J. Stork; H. Pettersson

1986-01-01

155

Outer Retinal Tubulation in Degenerative Retinal Disorders  

PubMed Central

Objective To demonstrate outer retinal tubulation (ORT) in various degenerative retinal disorders. Methods This was a retrospective review of the multimodal imaging of 29 eyes of 15 patients with various retinal dystrophies and inflammatory maculopathies manifesting ORT. The morphologic features of ORT and its evolution over time were analyzed using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) data. Results Outer retinal tubulation was identified as round or ovoid structures with hyper-reflective borders in pattern dystrophy (6 eyes), acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (5 eyes), retinitis pigmentosa (4 eyes), Stargardt disease (4 eyes), gyrate atrophy (2 eyes), choroideremia (2 eyes), and various other degenerative conditions. These structures appeared to develop from the invagination of photoreceptors at the junction of intact and atrophic outer retina. During follow-up, the number and distribution of ORT largely remained stable. As zones of atrophy enlarged, the frequency of ORT appeared to increase. The ORT structures were found in fewer than 10% of patients with retinitis pigmentosa, Stargardt, or pattern dystrophy. Conclusion Outer retinal tubulation is found in various degenerative retinal disorders that share in common damage to the outer retina and/or retinal pigment epithelium. The presence of ORT may be in an indicator of underlying disease stage and severity. PMID:23676993

Goldberg, Naomi R.; Greenberg, Jonathan P.; Laud, Ketan; Tsang, Stephen; Freund, K. Bailey

2013-01-01

156

Consensus paper: management of degenerative cerebellar disorders.  

PubMed

Treatment of motor symptoms of degenerative cerebellar ataxia remains difficult. Yet there are recent developments that are likely to lead to significant improvements in the future. Most desirable would be a causative treatment of the underlying cerebellar disease. This is currently available only for a very small subset of cerebellar ataxias with known metabolic dysfunction. However, increasing knowledge of the pathophysiology of hereditary ataxia should lead to an increasing number of medically sensible drug trials. In this paper, data from recent drug trials in patients with recessive and dominant cerebellar ataxias will be summarized. There is consensus that up to date, no medication has been proven effective. Aminopyridines and acetazolamide are the only exception, which are beneficial in patients with episodic ataxia type 2. Aminopyridines are also effective in a subset of patients presenting with downbeat nystagmus. As such, all authors agreed that the mainstays of treatment of degenerative cerebellar ataxia are currently physiotherapy, occupational therapy, and speech therapy. For many years, well-controlled rehabilitation studies in patients with cerebellar ataxia were lacking. Data of recently published studies show that coordinative training improves motor function in both adult and juvenile patients with cerebellar degeneration. Given the well-known contribution of the cerebellum to motor learning, possible mechanisms underlying improvement will be outlined. There is consensus that evidence-based guidelines for the physiotherapy of degenerative cerebellar ataxia need to be developed. Future developments in physiotherapeutical interventions will be discussed including application of non-invasive brain stimulation. PMID:24222635

Ilg, W; Bastian, A J; Boesch, S; Burciu, R G; Celnik, P; Claaßen, J; Feil, K; Kalla, R; Miyai, I; Nachbauer, W; Schöls, L; Strupp, M; Synofzik, M; Teufel, J; Timmann, D

2014-04-01

157

Mitral valve repair for degenerative disease.  

PubMed

Degenerative mitral valve disease is the most common cause of mitral regurgitation in North America. Using techniques developed by Carpentier and others, up to 90% of degenerative mitral valves can be repaired. These valves are characterized by annular dilatation and chordal rupture or elongation; chordal changes are mainly localized to the posterior leaflet. The most common repair technique for posterior leaflet prolapse is quadrangular resection. When the leaflet is >1.5 cm long, a sliding repair is added to reduce the risk of systolic anterior motion. Anterior leaflet prolapse is usually treated by transfer of chords from the posterior leaflet or adjacent areas of the anterior leaflet. Other useful techniques for correction of anterior leaflet prolapse are creation of artificial chords and the Alfieri edge-to-edge repair. Chordal shortening is rarely employed as it jeopardizes repair durability. Annuloplasty accompanies all repairs. A posterior annuloplasty provides results equivalent to those obtained with a circumferential annuloplasty. Flexible annuloplasty has theoretical advantages, but clinical benefits have not been shown. After mitral valve repair for degenerative disease, 10-year freedom from reoperation is 93%. Risk of reoperation is increased by anterior leaflet prolapse, chordal shortening, failure to use an annuloplasty, and lack of intraoperative echocardiography. In the ideal situation, when posterior leaflet resection is corrected by quadrangular resection with annuloplasty and the result is confirmed by intraoperative echocardiography, the 10-year durability is 98%. PMID:11843514

Gillinov, A Marc; Cosgrove, Delos M

2002-01-01

158

Treatment of Symptomatic Lumbar Spinal Degenerative Pathologies by Means of Combined Conservative Biochemical Treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Research in spine surgery has proposed new soft and less invasive techniques. These are the results of our experience with\\u000a oxygen-ozone therapy, which we could experiment within the Italian National Health System over 3 years. A total of 1,920 patients\\u000a were admitted on the basis of unselected enrolment because of lumbosciatic pain. Patients were divided into three groups:\\u000a (A) Patients

A. Alexandre; L. Corò; R. Paradiso; R. Dall’Aglio; F. Fraschini; P. G. Spaggiari

159

Spinal cord compression due to undiagnosed thoracic meningioma following lumbar surgery in an elderly patient: a case report.  

PubMed

As spinal surgery in elderly patients is becoming increasingly frequent, comorbidities likely to be decompensated after such procedures must be kept in mind. We report here the case of an 82-year-old woman who presented rapidly progressive spinal cord compression following lumbar surgery for radiculopathy. Investigations showed a thoracic intradural extramedullary compressive lesion, which after removal turned out to be a meningioma. We suggest that radiculopathy and non-specific degenerative modifications partially masked this lesion, and that lumbar surgery caused this acute neurological deterioration. Therefore, we advice caution in older patients among whom such ambiguous clinical presentation is frequent. PMID:24210294

Knafo, S; Lonjon, G; Vassal, M; Bouyer, B; Lonjon, N

2013-12-01

160

Quality-of-Life Outcomes With Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion Based on Long-Term Analysis of 304 Consecutive Patients  

PubMed Central

Study Design. This was a prospective clinical study that took place in an outpatient spine clinic. Objective. To demonstrate the short-/long-term outcomes from a large cohort of patients undergoing minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MITLIF). Summary of Background Data. Long-term prospective outcomes in patients undergoing minimally invasive spinal fusion for debilitating back pain has not been well studied. Methods. Presenting diagnosis was determined from clinical findings and radiographical (radiograph, magnetic resonance image, computed tomographic scan) evaluations preoperatively. Patients were assessed with outcome measures preoperatively, and postoperatively at 2 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, 12 months, 24 months, and annually 2 to 7 years (mean follow-up: 47 mo) final follow-up. The rate of postoperative complications and reoperations at the initial level of MITLIF and adjacent level(s) were followed. Fusion rates were assessed blinded and independently by radiograph. Results. Visual analogue scale scores decreased significantly from 7.0 preoperatively to 3.5 at mean 47-month follow-up. Oswestry Disability Index scores declined from 43.1 preoperatively to 28.2 at mean 47-month follow-up. Short-Form 36 mental component scores increased from 43.8 preoperatively to 49.7 at 47-month follow-up. Short-Form 36 physical component scores increased from 30.6 preoperatively to 39.6 at 47-month follow-up (P < 0.05). Conclusion. This prospectively collected outcomes study shows long-term statistically significant clinical outcomes improvement after MITLIF in patients with clinically symptomatic spondylolisthesis and degenerative disc disease with or without stenosis. MITLIF resulted in a high rate of spinal fusion and very low rate of interbody fusion failure and/or adjacent segment disease requiring reoperation while reducing postoperative complications. Level of Evidence: 3 PMID:24150437

Hussain, Namath S.; White, G. Zachary; Begun, Evan M.; Collins, Robert A.; Fahim, Daniel K.; Hiremath, Girish K.; Adbi, Fadumo M.; Yacob, Sammy A.

2014-01-01

161

Decompression of idiopathic symptomatic epidural lipomatosis of the lumbar spine.  

PubMed

Epidural lipomatosis has been implicated as a cause or contributor of symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis. Symptomatic spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) of the lumbar spine is a rare disease, often associated with steroid overload. Idiopathic lipomatosis is even much less frequent. Signs and symptoms depend upon the level and degree of nerve root compression. Diagnosis is best based on MRI. Weight reduction can be curative, however, after failure of medical treatment or in severe cases surgical decompression should be performed. A 70-year-old man with both lower limb severe paresthesia and radicular symptoms unrelieved with conservative treatments such as medications and physical therapy was treated by surgical decompression. Obesity, endocrinopathic disease, and chronic steroid therapy were excluded. Interlaminar fenestration, lateral recess decompression and fat debulking were applied at all levels through the L2-S1. After surgery there was a gradual improvement in symptoms. We report a rare case of idiopathic SEL which has shown entire evolvement of lumbar spine with specific increase of radiological and clinical severity from L2-3 to L5-S1 in a non-obese patient. PMID:17681857

Min, Woo-Kie; Oh, Chang-Wug; Jeon, In-Ho; Kim, Shin-Yoon; Park, Byung-Chul

2007-10-01

162

Usefulness of Posterolateral Transforaminal Approach in Lumbar Radicular Pain  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the short-term effects and advantages of transforaminal epidural steroid injection (TFESI) performed using the conventional (CL) and posterolateral (PL) approaches. Method Fifty patients with lumbar radicular pain from lumbar spinal stenosis and herniated lumbar disc were enrolled. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two groups (CL or PL group). All procedures were performed using a C-arm (KMC 950, KOMED, Kwangju, Kyunggi, Korea). We compared the frequency of complications during the procedure and the effects of the pain block between the two groups at 2, 4, and 12 weeks after the procedure. Results There were no significant differences in the demographic data, initial VNS (Visual numeric scale), or ODI (Oswestry disability index) between the CL group (n=26) and the PL group (n=24). There was no statistically significant difference in the outcome measures (VNS and ODI) between the groups at 2, 4, or 12 weeks. Symptoms of nerve root irritation occurred in 1 case of the CL group and in 7 cases of the PL group (p<0.05). Pricking of spinal nerve during the procedure and transient weakness after the procedure occurred in 6 cases and 3 cases, respectively in the CL group, but did not occur in the PL group. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the posterolateral approach represents an alternative TFESI method in cases with difficult needle tip positioning in the anterior epidural space, and could lower the risk of target nerve root irritation and nerve penetration. PMID:22506150

Park, Ji Woong; Nam, Hee-Seung

2011-01-01

163

[Degenerative lesions of the peripheral retina].  

PubMed

Degenerative lesions of the peripheral retina are present from teenage years onwards and increase with age. These abnormabilities are frequent, some of them being benign while others predispose to retinal tears and detachment. In the latter case, the lesions are rhegmatogenous and may justify prophylactic treatment by laser photocoagulation. We distinguish congenital lesions of the peripheral retina and intraretinal, chorioretinal and vitreoretinal degenerations. The holes and tears observed in 2% of the population consist of round atrophic holes, "horseshoe" tears, oral dialyses and giant tears. PMID:24239217

Conart, J-B; Baron, D; Berrod, J-P

2014-01-01

164

Aortic valve replacement in predominant aortic stenosis: What is an appropriate size valve?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  This is a retrospective analysis of 94 patients who underwent aortic valve replacement for predominant aortic stenosis between\\u000a January 1998 and December 2004.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and Methods  Age ranged from 16 to 70 years (mean 43.2±13.2 years). 73 were male (77.7%). Etiology was rheumatic in 71 (75.5%) and degenerative\\u000a in 23 (24.5%) patients. On transthoracic echocardiography, the diameter of the aortic annulus

Kishore Joshi; Sachin Talwar; Devagourou Velayoudham; Arkalgud Sampath Kumar

2007-01-01

165

Outcomes and Complications of the Midline Anterior Approach 3 Years after Lumbar Spine Surgery  

PubMed Central

Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new questionnaire to assess outcomes related to the midline anterior lumbar approach and to identify risk factors for negative patient responses. Methods. A retrospective review of 58 patients who underwent anterior lumbar surgery at a single institution for either degenerative disc disease or spondylolisthesis in 2009 was performed. The outcome measures included our newly developed Anterior Lumbar Surgery Questionnaire (ALSQ), ODI, and EQ-5D. Results. There were 58 patients available for followup, 27 women and 31 men. The average age at surgery was 50.8 years, with an average followup of 2.92 years. The average change in ODI was 34.94 (22.7) and EQ-5D was 0.28 (0.29). The rate of complications with the anterior approach was 10.3% and there was one male patient (3.2%) with retrograde ejaculation. Determination of the effectiveness of the new ALSQ revealed that it significantly correlated to the EQ-5D and ODI (P < 0.05). Smoking was associated with a negative response on thirteen questions. BMP use was not associated with a negative response on any sexual function questions. Conclusions. Our new Anterior Lumbar Surgery Questionnaire determines patient perceived complications related to the midline anterior lumbar surgical approach. PMID:25610657

Braaksma, Brian; Weinreb, Jeffrey H.; Nalbandian, Matthew; Spivak, Jeffrey M.; Petrizzo, Anthony

2014-01-01

166

Screening for Carotid Artery Stenosis  

MedlinePLUS

... run along each side of the neck. These arteries provide blood flow to the brain. Over time, plaque (a ... waxy substance) can build up and harden the arteries, limiting the flow of blood to the brain. Facts About Carotid Artery Stenosis ...

167

Non-fusion instrumentation of the lumbar spine with a hinged pedicle screw rod system: an in vitro experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In advanced stages of degenerative disease of the lumbar spine instrumented spondylodesis is still the golden standard treatment.\\u000a However, in recent years dynamic stabilisation devices are being implanted to treat the segmental instability due to iatrogenic\\u000a decompression or segmental degeneration. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the stabilising effect of a classical\\u000a pedicle screw\\/rod combination, with a

Werner Schmoelz; U. Onder; A. Martin; A. von Strempel

2009-01-01

168

Dietary determinants of post-menopausal bone loss at the lumbar spine: a possible beneficial effect of iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Previous studies suggesting different effects of diet on post-menopausal bone loss may have given conflicting results because they sometimes failed to exclude confounding conditions or used imprecise methodology.Design  To identify dietary determinants of bone loss from the lumbar spine after menopause in women not taking hormone replacement who developed no evidence of spondylotic or sclerotic degenerative disease, forty-three women were followed

R. Abraham; J. Walton; L. Russell; R. Wolman; B. Wardley-Smith; J. R. Green; A. Mitchell; J. Reeve

2006-01-01

169

Growth factors in subglottic stenosis.  

PubMed

We sought to define the role of fibrogenic peptides in subglottic stenosis (SGS). Biopsy specimens were obtained from patients with stenosis following endotracheal intubation (group 1, n = 5, mean age 5), patients without a history of any precedent trauma, ie. idiopathic stenosis (group 2, n = 3, mean age 40), and those without stenosis (group 3, n = 3, mean age 70). Formalin-fixed biopsy specimens were analyzed following immunohistochemical staining to determine if epidermal growth factor (EGF), platelet-derived growth factor-AA and -BB (PDGF-AA/BB), transforming growth factor-beta 1 and -beta 2 (TGF-beta 1, beta 2), or basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was deposited in these tissues. Blinded analysis revealed TGF-beta 2 and PDGF-AA to be present in seven of eight biopsy specimens from SGS and absent in controls. Staining for PDGF-BB was observed in the mucosa and submucosa and occasionally within vessel walls. Staining of individual growth factors appeared to correlate closely with the presence of granulation tissue. Essentially no bFGF or TGF-beta 1 was observed. Differences were found between patients in groups 1 and 2; tissue from group 1 revealed deposition of EGF and PDGF-BB in submucosa, epithelium, and vasculature. In summary, our experimental findings implicate PDGF and TGF-beta 2, perhaps acting in concert, in mediating the pathologic fibrotic process observed in subglottic stenosis. Epidermal growth factor, in conjunction with TGF-beta and PDGF, may also have a role, but further investigation is needed to more precisely define it. PMID:8973279

Scioscia, K A; Miller, F; April, M M; Gruber, B L

1996-12-01

170

Facet Joints Arthrosis in Normal and Stenotic Lumbar Spines.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT: Study Design. A descriptive CT study of lumbar facet joint (FJ) arthrosis in general and spinal stenosis populations.Objective. To reveal the prevalence of FJ arthrosis in general and stenosis populations and to establish its relationship to age and gender.Summary of Background Data. FJ arthrosis is a common radiographic finding and has been suggested as a cause of low back and lower extremity pain. It is also considered a dominant player in the genesis of lumbar spinal stenosis. Although it is well accepted that FJ arthrosis is an age dependent phenomenon, controversies still exist as to its association with gender and its prevalence at different spine levels. Additionally, data on FJ arthrosis frequency in spinal stenosis population are missing.Methods. Two groups were studied. The first included 65 individuals with LSS (mean age 66 ± 10 years) and the second, 150 individuals (mean age 52 ± 19 years) without LSS related symptoms. Both left and right FJ arthrosis for each vertebral level (L3 to S1) were evaluated on CT images (Brilliance 64, Philips Medical System, Cleveland Ohio). Chi-Square, Linear-by-Linear Association and McNemar test were carried out to reveal the correlation between FJ arthrosis and demographic factors (age, gender) and prevalence at different lumbar levels in both stenosis and non-stenosis groups. Additionally, a 2-way ANOVA was used to determine the association between BMI and FJ arthrosis.Results. The rate of FJ arthrosis at L3-4 and L4-5 were significantly higher (P<0.001) in the stenotic group compared to the control. In the control group the prevalence of FJ arthrosis increases cephalo-caudally (L3-L4 = 16%, L4-L5 = 28%, L5-S1 = 55%), whereas in the stenotic group there is a sharp increase from L3-4 (27%) to L4-5 (58%), but not from L4-5 to L5-S1 (55%). No association between FJ arthrosis and gender was noted. Although, mean BMI was significantly smaller in the control group compared to the stenotic group, no association between BMI and facet arthrosis was found. In the general population the prevalence of FJ arthrosis at all three levels was greater for the right side; however, significant difference (P = 0.004) was obtained only for L3-4. In all joints studied, the prevalence of FJ arthrosis increases considerably from the young age cohort (18-39) to the old age cohort (>60). Nevertheless, 10% of the young individuals (18-39) have already manifested FJ arthrosis at L5-S1. No arthrosis at that age was observed at L3-4.Conclusion. FJ arthrosis is an age-dependent and BMI and gender-independent phenomenon. In the general population, the prevalence of FJ arthrosis increases cephalo-caudally with the highest frequency at L5-S1. In the stenotic group, the highest frequency was observed at the two caudal levels; L4-5 and L5-S1. The prevalence of FJ arthrosis was greater for the right side. PMID:21270678

J, Abbas; K, Hamoud; S, Peleg; H, May; Y, Masharawi; H, Cohen; N, Peled; I, Hershkovitz

2011-01-21

171

Age-Related Loss of Lumbar Spinal Lordosis and Mobility – A Study of 323 Asymptomatic Volunteers  

PubMed Central

Background The understanding of the individual shape and mobility of the lumbar spine are key factors for the prevention and treatment of low back pain. The influence of age and sex on the total lumbar lordosis and the range of motion as well as on different lumbar sub-regions (lower, middle and upper lordosis) in asymptomatic subjects still merits discussion, since it is essential for patient-specific treatment and evidence-based distinction between painful degenerative pathologies and asymptomatic aging. Methods and Findings A novel non-invasive measuring system was used to assess the total and local lumbar shape and its mobility of 323 asymptomatic volunteers (age: 20–75 yrs; BMI <26.0 kg/m2; males/females: 139/184). The lumbar lordosis for standing and the range of motion for maximal upper body flexion (RoF) and extension (RoE) were determined. The total lordosis was significantly reduced by approximately 20%, the RoF by 12% and the RoE by 31% in the oldest (>50 yrs) compared to the youngest age cohort (20–29 yrs). Locally, these decreases mostly occurred in the middle part of the lordosis and less towards the lumbo-sacral and thoraco-lumbar transitions. The sex only affected the RoE. Conclusions During aging, the lower lumbar spine retains its lordosis and mobility, whereas the middle part flattens and becomes less mobile. These findings lay the ground for a better understanding of the incidence of level- and age-dependent spinal disorders, and may have important implications for the clinical long-term success of different surgical interventions. PMID:25549085

Dreischarf, Marcel; Albiol, Laia; Rohlmann, Antonius; Pries, Esther; Bashkuev, Maxim; Zander, Thomas; Duda, Georg; Druschel, Claudia; Strube, Patrick; Putzier, Michael; Schmidt, Hendrik

2014-01-01

172

Sagittal spinopelvic alignment and body mass index in patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis.  

PubMed

The sagittal orientation and osteoarthritis of facet joints, paravertebral muscular dystrophy and loss of ligament strength represent mechanical factors leading to degenerative spondylolisthesis. The importance of sagittal spinopelvic imbalance has been described for the developmental spondylolisthesis with isthmic lysis. However, it remains unclear if these mechanisms play a role in the pathogenesis of degenerative spondylolisthesis. The purpose of this study was to analyze the sagittal spinopelvic alignment, the body mass index (BMI) and facet joint degeneration in degenerative spondylolisthesis. A group of 49 patients with L4-L5 degenerative spondylolisthesis (12 males, 37 females, average age 65.9 years) was compared to a reference group of 77 patients with low back pain without spondylolisthesis (41 males, 36 females, average age 65.5 years). The patient's height and weight were assessed to calculate the BMI. The following parameters were measured on lateral lumbar radiographs in standing position: L1-S1 lordosis, segmental lordosis from L1-L2 to L5-S1, pelvic tilt, pelvic incidence and sacral slope. The sagittal orientation and the presence of osteoarthritis of the facet joints were determined from transversal plane computed tomography (CT). The average BMI was significantly higher (P=0.030) in the spondylolisthesis group compared to the reference group (28.2 vs. 24.8) and 71.4% of the spondylolisthesis patients had a BMI>25. The radiographic analysis showed a significant increase of the following parameters in spondylolisthesis: pelvic tilt (25.6° vs. 21.0°; P=0.046), sacral slope (42.3° vs. 33.4°; P=0.002), pelvic incidence (66.2° vs. 54.2°; P=0.001), L1-S1 lordosis (57.2° vs. 49.6°; P=0.045). The segmental lumbar lordosis was significantly higher (P<0.05) at L1-L2 and L2-L3 in spondylolisthesis. The CT analysis of L4-L5 facet joints showed a sagittal orientation in the spondylolisthesis group (36.5° vs. 44.4°; P=0.001). The anatomic orientation of the pelvis with a high incidence and sacral slope seems to represent a predisposing factor for degenerative spondylolisthesis. Although the L1-S1 lordosis keeps comparable to the reference group, the increase of pelvic tilt suggests a posterior tilt of the pelvis as a compensation mechanism in patients with high pelvic incidence. The detailed analysis of segmental lordosis revealed that the lordosis increased at the levels above the spondylolisthesis, which might subsequently increase posterior stress on facet joints. The association of overweight and a relatively vertical inclination of the S1 endplate is predisposing for an anterior translation of L4 on L5. Furthermore, the sagittally oriented facet joints do not retain this anterior vertebral displacement. PMID:21116661

Schuller, Sébastien; Charles, Yann Philippe; Steib, Jean-Paul

2011-05-01

173

Impaired phonological reading in primary degenerative dementia.  

PubMed

This case study reports the profile of preserved and impaired capacities in a left-handed patient suffering from primary degenerative dementia of unknown aetiology. She was remarkable because her relatively preserved object naming and semantic categorization abilities contrasted with severe deficits in speech fluency, oral reading, inability to execute spoken and written commands, and severely impaired auditory-verbal short-term memory. Her reading disorder could be characterized as a disturbance of assembled phonology. She had great difficulty reading pronounceable nonwords, but she could correctly read irregular words. She showed effects of word imageability or concreteness (more than word frequency). She also showed effects of part-of-speech, where nouns and adjectives were read more easily than inflected verbs. She had difficulty reading function words. The syntactic category effects could be proven (by hierarchical log-linear analysis) not to be an artefact of imageability differences between verbs, adjectives and nouns. In reading aloud she made visual and morphological errors, but no semantic errors. This interesting pattern of preserved semantic information and disrupted phonological processing is unusual in dementia and contrasts with the severe dysnomia of patients with surface dyslexia who are able to read by the indirect, assembly-of-phonology route and show better reading of nonwords than irregular words. Her reading by a direct visual-semantic route appeared to be associated with relatively intact object naming, concrete word reading, and irregular word reading. This selective impairment of phonological reading in the context of partly preserved semantic abilities was interpreted as confirmation of the dissociability of language functions in primary degenerative dementia. PMID:1884170

Diesfeldt, H F

1991-08-01

174

Degenerative meniscus: Pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment options.  

PubMed

The symptomatic degenerative meniscus continues to be a source of discomfort for a significant number of patients. With vascular penetration of less than one-third of the adult meniscus, healing potential in the setting of chronic degeneration remains low. Continued hoop and shear stresses upon the degenerative meniscus results in gross failure, often in the form of complex tears in the posterior horn and midbody. Patient history and physical examination are critical to determine the true source of pain, particularly with the significant incidence of simultaneous articular pathology. Joint line tenderness, a positive McMurray test, and mechanical catching or locking can be highly suggestive of a meniscal source of knee pain and dysfunction. Radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging are frequently utilized to examine for osteoarthritis and to verify the presence of meniscal tears, in addition to ruling out other sources of pain. Non-operative therapy focused on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and physical therapy may be able to provide pain relief as well as improve mechanical function of the knee joint. For patients refractory to conservative therapy, arthroscopic partial meniscectomy can provide short-term gains regarding pain relief, especially when combined with an effective, regular physiotherapy program. Patients with clear mechanical symptoms and meniscal pathology may benefit from arthroscopic partial meniscectomy, but surgery is not a guaranteed success, especially with concomitant articular pathology. Ultimately, the long-term outcomes of either treatment arm provide similar results for most patients. Further study is needed regarding the short and long-term outcomes regarding conservative and surgical therapy, with a particular focus on the economic impact of treatment as well. PMID:25405088

Howell, Richard; Kumar, Neil S; Patel, Nimit; Tom, James

2014-11-18

175

Neuromuscular exercise as treatment of degenerative knee disease.  

PubMed

Exercise is recommended as first-line treatment of degenerative knee disease. Our hypothesis is that neuromuscular exercise is feasible and at least as effective as traditionally used strength or aerobic training but aims to target more closely the sensorimotor deficiencies and functional instability associated with the degenerative knee disease than traditionally used training methods. PMID:25390299

Ageberg, Eva; Roos, Ewa M

2015-01-01

176

Outcome of Salvage Lumbar Fusion after Lumbar Arthroplasty  

PubMed Central

Study Design Retrospective review. Purpose This study aims to define the role of lumbar fusion for persistent back pains after the lumbar disc replacement. Overview of Literature Little is written about lumbar fusion after optimally placed lumbar arthroplasty in patients with persistent lower back pains. Methods Retrospective review of cases of lumbar artificial disc requiring subsequent fusion because of persistent back pains despite optimally placed artificial discs. Outcomes were evaluated using Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and visual analogue scale (VAS). Clinical improvements indicated 25% improvement in ODI and VAS values. Results Five patients met the study criteria. The mean baseline ODI for the five patients was 52. The mean baseline VAS scores for back and leg pains were 76 and 26, respectively. All the five patients had optimally placed prosthesis. The indication for surgery was the constant low back pains found in all the patients. Revision surgery involved disc explantation and fusion in two of the patients and posterolateral fusion without removing the prosthesis in three. None of the patients achieved adequate pain control after the revision surgery despite the solid bony fusion documented by postoperative computed tomography. The mean ODI value after the fusion was 55. The mean values for back and leg pains VAS were 72 and 30, respectively. Conclusions Lack of good pain relief after successful lumbar artifical disc replacements may indicate different etiology for the back pains. The spine-treating surgeons should have a high threshold level to perform salvage fusion at that level. PMID:24596600

Deutsch, Harel

2014-01-01

177

JAMA Patient Page: Lumbar Puncture  

MedlinePLUS

... multiple sclerosis, neuropathy, or recurrent seizures • Fever of unknown origin Lumbar puncture is also done by anesthesiologists to administer spinal anesthesia (also known as subarachnoid block) for some types of surgery. ...

178

A Meta-Analysis of Unilateral versus Bilateral Pedicle Screw Fixation in Minimally Invasive Lumbar Interbody Fusion  

PubMed Central

Study Design Meta-analysis. Background Bilateral pedicle screw fixation (PS) after lumbar interbody fusion is a widely accepted method of managing various spinal diseases. Recently, unilateral PS fixation has been reported as effective as bilateral PS fixation. This meta-analysis aimed to comparatively assess the efficacy and safety of unilateral PS fixation and bilateral PS fixation in the minimally invasive (MIS) lumbar interbody fusion for one-level degenerative lumbar spine disease. Methods MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, BIOSIS Previews, and Cochrane Library were searched through March 30, 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) on unilateral versus bilateral PS fixation in MIS lumbar interbody fusion that met the inclusion criteria and the methodological quality standard were retrieved and reviewed. Data on participant characteristics, interventions, follow-up period, and outcomes were extracted from the included studies and analyzed by Review Manager 5.2. Results Six studies (5 RCTs and 1 CCT) involving 298 patients were selected. There were no significant differences between unilateral and bilateral PS fixation procedures in fusion rate, complications, visual analogue score (VAS) for leg pain, VAS for back pain, Oswestry disability index (ODI). Both fixation procedures had similar length of hospital stay (MD?=?0.38, 95% CI?=??0.83 to 1.58; P?=?0.54). In contrast, bilateral PS fixation was associated with significantly more intra-operative blood loss (P?=?0.002) and significantly longer operation time (P?=?0.02) as compared with unilateral PS fixation. Conclusions Unilateral PS fixation appears as effective and safe as bilateral PS fixation in MIS lumbar interbody fusion but requires less operative time and causes less blood loss, thus offering a simple alternative approach for one-level lumbar degenerative disease. PMID:25375315

Liu, Zheng; Fei, Qi; Wang, Bingqiang; Lv, Pengfei; Chi, Cheng; Yang, Yong; Zhao, Fan; Lin, Jisheng; Ma, Zhao

2014-01-01

179

Lumbar Spine: Reliability of MR Imaging Findings  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To characterize the inter- and intraobserver variability of qualitative, non–disk contour degenerative findings of the lumbar spine at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods: The case accrual method used to perform this institutional review board–approved, HIPAA-compliant retrospective study was the random selection of 111 interpretable MR examination cases of subjects from the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial. The subjects were aged 18–87 years (mean, 53 years ± 16 [standard deviation]). Four independent readers rated the cases according to defined criteria. A subsample of 40 MR examination cases was selected for reevaluation at least 1 month later. The following findings were assessed: spondylolisthesis, disk degeneration, marrow endplate abnormality (Modic changes), posterior anular hyperintense zone (HIZ), and facet arthropathy. Inter- and intraobserver agreement in rating the data was summarized by using weighted ? statistics. Results: Interobserver agreement was good (? = 0.66) in rating disk degeneration and moderate in rating spondylolisthesis (? = 0.55), Modic changes (? = 0.59), facet arthropathy (? = 0.54), and posterior HIZ (? = 0.44). Interobserver agreement in rating the extent of Modic changes was moderate: ? Values were 0.43 for determining superior anteroposterior extent, 0.47 for determining superior craniocaudal extent, 0.57 for determining inferior anteroposterior extent, and 0.48 for determining inferior craniocaudal extent. Intraobserver agreement was good in rating spondylolisthesis (? = 0.66), disk degeneration (? = 0.74), Modic changes (? = 0.64), facet arthropathy (? = 0.69), and posterior HIZ (? = 0.67). Intraobserver agreement in rating the extent of Modic changes was moderate, with ? values of 0.54 for superior anteroposterior, 0.60 for inferior anteroposterior, 0.50 for superior craniocaudal, and 0.60 for inferior craniocaudal extent determinations. Conclusion: The interpretation of general lumbar spine MR characteristics has sufficient reliability to warrant the further evaluation of these features as potential prognostic indicators. Supplemental material: http://radiology.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/2493071999/DC1 © RSNA, 2008 PMID:18955509

Carrino, John A.; Lurie, Jon D.; Tosteson, Anna N. A.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Carragee, Eugene J.; Kaiser, Jay; Grove, Margaret R.; Blood, Emily; Pearson, Loretta H.; Weinstein, James N.; Herzog, Richard

2009-01-01

180

In vitro evaluation of a manganese chloride phantom-based MRI technique for quantitative determination of lumbar intervertebral disc composition and condition.  

