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1

Delocalizzazione produttiva ad effetti territoriali complessi: il caso del Contratto di Programma Tarì Industriale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Territorial Innovation through Productive Delocalization: the Case of the Contratto di Programma Tarì Industriale in Campania - Objectives This article is a synthetic report of a one-year research aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of the CdP signed by \\

Ignazio Vinci

2008-01-01

2

An Artificial Intelligence Approach to Industrial Design Support Un Approccio di Intelligenza Artificiale a Sostegno del Disegno Industriale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Il processo di Disegno Industriale si estende dalle analisi di mercato, dalla concettualizzazione, dalla generazione della forma alla formulazione di previsioni, all'ana- lisi ingegneristica, all'analisi dell'utente ecc. Questo richiede un ampio raggio di conoscen- za del design, e delle tecniche provenienti da discipline diverse. Il supporto al disegno in- dustriale basato sul computer è limitato perchè la maggioranza dei sistemi

Ming Xi Tang

3

Produzione industriale di generatori e kit  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A partire dal giugno 1991, con il recepimento in Italia della Direttiva europea 89\\/343\\/CEE [1], il campo di applicazione della normativa in materia di specialità medicinali è stato esteso anche ai radiofarmaci, ai generatori,\\u000a ai kit e ai precursori radioattivi (radionuclidi utilizzati per la preparazione di sostanze radiomarcate prima della somministrazione).\\u000a In precedenza tali prodotti erano sottoposti a normative diverse

R. Pasqualini; A. Bugatti; E. Raspanti

4

Desinfeccion de efluentes residuales. (Disinfection of sewage).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Laboratory studies at IPEN and SEDAPAL have shown the effectiveness disinfection of sewage by means of ionizing radiations. A dose of 1 Kilo Gray reduces the coliforms and salmonella under the permissible levels. This method should allow to use again the ...

J. Arenas

1984-01-01

5

Cambio tecnológico y productividad de las empresas industriales uruguayas  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este trabajo se presentan las estimaciones de una función de costos translogarítmica en base a un modelo de datos panel para la industria uruguaya para 541 empresas entre 1988-1994. Asimismo se presentan las estimaciones para distintos agrupamientos, por tipo de empresa, mercado y división. Para el promedio de la muestra, el efecto neto de la escala y el cambio

Ruben Tansini; Patricia Triunfo

1998-01-01

6

Il riscaldamento industriale a microonde. (Microwave heating: Industrial applications).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This manual on the industrial use of microwave heating provides information on: the nature and characteristics of microwave heating; legislation governing frequency bands employed; microwave effects on materials; microwave devices and their accessories (m...

G. M. Laneri

1989-01-01

7

UTILIZZO DELLE BIOMASSE NEL RISCALDAMENTO CIVILE ED INDUSTRIALE: ASPETTI ENERGETICI, TECNOLOGICI ED AMBIENTALI  

Microsoft Academic Search

SOMMARIO L'utilizzo delle biomasse a fini energetici è una delle possibili strategie per ridurre le emissioni di CO2 (in ottemperanza a quanto stabilito con il Protocollo di Kyoto) ed un'alternativa alle tradizionali tecnologie per il riscaldamento degli ambienti che occorre valutare attentamente. Vengono qui analizzate le diverse tipologie di biomasse disponibili in commercio, le loro caratteristiche e le diverse tecnologie

R. M. Lazzarin; F. Minchio; M. Noro

8

I nuovi termini della politica industriale europea: alcuni elementi di riflessione  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper analyzes the main features of the New European Industrial Policy. It seems that the major changes are: a) to orientate the bulk of the efforts to build up an attractive site for inflow of foreign investments and technology; b) to keep an horizontal approach to industrial policy, but with focus on pre-determined sectors through tailor-made measures; c) to

Ninni Augusto

2008-01-01

9

LABORATORIO REMOTO PARA LA PROGRAMACIÓN DE ROBOTS INDUSTRIALES ABB EN LENGUAJE RAPID  

Microsoft Academic Search

El aprendizaje efectivo del lenguaje de programación para robots necesita de una constante realización de prácticas. Este trabajo describe la metodología llevada a cabo para conseguir el aprendizaje del lenguaje RAPID. Se ha desarrollado un sistema de aprendizaje para prácticas remotas y presenciales que emplea un robot IRB140 de ABB, un PLC con tarjeta Ethernet y servidor web, una cámara

