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Sample records for degraded dna samples

  1. Balancing sample accumulation and DNA degradation rates to optimize noninvasive genetic sampling of sympatric carnivores.

    PubMed

    Lonsinger, Robert C; Gese, Eric M; Dempsey, Steven J; Kluever, Bryan M; Johnson, Timothy R; Waits, Lisette P

    2015-07-01

    Noninvasive genetic sampling, or noninvasive DNA sampling (NDS), can be an effective monitoring approach for elusive, wide-ranging species at low densities. However, few studies have attempted to maximize sampling efficiency. We present a model for combining sample accumulation and DNA degradation to identify the most efficient (i.e. minimal cost per successful sample) NDS temporal design for capture-recapture analyses. We use scat accumulation and faecal DNA degradation rates for two sympatric carnivores, kit fox (Vulpes macrotis) and coyote (Canis latrans) across two seasons (summer and winter) in Utah, USA, to demonstrate implementation of this approach. We estimated scat accumulation rates by clearing and surveying transects for scats. We evaluated mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear (nDNA) DNA amplification success for faecal DNA samples under natural field conditions for 20 fresh scats/species/season from <1-112 days. Mean accumulation rates were nearly three times greater for coyotes (0.076 scats/km/day) than foxes (0.029 scats/km/day) across seasons. Across species and seasons, mtDNA amplification success was ?95% through day 21. Fox nDNA amplification success was ?70% through day 21 across seasons. Coyote nDNA success was ?70% through day 21 in winter, but declined to <50% by day 7 in summer. We identified a common temporal sampling frame of approximately 14 days that allowed species to be monitored simultaneously, further reducing time, survey effort and costs. Our results suggest that when conducting repeated surveys for capture-recapture analyses, overall cost-efficiency for NDS may be improved with a temporal design that balances field and laboratory costs along with deposition and degradation rates. PMID:25454561

  2. An enzyme-based DNA preparation method for application to forensic biological samples and degraded stains.

    PubMed

    Lounsbury, Jenny A; Coult, Natalie; Miranian, Daniel C; Cronk, Stephen M; Haverstick, Doris M; Kinnon, Paul; Saul, David J; Landers, James P

    2012-09-01

    Extraction of DNA from forensic samples typically uses either an organic extraction protocol or solid phase extraction (SPE) and these methods generally involve numerous sample transfer, wash and centrifugation steps. Although SPE has been successfully adapted to the microdevice, it can be problematic because of lengthy load times and uneven packing of the solid phase. A closed-tube enzyme-based DNA preparation method has recently been developed which uses a neutral proteinase to lyse cells and degrade proteins and nucleases [14]. Following a 20 min incubation of the buccal or whole blood sample with this proteinase, DNA is polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-ready. This paper describes the optimization and quantitation of DNA yield using this method, and application to forensic biological samples, including UV- and heat-degraded whole blood samples on cotton or blue denim substrates. Results demonstrate that DNA yield can be increased from 1.42 (±0.21)ng/μL to 7.78 (±1.40)ng/μL by increasing the quantity of enzyme per reaction by 3-fold. Additionally, there is a linear relationship between the amount of starting cellular material added and the concentration of DNA in the solution, thereby allowing DNA yield estimations to be made. In addition, short tandem repeat (STR) profile results obtained using DNA prepared with the enzyme method were comparable to those obtained with a conventional SPE method, resulting in full STR profiles (16 of 16 loci) from liquid samples (buccal swab eluate and whole blood), dried buccal swabs and bloodstains and partial profiles from UV or heat-degraded bloodstains on cotton or blue denim substrates. Finally, the DNA preparation method is shown to be adaptable to glass or poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microdevices with little impact on STR peak height but providing a 20-fold reduction in incubation time (as little as 60 s), leading to a ≥1 h reduction in DNA preparation time. PMID:22459950

  3. DNA Degradation Test Predicts Success in Whole-Genome Amplification from Diverse Clinical Samples

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fengfei; Wang, Lilin; Briggs, Christine; Sicinska, Ewa; Gaston, Sandra M.; Mamon, Harvey; Kulke, Matthew H.; Zamponi, Raffaella; Loda, Massimo; Maher, Elizabeth; Ogino, Shuji; Fuchs, Charles S.; Li, Jin; Hader, Carlos; Makrigiorgos, G. Mike

    2007-01-01

    The need to apply modern technologies to analyze DNA from diverse clinical samples often stumbles on suboptimal sample quality. We developed a simple approach to assess DNA fragmentation in minute clinical samples of widely different origin and the likelihood of success of degradation-tolerant whole genome amplification (restriction and circularization-aided rolling circle amplification, RCA-RCA) and subsequent polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A multiplex PCR amplification of four glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase amplicons of varying sizes was performed using genomic DNA from clinical samples, followed by size discrimination on agarose gel or fluorescent denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (dHPLC). RCA-RCA followed by real-time PCR was also performed, for correlation. Even minimal quantities of longer PCR fragments (∼300 to 400 bp), visible via high-sensitivity fluorescent dHPLC or agarose gel, were essential for the success of RCA-RCA and subsequent PCR-based assays. dHPLC gave a more accurate correlation between DNA fragmentation and sample quality than agarose gel electrophoresis. Multiplex-PCR-dHPLC predicted correctly the likelihood of assay success in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples fixed under controlled conditions and of different ages, in laser capture microdissection samples, in tissue print micropeels, and plasma-circulating DNA. Estimates of the percent information retained relative to snap-frozen DNA are derived for real-time PCR analysis. The assay is rapid and convenient and can be used widely to characterize DNA from any clinical sample of unknown quality. PMID:17690213

  4. Thermal degradation of DNA.

    PubMed

    Karni, Moshe; Zidon, Dolev; Polak, Pazit; Zalevsky, Zeev; Shefi, Orit

    2013-06-01

    In this article, we investigate the thermal degradation of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). We find that under dry conditions, complete DNA degradation occurs at above 190C. In addition, as the boiling temperature of water is pressure dependent, we have investigated the thermal degradation of the DNA in water for different applied partial pressures. This information is important for fundamental understanding of DNA structure and energetics, and can be useful for biomedical applications such as thermal targeting of DNA in cancer cells, as well as for basic research. PMID:23621849

  5. Sequencing degraded DNA from non-destructively sampled museum specimens for RAD-tagging and low-coverage shotgun phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Tin, Mandy Man-Ying; Economo, Evan Philip; Mikheyev, Alexander Sergeyevich

    2014-01-01

    Ancient and archival DNA samples are valuable resources for the study of diverse historical processes. In particular, museum specimens provide access to biotas distant in time and space, and can provide insights into ecological and evolutionary changes over time. However, archival specimens are difficult to handle; they are often fragile and irreplaceable, and typically contain only short segments of denatured DNA. Here we present a set of tools for processing such samples for state-of-the-art genetic analysis. First, we report a protocol for minimally destructive DNA extraction of insect museum specimens, which produced sequenceable DNA from all of the samples assayed. The 11 specimens analyzed had fragmented DNA, rarely exceeding 100 bp in length, and could not be amplified by conventional PCR targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene. Our approach made these samples amenable to analysis with commonly used next-generation sequencing-based molecular analytic tools, including RAD-tagging and shotgun genome re-sequencing. First, we used museum ant specimens from three species, each with its own reference genome, for RAD-tag mapping. Were able to use the degraded DNA sequences, which were sequenced in full, to identify duplicate reads and filter them prior to base calling. Second, we re-sequenced six Hawaiian Drosophila species, with millions of years of divergence, but with only a single available reference genome. Despite a shallow coverage of 0.37 0.42 per base, we could recover a sufficient number of overlapping SNPs to fully resolve the species tree, which was consistent with earlier karyotypic studies, and previous molecular studies, at least in the regions of the tree that these studies could resolve. Although developed for use with degraded DNA, all of these techniques are readily applicable to more recent tissue, and are suitable for liquid handling automation. PMID:24828244

  6. Evaluating the interaction of faecal pellet deposition rates and DNA degradation rates to optimize sampling design for DNA-based mark-recapture analysis of Sonoran pronghorn.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, S P; Johnson, T R; Waits, L P

    2015-07-01

    Knowledge of population demographics is important for species management but can be challenging in low-density, wide-ranging species. Population monitoring of the endangered Sonoran pronghorn (Antilocapra americana sonoriensis) is critical for assessing the success of recovery efforts, and noninvasive DNA sampling (NDS) could be more cost-effective and less intrusive than traditional methods. We evaluated faecal pellet deposition rates and faecal DNA degradation rates to maximize sampling efficiency for DNA-based mark-recapture analyses. Deposition data were collected at five watering holes using sampling intervals of 1-7 days and averaged one pellet pile per pronghorn per day. To evaluate nuclear DNA (nDNA) degradation, 20 faecal samples were exposed to local environmental conditions and sampled at eight time points from one to 124 days. Average amplification success rates for six nDNA microsatellite loci were 81% for samples on day one, 63% by day seven, 2% by day 14 and 0% by day 60. We evaluated the efficiency of different sampling intervals (1-10 days) by estimating the number of successful samples, success rate of individual identification and laboratory costs per successful sample. Cost per successful sample increased and success and efficiency declined as the sampling interval increased. Results indicate NDS of faecal pellets is a feasible method for individual identification, population estimation and demographic monitoring of Sonoran pronghorn. We recommend collecting samples >7 days old and estimate that a sampling interval of 4-7 days in summer conditions (i.e. extreme heat and exposure to UV light) will achieve desired sample sizes for mark-recapture analysis while also maximizing efficiency. PMID:25522240

  7. Ultrasonic degradation of DNA.

    PubMed

    Elsner, H I; Lindblad, E B

    1989-12-01

    Different results are obtained when DNA in aqueous solution and DNA in biological tissue are exposed to ultrasound. At intensities of ultrasound comparable to those applied clinically, ultrasonication is able to degrade purified DNA in aqueous solution, making ultrasonication a useful tool for preparing DNA fragments in vitro. Ultrasonic degradation of DNA in solution occurs by breaking hydrogen bonds and by single-strand and double-strand ruptures of the DNA helix. Two mechanisms are mainly responsible: cavitation and a thermal or mechanical effect. Stable cavitation is seen at low intensities of ultrasound. Increasing the intensity of the ultrasound above 2 W/cm2 is followed by increases in single-strand ruptures due to the creation of free radicals by transient cavitation. Following sonication, the distribution of the resulting DNA fragments approaches a lower size limit of 100-500 bp. Breaks in the DNA helix occur mainly between oxygen and carbon atoms, resulting in DNA fragments with a phosphorylated 5' end and a free alcohol at the 3' end. The relative lack of specificity in degrading the DNA helix makes ultrasonication a complementary alternative to the highly specific fragmentation obtained by restriction endonucleases. PMID:2693020

  8. Environmental DNA Samples

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Samples from various aquatic species and other material necessary to create environemntal DNA (eDNA) assays are stored at the Snake River Field Station in Boise. Water samples from aquatic ecosystems are compared against the assays to identify the presence and location of species in those ecosy...

  9. Environmental DNA Samples

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Samples collected form coho salmon that will be used to develop environmental DNA (eDNA) assays for the species. Water samples from aquatic ecosystems are compared against the assays to identify the presence and location of species in those ecosystems....

  10. Bobcat DNA Sample

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Stephanie Tucker, Research Associate at Iowa State University, looks on as Grad student Dawn Reding takes a DNA sample from a sedated bobcat. The bobcat, captured in Monroe County, IA, was also fitted with a radio-collar, allowing researchers to track its movements....

  11. Preparation of degraded human DNA under controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    Bender, Klaus; Farfán, María José; Schneider, Peter M

    2004-01-28

    DNA typing through analysis of short tandem repeats (STRs) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) by means of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing are the common methods for the forensic identification of persons and reconstruction of kinship, especially when skeletal human remains have to be analyzed. Furthermore, samples typically found at crime scenes may be both quantitatively and qualitatively inadequate since they may contain very scarce and often degraded DNA due to exposure to heat, light, humidity, and microorganisms. In order to improve the performance of STR typing technology in those cases where DNA availability is limited, it would be desirable to have a source of degraded DNA with known properties. For this purpose, we have developed a method to prepare artificially degraded DNA under controlled conditions. By treatment of genomic DNA with sonication and DNAse I we have produced DNA fragments within a defined range of lengths. STR typing of this degraded DNA with a commercially available multiplex kit could only produce partial profiles as indicated by the absence of STR alleles with sizes >200 bp. This artificially degraded DNA can be used for the improvement and standardization of STR typing protocols when only highly degraded DNA is available for analysis. PMID:15040906

  12. Development of a SNP set for human identification: A set with high powers of discrimination which yields high genetic information from naturally degraded DNA samples in the Thai population.

    PubMed

    Boonyarit, Hathaichanoke; Mahasirimongkol, Surakameth; Chavalvechakul, Nuttama; Aoki, Masayuki; Amitani, Hanae; Hosono, Naoya; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Kubo, Michiaki; Lertrit, Patcharee

    2014-07-01

    This study describes the development of a SNP typing system for human identification in the Thai population, in particular for extremely degraded DNA samples. A highly informative SNP marker set for forensic identification was identified, and a multiplex PCR-based Invader assay was developed. Fifty-one highly informative autosomal SNP markers and three sex determination SNP markers were amplified in two multiplex PCR reactions and then detected using Invader assay reactions. The average PCR product size was 71 base pairs. The match probability of the 54-SNP marker set in 124 Thai individuals was 1.4810(-21), higher than that of STR typing, suggesting that this 54-SNP marker set is beneficial for forensic identification in the Thai population. The selected SNP marker set was also evaluated in 90 artificially degraded samples, and in 128 naturally degraded DNA samples from real forensic casework which had shown no profiles or incomplete profiles when examined using a commercial STR typing system. A total of 56 degraded samples (44%) achieved the matching probability (PM) equivalent to STR gold standard analysis (successful genotyping of 44 SNP markers) for human identification. These data indicated that our novel 54-SNP marker set provides a very useful and valuable approach for forensic identification in the Thai population, especially in the case of highly to extremely degraded DNA. In summary, we have developed a set of 54 Thai-specific SNPs for human identification which have higher discrimination power than STR genotyping. The PCRs for these 54 SNP markers were successfully combined into two multiplex reactions and detected with an Invader assay. This novel SNP genotyping system also yields high levels of genetic information from naturally degraded samples, even though there are much more difficult to recover than artificially degraded samples. PMID:24747184

  13. Evaluation of degradation in DNA from males with a quantitative gender typing, endpoint PCR multiplex.

    PubMed

    Smith, Byron C; Vandegrift, Emily; Fuller, Valerie Mattimore; Allen, Robert W

    2015-03-01

    Evidentiary samples submitted to a forensic DNA laboratory occasionally yield DNA that is degraded. Samples of intact chromosomal DNA (both nuclear and mitochondrial) were subjected to a heating protocol to induce DNA degradation. The DNAs were then analyzed using a multiplex PCR assay that amplifies targets of low and high molecular weight on the X/Y and mitochondrial chromosomes. If degradation is random, the amplification of larger DNA targets should be more adversely affected by degradation than smaller targets. In nuclear and mitochondrial DNA from a male donor, exhibiting degradation, DNA quantity estimates based upon higher molecular weight amplicons (HMW) are significantly lower than estimates made using low molecular weight (LMW) Q-TAT amplicons. DNA degradation estimated using this approach correlated well with actual fluorescence associated with HMW and LMW STR alleles amplified from the same genomic DNA templates. Q-TAT is thus useful not only as a quantitation tool, but also as an indicator of template degradation. PMID:25537731

  14. Impacts of degraded DNA on restriction enzyme associated DNA sequencing (RADSeq).

    PubMed

    Graham, Carly F; Glenn, Travis C; McArthur, Andrew G; Boreham, Douglas R; Kieran, Troy; Lance, Stacey; Manzon, Richard G; Martino, Jessica A; Pierson, Todd; Rogers, Sean M; Wilson, Joanna Y; Somers, Christopher M

    2015-11-01

    Degraded DNA from suboptimal field sampling is common in molecular ecology. However, its impact on techniques that use restriction site associated next-generation DNA sequencing (RADSeq, GBS) is unknown. We experimentally examined the effects of in situDNA degradation on data generation for a modified double-digest RADSeq approach (3RAD). We generated libraries using genomic DNA serially extracted from the muscle tissue of 8 individual lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) following 0-, 12-, 48- and 96-h incubation at room temperature posteuthanasia. This treatment of the tissue resulted in input DNA that ranged in quality from nearly intact to highly sheared. All samples were sequenced as a multiplexed pool on an Illumina MiSeq. Libraries created from low to moderately degraded DNA (12-48 h) performed well. In contrast, the number of RADtags per individual, number of variable sites, and percentage of identical RADtags retained were all dramatically reduced when libraries were made using highly degraded DNA (96-h group). This reduction in performance was largely due to a significant and unexpected loss of raw reads as a result of poor quality scores. Our findings remained consistent after changes in restriction enzymes, modified fold coverage values (2- to 16-fold), and additional read-length trimming. We conclude that starting DNA quality is an important consideration for RADSeq; however, the approach remains robust until genomic DNA is extensively degraded. PMID:25783180

  15. DNA degradation of genetically modified cottonseed meal during feed processing.

    PubMed

    Guan, Qingfeng; Wang, Xiumin; Teng, Da; Yang, Yalin; Wang, Jianhua

    2013-01-01

    The effects of dry heating, wet heating, and extrusion on the degradation of DNA in cottonseed meal (CSM) were studied using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR approach. Both the sad1 DNA, ranging between 128 and 883 bp in size, and the cry1Ab/c gene, ranging between 183 and 652 bp in size, were detectable in all dry-heated CSM and cottonseed. During wet heating, the sad1 gene (?883 bp) and the cry1Ab/c (?952 bp) gene were thoroughly degraded at 105 and 120 C, respectively. Sizes from 128 to 530 bp for the sad1 gene and sizes from 183 to 652 bp for the cry1Ab/c gene were detected during extrusion at temperatures ranging from 75 to 135 C. Fragments ?883 bp for the sad1 gene and ?952 bp for the cry1Ab/c gene were detected in all of the extruded samples with water content varying between 26 and 34 %. The copy number ratio of cry1Ab/c to sad1 in samples of Bt cottonseed meal decreased rapidly when the temperature increased during the heating process. In conclusion, feed processing markedly degrades the larger DNA fragments of sad1 and cry1Ab/c, with high temperature and water content being the main factors for that degradation. PMID:23188658

  16. New insights from old bones: DNA preservation and degradation in permafrost preserved mammoth remains.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Carsten; Debruyne, Regis; Kuch, Melanie; McNally, Elizabeth; Schwarcz, Henry; Aubrey, Andrew D; Bada, Jeffrey; Poinar, Hendrik

    2009-06-01

    Despite being plagued by heavily degraded DNA in palaeontological remains, most studies addressing the state of DNA degradation have been limited to types of damage which do not pose a hindrance to Taq polymerase during PCR. Application of serial qPCR to the two fractions obtained during extraction (demineralization and protein digest) from six permafrost mammoth bones and one partially degraded modern elephant bone has enabled further insight into the changes which endogenous DNA is subjected to during diagenesis. We show here that both fractions exhibit individual qualities in terms of the prevailing type of DNA (i.e. mitochondrial versus nuclear DNA) as well as the extent of damage, and in addition observed a highly variable ratio of mitochondrial to nuclear DNA among the six mammoth samples. While there is evidence suggesting that mitochondrial DNA is better preserved than nuclear DNA in ancient permafrost samples, we find the initial DNA concentration in the bone tissue to be as relevant for the total accessible mitochondrial DNA as the extent of DNA degradation post-mortem. We also evaluate the general applicability of indirect measures of preservation such as amino-acid racemization, bone crystallinity index and thermal age to these exceptionally well-preserved samples. PMID:19321502

  17. New insights from old bones: DNA preservation and degradation in permafrost preserved mammoth remains

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Carsten; Debruyne, Regis; Kuch, Melanie; McNally, Elizabeth; Schwarcz, Henry; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Bada, Jeffrey; Poinar, Hendrik

    2009-01-01

    Despite being plagued by heavily degraded DNA in palaeontological remains, most studies addressing the state of DNA degradation have been limited to types of damage which do not pose a hindrance to Taq polymerase during PCR. Application of serial qPCR to the two fractions obtained during extraction (demineralization and protein digest) from six permafrost mammoth bones and one partially degraded modern elephant bone has enabled further insight into the changes which endogenous DNA is subjected to during diagenesis. We show here that both fractions exhibit individual qualities in terms of the prevailing type of DNA (i.e. mitochondrial versus nuclear DNA) as well as the extent of damage, and in addition observed a highly variable ratio of mitochondrial to nuclear DNA among the six mammoth samples. While there is evidence suggesting that mitochondrial DNA is better preserved than nuclear DNA in ancient permafrost samples, we find the initial DNA concentration in the bone tissue to be as relevant for the total accessible mitochondrial DNA as the extent of DNA degradation post-mortem. We also evaluate the general applicability of indirect measures of preservation such as amino-acid racemization, bone crystallinity index and thermal age to these exceptionally well-preserved samples. PMID:19321502

  18. Evaluating Ethanol-based Sample Preservation to Facilitate Use of DNA Barcoding in Routine Freshwater Biomonitoring Programs Using Benthic Macroinvertebrates

    EPA Science Inventory

    Molecular methods, such as DNA barcoding, have the potential in enhance biomonitoring programs worldwide. Altering routinely used sample preservation methods to protect DNA from degradation may pose a potential impediment to application of DNA barcoding and metagenomics for biom...

  19. APPLICATION OF DNA-DNA COLONY HYBRIDIZATION TO THE DETECTION OF CATABOLIC GENOTYPES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The application of preexisting DNA hybridization techniques was investigated for potential in determining populations of specific gene sequences in environmental samples. Cross-hybridizations among two degradative plasmids, TOL and NAH, and two cloning vehicles, pLAFRI and RSF101...

  20. DNA Qualification Workflow for Next Generation Sequencing of Histopathological Samples

    PubMed Central

    Simbolo, Michele; Gottardi, Marisa; Corbo, Vincenzo; Fassan, Matteo; Mafficini, Andrea; Malpeli, Giorgio; Lawlor, Rita T.; Scarpa, Aldo

    2013-01-01

    Histopathological samples are a treasure-trove of DNA for clinical research. However, the quality of DNA can vary depending on the source or extraction method applied. Thus a standardized and cost-effective workflow for the qualification of DNA preparations is essential to guarantee interlaboratory reproducible results. The qualification process consists of the quantification of double strand DNA (dsDNA) and the assessment of its suitability for downstream applications, such as high-throughput next-generation sequencing. We tested the two most frequently used instrumentations to define their role in this process: NanoDrop, based on UV spectroscopy, and Qubit 2.0, which uses fluorochromes specifically binding dsDNA. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used as the reference technique as it simultaneously assesses DNA concentration and suitability for PCR amplification. We used 17 genomic DNAs from 6 fresh-frozen (FF) tissues, 6 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues, 3 cell lines, and 2 commercial preparations. Intra- and inter-operator variability was negligible, and intra-methodology variability was minimal, while consistent inter-methodology divergences were observed. In fact, NanoDrop measured DNA concentrations higher than Qubit and its consistency with dsDNA quantification by qPCR was limited to high molecular weight DNA from FF samples and cell lines, where total DNA and dsDNA quantity virtually coincide. In partially degraded DNA from FFPE samples, only Qubit proved highly reproducible and consistent with qPCR measurements. Multiplex PCR amplifying 191 regions of 46 cancer-related genes was designated the downstream application, using 40 ng dsDNA from FFPE samples calculated by Qubit. All but one sample produced amplicon libraries suitable for next-generation sequencing. NanoDrop UV-spectrum verified contamination of the unsuccessful sample. In conclusion, as qPCR has high costs and is labor intensive, an alternative effective standard workflow for qualification of DNA preparations should include the sequential combination of NanoDrop and Qubit to assess the purity and quantity of dsDNA, respectively. PMID:23762227

  1. The development of miniplex primer sets for the analysis of degraded DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCord, Bruce; Opel, Kerry; Chung, Denise; Drabek, Jiri; Tatarek, Nancy; Meadows Jantz, Lee; Butler, John

    2005-05-01

    In this project, a new set of multiplexed PCR reactions has been developed for the analysis of degraded DNA. These DNA markers, known as Miniplexes, utilize primers that have shorter amplicons for use in short tandem repeat (STR) analysis of degraded DNA. In our work we have defined six of these new STR multiplexes, each of which consists of 3 to 4 reduced size STR loci, and each labeled with a different fluorescent dye. When compared to commercially available STR systems, reductions in size of up to 300 basepairs are possible. In addition, these newly designed amplicons consist of loci that are fully compatible with the the national computer DNA database known as CODIS. To demonstrate compatibility with commercial STR kits, a concordance study of 532 DNA samples of Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic origin was undertaken There was 99.77% concordance between allele calls with the two methods. Of these 532 samples, only 15 samples showed discrepancies at one of 12 loci. These occurred predominantly at 2 loci, vWA and D13S317. DNA sequencing revealed that these locations had deletions between the two primer binding sites. Uncommon deletions like these can be expected in certain samples and will not affect the utility of the Miniplexes as tools for degraded DNA analysis. The Miniplexes were also applied to enzymatically digested DNA to assess their potential in degraded DNA analysis. The results demonstrated a greatly improved efficiency in the analysis of degraded DNA when compared to commercial STR genotyping kits. A series of human skeletal remains that had been exposed to a variety of environmental conditions were also examined. Sixty-four percent of the samples generated full profiles when amplified with the Miniplexes, while only sixteen percent of the samples tested generated full profiles with a commercial kit. In addition, complete profiles were obtained for eleven of the twelve Miniplex loci which had amplicon size ranges less than 200 base pairs. These data clearly demonstrate that smaller PCR amplicons provide an attractive alternative to mitochondrial DNA for forensic analysis of degraded DNA.

  2. Microfluidic DNA sample preparation method and device

    DOEpatents

    Krulevitch, Peter A.; Miles, Robin R.; Wang, Xiao-Bo; Mariella, Raymond P.; Gascoyne, Peter R. C.; Balch, Joseph W.

    2002-01-01

    Manipulation of DNA molecules in solution has become an essential aspect of genetic analyses used for biomedical assays, the identification of hazardous bacterial agents, and in decoding the human genome. Currently, most of the steps involved in preparing a DNA sample for analysis are performed manually and are time, labor, and equipment intensive. These steps include extraction of the DNA from spores or cells, separation of the DNA from other particles and molecules in the solution (e.g. dust, smoke, cell/spore debris, and proteins), and separation of the DNA itself into strands of specific lengths. Dielectrophoresis (DEP), a phenomenon whereby polarizable particles move in response to a gradient in electric field, can be used to manipulate and separate DNA in an automated fashion, considerably reducing the time and expense involved in DNA analyses, as well as allowing for the miniaturization of DNA analysis instruments. These applications include direct transport of DNA, trapping of DNA to allow for its separation from other particles or molecules in the solution, and the separation of DNA into strands of varying lengths.

  3. Flow cytometric detection method for DNA samples

    DOEpatents

    Nasarabadi,Shanavaz; Langlois, Richard G.; Venkateswaran, Kodumudi S.

    2011-07-05

    Disclosed herein are two methods for rapid multiplex analysis to determine the presence and identity of target DNA sequences within a DNA sample. Both methods use reporting DNA sequences, e.g., modified conventional Taqman.RTM. probes, to combine multiplex PCR amplification with microsphere-based hybridization using flow cytometry means of detection. Real-time PCR detection can also be incorporated. The first method uses a cyanine dye, such as, Cy3.TM., as the reporter linked to the 5' end of a reporting DNA sequence. The second method positions a reporter dye, e.g., FAM.TM. on the 3' end of the reporting DNA sequence and a quencher dye, e.g., TAMRA.TM., on the 5' end.

  4. Flow cytometric detection method for DNA samples

    DOEpatents

    Nasarabadi, Shanavaz; Langlois, Richard G.; Venkateswaran, Kodumudi S.

    2006-08-01

    Disclosed herein are two methods for rapid multiplex analysis to determine the presence and identity of target DNA sequences within a DNA sample. Both methods use reporting DNA sequences, e.g., modified conventional Taqman.RTM. probes, to combine multiplex PCR amplification with microsphere-based hybridization using flow cytometry means of detection. Real-time PCR detection can also be incorporated. The first method uses a cyanine dye, such as, Cy3.TM., as the reporter linked to the 5' end of a reporting DNA sequence. The second method positions a reporter dye, e.g., FAM, on the 3' end of the reporting DNA sequence and a quencher dye, e.g., TAMRA, on the 5' end.

  5. Nondestructive DNA sampling from bumblebee faeces.

    PubMed

    Scriven, Jessica J; Woodall, Lucy C; Goulson, Dave

    2013-03-01

    Genetic studies provide valuable data to inform conservation strategies for species with small or declining populations. In these circumstances, obtaining DNA samples without harming the study organisms is highly desirable. Excrements are increasingly being used as a source of DNA in such studies, but such approaches have rarely been applied to arthropods. Bumblebees are ecologically and economically important as pollinators; however, some species have recently suffered severe declines and range contractions across much of Western Europe and North America. We investigated whether bumblebee faeces could be used for the extraction of DNA suitable for genotyping using microsatellite markers. We found that DNA could be extracted using a Chelex method from faecal samples collected either in microcapillary tubes or on filter paper, directly from captured individuals. Our results show that genotypes scored from faecal samples are identical to those from tissue samples. This study describes a reliable, consistent and efficient noninvasive method of obtaining DNA from bumblebees for use in population genetic studies. This approach should prove particularly useful in breeding and conservation programs for bumblebees and may be broadly applicable across insect taxa. PMID:23190789

  6. Sample displacement chromatography of plasmid DNA isoforms.

    PubMed

    ?ernigoj, Urh; Martinu?, Urka; Cardoso, Sara; Sekirnik, Rok; Krajnc, Nika Lendero; trancar, Ale

    2015-10-01

    Sample displacement chromatography (SDC) is a chromatographic technique that utilises different relative binding affinities of components in a sample mixture and has been widely studied in the context of peptide and protein purification. Here, we report a use of SDC to separate plasmid DNA (pDNA) isoforms under overloading conditions, where supercoiled (sc) isoform acts as a displacer of open circular (oc) or linear isoform. Since displacement is more efficient when mass transfer between stationary and mobile chromatographic phases is not limited by diffusion, we investigated convective interaction media (CIM) monoliths as stationary phases for pDNA isoform separation. CIM monoliths with different hydrophobicities and thus different binding affinities for pDNA (CIM C4 HLD, CIM-histamine and CIM-pyridine) were tested under hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) conditions. SD efficiency for pDNA isoform separation was shown to be dependent on column selectivity for individual isoform, column efficiency and on ammonium sulfate (AS) concentration in loading buffer (binding strength). SD and negative mode elution often operate in parallel, therefore negative mode elution additionally influences the efficiency of the overall purification process. Optimisation of chromatographic conditions achieved 98% sc pDNA homogeneity and a dynamic binding capacity of over 1mg/mL at a relatively low concentration of AS. SDC was successfully implemented for the enrichment of sc pDNA for plasmid vectors of different sizes, and for separation of linear and and sc isoforms, independently of oc:sc isoform ratio, and flow-rate used. This study therefore identifies SDC as a promising new approach to large-scale pDNA purification, which is compatible with continuous, multicolumn chromatography systems, and could therefore be used to increase productivity of pDNA production in the future. PMID:26319374

  7. Anaerobic Methyl tert-Butyl Ether-Degrading Microorganisms Identified in Wastewater Treatment Plant Samples by Stable Isotope Probing

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Weimin; Sun, Xiaoxu

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) degradation potential was investigated in samples from a range of sources. From these 22 experimental variations, only one source (from wastewater treatment plant samples) exhibited MTBE degradation. These microcosms were methanogenic and were subjected to DNA-based stable isotope probing (SIP) targeted to both bacteria and archaea to identify the putative MTBE degraders. For this purpose, DNA was extracted at two time points, subjected to ultracentrifugation, fractioning, and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP). In addition, bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed. The SIP experiments indicated bacteria in the phyla Firmicutes (family Ruminococcaceae) and Alphaproteobacteria (genus Sphingopyxis) were the dominant MTBE degraders. Previous studies have suggested a role for Firmicutes in anaerobic MTBE degradation; however, the putative MTBE-degrading microorganism in the current study is a novel MTBE-degrading phylotype within this phylum. Two archaeal phylotypes (genera Methanosarcina and Methanocorpusculum) were also enriched in the heavy fractions, and these organisms may be responsible for minor amounts of MTBE degradation or for the uptake of metabolites released from the primary MTBE degraders. Currently, limited information exists on the microorganisms able to degrade MTBE under anaerobic conditions. This work represents the first application of DNA-based SIP to identify anaerobic MTBE-degrading microorganisms in laboratory microcosms and therefore provides a valuable set of data to definitively link identity with anaerobic MTBE degradation. PMID:22327600

  8. Species identification of protected carpet pythons suitable for degraded forensic samples.

    PubMed

    Ciavaglia, Sherryn; Donnellan, Stephen; Henry, Julianne; Linacre, Adrian

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we report on the identification of a section of mitochondrial DNA that can be used to identify the species of protected and illegally traded pythons of the genus Morelia. Successful enforcement of wildlife laws requires forensic tests that can identify the species nominated in the relevant legislation. The potentially degraded state of evidentiary samples requires that forensic investigation using molecular genetic species identification is optimized to interrogate small fragments of DNA. DNA was isolated from 35 samples of Morelia spilota from which the complete cytochrome b was sequenced. The ND6 gene was also sequenced in 32 of these samples. Additional DNA sequences were generated from 9 additional species of Morelia. The sequences were aligned by Geneious and imported into MEGA to create phylogenetic trees based on the entire complex of approximately 1,706 base pairs (bp). To mimic degraded DNA, which is usually found in forensic cases, short sub-sections of the full alignment were used to generate phylogenetic trees. The sub-sections that had the greatest DNA sequence information were in parts of the cytochrome b gene. Our results highlight that legislation is presently informed by inadequate taxonomy. We demonstrated that a 278 bp region of the cytochrome b gene recovered the topology of the phylogenetic tree found with the entire gene sequence and correctly identified species of Morelia with a high degree of confidence. The locus described in this report will assist in the successful prosecution of alleged illegal trade in python species. PMID:24915762

  9. Novel Phenanthrene-Degrading Bacteria Identified by DNA-Stable Isotope Probing

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Chunling; Zhang, Dayi; Zhang, Gan

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms responsible for the degradation of phenanthrene in a clean forest soil sample were identified by DNA-based stable isotope probing (SIP). The soil was artificially amended with either 12C- or 13C-labeled phenanthrene, and soil DNA was extracted on days 3, 6 and 9. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) results revealed that the fragments of 219- and 241-bp in HaeIII digests were distributed throughout the gradient profile at three different sampling time points, and both fragments were more dominant in the heavy fractions of the samples exposed to the 13C-labeled contaminant. 16S rRNA sequencing of the 13C-enriched fraction suggested that Acidobacterium spp. within the class Acidobacteria, and Collimonas spp. within the class Betaproteobacteria, were directly involved in the uptake and degradation of phenanthrene at different times. To our knowledge, this is the first report that the genus Collimonas has the ability to degrade PAHs. Two PAH-RHDα genes were identified in 13C-labeled DNA. However, isolation of pure cultures indicated that strains of Staphylococcus sp. PHE-3, Pseudomonas sp. PHE-1, and Pseudomonas sp. PHE-2 in the soil had high phenanthrene-degrading ability. This emphasizes the role of a culture-independent method in the functional understanding of microbial communities in situ. PMID:26098417

  10. Degradation of Methylmercury by Bacteria Isolated from Environmental Samples

    PubMed Central

    Spangler, William J.; Spigarelli, James L.; Rose, Joseph M.; Flippin, Reid S.; Miller, Hope H.

    1973-01-01

    A total of 207 bacterial cultures, isolated from environmental samples, was screened for ability to degrade methylmercury. Of these, 30 were found positive for aerobic demethylation. Twenty-two of these were shown to be facultative anaerobes and 21 of these degraded methylmercury anaerobically. All positive species volatilized methylmercury aerobically, and methane was produced as a degradation product. Although methylmercury degradation was complete in most cases, material balances indicated some of the inorganic mercury formed was not volatilized and is presumed bound to the cells. All positive isolates were tolerant to at least 0.5 ?g of methylmercury per ml, and the extent of volatilization of mercury increased with concentration to the threshold value. The results indicate that demethylating species are prevalent in the environment and may be important in suppressing the methylmercury content of sediments. Images PMID:4572979

  11. Degradable starch nanoparticle assisted ethanol precipitation of DNA.

    PubMed

    Ip, Alexander C-F; Tsai, Tsung Hao; Khimji, Imran; Huang, Po-Jung Jimmy; Liu, Juewen

    2014-09-22

    Precipitation of DNA from a large volume of aqueous solution is an important step in many molecular biology and analytical chemistry experiments. Currently, this is mainly achieved by ethanol precipitation, where a long-term incubation (usually overnight) at low temperature of -20 to -80C with high salt concentration is required. This method also requires a large quantity of DNA to form a visible pellet and was tested mainly for double-stranded DNA. To improve DNA precipitation, co-precipitating polymers such as linear polyacrylamide has been used. In this work, we report that starch nanoparticles (SNPs) can achieve convenient DNA precipitation at room temperature with a low salt concentration and short incubation time. This method requires as low as 0.01-0.1% SNPs and can precipitate both single- and double-stranded DNA of various lengths. The effect of salt concentration, pH and the crosslinking density of SNPs has been systematically studied. Compared to other types of precipitating agents, SNPs are highly biocompatible and can be degraded by a common enzyme (amylase). This work suggests a novel application of a bio-based material that is prepared in mass production. PMID:24906766

  12. Improved purification and PCR amplification of DNA from environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Arbeli, Ziv; Fuentes, Cilia L

    2007-07-01

    Purification and PCR amplification procedures for DNA extracted from environmental samples (soil, compost, and river sediment) were improved by introducing three modifications: precipitation of DNA with 5% polyethylene glycol 8000 (PEG) and 0.6 M NaCl; filtration with a Sepharose 4B-polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) spin column; and addition of skim milk (0.3% w/v) to the PCR reaction solution. Humic substances' concentration after precipitation with 5% PEG was 2.57-, 5.3-, and 78.9-fold lower than precipitation with 7.5% PEG, 10% PEG, and isopropanol, respectively. After PEG precipitation, Sepharose, PVPP and the combined (Sepharose-PVPP) column removed 92.3%, 89.5%, and 98%, respectively, of the remaining humic materials. Each of the above-mentioned modifications improved PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene. DNA extracted by the proposed protocol is cleaner than DNA extracted by a commercial kit. Nevertheless, the improvement of DNA purification did not improve the detection limit of atrazine degradation gene atzA. PMID:17521406

  13. DNase-activatable fluorescence probes visualizing the degradation of exogenous DNA in living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Ping; Shi, Bihua; Zhang, Pengfei; Hu, Dehong; Zheng, Mingbin; Zheng, Cuifang; Gao, Duyang; Cai, Lintao

    2012-03-01

    This work presents a method to visualize the degradation of exogenous DNA in living cells using a novel type of activatable fluorescence imaging probe. Deoxyribonuclease (DNase)-activatable fluorescence probes (DFProbes) are composed of double strands deoxyribonucleic acid (dsDNA) which is labeled with fluorophore (ROX or Cy3) and quencher on the end of one of its strands, and stained with SYBR Green I. In the absence of DNase, DFProbes produce the green fluorescence signal of SYBR Green I. In the presence of DNase, SYBR Green I is removed from the DFProbes and the labeled fluorophore is separated from the quencher owing to the degradation of DFProbes by DNase, resulting in the decrease of the green fluorescence signal and the occurrence of a red fluorescence signal due to fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). DNase in biological samples was detected using DFProbes and the fluorescence imaging in living cells was performed using DFprobe-modified Au nanoparticles. The results show that DFProbes have good responses to DNase, and can clearly visualize the degradation of exogenous DNA in cells in real time. The well-designed probes might be useful in tracing the dynamic changes of exogenous DNA and nanocarriers in vitro and in vivo.This work presents a method to visualize the degradation of exogenous DNA in living cells using a novel type of activatable fluorescence imaging probe. Deoxyribonuclease (DNase)-activatable fluorescence probes (DFProbes) are composed of double strands deoxyribonucleic acid (dsDNA) which is labeled with fluorophore (ROX or Cy3) and quencher on the end of one of its strands, and stained with SYBR Green I. In the absence of DNase, DFProbes produce the green fluorescence signal of SYBR Green I. In the presence of DNase, SYBR Green I is removed from the DFProbes and the labeled fluorophore is separated from the quencher owing to the degradation of DFProbes by DNase, resulting in the decrease of the green fluorescence signal and the occurrence of a red fluorescence signal due to fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). DNase in biological samples was detected using DFProbes and the fluorescence imaging in living cells was performed using DFprobe-modified Au nanoparticles. The results show that DFProbes have good responses to DNase, and can clearly visualize the degradation of exogenous DNA in cells in real time. The well-designed probes might be useful in tracing the dynamic changes of exogenous DNA and nanocarriers in vitro and in vivo. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr12005d

  14. Effects of Temperature and Trophic State on Degradation of Environmental DNA in Lake Water.

    PubMed

    Eichmiller, Jessica J; Best, Sendra E; Sorensen, Peter W

    2016-02-16

    Degradation of environmental DNA (eDNA) in aquatic habitats can affect the interpretation of eDNA data and the ability to detect aquatic organisms. The effect of temperature and trophic state on the decay of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) eDNA was evaluated using lake water microcosms and quantitative PCR for a Common Carp-specific genetic marker in two experiments. The first experiment tested the effect of temperature on Common Carp eDNA decay. Common Carp eDNA exhibited exponential decay that increased with temperature. The slowest decay rate was observed at 5 C, with a T90 value (time to 90% reduction from initial concentration) of 6.6 days, as opposed to ?1 day at higher temperatures. In a second experiment, decay was compared across waters from lakes of different trophic states. In this experiment, Common Carp eDNA exhibited biphasic exponential decay, characterized by rapid decay for 3-8 days followed by slow decay. Decay rate was slowest in dystrophic water and fastest in oligotrophic water, and decay rate was negatively correlated to dissolved organic carbon concentration. The overall rapid decay of eDNA and the effects of temperature and water quality should be considered in protocols for water sample storage and field sampling design. PMID:26771292

  15. Post mortem DNA degradation of human tissue experimentally mummified in salt.

    PubMed

    Shved, Natallia; Haas, Cordula; Papageorgopoulou, Christina; Akguel, Guelfirde; Paulsen, Katja; Bouwman, Abigail; Warinner, Christina; Rhli, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Mummified human tissues are of great interest in forensics and biomolecular archaeology. The aim of this study was to analyse post mortem DNA alterations in soft tissues in order to improve our knowledge of the patterns of DNA degradation that occur during salt mummification. In this study, the lower limb of a female human donor was amputated within 24 h post mortem and mummified using a process designed to simulate the salt dehydration phase of natural or artificial mummification. Skin and skeletal muscle were sampled at multiple time points over a period of 322 days and subjected to genetic analysis. Patterns of genomic fragmentation, miscoding lesions, and overall DNA degradation in both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA was assessed by different methods: gel electrophoresis, multiplex comparative autosomal STR length amplification, cloning and sequence analysis, and PCR amplification of different fragment sizes using a damage sensitive recombinant polymerase. The study outcome reveals a very good level of DNA preservation in salt mummified tissues over the course of the experiment, with an overall slower rate of DNA fragmentation in skin compared to muscle. PMID:25337822

  16. Developmental validation of the Quantifiler() HP and Trio Kits for human DNA quantification in forensic samples.

    PubMed

    Holt, Allison; Wootton, Sharon Chao; Mulero, Julio J; Brzoska, Pius M; Langit, Emanuel; Green, Robert L

    2016-03-01

    The quantification of human genomic DNA is a necessary first step in the DNA casework sample analysis workflow. DNA quantification determines optimal sample input amounts for subsequent STR (short tandem repeat) genotyping procedures, as well as being a useful screening tool to identify samples most likely to provide probative genotypic evidence. To better mesh with the capabilities of newest-generation STR analysis assays, the Quantifiler() HP and Quantifiler() Trio DNA Quantification Kits were designed for greater detection sensitivity and more robust performance with samples that contain PCR inhibitors or degraded DNA. The new DNA quantification kits use multiplex TaqMan() assay-based fluorescent probe technology to simultaneously quantify up to three human genomic targets, allowing samples to be assessed for total human DNA, male contributor (i.e., Y-chromosome) DNA, as well as a determination of DNA degradation state. The Quantifiler HP and Trio Kits use multiple-copy loci to allow for significantly improved sensitivity compared to earlier-generation kits that employ single-copy target loci. The kits' improved performance provides better predictive ability for results with downstream, newest-generation STR assays, and their shortened time-to-result allows more efficient integration into the forensic casework analysis workflow. PMID:26774100

  17. Multiple DNA Extractions Coupled with Stable-Isotope Probing of Anthracene-Degrading Bacteria in Contaminated Soil▿†

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Maiysha D.; Singleton, David R.; Sun, Wei; Aitken, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    In many of the DNA-based stable-isotope probing (SIP) studies published to date in which soil communities were investigated, a single DNA extraction was performed on the soil sample, usually using a commercial DNA extraction kit, prior to recovering the 13C-labeled (heavy) DNA by density-gradient ultracentrifugation. Recent evidence suggests, however, that a single extraction of a soil sample may not lead to representative recovery of DNA from all of the organisms in the sample. To determine whether multiple DNA extractions would affect the DNA yield, the eubacterial 16S rRNA gene copy number, or the identification of anthracene-degrading bacteria, we performed seven successive DNA extractions on the same aliquot of contaminated soil either untreated or enriched with [U-13C]anthracene. Multiple extractions were necessary to maximize the DNA yield and 16S rRNA gene copy number from both untreated and anthracene-enriched soil samples. Sequences within the order Sphingomonadales, but unrelated to any previously described genus, dominated the 16S rRNA gene clone libraries derived from 13C-enriched DNA and were designated “anthracene group 1.” Sequences clustering with Variovorax spp., which were also highly represented, and sequences related to the genus Pigmentiphaga were newly associated with anthracene degradation. The bacterial groups collectively identified across all seven extracts were all recovered in the first extract, although quantitative PCR analysis of SIP-identified groups revealed quantitative differences in extraction patterns. These results suggest that performing multiple DNA extractions on soil samples improves the extractable DNA yield and the number of quantifiable eubacterial 16S rRNA gene copies but have little qualitative effect on the identification of the bacterial groups associated with the degradation of a given carbon source by SIP. PMID:21398486

  18. Difficulties of sex determination from forensic bone degraded DNA: A comparison of three methods.

    PubMed

    Quincey, Danielle; Carle, Georges; Alunni, Vronique; Quatrehomme, Grald

    2013-09-01

    Sex determination is of paramount importance in forensic anthropology. Numerous anthropological methods have been described, including visual assessments and various measurements of bones. Nevertheless, whatever the method used, the percentage of correct classification of a single bone usually varies between 80% and 95%, due to significant intra- and inter-population variations, and sometimes variations coming from secular trends. DNA is increasingly used in a forensic context. But forensic DNA extraction from bone raises several issues, because the samples are very often badly altered and/or in very small quantity. Nuclear DNA is difficult to get from degraded samples, according to low copy number, at least in comparison with mitochondrial DNA. In a forensic context (as in a paeleoanthropological context) DNA sex determination is usually complicated by the weak amount of DNA, the degraded nature of nucleic acids, the presence of enzymatic inhibitors in DNA extracts, the possible faint amplification of Y band and the risk of contamination during either excavation or manipulation of samples. The aim of this work was to compare three methods of DNA sex determination from bones: procedure #1 using a single PCR amplification, procedure #2 using a double PCR amplification, and procedure #3 adding bleaching for decontamination of the bone, instead of simply rubbing the bone. These processes were applied to samples of bones (49 samples coming from 39 individuals) that were in various states of post mortem alteration. The main results are the following. (i) No DNA could be extracted from three skulls (parietal bones, mastoid process), the compact bone of one rib, and the diaphysis of one femur; (ii) there was a contamination in three skulls; and (iii) the Y band did not appear in two male cases, with one of the three procedures (male tibia, procedure #2) and with procedures #2 and #3 (male femur). This study emphasises the main issue while working with altered bones: the impossibility to extract DNA in some cases, and, worth of all, the contamination of the sample or the faint amplification of Y band which leads to a wrong sex answer. Multiple and significant precautions have to be taken to avoid such difficulties. PMID:23937932

  19. Assessment of DNA degradation induced by thermal and UV radiation processing: implications for quantification of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Ballari, Rajashekhar V; Martin, Asha

    2013-12-01

    DNA quality is an important parameter for the detection and quantification of genetically modified organisms (GMO's) using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Food processing leads to degradation of DNA, which may impair GMO detection and quantification. This study evaluated the effect of various processing treatments such as heating, baking, microwaving, autoclaving and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on the relative transgenic content of MON 810 maize using pRSETMON-02, a dual target plasmid as a model system. Amongst all the processing treatments examined, autoclaving and UV irradiation resulted in the least recovery of the transgenic (CaMV 35S promoter) and taxon-specific (zein) target DNA sequences. Although a profound impact on DNA degradation was seen during the processing, DNA could still be reliably quantified by Real-time PCR. The measured mean DNA copy number ratios of the processed samples were in agreement with the expected values. Our study confirms the premise that the final analytical value assigned to a particular sample is independent of the degree of DNA degradation since the transgenic and the taxon-specific target sequences possessing approximately similar lengths degrade in parallel. The results of our study demonstrate that food processing does not alter the relative quantification of the transgenic content provided the quantitative assays target shorter amplicons and the difference in the amplicon size between the transgenic and taxon-specific genes is minimal. PMID:23870938

  20. Performance of a next generation sequencing SNP assay on degraded DNA.

    PubMed

    Gettings, Katherine Butler; Kiesler, Kevin M; Vallone, Peter M

    2015-11-01

    Forensic DNA casework samples are often of insufficient quantity or quality to generate full profiles by conventional DNA typing methods. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of short tandem repeat (STR) loci is inherently limited in samples containing degraded DNA, as the cumulative size of repeat regions, primer binding regions, and flanking sequence is necessarily larger than the PCR template. Additionally, traditional capillary electrophoresis (CE) assay design further inherently limits shortening amplicons because the markers must be separated by size. Non-traditional markers, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertion deletion polymorphisms (InDels), may yield more information from challenging samples due to their smaller amplicon size. In this study, the performance of a next generation sequencing (NGS) SNP assay and CE-based STR, mini-STR, and InDel assays was evaluated with a series of fragmented, size-selected samples. Information obtained from the NGS SNP assay exhibited higher overall inverse random match probability (1/RMP) values compared to the CE-based typing assays, with particular benefit for fragment sizes ≤ 150 base pairs (bp). The InDel, mini-STR, and NGS SNP assays all had similar percentages of loci with reportable alleles at this level of degradation; however, the relatively fewer number of loci in the InDel and mini-STR assays results in the NGS SNP assay having at least nine orders of magnitude higher 1/RMP values. In addition, the NGS SNP assay and three CE-based assays (two STR and one InDel assay) were tested using a dilution series consisting of 0.5 ng, 0.1 ng, and 0.05 ng non-degraded DNA. All tested assays showed similar percentages of loci with reportable alleles at these levels of input DNA; however, due to the larger number of loci, the NGS SNP assay and the larger of the two tested CE-based STR assays both resulted in considerably higher 1/RMP values than the other assays. These results indicate the potential advantage of NGS SNP assays for forensic analysis of degraded DNA samples. PMID:26036183

  1. Simultaneous Whole Mitochondrial Genome Sequencing with Short Overlapping Amplicons Suitable for Degraded DNA Using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine.

    PubMed

    Chaitanya, Lakshmi; Ralf, Arwin; van Oven, Mannis; Kupiec, Tomasz; Chang, Joseph; Lagac, Robert; Kayser, Manfred

    2015-12-01

    Whole mitochondrial (mt) genome analysis enables a considerable increase in analysis throughput, and improves the discriminatory power to the maximum possible phylogenetic resolution. Most established protocols on the different massively parallel sequencing (MPS) platforms, however, invariably involve the PCR amplification of large fragments, typically several kilobases in size, which may fail due to mtDNA fragmentation in the available degraded materials. We introduce a MPS tiling approach for simultaneous whole human mt genome sequencing using 161 short overlapping amplicons (average 200 bp) with the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine. We illustrate the performance of this new method by sequencing 20 DNA samples belonging to different worldwide mtDNA haplogroups. Additional quality control, particularly regarding the potential detection of nuclear insertions of mtDNA (NUMTs), was performed by comparative MPS analysis using the conventional long-range amplification method. Preliminary sensitivity testing revealed that detailed haplogroup inference was feasible with 100 pg genomic input DNA. Complete mt genome coverage was achieved from DNA samples experimentally degraded down to genomic fragment sizes of about 220 bp, and up to 90% coverage from naturally degraded samples. Overall, we introduce a new approach for whole mt genome MPS analysis from degraded and nondegraded materials relevant to resolve and infer maternal genetic ancestry at complete resolution in anthropological, evolutionary, medical, and forensic applications. PMID:26387877

  2. Quantitative analysis of genomic DNA degradation in whole blood under various storage conditions for molecular diagnostic testing.

    PubMed

    Permenter, Jessalyn; Ishwar, Arjun; Rounsavall, Angie; Smith, Maddie; Faske, Jennifer; Sailey, Charles J; Alfaro, Maria P

    2015-12-01

    Proper storage of whole blood is crucial for isolating nucleic acids from leukocytes and to ensure adequate performance of downstream assays in the molecular diagnostic laboratory. Short-term and long-term storage recommendations are lacking for successful isolation of genomic DNA (gDNA). Container type (EDTA or heparin), temperature (4C and room temperature) and time (1-130 days) were assessed as criterion for sample acceptance policies. The percentage of integrated area (%Ti) between 150 and 10,000bp from the 2200 TapeStation electropherogram was calculated to measure gDNA degradation. Refrigerated EDTA samples yielded gDNA with low %Ti (high quality). Heparinized samples stored at room temperature yielded gDNA of worst quality. Downstream analysis demonstrated that the quality of the gDNA correlated with the quality of the data; samples with high %Ti generated significantly lower levels of high molecular weight amplicons. Recommendations from these analyses include storing blood samples intended for nucleic acid isolation in EDTA tubes at 4C for long term storage (>10 days). gDNA should be extracted within 3 days when blood is stored at room temperature regardless of the container. Finally, refrigerated heparinized samples should not be stored longer than 9 days if expecting high quality gDNA isolates. Laboratories should consider many factors, in addition to the results obtained herein, to update their policies for sample acceptance for gDNA extraction intended for molecular genetic testing. PMID:26166695

  3. Detection of a Diverse Marine Fish Fauna Using Environmental DNA from Seawater Samples

    PubMed Central

    Iversen, Lars Lnsmann; Mller, Peter Rask; Rasmussen, Morten; Willerslev, Eske

    2012-01-01

    Marine ecosystems worldwide are under threat with many fish species and populations suffering from human over-exploitation. This is greatly impacting global biodiversity, economy and human health. Intriguingly, marine fish are largely surveyed using selective and invasive methods, which are mostly limited to commercial species, and restricted to particular areas with favourable conditions. Furthermore, misidentification of species represents a major problem. Here, we investigate the potential of using metabarcoding of environmental DNA (eDNA) obtained directly from seawater samples to account for marine fish biodiversity. This eDNA approach has recently been used successfully in freshwater environments, but never in marine settings. We isolate eDNA from -litre seawater samples collected in a temperate marine ecosystem in Denmark. Using next-generation DNA sequencing of PCR amplicons, we obtain eDNA from 15 different fish species, including both important consumption species, as well as species rarely or never recorded by conventional monitoring. We also detect eDNA from a rare vagrant species in the area; European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus). Additionally, we detect four bird species. Records in national databases confirmed the occurrence of all detected species. To investigate the efficiency of the eDNA approach, we compared its performance with 9 methods conventionally used in marine fish surveys. Promisingly, eDNA covered the fish diversity better than or equal to any of the applied conventional methods. Our study demonstrates that even small samples of seawater contain eDNA from a wide range of local fish species. Finally, in order to examine the potential dispersal of eDNA in oceans, we performed an experiment addressing eDNA degradation in seawater, which shows that even small (100-bp) eDNA fragments degrades beyond detectability within days. Although further studies are needed to validate the eDNA approach in varying environmental conditions, our findings provide a strong proof-of-concept with great perspectives for future monitoring of marine biodiversity and resources. PMID:22952584

  4. A rapid column-based ancient DNA extraction method for increased sample throughput.

    PubMed

    Rohland, Nadin; Siedel, Heike; Hofreiter, Michael

    2010-07-01

    Genetic analyses using museum specimens and ancient DNA from fossil samples are becoming increasingly important in phylogenetic and especially population genetic studies. Recent progress in ancient DNA sequencing technologies has substantially increased DNA sequence yields and, in combination with barcoding methods, has enabled large-scale studies using any type of DNA. Moreover, more and more studies now use nuclear DNA sequences in addition to mitochondrial ones. Unfortunately, nuclear DNA is, due to its much lower copy number in living cells compared to mitochondrial DNA, much more difficult to obtain from low-quality samples. Therefore, a DNA extraction method that optimizes DNA yields from low-quality samples and at the same time allows processing many samples within a short time frame is immediately required. In fact, the major bottleneck in the analysis process using samples containing low amounts of degraded DNA now lies in the extraction of samples, as column-based methods using commercial kits are fast but have proven to give very low yields, while more efficient methods are generally very time-consuming. Here, we present a method that combines the high DNA yield of batch-based silica extraction with the time-efficiency of column-based methods. Our results on Pleistocene cave bear samples show that DNA yields are quantitatively comparable, and in fact even slightly better than with silica batch extraction, while at the same time the number of samples that can conveniently be processed in parallel increases and both bench time and costs decrease using this method. Thus, this method is suited for harvesting the power of high-throughput sequencing using the DNA preserved in the millions of paleontological and museums specimens. PMID:21565072

  5. 28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... lawfully admitted for permanent residence as defined in 8 CFR 1.1(p). Unless otherwise directed by the... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample...

  6. 28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... lawfully admitted for permanent residence as defined in 8 CFR 1.1(p). Unless otherwise directed by the... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample...

  7. 28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... lawfully admitted for permanent residence as defined in 8 CFR 1.1(p). Unless otherwise directed by the... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample...

  8. 28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... lawfully admitted for permanent residence as defined in 8 CFR 1.1(p). Unless otherwise directed by the... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample...

  9. 28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... lawfully admitted for permanent residence as defined in 8 CFR 1.1(p). Unless otherwise directed by the... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample...

  10. Collecting and preserving biological samples from challenging environments for DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Bu?, Magdalena M; Allen, Marie

    2014-02-01

    Biological materials collected in harsh environments such as archaeological excavations, at crime scenes, after mass disasters, in museums, or non-invasively in the field constitute a highly valuable source of genetic information. However, poor quality and limited quantity of the DNA extracted from these samples can be extremely challenging during further analyses. Here we have reviewed how degradation, decomposition, and contamination can affect DNA analysis, and how correct sample collection and storage methods will ensure the best possible conditions for further genetic analysis. Furthermore, highly efficient protocols for collection, decontamination, and extraction of DNA from minute amounts of biological material are presented. PMID:24620766

  11. Degradation of nuclear matrix and DNA cleavage in apoptotic thymocytes.

    PubMed

    Weaver, V M; Carson, C E; Walker, P R; Chaly, N; Lach, B; Raymond, Y; Brown, D L; Sikorska, M

    1996-01-01

    In dexamethasone-treated thymocyte cultures an increase in nuclear proteolytic activity paralleled chromatin fragmentation and the appearance of small apoptotic cells. The elevation of nuclear proteolytic activity was accompanied by site-specific degradation of nuclear mitotic apparatus protein and lamin B, two essential components of the nuclear matrix. Nuclear mitotic apparatus protein phosphorylation and cleavage into 200 and 48 kDa fragments occurred within 30 minutes of dexamethasone treatment. Cleavage of lamin B, which generated a fragment of 46 kDa consistent with the central rod domain of the protein, was also detected after 30 minutes of exposure to the steroid hormone. The level of lamin B phosphorylation did not change as a result of the dexamethasone treatment and the lamina did not solubilize until the later stages of apoptosis. Initial DNA breaks, detected by the terminal transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling assay, occurred throughout the nuclei and solubilization of lamina was not required for this process to commence. The data presented in this paper support a model of apoptotic nuclear destruction brought about by the site-specific proteolysis of key structural proteins. Both the nuclear mitotic apparatus protein and lamin B were specifically targeted by protease(s) at early stages of the cell death pathway, which possibly initiate the cascade of degradative events in apoptosis. PMID:8834789

  12. Stability of linear DNA in recA mutant Escherichia coli cells reflects ongoing chromosomal DNA degradation.

    PubMed Central

    Kuzminov, A; Stahl, F W

    1997-01-01

    To study the fate of linear DNA in Escherichia coli cells, we linearized plasmid DNA at a specific site in vivo and monitored its behavior in recA mutant cells deficient in recombinational repair. Earlier, we had found that in wild-type (WT) cells linearized DNA is degraded to completion by RecBCD nuclease. We had also found that in WT cells chi sites on linear DNA inhibit RecBCD degradation by turning off its nucleolytic activities. Now we report that chi sites do not work in the absence of the RecA protein, suggesting that RecA is required in vivo to turn off the degradative activities of the RecBCD enzyme. We also report that the degradation of linearized plasmid DNA, even devoid of chi sites, is never complete in recA cells. Investigation of this linear DNA stability indicates that a fraction of recA cells are recBC phenocopies due to ongoing chromosomal DNA degradation, which titrates RecBCD nuclease. A possible role for RecBCD-promoted DNA degradation in controlling chromosomal DNA replication in E. coli is discussed. PMID:9006046

  13. [DNA sample manipulation and automation.] Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, Trevor

    2001-09-13

    Goals for the project were the following: (1) Development of 1536 well based DNA sequencing platform, (2) Integration of the above device into the CuraGen MicroNiagara system, PerSeptive BioSystems Voyager MALDI Mass Spec and validation of results from the ABI 377 DNA sequencer, (3) Collaboration with the DOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI) to build Sequatron-like systems for DNA purification and DNA sequencing, and working with JGI to implement 1536 well system if required, and (4) Demonstration of the use of robotic systems through genomic sequencing of up to 1Mb DNA. Emphasis over the past year was on the following: DNA purification methods, module development (1536 well thermal cycling; Mass Spectrometry, 96 lane development & Automated gel loading; 96 lane ABI system; MALDI TOF mass spectrometry; automated gel loading system for the ABI), and helping the JGI with Sequatron-like systems.

  14. Visualization EX Situ of Single DNA Molecules Incubation:. a First Step for Quantitative Analysis on Multi-Site Degradation and Enzymatic Kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinyan; Yang, Haijun; Wang, Huabin; Wang, Peng; Li, Hai

    Herein, we showed a different approach to directly single-molecule level visualization of the degradation of DNA in vitro tests using DNase I incubation based on high-resolution AFM imaging ex situ with fine relocation nanotechnology. A method of nanomanipulation termed as "modified dynamic molecular combing" (MDMC) was used to pattern DNA samples for further degradation and enzymatic kinetics. This strategy is potentially able to quantitatively address the mechanical-induced kinetic profiles of multi-site degradation of individual DNA molecules with very stable tension and strong immobilization on a surface and discover the mechanochemistry.

  15. TGF-? triggers HBV cccDNA degradation through AID-dependent deamination.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Ying; Han, Xiaoxu; Guan, Gefei; Wu, Na; Sun, Jianbo; Pak, Vladimir; Liang, Guoxin

    2016-02-01

    The covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a viral center molecule for HBV infection and persistence. However, the cellular restriction factors of HBV cccDNA are not well understood. Here, we show that TGF-? can induce nuclear viral cccDNA degradation and hypermutation via activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) deamination activity in hepatocytes. This suppression by TGF-? is abrogated when AID or the activity of uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG) is absent, which indicates that AID deamination and the UNG-mediated excision of uracil act in concert to degrade viral cccDNA. Moreover, the HBV core protein promotes the interaction between AID and viral cccDNA. Overall, our results indicate a novel molecular mechanism that allows cytokine TGF-? to restrict viral nuclear cccDNA in innate immunity, thereby suggesting a novel method for potentially eliminating cccDNA. PMID:26867650

  16. Targeted DNA degradation using a CRISPR device stably carried in the host genome

    PubMed Central

    Caliando, Brian J.; Voigt, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Once an engineered organism completes its task, it is useful to degrade the associated DNA to reduce environmental release and protect intellectual property. Here we present a genetically encoded device (DNAi) that responds to a transcriptional input and degrades user-defined DNA. This enables engineered regions to be obscured when the cell enters a new environment. DNAi is based on type-IE CRISPR biochemistry and a synthetic CRISPR array defines the DNA target(s). When the input is on, plasmid DNA is degraded 108-fold. When the genome is targeted, this causes cell death, reducing viable cells by a factor of 108. Further, the CRISPR nuclease can direct degradation to specific genomic regions (for example, engineered or inserted DNA), which could be used to complicate recovery and sequencing efforts. DNAi can be stably carried in an engineered organism, with no impact on cell growth, plasmid stability or DNAi inducibility even after passaging for >2 months. PMID:25988366

  17. DNA amplification using phi29 DNA polymerase validates gene polymorphism analysis from buccal mucosa samples.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Ryoji; Taniguchi, R; Masaki, Chihiro; Masaki, C; Murashima, Yuhi; Murashima, Y; Makino, Michiko; Makino, M; Kojo, Tatsuro; Kojo, T; Nakamoto, Tetsuji; Nakamoto, T; Hosokawa, Ryuji; Hosokawa, R

    2011-07-01

    Venous blood is currently the most common source of DNA for gene polymorphism screening; however, blood sampling is invasive and difficult to perform in general dental treatment. Buccal mucosa samples provide an alternative source of DNA, but it is frequently difficult to effectively amplify the DNA owing to the small amounts of sample material obtained. This study was performed to establish a method for performing total genomic DNA amplification from buccal mucosa samples using phi29 DNA polymerase. Total genomic DNA was isolated from buccal mucosa samples obtained from healthy subjects and was amplified using phi29 DNA polymerase. To determine the suitability of the extracted DNA for genotyping, polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses were performed for the IL-1 gene polymorphism. Genotyping of the IL-1 polymorphism was successful using the amplified DNA from a buccal mucosa, but genotyping was unsuccessful using the unamplified control because of low DNA purity. The method of extracting DNA from a buccal mucosa is painless, simple, minimally invasive, and rapid. Genomic DNA from a buccal mucosa can be amplified by phi29 DNA polymerase in sufficient quantity and quality to conduct gene polymorphism analyses. PMID:21296640

  18. Effect of food processing on plant DNA degradation and PCR-based GMO analysis: a review.

    PubMed

    Gryson, Nicolas

    2010-03-01

    The applicability of a DNA-based method for GMO detection and quantification depends on the quality and quantity of the DNA. Important food-processing conditions, for example temperature and pH, may lead to degradation of the DNA, rendering PCR analysis impossible or GMO quantification unreliable. This review discusses the effect of several food processes on DNA degradation and subsequent GMO detection and quantification. The data show that, although many of these processes do indeed lead to the fragmentation of DNA, amplification of the DNA may still be possible. Length and composition of the amplicon may, however, affect the result, as also may the method of extraction used. Also, many techniques are used to describe the behaviour of DNA in food processing, which occasionally makes it difficult to compare research results. Further research should be aimed at defining ingredients in terms of their DNA quality and PCR amplification ability, and elaboration of matrix-specific certified reference materials. PMID:20012944

  19. DNA identification of Salvia divinorum samples.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Terence M; Bola, Gurpreet

    2013-01-01

    Salvia divinorum (diviner's sage) is a plant in the mint family that produces an hallucinogenic compound, salvinorin A. The plant is used, often by chewing or smoking, as a "recreational" drug source and is regulated or banned in several states and countries. We describe a simple DNA technique, polymerase chain reaction of the ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase large subunit (rbcL) gene, that can distinguish S. divinorum leaf pieces from pieces of tobacco or cannabis. We have also found DNA sequences adjacent to the chloroplast leucine transfer RNA (trnL) gene that are specific to S. divinorum and distinguish it from other horticulturally popular Salvia species. We report some significant differences between the S. divinorum trnL sequences we determined and those now published in GenBank. PMID:22578875

  20. Exonuclease TREX1 degrades double-stranded DNA to prevent spontaneous lupus-like inflammatory disease

    PubMed Central

    Grieves, Jessica L.; Fye, Jason M.; Harvey, Scott; Grayson, Jason M.; Hollis, Thomas; Perrino, Fred W.