PubMed

The application of MRI as a non-invasive, quantitative tool for diagnosing lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration is currently an area of active research. The objective of this study was to examine, in vitro, the efficacy of a manganese chloride phantom-based MRI technique for quantitatively assessing lumbar disc composition and degenerative condition. Sixteen human lumbar discs were imaged ex vivo using T2-weighted MRI, and assigned a quantitative grade based on the relative signal intensities of nine phantoms containing serial concentrations of manganese chloride. Discs were then graded macroscopically for degenerative condition, and water and uronic acid (glycosaminoglycan) contents were determined. MRI ranking exhibited significant and strong negative correlation with nucleus pulposus uronic acid content (r = -0.78). MRI grades were significantly higher for degenerate discs. The technique described presents immediate potential for in vitro studies requiring robust, minimally invasive and quantitative determination of lumbar disc composition and condition. Additionally, the technique may have potential as a clinical tool for diagnosing lumbar disc degeneration as it provides a standardised series of reference phantoms facilitating cross-platform consistency, requires short scan times and simple T2-weighted signal intensity measurements. PMID:21181479

Smith, Lachlan J; Kurmis, Andrew P; Slavotinek, John P; Fazzalari, Nicola L

2011-03-01

181

Clinical efficacy of Eranda Muladi Yapana Basti in the management of Kati Graha (Lumbar spondylosis)  

PubMed Central

Low back pain affects approximately 60.85% of adults during some point of their life and 10% of this is because of Lumbar Spondylosis (LS). Kati Graha which is correlated with LS is a degenerative condition affecting the discs, vertebral bodies, and/or associated joints of the lumbar spine. In current study, assessment of Eranda Muladi Yapana Basti in the management of Kati Graha with special reference to LS has been attempted. 23 patients of either sex in the age between 20 to 65 years having signs and symptoms of LS were selected and were administered Yapana Basti for a period of 15 days. Highly significant results were observed and improvement in cardinal symptoms of Kati Graha was observed. It also provided highly significant results in improving Oswestry Disability Index Scale, range of movements and pain intensity This procedure appears to provide good clinical improvement in pacifying pure Vataja or Vata Kaphaja type of Kati Graha. PMID:24049403

Damayanthie Fernando, K. P.; Thakar, Anup B.; Shukla, Vageesha Datta

2013-01-01

182

Annulo-nucleoplasty using Disc-FX in the management of lumbar disc pathology: Early results  

PubMed Central

Background Back pain due to Lumbar Disc Disease is a major clinical problem. The treatment options range from physiotherapy to fusion surgery. A number of minimally invasive procedures have also been developed in the recent past for its management. Disc-FX is a new minimally invasive technique that combines percutaneous discectomy, nuclear ablation and annular modification. Literature on its role in the management of lumbar disc pathology is scarce. Methods We included 24 consecutive patients who underwent the Disc-FX for back pain due to lumbar disc pathology non-responsive to non-operative treatment for a period of at least 6 months. Based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) these patients fell into 2 groups – those with degenerative disc disease (DDD) (n = 12) and those with a contained lumbar disc herniation (CLDH)(n = 12). They were evaluated using the Visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Short Form-36 (SF-36) scores preoperatively and postoperatively. Results The mean age was 37.9 years (21-53 years). There were 17 males and 7 females. One patient in each subgroup was excluded from the final evaluation. Significant improvement was seen in all outcome measures. The overall rate of reintervention for persistent symptoms was 18.18% (4/22); in the CLDH subgroup, it was 36.36% (4/11). Conclusions and level of evidence Early results after the Disc-FX procedure suggest that it s a reasonable treatment option for patients with back pain due to lumbar disc disease, especially for those with DDD who fail conservative treatment. It could be an alternative to procedures like fusion or disc replacement. This study presents Level IV evidence. Clinical relevance We feel that our study establishes Disc-FX as a modality of treating symptomatic lumbar disc disease due to DDD. However, longer term prospective studies are needed to prove this and to evaluate its role in the treatment of patients with CLDH.

Kumar, Aravind; Siddharth M, Shah; Sambhav P, Shah; Tan, Justin

2014-01-01

183

Investigation of biomechanical behavior of lumbar vertebral segments with dynamic stabilization device using finite element approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Degenerative disc disease is a major source of lower back pain and significantly alters the biomechanics of the lumbar spine. Dynamic stabilization device is a remedial technique which uses flexible materials to stabilize the affected lumbar region while preserving the natural anatomy of the spine. The main objective of this research work is to investigate the stiffness variation of dynamic stabilization device under various loading conditions under compression, axial rotation and flexion. Three dimensional model of the two segment lumbar spine is developed using computed tomography (CT) scan images. The lumbar structure developed is analyzed in ANSYS workbench. Two types of dynamic stabilization are considered: one with stabilizing device as pedicle instrumentation and second with stabilization device inserted around the inter-vertebral disc. Analysis suggests that proper positioning of the dynamic stabilization device is of paramount significance prior to the surgery. Inserting the device in the posterior region indicates the adverse effects as it shows increase in the deformation of the inter-vertebral disc. Analysis executed by positioning stabilizing device around the inter-vertebral disc yields better result for various stiffness values under compression and other loadings. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

Deoghare, Ashish B.; Kashyap, Siddharth; Padole, Pramod M.

2013-03-01

184

Late posterior failure after mitral valve repair in degenerative disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Little is known regarding the mechanisms, the feasibility and the long-term results of re-repair in ‘posterior failure’ of a previous mitral valve repair performed for severe degenerative mitral regurgitation. We report our 16-year experience in redo surgery for late posterior failure of mitral valve repair in degenerative disease. Methods: From 1991 to 2004, 13 consecutive patients (10 males; median

Rachid Zegdi; Ghassan Sleilaty; Ziad Khabbaz; Milena Noghin; Christian Latrémouille; Alain Carpentier; Alain Deloche; Jean-Noël Fabiani

2008-01-01

185

Surgical management of laryngotracheal stenosis in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose was to evaluate the outcome following the surgical management of a consecutive series of 26 adult patients with laryngotracheal stenosis of varied etiologies in a tertiary care center. Of the 83 patients who underwent surgery for laryngotracheal stenosis in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospital of Lausanne, Switzerland, between 1995 and 2003, 26

Mercy George; Florian Lang; Philippe Pasche; Philippe Monnier

2005-01-01

186

Who should have surgery for degenerative spondylolisthesis?  

PubMed Central

Study Design Combined prospective randomized controlled trial and observational cohort study of degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) with an as-treated analysis. Objective To determine modifiers of the treatment effect (TE) of surgery (the difference between surgical and nonoperative outcomes) for DS using subgroup analysis. Summary of Background Data SPORT demonstrated a positive surgical TE for DS at the group level. However, individual characteristics may affect TE. Methods DS patients were treated with either surgery (n=395) or nonoperative care (n=206) and were analyzed according to treatment received. Fifty-five baseline variables were used to define subgroups for calculating the time-weighted average TE for the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) over 4 years (TE=?ODIsurgery-?ODInonoperative). Variables with significant subgroup-by-treatment interactions (p<0.05) were simultaneously entered into a multivariate model to select independent TE predictors. Results All analyzed subgroups that included at least 50 patients improved significantly more with surgery than with nonoperative treatment (p<0.05). Multivariate analyses demonstrated that age ? 67 (TE ?15.7 vs. ?11.8 for age>67, p=0.014); female gender (TE ?15.6 vs. ?11.2 for males, p=0.01); the absence of stomach problems (TE ?15.2 vs. ?11.3 for those with stomach problems, p=0.035); neurogenic claudication (TE ?15.3 vs. ?9.0 for those without claudication, p=0.004); reflex asymmetry (TE ?17.3 vs. ?13.0 for those without asymmetry, p=0.016); opioid use (TE ?18.4 vs. ?11.7 for those not using opioids, p<0.001); not taking antidepressants (TE ?14.5 vs. ?5.4 for those on antidepressants, p=0.014); dissatisfaction with symptoms (TE ?14.5 vs. ?8.3 for those satisfied or neutral, p=0.039); and anticipating a high likelihood of improvement with surgery (TE ?14.8 vs. ?5.1 for anticipating a low likelihood of improvement with surgery, p=0.019) were independently associated with greater TE. Conclusions Patients who met strict inclusion criteria improved more with surgery than with nonoperative treatment, regardless of other specific characteristics. However, TE varied significantly across certain subgroups. PMID:23846502

Pearson, Adam M.; Lurie, Jon D.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Zhao, Wenyan; Abdu, William A.; Weinstein, James N.

2013-01-01

187

Lumbar discography: an update.  

PubMed

Discogenic pain most commonly affects the low back, buttocks, and hips and is thought to be a byproduct of internal disk degeneration. It is postulated that progressive annular breakdown and tearing results in biomechanical and/or biochemical stimulation of the pain fibers that reside in the outer one third of the annulus. Although multiple imaging modalities, most notably MRI, can show morphologic abnormalities of the spine, discography remains the only test that provides physiologic information regarding what role a given intervertebral disk plays in a patient's symptom complex. The controversy surrounding discography is here to stay until more definitive, well-designed studies are performed. In the meantime, there are certain things that can help the discographer maximize the accuracy of the test: 1. Always try to inject one "normal" disk as a "control level." 2. Be alert for factors that are associated with an increased false-positive rate (abnormal non-anatomic pain maps, a history of chronic pain of spinal or nonspinal origin, abnormal psychometric testing, and prior surgery at the injected disk level). In these cases, special attention should be directed to both the patient's verbal and nonverbal cues during disk injection. 3. Do not give any audible clues as to what level is being injected or when the injection is starting or finishing. In this regard, we find it very helpful to have one of our personnel talk with the patient during this portion of the procedure while closely observing the patient for any nonverbal cues regarding their pain response. This distraction is preferable to a silent room where the patient is intensely focused on what is going on with the injections. We also find that music playing during the procedure helps to relax and often distract the patient as well. 4. If the results are equivocal at a level (i.e., you are unable to determine whether or not the patient's pain response was truly concordant), go on to inject another disk level and then come back to reinject more contrast into the disk in question. As radiologists, we tend to focus on the technical aspects of a procedure and the anatomic/morphologic information it provides. However, it cannot be emphasized enough that when performing lumbar discography, the assessment of the patient's pain response during the injection is the most important component of the procedure, and requires not only technical skills, but an understanding of how best to avoid some of the pitfalls that can lead to inaccurate results. PMID:14976837

Anderson, Mark W

2004-01-01

188

Endovascular treatment of intracranial stenosis.  

PubMed

The Gateway balloon-Wingspan stent system is the first, and currently the only "on-label" device for the treatment of symptomatic intracranial stenosis in the United States. In initial single-arm studies, investigators have indicated that this system can be used for the treatment of symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease with high levels of technical success and acceptable periprocedural complication rates, which are comparable with, or better than, those reported for other endovascular techniques. Intermediate- and long-term follow-up data for patients treated with the Wingspan device remain sparse. We critically review the existing data, which characterize the risk profile and efficacy of endovascular interventions for intracranial atherosclerotic disease, as well as the available clinical evidence that could be used to select appropriate patients for treatment. PMID:22182273

Fiorella, David

2011-12-01

189

Pedicle subtraction osteotomy in the lumbar spine: indications, technical aspects, results and complications.  

PubMed

Pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) consists of creating posteriorly trapezoidal shape of a vertebra, usually L3 or L4, in order to recreate lordosis in the lumbar spine. It is usually indicated to treat rigid kyphotic lumbar spine associated with sagittal imbalance and due to degenerative changes or to iatrogenic flat back. PSO is technically demanding with high rates of complications and should be performed by experienced teams. We presently report our experience about PSO performed in the lumbar spine (below L1) through a series of 25 cases with a special focus on technical aspects and complications associated with the surgical procedure. Mean age was 64 ± 11 years old. PSO was performed at L4 in the majority of cases. Mean blood loss was 1,070 ± 470 ml, and mean duration of the surgery was 241 ± 44 min. VAS decreased from 7.5 ± 2 preoperatively to 3.2 ± 2.5 at 1 year, and ODI decreased from 64 ± 12 preoperatively to 32 ± 18 at 1 year, p < 0.05. Mean gain of lordosis after PSO varies from 20° to 40° and was measured to 27° ± 10° on average. Lumbar lordosis (T12-S1) was measured to 21° ± 10° preoperatively to 50° ± 11° postoperatively at 1 year, p < 0.05. A total of five major complications (20 %) were observed (two mechanical, one neurological and two infections) necessitating five reoperations. In conclusion, PSO was highly efficient to restore lumbar lordosis and correct sagittal imbalance. It was associated with a non-negligible, but acceptable rate of complications. To limit the risk of mechanical complications, we recommend fusing the adjacent disks whatever the approach (PLIF/TLIF/XLIF). Most complications can be reduced with adequate environment, informed anesthesiologists and experienced surgical team. PMID:24801680

Barrey, Cedric; Perrin, Gilles; Michel, Frederic; Vital, Jean-Marc; Obeid, Ibrahim

2014-07-01

190

Effect of the Degenerative State of the Intervertebral Disk on the Impact Characteristics of Human Spine Segments  

PubMed Central

Models of the dynamic response of the lumbar spine have been used to examine vertebral fractures (VFx) during falls and whole body vibration transmission in the occupational setting. Although understanding the viscoelastic stiffness or damping characteristics of the lumbar spine are necessary for modeling the dynamics of the spine, little is known about the effect of intervertebral disk degeneration on these characteristics at high loading rates. We hypothesize that disk degeneration significantly affects the viscoelastic response of spinal segments to high loading rate. We additionally hypothesize the lumbar spine stiffness and damping characteristics are a function of the degree of preload. A custom, pendulum impact tester was used to impact 19 L1–L3 human spine segments with an end mass of 20.9?kg under increasing preloads with the resulting force response measured. A Kelvin–Voigt model, fitted to the frequency and decay response of the post-impact oscillations was used to compute stiffness and damping constants. The spine segments exhibited a second-order, under-damped response with stiffness and damping values of 17.9–754.5?kN/m and 133.6–905.3?Ns/m respectively. Regression models demonstrated that stiffness, but not damping, significantly correlated with preload (p?Degenerative disk disease, reflected as reduction in magnetic resonance T2 relaxation time, was weakly correlated with change in stiffness at low preloads. This study highlights the need to incorporate the observed non-linear increase in stiffness of the spine under high loading rates in dynamic models of spine investigating the effects of a fall on VFx and those investigating the response of the spine to vibration. PMID:25024122

Wilson, Sara E.; Alkalay, Ron N.; Myers, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

191

Congenital tracheobronchial stenosis in monozygotic twins  

Microsoft Academic Search

  \\u000a \\u000a Conclusion This case report shows that tracheobronchial stenosis may present in monozygotic twins. The pattern of malformation in twins\\u000a differs from cases described previously.

K. S. Wong; R. Lien; T. Y. Lin

1998-01-01

192

A complicated case of renal artery stenosis.  

PubMed

We present a boy with bilateral renal artery stenosis who presented with severe hypertension and haemorrhagic stroke. The diagnostic workup along with a complication of eventual surgical intervention are demonstrated. PMID:22368652

Chetcuti-Ganado, C; Samuel, A; Grech, V

2005-07-01

193

Stenosis of the spinal canal in achondroplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stenosis of the spinal canal is a very frequent finding in achondroplastic patients. It is secondary to abnormalities of endochondrial ossification, which is responsible for formation of the vertebral bone structures, and, subsequently, to bone degeneration.

L. Ferrante; M. Acqui; L. Mastronardi; P. Celli; A. Fortuna

1991-01-01

194

A case of idiopathic tracheal stenosis.  

PubMed

Idiopathic tracheal stenosis (ITS) is an extremely rare disease. We report the case of a 32-year-old woman with ITS. She had no history of previous surgery, endotracheal intubation, neck trauma, granulomatous disease, or any other severe respiratory tract infections. She presented with progressive dyspnea on effort and had been treated for bronchial asthma for 3 years. Chest radiography and laboratory examinations revealed no abnormalities. Bronchoscopy demonstrated almost circumferential tracheal stenosis extending for 10 mm from about 20 mm below the vocal cords. Luminal diameter was about 4 mm at the narrowest. Bronchoscopic biopsy revealed increased fibrous tissue and chronic inflammatory cell infiltration (nonspecific inflammatory tissue). These finding are compatible with idiopathic stenosis as reported by Grillo et al. After tracheostomy, the patient was treated by tracheal segmental resection (two rings) with end-to-end anastomosis of the cartilaginous trachea. Symptoms of tracheal stenosis were completely relieved and no recurrence has been observed as of 3 years postoperatively. PMID:14656573

Hatta, Chihiro; Terada, Tomonori; Kakibuchi, Masao; Ogasawara, Hiroshi; Nakasho, Keiji; Sakagami, Masafumi

2003-12-01

195

A case report of subglottic stenosis.  

PubMed

A case of idiopathic subglottic stenosis treated by endoscopic laryngeal laser. A brief review of other forms of treatment and the place of Respiratory Function Tests in diagnosis and management. PMID:6590026

Havas, T; Dodd, M; Weldon, B; Benjamin, B; Pigott, P

1984-06-01

196

Efficacy of glucosamine, chondroitin, and methylsulfonylmethane for spinal degenerative joint disease and degenerative disc disease: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background: Nutritional supplements are commonly used for a variety of musculoskeletal conditions, including knee and hip degenerative joint disease. Although these supplements are occasionally recommended for patients with degenerative disc disease and spinal degenerative joint disease, the evidence supporting this use is unknown. Objective: To systematically search and assess the quality of the literature on the use of glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, and methylsulfonylmethane for the treatment of spinal osteoarthritis / degenerative joint disease, and degenerative disc disease. Data Sources: The Index of Chiropractic Literature, AMED, Medline, and CINAHL were searched for randomized controlled trials in English from 1984 to July 2009. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Data from studies meeting the inclusion criteria was extracted and reviewed by three reviewers. The Jadad scale was used to assess study quality. No attempts were made at meta-analysis due to variation in study design. Results: Two articles met the inclusion criteria. One study was found to have good quality but reported negative results for the supplemented group compared with placebo, the other study had low quality but reported significant positive results for the supplemented group when compared with a no intervention control group. Conclusion: There was little literature found to support the use of common nutritional supplements for spinal degeneration, making it difficult to determine whether clinicians should recommend them. PMID:21403782

Stuber, Kent; Sajko, Sandy; Kristmanson, Kevyn

2011-01-01

197

Congenital midnasal stenosis in an infant.  

PubMed

Neonates and infants are obligate nasal breathers and nasal obstruction in this age group can be a life threatening emergency. Even though the commonest cause for nasal obstruction is nasal oedema, bony stenosis of the posterior choanae or pyriform aperture is quite common and may be seen on CT scans. We describe a case of mid-nasal stenosis in a neonate and discuss the aetiology and management of nasal obstruction in this age group. PMID:15126025

Raghavan, U; Fuad, F; Gibbin, K P

2004-06-01

198

Biomechanical Effects of a Unilateral Approach to Minimally Invasive Lumbar Decompression  

PubMed Central

Minimally invasive (MI) lumbar decompression became a common approach to treat lumbar stenosis. This approach may potentially mitigate postoperative increases in segmental motion. The goal of this study was to evaluate modifications to segmental motion in the lumbar spine following a MI unilateral approach as compared to traditional facet-sparing and non-facet sparing decompressions. Six human lumbar cadaveric specimens were used. Each specimen was tested in flexion-extension 0 N and 400 N of follower preload), axial rotation, and lateral bending. Each testing condition was evaluated following three separate interventions at L4–L5: 1) Minimally invasive decompression, 2) Facet-sparing, bilateral decompression, and 3) Bilateral decompression with a wide facetectomy. Range of motion following each testing condition was compared to intact specimens. Both MI and traditional decompression procedures create significant increases in ROM in all modes of loading. However, when compared to the MI approach, traditional decompression produces significantly larger increase in ROM in flexion-extension (p<0.005) and axial rotation (p<0.05). It additionally creates increased ROM with lateral bending on the approach side (p<0.05). Lateral bending on the non-approach side is not significantly changed. Lastly, wide medial facet removal (40% to 50%) causes significant hypermobility, especially in axial rotation. While both MI and traditional lumbar decompressions may increase post-operative ROM in all conditions, a MI approach causes significantly smaller increase in ROM. With an MI approach, increased movement with lateral bending is only toward the approach side. Further, non-facet sparing decompression is further destabilizing in all loading modes. PMID:24658010

Smith, Zachary A.; Vastardis, Georgios A.; Carandang, Gerard; Havey, Robert M.; Hannon, Sean; Dahdaleh, Nader; Voronov, Leonard I.; Fessler, Richard G.; Patwardhan, Avinash G.

2014-01-01

199

Hemodynamics of Curved Vessels with Stenosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In hemodialysis access, the brachiocephalic or upper-arm fistula has less than optimal functional rates. The cause of this reduced patency is stenosis due to intimal hyperplasia in the cephalic vein. Stenosis typically leads to thrombosis and ultimately failure of the fistula. To increase our understanding of this process, numerical simulations of the unsteady, two-dimensional, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved for the flow in an infinite channel having curvature and stenosis. Physiologically relevant Reynolds numbers ranging from 300 to 1500 and stenosis percentages of 0, 25, 50, and 75 are modeled. The post-stenotic flow is characterized by strong shear layers and recirculation regions. The largest shear stresses are found just upstream of the stenosis apex. The maximum shear stress increases with increasing Reynolds number and percent stenosis. The results indicate that hemodynamic conditions in the vein after fistula creation combined with curvature of the cephalic arch lead to shear stresses that exceed normal physiological values (both minimum and maximum). In some cases, the shear stresses are sufficiently large to cause damage to the endothelium and possibly denudation.

Boghosian, Michael E.; Cassel, Kevin W.

2007-11-01

200

Durotomy is associated with pseudoarthrosis following lumbar fusion.  

PubMed

Pseudoarthrosis is a known complication following lumbar fusion, and although several risk factors have been established, the association of durotomy and pseudoarthrosis has not been studied to our knowledge. A retrospective review was performed to identify all adult patients who underwent lumbar posterolateral fusion (without interbody fusion) for degenerative spine disease over a 20year period at a single institution. Patients were divided into durotomy and no durotomy cohorts. Patients were included if they had at least 1year of follow-up. The main outcome variable was development of pseudoarthrosis. A total of 327 patients were identified, of whom 17 (5.19%) had a durotomy. Pseudoarthrosis rates were significantly higher in the durotomy group (35.29%) when compared to the no durotomy group (13.87%), with the difference being statistically significant (p=0.016). Univariate analysis revealed that durotomy (p=0.003) and the number of levels fused (p=0.015) were the only two significant risk factors for pseudoarthrosis. After controlling for the number of levels fused, the adjusted relative risk (RR) revealed that patients with a durotomy were 2.23 times more likely to develop pseudoarthrosis (RR 2.23; 95% confidence interval 1.05-4.75) when compared to patients without durotomy. The findings in the present study suggest an association between durotomy and pseudoarthrosis development. Patients with a durotomy were 2.2 times more likely to develop pseudoarthrosis compared to patients without a durotomy. Future and larger studies are required to corroborate our findings. PMID:25532509

Bydon, Mohamad; De la Garza-Ramos, Rafael; Abt, Nicholas B; Macki, Mohamed; Sciubba, Daniel M; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Bydon, Ali; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Witham, Timothy F

2015-03-01

201

Direct Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Clinical and Radiological Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Objective According to the recent development of minimally invasive spinal surgery, direct lumbar interbody fusion (DLIF) was introduced as an effective option to treat lumbar degenerative diseases. However, comprehensive results of DLIF have not been reported in Korea yet. The object of this study is to summarize radiological and clinical outcomes of our DLIF experience. Methods We performed DLIF for 130 patients from May 2011 to June 2013. Among them, 90 patients, who could be followed up for more than 6 months, were analyzed retrospectively. Clinical outcomes were compared using visual analog scale (VAS) score and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Bilateral foramen areas, disc height, segmental coronal and sagittal angle, and regional sagittal angle were measured. Additionally, fusion rate was assessed. Results A total of 90 patients, 116 levels, were underwent DLIF. The VAS and ODI improved statistically significant after surgery. All the approaches for DLIF were done on the left side. The left and right side foramen area changed from 99.5 mm2 and 102.9 mm2 to 159.2 mm2 and 151.2 mm2 postoperatively (p<0.001). Pre- and postoperative segmental coronal and sagittal angles changed statistically significant from 4.1° and 9.9° to 1.1° and 11.1°. Fusion rates of 6 and 12 months were 60.9% and 87.8%. Complications occurred in 17 patients (18.9%). However, most of the complications were resolved within 2 months. Conclusion DLIF is not only effective for indirect decompression and deformity correction but also shows satisfactory mechanical stability and fusion rate. PMID:25132930

Lee, Young Seok; Kim, Young Baeg

2014-01-01

202

Failure of a Carbon Fiber–Reinforced Polymer Implant Used for Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion  

PubMed Central

Lumbar interbody fusion is a common procedure owing to the high prevalence of degenerative spinal disorders. During such procedures, carbon fiber–reinforced polymer (CFRP) cages are frequently utilized to fill the void created between adjacent vertebral bodies, to provide mechanical stability, and to carry graft material. Failure of such implants can lead to significant morbidity. We discuss the possible causes leading to the failure of a CFRP cage in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis. Review of a 49-year-old woman who underwent revision anterior lumbar interbody fusion 2 years after posterior instrumentation and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion at L4–L5 and L5–S1. The patient developed pseudarthrosis at the two previously fused levels with failure of the posterior instrumentation. Revision surgery reveled failure with fragmentation of the CFRP cage at the L5–S1 level. CFRP implants can break if mechanical instability or nonunion occurs in the spinal segments, thus emphasizing the need for optimizing medical management and meticulous surgical technique in achieving stability. PMID:24436878

Sardar, Zeeshan; Jarzem, Peter

2013-01-01

203

Renal artery stenosis - an update.  

PubMed

Renal artery stenosis (RAS) is a common form of peripheral arterial disease. The most common cause of RAS is atherosclerosis. It is predominantly unilateral. The pathophysiologic mechanism stems from renal underperfusion resulting in the activation of the renin- angiotensin-aldosterone pathway. Even though the majority of patients with RAS are asymptomatic, it can clinically present with hypertension, nephropathy and congestive heart failure. This progressive disease can lead to resistant hypertension and end stage kidney failure. Screening patients for RAS with either Doppler ultrasonography, computed tomographic angiography, or magnetic resonance angiography is preferred. Adequate blood pressure control, goal-directed lipid-lowering therapy, smoking cessation, and other preventive measures form the foundation of management of patients with RAS. Catheter-based percutaneous revascularization with angioplasty and stenting showed modest clinical benefit for patients in small retrospective studies, but data from randomized clinical trials failed to confirm these beneficial results. The current ongoing Cardiovascular Outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions (CORAL) trial may provide more concrete data regarding the role of stenting in RAS. Surgical revascularization is considered only if catheter-based revascularization is unsuitable or unsuccessful. The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines on evaluation and management of patients with RAS provide the framework for determining individualized assessment and treatment plans for patients with RAS. PMID:24113662

Sattur, Sudhakar; Prasad, Hari; Bedi, Updesh; Kaluski, Edo; Stapleton, Dwight D

2013-09-01

204

Histopathology of congenital subglottic stenosis.  

PubMed

A precise delineation of each laryngeal abnormality is critical to planning rational therapy. Since congenital cricoid cartilage anomalies are easily overlooked, a systematic approach to their identification is as important as a clear concept of their classification. The purpose of this communication is to present the pathologic findings and classification of congenital cricoid cartilage deformities and to summarize updated information derived by the whole organ macrosection technique. The classification of congenital subglottic stenosis is based on study of the English-language literature and the collection in the Laryngeal Development Laboratory at The Children's Memorial Hospital in Chicago. Twenty-nine specimens with congenital cricoid abnormalities have been identified. Fourteen have an elliptical cricoid cartilage; 12, a laryngeal cleft; 5, a flattened shape: 1, a large anterior lamina; and 3, generalized thickening. Some specimens have more than 1 anomaly. Eight cases of fragmented or distorted cricoid cartilages are thought to be acquired lesions. An anterior submucous cricoid cleft has been identified and is presented for the first time. PMID:10030225

Holinger, L D

1999-02-01

205

Case report and review of lumbar hernia.  

PubMed

Lumbar hernias are uncommon and about 300 cases have been reported till date. They commonly occur due to trauma, surgery and infection. They are increasingly being reported after motor vehicle collision injuries. However, spontaneous lumbar hernias are rare and are reported infrequently. It is treated with different surgical approaches and methods. We report a case of primary spontaneous lumbar hernia which was repaired by transperitonial laparoscopic approach using Vypro (polypropylene/polyglactin) mesh and covered with a peritoneal flap. PMID:25555145

Walgamage, Thilan B; Ramesh, B S; Alsawafi, Yaqoob

2015-01-01

206

Advances in Susceptibility Genetics of Intervertebral Degenerative Disc Disease  

PubMed Central

The traditional view that the etiology of lumbar disc herniation is primarily due to age, gender, occupation, smoking and exposure to vehicular vibration dominated much of the last century. Recent research indicates that heredity may be largely responsible for the degeneration as well as herniation of intervertebral discs. Since 1998, genetic influences have been confirmed by the identification of several genes forms associated with disc degeneration. These researches are paving the way for a better understanding of the biologic mechanisms. Now, many researchers unanimously agree that lumbar disc herniation appears to be similar to other complex diseases, whose etiology has both environmental and hereditary influence, each with a part of contribution and relative risk. Then addressing the etiological of lumbar disc herniation, it is important to integrate heredity with the environment factors. For the purpose of this review, we have limited our discussion to several susceptibility genes associated with disc degeneration. PMID:18781226

Zhang, Yin'gang; Sun, Zhengming; Liu, Jiangtao; Guo, Xiong

2008-01-01

207

Functional morphology of indrid lumbar vertebrae.  

PubMed

Indrids are primarily vertical clingers and leapers but also engage to various extents in climbing, suspensory postures, bimanual movement, bipedal hopping, and quadrupedalism. It has been demonstrated that these behaviors are well reflected in the appendicular anatomy of these primates, while indrid vertebral anatomy has received relatively little attention. In this morphometric study, biomechanically relevant aspects of the lumbar vertebrae of Indri indri, Propithecus diadema, and Propithecus verreauxi were compared to those of Varecia variegata, a large-bodied predominantly pronograde and quadrupedal lemur. Results indicate that, compared to Varecia, the indrids have relatively shorter lumbar vertebral bodies, shorter lumbar regions, more dorsally projecting lumbar spinous processes, and more dorsally positioned lumbar transverse process tips. In addition, indrid lumbar spinous and transverse processes are oriented differently than those of Varecia. Overall, indrid lumbar vertebral morphology converges with that of hominoids, atelines, and possibly lorids, suggesting a lumbar adaptation to upright or "antipronograde" postures that require a reduction in spinal flexibility. The dorsally projecting spinous processes may be related to back muscle extensor power during leaping and/or the maintenance of upright postures. By contrast, the lumbar vertebrae of Varecia resemble those of primates and other mammals that have habitually pronograde postures and emphasize spinal flexibility in the sagittal plane during locomotion. PMID:8572156

Shapiro, L

1995-11-01

208

Degenerative Diseases of Ageing as Problems of Natural Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) The field of experimental gerontology is reviewed in relation to past and current views on the definitions and origins of degenerative diseases in relation to ageing. (2) It is concluded that the present concensus defines age-related degeneration of cells, tissues and failures of homeostasis as expressions of the accumulation of chemical and metabolic errors, which cause deviations from the

Denis Bellamy

1988-01-01

209

Progressive Agraphia Can Be a Harbinger of Degenerative Dementia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By investigating three patients with progressive agraphia, we explored the possibility that this entity is an early sign of degenerative dementia. Initially, these patients complained primarily of difficulties writing Kanji (Japanese morphograms) while other language and cognitive impairments were relatively milder. Impairments in writing Kana…

Fukui, Toshiya; Lee, Eiyai

2008-01-01

210

Intracranial internal carotid artery stenosis: longterm prognosis.  