A. ROSADO; R. SEGURA; G. RUIZ; J. MUÑOZ; R. MAGDALENA

10

Aplicação de adsorção para remover amônia de efluentes suinícolas pré-tratados  

Microsoft Academic Search

+ that remains in effluents from swine facilities which were submitted to physico-chemical and biological treatments. Experiments were made in batch made adding 5% (w\\/w) of adsorbent (0.6-1.3 and 3.0-8.0 mm) to synthetic and real swine facilities effluents. The results show that ammonium removal is influenced by adsorbent particle size and the presence of other ions in the effluent. The

Martha Mayumi Higarashi; Airton Kunz; Rosemari Martini Mattei

2008-01-01

11

GERENCIAMENTO DE EFLUENTES DE ABATEDOUROS AVÍCOLAS ESTUDO DE CASO (SUPER FRANGO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The poultry industry has a very important paper in the economical and social development of an area. In the discount process the water is the m ain natural input used that at the end of the process generates a high effluents flow. Having, th erefore, the need of the adoption of system of treatment of those effluents to reduce the

José Fernandes Júnior; Osmar Mendes

12

ANÁLISIS ESPECTRAL (3D) ELECTROENCEFALOGRÁFICO DE LOS EFECTOS DE LA INHALACIÓN DE COMPUESTOS ORGÁNICOS VOLÁTILES INDUSTRIALES SOBRE EL SUEÑO Y LA ATENCIÓN EN EL HUMANO  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A series of clinical observations have confirmed the presence of drastic alterations on the wake-sleep cycle associated with indus- trial solvent inhalation. The psychotropic effects of these substances embrace a diversity of functions in humans, such as the capacity to attend to, and respond with readiness, to the environmental stimulus; besides it affects the capacity to estimate time. The

Adrián Martínez; Gustavo Luna; José María Calvo; Alejandro Valdés-Cruz; Victor Magdaleno-Madrigal; Rodrigo Fernández-Mas; David Martínez; Augusto Fernández-Guardiola

2002-01-01

13

I-121 - CINÉTICA QUÍMICA E FUNDAMENTOS DOS PROCESSOS DE NITRIFICAÇÃO E DENITRIFICAÇÃO BIOLÓGICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO A demanda crescente dos usos das águas naturais tem gerado necessidades crescentes de processos efetivos no tratamentos de efluentes líquidos, e estratégias de gerenciamento dos recursos naturais. As tecnologias disponíveis para o controle do nitrogênio em efluentes industriais e domésticos têm se tornado uma poderosa ferramenta tanto para a correta disposição de efluentes, como para o gerenciamento das águas.

Eduardo S. Ferreira

14

Parabolic Trough Solar Collector Plant on Polar Mounting for Industrial Thermal Energy Production (Modena - Italy) (Impianto a Collettori Solari Cilindroparabolici con Montaggio Polare per la Produzione di Calore Industriale (Modena - Italia).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The final Report covering the description of the installation and experience gained during experimental operation has been drawn up based upon the work program agreed upon between the EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY and ANSALDO IMPIANTI S.p.A. within the scop...

M. Bisagni

1984-01-01

15

CARACTERIZACIÓN DE LOS RESIDUOS SÓLIDOS DE EFLUENTES DE GRANJAS PORCINAS Y SU UTILIZACIÓN EN VACUNOS DE CEBA EN CONFINAMIENTO Characterization of effluents solid wastes from swine farm and utilization in cattle in feedlots  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to characterize solid wastes of intensive pig production systems, samples were taken from two different separation mechanisms: gravity -GS- (sloping sieve) and mechanical sepa- ration -MS- (rollers or endless screws). The crude protein (17.7 ± 0.67%), NDF (65.9 ± 9.49%) and DM digestibility in situ (37.2 ± 8.76%) are similar to those found in agroindustrial by- products from

Gonzalo Rojas; Álvaro Ojeda

2002-01-01

16

Le contenu en emplois des échanges industriels de la France avec les pays en développement  

Microsoft Academic Search

[spa] El contenido en empleos de los intercambios industriales de Francia con los pais es en desarrollo . Los intercambios industriales de Francia con los paises en desarrollo son excedentarios. Sin embargo presentan todavîa unos interrogantes en cuanto a su impacto macroeconômico, sobre todo en lo que respecta al empleo. Para unos, la existencia y la permanencia de un superâvit