    2015-01-01

    The TREX1 gene encodes a potent DNA exonuclease, and mutations in TREX1 cause a spectrum of lupus-like autoimmune diseases. Most lupus patients develop autoantibodies to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), but the source of DNA antigen is unknown. The TREX1 D18N mutation causes a monogenic, cutaneous form of lupus called familial chilblain lupus, and the TREX1 D18N enzyme exhibits dysfunctional dsDNA-degrading activity, providing a link between dsDNA degradation and nucleic acid-mediated autoimmune disease. We determined the structure of the TREX1 D18N protein in complex with dsDNA, revealing how this exonuclease uses a novel DNA-unwinding mechanism to separate the polynucleotide strands for single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) loading into the active site. The TREX1 D18N dsDNA interactions coupled with catalytic deficiency explain how this mutant nuclease prevents dsDNA degradation. We tested the effects of TREX1 D18N in vivo by replacing the TREX1 WT gene in mice with the TREX1 D18N allele. The TREX1 D18N mice exhibit systemic inflammation, lymphoid hyperplasia, vasculitis, and kidney disease. The observed lupus-like inflammatory disease is associated with immune activation, production of autoantibodies to dsDNA, and deposition of immune complexes in the kidney. Thus, dysfunctional dsDNA degradation by TREX1 D18N induces disease in mice that recapitulates many characteristics of human lupus. Failure to clear DNA has long been linked to lupus in humans, and these data point to dsDNA as a key substrate for TREX1 and a major antigen source in mice with dysfunctional TREX1 enzyme. PMID:25848017

  1. Exonuclease TREX1 degrades double-stranded DNA to prevent spontaneous lupus-like inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Grieves, Jessica L; Fye, Jason M; Harvey, Scott; Grayson, Jason M; Hollis, Thomas; Perrino, Fred W

    2015-04-21

    The TREX1 gene encodes a potent DNA exonuclease, and mutations in TREX1 cause a spectrum of lupus-like autoimmune diseases. Most lupus patients develop autoantibodies to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), but the source of DNA antigen is unknown. The TREX1 D18N mutation causes a monogenic, cutaneous form of lupus called familial chilblain lupus, and the TREX1 D18N enzyme exhibits dysfunctional dsDNA-degrading activity, providing a link between dsDNA degradation and nucleic acid-mediated autoimmune disease. We determined the structure of the TREX1 D18N protein in complex with dsDNA, revealing how this exonuclease uses a novel DNA-unwinding mechanism to separate the polynucleotide strands for single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) loading into the active site. The TREX1 D18N dsDNA interactions coupled with catalytic deficiency explain how this mutant nuclease prevents dsDNA degradation. We tested the effects of TREX1 D18N in vivo by replacing the TREX1 WT gene in mice with the TREX1 D18N allele. The TREX1 D18N mice exhibit systemic inflammation, lymphoid hyperplasia, vasculitis, and kidney disease. The observed lupus-like inflammatory disease is associated with immune activation, production of autoantibodies to dsDNA, and deposition of immune complexes in the kidney. Thus, dysfunctional dsDNA degradation by TREX1 D18N induces disease in mice that recapitulates many characteristics of human lupus. Failure to clear DNA has long been linked to lupus in humans, and these data point to dsDNA as a key substrate for TREX1 and a major antigen source in mice with dysfunctional TREX1 enzyme. PMID:25848017

  2. Chromosomal lesion suppression and removal in Escherichia coli via linear DNA degradation.

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Anabel; Kuzminov, Andrei

    2003-01-01

    RecBCD is a DNA helicase/exonuclease implicated in degradation of foreign linear DNA and in RecA-dependent recombinational repair of chromosomal lesions in E. coli. The low viability of recA recBC mutants vs. recA mutants indicates the existence of RecA-independent roles for RecBCD. To distinguish among possible RecA-independent roles of the RecBCD enzyme in replication, repair, and DNA degradation, we introduced wild-type and mutant combinations of the recBCD chromosomal region on a low-copy-number plasmid into a DeltarecA DeltarecBCD mutant and determined the viability of resulting strains. Our results argue against ideas that RecBCD is a structural element in the replication factory or is involved in RecA-independent repair of chromosomal lesions. We found that RecBCD-catalyzed DNA degradation is the only activity important for the recA-independent viability, suggesting that degradation of linear tails of sigma-replicating chromosomes could be one of the RecBCD's roles. However, since the weaker DNA degradation capacity due a combination of the RecBC helicase and ssDNA-specific exonucleases restores viability of the DeltarecA DeltarecBCD mutant to a significant extent, we favor suppression of chromosomal lesions via linear DNA degradation at reversed replication forks as the major RecA-independent role of the RecBCD enzyme. PMID:12702673

  3. The essence of DNA sample preparation for MALDI mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Sascha

    2007-03-10

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry has become an important analytical technique in nucleic acid research. MALDI is used for quality control of oligonucleotides as well as for analyzing DNA markers. Sample preparation of nucleic acids is crucial for obtaining high-quality mass spectra. Sample purity, solvent content, suitable matrices, and substrate surfaces, as well as laboratory conditions affect spectra quality. This review presents essential information with regard to sample preparation, DNA modification chemistry, and DNA purification, along with a discussion of instrumental advances, which facilitate and extend the applicability of MALDI in genomics. PMID:17137632

  4. XPB mediated retroviral cDNA degradation coincides with entry to the nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Yoder, Kristine E.; Roddick, William; Hoellerbauer, Pia; Fishel, Richard

    2011-02-20

    Retroviruses must integrate their cDNA to a host chromosome, but a significant fraction of retroviral cDNA is degraded before integration. XPB and XPD are part of the TFIIH complex which mediates basal transcription and DNA nucleotide excision repair. Retroviral infection increases when XPB or XPD are mutant. Here we show that inhibition of mRNA or protein synthesis does not affect HIV cDNA accumulation suggesting that TFIIH transcription activity is not required for degradation. Other host factors implicated in the stability of cDNA are not components of the XPB and XPD degradation pathway. Although an increase of retroviral cDNA in XPB or XPD mutant cells correlates with an increase of integrated provirus, the integration efficiency of pre-integration complexes is unaffected. Finally, HIV and MMLV cDNA degradation appears to coincide with nuclear import. These results suggest that TFIIH mediated cDNA degradation is a nuclear host defense against retroviral infection.

  5. Current developments in forensic interpretation of mixed DNA samples (Review)

    PubMed Central

    HU, NA; CONG, BIN; LI, SHUJIN; MA, CHUNLING; FU, LIHONG; ZHANG, XIAOJING

    2014-01-01

    A number of recent improvements have provided contemporary forensic investigations with a variety of tools to improve the analysis of mixed DNA samples in criminal investigations, producing notable improvements in the analysis of complex trace samples in cases of sexual assult and homicide. Mixed DNA contains DNA from two or more contributors, compounding DNA analysis by combining DNA from one or more major contributors with small amounts of DNA from potentially numerous minor contributors. These samples are characterized by a high probability of drop-out or drop-in combined with elevated stutter, significantly increasing analysis complexity. At some loci, minor contributor alleles may be completely obscured due to amplification bias or over-amplification, creating the illusion of additional contributors. Thus, estimating the number of contributors and separating contributor genotypes at a given locus is significantly more difficult in mixed DNA samples, requiring the application of specialized protocols that have only recently been widely commercialized and standardized. Over the last decade, the accuracy and repeatability of mixed DNA analyses available to conventional forensic laboratories has greatly advanced in terms of laboratory technology, mathematical models and biostatistical software, generating more accurate, rapid and readily available data for legal proceedings and criminal cases. PMID:24748965

  6. Current developments in forensic interpretation of mixed DNA samples (Review).

    PubMed

    Hu, Na; Cong, Bin; Li, Shujin; Ma, Chunling; Fu, Lihong; Zhang, Xiaojing

    2014-05-01

    A number of recent improvements have provided contemporary forensic investigations with a variety of tools to improve the analysis of mixed DNA samples in criminal investigations, producing notable improvements in the analysis of complex trace samples in cases of sexual assult and homicide. Mixed DNA contains DNA from two or more contributors, compounding DNA analysis by combining DNA from one or more major contributors with small amounts of DNA from potentially numerous minor contributors. These samples are characterized by a high probability of drop-out or drop-in combined with elevated stutter, significantly increasing analysis complexity. At some loci, minor contributor alleles may be completely obscured due to amplification bias or over-amplification, creating the illusion of additional contributors. Thus, estimating the number of contributors and separating contributor genotypes at a given locus is significantly more difficult in mixed DNA samples, requiring the application of specialized protocols that have only recently been widely commercialized and standardized. Over the last decade, the accuracy and repeatability of mixed DNA analyses available to conventional forensic laboratories has greatly advanced in terms of laboratory technology, mathematical models and biostatistical software, generating more accurate, rapid and readily available data for legal proceedings and criminal cases. PMID:24748965

  7. Rapid extraction and preservation of genomic DNA from human samples

    PubMed Central

    Kalyanasundaram, D.; Kim, J.-H.; Yeo, W.-H.; Oh, K.; Lee, K.-H.; Kim, M.-H.; Ryew, S.-M.; Ahn, S.-G.; Gao, D.; Cangelosi, G. A.; Chung, J.-H.

    2013-01-01

    Simple and rapid extraction of human genomic DNA remains a bottle neck for genome analysis and disease diagnosis. Current methods using microfilters require cumbersome, multiple handling steps in part because salt conditions must be controlled for attraction and elution of DNA in porous silica. We report a novel extraction method of human genomic DNA from buccal swab- and saliva samples. DNA is attracted on to a gold-coated microchip by an electric field and capillary action while the captured DNA is eluted by thermal heating at 70 °C. A prototype device was designed to handle 4 microchips, and a compatible protocol was developed. The extracted DNA using microchips was characterized by qPCR for different sample volumes, using different lengths of PCR amplicon, and nuclear and mitochondrial genes. In comparison with a commercial kit, an equivalent yield of DNA extraction was achieved with fewer steps. Room-temperature preservation for one month was demonstrated for captured DNA, facilitating straightforward collection, delivery and handling of genomic DNA in an environment-friendly protocol. PMID:23307121

  8. Filtration recovery of extracellular DNA from environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhanbei; Keeley, Ann

    2013-08-20

    qPCR methods are able to analyze DNA from microbes within hours of collecting water samples, providing the promptest notification and public awareness possible when unsafe pathogenic levels are reached. Health risk, however, may be overestimated by the presence of extracellular DNA (eDNA) that is corecovered by the filtration procedure which is the most commonly used method to concentrate target microbes from environmental waters. Using C. parvum 18S rRNA gene fragment as a representative of eDNA, we examined the impact of filters (types and pore sizes) and physiochemical properties of surface water samples on the recovery of spiked DNA. Our results indicated that binding affinities of various filter membranes were quantifiably different for eDNA fragments with the polycarbonate (PC) binding the least and mixed cellulose acetate and cellulose nitrate (MCE) binding the most as evidenced by up to 16% recovery of the spiked plasmid DNA with a pore size of 0.2 μm. Water quality parameters also had a distinct influence on the recovery of eDNA which was enhanced by the presence of high total suspended solid (TSS) concentrations and reduced pH. At pH 5.5, with 150 mg/L of clay, DNA recovery was increased to as much as 18%. By shielding the negative charge, thus increasing the interaction of DNA and colloids, the increase of Na(+) and Ca(2+) concentrations resulted in more DNA binding and consequently more recovery from environmental water samples. Therefore, in addition to analytical uncertainties, potential differences in qPCR data from filtered waters characterized with low pH and high TSS and ionic strength should be considered in pollution assessments. PMID:23869402

  9. Evaluation of purification procedures of DNA from maize-meal samples by exploiting different analytical techniques for the assessment of DNA quality.

    PubMed

    Vanni, Adriano; Anfossi, Laura; Giovannoli, Cristina; Oddenino, Leila; Giraudi, Gianfranco

    2004-04-01

    Two different approaches generally applied to achieve purification of DNA extracted from cells were compared: precipitation by organic solvents and enzymatic treatments. We investigated various experimental protocols reported in literature by evaluating DNA purity, integrity and yield. Reliability of analytical techniques normally employed to assess DNA purity and quantity was studied and comments and conclusions were suggested by comparing results obtained by different analytical techniques. Enzymatic treatments prove to be unable of increasing DNA purity while determining a significant degradation. In contrast, optimised conditions for solvent precipitation enabled a sharp increase of DNA purity to be obtained, associated with the maintenance of the initial DNA integrity. The application of the optimised protocol to maize-meal samples allowed us to achieve a good PCR amplification even with those samples which gave poor amplification by following the protocol recommended by the Italian legislation in force for GMO detection in food. PMID:15242092

  10. Cdt2-mediated XPG degradation promotes gap-filling DNA synthesis in nucleotide excision repair.

    PubMed

    Han, Chunhua; Wani, Gulzar; Zhao, Ran; Qian, Jiang; Sharma, Nidhi; He, Jinshan; Zhu, Qianzheng; Wang, Qi-En; Wani, Altaf A

    2015-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum group G (XPG) protein is a structure-specific repair endonuclease, which cleaves DNA strands on the 3' side of the DNA damage during nucleotide excision repair (NER). XPG also plays a crucial role in initiating DNA repair synthesis through recruitment of PCNA to the repair sites. However, the fate of XPG protein subsequent to the excision of DNA damage has remained unresolved. Here, we show that XPG, following its action on bulky lesions resulting from exposures to UV irradiation and cisplatin, is subjected to proteasome-mediated proteolytic degradation. Productive NER processing is required for XPG degradation as both UV and cisplatin treatment-induced XPG degradation is compromised in NER-deficient XP-A, XP-B, XP-C, and XP-F cells. In addition, the NER-related XPG degradation requires Cdt2, a component of an E3 ubiquitin ligase, CRL4(Cdt2). Micropore local UV irradiation and in situ Proximity Ligation assays demonstrated that Cdt2 is recruited to the UV-damage sites and interacts with XPG in the presence of PCNA. Importantly, Cdt2-mediated XPG degradation is crucial to the subsequent recruitment of DNA polymerase ? and DNA repair synthesis. Collectively, our data support the idea of PCNA recruitment to damage sites which occurs in conjunction with XPG, recognition of the PCNA-bound XPG by CRL4(Cdt2) for specific ubiquitylation and finally the protein degradation. In essence, XPG elimination from DNA damage sites clears the chromatin space needed for the subsequent recruitment of DNA polymerase ? to the damage site and completion of gap-filling DNA synthesis during the final stage of NER. PMID:25483071

  11. Singlet oxygen mediated DNA degradation by copper nanoparticles: potential towards cytotoxic effect on cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The DNA degradation potential and anti-cancer activities of copper nanoparticles of 4-5 nm size are reported. A dose dependent degradation of isolated DNA molecules by copper nanoparticles through generation of singlet oxygen was observed. Singlet oxygen scavengers such as sodium azide and Tris [hydroxyl methyl] amino methane were able to prevent the DNA degradation action of copper nanoparticles confirming the involvement of activated oxygen species in the degradation process. Additionally, it was observed that the copper nanoparticles are able to exert cytotoxic effect towards U937 and Hela cells of human histiocytic lymphoma and human cervical cancer origins, respectively by inducing apoptosis. The growth characteristics of U937 and Hela cells were studied applying various concentrations of the copper nanoparticles. PMID:21439072

  12. Assessing PreCR™ repair enzymes for restoration of STR profiles from artificially degraded DNA for human identification.

    PubMed

    Robertson, James M; Dineen, Shauna M; Scott, Kristina A; Lucyshyn, Jonathan; Saeed, Maria; Murphy, Devonie L; Schweighardt, Andrew J; Meiklejohn, Kelly A

    2014-09-01

    Forensic scientists have used several approaches to obtain short tandem repeat (STR) profiles from compromised DNA samples, including supplementing the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with enhancers and using procedures yielding reduced-length amplicons. For degraded DNA, the peak intensities of the alleles separated by electrophoresis generally decrease as the length of the allele increases. When the intensities of the alleles decrease below an established threshold, they are described as drop-outs, thus contributing to a partial STR profile. This work assesses the use of repair enzymes to improve the STR profiles from artificially degraded DNA. The commercial PreCR™ repair kit of DNA repair enzymes was tested on both purified DNA and native DNA in body fluids exposed to oxidizing agents, hydrolytic conditions, ultraviolet (UV) and ionizing radiation, and desiccation. The strategy was to restrict the level of DNA damage to that which yields partial STR profiles in order to test for allele restoration as opposed to simple allele enhancement. Two protocols were investigated for allele restoration: a sequential protocol using the manufacturer's repair procedure and a modified protocol reportedly designed for optimal STR analysis of forensic samples. Allele restoration was obtained with both protocols, but the peak height appeared to be higher for the modified protocol (determined by Mann-Kendall Trend Test). The success of the approach using the PreCR™ repair enzymes was sporadic; it led to allele restoration as well as allele drop-out. Additionally, allele restoration with the PreCR™ enzymes was compared with restoration by alternative, but commonly implemented approaches using Restorase™, PCRBoost™, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and the Minifiler™ STR system. The alternative methods were also successful in improving the STR profile, but their success also depended on the quality of the template encountered. Our results indicate the PreCR™ repair kit may be useful for restoring STR profiles from damaged DNA, but further work is required to develop a generalized approach. PMID:24997322

  13. A DNA methylation fingerprint of 1628 human samples

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Agustin F.; Assenov, Yassen; Martin-Subero, Jose Ignacio; Balint, Balazs; Siebert, Reiner; Taniguchi, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Hidalgo, Manuel; Tan, Aik-Choon; Galm, Oliver; Ferrer, Isidre; Sanchez-Cespedes, Montse; Villanueva, Alberto; Carmona, Javier; Sanchez-Mut, Jose V.; Berdasco, Maria; Moreno, Victor; Capella, Gabriel; Monk, David; Ballestar, Esteban; Ropero, Santiago; Martinez, Ramon; Sanchez-Carbayo, Marta; Prosper, Felipe; Agirre, Xabier; Fraga, Mario F.; Graa, Osvaldo; Perez-Jurado, Luis; Mora, Jaume; Puig, Susana; Prat, Jaime; Badimon, Lina; Puca, Annibale A.; Meltzer, Stephen J.; Lengauer, Thomas; Bridgewater, John; Bock, Christoph; Esteller, Manel

    2012-01-01

    Most of the studies characterizing DNA methylation patterns have been restricted to particular genomic loci in a limited number of human samples and pathological conditions. Herein, we present a compromise between an extremely comprehensive study of a human sample population with an intermediate level of resolution of CpGs at the genomic level. We obtained a DNA methylation fingerprint of 1628 human samples in which we interrogated 1505 CpG sites. The DNA methylation patterns revealed show this epigenetic mark to be critical in tissue-type definition and stemness, particularly around transcription start sites that are not within a CpG island. For disease, the generated DNA methylation fingerprints show that, during tumorigenesis, human cancer cells underwent a progressive gain of promoter CpG-island hypermethylation and a loss of CpG methylation in non-CpG-island promoters. Although transformed cells are those in which DNA methylation disruption is more obvious, we observed that other common human diseases, such as neurological and autoimmune disorders, had their own distinct DNA methylation profiles. Most importantly, we provide proof of principle that the DNA methylation fingerprints obtained might be useful for translational purposes by showing that we are able to identify the tumor type origin of cancers of unknown primary origin (CUPs). Thus, the DNA methylation patterns identified across the largest spectrum of samples, tissues, and diseases reported to date constitute a baseline for developing higher-resolution DNA methylation maps and provide important clues concerning the contribution of CpG methylation to tissue identity and its changes in the most prevalent human diseases. PMID:21613409

  14. Evaluation of samples comprising minute amounts of DNA.

    PubMed

    Benschop, Corina C G; Haned, Hinda; Yoo, Seong Yeon; Sijen, Titia

    2015-09-01

    Minute amounts of DNA representing only few diploid cells, may be interrogated using enhanced DNA profiling, which will be accompanied by stochastic amplification effects. Notwithstanding, a weight of evidence statistic may be calculated using current interpretation software. In this study, we profiled single donor, two- and three-person samples having only 3 pg to 12 pg of DNA per contributor using both standard and enhanced capillary electrophoresis (CE) injection settings. Likelihood ratios (LRs) were computed using LRmix Studio, compared for both types of profiles and examined in relation to the amount of DNA, drop-out level, number of detected alleles, peak heights and reproducibility of alleles. Especially for DNA profiles that were generated using enhanced CE, the obtained LRs could indicate strong evidence in favour of the prosecution (log10(LR)>6), also when the amount of DNA represented about half of a diploid cell equivalent in the amplification. These results illustrate that an assessment of the criminalistic relevance of a sample carrying minute amounts of DNA is essential prior to applying enhanced interrogation techniques and/or calculating a weight of evidence statistic. PMID:26385713

  15. Sliding Window Analyses for Optimal Selection of Mini-Barcodes, and Application to 454-Pyrosequencing for Specimen Identification from Degraded DNA

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Stephane; Brown, Samuel D. J.; Collins, Rupert A.; Cruickshank, Robert H.; Lefort, Marie-Caroline; Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba; Wratten, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    DNA barcoding remains a challenge when applied to diet analyses, ancient DNA studies, environmental DNA samples and, more generally, in any cases where DNA samples have not been adequately preserved. Because the size of the commonly used barcoding marker (COI) is over 600 base pairs (bp), amplification fails when the DNA molecule is degraded into smaller fragments. However, relevant information for specimen identification may not be evenly distributed along the barcoding region, and a shorter target can be sufficient for identification purposes. This study proposes a new, widely applicable, method to compare the performance of all potential mini-barcodes for a given molecular marker and to objectively select the shortest and most informative one. Our method is based on a sliding window analysis implemented in the new R package SPIDER (Species IDentity and Evolution in R). This method is applicable to any taxon and any molecular marker. Here, it was tested on earthworm DNA that had been degraded through digestion by carnivorous landsnails. A 100 bp region of 16 S rDNA was selected as the shortest informative fragment (mini-barcode) required for accurate specimen identification. Corresponding primers were designed and used to amplify degraded earthworm (prey) DNA from 46 landsnail (predator) faeces using 454-pyrosequencing. This led to the detection of 18 earthworm species in the diet of the snail. We encourage molecular ecologists to use this method to objectively select the most informative region of the gene they aim to amplify from degraded DNA. The method and tools provided here, can be particularly useful (1) when dealing with degraded DNA for which only small fragments can be amplified, (2) for cases where no consensus has yet been reached on the appropriate barcode gene, or (3) to allow direct analysis of short reads derived from massively parallel sequencing without the need for bioinformatic consolidation. PMID:22666489

  16. Evaluation of DNA degradation using flow cytometry: promising tool for postmortem interval determination.

    PubMed

    Williams, Teddric; Soni, Shivani; White, Jason; Can, Gunay; Javan, Gulnaz T

    2015-06-01

    Over the years, there have been numerous formulas proposed for use in determining the postmortem interval (PMI); however, no method is all encompassing and absolute. Even so, very little research has been undertaken to determine if there is a viable correlation between the rate of DNA degradation and PMI, which can be calculated from analysis by flow cytometry. In this study, we analyzed the rate of DNA degradation of spleen and brain tissues from 15 cadavers over a 96-hour period of time at 2 temperature conditions, that is, 21C (room temperature) and 4C (refrigerator) to mimic summer and winter weather, respectively. The resulting data were used to form a pattern that correlates DNA degradation to cell death occurrence. Statistical analyses were performed to determine the significance of the relationship between PMI and DNA degradation. Moreover, in search of alternative reliable organs of interest for PMI estimation, the results demonstrate that the brain has lesser DNA degradation as compared with the spleen. Thus, the current study suggests that the brain can be an organ of choice for PMI studies, but more research is underway in this aspect. PMID:25893913

  17. DNA damage-induced activation of CUL4B targets HUWE1 for proteasomal degradation

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Juan; Lu, Guang; Li, Li; Wang, Xiaozhen; Cao, Li; Lin, Ming; Zhang, Sha; Shao, Genze

    2015-01-01

    The E3 ubiquitin ligase HUWE1/Mule/ARF-BP1 plays an important role in integrating/coordinating diverse cellular processes such as DNA damage repair and apoptosis. A previous study has shown that HUWE1 is required for the early step of DNA damage-induced apoptosis, by targeting MCL-1 for proteasomal degradation. However, HUWE1 is subsequently inactivated, promoting cell survival and the subsequent DNA damage repair process. The mechanism underlying its regulation during this process remains largely undefined. Here, we show that the Cullin4B-RING E3 ligase (CRL4B) is required for proteasomal degradation of HUWE1 in response to DNA damage. CUL4B is activated in a NEDD8-dependent manner, and ubiquitinates HUWE1 in vitro and in vivo. The depletion of CUL4B stabilizes HUWE1, which in turn accelerates the degradation of MCL-1, leading to increased induction of apoptosis. Accordingly, cells deficient in CUL4B showed increased sensitivity to DNA damage reagents. More importantly, upon CUL4B depletion, these phenotypes can be rescued through simultaneous depletion of HUWE1, consistent with the role of CUL4B in regulating HUWE1. Collectively, these results identify CRL4B as an essential E3 ligase in targeting the proteasomal degradation of HUWE1 in response to DNA damage, and provide a potential strategy for cancer therapy by targeting HUWE1 and the CUL4B E3 ligase. PMID:25883150

  18. Targeted sampling of cementum for recovery of nuclear DNA from human teeth and the impact of common decontamination measures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Teeth are a valuable source of DNA for identification of fragmented and degraded human remains. While the value of dental pulp as a source of DNA is well established, the quantity and presentation of DNA in the hard dental tissues has not been extensively studied. Without this knowledge common decontamination, sampling and DNA extraction techniques may be suboptimal. Targeted sampling of specific dental tissues could maximise DNA profiling success, while minimising the need for laborious sampling protocols and DNA extraction techniques, thus improving workflows and efficiencies. We aimed to determine the location of cellular DNA in non-degraded human teeth to quantify the yield of nuclear DNA from cementum, the most accessible and easily sampled dental tissue, and to investigate the effect of a common decontamination method, treatment with sodium hypochlorite (bleach). We examined teeth histologically and subsequently quantified the yield of nuclear DNA from the cementum of 66 human third molar teeth. We also explored the effects of bleach (at varying concentrations and exposure times) on nuclear DNA within teeth, using histological and quantitative PCR methods. Results Histology confirmed the presence of nucleated cells within pulp and cementum, but not in dentine. Nuclear DNA yields from cementum varied substantially between individuals but all samples gave sufficient DNA (from as little as 20 mg of tissue) to produce full short tandem repeat (STR) profiles. Variation in yield between individuals was not influenced by chronological age or sex of the donor. Bleach treatment with solutions as dilute as 2.5% for as little as 1 min damaged the visible nuclear material and reduced DNA yields from cementum by an order of magnitude. Conclusions Cementum is a valuable, and easily accessible, source of nuclear DNA from teeth, and may be a preferred source where large numbers of individuals need to be sampled quickly (for example, mass disaster victim identification) without the need for specialist equipment or from diseased and degraded teeth, where pulp is absent. Indiscriminant sampling and decontamination protocols applied to the outer surface of teeth can destroy this DNA, reducing the likelihood of successful STR typing results. PMID:24139166

  19. A simulation study of sample size for DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Luo, Arong; Lan, Haiqiang; Ling, Cheng; Zhang, Aibing; Shi, Lei; Ho, Simon Y W; Zhu, Chaodong

    2015-12-01

    For some groups of organisms, DNA barcoding can provide a useful tool in taxonomy, evolutionary biology, and biodiversity assessment. However, the efficacy of DNA barcoding depends on the degree of sampling per species, because a large enough sample size is needed to provide a reliable estimate of genetic polymorphism and for delimiting species. We used a simulation approach to examine the effects of sample size on four estimators of genetic polymorphism related to DNA barcoding: mismatch distribution, nucleotide diversity, the number of haplotypes, and maximum pairwise distance. Our results showed that mismatch distributions derived from subsamples of ≥20 individuals usually bore a close resemblance to that of the full dataset. Estimates of nucleotide diversity from subsamples of ≥20 individuals tended to be bell-shaped around that of the full dataset, whereas estimates from smaller subsamples were not. As expected, greater sampling generally led to an increase in the number of haplotypes. We also found that subsamples of ≥20 individuals allowed a good estimate of the maximum pairwise distance of the full dataset, while smaller ones were associated with a high probability of underestimation. Overall, our study confirms the expectation that larger samples are beneficial for the efficacy of DNA barcoding and suggests that a minimum sample size of 20 individuals is needed in practice for each population. PMID:26811761

  20. Estimation of the Fraction of Cancer Cells in a Tumor DNA Sample Using DNA Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Takamasa; Matsuda, Yasunori; Yamashita, Satoshi; Hattori, Naoko; Kushima, Ryoji; Lee, Yi-Chia; Igaki, Hiroyasu; Tachimori, Yuji; Nagino, Masato; Ushijima, Toshikazu

    2013-01-01

    Contamination of normal cells is almost always present in tumor samples and affects their molecular analyses. DNA methylation, a stable epigenetic modification, is cell type-dependent, and different between cancer and normal cells. Here, we aimed to demonstrate that DNA methylation can be used to estimate the fraction of cancer cells in a tumor DNA sample, using esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) as an example. First, by an Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array, we isolated three genomic regions (TFAP2B, ARHGEF4, and RAPGEFL1) i) highly methylated in four ESCC cell lines, ii) hardly methylated in a pooled sample of non-cancerous mucosae, a pooled sample of normal esophageal mucosae, and peripheral leukocytes, and iii) frequently methylated in 28 ESCCs (TFAP2B, 24/28; ARHGEF4, 20/28; and RAPGEFL1, 19/28). Second, using eight pairs of cancer and non-cancer cell samples prepared by laser capture microdissection, we confirmed that at least one of the three regions was almost completely methylated in ESCC cells, and all the three regions were almost completely unmethylated in non-cancer cells. We also confirmed that DNA copy number alterations of the three regions in 15 ESCC samples were rare, and did not affect the estimation of the fraction of cancer cells. Then, the fraction of cancer cells in a tumor DNA sample was defined as the highest methylation level of the three regions, and we confirmed a high correlation between the fraction assessed by the DNA methylation fraction marker and the fraction assessed by a pathologist (r=0.85; p<0.001). Finally, we observed that, by correction of the cancer cell content, CpG islands in promoter regions of tumor-suppressor genes were almost completely methylated. These results demonstrate that DNA methylation can be used to estimate the fraction of cancer cells in a tumor DNA sample. PMID:24312652

  1. Ancient DNA studies: new perspectives on old samples.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, Ermanno; Lari, Martina; Gigli, Elena; De Bellis, Gianluca; Caramelli, David

    2012-01-01

    In spite of past controversies, the field of ancient DNA is now a reliable research area due to recent methodological improvements. A series of recent large-scale studies have revealed the true potential of ancient DNA samples to study the processes of evolution and to test models and assumptions commonly used to reconstruct patterns of evolution and to analyze population genetics and palaeoecological changes. Recent advances in DNA technologies, such as next-generation sequencing make it possible to recover DNA information from archaeological and paleontological remains allowing us to go back in time and study the genetic relationships between extinct organisms and their contemporary relatives. With the next-generation sequencing methodologies, DNA sequences can be retrieved even from samples (for example human remains) for which the technical pitfalls of classical methodologies required stringent criteria to guaranty the reliability of the results. In this paper, we review the methodologies applied to ancient DNA analysis and the perspectives that next-generation sequencing applications provide in this field. PMID:22697611

  2. Ancient DNA studies: new perspectives on old samples

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In spite of past controversies, the field of ancient DNA is now a reliable research area due to recent methodological improvements. A series of recent large-scale studies have revealed the true potential of ancient DNA samples to study the processes of evolution and to test models and assumptions commonly used to reconstruct patterns of evolution and to analyze population genetics and palaeoecological changes. Recent advances in DNA technologies, such as next-generation sequencing make it possible to recover DNA information from archaeological and paleontological remains allowing us to go back in time and study the genetic relationships between extinct organisms and their contemporary relatives. With the next-generation sequencing methodologies, DNA sequences can be retrieved even from samples (for example human remains) for which the technical pitfalls of classical methodologies required stringent criteria to guaranty the reliability of the results. In this paper, we review the methodologies applied to ancient DNA analysis and the perspectives that next-generation sequencing applications provide in this field. PMID:22697611

  3. Controls to validate plasma samples for cell free DNA quantification.

    PubMed

    Pallisgaard, Niels; Spindler, Karen-Lise Garm; Andersen, Rikke Fredslund; Brandslund, Ivan; Jakobsen, Anders

    2015-06-15

    Recent research has focused on the utility of cell free DNA (cfDNA) in serum and plasma for clinical application, especially in oncology. The literature holds promise of cfDNA as a valuable tumour marker to be used for treatment selection, monitoring and follow-up. The results, however, are diverging due to methodological differences with lack of standardisation and definition of sensitivity. The new biological information has not yet come into routine use. The present study presents external standardisation by spiking with non-human DNA fragments to control for loss of DNA during sample preparation and measurement. It also suggests a method to control for admixture of DNA from normal lymphocytes by utilizing the unique immunoglobulin gene rearrangement in the B-cells. The results show that this approach improves the quality of the analysis and lowers the risk of falsely increased values. In conclusion we suggest a new method to improve the accuracy of cfDNA measurements easily incorporated in the current technology. PMID:25896958

  4. Selective removal of human DNA from metagenomic DNA samples extracted from dental plaque.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Stephanie J; Easton, Samantha; Booth, Veronica; Henderson, Brian; Wade, William G; Ward, John M

    2011-08-01

    Metagenomic techniques are used to analyse bacterial communities allowing both culturable and unculturable species to be represented. However, the screening of oral metagenomic samples can be hindered by high animal host DNA content. This study evaluated methods for the reduction of human DNA concentrations within oral metagenomic samples. Plaque samples were collected from 27 patients presenting with periodontal disease and treated to remove human DNA using either selective lysis of eukaryotic cells at several buffer concentrations or differential centrifugation after treatment with trypsin and/or detergents. Human and bacterial DNA levels were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The human DNA content of plaque extracts was significantly reduced by all treatments compared with an untreated control (P < 0.05). However, differential centrifugation simultaneously reduced the bacterial DNA content unless samples were pretreated with a detergent. Observations of Gram stained samples that were processed using differential centrifugation without detergent suggest that many bacteria remain adhered to human cells. An approach that uses differential centrifugation in parallel with selective lysis is recommended to fully represent the oral microbiota in metagenomic samples, including those tightly adhered to human cells and more delicate bacteria such as Mycoplasma. PMID:21298692

  5. Detection of Streptococcus mutans Genomic DNA in Human DNA Samples Extracted from Saliva and Blood

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Alexandre R.; Deeley, Kathleen B.; Callahan, Nicholas F.; Noel, Jacqueline B.; Anjomshoaa, Ida; Carricato, Wendy M.; Schulhof, Louise P.; DeSensi, Rebecca S.; Gandhi, Pooja; Resick, Judith M.; Brandon, Carla A.; Rozhon, Christopher; Patir, Asli; Yildirim, Mine; Poletta, Fernando A.; Mereb, Juan C.; Letra, Ariadne; Menezes, Renato; Wendell, Steven; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge S.; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Orioli, Ida M.; Seymen, Figen; Weyant, Robert J.; Crout, Richard; McNeil, Daniel W.; Modesto, Adriana; Marazita, Mary L.

    2011-01-01

    Caries is a multifactorial disease, and studies aiming to unravel the factors modulating its etiology must consider all known predisposing factors. One major factor is bacterial colonization, and Streptococcus mutans is the main microorganism associated with the initiation of the disease. In our studies, we have access to DNA samples extracted from human saliva and blood. In this report, we tested a real-time PCR assay developed to detect copies of genomic DNA from Streptococcus mutans in 1,424 DNA samples from humans. Our results suggest that we can determine the presence of genomic DNA copies of Streptococcus mutans in both DNA samples from caries-free and caries-affected individuals. However, we were not able to detect the presence of genomic DNA copies of Streptococcus mutans in any DNA samples extracted from peripheral blood, which suggests the assay may not be sensitive enough for this goal. Values of the threshold cycle of the real-time PCR reaction correlate with higher levels of caries experience in children, but this correlation could not be detected for adults. PMID:21731912

  6. UV-triggered p21 degradation facilitates damaged-DNA replication and preserves genomic stability

    PubMed Central

    Mansilla, Sabrina F.; Soria, Gastn; Vallerga, Mara Beln; Habif, Martn; Martnez-Lpez, Wilner; Prives, Carol; Gottifredi, Vanesa

    2013-01-01

    Although many genotoxic treatments upregulate the cyclin kinase inhibitor p21, agents such as UV irradiation trigger p21 degradation. This suggests that p21 blocks a process relevant for the cellular response to UV. Here, we show that forced p21 stabilization after UV strongly impairs damaged-DNA replication, which is associated with permanent deficiencies in the recruitment of DNA polymerases from the Y family involved in translesion DNA synthesis), with the accumulation of DNA damage markers and increased genomic instability. Remarkably, such noxious effects disappear when disrupting the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) interacting motif of stable p21, thus suggesting that the release of PCNA from p21 interaction is sufficient to allow the recruitment to PCNA of partners (such as Y polymerases) relevant for the UV response. Expression of degradable p21 only transiently delays early replication events and Y polymerase recruitment after UV irradiation. These temporary defects disappear in a manner that correlates with p21 degradation with no detectable consequences on later replication events or genomic stability. Together, our findings suggest that the biological role of UV-triggered p21 degradation is to prevent replication defects by facilitating the tolerance of UV-induced DNA lesions. PMID:23723248

  7. Virology. Comment on "Specific and nonhepatotoxic degradation of nuclear hepatitis B virus cccDNA".

    PubMed

    Chisari, Francis V; Mason, William S; Seeger, Christoph

    2014-06-13

    Lucifora et al. (Research Articles, 14 March 2014, p. 1221) report that the hepatitis B virus (HBV) transcriptional template, a long-lived covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) molecule, is degraded noncytolytically by agents that up-regulate APOBEC3A and 3B. If these results can be independently confirmed, they would represent a critical first step toward development of a cure for the 400 million patients who are chronically infected by HBV. PMID:24926010

  8. Parallel characterization of anaerobic toluene- and ethylbenzene-degrading microbial consortia by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, RNA-DNA membrane hybridization, and DNA microarray technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koizumi, Yoshikazu; Kelly, John J.; Nakagawa, Tatsunori; Urakawa, Hidetoshi; El-Fantroussi, Said; Al-Muzaini, Saleh; Fukui, Manabu; Urushigawa, Yoshikuni; Stahl, David A.

    2002-01-01

    A mesophilic toluene-degrading consortium (TDC) and an ethylbenzene-degrading consortium (EDC) were established under sulfate-reducing conditions. These consortia were first characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments, followed by sequencing. The sequences of the major bands (T-1 and E-2) belonging to TDC and EDC, respectively, were affiliated with the family Desulfobacteriaceae. Another major band from EDC (E-1) was related to an uncultured non-sulfate-reducing soil bacterium. Oligonucleotide probes specific for the 16S rRNAs of target organisms corresponding to T-1, E-1, and E-2 were designed, and hybridization conditions were optimized for two analytical formats, membrane and DNA microarray hybridization. Both formats were used to characterize the TDC and EDC, and the results of both were consistent with DGGE analysis. In order to assess the utility of the microarray format for analysis of environmental samples, oil-contaminated sediments from the coast of Kuwait were analyzed. The DNA microarray successfully detected bacterial nucleic acids from these samples, but probes targeting specific groups of sulfate-reducing bacteria did not give positive signals. The results of this study demonstrate the limitations and the potential utility of DNA microarrays for microbial community analysis.

  9. Searching for the Optimal Sampling Solution: Variation in Invertebrate Communities, Sample Condition and DNA Quality.

    PubMed

    Gossner, Martin M; Struwe, Jan-Frederic; Sturm, Sarah; Max, Simeon; McCutcheon, Michelle; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Zytynska, Sharon E

    2016-01-01

    There is a great demand for standardising biodiversity assessments in order to allow optimal comparison across research groups. For invertebrates, pitfall or flight-interception traps are commonly used, but sampling solution differs widely between studies, which could influence the communities collected and affect sample processing (morphological or genetic). We assessed arthropod communities with flight-interception traps using three commonly used sampling solutions across two forest types and two vertical strata. We first considered the effect of sampling solution and its interaction with forest type, vertical stratum, and position of sampling jar at the trap on sample condition and community composition. We found that samples collected in copper sulphate were more mouldy and fragmented relative to other solutions which might impair morphological identification, but condition depended on forest type, trap type and the position of the jar. Community composition, based on order-level identification, did not differ across sampling solutions and only varied with forest type and vertical stratum. Species richness and species-level community composition, however, differed greatly among sampling solutions. Renner solution was highly attractant for beetles and repellent for true bugs. Secondly, we tested whether sampling solution affects subsequent molecular analyses and found that DNA barcoding success was species-specific. Samples from copper sulphate produced the fewest successful DNA sequences for genetic identification, and since DNA yield or quality was not particularly reduced in these samples additional interactions between the solution and DNA must also be occurring. Our results show that the choice of sampling solution should be an important consideration in biodiversity studies. Due to the potential bias towards or against certain species by Ethanol-containing sampling solution we suggest ethylene glycol as a suitable sampling solution when genetic analysis tools are to be used and copper sulphate when focusing on morphological species identification and facing financial restrictions in biodiversity studies. PMID:26840598

  10. Searching for the Optimal Sampling Solution: Variation in Invertebrate Communities, Sample Condition and DNA Quality

    PubMed Central

    Gossner, Martin M.; Struwe, Jan-Frederic; Sturm, Sarah; Max, Simeon; McCutcheon, Michelle; Weisser, Wolfgang W.; Zytynska, Sharon E.

    2016-01-01

    There is a great demand for standardising biodiversity assessments in order to allow optimal comparison across research groups. For invertebrates, pitfall or flight-interception traps are commonly used, but sampling solution differs widely between studies, which could influence the communities collected and affect sample processing (morphological or genetic). We assessed arthropod communities with flight-interception traps using three commonly used sampling solutions across two forest types and two vertical strata. We first considered the effect of sampling solution and its interaction with forest type, vertical stratum, and position of sampling jar at the trap on sample condition and community composition. We found that samples collected in copper sulphate were more mouldy and fragmented relative to other solutions which might impair morphological identification, but condition depended on forest type, trap type and the position of the jar. Community composition, based on order-level identification, did not differ across sampling solutions and only varied with forest type and vertical stratum. Species richness and species-level community composition, however, differed greatly among sampling solutions. Renner solution was highly attractant for beetles and repellent for true bugs. Secondly, we tested whether sampling solution affects subsequent molecular analyses and found that DNA barcoding success was species-specific. Samples from copper sulphate produced the fewest successful DNA sequences for genetic identification, and since DNA yield or quality was not particularly reduced in these samples additional interactions between the solution and DNA must also be occurring. Our results show that the choice of sampling solution should be an important consideration in biodiversity studies. Due to the potential bias towards or against certain species by Ethanol-containing sampling solution we suggest ethylene glycol as a suitable sampling solution when genetic analysis tools are to be used and copper sulphate when focusing on morphological species identification and facing financial restrictions in biodiversity studies. PMID:26840598

  11. Environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling improves occurrence and detection estimates of invasive burmese pythons.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Margaret E; Oyler-McCance, Sara J; Dorazio, Robert M; Fike, Jennifer A; Smith, Brian J; Hunter, Charles T; Reed, Robert N; Hart, Kristen M

    2015-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) methods are used to detect DNA that is shed into the aquatic environment by cryptic or low density species. Applied in eDNA studies, occupancy models can be used to estimate occurrence and detection probabilities and thereby account for imperfect detection. However, occupancy terminology has been applied inconsistently in eDNA studies, and many have calculated occurrence probabilities while not considering the effects of imperfect detection. Low detection of invasive giant constrictors using visual surveys and traps has hampered the estimation of occupancy and detection estimates needed for population management in southern Florida, USA. Giant constrictor snakes pose a threat to native species and the ecological restoration of the Florida Everglades. To assist with detection, we developed species-specific eDNA assays using quantitative PCR (qPCR) for the Burmese python (Python molurus bivittatus), Northern African python (P. sebae), boa constrictor (Boa constrictor), and the green (Eunectes murinus) and yellow anaconda (E. notaeus). Burmese pythons, Northern African pythons, and boa constrictors are established and reproducing, while the green and yellow anaconda have the potential to become established. We validated the python and boa constrictor assays using laboratory trials and tested all species in 21 field locations distributed in eight southern Florida regions. Burmese python eDNA was detected in 37 of 63 field sampling events; however, the other species were not detected. Although eDNA was heterogeneously distributed in the environment, occupancy models were able to provide the first estimates of detection probabilities, which were greater than 91%. Burmese python eDNA was detected along the leading northern edge of the known population boundary. The development of informative detection tools and eDNA occupancy models can improve conservation efforts in southern Florida and support more extensive studies of invasive constrictors. Generic sampling design and terminology are proposed to standardize and clarify interpretations of eDNA-based occupancy models. PMID:25874630

  12. Environmental DNA (eDNA) Sampling Improves Occurrence and Detection Estimates of Invasive Burmese Pythons

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Margaret E.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Dorazio, Robert M.; Fike, Jennifer A.; Smith, Brian J.; Hunter, Charles T.; Reed, Robert N.; Hart, Kristen M.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) methods are used to detect DNA that is shed into the aquatic environment by cryptic or low density species. Applied in eDNA studies, occupancy models can be used to estimate occurrence and detection probabilities and thereby account for imperfect detection. However, occupancy terminology has been applied inconsistently in eDNA studies, and many have calculated occurrence probabilities while not considering the effects of imperfect detection. Low detection of invasive giant constrictors using visual surveys and traps has hampered the estimation of occupancy and detection estimates needed for population management in southern Florida, USA. Giant constrictor snakes pose a threat to native species and the ecological restoration of the Florida Everglades. To assist with detection, we developed species-specific eDNA assays using quantitative PCR (qPCR) for the Burmese python (Python molurus bivittatus), Northern African python (P. sebae), boa constrictor (Boa constrictor), and the green (Eunectes murinus) and yellow anaconda (E. notaeus). Burmese pythons, Northern African pythons, and boa constrictors are established and reproducing, while the green and yellow anaconda have the potential to become established. We validated the python and boa constrictor assays using laboratory trials and tested all species in 21 field locations distributed in eight southern Florida regions. Burmese python eDNA was detected in 37 of 63 field sampling events; however, the other species were not detected. Although eDNA was heterogeneously distributed in the environment, occupancy models were able to provide the first estimates of detection probabilities, which were greater than 91%. Burmese python eDNA was detected along the leading northern edge of the known population boundary. The development of informative detection tools and eDNA occupancy models can improve conservation efforts in southern Florida and support more extensive studies of invasive constrictors. Generic sampling design and terminology are proposed to standardize and clarify interpretations of eDNA-based occupancy models. PMID:25874630

  13. Environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling improves occurrence and detection estimates of invasive Burmese pythons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunter, Margaret E.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Dorazio, Robert M.; Fike, Jennifer A.; Smith, Brian J.; Hunter, Charles T.; Reed, Robert N.; Hart, Kristen M.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) methods are used to detect DNA that is shed into the aquatic environment by cryptic or low density species. Applied in eDNA studies, occupancy models can be used to estimate occurrence and detection probabilities and thereby account for imperfect detection. However, occupancy terminology has been applied inconsistently in eDNA studies, and many have calculated occurrence probabilities while not considering the effects of imperfect detection. Low detection of invasive giant constrictors using visual surveys and traps has hampered the estimation of occupancy and detection estimates needed for population management in southern Florida, USA. Giant constrictor snakes pose a threat to native species and the ecological restoration of the Florida Everglades. To assist with detection, we developed species-specific eDNA assays using quantitative PCR (qPCR) for the Burmese python (Python molurus bivittatus), Northern African python (P. sebae), boa constrictor (Boa constrictor), and the green (Eunectes murinus) and yellow anaconda (E. notaeus). Burmese pythons, Northern African pythons, and boa constrictors are established and reproducing, while the green and yellow anaconda have the potential to become established. We validated the python and boa constrictor assays using laboratory trials and tested all species in 21 field locations distributed in eight southern Florida regions. Burmese python eDNA was detected in 37 of 63 field sampling events; however, the other species were not detected. Although eDNA was heterogeneously distributed in the environment, occupancy models were able to provide the first estimates of detection probabilities, which were greater than 91%. Burmese python eDNA was detected along the leading northern edge of the known population boundary. The development of informative detection tools and eDNA occupancy models can improve conservation efforts in southern Florida and support more extensive studies of invasive constrictors. Generic sampling design and terminology are proposed to standardize and clarify interpretations of eDNA-based occupancy models.

  14. Direct multiplex sequencing (DMPS)--a novel method for targeted high-throughput sequencing of ancient and highly degraded DNA.

    PubMed

    Stiller, Mathias; Knapp, Michael; Stenzel, Udo; Hofreiter, Michael; Meyer, Matthias

    2009-10-01

    Although the emergence of high-throughput sequencing technologies has enabled whole-genome sequencing from extinct organisms, little progress has been made in accelerating targeted sequencing from highly degraded DNA. Here, we present a novel and highly sensitive method for targeted sequencing of ancient and degraded DNA, which couples multiplex PCR directly with sample barcoding and high-throughput sequencing. Using this approach, we obtained a 96% complete mitochondrial genome data set from 31 cave bear (Ursus spelaeus) samples using only two 454 Life Sciences (Roche) GS FLX runs. In contrast to previous studies relying only on short sequence fragments, the overlapping portion of our data comprises almost 10 kb of replicated mitochondrial genome sequence, allowing for the unambiguous differentiation of three major cave bear clades. Our method opens up the opportunity to simultaneously generate many kilobases of overlapping sequence data from large sets of difficult samples, such as museum specimens, medical collections, or forensic samples. Embedded in our approach, we present a new protocol for the construction of barcoded sequencing libraries, which is compatible with all current high-throughput technologies and can be performed entirely in plate setup. PMID:19635845

  15. Improved reproducibility in genome-wide DNA methylation analysis for PAXgene-fixed samples compared with restored formalin fixation and paraffin-embedding DNA.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Gitte Brinch; Hager, Henrik; Hansen, Lise Lotte; Tost, Jörg

    2014-09-30

    Formalin fixation has been the standard method for conservation of clinical specimens for decades. However, a major drawback is the high degradation of nucleic acids, which complicates its use in genome-wide analyses. Unbiased identification of biomarkers, however, requires genome-wide studies, precluding the use of the valuable archives of specimens with long-term follow-up data. Therefore, restoration protocols for DNA from formalin fixation and paraffin-embedding (FFPE) samples have been developed, although they are cost-intensive and time-consuming. An alternative to FFPE and snap-freezing is the PAXgene Tissue System, developed for simultaneous preservation of morphology, proteins, and nucleic acids. In the current study, we compared the performance of DNA from either PAXgene or formalin-fixed tissues to snap-frozen material for genome-wide DNA methylation analysis using the Illumina 450K BeadChip. Quantitative DNA methylation analysis demonstrated that the methylation profile in PAXgene-fixed tissues showed, in comparison with restored FFPE samples, a higher concordance with the profile detected in frozen samples. We demonstrate, for the first time, that DNA from PAXgene conserved tissue performs better compared with restored FFPE DNA in genome-wide DNA methylation analysis. In addition, DNA from PAXgene tissue can be directly used on the array without prior restoration, rendering the analytical process significantly more time- and cost-effective. PMID:25277813

  16. High-quality mtDNA control region sequences from 680 individuals sampled across the Netherlands to establish a national forensic mtDNA reference database.

    PubMed

    Chaitanya, Lakshmi; van Oven, Mannis; Brauer, Silke; Zimmermann, Bettina; Huber, Gabriela; Xavier, Catarina; Parson, Walther; de Knijff, Peter; Kayser, Manfred

    2016-03-01

    The use of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) for maternal lineage identification often marks the last resort when investigating forensic and missing-person cases involving highly degraded biological materials. As with all comparative DNA testing, a match between evidence and reference sample requires a statistical interpretation, for which high-quality mtDNA population frequency data are crucial. Here, we determined, under high quality standards, the complete mtDNA control-region sequences of 680 individuals from across the Netherlands sampled at 54 sites, covering the entire country with 10 geographic sub-regions. The complete mtDNA control region (nucleotide positions 16,024-16,569 and 1-576) was amplified with two PCR primers and sequenced with ten different sequencing primers using the EMPOP protocol. Haplotype diversity of the entire sample set was very high at 99.63% and, accordingly, the random-match probability was 0.37%. No population substructure within the Netherlands was detected with our dataset. Phylogenetic analyses were performed to determine mtDNA haplogroups. Inclusion of these high-quality data in the EMPOP database (accession number: EMP00666) will improve its overall data content and geographic coverage in the interest of all EMPOP users worldwide. Moreover, this dataset will serve as (the start of) a national reference database for mtDNA applications in forensic and missing person casework in the Netherlands. PMID:26774101

  17. Simulated radioactive decontamination of biological samples using a portable DNA extraction instrument for rapid DNA profiling.

    PubMed

    Frégeau, Chantal J; Dalpé, Claude

    2016-02-01

    A portable DNA extraction instrument was evaluated for its ability to decontaminate blood and saliva samples deposited on different surfaces (metal, plastic and glass) contaminated with stable isotopes of cobalt (Co), cesium (Cs), and strontium (Sr) as equivalents to their radiogenic (60)Co, (137)Cs, and (90)Sr isotopes, respectively, that could be released during a nuclear weapon accident or a radiological dispersal device (RDD) detonation. Despite the very high contamination levels tested in this study, successful removal of greater than 99.996% of the Co, Cs, Sr contaminants was achieved based on inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and neutron activation analyses carried out on all liquids (including DNA eluates) and solid waste produced during automated DNA extraction. The remaining amounts of Co, Cs and Sr in the DNA eluates, when converted to dose rates (corresponding to (60)Co, (137)Cs and (90)Sr), were determined to be below the recommended dose limits for the general public in most of the scenarios tested. The presence of Co, Cs and Sr contaminants in the cell lysates had no adverse impact on the binding of DNA onto the magnetic DNA IQ™ beads. DNA yields were similar to uncontaminated controls. The remaining Co, Cs and Sr in the DNA eluates did not interfere with real-time PCR DNA quantification. In addition, the quality of the AmpFlSTR(®) Identifiler(®) profiles derived in 26min using an accelerated protocol was very good and comparable to controls. This study emphasizes the use of an accelerated process involving a portable DNA extraction instrument to significantly reduce radioactive dose rates to allow contaminated samples to be processed safely in a forensic mobile laboratory to expedite the identification of individuals potentially involved in the dispersal of nuclear or other radioactive materials. PMID:26773226

  18. Genotyping of plant and animal samples without prior DNA purification.

    PubMed

    Chum, Pak Y; Haimes, Josh D; Andr, Chas P; Kuusisto, Pia K; Kelley, Melissa L

    2012-01-01

    The Direct PCR approach facilitates PCR amplification directly from small amounts of unpurified samples, and is demonstrated here for several plant and animal tissues (Figure 1). Direct PCR is based on specially engineered Thermo Scientific Phusion and Phire DNA Polymerases, which include a double-stranded DNA binding domain that gives them unique properties such as high tolerance of inhibitors. PCR-based target DNA detection has numerous applications in plant research, including plant genotype analysis and verification of transgenes. PCR from plant tissues traditionally involves an initial DNA isolation step, which may require expensive or toxic reagents. The process is time consuming and increases the risk of cross contamination. Conversely, by using Thermo Scientific Phire Plant Direct PCR Kit the target DNA can be easily detected, without prior DNA extraction. In the model demonstrated here, an example of derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence analysis (dCAPS) is performed directly from Arabidopsis plant leaves. dCAPS genotyping assays can be used to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by SNP allele-specific restriction endonuclease digestion. Some plant samples tend to be more challenging when using Direct PCR methods as they contain components that interfere with PCR, such as phenolic compounds. In these cases, an additional step to remove the compounds is traditionally required. Here, this problem is overcome by using a quick and easy dilution protocol followed by Direct PCR amplification (Figure 1). Fifteen year-old oak leaves are used as a model for challenging plants as the specimen contains high amounts of phenolic compounds including tannins. Gene transfer into mice is broadly used to study the roles of genes in development, physiology and human disease. The use of these animals requires screening for the presence of the transgene, usually with PCR. Traditionally, this involves a time consuming DNA isolation step, during which DNA for PCR analysis is purified from ear, tail or toe tissues. However, with the Thermo Scientific Phire Animal Tissue Direct PCR Kit transgenic mice can be genotyped without prior DNA purification. In this protocol transgenic mouse genotyping is achieved directly from mouse ear tissues, as demonstrated here for a challenging example where only one primer set is used for amplification of two fragments differing greatly in size. PMID:23051689

  19. The influence of DNA degradation in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue on locus-specific methylation assessment by MS-HRM.

    PubMed

    Daugaard, Iben; Kjeldsen, Tina E; Hager, Henrik; Hansen, Lise Lotte; Wojdacz, Tomasz K

    2015-12-01

    Readily accessible formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues are a highly valuable source of genetic material for molecular analyses in both research and in vitro diagnostics but frequently genetic material in those samples is highly degraded. With locus-specific methylation changes being widely investigated for use as biomarkers in various aspects of clinical disease management, we aimed to evaluate to what extent standard laboratory procedures can approximate the quality of the DNA extracted from FFPE samples prior to methylation analyses. DNA quality in 107 FFPE non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) samples was evaluated using spectrophotometry and gel electrophoresis. Subsequently, the quality assessment results were correlated with the results of locus specific methylation assessment with methylation sensitive high resolution melting (MS-HRM). The correlation of template quality with PCR amplification performance and HRM based methylation detection indicated a significant influence of DNA quality on PCR amplification but not on methylation assessment. In conclusion, standard laboratory procedures fairly well approximate DNA degradation of FFPE samples and DNA degradation does not seem to considerably affect locus-specific methylation assessment by MS-HRM. PMID:26551081

  20. DNA Damage Induces the Accumulation of Tiam1 by Blocking ?-TrCP-dependent Degradation*

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Guixin; Fan, Zhongyun; Ding, Miao; Mu, Libing; Liang, Juan; Ding, Yajie; Fu, Yu; Huang, Binlu; Wu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The Rac1/JNK cascade plays important roles in DNA damage-induced apoptosis. However, how this cascade is activated upon DNA damage remains to be fully understood. We show here that, in untreated cells, Tiam1, a Rac1-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor, is phosphorylated by casein kinase 1 (CK1) at its C terminus, leading to Skp, Cullin, F-box-containing?-TrCP recognition, ubiquitination, and proteasome-mediated degradation. Upon DNA-damaging anticancer drug treatment, CK1/?-TrCP-mediated Tiam1 degradation is abolished, and the accumulated Tiam1 contributes to downstream activation of Rac1/JNK. Consistently, tumor cells overexpressing Tiam1 are hypersensitive to DNA-damaging drug treatment. In xenograft mice, Tiam1-high cells are more susceptible to doxorubicin treatment. Thus, our results uncover that inhibition of proteasome-mediated Tiam1 degradation is an upstream event leading to Rac1/JNK activation and cell apoptosis in response to DNA-damaging drug treatment. PMID:24737324

  1. Degradation of DNA into 5'-monodeoxyribonucleotides in the presence of Mn(2+) ions.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hidekatsu; Wada, Shinya; Ikeguchi, Masamichi; Minoura, Norihiko; Ueki, Shouji; Arata, Toshiaki

    2007-11-01

    DNA is known to be aggregated by metal ions including Mn(2+) ions, but analysis of the aggregation process from a chemical viewpoint, which means identification of the product yielded during the process, has not been performed yet. On examination of the kinds of degraded materials that were in the supernatant obtained on centrifugation of a DNA mixture aggregated under conditions of 10 mM Mn(2+) ions ([Mn]/[P] = 46.3) at 70 degrees C for 1 h, the degradation products were found to be dAMP, dCMP, dGMP, and TMP. These dNMPs were purified by HPLC on TSKgel ODS-80Ts and identified by LC-TOF/MS. The degradation activity was lost on pretreatment of the DNA with a phenol-chloroform mixture, and the activity was recovered by pretreatment with a mixture of DMSO and a buffer containing surfactants. Mn(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), and Cd(2+), as transition element metal ions, were effective as to the degradation into dNMP. Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Sr(2+), and Ba(2+), as alkali earth element metal ions, were not effective as to the degradation. Monovalent anions such as Cl(-), CH(3)OO(-), and NO(3)(-) were found to increase the degradation rate. Sixty mug of the 120 mug of the starting DNA in 450 mul was degraded into dNMP on reaction for 1 h in the presence of 100 mM NaCl and 10 mM Mn(2+) ions. In this process, aggregation did not occur, and thus was not considered to be necessary for degradation. The degradation was found not to occur at pH 7.0, and to be very sensitive to pH. The OH(-) ion should have a critical role in cleavage of the phosphodiester linkages in this case. The dNMP obtained in the degradation process was found to be only 5'-NMP, based on the H(1)NMR spectra. This prosess should prove to be a new process for the production of 5'-dNMP in addtion to the exonuclease. PMID:17986770

  2. Obtaining High Quality DNA from Diverse Clinical Samples.

    PubMed

    Melton-Kreft, Rachael; Spirk, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    Nucleic acids can be obtained in numerous ways from clinical specimens; however, the quality of the nucleic acid is only as good as the sampling and isolation protocol. While nucleic acids may be extracted they may not be representative of the original source. Large areas of tissue and explanted hardware must be successfully surveyed to reflect the overall clinical picture. Once good sampling technique has been established, successful bacterial nucleic acid isolation is essential. Clinical samples may be difficult to process because of the presence of scar tissue, bone, implants, and bacterial biofilms. The following protocols provide details on sampling techniques and DNA isolation from a variety of clinical samples which can then be used in downstream molecular applications including PCR-MS-ESI-TOF technology. 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:26855284

  3. Genomic DNA microextraction: a method to screen numerous samples.

    PubMed

    Ramrez-Solis, R; Rivera-Prez, J; Wallace, J D; Wims, M; Zheng, H; Bradley, A

    1992-03-01

    Many experimental designs require the analysis of genomic DNA from a large number of samples. Although the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can be used, the Southern blot is preferred for many assays because of its inherent reliability. The rapid acceptance of PCR, despite a significant rate of false positive/negative results, is partly due to the disadvantages of the sample preparation process for Southern blot analysis. We have devised a rapid protocol to extract high-molecular-weight genomic DNA from a large number of samples. It involves the use of a single 96-well tissue culture dish to carry out all the steps of the sample preparation. This, coupled with the use of a multichannel pipette, facilitates the simultaneous analysis of multiple samples. The procedure may be automated since no centrifugation, mixing, or transferring of the samples is necessary. The method has been used to screen embryonic stem cell clones for the presence of targeted mutations at the Hox-2.6 locus and to obtain data from human blood. PMID:1632522

  4. Investigating bacterial populations in styrene-degrading biofilters by 16S rDNA tag pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Portune, Kevin J; Pérez, M Carmen; Álvarez-Hornos, F Javier; Gabaldón, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Microbial biofilms are essential components in the elimination of pollutants within biofilters, yet still little is known regarding the complex relationships between microbial community structure and biodegradation function within these engineered ecosystems. To further explore this relationship, 16S rDNA tag pyrosequencing was applied to samples taken at four time points from a styrene-degrading biofilter undergoing variable operating conditions. Changes in microbial structure were observed between different stages of biofilter operation, and the level of styrene concentration was revealed to be a critical factor affecting these changes. Bacterial genera Azoarcus and Pseudomonas were among the dominant classified genera in the biofilter. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and correlation analysis revealed that the genera Brevundimonas, Hydrogenophaga, and Achromobacter may play important roles in styrene degradation under increasing styrene concentrations. No significant correlations (P > 0.05) could be detected between biofilter operational/functional parameters and biodiversity measurements, although biological heterogeneity within biofilms and/or technical variability within pyrosequencing may have considerably affected these results. Percentages of selected bacterial taxonomic groups detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were compared to results from pyrosequencing in order to assess the effectiveness and limitations of each method for identifying each microbial taxon. Comparison of results revealed discrepancies between the two methods in the detected percentages of numerous taxonomic groups. Biases and technical limitations of both FISH and pyrosequencing, such as the binding of FISH probes to non-target microbial groups and lack of classification of sequences for defined taxonomic groups from pyrosequencing, may partially explain some differences between the two methods. PMID:24950754

  5. Detection of polychlorinated biphenyl degradation genes in polluted sediments by direct DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Erb, R W; Wagner-Dbler, I

    1993-01-01

    It was the aim of this study to specifically detect the DNA sequences for the bphC gene, the meta-cleavage enzyme of the aerobic catabolic pathway for biphenyl and polychlorinated biphenyl degradation, in aquatic sediments without prior cultivation of microorganisms by using extraction of total DNA, PCR amplification of bphC sequences, and detection with specific gene probes. The direct DNA extraction protocol used was modified to enhance lysis efficiency. Crude extracts of DNA were further purified by gel filtration, which yielded DNA that could be used for the PCR. PCR primers were designed for conserved regions of the bphC gene from a sequence alignment of five known sequences. The specificity of PCR amplification was verified by using digoxigenin-labeled DNA probes which were located internal to the amplified gene sequence. The detection limit for the bphC gene of Pseudomonas paucimobilis Q1 and Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 was 100 cells per g (wet weight) or approximately five copies of the target sequence per PCR reaction mixture. In total-DNA extracts of aerobic top layers of sediment samples obtained from three different sampling sites along the Elbe River, which has a long history of anthropogenic pollution, Pseudomonas sp. strain LB 400-like sequences for the bphC gene were detected, but P. paucimobilis Q1 sequences were not detected. No bphC sequences were detected in an unpolluted lake sediment. A restriction analysis did not reveal any heterogeneity in the PCR product, and the possibility that sequences highly related to the bphC gene (namely, nahC and todE) were present was excluded.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:8285706

  6. Environmental DNA sampling protocol - filtering water to capture DNA from aquatic organisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laramie, Matthew B.; Pilliod, David S.; Goldberg, Caren S.; Strickler, Katherine M.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) analysis is an effective method of determining the presence of aquatic organisms such as fish, amphibians, and other taxa. This publication is meant to guide researchers and managers in the collection, concentration, and preservation of eDNA samples from lentic and lotic systems. A sampling workflow diagram and three sampling protocols are included as well as a list of suggested supplies. Protocols include filter and pump assembly using: (1) a hand-driven vacuum pump, ideal for sample collection in remote sampling locations where no electricity is available and when equipment weight is a primary concern; (2) a peristaltic pump powered by a rechargeable battery-operated driver/drill, suitable for remote sampling locations when weight consideration is less of a concern; (3) a 120-volt alternating current (AC) powered peristaltic pump suitable for any location where 120-volt AC power is accessible, or for roadside sampling locations. Images and detailed descriptions are provided for each step in the sampling and preservation process.

  7. DNA microarrays: sample quality control, array hybridization and scanning.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Elva; Barisone, Gustavo A

    2011-01-01

    Microarray expression profiling of the nervous system provides a powerful approach to identifying gene activities in different stages of development, different physiological or pathological states, response to therapy, and, in general, any condition that is being experimentally tested. Expression profiling of neural tissues requires isolation of high quality RNA, amplification of the isolated RNA and hybridization to DNA microarrays. In this article we describe protocols for reproducible microarray experiments from brain tumor tissue. We will start by performing a quality control analysis of isolated RNA samples with Agilent's 2100 Bioanalyzer "lab-on-a-chip" technology. High quality RNA samples are critical for the success of any microarray experiment, and the 2100 Bioanalyzer provides a quick, quantitative measurement of the sample quality. RNA samples are then amplified and labeled by performing reverse transcription to obtain cDNA, followed by in vitro transcription in the presence of labeled nucleotides to produce labeled cRNA. By using a dual-color labeling kit, we will label our experimental sample with Cy3 and a reference sample with Cy5. Both samples will then be combined and hybridized to Agilent's 4x44 K arrays. Dual-color arrays offer the advantage of a direct comparison between two RNA samples, thereby increasing the accuracy of the measurements, in particular for small changes in expression levels, because the two RNA samples are hybridized competitively to a single microarray. The arrays will be scanned at the two corresponding wavelengths, and the ratio of Cy3 to Cy5 signal for each feature will be used as a direct measurement of the relative abundance of the corresponding mRNA. This analysis identifies genes that are differentially expressed in response to the experimental conditions being tested. PMID:21445042

  8. 28 CFR 28.13 - Analysis and indexing of DNA samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Analysis and indexing of DNA samples. 28.13 Section 28.13 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample Collection, Analysis, and Indexing § 28.13 Analysis and indexing of DNA samples. (a) The Federal Bureau...

  9. 28 CFR 28.13 - Analysis and indexing of DNA samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Analysis and indexing of DNA samples. 28.13 Section 28.13 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample Collection, Analysis, and Indexing § 28.13 Analysis and indexing of DNA samples. (a) The Federal Bureau...

  10. 28 CFR 28.13 - Analysis and indexing of DNA samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analysis and indexing of DNA samples. 28.13 Section 28.13 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample Collection, Analysis, and Indexing § 28.13 Analysis and indexing of DNA samples. (a) The Federal Bureau...

  11. 28 CFR 28.13 - Analysis and indexing of DNA samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Analysis and indexing of DNA samples. 28.13 Section 28.13 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample Collection, Analysis, and Indexing § 28.13 Analysis and indexing of DNA samples. (a) The Federal Bureau...

  12. 28 CFR 28.13 - Analysis and indexing of DNA samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Analysis and indexing of DNA samples. 28.13 Section 28.13 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample Collection, Analysis, and Indexing § 28.13 Analysis and indexing of DNA samples. (a) The Federal Bureau...