PubMed

Sixty-six patients with greater than or equal to 50% stenosis of an intracranial internal carotid artery (IICA) were followed-up for an average of 3.9 years. Eighteen patients (27.3%) experienced ischemic events; 8 (12.1%) had isolated TIA and 10 (15.2%) a stroke. The observed stroke rate for patients 35 years and older are 13 times the expected infarction rate for a normal population. Patients with tandem extracranial stenosis had a greater risk of stroke than patients with isolated IICA stenosis. Thirty-three patients (50%) died during follow-up and 55% of all deaths were cardiac related. The observed 5 year survival rate was 60% compared to an expected rate of 87%. Patients with IICA stenosis had a higher risk of stroke and death compared to a previously reported referral population with ICA occlusion. IICA stenosis is a marker of extensive cerebrovascular and systemic atherosclerotic disease, especially coronary artery disease. PMID:7147297

Marzewski, D J; Furlan, A J; St Louis, P; Little, J R; Modic, M T; Williams, G

1982-01-01

211

Minimally invasive 360° instrumented lumbar fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective preliminary study was undertaken of combined minimally invasive instrumented lumbar fusion utilizing the BERG (balloon-assisted endoscopic retroperitoneal gasless) approach ¶anteriorly, and a posterior small-incision approach with translaminar screw fixation and posterolateral ¶fusion. The study aimed to quantify the clinical and radiological results using this combined technique. The traditional minimally invasive approach to the anterior lumbar spine involves gas

John S. Thalgott; Albert K. Chin; John A. Ameriks; Frank T. Jordan; James M. Giuffre; Kay Fritts; Marcus Timlin

2000-01-01

212

Anterolateral Approach to the Lumbar Spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An anterolateral approach to achieve decompression for a far-lateral disc lesion in the lumbar spine or removal of paravertebral neurinoma without disrupting the facet is described. This new surgical technique is presented in detail, and the results of a surgical trial are reviewed. The incidence of lumbar disc herniation lateral to the facet has been reported to be between 0.7%

Shinichi Kusano; Akira Dezawa; Kiyoshi Yoshihara; Koh Katoh

213

Lumbar spine curvature during office chair sitting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prolonged sitting is generally accepted as a high risk factor in low back pain and it is frequently suggested that a lordotic posture of the lumbar spine should be maintained during sitting. We asked whether the sagittal curvature of the lumbar spine during sitting is affected by the seat tilt, backrest and the direction of the synchronised mechanism of the

M. Lengsfeld; A. Frank; D. L. van Deursen; P. Griss

2000-01-01

214

Iatrogenic Stenosis of Anterior Nares: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Stenosis of anterior nares may be congenital or acquired. Acquired stenosis may be caused by the diseases which cause destruction of skin or normal cartilage. The various causes of acquired stenosis of anterior nares are burns, trauma, infections, etc. Iatrogenic stenosis of anterior nares is a rare condition. Doing simple excision of fibrosed tissue, with septoplasty and endoscopic adenoidectomy in a 5-year child, improved nasal breathing. Use of Mitomycin-C topical solution prevents recurrence of fibrosis, with good outcome. PMID:24959466

Garag, Santosh S.; Anchan, Shibani

2014-01-01

215

Relationship of orthopedic examination, goniometric measurements, and radiographic signs of degenerative joint disease in cats  

PubMed Central

Background Available information suggests a mismatch between radiographic and orthopedic examination findings in cats with DJD. However, the extent of the discrepancy between clinical and radiographic signs of OA in companion animals has not been described in detail. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between orthopedic examination findings, joint goniometry, and radiographic signs of DJD in 100 cats, in a prospective observational design. Cat temperament, pain response to palpation, joint crepitus, effusion and thickening were graded. Radiographs of appendicular joints and the axial skeleton were made under sedation. Joint motion was measured by use of a plastic goniometer before and after sedation. Associations between radiographic degenerative joint disease (DJD) and examination findings were assessed to determine sensitivity, specificity and likelihood estimations. Results Pain response to palpation was elicited in 0-67% of the joints with DJD, with a specificity ranging from 62-99%; crepitus was detected in 0-56% of the joints and its specificity varied between 87 and 99%; for effusion, values ranged between 6 and 38% (specificity, 82-100%), and thickening, 0-59% (specificity, 74-99%). Joints with DJD tended to have a decreased range of motion. The presence of pain increased the odds of having DJD in the elbow (right: 5.5; left: 4.5); the presence of pain in the lower back increased the odds of spinal DJD being present (2.97 for lumbar; 4.67 for lumbo-sacral). Conclusions Radiographic DJD cannot be diagnosed with certainty using palpation or goniometry. However, negative findings tend to predict radiographically normal joints. Palpation and goniometry may be used as a tool to help to screen cats, mostly to rule out DJD. PMID:22281125

2012-01-01

216

Late posterior failure after mitral valve repair in degenerative disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Little is known regarding the mechanisms, the feasibility and the long-term results of re-repair in 'posterior failure' of a previous mitral valve repair performed for severe degenerative mitral regurgitation. We report our 16-year experience in redo surgery for late posterior failureofmitralvalverepairindegenerativedisease.Methods:From1991to2004,13consecutivepatients(10males;medianage:65years)were reoperated for late posterior failure of mitral valve repair. All patients had grade 3+ mitral regurgitation. Repair was

Rachid Zegdi; Ghassan Sleilaty; Ziad Khabbaz; Milena Noghin; Christian Latremouille; Alain Carpentier; Alain Deloche; Jean-Noel Fabiani

217

Steroid for epidural injection in spinal stenosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the effectiveness and safety of epidural steroid injections in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Methods We performed a search on the CENTRAL, Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane databases up to September 2014. We recovered 17 original articles, of which only 10 were in full compliance with the randomized controlled trial (RCT) criteria. These articles were reviewed in an independent and blinded way by two reviewers who were previously trained to extract data and score their quality by the criteria of the Cochrane Handbook (5.1.0). Results We accepted ten studies with 1,010 participants. There is minimal evidence that shows that epidural steroid injections are better than lidocaine alone, regardless of the mode of epidural injection. There is a fair short-term and long-term benefit for treating spinal stenosis with local anesthetic and steroids. Conclusions This meta-analysis suggests that epidural steroid injections provide limited improvement in short-term and long-term benefits in LSS patients.

Liu, Kuan; Liu, Pengcheng; Liu, Run; Wu, Xing; Cai, Ming

2015-01-01

218

Morphologic alterations of the subchondral bone in advanced degenerative arthritis.  

PubMed

A series of 535 femoral heads surgically excised at the time of total hip arthroplasty for degenerative arthritis were analyzed by gross photography, specimen roentgenograms, and whole-mount histologic sections. Limited regenerative capacity was apparent in the chondrous tufts in the exposed bone of the osteoarthritic joint surface. The mechanism for the formation of subchondral cysts was interpreted to be the proliferation of viable myxomatous cells within the bone marrow. Osseous remodeling adjacent to the cysts was secondary to expansion of the soft tissue contents of the early cysts and later vascularization with fibrosis in the older cysts. Stress fracturing was a focal feature secondary to the remodeling of live bone. Advanced degenerative arthritis demonstrated focal osteocytic necrosis in the exposed osseous surface. Bone necrosis was also observed when small segments of the surface were undermined by cysts. Finally, bone necrosis was occasionally observed as focal infarcts of the joint surface (2-6 mm). In all three instances, bone necrosis in degenerative arthritis appeared to be a secondary reaction, presumably related to local disruption of blood supply. PMID:6825342

Milgram, J W

1983-03-01

219

Tracheal Stenosis after Tracheostomy or Intubation  

PubMed Central

To investigate the management outcomes of patients who developed tracheal stenosis after tracheostomy or intubation, we reviewed the courses of 45 patients who had experienced tracheal stenosis at a single institution, over 19 years from February 1985 through January 2004. There were 38 tracheal and 7 infraglottic stenoses. Twenty-nine stenoses were associated with the stoma, 12 with the cuff, and 2 with the endotracheal tube resulting in infraglottic lesions; the remaining 2 were double stenoses. Eleven patients were treated by bronchoscopic surgery, and 34 patients were treated by tracheal or laryngotracheal resection. The overall success rate was 93%. The complication rate was 18%. A 2nd operation was required in 3 patients, and 1 of the 3 died of sepsis. Our management strategy of treating tracheal stenosis with resection and end-to-end anastomosis has been associated with good outcomes. Management of infraglottic stenosis is difficult, particularly when there is a large laryngeal defect or when there have been previous surgical attempts at the same site. PMID:16107105

Sarper, Alpay; Ayten, Arife; Eser, Irfan; Ozbudak, Omer; Demircan, Abid

2005-01-01

220

Tracheal stenosis mimicking severe acute asthma  

PubMed Central

Post-intubation tracheal stenosis is a rare but serious clinical entity that rarely develops when intubation is less than a week. These patients may remain asymptomatic for a variable period and are often misdiagnosed as asthmatic. The authors report a case of a middle-aged lady who was initially misdiagnosed as having acute asthma after brief tracheal intubation. PMID:22789696

Zubairi, Ali Bin Sarwar; Dildar, Babar; Husain, Shahid Javed; Khan, Mohammad Faisal

2010-01-01

221

Tracheal stenosis mimicking severe acute asthma.  

PubMed

Post-intubation tracheal stenosis is a rare but serious clinical entity that rarely develops when intubation is less than a week. These patients may remain asymptomatic for a variable period and are often misdiagnosed as asthmatic. The authors report a case of a middle-aged lady who was initially misdiagnosed as having acute asthma after brief tracheal intubation. PMID:22789696

Zubairi, Ali Bin Sarwar; Dildar, Babar; Husain, Shahid Javed; Khan, Mohammad Faisal

2010-01-01

222

10 questions about intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis.  

PubMed

Intracranial atherosclerotic disease is one of the most common causes of stroke worldwide, yet treatment for this disease is still uncertain. This article discusses challenges in the diagnosis and treatment of intracranial stenosis by posing 10 commonly asked questions about this disease. PMID:21150394

Turan, Tanya N; Chimowitz, Marc I

2010-11-01

223

Modification of the Secretion Pattern of Proteases, Inflammatory Mediators, and Extracellular Matrix Proteins by Human Aortic Valve is Key in Severe Aortic Stenosis*  

PubMed Central

One of the major challenges in cardiovascular medicine is to identify candidate biomarker proteins. Secretome analysis is particularly relevant in this search as it focuses on a subset of proteins released by a cell or tissue under certain conditions. The sample can be considered as a plasma subproteome and it provides a more direct approximation to the in vivo situation. Degenerative aortic stenosis is the most common worldwide cause of valve replacement. Using a proteomic analysis of the secretome from aortic stenosis valves we could identify candidate markers related to this pathology, which may facilitate early diagnosis and treatment. For this purpose, we have designed a method to validate the origin of secreted proteins, demonstrating their synthesis and release by the tissue and ruling out blood origin. The nLC-MS/MS analysis showed the labeling of 61 proteins, 82% of which incorporated the label in only one group. Western blot and selective reaction monitoring differential analysis, revealed a notable role of the extracellular matrix. Variation in particular proteins such as PEDF, cystatin and clusterin emphasizes the link between aortic stenosis and atherosclerosis. In particular, certain proteins variation in secretome levels correlates well, not only with label incorporation trend (only labeled in aortic stenosis group) but, more importantly, with alterations found in plasma from an independent cohort of samples, pointing to specific candidate markers to follow up in diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic intervention. PMID:23704777

Alvarez-Llamas, Gloria; Martín-Rojas, Tatiana; de la Cuesta, Fernando; Calvo, Enrique; Gil-Dones, Felix; Dardé, Veronica M.; Lopez-Almodovar, Luis F.; Padial, Luis R.; Lopez, Juan-Antonio; Vivanco, Fernando; Barderas, Maria G.

2013-01-01

224

Lumbar spine curvature during office chair sitting.  

PubMed

Prolonged sitting is generally accepted as a high risk factor in low back pain and it is frequently suggested that a lordotic posture of the lumbar spine should be maintained during sitting. We asked whether the sagittal curvature of the lumbar spine during sitting is affected by the seat tilt, backrest and the direction of the synchronised mechanism of the back and seat tilt (synchro tilt). Two office chairs were tested by multibody analysis interfacing a human model with a chair model. Results indicate that a synchronised mechanism of an office chair representing a posterior tilt of the seat while the backrest is reclined maintains an evenly distributed lumbar lordosis. The segmental angles are between 3.1 and 3.6 degrees at the lumbar vertebrae 1/2-4/5 (L1/2-L4/5). These lumbar spine segmental angles are not sensitive to the backrest height. In contrast, a synchro tilt concept with a reduction of the seat's posterior tilt while the backrest is reclined causes a strong reduction of the lumbar lordosis in backrest recline with a maximum reduction from 11.7 to 2.8 degrees in L4/5. As a consequence of these results, a synchro tilt concept with a posterior tilt of the seat while the backrest is reclined is preferable from the lumbar spine kinematics point of view. PMID:11259935

Lengsfeld, M; Frank, A; van Deursen, D L; Griss, P

2000-11-01

225

Surgical management of laryngotracheal stenosis in adults.  

PubMed

The purpose was to evaluate the outcome following the surgical management of a consecutive series of 26 adult patients with laryngotracheal stenosis of varied etiologies in a tertiary care center. Of the 83 patients who underwent surgery for laryngotracheal stenosis in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospital of Lausanne, Switzerland, between 1995 and 2003, 26 patients were adults (> or = 16 years) and formed the group that was the focus of this study. The stenosis involved the trachea (20), subglottis (1), subglottis and trachea (2), glottis and subglottis (1) and glottis, subglottis and trachea (2). The etiology of the stenosis was post-intubation injury ( n = 20), infiltration of the trachea by thyroid tumor ( n = 3), seeding from a laryngeal tumor at the site of the tracheostoma ( n = 1), idiopathic progressive subglottic stenosis ( n = 1) and external laryngeal trauma ( n = 1). Of the patients, 20 underwent tracheal resection and end-to-end anastomosis, and 5 patients had partial cricotracheal resection and thyrotracheal anastomosis. The length of resection varied from 1.5 to 6 cm, with a median length of 3.4 cm. Eighteen patients were extubated in the operating room, and six patients were extubated during a period of 12 to 72 h after surgery. Two patients were decannulated at 12 and 18 months, respectively. One patient, who developed anastomotic dehiscence 10 days after surgery, underwent revision surgery with a good outcome. On long-term outcome assessment, 15 patients achieved excellent results, 7 patients had a good result and 4 patients died of causes unrelated to surgery (mean follow-up period of 3.6 years). No patient showed evidence of restenosis. The excellent functional results of cricotracheal/tracheal resection and primary anastomosis in this series confirm the efficacy and reliability of this approach towards the management of laryngotracheal stenosis of varied etiologies. Similar to data in the literature, post-intubation injury was the leading cause of stenosis in our series. A resection length of up to 6 cm with laryngeal release procedures (when necessary) was found to be technically feasible. PMID:15668812

George, Mercy; Lang, Florian; Pasche, Philippe; Monnier, Philippe

2005-08-01

226

Acquired degenerative changes of the intervertebral segments at and suprajacent to the lumbosacral junction. A radioanatomic analysis of the nondiskal structures of the spinal column and perispinal soft tissues.  

PubMed

In earlier evolutionary times, mammals were primarily quadrupeds. However, other bipeds have also been represented during the course of the Earth's several billion year history. In many cases, either the bipedal stance yielded a large tail and hypoplastic upper extremities (e.g., Tyrannosaurus rex and the kangaroo), or it culminated in hypoplasia of the tail and further development and specialization of the upper extremities (e.g., nonhuman primates and human beings). In the human species this relatively recently acquired posture resulted in a more or less pronounced lumbosacral kyphosis. In turn, certain compensatory anatomic features have since occurred. These include the normal characteristic posteriorly directed wedge-shape of the L5 vertebral body and the L5-S1 intervertebral disk; the L4 vertebral body and the L4-L5 disk may be similarly visibly affected. These compensatory mechanisms, however, have proved to be functionally inadequate over the long term of the human life span. Upright posture also leads to increased weight bearing in humans that progressively causes excess stresses at and suprajacent to the lumbosacral junction. These combined factors result in accelerated aging and degenerative changes and a predisposition to frank biomechanical failure of the subcomponents of the spinal column in these spinal segments. One other specific problem that occurs at the lumbosacral junction that predisposes toward premature degeneration is the singular relationship that exists between a normally mobile segment of spine (i.e., the lumbar spine) and a normally immobile one (i.e., the sacrum). It is well known that mobile spinal segments adjacent to congenitally or acquired fused segments have a predilection toward accelerated degenerative changes. The only segment of the spine in which this is invariably normally true is at the lumbosacral junction (i.e., the unfused lumbar spine adjoining the fused sacrum). Nevertheless, biomechanical failures of the human spine are not lethal traits; in most cases today, mankind reaches sexual maturity before spinal biomechanical failure precludes sexual reproduction. For this gene-preserving reason, degenerative spinal disorders will likely be a part of modern societies for the foreseeable eternity of the race. The detailed alterations accruing from the interrelated consequences of and phenomena contributing to acquired degenerative changes of the lumbosacral intervertebral segments as detailed in this discussion highlight the extraordinary problems that are associated with degenerative disease in this region of the spine. Further clinicoradiologic research in this area will progressively determine the clinical applications and clinical efficacy of the various traditional and newer methods of therapy in patients presenting with symptomatic acquired collapse of the intervertebral disks at and suprajacent to the lumbosacral junction and the interrelated degenerative alterations of the nondiskal structures of the spine. PMID:11221507

Jinkins, J R

2001-01-01

227

Jogging Kinematics After Lumbar Paraspinal Muscle Fatigue  

PubMed Central

Abstract Context: Isolated lumbar paraspinal muscle fatigue causes lower extremity and postural control deficits. Objective: To describe the change in body position during gait after fatiguing lumbar extension exercises in persons with recurrent episodes of low back pain compared with healthy controls. Design: Case-control study. Setting: Motion analysis laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-five recreationally active participants with a history of recurrent episodes of low back pain, matched by sex, height, and mass with 25 healthy controls. Intervention(s): We measured 3-dimensional lower extremity and trunk kinematics before and after fatiguing isometric lumbar paraspinal exercise. Main Outcome Measure(s): Measurements were taken while participants jogged on a custom-built treadmill surrounded by a 10-camera motion analysis system. Results: Group-by-time interactions were observed for lumbar lordosis and trunk angles (P < .05). A reduced lumbar spine extension angle was noted, reflecting a loss of lordosis and an increase in trunk flexion angle, indicating increased forward trunk lean, in healthy controls after fatiguing lumbar extension exercise. In contrast, persons with a history of recurrent low back pain exhibited a slight increase in spine extension, indicating a slightly more lordotic position of the lumbar spine, and a decrease in trunk flexion angles after fatiguing exercise. Regardless of group, participants experienced, on average, greater peak hip extension after lumbar paraspinal fatigue. Conclusions: Small differences in response may represent a necessary adaptation used by persons with recurrent low back pain to preserve gait function by stabilizing the spine and preventing inappropriate trunk and lumbar spine positioning. PMID:19771285

Hart, Joseph M.; Kerrigan, D. Casey; Fritz, Julie M.; Ingersoll, Christopher D.

2009-01-01

228

Cerebriform connective tissue nevus of lumbar.  

PubMed

Connective tissue nevi represents a kind of hamartoma, and coalescence of the lesions in a cerebriform mode in the lumbar region without Proteus syndrome is rarely seen. Here, we report a 26-year-old woman presenting with nodules and plaques in her left lumbar region of 26 years in duration. Histopathological examination and Masson-trichrome stain showed increased dermal collagen bundles in a haphazard array. The diagnosis of connective tissue nevi was made. This is the first case report on cerebriform connective tissue nevi without Proteus syndrome in the lumbar region. PMID:25512235

Chen, Jinbo; Chen, Liuqing; Duan, Yiqun; Li, Dongsheng; Dong, Bilin

2015-02-01

229

[Occupation and lumbar disk prolapse].  

PubMed

All Danish occupational groups were screened for an increased risk of hospitalization due to a prolapsed lumbar intervertebral disc (PLID) (ICD-8: 725.11). A cohort of all gainfully employed Danes aged 20 to 59 years in 1981 was followed-up for 10 years for first hospitalization with PLID. A Standardized Hospitalization Ratio was calculated using all economically active persons as the reference group. Male groups with an elevated risk were found in building and construction, the iron and metal industry, in the food and nutrition sector and in occupational driving. Almost all groups of professional drivers had an elevated risk. Female groups with an elevated risk were mainly found in the same industries, but home helps, service workers in the private sector and sewing machine operators also had an elevated risk. We conclude that there are significant and systematic differences between occupational groups as concerns the risk of hospital admission due to PLID. PMID:7725550

Jensen, M V; Tüchsen, F

1995-03-13

230

Spontaneous resolution of lumbar vertebral eosinophilic granuloma.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic granuloma (EG) is a rare disease but is more common in adults than children. It's often self-limiting. Spinal involvement is rare. It is the localized and most benign form of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (previously known as histiocytosis X), characterised by lytic lesions in one or more bones. Spontaneous resolution of vertebral body lesions is very rare. In this case, the patient had one EG in a cervical vertebra and a similar lesion in a lumbar vertebra. This case is important because it featured a symptomatic lesion in the cervical spine accompanied by an asymptomatic lesion in a lumbar vertebra. We treated the cervical lesion by surgical fusion and followed the lumbar lesion up conservatively, with the patient in a corset. After 8 years of follow-up, control MRI showed that the lumbar lesion had spontaneously resolved. PMID:14963750

Bavbek, M; Atalay, B; Altinörs, N; Caner, H

2004-02-01

231

Lumbar Epidural Varix Mimicking Perineural Cyst  

PubMed Central

Lumbar epidural varices are rare and usually mimick lumbar disc herniations. Back pain and radiculopathy are the main symptoms of lumbar epidural varices. Perineural cysts are radiologically different lesions and should not be confused with epidural varix. A 36-year-old male patient presented to us with right leg pain. The magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cystic lesion at S1 level that was compressing the right root, and was interpreted as a perineural cyst. The patient underwent surgery via right L5 and S1 hemilaminectomy, and the lesion was coagulated and removed. The histopathological diagnosis was epidural varix. The patient was clinically improved and the follow-up magnetic resonance imaging showed the absence of the lesion. Lumbar epidural varix should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of the cystic lesions which compress the spinal roots. PMID:23741553

Pusat, Serhat; Kural, Cahit; Aslanoglu, Atilla; Kurt, Bulent

2013-01-01

232

Nerve root anomalies: implications for transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion surgery and a review of the Neidre and Macnab classification system.  

PubMed

Lumbar nerve root anomalies are uncommon phenomena that must be recognized to avoid neural injury during surgery. The authors describe 2 cases of nerve root anomalies encountered during mini-open transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) surgery. One anomaly was a confluent variant not previously classified; the authors suggest that this variant be reflected in an amendment to the Neidre and Macnab classification system. They also propose strategies for identifying these anomalies and avoiding injury to anomalous nerve roots during TLIF surgery. Case 1 involved a 68-year-old woman with a 2-year history of neurogenic claudication. An MR image demonstrated L4-5 stenosis and spondylolisthesis and an L-4 nerve root that appeared unusually low in the neural foramen. During a mini-open TLIF procedure, a nerve root anomaly was seen. Six months after surgery this patient was free of neurogenic claudication. Case 2 involved a 60-year-old woman with a 1-year history of left L-4 radicular pain. Both MR and CT images demonstrated severe left L-4 foraminal stenosis and focal scoliosis. Before surgery, a nerve root anomaly was not detected, but during a unilateral mini-open TLIF procedure, a confluent nerve root was identified. Two years after surgery, this patient was free of radicular pain. PMID:23905960

Burke, Shane M; Safain, Mina G; Kryzanski, James; Riesenburger, Ron I

2013-08-01

233

Posteroanterior versus anteroposterior lumbar spine radiology  

SciTech Connect

The posteroanterior view of the lumbar spine has important features including radiation protection and image quality; these have been studied by various investigators. Investigators have shown that sensitive tissues receive less radiation dosage in the posteroanterior view of the spine for scoliosis screening and intracranial tomography without altering the image quality. This paper emphasizes the importance of the radiation safety aspect of the posteroanterior view and shows the improvement in shape distortion in the lumbar vertebrae.

Tsuno, M.M.; Shu, G.J. (Cleveland Chiropractic College, Los Angeles, CA (USA))

1990-03-01

234

The sternoclavicular joint: can imaging differentiate infection from degenerative change?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The purpose of this study was to determine if there are imaging and clinical findings that can differentiate a septic sternoclavicular\\u000a joint from a degenerative one.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Search of radiology reports from 2000–2007 revealed 460 subjects with imaging of the sternoclavicular joint, of whom 38 had\\u000a undergone aspiration or biopsy. The final study group consisted of nine subjects with

Mark C. Johnson; Jon A. Jacobson; David P. Fessell; Sung Moon Kim; Catherine Brandon; Elaine Caoili

2010-01-01

235

In vivo range of motion of the lumbar spinous processes  

PubMed Central

The study design included an in vivo laboratory study. The objective of the study is to quantify the kinematics of the lumbar spinous processes in asymptomatic patients during un-restricted functional body movements with physiological weight bearing. Limited data has been reported on the motion patterns of the posterior spine elements. This information is necessary for the evaluation of traumatic injuries and degenerative changes in the posterior elements, as well as for improving the surgical treatment of spinal diseases using posterior procedures. Eight asymptomatic subjects with an age ranging from 50 to 60 years underwent MRI scans of their lumbar segments in a supine position and 3D models of L2–5 were constructed. Next, each subject was asked to stand and was positioned in the following sequence: standing, 45° flexion, maximal extension, maximal left and right twisting, while two orthogonal fluoroscopic images were taken simultaneously at each of the positions. The MRI models were matched to the osseous outlines of the images from the two orthogonal views to quantify the position of the vertebrae in 3D at each position. The data revealed that interspinous process (ISP) distance decreased from L2 to L3 to L4 to L5 when measured in the supine position; with significantly higher values at L2–3 and L3–4 compared with L4–5. These differences were not seen with weight-bearing conditions. During the maximal extension, the ISP distance at the L2–3 motion segment was significantly reduced, but no significant changes were detected at L3–4 and L4–5. During flexion the ISP distances were not significantly different than those measured in the MRI position at all segments. Going from the left to right twist positions, the L4–5 segment had greater amounts of ISP rotation, while all segments had similar ranges of translation in the transverse plane. The interspinous process distances were dependent on body posture and vertebral level. PMID:19543753

Xia, Qun; Wang, Shaobai; Passias, Peter G.; Kozanek, Michal; Li, Gang; Grottkau, Brian E.; Wood, Kirkham B.

2009-01-01

236

Ipsilateral leg weakness associated with carotid stenosis.  

PubMed

Ipsilateral motor or sensory symptoms associated with carotid occlusive diseases are rare. We report a 52-year-old man who presented with aphasia, right hemiparesis, mild left leg weakness, and bilateral Babinski's signs. During the previous 10 days, he had experienced three episodes of left leg numbness and incoordination that occurred either alone or in association with right arm and leg weakness. Computed tomography showed infarcts in the right frontoparietal (parasagittal), left frontal, and left parietal lobes. Cerebral angiography revealed 60% stenosis of the right internal carotid artery, 80% stenosis of the left internal carotid artery, absence of the A1 segment of the right anterior cerebral artery, filling of the right anterior cerebral artery from the left carotid circulation only, and a normal vertebrobasilar system. This report illustrates that leg weakness may occur ipsilateral to carotid disease if the contralateral anterior cerebral artery is supplied by the ipsilateral carotid artery. PMID:2396275

Chimowitz, M I; Lafranchise, E F; Furlan, A J; Awad, I A

1990-09-01

237

Punctal stenosis: definition, diagnosis, and treatment  

PubMed Central

Acquired punctal stenosis is a condition in which the external opening of the lacrimal canaliculus is narrowed or occluded. This condition is a rare cause of symptomatic epiphora, but its incidence may be higher in patients with chronic blepharitis, in those treated with various topical medications, including antihypertensive agents, and especially in patients treated with taxanes for cancer. The purpose of this review is to cover the medical literature, focusing in particular on definition, incidence, risk factors, etiology and treatment options. PMID:22848141

Soiberman, Uri; Kakizaki, Hirohiko; Selva, Dinesh; Leibovitch, Igal

2012-01-01

238

Surgical management of idiopathic subglottic tracheal stenosis.  

PubMed

A case of idiopathic subglottic tracheal stenosis in a 50-year-old female is presented. A procedure of single-stage resection of the lesion and end-to-end anastomosis was performed with excellent results 1 year after the operation. The clinical, paraclinical, diagnostic, therapeutic and histopathological aspects of this rare pathologic condition are discussed and the literature on this topic is reviewed. PMID:10773576

Loutsidis, A; Zisis, C; Lariou, K; Bellenis, I

2000-04-01

239

Post Intubation Tracheal Stenosis in Children  

PubMed Central

Many authors have reported that tracheal stenosis is a complication that can follow tracheal intubation in both adults and children. The symptoms, when they do appear, can be confused with asthma, with subsequent treatment providing only mild and inconsistent relief. We report here the case of an 8 year old girl admitted to our hospital for whooping cough that was not responding to therapy. PMID:25635215

Caruselli, Marco; Amici, Mirco; Galante, Dario; Paut, Olivier; De Francisci, Giovanni; Carboni, Laura

2014-01-01

240

Post intubation tracheal stenosis in children.  

PubMed

Many authors have reported that tracheal stenosis is a complication that can follow tracheal intubation in both adults and children. The symptoms, when they do appear, can be confused with asthma, with subsequent treatment providing only mild and inconsistent relief. We report here the case of an 8 year old girl admitted to our hospital for whooping cough that was not responding to therapy. PMID:25635215

Caruselli, Marco; Amici, Mirco; Galante, Dario; Paut, Olivier; De Francisci, Giovanni; Carboni, Laura

2014-08-12

241

Lumbar nerve root compression due to extradural, intraforaminal lipoma. An underdiagnosed entity?  

PubMed

Intraspinal extradural lipomas, not associated with spinal dysraphism, are rare lesions. True adult lipomas have to be distinguished from angiolipomas and from epidural lipomatosis. The authors report a unique case of a patient with unilateral lumbar nerve root compression caused by extradural, intraforaminal, true adult lipoma. A 62-year-old woman suffered severe left L-5 radiculopathy that progressively worsened during the 12 months prior to presentation. She did not experience improvement with conservative therapy. An MR imaging study of the lumbar spine revealed shifting of the left L-5 nerve root caused by a small extradural intrarecessal (that is, the beginning of the intravertebral foramen)/intraforaminal mass with MR imaging characteristics of fatty tissue. No other relevant intraspinal pathology could be identified. A left L4-5 fenestration was carried out. A small fatty intrarecessal/intraforaminal mass compressing severely the left L-5 root was identified and completely resected. The histological examination revealed a lipoma. The patient recovered completely and is fully mobile and symptom free 1 year after the operation. Intraspinal lipomas should be considered in cases of radiculopathy, especially in the absence of relevant degenerative or tumorous pathology and in the presence of nerve root shifting caused by fatty tissue. PMID:18976170

Zevgaridis, Dimitris; Nanassis, Kimon; Zaramboukas, Thomas

2008-11-01

242

Influence of depression symptoms on patient expectations and clinical outcomes in the surgical management of spinal stenosis.  

PubMed

OBJECT This prospective cohort study was designed to determine the influence of depressive symptoms on patient expectations and the clinical outcomes of the surgical management of lumbar spinal stenosis. METHODS Patients with an age > 45 years, a diagnosis of lumbar spinal stenosis at one level, and an indication for decompressive surgery were included in this study. Data for all of the following parameters were recorded: age, sex, highest level of education, and employment status. Depression symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory), disability (Oswestry Disability Index), and back and leg pain (visual analog scale) were assessed before surgery and at 12 months thereafter. The reasons for surgery and patient expectations (North American Spine Society lumbar spine questionnaire) were noted before surgery. The global effectiveness of surgery (Likert scale) was assessed at the 1-year follow-up. RESULTS Fifty-eight patients were divided into two groups based on the presence (Group 1) or absence (Group 2) of depressive symptoms preoperatively; each group comprised 29 patients. Demographic data were similar in both groups before surgery. The main reason to undergo surgery was "fear of a worse situation" in 34% of the patients in Group 1 and "to reduce pain" in 24% of the patients in Group 2. The most prevalent expectation was to improve my social life and my mental health in both groups. Surgery had a relieving effect on the depressive symptoms in 14 patients (48%). Thus, in the postoperative period, the number of patients who were free of depressive symptoms was 43 compared with the 15 who were depressed (p = 0.001). The 15 patients with persistent depression symptoms after surgery had a worse clinical outcome compared with the 43 patients free of depression symptoms at the 1-year follow-up in terms of severe back pain (20% vs 0%, respectively), severe leg pain (40% vs 2.3%, respectively), and severe disability (53% vs 9.3%, respectively). Only 33% of patients with persistent depression symptoms after surgery chose the option "surgery helped a lot" compared with 76% of patients without depression symptoms. Moreover, in terms of expectations regarding improvement in back pain, leg pain, walking capacity, independence, physical duties, and social activities, fewer patients were "completely satisfied" in the group with persistent depression symptoms after surgery. CONCLUSIONS Surgery for spinal stenosis had a relieving effect on preoperative depression symptoms at the 1-year follow-up. The persistence of depressive symptoms after surgery correlated with a worse clinical outcome and a higher rate of unmet expectations. Screening measures to detect and treat depression symptoms in the perioperative period could lead to better clinical results and increased patient satisfaction. PMID:25380536

Urban-Baeza, Alejandro; Zárate-Kalfópulos, Barón; Romero-Vargas, Samuel; Obil-Chavarría, Claudia; Brenes-Rojas, Luis; Reyes-Sánchez, Alejandro

2015-01-01

243

Thoracoscopic approach for congenital esophageal stenosis.  