Nathalie Courtot; Hervé Bonnaz; Dominique Nivat

1994-01-01

17

Les secteurs sensibles de l'industrie  

Microsoft Academic Search

[spa] Los sectores vulnerables de la industria - A partir de una clasificación pormenorizada de 600 productos industriales, las actividades industriales fueron clasificadas según sus respectivos comportamientos potenciales en el mercado, estimados a partir de su evolución entre 1970 y 1977. Se retuvo tres tipos de mercado, o sea : favorable, mediano y desfavorable. Al parecer, puede desprenderse de este

Michel Hannoun; Jean-Claude Dutailly

1980-01-01

18

Financial Integration and Interest Rate Linkages in Industrial Countries, 1958-71 (Intégration financière et relations entre les taux d'intérêt des pays industriels, 1958-71) (Integración financiera y relaciones entre los tipos de interés en los países industriales, 1958-71)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on theoretical and policy issues posed by financial integration among industrial countries since the mid-1950s. The problems of measuring international financial integration and of estimating its trend over the years are also explored. The role of the Euro-dollar market, as a major financial intermediary that channels short-term funds between the money markets of the industrial countries, is

Victor Argy; Zoran Hodjera

1973-01-01

19

Oil Price Changes and Real Exchange Rate Movements among Industrial Countries (Variations de prix du pétrole et mouvements du taux de change réel entre les pays industriels) (Las variaciones del precio del petróleo y las del tipo de cambio real de los países industriales)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to analyze quantitatively, in a multicountry framework, the longer-run effects of the oil price increases of the 1970s on the external positions and real exchange rates of the seven major industrial countries. More specifically, the analysis focuses on the changes in countries' competitive positions in the goods market that would be required to eliminate

Anne K. McGuirk

1983-01-01

20

International Transmission of Fiscal Policies in Major Industrial Countries (Transmission sur le plan international des effets des politiques budgétaires des grands pays industrialisés) (Transmisión internacional de la política fiscal de los grandes países industriales)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expansionary fiscal policies in the United States in the early 1980s and contemporaneous fiscal restraint in the Federal Republic of Germany and Japan constituted important shifts in fiscal positions among industrial economies. The international economy was simultaneously characterized by persistently high real interest rates, a rising U.S. current account deficit, increased surpluses in Germany and Japan, and sustained appreciation of

Paul R. Masson; Malcolm Knight

1986-01-01

21

A Model of Inflation and Its Performance in the Seven Main Industrial Countries, 1958-76 (Un modèle d'inflation et son application dans les sept principaux pays industrialisés, 1958-76) (Modelo de inflación y su comportamiento en los siete países industriales principales, 1958-76)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a model of inflation against the background of the recent literature. The model allows for a number of systematic determinants of the inflation process. These determinants include (i) inflationary expectations, (ii) changes in money, as regards their role in expectations, (iii) economic activity, represented alternatively by the level of the output gap and the change in real

1978-01-01

22

Frecuencia de Listeria monocytogenes en muestras de tomates (Lycopersicum esculentum) y cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) frescos en tres supermercados de Valencia. Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN. Se determinó la frecuencia de L. monocytogenes en tomates y cilantro, de tres diferentes supermercados, ubicados en el Municipio Valencia, Estado Carabobo, durante ocho semanas. Se evaluaron 192 muestras: 96 de tomates y 96 de cilantro. Procesa- miento y análisis microbiológico, según Normas Industriales COVENIN 3718:2001. Paquete estadístico SPSS versión 12.0. Se aplicó prueba de Kolmogorov Smirnov, test de

Luis Guillermo; Ramírez Mérida; Alba Morón de Salim; Ana Yudith; Alfieri Graterol; Orlando Gamboa

23

ANALISI TERMO-MECCANICA CON TECNICHE COMBINATE STRUTTURALI E CFD DEL COMPORTAMENTO DI UN FANALE AUTOVEICOLISTICO IN CONDIZIONI DI PROVA E DI UTILIZZO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sommario Il lavoro si occupa della definizione di una metodologia completa per l'analisi termo-meccanica di componenti ottici per autoveicoli, prendendo le mosse da un problema industriale di criticità nel superamento di test previsti da normativa su fanali di \\

F. Cimolin; A. Menotti; M. Rabito; R. Vadori

24

L’incidence du recours à l’intérim sur la mesure de la productivité du travail des branches industrielles ; suivi d'un commentaire de Ferhat Mihoubi  

Microsoft Academic Search

[spa] La incidencia del recurso al trabajo temporario sobre la medición de la productividad laboral de las ramas industriales . . En la contabilidad nacional, se reparten las plantillas según las ramas de la actividad en la que son asalariadas. Por tanto, los interinos, asalariados de empresas de trabajo temporario, se registran en la rama correspondiente. La productividad aparente del