  13. Salt-tolerant phenol-degrading microorganisms isolated from Amazonian soil samples.

    PubMed

    Bastos, A E; Moon, D H; Rossi, A; Trevors, J T; Tsai, S M

    2000-11-01

    Two phenol-degrading microorganisms were isolated from Amazonian rain forest soil samples after enrichment in the presence of phenol and a high salt concentration. The yeast Candida tropicalis and the bacterium Alcaligenes faecoalis were identified using several techniques, including staining, morphological observation and biochemical tests, fatty acid profiles and 16S/18S rRNA sequencing. Both isolates, A. faecalis and C. tropicalis, were used in phenol degradation assays, with Rhodococcus erythropolis as a reference phenol-degrading bacterium, and compared to microbial populations from wastewater samples collected from phenol-contaminated environments. C. tropicalis tolerated higher concentrations of phenol and salt (16 mM and 15%, respectively) than A. faecalis (12 mM and 5.6%). The yeast also tolerated a wider pH range (3-9) during phenol degradation than A. faecalis (pH 7-9). Phenol degradation was repressed in C. tropicalis by acetate and glucose, but not by lactate. Glucose and acetate had little effect, while lactate stimulated phenol degradation in A. faecalis. To our knowledge, these soils had never been contaminated with man-made phenolic compounds and this is the first report of phenol-degrading microorganisms from Amazonian forest soil samples. The results support the idea that natural uncontaminated environments contain sufficient genetic diversity to make them valid choices for the isolation of microorganisms useful in bioremediation. PMID:11131025

  14. Proteotoxic stress induces a cell cycle arrest by stimulating Lon to degrade the replication initiator DnaA

    PubMed Central

    Jonas, Kristina; Liu, Jing; Chien, Peter; Laub, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The decision to initiate DNA replication is a critical step in the cell cycle of all organisms. Cells often delay replication in the face of stressful conditions, but the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely defined. Here, we demonstrate in Caulobacter crescentus that proteotoxic stress induces a cell cycle arrest by triggering the degradation of DnaA, the conserved replication initiator. A depletion of available Hsp70 chaperone, DnaK, either through genetic manipulation or heat shock, induces synthesis of the Lon protease, which can directly degrade DnaA. Unexpectedly, we find that unfolded proteins, which accumulate following a loss of DnaK, also allosterically activate Lon to degrade DnaA, thereby ensuring a cell cycle arrest. Our work reveals a new mechanism for regulating DNA replication under adverse growth conditions. Additionally, our data indicate that unfolded proteins can actively and directly alter substrate recognition by cellular proteases. PMID:23911325

  15. Saliva sampling in global clinical studies: the impact of low sampling volume on performance of DNA in downstream genotyping experiments

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The collection of viable DNA samples is an essential element of any genetics research programme. Biological samples for DNA purification are now routinely collected in many studies with a variety of sampling methods available. Initial observation in this study suggested a reduced genotyping success rate of some saliva derived DNA samples when compared to blood derived DNA samples prompting further investigation. Methods Genotyping success rate was investigated to assess the suitability of using saliva samples in future safety and efficacy pharmacogenetics experiments. The Oragene® OG-300 DNA Self-Collection kit was used to collect and extract DNA from saliva from 1468 subjects enrolled in global clinical studies. Statistical analysis evaluated the impact of saliva sample volume of collection on the quality, yield, concentration and performance of saliva DNA in genotyping assays. Results Across 13 global clinical studies that utilized the Oragene® OG-300 DNA Self-Collection kit there was variability in the volume of saliva sample collection with ~31% of participants providing 0.5 mL of saliva, rather than the recommended 2 mL. While the majority of saliva DNA samples provided high quality genotype data, collection of 0.5 mL volumes of saliva contributed to DNA samples being significantly less likely to pass genotyping quality control standards. Assessment of DNA sample characteristics that may influence genotyping outcomes indicated that saliva sample volume, DNA purity and turbidity were independently associated with sample genotype pass rate, but that saliva collection volume had the greatest effect. Conclusion When employing saliva sampling to obtain DNA, it is important to encourage all study participants to provide sufficient sample to minimize potential loss of data in downstream genotyping experiments. PMID:23759220

  16. Structures of CRISPR Cas3 offer mechanistic insights into Cascade-activated DNA unwinding and degradation

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Yanwu; Nam, Ki Hyun; Ding, Fang; Lee, Heejin; Wu, Lijie; Xiao, Yibei; Farchione, F. Daniel; Zhou, Sharleen; Rajashankar, Raj; Kurinov, Igor; Zhang, Rongguang; Ke, Ailong

    2014-01-01

    CRISPR drives prokaryotic adaptation to invasive nucleic acids such as phages and plasmids using an RNA-mediated interference mechanism. Interference in Type I CRISPR-Cas systems requires a targeting Cascade complex and a degradation machine Cas3, which contains both nuclease and helicase activities. Here we report the crystal structures of Cas3 bound to ss-DNA substrate and show that it is an obligated 3?-to-5? ss-DNase preferentially accepting substrate directly from the helicase moiety. Conserved residues in the HD-type nuclease coordinate two irons for ss-DNA cleavage. ATP coordination and conformational flexibility are revealed for the SF2-type helicase moiety. Cas3 is specifically guided towards Cascade-bound target DNA with a correct PAM sequence, through physical interactions to both the non-target substrate strand and the CasA protein. The cascade of recognition events ensures a well-controlled DNA targeting and degradation of alien DNA by Cascade and Cas3. PMID:25132177

  17. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria enriched by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill identified by cultivation and DNA-SIP.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Tony; Singleton, David R; Berry, David; Yang, Tingting; Aitken, Michael D; Teske, Andreas

    2013-11-01

    The massive influx of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster triggered dramatic microbial community shifts in surface oil slick and deep plume waters. Previous work had shown several taxa, notably DWH Oceanospirillales, Cycloclasticus and Colwellia, were found to be enriched in these waters based on their dominance in conventional clone and pyrosequencing libraries and were thought to have had a significant role in the degradation of the oil. However, this type of community analysis data failed to provide direct evidence on the functional properties, such as hydrocarbon degradation of organisms. Using DNA-based stable-isotope probing with uniformly (13)C-labelled hydrocarbons, we identified several aliphatic (Alcanivorax, Marinobacter)- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (Alteromonas, Cycloclasticus, Colwellia)-degrading bacteria. We also isolated several strains (Alcanivorax, Alteromonas, Cycloclasticus, Halomonas, Marinobacter and Pseudoalteromonas) with demonstrable hydrocarbon-degrading qualities from surface slick and plume water samples collected during the active phase of the spill. Some of these organisms accounted for the majority of sequence reads representing their respective taxa in a pyrosequencing data set constructed from the same and additional water column samples. Hitherto, Alcanivorax was not identified in any of the previous water column studies analysing the microbial response to the spill and we discuss its failure to respond to the oil. Collectively, our data provide unequivocal evidence on the hydrocarbon-degrading qualities for some of the dominant taxa enriched in surface and plume waters during the DWH oil spill, and a more complete understanding of their role in the fate of the oil. PMID:23788333

  18. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria enriched by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill identified by cultivation and DNA-SIP

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Tony; Singleton, David R; Berry, David; Yang, Tingting; Aitken, Michael D; Teske, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The massive influx of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster triggered dramatic microbial community shifts in surface oil slick and deep plume waters. Previous work had shown several taxa, notably DWH Oceanospirillales, Cycloclasticus and Colwellia, were found to be enriched in these waters based on their dominance in conventional clone and pyrosequencing libraries and were thought to have had a significant role in the degradation of the oil. However, this type of community analysis data failed to provide direct evidence on the functional properties, such as hydrocarbon degradation of organisms. Using DNA-based stable-isotope probing with uniformly 13C-labelled hydrocarbons, we identified several aliphatic (Alcanivorax, Marinobacter)- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (Alteromonas, Cycloclasticus, Colwellia)-degrading bacteria. We also isolated several strains (Alcanivorax, Alteromonas, Cycloclasticus, Halomonas, Marinobacter and Pseudoalteromonas) with demonstrable hydrocarbon-degrading qualities from surface slick and plume water samples collected during the active phase of the spill. Some of these organisms accounted for the majority of sequence reads representing their respective taxa in a pyrosequencing data set constructed from the same and additional water column samples. Hitherto, Alcanivorax was not identified in any of the previous water column studies analysing the microbial response to the spill and we discuss its failure to respond to the oil. Collectively, our data provide unequivocal evidence on the hydrocarbon-degrading qualities for some of the dominant taxa enriched in surface and plume waters during the DWH oil spill, and a more complete understanding of their role in the fate of the oil. PMID:23788333

  19. SCF(Cyclin F)-dependent degradation of CDC6 suppresses DNA re-replication.

    PubMed

    Walter, David; Hoffmann, Saskia; Komseli, Eirini-Stavroula; Rappsilber, Juri; Gorgoulis, Vassilis; Srensen, Claus Storgaard

    2016-01-01

    Maintenance of genome stability requires that DNA is replicated precisely once per cell cycle. This is believed to be achieved by limiting replication origin licensing and thereby restricting the firing of each replication origin to once per cell cycle. CDC6 is essential for eukaryotic replication origin licensing, however, it is poorly understood how CDC6 activity is constrained in higher eukaryotes. Here we report that the SCF(Cyclin F) ubiquitin ligase complex prevents DNA re-replication by targeting CDC6 for proteasomal degradation late in the cell cycle. We show that CDC6 and Cyclin F interact through defined sequence motifs that promote CDC6 ubiquitylation and degradation. Absence of Cyclin F or expression of a stable mutant of CDC6 promotes re-replication and genome instability in cells lacking the CDT1 inhibitor Geminin. Together, our work reveals a novel SCF(Cyclin F)-mediated mechanism required for precise once per cell cycle replication. PMID:26818844

  20. SCFCyclin F-dependent degradation of CDC6 suppresses DNA re-replication

    PubMed Central

    Walter, David; Hoffmann, Saskia; Komseli, Eirini-Stavroula; Rappsilber, Juri; Gorgoulis, Vassilis; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard

    2016-01-01

    Maintenance of genome stability requires that DNA is replicated precisely once per cell cycle. This is believed to be achieved by limiting replication origin licensing and thereby restricting the firing of each replication origin to once per cell cycle. CDC6 is essential for eukaryotic replication origin licensing, however, it is poorly understood how CDC6 activity is constrained in higher eukaryotes. Here we report that the SCFCyclin F ubiquitin ligase complex prevents DNA re-replication by targeting CDC6 for proteasomal degradation late in the cell cycle. We show that CDC6 and Cyclin F interact through defined sequence motifs that promote CDC6 ubiquitylation and degradation. Absence of Cyclin F or expression of a stable mutant of CDC6 promotes re-replication and genome instability in cells lacking the CDT1 inhibitor Geminin. Together, our work reveals a novel SCFCyclin F-mediated mechanism required for precise once per cell cycle replication. PMID:26818844

  1. Comparison of DNA preservation methods for environmental bacterial community samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, Michael A.; Pratte, Zoe A.; Kellogg, Christina A.

    2013-01-01

    Field collections of environmental samples, for example corals, for molecular microbial analyses present distinct challenges. The lack of laboratory facilities in remote locations is common, and preservation of microbial community DNA for later study is critical. A particular challenge is keeping samples frozen in transit. Five nucleic acid preservation methods that do not require cold storage were compared for effectiveness over time and ease of use. Mixed microbial communities of known composition were created and preserved by DNAgard™, RNAlater®, DMSO–EDTA–salt (DESS), FTA® cards, and FTA Elute® cards. Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and clone libraries were used to detect specific changes in the faux communities over weeks and months of storage. A previously known bias in FTA® cards that results in lower recovery of pure cultures of Gram-positive bacteria was also detected in mixed community samples. There appears to be a uniform bias across all five preservation methods against microorganisms with high G + C DNA. Overall, the liquid-based preservatives (DNAgard™, RNAlater®, and DESS) outperformed the card-based methods. No single liquid method clearly outperformed the others, leaving method choice to be based on experimental design, field facilities, shipping constraints, and allowable cost.

  2. Association of Global DNA Methylation and Global DNA Hydroxymethylation with Metals and Other Exposures in Human Blood DNA Samples

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Wan-yee; Shang, Yan; Umans, Jason G.; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Goessler, Walter; Ledesma, Marta; Leon, Montserrat; Laclaustra, Martin; Pollak, Jonathan; Guallar, Eliseo; Cole, Shelley A.; Fallin, M. Dani; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Background: The association between human blood DNA global methylation and global hydroxymethylation has not been evaluated in population-based studies. No studies have evaluated environmental determinants of global DNA hydroxymethylation, including exposure to metals. Objective: We evaluated the association between global DNA methylation and global DNA hydroxymethylation in 48 Strong Heart Study participants for which selected metals had been measured in urine at baseline and DNA was available from 1989–1991 (visit 1) and 1998–1999 (visit 3). Methods: We measured the percentage of 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) in samples using capture and detection antibodies followed by colorimetric quantification. We explored the association of participant characteristics (i.e., age, adiposity, smoking, and metal exposure) with both global DNA methylation and global DNA hydroxymethylation. Results: The Spearman’s correlation coefficient for 5-mC and 5-hmC levels was 0.32 (p = 0.03) at visit 1 and 0.54 (p < 0.001) at visit 3. Trends for both epigenetic modifications were consistent across potential determinants. In cross-sectional analyses, the odds ratios of methylated and hydroxymethylated DNA were 1.56 (95% CI: 0.95, 2.57) and 1.76 (95% CI: 1.07, 2.88), respectively, for the comparison of participants above and below the median percentage of dimethylarsinate. The corresponding odds ratios were 1.64 (95% CI: 1.02, 2.65) and 1.16 (95% CI: 0.70, 1.94), respectively, for the comparison of participants above and below the median cadmium level. Arsenic exposure and metabolism were consistently associated with both epigenetic markers in cross-sectional and prospective analyses. The positive correlation of 5-mC and 5-hmC levels was confirmed in an independent study population. Conclusions: Our findings support that both epigenetic measures are related at the population level. The consistent trends in the associations between these two epigenetic modifications and the characteristics evaluated, especially arsenic exposure and metabolism, suggest the need for understanding which of the two measures is a better biomarker for environmental epigenetic effects in future large-scale epidemiologic studies. Citation: Tellez-Plaza M, Tang WY, Shang Y, Umans JG, Francesconi KA, Goessler W, Ledesma M, Leon M, Laclaustra M, Pollak J, Guallar E, Cole SA, Fallin MD, Navas-Acien A. 2014. Association of global DNA methylation and global DNA hydroxymethylation with metals and other exposures in human blood DNA samples. Environ Health Perspect 122:946–954; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306674 PMID:24769358

  3. The effect of geographical scale of sampling on DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Bergsten, Johannes; Bilton, David T; Fujisawa, Tomochika; Elliott, Miranda; Monaghan, Michael T; Balke, Michael; Hendrich, Lars; Geijer, Joja; Herrmann, Jan; Foster, Garth N; Ribera, Ignacio; Nilsson, Anders N; Barraclough, Timothy G; Vogler, Alfried P

    2012-10-01

    Eight years after DNA barcoding was formally proposed on a large scale, CO1 sequences are rapidly accumulating from around the world. While studies to date have mostly targeted local or regional species assemblages, the recent launch of the global iBOL project (International Barcode of Life), highlights the need to understand the effects of geographical scale on Barcoding's goals. Sampling has been central in the debate on DNA Barcoding, but the effect of the geographical scale of sampling has not yet been thoroughly and explicitly tested with empirical data. Here, we present a CO1 data set of aquatic predaceous diving beetles of the tribe Agabini, sampled throughout Europe, and use it to investigate how the geographic scale of sampling affects 1) the estimated intraspecific variation of species, 2) the genetic distance to the most closely related heterospecific, 3) the ratio of intraspecific and interspecific variation, 4) the frequency of taxonomically recognized species found to be monophyletic, and 5) query identification performance based on 6 different species assignment methods. Intraspecific variation was significantly correlated with the geographical scale of sampling (R-square = 0.7), and more than half of the species with 10 or more sampled individuals (N = 29) showed higher intraspecific variation than 1% sequence divergence. In contrast, the distance to the closest heterospecific showed a significant decrease with increasing geographical scale of sampling. The average genetic distance dropped from > 7% for samples within 1 km, to < 3.5% for samples up to > 6000 km apart. Over a third of the species were not monophyletic, and the proportion increased through locally, nationally, regionally, and continentally restricted subsets of the data. The success of identifying queries decreased with increasing spatial scale of sampling; liberal methods declined from 100% to around 90%, whereas strict methods dropped to below 50% at continental scales. The proportion of query identifications considered uncertain (more than one species < 1% distance from query) escalated from zero at local, to 50% at continental scale. Finally, by resampling the most widely sampled species we show that even if samples are collected to maximize the geographical coverage, up to 70 individuals are required to sample 95% of intraspecific variation. The results show that the geographical scale of sampling has a critical impact on the global application of DNA barcoding. Scale-effects result from the relative importance of different processes determining the composition of regional species assemblages (dispersal and ecological assembly) and global clades (demography, speciation, and extinction). The incorporation of geographical information, where available, will be required to obtain identification rates at global scales equivalent to those in regional barcoding studies. Our result hence provides an impetus for both smarter barcoding tools and sprouting national barcoding initiatives-smaller geographical scales deliver higher accuracy. PMID:22398121

  4. The Effect of Geographical Scale of Sampling on DNA Barcoding

    PubMed Central

    Bergsten, Johannes; Bilton, David T.; Fujisawa, Tomochika; Elliott, Miranda; Monaghan, Michael T.; Balke, Michael; Hendrich, Lars; Geijer, Joja; Herrmann, Jan; Foster, Garth N.; Ribera, Ignacio; Nilsson, Anders N.; Barraclough, Timothy G.; Vogler, Alfried P.

    2012-01-01

    Eight years after DNA barcoding was formally proposed on a large scale, CO1 sequences are rapidly accumulating from around the world. While studies to date have mostly targeted local or regional species assemblages, the recent launch of the global iBOL project (International Barcode of Life), highlights the need to understand the effects of geographical scale on Barcoding's goals. Sampling has been central in the debate on DNA Barcoding, but the effect of the geographical scale of sampling has not yet been thoroughly and explicitly tested with empirical data. Here, we present a CO1 data set of aquatic predaceous diving beetles of the tribe Agabini, sampled throughout Europe, and use it to investigate how the geographic scale of sampling affects 1) the estimated intraspecific variation of species, 2) the genetic distance to the most closely related heterospecific, 3) the ratio of intraspecific and interspecific variation, 4) the frequency of taxonomically recognized species found to be monophyletic, and 5) query identification performance based on 6 different species assignment methods. Intraspecific variation was significantly correlated with the geographical scale of sampling (R-square = 0.7), and more than half of the species with 10 or more sampled individuals (N = 29) showed higher intraspecific variation than 1% sequence divergence. In contrast, the distance to the closest heterospecific showed a significant decrease with increasing geographical scale of sampling. The average genetic distance dropped from > 7% for samples within 1 km, to < 3.5% for samples up to > 6000 km apart. Over a third of the species were not monophyletic, and the proportion increased through locally, nationally, regionally, and continentally restricted subsets of the data. The success of identifying queries decreased with increasing spatial scale of sampling; liberal methods declined from 100% to around 90%, whereas strict methods dropped to below 50% at continental scales. The proportion of query identifications considered uncertain (more than one species < 1% distance from query) escalated from zero at local, to 50% at continental scale. Finally, by resampling the most widely sampled species we show that even if samples are collected to maximize the geographical coverage, up to 70 individuals are required to sample 95% of intraspecific variation. The results show that the geographical scale of sampling has a critical impact on the global application of DNA barcoding. Scale-effects result from the relative importance of different processes determining the composition of regional species assemblages (dispersal and ecological assembly) and global clades (demography, speciation, and extinction). The incorporation of geographical information, where available, will be required to obtain identification rates at global scales equivalent to those in regional barcoding studies. Our result hence provides an impetus for both smarter barcoding tools and sprouting national barcoding initiatives—smaller geographical scales deliver higher accuracy. PMID:22398121

  5. Degradable hybrid materials based on cationic acylhydrazone dynamic covalent polymers promote DNA complexation through multivalent interactions.

    PubMed

    Bouillon, Camille; Paolantoni, Delphine; Rote, Jennifer C; Bessin, Yannick; Peterson, Larryn W; Dumy, Pascal; Ulrich, Sbastien

    2014-11-01

    The design of smart nonviral vectors for gene delivery is of prime importance for the successful implementation of gene therapies. In particular, degradable analogues of macromolecules represent promising targets as they would combine the multivalent presentation of multiple binding units that is necessary for achieving effective complexation of therapeutic oligonucleotides with the controlled degradation of the vector that would in turn trigger drug release. Toward this end, we have designed and synthesized hybrid polyacylhydrazone-based dynamic materials that combine bis-functionalized cationic monomers with ethylene oxide containing monomers. Polymer formation was characterized by (1) H and DOSY NMR spectroscopy and was found to take place at high concentration, whereas macrocycles were predominantly formed at low concentration. HPLC monitoring of solutions of these materials in aqueous buffers at pH values ranging from 5.0 to 7.0 revealed their acid-catalyzed degradation. An ethidium bromide displacement assay and gel electrophoresis clearly demonstrated that, despite being dynamic, these materials are capable of effectively complexing dsDNA in aqueous buffer and biological serum at N/P ratios comparable to polyethyleneimine polymers. The self-assembly of dynamic covalent polymers through the incorporation of a reversible covalent bond within their main chain is therefore a promising strategy for generating degradable materials that are capable of establishing multivalent interactions and effectively complexing dsDNA in biological media. PMID:25251569

  6. Major degradable polycations as carriers for DNA and siRNA.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad Ariful; Park, Tae-Eun; Singh, Bijay; Maharjan, Sushila; Firdous, Jannatul; Cho, Myung-Haing; Kang, Sang-Kee; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Cho, Chong-Su

    2014-11-10

    Non-viral gene delivery systems are one of the most potential alternatives to viral vectors because of their less immunogenicity, less toxicity and easy productivity in spite of their low capacity of gene transfection using DNA or silencing using siRNA compared to that of viral vectors. Among non-viral systems, the polycationic derivatives are the most popular gene carriers since they can effectively condense nucleic acids to transfer into the cells, especially the polyethylenimine (PEI) which has been used as a golden standard polymer owing to its high buffering ability for endosomal escape of gene to be expressed. However, PEI has severe problems for its toxicity due to the high positive charge density and non-degradability although the toxicity of PEI depends on its molecular weight (MW) and structure. Therefore, a considerable attention has been paid on synthesis of degradable PEI derivatives using low MW one because low MW PEI is much less toxic than high MW PEI. Other degradable polycationic gene carriers such as polyamidoamines (PAA) and cyclodextrin (CD)-based polycations are also in a significant interest because of their high transfection efficiency with low toxicity. This review in detail explains the recent developments on these three major degradable polycations as promising carriers for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and small interfering RNA (siRNA). PMID:24942341

  7. PCNA-coupled p21 degradation after DNA damage: The exception that confirms the rule?

    PubMed

    Soria, Gastn; Gottifredi, Vanesa

    2010-04-01

    While many are the examples of DNA damaging treatments that induce p21 accumulation, the conception of p21 upregulation as the universal response to genotoxic stress has come to an end. Compelling evidences have demonstrated the existence of converging signals that negatively regulate p21 bellow basal levels when replication forks are blocked. Moreover, conclusive reports identified the E3-ligase CRL4(CDT2) (CUL4-DDB1-CDT2) as the enzymatic complex that promotes p21 proteolysis when treatments such as UV irradiation trigger replication fork stress. A pre-requisite for CRL4(CDT2)-driven proteolysis is the interaction of p21 with PCNA. Interestingly as well, CRL4(CDT2)-dependent proteolysis is not limited to p21 and affects other PCNA partners, including the specialized DNA polymerase eta (pol eta). These recent discoveries are particularly intriguing since the UV-induced degradation of p21 has been shown to be required for efficient pol eta recruitment to DNA lesions. Herein we review the findings that lead to the identification of the molecular mechanism that triggers damage-induced PCNA-coupled protein proteolysis. We propose a novel model in which CRL4(CDT2)-dependent protein degradation facilitates a sequential and dynamic exchange between PIP box bearing proteins at stall forks during Translesion DNA synthesis (TLS). Moreover, given the tight spatiotemporal control that CRL4(CDT2)-driven proteolysis is able to confer to PCNA-regulated processes, we discuss the impact that this degradation mechanism might have in other molecular switches associated with the repair of damaged DNA. PMID:20060369

  8. SCFbetaTrCP-mediated degradation of Claspin regulates recovery from the DNA replication checkpoint response.

    PubMed

    Peschiaroli, Angelo; Dorrello, N Valerio; Guardavaccaro, Daniele; Venere, Monica; Halazonetis, Thanos; Sherman, Nicholas E; Pagano, Michele

    2006-08-01

    During replicative stress, Claspin mediates the phosphorylation and consequent activation of Chk1 by ATR. We found that during recovery from the DNA replication checkpoint response, Claspin is degraded in a betaTrCP-dependent manner. In vivo, Claspin is phosphorylated in a canonical DSGxxS degron sequence, which is typical of betaTrCP substrates. Phosphorylation of Claspin is mediated by Plk1 and is essential for binding to betaTrCP. In vitro ubiquitylation of Claspin requires betaTrCP, Plk1, and an intact DSGxxS degron. Significantly, expression of a stable Claspin mutant unable to bind betaTrCP prolongs the activation of Chk1, thereby attenuating the recovery from the DNA replication stress response and significantly delaying entry into mitosis. Thus, the SCFbetaTrCP-dependent degradation of Claspin is necessary for the efficient and timely termination of the DNA replication checkpoint. Importantly, in response to DNA damage in G2, Claspin proteolysis is inhibited to allow the prompt reestablishment of the checkpoint. PMID:16885022

  9. Degradation of DNA damage-independently stalled RNA polymerase II is independent of the E3 ligase Elc1.

    PubMed

    Karakasili, Eleni; Burkert-Kautzsch, Cornelia; Kieser, Anja; Strer, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Transcription elongation is a highly dynamic and discontinuous process, which includes frequent pausing of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). RNAPII complexes that stall persistently on a gene during transcription elongation block transcription and thus have to be removed. It has been proposed that the cellular pathway for removal of these DNA damage-independently stalled RNAPII complexes is similar or identical to the removal of RNAPII complexes stalled due to DNA damage. Here, we show that-consistent with previous data-DNA damage-independent stalling causes polyubiquitylation and proteasome-mediated degradation of Rpb1, the largest subunit of RNAPII, using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as model system. Moreover, recruitment of the proteasome to RNAPII and transcribed genes is increased when transcription elongation is impaired indicating that Rpb1 degradation takes place at the gene. Importantly, in contrast to the DNA damage-dependent pathway Rpb1 degradation of DNA damage-independently stalled RNAPII is independent of the E3 ligase Elc1. In addition, deubiquitylation of RNAPII is also independent of the Elc1-antagonizing deubiquitylase Ubp3. Thus, the pathway for degradation of DNA damage-independently stalled RNAPII is overlapping yet distinct from the previously described pathway for degradation of RNAPII stalled due to DNA damage. Taken together, we provide the first evidence that the cell discriminates between DNA damage-dependently and -independently stalled RNAPII. PMID:25120264

  10. Degradation of DNA damage-independently stalled RNA polymerase II is independent of the E3 ligase Elc1

    PubMed Central

    Karakasili, Eleni; Burkert-Kautzsch, Cornelia; Kieser, Anja; Strer, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Transcription elongation is a highly dynamic and discontinuous process, which includes frequent pausing of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). RNAPII complexes that stall persistently on a gene during transcription elongation block transcription and thus have to be removed. It has been proposed that the cellular pathway for removal of these DNA damage-independently stalled RNAPII complexes is similar or identical to the removal of RNAPII complexes stalled due to DNA damage. Here, we show thatconsistent with previous dataDNA damage-independent stalling causes polyubiquitylation and proteasome-mediated degradation of Rpb1, the largest subunit of RNAPII, using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as model system. Moreover, recruitment of the proteasome to RNAPII and transcribed genes is increased when transcription elongation is impaired indicating that Rpb1 degradation takes place at the gene. Importantly, in contrast to the DNA damage-dependent pathway Rpb1 degradation of DNA damage-independently stalled RNAPII is independent of the E3 ligase Elc1. In addition, deubiquitylation of RNAPII is also independent of the Elc1-antagonizing deubiquitylase Ubp3. Thus, the pathway for degradation of DNA damage-independently stalled RNAPII is overlapping yet distinct from the previously described pathway for degradation of RNAPII stalled due to DNA damage. Taken together, we provide the first evidence that the cell discriminates between DNA damage-dependently and -independently stalled RNAPII. PMID:25120264

  11. Identification of a new degradation product of the antifouling agent Irgarol 1051 in natural samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrer, I.; Barcelo, D.

    2001-01-01

    A main degradation product of Irgarol [2-(methylthio)-4-(tert-butylamino)-6-(cyclopropylamino)-s-triazine], one of the most widely used compounds in antifouling paints, was detected at trace levels in seawater and sediment samples collected from several marinas on the Mediterranean coast. This degradation product was identified as 2-methylthio-4-tert-butylamino-s-triazine. The unequivocal identification of this compound in seawater samples was carried out by solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled on-line with liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS). SPE was carried out by passing 150 ml of seawater sample through a cartridge containing a polymeric phase (PLRP-s), with recoveries ranging from 92 to 108% (n=5). Using LC-MS detection in positive ion mode, useful structural information was obtained by increasing the fragmentor voltage, thus permitting the unequivocal identification of this compound in natural samples. Method detection limits were in the range of 0.002 to 0.005 ??g/l. Overall, the combination of on-line SPE and LC-APCI-MS represents an important advance in environmental analysis of herbicide degradation products in seawater, since it demonstrates that trace amounts of new polar metabolites may be determined rapidly. This paper reports the LC-MS identification of the main degradation product of Irgarol in seawater and sediment samples. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. DNA-based stable isotope probing coupled with cultivation methods implicates Methylophaga in hydrocarbon degradation

    PubMed Central

    Mishamandani, Sara; Gutierrez, Tony; Aitken, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Marine hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria perform a fundamental role in the oxidation and ultimate removal of crude oil and its petrochemical derivatives in coastal and open ocean environments. Those with an almost exclusive ability to utilize hydrocarbons as a sole carbon and energy source have been found confined to just a few genera. Here we used stable isotope probing (SIP), a valuable tool to link the phylogeny and function of targeted microbial groups, to investigate hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in coastal North Carolina sea water (Beaufort Inlet, USA) with uniformly labeled [13C]n-hexadecane. The dominant sequences in clone libraries constructed from 13C-enriched bacterial DNA (from n-hexadecane enrichments) were identified to belong to the genus Alcanivorax, with ≤98% sequence identity to the closest type strain—thus representing a putative novel phylogenetic taxon within this genus. Unexpectedly, we also identified 13C-enriched sequences in heavy DNA fractions that were affiliated to the genus Methylophaga. This is a contentious group since, though some of its members have been proposed to degrade hydrocarbons, substantive evidence has not previously confirmed this. We used quantitative PCR primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene of the SIP-identified Alcanivorax and Methylophaga to determine their abundance in incubations amended with unlabeled n-hexadecane. Both showed substantial increases in gene copy number during the experiments. Subsequently, we isolated a strain representing the SIP-identified Methylophaga sequences (99.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity) and used it to show, for the first time, direct evidence of hydrocarbon degradation by a cultured Methylophaga sp. This study demonstrates the value of coupling SIP with cultivation methods to identify and expand on the known diversity of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the marine environment. PMID:24578702

  13. Degradation of the cancer genomic DNA deaminase APOBEC3B by SIV Vif.

    PubMed

    Land, Allison M; Wang, Jiayi; Law, Emily K; Aberle, Ryan; Kirmaier, Andrea; Krupp, Annabel; Johnson, Welkin E; Harris, Reuben S

    2015-11-24

    APOBEC3B is a newly identified source of mutation in many cancers, including breast, head/neck, lung, bladder, cervical, and ovarian. APOBEC3B is a member of the APOBEC3 family of enzymes that deaminate DNA cytosine to produce the pro-mutagenic lesion, uracil. Several APOBEC3 family members function to restrict virus replication. For instance, APOBEC3D, APOBEC3F, APOBEC3G, and APOBEC3H combine to restrict HIV-1 in human lymphocytes. HIV-1 counteracts these APOBEC3s with the viral protein Vif, which targets the relevant APOBEC3s for proteasomal degradation. While APOBEC3B does not restrict HIV-1 and is not targeted by HIV-1 Vif in CD4-positive T cells, we asked whether related lentiviral Vif proteins could degrade APOBEC3B. Interestingly, several SIV Vif proteins are capable of promoting APOBEC3B degradation, with SIVmac239 Vif proving the most potent. This likely occurs through the canonical polyubiquitination mechanism as APOBEC3B protein levels are restored by MG132 treatment and by altering a conserved E3 ligase-binding motif. We further show that SIVmac239 Vif can prevent APOBEC3B mediated geno/cytotoxicity and degrade endogenous APOBEC3B in several cancer cell lines. Our data indicate that the APOBEC3B degradation potential of SIV Vif is an effective tool for neutralizing the cancer genomic DNA deaminase APOBEC3B. Further optimization of this natural APOBEC3 antagonist may benefit cancer therapy. PMID:26544511

  14. Degradation of the cancer genomic DNA deaminase APOBEC3B by SIV Vif

    PubMed Central

    Land, Allison M.; Wang, Jiayi; Law, Emily K.; Aberle, Ryan; Kirmaier, Andrea; Krupp, Annabel; Johnson, Welkin E.; Harris, Reuben S.

    2015-01-01

    APOBEC3B is a newly identified source of mutation in many cancers, including breast, head/neck, lung, bladder, cervical, and ovarian. APOBEC3B is a member of the APOBEC3 family of enzymes that deaminate DNA cytosine to produce the pro-mutagenic lesion, uracil. Several APOBEC3 family members function to restrict virus replication. For instance, APOBEC3D, APOBEC3F, APOBEC3G, and APOBEC3H combine to restrict HIV-1 in human lymphocytes. HIV-1 counteracts these APOBEC3s with the viral protein Vif, which targets the relevant APOBEC3s for proteasomal degradation. While APOBEC3B does not restrict HIV-1 and is not targeted by HIV-1 Vif in CD4-positive T cells, we asked whether related lentiviral Vif proteins could degrade APOBEC3B. Interestingly, several SIV Vif proteins are capable of promoting APOBEC3B degradation, with SIVmac239 Vif proving the most potent. This likely occurs through the canonical polyubiquitination mechanism as APOBEC3B protein levels are restored by MG132 treatment and by altering a conserved E3 ligase-binding motif. We further show that SIVmac239 Vif can prevent APOBEC3B mediated geno/cytotoxicity and degrade endogenous APOBEC3B in several cancer cell lines. Our data indicate that the APOBEC3B degradation potential of SIV Vif is an effective tool for neutralizing the cancer genomic DNA deaminase APOBEC3B. Further optimization of this natural APOBEC3 antagonist may benefit cancer therapy. PMID:26544511

  15. Degradation and detection of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis DNA and proteins in flour of three genetically modified rice events submitted to a set of thermal processes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofu; Chen, Xiaoyun; Xu, Junfeng; Dai, Chen; Shen, Wenbiao

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the degradation of three transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes (Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and Cry1Ab/Ac) and the corresponding encoded Bt proteins in KMD1, KF6, and TT51-1 rice powder, respectively, following autoclaving, cooking, baking, or microwaving. Exogenous Bt genes were more stable than the endogenous sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) gene, and short DNA fragments were detected more frequently than long DNA fragments in both the Bt and SPS genes. Autoclaving, cooking (boiling in water, 30 min), and baking (200 °C, 30 min) induced the most severe Bt protein degradation effects, and Cry1Ab protein was more stable than Cry1Ac and Cry1Ab/Ac protein, which was further confirmed by baking samples at 180 °C for different periods of time. Microwaving induced mild degradation of the Bt and SPS genes, and Bt proteins, whereas baking (180 °C, 15 min), cooking and autoclaving led to further degradation, and baking (200 °C, 30 min) induced the most severe degradation. The findings of the study indicated that degradation of the Bt genes and proteins somewhat correlated with the treatment intensity. Polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and lateral flow tests were used to detect the corresponding transgenic components. Strategies for detecting transgenic ingredients in highly processed foods are discussed. PMID:26277627

  16. Microbial degradation of gasoline in soil: Effect of season of sampling.

    PubMed

    Turner, D A; Pichtel, J; Rodenas, Y; McKillip, J; Goodpaster, J V

    2015-06-01

    In cases where fire debris contains soil, microorganisms can rapidly and irreversibly alter the chemical composition of any ignitable liquid residue that may be present. In this study, differences in microbial degradation due to the season in which the sample is collected was examined. Soil samples were collected from the same site during Fall, Winter, Spring and Summer and the degradation of gasoline was monitored over 30 days. Predominant viable bacterial populations enumerated using real-time PCR and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) enumeration revealed the predominant viable bacterial genera to be Alcaligenes, Bacillus, and Flavobacterium. Overall, the compounds most vulnerable to microbial degradation are the n-alkanes, followed by the mono-substituted alkylbenzenes (e.g., toluene, ethylbenzene, propylbenzene and isopropylbenzene). Benzaldehyde (a degradation product of toluene) was also identified as a marker for the extent of biodegradation. Ultimately, it was determined that soil collected during an unusually hot and dry summer exhibited the least degradation with little to no change in gasoline for up to 4 days, readily detectable n-alkanes for up to 7 days and relatively high levels of resilient compounds such as o-xylene, p-xylene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene. These results demonstrate, however, that prompt preservation and/or analysis of soil evidence is required in order to properly classify an ignitable liquid residue. PMID:25863700

  17. Oxidative degradation pathways of cellular DNA: product formation and mechanistic insights.

    PubMed

    Cadet, Jean

    2014-10-01

    More than 100 oxidized purine and pyrimidine nucleosides including hydroperoxides and diastereomers have been characterized so far in extensive model studies. However, much less information is currently available on the oxidatively generated base damage to cellular DNA at the exception however of the overwhelming modifications produced by singlet oxygen ((1)O2). This is mostly due to analytical difficulties that are now, at least, partly overcome with the advent of the accurate and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS). Hydroxyl radical (()OH) and one-electron oxidants that may be either endogenously formed through oxidative metabolism, phagocytosis, inflammation and other pathological conditions are predominantly at the origin of oxidatively generated damage to cellular DNA. It is worth mentioning that exposure of cells to exogenous physical agents (UVA light, high intensity UV laser, ionizing radiation) and chemicals such as bromate may also induce oxidatively generated damage to DNA. Emphasis is placed in this presentation on the critical survey of the main recently available information concerning the formation of (1)O2, ()OH and one-electron oxidant-mediated single and more complex DNA damage (tandem lesions, intra- and interstrand cross-links, DNA-protein cross-links) arising from one radical hit. Evidence was provided that ()OH and one-electron oxidants, through the generation of neutral radicals and radical cations respectively from nucleobases, are able to induce partly common degradation pathways. In addition selective oxidative reactions giving rise to specific degradation products of ()OH and one-electron oxidation reactions that can be used as representative biomarkers of these oxidants have been identified. Emphasis was recently placed on the detection of oxidatively generated damage to cytosine and 5-methylcytosine in human cells. PMID:26461303

  18. Modified DOP-PCR for improved STR typing of degraded DNA from human skeletal remains and bloodstains.

    PubMed

    Ambers, Angie; Turnbough, Meredith; Benjamin, Robert; Gill-King, Harrell; King, Jonathan; Sajantila, Antti; Budowle, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Forensic and ancient DNA samples often are damaged and in limited quantity as a result of exposure to harsh environments and the passage of time. Several strategies have been proposed to address the challenges posed by degraded and low copy templates, including a PCR based whole genome amplification method called degenerate oligonucleotide-primed PCR (DOP-PCR). This study assessed the efficacy of four modified versions of the original DOP-PCR primer that retain at least a portion of the 5' defined sequence and alter the number of bases on the 3' end. The use of each of the four modified primers resulted in improved STR profiles from environmentally-damaged bloodstains, contemporary human skeletal remains, American Civil War era bone samples, and skeletal remains of WWII soldiers over those obtained by previously described DOP-PCR methods and routine STR typing. Additionally, the modified DOP-PCR procedure allows for a larger volume of DNA extract to be used, reducing the need to concentrate the sample and thus mitigating the effects of concurrent concentration of inhibitors. PMID:26832369

  19. Intra-sample heterogeneity of sperm DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Timothy G; Aston, Kenneth I; Trost, Cooper; Farley, Jordan; Hotaling, James M; Carrell, Douglas T

    2015-04-01

    The study of sperm epigenetics is challenging and limited largely to sperm population estimates rather than individual spermatozoa. While this type of approach is likely sufficient for most somatic cell lines, it is problematic in a tissue where a single cell is disproportionality influential. Furthermore, we know very little about the epigenetic variability between different sperm from the same ejaculate. Thus, it is essential that we better understand the heterogeneity of sperm epigenetic marks within an ejaculate. In this study, we have performed sperm genome-wide DNA methylation analyses on single ejaculates from 20 individuals. Sperm samples were subjected to gradient separation, following which the 90% layer ('high-quality sperm') and the 35% layer ('low-quality sperm') were isolated and analyzed separately using the Illumina 450K methylation array. We did not identify any single CpG that was differentially methylated between the two fractions. In contrast, we did identify 772 significant regional methylation alterations between the two layers. Coefficient of variance analysis also revealed that, in addition to having multiple sites that appear to be differentially methylated, the 35% layer sperm population, as a whole, displayed significantly higher variability in DNA methylation than did the 90% layer. In conclusion, while the two sperm populations analyzed here do not appear to be entirely distinct, those sperm that are generally considered to be of 'poor-quality' display some consistent regions of alteration and, more strikingly, demonstrate more heterogeneity than sperm considered to be of more normal quality. PMID:25542834

  20. Degradation of p12 subunit by CRL4Cdt2 E3 ligase inhibits fork progression after DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Terai, Kenta; Shibata, Etsuko; Abbas, Tarek; Dutta, Anindya

    2013-10-18

    After acute DNA damage, the cell arrests S-phase progression by inhibiting origin initiation and fork progression to repair damaged DNA. The intra-S-phase checkpoint kinase Chk1 phosphorylates Cdc25A to target the latter for degradation by CRL1(?-TrCP) and so inhibit origin firing. The mechanism for inhibiting fork progression, however, has not been identified. Here, we show that degradation of p12, the fourth subunit of DNA polymerase ?, is critical for inhibiting fork progression. CRL4(Cdt2) is an E3 ligase that ubiquitinates and degrades p12 after UV treatment. Cells expressing a stable form of p12 exhibit UV-resistant DNA synthesis. DNA fiber assay and alkaline-sucrose gradient assay demonstrate that the impairment of fork progression after DNA damage requires p12 degradation. These results suggest that ubiquitination of p12 through CRL4(Cdt2) and subsequent degradation form one mechanism by which a cell responds to DNA damage to inhibit fork progression. PMID:24022480

  1. Celastrol induces proteasomal degradation of FANCD2 to sensitize lung cancer cells to DNA crosslinking agents

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gui-Zhen; Liu, Yong-Qiang; Cheng, Xin; Zhou, Guang-Biao

    2015-01-01

    The Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway plays a key role in interstrand crosslink (ICL) repair and maintenance of the genomic stability, while inhibition of this pathway may sensitize cancer cells to DNA ICL agents and ionizing radiation (IR). The active FA core complex acts as an E3 ligase to monoubiquitinate FANCD2, which is a functional readout of an activated FA pathway. In the present study, we aimed to identify FANCD2-targeting agents, and found that the natural compound celastrol induced degradation of FANCD2 through the ubiquitinproteasome pathway. We demonstrated that celastrol downregulated the basal and DNA damaging agent-induced monoubiquitination of FANCD2, followed by proteolytic degradation of the substrate. Furthermore, celastrol treatment abrogated the G2 checkpoint induced by IR, and enhanced the ICL agent-induced DNA damage and inhibitory effects on lung cancer cells through depletion of FANCD2. These results indicate that celastrol is a FANCD2 inhibitor that could interfere with the monoubiquitination and protein stability of FANCD2, providing a novel opportunity to develop FA pathway inhibitor and combinational therapy for malignant neoplasms. PMID:25891850

  2. Norcantharidin inhibits DNA replication and induces mitotic catastrophe by degrading initiation protein Cdc6.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sansan; Wan, Pei; Ding, Wen; Li, Fei; He, Chengwu; Chen, Pengliang; Li, Hongwei; Hu, Zhiming; Tan, Wanlong; Li, Jinlong

    2013-07-01

    Cdc6, an essential initiation protein for DNA replication, also participates in the ATR checkpoint pathway and plays a vital role in tumorigenesis. It is involved in the androgen receptor (AR) signal transduction and promotes the malignant progression of prostate cancer (PCa). In this study, we report that norcantharidin (NCTD) induces the degradation of Cdc6 in DU145 PCa cells and as a result, the assembly of pre-replication complexes (pre-RCs) was disturbed and DNA replication was inhibited. Furthermore, treatment with NCTD blocked ATR binding to chromatin and the cells progressed into mitosis under stress induced by hydroxyurea (HU), indicating that the ATR checkpoint was evaded. Aberrant mitosis and hence, apoptosis were also observed following treatment with NCTD. Finally, NCTD exerted strong synergistic cytotoxic effects in combination with another mitotic inhibitor, paclitaxel, [combination index (CI<1)]. These data suggest that NCTD not only inhibits DNA replication but also disables the ATR-dependent checkpoint pathway by inducing Cdc6 degradation, which leads to mitotic catastrophe in DU145 cells. These findings also provide a promising prospect for the combination treatment of paclitaxel and NCTD or Cdc6 deletion in PCa. PMID:23612688

  3. Generation and identification of DNA sequence flanking T-DNA integration site of Trichoderma atroviride mutants with high dichlorvos-degrading capacity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenliang; Liu, Lixing; Hu, Xiaolu; Tang, Jun; Liu, Peng; Chen, Jie; Chen, Yunpeng

    2009-12-01

    A protocol for efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) of biocontrol fungus Trichoderma atroviride strain T23 was developed to construct mutants with improved dichlorvos-degradation ability. A transformation frequency of 5x10(-6) was achieved. Among 110 genetically stable T-DNA transformants of T. atroviride T23, two transformants, AMT-12 and AMT-28, confirmed by Southern blot analysis to have single-copy inserts of T-DNA, showed an increase in dichlorvos-degradation ability of more than 10% compared to that of the wild type, exhibited similar tolerance to the pesticide, but lower spore formation ability. Five transformants exhibited a reduction in degradation of more than 70%, exhibited wild-type spore formation, and tolerated up to 800 microg/mL of dichlorvos. The left-flanking sequence of the insertion site in AMT-12 was cloned as a 1845-bp fragment and shown to have 89% identity to the DNA from T. atroviride IMI 206040; however, the involvement of this DNA in dichlorvos degradation remains still to be determined. This study can promote both a more efficient isolation of DNA sequence flanking T-DNA integration site in T. atroviride mutants and a more rational utilization of these transformants in dichlorvos degradation. PMID:19577921

  4. DNA-SIP Reveals That Syntrophaceae Play an Important Role in Methanogenic Hexadecane Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lei; Ding, Chen; Li, Qiang; He, Qiao; Dai, Li-rong; Zhang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    The methanogenic degradation of linear alkanes is a common process in oil-impacted environments. However, little is known about the key players involved in this process. Here, the hexadecane-degrading organisms in a methanogenic, hexadecane-degrading consortium designated M82 obtained from Shengli oilfield and maintained at 35°C for over 4 years, were identified by DNA-stable isotope probing with UL-13C-hexadecane, followed by density-resolved terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis, cloning and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments. Compared to the fractions of the 12C treatment, the relative abundance of two phylotypes significantly increased in the heavy fractions of the 13C-hexadecane incubated microcosm. One belongs to a uncultured member of the bacterial family Syntrophaceae, which show 95–97% rRNA sequence identity with Smithella propionica, and the other is affiliated with Methanoculleus receptaculi (>99% sequence identity). The results of the present study prove the significant role of uncultured Syntrophaceae in degradation of hexadecane, probably through syntrophic interactions with hydrogenotrophic methanogens. PMID:23840866

  5. Comparison of seven methods for extraction of bacterial DNA from fecal and cecal samples of mice.

    PubMed

    Ferrand, Janina; Patron, Kevin; Legrand-Frossi, Christine; Frippiat, Jean-Pol; Merlin, Christophe; Alauzet, Corentine; Lozniewski, Alain

    2014-10-01

    Analysis of bacterial DNA from fecal samples of mice is commonly performed in experimental studies. Although DNA extraction is a critical step in various molecular approaches, the efficiency of methods that may be used for DNA extraction from mice fecal samples has never been evaluated. We compared the efficiencies of six widely used commercial kits (MasterPure Gram Positive DNA Purification Kit, QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit; NucliSENS easyMAG, ZR Fecal DNA MiniPrep, FastDNA SPIN Kit for Feces and FastDNA SPIN Kit for Soil) and a non-commercial method for DNA isolation from mice feces and cecal contents. DNA quantity and quality were assessed by fluorometry, spectrophotometry, gel electrophoresis and qPCR. Cell lysis efficiencies were evaluated by qPCR targeting three relevant bacteria in spiked specimens. For both feces and intestinal contents, the most efficient extraction method was the FastDNA SPIN Kit for Soil. PMID:25093756

  6. 76 FR 72417 - National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of... Survey (NHANES) will not be receiving DNA proposals in 2012. NHANES is changing its plan for making DNA available for genetic research and its proposal guidelines. NHANES anticipates that the DNA Bank will...

  7. Protein Degradation Pathways Regulate the Functions of Helicases in the DNA Damage Response and Maintenance of Genomic Stability

    PubMed Central

    Sommers, Joshua A.; Suhasini, Avvaru N.; Brosh, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Degradation of helicases or helicase-like proteins, often mediated by ubiquitin-proteasomal pathways, plays important regulatory roles in cellular mechanisms that respond to DNA damage or replication stress. The Blooms syndrome helicase (BLM) provides an example of how helicase degradation pathways, regulated by post-translational modifications and protein interactions with components of the Fanconi Anemia (FA) interstrand cross-link (ICL) repair pathway, influence cell cycle checkpoints, DNA repair, and replication restart. The FANCM DNA translocase can be targeted by checkpoint kinases that exert dramatic effects on FANCM stability and chromosomal integrity. Other work provides evidence that degradation of the F-box DNA helicase (FBH1) helps to balance translesion synthesis (TLS) and homologous recombination (HR) repair at blocked replication forks. Degradation of the helicase-like transcription factor (HLTF), a DNA translocase and ubiquitylating enzyme, influences the choice of post replication repair (PRR) pathway. Stability of the Werner syndrome helicase-nuclease (WRN) involved in the replication stress response is regulated by its acetylation. Turning to transcription, stability of the Cockayne Syndrome Group B DNA translocase (CSB) implicated in transcription-coupled repair (TCR) is regulated by a CSA ubiquitin ligase complex enabling recovery of RNA synthesis. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that helicases can be targeted for degradation to maintain genome homeostasis. PMID:25906194

  8. Prediction of people's origin from degraded DNA--presentation of SNP assays and calculation of probability.

    PubMed

    Poetsch, Micaela; Blhm, Rowena; Harder, Melanie; Inoue, Hiromasa; von Wurmb-Schwark, Nicole; Freitag-Wolf, Sandra

    2013-03-01

    The characterization of externally visible traits by DNA analysis is already an important tool when investigating ancient skeletal remains and may gain similar importance in future forensic DNA analysis. This, however, depends on the different legal regulations in the different countries. Besides eye or hair color, the population origin can provide crucial information in criminal prosecution. In this study, we present the analysis of 16 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) combined to two robust SNaPshot assays with a detection threshold of 25-pg DNA. This assay was applied to 891 people from seven different populations (West Africa, North Africa, Turkey, Near East, Balkan states, North Europe, and Japan) with a thorough statistical evaluation. The prediction model was validated by an additional 125 individuals predominantly with an ancestry from those same regions. The specificity of these SNPs for the prediction of all population origins is very high (>90%), but the sensitivity varied greatly (more than 90% for West Africa, but only 25% for the Near East). We could identify West Africans with a certainty of 100%, and people from North Africa, the Balkan states, or North Europe nearly with the same reliability while determination of Turks or people from the Near East was rather difficult. In conclusion, the two SNaPshot assays are a powerful and reliable tool for the identification of people with an ancestry in one of the above listed populations, even from degraded DNA. PMID:22918435

  9. Optimization of kinetic parameters for the degradation of plasmid DNA in rat plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhry, Q. A.

    2014-12-01

    Biotechnology is a rapidly growing area of research work in the field of pharmaceutical sciences. The study of pharmacokinetics of plasmid DNA (pDNA) is an important area of research work. It has been observed that the process of gene delivery faces many troubles on the transport of pDNA towards their target sites. The topoforms of pDNA has been termed as super coiled (S-C), open circular (O-C) and linear (L), the kinetic model of which will be presented in this paper. The kinetic model gives rise to system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs), the exact solution of which has been found. The kinetic parameters, which are responsible for the degradation of super coiled, and the formation of open circular and linear topoforms have a great significance not only in vitro but for modeling of further processes as well, therefore need to be addressed in great detail. For this purpose, global optimization techniques have been adopted, thus finding the optimal results for the said model. The results of the model, while using the optimal parameters, were compared against the measured data, which gives a nice agreement.

  10. Estrogenic activity of bio-degradation products of C-heavy oil revealed by gene-expression profiling using an oligo-DNA microarray system.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yun; Kitamura, Keiko; Maruyama, Akihiko; Higashihara, Takanori; Kiyama, Ryoiti

    2012-09-01

    Degradation of heavy oil by bacteria to decompose organic compounds such as aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons has been used in bioremediation. However, the biological and environmental effects of the degradation products including intermediates are still not clear. Here, we monitored the degradation of C-heavy oil by analyzing the products formed in cultures with oil-degrading bacteria (complex microbes or a single bacterial strain). Furthermore, proliferation assays using breast cancer MCF-7 cells and gene-expression profiling of MCF-7 cells using oligonucleotide-DNA microarrays were performed to evaluate the estrogenic activity of the degradation products. While the products did not show any significant cell-proliferative activity, the oil samples cultured for longer periods (2-3 months), whether cultured with mixed microbes or a single bacterial strain, showed gene-expression profiles similar to that of 17?-estradiol (E2). These results suggest that oil-degradation products have estrogenic activity, and estrogen-like components could possibly be produced during the degradation process. PMID:22580234

  11. Specific amplification of bacterial DNA by optimized so-called universal bacterial primers in samples rich of plant DNA.

    PubMed

    Dorn-In, Samart; Bassitta, Rupert; Schwaiger, Karin; Bauer, Johann; Hlzel, Christina S

    2015-06-01

    Universal primers targeting the bacterial 16S-rRNA-gene allow quantification of the total bacterial load in variable sample types by qPCR. However, many universal primer pairs also amplify DNA of plants or even of archaea and other eukaryotic cells. By using these primers, the total bacterial load might be misevaluated, whenever samples contain high amounts of non-target DNA. Thus, this study aimed to provide primer pairs which are suitable for quantification and identification of bacterial DNA in samples such as feed, spices and sample material from digesters. For 42 primers, mismatches to the sequence of chloroplasts and mitochondria of plants were evaluated. Six primer pairs were further analyzed with regard to the question whether they anneal to DNA of archaea, animal tissue and fungi. Subsequently they were tested with sample matrix such as plants, feed, feces, soil and environmental samples. To this purpose, the target DNA in the samples was quantified by qPCR. The PCR products of plant and feed samples were further processed for the Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism method followed by sequence analysis. The sequencing results revealed that primer pair 335F/769R amplified only bacterial DNA in samples such as plants and animal feed, in which the DNA of plants prevailed. PMID:25863142

  12. An evaluation of long-term preservation methods for brown bear (Ursus arctos) faecal DNA samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, M.A.; Waits, L.P.; Kendall, K.C.; Wasser, S.K.; Higbee, J.A.; Bogden, R.

    2002-01-01

    Relatively few large-scale faecal DNA studies have been initiated due to difficulties in amplifying low quality and quantity DNA template. To improve brown bear faecal DNA PCR amplification success rates and to determine post collection sample longevity, five preservation methods were evaluated: 90% ethanol, DETs buffer, silica-dried, oven-dried stored at room temperature, and oven-dried stored at -20??C. Preservation effectiveness was evaluated for 50 faecal samples by PCR amplification of a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) locus (???146 bp) and a nuclear DNA (nDNA) locus (???200 bp) at time points of one week, one month, three months and six months. Preservation method and storage time significantly impacted mtDNA and nDNA amplification success rates. For mtDNA, all preservation methods had ??? 75% success at one week, but storage time had a significant impact on the effectiveness of the silica preservation method. Ethanol preserved samples had the highest success rates for both mtDNA (86.5%) and nDNA (84%). Nuclear DNA amplification success rates ranged from 26-88%, and storage time had a significant impact on all methods but ethanol. Preservation method and storage time should be important considerations for researchers planning projects utilizing faecal DNA. We recommend preservation of faecal samples in 90% ethanol when feasible, although when collecting in remote field conditions or for both DNA and hormone assays a dry collection method may be advantageous.

  13. Time-Resolved DNA Stable Isotope Probing Links Desulfobacterales- and Coriobacteriaceae-Related Bacteria to Anaerobic Degradation of Benzene under Methanogenic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Mana; Kurisu, Futoshi; Kasuga, Ikuro; Furumai, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    To identify the microorganisms involved in benzene degradation, DNA-stable isotope probing (SIP) with 13C-benzene was applied to a methanogenic benzene-degrading enrichment culture. Pyrosequencing of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences revealed that the community structure was highly complex in spite of a 3-year incubation only with benzene. The culture degraded 98% of approximately 1 mM 13C-benzene and mineralized 72% of that within 63 d. The terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) profiles of the buoyant density fractions revealed the incorporation of 13C into two phylotypes after 64 d. These two phylotypes were determined to be Desulfobacterales- and Coriobacteriaceae-related bacteria by cloning and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene in the 13C-labeled DNA abundant fraction. Comparative pyrosequencing analysis of the buoyant density fractions of 12C- and 13C-labeled samples indicated the incorporation of 13C into three bacterial and one archaeal OTUs related to Desulfobacterales, Coriobacteriales, Rhodocyclaceae, and Methanosarcinales. The first two OTUs included the bacteria detected by T-RFLP-cloning-sequencing analysis. Furthermore, time-resolved SIP analysis confirmed that the activity of all these microbes appeared at the earliest stage of degradation. In this methanogenic culture, Desulfobacterales- and Coriobacteriaceae-related bacteria were most likely to be the major benzene degraders. PMID:24909708

  14. Developmental validation of the PrepFiler Forensic DNA Extraction Kit for extraction of genomic DNA from biological samples.

    PubMed

    Brevnov, Maxim G; Pawar, Hemant S; Mundt, Janna; Calandro, Lisa M; Furtado, Manohar R; Shewale, Jaiprakash G

    2009-05-01

    The PrepFiler Forensic DNA Extraction Kit enables isolation of genomic DNA from a variety of biological samples. The kit facilitates reversible binding of DNA with magnetic particles resulting in high DNA recovery from samples with very low and high quantities of biological materials: 0.1 and 40 microL of human blood (donor 2) provided 14 and 2883 ng of DNA, respectively. Following the revised SWGDAM guidelines, performance of the developed method was investigated using different sample types including saliva on swabs, semen stains on cotton fabric, samples exposed to environment, samples with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) inhibitors, blood stains (on denim, cotton cloth, and FTA paper), and touch evidence-type samples. DNA yields for all samples tested were equal or better than those obtained by both phenol-chloroform extraction and commercial kits tested. DNA obtained from these samples was free of detectable PCR inhibitors. Short tandem repeat profiles were complete, conclusive, and devoid of PCR artifacts. PMID:19302383

  15. Massively parallel sequencing of the entire control region and targeted coding region SNPs of degraded mtDNA using a simplified library preparation method.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Young; Lee, Hwan Young; Oh, Se Yoon; Jung, Sang-Eun; Yang, In Seok; Lee, Yang-Han; Yang, Woo Ick; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2016-05-01

    The application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) to forensic genetics is being explored by an increasing number of laboratories because of the potential of high-throughput sequencing for recovering genetic information from multiple markers and multiple individuals in a single run. A cumbersome and technically challenging library construction process is required for NGS. In this study, we propose a simplified library preparation method for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis that involves two rounds of PCR amplification. In the first-round of multiplex PCR, six fragments covering the entire mtDNA control region and 22 fragments covering interspersed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding region that can be used to determine global haplogroups and East Asian haplogroups were amplified using template-specific primers with read sequences. In the following step, indices and platform-specific sequences for the MiSeq(®) system (Illumina) were added by PCR. The barcoded library produced using this simplified workflow was successfully sequenced on the MiSeq system using the MiSeq Reagent Nano Kit v2. A total of 0.4 GB of sequences, 80.6% with base quality of >Q30, were obtained from 12 degraded DNA samples and mapped to the revised Cambridge Reference Sequence (rCRS). A relatively even read count was obtained for all amplicons, with an average coverage of 5200×and a less than three-fold read count difference between amplicons per sample. Control region sequences were successfully determined, and all samples were assigned to the relevant haplogroups. In addition, enhanced discrimination was observed by adding coding region SNPs to the control region in in silico analysis. Because the developed multiplex PCR system amplifies small-sized amplicons (<250bp), NGS analysis using the library preparation method described here allows mtDNA analysis using highly degraded DNA samples. PMID:26844917

  16. Degradable Polymer-Coated Gold Nanoparticles for Co-Delivery of DNA and siRNA

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Corey J.; Tzeng, Stephany Y.; Green, Jordan J.

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles have utility for in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo imaging applications as well as for serving as a scaffold for therapeutic delivery and theranostic applications. Starting with gold nanoparticles as a core, layer-by-layer degradable polymer coatings enable co-delivery of both DNA and short interfering RNA simultaneously. To engineer release kinetics, polymers which degrade through two different mechanisms can be utilized to construct hybrid inorganic/polymeric particles. During fabrication of the nanoparticles, the zeta potential reverses upon the addition of each oppositely charged polyelectrolyte layer and the final nanoparticle size reaches approximately 200 nm in diameter. When the hybrid gold/polymer/nucleic acid nanoparticles are added to human primary brain cancer cells in vitro, they are internalizable by cells and reach the cytoplasm and nucleus as visualized by transmission electron microscopy and observed through exogenous gene expression. This nanoparticle delivery leads to both exogenous DNA expression and siRNA-mediated knockdown, with the knockdown efficacy superior to that of Lipofectamine 2000, a commercially available transfection reagent. These gold/polymer/nucleic acid hybrid nanoparticles are an enabling theranostic platform technology capable of delivering combinations of genetic therapies to human cells. PMID:25246314

  17. Quantitation of DNA in buccal cell samples collected in epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Garca-Closas, M; Moore, L E; Rabkin, C S; Franklin, T; Struewing, J; Ginzinger, D; Alguacil, J; Rothman, N

    2006-01-01

    Buccal cell samples are increasingly used in epidemiological studies as a source of genomic DNA. The accurate and precise quantitation of human DNA is critical for the optimal use of these samples. However, it is complicated by the presence of bacterial DNA and wide inter-individual variation in DNA concentration from buccal cell collections. The paper evaluated the use of ultraviolet light (UV) spectroscopy, Hechst (H33258) and PicoGreen as measures of total DNA, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a measure of human amplifiable DNA in buccal samples. Using serially diluted white blood cell DNA samples (at a concentration range of 300 to 0.5 ng microl-1), UV spectroscopy showed the largest bias, followed by Hechst, especially for low concentrations. PicoGreen and real-time PCR provided the most accurate and precise estimates across the range of concentrations evaluated, although an increase in bias with decreasing concentrations was observed. The ratio of real-time PCR to PicoGreen provided a reasonable estimate of the percentage of human DNA in samples containing known mixtures of human and bacterial DNA. Quantification of buccal DNA from samples collected in a breast cancer case-control study by PicoGreen and real-time PCR indicated that cytobrush and mouthwash DNA samples contain similar percentages of human amplifiable DNA. Real-time PCR is recommended for the quantification of buccal cell DNA in epidemiological studies since it provides precise estimates of human amplifiable DNA across the wide range of DNA concentrations commonly observed in buccal cell DNA samples. PMID:16966163

  18. Elimination of bioweapons agents from forensic samples during extraction of human DNA.

    PubMed

    Timbers, Jason; Wilkinson, Della; Hause, Christine C; Smith, Myron L; Zaidi, Mohsin A; Laframboise, Denis; Wright, Kathryn E

    2014-11-01

    Collection of DNA for genetic profiling is a powerful means for the identification of individuals responsible for crimes and terrorist acts. Biologic hazards, such as bacteria, endospores, toxins, and viruses, could contaminate sites of terrorist activities and thus could be present in samples collected for profiling. The fate of these hazards during DNA isolation has not been thoroughly examined. Our goals were to determine whether the DNA extraction process used by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police eliminates or neutralizes these agents and if not, to establish methods that render samples safe without compromising the human DNA. Our results show that bacteria, viruses, and toxins were reduced to undetectable levels during DNA extraction, but endospores remained viable. Filtration of samples after DNA isolation eliminated viable spores from the samples but left DNA intact. We also demonstrated that contamination of samples with some bacteria, endospores, and toxins for longer than 1 h compromised the ability to complete genetic profiling. PMID:25069670

  19. The room temperature preservation of filtered environmental DNA samples and assimilation into a phenol–chloroform–isoamyl alcohol DNA extraction

    PubMed Central

    Renshaw, Mark A; Olds, Brett P; Jerde, Christopher L; McVeigh, Margaret M; Lodge, David M

    2015-01-01

    Current research targeting filtered macrobial environmental DNA (eDNA) often relies upon cold ambient temperatures at various stages, including the transport of water samples from the field to the laboratory and the storage of water and/or filtered samples in the laboratory. This poses practical limitations for field collections in locations where refrigeration and frozen storage is difficult or where samples must be transported long distances for further processing and screening. This study demonstrates the successful preservation of eDNA at room temperature (20 °C) in two lysis buffers, CTAB and Longmire's, over a 2-week period of time. Moreover, the preserved eDNA samples were seamlessly integrated into a phenol–chloroform–isoamyl alcohol (PCI) DNA extraction protocol. The successful application of the eDNA extraction to multiple filter membrane types suggests the methods evaluated here may be broadly applied in future eDNA research. Our results also suggest that for many kinds of studies recently reported on macrobial eDNA, detection probabilities could have been increased, and at a lower cost, by utilizing the Longmire's preservation buffer with a PCI DNA extraction. PMID:24834966

  20. DNA-SIP identifies sulfate-reducing Clostridia as important toluene degraders in tar-oil-contaminated aquifer sediment.

    PubMed

    Winderl, Christian; Penning, Holger; Netzer, Frederick von; Meckenstock, Rainer U; Lueders, Tillmann

    2010-10-01

    Global groundwater resources are constantly challenged by a multitude of contaminants such as aromatic hydrocarbons. Especially in anaerobic habitats, a large diversity of unrecognized microbial populations may be responsible for their degradation. Still, our present understanding of the respective microbiota and their ecophysiology is almost exclusively based on a small number of cultured organisms, mostly within the Proteobacteria. Here, by DNA-based stable isotope probing (SIP), we directly identified the most active sulfate-reducing toluene degraders in a diverse sedimentary microbial community originating from a tar-oil-contaminated aquifer at a former coal gasification plant. On incubation of fresh sediments with (13)C(7)-toluene, the production of both sulfide and (13)CO(2) was clearly coupled to the (13)C-labeling of DNA of microbes related to Desulfosporosinus spp. within the Peptococcaceae (Clostridia). The screening of labeled DNA fractions also suggested a novel benzylsuccinate synthase alpha-subunit (bssA) sequence type previously only detected in the environment to be tentatively affiliated with these degraders. However, carbon flow from the contaminant into degrader DNA was only ?50%, pointing toward high ratios of heterotrophic CO(2)-fixation during assimilation of acetyl-CoA originating from the contaminant by these degraders. These findings demonstrate that the importance of non-proteobacterial populations in anaerobic aromatics degradation, as well as their specific ecophysiology in the subsurface may still be largely ungrasped. PMID:20428224

  1. Assessing uncertainty in DNA evidence caused by sampling effects.

    PubMed

    Curran, J M; Buckleton, J S; Triggs, C M; Weir, B S

    2002-01-01

    Sampling error estimation in forensic DNA testimony was discussed. Is an estimate necessary and how should it be made? The authors find that all modern methods have areas of strength and weakness. The assessment of which is the 'best' is subjective and depends on the performance of the method, the type of problem (criminal work or paternity), the database size and availability of computing software and support. The authors preferred the highest posterior density approach for performance, however the other methods all have areas where their performance is adequate. For single-contributor stains normal approximation methods are suitable, also the bootstrap and the highest posterior density method. For multiple-contributor stains or other complex situations the match probability expressions become quite complex and it may not be possible to derive the necessary variance expressions. The highest posterior density or the bootstrap provide a better general method, with non-zero theta. The size-bias correction and the factor of 10 approaches may be considered acceptable by many forensic scientists as long as their limitations are understood. PMID:12012647

  2. DNA degradation by aqueous extract of Aloe vera in the presence of copper ions.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, Shoa; Ullah, M F; Hadi, S M

    2010-06-01

    The plant Aloe vera has long been used in medicine, as dietary supplements and for cosmetic purposes. Aloe vera extracts are a rich source of polyphenols, such as aloin and aloe emodin and have shown a wide range of pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. The bioactive component aloe emodin has been reported to induce apoptosis in various cancer cell lines. Many of the biological activities of Aloe vera have been attributed to its antioxidant properties. However, most plant-derived polyphenols that are also present in Aloe vera may exhibit pro-oxidant properties either alone or in the presence of transition metals, such as copper. Previous reports from this laboratory have implicated the pro-oxidant action as one of the mechanisms for their anti-cancer properties. In the present paper, we show that aqueous extract of Aloe vera is also able to cause DNA degradation in the presence of copper ions. Further, the extract is also able to reduce Cu(II) to Cu(I) and generate reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals in a dose-dependent manner, which correlates with ability of the extract to cause DNA breakage. Thus, the study shows that in addition to antioxidant activity, Aloe vera extract also possess pro-oxidant properties, leading to oxidative DNA breakage. PMID:20653287

  3. Protocol Improvements for Low Concentration DNA-Based Bioaerosol Sampling and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Chun Kiat; Miller, Dana; Cao, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction As bioaerosol research attracts increasing attention, there is a need for additional efforts that focus on method development to deal with different environmental samples. Bioaerosol environmental samples typically have very low biomass concentrations in the air, which often leaves researchers with limited options in choosing the downstream analysis steps, especially when culture-independent methods are intended. Objectives This study investigates the impacts of three important factors that can influence the performance of culture-independent DNA-based analysis in dealing with bioaerosol environmental samples engaged in this study. The factors are: 1) enhanced high temperature sonication during DNA extraction; 2) effect of sampling duration on DNA recoverability; and 3) an alternative method for concentrating composite samples. In this study, DNA extracted from samples was analysed using the Qubit fluorometer (for direct total DNA measurement) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Results and Findings The findings suggest that additional lysis from high temperature sonication is crucial: DNA yields from both high and low biomass samples increased up to 600% when the protocol included 30-min sonication at 65°C. Long air sampling duration on a filter media was shown to have a negative impact on DNA recoverability with up to 98% of DNA lost over a 20-h sampling period. Pooling DNA from separate samples during extraction was proven to be feasible with margins of error below 30%. PMID:26619279

  4. DNA ISOLATION FROM SMALL TISSUE SAMPLES USING SALT AND SPERMINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Common DNA isolation methods rely upon protein denaturation by organic solvents such as phenol and chloroform. hese solvents pose some risk to the user and require special disposal procedures. e have previously reported a method for isolating DNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes...

  5. EFFECTIVE METHOD TO EXTRACT DNA FROM ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES FOR POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION AMPLIFICATION AND DNA FINGERPRINT ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A rapid direct-extraction method was used to obtain DNA from environmental soil samples. eat, enzymes, and guanidine isothiocyanate were utilized to lyse cells. he DNA was purified by agarose gel electrophoresis, amplified with 16S based primers by use of the polymerase chain rea...

  6. cDNA Hybrid Capture Improves Transcriptome Analysis on Low-Input and Archived Samples

    PubMed Central

    Cabanski, Christopher R.; Magrini, Vincent; Griffith, Malachi; Griffith, Obi L.; McGrath, Sean; Zhang, Jin; Walker, Jason; Ly, Amy; Demeter, Ryan; Fulton, Robert S.; Pong, Winnie W.; Gutmann, David H.; Govindan, Ramaswamy; Mardis, Elaine R.; Maher, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    The use of massively parallel sequencing for studying RNA expression has greatly enhanced our understanding of the transcriptome through the myriad ways these data can be characterized. In particular, clinical samples provide important insights about RNA expression in health and disease, yet these studies can be complicated by RNA degradation that results from the use of formalin as a clinical preservative and by the limited amounts of RNA often available from these precious samples. In this study we describe the combined use of RNA sequencing with an exome capture selection step to enhance the yield of on-exon sequencing read data when compared with RNA sequencing alone. In particular, the exome capture step preserves the dynamic range of expression, permitting differential comparisons and validation of expressed mutations from limited and FFPE preserved samples, while reducing the data generation requirement. We conclude that cDNA hybrid capture has the potential to significantly improve transcriptome analysis from low-yield FFPE material. PMID:24814956

  7. Terminal PEGylated DNA-Gold Nanoparticle Conjugates Offering High Resistance to Nuclease Degradation and Efficient Intracellular Delivery of DNA Binding Agents.