PubMed

Congenital esophageal stenosis (CES) is an infrequent entity; however, many cases have been reported during the last years. Its incidence falls between 1 per 25,000 and 1 per 50,000 live births and is associated with other congenital malformations in 17% to 33% of cases (mainly esophageal atresia). Congenital esophageal stenosis is defined as an intrinsic alteration of the esophageal wall given by the presence of ectopic tracheobronchial tissue, membranous diaphragm, muscular hypertrophy, or diffuse fibrosis of the submucosa, among other causes. The therapeutic options include endoscopic dilation and resection plus anastomosis (by either laparotomy or thoracotomy, depending on the level of the stenosis). We present the case of a 1-month-old baby boy with a CES located in the distal esophagus that is associated with anophthalmia and micropenis. We treated the lesion by means of a thoracoscopic resection of the affected segment and an esophageal end-to-end anastomosis. The patient's long-term outcome was uneventful. As far as we know, this is the first report on thoracoscopic resolution of a CES. PMID:17011258

Martinez-Ferro, Marcelo; Rubio, Martin; Piaggio, Lisandro; Laje, Pablo

2006-10-01

244

Echocardiography in Patients with Symptomatic Intracranial Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Echocardiography is often performed in stroke patients, even when alterative stroke etiologies are identified. We evaluated the utility of echocardiography in patients with TIA or stroke due to stenosis of a major intracranial artery. Methods The Warfarin versus Aspirin for Symptomatic Intracranial Disease (WASID) trial was an NIH-funded randomized, double-blinded, multicenter clinical trial in which 569 patients with TIA or ischemic stroke attributed to angiographically-proven 50–99% stenosis of a major intracranial artery were randomly assigned to warfarin or aspirin. Patients with unequivocal cardiac sources of embolism were excluded. The risk of ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), and vascular death was compared among patients who had or did not have echocardiography performed prior to enrollment, and Cox proportional hazards models were employed to determine whether echocardiographic abnormalities present in >5% of subjects were associated with these outcomes. Results 264 of 569 patients in WASID had echocardiograms; 37% were transesophageal. Of these 264 patients, 69 suffered subsequent ischemic stroke, MI, or vascular death. Patients who underwent echocardiography had similar event rates to those who did not (p=0.18). Common abnormalities identified on echocardiography were not associated with subsequent risk in this population. Conclusions Among patients with TIA or stroke due to intracranial arterial stenosis, echocardiography appears to offer limited diagnostic and prognostic value. PMID:17845919

Kasner, Scott E.; Lynn, Michael J.; Jackson, Bryon P.; Pullicino, Patrick M.; Chimowitz, Marc I.

2007-01-01

245

Co-occurrence of lumbar spondylolysis and lumbar disc herniation with lumbosacral nerve root anomaly  

PubMed Central

Lumbosacral nerve root anomalies are the leading cause of lumbar surgery failures. Although co-occurrence of lumbar spondylolysis and disc herniation is common, it is very rare to observe that a nerve root anomaly accompanies these lesions. A 49-year-old male patient presented with sudden-onset right leg pain. Examinations revealed L5/S1 lumbar spondylolysis and disc herniation. At preoperative period, he was also diagnosed with lumbosacral root anomaly. Following discectomy and root decompression, stabilization was performed. The complaints of the patient diagnosed with lumbosacral root anomaly at intraoperative period were improved at postoperative period. It should be remembered that in patients with lumbar disc herniation and spondylolysis, lumbar root anomalies may coexist when clinical and neurological picture is severe. Preoperative and perioperative assessments should be made meticulously to prevent neurological injury. PMID:25210343

Y?lmaz, Tevfik; Turan, Yahya; Gül?en, ?smail; Dalbayrak, Sedat

2014-01-01

246

Challenges in the echocardiographic assessment of aortic stenosis.  

PubMed

Calcific aortic valve stenosis is common in the elderly. While history and examination can establish the diagnosis, determination of its severity typically requires echocardiography to define valve anatomy, measure stenosis severity and assess left ventricular response. The purpose of this review is to describe some of the commonly encountered challenges in the echocardiographic assessment of aortic stenosis. These include errors in the calculation of aortic valve area, assessment of aortic stenosis during atrial fibrillation, determining the presence of aortic stenosis in the setting of low transvalvular pressure gradients and discriminating other forms of obstruction to left ventricular ejection from aortic stenosis. Lastly, a review of how echocardiography is utilized to select patients for transcatheter aortic valve replacement is presented. PMID:25301316

Khan, Asaad A; Picard, Michael H

2014-07-01

247

Pancreaticoduodenal Artery Aneurysm Formation with Superior Mesenteric Artery Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Celiac stenosis or occlusion is attributed partly to increase blood flow at pancreatic arcade from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) system and may play a causal role in true aneurysm of pancreaticoduodenal artery (PDAA) formation. However, despite possible increased blood flow in the pancreatic arcades like celiac stenosis, PDAAs with a stenotic SMA are extremely rare, with only three cases have been reported in the literature. We report a case of PDAA with SMA stenosis and review the literature. PMID:25298835

Kitaoka, Tadashi; Kamiya, Chiaki; Suzuki, Jun; Sato, Osamu

2014-01-01

248

Antral web associated with distal antral hypertrophy and prepyloric stenosis mimicking hypertrophic pyloric stenosis  

PubMed Central

A 3-year-old boy presented with postprandial vomiting and epigastric pain for 3 wk. Barium meal study suggested hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. Ultrasound of the stomach after water loading revealed an echogenic antral web with an eccentric aperture and distal antral hypertrophy. Subsequent endoscopy confirmed the ultrasound findings. Web resection and antropyloroplasty resulted in excellent recovery. To our knowledge, the barium meal and ultrasound findings of an antral web-associated distal antral hypertrophy and prepyloric stenosis has not previously been described. PMID:15641157

Tiao, Mao-Ming; Ko, Sheung-Fat; Hsieh, Chie-Song; Ng, Shu-Hang; Liang, Chi-Di; Sheen-Chen, Shy Ming; Chuang, Jiin-Haur; Huang, Hsuan-Ying

2005-01-01

249

Durotomy repair in minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion by nonpenetrating clips  

PubMed Central

Background: Closure of the dura defect may be easy to perform in open lumbar surgery but could be difficult in minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusions (MIS-TLIF) since MIS-TLIF was done through a small tube, which limited the use of standard dural repair instruments. We used nonpenetrating titanium clips that were originally designed for the vascular anastomoses to repair the dura defect, which is never described in the literature. Methods: We presented a case of spinal stenosis with incidental durotomy while performing MIS-TLIF. We closed the dura laceration with three medium-sized nonpenetrating titanium clips (AnastoClip Vessel Closure System, LeMaitre Vascular, Inc., Burlington, MA). Results: Nonpenetrating titanium clips have the benefits of being technically easy to use, reduced durotomy repair time, decreased bed rest due to related medical complications, superior postoperation with immediate hydrostatic strength, and better reapproximation if it fails to clip successfully. As for the postoperation follow up, clips are tiny and reveal no obvious artifact, especially in cases where the pedicle screws are already causing much artifact. Conclusion: Primary dural closure during MIS-TLIF with clips is an effective way in cases that involve limited tubular space. PMID:24818043

Cheng, Yen-Po; Lin, Ping-Yi; Huang, Abel Po-Hao; Cheng, Chun-Yuan; Chen, Chien-Min; Hueng, Dueng-Yuan

2014-01-01

250

Subglottic stenosis: correlation between computed tomography and bronchoscopy.  

PubMed

The evaluation of subglottic stenosis has been limited by the lack of standardized methods for determining the cross-sectional area and length of the stenotic segment. A rabbit model was used to prospectively evaluate the correlation between computed tomography (CT) and bronchoscopy in the evaluation of this disease. Subglottic stenosis was produced in 39 New Zealand White rabbits by a transoral endoscopic technique. The animals were evaluated 3 weeks later with spiral CT, rigid bronchoscopy, and open laryngotracheal exploration. Spiral CT was performed with the location, degree, and length of subglottic stenosis being determined by a blinded observer. Each animal then underwent rigid bronchoscopy and open laryngotracheal exploration for determination of the same measurements. Data were analyzed to determine the correlation between the radiographic and surgical techniques in evaluating the airway stenosis. With regard to the degree of stenosis, 94% of the rabbits were determined to have CT and bronchoscopic measurements that were within 15% (Pearson correlation .94, p < .05). With regard to the length of stenosis, 94% of animals had a measurement on CT that was within 2 mm of that observed upon open exploration (Pearson correlation .81, p < .05). The CT evaluation of subglottic stenosis correlated well with the currently used method of visual inspection at bronchoscopy in evaluating tracheal stenosis in this animal model. These data suggest that CT could serve as a useful adjunct in the evaluation of tracheal stenosis, especially when serial examinations are required. PMID:10527273

Jewett, B S; Cook, R D; Johnson, K L; Logan, T C; Rosbe, K W; Mukherji, S K; Shockley, W W

1999-09-01

251

Biomarkers in Aortic Stenosis - B.A.S.S.  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Aortic Stenosis; Mitral Valve Replacement; Aortic Valve Replacement; Prosthetic Heart Valve Dysfunction; Aortic Insufficiency; Mitral Insufficiency; Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy; Tricuspid Regurgitation With Pacemaker/Defibrillator Leads

2013-01-15

252

49 CFR 572.115 - Lumbar spine and pelvis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Side Impact Hybrid Dummy 50th Percentile Male § 572.115 Lumbar spine and pelvis. The specifications and test procedure for the lumbar...

2010-10-01

253

Disappeared Pulsatile Tinnitus Related to Petrous Segment Stenosis of the ICA after Relief of the Stenosis by Stenting  

PubMed Central

Summary Pulsatile tinnitus may result from turbulent flow within the internal carotid artery (ICA). Atherosclerotic carotid stenosis is a rare but well-known cause of pulsatile tinnitus. The classical treatment was endarterectomy or ligation for proximal ICA disease or stenting for distal ICA lesions. Endovascular techniques offer new ways to treat atherosclerotic vascular stenosis lesions. We describe two cases of pulsatile tinnitus caused by stenosis within the petrous segment of the ICA and treated by stent-assisted angioplasty. PMID:23472731

Ihn, Y.K.; Jung, W.S.; Kim, B-S.

2013-01-01

254

Disappeared pulsatile tinnitus related to petrous segment stenosis of the ICA after relief of the stenosis by stenting.  

PubMed

Pulsatile tinnitus may result from turbulent flow within the internal carotid artery (ICA). Atherosclerotic carotid stenosis is a rare but well-known cause of pulsatile tinnitus. The classical treatment was endarterectomy or ligation for proximal ICA disease or stenting for distal ICA lesions. Endovascular techniques offer new ways to treat atherosclerotic vascular stenosis lesions. We describe two cases of pulsatile tinnitus caused by stenosis within the petrous segment of the ICA and treated by stent-assisted angioplasty. PMID:23472731

Ihn, Y K; Jung, W S; Kim, B-S

2013-03-01

255

Supervised methods for detection and segmentation of tissues in clinical lumbar MRI.  

PubMed

Lower back pain (LBP) is widely prevalent all over the world and more than 80% of the people suffer from LBP at some point of their lives. Moreover, a shortage of radiologists is the most pressing cause for the need of CAD (computer-aided diagnosis) systems. Automatic localization and labeling of intervertebral discs from lumbar MRI is the first step towards computer-aided diagnosis of lower back ailments. Subsequently, for diagnosis and characterization (quantification and localization) of abnormalities like disc herniation and stenosis, a completely automatic segmentation of intervertebral discs and the dural sac is extremely important. Contribution of this paper towards clinical CAD systems is two-fold. First, we propose a method to automatically detect all visible intervertebral discs in clinical sagittal MRI using heuristics and machine learning techniques. We provide a novel end-to-end framework that outputs a tight bounding box for each disc, instead of simply marking the centroid of discs, as has been the trend in the recent past. Second, we propose a method to simultaneously segment all the tissues (vertebrae, intervertebral disc, dural sac and background) in a lumbar sagittal MRI, using an auto-context approach instead of any explicit shape features or models. Past work tackles the lumbar segmentation problem on a tissue/organ basis, and which tend to perform poorly in clinical scans due to high variability in appearance. We, on the other hand, train a series of robust classifiers (random forests) using image features and sparsely sampled context features, which implicitly represent the shape and configuration of the image. Both these methods have been tested on a huge clinical dataset comprising of 212 cases and show very promising results for both disc detection (98% disc localization accuracy and 2.08mm mean deviation) and sagittal MRI segmentation (dice similarity indices of 0.87 and 0.84 for the dural sac and the inter-vertebral disc, respectively). PMID:24746606

Ghosh, Subarna; Chaudhary, Vipin

2014-10-01

256

Comparison of the early results of transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion and posterior lumbar interbody fusion in symptomatic lumbar instability  

PubMed Central

Background: Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) has been preferred to posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) for different spinal disorders but there had been no study comparing their outcome in lumbar instability. A comparative retrospective analysis of the early results of TLIF and PLIF in symptomatic lumbar instability was conducted between 2005 and 2011. Materials and Methods: Review of the records of 102 operated cases of lumbar instability with minimum 1 year followup was done. A total of 52 cases (11 men and 41 women, mean age 46 years SD 05.88, range 40-59 years) underwent PLIF and 50 cases (14 men and 36 women, mean age 49 years SD 06.88, range 40-59 years) underwent TLIF. The surgical time, duration of hospital stay, intraoperative blood loss were compared. Self-evaluated low back pain and leg pain status (using Visual Analog Score), disability outcome (using Oswestry disability questionnaire) was analyzed. Radiological structural restoration (e.g., disc height, foraminal height, lordotic angle, and slip reduction), stability (using Posner criteria), fusion (using Hackenberg criteria), and overall functional outcome (using MacNab's criteria) were compared. Results: Pain, disability, neurology, and overall functional status were significantly improved in both groups but PLIF required more operative time and caused more blood loss. Postoperative hospital stay, structural restoration, stability, and fusion had no significant difference but neural complications were relatively more with PLIF. Conclusions: Both methods were effective in relieving symptoms, achieving structural restoration, stability, and fusion, but TLIF had been associated with shorter operative time, less blood loss, and lesser complication rates for which it can be preferred for symptomatic lumbar instability. PMID:23798756

Sakeb, Najmus; Ahsan, Kamrul

2013-01-01

257

Assessment of coronary artery stenosis by magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The findings of magnetic resonance and x-ray angiography were compared for assessment of coronary artery stenosis in this validation study. BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance angiography of the coronary arteries has recently been described, but there has been no comparison with x-ray angiography of localisation or assessment of important characteristics of coronary stenosis. METHODS: A breath hold, segmented k-space, 2D gradient echo imaging technique incorporating fat suppression was used in 39 patients (55 coronary stenoses) with known coronary artery disease. RESULTS: Overall, 47 stenoses (85%) were assessed by magnetic resonance (29 of 33 stenoses in the left anterior descending artery, one of one in the left main stem, 14 of 17 in the right coronary artery, and three of four in the left circumflex artery were detected). There was close agreement between magnetic resonance and x-ray angiography for the distance of the stenosis from the arterial origin (magnetic resonance mean (SD) 27 (16) mm versus x-ray angiography 27 (16) mm, P = NS, mean difference -0.2 mm). The distance to 39 stenoses (83%) agreed to within 5 mm, with increased scatter for more distal stenoses. The severity of magnetic resonance signal loss, assessed visually at the site of stenosis, varied significantly according to the percentage diameter stenosis (F = 30, P < 0.0001); stenosis severity with severe signal loss was 89 (7)%, with partial signal was 70 (16)%, and with irregular wall only 37 (11)%, with significant differences among the three groups (P < 0.001). A significant correlation was found between the proportional magnetic resonance signal loss at the stenosis and the percentage diameter stenosis severity (r = -0.67, P < 0.0001). The length of stenosis measured by magnetic resonance (6 (3) mm) was greater than by x-ray angiography (5 (2) mm, P < 0.006, mean difference +1.1 mm). Spearman's rank test showed that there was significant overestimation of stenosis length by magnetic resonance as stenosis severity increased (rs = 0.34, P < 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Accurate localisation of coronary stenosis and a qualitative assessment of stenosis severity are possible by magnetic resonance, but stenosis length is overestimated as severity increases, probably because of disturbed patterns of flow with turbulence distal to severe stenoses. Reasonable results for the detection of coronary artery stenosis by magnetic resonance were achieved in this highly selected population, but further progress in imaging techniques is necessary before moving towards appreciable clinical application. Images PMID:8673749

Pennell, D. J.; Bogren, H. G.; Keegan, J.; Firmin, D. N.; Underwood, S. R.

1996-01-01

258

The Degenerative Dysarthrias: A Window into Critical Clinical and Research Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although diversity of symptoms and urgency of needs pose many challenges, management of the degenerative dysarthrias is a crucial aspect of clinical practice. The purpose of this article is to review current research literature on selected degenerative dysarthrias including those associated with Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. These dysarthrias are prevalent yet represent distinct patterns of underlying

Kathryn M. Yorkston

2007-01-01

259

Bilateral vertebral artery stenosis present with vertigo  

PubMed Central

Of ischaemic stroke patients, about 25% rise from the posterior or vertebrobasilar system. The ischaemia of vertebral arteries may emerge for different vascular pathological reasons, at different localisations and with different clinical findings. Despite its low morbidity and mortality risk, early diagnosis and treatment is of importance. Vertebrobasilar ischaemia symptoms can be observed clinically such as vertigo, tinnitus, double vision, headache, hypokinesis and hearing disorders, etc. In this article, a 42-year-old stroke patient case is presented, who applied to the emergency service with vertigo and then, was diagnosed with bilateral vertebral artery stenosis by means of cranial MR angiography. PMID:23376658

Kotan, Dilcan; Sayan, Saadet; Acar, Bilgehan Atilgan; Polat, Pinar

2013-01-01

260

Mechanisms and treatments for renal artery stenosis.  

PubMed

Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) is a common and complicated disease, which can result in high blood pressure and loss of kidney function. Although progress has been made in the understanding and treatment of hypertension in relation to ARAS, much less progress has been made in the area of renal function. Here we discuss current treatment options in regard to medical therapy and revascularization. We also describe the proposed mechanisms leading to renal dysfunction, including the CD40 signaling cascade, which is a particularly attractive signaling mechanism that may provide a mechanistic rationale for the development of renal disease in ARAS. PMID:24333404

Haller, Steven T; Evans, Kaleigh L; Folt, David A; Drummond, Christopher A; Cooper, Christopher J

2013-12-01

261

Iatrogenic lumbar meningocoele: report of three cases  

PubMed Central

We have reported three cases of iatrogenic lumbar meningocoeles after surgery for herniated lumbar intervertebral discs. We reject the term spurious, pseudo, or false as given by earlier writers. We feel that, in reality, these sacs are true meningocoeles, with complete arachnoidal lining and freely communicating with the intraspinal subarachnoid space. We have also given a brief outline of the clinical features, elucidated the mechanisms operative in the production of symptoms, and suggested the cardinal features of radiographic diagnosis. Prevention is, of course, the best way to avoid this complication. If a dural tear does occur, every effort should be made to suture it in a watertight manner. Images PMID:4918460

Rinaldi, Italo; Hodges, Thomas O.

1970-01-01

262

Early tracheal stenosis causing extubation failure and prolonged ventilator dependency.  

PubMed

Postintubation stenosis is the most frequent cause of benign tracheal stenosis and may cause reintubation and delay in weaning of intensive care unit patients. This case study describes typical patients with tracheal stenosis and the management of these patients. Five patients requiring reintubation and mechanical ventilation due to early intubation-related stenosis are discussed. Stridor developed in three cases after extubation. In these cases, bronchoscopy revealed tracheal stenosis. Dilatation and silicone stent placement were performed using rigid bronchoscopy. The other two patients were on ventilators when they were admitted to the intensive care unit and their stenoses were also treated by rigid bronchoscopy. Hypercapnia and hypoxia resolved after intervention in three cases. Of the remaining two patients, one had the tracheostomy closed and in the other patient ventilation was stopped but the tracheostomy was maintained. Tracheal stenosis developing in the subglottic region after extubation, especially after exposure to cuff pressure, may lead to reintubation. A tracheostomy may hinder the diagnosis of progressive stenosis and may lead to unnecessary maintenance of ventilator treatment. Early intubation-related tracheal stenosis should therefore be considered in cases of weaning or extubation failure and prompt appropriate investigation and treatment. PMID:23362899

Dalar, L; Schuurmans, M M; Eryuksel, E; Karasulu, L; Kosar, A F; Altin, S

2013-01-01

263

Risk of atrophy in kidneys with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk of atrophy in kidneys with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis. The goal of this study was to determine the incidence of and risk factors for renal atrophy among kidneys with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS). Participants with at least one ARAS were followed prospectively with duplex scans performed every six months. Renal atrophy was defined as a reduction in renal

Michael T Caps; R Eugene Zierler; Nayak L Polissar; Robert O Bergelin; Kirk W Beach; Kim Cantwell-Gab; Alder Casadei; Robert C Davidson; D Eugene Strandness

1998-01-01

264

T-tube insertion for sclerotic subglottic stenosis.  

PubMed

T-tube insertion is effective treatment for subglottic stenosis, but it is generally difficult due to bending of the T-tube. In a 52-year-old woman with relapsing polychondritis, a T-tube was inserted after predilatation using Hegar dilators. We describe the details of our T-tube insertion methods for sclerotic subglottic stenosis. PMID:24585799

Goto, Taichiro; Kato, Ryoichi

2014-02-01

265

Does duodenal atresia and stenosis prevent midgut volvulus in malrotation?  

PubMed

Thirty-six of the 64 (56%) neonates with duodenal atresia and stenosis who were retrospectively reviewed had associated malrotation. A volvulus neonatorum (age: <28 days) was not encountered among these patients. Can the duodenal atresia and stenosis act as a flood gate mechanism, in the prevention of volvulus in these children? PMID:9085801

Samuel, M; Wheeler, R A; Mami, A G

1997-02-01

266

Congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis associated with central diabetes insipidus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a child who has central diabetes insipidus associated with congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis without any apparent anterior pituitary dysfunction. This association further strengthens the concept that congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis may be a microform of holoprosencephaly. (J Pediatr 2000;137:260-2)

Mushtaq A Godil; Patricia Galvin-Parton; Denise Monte; Michele Zerah; Aparna Purandare; Thomas A Wilson

2000-01-01

267

Horner syndrome due to vertebral artery stenosis.  

PubMed

The author reports a rare case of Horner syndrome in a patient who resulted from stenosis of the vertebral artery after blunt trauma. A 31-year-old man was transferred to our department for evaluation of left medial orbital wall and nasal bone fractures. Five days ago, he was hospitalized due to multiple second to fourth rib fractures of the right chest following blunt trauma of the face, neck, and chest. Surgery was performed. Ten days later, he complained of drooping of the right eyelid. Physical examination revealed a discrete miosis and ptosis with normal levator function in the right eye. A workup for Horner syndrome was performed. Magnetic resonance angiography of the head and neck revealed a stenosis of the distal part of the right vertebral artery without the abnormality of carotid artery. He wore a cervical collar and underwent anticoagulation. However, Horner syndrome was not resolved over the next 12 months. Acute traumatic Horner syndrome may be associated with vertebral artery dissection in which the possibility of life-threatening injury can be masked. PMID:24220402

Kim, Chul Han

2013-11-01

268

Current Management of Calcific Aortic Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Calcific aortic stenosis (AS) is a progressive disease with no effective medical therapy that ultimately requires aortic valve replacement (AVR) for severe valve obstruction. Echocardiography is the primary diagnostic approach to define valve anatomy, measure AS severity and evaluate the left ventricular (LV) response to chronic pressure overload. In asymptomatic patients, markers of disease progression include the degree of leaflet calcification, hemodynamic severity of stenosis, adverse LV remodeling, reduced LV longitudinal strain, myocardial fibrosis and pulmonary hypertension. The onset of symptoms portends a predictably high mortality rate unless AVR is performed. In symptomatic patients, AVR improves symptoms, improves survival and, in patients with LV dysfunction, improves systolic function. Poor outcomes after AVR are associated with low-flow low-gradient AS, severe ventricular fibrosis, oxygen dependent lung disease, frailty, advanced renal dysfunction and a high comorbidity score. However, in most patients with severe symptoms, AVR is lifesaving. Bioprosthetic valves are recommended for patients over the age of 65 years. Transcatheter AVR is now available for patients with severe comorbidities, is recommended in patients who are deemed inoperable and is a reasonable alternative to surgical AVR in high risk patients. PMID:23833296

Lindman, Brian R.; Bonow, Robert O.; Otto, Catherine M.

2014-01-01

269

The Impact of Obesity on Short- and Long-Term Outcomes following Lumbar Fusion.  

PubMed

Study Design. Retrospective cohort study.Objective. To compare short and long-term outcomes in obese versus non-obese patients undergoing instrumented posterolateral fusion (PLF) of the lumbar spine.Summary of Background Data. Obesity is an important public concern issue, due to the negative effects on quality of life. Some studies have shown an association between obesity and higher rates of complications and unfavorable outcomes following spine surgery.Methods. We retrospectively reviewed medical records for all adult patients undergoing 1 - 3 level PLF for degenerative spine disease between 1992 and 2012 at a single institution. Patients were divided into obese (Body mass index > 30kg/m) and non-obese cohorts to compare complications, reoperation rates and symptom resolution at last follow-up. A regression model was used to estimate relative risk ratios (RR).Results. During the study period, a total of 732 patients underwent lumbar fusion, with 662 (90.44%) non-obese patients and 70 (9.56%) obese patients. Obese patients had significantly higher blood loss intraoperatively (P = 0.002) and a longer average length of stay (P = 0.022). Moreover, obesity was independently associated with a significantly increased risk of developing a postoperative complication (RR 2.14; 95% CI, 1.10 - 4.16) and surgical site infection (RR 3.11; 95% CI, 1.48 - 6.52). At last follow-up, a higher proportion of obese patients had radiculopathy (P = 0.018), motor deficits (P = 0.006), sensory deficits (P = 0.008), and bowel or bladder dysfunction (P = 0.006) compared to non-obese patients.Conclusion. In this study, obese patients undergoing lumbar fusion had higher blood loss, longer lengths of stay, higher complication rates and worse functional outcomes at last follow-up compared to non-obese patients. These findings suggest that both surgeons and patients should acknowledge the significantly increased morbidity profile of obese patients following lumbar fusion. PMID:25341984

De la Garza-Ramos, Rafael; Bydon, Mohamad; Abt, Nicholas; Sciubba, Daniel M; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Bydon, Ali; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Rabin, Bruce; Witham, Timothy F

2014-10-22

270

Midsagittal Anatomy of Lumbar Lordosis in Adult Egyptians: MRI Study  

PubMed Central

Despite the increasing recognition of the functional and clinical importance of lumbar lordosis, little is known about its description, particularly in Egypt. At the same time, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been introduced as a noninvasive diagnostic technique. The aim of this study was to investigate the anatomy of the lumbar lordosis using midsagittal MRIs. Normal lumbar spine MRIs obtained from 93 individuals (46 males, 47 females; 25–57 years old) were evaluated retrospectively. The lumbar spine curvature and its segments “vertebrae and discs” were described and measured. The lumbar lordosis angle (LLA) was larger in females than in males. Its mean values increased by age. The lumbar height (LH) was longer in males than in females. At the same time, the lumbar breadth (LB) was higher in females than in males. Lumbar index (LI?=?LB/LH?×?100) showed significant gender differences (P < 0.0001). Lordosis was formed by wedging of intervertebral discs and bodies of lower lumbar vertebrae. In conclusion, MRI might clearly reveal the anatomy of the lumbar lordosis. Use of LI in association with LLA could be useful in evaluation of lumbar lordosis. PMID:25210630

Hegazy, Abdelmonem A.; Hegazy, Raafat A.

2014-01-01

271

Cerebral Hemodynamics during Coronary Artery Bypass Graft surgery: The effect of carotid stenosis Running Head: Carotid stenosis and cerebral regulation  

PubMed Central

Carotid stenosis is a frequent coexisting condition in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. The impact of carotid stenosis on cerebral perfusion is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of carotid stenosis on cerebral blood flow velocity in patients undergoing CABG. Seventy-three patients undergoing CABG were prospectively recruited and underwent preoperative Duplex carotid ultrasound to evaluate the degree of carotid stenosis. Intraoperatively, transcranial Doppler ultrasound was used to record of the mean flow velocity within the bilateral middle cerebral arteries. Additionally, during the period of cardiopulmonary bypass, regulators of cerebral hemodynamics such as hematocrit, partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and temperature were recorded. The ipsilateral middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity was compared in arteries with and without carotid stenosis using a repeated measures analysis. Seventy-three patients underwent intraoperative monitoring during CABG and 30% (n=22) had carotid stenosis. Overall, MFV rose throughout the duration of CABG including when the patient was on cardiopulmonary bypass. However, there was no significant MFV difference between those arteries with and without stenosis (F=1.2, p=.21). Further analysis during cardiopulmonary bypass, demonstrated that hemodilution and partial pressure of carbon dioxide may play a role in cerebral autoregulation during CABG. Carotid stenosis did not impact mean cerebral blood flow velocity during CABG. The cerebrovascular regulatory process appears to be largely intact during CABG. PMID:19540657

Rudolph, James L.; Sorond, Farzaneh A.; Pochay, Val E.; Haime, Miguel; Treanor, Patrick; Crittenden, Michael D.; Babikian, Viken L.

2009-01-01

272

Tandem spinal stenosis: a case of stenotic cauda equina syndrome following cervical decompression and fusion for spondylotic cervical myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Tandem spinal stenosis is a clinical phenomenon which may cause a functional loss related to neurologic compression in numerous areas of the spinal cord. In this phenomenon, the second area of symptomatic neurologic insult is not revealed until the primary symptomatic area has been treated. This case describes a 71-year-old male referred to physical therapy 4 weeks following a combined anterior/posterior C3/4 decompression and fusion for treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Approximately 8 weeks post-operatively (4 weeks after initiation of physical therapy), the patient began to complain of bilateral lower extremity weakness, primarily with climbing stairs. At 12 weeks post-operatively, the patient developed bowel incontinence and saddle paresthesia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple levels of critical stenosis of the lower thoracic and upper lumbar spine, which resulted in referral for surgical intervention. Following surgical decompression there was complete recovery of lower extremity strength, saddle area sensation and bowel function. This case highlights the need for the clinician to remain vigilant for concomitant pathology despite successful surgical intervention. A thorough knowledge of the presentation of various spinal disorders, as well as a thorough neurologic examination, is required to accurately recognize both candid and subtle red flags requiring immediate referral for surgical intervention. PMID:23372394

Swanson, Brian T

2012-01-01

273

Lumbar Morphometry: A Study of Lumbar Vertebrae from a Pakistani Population Using Computed Tomography Scans  

PubMed Central

Study Design A cross-sectional study. Purpose To describe the characteristics of lumbar vertebrae of Pakistani patients reporting at a tertiary care hospital and compare with studies from other populations. Overview of Literature Several studies have been conducted to determine morphometry of lumbar vertebrae. Most of the studies involve Caucasian populations, still data on other populations still sparse. This is the first study describing lumbar morphometry of a Pakistani population. Methods An observational study was conducted based on a review of thin-cut (3 mm) computed topographic images of lumbar vertebrae. Two-hundred and twenty vertebrae from forty-nine patients were studied, and various dimensions were analyzed. Results Generally, the size of the vertebrae, vertebral canals and recesses were found to be greater in male patients. The difference was statistically significant for transverse and anteroposterior diameters of the vertebral bodies and sagittal diameter of pedicles on the left side (p<0.05). Comparison of populations revealed statistically significant differences in pedicle dimensions between Pakistani population and others. Conclusions This study provides anatomical knowledge of the lumbar region in a sample population of Pakistan. There were significant differences in various dimensions of lumbar vertebrae between female and male patients. This would prove to be critical for performing a safe operation. PMID:25187858

Alam, Muhammad M; Waqas, Muhammad; Shallwani, Hussain

2014-01-01

274

Developing skilled performance of lumbar spine manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To quantify elements of spinal manipulation therapy performance and to test the strategy of combined rehearsal and quantitative feedback as a means of enhancing student skill development. Design: Randomized, controlled study. Setting: Chiropractic college. Subjects: Thirty-nine chiropractic student volunteers entering the manipulation technique training course participated after providing informed consent. Methods: Student performance of lumbar spinal manipulation therapy was

John J. Triano; Carolyn M. Rogers; Sarah Combs; David Potts; Kenneth Sorrels

2002-01-01

275

Ontogeny of Androgen Receptor Immunoreactivity in Lumbar  

E-print Network

Ontogeny of Androgen Receptor Immunoreactivity in Lumbar Motoneurons and in the Sexually Dimorphic, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1527 ABSTRACT We documented the ontogeny of androgen retrodorsolat- eral nucleus (RDLN). We also assessed the ontogeny of AR immunoreactivity in the rat sexually

Breedlove, Marc

276

Nonoperative Treatment in Lumbar Spondylolysis and Spondylolisthesis  

PubMed Central

Context: Both spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis can be diagnosed across the life span of sports-participating individuals. Determining which treatments are effective for these conditions is imperative to the rehabilitation professional. Data Sources: A computer-assisted literature search was completed in MEDLINE, CINAHL, and EMBASE databases (1966-April 2012) utilizing keywords related to nonoperative treatment of spondylolysis and/or spondylolisthesis. Reference lists were also searched to find all relevant articles that fit our inclusion criteria: English language, human, lumbar pain with diagnosed spondylolysis and/or spondylolisthesis, inclusion of at least 1 nonoperative treatment method, and use of a comparative study design. Data Extraction: Data were independently extracted from the selected studies by 2 authors and cross-referenced. Any disagreement on relevant data was discussed and resolved by a third author. Results: Ten studies meeting the criteria were rated for quality using the GRADE scale. Four studies found surgical intervention more successful than nonoperative treatment for treating pain and functional limitation. One study found no difference between surgery and nonoperative treatment with regard to future low back pain. Improvement was found in bracing, bracing and exercises emphasizing lumbar extension, range of motion and strengthening exercises focusing on lumbar flexion, and strengthening specific abdominal and lumbar muscles. Conclusion: No consensus can be reached on the role of nonoperative versus surgical care because of limited investigation and heterogeneity of studies reported. Studies of nonoperative care options suffered from lack of blinding assessors and control groups and decreased patient compliance with exercise programs. PMID:24427393

Garet, Matthew; Reiman, Michael P.; Mathers, Jessie; Sylvain, Jonathan

2013-01-01

277

[Spontaneous regression of symptomatic lumbar disc herniation].  