Lucie Gonzalez; Ferhat Mihoubi

2002-01-01

25

La croissance de la productivité du travail dans l'industrie s'est accélérée dès 1967  

Microsoft Academic Search

[spa] El crecimiento de la productividad del trabajo en la industria se ha ido accelerando desde 1967. La curba de la productividad aparente del trabajo, producto del valor anadido de las ramas industriales con el numero de horas trabajadas, que iba progresando habitualmente con regularidad, reveló en 1967 una neta acceleración. Tras haber descrito el fenómeno y haberlo confron-tado con

Jean-François Ponsot; Christian Sautter; Jacques Mairesse

1970-01-01

26

INFLUENCIA DE LA MICROESTRUCTURA Y DE LOS ESTADOS TRIAXIALES DE TENSIONES EN FENÓMENOS DE FISURACIÓN INDUCIDA POR AMBIENTE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen. La Fisuración Inducida por Hidrógeno (FIH), es uno de los fenómenos de corrosión bajo tensión más habitual en aquellas aplicaciones industriales que se encuentran en contacto con este elemento químico, como sucede en oleoductos, gasoductos, reactores de hydrotreating, etc. Existen numerosos estudios referentes al transporte y acumulación de hidrógeno en el metal, así como a la variación de propiedades

A. Cayón; J. A. Álvarez; F. Gutiérrez-Solana

2003-01-01

27

L'utilisation des capacités de production dans l'industrie  

Microsoft Academic Search

[spa] Utilizacion de la capacidad de producción en la industria por Alain SAGLIO et Bernard TABUTEAU . Los industriales son encuestados tres veces al ano acerca de la utilizacion de su capacidad de producción.. Las preguntas son pocas y sencillas a fin de que el jefe de la empresa encuestada pueda contestar con rapidez. El cuestionario consta de dos partes

Alain Saglio; Bernard Tabuteau

1971-01-01

28

Influenza delle politiche pubbliche sulle strategie logistiche di impresa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lo sviluppo delle attività di trasporto, distribuzione e logistica avuto in Europa nel corso degli ultimi venti anni risulta strettamente connesso con lo sviluppo economico ed industriale e, in un secondo momento, con i processi di globalizzazione. Si amplia quindi il campo di riferimento della logistica che esce dai singoli confini nazionali e necessita di nuovi modelli gestionali e di

Claudia Burlando; Manuela Basta

2004-01-01

29

Historia de una quimera. La industria algodonera en Castilla la Vieja, 1846-1913  

Microsoft Academic Search

En 1860 Valladolid albergaba el mayor distrito algodonero del centro de España. Transcurridas cuatro décadas, todas sus fábricas había sido ya clausuradas. El presente trabajo analiza las razones de este fracaso. Dado que los productos castellanos no podían competir con los catalanes debido al coste de la energía, los industriales de Valladolid y Santander tuvieron que refugiarse en el mercado

Javier Moreno Lázaro

2003-01-01

30

L'occhio secco  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Il termine disidratazione è oggi comunemente utilizzato, non solo per indicare le ben note situazioni carenziali di cibo e\\u000a acqua, veri e propri flagelli del mondo in via di sviluppo, ma anche nell'ambito di civiltà e insediamenti ad alto tenore\\u000a industriale e tecnologico.

Massimo Ferrari

31

L'informatisation de l'« ancienne » économie : nouvelles machines, nouvelles organisations et nouveaux travailleurs  

Microsoft Academic Search

[spa] En 1997, todas las empresas industriales de más de 50 asalariados usan la informática, al menos en sus actividades de gestión. Este uso se diferencia por la intensidad del recurso a estas tecnologías, por la articulación de las configuraciones de aparatos en torno a un sistema central o, al contrario, a una red de microordenadores y por el papel

Michel Gollac; Nathalie Greenan; Sylvie Hamon-Cholet

2000-01-01

32

Radiografía del sector servicios en España  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pesar de la enorme y creciente importancia de las ramas de actividad de servicios en las economías desarrolladas, hasta fechas recientes los recursos destinados a su análisis han sido muy inferiores a los dirigidos a las ramas industriales. Las mejoras en lo que se refiere a la disponibilidad de información, que anteriormente era muy limitada, permiten abordar el análisis

Esther Gordo; Javier Jareño; Alberto Urtasun

2006-01-01

33

Sistema de tratamiento y disposicion final de los residuos urbanos en la Region Metropolitana de Salvador, Bahía  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este artículo trata de las innovaciones tecnicas en el tratamiento de los residuos industriales en la región metropolitana de Salvador y las principales medidas adoptadas para una gestión ambiental de la petroquímica en Bahia, Brasil. La adopción de procedimientos y criterios en conformidad con las normativas internacionales añade una nueva dimensión en la gestión del espacio regional.