    PubMed

    Song, Lei; Guo, Yuan; Roebuck, Deborah; Chen, Chun; Yang, Min; Yang, Zhongqiang; Sreedharan, Sreejesh; Glover, Caroline; Thomas, Jim A; Liu, Dongsheng; Guo, Shengrong; Chen, Rongjun; Zhou, Dejian

    2015-08-26

    Over the past 10 years, polyvalent DNA-gold nanoparticle (DNA-GNP) conjugate has been demonstrated as an efficient, universal nanocarrier for drug and gene delivery with high uptake by over 50 different types of primary and cancer cell lines. A barrier limiting its in vivo effectiveness is limited resistance to nuclease degradation and nonspecific interaction with blood serum contents. Herein we show that terminal PEGylation of the complementary DNA strand hybridized to a polyvalent DNA-GNP conjugate can eliminate nonspecific adsorption of serum proteins and greatly increases its resistance against DNase I-based degradation. The PEGylated DNA-GNP conjugate still retains a high cell uptake property, making it an attractive intracellular delivery nanocarrier for DNA binding reagents. We show that it can be used for successful intracellular delivery of doxorubicin, a widely used clinical cancer chemotherapeutic drug. Moreover, it can be used for efficient delivery of some cell-membrane-impermeable reagents such as propidium iodide (a DNA intercalating fluorescent dye currently limited to the use of staining dead cells only) and a diruthenium complex (a DNA groove binder), for successful staining of live cells. PMID:26237203

  8. Factors leading to the degradation/loss of insulin in postmortem blood samples.

    PubMed

    Wunder, Cora; Kauert, Gerold F; Toennes, Stefan W

    2014-08-01

    Since lethal insulin injection has been used in murder and suicide cases, its non-ambiguous detection in postmortem, mostly hemolytic blood samples is still a problem. In the present study the stability of insulin and reasons for its loss in those blood samples were examined. When incubated with buffer, serum or with intact blood cell suspensions insulin concentrations were found to remain stable over time, but a significant loss of insulin was observed in hemolyzed blood samples. This was not due to an enzymatic cleavage, but predominantly to the presence of hemoglobin. Incubation of insulin with a hemoglobin solution containing the same hemoglobin content as hemolyzed blood caused a dramatic decrease of the insulin concentration. Degradation of insulin reached its maximum after 23 h of incubation. The charge state of the ferric ion of hemoglobin could not be held accountable for the insulin-loss, but rather the protein part of hemoglobin. Alkylation experiments using iodoacetamide suggested that the thiol groups of the globin molecule are involved in the insulin loss preventing degradation at least partially. The same was observed by lowering the pH to 2.7 in the incubation mixture. Two degradation products of insulin were identified by mass spectrometry such as modified insulin A and B chains with 4 (A chain) and 2 Da (B chain) lower masses. These results suggest that thiol groups of hemoglobin cause splitting of the disulfide bonds of insulin which immediately leads to the formation of new intramolecular disulfide bridges, a reaction which occurs in hemolytic blood and may explain the gradual loss of insulin in postmortem blood samples. PMID:24973725

  9. Sampling, metadata and DNA extraction - important steps in metagenomic studies.

    PubMed

    Felczykowska, Agnieszka; Krajewska, Anna; Zieli?ska, Sylwia; ?o?, Joanna M

    2015-01-01

    Metagenomic studies have become increasingly popular. They allow for the estimation of biodiversity in complex populations. This diversity presents an enormous but largely unexpected genetic and biological pool and can be exploited for the recovery of novel genes, entire metabolic pathways and their products. Generally metagenomic study is a genomic analysis of organisms by direct extraction and cloning of DNA from their natural environment. The most common problems of modern metagenomics are as follows: majority of the microorganisms present in the environment cannot be cultivated by standard techniques, DNA extraction methods are not very effective, isolated DNA is contaminated with various compounds, a choice for a screening method is not obvious. PMID:25680373

  10. Highly Effective DNA Extraction Method from Fresh, Frozen, Dried and Clotted Blood Samples

    PubMed Central

    Samadi Shams, Sara; Zununi Vahed, Sepideh; Soltanzad, Farzaneh; Kafil, Vala; Barzegari, Abolfazl; Atashpaz, Sina; Barar, Jaleh

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Today, with the tremendous potential of genomics and other recent advances in science, the role of science to improve reliable DNA extraction methods is more relevant than ever before. The ideal process for genomic DNA extraction demands high quantities of pure, integral and intact genomic DNA (gDNA) from the sample with minimal co-extraction of inhibitors of downstream processes. Here, we report the development of a very rapid, less-hazardous, and high throughput protocol for extracting of high quality DNA from blood samples. Methods Dried, clotted and ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) treated fresh and frozen blood samples were extracted using this method in which the quality and integrity of the extracted DNA were corroborated by agarose gel electrophoresis, PCR reaction and DNA digestion using restricted enzyme. The UV spectrophotometric and gel electrophoresis analysis resulted in high A260/A280 ratio (>1.8) with high intactness of DNA. Results PCR and DNA digestion experiments indicated that the final solutions of extracted DNA contained no inhibitory substances, which confirms that the isolated DNA is of good quality. Conclusion The high quality and quantity of current method, no enzymatic processing and accordingly its low cost, make it appropriate for DNA extraction not only from human but also from animal blood samples in any molecular biology labs. PMID:23678425

  11. 77 FR 34387 - National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of... Survey (NHANES) will not be receiving DNA proposals in the near future. NHANES is changing its plan for making DNA available for genetic research and its proposal guidelines. NHANES will announce when it...

  12. USP17- and SCF?TrCP-Regulated Degradation of DEC1 Controls the DNA Damage Response

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jihoon; D'Annibale, Sara; Magliozzi, Roberto; Low, Teck Yew; Jansen, Petra; Shaltiel, Indra A.; Mohammed, Shabaz; Heck, Albert J. R.; Medema, Rene H.

    2014-01-01

    In response to genotoxic stress, DNA damage checkpoints maintain the integrity of the genome by delaying cell cycle progression to allow for DNA repair. Here we show that the degradation of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor DEC1, a critical regulator of cell fate and circadian rhythms, controls the DNA damage response. During unperturbed cell cycles, DEC1 is a highly unstable protein that is targeted for proteasome-dependent degradation by the SCF?TrCP ubiquitin ligase in cooperation with CK1. Upon DNA damage, DEC1 is rapidly induced in an ATM/ATR-dependent manner. DEC1 induction results from protein stabilization via a mechanism that requires the USP17 ubiquitin protease. USP17 binds and deubiquitylates DEC1, markedly extending its half-life. Subsequently, during checkpoint recovery, DEC1 proteolysis is reestablished through ?TrCP-dependent ubiquitylation. Expression of a degradation-resistant DEC1 mutant prevents checkpoint recovery by inhibiting the downregulation of p53. These results indicate that the regulated degradation of DEC1 is a key factor controlling the DNA damage response. PMID:25202122

  13. Flow cytofluorometric assay of human whole blood leukocyte DNA degradation in response to Yersinia pestis and Staphylococcus aureus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravtsov, Alexander L.; Grebenyukova, Tatyana P.; Bobyleva, Elena V.; Golovko, Elena M.; Malyukova, Tatyana A.; Lyapin, Mikhail N.; Kostyukova, Tatyana A.; Yezhov, Igor N.; Kuznetsov, Oleg S.

    2001-05-01

    Human leukocytes containing less than 2C DNA per cell (damaged or dead cells) were detected and quantified by flow cytometry and DNA-specific staining with ethidium bromide and mithramycin in whole blood infected with Staphylococcus aureus or Yersinia pestis. Addition of live S. aureus to the blood (100 microbe cells per one leukocyte) resulted in rapid degradation of leukocyte DNA within 3 to 6 hours of incubation at 37 degree(s)C. However, only about 50 percent cells were damaged and the leukocytes with the intact genetic apparatus could be found in the blood for a period up to 24 hours. The leukocyte injury was preceded by an increase of DNA per cell content (as compared to the normal one) that was likely to be connected with the active phagocytosis of S. aureus by granulocytes (2C DNA of diploid phagocytes plus the all bacterial DNA absorbed). In response to the same dose of actively growing (at 37 degree(s)C) virulent Y. pestis cells, no increase in DNA content per cell could be observed in the human blood leukocytes. The process of the leukocyte DNA degradation started after a 6-hour incubation, and between 18 to 24 hours of incubation about 90 percent leukocytes (phagocytes and lymphocytes) lost their specific DNA fluorescence. These results demonstrated a high potential of flow cytometry in comparative analysis in vitro of the leukocyte DNA degradation process in human blood in response to bacteria with various pathogenic properties. They agree with the modern idea of an apoptotic mechanism of immunosuppression in plague.

  14. Solid supported in situ derivatization extraction of acidic degradation products of nerve agents from aqueous samples.

    PubMed

    Chinthakindi, Sridhar; Purohit, Ajay; Singh, Varoon; Tak, Vijay; Dubey, D K; Pardasani, Deepak

    2014-09-12

    This study deals with the solid supported in situ derivatization extraction of acidic degradation products of nerve agents present in aqueous samples. Target analytes were alkyl alkylphosphonic acids and alkylphosphonic acids, which are important environmental signatures of nerve agents. The method involved tert-butyldimethylchlorosilane mediated in situ silylation of analytes on commercially available diatomaceous solid phase extraction cartridges. Various parameters such as derivatizing reagent, its concentration, reaction time, temperature and eluting solvent were optimized. Recoveries of the analytes were determined by GC-MS which ranged from 60% to 86%. The limits of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) with selected analytes were achieved down to 78 and 213ngmL(-1) respectively, in selected ion monitoring mode. The successful applicability of method was also demonstrated on samples of biological origin such as plasma and to the samples received in 34th official proficiency test conducted by the Organization for Prohibition the of Chemical Weapons. PMID:25103280

  15. A Simple Method of Genomic DNA Extraction from Human Samples for PCR-RFLP Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ghatak, Souvik; Muthukumaran, Rajendra Bose; Nachimuthu, Senthil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Isolation of DNA from blood and buccal swabs in adequate quantities is an integral part of forensic research and analysis. The present study was performed to determine the quality and the quantity of DNA extracted from four commonly available samples and to estimate the time duration of the ensuing PCR amplification. Here, we demonstrate that hair and urine samples can also become an alternate source for reliably obtaining a small quantity of PCR-ready DNA. We developed a rapid, cost-effective, and noninvasive method of sample collection and simple DNA extraction from buccal swabs, urine, and hair using the phenol-chloroform method. Buccal samples were subjected to DNA extraction, immediately or after refrigeration (46C) for 3 days. The purity and the concentration of the extracted DNA were determined spectrophotometerically, and the adequacy of DNA extracts for the PCR-based assay was assessed by amplifying a 1030-bp region of the mitochondrial D-loop. Although DNA from all the samples was suitable for PCR, the blood and hair samples provided a good quality DNA for restriction analysis of the PCR product compared with the buccal swab and urine samples. In the present study, hair samples proved to be a good source of genomic DNA for PCR-based methods. Hence, DNA of hair samples can also be used for the genomic disorder analysis in addition to the forensic analysis as a result of the ease of sample collection in a noninvasive manner, lower sample volume requirements, and good storage capability. PMID:24294115

  16. Multiple pathways are involved in DNA degradation during keratinocyte terminal differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto-Tanaka, M; Makino, T; Motoyama, A; Miyai, M; Tsuboi, R; Hibino, T

    2014-01-01

    Loss of the nucleus is a critical step in keratinocyte terminal differentiation. To elucidate the mechanisms involved, we focused on two characteristic events: nuclear translocation of N-terminal fragment of profilaggrin and caspase-14-dependent degradation of the inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase (ICAD). First, we demonstrated that epidermal mesotrypsin liberated a 55-kDa N-terminal fragment of profilaggrin (FLG-N) and FLG-N was translocated into the nucleus. Interestingly, these cells became TUNEL positive. Mutation in the mesotrypsin-susceptible Arg-rich region between FLG-N and the first filaggrin domain abolished these changes. Furthermore, caspase-14 caused limited proteolysis of ICAD, followed by accumulation of caspase-activated DNase (CAD) in TUNEL-positive nuclei. Knockdown of both proteases resulted in a significant increase of remnant nuclei in a skin equivalent model. Immunohistochemical study revealed that both caspase-14 and mesotrypsin were markedly downregulated in parakeratotic areas of lesional skin from patients with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Collectively, our results indicate that at least two pathways are involved in the DNA degradation process during keratinocyte terminal differentiation. PMID:24743736

  17. DNA Profiling of Convicted Offender Samples for the Combined DNA Index System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millard, Julie T

    2011-01-01

    The cornerstone of forensic chemistry is that a perpetrator inevitably leaves trace evidence at a crime scene. One important type of evidence is DNA, which has been instrumental in both the implication and exoneration of thousands of suspects in a wide range of crimes. The Combined DNA Index System (CODIS), a network of DNA databases, provides

  18. DNA Profiling of Convicted Offender Samples for the Combined DNA Index System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millard, Julie T

    2011-01-01

    The cornerstone of forensic chemistry is that a perpetrator inevitably leaves trace evidence at a crime scene. One important type of evidence is DNA, which has been instrumental in both the implication and exoneration of thousands of suspects in a wide range of crimes. The Combined DNA Index System (CODIS), a network of DNA databases, provides…

  19. Mitochondrial DNA from archived tissue samples kept in formalin for forensic odontology studies

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Rahul; Mehrotra, Divya; Kowtal, Pradnya; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Sarin, Rajiv

    2014-01-01

    Background Samples used for DNA isolation to be used for forensic odontology studies are often limited. The possibility to use tissue samples stored in formalin for a prolonged period, which contains nucleic acids of questionable quality, opens exciting possibilities for genetic and molecular biology studies useful in speciality of forensic odontology. Aim The present study defines substantial modification of existing protocols for total genomic isolation including mitochondrial DNA and proves the utility of such obtained mitochondrial DNA in microsatellite analyses. Methods 50 dental tissue samples which were kept in neutral buffered formalin liquid bottles were taken for DNA isolation and subsequent analysis. For the isolation of total genomic DNA from tissue samples, a new protocol with substantial modifications from routine ones was adopted by us. Total genomic DNA from matched blood samples were extracted using standard phenol-chloroform extraction method. Results Polymerase Chain Reaction and Sequencing of such extracted DNA samples for mitochondrial D loop region were successful and the results were comparable with DNA extracted from normal sources of samples. Conclusion The present study reports for the first time that nucleic acids extracted from human dental tissue samples under prolonged formalin fixation times can be used for forensic odontology studies using the described methodology. PMID:25737927

  20. Evaluating Ethanol-based Sample Preservation to Facilitate Use of DNA Barcoding in Routine Freshwater Biomonitoring Programs Using Benthic Macroinvertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Eric D.; White, Bryan P.; Mazor, Raphael D.; Miller, Peter E.; Pilgrim, Erik M.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular methods, such as DNA barcoding, have the potential to enhance biomonitoring programs worldwide. Altering routinely used sample preservation methods to protect DNA from degradation may pose a potential impediment to application of DNA barcoding and metagenomics for biomonitoring using benthic macroinvertebrates. Using higher volumes or concentrations of ethanol, requirements for shorter holding times, or the need to include additional filtering may increase cost and logistical constraints to existing biomonitoring programs. To address this issue we evaluated the efficacy of various ethanol-based sample preservation methods at maintaining DNA integrity. We evaluated a series of methods that were minimally modified from typical field protocols in order to identify an approach that can be readily incorporated into existing monitoring programs. Benthic macroinvertebrates were collected from a minimally disturbed stream in southern California, USA and subjected to one of six preservation treatments. Ten individuals from five taxa were selected from each treatment and processed to produce DNA barcodes from the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI). On average, we obtained successful COI sequences (i.e. either full or partial barcodes) for between 93–99% of all specimens across all six treatments. As long as samples were initially preserved in 95% ethanol, successful sequencing of COI barcodes was not affected by a low dilution ratio of 2∶1, transfer to 70% ethanol, presence of abundant organic matter, or holding times of up to six months. Barcoding success varied by taxa, with Leptohyphidae (Ephemeroptera) producing the lowest barcode success rate, most likely due to poor PCR primer efficiency. Differential barcoding success rates have the potential to introduce spurious results. However, routine preservation methods can largely be used without adverse effects on DNA integrity. PMID:23308097

  1. Improved Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Procedure for the Analysis of F. columnare Isolates Previously Affected by DNA Degradation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavobacterium columnare is a fresh water bacterium that causes columnaris diseases in over 36 fish species. Intra-species typing of F. columnare can be performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). However, this method is hampered by the degradation of chromosomal DNA in about 10% of strain...

  2. Estimating occupancy and abundance of stream amphibians using environmental DNA from filtered water samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilliod, David S.; Goldberg, Caren S.; Arkle, Robert S.; Waits, Lisette P.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) methods for detecting aquatic species are advancing rapidly, but with little evaluation of field protocols or precision of resulting estimates. We compared sampling results from traditional field methods with eDNA methods for two amphibians in 13 streams in central Idaho, USA. We also evaluated three water collection protocols and the influence of sampling location, time of day, and distance from animals on eDNA concentration in the water. We found no difference in detection or amount of eDNA among water collection protocols. eDNA methods had slightly higher detection rates than traditional field methods, particularly when species occurred at low densities. eDNA concentration was positively related to field-measured density, biomass, and proportion of transects occupied. Precision of eDNA-based abundance estimates increased with the amount of eDNA in the water and the number of replicate subsamples collected. eDNA concentration did not vary significantly with sample location in the stream, time of day, or distance downstream from animals. Our results further advance the implementation of eDNA methods for monitoring aquatic vertebrates in stream habitats.

  3. Sources of Pre-Analytical Variations in Yield of DNA Extracted from Blood Samples: Analysis of 50,000 DNA Samples in EPIC

    PubMed Central

    Caboux, Elodie; Lallemand, Christophe; Ferro, Gilles; Hémon, Bertrand; Mendy, Maimuna; Biessy, Carine; Sims, Matt; Wareham, Nick; Britten, Abigail; Boland, Anne; Hutchinson, Amy; Siddiq, Afshan; Vineis, Paolo; Riboli, Elio; Romieu, Isabelle; Rinaldi, Sabina; Gunter, Marc J.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Travis, Ruth; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Canzian, Federico; Sánchez, Maria-José; Skeie, Guri; Olsen, Karina Standahl; Lund, Eiliv; Bilbao, Roberto; Sala, Núria; Barricarte, Aurelio; Palli, Domenico; Navarro, Carmen; Panico, Salvatore; Redondo, Maria Luisa; Polidoro, Silvia; Dossus, Laure; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Lagiou, Pagona; Boeing, Heiner; Fisher, Eva; Tumino, Rosario; Agnoli, Claudia; Hainaut, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) is a long-term, multi-centric prospective study in Europe investigating the relationships between cancer and nutrition. This study has served as a basis for a number of Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) and other types of genetic analyses. Over a period of 5 years, 52,256 EPIC DNA samples have been extracted using an automated DNA extraction platform. Here we have evaluated the pre-analytical factors affecting DNA yield, including anthropometric, epidemiological and technical factors such as center of subject recruitment, age, gender, body-mass index, disease case or control status, tobacco consumption, number of aliquots of buffy coat used for DNA extraction, extraction machine or procedure, DNA quantification method, degree of haemolysis and variations in the timing of sample processing. We show that the largest significant variations in DNA yield were observed with degree of haemolysis and with center of subject recruitment. Age, gender, body-mass index, cancer case or control status and tobacco consumption also significantly impacted DNA yield. Feedback from laboratories which have analyzed DNA with different SNP genotyping technologies demonstrate that the vast majority of samples (approximately 88%) performed adequately in different types of assays. To our knowledge this study is the largest to date to evaluate the sources of pre-analytical variations in DNA extracted from peripheral leucocytes. The results provide a strong evidence-based rationale for standardized recommendations on blood collection and processing protocols for large-scale genetic studies. PMID:22808065

  4. A comparison of the efficiency of five different commercial DNA extraction kits for extraction of DNA from faecal samples.

    PubMed

    Claassen, Shantelle; du Toit, Elloise; Kaba, Mamadou; Moodley, Clinton; Zar, Heather J; Nicol, Mark P

    2013-08-01

    Differences in the composition of the gut microbiota have been associated with a range of diseases using culture-independent methods. Reliable extraction of nucleic acid is a key step in identifying the composition of the faecal microbiota. Five widely used commercial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction kits (QIAsymphony Virus/Bacteria Midi Kit (kit QS), ZR Fecal DNA MiniPrep (kit Z), QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit (kit QA), Ultraclean Fecal DNA Isolation Kit (kit U) and PowerSoil DNA Isolation Kit (kit P)) were evaluated, using human faecal samples. Yield, purity and integrity of total genomic DNA were compared spectrophotometrically and using gel electrophoresis. Three bacteria, commonly found in human faeces were quantified using real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and total bacterial diversity was studied using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) as well as terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). The measurements of DNA yield and purity exhibited variations between the five kits tested in this study. Automated kit QS exhibited the best quality and highest quantity of DNA. All kits were shown to be reproducible with CV values?0.46 for DNA extraction. qPCR results showed that all kits were uniformly efficient for extracting DNA from the selected target bacteria. DGGE and T-RFLP produced the highest diversity scores for DNA extracted using kit Z (H'=2.30 and 1.27) and kit QS (H'=2.16 and 0.94), which also extracted the highest DNA yields compared to the other kits assessed. PMID:23684993

  5. Computational analyses of ancient pathogen DNA from herbarium samples: challenges and prospects

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Kentaro; Sasaki, Eriko; Kamoun, Sophien

    2015-01-01

    The application of DNA sequencing technology to the study of ancient DNA has enabled the reconstruction of past epidemics from genomes of historically important plant-associated microbes. Recently, the genome sequences of the potato late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans were analyzed from 19th century herbarium specimens. These herbarium samples originated from infected potatoes collected during and after the Irish potato famine. Herbaria have therefore great potential to help elucidate past epidemics of crops, date the emergence of pathogens, and inform about past pathogen population dynamics. DNA preservation in herbarium samples was unexpectedly good, raising the possibility of a whole new research area in plant and microbial genomics. However, the recovered DNA can be extremely fragmented resulting in specific challenges in reconstructing genome sequences. Here we review some of the challenges in computational analyses of ancient DNA from herbarium samples. We also applied the recently developed linkage method to haplotype reconstruction of diploid or polyploid genomes from fragmented ancient DNA. PMID:26442080

  6. Computational analyses of ancient pathogen DNA from herbarium samples: challenges and prospects.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kentaro; Sasaki, Eriko; Kamoun, Sophien

    2015-01-01

    The application of DNA sequencing technology to the study of ancient DNA has enabled the reconstruction of past epidemics from genomes of historically important plant-associated microbes. Recently, the genome sequences of the potato late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans were analyzed from 19th century herbarium specimens. These herbarium samples originated from infected potatoes collected during and after the Irish potato famine. Herbaria have therefore great potential to help elucidate past epidemics of crops, date the emergence of pathogens, and inform about past pathogen population dynamics. DNA preservation in herbarium samples was unexpectedly good, raising the possibility of a whole new research area in plant and microbial genomics. However, the recovered DNA can be extremely fragmented resulting in specific challenges in reconstructing genome sequences. Here we review some of the challenges in computational analyses of ancient DNA from herbarium samples. We also applied the recently developed linkage method to haplotype reconstruction of diploid or polyploid genomes from fragmented ancient DNA. PMID:26442080

  7. A two-step electrodialysis method for DNA purification from polluted metallic environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Rodrguez-Meja, Jos Luis; Martnez-Anaya, Claudia; Folch-Mallol, Jorge Luis; Dantn-Gonzlez, Edgar

    2008-08-01

    Extracting DNA from samples of polluted environments using standard methods often results in low yields of poor-quality material unsuited to subsequent manipulation and analysis by molecular biological techniques. Here, we report a novel two-step electrodialysis-based method for the extraction of DNA from environmental samples. This technique permits the rapid and efficient isolation of high-quality DNA based on its acidic nature, and without the requirement for phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol cleanup and ethanol precipitation steps. Subsequent PCR, endonuclease restriction, and cloning reactions were successfully performed utilizing DNA obtained by electrodialysis, whereas some or all of these techniques failed using DNA extracted with two alternative methods. We also show that his technique is applicable to purify DNA from a range of polluted and nonpolluted samples. PMID:18601228

  8. Identification of Forensic Samples via Mitochondrial DNA in the Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millard, Julie T.; Pilon, André M.

    2003-04-01

    A recent forensic approach for identification of unknown biological samples is mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing. We describe a laboratory exercise suitable for an undergraduate biochemistry course in which the polymerase chain reaction is used to amplify a 440 base pair hypervariable region of human mtDNA from a variety of "crime scene" samples (e.g., teeth, hair, nails, cigarettes, envelope flaps, toothbrushes, and chewing gum). Amplification is verified via agarose gel electrophoresis and then samples are subjected to cycle sequencing. Sequence alignments are made via the program CLUSTAL W, allowing students to compare samples and solve the "crime."

  9. Method and apparatus for transport, introduction, atomization and excitation of emission spectrum for quantitative analysis of high temperature gas sample streams containing vapor and particulates without degradation of sample stream temperature

    DOEpatents

    Eckels, David E.; Hass, William J.

    1989-05-30

    A sample transport, sample introduction, and flame excitation system for spectrometric analysis of high temperature gas streams which eliminates degradation of the sample stream by condensation losses.

  10. Storage and shipping of tissue samples for DNA analyses: A case study on earthworms?

    PubMed Central

    Straube, Daniela; Juen, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, molecular analyses play an important role in studies of soil dwelling animals, for example in taxonomy, phylogeography or food web analyses. The quality of the DNA, used for later molecular analyses, is an important factor and depends on collection and preservation of samples prior to DNA extraction. Ideally, DNA samples are frozen immediately upon collection, but if samples are collected in the field, suitable preservation methods might be limited due to unavailability of resources or remote field sites. Moreover, shipping samples over long distances can cause loss of DNA quality e.g. by thawing or leaking of preservation liquid. In this study we use earthworms, a key organism in soil research, to compare three different DNA preservation methods freezing at?20C, storing in 75% ethanol, and freeze drying. Samples were shipped from the United States of America to Austria. The DNA of the samples was extracted using two different extraction methods, peqGOLD and Chelex 100. The DNA amplification success was determined by amplifying four DNA fragments of different length. The PCR amplification success is significantly influenced by preservation method and extraction method and differed significantly depending on the length of the DNA fragment. Freeze drying samples was the best preservation method when samples were extracted using the silica based extraction method peqGOLD. For samples that were extracted with Chelex 100, storage in ethanol was the best preservation method. However, the overall amplification success was significantly lower for the extraction procedure based on Chelex 100. The detection of the small DNA fragments was higher and independent from the extraction method, while the amplification success was significantly reduced for the longer DNA fragments. We recommend freeze drying of DNA samples, especially when they have to be shipped for longer distances. No special packaging or declaration is needed for freeze dried samples, and the risk of thawing is excluded. Storage of freeze dried samples also reduces costs because samples can be kept at room temperature in a desiccator. It should be noted, that the extraction methods showed significant differences in DNA amplification success. Thus, the extraction method should be taken into account when choosing the preservation method. PMID:26109838

  11. Wild chimpanzee infant urine and saliva sampled noninvasively usable for DNA analyses.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Eiji; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Takenaka, Osamu; Nishida, Toshisada

    2007-04-01

    In many genetic studies on the great apes, fecal or hair samples have been used as sources of DNA. However, feces and hairs are difficult to collect from chimpanzee infants under 3 years of age. As alternative DNA sources, we investigated the efficiency of collecting urine samples from infants compared with fecal samples, as well as the validity of the DNA extracted from urine and saliva samples of well-habituated M group chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in the Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania. We collected 40 urine and 3 fecal samples from 10 infants under 3 years. Compared with feces, the urine samples were relatively easy to collect. The saliva of infants, which remained on the twigs sucked by them, was collected using cotton swabs. The average amounts of DNA extracted from the 40 urine and 6 saliva samples were 3,920 and 458 pg/mul, respectively. The rate of positive PCR was low and the allelic dropout rate was high when using less than 25 pg of template DNA in the PCR mixtures. Based on the amounts of DNA, 50% of the urine samples and 100% of the saliva samples were judged usable for accurate microsatellite genotyping. For infant chimpanzees in particular, collecting urine and saliva as an alternative to fecal and hair samples can reduce the effort invested in collection in the field. PMID:17111091

  12. DNA purification from crude samples for human identification using gradient elution isotachophoresis.

    PubMed

    Strychalski, Elizabeth A; Konek, Christopher; Butts, Erica L R; Vallone, Peter M; Henry, Alyssa C; Ross, David

    2013-09-01

    Gradient elution isotachophoresis (GEITP) was demonstrated for DNA purification, concentration, and quantification from crude samples, represented here by soiled buccal swabs, with minimal sample preparation prior to human identification using STR analysis. During GEITP, an electric field applied across leading and trailing electrolyte solutions resulted in isotachophoretic focusing of DNA at the interface between these solutions, while a pressure-driven counterflow controlled the movement of the interface from the sample reservoir into a microfluidic capillary. This counterflow also prevented particulates from fouling or clogging the capillary and reduced or eliminated contamination of the delivered DNA by PCR inhibitors. On-line DNA quantification using laser-induced fluorescence compared favorably with quantitative PCR measurements and potentially eliminates the need for quantitative PCR prior to STR analysis. GEITP promises to address the need for a rapid and robust method to deliver DNA from crude samples to aid the forensic community in human identification. PMID:23784689

  13. Degradation of free tryptophan in a cookie model system and its application in commercial samples.

    PubMed

    Morales, Francisco J; Aar, Ozge C; Serpen, Arda; Arribas-Lorenzo, Gema; Gkmen, Vural

    2007-08-01

    The stability of free tryptophan (Trp) was examined in five cookie-resembling models at varying baking temperatures and durations. Trp was measured by HPLC coupled with a fluorescent detector. Trp degradation was significantly greater in cookies formulated with glucose compared with sucrose, regardless of the temperatures and durations of baking. A lag period was clearly observed in cookies formulated with sucrose. The type of sugar used in the dough formulation affected not only the thermal destruction kinetics but also the degree of degradation of free Trp. However, the type of leavening agent (ammonium bicarbonate versus sodium bicarbonate) did not affect the rate of Trp destruction as happens in Maillard-driven reactions. In addition, the free Trp content was analyzed in nine different flours and sixty-two commercial cookies, and it was found that free Trp varied from 0.4 to 1287.9 mg/kg for rice and wheat bran, respectively. It was found that free Trp was significantly higher in dietetic commercial samples formulated with wheat bran compared with other flours. PMID:17630767

  14. Using DNA-Stable Isotope Probing to Identify MTBE- and TBA-Degrading Microorganisms in Contaminated Groundwater

    PubMed Central

    Key, Katherine C.; Sublette, Kerry L.; Duncan, Kathleen; Mackay, Douglas M.; Scow, Kate M.; Ogles, Dora

    2014-01-01

    Although the anaerobic biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) has been documented in the laboratory and the field, knowledge of the microorganisms and mechanisms involved is still lacking. In this study, DNA-stable isotope probing (SIP) was used to identify microorganisms involved in anaerobic fuel oxygenate biodegradation in a sulfate-reducing MTBE and TBA plume. Microorganisms were collected in the field using Bio-Sep® beads amended with 13C5-MTBE, 13C1-MTBE (only methoxy carbon labeled), or13C4-TBA. 13C-DNA and 12C-DNA extracted from the Bio-Sep beads were cloned and 16S rRNA gene sequences were used to identify the indigenous microorganisms involved in degrading the methoxy group of MTBE and the tert-butyl group of MTBE and TBA. Results indicated that microorganisms were actively degrading 13C-labeled MTBE and TBA in situ and the 13C was incorporated into their DNA. Several sequences related to known MTBE- and TBA-degraders in the Burkholderiales and the Sphingomonadales orders were detected in all three13C clone libraries and were likely to be primary degraders at the site. Sequences related to sulfate-reducing bacteria and iron-reducers, such as Geobacter and Geothrix, were only detected in the clone libraries where MTBE and TBA were fully labeled with 13C, suggesting that they were involved in processing carbon from the tert-butyl group. Sequences similar to the Pseudomonas genus predominated in the clone library where only the methoxy carbon of MTBE was labeled with 13C. It is likely that members of this genus were secondary degraders cross-feeding on 13C-labeled metabolites such as acetate. PMID:25525320

  15. Non-degradative Intracellular Trafficking of Highly Compacted Polymeric DNA Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Anthony J.; Boylan, Nicholas J.; Suk, Jung Soo; Lai, Samuel K.; Hanes, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Highly compacted DNA nanoparticles (DNPs) composed of polyethylene glycol linked to a 30-mer of poly-L-lysine via a single cysteine residue (CK30PEG) have previously been shown to provide efficient gene delivery to the brain, eyes and lungs. In this study, we used a combination of flow cytometry, high-resolution live-cell confocal microscopy, and multiple particle tracking (MPT) to investigate the intracellular trafficking of highly compacted CK30PEG DNPs made using two different molecular weights of PEG, CK30PEG10k and CK30PEG5k. We found that PEG MW did not have a major effect on particle morphology nor nanoparticle intracellular transport. CK30PEG10k and CK30PEG5k DNPs both entered human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells via a caveolae-mediated pathway, bypassing degradative endolysosomal trafficking. Both nanoparticle formulations were found to rapidly accumulate in the perinuclear region of cells within 2 h, 37 19 % and 47 8 % for CK30PEG10k and CK30PEG5k, respectively. CK30PEG10k and CK30PEG5k DNPs moved within live cells at average velocities of 0.09 0.04 m/s and 0.11 0.04 m/s, respectively, in good agreement with reported values for caveolae. These findings show that highly compacted DNPs employ highly regulated trafficking mechanisms similar to biological pathogens to target specific intracellular compartments. PMID:22079809

  16. Antibacterial and DNA degradation potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized via green route.

    PubMed

    Manna, Dilip K; Mandal, Amit K; Sen, Ipsita K; Maji, Praloy K; Chakraborti, Soumyananda; Chakraborty, Ranadhir; Islam, Syed S

    2015-09-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using a hetero polysaccharide (PS) isolated from Lentinus squarrosulus (Mont.) Singer. The polysaccharide fraction (consisting of glucose, fucose and galactose) serves the role of both reducing as well as stabilizing agent. UV-vis spectroscopy showed maximum absorbance at 407 nm due to surface plasmon resonance. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) exhibited that the average diameter of the nanoparticles was 2.781.47 nm. The XRD analysis revealed face-centered cubic (fcc) geometry of silver nanoparticles. Antibacterial activity of the AgNPs-PS conjugate was tested against multiple antibiotics resistant (MAR) Escherichia coli strain MREC33 and found that the killing was due to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Internalization of AgNPs-PS conjugate along with its DNA degradation capability was demonstrated using flow cytometry. AgNPs-PS conjugates showed negligible toxicity to human RBCs. This LD50 dosage of AgNPs-PS conjugates in combination with each of the four antibiotics (ampicillin, azithromycin, kanamycin and netilmicin) to which E. coli MREC33 was resistant, showed synergistic effect to inhibit complete bacterial growth. PMID:26188293

  17. Phylogenetic estimation of timescales using ancient DNA: the effects of temporal sampling scheme and uncertainty in sample ages.

    PubMed

    Molak, Martyna; Lorenzen, Eline D; Shapiro, Beth; Ho, Simon Y W

    2013-02-01

    In recent years, ancient DNA has increasingly been used for estimating molecular timescales, particularly in studies of substitution rates and demographic histories. Molecular clocks can be calibrated using temporal information from ancient DNA sequences. This information comes from the ages of the ancient samples, which can be estimated by radiocarbon dating the source material or by dating the layers in which the material was deposited. Both methods involve sources of uncertainty. The performance of bayesian phylogenetic inference depends on the information content of the data set, which includes variation in the DNA sequences and the structure of the sample ages. Various sources of estimation error can reduce our ability to estimate rates and timescales accurately and precisely. We investigated the impact of sample-dating uncertainties on the estimation of evolutionary timescale parameters using the software BEAST. Our analyses involved 11 published data sets and focused on estimates of substitution rate and root age. We show that, provided that samples have been accurately dated and have a broad temporal span, it might be unnecessary to account for sample-dating uncertainty in Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of ancient DNA. We also investigated the sample size and temporal span of the ancient DNA sequences needed to estimate phylogenetic timescales reliably. Our results show that the range of sample ages plays a crucial role in determining the quality of the results but that accurate and precise phylogenetic estimates of timescales can be made even with only a few ancient sequences. These findings have important practical consequences for studies of molecular rates, timescales, and population dynamics. PMID:23024187

  18. Affinity Purification of DNA and RNA from Environmental Samples with Peptide Nucleic Acid Clamps

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, Darrell P.; Stults, Jennie R.; Cebula, Sharon; Schuck, Beatrice L.; Weaver, Derek W.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Egholm, Michael; Brockman, Fred J.

    2000-01-01

    Bispeptide nucleic acids (bis-PNAs; PNA clamps), PNA oligomers, and DNA oligonucleotides were evaluated as affinity purification reagents for subfemtomolar 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and rRNA targets in soil, sediment, and industrial air filter nucleic acid extracts. Under low-salt hybridization conditions (10 mM NaPO4, 5 mM disodium EDTA, and 0.025% sodium dodecyl sulfate [SDS]) a PNA clamp recovered significantly more target DNA than either PNA or DNA oligomers. The efficacy of PNA clamps and oligomers was generally enhanced in the presence of excess nontarget DNA and in a low-salt extraction-hybridization buffer. Under high-salt conditions (200 mM NaPO4, 100 mM disodium EDTA, and 0.5% SDS), however, capture efficiencies with the DNA oligomer were significantly greater than with the PNA clamp and PNA oligomer. Recovery and detection efficiencies for target DNA concentrations of ?100 pg were generally >20% but depended upon the specific probe, solution background, and salt condition. The DNA probe had a lower absolute detection limit of 100 fg of target (830 zM [1 zM = 10?21 M]) in high-salt buffer. In the absence of exogenous DNA (e.g., soil background), neither the bis-PNA nor the PNA oligomer achieved the same absolute detection limit even under a more favorable low-salt hybridization condition. In the presence of a soil background, however, both PNA probes provided more sensitive absolute purification and detection (830 zM) than the DNA oligomer. In varied environmental samples, the rank order for capture probe performance in high-salt buffer was DNA > PNA > clamp. Recovery of 16S rRNA from environmental samples mirrored quantitative results for DNA target recovery, with the DNA oligomer generating more positive results than either the bis-PNA or PNA oligomer, but PNA probes provided a greater incidence of detection from environmental samples that also contained a higher concentration of nontarget DNA and RNA. Significant interactions between probe type and environmental sample indicate that the most efficacious capture system depends upon the particular sample type (and background nucleic acid concentration), target (DNA or RNA), and detection objective. PMID:10919804

  19. 75 FR 32191 - National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples: Guidelines for Proposals...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ..., 2006 [71 FR 22248]. Category (A): Studies involving the typing of the complete set of NHANES DNA... published see: (Friday, January 13, 2006 [71 FR 22248]). NHANES 1999-2002 and 2007-2008 DNA Samples The... list of currently available SNPs is available at:...

  20. Differences of DNA methylation profiles between monozygotic twins' blood samples.

    PubMed

    Li, Chengtao; Zhao, Shumin; Zhang, Na; Zhang, Suhua; Hou, Yiping

    2013-09-01

    Monozygotic twins (MZs) share an identical genomic sequence, which makes it impossible to discriminate one another with conventional genetic markers like STRs. On the other hand, phenotypic discordance between MZs implies the existence of different epigenetic characteristics. DNA methylation, an essential epigenetic modification, however, might be a potential biomarker to solve the forensic puzzle. In this study, we examined 22 pairs of MZs with a methylation BeadChip including 27,578 CpG sites. The results suggested that MZs exhibited remarkable differences of genome-wide 5-methylcytosine. According to a set of criteria of selection, 92 CpG sites with significant differences of methylation status within MZs were identified from the global epigenome. In conclusion, this pilot study suggested that CpG methylation profile could be a useful biomarker in individual identification of MZs. PMID:23649773

  1. Biases during DNA extraction of activated sludge samples revealed by high throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Guo, Feng; Zhang, Tong

    2013-05-01

    Standardization of DNA extraction is a fundamental issue of fidelity and comparability in investigations of environmental microbial communities. Commercial kits for soil or feces are often adopted for studies of activated sludge because of a lack of specific kits, but they have never been evaluated regarding their effectiveness and potential biases based on high throughput sequencing. In this study, seven common DNA extraction kits were evaluated, based on not only yield/purity but also sequencing results, using two activated sludge samples (two sub-samples each, i.e. ethanol-fixed and fresh, as-is). The results indicate that the bead-beating step is necessary for DNA extraction from activated sludge. The two kits without the bead-beating step yielded very low amounts of DNA, and the least abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs), and significantly underestimated the Gram-positive Actinobacteria, Nitrospirae, Chloroflexi, and Alphaproteobacteria and overestimated Gammaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and the rare phyla whose cell walls might have been readily broken. Among the other five kits, FastDNA(@) SPIN Kit for Soil extracted the most and the purest DNA. Although the number of total OTUs obtained using this kit was not the highest, the abundant OTUs and abundance of Actinobacteria demonstrated its efficiency. The three MoBio kits and one ZR kit produced fair results, but had a relatively low DNA yield and/or less Actinobacteria-related sequences. Moreover, the 50 % ethanol fixation increased the DNA yield, but did not change the sequenced microbial community in a significant way. Based on the present study, the FastDNA SPIN kit for Soil is recommended for DNA extraction of activated sludge samples. More importantly, the selection of the DNA extraction kit must be done carefully if the samples contain dominant lysing-resistant groups, such as Actinobacteria and Nitrospirae. PMID:22760785

  2. Comparing different post-mortem human samples as DNA sources for downstream genotyping and identification.

    PubMed

    Calacal, Gayvelline C; Apaga, Dame Loveliness T; Salvador, Jazelyn M; Jimenez, Joseph Andrew D; Lagat, Ludivino J; Villacorta, Renato Pio F; Lim, Maria Cecilia F; Fortun, Raquel D R; Datar, Francisco A; De Ungria, Maria Corazon A

    2015-11-01

    The capability of DNA laboratories to perform genotyping procedures from post-mortem remains, including those that had undergone putrefaction, continues to be a challenge in the Philippines, a country characterized by very humid and warm conditions all year round. These environmental conditions accelerate the decomposition of human remains that were recovered after a disaster and those that were left abandoned after a crime. When considerable tissue decomposition of human remains has taken place, there is no other option but to extract DNA from bone and/or teeth samples. Routinely, femur shafts are obtained from recovered bodies for human identification because the calcium matrix protects the DNA contained in the osteocytes. In the Philippines, there is difficulty in collecting femur samples after natural disasters or even human-made disasters, because these events are usually characterized by a large number of fatalities. Identification of casualties is further delayed by limitation in human and material resources. Hence, it is imperative to test other types of biological samples that are easier to collect, transport, process and store. We analyzed DNA that were obtained from body fluid, bone marrow, muscle tissue, clavicle, femur, metatarsal, patella, rib and vertebral samples from five recently deceased untreated male cadavers and seven male human remains that were embalmed, buried for ∼ 1 month and then exhumed. The bodies had undergone different environmental conditions and were in various stages of putrefaction. A DNA extraction method utilizing a detergent-washing step followed by an organic procedure was used. The utility of bone marrow and vitreous fluid including bone marrow and vitreous fluid that was transferred on FTA(®) cards and subjected to autosomal STR and Y-STR DNA typing were also evaluated. DNA yield was measured and the presence or absence of PCR inhibitors in DNA extracts was assessed using Plexor(®)HY. All samples were amplified using PowerPlex(®)21 and PowerPlexY(®)23 systems and analyzed using the AB3500 Genetic Analyzer and the GeneMapper(®) ID-X v.1.2 software. PCR inhibitors were consistently detected in bone marrow, muscle tissue, rib and vertebra samples. Amplifiable DNA was obtained in a majority of the samples analyzed. DNA recovery from 0.1g biological material was adequate for successful genotyping of most of the non-bone and bone samples. Complete DNA profiles were generated from bone marrow, femur, metatarsal and patella with 0.1 ng DNA template. Using 0.5 ng DNA template resulted in increased allele recovery and improved intra- and inter-locus peak balance. PMID:26275611

  3. Sample preparation module for bacterial lysis and isolation of DNA from human urine

    PubMed Central

    Gillers, Sara; Zhang, Jane Y.; Singh, Satish; Klapperich, Catherine M.

    2015-01-01

    Silica impregnated polymer monolithic columns may provide a simple method for lysing and extracting DNA from bacteria inside of microfluidic chips. Here we use Escherichia coli as a test organism for a point of care thermoplastic microfluidic module designed to take in a urine sample, mix it with lysis buffer, and perform a hybrid chemical/mechanical lysis and solid phase extraction of nucleic acids from the sample. To demonstrate proof-of-concept, we doped human hematuric urine samples with E. coli at concentrations ranging from 101–105 colony-forming units/mL (CFU/mL) to simulate patient samples. We then performed on-chip lysis and DNA extraction. The bacterial DNA was amplified using real-time PCR demonstrating lysis and isolation down to 101 CFU/mL. Results were comparable to a commercial kit at higher concen trations and performed better at recovering DNA at lower concentrations. PMID:19130239

  4. Sample preparation module for bacterial lysis and isolation of DNA from human urine.

    PubMed

    Kulinski, M Dominika; Mahalanabis, Madhumita; Gillers, Sara; Zhang, Jane Y; Singh, Satish; Klapperich, Catherine M

    2009-06-01

    Silica impregnated polymer monolithic columns may provide a simple method for lysing and extracting DNA from bacteria inside of microfluidic chips. Here we use Escherichia coli as a test organism for a point of care thermoplastic microfluidic module designed to take in a urine sample, mix it with lysis buffer, and perform a hybrid chemical/mechanical lysis and solid phase extraction of nucleic acids from the sample. To demonstrate proof-of-concept, we doped human hematuric urine samples with E. coli at concentrations ranging from 10(1)-10(5) colony-forming units/mL (CFU/mL) to simulate patient samples. We then performed on-chip lysis and DNA extraction. The bacterial DNA was amplified using real-time PCR demonstrating lysis and isolation down to 10(1) CFU/mL. Results were comparable to a commercial kit at higher concentrations and performed better at recovering DNA at lower concentrations. PMID:19130239

  5. A comparison of five methods for extraction of bacterial DNA from human faecal samples.

    PubMed

    McOrist, Alexandra L; Jackson, Michelle; Bird, Anthony R

    2002-07-01

    The purity of DNA extracted from faecal samples is a key issue in the sensitivity and usefulness of biological analyses such as PCR for infectious pathogens and non-pathogens. We have compared the relative efficacy of extraction of bacterial DNA (both Gram negative and positive origin) from faeces using four commercial kits (FastDNA kit, Bio 101; Nucleospin C+T kit, Macherey-Nagal; Quantum Prep Aquapure Genomic DNA isolation kit, Bio-Rad; QIAamp DNA stool mini kit, Qiagen) and a non-commercial guanidium isothiocyanate/silica matrix method. Human faecal samples were spiked with additional known concentrations of Lactobacillus acidophilus or Bacteroides uniformis, the DNA was then extracted by each of the five methods, and tested in genus-specific PCRs. The Nucleospin method was the most sensitive procedure for the extraction of DNA from a pure bacterial culture of Gram-positive L. acidophilus (10(4) bacteria/PCR), and QIAamp and the guanidium method were most sensitive for cultures of Gram-negative B. uniformis (10(3) bacteria/PCR). However, for faecal samples, the QIAamp kit was the most effective extraction method and led to the detection of bacterial DNA over the greatest range of spike concentrations for both B. uniformis and L. acidophilus in primary PCR reactions. A difference in extraction efficacy was observed between faecal samples from different individuals. The use of appropriate DNA extraction kits or methods is critical for successful and valid PCR studies on clinical, experimental or environmental samples and we recommend that DNA extraction techniques are carefully selected with particular regard to the specimen type. PMID:11997164

  6. Hydroxyl-radical-dependent DNA damage by ambient particulate matter from contrasting sampling locations

    SciTech Connect

    Shi Tingming; Duffin, Rodger; Borm, Paul J.A.; Li Hui; Weishaupt, Christel; Schins, Roel P.F. . E-mail: roel.schins@uni-duesseldorf.de

    2006-05-15

    Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has been reported to be associated with increased respiratory, cardiovascular, and malignant lung disease. Previously we have shown that PM can induce oxidative DNA damage in A549 human lung epithelial cells. The aims of the present study were to investigate the variability of the DNA-damaging properties of PM sampled at different locations and times and to relate the observed effects to the hydroxyl-radical ({center_dot}OH)-generating activities of these samples. Weekly samples of coarse (10-2.5 {mu}m) and fine (<2.5 {mu}m) PM from four sites (Nordrheim Westfalen, Germany) were analyzed for hydrogen-peroxide-dependent {center_dot}OH formation using electron paramagnetic resonance and formation of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in calf thymus DNA using an immuno-dot-blot assay. DNA strand breakage by fine PM in A549 human lung epithelial cells was quantified using the alkaline comet assay. Both PM size distribution fractions elicited {center_dot}OH generation and 8-OHdG formations in calf thymus DNA. Significantly higher {center_dot}OH generation was observed for PM sampled at urban/industrial locations and for coarse PM. Samples of fine PM also caused DNA strand breakage in A549 cells and this damage could be prevented using the hydroxyl-radical scavengers 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide and dimethyl sulfoxide. The observed DNA strand breakage appeared to correlate with the hydroxyl-radical-generating capacities of the PM samples but with different profiles for rural versus urban/industrial samples. In conclusion, when considered at equal mass, {center_dot}OH formation of PM shows considerable variability with regard to the sampling location and time and is correlated with its ability to cause DNA damage.

  7. Comparative analysis of metagenomes from three methanogenic hydrocarbon-degrading enrichment cultures with 41 environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Tan, Boonfei; Fowler, S Jane; Abu Laban, Nidal; Dong, Xiaoli; Sensen, Christoph W; Foght, Julia; Gieg, Lisa M

    2015-09-01

    Methanogenic hydrocarbon metabolism is a key process in subsurface oil reservoirs and hydrocarbon-contaminated environments and thus warrants greater understanding to improve current technologies for fossil fuel extraction and bioremediation. In this study, three hydrocarbon-degrading methanogenic cultures established from two geographically distinct environments and incubated with different hydrocarbon substrates (added as single hydrocarbons or as mixtures) were subjected to metagenomic and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to test whether these differences affect the genetic potential and composition of the communities. Enrichment of different putative hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in each culture appeared to be substrate dependent, though all cultures contained both acetate- and H2-utilizing methanogens. Despite differing hydrocarbon substrates and inoculum sources, all three cultures harbored genes for hydrocarbon activation by fumarate addition (bssA, assA, nmsA) and carboxylation (abcA, ancA), along with those for associated downstream pathways (bbs, bcr, bam), though the cultures incubated with hydrocarbon mixtures contained a broader diversity of fumarate addition genes. A comparative metagenomic analysis of the three cultures showed that they were functionally redundant despite their enrichment backgrounds, sharing multiple features associated with syntrophic hydrocarbon conversion to methane. In addition, a comparative analysis of the culture metagenomes with those of 41 environmental samples (containing varying proportions of methanogens) showed that the three cultures were functionally most similar to each other but distinct from other environments, including hydrocarbon-impacted environments (for example, oil sands tailings ponds and oil-affected marine sediments). This study provides a basis for understanding key functions and environmental selection in methanogenic hydrocarbon-associated communities. PMID:25734684

  8. A comparison between direct PCR and extraction to generate DNA profiles from samples retrieved from various substrates.

    PubMed

    Swaran, Yuvaneswari Chandramoulee; Welch, Lindsey

    2012-05-01

    Direct PCR generates DNA profiles from samples without using the extraction process. During sample extraction, DNA may be lost due to the methods used, which can affect the quality of the DNA profile obtained. This is not the case with direct PCR, where the sample is transferred directly into the PCR tube. Here, we report on the ability of direct PCR to generate DNA profiles from low amounts of control DNA retrieved from various surfaces using PowerPlex 16 HS. A comparison is made with samples undergoing a preliminary extraction stage using QiaAmp DNA Micro kits. Samples subjected to direct PCR generated DNA profiles with higher peak heights and lower allele dropout on all the different substrates tested when compared to the samples subjected to extraction. The amount of DNA retrieved from each substrate also varied even though the same amount of starting material was deposited, proving that the type of substrate can affect the retrieval of DNA. PMID:21925992

  9. A nuclear protein involved in apoptotic-like DNA degradation in Stylonychia: implications for similar mechanisms in differentiating and starved cells.

    PubMed

    Maercker, C; Kortwig, H; Nikiforov, M A; Allis, C D; Lipps, H J

    1999-09-01

    Ciliates are unicellular eukaryotic organisms containing two types of nuclei: macronuclei and micronuclei. After the sexual pathway takes place, a new macronucleus is formed from a zygote nucleus, whereas the old macronucleus is degraded and resorbed. In the course of macronuclear differentiation, polytene chromosomes are synthesized that become degraded again after some hours. Most of the DNA is eliminated, and the remaining DNA is fragmented into small DNA molecules that are amplified to a high copy number in the new macronucleus. The protein Pdd1p (programmed DNA degradation protein 1) from Tetrahymena has been shown to be present in macronuclear anlagen in the DNA degradation stage and also in the old macronuclei, which are resorbed during the formation of the new macronucleus. In this study the identification and localization of a Pdd1p homologous protein in Stylonychia (Spdd1p) is described. Spdd1p is localized in the precursor nuclei in the DNA elimination stage and in the old macronuclei during their degradation, but also in macronuclei and micronuclei of starved cells. In all of these nuclei, apoptotic-like DNA breakdown was detected. These data suggest that Spdd1p is a general factor involved in programmed DNA degradation in Stylonychia. PMID:10473642

  10. Limitations and recommendations for successful DNA extraction from forensic soil samples: a review.

    PubMed

    Young, Jennifer M; Rawlence, Nicolas J; Weyrich, Laura S; Cooper, Alan

    2014-05-01

    Soil is commonly used in forensic casework to provide discriminatory power to link a suspect to a crime scene. Standard analyses examine the intrinsic properties of soils, including mineralogy, geophysics, texture and colour; however, soils can also support a vast amount of organisms, which can be examined using DNA fingerprinting techniques. Many previous genetic analyses have relied on patterns of fragment length variation produced by amplification of unidentified taxa in the soil extract. In contrast, the development of advanced DNA sequencing technologies now provides the ability to generate a detailed picture of soil microbial communities and the taxa present, allowing for improved discrimination between samples. However, DNA must be efficiently extracted from the complex soil matrix to achieve accurate and reproducible DNA sequencing results, and extraction efficacy is highly dependent on the soil type and method used. As a result, a consideration of soil properties is important when estimating the likelihood of successful DNA extraction. This would include a basic understanding of soil components, their interactions with DNA molecules and the factors that affect such interactions. This review highlights some important considerations required prior to DNA extraction and discusses the use of common chemical reagents in soil DNA extraction protocols to achieve maximum efficacy. Together, the information presented here is designed to facilitate informed decisions about the most appropriate sampling and extraction methodology, relevant both to the soil type and the details of a specific forensic case, to ensure sufficient DNA yield and enable successful analysis. PMID:24796953

  11. Simplified method for DNA and protein staining of human hematopoietic cell samples

    SciTech Connect

    Crissman, H.A.; Egmond, J.V.; Holdrinet, R.S.; Pennings, A.; Haanen, C.

    1980-01-01

    A rapid reproducible method yielding high resolution analysis of DNA and protein in human hematopoietic cell samples was developed by modification of the propidium iodide (PI) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) procedure. Cell staining involved sequential addition of each reagent (RNase, FITC, and PI) to ethanol-fixed cells and requires no centrifiguation steps. Stained cells are analyzed in the reagent solutions. Analysis of bone marrow samples from multiple myeloma patients revealed mixed 2C DNA and aneuploid populations with the aneuploid cells having a significantly higher protein content. This approach permitted differential cell cycle kinetic analysis of the 2C DNA and the aneuploid population.

  12. Development of a single-chain, quasi-dimeric zinc-finger nuclease for the selective degradation of mutated human mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Minczuk, Michal; Papworth, Monika A.; Miller, Jeffrey C.; Murphy, Michael P.; Klug, Aaron

    2008-01-01

    The selective degradation of mutated mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecules is a potential strategy to re-populate cells with wild-type (wt) mtDNA molecules and thereby alleviate the defective mitochondrial function that underlies mtDNA diseases. Zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), which are nucleases conjugated to a zinc-finger peptide (ZFP) engineered to bind a specific DNA sequence, could be useful for the selective degradation of particular mtDNA sequences. Typically, pairs of complementary ZFNs are used that heterodimerize on the target DNA sequence; however, conventional ZFNs were ineffective in our system. To overcome this, we created single-chain ZFNs by conjugating two FokI nuclease domains, connected by a flexible linker, to a ZFP with an N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence. Here we show that these ZFNs are efficiently transported into mitochondria in cells and bind mtDNA in a sequence-specific manner discriminating between two 12-bp long sequences that differ by a single base pair. Due to their selective binding they cleave dsDNA at predicted sites adjacent to the mutation. When expressed in heteroplasmic cells containing a mixture of mutated and wt mtDNA these ZFNs selectively degrade mutated mtDNA, thereby increasing the proportion of wt mtDNA molecules in the cell. Therefore, mitochondria-targeted single-chain ZFNs are a promising candidate approach for the treatment of mtDNA diseases. PMID:18511461

  13. Hematoporphyrin-sensitized degradation of deoxyribose and DNA in high intensity near-UV picosecond pulsed laser photolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gantchev, Tsvetan G.; Grabner, Gotfried; Keskinova, Elka; Angelov, Dimitr; van Lier, Johan E.

    1995-01-01

    The photosensitized degradation of deoxyribose and DNA, using hematoporphyrin (HP) and picosecond laser pulses at high intensities (pulse duration 30 ps, ? exc = 355 nm, light intensity range 10 8-10 10W/cm 2) was studied. Aldehyde formation from 2-deoxy- D-ribose and long-chain double-stranded DNA, when analyzed as a function of light intensity, followed a non-linear dependence, suggesting the involvement of multiphoton light absorption by HP. The degradation mechanism was studied by analysis of the yield dependence on excitation intensity and the effect of added radical scavengers. The participation of OH radicals in the degradation process was confirmed by spin trapping techniques. At low light intensities added N 2O largely increased product formation, suggesting that HP photoionization predominates under these conditions. At higher intensities (I ? 3 GW/cm 2) the product yield was not affected by N 2O which, combined with spin trapping data, suggested that OH radical formation occurred, but that neither HP photoionization nor peroxy radical formation was involved. Single and double strand breaks in supercoiled plasmid DNA (pBR 322) confirmed the generation of OH or OH-like radicals during high-intensity excitation of HP. A mechanism involving a multistep excitation of HP, followed by resonance energy transfer to H 2O resulting in dissociation to yield OH and H atoms, is proposed.

  14. Stool sample storage conditions for the preservation of Giardia intestinalis DNA.

    PubMed

    Kuk, Salih; Yazar, Suleyman; Cetinkaya, Ulfet

    2012-12-01

    Stool is chemically complex and the extraction of DNA from stool samples is extremely difficult. Haemoglobin breakdown products, such as bilirubin, bile acids and mineral ions, that are present in the stool samples, can inhibit DNA amplification and cause molecular assays to produce false-negative results. Therefore, stool storage conditions are highly important for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites and other microorganisms through molecular approaches. In the current study, stool samples that were positive for Giardia intestinalis were collected from five different patients. Each sample was stored using one out of six different storage conditions [room temperature (RT), +4C, -20C, 70% alcohol, 10% formaldehyde or 2.5% potassium dichromate] for DNA extraction procedures at one, two, three and four weeks. A modified QIAamp Stool Mini Kit procedure was used to isolate the DNA from stored samples. After DNA isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification was performed using primers that target the ?-giardin gene. A G. intestinalis-specific 384 bp band was obtained from all of the cyst-containing stool samples that were stored at RT, +4C and -20C and in 70% alcohol and 2.5% potassium dichromate; however, this band was not produced by samples that had been stored in 10% formaldehyde. Moreover, for the stool samples containing trophozoites, the same G. intestinalis-specific band was only obtained from the samples that were stored in 2.5% potassium dichromate for up to one month. As a result, it appears evident that the most suitable storage condition for stool samples to permit the isolation of G. intestinalis DNA is in 2.5% potassium dichromate; under these conditions, stool samples may be stored for one month. PMID:23295744

  15. Degradation of Pseudoviral DNA after Infection of Mouse Cells with Polyoma Pseudovirions*

    PubMed Central

    Kashmiri, S. V. S.; Aposhian, H. Vasken

    1974-01-01

    When mouse cells are infected with [3H]-thymidine-labeled polyoma pseudovirions, as much as 11% of the input pseudoviral radioactivity is found in the recipient cell DNA. However, the radioactivity found in the recipient cell DNA virtually disappears when nonradioactive thymidine and deoxycytidine, or D-arabinosyl cytosine, are added to the medium. The radioactivity found in the recipient cell DNA appears to be the result of the breakdown of pseudoviral DNA to precursors of DNA and the utilization of these precursors for the synthesis of cell DNA. PMID:4372593

  16. Non-invasive method for sampling and extraction of mouse DNA for PCR.

    PubMed

    Meldgaard, M; Bollen, P J A; Finsen, B

    2004-10-01

    We adapted a non-invasive, fast, reliable and inexpensive procedure for the sampling and extraction of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) for genetic testing of mice. The procedure is based on a simple DNA extraction procedure used in the forensic genetic testing of humans. It involves mouth swabbing of the inner cheek using a cotton stick, followed by alkaline lysis of the harvested buccal epithelial cells. This procedure allows for repeated sampling and genetic testing of the individual mouse, and it is faster, simpler and, in our hands, more reliable than the currently used routine procedures for the sampling and extraction of mouse DNA. Current procedures all involve biopsy of a piece of the tail, ear or toe, followed by lengthy procedures to release and isolate the DNA. PMID:15479556

  17. Dependence of DNA-Histograms on The Sampling Techniques in Fine Needle Aspirates of the Breast

    PubMed Central

    Elzagheid, A.; Collan, Y.

    2002-01-01

    48 fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) samples from 25 breast cancer cases, originally used for cytodiagnosis were subjected to DNA cytometry. There were air dried smears stained with the MGG method, and samples stained with HE or PAP stain after 50% ethanol fixation and cytocentrifugation. Different sampling strategies were applied. Four methods were tested: method 1: cell groups measured, method 2: all cells measured, method 3: free cells measured, and method 4: atypical free cells measured. Method 4 showed most often DNA aneuploid histogram patterns, sampling method 1 had the highest number of DNA diploid histogram patterns. Diagnostic approaches may benefit from a sampling method detecting the hiding aneuploid cell population. Grading of neoplasm could potentially benefit from other approaches. PMID:12590152

  18. Satisfaction survey with DNA cards method to collect genetic samples for pharmacogenetics studies

    PubMed Central

    Vidal-Taboada, Jose M; Cucala, Mercedes; Mas Herrero, Sergio; Lafuente, Amalia; Cobos, Albert

    2006-01-01

    Background Pharmacogenetic studies are essential in understanding the interindividual variability of drug responses. DNA sample collection for genotyping is a critical step in genetic studies. A method using dried blood samples from finger-puncture, collected on DNA-cards, has been described as an alternative to the usual venepuncture technique. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the implementation of the DNA cards method in a multicentre clinical trial, and to assess the degree of investigators' satisfaction and the acceptance of the patients perceived by the investigators. Methods Blood samples were collected on DNA-cards. The quality and quantity of DNA recovered were analyzed. Investigators were questioned regarding their general interest, previous experience, safety issues, preferences and perceived patient satisfaction. Results 151 patients' blood samples were collected. Genotyping of GST polymorphisms was achieved in all samples (100%). 28 investigators completed the survey. Investigators perceived patient satisfaction as very good (60.7%) or good (39.3%), without reluctance to finger puncture. Investigators preferred this method, which was considered safer and better than the usual methods. All investigators would recommend using it in future genetic studies. Conclusion Within the clinical trial setting, the DNA-cards method was very well accepted by investigators and patients (in perception of investigators), and was preferred to conventional methods due to its ease of use and safety. PMID:16681846

  19. Sample processing for DNA chip array-based analysis of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC)

    PubMed Central

    Basselet, Pascal; Wegrzyn, Grzegorz; Enfors, Sven-Olof; Gabig-Ciminska, Magdalena

    2008-01-01

    Background Exploitation of DNA-based analyses of microbial pathogens, and especially simultaneous typing of several virulence-related genes in bacteria is becoming an important objective of public health these days. Results A procedure for sample processing for a confirmative analysis of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) on a single colony with DNA chip array was developed and is reported here. The protocol includes application of fragmented genomic DNA from ultrasonicated colonies. The sample processing comprises first 2.5 min of ultrasonic treatment, DNA extraction (2), and afterwards additional 5 min ultrasonication. Thus, the total sample preparation time for a confirmative analysis of EHEC is nearly 10 min. Additionally, bioinformatic revisions were performed in order to design PCR primers and array probes specific to most conservative regions of the EHEC-associated genes. Six strains with distinct pathogenic properties were selected for this study. At last, the EHEC chip array for a parallel and simultaneous detection of genes etpC-stx1-stx2-eae was designed and examined. This should permit to sense all currently accessible variants of the selected sequences in EHEC types and subtypes. Conclusion In order to implement the DNA chip array-based analysis for direct EHEC detection the sample processing was established in course of this work. However, this sample preparation mode may also be applied to other types of EHEC DNA-based sensing systems. PMID:18851736

  20. Y-STR analysis on DNA mixture samples--results of a collaborative project of the ENFSI DNA Working Group.

    PubMed

    Parson, Walther; Niedersttter, Harald; Lindinger, Alexandra; Gill, Peter

    2008-06-01

    The ENFSI (European Network of Forensic Science Institutes) DNA Working Group undertook a collaborative project on Y-STR typing of DNA mixture samples that were centrally prepared and thoroughly tested prior to the shipment. Four commercial Y-STR typing kits (Y-Filer, Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA; Argus Y Nonaplex, Biotype, Dresden, Germany; Powerplex Y, Promega, Madison, WI, USA; and DYSplex-3, SERAC, Bad Homburg, Germany) were used for the amplification of the mixture samples. The results of the study showed a striking inter-laboratory difference of kit performance as determined from the peak heights of the obtained Y-STR genotypes. Variation in quantity and quality of the shipped DNA can be excluded as reason for the observed differences because both samples and shipping conditions were found to be reproducible in an earlier study. The results suggest that in some cases a laboratory-specific optimization process is indicated to reach a comparable sensitivity for the analysis of minute amounts of DNA. PMID:19083827

  1. Chromatin-associated degradation is defined by UBXN-3/FAF1 to safeguard DNA replication fork progression

    PubMed Central

    Franz, André; Pirson, Paul A.; Pilger, Domenic; Halder, Swagata; Achuthankutty, Divya; Kashkar, Hamid; Ramadan, Kristijan; Hoppe, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    The coordinated activity of DNA replication factors is a highly dynamic process that involves ubiquitin-dependent regulation. In this context, the ubiquitin-directed ATPase CDC-48/p97 recently emerged as a key regulator of chromatin-associated degradation in several of the DNA metabolic pathways that assure genome integrity. However, the spatiotemporal control of distinct CDC-48/p97 substrates in the chromatin environment remained unclear. Here, we report that progression of the DNA replication fork is coordinated by UBXN-3/FAF1. UBXN-3/FAF1 binds to the licensing factor CDT-1 and additional ubiquitylated proteins, thus promoting CDC-48/p97-dependent turnover and disassembly of DNA replication factor complexes. Consequently, inactivation of UBXN-3/FAF1 stabilizes CDT-1 and CDC-45/GINS on chromatin, causing severe defects in replication fork dynamics accompanied by pronounced replication stress and eventually resulting in genome instability. Our work identifies a critical substrate selection module of CDC-48/p97 required for chromatin-associated protein degradation in both Caenorhabditis elegans and humans, which is relevant to oncogenesis and aging. PMID:26842564

  2. Chromatin-associated degradation is defined by UBXN-3/FAF1 to safeguard DNA replication fork progression.

    PubMed

    Franz, Andr; Pirson, Paul A; Pilger, Domenic; Halder, Swagata; Achuthankutty, Divya; Kashkar, Hamid; Ramadan, Kristijan; Hoppe, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    The coordinated activity of DNA replication factors is a highly dynamic process that involves ubiquitin-dependent regulation. In this context, the ubiquitin-directed ATPase CDC-48/p97 recently emerged as a key regulator of chromatin-associated degradation in several of the DNA metabolic pathways that assure genome integrity. However, the spatiotemporal control of distinct CDC-48/p97 substrates in the chromatin environment remained unclear. Here, we report that progression of the DNA replication fork is coordinated by UBXN-3/FAF1. UBXN-3/FAF1 binds to the licensing factor CDT-1 and additional ubiquitylated proteins, thus promoting CDC-48/p97-dependent turnover and disassembly of DNA replication factor complexes. Consequently, inactivation of UBXN-3/FAF1 stabilizes CDT-1 and CDC-45/GINS on chromatin, causing severe defects in replication fork dynamics accompanied by pronounced replication stress and eventually resulting in genome instability. Our work identifies a critical substrate selection module of CDC-48/p97 required for chromatin-associated protein degradation in both Caenorhabditis elegans and humans, which is relevant to oncogenesis and aging. PMID:26842564

  3. Study of a novel sample injection method (floating electrokinetic supercharging) for high-performance microchip electrophoresis of DNA fragments.