PubMed

Lumbar disc herniation is very common, sometimes leading to disability of the patient, and in a significant number of cases can only be solved with surgery. This paper reports a case with a large symptomatic disc herniation, which suffered spontaneous regression, and no surgery was necessary. The case is documented on serial MRI, consistent with the clinical improvement of the patient. PMID:22472931

Ribeiro, R Pimenta; Matos, R Milheiro; Vieira, A; Costa, J M; Proença, R; Pinto, R

2011-01-01

278

In Vivo Kinematics of Normal, Degenerative, Fused and Disk-Replaced Cervical Spines Jan Goffin, MD,1  

E-print Network

In Vivo Kinematics of Normal, Degenerative, Fused and Disk-Replaced Cervical Spines Jan Goffin, MD of Mines Golden, CO #12;INTRODUCTION Cervical spine disorders are often associated with degenerative motion in the neck. Surgical treatment of cervical spine degenerative disorders most commonly involves

Hoff, William A.

279

Clinical and Radiological Outcomes of Unilateral Facetectomy and Interbody Fusion Using Expandable Cages for Lumbosacral Foraminal Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Objective Surgical treatment of lumbosacral foraminal stenosis requires an understanding of the anatomy of the lumbosacral area in individual patients. Unilateral facetectomy has been used to completely decompress entrapment of the L5 nerve root, followed in some patients by posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) with stand-alone cages. Methods We assessed 34 patients with lumbosacral foraminal stenosis who were treated with unilateral facetectomy and PLIF using stand-alone cages in our center from January 2004 to September 2007. All the patients underwent follow-up X-rays, including a dynamic view, at 3, 6, 12, 24 months, and computed tomography (CT) at 24 months postoperatively. Clinical outcomes were analyzed with the mean numeric rating scale (NRS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Odom's criteria. Radiological outcomes were assessed with change of disc height, defined as the average of anterior, middle, and posterior height in plain X-rays. In addition, lumbosacral fusion was also assessed with dynamic X-ray and CT. Results Mean NRS score, which was 9.29 prior to surgery, was 1.5 at 18 months after surgery. The decrease in NRS was statistically significant. Excellent and good groups with regard to Odom's criteria were 31 cases (91%) and three cases (9%) were fair. Pre-operative mean ODI of 28.4 decreased to 14.2 at post-operative 24 months. In 30 patients, a bone bridge on CT scan was identified. The change in disc height was 8.11 mm, 10.02 mm and 9.63 mm preoperatively, immediate postoperatively and at 24 months after surgery, respectively. Conclusion In the treatment of lumbosacral foraminal stenosis, unilateral facetectomy and interbody fusion using expandable stand-alone cages may be considered as one treatment option to maintain post-operative alignment and to obtain satisfactory clinical outcomes. PMID:21430975

Park, Jin Hoon; Bae, Chae Wan; Jeon, Sang Ryong; Rhim, Seung Chul; Kim, Chang Jin

2010-01-01

280

Cervical Spine Stenosis Measures in Normal Subjects.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To compare 2 methods of determining cervical spinal stenosis (Torg ratio, space available for the cord [SAC]); determine which of the components of the Torg ratio and the SAC account for more of the variability in the measures; and present standardized SAC values for normal subjects using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). DESIGN AND SETTING: The research design consisted of a posttest-only, comparison-group design. The independent variable was method of measurement (Torg ratio and SAC). The dependent variables were Torg ratio and SAC scores. SUBJECTS: Fourteen men (age = 24.4 +/- 2.5 years, height = 181.0 +/- 5.8 cm, weight = 90 +/- 13.5 kg) participated in this study. The C3 to C7 vertebrae were examined in each subject (n = 70). MEASUREMENTS: The Torg ratio was determined by dividing the sagittal spinal-canal diameter by the corresponding sagittal vertebral-body diameter. The SAC was determined by subtracting the sagittal spinal-cord diameter from the corresponding sagittal spinal-canal diameter. The Torg ratio and SAC were measured in millimeters. RESULTS: The SAC ranged from 2.5 to 10.4 mm and was greatest at C7 in 71% (10 of 14) of the subjects. The SAC was least at C3 or C5 in 71% (10 of 14) of the subjects. A Pearson product moment correlation revealed a significant relationship between the Torg ratio and SAC (r =.53, P <.01). Regression analyses revealed the vertebral body (r (2) =.58) accounted for more variability in the Torg ratio than the spinal canal (r (2) =.48). Also, the spinal canal (r (2) =.66) accounted for more variability in the SAC than the spinal cord (r (2) =.23). CONCLUSIONS: The SAC measure relies more on the spinal canal compared with the Torg ratio and, therefore, may be a more effective indicator of spinal stenosis. This is relevant clinically because neurologic injury related to stenosis is a function of the spinal canal and the spinal cord (not the vertebral body). Further research must be done, however, to validate the SAC measure. PMID:12937434

Tierney, Ryan T; Maldjian, Catherine; Mattacola, Carl G; Straub, Stephen J; Sitler, Michael R

2002-06-01

281

Cervical Spine Stenosis Measures in Normal Subjects  

PubMed Central

Objective: To compare 2 methods of determining cervical spinal stenosis (Torg ratio, space available for the cord [SAC]); determine which of the components of the Torg ratio and the SAC account for more of the variability in the measures; and present standardized SAC values for normal subjects using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Design and Setting: The research design consisted of a posttest-only, comparison-group design. The independent variable was method of measurement (Torg ratio and SAC). The dependent variables were Torg ratio and SAC scores. Subjects: Fourteen men (age = 24.4 ± 2.5 years, height = 181.0 ± 5.8 cm, weight = 90 ± 13.5 kg) participated in this study. The C3 to C7 vertebrae were examined in each subject (n = 70). Measurements: The Torg ratio was determined by dividing the sagittal spinal-canal diameter by the corresponding sagittal vertebral-body diameter. The SAC was determined by subtracting the sagittal spinal-cord diameter from the corresponding sagittal spinal-canal diameter. The Torg ratio and SAC were measured in millimeters. Results: The SAC ranged from 2.5 to 10.4 mm and was greatest at C7 in 71% (10 of 14) of the subjects. The SAC was least at C3 or C5 in 71% (10 of 14) of the subjects. A Pearson product moment correlation revealed a significant relationship between the Torg ratio and SAC (r = .53, P < .01). Regression analyses revealed the vertebral body (r?2 = .58) accounted for more variability in the Torg ratio than the spinal canal (r?2 = .48). Also, the spinal canal (r?2 = .66) accounted for more variability in the SAC than the spinal cord (r?2 = .23). Conclusions: The SAC measure relies more on the spinal canal compared with the Torg ratio and, therefore, may be a more effective indicator of spinal stenosis. This is relevant clinically because neurologic injury related to stenosis is a function of the spinal canal and the spinal cord (not the vertebral body). Further research must be done, however, to validate the SAC measure. PMID:12937434

Tierney, Ryan T.; Maldjian, Catherine; Mattacola, Carl G.; Straub, Stephen J.; Sitler, Michael R.

2002-01-01

282

Vertebral degenerative disc disease severity evaluation using random forest classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Degenerative disc disease (DDD) develops in the spine as vertebral discs degenerate and osseous excrescences or outgrowths naturally form to restabilize unstable segments of the spine. These osseous excrescences, or osteophytes, may progress or stabilize in size as the spine reaches a new equilibrium point. We have previously created a CAD system that detects DDD. This paper presents a new system to determine the severity of DDD of individual vertebral levels. This will be useful to monitor the progress of developing DDD, as rapid growth may indicate that there is a greater stabilization problem that should be addressed. The existing DDD CAD system extracts the spine from CT images and segments the cortical shell of individual levels with a dual-surface model. The cortical shell is unwrapped, and is analyzed to detect the hyperdense regions of DDD. Three radiologists scored the severity of DDD of each disc space of 46 CT scans. Radiologists' scores and features generated from CAD detections were used to train a random forest classifier. The classifier then assessed the severity of DDD at each vertebral disc level. The agreement between the computer severity score and the average radiologist's score had a quadratic weighted Cohen's kappa of 0.64.

Munoz, Hector E.; Yao, Jianhua; Burns, Joseph E.; Pham, Yasuyuki; Stieger, James; Summers, Ronald M.

2014-03-01

283

Health assessment of environmental pollutants: proliferative and degenerative diseases  

SciTech Connect

In order to achieve a balanced approach to risk assessment between carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health effects one must examine the risk of disease or death in the general population exposed to a particular air pollutant that can be related quantitatively to intensity and duration of exposures (National Academy of Sciences, 1983). Such risk assessment should be based upon careful evaluation of scientific findings of dose-response relationships in the chronically exposed population. Quantitative assessment of environmentally produced disease in man has proven to be complex and demanding. A variety of factors play important roles in this task. As an example, there are induction-latency periods for chronic diseases, including cancer, which may range from five to twenty-five years. The diseases themselves, whether proliferative or degenerative, may follow several stages of progression. There is only sparse epidemiological data on serious health effects that may be due to environmental as compared to occupational exposures. Exposures to chemical or radiological air contaminants do not occur singly but to a multiplicity of agents, and disease processes are frequently markedly affected by the interaction of a variety of factors, particularly that of cigarette smoking. There is growing recognition of potentially sensitive subpopulations, including the elderly and the very young, but adequate techniques for assessing the magnitude of increased risks to these groups have not yet been developed.

Stuart, B.O.

1988-12-01

284

Degenerative dementias and their medical care in the movies.  

PubMed

Compared with other neurologic problems, few films have been dedicated to degenerative dementia. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic review about the way in which dementia patients and their medical care are described in films. Twenty-four of the 53 relevant films that were found in online movie databases could be viewed. The author describes the demographics of the characters suffering from dementia, the clinical picture including neuropsychiatric manifestations, diagnostic procedures, medical follow-up, pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatment and the attitude of the caregivers. Most characters are played by actors in their seventh or eighth decade. There is an overrepresentation of highly educated people. Although the clinical picture is often accurate, some films suggest that even in the late stages of the disease patients have sudden moments of full insight in their disease. Among the neuropsychiatric signs, activity disturbances and aggressiveness are most often described. Few patients seek medical help, only 2 patients take acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and follow-up is absent for 5 of the 11 relevant patients. Only in 10 of 23 films, the term "Alzheimer" is used. Although there is a growing cinematographic interest in Alzheimer patients, even recent films tend to reinforce therapeutic and even diagnostic nihilism. PMID:17334273

Segers, Kurt

2007-01-01

285

The ubiquitin-proteasome system in spongiform degenerative disorders  

PubMed Central

Summary Spongiform degeneration is characterized by vacuolation in nervous tissue accompanied by neuronal death and gliosis. Although spongiform degeneration is a hallmark of prion diseases, this pathology is also present in the brains of patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease, diffuse Lewy body disease, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and Canavan's spongiform leukodystrophy. The shared outcome of spongiform degeneration in these diverse diseases suggests that common cellular mechanisms must underlie the processes of spongiform change and neurodegeneration in the central nervous system. Immunohistochemical analysis of brain tissues reveals increased ubiquitin immunoreactivity in and around areas of spongiform change, suggesting the involvement of ubiquitin-proteasome system dysfunction in the pathogenesis of spongiform neurodegeneration. The link between aberrant ubiquitination and spongiform neurodegeneration has been strengthened by the discovery that a null mutation in the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase mahogunin ring finger-1 (Mgrn1) causes an autosomal recessively inherited form of spongiform neurodegeneration in animals. Recent studies have begun to suggest that abnormal ubiquitination may alter intracellular signaling and cell functions via proteasome-dependent and proteasome-independent mechanisms, leading to spongiform degeneration and neuronal cell death. Further elucidation of the pathogenic pathways involved in spongiform neurodegeneration should facilitate the development of novel rational therapies for treating prion diseases, HIV infection, and other spongiform degenerative disorders. PMID:18790052

Whatley, Brandi R.; Li, Lian; Chin, Lih-Shen

2008-01-01

286

An in vivo kinematic comparison of dynamic lumbar stabilization to lumbar discectomy and posterior lumbar fusion using radiostereometric analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Biomechanical studies have shown that dynamic stabilization restores the neutral zone and stabilizes the motion segment. Unfortunately, there are limitations to clinical measurement of lumbar motion segments when using routine radiographs. Radiostereometric analysis is a 3-dimensional technique and can measure the spinal motion segment more accurately than techniques using plain film radiographs. The purpose of this study was measure and compare the range of motion after dynamic stabilization, posterior lumbar fusion (PLF), and lumbar discectomy. Methods Four patients who underwent lumbar decompression and dynamic stabilization (Dynesys; Zimmer Spine, Inc., Warsaw, Indiana) for treatment of lumbar spondylosis were compared with 4 patients with a similar diagnosis who were treated by PLF and pedicle screw fixation (PLF group) and 8 patients who had undergone lumbar microdiscectomy (discectomy group) for treatment of radiculopathy. During the surgical procedure, 3 to 5 tantalum beads were placed into each of the operative segments. The patients were followed up postoperatively at 1 month, 1 year, and 2 years. At each follow-up time point, segmental motions (flexion, extension, and total sagittal range of motion [SROM]) were measured by radiostereometric analysis. Results Flexion, extension, and SROM measured 1.0° ± 0.9°, 1.5° ± 1.3°, and 2.3° ± 1.2°, respectively, in the Dynesys group; 1.0° ± 0.6°, 1.1° ± 0.9°, and 1.5° ± 0.6°, respectively, in the PLF group; and 2.9° ± 2.4°, 2.3° ± 1.5°, and 4.7° ± 2.2°, respectively, in the discectomy group. No significant difference in motion was seen between the Dynesys and PLF groups or between the Dynesys and discectomy groups in extension. Significant differences in motions were seen between the PLF and discectomy groups and between the Dynesys and discectomy groups in flexion (P = .007) and SROM (P = .002). There was no significant change in the measured motions over time. Conclusions In this study a significantly lower amount of motion was seen after dynamic stabilization and PLF when compared with discectomy. A future study with a larger cohort is necessary to examine what effect, if any, these motions have on clinical outcomes.

Park, Soo-An; Fayyazi, Amir H.; Yonemura, Kenneth S.; Fredrickson, Bruce E.; Ordway, Nathaniel R.

2012-01-01

287

[Why screening for a renal artery stenosis?].  

PubMed

Diagnosis of renal artery stenosis (RAS) should be discussed in numerous clinical situations including refractory high blood pressure (HBP), HBP in a polyvascular patient, degradation of renal function following renin angiotensin inhibitor or flash pulmonary edema. Ultrasound-doppler coupled with gadolinium-enhanced MR or CT angiography has proven adequate for most patients with RAS. Digital subtraction angiography should be limited to revascularisation procedures. Functional testing are not sensitive or specific enough because the degree of renin activation differs widely among patients with RAS. Renal percutaneous angioplasty induces a light to moderate decrease in blood pressure, has no effect on renal function but allows to reduce the number of anti-hypertensive drugs. Stenting completed angioplasty is worthwhile in most patients with atherosclerotic RAS. ACE inhibitors decrease mortality and increase renal function in patients with RAS. PMID:18033019

Stéphan, D; Griffon, C; Hamade, A; Jahn, C; Welsch, M; Mounier-Vehier, C

2007-10-01

288

Laryngotracheal resection and reconstruction for subglottic stenosis.  

PubMed

Eighty patients with inflammatory stenoses of the subglottic larynx and upper trachea were treated by single-stage laryngotracheal resection and reconstruction. Fifty stenoses originated from postintubation lesions (endotracheal tubes, tracheostomy, cricothyroidostomy), 7 originated from trauma, 19 were idiopathic, and 4 were miscellaneous. Repair consisted of resection of the anterolateral cricoid arch in all patients, plus resection of posterior laryngeal stenosis where present, with salvage of the posterior cricoid plate, appropriate resection and tailoring of the trachea, and primary anastomosis using a posterior membranous tracheal wall flap to resurface the bared cricoid cartilage in 31 patients. One postoperative death resulted from acute myocardial infarction. Long-term results were excellent in 18 patients, good in 48, satisfactory in 8, and failure in 2. Three additional patients had good results at discharge but were followed up for less than 6 months. PMID:1728242

Grillo, H C; Mathisen, D J; Wain, J C

1992-01-01

289

Diagnosis and Management of Valvular Aortic Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Valvular aortic stenosis (AS) is a progressive disease that affects 2% of the population aged 65 years or older. The major cause of valvular AS in adults is calcification and fibrosis of a previously normal tricuspid valve or a congenital bicuspid valve, with rheumatic AS being rare in the United States. Once established, the rate of progression of valvular AS is quite variable and impossible to predict for any particular patient. Symptoms of AS are generally insidious at onset, though development of any of the three cardinal symptoms of angina, syncope, or heart failure portends a poor prognosis. Management of symptomatic AS remains primarily surgical, though transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is becoming an accepted alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) for patients at high or prohibitive operative risk. PMID:25368539

Czarny, Matthew J; Resar, Jon R

2014-01-01

290

Successful management of congenital bronchial stenosis using an expandable stent.  

PubMed

Congenital bronchial stenosis is a very rare cause of neonatal dyspnea. Surgical management remains challenging in small children. We report successful implantation of a bronchial stent in a 3-month-old female infant presenting with congenital right bronchial stenosis and 18 months of follow-up. Use of stents in children remains controversial because of the problem of size mismatch as the child grows. Nevertheless, expandable stent implantation could be an interesting alternative to complex surgery for localized bronchial stenosis in neonates. PMID:22244429

Sauvat, Frederique; Michel, Jean Luc; Harper, Luke; Mirabile, Lorenzo; Hoi, Robert Wan; Ramful, Duke; Bey, Karim; Schlossmacher, Pascal; Couloignier, Vincent; Revillon, Yann

2012-01-01

291

Regenerative Therapies for Equine Degenerative Joint Disease: A Preliminary Study  

PubMed Central

Degenerative joint disease (DJD) is a major cause of reduced athletic function and retirement in equine performers. For this reason, regenerative therapies for DJD have gained increasing interest. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were isolated from a 6-year-old donor horse. MSCs were either used in their native state or after chondrogenic induction. In an initial study, 20 horses with naturally occurring DJD in the fetlock joint were divided in 4 groups and injected with the following: 1) PRP; 2) MSCs; 3) MSCs and PRP; or 4) chondrogenic induced MSCs and PRP. The horses were then evaluated by means of a clinical scoring system after 6 weeks (T1), 12 weeks (T2), 6 months (T3) and 12 months (T4) post injection. In a second study, 30 horses with the same medical background were randomly assigned to one of the two combination therapies and evaluated at T1. The protein expression profile of native MSCs was found to be negative for major histocompatibility (MHC) II and p63, low in MHC I and positive for Ki67, collagen type II (Col II) and Vimentin. Chondrogenic induction resulted in increased mRNA expression of aggrecan, Col II and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) as well as in increased protein expression of p63 and glycosaminoglycan, but in decreased protein expression of Ki67. The combined use of PRP and MSCs significantly improved the functionality and sustainability of damaged joints from 6 weeks until 12 months after treatment, compared to PRP treatment alone. The highest short-term clinical evolution scores were obtained with chondrogenic induced MSCs and PRP. This study reports successful in vitro chondrogenic induction of equine MSCs. In vivo application of (induced) MSCs together with PRP in horses suffering from DJD in the fetlock joint resulted in a significant clinical improvement until 12 months after treatment. PMID:24465787

Broeckx, Sarah; Zimmerman, Marieke; Crocetti, Sara; Suls, Marc; Mariën, Tom; Ferguson, Stephen J.; Chiers, Koen; Duchateau, Luc; Franco-Obregón, Alfredo

2014-01-01

292

The lateral transpsoas approach to the lumbar and thoracic spine: A review  

PubMed Central

Background: In the last several years, the lateral transpsoas approach to the thoracic and lumbar spine, also known as extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) or direct lateral interbody fusion (DLIF), has become an increasingly common method to achieve fusion. Several recent large series describe several advantages to this approach, including less tissue dissection, smaller incisions, decreased operative time, blood loss, shorter hospital stay, reduced postoperative pain, enhanced fusion rates, and the ability to place instrumentation through the same incision. Indications for this approach have expanded and now include degenerative disease, tumor, deformity, and infection. Methods: A lateral X-ray confirms that the patient is in a truly lateral position. Next, a series of tubes and dilators are used, along with fluoroscopy, to identify the mid-position of the disk to be incised. After continued dilation, the optimal site to enter the disk space is the midpoint of the disk, or a position slightly anterior to the midpoint of the disk. XLIF typically allows for a larger implant to be inserted compared to TLIF or PLIF, and, if necessary, instrumentation can be inserted percutaneously, which would allow for an overall minimally invasive procedure. Results: Fixation techniques appear to be equal between XLIF and more traditional approaches. Some caution should be exercised because common fusion levels of the lumbar spine, including L4-5 and L4-S1, are often inaccessible. In addition, XLIF has a unique set of complications, including neural injuries, psoas weakness, and thigh numbness. Conclusion: Additional studies are required to further evaluate and monitor the short and long-term safety, efficacy, outcomes, and complications of XLIF procedures. PMID:22905326

Arnold, Paul M.; Anderson, Karen K.; McGuire, Robert A.

2012-01-01

293

Determination of the intervertebral disc space from CT images of the lumbar spine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Degenerative changes of the intervertebral disc are among the most common causes of low back pain, where for individuals with significant symptoms surgery may be needed. One of the interventions is the total disc replacement surgery, where the degenerated disc is replaced by an artificial implant. For designing implants with good bone contact and continuous force distribution, the morphology of the intervertebral disc space and vertebral body endplates is of considerable importance. In this study we propose a method for the determination of the intervertebral disc space from three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) images of the lumbar spine. The first step of the proposed method is the construction of a model of vertebral bodies in the lumbar spine. For this purpose, a chain of five elliptical cylinders is initialized in the 3D image and then deformed to resemble vertebral bodies by introducing 25 shape parameters. The parameters are obtained by aligning the chain to the vertebral bodies in the CT image according to image intensity and appearance information. The determination of the intervertebral disc space is finally achieved by finding the planes that fit the endplates of the obtained parametric 3D models, and placing points in the space between the planes of adjacent vertebrae that enable surface reconstruction of the intervertebral disc space. The morphometric analysis of images from 20 subjects yielded 11:3 +/- 2:6, 12:1 +/- 2:4, 12:8 +/- 2:0 and 12:9 +/- 2:7 cm3 in terms of L1-L2, L2-L3, L3-L4 and L4-L5 intervertebral disc space volume, respectively.

Korez, Robert; Å tern, Darko; Likar, Boštjan; Pernuš, Franjo; Vrtovec, Tomaž

2014-03-01

294

Severe tracheobronchial stenosis and bronchiectasis complicating ulcerative colitis  

PubMed Central

A 37-year-old woman with a 20-year history of ulcerative colitis (UC) was admitted with complaints of cough and increasing sputum production. Chest computed tomography showed severe stenosis of the left main bronchus and bronchiectasis of the left lower lobe. Biopsy specimens from the area of bronchial stenosis showed chronic inflammation with lymphocyte infiltration, and we diagnosed respiratory involvement of UC. The bronchial stenosis was successfully treated with yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) laser. UC is a systemic illness with occasional extraintestinal manifestations, but upper airway involvement is rare, and to our knowledge, this is the first published report of UC complicated with bronchopulmonary lesions with successful YAG laser treatment of the main bronchial stenosis. PMID:25473563

Suzuki, Toshio; Tsushima, Kenji; Sakairi, Yuichi; Yoshida, Shigetoshi; Yoshino, Ichiro; Tatsumi, Koichiro

2014-01-01

295

Hemophilic pseudotumor of the first lumbar vertebra.  

PubMed

Hemophilic pseudotumor involving the spine is extremely uncommon and presents a challenging problem. Preoperative planning, angiography, intra and perioperative monitoring with factor VIII cover and postoperative care for hemophilic pseudotumor is vital. Recognition of the artery of Adamkiewicz in the thoracolumbar junction helps to avoid intraoperative neurological injury. We report the case of a 26-year-old male patient with hemophilia A, who presented with a massive pseudotumor involving the first lumbar vertebra and the left iliopsoas. Preoperative angiography revealed the artery of Adamkiewicz arising from the left first lumbar segmental artery. Excision of pseudotumor was successfully carried out with additional spinal stabilization. At 2 years followup, there was no recurrence and the patient was well stabilized with a satisfactory functional status. Surgical excision gives satisfactory outcome in such cases. PMID:25404776

Nachimuthu, Gurusamy; Arockiaraj, Justin; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Sundararaj, Gabriel David

2014-11-01

296

Retroperitoneoscopic tension-free repair of lumbar hernia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lumbar hernia is an infrequent pathology that is difficult to treat through open surgery. A 65-year-old man presented with\\u000a a right-sided lumbar mass responsible for pain. This was a fatty mass of 10×15 cm, located in the lumbar fossa. A CT scan\\u000a showed the hernia and the defect. Through a small incision in the flank, dissection was initiated with one

E. Habib

2003-01-01

297

123I MIBG appearance of severe renal artery stenosis.  

PubMed

We describe a patient with labile hypertension and elevated metanephrines who underwent 123Iodine metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) for the detection of a possible paraganglioma. The scan revealed markedly abnormal diffusely increased activity in the right renal parenchyma. A CT angiogram showed severe renal artery stenosis of an atrophic-appearing right kidney and delayed enhancement of the right kidney, consistent with renal dysfunction due to renal artery stenosis. PMID:25243940

Jordan, Alistair; Seltzer, Marc; Siegel, Alan

2014-11-01

298

Tracheal resection for laryngotracheal stenosis: A retrospective analysis.  

PubMed

Laryngotracheal stenosis develops when scar tissue forms in the trachea and, rarely, in the larynx itself. Symptoms depend on the degree of airway obstruction and can range from asymptomatic to upper airway obstruction severe enough to cause death. We report on 21 patients who underwent tracheal resection for severe stenosis. Resection remains a good option in this situation, and there is a minimal need for specialised postoperative care or intensive care unit admission in the majority of cases. PMID:25215956

Grobbelaar, Johan; Daniller, T

2014-08-01

299

Smoking and hypertension: risk factors for carotid stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of smoking, hypertension and diabetes mellitus was assessed in 221 patients suffering from internal carotid stenosis and compared with the prevalences in two sex- and age-matched control groups composed of subjects having normal Doppler findings and from non-neurological outpatients. Of the subjects with carotid stenosis 27.6% were hypertensive smokers in comparison with 9.5% and 17.2% in the two

H. R. Müller; M. W. Buser

1991-01-01

300

Design concepts in lumbar total disc arthroplasty  

PubMed Central

The implantation of lumbar disc prostheses based on different design concepts is widely accepted. This paper reviews currently available literature studies on the biomechanics of TDA in the lumbar spine, and is targeted at the evaluation of possible relationships between the aims of TDA and the geometrical, mechanical and material properties of the various available disc prostheses. Both theoretical and experimental studies were analyzed, by a PUBMED search (performed in February 2007, revised in January 2008), focusing on single level TDA. Both semi-constrained and unconstrained lumbar discs seem to be able to restore nearly physiological IAR locations and ROM values. However, both increased and decreased ROM was stated in some papers, unrelated to the clinical outcome. Segmental lordosis alterations after TDA were reported in most cases, for both constrained and unconstrained disc prostheses. An increase in the load through the facet joints was documented, for both semi-constrained and unconstrained artificial discs, but with some contrasting results. Semi-constrained devices may be able to share a greater part of the load, thus protecting the surrounding biological structure from overloading and possible early degeneration, but may be more susceptible to wear. The next level of development will be the biomechanical integration of compression across the motion segment. All these findings need to be supported by long-term clinical outcome studies. PMID:18946684

Bellini, Chiara M.; Zweig, Thomas; Ferguson, Stephen; Raimondi, Manuela T.; Lamartina, Claudio; Brayda-Bruno, Marco; Fornari, Maurizio

2008-01-01

301

Variability of manual lumbar spine segmentation  

PubMed Central

Background The application of kinematic data acquired during biomechanical testing to specimen-specific, three-dimensional models of the spine has emerged as a useful tool in spine biomechanics research. However, the development of these models is subject to segmentation error because of complex morphology and pathologic changes of the spine. This error has not been previously characterized. Methods Eight cadaveric lumbar spines were prepared and underwent computed tomography (CT) scanning. After disarticulation and soft-tissue removal, 5 individual vertebrae from these specimens were scanned a second time. The CT images of the full lumbar specimens were segmented twice each by 2 operators, and the images of the individual vertebrae with soft tissue removed were segmented as well. The solid models derived from these differing segmentation sessions were registered, and the distribution of distances between nearest neighboring points was calculated to evaluate the accuracy and precision of the segmentation technique. Results Manual segmentation yielded root-mean-square errors below 0.39 mm for accuracy, 0.33 mm for intrauser precision, and 0.35 mm for interuser precision. Furthermore, the 95th percentile of all distances was below 0.75 mm for all analyses of accuracy and precision. Conclusions These findings indicate that such models are highly accurate and that a high level of intrauser and interuser precision can be achieved. The magnitude of the error presented here should inform the design and interpretation of future studies using manual segmentation techniques to derive models of the lumbar spine.

Cook, Daniel J.; Gladowski, David A.; Acuff, Heather N.; Yeager, Matthew S.; Cheng, Boyle C.

2012-01-01

302

[Clinical evaluation of stent placement for tracheal and bronchial stenosis].  

PubMed

Expandable metallic stents were successfully introduced in 7 patients, including 4 with left main bronchial stenosis caused by bronchopulmonary tuberculosis, 2 with main bronchial stenosis caused by lung cancer and one with tracheal stenosis caused by adenoid cystic carcinoma. The length of stenosis was 1.5-5 cm. The stents were 1.5-2.5 cm long with barbs, and their full expanded diameter was 1.5 cm. Balloon dilatation was performed before stenting in all cases. The stents were inserted by using a 10-12 Fr catheter. In all patients except the one with tracheal stenosis, stents were introduced under local anesthesia without any difficulties. No migration of stents occurred. After stent placement, there were no respiratory difficulties, and radionuclide lung perfusion scan and chest radiographic findings such as lung atelectasis showed marked improvement in three cases. Combined therapy of stent placement and bronchial arterial infusion chemotherapy showed marked effectiveness in one case with lung cancer. Expandable metallic stents were very useful in eliminating tracheobronchial stenosis symptoms. PMID:1508631

Fujihara, Y; Sawada, S; Tanabe, Y; Koyama, T; Iwamiya, K; Yoshida, K; Kato, T; Irizawa, T; Nakai, I; Furui, S

1992-05-25

303

Lumbar-pelvic range and coordination during lifting tasks  

E-print Network

Page 1 of 22 Lumbar-Pelvic Range and Coordination During Lifting Tasks A. Maduri, M.S. 1 B.L. Pearson, B.S. 2 S.E. Wilson, Ph.D. 3 1 National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV 2 Burns and Mc... flexion postures as well as the possibility that lumbar 4 posture could be adjusted with training [Scannell et al.,2003]. 5 Lumbar-pelvic coordination experiments measure the relationship between 6 lumbar curvature and torso flexion in various tasks. A...

Maduri, Anupama; Pearson, Bethany L.; Wilson, Sara E.

2008-01-01

304

The Effects of Stretching with Lumbar Traction on VAS and Oswestry Scales of Patients with Lumbar 4–5 Herniated Intervertebral Disc  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study investigated the effect of stretching with lumbar traction on VAS and Oswestry scale scores of lumbar 4–5 herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD) patients. [Subjects] We recruited 20 lumbar 4–5 HIVD patients. [Methods] We performed stretching with lumbar traction for lumbar 4–5 HIVD patients during 4 weeks. The VAS and Oswestry scales were measured before and 4 weeks after the intervention. [Results] The results showed a significant decrease in VAS scale scores for stretching with lumbar traction in lumbar 4–5 HIVD patients, from 18±1.29 to 2.1±1.35. The Oswestry scale scores also decreased significantly, from 20.35±2.01 to 3.5±2.84, after stretching with lumbar traction. [Conclusion] Thus, we suggest stretching with lumbar traction for lumbar 4–5 HIVD patients. PMID:25140094

Yang, Hae-sun; Yoo, Won-gyu

2014-01-01

305

The immediately failed lumbar disc surgery: incidence, aetiologies, imaging and management.  