Hilda Maria de Carvalho Braga

2007-01-01

34

Flow system for pre-concentration and spectrophotometric determination of reactive mercury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Um novo sistema em fluxo é apresentado com a finalidade de pré-concentrar e determinar o mercúrio reativo em efluentes. O sistema é baseado na redução do mercúrio reativo presente em 500 mL de amostra com uma solução de Sn(II). O mercúrio reduzido é arrastado por uma corrente de argônio que passa por um tubo de vidro (comprimento de 60 cm,

Fernando S. Yonehara; Celio Pasquini; Jarbas J. R. Rohwedder

2005-01-01

35

Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal mediation of grass response to acidic and heavy metal depositions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The perennial bunchgrassEhrharta calycina was grown with and without V.A.M. fungal infection (Glomus fasciculatum) in a sandy loam exposed to a range of acidic and heavy metal depositions. Heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Fe, and Co) were applied in simulated rain (pH 3.0, 4.0, and 5.6) at deposition rates approximating those observed to result from smelter efluents. Metal

K. Killham; M. K. Firestone

1983-01-01

36

Developing an ethical code for engineers: the discursive approach.  

PubMed

From the Hippocratic Oath on, deontological codes and other professional self-regulation mechanisms have been used to legitimize and identify professional groups. New technological challenges and, above all, changes in the socioeconomic environment require adaptable codes which can respond to new demands. We assume that ethical codes for professionals should not simply focus on regulative functions, but must also consider ideological and educative functions. Any adaptations should take into account both contents (values, norms and recommendations) and the drafting process itself. In this article we propose a process for developing a professional ethical code for an official professional association (Colegio Oficial de Ingenieros Industriales de Valencia (COIIV) starting from the philosophical assumptions of discursive ethics but adapting them to critical hermeneutics. Our proposal is based on the Integrity Approach rather than the Compliance Approach. A process aiming to achieve an effective ethical document that fulfils regulative and ideological functions requires a participative, dialogical and reflexive methodology. This process must respond to moral exigencies and demands for efficiency and professional effectiveness. In addition to the methodological proposal we present our experience of producing an ethical code for the industrial engineers' association in Valencia (Spain) where this methodology was applied, and we evaluate the detected problems and future potential. PMID:16609712

Lozano, J Félix

2006-04-01

37

Downstream of downtown: urban wastewater as groundwater recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wastewater infiltration is often a major component of overall recharge to aquifers around urban areas, especially in more arid climates. Despite this, such recharge still represents only an incidental (or even accidental) byproduct of various current practices of sewage effluent handling and wastewater reuse. This topic is reviewed through reference to certain areas of detailed field research, with pragmatic approaches being identified to reduce the groundwater pollution hazard of these practices whilst attempting to retain their groundwater resource benefit. Since urban sewage effluent is probably the only `natural resource' whose global availability is steadily increasing, the socioeconomic importance of this topic for rapidly developing urban centres in the more arid parts of Asia, Africa, Latin America and the Middle East will be apparent. L'infiltration des eaux usées est souvent la composante essentielle de toute la recharge des aquifères des zones urbaines, particulièrement sous les climats les plus arides. Malgré cela, une telle recharge ne constitue encore qu'un sous-produit incident, ou même accidentel, de pratiques courantes variées du traitement de rejets d'égouts et de réutilisation d'eaux usées. Ce sujet est passé en revue en se référant à certaines régions étudiées en détail, par des approches pragmatiques reconnues pour permettre de réduire les risques de pollution des nappes dues à ces pratiques tout en permettant d'en tirer profit pour leur ressource en eau souterraine. Puisque les effluents d'égouts urbains sont probablement la seule « ressource naturelle » dont la disponibilité globale va croissant constamment, l'importance socio-économique de ce sujet est évidente pour les centres urbains à développement rapide de l'Asie, de l'Afrique, de l'Amérique latine et du Moyen-Orient. La infiltración de aguas residuales es a menudo un componente principal de la recarga total en acuíferos ubicados en torno a zonas urbanas, especialmente en los climas más áridos. A pesar de ello, dicho componente todavía es una consecuencia secundaria (o incluso accidental) de diversas prácticas asociadas con la manipulación de las aguas residuales y con la reutilitzación de aguas depuradas. Este tema se revisa mediante referencias a ciertas áreas en las que existen investigación detallada de campo, identificando enfoques pragmáticos con el fin de reducir el riesgo de contaminación de las aguas subterráneas por tales prácticas, a la vez tratando de conservar los beneficios para los recursos del acuífero. Dado que los efluentes de aguas residuales urbanas son probablemente la única `fuente natural' cuya disponibilidad global se halla en del aumento, la importancia socioeconómica de este tema será evidente para los centros urbanos de rápido desarrollo en Asia, Latinoamérica y Oriente Medio.