    PubMed

    Hirokawa, Takeshi; Takayama, Yoichi; Arai, Akihiro; Xu, Zhongqi

    2008-05-01

    Aiming to achieve high-performance analysis of DNA fragments using microchip electrophoresis, we developed a novel sample injection method, which was given the name of floating electrokinetic supercharging (FEKS). In the method, electrokinetic injection (EKI) and ITP preconcentration of samples was performed in a separation channel, connecting two reservoir ports (P3 and P4) on a cross-geometry microchip. At these two stages, side channels, crossing the separation channel, and their ports (P1 and P2) were electrically floated. After the ITP-stacked zones passed the cross-part, they were eluted for detection by using leading ions from P1 and P2 that enabled electrophoresis mode changing rapidly from ITP to zone electrophoresis (ZE). Possible sample leakage at the cross-part toward P1 and P2 was studied in detail on the basis of computer simulation using a CFD-ACE+ software and real experiments, through which it was validated that the analyte recovery to the separation channel was almost complete. The FEKS method successfully contributed to higher resolution and shorter analysis time of DNA fragments on the cross-microchip owing to more rapid switching from ITP status to ZE separation in comparison with our previous EKS procedure realized on a single-channel microchip. Without any degradation of resolution, the achieved LODs were on average ten times better than using conventional pinched injection. PMID:18393341

  4. Bisulfite genomic sequencing of DNA from dried blood spot microvolume samples.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hongmei; Zhao, Yun; Liu, Zhiping; Zhu, Wei; Zhou, Yueqin; Zhao, Ziqin

    2012-05-01

    DNA methylation is an important event in epigenetic changes in cells, and a fundamental regulator of gene transcription. Bisulfite genomic sequencing is a powerful technique used in studies of DNA methylation. However, the established procedures often require relatively large amounts of DNA. In everyday practice, samples submitted for analysis might contain very small amounts of poor quality material, as is often the case with forensic stain samples. In this study, we assess a modified, more efficient method of bisulfite genomic sequencing. Genomic DNA extracted from 3-mm dried blood spots using QIAamp micro kit was treated with sodium bisulfite (using EpiTect kit). Subsequent methylation-specific PCR (MSP) followed by DNA sequencing displayed the differentially methylated region of imprinted gene SNRPN. Our results show that this new combination of efficient DNA extraction and bisulfite treatment provides high quality conversion of unmethylated cytosine to uracil for bisulfite genomic sequencing analysis. This reliable method substantially improves the DNA methylation analysis of forensic stain samples. PMID:21737370

  5. DNA Biosensor for Rapid Detection of Genotoxic Compounds in Soil Samples

    PubMed Central

    Bagni, Graziana; Hernandez, Silvia; Mascini, Marco; Sturchio, Elena; Boccia, Priscilla; Marconi, Simona

    2005-01-01

    An electrochemical DNA-based biosensor is proposed as a fast and easy screening method for the detection of genotoxic compounds in soil samples. The biosensor was assembled by immobilising double stranded Calf thymus DNA on screen-printed electrodes. The interactions between DNA and environmental pollutants can cause variations of the electrochemical proprieties of DNA when they cause a DNA damage. Preliminary studies were performed using benzene, naphthalene and anthracene derivatives as model compounds. The effect of these compounds on the surface-confined DNA was found to be linearly related to their concentration in solution. On the other hand, the objective was to optimise the ultrasonic extraction conditions of these compounds from artificially spiked soil samples. Then, the applicability of such a biosensor was evaluated by analysing soil samples from an Italian region with ecological risk (ACNA of Cengio, SV). DNA biosensor for qualitative analysis of soil presented a good correlation with a semi-quantitative method for aromatic ring systems determination as fixed wavelength fluorescence and interestingly, according results were found also with other bioassays. This kind of biosensors represent a new, easy and fast way of analysis of polluted sites, therefore they can be used as early warnings devices in areas with ecological risk as in situ measurement.

  6. Y-STRs in forensic medicine: DNA analysis in semen samples of azoospermic individuals.

    PubMed

    Soares-Vieira, Jos Arnaldo; Billerbeck, Ana Elisa Correia; Iwamura, Edna Sadayo Miazato; Zampieri, Ricardo Andrade; Gatts, Gilka Jorge Fgaro; Munoz, Daniel Romero; Hallak, Jorge; Mendonca, Berenice Bilharinho; Lucon, Antonio Marmo

    2007-05-01

    The incidence of rape has increased, especially in metropolitan areas, such as the city of So Paulo. In Brazil, studies about it have shown that the majority of this type of crime is committed by the relatives and persons close to the victim. This has made the crime more difficult to be denounced, as only 10% of the cases are reported to competent police authorities. Usually, cytological exams are carried out in sex crime investigations. The difficulty in showing the presence of spermatozoa is frequent, but it does not exclude the presence of male DNA. The absence of spermatozoa in material collected from rape victims can be due to several factors, including the fact that the agressor suffers from azoospermia. This condition can be the result of a successful vasectomy. As the majority of DNA in the ejaculation sample is from spermatozoa, there is much less DNA to be analyzed. This study presents the application of Y-STRs (DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, and DYS393) in DNA analysis of sperm samples from 105 vasectomized men. The study demonstrated a great variation in DNA concentration. DNA extraction and amplification was possible in all sperm samples even in the absence of spermatozoa. The same profile was observed, for each individual, from DNA extracted from blood, pre- and postvasectomy semen samples. The use of markers specific for Y chromosome in sex crime cases, especially in the absence of spermatozoa, is very important, mainly because in most situations there is a small quantity of the agressor's DNA in the medium and a large quantity of the victim's DNA. PMID:17456093

  7. Evaluation of six methods for extraction and purification of viral DNA from urine and serum samples.

    PubMed

    Bergallo, Massimiliano; Costa, Cristina; Gribaudo, Giorgio; Tarallo, Sonia; Baro, Sara; Negro Ponzi, Alessandro; Cavallo, Rossana

    2006-04-01

    The sensitivity and reliability of PCR for diagnostic and research purposes require efficient unbiased procedures of extraction and purification of nucleic acids. One of the major limitations of PCR-based tests is the inhibition of the amplification process by substances present in clinical samples. This study used specimens spiked with a known amount of plasmid pBKV (ATCC 33-1) to compare six methods for extraction and purification of viral DNA from urine and serum samples based on recovery efficiency in terms of yield of DNA and percentage of plasmid pBKV recovered, purity of extracted DNA, and percentage of inhibition. The most effective extraction methods were the phenol/chloroform technique and the silica gel extraction procedure for urine and serum samples, respectively. Considering DNA purity, the silica gel extraction procedure and the phenol/chloroform method produced the most satisfactory results in urine and serum samples, respectively. The presence of inhibitors was overcome by all DNA extraction techniques in urine samples, as evidenced by semiquantitative PCR amplification. In serum samples, the lysis method and the proteinase K procedure did not completely overcome the presence of inhibitors. PMID:16841551

  8. Species-Specific Identification from Incomplete Sampling: Applying DNA Barcodes to Monitoring Invasive Solanum Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Fan, Xiaohong; Zhu, Shuifang; Zhao, Hong; Fu, Lianzhong

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive sampling is crucial to DNA barcoding, but it is rarely performed because materials are usually unavailable. In practice, only a few rather than all species of a genus are required to be identified. Thus identification of a given species using a limited sample is of great importance in current application of DNA barcodes. Here, we selected 70 individuals representing 48 species from each major lineage of Solanum, one of the most species-rich genera of seed plants, to explore whether DNA barcodes can provide reliable specific-species discrimination in the context of incomplete sampling. Chloroplast genes ndhF and trnS-trnG and the nuclear gene waxy, the commonly used markers in Solanum phylogeny, were selected as the supplementary barcodes. The tree-building and modified barcode gap methods were employed to assess species resolution. The results showed that four Solanum species of quarantine concern could be successfully identified through the two-step barcoding sampling strategy. In addition, discrepancies between nuclear and cpDNA barcodes in some samples demonstrated the ability to discriminate hybrid species, and highlights the necessity of using barcode regions with different modes of inheritance. We conclude that efficient phylogenetic markers are good candidates as the supplementary barcodes in a given taxonomic group. Critically, we hypothesized that a specific-species could be identified from a phylogenetic framework using incomplete samplingthrough this, DNA barcoding will greatly benefit the current fields of its application. PMID:23409092

  9. Expression of foreign DNA is associated with paternal chromosome degradation in intracytoplasmic sperm injection-mediated transgenesis in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Szczygiel, Monika A; Moisyadi, Stefan; Ward, W Steven

    2003-05-01

    The efficiency of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)-mediated transgenesis is often limited by poor embryo development. Because our previous work indicated that impairment of embryo development is frequently related to chromosomal abnormalities, we hypothesized that foreign DNA and/or conditions used to enhance integration of the DNA might induce chromosome damage. Therefore, we examined the chromosomes of mouse embryos produced by transgenesis with the EGFP gene. Spermatozoa were processed with three methods that cause membrane disruption: freeze-thawing, Triton X-100, or Triton X-100 followed by a sucrose wash. Membrane-disrupted spermatozoa were mixed with EGFP plasmids and injected into metaphase II oocytes. Three endpoints were evaluated: paternal chromosomes of the zygote, embryo capacity to develop in vitro, and expression of the transgene at the morula/blastocyst stage. In all pretreatments, we observed a significant decrease (approximately 2-fold) in the frequency of normal karyoplates when spermatozoa were incubated with exogenous DNA as compared with the treatment when no DNA was added. As predicted, embryo development was correlated with the integrity of the paternal chromosomes of the zygote. Searching for the possible mechanism of chromosome degradation, we used the ion chelators EGTA and EDTA and found that they neutralize the harmful effect of the transgene and stabilize the paternal chromosomes. In the presence of chelating agents, however, the number of embryos expressing EGFP produced with ICSI-mediated transgenesis decreased significantly. The results suggest that treatment of spermatozoa with exogenous DNA leads to paternal chromosome degradation in the zygote. Furthermore, the mechanisms of disruption of paternal chromosomes and the integration of foreign DNA may be closely related. PMID:12606337

  10. Effects of oral antioxidant treatment upon the dynamics of human sperm DNA fragmentation and subpopulations of sperm with highly degraded DNA.

    PubMed

    Abad, C; Amengual, M J; Goslvez, J; Coward, K; Hannaoui, N; Benet, J; Garca-Peir, A; Prats, J

    2013-06-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of oral antioxidant treatment (1500mg of l-Carnitine; 60mg of vitamin C; 20mg of coenzyme Q10; 10mg of vitamin E; 10mg of zinc; 200?g of vitamin B9; 50?g of selenium; 1?g of vitamin B12) during a time period of 3months upon the dynamics of sperm DNA fragmentation following varying periods of sperm storage (0h, 2h, 6h, 8h and 24h) at 37C in a cohort of 20 infertile patients diagnosed with asthenoteratozoospermia. A secondary objective was to use the sperm chromatin dispersion test (SCD) to study antioxidant effects upon a specific subpopulation of highly DNA degraded sperm (DDS). Semen parameters and pregnancy rate (PR) were also determined. Results showed a significant improvement of DNA integrity at all incubation points (P<0.01). The proportion of DDS was also significantly reduced (P<0.05). Semen analysis data showed a significant increase in concentration, motility, vitality and morphology parameters. Our results suggest that antioxidant treatment improves sperm quality not only in terms of key seminal parameters and basal DNA damage, but also helps to maintain DNA integrity. Prior administration of antioxidants could therefore promote better outcomes following assisted reproductive techniques. PMID:22943406

  11. Ehrlichia canis morulae and DNA detection in whole blood and spleen aspiration samples.

    PubMed

    Faria, Joice Lara Maia; Dagnone, Ana Slvia; Munhoz, Thiago Demarchi; Joo, Carolina Franchi; Pereira, Wanderson Adriano Biscola; Machado, Rosngela Zacarias; Tinucci-Costa, Mirela

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the detection of Ehrlichia canis morulae and DNA by nPCR in whole blood and spleen aspiration. The sample included 40 dogs showing thrombocytopenia associated to clinical signs suggestive of canine ehrlichiosis. Morulae detection showed that in 35 of the dogs studied, 17 had morulae in spleen tissue, and two in buffy coat smears. E. canis DNA was detected in 29/40 blood samples. We verified that morulae detection is more efficient in cytological preparations from spleen aspiration. On the other hand, nPCR on spleen and blood samples were equally efficient for disease diagnosis. PMID:20624346

  12. Stable isotope probing reveals the importance of Comamonas and Pseudomonadaceae in RDX degradation in samples from a Navy detonation site.

    PubMed

    Jayamani, Indumathy; Cupples, Alison M

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the microorganisms involved in hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) degradation from a detonation area at a Navy base. Using Illumina sequencing, microbial communities were compared between the initial sample, samples following RDX degradation, and controls not amended with RDX to determine which phylotypes increased in abundance following RDX degradation. The effect of glucose on these communities was also examined. In addition, stable isotope probing (SIP) using labeled ((13)C3, (15)N3-ring) RDX was performed. Illumina sequencing revealed that several phylotypes were more abundant following RDX degradation compared to the initial soil and the no-RDX controls. For the glucose-amended samples, this trend was strong for an unclassified Pseudomonadaceae phylotype and for Comamonas. Without glucose, Acinetobacter exhibited the greatest increase following RDX degradation compared to the initial soil and no-RDX controls. Rhodococcus, a known RDX degrader, also increased in abundance following RDX degradation. For the SIP study, unclassified Pseudomonadaceae was the most abundant phylotype in the heavy fractions in both the presence and absence of glucose. In the glucose-amended heavy fractions, the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes of Comamonas and Anaeromxyobacter were also present. Without glucose, the heavy fractions also contained the 16S rRNA genes of Azohydromonas and Rhodococcus. However, all four phylotypes were present at a much lower level compared to unclassified Pseudomonadaceae. Overall, these data indicate that unclassified Pseudomonadaceae was primarily responsible for label uptake in both treatments. This study indicates, for the first time, the importance of Comamonas for RDX removal. PMID:25721530

  13. Concentration and size separation of DNA samples at liquid-liquid interfaces.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Thomas; Hardt, Steffen

    2011-07-15

    This report introduces a new analytical concept utilizing the mass transfer resistance of a liquid-liquid interface to concentrate and separate DNA samples. DNA molecules can be electrophoretically accumulated at a liquid-liquid interface of an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and dextran, two polymers that form two immiscible phases in aqueous electrolyte solutions. The detachment of DNA from the interface into the other phase can be triggered by increasing the applied electric field. We experimentally study the size dependence of the detachment process for a broad spectrum of DNA fragments. In a regime where the coiling of the chains does not play a significant role, the process shows a linear dependence on the diffusion coefficient, with shorter DNA chains detaching at lower electric field strengths than larger ones. The concept may enable novel separation protocols for preparative and analytical purposes. PMID:21682284

  14. Orchestration of cooperative events in DNA synthesis and repair mechanism unraveled by transition path sampling of DNA polymerase 's closing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishnan, Ravi; Schlick, Tamar

    2004-04-01

    Our application of transition path sampling to a complex biomolecular system in explicit solvent, the closing transition of DNA polymerase , unravels atomic and energetic details of the conformational change that precedes the chemical reaction of nucleotide incorporation. The computed reaction profile offers detailed mechanistic insights into, as well as kinetic information on, the complex process essential for DNA synthesis and repair. The five identified transition states extend available experimental and modeling data by revealing highly cooperative dynamics and critical roles of key residues (Arg-258, Phe-272, Asp-192, and Tyr-271) in the enzyme's function. The collective cascade of these sequential conformational changes brings the DNA/DNA polymerase system to a state nearly competent for the chemical reaction and suggests how subtle residue motions and conformational rate-limiting steps affect reaction efficiency and fidelity; this complex system of checks and balances directs the system to the chemical reaction and likely helps the enzyme discriminate the correct from the incorrect incoming nucleotide. Together with the chemical reaction, these conformational features may be central to the dual nature of polymerases, requiring specificity (for correct nucleotide selection) as well as versatility (to accommodate different templates at every step) to maintain overall fidelity. Besides leading to these biological findings, our developed protocols open the door to other applications of transition path sampling to long-time, large-scale biomolecular reactions.

  15. Evaluation of human and microbial DNA content in subgingival plaque samples collected by paper points or curette.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Chaparro, P J; Duarte, P M; Pannuti, C M; Figueiredo, L C; Mestnik, M J; Gonçalves, C P S; Faveri, M; Feres, M

    2015-04-01

    Host DNA may adversely affect metagenomic studies focusing on the prokaryotic microbiota. This study compared the levels of host DNA in subgingival plaque collected by paper points and curette, using quantitative PCR. Lower proportions of host DNA and higher proportions of bacterial DNA were recovered from samples collected with curettes. PMID:25644890

  16. An improved DNA isolation technique for PCR detection of Strongyloides stercoralis in stool samples.

    PubMed

    Repetto, S A; Alba Soto, C D; Cazorla, S I; Tayeldin, M L; Cuello, S; Lasala, M B; Tekiel, V S; Gonzlez Cappa, S M

    2013-05-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis is a nematode that causes severe infections in immunocompromised patients. The low parasitic burden of chronically infected patients makes diagnosis difficult to achieve by conventional methods. Here, an in-house (IH) method for the isolation of parasite DNA from stools and a PCR assay for the molecular diagnosis of S. stercoralis were optimized. DNA yield and purity improved with the IH method which included a step of incubation of stool samples with a glycine-SDS buffer and mechanical disruption prior to DNA extraction. For the PCR assay, the addition of bovine serum albumin was required to neutralize inhibitors present in stool. The analytical sensitivity of the PCR using DNA as template, isolated with the IH method, was superior to the commercial one. This study demonstrates that a combined method that adds the step of glycine-SDS buffer incubation plus mechanical disruption prior to DNA isolation with the commercial kit increased PCR sensitivity to levels of the IH method. Finally, our assay was tested on 17 clinical samples. With the IH method for DNA isolation, a S. stercoralis specific band was detected by PCR in the first stool sample in all patients (17/17), while with the commercial kit, our S. stercoralis-specific band was only observed in 7 samples. The superior efficiency of the IH and combined methods over the commercial kit was demonstrated when applied to clinical samples with low parasitic burden. These results show that the DNA extraction procedure is a key to increase sensitivity of the S. stercoralis PCR assay in stool samples. The method developed here could help to improve the molecular diagnosis of S. stercoralis. PMID:23416126

  17. DNA-Methylation Profiling of Fetal Tissues Reveals Marked Epigenetic Differences between Chorionic and Amniotic Samples

    PubMed Central

    Eckmann-Scholz, Christel; Bens, Susanne; Kolarova, Julia; Schneppenheim, Sina; Caliebe, Almuth; Heidemann, Simone; von Kaisenberg, Constantin; Kautza, Monika; Jonat, Walter; Siebert, Reiner; Ammerpohl, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation are supposed to play a key role in fetal development. Here we have investigated fetal DNA-methylation levels of 27,578 CpG loci in 47 chorionic villi (CVS) and 16 amniotic cell (AC) samples. Methylation levels differed significantly between karyotypically normal AC and CVS for 2,014 genes. AC showed more extreme DNA-methylation levels of these genes than CVS and the differentially methylated genes are significantly enriched for processes characteristic for the different cell types sampled. Furthermore, we identified 404 genes differentially methylated in CVS with trisomy 21. These genes were significantly enriched for high CG dinucleotid (CpG) content and developmental processes associated with Down syndrome. Our study points to major tissue-specific differences of fetal DNA-methylation and gives rise to the hypothesis that part of the Down syndrome phenotype is epigenetically programmed in the first trimester of pregnancy. PMID:22723920

  18. Novel circular DNA viruses in stool samples of wild-living chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Blinkova, Olga; Victoria, Joseph; Li, Yingying; Keele, Brandon F.; Sanz, Crickette; Ndjango, Jean-Bosco N.; Peeters, Martine; Travis, Dominic; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V.; Wilson, Michael L.; Pusey, Anne E.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Delwart, Eric L.

    2010-01-01

    Viral particles in stool samples from wild-living chimpanzees were analysed using random PCR amplification and sequencing. Sequences encoding proteins distantly related to the replicase protein of single-stranded circular DNA viruses were identified. Inverse PCR was used to amplify and sequence multiple small circular DNA viral genomes. The viral genomes were related in size and genome organization to vertebrate circoviruses and plant geminiviruses but with a different location for the stemloop structure involved in rolling circle DNA replication. The replicase genes of these viruses were most closely related to those of the much smaller (?1?kb) plant nanovirus circular DNA chromosomes. Because the viruses have characteristics of both animal and plant viruses, we named them chimpanzee stool-associated circular viruses (ChiSCV). Further metagenomic studies of animal samples will greatly increase our knowledge of viral diversity and evolution. PMID:19759238

  19. Hepatitis B virus DNA stability in plasma samples under short-term storage at 42C

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, R.W.; Esprito-Santo, M.P.; Sousa, P.S.F.; de Almeida, A.J.; Lampe, E.; Lewis-Ximenez, L.L.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the stability of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in plasma samples stored at 42C for external quality assessment (EQA) panels of viral load. To assess the stability of plasma samples containing different concentrations of HBV DNA, serial dilutions of HBV-infected samples with a viral load of 6.40 log(10) IU/mL were made to yield viral loads of 5, 4, and 3 log(10) IU/mL. These were incubated at 42C for up to 7 days and then frozen at -70C. Viral load testing for HBV DNA was performed for all samples using COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HBV Test (v.2.0, Roche, Switzerland). Results were compared with fresh frozen plasma samples as a benchmark to establish acceptable measurements on the days following sample collection. Although the results of this study demonstrated a decrease in HBV DNA viral load ranging from 0.005 to 0.30 log(10) IU/mL after storage at 42C for up to 7 days, these values did not exceed 0.5 log(10), which is the estimated intra-assay variation for molecular tests. Thus, the insignificant decrease in viral load suggests that shipment of HBV in plasma samples at temperatures of up to 42C is permissible if they are frozen within 7 days. PMID:25790101

  20. Study of DNA damage with a new system for irradiation of samples in a nuclear reactor.

    PubMed

    Gual, Maritza R; Milian, Felix M; Deppman, Airton; Coelho, Paulo R P

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, we report results of a quantitative analysis of the effects of neutrons on DNA, and, specifically, the production of simple and double breaks of plasmid DNA in aqueous solutions with different concentrations of free-radical scavengers. The radiation damage to DNA was evaluated by electrophoresis through agarose gels. The neutron and gamma doses were measured separately with thermoluminescent detectors. In this work, we have also demonstrated usefulness of a new system for positioning and removing samples in channel BH#3 of the IEA-R1 reactor at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energticas e Nucleares (Brazil) without necessity of interrupting the reactor operation. PMID:21075641

  1. Usefulness of FTA® cards as a Pneumocystis-DNA extraction method in bronchoalveolar lavage samples.

    PubMed

    Rodiño, Jenniffer M; Aguilar, Yudy A; Rueda, Zulma Vanessa; Vélez, Lázaro A

    2016-05-01

    Background FTA® cards (Fast Technology for Analysis of Nucleic Acids) are an alternative DNA extraction method in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples for Pneumocystis jirovecii molecular analyses. The goal was to evaluate the usefulness of FTA® cards to detect P. jirovecii-DNA by PCR in BAL samples compared to silica adsorption chromatography (SAC). Methods This study used 134 BAL samples from immunocompromised patients previously studied to establish microbiological aetiology of pneumonia, among them 15 cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) documented by staining and 119 with other alternative diagnoses. The FTA® system and SAC were used for DNA extraction and then amplified by nested PCR to detect P. jirovecii. Performance and concordance of the two DNA extraction methods compared to P. jirovecii microscopy were calculated. The influence of the macroscopic characteristics, transportation of samples and the duration of the FTA® card storage (1, 7, 10 or 12 months) were also evaluated. Results Among 134 BAL samples, 56% were positive for P. jirovecii-DNA by SAC and 27% by FTA®. All 15 diagnosed by microscopy were detected by FTA® and SAC. Specificity of the FTA® system and SAC were 82.4% and 49.6%, respectively. Compared to SAC, positivity by FTA® decreased with the presence of blood in BAL (62% vs 13.5%). The agreement between samples at 7, 10 and 12 months was 92.5% for FTA®. Positive cases by FTA® remained the same after shipment by mail. Conclusions Results suggest that FTA® is a practical, safe and economical method to preserve P. jirovecii-DNA in BAL samples for molecular studies. PMID:26950684

  2. Ancient mitochondrial DNA from Malaysian hair samples: some indications of Southeast Asian population movements.

    PubMed

    Ricaut, Franois-X; Bellatti, M; Lahr, Marta Mirazon

    2006-01-01

    The late Pleistocene and early Holocene population history of Southeast Asia is not well-known. Our study provides new data on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages of the aboriginal inhabitants of the Malay Peninsula, and through an extensive comparison to the known mtDNA diversity in Southeast and East Asia, provides some new insights into the origins and historical geography of certain mtDNA lineages in the region. We extracted DNA from hair samples (dating back 100 years) preserved in the Duckworth Collection and belonging to two Peninsular Malaysian individuals identified as "Negrito." Ancient DNA was analyzed by sequencing hypervariable region I (HVS-I) of the mtDNA control region and the mtDNA region V length polymorphism. The results show that the maternal lineages of these individuals belong to a recently defined haplogroup B sub-branch called B4c2. A comparison of mitochondrial haplotypes and haplogroups with those of 10,349 East Asian individuals indicates their very restricted geographical distribution (southwestern China, Southeast Asia Peninsula, and Indonesia). Recalculation of the B4c2 age across all of East Asia ( approximately 13,000 years) and in different subregions/populations suggests its rapid diffusion in Southeast Asia between the end of the Last Glacial Maximum and the Neolithic expansion of the Holocene. PMID:16917897

  3. Study of microtip-based extraction and purification of DNA from human samples for portable devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fotouhi, Gareth

    DNA sample preparation is essential for genetic analysis. However, rapid and easy-to-use methods are a major challenge to obtaining genetic information. Furthermore, DNA sample preparation technology must follow the growing need for point-of-care (POC) diagnostics. The current use of centrifuges, large robots, and laboratory-intensive protocols has to be minimized to meet the global challenge of limited access healthcare by bringing the lab to patients through POC devices. To address these challenges, a novel extraction method of genomic DNA from human samples is presented by using heat-cured polyethyleneimine-coated microtips generating a high electric field. The microtip extraction method is based on recent work using an electric field and capillary action integrated into an automated device. The main challenges to the method are: (1) to obtain a stable microtip surface for the controlled capture and release of DNA and (2) to improve the recovery of DNA from samples with a high concentration of inhibitors, such as human samples. The present study addresses these challenges by investigating the heat curing of polyethyleneimine (PEI) coated on the surface of the microtip. Heat-cured PEI-coated microtips are shown to control the capture and release of DNA. Protocols are developed for the extraction and purification of DNA from human samples. Heat-cured PEI-coated microtip methods of DNA sample preparation are used to extract genomic DNA from human samples. It is discovered through experiment that heat curing of a PEI layer on a gold-coated surface below 150°C could inhibit the signal of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Below 150°C, the PEI layer is not completely cured and dissolved off the gold-coated surface. Dissolved PEI binds with DNA to inhibit PCR. Heat curing of a PEI layer above 150°C on a gold-coated surface prevents inhibition to PCR and gel electrophoresis. In comparison to gold-coated microtips, the 225°C-cured PEI-coated microtips improve the recovery of DNA to 45% efficiency. Furthermore, the 225°C-cured PEI-coated microtips recover more DNA than gold-coated microtips when the surface is washed. Heat-cured (225°C) PEI-coated microtips are used for the recovery of human genomic DNA from whole blood. A washing protocol is developed to remove inhibiting particles bound to the PEI-coated microtip surface after DNA extraction. From 1.25 muL of whole blood, an average of 1.83 ng of human genomic DNA is captured, purified, and released using a 225°C-cured PEI-coated microtip in less than 30 minutes. The extracted DNA is profiled by short tandem repeat analysis (STR). For forensic and medical applications, genomic DNA is extracted from dried samples using heat-cured PEI-coated microtips that are integrated into an automated device. DNA extraction from dried samples is critical for forensics. The use of dried samples in the medical field is increasing because dried samples are convenient for storage, biosafety, and contamination. The main challenge is the time required to properly extract DNA in a purified form. Typically, a 1 hour incubation period is required to complete this process. Overnight incubation is sometimes necessary. To address this challenge, a pre-extraction washing step is investigated to remove inhibiting particles from dried blood spots (DBS) before DNA is released from dried form into solution for microtip extraction. The developed protocol is expanded to extract DNA from a variety of dried samples including nasal swabs, buccal swabs, and other forensic samples. In comparison to a commercial kit, the microtip-based extraction reduced the processing time from 1.5 hours to 30 minutes or less with an equivalent concentration of extracted DNA from dried blood spots. The developed assay will benefit genetic studies on newborn screening, forensic investigation, and POC diagnostics.

  4. Requirement of ELC1 for RNA polymerase II polyubiquitylation and degradation in response to DNA damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ribar, Balazs; Prakash, Louise; Prakash, Satya

    2006-06-01

    Treatment of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and human cells with DNA-damaging agents such as UV light or 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide induces polyubiquitylation of the largest RNA polymerase II (Pol II) subunit, Rpb1, which results in rapid Pol II degradation by the proteasome. Here we identify a novel role for the yeast Elc1 protein in mediating Pol II polyubiquitylation and degradation in DNA-damaged yeast cells and propose the involvement of a ubiquitin ligase, of which Elc1 is a component, in this process. In addition, we present genetic evidence for a possible involvement of Elc1 in Rad7-Rad16-dependent nucleotide excision repair (NER) of lesions from the nontranscribed regions of the genome and suggest a role for Elc1 in increasing the proficiency of repair of nontranscribed DNA, where as a component of the Rad7-Rad16-Elc1 ubiquitin ligase, it would promote the efficient turnover of the NER ensemble from the lesion site in a Rad23-19S proteasomal complex-dependent reaction. PMID:16705154

  5. Applicability of the ParaDNA(®) Screening System to Seminal Samples.

    PubMed

    Tribble, Nicholas D; Miller, Jamie A D; Dawnay, Nick; Duxbury, Nicola J

    2015-05-01

    Seminal fluid represents a common biological material recovered from sexual assault crime scenes. Such samples can be prescreened using different techniques to determine cell type and relative amount before submitting for full STR profiling. The ParaDNA(®) Screening System is a novel forensic test which identifies the presence of DNA through amplification and detection of two common STR loci (D16S539 and TH01) and the Amelogenin marker. The detection of the Y allele in samples could provide a useful tool in the triage and submission of sexual assault samples by enforcement authorities. Male template material was detected on a range of common sexual assault evidence items including cotton pillow cases, condoms, swab heads and glass surfaces and shows a detection limit of 1 in 1000 dilution of neat semen. These data indicate this technology has the potential to be a useful tool for the detection of male donor DNA in sexual assault casework. PMID:25739746

  6. IDENTIFICATION OF IN SITU 2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID-DEGRADING SOIL MICROORGANISMS USING DNA-STABLE ISOTOPE PROBING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stable isotope probing (SIP) was used to investigate the microorganisms responsible for degradation of the herbicide, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in soil samples. Soils were unamended or amended with either unlabelled 2,4-D or UL(ring) 13C-2,4-D. Removal of 2,4-D was complete after 17 day...

  7. Impacts of sampling location within a faeces on DNA quality in two carnivore species.

    PubMed

    Stenglein, J L; DE Barba, M; Ausband, D E; Waits, L P

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the influence of sampling location within a faeces on DNA quality by sampling from both the outside and inside of 25 brown bear (Ursus arctos) scats and the side and the tip of 30 grey wolf (Canis lupus) scats. The outside of the bear scat and side of the wolf scat had significantly lower nuclear DNA microsatellite allelic dropout error rates (U. arctos: P?=?0.017; C. lupus: P?=?0.025) and significantly higher finalized genotyping success rates (U. arctos: P?=?0.017; C. lupus: P?=?0.012) than the tip and inside of the scat. A review of the faecal DNA literature indicated that <45% of studies report the sampling location within a faeces indicating that this methodological consideration is currently underappreciated. Based on our results, we recommend sampling from the side of canid scats and the outside portion of ursid scats to obtain higher quality DNA samples. The sampling location within a faeces should be carefully considered and reported as it can directly influence laboratory costs and efficiency, as well as the ability to obtain reliable genotypes. PMID:21564995

  8. Detection of PCV-2 DNA in stool samples from infants vaccinated with RotaTeq.

    PubMed

    Esona, Mathew D; Mijatovic-Rustempasic, Slavica; Yen, Catherine; Parashar, Umesh D; Gentsch, Jon R; Bowen, Michael D; LaRussa, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Rotarix and RotaTeq vaccines have led to a dramatic reduction in rotavirus disease worldwide. However, the detection of porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV-1) and 2 (PCV-2) DNA in these vaccines raised some safety concerns. Studies examining shedding of rotavirus in stool from rotavirus vaccine recipients have been performed but no published data exist regarding the shedding of PCV virus in stools of vaccinees. The goal of this study was to determine if PCV-1 and/or PCV-2 is shed in the feces of infants vaccinated with RotaTeq. Using multiple PCR assays for detection of PCV DNA, we tested for PCV-1 and PCV-2 in 826 stool swab samples collected serially during the first 9 d after vaccination from 102 children vaccinated with RotaTeq. Since the vaccine is recommended and uptake is high, we did not have samples from unvaccinated infants. A total of 235 (28.5%) samples from 59 vaccine recipients were positive for PCV-2 DNA by one or more assays used in this study. PCV-1 DNA was not detected in RotaTeq or any of the stool swab extracts. Twenty-two of the 102 vaccine recipients (21.6%) shed RotaTeq vaccine strain and 10 of these vaccinees (9.8%) were shedding both PCV DNA and rotavirus vaccine RNA. PCV DNA was detected up to 9 d post vaccination and was most frequently detected in the first 5 d after vaccination. This study demonstrated shedding of PCV-2 DNA by RotaTeq vaccinees but we did not find evidence that this DNA was associated with viable PCV. Findings from this study support the continued use of current rotavirus vaccines. PMID:24104203

  9. Detection of PCV-2 DNA in stool samples from infants vaccinated with RotaTeq

    PubMed Central

    Esona, Mathew D; Mijatovic-Rustempasic, Slavica; Yen, Catherine; Parashar, Umesh D; Gentsch, Jon R; Bowen, Michael D; LaRussa, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Rotarix and RotaTeq vaccines have led to a dramatic reduction in rotavirus disease worldwide. However, the detection of porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV-1) and 2 (PCV-2) DNA in these vaccines raised some safety concerns. Studies examining shedding of rotavirus in stool from rotavirus vaccine recipients have been performed but no published data exist regarding the shedding of PCV virus in stools of vaccinees. The goal of this study was to determine if PCV-1 and/or PCV-2 is shed in the feces of infants vaccinated with RotaTeq. Using multiple PCR assays for detection of PCV DNA, we tested for PCV-1 and PCV-2 in 826 stool swab samples collected serially during the first 9 d after vaccination from 102 children vaccinated with RotaTeq. Since the vaccine is recommended and uptake is high, we did not have samples from unvaccinated infants. A total of 235 (28.5%) samples from 59 vaccine recipients were positive for PCV-2 DNA by one or more assays used in this study. PCV-1 DNA was not detected in RotaTeq or any of the stool swab extracts. Twenty-two of the 102 vaccine recipients (21.6%) shed RotaTeq vaccine strain and 10 of these vaccinees (9.8%) were shedding both PCV DNA and rotavirus vaccine RNA. PCV DNA was detected up to 9 d post vaccination and was most frequently detected in the first 5 d after vaccination. This study demonstrated shedding of PCV-2 DNA by RotaTeq vaccinees but we did not find evidence that this DNA was associated with viable PCV. Findings from this study support the continued use of current rotavirus vaccines. PMID:24104203

  10. Uracil DNA glycosylase initiates degradation of HIV-1 cDNA containing misincorporated dUTP and prevents viral integration

    PubMed Central

    Weil, Amy F.; Ghosh, Devlina; Zhou, Yan; Seiple, Lauren; McMahon, Moira A.; Spivak, Adam M.; Siliciano, Robert F.; Stivers, James T.

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 reverse transcriptase discriminates poorly between dUTP and dTTP, and accordingly, viral DNA products become heavily uracilated when viruses infect host cells that contain high ratios of dUTP:dTTP. Uracilation of invading retroviral DNA is thought to be an innate immunity barrier to retroviral infection, but the mechanistic features of this immune pathway and the cellular fate of uracilated retroviral DNA products is not known. Here we developed a model system in which the cellular dUTP:dTTP ratio can be pharmacologically increased to favor dUTP incorporation, allowing dissection of this innate immunity pathway. When the virus-infected cells contained elevated dUTP levels, reverse transcription was found to proceed unperturbed, but integration and viral protein expression were largely blocked. Furthermore, successfully integrated proviruses lacked detectable uracil, suggesting that only nonuracilated viral DNA products were integration competent. Integration of the uracilated proviruses was restored using an isogenic cell line that had no detectable human uracil DNA glycosylase (hUNG2) activity, establishing that hUNG2 is a host restriction factor in cells that contain high dUTP. Biochemical studies in primary cells established that this immune pathway is not operative in CD4+ T cells, because these cells have high dUTPase activity (low dUTP), and only modest levels of hUNG activity. Although monocyte-derived macrophages have high dUTP levels, these cells have low hUNG activity, which may diminish the effectiveness of this restriction pathway. These findings establish the essential elements of this pathway and reconcile diverse observations in the literature. PMID:23341616

  11. Uracil DNA glycosylase initiates degradation of HIV-1 cDNA containing misincorporated dUTP and prevents viral integration.

    PubMed

    Weil, Amy F; Ghosh, Devlina; Zhou, Yan; Seiple, Lauren; McMahon, Moira A; Spivak, Adam M; Siliciano, Robert F; Stivers, James T

    2013-02-01

    HIV-1 reverse transcriptase discriminates poorly between dUTP and dTTP, and accordingly, viral DNA products become heavily uracilated when viruses infect host cells that contain high ratios of dUTP:dTTP. Uracilation of invading retroviral DNA is thought to be an innate immunity barrier to retroviral infection, but the mechanistic features of this immune pathway and the cellular fate of uracilated retroviral DNA products is not known. Here we developed a model system in which the cellular dUTP:dTTP ratio can be pharmacologically increased to favor dUTP incorporation, allowing dissection of this innate immunity pathway. When the virus-infected cells contained elevated dUTP levels, reverse transcription was found to proceed unperturbed, but integration and viral protein expression were largely blocked. Furthermore, successfully integrated proviruses lacked detectable uracil, suggesting that only nonuracilated viral DNA products were integration competent. Integration of the uracilated proviruses was restored using an isogenic cell line that had no detectable human uracil DNA glycosylase (hUNG2) activity, establishing that hUNG2 is a host restriction factor in cells that contain high dUTP. Biochemical studies in primary cells established that this immune pathway is not operative in CD4+ T cells, because these cells have high dUTPase activity (low dUTP), and only modest levels of hUNG activity. Although monocyte-derived macrophages have high dUTP levels, these cells have low hUNG activity, which may diminish the effectiveness of this restriction pathway. These findings establish the essential elements of this pathway and reconcile diverse observations in the literature. PMID:23341616

  12. Degradation of polar organic micropollutants during riverbank filtration: complementary results from spatiotemporal sampling and push-pull tests.

    PubMed

    Huntscha, Sebastian; Rodriguez Velosa, Diana M; Schroth, Martin H; Hollender, Juliane

    2013-10-15

    The fate of polar organic micropollutants (logDOW (pH 7) between -4.2 and +3.5) during riverbank filtration (RBF) at the river Thur was studied using both spatiotemporally resolved sampling and single-well push-pull tests (PPT), followed by LC-MS/MS analysis. The Thur is a dynamic prealpine river with an alluvial sandy-gravel aquifer, which is characterized by short groundwater travel times (a few days) from surface water infiltration to groundwater extraction. The spatiotemporal sampling allowed tracing concentration dynamics in the river and the groundwater and revealed persistence for the drug carbamazepine, while the herbicide MCPA (2-methyl-4-chloro-phenoxyacetic acid) and the drug 4-acetamidoantipyrine were very quickly degraded under the prevalent aerobic conditions. The corrosion inhibitor 1H-benzotriazole was degraded slightly, particularly in a transect influenced by river restoration measures. For the first time in situ first-order degradation rate constants for three pesticides and two pharmaceuticals were determined by PPTs, which confirmed the results of the spatiotemporal sampling. Atenolol was transformed almost completely to atenolol acid. Rate constants of 0.1-1.3 h(-1) for MCPA, 2,4-D, mecoprop, atenolol, and diclofenac, corresponding to half-lives of 0.6-6.3 h, demonstrated the great potential of RBF systems to degrade organic micropollutants and simultaneously the applicability of PPTs for micropollutants in such dynamic systems. PMID:24033151

  13. Real-time total integrated scattering measurements on the Mir spacecraft to evaluate sample degradation in space.

    PubMed

    Hadaway, J B; Ahmad, A; Pezzaniti, J L; Chipman, R A; Wilkes, D R; Hummer, L L; Crandall, D G; Bennett, J M

    2001-06-01

    An instrument to measure total integrated scattering (TIS) in space was built as part of the Optical Properties Monitor instrument package and flown on the Russian Mir Space Station in a low Earth orbit. TIS at two wavelengths was measured in space at approximately weekly intervals from 29 April to 26 December 1997 and telemetered to Earth during the mission. Of the 20 TIS samples, 13 are described here to illustrate the performance of the TIS instrument. These include ten optical samples and three thermal control samples. Two optical samples and one thermal control sample were severely degraded by atomic oxygen. All samples received a light dusting of particles during the mission and an additional heavier layer after the samples returned to Earth. The initial brassboard instrument and the validation tests of the flight instrument are also described. PMID:18357293

  14. Colorimetric detection of clinical DNA samples using an intercalator-conjugated polydiacetylene sensor.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yun Kyung; Park, Hyun Gyu

    2015-10-15

    We herein developed a novel colorimetric polydiacetylene (PDA) sensor for very convenient detection of clinical DNA samples based on the interaction between an intercalator and dsDNA. We modified the terminal carboxyl group of a diacetylene monomer (10,12-pentacosadiynoic acid; PCDA) with the intercalator 9-aminoacridine (9AA) and prepared 9AA-modified PDA liposomes containing PCDA-9AA/PCDA/phospholipid (1,2-dimyristoyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine) at a molar ratio of 1.5:6.5:2.0. The PDA sensor underwent an obvious color transition from blue to red in the presence of dsDNA molecules that were PCR-amplified from genomic DNA due to the insertion of the 9AA head group of PDA into the dsDNA. DNA concentrations as low as 20 nM and relatively small molecules (around 100 base pairs) could be detected by the sensor within 1h without DNA electrophoresis. This novel colorimetric method is simple, does not require any instrument, and is therefore appropriate for POCT or portable molecular diagnostic kit. PMID:25978440

  15. [Infrared Spectrum Studies of Hydrocarbon Generation and Structure Evolution of Peat Samples During Pyrolysis and Microbial Degradation].

    PubMed

    Bao, Yuan; Ju, Yi-wen; Wei, Chong-tao; Wang, Chao-yong; Li, Xiao-shi

    2015-03-01

    Hydrocarbon generation and structural evolution would be occurred in the process of from coal-forming material (i. e. peat sample) transforming to the coal. While Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) have a special advantages in analyzing molecular structure of samples. For understanding the characteristics of hydrocarbon generation and structural evolution of coal-forming material during the process of pyrolysis and microbial degradation, based on the physical simulation experiments of closed pyrolysis and anaerobic microbial degradation, the generation potential of thermogenic gas and biogenic gas were studied in this paper, and characteristics of molecular structure evolution and its mechanism was analyzed by FTIR technology. Results show that cumulative gas yields of hydrocarbon gases (mainly for methane) increased with experiment temperature. The gas yield of non-hydrocarbon gas (mainly for CO2) exhibited two peaks at 250 and 375 degrees C. The degradation ability of anaerobe on coal samples weakened with the maturity increasing and there was no gas generation on the pyrolysis samples with maturity from 1.6% to 1.8%. After pyrolysis, the content of hydroxyl in peat sample decreased first and then increased with the pyrolysis temperature increasing. The content of aldehyde carbonyl, methylene and phosphate reduced. The content of aromatic esters decreased with nonlinear. The bone of S-O in stretching vibration appeared after 350 degrees C and its content increased with temperature. This shows that the sulfocompound restrains the activity of methanogenic bacteria. After degradation by anaerobe, the relative content of hydroxyl, aldehyde carbonyl, aromatic esters, methylene and phosphate in peat sample dropped significantly. It is shown that the intermolecular force between these groups weakened. PMID:26117863

  16. Defects in DNA degradation revealed in crystal structures of TREX1 exonuclease mutations linked to autoimmune disease

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Suzanna L.; Harvey, Scott; Perrino, Fred W.; Hollis, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Mutations within the human TREX1 3' exonuclease are associated with Aicardi-Goutires Syndrome (AGS) and familial chilblain lupus (FCL). Both AGS and FCL are autoimmune diseases that result in increased levels of interferon alpha and circulating antibodies to DNA. TREX1 is a member of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated SET complex and participates in granzyme A-mediated cell death to degrade nicked genomic DNA. The loss of TREX1 activity may result in the accumulation of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) degradation intermediates that trigger autoimmune activation. The X-ray crystal structures of the TREX1 wt apoprotein, the dominant D200H, D200N and D18N homodimer mutants derived from AGS and FCL patients, as well as the recessive V201D homodimer mutant have been determined. The structures of the D200H and D200N mutant proteins reveal the enzyme has lost coordination of one of the active site metals, and the catalytic histidine (H195) is trapped in a conformation pointing away from the active site. The TREX1 D18N and V201D mutants are able to bind both metals in the active site, but with inter-metal distances that are larger than optimal for catalysis. Additionally, all of the mutant structures reveal a reduced mobility in the catalytic histidine, providing further explanation for the loss of catalytic activity. The structures of the mutant TREX1 proteins provide insight into the dysfunction relating to human disease. Additionally, the TREX1 apoprotein structure together with the previously determined wild type substrate and product structures allow us to propose a distinct mechanism for the TREX1 exonuclease. PMID:22071149

  17. Genetic identification of missing persons: DNA analysis of human remains and compromised samples.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Cubero, M J; Saiz, M; Martinez-Gonzalez, L J; Alvarez, J C; Eisenberg, A J; Budowle, B; Lorente, J A

    2012-01-01

    Human identification has made great strides over the past 2 decades due to the advent of DNA typing. Forensic DNA typing provides genetic data from a variety of materials and individuals, and is applied to many important issues that confront society. Part of the success of DNA typing is the generation of DNA databases to help identify missing persons and to develop investigative leads to assist law enforcement. DNA databases house DNA profiles from convicted felons (and in some jurisdictions arrestees), forensic evidence, human remains, and direct and family reference samples of missing persons. These databases are essential tools, which are becoming quite large (for example the US Database contains 10 million profiles). The scientific, governmental and private communities continue to work together to standardize genetic markers for more effective worldwide data sharing, to develop and validate robust DNA typing kits that contain the reagents necessary to type core identity genetic markers, to develop technologies that facilitate a number of analytical processes and to develop policies to make human identity testing more effective. Indeed, DNA typing is integral to resolving a number of serious criminal and civil concerns, such as solving missing person cases and identifying victims of mass disasters and children who may have been victims of human trafficking, and provides information for historical studies. As more refined capabilities are still required, novel approaches are being sought, such as genetic testing by next-generation sequencing, mass spectrometry, chip arrays and pyrosequencing. Single nucleotide polymorphisms offer the potential to analyze severely compromised biological samples, to determine the facial phenotype of decomposed human remains and to predict the bioancestry of individuals, a new focus in analyzing this type of markers. PMID:22722562

  18. Predictive properties of DNA methylation patterns in primary tumor samples for osteosarcoma relapse status

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblum, Jeremy M; Wijetunga, N Ari; Fazzari, Melissa J; Krailo, Mark; Barkauskas, Donald A; Gorlick, Richard; Greally, John M

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumor in children. Validated biological markers for disease prognosis available at diagnosis are lacking. No genome-wide DNA methylation studies linked to clinical outcomes have been reported in osteosarcoma to the best of our knowledge. To address this, we tested the methylome at over 1.1 million loci in 15 osteosarcoma biopsy samples obtained prior to the initiation of therapy and correlated these molecular data with disease outcomes. At more than 17% of the tested loci, samples obtained from patients who experienced disease relapse were more methylated than those from patients who did not have recurrence while patients who did not experience disease relapse had more DNA methylation at fewer than 1%. In samples from patients who went on to have recurrent disease, increased DNA methylation was found at gene bodies, intergenic regions and empirically-annotated candidate enhancers, whereas candidate gene promoters were unusual for a more balanced distribution of increased and decreased DNA methylation with 6.6% of gene promoter loci being more methylated and 2% of promoter loci being less methylated in patients with disease relapse. A locus at the TLR4 gene demonstrates one of strongest associations between DNA methylation and 5 y event-free survival (P-value = 1.7 10?6), with empirical annotation of this locus showing promoter characteristics. Our data indicate that DNA methylation information has the potential to be predictive of outcome in pediatric osteosarcoma, and that both promoters and non-promoter loci are potentially informative in DNA methylation studies. PMID:25531418

  19. Leishmania DNA is rapidly degraded following parasite death: an analysis by microscopy and real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Prina, Eric; Roux, Emeric; Mattei, Denise; Milon, Geneviève

    2007-09-01

    Control of human leishmaniases relies on appropriate diagnosis and reliable methods for monitoring chemotherapy. The current method used for estimation of parasite burden during chemotherapy patient follow-up as well as in pharmacological studies performed in experimental models involves PCR-based assays. Compared to time-consuming conventional methods, this type of Leishmania DNA detection-based method is extremely sensitive, but could fail in distinguishing viable Leishmania from slowly degenerating ones. We have used an in vitro model to monitor the duration of Leishmania DNA persistence in mouse macrophages following exposure to l-leucine ester, a molecule otherwise known to rapidly kill intracellular Leishmania amazonensis amastigotes. At 1h of post l-leucine ester exposure, more than 98% of amastigote-loaded macrophages harbored killed parasites and parasite remnants, as assessed by microscopy. This dramatic decrease in parasite load and the microscopic parasite follow-up over the 120 h time period studied were correlated with Leishmania DNA as quantified by real-time PCR. Our results indicate that kinetoplast and nuclear parasite DNA degradation occurs very rapidly after amastigote death. These data add further weight to the argument that PCR assays represent not only a robust method for diagnosis but can also be reliable for monitoring parasite size reduction rate post any intervention (Leishmania-targeting molecules, immunomodulators...). PMID:17890124

  20. 16S rDNA-based probes for two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading soil Mycobacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Govindaswami, M.; Feldhake, D.J.; Loper, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    PAHs are a class of widespread pollutants, some of which have been shown to be genotoxic, hence the fate of these compounds in the environment is of considerable interest. Research on the biodegradation of 4 and 5 ring PAHs has been limited by the general lack of microbial isolates or consortia which can completely degrade these toxicants. Heitkamp and Cerniglia have described an oxidative soil Mycobacterium-strain PYR-1 that metabolizes pyrene and fluoranthene more rapidly than the 2 and 3 ring naphthalene and phenanthrene; although some metabolites of benzo-(a)-pyrene (BaP) were detected, no mineralization of BaP was observed. In 1991 Grosser et al. reported the isolation of a Mycobacterium sp. which mineralizes pyrene and also causing some mineralization of BaP. Their study describes a comparative analysis of these two strains, which show very similar colony morphology, growth rate and yellow-orange pigmentation. Genetic differences were shown by DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) using two arbitrary GC-rich octanucleotide primers, and by sequence comparison of PCR amplified 16S rDNA, although both strains show similarity closest to that of the genus Mycobacteria. These 16S rDNA sequences are in use for the construction of strain-specific DNA probes to monitor the presence, survival and growth of these isolates in PAH-contaminated soils in studies of biodegradation.

  1. Comparison of DNA extraction methods for polymerase chain reaction amplification of guanaco (Lama guanicoe) fecal DNA samples.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, M I; Bertin, A; Squeo, F A; Corts, A; Gouin, N

    2015-01-01

    Feces-based population genetic studies have become increasingly popular. However, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification rates from fecal material vary depending on the species, populations, loci, and extraction protocols. Here, we assessed the PCR amplification success of three microsatellite markers and a segment of the mitochondrial control region of DNA extracted from field-collected feces of guanaco (Lama guanicoe) using two protocols - Qiagen DNA Stool Kit and 2 cetyltrimethylammonium bromide/phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol (2CTAB/PCI) method. Chelex resin treatment to remove inhibitors was also tested. Our results show that the mitochondrial locus was the most difficult to amplify. PCR success rates improved for all markers after Chelex treatment of extracted DNA, and 2CTAB/PCI method (95.83%) appeared to perform slightly better than stool kit (91.67%) for the nuclear markers. Amplification success was significantly influenced by the extraction method, Chelex treatment, and locus (P < 0.001) but not by the freshness of the feces (fresh vs old, P = 0.17). The repeatability levels were high without Chelex treatment (> 0.89), but they decreased slightly after treatment for amplification of nuclear markers and markedly after treatment for amplification of the mitochondrial control region. Thus, we showed that Chelex treatment gives high PCR success, especially for nuclear markers, and adequate DNA extraction rates can be achieved from L. guanicoe feces even from non-fresh fecal material. Although not significant, 2CTAB/PCI method tended to provide higher successful amplification rates on a whole set of samples, suggesting that the method could be particularly useful when using small sample sizes. PMID:25729972

  2. An efficient and sensitive method for preparing cDNA libraries from scarce biological samples

    PubMed Central

    Sterling, Catherine H.; Veksler-Lublinsky, Isana; Ambros, Victor

    2015-01-01

    The preparation and high-throughput sequencing of cDNA libraries from samples of small RNA is a powerful tool to quantify known small RNAs (such as microRNAs) and to discover novel RNA species. Interest in identifying the small RNA repertoire present in tissues and in biofluids has grown substantially with the findings that small RNAs can serve as indicators of biological conditions and disease states. Here we describe a novel and straightforward method to clone cDNA libraries from small quantities of input RNA. This method permits the generation of cDNA libraries from sub-picogram quantities of RNA robustly, efficiently and reproducibly. We demonstrate that the method provides a significant improvement in sensitivity compared to previous cloning methods while maintaining reproducible identification of diverse small RNA species. This method should have widespread applications in a variety of contexts, including biomarker discovery from scarce samples of human tissue or body fluids. PMID:25056322

  3. Occurrence of Leptospira DNA in water and soil samples collected in eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Wjcik-Fatla, Angelina; Zaj?c, Violetta; Wasi?ski, Bernard; Sroka, Jacek; Cisak, Ewa; Sawczyn, Anna; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Leptospira is an important re-emerging zoonotic human pathogen, disseminated by sick and carrier animals, water and soil. Weather calamities, such as flooding or cyclones favour the spreading of these bacteria. To check a potential role of natural water and soil in the persistence and spread of Leptospira on the territory of eastern Poland, 40 samples of natural water and 40 samples of soil were collected from areas exposed to flooding, and 64 samples of natural water and 68 samples of soil were collected from areas not exposed to flooding. Samples of water were taken from various reservoirs (rivers, natural lakes, artificial lakes, canals, ponds, farm wells) and samples of soils were taken at the distance of 1-3 meters from the edge of the reservoirs. The samples were examined for the presence of Leptospira DNA by nested-PCR. Two out of 40 samples of water (5.0%) collected from the area exposed to flooding showed the presence of Leptospira DNA, while all 40 samples of soil from this area were negative. All samples of water and soil (64 and 68, respectively) collected from the areas not exposed to flooding were negative. No significant difference were found between the results obtained in the areas exposed and not exposed to flooding. In conclusion, these results suggest that water and soil have only limited significance in the persistence and dissemination of Leptospira in eastern Poland. PMID:25528911

  4. Horizontal transfer of short and degraded DNA has evolutionary implications for microbes and eukaryotic sexual reproduction.

    PubMed

    Overballe-Petersen, Søren; Willerslev, Eske

    2014-10-01

    Horizontal gene transfer in the form of long DNA fragments has changed our view of bacterial evolution. Recently, we discovered that such processes may also occur with the massive amounts of short and damaged DNA in the environment, and even with truly ancient DNA. Although it presently remains unclear how often it takes place in nature, horizontal gene transfer of short and damaged DNA opens up the possibility for genetic exchange across distinct species in both time and space. In this essay, we speculate on the potential evolutionary consequences of this phenomenon. We argue that it may challenge basic assumptions in evolutionary theory; that it may have distant origins in life's history; and that horizontal gene transfer should be viewed as an evolutionary strategy not only preceding but causally underpinning the evolution of sexual reproduction. PMID:25143190

  5. Horizontal transfer of short and degraded DNA has evolutionary implications for microbes and eukaryotic sexual reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Overballe-Petersen, Sren; Willerslev, Eske

    2014-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer in the form of long DNA fragments has changed our view of bacterial evolution. Recently, we discovered that such processes may also occur with the massive amounts of short and damaged DNA in the environment, and even with truly ancient DNA. Although it presently remains unclear how often it takes place in nature, horizontal gene transfer of short and damaged DNA opens up the possibility for genetic exchange across distinct species in both time and space. In this essay, we speculate on the potential evolutionary consequences of this phenomenon. We argue that it may challenge basic assumptions in evolutionary theory; that it may have distant origins in life's history; and that horizontal gene transfer should be viewed as an evolutionary strategy not only preceding but causally underpinning the evolution of sexual reproduction. PMID:25143190

  6. DNA-based determination of microbial biomass suitable for frozen and alkaline soil samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Mikhail; Blagodatskaya, Evgeniya; Kogut, Boris; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Microbial biomass is a sensitive indicator of changes due to soil management, long before other basic soil measures such as Corg or Ntot. Improvement of methods for determination of microbial biomass still remains relevant, and these methods should be correctly applicable for the soil samples being in various state. This study was designed to demonstrate the applicability of DNA-based determination of microbial biomass under conditions when the common basic approaches, namely chloroform fumigation-extraction (CFE) and substrate-induced respiration (SIR), are restricted by certain soil properties, experimental designs or research needs, e.g. in frozen, alkaline or carbonaceous soils. We compared microbial biomass determined by CFE, SIR and by DNA approaches in the range of neutral and slightly alkaline Chernozem and alkaline Calcisol of semi-arid climate. The samples of natural and agricultural ecosystems were taken throughout the soil profile from long-term static field experiments in the European part of Russia. Extraction and subsequent quantification of dsDNA revealed a strong agreement with SIR and CFE when analyzing the microbial biomass content in soils with pH below 8. The conversion factors (FDNA) from dsDNA to SIR-Cmic (5.10) and CFE-Cmic (4.41) were obtained by testing a range of the soil samples down to 1.5 m depth and indicated a good reproducibility of DNA-based estimations. In alkaline soils (pH > 8), CO2 retention due to alkaline pH and exchange with carbonates resulted in a strong underestimation of soil microbial biomass by SIR or even in the absence of any CO2 emission, especially at low absolute values of microbial biomass in subsoil. Correction of CO2 efflux by theoretical retention pH-dependent factors caused overestimation of SIR-biomass. In alkaline conditions, DNA extraction proved to be a reliable alternative for microbial biomass determination. Moreover, the DNA-based approach can serve as an excellent alternative enabling correct estimation of microbial biomass in geographically widespread soils after their freezing. The DNA-based approach can also be applied to calculate eco-physiological indexes, e.g. Cmic:Corg ratio. The DNA-Cmic revealed that although the absolute values of microbial biomass in Chernozem were expectedly higher than in Calcisol, the Cmic:Corg ratio was greater in Calcisol versus Chernozem. Therefore, Chernozems can be characterized by a low proportion of microbiologically active C in total Corg. DNA-based determination of Cmic and Cmic:Corg ratios revealed that agrogenic impact does not always lead to negative consequences for soil status and cannot be considered as a solely negative phenomenon.

  7. Detecting and quantifying lewisite degradation products in environmental samples using arsenic speciation

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, D.A.; Yaeger, J.S.; Kiely, J.T.; Crain, J.S.; Shem, L.M.; O`Neill, H.J.; Gowdy, M.J.; Besmer, M.; Mohrman, G.B.

    1995-12-31

    This report describes a unique method for identifying and quantifying lewisite degradation products using arsenic (III) and arsenic (IV) speciation in solids and in solutions. Gas chromatographic methods, as well as high-performance liquid chromatographic methods are described for separation of arsenic species. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrographic methods are presented for the detection of arsenic.

  8. Rapid multi sample DNA amplification using rotary-linear polymerase chain reaction device (PCRDisc).

    PubMed

    Sugumar, D; Kong, L X; Ismail, Asma; Ravichandran, M; Su Yin, Lee

    2012-03-01

    Multiple sample DNA amplification was done by using a novel rotary-linear motion polymerase chain reaction (PCR) device. A simple compact disc was used to create the stationary sample chambers which are individually temperature controlled. The PCR was performed by shuttling the samples to different temperature zones by using a combined rotary-linear movement of the disc. The device was successfully used to amplify up to 12 samples in less than 30?min with a sample volume of 5??l. A simple spring loaded heater mechanism was introduced to enable good thermal contact between the samples and the heaters. Each of the heater temperatures are controlled by using a simple proportional-integral-derivative pulse width modulation control system. The results show a good improvement in the amplification rate and duration of the samples. The reagent volume used was reduced to nearly 25% of that used in conventional method. PMID:22685508

  9. Rapid multi sample DNA amplification using rotary-linear polymerase chain reaction device (PCRDisc)

    PubMed Central

    Sugumar, D.; Kong, L. X.; Ismail, Asma; Ravichandran, M.; Su Yin, Lee

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sample DNA amplification was done by using a novel rotary-linear motion polymerase chain reaction (PCR) device. A simple compact disc was used to create the stationary sample chambers which are individually temperature controlled. The PCR was performed by shuttling the samples to different temperature zones by using a combined rotary-linear movement of the disc. The device was successfully used to amplify up to 12 samples in less than 30?min with a sample volume of 5??l. A simple spring loaded heater mechanism was introduced to enable good thermal contact between the samples and the heaters. Each of the heater temperatures are controlled by using a simple proportionalintegralderivative pulse width modulation control system. The results show a good improvement in the amplification rate and duration of the samples. The reagent volume used was reduced to nearly 25% of that used in conventional method. PMID:22685508

  10. Discovery of rare mutations in extensively pooled DNA samples using multiple target enrichment.

    PubMed

    Chi, Xu; Zhang, Yingchun; Xue, Zheyong; Feng, Laibao; Liu, Huaqing; Wang, Feng; Qi, Xiaoquan

    2014-08-01

    Chemical mutagenesis is routinely used to create large numbers of rare mutations in plant and animal populations, which can be subsequently subjected to selection for beneficial traits and phenotypes that enable the characterization of gene functions. Several next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based target enrichment methods have been developed for the detection of mutations in target DNA regions. However, most of these methods aim to sequence a large number of target regions from a small number of individuals. Here, we demonstrate an effective and affordable strategy for the discovery of rare mutations in a large sodium azide-induced mutant rice population (F2 ). The integration of multiplex, semi-nested PCR combined with NGS library construction allowed for the amplification of multiple target DNA fragments for sequencing. The 8נ8נ8 tridimensional DNA sample pooling strategy enabled us to obtain DNA sequences of 512 individuals while only sequencing 24 samples. A stepwise filtering procedure was then elaborated to eliminate most of the false positives expected to arise through sequencing error, and the application of a simple Student's t-test against position-prone error allowed for the discovery of 16 mutations from 36 enriched targeted DNA fragments of 1024 mutagenized rice plants, all without any false calls. PMID:24602056

  11. Methods for Integrated Air Sampling and DNA Analysis for Detection of Airborne Fungal Spores

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Roger H.; Ward, Elaine; McCartney, H. Alastair

    2001-01-01

    Integrated air sampling and PCR-based methods for detecting airborne fungal spores, using Penicillium roqueforti as a model fungus, are described. P. roqueforti spores were collected directly into Eppendorf tubes using a miniature cyclone-type air sampler. They were then suspended in 0.1% Nonidet P-40, and counted using microscopy. Serial dilutions of the spores were made. Three methods were used to produce DNA for PCR tests: adding untreated spores to PCRs, disrupting spores (fracturing of spore walls to release the contents) using Ballotini beads, and disrupting spores followed by DNA purification. Three P. roqueforti-specific assays were tested: single-step PCR, nested PCR, and PCR followed by Southern blotting and probing. Disrupting the spores was found to be essential for achieving maximum sensitivity of the assay. Adding untreated spores to the PCR did allow the detection of P. roqueforti, but this was never achieved when fewer than 1,000 spores were added to the PCR. By disrupting the spores, with or without subsequent DNA purification, it was possible to detect DNA from a single spore. When known quantities of P. roqueforti spores were added to air samples consisting of high concentrations of unidentified fungal spores, pollen, and dust, detection sensitivity was reduced. P. roqueforti DNA could not be detected using untreated or disrupted spore suspensions added to the PCRs. However, using purified DNA, it was possible to detect 10 P. roqueforti spores in a background of 4,500 other spores. For all DNA extraction methods, nested PCR was more sensitive than single-step PCR or PCR followed by Southern blotting. PMID:11375150

  12. Characterization of a 4-methylbenzoate-degrading methanogenic consortium as determined by small-subunit rDNA sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, J; Liu, W; Tseng, I; Cheng, S

    2001-01-01

    A methanogenic consortium that degrades 4-methylbenzoate (MBA) as the sole carbon and energy source was successfully enriched in an upflow anaerobic sludge bed bioreactor and studied. Electron microscopic observation showed that long rods with a distinct collar feature resembling Desulfomonile tiedjei rods were the predominant population, and that these rods formed a close spatial orientation with Methanobrevibacter-like bacteria. In addition, thin filaments and bamboo-shaped filaments that highly resembled the acetoclastic Methanosaeta were also frequently observed. A 16S rDNA clone library was constructed for the domain Bacteria, and 20 sequence types or operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were found out of 139 clones screened. Phylogenetic analysis classified these 20 nearly full-length OTUs into the delta (50.3% of total clones) and gamma (4.3%) subdivisions of the division Proteobacteria, the green non-sulfur bacteria subdivision I (7.2%), Cytophagales (7.2%), Planctomycetes (5.7%), gram-positive low G + C group (8.6%), candidate divisions OP8, OP10 and OP11 (9.3%), and a novel candidate division MBA1 (7.2%) that had an interdivisional sequence similarity less than 75%. However, only 3 OTUs had a sequence similarity higher than 90% to known isolates or environmental 16S rDNA clones, suggesting that the microbial community was diversified and largely unidentified. In particular, those 8 OTUs found in the delta-Proteobacteria were either clustered into novel groups or showed a low sequence similarity to closely related bacteria. It is highly possible that the delta-Proteobacteria were the long rods with a distinct collar feature observed microscopically, and together with the methanogens were mainly responsible for the syntrophic degradation of MBA. The unique and novel microbial populations identified explained the requirement of a long start-up period of up to 426 d for the MBA-degrading consortium. PMID:16233021

  13. Degradation of mitochondrial DNA in cryoprotectant-treated hard coral (Echinopora spp.) oocytes.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Sujune; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Spikings, Emma; Li, Jan-Jung; Lin, Chiahsin

    2015-06-01

    A critical step for successful cryopreservation is to determine the optimal cryoprotectant treatment that can provide protective effects against cryoinjury during freezing and with minimal toxicity. Most cryoprotectants have chemical and osmotic effects when used at high concentrations. Cryoprotectants can damage coral mitochondrial distributions and membrane potentials, which results in reduced ATP production. As mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encodes for components of the electron transport chain (ETC) and plays a critical role in ATP synthesis capacity, we determined the effects of cryoprotectants on mtDNA in hard coral (Echinopora spp.) oocytes using quantitative real-time PCR. Our results showed that an insult from a cryoprotectant may be compensated for by the genetic defense mechanisms of these cells. Methanol was found to have the least effect on coral oocytes with regard to their energy status. A single oocyte without cryoprotectant treatment produced an average of 4,220,645??169,990 mtDNA copies, which was greater than that in mammals. However, relatively lower mtDNA copy numbers (<2,000,000) were observed when oocytes were treated with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), propylene glycol (PG), ethylene glycol (EG), or glycerol at a concentration of 3?M for 20?min. These results provide direct evidence that hard coral (Echinopora spp.) oocytes are extremely susceptible to cryoprotectants and support the concerns with regard to the adverse effects of cryoprotectants. PMID:24460160

  14. Correcting for Sample Contamination in Genotype Calling of DNA Sequence Data

    PubMed Central

    Flickinger, Matthew; Jun, Goo; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Boehnke, Michael; Kang, Hyun Min

    2015-01-01

    DNA sample contamination is a frequent problem in DNA sequencing studies and can result in genotyping errors and reduced power for association testing. We recently described methods to identify within-species DNA sample contamination based on sequencing read data, showed that our methods can reliably detect and estimate contamination levels as low as 1%, and suggested strategies to identify and remove contaminated samples from sequencing studies. Here we propose methods to model contamination during genotype calling as an alternative to removal of contaminated samples from further analyses. We compare our contamination-adjusted calls to calls that ignore contamination and to calls based on uncontaminated data. We demonstrate that, for moderate contamination levels (5%–20%), contamination-adjusted calls eliminate 48%–77% of the genotyping errors. For lower levels of contamination, our contamination correction methods produce genotypes nearly as accurate as those based on uncontaminated data. Our contamination correction methods are useful generally, but are particularly helpful for sample contamination levels from 2% to 20%. PMID:26235984

  15. Swabs as DNA collection devices for sampling different biological materials from different substrates.

    PubMed

    Verdon, Timothy J; Mitchell, Robert J; van Oorschot, Roland A H

    2014-07-01

    Currently, there is a variety of swabs for collection of biological evidence from crime scenes, but their comparative efficiency is unknown. Here, we report the results of an investigation into the efficiency of different swab types to collect blood, saliva and touch DNA from a range of substrates. The efficiency of extracting blood and saliva from each swab type was also tested. Some swabs were significantly more effective than others for sampling biological materials from different substrates. Swabs with the highest sampling efficiency, however, often did not have the highest extraction efficiency. Observations were recorded regarding practicality of each swab in a variety of situations. Our study demonstrates that selection of sampling device impacts greatly upon successful collection and extraction of DNA. We present guidelines to assist in evaluation of swab choice. PMID:24502761

  16. Evidence for UV-B-induced DNA degradation in Euglena gracilis mediated by activation of metal-dependent nucleases.

    PubMed

    Scheuerlein, R; Treml, S; Thar, B; Tirlapur, U K; Hder, D P

    1995-12-01

    It is demonstrated that in vivo irradiation with artificial UV-B for several hours significantly reduces the amount of large DNA extractable from immobilized Euglena in comparison with non-irradiated controls. This UV-B effect can be eliminated by a drastic reduction of the divalent ion concentration in the extracellular medium, i.e. the substitution of the culture medium by Tris-buffered agarose. Moreover, in vitro degradation of large DNA is demonstrated for crude protein extracts isolated from non-irradiated or UV-B-irradiated Euglena. The nuclease activity is shown for both crude protein extracts and purified nucleases; in both cases, two protein bands possessing nuclease activity are obtained with apparent molecular masses of 26 and 40 kDa and their activity is inhibited by specific nuclease inhibitors, i.e. aurintricarboxylic acid and ATP, applied at a concentration as low as 10(-8) M. Moreover, in vitro, nuclease activity clearly depends on the pH, with an optimum around pH 4.5, and on the ion composition of the extracellular medium. A strong stimulating effect is shown for Ca2+ with an optimum around 10(-4) M; this effect is potentiated by Zn2+ and Mn2+, but strongly counteracted by Mg2+ and the calmodulin inhibitors trifluoperazine and N- (6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulphonamide (W5). These results favour the concept which explains the lethal UV-B effect on Euglena as arising from a change in the general metabolic state of the cell and an activation of a DNA-degrading system, i.e. activation of metal-dependent nucleases (U.K. Tirlapur, D.-P. Hder and R. Scheuerlein, UV-B mediated damage in the photosynthetic flagellate, Euglena gracilis, studied by image analysis, Beitr. Biol. Pflanzen, 67 (1992) 305-317). PMID:8583279

  17. A papillomavirus DNA from a cervical carcinoma and its prevalence in cancer biopsy samples from different geographic regions.