PubMed

Studies on immediate failed back surgery syndrome (iFBSS) following lumbar microdiscectomy are rare. Our aim is to describe the incidence and the causes of these immediate failures to define the value of radiological imaging for identification of the underlying pathology and to propose a management algorithm. We defined iFBSS as persistence, deterioration or recurrence (during hospital stay) of radicular pain and/or sensorimotor deficits and/or sphincter dysfunction after microdiscectomy, which was uneventful from the surgeon's perspective. The medical records of 1546 patients undergoing discectomy for mediolateral lumbar disc herniations were screened for iFBSS. The pre- and postoperative imaging, surgical records, therapy and outcome of patients with iFBSS were reviewed. Forty-four of 1546 patients (2.8 %) with iFBSS were identified. All patients underwent reoperation. Overseen disc material/re-herniation (n?=?22), epidural hematoma (n?=?6), inadequate decompression of accompanying recessal stenosis (n?=?2) and dural tear with fascicle herniation (n?=?1) were found to be causative. In 13 patients, who revealed no clear pathology intraoperatively, we diagnosed a battered root syndrome (nerve root swelling due to excessive surgical manipulation). The correct diagnosis could be established by neuroradiological imaging in 25 of 43 radiologically investigated patients (57 %). In our study, the radiological workup was of limited value for the correct differentiation of the various aetiologies of iFBSS. Therefore, the authors believe that the treatment strategy should strongly rely on the clinical presentation. To avoid unnecessary surgery in cases of battered root syndrome, we propose to proceed to reoperation only in patients with new or persistent radiculopathy despite adequate antiedematous medical therapy. PMID:25242202

Rohde, V; Mielke, D; Ryang, Y; Gilsbach, J M

2015-01-01

306

The First Korean Patient With Severe Aortic Stenosis and Bilateral Iliofemoral Artery Disease Treated With Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation by Transsubclavian Approach  

PubMed Central

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is indicated as an alternative treatment modality to surgical aortic valve replacement for high risk patients. The standard retrograde approach through the femoral artery is not feasible in the case of unfavorable iliofemoral anatomy or severe peripheral arterial disease (PAD). However, patients with aortic stenosis (AS) have a higher prevalence of for PAD because both diseases are consequences of atherosclerotic degenerative changes. Transsubclavian, transapical, and direct access to the ascending aorta by thoracotomy are alternative routes for the TAVI procedure. In this report, we present the first Korean patient with symptomatic severe AS and bilateral iliofemoral artery disease who was successfully treated with TAVI using a CoreValve (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA) by transsubclavian approach. PMID:23236336

Lee, Seung-Jun; Ko, Young-Guk; Shim, Ji-Young; Lee, Sak; Chang, Byung-Chul; Shim, Jae-Kwang; Kwak, Young-Ran

2012-01-01

307

On the development of idiopathic subglottic stenosis.  

PubMed

Idiopathic subglottic stenosis is a fibrotic narrowing of the airway at the level of the cricoid cartilage, which can result in severe dyspnea. There is an overwhelming female preponderance, and treatment usually involves dilation, tracheostomy or resection with reconstruction of the involved portion of the airway. The exact mechanism of action is unknown. Estrogen has been thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of this disease, but estrogen receptors have not been found in tissue specimens taken from afflicted individuals. A careful history taken from the patient often reveals a severe episode of coughing prior to the development of symptoms, and intraoperative examination can reveal impaction of the first tracheal ring within the lumen of the cricoid cartilage. Based on these observations, we surmise that an intermittent telescoping effect of the first tracheal ring within the lumen of the cricoid cartilage can lead to disruption of the local blood supply and trauma to the cricoid mucosa, with consequent mucosal edema, ischemia, and ultimately fibrosis. While estrogen has been shown to play a beneficial role in wound healing, abnormal wound healing may be potentiated by variations in estrogen receptor expression, and could also explain the female preponderance seen in this disease. PMID:18295979

Damrose, Edward J

2008-01-01

308

Five-year outcome of surgical decompression of the lumbar spine without fusion.  

PubMed

As the average life expectancy of the population increases, surgical decompression of the lumbar spine is being performed with increasing frequency. It now constitutes the most common type of lumbar spinal surgery in older patients. The present prospective study examined the 5-year outcome of lumbar decompression surgery without fusion. The group comprised 159 patients undergoing decompression for degenerative spinal disorders who had been participants in a randomised controlled trial of post-operative rehabilitation that had shown no between-group differences at 2 years. Leg pain and back pain intensity (0-10 graphic rating scale), self-rated disability (Roland Morris), global outcome of surgery (5-point Likert scale) and re-operation rates were assessed 5 years post-operatively. Ten patients had died before the 5-year follow-up. Of the remaining 149 patients, 143 returned a 5-year follow-up (FU) questionnaire (effective return rate excluding deaths, 96%). Their mean age was 64 (SD 11) years and 92/143 (64%) were men. In the 5-year follow-up period, 34/143 patients (24%) underwent re-operation (17 further decompressions, 17 fusions and 1 intradural drainage/debridement). In patients who were not re-operated, leg pain decreased significantly (p < 0.05) from before surgery to 2 months FU, after which there was no significant change up to 5 years. Low back pain also decreased significantly by 2 months FU, but then showed a slight, but significant (p < 0.05), gradual increase of <1 point by 5-year FU. Disability decreased significantly from pre-operative to 2 months FU and showed a further significant decrease at 5 months FU. Thereafter, it remained stable up to the 5-year FU. Pain and disability scores recorded after 5 years showed a significant correlation with those at earlier follow-ups (r = 0.53-0.82; p < 0.05). Patients who were re-operated at some stage over the 5-year period showed significantly worse final outcomes for leg pain and disability (p < 0.05). In conclusion, pain and disability showed minimal change in the 5-year period after surgery, but the re-operation rate was relatively high. Re-operation resulted in worse final outcomes in terms of leg pain and disability. At the 5-year follow-up, the "average" patient experienced frequent, but relatively low levels of, pain and moderate disability. This knowledge on the long-term outcome should be incorporated into the pre-operative patient information process. PMID:20680372

Mannion, Anne F; Denzler, R; Dvorak, J; Grob, D

2010-11-01

309

Comparison of total disc replacement with lumbar fusion: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.  

PubMed

A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate whether a beneficial clinical effect of the Total Disc Replacement (TDR) over lumbar fusion for the treatment of patients with Degenerative Disc Disease (DDD). An electronic search of PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and EMBASE from their inception to 2012 was completed, and we assessed risk bias and retrieved relevant data, and meta-analysis was performed, if appropriate. Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Visual Analog Score (VAS), patient satisfaction or VAS patient satisfaction, narcotic use, overall success rate, reoperation rate, work status, "surgery again?", complications and radiographic outcomes were evaluated. Six RCTs were included in this meta-analysis. At 2 years, TDR was demonstrated to be more beneficial for patients compared to lumbar fusion in the following outcomes, including ODI scores (MD:-4.87, 95% CI: -7.77 to -1.97, p=0.001), patient satisfaction (OR:1.91, 95% CI: 1.27 to 2.86, p=0.002) and VAS patient satisfaction (MD:9.10, 95% CI: 3.20 to 14.99, p=0.002), the percentage of using narcotics (OR=0.54, 95%CI: 0.31 to 0.96, p=0.03), overall success rate (OR:1.68, 95% CI: 1.26 to 2.25, p=0.005), the rate of patients to chose the same surgical treatment again (OR:2.38, 95% CI: 1.72 to 3.28, p < 0.001), and complications (OR=0.50, 95%CI: 0.29 to 0.84, p=0.008). Other outcomes, including re-operation rate (OR:0.62, 95% CI: 0.36 to 1.06, p=0.08) and work status (OR=1.05, 95% CI: 0.75 to 1.47, p=0.80), were demonstrated to be no differences between the two groups. In a long-term of follow-up (2 years), TDR shows a significant superiority for the treatment of lumbar DDD compared with fusion. PMID:25604372

Nie, Hongfei; Chen, Guo; Wang, Xiandi; Zeng, Jiancheng

2015-01-01

310

Longitudinal left ventricular contractile dysfunction after exercise in aortic stenosis  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether longitudinal left ventricular systolic function measured by Doppler tissue imaging (DTI) after exercise can identify early left ventricular dysfunction in asymptomatic patients with moderate–severe aortic stenosis. Design Case–control study. Setting Outpatient cardiology departments. Patients 20 patients with aortic stenosis, with or without equivocal symptoms, a peak aortic valve velocity ?3?m/s, and left ventricular ejection fraction >50% and 15 aged?matched normal controls. Interventions Echocardiogram performed at rest and immediately after treadmill exercise. Main outcome measures The peak systolic velocity of the lateral mitral annulus (S') by DTI at rest and immediately after exercise, exercise capacity, exercise systolic blood pressure and the plasma level of B?type natriuretic peptide (BNP). Results For patients with aortic stenosis, mean (SD) aortic valve area was 0.95 (0.3)?cm2. At rest, S' was similar for patients with aortic stenosis and controls, respectively (8.5 (1.5) vs 9.1 (1.8)?cm/s, p?=?0.15). However, after exercise, S' (12.2 (3.2) vs 17 (2.8)?cm/s, p<0.001) and the increase in S' between rest and exercise (4 (3) vs 7.9 (1.5)?cm/s, p<0.001) were lower in patients with aortic stenosis. In patients with aortic stenosis, a smaller increase in S' after exercise was associated with lower exercise capacity (r?=?0.5, p?=?0.02), a smaller increase in exercise systolic blood pressure (r?=?0.6, p?=?0.005) and higher plasma level of BNP (r?=?0.66, p?=?0.002). Conclusion In asymptomatic patients with moderate–severe aortic stenosis a lower than normal increase in peak systolic mitral annular velocity after treadmill exercise is a marker of early left ventricular systolic dysfunction. PMID:17090563

Van Pelt, Niels C; Stewart, Ralph A H; Legget, Malcolm E; Whalley, Gillian A; Wong, Selwyn P; Zeng, Irene; Oldfield, Margaret; Kerr, Andrew J

2007-01-01

311

Primary Angioplasty for Symptomatic Atherosclerotic Middle Cerebral Artery Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this study is to evaluate the clinical and angiographic outcomes after primary balloon angioplasty in patients with symptomatic middle cerebral artery (MCA, M1 segment) stenosis refractory to medical therapy. Materials and Methods Eleven patients with intracranial stenosis were treated with primary balloon angioplasty. All patients had MCA stenosis with recurrent transient ischemic attack (TIA). The indication for balloon angioplasty was patients with significant MCA stenosis: 1) age older than 18 years with recurrent or progressive TIA or infarction despite optimal medical therapy, including anti-coagulation, dual anti-platelet, and anti-lipid medication; 2) previous ischemic events or asymptomatic severe stenosis (more than 50%) with poor collateral cerebral circulation, or diminished cerebral perfusion on single photon emission computed tomography before and after administration of the intravenous dosage of acetazolamide. Results The median age of patients was 53 years (range 44-79). The technical success rate was 100%. Mean pretreatment stenosis degree was 83.63 ± 9.53% and 29.1 ± 15.4% before and after angioplasty, respectively. Procedural-related complications occurred in four of 11 patients (36%), but none of the patients had permanent neurological deficit. All patients were available for an average follow-up period of 19.4 ± 5.1 months. One patient had a stroke in the territory of angioplasty at two months after angioplasty. The stroke free survival rate at 30 days and 12 months was 100% and 91%, respectively. Restenosis over 50% was observed in three of 11 patients (27%); all were asymptomatic. Conclusion Intracranial angioplasty for symptomatic MCA stenosis refractory to medical therapy can be a treatment option to reduce the risk of further TIA or stroke. PMID:25340017

Chang, Youn Hyuk; Kwon, O-Ki

2014-01-01

312

Lumbar epidural brucellar abscess causing nerve root compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To evaluate the usefulness of MR sequences for the differential diagnosis of spinal brucellar abscesses which mimic lumbar disc herniation. Methods: We analyzed six patients with brucellar abscesses who had symptoms mimicking lumbar disc herniation. The study group consisted of three women and three men who were 15–67 (mean=37) years old. Patients were imaged in the axial and sagittal

M Ozates; Ü Özkan; Y Bükte; A Ceviz; I Sari; M Simsek

1999-01-01

313

Quality criteria implementation for brain and lumbar spine CT examinations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was undertaken to implement the quality criteria proposed by the European Commission for brain general and lumbar spine (disc herniation) CT examinations. The proposed criteria were evaluated for samples including 93 brain and 86 lumbar spine CT examinations, with special emphasis on the diagnostic and radiation dose requirements. The extent to which the image criteria had been achieved

A CALZADO; R RODRIGUEZ; A MUNOZ; Fisica Medica

2000-01-01

314

Spine imaging after lumbar disc replacement: pitfalls and current recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Most lumbar artificial discs are still composed of stainless steel alloys, which prevents adequate postoperative diagnostic imaging of the operated region when using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Thus patients with postoperative radicular symptoms or claudication after stainless steel implants often require alternative diagnostic procedures. METHODS: Possible complications of lumbar total disc replacement (TDR) are reviewed from the available literature

Yohan Robinson; Bengt Sandén

2009-01-01

315

49 CFR 572.9 - Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...the thorax, lumbar spine, pelvic, and...pelvis to the pelvic instrument cavity rear face at...perpendicular to the thorax instrument cavity rear face...record the force with an instrument mounted to the thorax...assembled thorax, lumbar spine and pelvic...

2014-10-01

316

49 CFR 572.9 - Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the thorax, lumbar spine, pelvic, and...pelvis to the pelvic instrument cavity rear face at...perpendicular to the thorax instrument cavity rear face...record the force with an instrument mounted to the thorax...assembled thorax, lumbar spine and pelvic...

2012-10-01

317

49 CFR 572.9 - Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the thorax, lumbar spine, pelvic, and...pelvis to the pelvic instrument cavity rear face at...perpendicular to the thorax instrument cavity rear face...record the force with an instrument mounted to the thorax...assembled thorax, lumbar spine and pelvic...

2010-10-01

318

49 CFR 572.9 - Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the thorax, lumbar spine, pelvic, and...pelvis to the pelvic instrument cavity rear face at...perpendicular to the thorax instrument cavity rear face...record the force with an instrument mounted to the thorax...assembled thorax, lumbar spine and pelvic...

2013-10-01

319

49 CFR 572.9 - Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the thorax, lumbar spine, pelvic, and...pelvis to the pelvic instrument cavity rear face at...perpendicular to the thorax instrument cavity rear face...record the force with an instrument mounted to the thorax...assembled thorax, lumbar spine and pelvic...

2011-10-01

320

49 CFR 572.43 - Lumbar spine and pelvis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lumbar spine and pelvis. 572.43 Section 572...50th Percentile Male § 572.43 Lumbar spine and pelvis. (a) When the pelvis...more than 60g. The acceleration-time curve for the test shall be unimodal and...

2011-10-01

321

49 CFR 572.43 - Lumbar spine and pelvis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lumbar spine and pelvis. 572.43 Section 572...50th Percentile Male § 572.43 Lumbar spine and pelvis. (a) When the pelvis...more than 60g. The acceleration-time curve for the test shall be unimodal and...

2010-10-01

322

Renal artery stenosis: epidemiology and treatment  

PubMed Central

Renal artery stenosis (RAS) is a frequently encountered problem in clinical practice. The disease encompasses a broad spectrum of pathophysiologies and is associated with three major clinical syndromes: ischemic nephropathy, hypertension, and destabilizing cardiac syndromes. The two most common etiologies are fibromuscular dysplasia and atherosclerotic renal artery disease with atherosclerotic disease accounting for the vast majority of cases. Atherosclerotic renovascular disease has considerable overlap with atherosclerotic disease elsewhere and is associated with a poor prognosis. A wide range of diagnostic modalities and treatment approaches for RAS are available to clinicians, and with the advent of endovascular interventions, selecting the best course for a given patient has only grown more challenging. Several clinical trials have demonstrated some benefit with revascularization but not to the extent that many had hoped for or expected. Furthermore, much of the existing data is only marginally useful given significant flaws in study design and inherent bias. There remains a need for further identification of subgroups and appropriate indications in hopes of maximizing outcomes and avoiding unnecessary procedures in patients who would not benefit from treatment. In recent decades, the study of RAS has expanded and evolved rapidly. In this review, we will attempt to summarize the amassed body of literature with a focus on the epidemiology of RAS including prevalence, overlap with other atherosclerotic disease, and prognosis. We will also outline existing diagnostic and treatment approaches available to clinicians as well as summarize the findings of several major clinical trials. Finally, we will offer our perspective on future directions in the field. PMID:24868169

Weber, Benjamin R; Dieter, Robert S

2014-01-01

323

Totally cystic schwannoma of the lumbar spine.  

PubMed

A schwannoma is a benign tumor arising from a schwann cell and occurs mainly in the nerve sheath in the intradural extramedullary region. Schwannomas have been well described as occurring in the lumbar spine, but total cystic degeneration of schwannomas is rarely reported. The authors describe the clinical and radiographic evaluations and treatment of a rare case of an intraextradural totally cystic schwannoma on the lumbar spine.Two patients reported a history of 6 to 12 months of pain accompanied by weakness in the lower extremities. On examination, 1 patient had bilateral lower-extremity muscle strength graded at 4/5, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cystic schwannoma (1.5 × 2.0 cm in the sagittal dimension) at L2-L3. The other patient had a right lower-extremity muscle strength graded at 3/5, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cystic schwannoma (2.0 × 3.0 cm in the sagittal dimension) at L4-L5. The patients underwent operative treatment, and the tumors were completely removed, as were the filum terminale adhered to the tumor. Pedicle screws were used to maintain stability of the lumbar spine. Gross examination of the tumors showed yellowish-white soft contents. Histologic examination confirmed that they were benign totally cystic schwannomas. Postoperatively, the patients' neurologic symptoms completely resolved.Cystic schwannomas can be diagnosed using preoperative magnetic resonance imaging. The filum terminale cut off the tumor walls did not cause the clinical symptoms in the 2 patients. PMID:23672923

Wu, Desheng; Ba, Zhaoyu; Huang, Yufeng; Zhao, Weidong; Shen, Bin; Kan, Heng

2013-05-01

324

The spinal stenosis pedometer and nutrition lifestyle intervention (SSPANLI) randomized controlled trial protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Because of symptoms, people with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) are often inactive, and this sedentary behaviour implies risk for diseases including obesity. Research has identified body mass index as the most powerful predictor of function in LSS. This suggests that function may be improved by targeting weight as a modifiable factor. An e-health lifestyle intervention was developed aimed at reducing fat mass and increasing physical activity in people with LSS. The main components of this intervention include pedometer-based physical activity promotion and nutrition education. Methods/Design The Spinal Stenosis Pedometer and Nutrition Lifestyle Intervention (SSPANLI) was developed and piloted with 10 individuals. The protocol for a randomized controlled trail comparing the SSPANLI intervention to usual non-surgical care follows. One hundred six (106) overweight or obese individuals with LSS will be recruited. Baseline and follow-up testing includes dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, blood draw, 3-day food record, 7-day accelerometry, questionnaire, maximal oxygen consumption, neurological exam, balance testing and a Self-Paced Walking Test. Intervention: During Week 1, the intervention group will receive a pedometer, and a personalized consultation with both a Dietitian and an exercise specialist. For 12 weeks participants will log on to the e-health website to access personal step goals, walking maps, nutrition videos, and motivational quotes. Participants will also have access to in-person Coffee Talk meetings every 3 weeks, and meet with the Dietitian and exercise specialist at week 6. The control group will proceed with usual care for the 12-week period. Follow-up testing will occur at Weeks 13 and 24. Discussion This lifestyle intervention has the potential to provide a unique, non-surgical management option for people with LSS. Through decreased fat mass and increased function, we may reduce risk for obesity, chronic diseases of inactivity, and pain. The use of e-health interventions provides an opportunity for patients to become more involved in managing their own health. Behaviour changes including increased physical activity, and improved dietary habits promote overall health and quality of life, and may decrease future health care needs in this population. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01902979 PMID:24228747

2013-01-01

325

Congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis: diagnosis and management  

PubMed Central

Background Congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis is a rare and potentially lethal form of airway obstruction in newborns. Immediate recognition and appropriate therapy are mandatory for this potentially life-threating condition. This anomaly may present as an isolated malformation or may be associated with other cranial-facial anomalies. Clinically, CNPS shows unspecific symptoms of nasal airway obstruction such as apnoic crisis, episodic cyanosis and inability to nurse. The purpose of this report is to present author's experience in the surgical management of this rare pathology in 3 patients. Patients and Methods Three cases of congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis were reviewed for presentation of the disorder, management and effectiveness of the surgical treatment. Results All the patients underwent a surgical correction of the pyriform aperture stenosis using a sublabial approach followed by nasal stenting. During the follow-up no cases of restenosis, respiratory failure or cyanosis were detected. Conclusions Congenital pyriform aperture stenosis should be suspected in newborns with clinical signs of severe nasal obstruction associated with a difficulty to pass a small catheter though the anterior nasal valve. Timely recognition is mandatory to prevent a potential deadly outcome. Surgical correction of the stenosis though a sublabial approach followed by a nasal stenting revealed to be most effective treatment for these patients. PMID:22731387

2012-01-01

326

Primary leptomeningeal lymphoma of the lumbar spine.  

PubMed

This report describes primary leptomeningeal lymphoma (PLML) of the spine in a 58-year-old female. LML is rare, especially in the immunocompetent, and it is almost always secondary in origin. To our knowledge, there have been very few cases of PLML of the lumbar spine reported in the literature and even fewer reports using recent MR imaging (MRI) technology to aid with diagnosis. MRI is useful in differentiating CNS lesions and may be helpful in the diagnosis of this extremely rare primary lymphoma. PLML is briefly reviewed. PMID:14585565

Carlson, Christian L; Hartman, Robert; Ly, Justin Q; Beall, Douglas P

2003-01-01

327

Cumulative occupational lumbar load and lumbar disc disease – results of a German multi-center case-control study (EPILIFT)  

PubMed Central

Background The to date evidence for a dose-response relationship between physical workload and the development of lumbar disc diseases is limited. We therefore investigated the possible etiologic relevance of cumulative occupational lumbar load to lumbar disc diseases in a multi-center case-control study. Methods In four study regions in Germany (Frankfurt/Main, Freiburg, Halle/Saale, Regensburg), patients seeking medical care for pain associated with clinically and radiologically verified lumbar disc herniation (286 males, 278 females) or symptomatic lumbar disc narrowing (145 males, 206 females) were prospectively recruited. Population control subjects (453 males and 448 females) were drawn from the regional population registers. Cases and control subjects were between 25 and 70 years of age. In a structured personal interview, a complete occupational history was elicited to identify subjects with certain minimum workloads. On the basis of job task-specific supplementary surveys performed by technical experts, the situational lumbar load represented by the compressive force at the lumbosacral disc was determined via biomechanical model calculations for any working situation with object handling and load-intensive postures during the total working life. For this analysis, all manual handling of objects of about 5 kilograms or more and postures with trunk inclination of 20 degrees or more are included in the calculation of cumulative lumbar load. Confounder selection was based on biologic plausibility and on the change-in-estimate criterion. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated separately for men and women using unconditional logistic regression analysis, adjusted for age, region, and unemployment as major life event (in males) or psychosocial strain at work (in females), respectively. To further elucidate the contribution of past physical workload to the development of lumbar disc diseases, we performed lag-time analyses. Results We found a positive dose-response relationship between cumulative occupational lumbar load and lumbar disc herniation as well as lumbar disc narrowing among men and women. Even past lumbar load seems to contribute to the risk of lumbar disc disease. Conclusion According to our study, cumulative physical workload is related to lumbar disc diseases among men and women. PMID:19422710

Seidler, Andreas; Bergmann, Annekatrin; Jäger, Matthias; Ellegast, Rolf; Ditchen, Dirk; Elsner, Gine; Grifka, Joachim; Haerting, Johannes; Hofmann, Friedrich; Linhardt, Oliver; Luttmann, Alwin; Michaelis, Martina; Petereit-Haack, Gabriela; Schumann, Barbara; Bolm-Audorff, Ulrich

2009-01-01

328

Altered “Ribostasis”: RNA-protein granule formation or persistence in the development of degenerative disorders  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The molecular processes that contribute to degenerative diseases are not well understood. Recent observations suggest that some degenerative diseases are promoted by the accumulation of nuclear or cytoplasmic RNA-protein (RNP) aggregates, which can be related to endogenous RNP granules. RNP aggregates arise commonly in degenerative diseases because RNA binding proteins commonly self-assemble, in part through prion-domains, which can form self-propagating ?-amyloids. RNP aggregates may be toxic due to multiple perturbations of post-transcriptional control, thereby disrupting the normal ribostasis of the cell. This suggests that understanding and modulating RNP assembly or clearance may be effective approaches to develop therapies for these diseases. PMID:23953108

Ramaswami, Mani; Taylor, J. Paul; Parker, Roy

2013-01-01

329

Artificial chordae for degenerative mitral valve disease: critical analysis of current techniques  

PubMed Central

The surgical repair of degenerative mitral valve disease involves a number of technical points of importance. The use of artificial chordae for the repair of degenerative disease has increased as a part of the move from mitral valve replacement to repair of the mitral valve. The use of artificial chordae provides an alternative to the techniques pioneered by Carpentier (including the quadrangular resection, transfer of native chordae and papillary muscle shortening/plasty), which can be more technically difficult. Despite a growth in their uptake and the indications for their use, a number of challenges remain for the use of artificial chordae in mitral valve repair, particularly in the determination of the correct length to ensure optimal leaflet coaptation. Here, we analyse over 40 techniques described for artificial chordae mitral valve repair in the setting of degenerative disease. PMID:22962321

Ibrahim, Michael; Rao, Christopher; Athanasiou, Thanos

2012-01-01

330

A Morphometric Study of the Lumbar Interspinous Space in 100 Stanford University Medical Center Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective With the increased use of interspinous spacers in the treatment of lumbar stenosis, knowledge of the geometry of the interspinous space is important. To prevent dislodgment of an interspinous spacer, the accurate depth and width of the interspinous space needs to be established to facilitate the best intraoperative selection of correct spacer size. Methods To determine the depth and width of the interspinous space, two methods are available which utilize plain film and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Data analysis of the interspinous depth and width was undertaken in 100 patients. Results The standard deviations were variable, since skin thickness (zone 1) was altered by sex and age. The difference in the zone 1 distance between adjacent interspinous processes varied according to gender (p<0.05), but was not influenced by age [p=0.32 by analysis of variance between groups (ANOVA)]. Zone 2, the supraspinous, and zone 3, the interspinous ligament depths, comprise the operative working area during insertion of an interspinous spacer. There were no differences with regard to gender or age (p>0.05). For zones 6 and 7, the interspinous distances at the narrowest and widest points, respectively, were found to decrease with the aging process, but the decrease was not statistically significant. There were no differences with regard to gender (p>0.05). Conclusion This study provides additional information on the interspinous space. This statistical data are valuable for use in the design of interspinous spacers. PMID:25132932

Jang, Donghwan

2014-01-01

331

Lack of Relationship Between Occupational Workload and Microscopic Alterations in Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Disease  

PubMed Central

Objectives : The study investigated the impact of occupational workloads on disc surgery specimens. We report the relationship between workload and histological features. Methods : Specimens were collected prospectively from patients suffering from lumbar disc prolapse (n=90) or spinal osteochondrosis (n=19). Histomorphology and occupational workload data and histomorphological features were evaluated. Occupational data were collected in a structured, standardized patient interview assessing lifting and carrying loads. In this way the exposure was assessed for each test subject's entire working life up to surgery. Results : There was no association between cumulative workload and histological patterns. In a subgroup of patients with a workload period of 12 months prior to surgery a relevant formation of chondrocyte clusters (p=0.055) was apparent. Chondrocyte cluster formation was found in 83% (n=74) of the prolapse patients and in 58% (n=11) of the osteochondrosis patients (p=0.02). Fibrocyte mediated scar formation was found in 55% of the prolapse patients and in 45% of the spinal stenosis patients. Chondrocyte clusters and their de novo collagen matrix did not integrate biomechanically sufficient with collagen fibers of the disc. Disintegration of clusters from disc matrix and formation of intra-discal sequesters were observed. Conclusion : Matrix degeneration was common but displayed no relationship to occupational workload or other histological features. Scar formation was observed in every second specimen. Regenerative chondrocyte cluster proliferation was a common feature in disc specimens and tended to be associated in patients with a workload one year before surgery. PMID:25136392

Huschak, Gerald; Holzhausen, Hans-Jürgen; Beier, Andre; Meisel, Hans Jörg; Hoell, Thomas

2014-01-01

332

Description and design considerations of a randomized clinical trial investigating the effect of a multidisciplinary cognitive-behavioural intervention for patients undergoing lumbar spinal fusion surgery  

PubMed Central

Background The ideal rehabilitation strategy following lumbar spinal fusion surgery has not yet been established. This paper is a study protocol, describing the rationale behind and the details of a cognitive-behavioural rehabilitation intervention for lumbar spinal fusion patients based on the best available evidence. Predictors of poor outcome following spine surgery have been identified to provide targets for the intervention, and the components of the intervention were structured in accordance with the cognitive-behavioural model. The study aims to compare the clinical and economical effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioural rehabilitation strategy to that of usual care for patients undergoing lumbar spinal fusion surgery. Methods/Design The study is a randomized clinical trial including 96 patients scheduled for lumbar spinal fusion surgery due to degenerative disease or spondylolisthesis. Patients were recruited in the period October 2011 to July 2013, and the follow-up period is one year from date of surgery. Patients are allocated on a 1:2 ratio (control: intervention) to either treatment as usual (control group), which implies surgery and the standard postoperative rehabilitation, or in addition to this, a patient education focusing on pain behaviour and pain coping (intervention group). It takes place in a hospital setting, and consists of six group-based sessions, managed by a multidisciplinary team of health professionals. The primary outcomes are disability (Oswestry Disability Index) and sick leave, while secondary outcomes include coping (Coping Strategies Questionnaire), fear-avoidance belief (Fear Avoidance Belief Questionnaire), pain (Low Back Pain Rating Scale, pain index), mobility during hospitalization (Cumulated Ambulation Score), generic health-related quality of life (EQ-5D) and resource use. Outcomes are measured using self report questionnaires, medical records and national registers. Discussion It is expected that the intervention can provide better functional outcome, less pain and earlier return to work after lumbar spinal fusion surgery. By combining knowledge and evidence from different knowledge areas, the project aims to provide new knowledge that can create greater consistency in patient treatment. We expect that the results can make a significant contribution to development of guidelines for good rehabilitation of patients undergoing lumbar spinal fusion. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN42281022. PMID:24581321

2014-01-01

333

Index terms: Arteries, internal thoracic Aorta, stenosis or obstruction Angiography  

E-print Network

Objective: To evaluate the incidence and angiographic findings of the collateral pathway involving the internal thoracic artery in patients with chronic aortoiliac occlusive disease. Materials and Methods: Between March 2000 and Februrary 2001, 124 patients at our hospital underwent angiographic evaluation of chronic aortoiliac occlusive disease, and in 15 of these complete obstruction or severe stenosis of the aortoiliac artery was identified. The aortograms and collateral arteriograms obtained, including internal thoracic arteriograms, as well as the medical records of the patients involved, were evaluated. Results: In nine patients there was complete occlusion of the infrarenal aorta, or diffuse stenosis of 75 % or more in the descending thoracic aorta, and in the other six, a patent aorta but complete occlusion or stenosis of 75 % or more of the common iliac artery was demonstrated. Collateral perfusion via hypertrophied internal thoracic arteries and rich anastomoses between the superior and inferior epigastric arteries, reconstituting the external iliac artery, were noted in all fifteen

Jinna Kim Md; Jong Yun Won; Korean J Radiol

2002-01-01

334

Adult idiopathic subglottic stenosis: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.  

PubMed

A 22-year-old woman presented with effort dyspnea unresponsive to bronchodilators. Harsh respiratory sounds were audible at the neck. Thoracic and cardiac evaluation was normal. Spirometry revealed an obstructive ventilatory defect, and the flow-volume loop indicated upper airway obstruction. Bronchoscopy and tracheal computed tomography revealed a stenosis of the subglottic larynx. A biopsy specimen of the stenotic area of the trachea showed a normal mucosa and non-specific chronic inflammation. The tracheal stenosis was managed by means of endobronchial laser therapy, which led to the resolution of the patient's symptoms. As we could not identify any specific pathogenetic process, our final diagnosis was idiopathic subglottic tracheal stenosis. PMID:15176709

Garini, Giovanni; Fecci, Luigi; Giacosa, Roberto; Vaglio, Augusto

2004-01-01

335

Treatment of a fractured ultraflex stent causing tracheal stenosis.  