Foster, S. S. D.; Chilton, P. J.

38

Beam-plasma dielectric tensor with Mathematica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a Mathematica notebook allowing for the symbolic calculation of the 3×3 dielectric tensor of an electron-beam plasma system in the fluid approximation. Calculation is detailed for a cold relativistic electron beam entering a cold magnetized plasma, and for arbitrarily oriented wave vectors. We show how one can elaborate on this example to account for temperatures, arbitrarily oriented magnetic field or a different kind of plasma. Program summaryTitle of program: Tensor Catalog identifier: ADYT_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADYT_v1_0 Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer for which the program is designed and others on which it has been tested: Computers: Any computer running Mathematica 4.1. Tested on DELL Dimension 5100 and IBM ThinkPad T42. Installations: ETSI Industriales, Universidad Castilla la Mancha, Ciudad Real, Spain Operating system under which the program has been tested: Windows XP Pro Programming language used: Mathematica 4.1 Memory required to execute with typical data: 7.17 Mbytes No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 33 439 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3169 Distribution format: tar.gz Nature of the physical problem: The dielectric tensor of a relativistic beam plasma system may be quite involved to calculate symbolically when considering a magnetized plasma, kinetic pressure, collisions between species, and so on. The present Mathematica notebook performs the symbolic computation in terms of some usual dimensionless variables. Method of solution: The linearized relativistic fluid equations are directly entered and solved by Mathematica to express the first-order expression of the current. This expression is then introduced into a combination of Faraday and Ampère-Maxwell's equations to give the dielectric tensor. Some additional manipulations are needed to express the result in terms of the dimensionless variables. Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Temperature effects are limited to small, i.e. non-relativistic, temperatures. The kinetic counterpart of the present Mathematica will usually not compute the required integrals. Typical running time: About 1 minute on a Intel Centrino 1.5 GHz Laptop with 512 MB of RAM. Unusual features of the program: None.

Bret, A.

2007-03-01

39

Urbanization and the groundwater budget, metropolitan Seoul area, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The city of Seoul is home to more than 10 million people in an area of 605 km2. Groundwater is ed for public water supply and industrial use, and to drain underground facilities and construction sites. Though most tap water is supplied from the Han River, the quantity and quality of groundwater is of great concern to Seoul's citizens, because the use of groundwater for drinking water is continuously increasing. This study identifies the major factors affecting the urban water budget and quality of groundwater in the Seoul area and estimates the urban water budget. These factors include leakage from the municipal water-supply system and sewer systems, precipitation infiltration, water-level fluctuations of the Han River, the subway pumping system, and domestic pumping. The balance between groundwater recharge and discharge is near equilibrium. However, the quality of groundwater and ability to control contaminant fluxes are impeded by sewage infiltration, abandoned landfills, waste dumps, and abandoned wells. Résumé. La ville de Séoul possède une population de plus de 10 millions d'habitants, pour une superficie de 605 km2. Les eaux souterraines sont pompées pour l'eau potable et pour les usages industriels, ainsi que pour drainer les équipements souterrains et les sites en construction. Bien que l'essentiel de l'eau potable provienne de la rivière Han, la quantité et la qualité de l'eau souterraine présentent un grand intérêt pour les habitants de Séoul, parce qu'on utilise de plus en plus l'eau souterraine pour l'eau potable. Cette étude identifie les facteurs principaux qui affectent la qualité de l'eau souterraine dans la région de Séoul et fait l'estimation du bilan d'eau urbaine. Les principaux facteurs affectant le bilan d'eau urbaine et la qualité de l'eau souterraine sont les fuites du réseau d'adduction et du réseau d'égouts, l'infiltration des eaux de précipitation, les fluctuations du niveau de la rivière Han, le réseau de pompage du métro et les pompages privés. Le bilan entre la recharge de la nappe et sa décharge est proche de l'équilibre. Cependant, les infiltrations d'eaux usées, les décharges abandonnées, les décharges d'ordures et les puits abandonnés portent atteinte à la qualité de l'eau souterraine et à la capacité de contrôler les flux de contaminants. Resumen. La ciudad de Seúl tiene más de 10 millones de habitantes en un área de 605 km2. Se bombea aguas subterráneas para abastecimiento urbano y para usos industriales, así como para el drenaje de instalaciones subterráneas y de solares en construcción. Aunque la mayor parte del agua de boca procede del río Han, los ciudadanos de Seúl están muy concienciados por la cantidad y calidad de las aguas subterráneas, ya que su explotación para uso de boca está experimentando un continuo incremento. El presente estudio identifica los factores que más afectan a la calidad de las aguas subterráneas en el área de Seúl y hace una estimación del balance de agua en el territorio urbano. Entre los factores principales que afectan al balance y a la calidad de las aguas subterráneas, se incluye el lixiviado de la red municipal de suministro y de la red de alcantarillado, la infiltración de agua de lluvia, las fluctuaciones del nivel del río Han, el sistema de bombeo del metro y los bombeos domésticos. El balance entre la recarga y la descarga en el acuífero está próximo al equilibrio. Sin embargo, la calidad de las aguas subterráneas y la capacidad de controlar los flujos de contaminación están amenazadas por la infiltración de aguas residuales, vertederos abandonados, depósitos de residuos y pozos abanadonados.