    PubMed Central

    Dürst, M; Gissmann, L; Ikenberg, H; zur Hausen, H

    1983-01-01

    DNA from one biopsy sample of invasive cancer of the cervix contained sequences hybridizing with human papillomavirus (HPV) type 11 DNA only under nonstringent conditions. This DNA was molecularly cloned in lambda phage. Under stringent conditions of hybridization it cross-hybridized to a minor extent (less than 0.1%) with HPV types 10, 14, and 15 and showed no homology with DNA of other human HPV types. We therefore propose to designate it tentatively as HPV 16. HPV 16 DNA was used as a probe to test additional cancer biopsy samples from cervical, vulval, and penile cancer, as well as benign genital warts (condylomata acuminata) and cervical dysplasias for the presence of homologous sequences. In 61.1% (11/18) of cervical cancer samples from German patients sequences were found hybridizing with HPV 16 DNA under conditions of high stringency. In contrast, only 34.8% (8/23) of cancer biopsy samples from Kenya and Brazil revealed this DNA. Vulval and penile cancer biopsy samples hybridized to 28.6% (2/7) or 25% (1/4), respectively. Only 2 out of 33 condylomata acuminata contained HPV 16 DNA. Both positive tumors harbored in addition HPV 6 or HPV 11 DNA. The data thus indicate that HPV 16 DNA prevails in malignant tumors, rendering an accidental contamination with papillomavirus DNA from adjacent papillomas rather unlikely. The rare presence in benign genital papillomas in addition to common genital papillomaviruses suggests a dependence of HPV 16 replication on helper virus. Images PMID:6304740

  18. Degradation of vanillic acid and production of guaiacol by microorganisms isolated from cork samples.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Rodríguez, María Luisa; Belloch, Carmela; Villa, Mercedes; Uruburu, Federico; Larriba, Germán; Coque, Juan José R

    2003-03-14

    The presence of guaiacol in cork stoppers is responsible for some cases of cork taint causing unpleasant alterations to wine. We have performed a characterization of the cork-associated microbiota by isolating 55 different microorganisms: eight yeast, 14 filamentous fungi or molds, 13 actinomycetes and 20 non-filamentous bacteria. A screening for degradation of vanillic acid and guaiacol production showed that none of the filamentous fungi could achieve any of these processes. By contrast, five of the eight yeast strains isolated were able to degrade vanillic acid, although it was not converted to guaiacol. Guaiacol production was only detected in four bacterial strains: one isolate of Bacillus subtilis and three actinomycetes, Streptomyces sp. A3, Streptomyces sp. A5 and Streptomyces sp. A13, were able to accumulate this compound in both liquid media and cultures over cork. These results suggest that guaiacol-mediated cork taint should be attributed to the degradative action of vanillic acid by bacterial strains growing on cork. PMID:12644227

  19. IREN, a novel EF-hand motif-containing nuclease, functions in the degradation of nuclear DNA during the hypersensitive response cell death in rice.

    PubMed

    Ootsubo, Yuka; Hibino, Takanori; Wakazono, Takahito; Mukai, Yukio; Che, Fang-Sik

    2016-04-01

    The hypersensitive response (HR), a type of programmed cell death that is accompanied by DNA degradation and loss of plasma membrane integrity, is a common feature of plant immune responses. We previously reported that transcription of IREN which encodes a novel EF-hand containing plant nuclease is controlled by OsNAC4, a key positive regulator of HR cell death. Transient overexpression of IREN in rice protoplasts also led to rapid DNA fragmentation, while suppression of IREN using RNA interference showed remarkable decrease of DNA fragmentation during HR cell death. Maximum DNA degradation associated with the recombinant IREN was observed in the presence of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) or Ca(2+) and Mn(2+). Interestingly, DNA degradation mediated by the recombinant IREN was completely abolished by Zn(2+), even when Ca(2+), Mg(2+), or Mn(2+) were present in the reaction buffer. These data indicate that IREN functions in the degradation of nuclear DNA during HR cell death. PMID:26766411

  20. CDC-48/p97 Coordinates CDT-1 Degradation with GINS Chromatin Dissociation to Ensure Faithful DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Andr; Orth, Michael; Pirson, Paul A.; Sonneville, Remi; Blow, J. Julian; Gartner, Anton; Stemmann, Olaf; Hoppe, Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Faithful transmission of genomic information requires tight spatiotemporal regulation of DNA replication factors. In the licensing step of DNA replication CDT-1 is loaded onto chromatin to subsequently promote the recruitment of additional replication factors including CDC-45 and GINS. During the elongation step the CDC-45/GINS complex moves with the replication fork, however it is largely unknown how its chromatin association is regulated. Here, we show that the chaperone-like ATPase CDC-48/p97 coordinates degradation of CDT-1 with release of the CDC-45/GINS complex. C. elegans embryos lacking CDC-48 or its cofactors UFD-1/NPL-4 accumulate CDT-1 on mitotic chromatin, indicating a critical role of CDC-48 in CDT-1 turnover. Strikingly, CDC-48UFD-1/NPL-4 deficient embryos show persistent chromatin association of CDC-45/GINS, which is a consequence of CDT-1 stabilization. Moreover, our data confirmed a similar regulation in Xenopus egg extracts, emphasizing a conserved coordination of licensing and elongation events during eukaryotic DNA replication by CDC-48/p97. PMID:21981920

  1. Assessment of the quality and quantity of genomic DNA recovered from canine blood samples by three different extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Clements, Dylan N; Wood, Shona; Carter, Stuart D; Ollier, William E R

    2008-08-01

    The ideal method for genomic DNA (gDNA) extraction should recover high quantities of pure, integral gDNA from the original sample source with minimal co-extraction of inhibitors of downstream processes. Canine ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) treated and clotted blood samples were extracted by three different methods (a silica column method, a phenol-chloroform method and a modified salt precipitation method). Phenol-chloroform and modified salt precipitation based extractions demonstrated similar relative recovery of gDNA with EDTA preserved blood, but were less efficient at recovering gDNA from clotted blood. Spectrophotometer measurement of phenol-chloroform based extractions tended to overestimate the quantity of gDNA recovered from extractions, and was associated with the greater co-extraction of PCR inhibitors. The silica column method recovered gDNA with equal efficiency, purity and integrity irrespective of the sample type or method of quantification. PMID:18031774

  2. I Environmental DNA sampling is more sensitive than a traditional survey technique for detecting an aquatic invader.

    PubMed

    Smart, Adam S; Tingley, Reid; Weeks, Andrew R; van Rooyen, Anthony R; McCarthy, Michael A

    2015-10-01

    Effective management of alien species requires detecting populations in the early stages of invasion. Environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling can detect aquatic species at relatively low densities, but few studies have directly compared detection probabilities of eDNA sampling with those of traditional sampling methods. We compare the ability of a traditional sampling technique (bottle trapping) and eDNA to detect a recently established invader, the smooth newt Lissotriton vulgaris vulgaris, at seven field sites in Melbourne, Australia. Over a four-month period, per-trap detection probabilities ranged from 0.01 to 0.26 among sites where L. v. vulgaris was detected, whereas per-sample eDNA estimates were much higher (0.29-1.0). Detection probabilities of both methods varied temporally (across days and months), but temporal variation appeared to be uncorrelated between methods. Only estimates of spatial variation were strongly correlated across the two sampling techniques. Environmental variables (water depth, rainfall, ambient temperature) were not clearly correlated with detection probabilities estimated via trapping, whereas eDNA detection probabilities were negatively correlated with water depth, possibly reflecting higher eDNA concentrations at lower water levels. Our findings demonstrate that eDNA sampling can be an order of magnitude more sensitive than traditional methods, and illustrate that traditional- and eDNA-based surveys can provide independent information on species distributions when occupancy surveys are conducted over short timescales. PMID:26591459

  3. DNA microarray-based detection and identification of fungal pathogens in clinical samples from neutropenic patients.

    PubMed

    Spiess, Birgit; Seifarth, Wolfgang; Hummel, Margit; Frank, Oliver; Fabarius, Alice; Zheng, Chun; Mrz, Handan; Hehlmann, Rdiger; Buchheidt, Dieter

    2007-11-01

    The increasing incidence of invasive fungal infections (IFI) in immunocompromised patients emphasizes the need to improve diagnostic tools. We established a DNA microarray to detect and identify DNA from 14 fungal pathogens (Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus terreus, Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis, Candida glabrata, Candida lusitaniae, Candida tropicalis, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Mucor racemosus, Rhizopus microsporus, Scedosporium prolificans, and Trichosporon asahii) in blood, bronchoalveolar lavage, and tissue samples from high-risk patients. The assay combines multiplex PCR and consecutive DNA microarray hybridization. PCR primers and capture probes were derived from unique sequences of the 18S, 5.8S, and internal transcribed spacer 1 regions of the fungal rRNA genes. Hybridization with genomic DNA of fungal species resulted in species-specific hybridization patterns. By testing clinical samples from 46 neutropenic patients with proven, probable, or possible IFI or without IFI, we detected A. flavus, A. fumigatus, C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, F. oxysporum, F. solani, R. microsporus, S. prolificans, and T. asahii. For 22 of 22 patients (5 without IFI and 17 with possible IFI), negative diagnostic results corresponded with negative microarray data. For 11 patients with proven (n = 4), probable (n = 2), and possible IFI (n = 5), data for results positive by microarray were validated by other diagnostic findings. For 11 of 11 patients with possible IFI, the microarray results provided additional information. For two patients with proven and probable invasive aspergillosis, respectively, microarray results were negative. The assay detected genomic DNA from 14 fungal pathogens from the clinical samples, pointing to a high significance for improving the diagnosis of IFI. PMID:17715373

  4. A simple method using PyrosequencingTM to identify de novo SNPs in pooled DNA samples

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yeong-Shin; Liu, Fu-Guo Robert; Wang, Tzi-Yuan; Pan, Cheng-Tsung; Chang, Wei-Ting; Li, Wen-Hsiung

    2011-01-01

    A practical way to reduce the cost of surveying single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in a large number of individuals is to measure the allele frequencies in pooled DNA samples. PyrosequencingTM has been frequently used for this application because signals generated by this approach are proportional to the amount of DNA templates. The PyrosequencingTM pyrogram is determined by the dispensing order of dNTPs, which is usually designed based on the known SNPs to avoid asynchronistic extensions of heterozygous sequences. Therefore, utilizing the pyrogram signals to identify de novo SNPs in DNA pools has never been undertook. Here, in this study we developed an algorithm to address this issue. With the sequence and pyrogram of the wild-type allele known in advance, we could use the pyrogram obtained from the pooled DNA sample to predict the sequence of the unknown mutant allele (de novo SNP) and estimate its allele frequency. Both computational simulation and experimental PyrosequencingTM test results suggested that our method performs well. The web interface of our method is available at http://life.nctu.edu.tw/∼yslin/PSM/. PMID:21131285

  5. DNA recognition by peptide nucleic acid-modified PCFs: from models to real samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selleri, S.; Coscelli, E.; Poli, F.; Passaro, D.; Cucinotta, A.; Lantano, C.; Corradini, R.; Marchelli, R.

    2010-04-01

    The increased concern, emerged in the last few years, on food products safety has stimulated the research on new techniques for traceability of raw food materials. DNA analysis is one of the most powerful tools for the certification of food quality, and it is presently performed through the polymerase chain reaction technique. Photonic crystal fibers, due to the presence of an array of air holes running along their length, can be exploited for performing DNA recognition by derivatizing hole surfaces and checking hybridization of complementary nucledotide chains in the sample. In this paper the application of a suspended core photonic crystal fiber in the recognition of DNA sequences is discussed. The fiber is characterized in terms of electromagnetic properties by means of a full-vector modal solver based on the finite element method. Then, the performances of the fiber in the recognition of mall synthetic oligonucleotides are discussed, together with a test of the possibility to extend this recognition to samples of DNA of applicative interest, such as olive leaves.

  6. Autosomal and Y-STR analysis of degraded DNA from the 120-year-old skeletal remains of Ezekiel Harper.

    PubMed

    Ambers, Angie; Gill-King, Harrell; Dirkmaat, Dennis; Benjamin, Robert; King, Jonathan; Budowle, Bruce

    2014-03-01

    The 120-year-old skeletal remains of Confederate Civil War soldier Captain Ezekiel "Zeke" Harper were exhumed by court order in January 2011 for DNA analysis. The goal of the DNA testing was to support or refute whether Captain Harper had fathered a son (Earl J. Maxwell) with his Native American maid prior to his murder in 1892. Bones with adequate structural integrity (left tibia, right tibia, right femur, mandible, four teeth) were retrieved from the burial site and sent to the Institute of Applied Genetics in Fort Worth, Texas for analysis. Given the age and condition of the remains, three different extraction methods were used to maximize the probability of DNA recovery. The majority of the DNA isolates from over fifty separate bone sections yielded partial autosomal STR genotypes and partial Y-STR haplotypes. After comparing the partial results for concordance, consensus profiles were generated for comparison to reference samples from alleged family members. Considering the genetic recombination that occurs in autosomal DNA over the generations within a family, Y-STR analysis was determined to be the most appropriate and informative approach for determining potential kinship. Two of Earl J. Maxwell's grandsons submitted buccal samples for comparison. The Y-STR haplotypes obtained from both of these reference samples were identical to each other and to the alleles in Ezekiel Harper's consensus profile at all 17 loci examined. This Y-STR haplotype was not found in either of two major Y-STR population databases (U.S. Y-STR database and YHRD). The fact that the Y-STR haplotype obtained from Ezekiel's skeletal remains and Earl's grandsons is not found in either population database demonstrates its rarity and further supports a paternal lineage relationship among them. Results of the genetic analyses are consistent with the hypothesis that Earl J. Maxwell is the son of Ezekiel Harper. PMID:24528577

  7. Characterization of Markers of the Progression of Human Parvovirus B19 Infection in Virus DNA-Positive Plasma Samples

    PubMed Central

    Bonjoch, Xavier; Obispo, Francesc; Alemany, Cristina; Pacha, Ana; Rodrguez, Esteban; Xair, Dolors

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Accurate characterization of the infection stage in parvovirus B19(B19V)-positive plasma donations would help establish the donation deferral period to contribute to a safe fractionation pool of plasma. Methods Viral DNA load of 74 B19V DNA-positive plasma samples from whole blood donations was determined by titration using nucleic acid testing. Markers of cellular (neopterin) and humoral (B19V-specific IgM and IgG) immune response were determined by ELISA in 32 B19V DNA-positive samples and in 13 B19V DNA-negative samples. The infection progression profile was estimated according to B19V DNA load and the presence of immune response markers. Results B19V DNA load in the 74 samples was 106-1013 IU/ml. The distribution of 14 out of 32 selected B19V DNA-positive samples plus 2 B19V DNA-negative samples with no immune response marker followed along an upward curve according to B19V DNA load. After the peak, the distribution of 18 immune marker-positive samples followed along a downward curve according to their B19V DNA load and was grouped as follows: neopterin (n = 4), neopterin+ IgM (n = 8), neopterin + IgM + IgG (n = 3), IgM + IgG (n = 2), IgM (n = 1). There were 11 B19V DNA-negative IgG-positive samples. Conclusion This study of B19V-DNA load and levels of neopterin, IgM, and IgG allows for reliable characterization and distribution into the different stages of B19V infection. PMID:26557815

  8. Structural and biochemical characterization of CRN-5 and Rrp46: An exosome component participating in apoptotic DNA degradation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Che-Chuan; Wang, Yi-Ting; Hsiao, Yu-Yuan; Doudeva, Lyudmila G.; Kuo, Pan-Hsien; Chow, Sih Yao; Yuan, Hanna S.

    2010-01-01

    Rrp46 was first identified as a protein component of the eukaryotic exosome, a protein complex involved in 3? processing of RNA during RNA turnover and surveillance. The Rrp46 homolog, CRN-5, was subsequently characterized as a cell death-related nuclease, participating in DNA fragmentation during apoptosis in Caenorhabditis elegans. Here we report the crystal structures of CRN-5 and rice Rrp46 (oRrp46) at a resolution of 3.9 and 2.0 , respectively. We found that recombinant human Rrp46 (hRrp46), oRrp46, and CRN-5 are homodimers, and that endogenous hRrp46 and oRrp46 also form homodimers in a cellular environment, in addition to their association with a protein complex. Dimeric oRrp46 had both phosphorolytic RNase and hydrolytic DNase activities, whereas hRrp46 and CRN-5 bound to DNA without detectable nuclease activity. Site-directed mutagenesis in oRrp46 abolished either its DNase (E160Q) or RNase (K75E/Q76E) activities, confirming the critical importance of these residues in catalysis or substrate binding. Moreover, CRN-5 directly interacted with the apoptotic nuclease CRN-4 and enhanced the DNase activity of CRN-4, suggesting that CRN-5 cooperates with CRN-4 in apoptotic DNA degradation. Taken together all these results strongly suggest that Rrp46 forms a homodimer separately from exosome complexes and, depending on species, is either a structural or catalytic component of the machinery that cleaves DNA during apoptosis. PMID:20660080

  9. Protein Quantity on the Air-Solid Interface Determines Degradation Rates of Human Growth Hormone in Lyophilized Samples

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yemin; Grobelny, Pawel; von Allmen, Alexander; Knudson, Korben; Pikal, Michael; Carpenter, John F.; Randolph, Theodore W.

    2014-01-01

    rhGH was lyophilized with various glass-forming stabilizers, employing cycles that incorporated various freezing and annealing procedures to manipulate glass formation kinetics, associated relaxation processes and glass specific surface areas (SSA’s). The secondary structure in the cake was monitored by IR and in reconstituted samples by CD. The rhGH concentrations on the surface of lyophilized powders were determined from ESCA. Tg, SSA’s and water contents were determined immediately after lyophilization. Lyophilized samples were incubated at 323 K for 16 weeks, and the resulting extents of rhGH aggregation, oxidation and deamidation were determined after rehydration. Water contents and Tg were independent of lyophilization process parameters. Compared to samples lyophilized after rapid freezing, rhGH in samples that had been annealed in frozen solids prior to drying, or annealed in glassy solids after secondary drying retained more native-like protein secondary structure, had a smaller fraction of the protein on the surface of the cake and exhibited lower levels of degradation during incubation. A simple kinetic model suggested that the differences in the extent of rhGH degradation during storage in the dried state between different formulations and processing methods could largely be ascribed to the associated levels of rhGH at the solid-air interface after lyophilization. PMID:24623139

  10. Bisulfite-Based DNA Methylation Analysis from Recent and Archived Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin Embedded Colorectal Tissue Samples.

    PubMed

    Kalmr, Alexandra; Pterfia, Blint; Hollsi, Pter; Wichmann, Barnabs; Bodor, Andrs; Patai, rpd V; Schller, Andrea; Krencs, Tibor; Tulassay, Zsolt; Molnr, Bla

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to test the applicability of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples for gene specific DNA methylation analysis after using two commercially available DNA isolation kits. Genomic DNA was isolated from 5 colorectal adenocarcinomas and 5 normal adjacent tissues from "recent", collected within 6 months, and "archived", collected more than 5 years ago, FFPE tissues using either High Pure FFPET DNA Isolation kit or QIAamp DNA FFPE Tissue kit. DNA methylation analysis of MAL, SFRP1 and SFRP2 genes, known to be hypermethylated in CRC, was performed using methylation-sensitive high resolution melting (MS-HRM) analysis and sequencing. QIAamp (Q) method resulted in slightly higher recovery in archived (HP: 1.22 3.18 ?g DNA; Q: 3.00 4.04 ?g DNA) and significantly (p < 0.05) higher recovery in recent samples compared to High Pure method (HP) (HP: 4.10 2.91 ?g DNA; Q: 11.51 7.50 ?g DNA). Both OD260/280 and OD260/230 ratios were lower, but still high in the High Pure isolated archived and recent samples compared to those isolated with QIAamp. Identical DNA methylation patterns were detected for all 3 genes tested by MS-HRM with both isolation kits in the recent group. However, despite of higher DNA recovery in QIAamp slightly more reproducible methylation results were obtained from High Pure isolated archived samples. Sequencing confirmed DNA hypermethylation in CRCs. In conclusion, reproducible DNA methylation patterns were obtained from recent samples using both isolation kits. However, long term storage may affect the reliability of the results leading to moderate differences between the efficiency of isolation kits. PMID:25991403

  11. Flow Cytometry Analysis of Changes in the DNA Content of the Polychlorinated Biphenyl Degrader Comamonas testosteroni TK102: Effect of Metabolites on Cell-Cell Separation

    PubMed Central

    Hiraoka, Yoshinori; Yamada, Tohru; Tone, Keiko; Futaesaku, Yutaka; Kimbara, Kazuhide

    2002-01-01

    Flow cytometry was used to monitor changes in the DNA content of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-degrading bacterium Comamonas testosteroni TK102 during growth in the presence or absence of PCBs. In culture medium without PCBs, the majority of stationary-phase cells contained a single chromosome. In the presence of PCBs, the percentage of cells containing two chromosomes increased from 12% to approximately 50%. In contrast, addition of PCBs did not change the DNA contents of three species that are unable to degrade PCBs. In addition, highly chlorinated PCBs that are not degraded by TK102 did not result in a change in the DNA content. These results suggest that PCBs did not affect the DNA content of the cells directly; rather, the intermediate metabolites resulting from the degradation of PCBs caused the increase in DNA content. To study the effect of intermediate metabolites on the DNA content of the cells, four bph genes, bphA1, bphB, bphC, and bphD, were disrupted by gene replacement. The resulting mutant strains accumulated intermediate metabolites when they were grown in the presence of PCBs or biphenyl (BP). When the bphB gene was disrupted, the percentage of cells containing two chromosomes increased in cultures grown with PCBs or BP. When grown with BP, cultures of this mutant accumulated two intermediate metabolites, 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-OHBP) and 3-OHBP. Addition of 2- or 3-OHBP to a wild-type TK102 and non-PCB-degrading species culture also resulted in an increase in the percentage of cells containing two chromosomes. Electron microscopy revealed that cell-cell separation was inhibited in this culture. This is the first report that hydroxy-BPs can inhibit bacterial cell separation while allowing continued DNA replication. PMID:12324361

  12. Vertebrate DNA in Fecal Samples from Bonobos and Gorillas: Evidence for Meat Consumption or Artefact?

    PubMed Central

    Hofreiter, Michael; Kreuz, Eva; Eriksson, Jonas; Schubert, Grit; Hohmann, Gottfried

    2010-01-01

    Background Deciphering the behavioral repertoire of great apes is a challenge for several reasons. First, due to their elusive behavior in dense forest environments, great ape populations are often difficult to observe. Second, members of the genus Pan are known to display a great variety in their behavioral repertoire; thus, observations from one population are not necessarily representative for other populations. For example, bonobos (Pan paniscus) are generally believed to consume almost no vertebrate prey. However, recent observations show that at least some bonobo populations may consume vertebrate prey more commonly than previously believed. We investigated the extent of their meat consumption using PCR amplification of vertebrate mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) segments from DNA extracted from bonobo feces. As a control we also attempted PCR amplifications from gorilla feces, a species assumed to be strictly herbivorous. Principal Findings We found evidence for consumption of a variety of mammalian species in about 16% of the samples investigated. Moreover, 40% of the positive DNA amplifications originated from arboreal monkeys. However, we also found duiker and monkey mtDNA in the gorilla feces, albeit in somewhat lower percentages. Notably, the DNA sequences isolated from the two ape species fit best to the species living in the respective regions. This result suggests that the sequences are of regional origin and do not represent laboratory contaminants. Conclusions Our results allow at least three possible and mutually not exclusive conclusions. First, all results may represent contamination of the feces by vertebrate DNA from the local environment. Thus, studies investigating a species' diet from feces DNA may be unreliable due to the low copy number of DNA originating from diet items. Second, there is some inherent difference between the bonobo and gorilla feces, with only the later ones being contaminated. Third, similar to bonobos, for which the consumption of monkeys has only recently been documented, the gorilla population investigated (for which very little observational data are as yet available) may occasionally consume small vertebrates. Although the last explanation is speculative, it should not be discarded a-priori given that observational studies continue to unravel new behaviors in great ape species. PMID:20195539

  13. Release of Free DNA by Membrane-Impaired Bacterial Aerosols Due to Aerosolization and Air Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Huajun; Han, Taewon; Fennell, Donna E.

    2013-01-01

    We report here that stress experienced by bacteria due to aerosolization and air sampling can result in severe membrane impairment, leading to the release of DNA as free molecules. Escherichia coli and Bacillus atrophaeus bacteria were aerosolized and then either collected directly into liquid or collected using other collection media and then transferred into liquid. The amount of DNA released was quantified as the cell membrane damage index (ID), i.e., the number of 16S rRNA gene copies in the supernatant liquid relative to the total number in the bioaerosol sample. During aerosolization by a Collison nebulizer, the ID of E. coli and B. atrophaeus in the nebulizer suspension gradually increased during 60 min of continuous aerosolization. We found that the ID of bacteria during aerosolization was statistically significantly affected by the material of the Collison jar (glass > polycarbonate; P < 0.001) and by the bacterial species (E. coli > B. atrophaeus; P < 0.001). When E. coli was collected for 5 min by filtration, impaction, and impingement, its ID values were within the following ranges: 0.051 to 0.085, 0.16 to 0.37, and 0.068 to 0.23, respectively; when it was collected by electrostatic precipitation, the ID values (0.011 to 0.034) were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those with other sampling methods. Air samples collected inside an equine facility for 2 h by filtration and impingement exhibited ID values in the range of 0.30 to 0.54. The data indicate that the amount of cell damage during bioaerosol sampling and the resulting release of DNA can be substantial and that this should be taken into account when analyzing bioaerosol samples. PMID:24096426

  14. Simplified method for DNA and protein staining of human hematopoietic cell samples. [Cell flow systems

    SciTech Connect

    Crissman, H.A.; Egmond, J.V.; Holdrinet, R.S.; Pennings, A.; Haanen, C.

    1981-01-01

    A rapid reproducible method yielding high resolution analysis of DNA and protein in human hematopoietic cell samples has been developed by modification of the propidium iodide and fluorescein isothiocyanate procedure. Cell staining involves sequential addition of each reagent (RNase, fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide) to ethanol-fixed cells and requires no centrifugation steps. Stained cells are analyzed in the reagent solutions. Analysis of bone marrow samples from multiple myeloma patients showed mixed normal and aneuploid populations with a major portion of the aneuploid cells having a significantly higher protein content. This approach permitted differential cell cycle analysis of normal and the aneuploid populations.

  15. Nanoparticle sensor for label free detection of swine DNA in mixed biological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, M. E.; Hashim, U.; Mustafa, S.; Che Man, Y. B.; Yusop, M. H. M.; Bari, M. F.; Islam, Kh N.; Hasan, M. F.

    2011-05-01

    We used 40 ± 5 nm gold nanoparticles (GNPs) as colorimetric sensor to visually detect swine-specific conserved sequence and nucleotide mismatch in PCR-amplified and non-amplified mitochondrial DNA mixtures to authenticate species. Colloidal GNPs changed color from pinkish-red to gray-purple in 2 mM PBS. Visually observed results were clearly reflected by the dramatic reduction of surface plasmon resonance peak at 530 nm and the appearance of new features in the 620-800 nm regions in their absorption spectra. The particles were stabilized against salt-induced aggregation upon the adsorption of single-stranded DNA. The PCR products, without any additional processing, were hybridized with a 17-base probe prior to exposure to GNPs. At a critical annealing temperature (55 °C) that differentiated matched and mismatched base pairing, the probe was hybridized to pig PCR product and dehybridized from the deer product. The dehybridized probe stuck to GNPs to prevent them from salt-induced aggregation and retained their characteristic red color. Hybridization of a 27-nucleotide probe to swine mitochondrial DNA identified them in pork-venison, pork-shad and venison-shad binary admixtures, eliminating the need of PCR amplification. Thus the assay was applied to authenticate species both in PCR-amplified and non-amplified heterogeneous biological samples. The results were determined visually and validated by absorption spectroscopy. The entire assay (hybridization plus visual detection) was performed in less than 10 min. The LOD (for genomic DNA) of the assay was 6 µg ml - 1 swine DNA in mixed meat samples. We believe the assay can be applied for species assignment in food analysis, mismatch detection in genetic screening and homology studies between closely related species.

  16. Optical effects module. [housing instruments used to measure degradation of optical samples from contamination during orbital operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The possible degradation of optical samples exposed to the effluent gases and particulate matter emanating from the payload of the space transportation system during orbital operations may be determined by measuring two optical parameters for five samples exposed to this environment, namely transmittance and diffuse reflectance. Any changes detected in these parameters as a function of time during the mission are then attributable to surface contamination or to increased material absorption. These basic functions are attained in the optical effects module by virtue of the following subsystems which are described: module enclosure; light source with collimator and modulator; sample wheel with holders and rotary drive; photomultipliers for radiation detection; processing and sequencing electronic circuitry; and power conditioning interfaces. The functions of these subsystems are reviewed and specified.

  17. To Clone or Not To Clone: Method Analysis for Retrieving Consensus Sequences In Ancient DNA Samples

    PubMed Central

    Winters, Misa; Barta, Jodi Lynn; Monroe, Cara; Kemp, Brian M.

    2011-01-01

    The challenges associated with the retrieval and authentication of ancient DNA (aDNA) evidence are principally due to post-mortem damage which makes ancient samples particularly prone to contamination from “modern” DNA sources. The necessity for authentication of results has led many aDNA researchers to adopt methods considered to be “gold standards” in the field, including cloning aDNA amplicons as opposed to directly sequencing them. However, no standardized protocol has emerged regarding the necessary number of clones to sequence, how a consensus sequence is most appropriately derived, or how results should be reported in the literature. In addition, there has been no systematic demonstration of the degree to which direct sequences are affected by damage or whether direct sequencing would provide disparate results from a consensus of clones. To address this issue, a comparative study was designed to examine both cloned and direct sequences amplified from ∼3,500 year-old ancient northern fur seal DNA extracts. Majority rules and the Consensus Confidence Program were used to generate consensus sequences for each individual from the cloned sequences, which exhibited damage at 31 of 139 base pairs across all clones. In no instance did the consensus of clones differ from the direct sequence. This study demonstrates that, when appropriate, cloning need not be the default method, but instead, should be used as a measure of authentication on a case-by-case basis, especially when this practice adds time and cost to studies where it may be superfluous. PMID:21738625

  18. Evaluation of Sample Stability and Automated DNA Extraction for Fetal Sex Determination Using Cell-Free Fetal DNA in Maternal Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Ordoez, Elena; Rueda, Laura; Caadas, M. Paz; Fuster, Carme; Cirigliano, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The detection of paternally inherited sequences in maternal plasma, such as the SRY gene for fetal sexing or RHD for fetal blood group genotyping, is becoming part of daily routine in diagnostic laboratories. Due to the low percentage of fetal DNA, it is crucial to ensure sample stability and the efficiency of DNA extraction. We evaluated blood stability at 4C for at least 24 hours and automated DNA extraction, for fetal sex determination in maternal plasma. Methods. A total of 158 blood samples were collected, using EDTA-K tubes, from women in their 1st trimester of pregnancy. Samples were kept at 4C for at least 24 hours before processing. An automated DNA extraction was evaluated, and its efficiency was compared with a standard manual procedure. The SRY marker was used to quantify cfDNA by real-time PCR. Results. Although lower cfDNA amounts were obtained by automated DNA extraction (mean 107,35?GE/mL versus 259,43?GE/mL), the SRY sequence was successfully detected in all 108 samples from pregnancies with male fetuses. Conclusion. We successfully evaluated the suitability of standard blood tubes for the collection of maternal blood and assessed samples to be suitable for analysis at least 24 hours later. This would allow shipping to a central reference laboratory almost from anywhere in Europe. PMID:24222898

  19. WIP1, a homeostatic regulator of the DNA damage response, is targeted by HIPK2 for phosphorylation and degradation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong Wook; Na, Wooju; Kabir, Mohammad Humayun; Yi, Eunbi; Kwon, Seonjeong; Yeom, Jeonghun; Ahn, Jang-Won; Choi, Hee-Hyun; Lee, Youngha; Seo, Kyoung Wan; Shin, Min Kyoo; Park, Se-Ho; Yoo, Hae Yong; Isono, Kyo-Ichi; Koseki, Haruhiko; Kim, Seong-Tae; Lee, Cheolju; Kwon, Yunhee Kim; Choi, Cheol Yong

    2013-08-01

    WIP1 (wild-type p53-induced phosphatase 1) functions as a homeostatic regulator of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-mediated signaling pathway in response to ionizing radiation (IR). Here we identify homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) as a protein kinase that targets WIP1 for phosphorylation and proteasomal degradation. In unstressed cells, WIP1 is constitutively phosphorylated by HIPK2 and maintained at a low level by proteasomal degradation. In response to IR, ATM-dependent AMPK?2-mediated HIPK2 phosphorylation promotes inhibition of WIP1 phosphorylation through dissociation of WIP1 from HIPK2, followed by stabilization of WIP1 for termination of the ATM-mediated double-strand break (DSB) signaling cascade. Notably, HIPK2 depletion impairs IR-induced ?-H2AX foci formation, cell-cycle checkpoint activation, and DNA repair signaling, and the survival rate of hipk2+/- mice upon ?-irradiation is markedly reduced compared to wild-type mice. Taken together, HIPK2 plays a critical role in the initiation of DSB repair signaling by controlling WIP1 levels in response to IR. PMID:23871434

  20. Bacteria capable of degrading anthracene, phenanthrene, and fluoranthene as revealed by DNA based stable-isotope probing in a forest soil.

    PubMed

    Song, Mengke; Jiang, Longfei; Zhang, Dayi; Luo, Chunling; Wang, Yan; Yu, Zhiqiang; Yin, Hua; Zhang, Gan

    2016-05-01

    Information on microorganisms possessing the ability to metabolize different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in complex environments helps in understanding PAHs behavior in natural environment and developing bioremediation strategies. In the present study, stable-isotope probing (SIP) was applied to investigate degraders of PAHs in a forest soil with the addition of individually (13)C-labeled phenanthrene, anthracene, and fluoranthene. Three distinct phylotypes were identified as the active phenanthrene-, anthracene- and fluoranthene-degrading bacteria. The putative phenanthrene degraders were classified as belonging to the genus Sphingomona. For anthracene, bacteria of the genus Rhodanobacter were the putative degraders, and in the microcosm amended with fluoranthene, the putative degraders were identified as belonging to the phylum Acidobacteria. Our results from DNA-SIP are the first to directly link Rhodanobacter- and Acidobacteria-related bacteria with anthracene and fluoranthene degradation, respectively. The results also illustrate the specificity and diversity of three- and four-ring PAHs degraders in forest soil, contributes to our understanding on natural PAHs biodegradation processes, and also proves the feasibility and practicality of DNA-based SIP for linking functions with identity especially uncultured microorganisms in complex microbial biota. PMID:26808242

  1. Detection of pyrethroid pesticides and their environmental degradation products in duplicate diet samples

    EPA Science Inventory

    The abstract is for an oral presentation at the Asilomar Conference on Mass Spectrometry: Mass Spectrometry in Environmental Chemistry, Toxicology, and Health. It describes analytical method development and sample results for determination of pyrethroid pesticides and environme...

  2. Protocols for metagenomic DNA extraction and Illumina amplicon library preparation for faecal and swab samples.

    PubMed

    Vo, A-T E; Jedlicka, J A

    2014-11-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has extraordinarily enhanced the scope of research in the life sciences. To broaden the application of NGS to systems that were previously difficult to study, we present protocols for processing faecal and swab samples into amplicon libraries amenable to Illumina sequencing. We developed and tested a novel metagenomic DNA extraction approach using solid phase reversible immobilization (SPRI) beads on Western Bluebird (Sialia mexicana) samples stored in RNAlater. Compared with the MO BIO PowerSoil Kit, the current standard for the Human and Earth Microbiome Projects, the SPRI-based method produced comparable 16S rRNA gene PCR amplification from faecal extractions but significantly greater DNA quality, quantity and PCR success for both cloacal and oral swab samples. We furthermore modified published protocols for preparing highly multiplexed Illumina libraries with minimal sample loss and without post-adapter ligation amplification. Our library preparation protocol was successfully validated on three sets of heterogeneous amplicons (16S rRNA gene amplicons from SPRI and PowerSoil extractions as well as control arthropod COI gene amplicons) that were sequenced across three independent, 250-bp, paired-end runs on Illumina's MiSeq platform. Sequence analyses revealed largely equivalent results from the SPRI and PowerSoil extractions. Our comprehensive strategies focus on maximizing efficiency and minimizing costs. In addition to increasing the feasibility of using minimally invasive sampling and NGS capabilities in avian research, our methods are notably not avian-specific and thus applicable to many research programmes that involve DNA extraction and amplicon sequencing. PMID:24774752

  3. Effect of DNA Extraction Methods and Sampling Techniques on the Apparent Structure of Cow and Sheep Rumen Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Gemma; Cox, Faith; Kittelmann, Sandra; Miri, Vahideh Heidarian; Zethof, Michael; Noel, Samantha J.; Waghorn, Garry C.; Janssen, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular microbial ecology techniques are widely used to study the composition of the rumen microbiota and to increase understanding of the roles they play. Therefore, sampling and DNA extraction methods that result in adequate yields of microbial DNA that also accurately represents the microbial community are crucial. Fifteen different methods were used to extract DNA from cow and sheep rumen samples. The DNA yield and quality, and its suitability for downstream PCR amplifications varied considerably, depending on the DNA extraction method used. DNA extracts from nine extraction methods that passed these first quality criteria were evaluated further by quantitative PCR enumeration of microbial marker loci. Absolute microbial numbers, determined on the same rumen samples, differed by more than 100-fold, depending on the DNA extraction method used. The apparent compositions of the archaeal, bacterial, ciliate protozoal, and fungal communities in identical rumen samples were assessed using 454 Titanium pyrosequencing. Significant differences in microbial community composition were observed between extraction methods, for example in the relative abundances of members of the phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Microbial communities in parallel samples collected from cows by oral stomach-tubing or through a rumen fistula, and in liquid and solid rumen digesta fractions, were compared using one of the DNA extraction methods. Community representations were generally similar, regardless of the rumen sampling technique used, but significant differences in the abundances of some microbial taxa such as the Clostridiales and the Methanobrevibacter ruminantium clade were observed. The apparent microbial community composition differed between rumen sample fractions, and Prevotellaceae were most abundant in the liquid fraction. DNA extraction methods that involved phenol-chloroform extraction and mechanical lysis steps tended to be more comparable. However, comparison of data from studies in which different sampling techniques, different rumen sample fractions or different DNA extraction methods were used should be avoided. PMID:24040342

  4. DNA damage focus analysis in blood samples of minipigs reveals acute partial body irradiation.

    PubMed

    Lamkowski, Andreas; Forcheron, Fabien; Agay, Diane; Ahmed, Emad A; Drouet, Michel; Meineke, Viktor; Scherthan, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Radiation accidents frequently involve acute high dose partial body irradiation leading to victims with radiation sickness and cutaneous radiation syndrome that implements radiation-induced cell death. Cells that are not lethally hit seek to repair ionizing radiation (IR) induced damage, albeit at the expense of an increased risk of mutation and tumor formation due to misrepair of IR-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). The response to DNA damage includes phosphorylation of histone H2AX in the vicinity of DSBs, creating foci in the nucleus whose enumeration can serve as a radiation biodosimeter. Here, we investigated ?H2AX and DNA repair foci in peripheral blood lymphocytes of Gttingen minipigs that experienced acute partial body irradiation (PBI) with 49 Gy ( 6%) Co-60 ?-rays of the upper lumbar region. Blood samples taken 4, 24 and 168 hours post PBI were subjected to ?-H2AX, 53BP1 and MRE11 focus enumeration. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of 49 Gy partial body irradiated minipigs were found to display 1-8 DNA damage foci/cell. These PBL values significantly deceed the high foci numbers observed in keratinocyte nuclei of the directly ?-irradiated minipig skin regions, indicating a limited resident time of PBL in the exposed tissue volume. Nonetheless, PBL samples obtained 4 h post IR in average contained 2.2% of cells displaying a pan-?H2AX signal, suggesting that these received a higher IR dose. Moreover, dispersion analysis indicated partial body irradiation for all 13 minipigs at 4 h post IR. While dose reconstruction using ?H2AX DNA repair foci in lymphocytes after in vivo PBI represents a challenge, the DNA damage focus assay may serve as a rapid, first line indicator of radiation exposure. The occurrence of PBLs with pan-?H2AX staining and of cells with relatively high foci numbers that skew a Poisson distribution may be taken as indicator of acute high dose partial body irradiation, particularly when samples are available early after IR exposure. PMID:24498326

  5. DNA Damage Focus Analysis in Blood Samples of Minipigs Reveals Acute Partial Body Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Lamkowski, Andreas; Forcheron, Fabien; Agay, Diane; Ahmed, Emad A.; Drouet, Michel; Meineke, Viktor; Scherthan, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Radiation accidents frequently involve acute high dose partial body irradiation leading to victims with radiation sickness and cutaneous radiation syndrome that implements radiation-induced cell death. Cells that are not lethally hit seek to repair ionizing radiation (IR) induced damage, albeit at the expense of an increased risk of mutation and tumor formation due to misrepair of IR-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). The response to DNA damage includes phosphorylation of histone H2AX in the vicinity of DSBs, creating foci in the nucleus whose enumeration can serve as a radiation biodosimeter. Here, we investigated ?H2AX and DNA repair foci in peripheral blood lymphocytes of Gttingen minipigs that experienced acute partial body irradiation (PBI) with 49 Gy (6%) Co-60 ?-rays of the upper lumbar region. Blood samples taken 4, 24 and 168 hours post PBI were subjected to ?-H2AX, 53BP1 and MRE11 focus enumeration. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of 49 Gy partial body irradiated minipigs were found to display 18 DNA damage foci/cell. These PBL values significantly deceed the high foci numbers observed in keratinocyte nuclei of the directly ?-irradiated minipig skin regions, indicating a limited resident time of PBL in the exposed tissue volume. Nonetheless, PBL samples obtained 4 h post IR in average contained 2.2% of cells displaying a pan-?H2AX signal, suggesting that these received a higher IR dose. Moreover, dispersion analysis indicated partial body irradiation for all 13 minipigs at 4 h post IR. While dose reconstruction using ?H2AX DNA repair foci in lymphocytes after in vivo PBI represents a challenge, the DNA damage focus assay may serve as a rapid, first line indicator of radiation exposure. The occurrence of PBLs with pan-?H2AX staining and of cells with relatively high foci numbers that skew a Poisson distribution may be taken as indicator of acute high dose partial body irradiation, particularly when samples are available early after IR exposure. PMID:24498326

  6. A modular method for the extraction of DNA and RNA, and the separation of DNA pools from diverse environmental sample types

    PubMed Central

    Lever, Mark A.; Torti, Andrea; Eickenbusch, Philip; Michaud, Alexander B.; Šantl-Temkiv, Tina; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    2015-01-01

    A method for the extraction of nucleic acids from a wide range of environmental samples was developed. This method consists of several modules, which can be individually modified to maximize yields in extractions of DNA and RNA or separations of DNA pools. Modules were designed based on elaborate tests, in which permutations of all nucleic acid extraction steps were compared. The final modular protocol is suitable for extractions from igneous rock, air, water, and sediments. Sediments range from high-biomass, organic rich coastal samples to samples from the most oligotrophic region of the world's oceans and the deepest borehole ever studied by scientific ocean drilling. Extraction yields of DNA and RNA are higher than with widely used commercial kits, indicating an advantage to optimizing extraction procedures to match specific sample characteristics. The ability to separate soluble extracellular DNA pools without cell lysis from intracellular and particle-complexed DNA pools may enable new insights into the cycling and preservation of DNA in environmental samples in the future. A general protocol is outlined, along with recommendations for optimizing this general protocol for specific sample types and research goals. PMID:26042110

  7. Degradation of alpha-pinene on Tenax during sample storage: effects of daylight radiation and temperature.

    PubMed

    Schrader, W; Geiger, J; Klockow, D; Korte, E H

    2001-07-01

    The behavior of alpha-pinene sampled on adsorption cartridges filled with Tenax TA has been investigated in relation to different storage conditions, focusing on daylight radiation and temperature. After sampling, the respective cartridges containing the terpene were placed in sunlight on the windowsill for up to 1 month. Corresponding samples have been wrapped in aluminum foil to prevent the influence of daylight radiation. Additional sample cartridges with alpha-pinene were stored in the refrigerator at 4 degrees C and a freezer at -18 degrees C. All cartridges were analyzed using thermodesorption injection onto a gas chromatograph, and the compounds were detected using either a cryocondensation-interface to a Fourier transform infrared-spectrometer (GC/FT-IR) or the flame ionization detector (FID). In summary, 12 compounds were detected and identified, from which eight were products that were formed on Tenax through different mechanisms. Two compounds seemed to be formed under the influence of daylight radiation, while the others appear to be mainly autoxidation products. Estimates after 1 month of storage showed recoveries of over 99% for wrapped samples, while for unwrapped cartridges only about 88% of alpha-pinene was found. A pattern of up to five compounds was found that can be used as an indicator for storage reactions. PMID:11452597

  8. Automation and integration of multiplexed on-line sample preparation with capillary electrophoresis for DNA sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, H.

    1999-03-31

    The purpose of this research is to develop a multiplexed sample processing system in conjunction with multiplexed capillary electrophoresis for high-throughput DNA sequencing. The concept from DNA template to called bases was first demonstrated with a manually operated single capillary system. Later, an automated microfluidic system with 8 channels based on the same principle was successfully constructed. The instrument automatically processes 8 templates through reaction, purification, denaturation, pre-concentration, injection, separation and detection in a parallel fashion. A multiplexed freeze/thaw switching principle and a distribution network were implemented to manage flow direction and sample transportation. Dye-labeled terminator cycle-sequencing reactions are performed in an 8-capillary array in a hot air thermal cycler. Subsequently, the sequencing ladders are directly loaded into a corresponding size-exclusion chromatographic column operated at {approximately} 60 C for purification. On-line denaturation and stacking injection for capillary electrophoresis is simultaneously accomplished at a cross assembly set at {approximately} 70 C. Not only the separation capillary array but also the reaction capillary array and purification columns can be regenerated after every run. DNA sequencing data from this system allow base calling up to 460 bases with accuracy of 98%.

  9. An mRNA and DNA co-isolation method for forensic casework samples.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Michelle; Juusola, Jane; Ballantyne, Jack

    2004-12-15

    RNA analysis is expected to play an increasingly important role in the area of biomolecular forensic analysis. For example, mRNA expression analysis performed on a total RNA sample isolated from a biological stain may be used to identify the nature of the tissue(s) comprising the stain. Many of the physiological stains encountered at crime scenes involve heterogeneous mixtures of different body fluids (e.g., semen and saliva, semen and vaginal secretions). Separate sampling of these mixed stains from different "geographical" locations of the stains to isolate DNA and RNA could result in a misleading estimate of the ratio of the body fluids present and, in extreme cases, even fail to detect one of the contributors. Thus, a prerequisite for the use of mRNA expression profiling in routine forensic analysis is the ability to co-extract DNA and RNA from the same stain. This article describes an optimized method that was specifically developed to co-extract mRNA and DNA from the same physiological stain and that appears to be sufficiently sensitive and robust for routine forensic use. PMID:15556568

  10. A noninvasive hair sampling technique to obtain high quality DNA from elusive small mammals.

    PubMed

    Henry, Philippe; Henry, Alison; Russello, Michael A

    2011-01-01

    Noninvasive genetic sampling approaches are becoming increasingly important to study wildlife populations. A number of studies have reported using noninvasive sampling techniques to investigate population genetics and demography of wild populations. This approach has proven to be especially useful when dealing with rare or elusive species. While a number of these methods have been developed to sample hair, feces and other biological material from carnivores and medium-sized mammals, they have largely remained untested in elusive small mammals. In this video, we present a novel, inexpensive and noninvasive hair snare targeted at an elusive small mammal, the American pika (Ochotona princeps). We describe the general set-up of the hair snare, which consists of strips of packing tape arranged in a web-like fashion and placed along travelling routes in the pikas' habitat. We illustrate the efficiency of the snare at collecting a large quantity of hair that can then be collected and brought back to the lab. We then demonstrate the use of the DNA IQ system (Promega) to isolate DNA and showcase the utility of this method to amplify commonly used molecular markers including nuclear microsatellites, amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), mitochondrial sequences (800bp) as well as a molecular sexing marker. Overall, we demonstrate the utility of this novel noninvasive hair snare as a sampling technique for wildlife population biologists. We anticipate that this approach will be applicable to a variety of small mammals, opening up areas of investigation within natural populations, while minimizing impact to study organisms. PMID:21445038

  11. Detection of hepatitis A virus in seeded estuarine samples by hybridization with cDNA probes

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, X.; Estes, M.K.; Metcalf, T.G.; Melnick, J.L

    1986-10-01

    The development and trials of a nucleic acid hybridization test for the detection of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in estuarine samples within 48 h are described. Approximately 10/sup 4/ physical particlels of HAV per dot could be detected. Test sensitivity was optimized by the consideration of hydbridization stringency, /sup 32/P energy level, probe concentration, and nucleic acid binding to filters. Test specificity was shown by a lack of cross-hybridization with other enteroviruses and unrelated nucleic acids. Potential false-positive reactions between bacterial DNA in samples and residual vector DNA contamination of purified nucleotide sequences in probes were eliminated by DNase treatment of samples. Humic acid at concentrations of up to 100 mg/liter caused only insignificant decreases in test sensitivity. Interference with hybridization by organic components of virus-containing eluates was removed by proteinase K digestion followed by phenol extraction and ethanol precipitation. The test is suitable for detecting naturally occurring HAV in samples from polluted estuarine environments.

  12. A DNA pooling based system to detect Escherichia coli virulence factors in fecal and wastewater samples

    PubMed Central

    Luz Mara Chacn, J; Lizeth Taylor, C; Carmen Valiente, A; Irene Alvarado, P; Ximena Corts, B

    2012-01-01

    The availability of a useful tool for simple and timely detection of the most important virulent varieties of Escherichia coli is indispensable. To this end, bacterial DNA pools which had previously been categorized were obtained from isolated colonies as well as selected in terms of utilized phenotype; the pools were assessed by two PCR Multiplex for the detection of virulent E. coli eaeA, bfpA, stx1, stx2, ipaH, ST, LT, and aatA genes, with the 16S gene used as DNA control. The system was validated with 66 fecal samples and 44 wastewater samples. At least one positive isolate was detected by a virulent gene among the 20 that were screened. The analysis of fecal samples from children younger than 6 years of age detected frequencies of 25% LT positive strains, 8.3% eae, 8.3% bfpA, 16.7% ipaH, as well as 12.5 % aatA and ST. On the other hand, wastewater samples revealed frequencies of 25.7% eaeA positive, 30.3% stx1, 15.1% LT and 19.7% aatA. This study is an initial step toward carrying out epidemiological field research that will reveal the presence of these bacterial varieties. PMID:24031959

  13. Increased sensitivity for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in human DNA samples by dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluoroimmunoassay (DELFIA).

    PubMed

    Schoket, B; Doty, W A; Vincze, I; Strickland, P T; Ferri, G M; Assennato, G; Poirier, M C

    1993-01-01

    A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the most frequently used immunoassay for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in human tissues, has been modified to achieve approximately a 6-fold increase in sensitivity. The new assay, a competitive dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluoroimmunoassay (DELFIA) has utilized the same rabbit antiserum as the ELISA, antiserum elicited against DNA modified with benzo[a]pyrene. However, the alkaline phosphatase conjugate has been replaced with a biotin-europium-labeled streptavidin signal amplification system, and the release of europium into the solution forms a highly fluorescent chelate complex that is measured by time-resolved fluorometry. The DELFIA has achieved a 5- to 6-fold increase in sensitivity for measurement of DNA samples modified in vitro with benzo[a]pyrene, for cultured cells exposed to radiolabeled benzo[a]pyrene, and for human samples from occupationally exposed workers. The assay has been validated by comparison of adduct levels determined by DELFIA, ELISA, and radioactivity in DNA from mouse keratinocytes exposed to radiolabeled benzo[a]pyrene. Human lymphocyte DNA samples from 104 Hungarian aluminum plant workers were assayed by ELISA and compared to blood cell DNA samples from 69 Italian coke oven workers assayed by DELFIA. The standard curves demonstrated that the limit of detection of 4.0 adducts in 10(8) nucleotides for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts by ELISA, using 35 micrograms of DNA/microtiter plate well, has been decreased to 1.3 adducts in 10(8) nucleotides by DELFIA, using 20 micrograms of DNA/microtiter well. If 35 micrograms of DNA were used in the DELFIA, the calculated detection limit would be 0.7 adducts in 10(8) nucleotides.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8348058

  14. Increased sensitivity for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in human DNA samples by dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluoroimmunoassay (DELFIA)

    SciTech Connect

    Schoket, B.; Doty, W.A.; Vincze, I.; Strickland, P.T.; Ferri, G.M.; Assennato, G.; Poirier, M.C. )

    1993-07-01

    A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the most frequently used immunoassay for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in human tissues, has been modified to achieve approximately a 6-fold increase in sensitivity. The new assay, a competitive dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluoroimmunoassay (DELFIA) has utilized the same rabbit antiserum as the ELISA, antiserum elicited against DNA modified with benzo[a]pyrene. However, the alkaline phosphatase conjugate has been replaced with a biotin-europium-labeled streptavidin signal amplification system, and the release of europium into the solution forms a highly fluorescent chelate complex that is measured by time-resolved fluorometry. The DELFIA has achieved a 5- to 6-fold increase in sensitivity for measurement of DNA samples modified in vitro with benzo[a]pyrene, for cultured cells exposed to radiolabeled benzo[a]pyrene, and for human samples from occupationally exposed workers. The assay has been validated by comparison of adduct levels determined by DELFIA, ELISA, and radioactivity in DNA from mouse keratinocytes exposed to radiolabeled benzo[a]pyrene. Human lymphocyte DNA samples from 104 Hungarian aluminum plant workers were assayed by ELISA and compared to blood cell DNA samples from 69 Italian coke oven workers assayed by DELFIA. The standard curves demonstrated that the limit of detection of 4.0 adducts in 10(8) nucleotides for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts by ELISA, using 35 micrograms of DNA/microtiter plate well, has been decreased to 1.3 adducts in 10(8) nucleotides by DELFIA, using 20 micrograms of DNA/microtiter well. If 35 micrograms of DNA were used in the DELFIA, the calculated detection limit would be 0.7 adducts in 10(8) nucleotides.

  15. First Detection of Mycobacterium ulcerans DNA in Environmental Samples from South America

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Aaron; Gozlan, Rodolphe; Marion, Estelle; Marsollier, Laurent; Andreou, Demetra; Sanhueza, Daniel; Ruffine, Rolland; Couppi, Pierre; Gugan, Jean-Franois

    2014-01-01

    The occurrences of many environmentally-persistent and zoonotic infections are driven by ecosystem changes, which in turn are underpinned by land-use modifications that alter the governance of pathogen, biodiversity and human interactions. Our current understanding of these ecological changes on disease emergence however remains limited. Buruli ulcer is an emerging human skin disease caused by the mycobacterium, Mycobacterium ulcerans, for which the exact route of infection remains unclear. It can have a devastating impact on its human host, causing extensive necrosis of the skin and underlying tissue, often leading to permanent disability. The mycobacterium is associated with tropical aquatic environments and incidences of the disease are significantly higher on floodplains and where there is an increase of human aquatic activities. Although the disease has been previously diagnosed in South America, until now the presence of M. ulcerans DNA in the wild has only been identified in Australia where there have been significant outbreaks and in western and central regions of Africa where the disease is persistent. Here for the first time, we have identified the presence of the aetiological agent's DNA in environmental samples from South America. The DNA was positively identified using Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) on 163 environmental samples, taken from 23 freshwater bodies in French Guiana (Southern America), using primers for both IS2404 and for the ketoreductase-B domain of the M. ulcerans mycolactone polyketide synthase genes (KR). Five samples out of 163 were positive for both primers from three different water bodies. A further nine sites had low levels of IS2404 close to a standard CT of 35 and could potentially harbour M. ulcerans. The majority of our positive samples (8/14) came from filtered water. These results also reveal the Sinnamary River as a potential source of infection to humans. PMID:24498449

  16. First detection of Mycobacterium ulcerans DNA in environmental samples from South America.

    PubMed

    Morris, Aaron; Gozlan, Rodolphe; Marion, Estelle; Marsollier, Laurent; Andreou, Demetra; Sanhueza, Daniel; Ruffine, Rolland; Couppié, Pierre; Guégan, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    The occurrences of many environmentally-persistent and zoonotic infections are driven by ecosystem changes, which in turn are underpinned by land-use modifications that alter the governance of pathogen, biodiversity and human interactions. Our current understanding of these ecological changes on disease emergence however remains limited. Buruli ulcer is an emerging human skin disease caused by the mycobacterium, Mycobacterium ulcerans, for which the exact route of infection remains unclear. It can have a devastating impact on its human host, causing extensive necrosis of the skin and underlying tissue, often leading to permanent disability. The mycobacterium is associated with tropical aquatic environments and incidences of the disease are significantly higher on floodplains and where there is an increase of human aquatic activities. Although the disease has been previously diagnosed in South America, until now the presence of M. ulcerans DNA in the wild has only been identified in Australia where there have been significant outbreaks and in western and central regions of Africa where the disease is persistent. Here for the first time, we have identified the presence of the aetiological agent's DNA in environmental samples from South America. The DNA was positively identified using Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) on 163 environmental samples, taken from 23 freshwater bodies in French Guiana (Southern America), using primers for both IS2404 and for the ketoreductase-B domain of the M. ulcerans mycolactone polyketide synthase genes (KR). Five samples out of 163 were positive for both primers from three different water bodies. A further nine sites had low levels of IS2404 close to a standard CT of 35 and could potentially harbour M. ulcerans. The majority of our positive samples (8/14) came from filtered water. These results also reveal the Sinnamary River as a potential source of infection to humans. PMID:24498449

  17. Analysis and Optimization of Bulk DNA Sampling with Binary Scoring for Germplasm Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Valds, M. Humberto; Santacruz-Varela, Amalio; Martnez, Octavio; Simpson, June; Hayano-Kanashiro, Corina; Corts-Romero, Celso

    2013-01-01

    The strategy of bulk DNA sampling has been a valuable method for studying large numbers of individuals through genetic markers. The application of this strategy for discrimination among germplasm sources was analyzed through information theory, considering the case of polymorphic alleles scored binarily for their presence or absence in DNA pools. We defined the informativeness of a set of marker loci in bulks as the mutual information between genotype and population identity, composed by two terms: diversity and noise. The first term is the entropy of bulk genotypes, whereas the noise term is measured through the conditional entropy of bulk genotypes given germplasm sources. Thus, optimizing marker information implies increasing diversity and reducing noise. Simple formulas were devised to estimate marker information per allele from a set of estimated allele frequencies across populations. As an example, they allowed optimization of bulk size for SSR genotyping in maize, from allele frequencies estimated in a sample of 56 maize populations. It was found that a sample of 30 plants from a random mating population is adequate for maize germplasm SSR characterization. We analyzed the use of divided bulks to overcome the allele dilution problem in DNA pools, and concluded that samples of 30 plants divided into three bulks of 10 plants are efficient to characterize maize germplasm sources through SSR with a good control of the dilution problem. We estimated the informativeness of 30 SSR loci from the estimated allele frequencies in maize populations, and found a wide variation of marker informativeness, which positively correlated with the number of alleles per locus. PMID:24260321

  18. Establishing a novel automated magnetic bead-based method for the extraction of DNA from a variety of forensic samples.

    PubMed

    Witt, Sebastian; Neumann, Jan; Zierdt, Holger; Gbel, Gabriella; Rscheisen, Christiane

    2012-09-01

    Automated systems have been increasingly utilized for DNA extraction by many forensic laboratories to handle growing numbers of forensic casework samples while minimizing the risk of human errors and assuring high reproducibility. The step towards automation however is not easy: The automated extraction method has to be very versatile to reliably prepare high yields of pure genomic DNA from a broad variety of sample types on different carrier materials. To prevent possible cross-contamination of samples or the loss of DNA, the components of the kit have to be designed in a way that allows for the automated handling of the samples with no manual intervention necessary. DNA extraction using paramagnetic particles coated with a DNA-binding surface is predestined for an automated approach. For this study, we tested different DNA extraction kits using DNA-binding paramagnetic particles with regard to DNA yield and handling by a Freedom EVO()150 extraction robot (Tecan) equipped with a Te-MagS magnetic separator. Among others, the extraction kits tested were the ChargeSwitch()Forensic DNA Purification Kit (Invitrogen), the PrepFilerAutomated Forensic DNA Extraction Kit (Applied Biosystems) and NucleoMag96 Trace (Macherey-Nagel). After an extensive test phase, we established a novel magnetic bead extraction method based upon the NucleoMag extraction kit (Macherey-Nagel). The new method is readily automatable and produces high yields of DNA from different sample types (blood, saliva, sperm, contact stains) on various substrates (filter paper, swabs, cigarette butts) with no evidence of a loss of magnetic beads or sample cross-contamination. PMID:22310206

  19. Quantification and optimization of Candida albicans DNA in blood samples using Real- Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Nabili, Mojtaba; Ashrafi, Mohsen; Janbabaie, Ghasem; Hedayati, Mohamad Taghi; Ali-Moghaddam, Kamran; Shokohi, Tahereh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Candida albicans (C. albicans) is a major cause of candidaemia in people with impaired immunity. Blood culture is a “gold standard” for candidaemia detection but is time-consuming and relatively insensitive. We established a real-time PCR assay for C. albicans detection in blood by LightCycler PCR and melting curve analysis. Methods: Five milliliter blood samples from healthy volunteers were spiked with 100-106 C. albicans cells to determine the detection limit of our method. DNA was extracted from whole blood using glass beads and the QIAamp DNA Blood Mini Kit (Qiagen, Hilden Germany). DNA from C. albicans isolates were amplified with primers and inserted into Escherichia coli (E. coli) DH5α.1 cells with the TA cloning vector (Invitrogen). The plasmid was used for standardization and optimization. A quantitative PCR assay with the LightCycler amplification and detection system based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) with two different specific probes was established. To assess the precision and reproducibility of real-time PCR the intra-assay precision was determined in six consecutive assays. Results: No cross-reactivity of the hybridization probes with the DNA of non-C. albicans species or human genomic DNA was observed, which confirmed its 100% specificity. The minimum limit detected was one C. albicans cell or 100 CFU/ml (10 fg) per PCR reaction. The real-time PCR efficiency rate for Candida was high (E = 1.95). Melting curve analysis of C. albicans showed a specific melting peak temperature of 65.76 °C. Conclusion: The real-time PCR assay we developed is highly specific and sufficiently sensitive to detect the fungal load for early diagnosis of invasive candidiasis.

  20. JC virus DNA is present in many human brain samples from patients without progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.

    PubMed Central

    White, F A; Ishaq, M; Stoner, G L; Frisque, R J

    1992-01-01

    Sections of normal and diseased brain and kidney tissues were screened for the presence of JC virus (JCV) DNA by using the polymerase chain reaction. As expected, all samples obtained from patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) tested positive when multiple JCV-specific primer and probe combinations were used. Unexpectedly, more than 50% of non-PML-affected brains were also found to harbor low levels of JCV DNA. To confirm that the positive signals seen in the tissue sections were not the result of contamination, amplified DNA was cloned and sequenced and in some cases was shown to represent strains of JCV not identified previously. Two predominant regulatory region configurations of JCV have been detected in the human host: archetype JCV, which is excreted in the urine of normal and immunocompromised individuals, and "PML-type" JCV found in diseased brains. This latter group of variants appears to derive from archetype JCV by the deletion and duplication of sequences within the promoter-enhancer region. In the present study, the archetype strain of JCV was identified only in normal kidney samples; JCV DNA found in non-PML-affected brain specimens and in kidney tissue from patients with PML resembled that of strains isolated from PML-affected brain tissue. Our findings indicate that JCV reaches the brain more frequently than previously thought and may persist at this site without causing demyelinating disease. A subsequent episode of prolonged immunodeficiency or a direct interaction with an immunocompromising agent (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus type 1) might activate the latent JCV infection and lead to the development of PML. Images PMID:1326640

  1. The combined evidential value of autosomal and Y-chromosomal DNA profiles obtained from the same sample.

    PubMed

    de Zoete, Jacob; Sjerps, Marjan; Meester, Ronald; Cator, Eric

    2014-11-01

    When a Y-chromosomal and a (partial) autosomal DNA profile are obtained from one crime sample, and both profiles match the suspect's profiles, we would like to know the combined evidential value. To calculate the likelihood ratio of observing the autosomal and Y-chromosomal DNA profiles combined, we need to know the conditional random match probability of the observed autosomal DNA profile, given the Y-chromosomal match. We examine this conditional probability in two ways: (1) with a database containing data of 2,085 men and (2) using a simulation model. We conclude that if the Y-chromosomal DNA profiles match, we can still regard the autosomal DNA profile as independent from the Y-chromosomal DNA profile if the matching person is not a descendant of the father of the donor of the (crime) sample. The evidential value can, in that case, be computed by multiplying the random match probabilities of the individual profiles. PMID:24562300

  2. Direct Comparisons of Illumina vs. Roche 454 Sequencing Technologies on the Same Microbial Community DNA Sample

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Chengwei; Tsementzi, Despina; Kyrpides, Nikos; Read, Timothy; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T.

    2012-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is commonly used in metagenomic studies of complex microbial communities but whether or not different NGS platforms recover the same diversity from a sample and their assembled sequences are of comparable quality remain unclear. We compared the two most frequently used platforms, the Roche 454 FLX Titanium and the Illumina Genome Analyzer (GA) II, on the same DNA sample obtained from a complex freshwater planktonic community. Despite the substantial differences in read length and sequencing protocols, the platforms provided a comparable view of the community sampled. For instance, derived assemblies overlapped in ∼90% of their total sequences and in situ abundances of genes and genotypes (estimated based on sequence coverage) correlated highly between the two platforms (R2>0.9). Evaluation of base-call error, frameshift frequency, and contig length suggested that Illumina offered equivalent, if not better, assemblies than Roche 454. The results from metagenomic samples were further validated against DNA samples of eighteen isolate genomes, which showed a range of genome sizes and G+C% content. We also provide quantitative estimates of the errors in gene and contig sequences assembled from datasets characterized by different levels of complexity and G+C% content. For instance, we noted that homopolymer-associated, single-base errors affected ∼1% of the protein sequences recovered in Illumina contigs of 10× coverage and 50% G+C; this frequency increased to ∼3% when non-homopolymer errors were also considered. Collectively, our results should serve as a useful practical guide for choosing proper sampling strategies and data possessing protocols for future metagenomic studies. PMID:22347999

  3. Demonstration of Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii DNA in soil samples collected from Dinosaur National Monument, Utah.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Suzanne M; Carlson, Erin L; Fisher, Frederick S; Pappagianis, Demosthenes

    2014-08-01

    Soil samples were collected in 2006 from Dinosaur National Monument (DNM), Utah, the site of an outbreak of coccidioidomycosis in 2001. DNA was isolated from two soil samples, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified Coccidioides DNA present in both samples. Ribosomal RNA genes and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region PCR products were sequenced. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms indicated that the DNA from sample SS06RH was that of Coccidioides immitis, while the DNA from sample SS06UM was C. posadasii. This is the first report to directly demonstrate Coccidioides in soils from DNM and the first to report the presence of both C. immitis and C. posadasii in the same geographic location. PMID:24847036

  4. Degradation and interconversion of plant pteridines during sample preparation and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Van Daele, Jeroen; Blancquaert, Dieter; Kiekens, Filip; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Lambert, Willy E; Stove, Christophe P

    2016-03-01

    The degradation and interconversion of a selected set of pterins (dihydroneopterin, hydroxymethyldihydropterin, dihydroxanthopterin, neopterin, hydroxymethylpterin, xanthopterin, 6-formylpterin, 6-carboxypterin and pterin), spiked to charcoal-treated potato and Arabidopsis thaliana matrix was investigated, together with their relative recovery in potato and A. thaliana. As a result, a matrix-specific procedure for the ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry based determination of 6 aromatic pterins (neopterin, hydroxymethylpterin, xanthopterin, 6-formylpterin, 6-carboxypterin and pterin) is proposed: 1.5ml of an N2-flushed, alkaline (pH=10) extraction solvent is added to 200mg of plant sample. After boiling and homogenization, the samples are incubated: Arabidopsis samples for 30min at room temperature, while shaking, and potato samples for 2h at 37°C (applying a dienzyme treatment with α-amylase and protease). After a final boiling step, the samples are ultrafiltrated and resulting extracts are analyzed by UHPLC-MS/MS. PMID:26471671

  5. New detection modality for label-free quantification of DNA in biological samples via superparamagnetic bead aggregation.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Daniel C; Li, Jingyi; Strachan, Briony C; Begley, Matthew R; Finkler, David; Bazydlo, Lindsay A L; Barker, N Scott; Haverstick, Doris M; Utz, Marcel; Landers, James P

    2012-03-28

    Combining DNA and superparamagnetic beads in a rotating magnetic field produces multiparticle aggregates that are visually striking, enabling label-free optical detection and quantification of DNA at levels in the picogram per microliter range. DNA in biological samples can be quantified directly by simple analysis of optical images of microfluidic wells placed on a magnetic stirrer without prior DNA purification. Aggregation results from DNA/bead interactions driven either by the presence of a chaotrope (a nonspecific trigger for aggregation) or by hybridization with oligonucleotides on functionalized beads (sequence-specific). This paper demonstrates quantification of DNA with sensitivity comparable to that of the best currently available fluorometric assays. The robustness and sensitivity of the method enable a wide range of applications, illustrated here by counting eukaryotic cells. Using widely available and inexpensive benchtop hardware, the approach provides a highly accessible low-tech microscale alternative to more expensive DNA detection and cell counting techniques. PMID:22423674

  6. Polymorphism discovery and allele frequency estimation using high-throughput DNA sequencing of target-enriched pooled DNA samples

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The central role of the somatotrophic axis in animal post-natal growth, development and fertility is well established. Therefore, the identification of genetic variants affecting quantitative traits within this axis is an attractive goal. However, large sample numbers are a pre-requisite for the identification of genetic variants underlying complex traits and although technologies are improving rapidly, high-throughput sequencing of large numbers of complete individual genomes remains prohibitively expensive. Therefore using a pooled DNA approach coupled with target enrichment and high-throughput sequencing, the aim of this study was to identify polymorphisms and estimate allele frequency differences across 83 candidate genes of the somatotrophic axis, in 150 Holstein-Friesian dairy bulls divided into two groups divergent for genetic merit for fertility. Results In total, 4,135 SNPs and 893 indels were identified during the resequencing of the 83 candidate genes. Nineteen percent (n = 952) of variants were located within 5' and 3' UTRs. Seventy-two percent (n = 3,612) were intronic and 9% (n = 464) were exonic, including 65 indels and 236 SNPs resulting in non-synonymous substitutions (NSS). Significant (P < 0.01) mean allele frequency differentials between the low and high fertility groups were observed for 720 SNPs (58 NSS). Allele frequencies for 43 of the SNPs were also determined by genotyping the 150 individual animals (Sequenom MassARRAY). No significant differences (P > 0.1) were observed between the two methods for any of the 43 SNPs across both pools (i.e., 86 tests in total). Conclusions The results of the current study support previous findings of the use of DNA sample pooling and high-throughput sequencing as a viable strategy for polymorphism discovery and allele frequency estimation. Using this approach we have characterised the genetic variation within genes of the somatotrophic axis and related pathways, central to mammalian post-natal growth and development and subsequent lactogenesis and fertility. We have identified a large number of variants segregating at significantly different frequencies between cattle groups divergent for calving interval plausibly harbouring causative variants contributing to heritable variation. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing sequencing of targeted genomic regions in any livestock species using groups with divergent phenotypes for an economically important trait. PMID:22235840

  7. Analysis of changes in DNA sequence copy number by comparative genomic hybridization in archival paraffin-embedded tumor samples.