PubMed

We report on a case of a fractured Ultraflex stent after placement for malignant tracheal stenosis. The patient was a 49-year-old female with adenoid cystic carcinoma of the trachea causing airway stenosis. She was treated by non-covered Ultraflex stent followed by chemoradiotherapy. Twenty months after stent placement, more than half of the distal end of the stent was fractured and caused airway stenosis, while there was no tumor regrowth. After dilation by balloon and bougienage using an endotracheal tube, an additional non-covered Ultraflex stent was placed within the first one, resulting in successful dilation. The patient is now well without any problem with the stent, 12 months after the second stent placement. PMID:17592429

Mori, Takeshi; Nomori, Hiroaki; Yoshioka, Masakazu; Kobayashi, Hironori; Iwatani, Kazunori; Ikeda, Koei

2007-06-01

336

Primary balloon angioplasty for symptomatic, high-grade intracranial stenosis  

PubMed Central

Background: In light of recent controversy about the safety and efficacy of intracranial stenting, we sought to evaluate our experience with primary balloon angioplasty for symptomatic, high-grade intracranial stenosis. Methods: All intracranial angioplasty cases performed at Vanderbilt University Medical Center from 2006 to 2011 were retrospectively reviewed for degree of stenosis pre- and post-procedure. Immediate peri-procedural complications were evaluated as well as one-month and long-term outcomes. Results: A total of 26 patients were included in the study with a mean age of 63.0 years and a mean follow-up of 350.2 days. The average pre-procedure stenosis was 71.2%. The immediate, average post-procedure stenosis was 46.6%, and the average post-procedure stenosis at last angiographic follow-up was 44.5%. Retreatment was required in only 3.8% of patients. The primary end-point of major stroke or death at 30 days was observed in 11.5%, and the overall intra-procedural complication rate was 7.7%. The incidence of stroke or death at last follow-up was 15.4%, which is comparable to the one-year stroke or death rate in the medical arm of the SAMPRISS trial. Conclusions: In this retrospective series, primary balloon angioplasty was found to be effective as a treatment option for symptomatic intracranial stenosis with the risk of stroke or death at 30 days higher than the medical arm of SAMPRIS but lower than the stenting arm. The one-year risk of stroke was comparable to that reported for the one-year outcomes in the SAMPRISS medical arm. PMID:23493431

Tomycz, Luke; Bansal, Neil K.; Lockney, Tim; Strothers, Megan; Connors, John J.; Shay, Scott; Singer, Robert J.

2013-01-01

337

Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition for the prevention of subglottic stenosis  

PubMed Central

Objective We aimed to evaluate the role of targeted cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition in reducing scarring associated with a subglottic airway mucosal injury. Design 34 New Zealand white rabbits underwent anterior cricothyroidotomy. Subglottic stenosis (SGS) was created by carbon dioxide (CO2) laser injury. Intervention Treatment consisted of intraperitoneal (IP) injection of celecoxib or vehicle for 4 days. Endoscopies were performed to assess injury and healing. Subglottic mucosal secretions were collected with Gelfoam swabs before and after injury and at subsequent time points. Animals were euthanized at 3 or 8 weeks after injury and airways were excised, followed by gross examination and histological analysis to assess the severity of SGS. Secretions were analyzed for interleukin-1? (IL-1?), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs). Results Endoscopy showed mild to moderate stenosis in the celecoxib-group, but mild to severe stenosis in the vehicle group. Histological assessment confirmed and quantified reduction in stenosis and scarring as well as advanced re-epithelialization. In the healing tissue, mucosal thickening (stenosis) was reduced significantly (p=0.02) in celecoxib-treated animals compared to vehicle, at 3 and 8 weeks (decrease in thickness by 32% and 49%, respectively). Collagen density (fibrosis) was also reduced 25% at both 3 and 8 weeks, but did not achieve statistical significance (p=0.195). Reduced level of PGE-2 in the subglottic mucosal secretions was correlated with mucosal thickness at 8 weeks (p=0.021). Conclusion Short duration anti-inflammatory therapy resulted in reduced stenosis and fibrosis with correlation of PGE-2 levels in subglottic mucosal secretions. PMID:23069827

Cetin, Selma; Tobey, Allison B.; Sandulache, Vlad C.; Yang, Tianbing; Barsic, Mark; Lin, Yan; Dohar, Joseph E.; Hebda, Patricia A.

2014-01-01

338

A Proposed Grading System for Post-Intubation Tracheal Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Background Tracheal stenosis is still a serious consequence of endotracheal intubation. Previous classification systems are commonly descriptive and are not intended to deal with management approach. The aim of this study was to present a classification system for post intubation tracheal stenosis and evaluate its efficacy in distinguishing critically ill patients who need surgical intervention. Materials and Methods This classification system was developed based on size and type of stenosis and associated clinical signs and symptoms. Stenosis was graded based on the results of clinical examination and rigid bronchoscopy. All patients received surgical or conservative treatment based on the judgment of a surgeon experienced in management of post-intubation tracheal stenosis without considering their score. ROC curve analysis was done and cut-off point was established based on the greatest Youden index. Results Sixty patients were studied. Resection and anastomosis were done for 49 patients. The mean score for all samples was 9.18 (range 8.77-9.45). Chosen cutoff point was 8.5 and calculated sensitivity and specificity were 89% and 42%, respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 83.7% and 54.5%, respectively. A reasonable agreement between the estimated score and surgeon's clinical judgment (kappa = 0.78) was observed. A statistically significant relationship was observed between scores greater than 8.5 and need for surgical intervention (P= 0.007). Conclusion We presented a scoring system for post-intubation and tracheostomy tracheal stenosis using main factors influencing diagnosis and treatment and its efficacy was evaluated prospectively. It seems that this system would be capable of assimilating the treatment interventions and comparing them. PMID:25191422

Ghorbani, Ali; Shadmehr, Mohammad Behgam; Pejhan, Saviz; Saghebi, Seyed Reza; Ghare-Daghi, Aba-saad; Farzanegan, Roya; Jahanshahi, Nahid

2012-01-01

339

Accuracy of clinical diagnosis in primary degenerative dementia: correlation with neuropathological findings.  

PubMed Central

Neuropathological features and causes of death are presented in 27 deceased patients belonging to a prospective series of 71 hospitalised patients with primary degenerative dementia. The clinical criteria for primary degenerative dementia used in the present study were accurate enough to exclude patients with multi-infarct dementia. At necropsy, 82% of the cases had neuropathological changes of Alzheimer's disease. The clinical features of patients with other neuropathological changes are described. The most common immediate cause of death was bronchopneumonia which accounted for 59% of deaths in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:6842208

Sulkava, R; Haltia, M; Paetau, A; Wikström, J; Palo, J

1983-01-01

340

Regional cerebral blood flow in dialysis encephalopathy and primary degenerative dementia  

SciTech Connect

Regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured in patients with dialysis encephalopathy, primary degenerative dementia, dialysis patients with no central nervous system (CNS) complications, and normal controls. Both groups of dialysis patients (with and without CNS complications) demonstrated higher CBF values, and the dementia patients, lower CBF values than the controls. The dialysis patients had lower hematocrit, which correlated inversely with the cerebral blood flow. No such correlations were present in normals and patients with primary degenerative dementia. The dialysis patients and controls obtained similar CBF when the flow values were adjusted for the differences in hematocrit.

Mathew, R.J.; Rabin, P.; Stone, W.J.; Wilson, W.H.

1985-07-01

341

The lumbar spine in backward bending.  

PubMed

Cadaveric lumbar motion segments were loaded to simulate backward bending (extension) movements of the lumbar spine. The motion segments' resistance was measured initially, and after the spinous processes and apophyseal joints had been cut through in turn. Compression tests were then performed on the discs while they were wedged in full extension. The results showed that extension is resisted mainly by the disc and spinous processes, and that, in hyperextension, damage usually occurs first in the spinous processes (or the soft tissue squashed between them). However, if the spinous processes are particularly widely spaced, then the apophyseal joints can become damaged first. The protection offered the disc by the neural arch is greater in young people, and after the disc height has been reduced by creep loading. The disc can be damaged in hyperextension if the spine is subjected to high compressive forces at the same time. A sudden application of compressive force can cause an anterior disc prolapse, while a cyclic (fatigue) compressive force can increase the posterior bulging of the lamellas in the posterior annulus. PMID:3206295

Adams, M A; Dolan, P; Hutton, W C

1988-09-01

342

Outcome of symptomatic upper lumbar disc herniation.  

PubMed

"Upper" lumbar disc herniations (LDH) are different from the "lower" and possess increased chance of neural compromise and cauda equina syndrome that necessitates operative management despite of contradictory surgical outcome. We underwent the study to assess the clinical and functional outcome of symptomatic upper LDH surgery from July 2003 to June 2012 in BSMMU, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The records of 123 patients (age range, 30-69 years), 56 men and 67 women (mean 52 years) having upper lumbar discectomy were reviewed. The surgical time, intra-operative blood loss, self evaluated back pain and thigh and/or groin pain status [using Visual Analogue Score (VAS)] and the disability status [using Oswestry disability (ODI) questionnaire] was analyzed. Radiological stability (using Posner's criteria), functional outcome [using Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) Score] and overall outcome (using MacNab`s criteria), was calculated. Chi-squared test and z-test using SPSS revealed mean operative time and mean blood loss had no significant (p>0.05) difference. Pain, sensory, motor and reflex status as well as VAS, ODI and all the components of JOA questionnaire had significant (p<0.05) improvement. In spite of intra-operative complications in 20.32% cases, overall satisfactory outcome was achieved in 83.74% cases. The postoperative complications (08.13%) could be managed conservatively. However, carefully decided surgical alternatives resulted in satisfactory clinical and functional outcome in upper LDH surgery. PMID:25481595

Awwal, M A; Ahsan, M K; Sakeb, N

2014-10-01

343

Anesthetic manipulation in extreme airway stenosis: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Anesthetic management with airway stenosis is challenging. Techniques for maintaining spontaneous respiration are required under sedative and analgesic conditions. Case presentation A 35-year-old Chinese woman presented to our hospital with difficulty breathing. Computerized tomography showed a tumor in the frontal area of her neck, which was causing extreme narrowing of her trachea. She was immediately scheduled for emergency surgery to remove the tumor. Fiberscopic intubation was carefully performed with dexmedetomidine sedation and remifentanil analgesia. Spontaneous respiration was successfully maintained. Conclusion In cases of extreme airway stenosis, intubation can be safely achieved with dexmedetomidine sedation and remifentanil analgesia. PMID:25186092

2014-01-01

344

Tracheal Stenosis after Tracheostomy Treated Successfully with Papillotome Electrocautery  

PubMed Central

A 39-year-old woman presented with symptoms of dyspnea. Ten years previously, she had received a tracheostomy because of the decision to not continue taking an anticonvulsant drug. Presently, chest computed tomography showed diffuse stenosis and focal web at the cervical trachea. We performed bronchoscopy and found a two-thirds reduction of the upper trachea due to the web-like fibrotic stenosis. Papillotome electrocautery removed the stenotic lesion. Endobronchial electrocautery is a valuable tool with potential for therapy of an endobronchial obstructing airway lesion. We report this case to introduce the successful treatment with papillotome electrocautery. PMID:24023562

Oh, Sun Hee; Lee, Seong Ju; Kim, Dae Sung; Na, Moon Jun; Choi, Eugene; Kwon, Sun Jung

2013-01-01

345

Subglottic stenosis as a complication of Wegener's granulomatosis.  

PubMed

Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is a relatively uncommon collagen vascular disease that can lead to both upper and lower airway disease. Subglottic stenosis is one manifestation of the airway disease and can occur even during the quiescent phase of the disease, independent of an active inflammatory response. A high index of suspicion is necessary for this complication in patients with known WG who complain of dyspnoea, and WG should be high on the differential diagnosis in those found to have "idiopathic" subglottic stenosis. We report the case of a patient who presented with this problem, and we review the prevalence, diagnosis, symptoms, and treatment. PMID:18253680

Blaivas, Allen J; Strauss, Walter; Yudd, Michael

2008-06-01

346

Wingspan stent for symptomatic M1 stenosis of middle cerebral artery  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveStent placement for intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis has become an alternative treatment technique; however, stent placement for middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis remains a technical and clinical challenge. Our purpose was to assess the safety and feasibility of Wingspan stent for patients with symptomatic M1 stenosis, and its initial effect on prevention of ischemic events.

Xin-bin Guo; Nan Ma; Xiao-bo Hu; Sheng Guan; Yi-mu Fan

2011-01-01

347

Lesion patterns and mechanism of cerebral infarction caused by severe atherosclerotic intracranial internal carotid artery stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and purposeThe lesion patterns and mechanisms of ischemic stroke caused by extracranial internal carotid artery (EICA) stenosis are well understood. The prognosis of intracranial internal carotid artery (IICA) stenosis is very poor. However, little is known about lesion patterns and mechanisms of cerebral infarcts caused by IICA stenosis. The objective of this study was to investigate the lesion patterns

Hongbing Chen; Hua Hong; Dezhi Liu; Gelin Xu; Ying Wang; Jinsheng Zeng; Renliang Zhang; Xinfeng Liu

2011-01-01

348

Teaching Early Braille Literacy Skills within a Stimulus Equivalence Paradigm to Children with Degenerative Visual Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the need for braille literacy, there has been little attempt to systematically evaluate braille-instruction programs. The current study evaluated an instructive procedure for teaching early braille-reading skills with 4 school-aged children with degenerative visual impairments. Following a series of pretests, braille instruction involved…

Toussaint, Karen A.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.

2010-01-01

349

SIRT1 protects against apoptosis by promoting autophagy in degenerative human disc nucleus pulposus cells  

PubMed Central

SIRT1 could protect degenerative human NP cells against apoptosis, and there were extensive and intimate connection between apoptosis and autophagy. Up to now, the role of autophagy in the process of human IVD degeneration is unclear. We sought to explore the relationship between autophagy and human IVD degeneration and to understand whether autophagy is involved in the protective effect of SIRT1 against apoptosis in NP cells. Our results showed that the autophagosomes number, the mRNA level of LC3 and Beclin-1, the protein expression of LC3-II/I and Beclin-1, decreased in NP from DDD. Resveratrol could increase the protein expression of LC3-II/I and Beclin-1, and reduce apoptosis in degenerative NP cells. In contrast, the protein levels of LC3-II/I and Beclin-1 were down-regulated and apoptosis level was significantly up-regulated in treatment with nicotinamide or SIRT1-siRNA transfection. Further analysis identified that the expression of cleaved Caspase3 and apoptosis incidence significantly increased with the pretreatment of bafilomycin A, whether resveratrol was added or not. These suggested that autophagy may play an important role in IVD degeneration, and SIRT1 protected degenerative human NP cells against apoptosis via promoting autophagy. These findings would aid in the development of novel therapeutic approaches for degenerative disc disease treatment. PMID:25503852

Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Xuemei; Hao, Jie; Shen, Jieliang; Fang, Ji; Dong, Wen; Wang, Dawu; Zhang, Xiaojun; Shui, Wei; Luo, Yi; Lin, Liangbo; Qiu, Quanhe; Liu, Bin; Hu, Zhenming

2014-01-01

350

Degenerative collagenous plaque of the hand (linear keratoelastoidosis of the hands). A variant of acrokeratoelastosis.  

PubMed

Clinical and histological features of three examples of degenerative collagenous plaques of the hands in Indian housewives have been described in detail in order to focus attention on a hitherto uncommon entity. Household trauma has been incriminated as the precipitating or a triggering factor in these cases. PMID:7398997

Sehgal, V N; Singh, M; Korrane, R V; Nayyar, M; Chandra, M

1980-01-01

351

SIRT1 protects against apoptosis by promoting autophagy in degenerative human disc nucleus pulposus cells.  

PubMed

SIRT1 could protect degenerative human NP cells against apoptosis, and there were extensive and intimate connection between apoptosis and autophagy. Up to now, the role of autophagy in the process of human IVD degeneration is unclear. We sought to explore the relationship between autophagy and human IVD degeneration and to understand whether autophagy is involved in the protective effect of SIRT1 against apoptosis in NP cells. Our results showed that the autophagosomes number, the mRNA level of LC3 and Beclin-1, the protein expression of LC3-II/I and Beclin-1, decreased in NP from DDD. Resveratrol could increase the protein expression of LC3-II/I and Beclin-1, and reduce apoptosis in degenerative NP cells. In contrast, the protein levels of LC3-II/I and Beclin-1 were down-regulated and apoptosis level was significantly up-regulated in treatment with nicotinamide or SIRT1-siRNA transfection. Further analysis identified that the expression of cleaved Caspase3 and apoptosis incidence significantly increased with the pretreatment of bafilomycin A, whether resveratrol was added or not. These suggested that autophagy may play an important role in IVD degeneration, and SIRT1 protected degenerative human NP cells against apoptosis via promoting autophagy. These findings would aid in the development of novel therapeutic approaches for degenerative disc disease treatment. PMID:25503852

Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Xuemei; Hao, Jie; Shen, Jieliang; Fang, Ji; Dong, Wen; Wang, Dawu; Zhang, Xiaojun; Shui, Wei; Luo, Yi; Lin, Liangbo; Qiu, Quanhe; Liu, Bin; Hu, Zhenming

2014-01-01

352

Reoperation for Failure of Mitral Valve Repair in Degenerative Disease: A Single-Center Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The purpose of this study was to report our 19-year experience in redo surgery for failure of mitral valve repair (MVRep) in degenerative disease. Methods. From 1987 to 2006, 43 consecutive patients (32 males) underwent either redo MVRep (n 21) or redo mitral valve replacement (n 22) for failure of MVRep. Age ranged from 10 to 78 years (median,

Rachid Zegdi; Ghassan Sleilaty; Christian Latrémouille; Alain Berrebi; Alain Carpentier; Alain Deloche; Jean-Noël Fabiani

2008-01-01

353

Degenerative alterations of the spine in an Early Mediaeval population from Mannheim-Seckenheim, Germany.  

PubMed

Palaeopathological and palaeoepidemiological analyses of human skeletal remains are some of the most important bases for the reconstruction of life of past populations. The assessment of frequency and degree of pathological alterations contributes to conclusions of a population's health status, labour conditions, and environmental influences. Degenerative diseases of the spine are among the most common lesions observed in archaeological human remains. The large number of excavated Early Mediaeval cemeteries in Germany enables the comparison of contemporary populations increasing the reliability of conclusions regarding their living conditions. In this study, 112 adult individuals with largely complete and well preserved spines from the Early Mediaeval population of Mannheim-Seckenheim were analysed for pattern and degree of degenerative changes of the spine. The severity of degeneration was recorded using modified categories originally presented by Lutter (1984) for spondylosis deformans and spondylarthrosis deformans scaling from 0 to 4. In addition, the presence of Schmorl's nodes was recorded and the vertebrae were examined for signs of Scheuermann's disease. In general, there was a high prevalence of degenerative diseases of the spine and males were affected more often and to a greater degree than females. The frequency of spondylosis deformans and spondylarthrosis deformans increased with age. In comparison with other Early Mediaeval series there was a much higher prevalence of degenerative diseases in Mannheim-Seckenheim, although most instances were mild manifestations. No cases of Scheuermann's disease (defined as three adjacent vertebrae with wedging of 5° or more and anterior extensions) were identified in the studied sample. PMID:23618703

Navitainuck, Denise; Meyer, Christian; Alt, Kurt W

2013-06-01

354

Congenital urethral stenosis in a male miniature piglet  

PubMed Central

A 2-month-old male miniature pig showed progressive abdominal pain, pollakiuria, and stranguria that progressed to complete urinary obstruction. Postmortem examination revealed idiopathic urethral stenosis at the level of the recess, of probable congenital origin. Urinary tract malformations should be included in the differential diagnosis of miniature piglets with urinary disorders. PMID:24891635

Pouleur-Larrat, Bénédicte; Maccolini, Edouard; Carmel, Eric Norman; Hélie, Pierre

2014-01-01

355

Fluoroscopically Guided Balloon Dilation for Postintubation Tracheal Stenosis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Little was known about the safety and long-term efficacy of fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation for postintubation tracheal stenosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and long-term efficacy of fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation in patients with postintubation tracheal stenosis. Methods: From February 2000 to November 2010, 14 patients underwent fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation for postintubation tracheal stenosis. Technical success, clinical success, and complications were evaluated. Patients were followed up for recurrent symptoms. Results: In all patients, fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation was technically and clinically successful with no major complications. Following the initial procedure, six patients (43 %) remained asymptomatic during a follow-up period. Obstructive symptoms recurred in eight patients (57 %) within 6 months (mean, 1.7 months), who were treated with repeat balloon dilation (n = 4) and other therapies. Of the four patients who underwent repeat balloon dilation, three became asymptomatic. One patient became asymptomatic after a third balloon dilation. On long-term (mean, 74 months) follow-up, 71 % of patients experienced relief of symptoms following fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation. Conclusions: Fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation may be safe, is easy to perform, and resulted in effective treatment in patients with postintubation tracheal stenosis.

Lee, Woong Hee; Kim, Jin Hyoung, E-mail: m1fenew@daum.net; Park, Jung-Hun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center (Korea, Republic of)] [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center (Korea, Republic of)

2013-10-15

356

Fate of patients with fixed subaortic stenosis after surgical removal.  

PubMed Central

Thirty-nine consecutive patients, aged 5 to 57 years, were followed for two to 15 years with serial haemodynamic studies after removal of fixed subaortic stenosis, which was never a "membrane". Two late deaths occurred, one sudden and one in congestive failure. Of 37 survivors, 25 were asymptomatic and could be classified as good or excellent if judged by well-being. Seven were symptomatic, two having had reoperation for fixed subaortic stenosis, and four needed long-term pacing. Evaluation, including the effect of isoprenaline, showed important dynamic obstruction in 17, five of whom redeveloped fixed obstruction. Seven had congestive features without outflow gradients, and 14 had neither congestion nor outflow obstruction. Complete assessment therefore confirmed that only 14 (36%) were haemodynamically satisfactory; two of them had permanent pacing, and four had had aortic valve surgery. Fixed subaortic stenosis should be removed early, when diagnosed, and completely before secondary myocardial changes occur. Patients however "well" need regular supervision and early haemodynamic assessment. The aortic valve, whether repaired, replaced, or untouched, remains a site for infective endocarditis for life. The fixed subaortic stenosis removed at operation may not be present in that form at birth, but acquired secondary to other congenital abnormalities which remain in the patient. Images PMID:7191709

Somerville, J; Stone, S; Ross, D

1980-01-01

357

Complete Nasopharyngeal Stenosis: Presentation of a Rare Case  

PubMed Central

A sixty-eight years old female patient with complete nasopharyngeal stenosis without any determined etiology is presented. She had complete nasal obstruction as well as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. She was operated and dense, thick, avascular fibrotic tissues were excised and reconstructed with local flaps and skin graft. Only partial opening was achieved in the long term follow-up.

Korkmaz, Hakan; Selcuk, Omer Tarik; Tatar, Emel Cadalli; Saylam, Guleser; Ozdek, Ali

2012-01-01

358

Clinical features of late-onset idiopathic aqueductal stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDAlthough late-onset idiopathic aqueductal stenosis (LIAS) is considered a good indication for endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV), the characteristics of this clinical entity have seldom been reported in the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging era. The authors reviewed their patients with LIAS who were treated by ETV to confirm its clinical features and response to treatment.METHODSThe study group was composed of 31

Toru Fukuhara; Mark G Luciano

2001-01-01

359

Transesophageal echocardiography assessment of severe ostial left main coronary stenosis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Doppler echocardiography is commonly used in the assessment of stenotic valvular orifices. We describe the application of transesophageal echocardiography for the detection of a critical ostial left main coronary stenosis. Because preoperative coronary angiography often is not routinely performed in young patients undergoing valve surgery, application of Doppler echocardiography can potentially prevent catastrophic complications, particularly in atypical cases.

Firstenberg, M. S.; Greenberg, N. L.; Lin, S. S.; Garcia, M. J.; Alexander, L. A.; Thomas, J. D.

2000-01-01

360

Association of Burners with Cervical Canal and Foraminal Stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the burner phenomenon is associated with cervical canal and foraminal stenosis in a scholastic population. Lateral cervical radiographs were reviewed for 64 athletes, 15 to 18 years of age, who had sustained at least one burner. Controls consisted of age-matched athletes who had sustained head or neck trauma without evidence of

John D. Kelly; David Aliquo; Michael R. Sitler; Charles Odgers; Ray A. Moyer

2000-01-01

361

Outcome of Carotid Artery Stenting for Radiation-Induced Stenosis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Patients who have been irradiated at the neck have an increased risk of symptomatic stenosis of the carotid artery during follow-up. Carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) can be a preferable alternative treatment to carotid endarterectomy, which is associated with increased operative risks in these patients. Methods and Materials: We performed a prospective cohort study of 24 previously irradiated patients who underwent CAS for symptomatic carotid stenosis. We assessed periprocedural and nonprocedural events including transient ischemic attack (TIA), nondisabling stroke, disabling stoke, and death. Patency rates were evaluated on duplex ultrasound scans. Restenosis was defined as a stenosis of >50% at the stent location. Results: Periprocedural TIA rate was 8%, and periprocedural stroke (nondisabling) occurred in 4% of patients. After a mean follow-up of 3.3 years (range, 0.3-11.0 years), only one ipsilateral incident event (TIA) had occurred (4%). In 12% of patients, a contralateral incident event was present: one TIA (4%) and two strokes (12%, two disabling strokes). Restenosis was apparent in 17%, 33%, and 42% at 3, 12, and 24 months, respectively, although none of the patients with restenosed vessels became symptomatic. The length of the irradiation to CAS interval proved the only significant risk factor for restenosis. Conclusions: The results of CAS for radiation-induced carotid stenosis are favorable in terms of recurrence of cerebrovascular events at the CAS site.

Dorresteijn, Lucille, E-mail: L.Dorresteijn@mst.n [Department of Neurology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Vogels, Oscar [Department of Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, St Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Leeuw, Frank-Erik de [Department of Neurology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Vos, Jan-Albert [Department of Radiology, St Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Christiaans, Marleen H. [Department of Neurology, Diakonessenhuis, Utrecht (Netherlands); Ackerstaff, Rob [Department of Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, St Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Kappelle, Arnoud C. [Department of Neurology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

2010-08-01

362

Hemodynamics of a Stenosis in a Complaint Artery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of arterial compliance on stenotic hemodynamics were examined in an in vitro arterial preparation. Carotid arteries, obtained from anesthetized mongrel dogs (11.3-15.4 kg), were attached to a perfusion apparatus consisting of a constant pressure reservoir and a fixed distal resistance. To create an intraluminal stenosis, a balloon catheter was partially inflated within the artery. Pressures proximal and distal

William P. Santamore; Alfred A. Bove; Rita A. Carey

1982-01-01

363

Severe tracheobronchial stenosis in a patient with Crohn's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe tracheobronchial stenosis in a patient with Crohn's disease. T. Kuzniar, C. Sleiman, O. Brugiere, O. Groussard, H. Mal, F. Mellot, R. Pariente, J. Malolepszy, M. Fournier. #ERS Journals Ltd 2000. ABSTRACT: Tracheobronchial involvement in Crohn's disease is rare, usually associated with symptoms of tracheobronchitis, and typically responds well to steroids. The authors report a case of a 29-yr old

T. Kuz´niar; C. Sleiman; O. Groussard; H. Mal; F. Mellot; R. Pariente; J. Malolepszy; M. Fournier

2000-01-01

364

Surgical management of benign tracheal stenosis in Basrah  

PubMed Central

Background: Tracheal stenosis is more frequent as a result of wide-spread use of endotracheal intubation and tracheostomy. Resection and tracheal reconstruction remain the treatment of choice in benign tracheal stenosis. Objectives: To report our experience in Basra and to identify the result of anastomosis after tracheal resection and management of those patients preoperatively and postoperatively. Methodology: A descriptive study of sixteen patients (aged 11–28 years, 10 male and 6 female) with tracheal stenosis who underwent tracheal resection and reconstruction in Basrah thoracic unit (Basra teaching hospital) from January 2008 to January 2011. Results: The result was excellent in 62.5%, good in 25%, and satisfactory in 12.5%. Postoperative complication occurred in 25% and treated successfully with no mortality. Follow-up was every 3 months for an average of 3.6 years. Conclusion: Resection and tracheal reconstruction is the treatment of choice in benign tracheal stenosis and achieved excellent results in management of the patients. PMID:25003058

Almudhafer, Muayyad M.; AI-Hassani, Fouzi A.A.; Benyan, Abdul-Khalik Z.

2013-01-01

365

Progression of renal artery stenosis in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Renal artery stenosis is potentially correctable by either revascularization surgery or percutaneous methods. However, appropriate use of these techniques has been hampered by a lack of data on the natural history of this disease. This study assesses the prevalence, risk factors for progression, and effect on renal function of angiographically demonstrated renal artery disease in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization.

James J. Crowley; Renato M. Santos; Robert H. Peter; Joseph A. Puma; Steve J. Schwab; Harry R. Phillips; Richard S. Stack; Peter J. Conlon

1998-01-01

366

Congenital valvar aortic stenosis. Natural history and assessment for operation.  

PubMed Central

Two hundred and eighteen patients with congenital valvar aortic stenosis aged between 1 and 25 years at presentation were followed for one to 26 years (average 8.7 years). Assessment of severity of aortic stenosis was essentially based on clinical findings including symptoms, the character of the pulse, and the behaviour of the second heart sound, management being further influenced by the degree of left ventricular hypertrophy shown in the electrocardiogram. There was reasonable correlation between clinical and haemodynamic assessment and all patients with a gradient between left ventricle and aorta (LV-Ao) greater than 50 mmHg (6.7 kPa) were judged to have moderate or severe aortic stenosis on physical signs. Fifty-five per cent of those judged mild on presentation still had a mild lesion 18 years later; 42 per cent of those judged moderate on presentation still had a moderate lesion 15 years later. Forty-four patients had an operation and of the 30 patients who underwent aortic valvotomy, only 40 per cent still had a satisfactory result 13 years later. There were three preoperative and seven postoperative deaths but in only two patients was death directly related to severe aortic stenosis and both of these patients had been lost to follow-up. It is concluded that indications for operation are aortic stenosis which is moderate or severe on physical findings, together with restrictive symptoms or ST and T wave changes on the electrocardiogram. Using these criteria, the risk of sudden death is minimal and irreversible myocardial damage unlikely. We do not recommend either routine cardiac catheterisation or routine operation at any arbitrary LV-Ao gradient. PMID:7378217

Hossack, K F; Neutze, J M; Lowe, J B; Barratt-Boyes, B G

1980-01-01

367

Surgical treatment of non-malignant laryngotracheal stenosis.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were the following: (1) to analyze the results of surgical treatment of non-malignant subglottic laryngeal and tracheal stenosis, (2) to evaluate the feasibility and technical aspects of the video mediastinoscopy for the mobilization of the mediastinal trachea, (3) to evaluate the influence of the early internal condition of the anastomosis on the development of restenosis. From 1996 up to 2013, 75 patients aged 11-78 years underwent surgery for post-intubation/tracheostomy (71 patients), post-traumatic (3 patients), and idiopathic (1 patient) subglottic laryngeal and tracheal stenosis. Twenty-three (30.7 %) patients with subglottic laryngeal and upper tracheal stenosis underwent cricotracheal resection and thyrotracheal anastomosis (group A), while 52 (69.3 %) patients with tracheal stenosis underwent tracheal resection and cricotracheal or tracheotracheal anastomosis (group B). The length of the resected segment in patients of groups A and B was 28-55 (42 ± 11) mm and 18-65 (36 ± 14) mm, respectively, (p = 0.22). Perioperative complications within 30 days occurred in eight (34.8 %) patients of group A, and in six (11.5 %) patients of group B (p = 0.04). There was one intraoperative and one postoperative death on the third day due to heart failure. The excellent results were achieved in 63 (86.3 %), satisfactory in 8 (11.0 %), and unsatisfactory in 2 (2.7 %) patients. The incidence rate of perioperative complications is related to the location of the stenosis and the type of the resection and anastomosis. Video mediastinoscopy simplifies the mobilization of the mediastinal trachea, which allows for carrying out the anastomosis with minimal tension. Early internal abnormalities of the anastomosis predict its restenosis. PMID:24652116

Rubikas, Romaldas; Matukaityt?, Ieva; Jelisiejevas, Julius Jonas; Ra?kauskas, Mindaugas

2014-09-01

368

Analysis of the pathological severity degree of aortic stenosis (AS) and mitral stenosis (MS) using the discrete wavelet transform (DWT).  

PubMed

The heart is the principal organ that circulates blood. In normal conditions it produces four sounds for each cardiac cycle. However, most often only two sounds appear essential: S1 and S2. Two other sounds: S3 and S4, with lower amplitude than S1 or S2, appear occasionally in the cardiac cycle by the effect of disease or age. The presence of abnormal sounds in one cardiac cycle provide valuable information on various diseases. The aortic stenosis (AS), as being a valvular pathology, is characterized by a systolic murmur due to a narrowing of the aortic valve. The mitral stenosis (MS) is characterized by a diastolic murmur due to a reduction in the mitral valve. Early screening of these diseases is necessary; it's done by a simple technique known as: phonocardiography. Analysis of phonocardiograms signals using signal processing techniques can provide for clinicians useful information considered as a platform for significant decisions in their medical diagnosis. In this work two types of diseases were studied: aortic stenosis (AS) and mitral stenosis (MS). Each one presents six different cases. The application of the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) to analyse pathological severity of the (AS and MS was presented. Then, the calculation of various parameters was performed for each patient. This study examines the possibility of using the DWT in the analysis of pathological severity of AS and MS. PMID:23173773

Meziani, F; Debbal, S M; Atbi, A

2013-01-01

369

The cortical and cerebellar representation of the lumbar spine.  