Kim, Yoon-Young; Lee, Kang-Kun; Sung, Ig Hwan

2001-07-01

40

Three-dimensional mathematical model to simulate groundwater flow in the lower Palar River basin, southern India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-dimensional mathematical model to simulate regional groundwater flow was used in the lower Palar River basin, in southern India. The study area is characterised by heavy ion of groundwater for agricultural, industrial and drinking water supplies. There are three major pumping stations on the riverbed apart from a number of wells distributed over the area. The model simulates groundwater flow over an area of about 392 km2 with 70 rows, 40 columns, and two layers. The model simulated a transient-state condition for the period 1991-2001. The model was calibrated for steady- and transient-state conditions. There was a reasonable match between the computed and observed heads. The transient model was run until the year 2010 to forecast groundwater flow under various scenarios of overpumping and less recharge. Based on the modelling results, it is shown that the aquifer system is stable at the present rate of pumping, excepting for a few locations along the coast where the groundwater head drops from 0.4 to 1.81 m below sea level during the dry seasons. Further, there was a decline in the groundwater head by 0.9 to 2.4 m below sea level in the eastern part of the area when the aquifer system was subjected to an additional groundwater withdrawal of 2 million gallons per day (MGD) at a major pumping station. Les modèles mathématiques en trois dimensions de l'écoulement souterrain régional sont très utiles pour la gestion des ressources en eau souterraine, car ils permettent une évaluation des composantes des processus hydrologiques et fournissent une description physique de l'écoulement de l'eau dans un aquifère. Une telle modélisation a été entreprise sur une partie du bassin inférieur de la rivière Palar, dans le sud de l'Inde. La zone d'étude est caractérisée par des prélèvements importants d'eau souterraine pour l'agriculture, l'industrie et l'eau potable. Il existe trois grandes stations de pompage sur la rivière en plus d'un certain nombre de puits répartis dans cette région. Le modèle simule l'écoulement souterrain dans une région d'environ 392 km2 avec 70 rangs, 40 colonnes et deux couches. Le modèle a fonctionné en régime transitoire en utilisant une approximation aux différences finies d'une équation différentielle partielle en trois dimensions de l'écoulement souterrain dans cet aquifère pour la période 1991-2001. Le modèle a été calibré pour des conditions de régime permanent et transitoire. Les charges hydrauliques calculées étaient en bon accord avec celles observées. Sur la base des résultats du modèle, il est apparu que le système aquifère est stable pour ce taux de pompage, excepté en quelques sites le long de la côte où l'eau marine a pénétré 50-100 m dans les terres. Le modèle transitoire a tourné jusqu'en 2010 afin de prévoir l'écoulement souterrain dynamique pour différents scénarios de pompage excessif et de recharge réduite. Il se produit un abaissement de la piézométrie de la nappe de 0.6 à 0.8 m dans la partie orientale, alors que l'aquifère est soumis à un prélèvement supplémentaire de 8,000 m3/jour à l'une des stations principales de pompage. Même avec le niveau actuel de pompage, la piézométrie de la nappe descendrait sous le niveau de la mer au cours des saisons sèches. Le modèle prédit le fonctionnement du système aquifère sous différentes conditions de stress hydrologique. Los modelos tridimensionales de flujo de aguas subterráneas son útiles para gestionar los recursos hídricos subterráneos, ya que proporcionan una aproximación a los diversos procesos hidrológicos y una descripción cuantitativa del flujo de agua en el acuífero. Se ha desarrollado un estudio de modelación de este tipo en una parte de la cuenca baja del río Palar, en el Sur de la India. Esta zona se caracteriza por las intensas extracciones de aguas subterráneas para usos agrícolas, industriales y domésticos. Hay tres estaciones de bombeo principales en el río, además de numerosos pozos distribuidos por la zona. El modelo simula el fluj