    PubMed Central

    Isola, J.; DeVries, S.; Chu, L.; Ghazvini, S.; Waldman, F.

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of previously unknown genetic aberrations in solid tumors has become possible through the use of comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), which is based on competitive binding of tumor and control DNA to normal metaphase chromosomes. CGH allows detection of DNA sequence copy number changes (deletions, gains, and amplifications) on a genome-wide scale in a single hybridization. We describe here an improved CGH technique, which enables reliable detection of copy number changes in archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples. The technique includes a modified DNA extraction protocol, which produces high molecular weight DNA which is necessary for high quality CGH. The DNA extraction includes a 3-day digestion with proteinase K, which remarkably improves the yield of high molecular weight DNA. Labeling of the test DNA with a directly fluorescein-conjugated nucleotide (instead of biotin labeling) improved significantly the quality of hybridization. Using the paraffin-block technique, we could analyze 70 to 90% of paraffin blocks, including very old samples as well as samples taken at autopsy. CGH from paraffin blocks was highly concordant (95%) with analyses done from matched freshly frozen tumor samples (n = 5 sample pairs; kappa coefficient = 0.83). The method described here has wide applicability in tumor pathology, allowing large retrospective prognostic studies of genetic aberrations as well as studies on genetic pathogenesis of solid tumors, inasmuch as premalignant lesions and primary and metastatic tumors can be analyzed by using archival paraffin-embedded samples. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:7992835

  8. An effective method to purify Plasmodium falciparum DNA directly from clinical blood samples for whole genome high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Auburn, Sarah; Campino, Susana; Clark, Taane G; Djimde, Abdoulaye A; Zongo, Issaka; Pinches, Robert; Manske, Magnus; Mangano, Valentina; Alcock, Daniel; Anastasi, Elisa; Maslen, Gareth; Macinnis, Bronwyn; Rockett, Kirk; Modiano, David; Newbold, Christopher I; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Ouédraogo, Jean Bosco; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P

    2011-01-01

    Highly parallel sequencing technologies permit cost-effective whole genome sequencing of hundreds of Plasmodium parasites. The ability to sequence clinical Plasmodium samples, extracted directly from patient blood without a culture step, presents a unique opportunity to sample the diversity of "natural" parasite populations in high resolution clinical and epidemiological studies. A major challenge to sequencing clinical Plasmodium samples is the abundance of human DNA, which may substantially reduce the yield of Plasmodium sequence. We tested a range of human white blood cell (WBC) depletion methods on P. falciparum-infected patient samples in search of a method displaying an optimal balance of WBC-removal efficacy, cost, simplicity, and applicability to low resource settings. In the first of a two-part study, combinations of three different WBC depletion methods were tested on 43 patient blood samples in Mali. A two-step combination of Lymphoprep plus Plasmodipur best fitted our requirements, although moderate variability was observed in human DNA quantity. This approach was further assessed in a larger sample of 76 patients from Burkina Faso. WBC-removal efficacy remained high (<30% human DNA in >70% samples) and lower variation was observed in human DNA quantities. In order to assess the Plasmodium sequence yield at different human DNA proportions, 59 samples with up to 60% human DNA contamination were sequenced on the Illumina Genome Analyzer platform. An average ~40-fold coverage of the genome was observed per lane for samples with ≤ 30% human DNA. Even in low resource settings, using a simple two-step combination of Lymphoprep plus Plasmodipur, over 70% of clinical sample preparations should exhibit sufficiently low human DNA quantities to enable ~40-fold sequence coverage of the P. falciparum genome using a single lane on the Illumina Genome Analyzer platform. This approach should greatly facilitate large-scale clinical and epidemiologic studies of P. falciparum. PMID:21789235

  9. Complexity of genetic sequences modified by horizontal gene transfer and degraded-DNA uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremberger, George; Dehipawala, S.; Nguyen, A.; Cheung, E.; Sullivan, R.; Holden, T.; Lieberman, D.; Cheung, T.

    2015-09-01

    Horizontal gene transfer has been a major vehicle for efficient transfer of genetic materials among living species and could be one of the sources for noncoding DNA incorporation into a genome. Our previous study of lnc- RNA sequence complexity in terms of fractal dimension and information entropy shows a tight regulation among the studied genes in numerous diseases. The role of sequence complexity in horizontal transferred genes was investigated with Mealybug in symbiotic relation with a 139K genome microbe and Deinococcus radiodurans as examples. The fractal dimension and entropy showed correlation R-sq of 0.82 (N = 6) for the studied Deinococcus radiodurans sequences. For comparison the Deinococcus radiodurans oxidative stress tolerant catalase and superoxide dismutase genes under extracellular dGMP growth condition showed R-sq ~ 0.42 (N = 6); and the studied arsenate reductase horizontal transferred genes for toxicity survival in several microorganisms showed no correlation. Simulation results showed that R-sq < 0.4 would be improbable at less than one percent chance, suggestive of additional selection pressure when compared to the R-sq ~ 0.29 (N = 21) in the studied transferred genes in Mealybug. The mild correlation of R-sq ~ 0.5 for fractal dimension versus transcription level in the studied Deinococcus radiodurans sequences upon extracellular dGMP growth condition would suggest that lower fractal dimension with less electron density fluctuation favors higher transcription level.

  10. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP): Revisiting the Efficacy of Sample Preparation, Sonication, Quantification of Sheared DNA, and Analysis via PCR

    PubMed Central

    Schoppee Bortz, Pamela D.; Wamhoff, Brian R.

    2011-01-01

    The quantitative ChIP, a tool commonly used to study protein-DNA interactions in cells and tissue, is a difficult assay often plagued with technical error. We present, herein, the process required to merge multiple protocols into a quick, reliable and easy method and an approach to accurately quantify ChIP DNA prior to performing PCR. We demonstrate that high intensity sonication for at least 30 min is required for full cellular disruption and maximum DNA recovery because ChIP lysis buffers fail to lyse formaldehyde-fixed cells. In addition, extracting ChIP DNA with chelex-100 yields samples that are too dilute for evaluation of shearing efficiency or quantification via nanospectrophotometry. However, DNA extracted from the Mock-ChIP supernatant via the phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol (PCIA) method can be used to evaluate DNA shearing efficiency and used as the standard in a fluorescence-based microplate assay. This enabled accurate quantification of DNA in chelex-extracted ChIP samples and normalization to total DNA concentration prior to performing real-time PCR (rtPCR). Thus, a quick ChIP assay that can be completed in nine bench hours over two days has been validated along with a rapid, accurate and repeatable way to quantify ChIP DNA. The resulting rtPCR data more accurately depicts treatment effects on protein-DNA interactions of interest. PMID:22046253

  11. Scalable DNA-Based Magnetic Nanoparticle Agglutination Assay for Bacterial Detection in Patient Samples.

    PubMed

    Mezger, Anja; Fock, Jeppe; Antunes, Paula; Østerberg, Frederik W; Boisen, Anja; Nilsson, Mats; Hansen, Mikkel F; Ahlford, Annika; Donolato, Marco

    2015-07-28

    We demonstrate a nanoparticle-based assay for the detection of bacteria causing urinary tract infections in patient samples with a total assay time of 4 h. This time is significantly shorter than the current gold standard, plate culture, which can take several days depending on the pathogen. The assay is based on padlock probe recognition followed by two cycles of rolling circle amplification (RCA) to form DNA coils corresponding to the target bacterial DNA. The readout of the RCA products is based on optomagnetic measurements of the specific agglutination of DNA-bound magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) using low-cost optoelectronic components from Blu-ray drives. We implement a detection approach, which relies on the monomerization of the RCA products, the use of the monomers to link and agglutinate two populations of MNPs functionalized with universal nontarget specific detection probes and on the introduction of a magnetic incubation scheme. This enables multiplex detection of Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at clinically relevant concentrations, demonstrating a factor of 30 improvement in sensitivity compared to previous MNP-based detection schemes. Thanks to the universal probes, the same set of functionalized MNPs can be used to read out products from a multitude of RCA targets, making the approach truly scalable for parallel detection of multiple bacteria in a future integrated point of care molecular diagnostics system. PMID:26166357

  12. Identification of Unsaturated and 2H Polyfluorocarboxylate Homologous Series and Their Detection in Environmental Samples and as Polymer Degradation Products.

    PubMed

    Washington, John W; Jenkins, Thomas M; Weber, Eric J

    2015-11-17

    A pair of homologous series of polyfluorinated degradation products have been identified, both having structures similar to perfluorocarboxylic acids but (i) having a H substitution for F on the ? carbon for 2H polyfluorocarboxylic acids (2HPFCAs) and (ii) bearing a double bond between the ?-? carbons for the unsaturated PFCAs (2uPFCAs). Obtaining an authentic sample containing 2uPFOA and 2HPFOA, we optimized a mass-spectrometric multiple-reaction-monitoring (MS/MS) technique and then identified uPFCA and HPFCA homologous series in sludge-applied agricultural soils and fodder grasses for cattle grazing. Analysis of samples from a degradation experiment of commercial fluorotelomer-based polymers (FTPs), the dominant product of the fluorotelomer industry, confirmed that commercial FTPs are a potential source of uPFCAs and HPFCAs to the environment. We further confirmed the identity of the uPFCAs by imposing high-energy ionization to decarboxylate the uPFCAs then focused on the fluorinated chains in the first MS quadrupole. We also employed this high-energy ionization to decarboxylate and analyze PFCAs by MS/MS (for the first time, to our knowledge). In exploratory efforts, we report the possible detection of unsaturated perfluorooctanesulfonate in environmental samples, having a conceptual double-bond structure analogous to uPFOA. Using microcosms spiked with fluorotelomer compounds, we found 2uPFOA and 2HPFOA to be generated from unsaturated 8:2 fluorotelomer acid (8:2 FTUCA) and propose ?- and ?-oxidation mechanisms for generation of these compounds from 8:2 FTUCA. In light of these experimental results, we also reexamined the proposed biodegradation pathways of 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol. PMID:26484632

  13. Reverse Sample Genome Probing, a New Technique for Identification of Bacteria in Environmental Samples by DNA Hybridization, and Its Application to the Identification of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Oil Field Samples

    PubMed Central

    Voordouw, Gerrit; Voordouw, Johanna K.; Karkhoff-Schweizer, Roxann R.; Fedorak, Phillip M.; Westlake, Donald W. S.

    1991-01-01

    A novel method for the identification of bacteria in environmental samples by DNA hybridization is presented. It is based on the fact that, even within a genus, the genomes of different bacteria may have little overall sequence homology. This allows the use of the labeled genomic DNA of a given bacterium (referred to as a standard) to probe for its presence and that of bacteria with highly homologous genomes in total DNA obtained from an environmental sample. Alternatively, total DNA extracted from the sample can be labeled and used to probe filters on which denatured chromosomal DNA from relevant bacterial standards has been spotted. The latter technique is referred to as reverse sample genome probing, since it is the reverse of the usual practice of deriving probes from reference bacteria for analyzing a DNA sample. Reverse sample genome probing allows identification of bacteria in a sample in a single step once a master filter with suitable standards has been developed. Application of reverse sample genome probing to the identification of sulfate-reducing bacteria in 31 samples obtained primarily from oil fields in the province of Alberta has indicated that there are at least 20 genotypically different sulfate-reducing bacteria in these samples. Images PMID:16348574

  14. Reduced sampling efficiency causes degraded Vernier hyperacuity with normal aging: Vernier acuity in position noise

    PubMed Central

    Li, Roger W.; Brown, Brian; Edwards, Marion H.; Ngo, Charlie V.; Chat, Sandy W.; Levi, Dennis M.

    2012-01-01

    Vernier acuity, a form of visual hyperacuity, is amongst the most precise forms of spatial vision. Under optimal conditions Vernier thresholds are much finer than the inter-photoreceptor distance. Achievement of such high precision is based substantially on cortical computations, most likely in the primary visual cortex. Using stimuli with added positional noise, we show that Vernier processing is reduced with advancing age across a wide range of noise levels. Using an ideal observer model, we are able to characterize the mechanisms underlying age-related loss, and show that the reduction in Vernier acuity can be mainly attributed to the reduction in efficiency of sampling, with no significant change in the level of internal position noise, or spatial distortion, in the visual system. PMID:22393476

  15. GC/MS analysis of triclosan and its degradation by-products in wastewater and sludge samples from different treatments.

    PubMed

    Tohidi, Fatemeh; Cai, Zongwei

    2015-08-01

    A gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)-based method was developed for simultaneous determination of triclosan (TCS) and its degradation products including 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 2,8-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,8-DCDD), and methyl triclosan (MTCS) in wastewater and sludge samples. The method provides satisfactory detection limit, accuracy, precision and recovery especially for samples with complicated matrix such as sewage sludge. Liquid-liquid extraction and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) methods were applied for the extraction, and column chromatography was employed for the sample cleanup. Analysis was performed by GC/MS in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The method was successfully applied to wastewater and sludge samples from three different municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Satisfactory mean recoveries were obtained as 91(±4)-106(±7)%, 82(±3)-87(±4)%, 86(±6)-87(±8)%, and 88(±4)-105(±3)% in wastewater and 88(±5)-96(±8)%, 84(±2)-87(±3)%, 84(±7)-89(±4)%, and 88(±3)-97(±5)% in sludge samples for TCS, 2,4-DCP, 2,8-DCDD, and MTCS, respectively. TCS degradation products were detected based on the type of the wastewater and sludge treatment. 2,8-DCDD was detected in the plant utilizing UV disinfection at the mean level of 20.3(±4.8) ng/L. 2,4-DCP was identified in chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) applying chlorine disinfection at the mean level of 16.8(±4.5) ng/L). Besides, methyl triclosan (MTCS) was detected in the wastewater collected after biological treatment (10.7 ± 3.3 ng/L) as well as in sludge samples that have undergone aerobic digestion at the mean level of 129.3(±17.2) ng/g dry weight (dw). PMID:25810102

  16. The molecular characterization of a depurinated trial DNA sample can be a model to understand the reliability of the results in forensic genetics.

    PubMed

    Fattorini, Paolo; Previder, Carlo; Soraburu-Cigliero, Solange; Marrubini, Giorgio; Al, Milena; Barbaro, Anna M; Carnevali, Eugenia; Carracedo, Angel; Casarino, Lucia; Consoloni, Lara; Corato, Silvia; Domenici, Ranieri; Fabbri, Matteo; Giardina, Emiliano; Grignani, Pierangela; Baldassarra, Stefania Lonero; Moratti, Marco; Nicolin, Vanessa; Pelotti, Susi; Piccinini, Andrea; Pitacco, Paola; Plizza, Laura; Resta, Nicoletta; Ricci, Ugo; Robino, Carlo; Salvaderi, Luca; Scarnicci, Francesca; Schneider, Peter M; Seidita, Gregorio; Trizzino, Lucia; Turchi, Chiara; Turrina, Stefania; Vatta, Paolo; Vecchiotti, Carla; Verzeletti, Andrea; De Stefano, Francesco

    2014-11-01

    The role of DNA damage in PCR processivity/fidelity is a relevant topic in molecular investigation of aged/forensic samples. In order to reproduce one of the most common lesions occurring in postmortem tissues, a new protocol based on aqueous hydrolysis of the DNA was developed in vitro. Twenty-five forensic laboratories were then provided with 3.0?g of a trial sample (TS) exhibiting, in mean, the loss of 1 base of 20, and a molecular weight below 300 bp. Each participating laboratory could freely choose any combination of methods, leading to the quantification and to the definition of the STR profile of the TS, through the documentation of each step of the analytical approaches selected. The results of the TS quantification by qPCR showed significant differences in the amount of DNA recorded by the participating laboratories using different commercial kits. These data show that only DNA quantification "relative" to the used kit (probe) is possible, being the "absolute" amount of DNA inversely related to the length of the target region (r(2) = 0.891). In addition, our results indicate that the absence of a shared stable and certified reference quantitative standard is also likely involved. STR profiling was carried out selecting five different commercial kits and amplifying the TS for a total number of 212 multiplex PCRs, thus representing an interesting overview of the different analytical protocols used by the participating laboratories. Nine laboratories decided to characterize the TS using a single kit, with a number of amplifications varying from 2 to 12, obtaining only partial STR profiles. Most of the participants determined partial or full profiles using a combination of two or more kits, and a number of amplifications varying from 2 to 27. The performance of each laboratory was described in terms of number of correctly characterized loci, dropped-out markers, unreliable genotypes, and incorrect results. The incidence of unreliable and incorrect genotypes was found to be higher for participants carrying out a limited number of amplifications, insufficient to define the correct genotypes from damaged DNA samples such as the TS. Finally, from a dataset containing about 4500 amplicons, the frequency of PCR artifacts (allele dropout, allele drop-in, and allelic imbalance) was calculated for each kit showing that the new chemistry of the kits is not able to overcome the concern of template-related factors. The results of this collaborative exercise emphasize the advantages of using a standardized degraded DNA sample in the definition of which analytical parameters are critical for the outcome of the STR profiles. PMID:25176610

  17. Detectable BRAF mutation in serum DNA samples from patients with papillary thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Tony C Y; Chuang, Alice Y C; Poeta, Luana; Koch, Wayne M; Califano, Joseph A; Tufano, Ralph P

    2010-02-01

    BACKGROUND.: An activating point mutation of the BRAF oncogene results in a V600E amino acid missense mutation found in a majority of papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC). METHODS.: In this study, 28 matched tumor and serum samples obtained from patients with both benign and malignant thyroid disorders were analyzed for BRAF mutation using a gap-ligase chain reaction technique. RESULTS.: The BRAF mutation was absent in tumor DNA samples obtained from patients with benign adenomas, follicular neoplasms or carcinoma, and thyroid lymphoma. In contrast, 5 of 14 PTC tumors were positive for the BRAF mutation. Moreover, 3 of 14 patients with PTC were positive for BRAF mutation in serum and tumor. Of these 3 patients, 2 had lymph node metastasis and 2 had PTC in background of the Hashimoto's thyroiditis. CONCLUSIONS.: The detection of free circulating mutant BRAF in patients with PTC is possible and future studies are warranted to determine its clinical significance. PMID:19626635

  18. Effects of sampling conditions on DNA-based estimates of American black bear abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laufenberg, Jared S.; Van Manen, Frank T.; Clark, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    DNA-based capture-mark-recapture techniques are commonly used to estimate American black bear (Ursus americanus) population abundance (N). Although the technique is well established, many questions remain regarding study design. In particular, relationships among N, capture probability of heterogeneity mixtures A and B (pA and pB, respectively, or p, collectively), the proportion of each mixture (π), number of capture occasions (k), and probability of obtaining reliable estimates of N are not fully understood. We investigated these relationships using 1) an empirical dataset of DNA samples for which true N was unknown and 2) simulated datasets with known properties that represented a broader array of sampling conditions. For the empirical data analysis, we used the full closed population with heterogeneity data type in Program MARK to estimate N for a black bear population in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee. We systematically reduced the number of those samples used in the analysis to evaluate the effect that changes in capture probabilities may have on parameter estimates. Model-averaged N for females and males were 161 (95% CI = 114–272) and 100 (95% CI = 74–167), respectively (pooled N = 261, 95% CI = 192–419), and the average weekly p was 0.09 for females and 0.12 for males. When we reduced the number of samples of the empirical data, support for heterogeneity models decreased. For the simulation analysis, we generated capture data with individual heterogeneity covering a range of sampling conditions commonly encountered in DNA-based capture-mark-recapture studies and examined the relationships between those conditions and accuracy (i.e., probability of obtaining an estimated N that is within 20% of true N), coverage (i.e., probability that 95% confidence interval includes true N), and precision (i.e., probability of obtaining a coefficient of variation ≤20%) of estimates using logistic regression. The capture probability for the larger of 2 mixture proportions of the population (i.e., pA or pB, depending on the value of π) was most important for predicting accuracy and precision, whereas capture probabilities of both mixture proportions (pA and pB) were important to explain variation in coverage. Based on sampling conditions similar to parameter estimates from the empirical dataset (pA = 0.30, pB = 0.05, N = 250, π = 0.15, and k = 10), predicted accuracy and precision were low (60% and 53%, respectively), whereas coverage was high (94%). Increasing pB, the capture probability for the predominate but most difficult to capture proportion of the population, was most effective to improve accuracy under those conditions. However, manipulation of other parameters may be more effective under different conditions. In general, the probabilities of obtaining accurate and precise estimates were best when p≥ 0.2. Our regression models can be used by managers to evaluate specific sampling scenarios and guide development of sampling frameworks or to assess reliability of DNA-based capture-mark-recapture studies.

  19. Feline mitochondrial DNA sampling for forensic analysis: when enough is enough!

    PubMed

    Grahn, Robert A; Alhaddad, Hasan; Alves, Paulo C; Randi, Ettore; Waly, Nashwa E; Lyons, Leslie A

    2015-05-01

    Pet hair has a demonstrated value in resolving legal issues. Cat hair is chronically shed and it is difficult to leave a home with cats without some level of secondary transfer. The power of cat hair as an evidentiary resource may be underused because representative genetic databases are not available for exclusionary purposes. Mitochondrial control region databases are highly valuable for hair analyses and have been developed for the cat. In a representative worldwide data set, 83% of domestic cat mitotypes belong to one of twelve major types. Of the remaining 17%, 7.5% are unique within the published 1394 sample database. The current research evaluates the sample size necessary to establish a representative population for forensic comparison of the mitochondrial control region for the domestic cat. For most worldwide populations, randomly sampling 50 unrelated local individuals will achieve saturation at 95%. The 99% saturation is achieved by randomly sampling 60-170 cats, depending on the numbers of mitotypes available in the population at large. Likely due to the recent domestication of the cat and minimal localized population substructure, fewer cats are needed to meet mitochondria DNA control region database practical saturation than for humans or dogs. Coupled with the available worldwide feline control region database of nearly 1400 cats, minimal local sampling will be required to establish an appropriate comparative representative database and achieve significant exclusionary power. PMID:25531059

  20. A hybrid DNA extraction method for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of bacterial communities from poultry production samples.

    PubMed

    Rothrock, Michael J; Hiett, Kelli L; Gamble, John; Caudill, Andrew C; Cicconi-Hogan, Kellie M; Caporaso, J Gregory

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of DNA extraction protocols can be highly dependent upon both the type of sample being investigated and the types of downstream analyses performed. Considering that the use of new bacterial community analysis techniques (e.g., microbiomics, metagenomics) is becoming more prevalent in the agricultural and environmental sciences and many environmental samples within these disciplines can be physiochemically and microbiologically unique (e.g., fecal and litter/bedding samples from the poultry production spectrum), appropriate and effective DNA extraction methods need to be carefully chosen. Therefore, a novel semi-automated hybrid DNA extraction method was developed specifically for use with environmental poultry production samples. This method is a combination of the two major types of DNA extraction: mechanical and enzymatic. A two-step intense mechanical homogenization step (using bead-beating specifically formulated for environmental samples) was added to the beginning of the "gold standard" enzymatic DNA extraction method for fecal samples to enhance the removal of bacteria and DNA from the sample matrix and improve the recovery of Gram-positive bacterial community members. Once the enzymatic extraction portion of the hybrid method was initiated, the remaining purification process was automated using a robotic workstation to increase sample throughput and decrease sample processing error. In comparison to the strict mechanical and enzymatic DNA extraction methods, this novel hybrid method provided the best overall combined performance when considering quantitative (using 16S rRNA qPCR) and qualitative (using microbiomics) estimates of the total bacterial communities when processing poultry feces and litter samples. PMID:25548939

  1. Improved age determination of blood and teeth samples using a selected set of DNA methylation markers.

    PubMed

    Bekaert, Bram; Kamalandua, Aubeline; Zapico, Sara C; Van de Voorde, Wim; Decorte, Ronny

    2015-01-01

    Age estimation from DNA methylation markers has seen an exponential growth of interest, not in the least from forensic scientists. The current published assays, however, can still be improved by lowering the number of markers in the assay and by providing more accurate models to predict chronological age. From the published literature we selected 4 age-associated genes (ASPA, PDE4C, ELOVL2, and EDARADD) and determined CpG methylation levels from 206 blood samples of both deceased and living individuals (age range: 0-91 years). This data was subsequently used to compare prediction accuracy with both linear and non-linear regression models. A quadratic regression model in which the methylation levels of ELOVL2 were squared showed the highest accuracy with a Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) between chronological age and predicted age of 3.75 years and an adjusted R(2) of 0.95. No difference in accuracy was observed for samples obtained either from living and deceased individuals or between the 2 genders. In addition, 29 teeth from different individuals (age range: 19-70 years) were analyzed using the same set of markers resulting in a MAD of 4.86 years and an adjusted R(2) of 0.74. Cross validation of the results obtained from blood samples demonstrated the robustness and reproducibility of the assay. In conclusion, the set of 4 CpG DNA methylation markers is capable of producing highly accurate age predictions for blood samples from deceased and living individuals. PMID:26280308

  2. Initial clinical laboratory experience in noninvasive prenatal testing for fetal aneuploidy from maternal plasma DNA samples

    PubMed Central

    Futch, Tracy; Spinosa, John; Bhatt, Sucheta; de Feo, Eileen; Rava, Richard P; Sehnert, Amy J

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to report the experience of noninvasive prenatal DNA testing using massively parallel sequencing in an accredited clinical laboratory. Methods Laboratory information was examined for blood samples received for testing between February and November 2012 for chromosome 21 (Chr21), Chr18, and Chr13. Monosomy X (MX) testing was available from July 2012 for cystic hygroma indication. Outcomes were collected from providers on samples with positive results. Results There were 5974 samples tested, and results were issued within an average of 5.1 business days. Aneuploidy was detected in 284 (4.8%) samples (155 Chr21, 66 Chr18, 19 Chr13, 40 MX, and four double aneuploidy). Follow-ups are available for 245/284 (86%), and 77/284 (27.1%) are confirmed, including one double-aneuploidy case concordant with cytogenetics from maternal malignancy. Fourteen (0.2%) discordant (putative false-positive) results (one Chr21, six Chr18, three Chr13, three MX, and one Chr21/13) have been identified. Five (0.08%) false-negative cases are reported (two trisomy 21, two trisomy 18, and one MX). In 170 (2.8%) cases, the result for a single chromosome was indefinite. Conclusions This report suggests that clinical testing of maternal cell-free DNA for fetal aneuploidy operates within performance parameters established in validation studies. Noninvasive prenatal testing is sensitive to biological contributions from placental and maternal sources. 2013 Verinata Health, Inc. Prenatal Diagnosis published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23592485

  3. A Noninvasive Hair Sampling Technique to Obtain High Quality DNA from Elusive Small Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Philippe; Henry, Alison; Russello, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Noninvasive genetic sampling approaches are becoming increasingly important to study wildlife populations. A number of studies have reported using noninvasive sampling techniques to investigate population genetics and demography of wild populations1. This approach has proven to be especially useful when dealing with rare or elusive species2. While a number of these methods have been developed to sample hair, feces and other biological material from carnivores and medium-sized mammals, they have largely remained untested in elusive small mammals. In this video, we present a novel, inexpensive and noninvasive hair snare targeted at an elusive small mammal, the American pika (Ochotona princeps). We describe the general set-up of the hair snare, which consists of strips of packing tape arranged in a web-like fashion and placed along travelling routes in the pikas habitat. We illustrate the efficiency of the snare at collecting a large quantity of hair that can then be collected and brought back to the lab. We then demonstrate the use of the DNA IQ system (Promega) to isolate DNA and showcase the utility of this method to amplify commonly used molecular markers including nuclear microsatellites, amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), mitochondrial sequences (800bp) as well as a molecular sexing marker. Overall, we demonstrate the utility of this novel noninvasive hair snare as a sampling technique for wildlife population biologists. We anticipate that this approach will be applicable to a variety of small mammals, opening up areas of investigation within natural populations, while minimizing impact to study organisms. PMID:21445038

  4. Comparison of different methods for the recovery of DNA from spores of mycotoxin-producing moulds in spiked food samples.

    PubMed

    Grube, S; Schnling, J; Prange, A

    2015-06-01

    Several food samples were spiked with fungal conidia to test the efficiency of different cell disruption methods and DNA extraction kits for subsequent molecular detection. For disrupting the firm cell walls of the spores, two different pretreatment methods, namely sonication and bead beating, were tested against no pretreatment. The subsequent DNA extraction and purification was performed using three different DNA extraction methods, which are based on a diverse combination of extraction principles, such as precipitation, thermic-enzymatic lysis, pH-enhancement and bonding with a silica membrane. The aim of the study was to find out the suitable pretreatment and DNA extraction method for the recovery of detectable amounts of fungal DNA from different food matrices. Significance and impact of the study: The choice of 'ready-to-use' commercial kits and methods has been of great importance regarding the recovery of extracted DNA. However, these commercially available kits are neither effective nor time-efficient when extracting DNA from fungal spores embedded in complex food matrices. Different extraction principles were compared and their effectiveness tested using real-time PCR. The combination of different principles for the extraction and purification of DNA was found as the most efficient method (quantity and purity) to obtain DNA from moulds and their spores from food samples. PMID:25706803

  5. Comparison of eleven methods for genomic DNA extraction suitable for large-scale whole-genome genotyping and long-term DNA banking using blood samples.

    PubMed

    Psifidi, Androniki; Dovas, Chrysostomos I; Bramis, Georgios; Lazou, Thomai; Russel, Claire L; Arsenos, Georgios; Banos, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    Over the recent years, next generation sequencing and microarray technologies have revolutionized scientific research with their applications to high-throughput analysis of biological systems. Isolation of high quantities of pure, intact, double stranded, highly concentrated, not contaminated genomic DNA is prerequisite for successful and reliable large scale genotyping analysis. High quantities of pure DNA are also required for the creation of DNA-banks. In the present study, eleven different DNA extraction procedures, including phenol-chloroform, silica and magnetic beads based extractions, were examined to ascertain their relative effectiveness for extracting DNA from ovine blood samples. The quality and quantity of the differentially extracted DNA was subsequently assessed by spectrophotometric measurements, Qubit measurements, real-time PCR amplifications and gel electrophoresis. Processing time, intensity of labor and cost for each method were also evaluated. Results revealed significant differences among the eleven procedures and only four of the methods yielded satisfactory outputs. These four methods, comprising three modified silica based commercial kits (Modified Blood, Modified Tissue, Modified Dx kits) and an in-house developed magnetic beads based protocol, were most appropriate for extracting high quality and quantity DNA suitable for large-scale microarray genotyping and also for long-term DNA storage as demonstrated by their successful application to 600 individuals. PMID:25635817

  6. Comparison of Eleven Methods for Genomic DNA Extraction Suitable for Large-Scale Whole-Genome Genotyping and Long-Term DNA Banking Using Blood Samples

    PubMed Central

    Psifidi, Androniki; Dovas, Chrysostomos I.; Bramis, Georgios; Lazou, Thomai; Russel, Claire L.; Arsenos, Georgios; Banos, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    Over the recent years, next generation sequencing and microarray technologies have revolutionized scientific research with their applications to high-throughput analysis of biological systems. Isolation of high quantities of pure, intact, double stranded, highly concentrated, not contaminated genomic DNA is prerequisite for successful and reliable large scale genotyping analysis. High quantities of pure DNA are also required for the creation of DNA-banks. In the present study, eleven different DNA extraction procedures, including phenol-chloroform, silica and magnetic beads based extractions, were examined to ascertain their relative effectiveness for extracting DNA from ovine blood samples. The quality and quantity of the differentially extracted DNA was subsequently assessed by spectrophotometric measurements, Qubit measurements, real-time PCR amplifications and gel electrophoresis. Processing time, intensity of labor and cost for each method were also evaluated. Results revealed significant differences among the eleven procedures and only four of the methods yielded satisfactory outputs. These four methods, comprising three modified silica based commercial kits (Modified Blood, Modified Tissue, Modified Dx kits) and an in-house developed magnetic beads based protocol, were most appropriate for extracting high quality and quantity DNA suitable for large-scale microarray genotyping and also for long-term DNA storage as demonstrated by their successful application to 600 individuals. PMID:25635817

  7. CRL4Cdt2 E3 ubiquitin ligase and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) cooperate to degrade thymine DNA glycosylase in S phase.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Etsuko; Dar, Ashraf; Dutta, Anindya

    2014-08-15

    Thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) is an essential enzyme playing multiple roles in base excision repair, transcription regulation, and DNA demethylation. TDG mediates the cytotoxicity of the anti-cancer chemotherapeutic drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) by prolonging S phase, generating DNA strand breaks, and inducing DNA damage signaling. During S phase of the cell cycle, TDG is degraded via the proteasomal pathway. Here we show that CRL4(Cdt2) E3 ubiquitin ligase promotes ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of TDG in S phase in a reaction that is dependent on the interaction of TDG with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). siRNA-mediated depletion of PCNA or components of CRL4(Cdt2), specifically cullin4A/B or substrate adaptor Cdt2, stabilizes TDG in human cells. Mutations in the PCNA-interacting peptide (PIP) motif of TDG that disrupt the interaction of TDG with PCNA or change critical basic residues essential for the action of the PIP degron prevent the ubiquitination and degradation of TDG. Thus physical interaction of TDG with PCNA through the PIP degron is required for targeting TDG to the CRL4(Cdt2) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. Compared with forced expression of wild type TDG, CRL4(Cdt2)- resistant TDG (?PIP) slows cell proliferation and slightly increases the toxicity of 5-FU. Thus, CRL4(Cdt2)-dependent degradation of TDG occurs in S phase because of the requirement for TDG to interact with chromatin-loaded PCNA, and this degradation is important for preventing toxicity from excess TDG. PMID:24962565

  8. Enantioseparation and determination of the chiral phenylpyrazole insecticide ethiprole in agricultural and environmental samples and its enantioselective degradation in soil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Shi, Haiyan; Gao, Beibei; Tian, Mingming; Hua, Xiude; Wang, Minghua

    2016-01-15

    An effective method for the enantioselective determination of ethiprole enantiomers in agricultural and environmental samples was developed. The effects of solvent extraction, mobile phase and thermodynamic parameters for chiral recognition were fully investigated. Complete enantioseparation of the ethiprole enantiomers was achieved on a Lux Cellulose-2 column. The stereochemical structures of ethiprole enantiomers were also determined, and (R)-(+)-ethiprole was first eluted. The average recoveries were 82.7-104.9% with intra-day RSD of 1.7-8.2% in soil, cucumber, spinach, tomato, apple and peach under optimal conditions. Good linearity (R(2)≥0.9991) was obtained for all the matrix calibration curves within a range of 0.1 to 10 mg L(-1). The limits of detection for both enantiomers were estimated to be 0.008 mg kg(-1) in soil, cucumber, spinach and tomato and 0.012 mg kg(-1) in apple and peach, which were lower than the maximum residue levels established in Japan. The results indicate that the proposed method is convenient and reliable for the enantioselective detection of ethiprole in agricultural and environmental samples. The behavior of ethiprole in soil was studied under field conditions and the enantioselective degradation was observed with enantiomer fraction values varying from 0.494 to 0.884 during the experiment. The (R)-(+)-ethiprole (t1/2=11.6 d) degraded faster than (S)-(-)-ethiprole (t1/2=34.7 d). This report is the first describe a chiral analytical method and enantioselective behavior of ethiprole, and these results should be extremely useful for the risk evaluation of ethiprole in food and environmental safety. PMID:26556749

  9. International Study to Evaluate PCR Methods for Detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in Blood Samples from Chagas Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Schijman, Alejandro G.; Bisio, Margarita; Orellana, Liliana; Sued, Mariela; Duffy, Tomás; Mejia Jaramillo, Ana M.; Cura, Carolina; Auter, Frederic; Veron, Vincent; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Deborggraeve, Stijn; Hijar, Gisely; Zulantay, Inés; Lucero, Raúl Horacio; Velazquez, Elsa; Tellez, Tatiana; Sanchez Leon, Zunilda; Galvão, Lucia; Nolder, Debbie; Monje Rumi, María; Levi, José E.; Ramirez, Juan D.; Zorrilla, Pilar; Flores, María; Jercic, Maria I.; Crisante, Gladys; Añez, Néstor; De Castro, Ana M.; Gonzalez, Clara I.; Acosta Viana, Karla; Yachelini, Pedro; Torrico, Faustino; Robello, Carlos; Diosque, Patricio; Triana Chavez, Omar; Aznar, Christine; Russomando, Graciela; Büscher, Philippe; Assal, Azzedine; Guhl, Felipe; Sosa Estani, Sergio; DaSilva, Alexandre; Britto, Constança; Luquetti, Alejandro; Ladzins, Janis

    2011-01-01

    Background A century after its discovery, Chagas disease still represents a major neglected tropical threat. Accurate diagnostics tools as well as surrogate markers of parasitological response to treatment are research priorities in the field. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of PCR methods in detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA by an external quality evaluation. Methodology/Findings An international collaborative study was launched by expert PCR laboratories from 16 countries. Currently used strategies were challenged against serial dilutions of purified DNA from stocks representing T. cruzi discrete typing units (DTU) I, IV and VI (set A), human blood spiked with parasite cells (set B) and Guanidine Hidrochloride-EDTA blood samples from 32 seropositive and 10 seronegative patients from Southern Cone countries (set C). Forty eight PCR tests were reported for set A and 44 for sets B and C; 28 targeted minicircle DNA (kDNA), 13 satellite DNA (Sat-DNA) and the remainder low copy number sequences. In set A, commercial master mixes and Sat-DNA Real Time PCR showed better specificity, but kDNA-PCR was more sensitive to detect DTU I DNA. In set B, commercial DNA extraction kits presented better specificity than solvent extraction protocols. Sat-DNA PCR tests had higher specificity, with sensitivities of 0.05–0.5 parasites/mL whereas specific kDNA tests detected 5.10−3 par/mL. Sixteen specific and coherent methods had a Good Performance in both sets A and B (10 fg/µl of DNA from all stocks, 5 par/mL spiked blood). The median values of sensitivities, specificities and accuracies obtained in testing the Set C samples with the 16 tests determined to be good performing by analyzing Sets A and B samples varied considerably. Out of them, four methods depicted the best performing parameters in all three sets of samples, detecting at least 10 fg/µl for each DNA stock, 0.5 par/mL and a sensitivity between 83.3–94.4%, specificity of 85–95%, accuracy of 86.8–89.5% and kappa index of 0.7–0.8 compared to consensus PCR reports of the 16 good performing tests and 63–69%, 100%, 71.4–76.2% and 0.4–0.5, respectively compared to serodiagnosis. Method LbD2 used solvent extraction followed by Sybr-Green based Real time PCR targeted to Sat-DNA; method LbD3 used solvent DNA extraction followed by conventional PCR targeted to Sat-DNA. The third method (LbF1) used glass fiber column based DNA extraction followed by TaqMan Real Time PCR targeted to Sat-DNA (cruzi 1/cruzi 2 and cruzi 3 TaqMan probe) and the fourth method (LbQ) used solvent DNA extraction followed by conventional hot-start PCR targeted to kDNA (primer pairs 121/122). These four methods were further evaluated at the coordinating laboratory in a subset of human blood samples, confirming the performance obtained by the participating laboratories. Conclusion/Significance This study represents a first crucial step towards international validation of PCR procedures for detection of T. cruzi in human blood samples. PMID:21264349

  10. Reef-associated crustacean fauna: biodiversity estimates using semi-quantitative sampling and DNA barcoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaisance, L.; Knowlton, N.; Paulay, G.; Meyer, C.

    2009-12-01

    The cryptofauna associated with coral reefs accounts for a major part of the biodiversity in these ecosystems but has been largely overlooked in biodiversity estimates because the organisms are hard to collect and identify. We combine a semi-quantitative sampling design and a DNA barcoding approach to provide metrics for the diversity of reef-associated crustacean. Twenty-two similar-sized dead heads of Pocillopora were sampled at 10 m depth from five central Pacific Ocean localities (four atolls in the Northern Line Islands and in Moorea, French Polynesia). All crustaceans were removed, and partial cytochrome oxidase subunit I was sequenced from 403 individuals, yielding 135 distinct taxa using a species-level criterion of 5% similarity. Most crustacean species were rare; 44% of the OTUs were represented by a single individual, and an additional 33% were represented by several specimens found only in one of the five localities. The Northern Line Islands and Moorea shared only 11 OTUs. Total numbers estimated by species richness statistics (Chao1 and ACE) suggest at least 90 species of crustaceans in Moorea and 150 in the Northern Line Islands for this habitat type. However, rarefaction curves for each region failed to approach an asymptote, and Chao1 and ACE estimators did not stabilize after sampling eight heads in Moorea, so even these diversity figures are underestimates. Nevertheless, even this modest sampling effort from a very limited habitat resulted in surprisingly high species numbers.

  11. High Throughput Sample Preparation and Analysis for DNA Sequencing, PCR and Combinatorial Screening of Catalysis Based on Capillary Array Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Yonghua Zhang

    2002-05-27

    Sample preparation has been one of the major bottlenecks for many high throughput analyses. The purpose of this research was to develop new sample preparation and integration approach for DNA sequencing, PCR based DNA analysis and combinatorial screening of homogeneous catalysis based on multiplexed capillary electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence or imaging UV absorption detection. The author first introduced a method to integrate the front-end tasks to DNA capillary-array sequencers. protocols for directly sequencing the plasmids from a single bacterial colony in fused-silica capillaries were developed. After the colony was picked, lysis was accomplished in situ in the plastic sample tube using either a thermocycler or heating block. Upon heating, the plasmids were released while chromsomal DNA and membrane proteins were denatured and precipitated to the bottom of the tube. After adding enzyme and Sanger reagents, the resulting solution was aspirated into the reaction capillaries by a syringe pump, and cycle sequencing was initiated. No deleterious effect upon the reaction efficiency, the on-line purification system, or the capillary electrophoresis separation was observed, even though the crude lysate was used as the template. Multiplexed on-line DNA sequencing data from 8 parallel channels allowed base calling up to 620 bp with an accuracy of 98%. The entire system can be automatically regenerated for repeated operation. For PCR based DNA analysis, they demonstrated that capillary electrophoresis with UV detection can be used for DNA analysis starting from clinical sample without purification. After PCR reaction using cheek cell, blood or HIV-1 gag DNA, the reaction mixtures was injected into the capillary either on-line or off-line by base stacking. The protocol was also applied to capillary array electrophoresis. The use of cheaper detection, and the elimination of purification of DNA sample before or after PCR reaction, will make this approach an attractive alternative to current methods for genetic analysis and disease diagnosis.

  12. Comparative Study of Seven Commercial Kits for Human DNA Extraction from Urine Samples Suitable for DNA Biomarker-Based Public Health Studies

    PubMed Central

    El Bali, Latifa; Diman, Aurélie; Bernard, Alfred; Roosens, Nancy H. C.; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C. J.

    2014-01-01

    Human genomic DNA extracted from urine could be an interesting tool for large-scale public health studies involving characterization of genetic variations or DNA biomarkers as a result of the simple and noninvasive collection method. These studies, involving many samples, require a rapid, easy, and standardized extraction protocol. Moreover, for practicability, there is a necessity to collect urine at a moment different from the first void and to store it appropriately until analysis. The present study compared seven commercial kits to select the most appropriate urinary human DNA extraction procedure for epidemiological studies. DNA yield has been determined using different quantification methods: two classical, i.e., NanoDrop and PicoGreen, and two species-specific real-time quantitative (q)PCR assays, as DNA extracted from urine contains, besides human, microbial DNA also, which largely contributes to the total DNA yield. In addition, the kits giving a good yield were also tested for the presence of PCR inhibitors. Further comparisons were performed regarding the sampling time and the storage conditions. Finally, as a proof-of-concept, an important gene related to smoking has been genotyped using the developed tools. We could select one well-performing kit for the human DNA extraction from urine suitable for molecular diagnostic real-time qPCR-based assays targeting genetic variations, applicable to large-scale studies. In addition, successful genotyping was possible using DNA extracted from urine stored at −20°C for several months, and an acceptable yield could also be obtained from urine collected at different moments during the day, which is particularly important for public health studies. PMID:25365790

  13. A novel methyl-binding domain protein enrichment method for identifying genome-wide tissue-specific DNA methylation from nanogram DNA samples

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Growing evidence suggests that DNA methylation plays a role in tissue-specific differentiation. Current approaches to methylome analysis using enrichment with the methyl-binding domain protein (MBD) are restricted to large (≥1 μg) DNA samples, limiting the analysis of small tissue samples. Here we present a technique that enables characterization of genome-wide tissue-specific methylation patterns from nanogram quantities of DNA. Results We have developed a methodology utilizing MBD2b/MBD3L1 enrichment for methylated DNA, kinase pre-treated ligation-mediated PCR amplification (MeKL) and hybridization to the comprehensive high-throughput array for relative methylation (CHARM) customized tiling arrays, which we termed MeKL-chip. Kinase modification in combination with the addition of PEG has increased ligation-mediated PCR amplification over 20-fold, enabling >400-fold amplification of starting DNA. We have shown that MeKL-chip can be applied to as little as 20 ng of DNA, enabling comprehensive analysis of small DNA samples. Applying MeKL-chip to the mouse retina (a limited tissue source) and brain, 2,498 tissue-specific differentially methylated regions (T-DMRs) were characterized. The top five T-DMRs (Rgs20, Hes2, Nfic, Cckbr and Six3os1) were validated by pyrosequencing. Conclusions MeKL-chip enables genome-wide methylation analysis of nanogram quantities of DNA with a wide range of observed-to-expected CpG ratios due to the binding properties of the MBD2b/MBD3L1 protein complex. This methodology enabled the first analysis of genome-wide methylation in the mouse retina, characterizing novel T-DMRs. PMID:23759032

  14. A PCR-based approach to assess genomic DNA contamination in RNA: Application to rat RNA samples.

    PubMed

    Padhi, Bhaja K; Singh, Manjeet; Huang, Nicholas; Pelletier, Guillaume

    2016-02-01

    Genomic DNA (gDNA) contamination of RNA samples can lead to inaccurate measurement of gene expression by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). We describe an easily adoptable PCR-based method where gDNA contamination in RNA samples is assessed by comparing the amplification of intronic and exonic sequences from a housekeeping gene. Although this alternative assay was developed for rat RNA samples, it could be easily adapted to other species. As a proof of concept, we assessed the effects of detectable gDNA contamination levels on the expression of a few genes that illustrate the importance of RNA quality in acquiring reliable data. PMID:26545322

  15. Rapid colorimetric assays to qualitatively distinguish RNA and DNA in biomolecular samples.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Jennifer; Mura, Cameron

    2013-01-01

    Biochemical experimentation generally requires accurate knowledge, at an early stage, of the nucleic acid, protein, and other biomolecular components in potentially heterogeneous specimens. Nucleic acids can be detected via several established approaches, including analytical methods that are spectrophotometric (e.g., A(260)), fluorometric (e.g., binding of fluorescent dyes), or colorimetric (nucleoside-specific chromogenic chemical reactions).(1) Though it cannot readily distinguish RNA from DNA, the A(260)/A(280) ratio is commonly employed, as it offers a simple and rapid(2) assessment of the relative content of nucleic acid, which absorbs predominantly near 260 nm and protein, which absorbs primarily near 280 nm. Ratios < 0.8 are taken as indicative of 'pure' protein specimens, while pure nucleic acid (NA) is characterized by ratios > 1.5(3). However, there are scenarios in which the protein/NA content cannot be as clearly or reliably inferred from simple uv-vis spectrophotometric measurements. For instance, (i) samples may contain one or more proteins which are relatively devoid of the aromatic amino acids responsible for absorption at ≈280 nm (Trp, Tyr, Phe), as is the case with some small RNA-binding proteins, and (ii) samples can exhibit intermediate A(260)/A(280) ratios (~0.8 < ~1.5), where the protein/NA content is far less clear and may even reflect some high-affinity association between the protein and NA components. For such scenarios, we describe herein a suite of colorimetric assays to rapidly distinguish RNA, DNA, and reducing sugars in a potentially mixed sample of biomolecules. The methods rely on the differential sensitivity of pentoses and other carbohydrates to Benedict's, Bial's (orcinol), and Dische's (diphenylamine) reagents; the streamlined protocols can be completed in a matter of minutes, without any additional steps of having to isolate the components. The assays can be performed in parallel to differentiate between RNA and DNA, as well as indicate the presence of free reducing sugars such as glucose, fructose, and ribose (Figure 1). PMID:23407542

  16. Developmental toxicity and DNA damage from exposure to parking lot runoff retention pond samples in the Japanese Medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    PubMed Central

    Colton, Meryl D.; Kwok, Kevin W.H.; Brandon, Jennifer A.; Warren, Isaac H.; Ryde, Ian T.; Cooper, Ellen M.; Hinton, David E.; Rittschof, Daniel; Meyer, Joel N.

    2015-01-01

    Parking lot runoff retention ponds (PLRRP) receive significant chemical input, but the biological effects of parking lot runoff are not well understood. We used the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) as a model to study the toxicity of water and sediment samples from a PLRRP in Morehead City, NC. Medaka exposed in ovo to a dilution series of PLRRP water had increased odds of death before hatching, but not teratogenesis or delayed hatching. Next, we adapted a long-amplicon quantitative PCR (LA-QPCR) assay for DNA damage for use with the Japanese medaka. We employed LA-QPCR to test the hypotheses that PLRRP water and sediments would cause nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage with and without full-spectrum, natural solar radiation. Fluoranthene with and without natural sunlight was a positive control for phototoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced DNA damage. Fluoranthene exposure did not result in detectable DNA damage by itself, but in combination with sunlight caused significant DNA damage to both genomes. PLRRP samples caused DNA damage to both genomes, and this was not increased by sunlight exposure, suggesting the DNA damage was unlikely the result of PAH phototoxicity. We report for the first time that PLRRP-associated pollutants cause both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage, and that fluoranthene-mediated phototoxicity results in similar levels of damage to the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. These effects may be especially significant in sensitive marine ecosystems. PMID:24816191

  17. Developmental toxicity and DNA damage from exposure to parking lot runoff retention pond samples in the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    PubMed

    Colton, Meryl D; Kwok, Kevin W H; Brandon, Jennifer A; Warren, Isaac H; Ryde, Ian T; Cooper, Ellen M; Hinton, David E; Rittschof, Daniel; Meyer, Joel N

    2014-08-01

    Parking lot runoff retention ponds (PLRRP) receive significant chemical input, but the biological effects of parking lot runoff are not well understood. We used the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) as a model to study the toxicity of water and sediment samples from a PLRRP in Morehead City, NC. Medaka exposed in ovo to a dilution series of PLRRP water had increased odds of death before hatching, but not teratogenesis or delayed hatching. Next, we adapted a long-amplicon quantitative PCR (LA-QPCR) assay for DNA damage for use with the Japanese medaka. We employed LA-QPCR to test the hypotheses that PLRRP water and sediments would cause nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage with and without full-spectrum, natural solar radiation. Fluoranthene with and without natural sunlight was a positive control for phototoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced DNA damage. Fluoranthene exposure did not result in detectable DNA damage by itself, but in combination with sunlight caused significant DNA damage to both genomes. PLRRP samples caused DNA damage to both genomes, and this was not increased by sunlight exposure, suggesting the DNA damage was unlikely the result of PAH phototoxicity. We report for the first time that PLRRP-associated pollutants cause both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage, and that fluoranthene-mediated phototoxicity results in similar levels of damage to the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. These effects may be especially significant in sensitive marine ecosystems. PMID:24816191

  18. A DNA based method to detect the grapevine root-rotting fungus Roesleria subterranea in soil and root samples.

    PubMed

    Neuhauser, Sigrid; Huber, Lars; Kirchmair, Martin

    2009-08-01

    Roesleria subterranea causes root rot in grapevine and fruit trees. The fungus has long been underestimated as a weak parasite, but during the last years it has been reported to cause severe damages in German vineyards. Direct, observation-based detection of the parasite is time consuming and destructive, as large parts of the rootstocks have to be uprooted and screened for the tiny, stipitate, hypogeous ascomata of R. subterranea. To facilitate rapid detection in vineyards, protocols to extract DNA from soil samples and grapevine roots, and R.-subterranea-specific PCR primers were designed. Twelve DNA-extraction protocols for soil samples were tested in small-scale experiments, and selected parameters were optimised. A protocol based on ball-mill homogenization, DNA extraction with SDS, skim milk, chloroform, and isopropanol, and subsequent purification of the raw extracts with PVPP-spin-columns was most effective. This DNA extraction protocol was found to be suitable for a wide range of soil-types including clay, loam and humic-rich soils. For DNA extraction from grapevine roots a CTAB-based protocol was more reliable for various grapevine rootstock varieties. Roesleria-subterranea-specific primers for the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA-region were developed and tested for their specificity to DNA extracts from eleven R. subterranea strains isolated from grapevine and fruit trees. No cross reactions were detected with DNA extracts from 44 different species of fungi isolated from vineyard soils. The sensitivity of the species-specific primers in combination with the DNA extraction method for soil was high: as little as 100 fg ?l(-1)R.-subterranea-DNA was sufficient for a detection in soil samples and plant material. Given that specific primers are available, the presented method will also allow quick and large-scale testing for other root pathogens. PMID:21442023

  19. Insights into biodiversity sampling strategies for freshwater microinvertebrate faunas through bioblitz campaigns and DNA barcoding

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Biodiversity surveys have long depended on traditional methods of taxonomy to inform sampling protocols and to determine when a representative sample of a given species pool of interest has been obtained. Questions remain as to how to design appropriate sampling efforts to accurately estimate total biodiversity. Here we consider the biodiversity of freshwater ostracods (crustacean class Ostracoda) from the region of Churchill, Manitoba, Canada. Through an analysis of observed species richness and complementarity, accumulation curves, and richness estimators, we conduct an a posteriori analysis of five bioblitz-style collection strategies that differed in terms of total duration, number of sites, protocol flexibility to heterogeneous habitats, sorting of specimens for analysis, and primary purpose of collection. We used DNA barcoding to group specimens into molecular operational taxonomic units for comparison. Results Forty-eight provisional species were identified through genetic divergences, up from the 30 species previously known and documented in literature from the Churchill region. We found differential sampling efficiency among the five strategies, with liberal sorting of specimens for molecular analysis, protocol flexibility (and particularly a focus on covering diverse microhabitats), and a taxon-specific focus to collection having strong influences on garnering more accurate species richness estimates. Conclusions Our findings have implications for the successful design of future biodiversity surveys and citizen-science collection projects, which are becoming increasingly popular and have been shown to produce reliable results for a variety of taxa despite relying on largely untrained collectors. We propose that efficiency of biodiversity surveys can be increased by non-experts deliberately selecting diverse microhabitats; by conducting two rounds of molecular analysis, with the numbers of samples processed during round two informed by the singleton prevalence during round one; and by having sub-teams (even if all non-experts) focus on select taxa. Our study also provides new insights into subarctic diversity of freshwater Ostracoda and contributes to the broader “Barcoding Biotas” campaign at Churchill. Finally, we comment on the associated implications and future research directions for community ecology analyses and biodiversity surveys through DNA barcoding, which we show here to be an efficient technique enabling rapid biodiversity quantification in understudied taxa. PMID:23557180

  20. Thermal degradation of bacterial poly(hydroxybutyric acid): Mechanisms from the dependence of pyrolysis yields on sample thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Lehrle, R.S.; Williams, R.J. . School of Chemistry)

    1994-07-04

    The thermal degradation behavior at 350 C of poly(hydroxybutyric acid), Biopol'', has been studied by pyrolysis-GC using a microthermocouple-controlled filament. The overall pyrolysis mechanism--an array of parallel and consecutive processes--has been elucidated by a novel method. This involves the measurement of product yields as a function of sample thickness, for samples in the microgram range, pyrolyzed for a chosen duration (5 s was used in the present study). This approach provides indirect control of the residence time of primary products in the melt and thereby facilitates the detection of secondary reactions. From quantitative measurements of bonus yields and deficit yields, it is shown, for example, that only trans isomers are formed as primary products; trans-cis isomerizations then occur as secondary reactions. Moreover, although monomeric, dimeric, and trimeric products are formed by primary processes, there is evidence that a trimeric product is also formed by a consecutive reaction mechanism. Somewhat unexpectedly, the tetrameric products are formed exclusively by secondary reactions. This observation casts some doubt on the view that the pyrolysis products from this polymer can be accounted for entirely in terms of random ([beta]-elimination) scissions.

  1. High-throughput sample-to-answer detection of DNA/RNA in crude samples within functionalized micro-pipette tips.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wenjing; Wang, Jidong; Wu, Qiong; Sun, Jiashu; Chen, Yiping; Zhang, Lu; Zheng, Chunsheng; Gao, Wenna; Liu, Yi; Jiang, Xingyu

    2016-01-15

    We develop a micro-pipette tip-based nucleic acid test (MTNT) for high-throughput sample-to-answer detection of both DNA and RNA from crude samples including cells, bacteria, and solid plants, without the need of sample pretreatment and complex operation. MTNT consists of micro-pipette tips and embedded solid phase nucleic acid extraction membranes, and fully integrates the functions of nucleic acid extraction from crude samples, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of nucleic acids, and visual readout of assays. The total assaying time for DNA or RNA from a variety of crude samples ranges from 90 to 160 min. The limit of detection (LOD) of MTNT is 2 copies of plasmids containing the target nucleic acid fragments of Ebola virus, and 8 CFU of Escherichia coli carrying Ebola virus-derived plasmids. MTNT can also detect CK-19 mRNA from as few as 2 cancer cells without complicated procedures such as RNA extraction and purification. We further demonstrate MTNT in a high-throughput format using an eight-channel pipette and a homemade mini-heater, with a maximum throughput of 40 samples. Compared with other point-of-care (POC) nucleic acid tests (NAT), MTNT could assay both DNA and RNA directly from liquid (cells/bacteria/blood) or solid (plant) samples in a straightforward, sensitive, high-throughput, and containment-free manner, suggesting a considerable promise for low-cost and POC NAT in remote areas. PMID:26283588

  2. Combined expression of miR-122a, miR-1, and miR-200b can differentiate degraded RNA samples from liver, pancreas, and stomach.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joseph; Choi, Na Eun; Oh, Su Jin; Park, Sang Jae; Kim, Hark Kyun

    2011-02-01

    The effect of RNA degradation on the diagnostic utility of microRNA has not been systematically evaluated in clinical samples. We asked if the microRNA profile is preserved in degraded RNA samples derived from mouse and human tissue. We selected tissue-specific microRNA candidates from published human microarray data, and validated them using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (QRTPCR) analyses on flash-frozen, normal mouse liver, pancreas, and stomach tissue samples. MiR-122a, miR-1, and miR-200b were identified as tissue-specific, and the 3-microRNA-based QRTPCR could predict the tissue origin for mouse tissue samples that were left at room temperature for 2 h with an accuracy of 91.7%. When we applied this 3-microRNA predictor to clinical specimens with various degree of RNA degradation, the predictor differentiated degraded RNA samples from liver, pancreas, and stomach with an accuracy of 90% (26/29). Expression levels of miR-122a, miR-1, and miR-200b were modestly changed after the extended (2-4 h) storage at room temperature, but the magnitudes of expression changes were small compared to the expression differences between various tissues of origin. This proof-of-principle study demonstrates that RNA degradation due to extended storage at room temperature does not affect the predictive power of tissue-specific microRNA QRTPCR predictor. PMID:21255182

  3. Development of a Novel Self-Enclosed Sample Preparation Device for DNA/RNA Isolation in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ye; Mehta, Satish K.; Pensinger, Stuart J.; Pickering, Karen D.

    2011-01-01

    Modern biology techniques present potentials for a wide range of molecular, cellular, and biochemistry applications in space, including detection of infectious pathogens and environmental contaminations, monitoring of drug-resistant microbial and dangerous mutations, identification of new phenotypes of microbial and new life species. However, one of the major technological blockades in enabling these technologies in space is a lack of devices for sample preparation in the space environment. To overcome such an obstacle, we constructed a prototype of a DNA/RNA isolation device based on our novel designs documented in the NASA New Technology Reporting System (MSC-24811-1/3-1). This device is self-enclosed and pipette free, purposely designed for use in the absence of gravity. Our design can also be modified easily for preparing samples in space for other applications, such as flowcytometry, immunostaining, cell separation, sample purification and separation according to its size and charges, sample chemical labeling, and sample purification. The prototype of our DNA/RNA isolation device was tested for efficiencies of DNA and RNA isolation from various cell types for PCR analysis. The purity and integrity of purified DNA and RNA were determined as well. Results showed that our developed DNA/RNA isolation device offers similar efficiency and quality in comparison to the samples prepared using the standard protocol in the laboratory.

  4. Fishing in the Water: Effect of Sampled Water Volume on Environmental DNA-Based Detection of Macroinvertebrates.

    PubMed

    Mchler, Elvira; Deiner, Kristy; Spahn, Fabienne; Altermatt, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Accurate detection of organisms is crucial for the effective management of threatened and invasive species because false detections directly affect the implementation of management actions. The use of environmental DNA (eDNA) as a species detection tool is in a rapid development stage; however, concerns about accurate detections using eDNA have been raised. We evaluated the effect of sampled water volume (0.25 to 2 L) on the detection rate for three macroinvertebrate species. Additionally, we tested (depending on the sampled water volume) what amount of total extracted DNA should be screened to reduce uncertainty in detections. We found that all three species were detected in all volumes of water. Surprisingly, however, only one species had a positive relationship between an increased sample volume and an increase in the detection rate. We conclude that the optimal sample volume might depend on the species-habitat combination and should be tested for the system where management actions are warranted. Nevertheless, we minimally recommend sampling water volumes of 1 L and screening at least 14 ?L of extracted eDNA for each sample to reduce uncertainty in detections when studying macroinvertebrates in rivers and using our molecular workflow. PMID:26560432

  5. Optical characterization of epidermal cells and their relationship to DNA recovery from touch samples

    PubMed Central

    Stanciu, Cristina E.; Philpott, M. Katherine; Kwon, Ye Jin; Bustamante, Eduardo E.; Ehrhardt, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the relative contributions of different cellular and genetic components to biological samples created by touch or contact with a surface – one of the most challenging forms of forensic evidence. Touch samples were generated by having individuals hold an object for five minutes and analyzed for quantity of intact epidermal cells, extracellular DNA, and DNA from pelleted cell material after elution from the collection swab. Comparisons were made between samples where individuals had washed their hands immediately prior to handling and those where hand washing was not controlled. The vast majority (84-100%) of DNA detected in these touch samples was extracellular and was uncorrelated to the number of epidermal cells detected. Although little to no extracellular or cell pellet-associated DNA was detected when individuals washed their hands prior to substrate handling, we found that a significant number of epidermal cells (between ~5x10 3 and ~1x10 5) could still be recovered from these samples, suggesting that other types of biological information may be present even when no amplifiable nuclear DNA is present. These results help to elucidate the biological context for touch samples and characterize factors that may contribute to patterns of transfer and persistence of genetic material in forensic evidence. PMID:26870321

  6. A new method for estimating the demographic history from DNA sequences: an importance sampling approach

    PubMed Central

    Ait Kaci Azzou, Sadoune; Larribe, Fabrice; Froda, Sorana

    2015-01-01

    The effective population size over time (demographic history) can be retraced from a sample of contemporary DNA sequences. In this paper, we propose a novel methodology based on importance sampling (IS) for exploring such demographic histories. Our starting point is the generalized skyline plot with the main difference being that our procedure, skywis plot, uses a large number of genealogies. The information provided by these genealogies is combined according to the IS weights. Thus, we compute a weighted average of the effective population sizes on specific time intervals (epochs), where the genealogies that agree more with the data are given more weight. We illustrate by a simulation study that the skywis plot correctly reconstructs the recent demographic history under the scenarios most commonly considered in the literature. In particular, our method can capture a change point in the effective population size, and its overall performance is comparable with the one of the bayesian skyline plot. We also introduce the case of serially sampled sequences and illustrate that it is possible to improve the performance of the skywis plot in the case of an exponential expansion of the effective population size. PMID:26300910

  7. Complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of a tadpole shrimp (Triops cancriformis) and analysis of museum samples.

    PubMed

    Umetsu, Kazuo; Iwabuchi, Naruki; Yuasa, Isao; Saitou, Naruya; Clark, Paul F; Boxshall, Geoff; Osawa, Motoki; Igarashi, Keiji

    2002-12-01

    The complete mitochondrial DNA (mtNDA) of the tadpole shrimp Triops cancriformis was sequenced. The sequence consisted of 15,101 bp with an A+T content of 69%. Its gene arrangement was identical with those sequences of the water flea (Daphnia pulex) and giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), whereas it differed from that of the brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) in the arrangement of its genes for tRNAs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed T. cancriformis to be more closely related to the water flea than to the brine shrimp and giant tiger prawn. We also compared the 16S rRNA sequences of five formalin-fixed tadpole shrimps that had been collected in five different locations and stored in a museum. The sequence divergence was in the range of 0-1.51%, suggesting that those samples were closely related to each other. PMID:12481263

  8. Unexpected presence of Fagus orientalis complex in Italy as inferred from 45,000-year-old DNA pollen samples from Venice lagoon

    PubMed Central

    Paffetti, Donatella; Vettori, Cristina; Caramelli, David; Vernesi, Cristiano; Lari, Martina; Paganelli, Arturo; Paule, Ladislav; Giannini, Raffaello

    2007-01-01

    Background Phylogeographic analyses on the Western Euroasiatic Fagus taxa (F. orientalis, F. sylvatica, F. taurica and F. moesiaca) is available, however, the subdivision of Fagus spp. is unresolved and there is no consensus on the phylogeny and on the identification (both with morphological than molecular markers) of Fagus Eurasiatic taxa. For the first time molecular analyses of ancient pollen, dated at least 45,000 years ago, were used in combination with the phylogeny analysis on current species, to identify the Fagus spp. present during the Last Interglacial period in Italy. In this work we aim at testing if the trnL-trnF chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) region, that has been previously proved efficient in discriminating different Quercus taxa, can be employed in distinguishing the Fagus species and in identifying the ancient pollen. Results 86 populations from 4 Western Euroasistic taxa were sampled, and sequenced for the trnL-trnF region to verify the efficiency of this cpDNA region in identifying the Fagus spp.. Furthermore, Fagus crenata (2 populations), Fagus grandifolia (2 populations), Fagus japonica, Fagus hayatae, Quercus species and Castanea species were analysed to better resolve the phylogenetic inference. Our results show that this cpDNA region harbour some informative sites that allow to infer relationships among the species within the Fagaceae family. In particular, few specific and fixed mutations were able to discriminate and identify all the different Fagus species. Considering a short fragment of 176 base pairs within the trnL intron, 2 transversions were found able in distinguishing the F. orientalis complex taxa (F. orientalis, F. taurica and F. moesiaca) from the remaining Fagus spp. (F. sylvatica, F. japonica, F. hayataea, F. crenata and F. grandifolia). This permits to analyse this fragment also in ancient samples, where DNA is usually highly degraded. The sequences data indicate that the DNA recovered from ancient pollen belongs to the F. orientalis complex since it displays the informative sites characteristic of this complex. Conclusion The ancient DNA sequences demonstrate for the first time that, in contrast to current knowledge based on palynological and macrofossil data, the F. orientalis complex was already present during the Tyrrhenian period in what is now the Venice lagoon (Italy). This is a new and important insight considering that nowadays West Europe is not the natural area of Fagus orientalis complex, and up to now nobody has hypothesized the presence during the Last Interglacial period of F. orientalis complex in Italy. PMID:17767734

  9. Spectral, thermal, kinetic, molecular modeling and eukaryotic DNA degradation studies for a new series of albendazole (HABZ) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Metwaly, Nashwa M.; Refat, Moamen S.

    2011-01-01

    This work represents the elaborated investigation for the ligational behavior of the albendazole ligand through its coordination with, Cu(II), Mn(II), Ni(II), Co(II) and Cr(III) ions. Elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic moment, spectral studies (IR, UV-Vis and ESR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TG and DTG) have been used to characterize the isolated complexes. A deliberate comparison for the IR spectra reveals that the ligand coordinated with all mentioned metal ions by the same manner as a neutral bidentate through carbonyl of ester moiety and NH groups. The proposed chelation form for such complexes is expected through out the preparation conditions in a relatively acidic medium. The powder XRD study reflects the amorphous nature for the investigated complexes except Mn(II). The conductivity measurements reflect the non-electrolytic feature for all complexes. In comparing with the constants for the magnetic measurements as well as the electronic spectral data, the octahedral structure was proposed strongly for Cr(III) and Ni(II), the tetrahedral for Co(II) and Mn(II) complexes but the square-pyramidal for the Cu(II) one. The thermogravimetric analysis confirms the presence or absence of water molecules by any type of attachments. Also, the kinetic parameters are estimated from DTG and TG curves. ESR spectrum data for Cu(II) solid complex confirms the square-pyramidal state is the most fitted one for the coordinated structure. The albendazole ligand and its complexes are biologically investigated against two bacteria as well as their effective effect on degradation of calf thymus DNA.

  10. NMR spectroscopic characterisation of oligosaccharides from two Ulva rigida ulvan samples (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) degraded by a lyase.