PubMed

Eight decades after Penfield's discovery of the homunculus only sparse evidence exists on the cortical representation of the lumbar spine. The aim of our investigation was the description of the lumbar spine's cortical representation in healthy subjects during the application of measured manual pressure. Twenty participants in the prone position were investigated during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). An experienced manual therapist applied non-painful, posterior-to-anterior (PA) pressure on three lumbar spinous processes (L1, L3, and L5). The pressure (30 N) was monitored and controlled by sensors. The randomized stimulation protocol consisted of 68 pressure stimuli of 5 s duration. Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses were analyzed in relation to the lumbar stimulations. The results demonstrate that controlled PA pressure on the lumbar spine induced significant activation patterns. The major new finding was a strong and consistent activation bilaterally in the somatosensory cortices (S1 and S2). In addition, bilateral activation was located medially in the anterior cerebellum. The activation pattern also included other cortical areas probably related to anticipatory postural adjustments. These revealed stable somatosensory maps of the lumbar spine in healthy subjects can subsequently be used as a baseline to investigate cortical and subcortical reorganization in low back pain patients. PMID:24464423

Boendermaker, Bart; Meier, Michael L; Luechinger, Roger; Humphreys, B Kim; Hotz-Boendermaker, Sabina

2014-08-01

370

Risk Factors Associated with Severity and Location of Intracranial Arterial Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose We sought to determine vascular risk factors and demographic features associated with the severity and location of intracranial stenosis. Methods Data on patients enrolled in the Warfarin-Aspirin Symptomatic Intracranial Disease (WASID) trial were used for the analyses. Demographic features and vascular risk factors were compared in patients with moderate stenosis (n=336) vs. severe stenosis (n=225) and according to location of intracranial stenosis (MCA, ICA, basilar, or vertebral). Results History of a lipid disorder (77% in severe vs. 67% in moderate, p=0.01), metabolic syndrome (63% in severe vs. 53% in moderate, p=0.05), and diabetes (43% in severe vs. 35% in moderate, p=0.04) were more common in patients with severe intracranial stenosis in univariate analyses. History of lipid disorder was independently associated with severe stenosis (OR 1.62 (95% CI 1.09–2.42), p=0.02). The distribution of stenosis location differed among age groups (p=0.0015), gender (p=0.0001), race (p=0.0243), qualifying event (p=0.0156), diabetes (p=0.0030), coronary artery disease (p=0.0030), and hyperlipidemia (p=0.054). Patients with basilar stenosis were older and more likely to have hyperlipidemia. Patients with MCA stenosis were more likely to be women and black. Patients with ICA stenosis were more likely to have diabetes. Patients with vertebral stenosis were more likely to have coronary artery disease. Conclusions Lipid disorder has the strongest association with severity of intracranial stenosis and should be the target of prevention therapies. Different locations of intracranial stenosis are associated with different vascular risk factors and demographic features, suggesting there may be a difference in the underlying pathophysiology of stenosis among the intracranial arteries. PMID:20616323

Turan, Tanya N.; Makki, Achraf A.; Tsappidi, Samuel; Cotsonis, George; Lynn, Michael J.; Cloft, Harry J.; Chimowitz, Marc I.

2010-01-01

371

Incidence and prognosis of congenital aortic valve stenosis in Liverpool (1960-1990).  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To determine the incidence and prognosis of congenital aortic valve stenosis in the five Health Districts of Liverpool that make up the Merseyside area. DESIGN--The records of the Liverpool Congenital Malformations Registry and the Royal Liverpool Children's Hospital identified 239 patients (155 male, 84 female) born with aortic valve stenosis between 1960 and 1990. Patients were traced to assess the severity of stenosis at follow up. Information on the severity at presentation and all subsequent events was obtained. RESULTS--Congenital aortic valve stenosis occurred in 5.7% of patients with congenital heart disease born in the Merseyside area. The median age at presentation was 16 months (range 0-20 years). Stenosis was mild at presentation in 145 patients, moderate in 33, severe in one and critical in 21 and 39 had a bicuspid valve without stenosis. Additional cardiac lesions were significantly more common in children presenting under one year of age and in those with critical stenosis. The median duration of follow up was 9.2 years (range 1-28 years) and seven patients were lost to follow up. 81 operations were performed in 60 patients. The reoperation rate was 28.3% after a median duration of 8.7 years (range 2.5-18 years). 15% of patients who presented with mild stenosis subsequently required operation compared with 67% of those with moderate stenosis. There were no sudden unexpected deaths and no deaths after aortic valvotomy, except in those presenting with critical stenosis. Mortality was 16.7% but patients presenting with critical aortic stenosis had a much worse prognosis. Actuarial and hazard analysis showed that the survival and absence of serious events (aortic valve surgery or balloon dilatation, endocarditis, or death) were significantly better in patients who presented with mild aortic stenosis than in those who presented with moderate aortic stenosis. 75% of patients presenting with mild stenosis had not progressed to moderate stenosis after 10 years of follow up. CONCLUSIONS--Congenital aortic valve stenosis may be progressive even when it is mild at presentation. Patients presenting with mild stenosis, however, have a significantly better prognosis than those presenting with moderate stenosis. An accurate clinical and echocardiographic assessment of the severity of aortic valve stenosis at presentation provides a good guide to prognosis into early adult life. PMID:8457400

Kitchiner, D J; Jackson, M; Walsh, K; Peart, I; Arnold, R

1993-01-01

372

Biomechanical effect of altered lumbar lordosis on intervertebral lumbar joints during the golf swing: a simulation study.  

PubMed

Although the lumbar spine region is the most common site of injury in golfers, little research has been done on intervertebral loads in relation to the anatomical-morphological differences in the region. This study aimed to examine the biomechanical effects of anatomical-morphological differences in the lumbar lordosis on the lumbar spinal joints during a golf swing. The golf swing motions of ten professional golfers were analyzed. Using a subject-specific 3D musculoskeletal system model, inverse dynamic analyses were performed to compare the intervertebral load, the load on the lumbar spine, and the load in each swing phase. In the intervertebral load, the value was the highest at the L5-S1 and gradually decreased toward the T12. In each lumbar spine model, the load value was the greatest on the kypholordosis (KPL) followed by normal lordosis (NRL), hypolordosis (HPL), and excessive lordosis (EXL) before the impact phase. However, results after the follow-through (FT) phase were shown in reverse order. Finally, the load in each swing phase was greatest during the FT phase in all the lumbar spine models. The findings can be utilized in the training and rehabilitation of golfers to help reduce the risk of injury by considering individual anatomical-morphological characteristics. PMID:25162173

Bae, Tae Soo; Cho, Woong; Kim, Kwon Hee; Chae, Soo Won

2014-11-01

373

[Surgery of lumbar disk hernia: historical perspective].  

PubMed

Although the clinical picture of discogenic sciatica is well known already in the ancient world, it is not until 1933 that WJ Mixter and JS Barr provide the correct pathogenetic interpretation and suggest surgery as the treatment of choice. The work of the American Authors was however based on the knowledge acquired during the previous centuries starting with Domenico Cotugno, who first suggested the neurogenic nature of sciatica (1764) and later with the neurologists of the french school Valleix, Lasègue, Dejerine, Sicard who elucidated the semeiology and debated in detail the etiopathogenesis of the condition. The german pathologists Schmorl and Andrae (1927-29) are to be credited for their contribution to the pathology of intervertebral disc, recognizing the frequency and degenerative (not neoplastic) nature of nucleus pulposus herniation. Surgery of disc herniation starts with Oppenheim and Krause (1909). Mixter and Barr used laminectomy and a transdural route although a more limited approach to the spinal canal had already been proposed by the italian Bonomo (1902), unknown to many. Love, of the Mayo Clinic (1937-39) introduced the extradural/interlaminar approach while Caspar and Yasargil (1977) applied the concepts of microsurgery to the procedure. The latest advances are represented by percutaneous and endoscopic techniques. PMID:9835099

Brunori, A; De Caro, G M; Giuffrè, R

1998-01-01

374

Comparison of lumbar repositioning error according to different lumbar angles in a flexion pattern (FP) subgroup of patients with non-specific chronic low back pain  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study determined the change in lumbar position sense according to lumbar angles in a flexion pattern (FP) subgroup of patients with non-specific chronic low back pain (NCSLBP). [Subjects] Thirteen subjects with FP low back pain participated. [Methods] The lumbar repositioning error (RE) of subjects was measured between a neutral starting position and re-position phases at three angles, in sitting and standing upright positions. [Results] Lumbar RE was significantly greater during lumbar flexion at a 30° angle in the sitting position than in the other tasks. [Conclusion] In the flexion-related subgroup, the lumbar RE measurement may be a more sensitive evaluation method using a lumbar flexion angle of 30° while in the sitting position, compared with other angles in sitting or standing positions. PMID:25642094

Noh, Kyung-Hee; Oh, Jae-Seop; Yoo, Won-Gyu

2015-01-01

375

Altered helical axis patterns of the lumbar spine indicate increased instability with disc degeneration.  

PubMed

Although the causes of low back pain are poorly defined and indistinct, degeneration of the intervertebral disc is most often implicated as the origin of pain. The biochemical and mechanical changes associated with degeneration result in the discs? inability to maintain structure and function, leading to spinal instability and ultimately pain. Traditionally, a clinical exam assessing functional range-of-motion coupled with T2-weighted MRI revealing disc morphology are used to evaluate spinal health; however, these subjective measures fail to correlate well with pain or provide useful patient stratification. Therefore, improved quantification of spinal motion and objective MRI measures of disc health are necessary. An instantaneous helical axis (IHA) approach provides rich temporal three-dimensional data describing the pathway of motion, which is easily visualized. Eighteen cadaveric osteoligamentous lumbar spines (L4-5) from throughout the degenerative spectrum were tested in a pure moment fashion. IHA were calculated for flexion-extension and lateral bending. A correlational study design was used to determine the relationship between disc measurements from quantitative T2? MRI and IHA metrics. Increased instability and out-of-plane rotation with diminished disc health was observed during lateral bending, but not flexion-extension. This new analysis strategy examines the entire pathway of motion, rather than simplifying spinal kinematics to its terminal ends of motion and provides a more sensitive kinematic measurement of disc health. Ultimately, through the use of 3D dynamic fluoroscopy or similar methods, a patient?s functional IHA in lateral bending may be measured and used to assess their disc health for diagnosis, progression tracking, and treatment evaluation. PMID:25481221

Ellingson, Arin M; Nuckley, David J

2015-01-21

376

Instrumentation in lumbar fusion improves back pain but not quality of life 2 years after surgery  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Instrumented and non-instrumented methods of fusion have been compared in several studies, but the results are often inconsistent and conflicting. We compared the 2-year results of 3 methods of lumbar fusion when used in degenerative disc disease (DDD), using the Swedish Spine Register (SWESPINE). Methods All patients registered in SWESPINE for surgical treatment of DDD between January 1, 2000 and October 1, 2007 were eligible for the study. Patients who had completed the 2-year follow-up were included in the analysis. The outcomes of 3 methods of surgical fusion were assessed. Results Of 1,310 patients enrolled, 115 had undergone uninstrumented fusion, 620 instrumented posterolateral fusion, and 575 instrumented interbody fusion. Irrespective of the surgical procedure, quality of life (QoL) improved and back pain diminished. Change in QoL and functional disability and return to work was similar in the 3 groups. Patients who had undergone uninstrumented fusion had more back pain than the patients with instrumented interbody fusion at the 2-year follow-up (p = 0.02), although the difference was only 7 visual analog scale (VAS) units (95% CI: 1–13) on a 100-point scale. Moreover, 83% of the patients with uninstrumented fusion used analgesics at the end of follow-up as compared to 68% of the patients who had undergone surgery with one of the 2 instrumented fusion techniques. Interpretation In comparison with instrumented interbody fusion, uninstrumented fusion was associated with higher levels of back pain 2 years after surgery. We found no evidence for differences in QoL between uninstrumented fusion and instrumented interbody fusion. PMID:23368746

2013-01-01

377

Parkinsonism associated with obstructive hydrocephalus due to idiopathic aqueductal stenosis  

PubMed Central

Two cases of parkinsonism after recurrent obstructive hydrocephalus due to idiopathic aqueductal stenosis are reported. In both patients an extrapyramidal syndrome was noted in the absence of contemporaneous evidence of hydrocephalus or shunt failure. One of the patients underwent a shunt operation, but showed no clinical improvement. However, both patients improved after the administration of dopaminergic therapy. The seven previously reported cases of this syndrome were reviewed and it is concluded that the prognosis of the parkinsonism is good, usually with total, or near total, resolution. It is recommended that if a patient with idiopathic aqueduct stenosis develops hydrocephalus or evidence of shunt malfunction in association with acute parkinsonism their shunt should be replaced. If there is no evidence of hydrocephalus or shunt malfunction they should initially be treated with domaminergic medication.?? PMID:9598684

Zeidler, M; Dorman, P; Ferguson, I; Bateman, D

1998-01-01

378

Idiopathic progressive subglottic stenosis: findings and treatment in 52 patients.  

PubMed

Rarely, patients develop severe idiopathic subglottic stenosis. In 34 years, we have observed this disorder in 52 patients. All but 1 of the patients were female--a finding that suggests a hormonal cause. Without treatment, the airway progressively narrows--in some cases, until the patient requires tracheotomy. Laser submucosal resection and rotation mucosal flaps open and stabilize the airway and provide effective palliation. However, unlike traumatic subglottic stenosis, which has been cured with this technique, the idiopathic form causes submucosal fibrosis that regenerates spontaneously. Thus, treatment helps, but does not cure, the patient. The characteristic pathological finding is of submucosal dense fibrotic tissue with evidence of chronic inflammation. The clinical findings and treatment are here discussed. PMID:11307904

Dedo, H H; Catten, M D

2001-04-01

379

Update on the pathophysiology of degenerative disc disease and new developments in treatment strategies  

PubMed Central

Degenerative disc disease (DDD) continues to be a prevalent condition that afflicts populations on a global scale. The economic impact and decreased quality of life primarily stem from back pain and neurological deficits associated with intervertebral disc degeneration. Although much effort has been invested into understanding the etiology of DDD and its relationship to the onset of back pain, this endeavor is a work in progress. The purpose of this review is to provide focused discussion on several areas in which recent advances have been made. Specifically, we have categorized these advances into early, middle, and late phases of age-related or degenerative changes in the disc and into promising minimally invasive treatments, which aim to restore mechanical and biological functions to the disc. PMID:24198557

Hsieh, Adam H; Yoon, S Tim

2010-01-01

380

High-intensity laser therapy during chronic degenerative tenosynovitis experimentally induced in broiler chickens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aims of this study was the safety and the efficacy of High Intensity Laser Therapy (HILT) on chronic degenerative tenosynovitis. We have effectuated the histological evaluation and seroassay (C reactive protein) on 18 chickens affect by chronic degenerative tenosynovitis experimentally induced. We have been employed a Nd:YAG laser pulsed wave; all irradiated subjects received the same total energy (270 Joule) with a fluence of 7,7 J/cm2 and intensity of 10,7 W/cm2. The histological findings revealed a distinct reduction of the mineralization of the choral matrix, the anti-inflammatory effect of the laser, the hyperplasia of the synoviocytes and ectasia of the lymphatic vessels.

Fortuna, Damiano; Rossi, Giacomo; Bilotta, Teresa W.; Zati, Allesandro; Gazzotti, Valeria; Venturini, Antonio; Pinna, Stefania; Serra, Christian; Masotti, Leonardo

2002-10-01

381

Hepatocellular Carcinoma Supplied by the Right Lumbar Artery  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluated the clinical features of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) supplied by the right lumbar artery. Eleven patients with HCC supplied by the right lumbar artery were treated with chemoembolization. The patients' medical records were retrospectively analyzed. All patients underwent 6.7 {+-} 3.7 (mean {+-} SD) chemoembolization sessions, and the hepatic arterial branches were noted as being attenuated. The right inferior phrenic artery (IPA) was also embolized in 10 patients. The interval between initial chemoembolization and chemoembolization of the lumbar artery supply was 53.2 {+-} 26.9 months. Mean tumor diameter was 3.1 {+-} 2.4 cm and was located at the surface of S7 and S6. The feeding-branch arose proximal to the bifurcation of the dorsal ramus and muscular branches (n = 8) or from the muscular branches (n = 3) of the right first (n = 10) or second lumbar artery (n = 1). The anterior spinal artery originated from the tumor-feeding lumbar artery in one patient. All feeders were selected, and embolization was performed after injection of iodized oil and anticancer drugs (n = 10) or gelatin sponge alone in a patient with anterior spinal artery branching (n = 1). Eight patients died from tumor progression 10.1 {+-} 4.6 months later, and two patients survived 2 and 26 months, respectively. The remaining patient died of bone metastases after 32 months despite liver transplantation 10 months after chemoembolization. The right lumbar artery supplies HCC located in the bare area of the liver, especially in patients who undergo repeated chemoembolization, including chemoembolization by way of the right IPA. Chemoembolization by way of the right lumbar artery may be safe when the feeder is well selected.

Miyayama, Shiro, E-mail: s-miyayama@fukui.saiseikai.or.jp; Yamashiro, Masashi; Okuda, Miho; Yoshie, Yuichi; Sugimori, Natsuki; Igarashi, Saya; Nakashima, Yoshiko [Fukuiken Saiseikai Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan); Matsui, Osamu [Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Department of Radiology (Japan)

2010-02-15

382

Bias in the physical examination of patients with lumbar radiculopathy  

PubMed Central

Background No prior studies have examined systematic bias in the musculoskeletal physical examination. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of bias due to prior knowledge of lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging findings (MRI) on perceived diagnostic accuracy of the physical examination for lumbar radiculopathy. Methods This was a cross-sectional comparison of the performance characteristics of the physical examination with blinding to MRI results (the 'independent group') with performance in the situation where the physical examination was not blinded to MRI results (the 'non-independent group'). The reference standard was the final diagnostic impression of nerve root impingement by the examining physician. Subjects were recruited from a hospital-based outpatient specialty spine clinic. All adults age 18 and older presenting with lower extremity radiating pain of duration ? 12 weeks were evaluated for participation. 154 consecutively recruited subjects with lumbar disk herniation confirmed by lumbar spine MRI were included in this study. Sensitivities and specificities with 95% confidence intervals were calculated in the independent and non-independent groups for the four components of the radiculopathy examination: 1) provocative testing, 2) motor strength testing, 3) pinprick sensory testing, and 4) deep tendon reflex testing. Results The perceived sensitivity of sensory testing was higher with prior knowledge of MRI results (20% vs. 36%; p = 0.05). Sensitivities and specificities for exam components otherwise showed no statistically significant differences between groups. Conclusions Prior knowledge of lumbar MRI results may introduce bias into the pinprick sensory testing component of the physical examination for lumbar radiculopathy. No statistically significant effect of bias was seen for other components of the physical examination. The effect of bias due to prior knowledge of lumbar MRI results should be considered when an isolated sensory deficit on examination is used in medical decision-making. Further studies of bias should include surgical clinic populations and other common diagnoses including shoulder, knee and hip pathology. PMID:21118558

2010-01-01

383

Multimodality imaging of carotid atherosclerotic plaque: Going beyond stenosis  

PubMed Central

Apart from the degree of stenosis, the morphology of carotid atherosclerotic plaques and presence of neovascularization are important factors that may help to evaluate the risk and ‘vulnerability’ of plaques and may also influence the choice of treatment. In this article, we aim to describe the techniques and imaging findings on CTA, high resolution MRI and contrast enhanced ultrasound in the evaluation of carotid atherosclerotic plaques. We also discuss a few representative cases from our institute with the related clinical implications. PMID:23986615

Hingwala, Divyata; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan; Sylaja, Padmavathy N; Thomas, Bejoy; Kapilamoorthy, Tirur Raman

2013-01-01

384

[Efficacy of sorption therapy in patients with cicatricial esophageal stenosis].  

PubMed

We examined 110 patients treated conservatively for cicatricial esophageal stenosis including expansion on the string. The patients were divided into three groups: controls (n = 35), receiving adjuvant SUMS-1 (n = 38) and given adjuvant enterosgel (n = 37). According to electron microscopy, enterosorbents make esophageal mucosa denser by decreasing interstitial spaces as a result of microcirculatory improvement and reduction of edema. Enterosorbents elevate total protein and sugar in the blood. PMID:17002045

Chikinev, Iu V; Antonov, A R; Korobe?nikov, A V

2006-01-01

385

Evolution of a New Function by Degenerative Mutation in Cephalochordate Steroid Receptors  

PubMed Central

Gene duplication is the predominant mechanism for the evolution of new genes. Major existing models of this process assume that duplicate genes are redundant; degenerative mutations in one copy can therefore accumulate close to neutrally, usually leading to loss from the genome. When gene products dimerize or interact with other molecules for their functions, however, degenerative mutations in one copy may produce repressor alleles that inhibit the function of the other and are therefore exposed to selection. Here, we describe the evolution of a duplicate repressor by simple degenerative mutations in the steroid hormone receptors (SRs), a biologically crucial vertebrate gene family. We isolated and characterized the SRs of the cephalochordate Branchiostoma floridae, which diverged from other chordates just after duplication of the ancestral SR. The B. floridae genome contains two SRs: BfER, an ortholog of the vertebrate estrogen receptors, and BfSR, an ortholog of the vertebrate receptors for androgens, progestins, and corticosteroids. BfSR is specifically activated by estrogens and recognizes estrogen response elements (EREs) in DNA; BfER does not activate transcription in response to steroid hormones but binds EREs, where it competitively represses BfSR. The two genes are partially coexpressed, particularly in ovary and testis, suggesting an ancient role in germ cell development. These results corroborate previous findings that the ancestral steroid receptor was estrogen-sensitive and indicate that, after duplication, BfSR retained the ancestral function, while BfER evolved the capacity to negatively regulate BfSR. Either of two historical mutations that occurred during BfER evolution is sufficient to generate a competitive repressor. Our findings suggest that after duplication of genes whose functions depend on specific molecular interactions, high-probability degenerative mutations can yield novel functions, which are then exposed to positive or negative selection; in either case, the probability of neofunctionalization relative to gene loss is increased compared to existing models. PMID:18787702

Bridgham, Jamie T.; Brown, Justine E.; Rodríguez-Marí, Adriana; Catchen, Julian M.; Thornton, Joseph W.

2008-01-01

386

Study of metabolism and energetics in hypogravity: Degenerative effects of prolonged hypogravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of gravity in the formation of rigid, lignified plant cell walls hence to the development of the erect land plant body is examined. An experiment was proposed with a general hypothesis that a chosen plant, a dwarf marigold, would display degenerative changes in mechanical supportive systems under hypogravity because normal lignin-cellulose wall structure fails to develop. Observational and experimental results are given.

Siegel, S. M.

1976-01-01

387

C5 palsy following anterior decompression and spinal fusion for cervical degenerative diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postoperative C5 palsy is a common complication after cervical spine decompression surgery. However, the incidence, prognosis,\\u000a and etiology of C5 palsy after anterior decompression with spinal fusion (ASF) have not yet been fully established. In the\\u000a present study, we analyzed the clinical and radiological characteristics of patients who developed C5 palsy after ASF for\\u000a cervical degenerative diseases. The cases of

Mitsuhiro HashimotoMacondo; Macondo Mochizuki; Atsuomi Aiba; Akihiko Okawa; Koichi Hayashi; Tsuyoshi Sakuma; Hiroshi Takahashi; Masao Koda; Kazuhisa Takahashi; Masashi Yamazaki

2010-01-01

388

CT-Guided Epidural/Perineural Injections in Painful Disorders of the Lumbar Spine:Short- and Extended-Term Results  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Evaluation of short- and extended-term results of repeated epidural/perineural injections (EDT/PRT) of corticoids in painful afflictions of the lumbar spine. Methods: Thirty-two patients who had persistent radicular or low back pain for more than 6 weeks were treated with CT-guided injection therapy. By EDT/PRT, 40 mg of triamcinolonacetonid was injected either periradicularly or by a direct intraspinal epidural method at intervals of 3 weeks. Altogether, 140 EDT/PRT were performed in 32 patients (mean 4.4, range 2-8). In nine patients partial facet joint denervation with 1-2 ml of 50% alcohol solution was combined with EDT/PRT to reduce low back pain. Before and after treatment and at follow-up (mean 9.6 months), treatment success was evaluated on a visual analog scale and by physical examination (good = >50% improvement, moderate = 20%-50%, no improvement <20%).Results: Short-term (end of therapy) good or moderate improvement was achieved in 91% of patients, extended-term (mean 9.6 months) in 56%. Regarding certain subgroups, those with disc herniations of the lumbar spine showed a better outcome with good or moderate improvement in 95% short-term and 69% extended-term than those with spinal stenosis who had 72% short-term and 28% long-term. Conclusion: Results indicate that CT-guided EDT/PRT in combination with partial facet joint denervation is a safe and effective outpatient treatment.

Schmid, Gebhard [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, St. Josef Hospital, University Hospital Bochum, Gudrunstrasse 56, D-44791 Bochum (Germany); Vetter, Sylvia; Goettmann, Dieter; Strecker, Ernst-Peter [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Nuclear Medicine and Interventional Radiology, Diakonissenkrankenhaus Karlsruhe-Rueppurr, Diakonissenstrasse 28, D-76199 Karlsruhe-Rueppurr (Germany)

1999-11-15

389

A new lumbar posterior fixation system, the memory metal spinal system: an in-vitro mechanical evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background Spinal systems that are currently available for correction of spinal deformities or degeneration such as lumbar spondylolisthesis or degenerative disc disease use components manufactured from stainless steel or titanium and typically comprise two spinal rods with associated connection devices (for example: DePuy Spines Titanium Moss Miami Spinal System). The Memory Metal Spinal System of this study consists of a single square spinal rod made of a nickel titanium alloy (Nitinol) used in conjunction with connecting transverse bridges and pedicle screws made of Ti-alloy. Nitinol is best known for its shape memory effect, but is also characterized by its higher flexibility when compared to either stainless steel or titanium. A higher fusion rate with less degeneration of adjacent segments may result because of the elastic properties of the memory metal. In addition, the use of a single, unilateral rod may be of great value for a TLIF procedure. Our objective is to evaluate the mechanical properties of the new Memory Metal Spinal System compared to the Titanium Moss Miami Spinal System. Methods An in-vitro mechanical evaluation of the lumbar Memory Metal Spinal System was conducted. The test protocol followed ASTM Standard F1717-96, “Standard Test Methods for Static and Fatigue for Spinal Implant Constructs in a Corpectomy Model.” 1. Static axial testing in a load to failure mode in compression bending, 2. Static testing in a load to failure mode in torsion, 3. Cyclical testing to estimate the maximum run out load value at 5.0 x 10^6 cycles. Results In the biomechanical testing for static axial compression bending there was no statistical difference between the 2% yield strength and the stiffness of the two types of spinal constructs. In axial compression bending fatigue testing, the Memory Metal Spinal System construct showed a 50% increase in fatigue life compared to the Titanium Moss Miami Spinal System. In static torsional testing the Memory Metal Spinal System constructs showed an average 220% increase in torsional yield strength, and an average 30% increase in torsional stiffness. Conclusions The in-vitro mechanical evaluation of the lumbar Memory Metal Spinal System showed good results when compared to a currently available spinal implant system. Throughout testing, the Memory Metal Spinal System showed no failures in static and dynamic fatigue. PMID:24047109

2013-01-01

390

Treatment of acquired nasopharyngeal stenosis using a removable silicone stent.  

PubMed

The aim of this prospective study was to characterise patient characteristics and the histories of cats with acquired nasopharyngeal stenosis (ANS), and to describe the use of a removable silicone stent for treatment. ANS was diagnosed in 15 cats with clinical signs present for a median of 4 months. Clinical signs included stertor and inspiratory difficulty, nasal discharge, sneezing, dysphagia, regurgitation, vomiting and anorexia. Radiographs revealed a dorsal deviation or deformation of the caudal part of the soft palate in 10 of the cats, a soft tissue density across the cranial nasopharynx in four and no abnormality in one. The stenosis was initially dilated with a Kelly forceps in 10 of the cats and by balloon dilatation in five. A segment of a 24 Fr silicone thoracic catheter was used for the stent in five cats; in the other 10 cats a segment of a 28 Fr catheter was used. The stent was removed after 3 weeks in 12 cats and after 4 weeks in the other three. Endoscopy revealed an adequate nasopharyngeal diameter in all of the cats. At both 3 and 10 months after surgery the response was considered to be satisfactory, with complete resolution of clinical signs in 14 cats and improvement in the remaining cat. The treatment of ANS by stenosis dilatation followed by temporary stenting with a silicone stent is a rapid, safe, economical and effective procedure. PMID:24820997

De Lorenzi, Davide; Bertoncello, Diana; Comastri, Stefano; Bottero, Enrico

2015-02-01

391

Recurrent Syncope Attributed to Left Main Coronary Artery Severe Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) rarely manifest as recurrent syncope due to malignant ventricular arrhythmia. We report a case of a 56-year-old Chinese male with complaints of paroxysmal chest burning sensation and distress for 2 weeks as well as loss of consciousness for 3 days. The electrocardiogram (ECG) revealed paroxysmal multimorphologic ventricular tachycardia during attack and normal heart rhythm during intervals. Coronary angiograph showed 90% stenosis in left main coronary artery and 80% stenosis in anterior descending artery. Two stents sized 4.0?18?mm and 2.75?18?mm were placed at left main coronary artery and anterior descending artery, respectively, during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The patient was discharged and never had ventricular arrhythmia again during a 3-month follow-up since the PCI. This indicated that ventricular tachycardia was correlated with persistent severe myocardial ischemia. Coronary vasospasm was highly suspected to be the reason of the sudden attack and acute exacerbation. PCI is recommended in patients with both severe coronary artery stenosis and ventricular arrhythmia. Removing myocardial ischemia may stop or relieve ventricular arrhythmia and prevent cardiac arrest.

Li, Min; Zheng, Xinyi; Liu, Hua; Liu, Yujie

2015-01-01

392

Association of burners with cervical canal and foraminal stenosis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the burner phenomenon is associated with cervical canal and foraminal stenosis in a scholastic population. Lateral cervical radiographs were reviewed for 64 athletes, 15 to 18 years of age, who had sustained at least one burner. Controls consisted of age-matched athletes who had sustained head or neck trauma without evidence of the burner phenomenon (N = 32). Pavlov ratios were calculated for levels C-3 through C-6; both mean minimum and mean average ratios were determined. Available oblique radiographs from both the study (N = 31) and control (N = 15) groups were then used to calculate the foramen/vertebral body ratio--a measure of relative foraminal height. Significant differences were found between the burner and control groups for the mean minimum and mean average Pavlov ratios and foramen/vertebral body ratios. Scholastic athletes sustaining the burner phenomenon have an increased risk of cervical canal and foraminal stenosis as measured by the Pavlov and foramen/vertebral body ratios, respectively. The foramen/vertebral body ratio is an easily reproducible and reliable means of assessing foraminal dimensions from oblique radiographs and controls for x-ray magnification and rotation. Foraminal stenosis assessment may prove useful in predicting burner risk, especially in athletes with extension-compression injuries. PMID:10750998

Kelly, J D; Aliquo, D; Sitler, M R; Odgers, C; Moyer, R A

2000-01-01

393

[Urethral stenosis in children. Apropos of 33 pediatric cases].  

PubMed

Urethral stenosis in children is rare. Between 1961 and 1993, only five specific retrospective studies were published. Between January 1987 and December 1992, thirty-three children, i.e. thirty boys and three girls, were observed in our institution for urethral stenosis. Their ages ranged from two and half months to seventeen years. Etiology was congenital in six, traumatic in two, inflammatory in two and iatrogenic in thirteen patients. In additions, ten stenoses were consecutive with hypospadias repair. Seventeen patients underwent first-line endoscopic internal urethrotomy. Success rate was ninety-one percent. Two patients underwent a successful second similar procedure. Repeating this procedure more than twice and second-line urethrotomy doesn't improve success rate. It appeared that internal urethrotomy proved to be more effective in short and recent stenosis. Fourteen patients underwent urethroplasty by using various techniques, of whom only five first-line urethroplasty. Its indication in case of multioperated or complicated stenoses may explain the poor global success rate of about fifty percent. PMID:7976856

Tombal, B; Abi Aad, A; Opsomer, R; van Cangh, P; Clapuyt, P; Lorge, F; Veyckemans, F; Wese, F X

1994-09-01

394

Prevalence and Prognosis of Coexistent Asymptomatic Intracranial Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose There are limited data on the prevalence and prognosis of asymptomatic intracranial stenosis (AIS). Methods Baseline cerebral angiograms and MR angiograms were used to determine AIS (50% to 99%) coexistent to symptomatic intracranial stenosis for patients enrolled in the Warfarin-Aspirin Symptomatic Intracranial Disease study. Results Coexisting AIS were detected in 18.9% (n=14/74) of patients undergoing 4-vessel cerebral angiography and 27.3% (n=65/238) of patients undergoing MR angiogram. During a mean follow-up period of 1.8 years, no ischemic strokes were attributable to an AIS on cerebral angiography and 5 ischemic strokes (5.9%, 95% CI: 2.1% to 12.3%) occurred in the AIS territory on MR angiogram (risk at 1