Senthilkumar, M.; Elango, L.

41

ESO Council Visits First VLT Unit Telescope Structure in Milan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) rapidly takes on shape, Europe has just come one step closer to the realisation of its 556 million DEM astronomical showcase project. Last week, the ESO Council held its semi-annual meeting in Milan (Italy) [1]. During a break in the long agenda list, Council members had the opportunity to visit the Ansaldo factory in the outskirts of this city and to see for the first time the assembled mechanical structure of one of the four 8.2-metre VLT Unit telescopes. This Press Release is accompanied by a photo that shows the ESO Council delegates in front of the giant telescope. After a long climb up the steep staircase to the large Nasmyth platform at the side of the telescope where the astronomical instruments will later be placed, Dr. Peter Creola (Switzerland) , President of the ESO Council and a mechanics expert, grabbed the handrail and surveyed the structure with a professional eye: `I knew it was going to be big, but not that enormous!', he said. Other delegates experienced similar feelings, especially when they watched the 430 tonnes of steel in the 24-metre tall and squat structure turn smoothly and silently around the vertical axis. The Chairman of the ESO Scientific Technical Committee (STC), Dr. Johannes Andersen (Denmark) , summarized his first, close encounter with the VLT by `This is great fun!' and several of his colleague astronomers were soon seen in various corners of the vast structure, engaged in elated discussions about the first scientific investigations to be done with the VLT in two years' time. The VLT Main Structures The visit by Council took place at the invitation of Ansaldo Energia S.p.A. (Genova), EIE-European Industrial Engineering S.r.I. (Venice) and SOIMI-Societa Impianti Industriale S.p.A. (Milan), the three Italian enterprises responsible for the construction of the main structures of the VLT 8.2-metre Unit telescopes. Short speeches were given on this occasion by Drs. Ferruccio Bressani (Ansaldo), Luigi Guiffrida (SOIMI), Gianpietro Marchiori (EIE) and Prof. Massimo Tarenghi (ESO), describing the very successful implementation of this major VLT contract that was awarded by ESO in September 1991 [2]. All speakers praised the good collaboration between ESO and its industrial partners and Prof. Riccardo Giacconi , Director General of ESO, expressed his satisfaction `with the splendid performance of the ESO-Industry team which was bringing us close to the realisation of the premier telescope array in optical ground-based astronomy in the world'. The participants were also pleased to listen to several of the Italian engineers present who commented on the very positive experience of being personally involved in the world's largest telescope project. The VLT telescope structures incorporate many new technological concepts. Thanks to these and careful planning of the many components and their integration, it has been possible to achieve, among others, light weight construction, high mechanical stiffness, good thermal equilibrium with the ambient air (of importance for the seeing during the observations), low electromagnetic emissitivity (i.e. low interference with the sensitive astronomical instruments) and easy maintainability. Of particular interest is also the giant, direct drive system with a diameter of 9 metres and the sophisticated, innovative laser encoder system. In this way, there is no direct contact between the moving parts and the friction during the rotation is kept at an absolute minimum. The Next Steps The ESO VLT project is now entering into a decisive phase and the next years will see an increasing number of telescope parts and instruments from the scientific and industrial laboratories of Europe converging towards the VLT observatory at Cerro Paranal in Chile. It is gratifying that, despite its high degree of complexity and incorporation of a substantial number of new technologies, the project is within schedule and budget. There will be several important milestones in 1996. During the next two months, the mounting of the mechanical structure i

1995-12-01