    PubMed

    Lahaye, M

    1998-12-21

    The chemical structure and the sequence of repeating units in ulvans of similar compositions from two different Ulva rigida samples collected in the Canary Islands and in Brittany were studied after ulvan-lyase degradation and NMR spectroscopic analysis of the reaction products. Both ulvans were composed of ulvanobiuronic acid 3-sulfate type A [-->4)-beta-D-GlcA-(1-->4)-alpha-L-Rha 3-sulfate-(1-->] (symbolised as A3s) and contained disaccharides composed of [-->4)-beta-D-Xyl-(1-->4)-alpha-L-Rha 3-sulfate-(1-->] and [-->4)-beta-D-Xyl 2-sulfate-(1-->4)-alpha-L-Rha 3-sulfate], respectively referred to as ulvanobiose 3-sulfate (U3s) and ulvanobiose 2',3-disulfate (U2's,3s). In the Canary Islands sample, these U3s and U2's,3s occurred dispersed among A3s sequences and as short blocks of two or three units. In contrast, in the Brittany samples, these units were dispersed among A3s structures and next to A3s units branched at O-2 of alpha-L-Rha 3-sulfate by a terminal beta-D-GlcA and symbolised as A2g,3s. However, more complex structures are likely to occur in the enzyme resistant fraction remaining from this ulvan. An average structure sequence of these two ulvans was proposed. The transposition of the 13C NMR data of the new identified structures to the parent polysaccharides was not possible, probably due to the different sequence distributions affecting the carbons chemical shifts. PMID:10230036

  11. qPCR-based mitochondrial DNA quantification: Influence of template DNA fragmentation on accuracy

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Christopher B.; Gallati, Sabina; Schaller, Andre

    2012-07-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Serial qPCR accurately determines fragmentation state of any given DNA sample. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Serial qPCR demonstrates different preservation of the nuclear and mitochondrial genome. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Serial qPCR provides a diagnostic tool to validate the integrity of bioptic material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Serial qPCR excludes degradation-induced erroneous quantification. -- Abstract: Real-time PCR (qPCR) is the method of choice for quantification of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) by relative comparison of a nuclear to a mitochondrial locus. Quantitative abnormal mtDNA content is indicative of mitochondrial disorders and mostly confines in a tissue-specific manner. Thus handling of degradation-prone bioptic material is inevitable. We established a serial qPCR assay based on increasing amplicon size to measure degradation status of any DNA sample. Using this approach we can exclude erroneous mtDNA quantification due to degraded samples (e.g. long post-exicision time, autolytic processus, freeze-thaw cycles) and ensure abnormal DNA content measurements (e.g. depletion) in non-degraded patient material. By preparation of degraded DNA under controlled conditions using sonification and DNaseI digestion we show that erroneous quantification is due to the different preservation qualities of the nuclear and the mitochondrial genome. This disparate degradation of the two genomes results in over- or underestimation of mtDNA copy number in degraded samples. Moreover, as analysis of defined archival tissue would allow to precise the molecular pathomechanism of mitochondrial disorders presenting with abnormal mtDNA content, we compared fresh frozen (FF) with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) skeletal muscle tissue of the same sample. By extrapolation of measured decay constants for nuclear DNA ({lambda}{sub nDNA}) and mtDNA ({lambda}{sub mtDNA}) we present an approach to possibly correct measurements in degraded samples in the future. To our knowledge this is the first time different degradation impact of the two genomes is demonstrated and which evaluates systematically the impact of DNA degradation on quantification of mtDNA copy number.

  12. Mitochondrial DNA Damage and Dysfunction, and Oxidative Stress Are Associated with Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Protein Degradation and Apoptosis in High Fat Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yuzefovych, Larysa V.; Musiyenko, Sergiy I.; Wilson, Glenn L.; Rachek, Lyudmila I.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies showed a link between a high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and lipid accumulation in non-adipose tissues, such as skeletal muscle and liver, and insulin resistance (IR). Although the mechanisms responsible for IR in those tissues are different, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have been implicated in the disease process. We tested the hypothesis that HFD induced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and that this damage is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and induction of markers of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, protein degradation and apoptosis in skeletal muscle and liver in a mouse model of obesity-induced IR. Methodology/Principal Findings C57BL/6J male mice were fed either a HFD (60% fat) or normal chow (NC) (10% fat) for 16 weeks. We found that HFD-induced IR correlated with increased mtDNA damage, mitochondrial dysfunction and markers of oxidative stress in skeletal muscle and liver. Also, a HFD causes a change in the expression level of DNA repair enzymes in both nuclei and mitochondria in skeletal muscle and liver. Furthermore, a HFD leads to activation of ER stress, protein degradation and apoptosis in skeletal muscle and liver, and significantly reduced the content of two major proteins involved in insulin signaling, Akt and IRS-1 in skeletal muscle, and Akt in liver. Basal p-Akt level was not significantly influenced by HFD feeding in skeletal muscle and liver. Conclusions/Significance This study provides new evidence that HFD-induced mtDNA damage correlates with mitochondrial dysfunction and increased oxidative stress in skeletal muscle and liver, which is associated with the induction of markers of ER stress, protein degradation and apoptosis. PMID:23342074

  13. Obtaining long 16S rDNA sequences using multiple primers and its application on dioxin-containing samples

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has transformed metagenomics because the high-throughput data allow an in-depth exploration of a complex microbial community. However, accurate species identification with NGS data is challenging because NGS sequences are relatively short. Assembling 16S rDNA segments into longer sequences has been proposed for improving species identification. Current approaches, however, either suffer from amplification bias due to one single primer or insufficient 16S rDNA reads in whole genome sequencing data. Results Multiple primers were used to amplify different 16S rDNA segments for 454 sequencing, followed by 454 read classification and assembly. This permitted targeted sequencing while reducing primer bias. For test samples containing four known bacteria, accurate and near full-length 16S rDNAs of three known bacteria were obtained. For real soil and sediment samples containing dioxins in various concentrations, 16S rDNA sequences were lengthened by 50% for about half of the non-rare microbes, and 16S rDNAs of several microbes reached more than 1000 bp. In addition, reduced primer bias using multiple primers was illustrated. Conclusions A new experimental and computational pipeline for obtaining long 16S rDNA sequences was proposed. The capability of the pipeline was validated on test samples and illustrated on real samples. For dioxin-containing samples, the pipeline revealed several microbes suitable for future studies of dioxin chemistry. PMID:26681335

  14. Hepatitis B virus DNA stability in plasma samples under short-term storage at 42°C.

    PubMed

    Almeida, R W de; Espírito-Santo, M P; Sousa, P S F; Almeida, A J de; Lampe, E; Lewis-Ximenez, L L

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the stability of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in plasma samples stored at 42°C for external quality assessment (EQA) panels of viral load. To assess the stability of plasma samples containing different concentrations of HBV DNA, serial dilutions of HBV-infected samples with a viral load of 6.40 log(10) IU/mL were made to yield viral loads of 5, 4, and 3 log(10) IU/mL. These were incubated at 42°C for up to 7 days and then frozen at -70°C. Viral load testing for HBV DNA was performed for all samples using COBAS® AmpliPrep/COBAS® TaqMan® HBV Test (v.2.0, Roche, Switzerland). Results were compared with fresh frozen plasma samples as a benchmark to establish acceptable measurements on the days following sample collection. Although the results of this study demonstrated a decrease in HBV DNA viral load ranging from 0.005 to 0.30 log(10) IU/mL after storage at 42°C for up to 7 days, these values did not exceed 0.5 log(10), which is the estimated intra-assay variation for molecular tests. Thus, the insignificant decrease in viral load suggests that shipment of HBV in plasma samples at temperatures of up to 42°C is permissible if they are frozen within 7 days. PMID:25790101

  15. Freezing fecal samples prior to DNA extraction affects the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio determined by downstream quantitative PCR analysis.

    PubMed

    Bahl, Martin Iain; Bergstrm, Anders; Licht, Tine Rask

    2012-04-01

    Freezing stool samples prior to DNA extraction and downstream analysis is widely used in metagenomic studies of the human microbiota but may affect the inferred community composition. In this study, DNA was extracted either directly or following freeze storage of three homogenized human fecal samples using three different extraction methods. No consistent differences were observed in DNA yields between extractions on fresh and frozen samples; however, differences were observed between extraction methods. Quantitative PCR analysis was subsequently performed on all DNA samples using six different primer pairs targeting 16S rRNA genes of significant bacterial groups, and the community composition was evaluated by comparing specific ratios of the calculated abundances. In seven of nine cases, the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA gene ratio was significantly higher in fecal samples that had been frozen compared to identical samples that had not. This effect was further supported by qPCR analysis of bacterial groups within these two phyla. The results demonstrate that storage conditions of fecal samples may adversely affect the determined Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio, which is a frequently used biomarker in gut microbiology. PMID:22325006

  16. Terminal PEGylated DNA–Gold Nanoparticle Conjugates Offering High Resistance to Nuclease Degradation and Efficient Intracellular Delivery of DNA Binding Agents

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, polyvalent DNA–gold nanoparticle (DNA–GNP) conjugate has been demonstrated as an efficient, universal nanocarrier for drug and gene delivery with high uptake by over 50 different types of primary and cancer cell lines. A barrier limiting its in vivo effectiveness is limited resistance to nuclease degradation and nonspecific interaction with blood serum contents. Herein we show that terminal PEGylation of the complementary DNA strand hybridized to a polyvalent DNA–GNP conjugate can eliminate nonspecific adsorption of serum proteins and greatly increases its resistance against DNase I-based degradation. The PEGylated DNA–GNP conjugate still retains a high cell uptake property, making it an attractive intracellular delivery nanocarrier for DNA binding reagents. We show that it can be used for successful intracellular delivery of doxorubicin, a widely used clinical cancer chemotherapeutic drug. Moreover, it can be used for efficient delivery of some cell-membrane-impermeable reagents such as propidium iodide (a DNA intercalating fluorescent dye currently limited to the use of staining dead cells only) and a diruthenium complex (a DNA groove binder), for successful staining of live cells. PMID:26237203

  17. DNA analysis using an integrated microchip for multiplex PCR amplification and electrophoresis for reference samples.

    PubMed

    Le Roux, Delphine; Root, Brian E; Reedy, Carmen R; Hickey, Jeffrey A; Scott, Orion N; Bienvenue, Joan M; Landers, James P; Chassagne, Luc; de Mazancourt, Philippe

    2014-08-19

    A system that automatically performs the PCR amplification and microchip electrophoretic (ME) separation for rapid forensic short tandem repeat (STR) forensic profiling in a single disposable plastic chip is demonstrated. The microchip subassays were optimized to deliver results comparable to conventional benchtop methods. The microchip process was accomplished in sub-90 min compared with >2.5 h for the conventional approach. An infrared laser with a noncontact temperature sensing system was optimized for a 45 min PCR compared with the conventional 90 min amplification time. The separation conditions were optimized using LPA-co-dihexylacrylamide block copolymers specifically designed for microchip separations to achieve accurate DNA size calling in an effective length of 7 cm in a plastic microchip. This effective separation length is less than half of other reports for integrated STR analysis and allows a compact, inexpensive microchip design. This separation quality was maintained when integrated with microchip PCR. Thirty samples were analyzed conventionally and then compared with data generated by the microfluidic chip system. The microfluidic system allele calling was 100% concordant with the conventional process. This study also investigated allelic ladder consistency over time. The PCR-ME genetic profiles were analyzed using binning palettes generated from two sets of allelic ladders run three and six months apart. Using these binning palettes, no allele calling errors were detected in the 30 samples demonstrating that a microfluidic platform can be highly consistent over long periods of time. PMID:25091472

  18. Five commercial DNA extraction systems tested and compared on a stool sample collection.

    PubMed

    Persson, Sren; de Boer, Richard F; Kooistra-Smid, Anna M D; Olsen, Katharina E P

    2011-03-01

    In this study, 5 different commercial DNA extraction systems were tested on a stool sample collection containing 81 clinical stool specimens that were culture-positive for diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella enterica, or Clostridium difficile. The purified DNAs were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) directed toward the relevant organisms. The results showed that conventional PCR combined with the extraction systems BioRobot EZ1 (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany), Bugs'n Beads (Genpoint, Oslo, Norway), ChargeSwitch (Invitrogen, Paisley, UK), QIAamp Stool Mini Kit (Qiagen), and 2 protocols (generic and Specific A) for EasyMag (BioMrieux, Marcy I'Etoile, France) were able to identify 89%, 62%, 85%, 88%, 85%, and 91%, respectively, of the pathogens originally identified by conventional culture-based methods. When TaqMan PCR was combined with the EasyMag Specific A protocol, 99% of the samples were correctly identified. The results demonstrate that the extraction efficiencies can vary significantly among different extraction systems, careful optimization may have a significant positive effect, and the use of sensitive and specific detection methods like TaqMan PCR is an ideal choice for this type of analysis. PMID:21353945

  19. New procedure for recovering extra- and intracellular DNA from marine sediment samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alawi, M.; Kallmeyer, J.

    2012-12-01

    Extracellular DNA (eDNA) is a ubiquitous biological compound in aquatic sediment and soil. Despite major methodological advances, analysis of DNA from sediment is still technically challenging, not just because of the co-elution of inhibitory substances, but also due to co-elution of extracellular DNA, which potentially leads to an overestimate of the actual diversity. Previous studies suggested that eDNA might play an important role in biogeochemical element cycling, horizontal gene transfer and stabilization of biofilm structures. Several protocols based on the precipitation of eDNA e.g. with CTAB and ethanol have already been published. However, using these methods we did not succeed in quantifying very low amounts of eDNA (e.g. <1?g eDNA/g dry wt) in marine sediment even when using DNA carriers like glycogen. Since the recovery of eDNA by precipitation strongly depends on its concentration, these previously published procedures are not adequate for deep biosphere sediment due to the low eDNA content. We have focused on the question whether eDNA could be a source of nitrogen and phosphorus for microbes in the subseafloor biosphere. Therefore we developed a new method for the (semi)-quantitative extraction of eDNA from sediment. The new extraction procedure is based on sequential washing of the sediment to remove simultaneously eDNA and microbial cells without lysing them. After separation of the cells by centrifugation, the eDNA was extracted from the supernatant and purified by adsorption onto a solid phase, followed by removal of the solids and subsequent elution of the pure eDNA. Intracellular DNA (iDNA) was extracted and purified from the cell pellet using a commercial DNA extraction kit. Additional to a very low detection limit and reproducible quantification, this new method allows separation and purification of both extracellular and intracellular DNA to an extent that inhibitors are removed and downstream applications like PCR can be performed. To evaluate the new extraction method two sediments with rather opposing composition were analyzed. Sediment from the South Pacific Gyre, the most oligotrophic oceanic region on earth and organic-rich Baltic Sea sediment (Northern Germany) were processed. Using this new procedure high purity genomic iDNA and eDNA with a molecular size range between 20 bp and 50k bp can be simultaneously recovered even from very oligotrophic sediment with very low cell abundances. The main fraction of recovered eDNA was suitable for downstream applications like PCR and had a molecular size that indicates minimal shearing. Despite about two decades of research many questions about deep subsurface life remain unanswered. The fact that microbes can be found even in deep oligotrophic marine sediment raises the fundamental questions of the types and availability of substrates and their biogeochemical cycling. This is the first study that provides evidence that eDNA is an important potential substrate for microorganisms in the deep biosphere. Also, our results show a link between cell counts and eDNA content, indicating that the eDNA pool in the investigated sediment consist mainly of microbial DNA. Comparative sequence analysis of extracted iDNA and eDNA will provide deeper insights into the origin and turnover of eDNA and the apparent microbial community composition in the deep biosphere.

  20. The impact of data degradation and sample size on the performance of two similarity coefficients used in behavioural linkage analysis.

    PubMed

    Bennell, Craig; Gauthier, Donna; Gauthier, Donald; Melnyk, Tamara; Musolino, Evanya

    2010-06-15

    In order to determine whether a series of unsolved crimes has been committed by the same offender, the police often must rely on an analysis of behavioural evidence. When carrying out this task, some type of similarity coefficient is typically relied on to assess the degree of behavioural stability and distinctiveness that exists across a set of crimes and questions inevitably arise as to which coefficient to use. In cases of juvenile sex offences, research has suggested that a taxonomic similarity index outperforms the most commonly used metric at the moment, Jaccard's coefficient, especially under conditions of data degradation (missing data). However, recent research has failed to replicate this result in cases of serial homicide and burglary, especially when relatively large sample sizes are used. The current study provides further support for these recent findings using adult serial sexual assault data. Across a range of conditions, the current study demonstrates that Jaccard's coefficient slightly outperforms the taxonomic similarity index on a measure of linking accuracy. Potential explanations for the results are provided, implications are discussed, and future research directions are presented. PMID:20456879

  1. Subtle changes to polymer structure and degradation mechanism enable highly effective nanoparticles for siRNA and DNA delivery to human brain cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tzeng, Stephany Y.

    2013-01-01

    Polymeric materials can be used to deliver nucleic acids such as DNA plasmids and siRNA, but often have low efficacy in human cells. To improve gene delivery, we synthesized an array of over 70 hydrolytically degradable and bioreducible poly(beta-amino ester)s and evaluated properties of over 200 nanoparticle formulations fabricated from these biomaterials. We determined the effect of different polymer structures on the delivery of nucleic acids of different structures and sizes, including siRNA, linear DNA, and circular DNAs (1.826 kb). Significantly, leading hydrolytically degradable polymeric nanoparticles delivered DNA to 902% of primary human glioblastoma cells with <10% nonspecific cytotoxicity, better than leading commercially available reagents (p<0.01). Bioreducible polymeric nanoparticles optimized for siRNA delivery caused up to 850.6% knockdown in these cells as well while maintaining high viability. From a single dose, knockdown was higher than for Lipofectamine 2000 (p<0.01) and persisted one month. Polymer molecular weight was a driving factor of transfection efficacy for some polymer structures (correlation of r2=0.63) but had no influence on transfection for other structures (r2=0.01). Polymers with a reducible cystamine functional group dramatically improved siRNA delivery by facilitating quick release while generally decreasing DNA delivery compared with non-reducible counterparts (p<0.01). Other material properties facilitated DNA delivery compared to siRNA delivery or increased delivery of both DNA and siRNA. PMID:23184674

  2. New type of SSUrDNA sequence was detected from both Plasmodium ovale curtisi and Plasmodium ovale wallikeri samples

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Plasmodium ovale is relatively unfamiliar to Chinese staff engaged in malaria diagnosis. In 2013, dried blood spots of four unidentified but suspected ovale malaria samples were sent to the National Malaria Reference Laboratory (NMRL) for reconfirmation. Methods Partial and complete, small, subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) sequences of four samples were obtained with PCR-cloning-sequencing method. Obtained sequences were analyzed by aligning with each other and with nine SSU rDNA sequences of six known Plasmodium parasites. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on complete SSU rDNA sequences and 12 same gene sequences derived from six known Plasmodium parasites and three Babesia parasites. Primary structure of conservative and variable regions of variant sequences was determined also by comparing them with those of six known Plasmodium parasites. To confirm their existence in genome, they were redetected with primers matching their variable regions. PCR systems aimed to roughly detect any eukaryotes and prokaryotes respectively were also applied to search for other pathogens in one of four patients. Results Totally, 19 partial and 23 complete SSU rDNA sequences obtained from four samples. Except eight variant sequences, similarities among sequences from same DNA sample were in general high (more than 98%). The phylogenetic analysis revealed that three cases were infected by P. ovale wallikeri and one by P. ovale curtisi. Four of the variant sequences which obtained from four samples relatively showed high similarities with each other (98.5%-100%). Identical variant sequences actually could be re-obtained from each DNA sample. Their primary structure of conservative and variable regions showed quite fit with that of six known Plasmodium parasites. The test for prokaryote pathogens showed negative and the tests for eukaryotes only found DNA sequences of Human and P. ovale parasites. Conclusion Both P. ovale wallikeri and P. ovale curtisi infections are present in imported malaria cases of China. New type of partial SSU rDNA sequence which assumed to express in a certain life stage of P. ovale was obtained from both P. ovale wallikeri and P. ovale curtisi samples. This discovery would supply information and clues to identify and understand P. ovale parasites more accurately. PMID:24893846

  3. Self-contained, fully integrated biochip for sample preparation, polymerase chain reaction amplification, and DNA microarray detection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Robin Hui; Yang, Jianing; Lenigk, Ralf; Bonanno, Justin; Grodzinski, Piotr

    2004-04-01

    A fully integrated biochip device that consists of microfluidic mixers, valves, pumps, channels, chambers, heaters, and DNA microarray sensors was developed to perform DNA analysis of complex biological sample solutions. Sample preparation (including magnetic bead-based cell capture, cell preconcentration and purification, and cell lysis), polymerase chain reaction, DNA hybridization, and electrochemical detection were performed in this fully automated and miniature device. Cavitation microstreaming was implemented to enhance target cell capture from whole blood samples using immunomagnetic beads and accelerate DNA hybridization reaction. Thermally actuated paraffin-based microvalves were developed to regulate flows. Electrochemical pumps and thermopneumatic pumps were integrated on the chip to provide pumping of liquid solutions. The device is completely self-contained: no external pressure sources, fluid storage, mechanical pumps, or valves are necessary for fluid manipulation, thus eliminating possible sample contamination and simplifying device operation. Pathogenic bacteria detection from approximately milliliters of whole blood samples and single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis directly from diluted blood were demonstrated. The device provides a cost-effective solution to direct sample-to-answer genetic analysis and thus has a potential impact in the fields of point-of-care genetic analysis, environmental testing, and biological warfare agent detection. PMID:15053639

  4. Detection of Bacillus anthracis DNA in Complex Soil and Air Samples Using Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Be, Nicholas A.; Thissen, James B.; Gardner, Shea N.; McLoughlin, Kevin S.; Fofanov, Viacheslav Y.; Koshinsky, Heather; Ellingson, Sally R.; Brettin, Thomas S.; Jackson, Paul J.; Jaing, Crystal J.

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis is the potentially lethal etiologic agent of anthrax disease, and is a significant concern in the realm of biodefense. One of the cornerstones of an effective biodefense strategy is the ability to detect infectious agents with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity in the context of a complex sample background. The nature of the B. anthracis genome, however, renders specific detection difficult, due to close homology with B. cereus and B. thuringiensis. We therefore elected to determine the efficacy of next-generation sequencing analysis and microarrays for detection of B. anthracis in an environmental background. We applied next-generation sequencing to titrated genome copy numbers of B. anthracis in the presence of background nucleic acid extracted from aerosol and soil samples. We found next-generation sequencing to be capable of detecting as few as 10 genomic equivalents of B. anthracis DNA per nanogram of background nucleic acid. Detection was accomplished by mapping reads to either a defined subset of reference genomes or to the full GenBank database. Moreover, sequence data obtained from B. anthracis could be reliably distinguished from sequence data mapping to either B. cereus or B. thuringiensis. We also demonstrated the efficacy of a microbial census microarray in detecting B. anthracis in the same samples, representing a cost-effective and high-throughput approach, complementary to next-generation sequencing. Our results, in combination with the capacity of sequencing for providing insights into the genomic characteristics of complex and novel organisms, suggest that these platforms should be considered important components of a biosurveillance strategy. PMID:24039948

  5. Investigation of the persistence of nerve agent degradation analytes on surfaces through wipe sampling and detection with ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Willison, Stuart A

    2015-01-20

    The persistence of chemical warfare nerve agent degradation analytes on surfaces is important, from indicating the presence of nerve agent on a surface to guiding environmental restoration of a site after a release. Persistence was investigated for several chemical warfare nerve agent degradation analytes on indoor surfaces and presents an approach for wipe sampling of surfaces, followed by wipe extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detection. Commercially available wipe materials were investigated to determine optimal wipe recoveries. Tested surfaces included porous/permeable (vinyl tile, painted drywall, and wood) and largely nonporous/impermeable (laminate, galvanized steel, and glass) surfaces. Wipe extracts were analyzed by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). UPLC provides a separation of targeted degradation analytes in addition to being nearly four times faster than high-performance liquid chromatography, allowing for greater throughput after a large-scale contamination incident and subsequent remediation events. Percent recoveries from nonporous/impermeable surfaces were 60-103% for isopropyl methylphosphonate (IMPA), GB degradate; 61-91% for ethyl methylphosphonate (EMPA), VX degradate; and 60-98% for pinacolyl methylphosphonate (PMPA), GD degradate. Recovery efficiencies for methyl phosphonate (MPA), nerve agent degradate, and ethylhydrogen dimethylphosphonate (EHDMAP), GA degradate, were lower, perhaps due to matrix effects. Diisopropyl methylphosphonate, GB impurity, was not recovered from surfaces. The resulting detection limits for wipe extracts were 0.065 ng/cm(2) for IMPA, 0.079 ng/cm(2) for MPA, 0.040 ng/cm(2) for EMPA, 0.078 ng/cm(2) for EHDMAP, and 0.013 ng/cm(2) for PMPA. The data indicate that laboratories may hold wipe samples for up to 30 days prior to analysis. Target analytes were observed to persist on surfaces for at least 6 weeks. PMID:25495198

  6. Femur, rib, and tooth sample collection for DNA analysis in disaster victim identification (DVI) : a method to minimize contamination risk.

    PubMed

    Westen, Antoinette A; Gerretsen, Reza R R; Maat, George J R

    2008-01-01

    Although much literature is available on DNA extraction from tissue samples to obtain the best possible genotyping results, to the best of our knowledge no written recommendations exist on how to excise or extract bone and tooth samples from a victim to facilitate this. Because the possibility of cross-contamination is high, especially when excising numerous samples under disaster conditions, it is important to minimize this risk and to keep samples in optimum condition. In this paper a standard operating procedure is proposed for collection of femur, rib, and tooth samples to aid victim identification both after mass disasters and in (single) forensic investigations. PMID:19291465

  7. The PFA-AMeX method achieves a good balance between the morphology of tissues and the quality of RNA content in DNA microarray analysis with laser-capture microdissection samples.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takeshi; Kato, Atsuhiko; Terashima, Hiromichi; Matsubara, Koichi; Chen, Yu Jau; Adachi, Kenji; Mizuno, Hideaki; Suzuki, Masami

    2015-01-01

    Recently, large-scale gene expression profiling is often performed using RNA extracted from unfixed frozen or formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) samples. However, both types of samples have drawbacks in terms of the morphological preservation and RNA quality. In the present study, we investigated 30 human prostate tissues using the PFA-AMeX method (fixation using paraformaldehyde (PFA) followed by embedding in paraffin by AMeX) with a DNA microarray combined with laser-capture microdissection. Morphologically, in contrast to the case of atypical adenomatous hyperplasia, loss of basal cells in prostate adenocarcinomas was as obvious in PFA-AMeX samples as in FFPE samples. As for quality, the loss of rRNA peaks 18S and 28S on the capillary electropherograms from both FFPE and PFA-AMeX samples showed that the RNA was degraded equally during processing. However, qRT-PCR with 3' and 5' primer sets designed against human beta-actin revealed that, although RNA degradation occurred in both methods, it occurred more mildly in the PFA-AMeX samples. In conclusion, the PFA-AMeX method is good with respect to morphology and RNA quality, which makes it a promising tool for DNA microarrays combined with laser-capture microdissection, and if the appropriate RNA quality criteria are used, the capture of credible GeneChip data is well over 80% efficient, at least in human prostate specimens. PMID:26023261

  8. Effects of ascorbic acid on sperm motility, viability, acrosome reaction and DNA integrity in teratozoospermic samples

    PubMed Central

    Fanaei, Hamed; Khayat, Samira; Halvaei, Iman; Ramezani, Vahid; Azizi, Yaser; Kasaeian, Amir; Mardaneh, Jalal; Parvizi, Mohammad Reza; Akrami, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress in teratozoospermic semen samples caused poor assisted reproductive techniques (ART) outcomes. Among antioxidants, ascorbic acid is a naturally occurring free radical scavenger and as such its presence assists various other mechanisms in decreasing numerous disruptive free radical processes. Objective: The main goal of this study was to evaluate potential protective effects of ascorbic acid supplementation during in vitro culture of teratozoospermic specimens. Materials and Methods: Teratozoospermic semen samples that collected from 15 volunteers were processed, centrifuged and incubated at 37oC until sperm swimmed-up. Supernatant was divided into four groups and incubated at 37oC for one hour under different experimental conditions: Control, 10 m A23187, 600m ascorbic acid and 10 m A23187+600 m ascorbic acid. After incubation sperm motility, viability, acrosome reaction, DNA damage and malondialdehyde levels were evaluated. Results: Our results indicated that after one hour incubation, ascorbic acid significantly reduced malondialdehyde level in ascorbic acid group (1.40.11 nmol/ml) compared to control group (1.580.13 nmol/ml) (p<0.001). At the end of incubation, progressive motility and viability in ascorbic acid group (64.58.8% and 80.36.4%, respectively) were significantly (p<0.05 and p<0.001, respectively) higher than the control group (54.56.8% and 70.97.3%, respectively). A23187 significantly (p<0.0001) increased acrosome reaction in A23187 group (37.35.6%) compared to control group (8.53.2%) and this effect of A23187 attenuated by ascorbic acid in ascorbic acid+A23187 group (17.24.4%). DNA fragmentation in ascorbic acid group (204.1%) was significantly (p<0.001) lower than controls (28.94.6%). Conclusion: In vitro ascorbic acid supplementation during teratozoospermic semen processing for ART could protect teratozoospermic specimens against oxidative stress, and it could improve ART outcome. PMID:24799867

  9. A Column Experiment To Determine Black Shale Degradation And Colonization By Means of ?13C and 14C Analysis Of Phospholipid Fatty Acids And DNA Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, A.; Gleixner, G.

    2008-12-01

    We investigated the degradation of black shale organic matter by microbial communities. We inoculated two columns respectively, with the fungi Schizophyllum commune, the gram-positive bacterium Pseudomonas putida and the gram-negative bacteria Streptomyces griseus and Streptomyces chartreusis. These microorganisms are known to degrade a wide variety of organic macromolecules. Additionally, we had two sets of control columns. To one set the same nutrient solution was added as to the inoculated columns and to the other set only sterile deionised water was supplied. All columns contained 1.5 kg of freshly crushed not autoclaved black shale material with a particle size of 0.63-2 mm. The columns were incubated at 28 C and 60% humidity in the dark. The aim was to investigate, which microorganisms live on black shales and if these microorganisms are able to degrade ancient organic matter. We used compound specific stable isotope measurement techniques and compound specific 14C-dating methods. After 183 days PLFAs were extracted from the columns to investigate the microbial community, furthermore we extracted on one hand total-DNA of column material and on the other hand DNA from pure cultures isolates which grew on Kinks-agar B, Starch-casein-nitrate-agar (SCN) and on complete-yeast-medium-agar (CYM). According to the PLFA analysis bacteria dominated in the columns, whereas in pure cultures more fungi were isolated. A principal component analysis revealed differences between the columns in accordance with the inoculation, but it seems that the inoculated microorganisms were replaced by the natural population. For AMS measurements palmitic acid (C 16:0) was re-isolated from total-PLFA-extract with a preparative fraction collector (PFC). Preliminary results of the study revealed that microorganisms are able to degrade black shale material and that PLFA analysis are useful methods to be combined with analysis of stable isotope and 14C measurements to study microbial degradation processes.

  10. The effects of environment and substrata on deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA): the use of casework samples from New York City.

    PubMed

    McNally, L; Shaler, R C; Baird, M; Balazs, I; Kobilinsky, L; De Forest, P

    1989-09-01

    This study was designed to analyze the effects of the environment and substrata on the quality of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) isolated from evidentiary specimens. The quality of DNA isolated from actual casework specimens was determined by measuring its size by agarose gel electrophoresis. The information obtained could be used to predict the suitability of the DNA in the samples for restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. The evidentiary specimens chosen for DNA were classified according to substrate (scrapings, plastic bags, synthetics, denim, and carpet) and according to a subjective evaluation of the condition of the stain (soiled, damp, or putrefied) and to its size (small or large). The results show that DNA of sufficient quality and high molecular weight (HMW) can be reliably isolated from bloodstains deposited on evidentiary items which have an unknown environmental history and which have dried onto a variety of substrata. Subsequent RFLP analysis of a selected number of these samples verified that the DNA was suitable for this type of analysis. PMID:2572674

  11. Extensive protein and DNA backbone sampling improves structure-based specificity prediction for C2H2 zinc fingers

    PubMed Central

    Yanover, Chen; Bradley, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Sequence-specific DNA recognition by gene regulatory proteins is critical for proper cellular functioning. The ability to predict the DNA binding preferences of these regulatory proteins from their amino acid sequence would greatly aid in reconstruction of their regulatory interactions. Structural modeling provides one route to such predictions: by building accurate molecular models of regulatory proteins in complex with candidate binding sites, and estimating their relative binding affinities for these sites using a suitable potential function, it should be possible to construct DNA binding profiles. Here, we present a novel molecular modeling protocol for protein-DNA interfaces that borrows conformational sampling techniques from de novo protein structure prediction to generate a diverse ensemble of structural models from small fragments of related and unrelated protein-DNA complexes. The extensive conformational sampling is coupled with sequence space exploration so that binding preferences for the target protein can be inferred from the resulting optimized DNA sequences. We apply the algorithm to predict binding profiles for a benchmark set of eleven C2H2 zinc finger transcription factors, five of known and six of unknown structure. The predicted profiles are in good agreement with experimental binding data; furthermore, examination of the modeled structures gives insight into observed binding preferences. PMID:21343182

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban air particulate matter: decadal and seasonal trends, chemical degradation, and sampling artifacts.

    PubMed

    Schauer, Christian; Niessner, Reinhard; Pschl, Ulrich

    2003-07-01

    Aerosol filter samples collected at a major urban traffic junction (LKP) and at a suburban residential location (IWC) in the metropolitan area of Munich (Germany) throughout the years 2001 and 2002 have been analyzed for 12 of the 16 EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollutants by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The mean mass concentration of the sum of all investigated PAH in the sampled air at LKP (1.9-5.0 ng m(-3)) was roughly two times higher than at IWC (0.8-2.9 ng m(-3)), and at both locations it was about 2-3 times higher in winter (heating season) than in summer and spring or autumn. Comparisons with earlier measurement campaigns indicate a steep decrease of PAH abundance by almost an order of magnitude from 1980 to 1993 and a much slower decrease since then. Distinctly different seasonal trends and short-term fluctuations have been observed for semivolatile 3- and 4-ring PAH and for particle-bound 5- and 6-ring PAH. Based on systematic correlation analyses with a wide range of air quality parameters, most of the differences can be attributed to not only varying emissions but also chemical reactions with atmospheric oxidants which were found to play an important role. The results of denuder experiments prove that substantial degradation of the particularly toxic tracer benzo[a]pyrene and of the other investigated 5- and 6-ring PAH can occur during filter sampling and on airborne particles (formation of oxygenated and nitrated derivatives). Filter reaction artifacts are shown to lead to an underestimation of the actual PAH content of urban air particulate matter by up to 100% of the measurement value or more, with a near-linear dependence on ozone volume mixing ratio. The role and applicability of ozone as a tracer of atmospheric oxidizing capacity for particle-bound PAH is discussed and confirmed by comparison with earlier investigations and by complementary laboratory experiments (reaction kinetics and product studies). PMID:12875387

  13. Sea urchin hatching enzyme (envelysin): cDNA cloning and deprivation of protein substrate specificity by autolytic degradation.

    PubMed

    Nomura, K; Shimizu, T; Kinoh, H; Sendai, Y; Inomata, M; Suzuki, N

    1997-06-10

    The hatching enzyme (envelysin) of the sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus was purified from the medium of hatched blastulae. By cDNA cloning its deduced amino acid sequence and molecular architecture were revealed. The 591-residue precursor with calculated Mr of 66,123 consists of an 18-residue signal sequence, a 151-residue propeptide, and a 422-residue mature enzyme with N-terminal catalytic and C-terminal hemopexin-like domains. As compared with that of Paracentrotus lividus, its amino acid sequence is 69% identical and 10% similar. They share typical structural features with the mammalian MMP gene family members: cysteine switch, zinc-binding signature, methionine-turn, Cys residues near both ends of hemopexin-like domain, etc. However, its propeptide has a 70-residue extra sequence with an Asp- and Glu-rich stretch, supposedly involved in the proenzyme activation by binding Ca2+ ions in seawater. The hinge region is also longer than those of most MMPs, with an extra sequence rich in Thr and Arg residues. Mature 50K enzyme is highly susceptible to autolytic cleavage at Gln(503)-Leu(504), producing the 38K form retaining catalytic activity and substrate specificity against fertilization envelope. The 38K form and 15K fragment were coeluted from a gel-filtration column, suggesting that these two fragments are disulfide-bridged and that the tertiary structure is not much deviated. The 38K form further autolyzed to 32K form by cleaving Tyr(450)-Tyr(451) bond with the loss of protein-substrate specificity, retaining only nonspecific protease activity. Thus, the autolytic release of 2/3 of the C-terminal domain reduced the highly specific enzyme to a common nonspecific protease, implying that the size and structure of almost the entire hemopexin-like domain is essential for the protein substrate specificity. Moreover, autolytic degradation of envelysins from the two species follow quite different pathways despite their high homology in structure. The 38K and 32K forms were inhibited by bovine TIMP-1 with different IC50 values, indicating that its inhibitory activity depends on the extent of the interaction with the C-terminal domain of the enzyme. PMID:9188724

  14. Lack of reliability of nanotechnology in the of free plasma DNA in samples of patients with prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies seek biological markers that give diagnostic and degree of tumor development. The aim of this study was to validate the determination of plasma DNA using nanotechnology (Nanovue-NV) in samples of 80 patients with prostate cancer. Methods Blood samples of 80 patients of the Urology Ambulatory of Faculdade de Medicina do ABC with prostate cancer confirmed by anatomical-pathology criteria were analyzed. DNA extraction was performed using a GFX TM kit (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech, Inc, USA) following the adapted protocol. Plasma was subjected to centrifugation. Results There was a big difference between the first and the second value obtained by NanoVue Only two samples had no differences between duplicates. Maximum difference between duplicates was 38??g/mL. Average variation between 51 samples was 10.29??g/mL, although 21 samples had differences above this average. No correlation was observed between pDNA obtained by traditional spectrophotometry and by nanotechnology. Conclusion Determination of plasma DNA by nanotechnology was not reproducible. PMID:23311763

  15. Proteolytic Degradation of Topoisomerase II (Top2) Enables the Processing of Top2DNA and Top2RNA Covalent Complexes by Tyrosyl-DNA-Phosphodiesterase 2 (TDP2)* ?

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Rui; Schellenberg, Matthew J.; Huang, Shar-yin N.; Abdelmalak, Monica; Marchand, Christophe; Nitiss, Karin C.; Nitiss, John L.; Williams, R. Scott; Pommier, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic type II topoisomerases (Top2? and Top2?) are homodimeric enzymes; they are essential for altering DNA topology by the formation of normally transient double strand DNA cleavage. Anticancer drugs (etoposide, doxorubicin, and mitoxantrone) and also Top2 oxidation and DNA helical alterations cause potentially irreversible Top2DNA cleavage complexes (Top2cc), leading to Top2-linked DNA breaks. Top2cc are the therapeutic mechanism for killing cancer cells. Yet Top2cc can also generate recombination, translocations, and apoptosis in normal cells. The Top2 protein-DNA covalent complexes are excised (in part) by tyrosyl-DNA-phosphodiesterase 2 (TDP2/TTRAP/EAP2/VPg unlinkase). In this study, we show that irreversible Top2cc induced in suicidal substrates are not processed by TDP2 unless they first undergo proteolytic processing or denaturation. We also demonstrate that TDP2 is most efficient when the DNA attached to the tyrosyl is in a single-stranded configuration and that TDP2 can efficiently remove a tyrosine linked to a single misincorporated ribonucleotide or to polyribonucleotides, which expands the TDP2 catalytic profile with RNA substrates. The 1.6-? resolution crystal structure of TDP2 bound to a substrate bearing a 5?-ribonucleotide defines a mechanism through which RNA can be accommodated in the TDP2 active site, albeit in a strained conformation. PMID:24808172

  16. Effects of humic acid and suspended soils on adsorption and photo-degradation of microcystin-LR onto samples from Taiwan reservoirs and rivers.

    PubMed

    Thirumavalavan, Munusamy; Hu, Ya-Lan; Lee, Jiunn-Fwu

    2012-05-30

    This article covers the adsorption capacity of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) onto natural organic matter (NOM) or suspended solids of water samples from reservoirs (Emerald and Jade reservoirs) and rivers (Dongshan, Erhjen and Wukai rivers) in Taiwan to determine the fate, transport behavior and photo-degradation of microcystins in natural water systems. Langmuir adsorption and photo-degradation studies were carried out and the capability of samples for MC-LR adsorption was confirmed. Among these, samples collected from reservoir showed enhanced MC-LR adsorption than that of river samples and the greater adsorption behavior was always favored by larger content of organic matter and suspended particles in the system. It is obvious from the experimental results that the adsorption of MC-LR was influenced by suspended particles (turbidity), humic acid (HA), organic matter content and other pollutants. The effective photo-degradation of MC-LR was achieved using higher energy, lower wavelength (254 nm) UV light within 60 min. The presence of humic acid and turbidity affected the photo-degradation process. These data provide important information that may be applied to management strategies for improvement of water quality in reservoirs and rivers and other water bodies in Taiwan. PMID:22476095

  17. DNA extraction of ancient animal hard tissue samples via adsorption to silica particles.

    PubMed

    Rohland, Nadin

    2012-01-01

    A large number of subfossil and more recent skeletal remains, many of which are stored in museums and private collections, are potentially accessible for DNA sequence analysis. In order to extract the small amount of DNA preserved in these specimens, an efficient DNA release and purification method is required. In this chapter, I describe an efficient and straightforward purification and concentration method that uses DNA adsorption to a solid surface of silica particles. Comparative analysis of extraction methods has shown that this method works reliably for ancient as well as younger, museum-preserved specimens. PMID:22237517

  18. Commercial DNA extraction kits impact observed microbial community composition in permafrost samples.

    PubMed

    Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Layton, Alice C; Lau, Maggie C Y; Chauhan, Archana; Cheng, Karen R; Meyers, Arthur J; Murphy, Jasity R; Rogers, Alexandra W; Saarunya, Geetha S; Williams, Daniel E; Pfiffner, Susan M; Biggerstaff, John P; Stackhouse, Brandon T; Phelps, Tommy J; Whyte, Lyle; Sayler, Gary S; Onstott, Tullis C

    2014-01-01

    The total community genomic DNA (gDNA) from permafrost was extracted using four commercial DNA extraction kits. The gDNAs were compared using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) targeting 16S rRNA genes and bacterial diversity analyses obtained via 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA (V3 region) amplified in single or nested PCR. The FastDNA() SPIN (FDS) Kit provided the highest gDNA yields and 16S rRNA gene concentrations, followed by MoBio PowerSoil() (PS) and MoBio PowerLyzer (PL) kits. The lowest gDNA yields and 16S rRNA gene concentrations were from the Meta-G-Nome (MGN) DNA Isolation Kit. Bacterial phyla identified in all DNA extracts were similar to that found in other soils and were dominated by Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes, Proteobacteria, and Acidobacteria. Weighted UniFrac and statistical analyses indicated that bacterial community compositions derived from FDS, PS, and PL extracts were similar to each other. However, the bacterial community structure from the MGN extracts differed from other kits exhibiting higher proportions of easily lysed ?- and ?-Proteobacteria and lower proportions of Actinobacteria and Methylocystaceae important in carbon cycling. These results indicate that gDNA yields differ between the extraction kits, but reproducible bacterial community structure analysis may be accomplished using gDNAs from the three bead-beating lysis extraction kits. PMID:24102625

  19. Simultaneous assessment of the macrobiome and microbiome in a bulk sample of tropical arthropods through DNA metasystematics

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Joel; Shokralla, Shadi; Porter, Teresita M.; King, Ian; van Konynenburg, Steven; Janzen, Daniel H.; Hallwachs, Winnie; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Conventional assessments of ecosystem sample composition are based on morphology-based or DNA barcode identification of individuals. Both approaches are costly and time-consuming, especially when applied to the large number of specimens and taxa commonly included in ecological investigations. Next-generation sequencing approaches can overcome the bottleneck of individual specimen isolation and identification by simultaneously sequencing specimens of all taxa in a bulk mixture. Here we apply multiple parallel amplification primers, multiple DNA barcode markers, 454-pyrosequencing, and Illumina MiSeq sequencing to the same sample to maximize recovery of the arthropod macrobiome and the bacterial and other microbial microbiome of a bulk arthropod sample. We validate this method with a complex sample containing 1,066 morphologically distinguishable arthropods from a tropical terrestrial ecosystem with high taxonomic diversity. Multiamplicon next-generation DNA barcoding was able to recover sequences corresponding to 91% of the distinguishable individuals in a bulk environmental sample, as well as many species present as undistinguishable tissue. 454-pyrosequencing was able to recover 10 more families of arthropods and 30 more species than did conventional Sanger sequencing of each individual specimen. The use of other loci (16S and 18S ribosomal DNA gene regions) also added the detection of species of microbes associated with these terrestrial arthropods. This method greatly decreases the time and money necessary to perform DNA-based comparisons of biodiversity among ecosystem samples. This methodology opens the door to much cheaper and increased capacity for ecological and evolutionary studies applicable to a wide range of socio-economic issues, as well as a basic understanding of how the world works. PMID:24808136

  20. Study of the degradation of butyltin compounds in surface water samples under different storage conditions using multiple isotope tracers and GC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Cea, Andrés; Rodríguez-González, Pablo; García Alonso, J Ignacio

    2016-03-01

    The degradation of butyltin compounds in surface water samples under different storage conditions has been studied. A triple spike solution, containing monobutyltin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT) and tributyltin (TBT) labelled with a different tin isotope, was added to the sample to calculate the extent of the interconversion reactions among butyltin compounds. Real surface water samples (river water) were collected and stored in glass, polypropylene or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) containers. The presence of light, addition of acetic acid, storage temperature (22, 4 or -18 °C), and the influence of a filtration step were evaluated. Moreover, Milli-Q water with and without the addition of a high concentration of humic acids was prepared in parallel and the results compared to those obtained from the real samples. The water samples were analysed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode at two different storage times (2 weeks and 4 months after its preparation) to carry out both a short- and a long-term stability study. The lowest butyltin degradation was obtained when the samples were stored at -18 °C in the dark. Under these conditions, both TBT and DBT showed negligible dealkylation factors after 2 weeks. After 4 months, DBT dealkylation to MBT increased up to 19 % but TBT degradation was not observed. PMID:26545890

  1. A hybrid DNA extraction method for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of bacterial communities from poultry production samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of DNA extraction protocols can be highly dependent upon both the type of sample being investigated and the types of downstream analyses performed. Considering that the use of new bacterial community analysis techniques (e.g., microbiomics, metagenomics) is becoming more prevalent in th...

  2. Mitochondrial DNA Marker EST00083 Is Not Associated with High vs. Average IQ in a German Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moises, Hans W.; Yang, Liu; Kohnke, Michael; Vetter, Peter; Neppert, Jurgen; Petrill, Stephen A.; Plomin, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Tested the association of a mitochondrial DNA marker (EST00083) with high IQ in a sample of 47 German adults with high IQ scores and 77 adults with IQs estimated at lower than 110. Results do not support the hypothesis that high IQ is associated with this marker. (SLD)

  3. Fungal DNA Detected in Blood Samples of Patients Who Received Contaminated Methylprednisolone Injections Reveals Increased Complexity of Causative Agents

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yanan; Armeanu, Emilian; DiVerniero, Richard; Lewis, Terri A.; Dobson, Richard C.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; Roilides, Emmanuel; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Using Exserohilum rostratum-specific and panfungal real-time PCR, we studied 24 blood samples and 2 synovial fluid specimens from 20 patients with persistent or worsening pain following injections of contaminated methylprednisolone. Seven blood specimens from 6 patients were significantly positive for fungal DNA by panfungal PCR, with multiple fungal species identified. PMID:24719442

  4. Methanol-based fixation is superior to buffered formalin for next-generation sequencing of DNA from clinical cancer samples

    PubMed Central

    Piskorz, A. M.; Ennis, D.; Macintyre, G.; Goranova, T. E.; Eldridge, M.; Segui-Gracia, N.; Valganon, M.; Hoyle, A.; Orange, C.; Moore, L.; Jimenez-Linan, M.; Millan, D.; McNeish, I. A.; Brenton, J. D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of tumour samples is a critical component of personalised cancer treatment, but it requires high-quality DNA samples. Routine neutral-buffered formalin (NBF) fixation has detrimental effects on nucleic acids, causing low yields, as well as fragmentation and DNA base changes, leading to significant artefacts. Patients and methods We have carried out a detailed comparison of DNA quality from matched samples isolated from high-grade serous ovarian cancers from 16 patients fixed in methanol and NBF. These experiments use tumour fragments and mock biopsies to simulate routine practice, ensuring that results are applicable to standard clinical biopsies. Results Using matched snap-frozen tissue as gold standard comparator, we show that methanol-based fixation has significant benefits over NBF, with greater DNA yield, longer fragment size and more accurate copy-number calling using shallow whole-genome sequencing (WGS). These data also provide a new approach to understand and quantify artefactual effects of fixation using non-negative matrix factorisation to analyse mutational spectra from targeted and WGS data. Conclusion We strongly recommend the adoption of methanol fixation for sample collection strategies in new clinical trials. This approach is immediately available, is logistically simple and can offer cheaper and more reliable mutation calling than traditional NBF fixation. PMID:26681675

  5. Forensic Analysis of Canine DNA Samples in the Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Tobin M.; Bradley, Sharonda Q.; Fekete, Brenda L.; Millard, Julie T.; LaRiviere, Frederick J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in canine genomics have allowed the development of highly distinguishing methods of analysis for both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. We describe a laboratory exercise suitable for an undergraduate biochemistry course in which the polymerase chain reaction is used to amplify hypervariable regions of DNA from dog hair and saliva…

  6. Magnetic ionic liquids as PCR-compatible solvents for DNA extraction from biological samples.

    PubMed

    Clark, Kevin D; Yamsek, Melissa M; Nacham, Omprakash; Anderson, Jared L

    2015-12-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) buffer was systematically designed to relieve the inhibition caused by hydrophobic magnetic ionic liquids (MILs). We describe a simple, rapid method for MIL-based plasmid DNA extraction from crude bacterial cell lysate in which DNA-enriched MIL is transferred directly to a PCR tube for analysis. PMID:26434366

  7. Forensic Analysis of Canine DNA Samples in the Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Tobin M.; Bradley, Sharonda Q.; Fekete, Brenda L.; Millard, Julie T.; LaRiviere, Frederick J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in canine genomics have allowed the development of highly distinguishing methods of analysis for both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. We describe a laboratory exercise suitable for an undergraduate biochemistry course in which the polymerase chain reaction is used to amplify hypervariable regions of DNA from dog hair and saliva

  8. ELA1 and CUL3 Are Required Along with ELC1 for RNA Polymerase II Polyubiquitylation and Degradation in DNA-Damaged Yeast Cells?

    PubMed Central

    Ribar, Balazs; Prakash, Louise; Prakash, Satya

    2007-01-01

    Treatment of yeast and human cells with DNA-damaging agents elicits lysine 48-linked polyubiquitylation of Rpb1, the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (Pol II), which targets Pol II for proteasomal degradation. However, the ubiquitin ligase (E3) responsible for Pol II polyubiquitylation has not been identified in humans or the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae . Here we show that elongin A (Ela1) and cullin 3 (Cul3) are required for Pol II polyubiquitylation and degradation in yeast cells, and on the basis of these and other observations, we propose that an E3 comprised of elongin C (Elc1), Ela1, Cul3, and the RING finger protein Roc1 (Rbx1) mediates this process in yeast cells. This study provides, in addition to the identification of the E3 required for Pol II polyubiquitylation and degradation in yeast cells, the first evidence for a specific function in yeast for a member of the elongin C/BC-box protein/cullin family of ligases. Also, these observations raise the distinct possibility that the elongin C-containing ubiquitin ligase, the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor complex, promotes Pol II polyubiquitylation and degradation in human cells. PMID:17296727

  9. Flow cytometric analysis of DNA content differences in blood samples obtained by leucoconcentration.

    PubMed

    Pierrez, J; Guerci, A; Guerci, O

    1988-07-01

    The leucoconcentration technique allows rapid obtainment of cellular suspensions from total blood or bone marrow for flow cytometric analysis. The technique is based on picric acid in ethyl alcohol fixation and saponin red cell lysis, followed by mithramycin staining for DNA. It gives a good resolution of DNA distributions that allow detection of slight variations in DNA content. These results were obtained with cellular suspensions differing only in one X or Y chromosome (male, female, Klinefelter and Turner syndromes). In these studies the ratio of the DNA content of X and Y chromosomes agrees with the chromosomal mass ratio already reported by other authors, but the "absolute values" are 10-fold more compared to these same works. Our conclusion is that leucoconcentration technique followed by DNA staining with mithramycin increases the difference in the dye's penetration and binding between X and Y chromosomes. PMID:2456896

  10. DNA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felsenfeld, Gary

    1985-01-01

    Structural form, bonding scheme, and chromatin structure of and gene-modification experiments with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) are described. Indicates that DNA's double helix is variable and also flexible as it interacts with regulatory and other molecules to transfer hereditary messages. (DH)

  11. The first detection of Echinococcus multilocularis DNA in environmental fruit, vegetable, and mushroom samples using nested PCR.

    PubMed

    Lass, Anna; Szostakowska, Beata; Myjak, Przemys?aw; Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the presence of Echinococcus multilocularis DNA in fruits, vegetables, and mushrooms in rural areas of Varmia-Masuria Province, Poland, which is the region with the highest number of human alveolar echinococcosis (AE) cases in this country. Recovery tests showed that E. multilocularis DNA is detectable in samples contaminated with at least 100 eggs of this tapeworm. In total, 103 environmental fruit, vegetable, and mushroom samples collected in forests, plantations, and kitchen gardens were analyzed using nested PCR assay based on the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. The parasite DNA was detected in 23.3% of the samples. Sequencing confirmed that the obtained PCR products represented E. multilocularis. This study is the first environmental survey of the presence of E. multilocularis DNA in fruits, vegetables, and mushrooms intended for consumption. The results clearly demonstrate that it may be a direct source of human infections and shows the need to educate the public about the threat, especially people living in at-risk areas. PMID:26208943

  12. Description of a DNA amplification procedure for the detection of bacteriophages of Bacteroides fragilis HSP40 in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Puig, M; Pina, S; Lucena, F; Jofre, J; Girones, R

    2000-09-01

    A molecular test based on DNA amplification by PCR was developed for the detection of bacteriophages of Bacteroides fragilis strain HSP40 in the environment. These specific phages are associated with faecal contamination of human origin. A homologous DNA region of 1.5 kb, identified previously by hybridisation, was used to design primers for the detection of B. fragilis HSP40 phages. A nested-PCR procedure for the DNA amplification of those phages was developed. The sensitivity of the nested-PCR was between 10(-1) and 10(-2) PFU for purified HSP40 phage solutions, sewage and seawater samples, and between 1 and 10 PFU for river water samples. Specific amplification of HSP40 phages was observed when viral suspensions of 10(3) PFU/ml or lower were used. Common levels of B. fragilis phages found in sewage are 10(1)-10(2) PFU/ml. A total of 24 water samples (sewage, river water and seawater) were tested both by PCR and by plaque assay, to evaluate the efficiency of the molecular method in field samples. The data obtained by PCR in environmental samples showed good concordance with the PFU counts and a higher sensitivity. PMID:10996649

  13. C/EBP? regulates CRL4Cdt2-mediated degradation of p21 in response to UVB-induced DNA damage to control the G1/S checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jonathan R; Bereman, Michael S; Nepomuceno, Angelito I; Thompson, Elizabeth A; Muddiman, David C; Smart, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    The bZIP transcription factor, C/EBP? is highly inducible by UVB and other DNA damaging agents in keratinocytes. C/EBP?-deficient keratinocytes fail to undergo cell cycle arrest in G1 in response to UVB-induced DNA damage and mice lacking epidermal C/EBP? are highly susceptible to UVB-induced skin cancer. The mechanism through which C/EBP? regulates the cell cycle checkpoint in response to DNA damage is unknown. Here we report untreated C/EBP?-deficient keratinocytes have normal levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21, however, UVB-treated C/EBP?-deficient keratinocytes fail to up-regulate nuclear p21 protein levels despite normal up-regulation of Cdkn1a mRNA levels. UVB-treated C/EBP?-deficient keratinocytes displayed a 4-fold decrease in nuclear p21 protein half-life due to the increased proteasomal degradation of p21 via the E3 ubiquitin ligase CRL4Cdt2. Cdt2 is the substrate recognition subunit of CRL4Cdt2 and Cdt2 mRNA and protein levels were up-regulated in UVB-treated C/EBP?-deficient keratinocytes. Knockdown of Cdt2 restored p21 protein levels in UVB-treated C/EBP?-deficient keratinocytes. Lastly, the failure to accumulate p21 in response to UVB in C/EBP?-deficient keratinocytes resulted in decreased p21 interactions with critical cell cycle regulatory proteins, increased CDK2 activity, and inappropriate entry into S-phase. These findings reveal C/EBP? regulates G1/S cell cycle arrest in response to DNA damage via the control of CRL4Cdt2 mediated degradation of p21. PMID:25483090

  14. C/EBP? regulates CRL4(Cdt2)-mediated degradation of p21 in response to UVB-induced DNA damage to control the G1/S checkpoint.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jonathan R; Bereman, Michael S; Nepomuceno, Angelito I; Thompson, Elizabeth A; Muddiman, David C; Smart, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    The bZIP transcription factor, C/EBP? is highly inducible by UVB and other DNA damaging agents in keratinocytes. C/EBP?-deficient keratinocytes fail to undergo cell cycle arrest in G1 in response to UVB-induced DNA damage and mice lacking epidermal C/EBP? are highly susceptible to UVB-induced skin cancer. The mechanism through which C/EBP? regulates the cell cycle checkpoint in response to DNA damage is unknown. Here we report untreated C/EBP?-deficient keratinocytes have normal levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21, however, UVB-treated C/EBP?-deficient keratinocytes fail to up-regulate nuclear p21 protein levels despite normal up-regulation of Cdkn1a mRNA levels. UVB-treated C/EBP?-deficient keratinocytes displayed a 4-fold decrease in nuclear p21 protein half-life due to the increased proteasomal degradation of p21 via the E3 ubiquitin ligase CRL4(Cdt2). Cdt2 is the substrate recognition subunit of CRL4(Cdt2) and Cdt2 mRNA and protein levels were up-regulated in UVB-treated C/EBP?-deficient keratinocytes. Knockdown of Cdt2 restored p21 protein levels in UVB-treated C/EBP?-deficient keratinocytes. Lastly, the failure to accumulate p21 in response to UVB in C/EBP?-deficient keratinocytes resulted in decreased p21 interactions with critical cell cycle regulatory proteins, increased CDK2 activity, and inappropriate entry into S-phase. These findings reveal C/EBP? regulates G1/S cell cycle arrest in response to DNA damage via the control of CRL4(Cdt2) mediated degradation of p21. PMID:25483090

  15. From sample to PCR product in under 45 minutes: a polymeric integrated microdevice for clinical and forensic DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Lounsbury, Jenny A; Karlsson, Anne; Miranian, Daniel C; Cronk, Stephen M; Nelson, Daniel A; Li, Jingyi; Haverstick, Doris M; Kinnon, Paul; Saul, David J; Landers, James P

    2013-04-01

    The extraction and amplification of DNA from biological samples is laborious and time-consuming, requiring numerous instruments and sample handling steps. An integrated, single-use, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microdevice for DNA extraction and amplification would benefit clinical and forensic communities, providing a completely closed system with rapid sample-in-PCR-product-out capability. Here, we show the design and simple flow control required for enzyme-based DNA preparation and PCR from buccal swabs or liquid whole blood samples with an ~5-fold reduction in time. A swab containing cells or DNA could be loaded into a novel receptacle together with the DNA liberation reagents, heated using an infrared heating system, mixed with PCR reagents for one of three different target sets under syringe-driven flow, and thermally-cycled in less than 45 min, an ~6-fold reduction in analysis time as compared to conventional methods. The 4 : 1 PCR reagents : DNA ratio required to provide the correct final concentration of all PCR components for effective amplification was verified using image analysis of colored dyes in the PCR chamber. Novel single-actuation, 'normally-open' adhesive valves were shown to effectively seal the PCR chamber during thermal cycling, preventing air bubble expansion. The effectiveness of the device was demonstrated using three target sets: the sex-typing gene Amelogenin, co-amplification of the β-globin and gelsolin genes, and the amplification of 15 short tandem repeat (STR) loci plus Amelogenin. The use of the integrated microdevice was expanded to the analysis of liquid blood samples which, when incubated with the DNA liberation reagents, form a brown precipitate that inhibits PCR. A simple centrifugation of the integrated microchips (on a custom centrifuge), mobilized the precipitate away from the microchannel entrance, improving amplification of the β-globin and gelsolin gene fragments by ~6-fold. This plastic integrated microdevice represents a microfluidic platform with potential for evolution into point-of-care prototypes for application to both clinical and forensic analyses, providing a 5-fold reduction from conventional analysis time. PMID:23389252

  16. Patterns of nuclear DNA degeneration over time--a case study in historic teeth samples.

    PubMed

    Wandeler, P; Smith, S; Morin, P A; Pettifor, R A; Funk, S M

    2003-04-01

    The amount of nuclear DNA extracted from teeth of 279 individual red fox Vulpes vulpes collected over a period spanning the last three decades was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Although teeth were autoclaved during initial collection, 73.8% of extracts contained sufficient DNA concentration (> 5 pg/ micro L) suitable for reliable microsatellite genotyping but the quantity of nuclear DNA decayed significantly over time in a nonlinear pattern. The success of PCR amplification across four examined canine microsatellites over time was dependent on fragment size. By including data from two different tests for human contamination and from frequencies of allelic dropout and false alleles, the methodological constraints of population genetic studies using microsatellite loci amplified from historic DNA are discussed. PMID:12753226

  17. DNA topology influences molecular machine lifetime in human serum Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: DNA sequences, fluorophore and quencher properties, equipment design, and degradation studies. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02283e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Goltry, Sara; Hallstrom, Natalya; Clark, Tyler; Kuang, Wan; Lee, Jeunghoon; Jorcyk, Cheryl; Knowlton, William B.; Yurke, Bernard; Hughes, William L.

    2015-01-01

    DNA nanotechnology holds the potential for enabling new tools for biomedical engineering, including diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutics. However, applications for DNA devices are thought to be limited by rapid enzymatic degradation in serum and blood. Here, we demonstrate that a key aspect of DNA nanotechnologyprogrammable molecular shapeplays a substantial role in device lifetimes. These results establish the ability to operate synthetic DNA devices in the presence of endogenous enzymes and challenge the textbook view of near instantaneous degradation. PMID:25959862

  18. Simultaneous detection of multiple DNA adducts in human lung samples by isotope-dilution UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Monien, Bernhard H; Schumacher, Fabian; Herrmann, Kristin; Glatt, Hansruedi; Turesky, Robert J; Chesné, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that various DNA adducts can be detected in human tissues and fluids using liquid chromatography connected to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). However, the utility of a single DNA adduct as a biomarker in risk assessment is debatable because humans are exposed to many genotoxicants. We established a method to measure DNA adducts derived from 16 ubiquitous genotoxicants and developed an analytical technique for their simultaneous quantification by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-MS/MS. Methods for the enrichment of the analytes from DNA hydrolysates and chromatographic separation preceding mass spectrometric analysis were optimized, and the resultant technique was used for the simultaneous analysis of the 16 DNA adducts in human lung biopsy specimens. Eleven adducts (formed by benzo[a]pyrene, 1-methylpyrene, 4-aminobiphenyl, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine, 1-methoxy-3-indolylmethylglucosinolate, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and malondialdehyde) were not detected in any tissue sample (limits of detection: 0.02-7.1 adducts/10(8) nucleosides). 3,N(4)-etheno-2'-deoxycytidine and 1,N(6)-etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine, formed from 2,3-epoxyaldehydes of endogenous lipid peroxidation products, were present in all subjects (16.9-115.3 and 27.2-179/10(8) nucleosides, respectively). The same was true for N(2)-(trans-methylisoeugenol-3'-yl)-2'-deoxyguanosine, the major adduct of methyleugenol (1.7-23.7/10(8) nucleosides). A minor adduct of methyleugenol and two adducts of furfuryl alcohol were detected in several pulmonary specimens. Taken together, we developed a targeted approach for the simultaneous mass spectrometric analyses of 16 DNA adducts, which can be easily extended by adducts formed from other mutagens. The method allowed one to detect adducts of furfuryl alcohol and methyleugenol in samples of human lung. PMID:25423194

  19. Simultaneous Detection of Multiple DNA Adducts in Human Lung Samples by Isotope-Dilution UPLC-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that various DNA adducts can be detected in human tissues and fluids using liquid chromatography connected to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). However, the utility of a single DNA adduct as a biomarker in risk assessment is debatable because humans are exposed to many genotoxicants. We established a method to measure DNA adducts derived from 16 ubiquitous genotoxicants and developed an analytical technique for their simultaneous quantification by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-MS/MS. Methods for the enrichment of the analytes from DNA hydrolysates and chromatographic separation preceding mass spectrometric analysis were optimized, and the resultant technique was used for the simultaneous analysis of the 16 DNA adducts in human lung biopsy specimens. Eleven adducts (formed by benzo[a]pyrene, 1-methylpyrene, 4-aminobiphenyl, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine, 1-methoxy-3-indolylmethylglucosinolate, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and malondialdehyde) were not detected in any tissue sample (limits of detection: 0.02–7.1 adducts/108 nucleosides). 3,N4-etheno-2′-deoxycytidine and 1,N6-etheno-2′-deoxyadenosine, formed from 2,3-epoxyaldehydes of endogenous lipid peroxidation products, were present in all subjects (16.9–115.3 and 27.2–179/108 nucleosides, respectively). The same was true for N2-(trans-methylisoeugenol-3′-yl)-2′-deoxyguanosine, the major adduct of methyleugenol (1.7–23.7/108 nucleosides). A minor adduct of methyleugenol and two adducts of furfuryl alcohol were detected in several pulmonary specimens. Taken together, we developed a targeted approach for the simultaneous mass spectrometric analyses of 16 DNA adducts, which can be easily extended by adducts formed from other mutagens. The method allowed one to detect adducts of furfuryl alcohol and methyleugenol in samples of human lung. PMID:25423194

  20. Identification of Unsaturated and 2H Polyfluorocarboxylate Homologous Series and Their Detection in Environmental Samples and as Polymer Degradation Products

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pair of homologous series of polyfluorinated degradation products have been identified, both having structures similar to perfluorocarboxylic acids but (i) having a H substitution for F on the ? carbon for 2H polyfluorocarboxylic acids (2HPFCAs) and (ii) bearing a double ...

  1. Identification of Unsaturated and 2H Polyfluorocarboxylate Homologous Series and Their Detection in Environmental Samples and as Polymer Degradation Products

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pair of homologous series of polyfluorinated degradation products have been identified, both having structures similar to perfluorocarboxylic acids but (i) having a H substitution for F on the α carbon for 2H polyfluorocarboxylic acids (2HPFCAs) and (ii) bearing a double ...

  2. Comparison of two methods of bacterial DNA extraction from human fecal samples contaminated with Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Kawase, Jun; Kurosaki, Morito; Kawakami, Yuta; Kashimoto, Takashi; Tsunomori, Yoshie; Sato, Koji; Ikeda, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Keiji; Watahiki, Masanori; Shima, Tomoko; Kameyama, Mitsuhiro; Etoh, Yoshiki; Horikawa, Kazumi; Fukushima, Hiroshi; Goto, Ryoichi; Shirabe, Komei

    2014-01-01

    In this study, 2 methods of DNA extraction were evaluated for use in conjunction with the screening system Rapid Foodborne Bacterial Screening 24 (RFBS24), which employs multiplex real-time SYBR Green polymerase chain reaction (SG-PCR) and can simultaneously detect 24 target genes of foodborne pathogens in fecal DNA samples. The QIAamp DNA Stool mini kit (Qkit) and Ultra Clean Fecal DNA Isolation Kit (Ukit) were used for bacterial DNA extraction from fecal samples artificially inoculated with Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Campylobacter jejuni. SG-PCR and simplex real-time quantitative PCR (S-qPCR) analyses revealed higher copy numbers (8-234 times) of DNA in samples obtained using Ukit compared with those obtained using Qkit, resulting in lower cycle threshold values for the Ukit samples of the 4 bacteria on SG-PCR analysis. Fecal DNA samples from patients infected during foodborne outbreaks of Salmonella and Campylobacter were also prepared by Qkit and Ukit methods and subjected to RFBS24 analyses. Higher numbers of RFBS24 bacterial target genes were detected in DNA samples obtained using Ukit compared with those obtained using Qkit. Thus, the higher DNA extraction efficiency of the Ukit method compared with Qkit renders the former more useful in achieving improved detection rates of these 4 bacteria in fecal samples using SG-PCR. PMID:25410559

  3. Efficient detection of single DNA fragments in flowing sample streams by two-photon fluorescence excitation.

    PubMed

    Van Orden, A; Cai, H; Goodwin, P M; Keller, R A

    1999-06-01

    This paper reports the demonstration of efficient single molecule detection in flow cytometry by two-photon fluorescence excitation. We have used two-photon excitation (TPE) to detect single DNA fragments as small as 383 base pairs (bp) labeled with the intercalating dye, POPO-1, at a dye:nucleotide ratio of 1:5. TPE of the dye-DNA complexes was accomplished using a mode-locked, 120 fs pulse width Ti:sapphire laser operating at 810 nm. POPO-1 labeled DNA fragments of 1.1 kilobase pairs (kbp) and larger were sequentially detected in our flow cytometry system with a detection efficiency of nearly 100%. The detection efficiency for the 383 bp DNA fragments was approximately 75%. We also demonstrate the ability to distinguish between different sized DNA fragments in a mixture by their individual fluorescence burst sizes by TPE. These studies indicate that using TPE for single molecule flow cytometry experiments lowers the intensity of the background radiation by approximately an order of magnitude compared to one-photon excitation, due to the large separation between the excitation and emission wavelengths in TPE. PMID:21662745

  4. Application of chemometric tools for automatic classification and profile extraction of DNA samples in forensic tasks.

    PubMed

    Talavera Bustamante, Isneri; Silva Mata, Francisco; Hernndez Gonzlez, Noslen; Gonzlez Gazapo, Ricardo; Palau, Juan; Ferreira, Marcia M Castro

    2007-07-01

    In this paper a method for the automatic DNA spots classification and extraction of profiles associated in DNA polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is presented and it integrates the use of image processing techniques and chemometrics tools. A software which implements this method was developed; for feature extraction a combination of a PCA analysis and a C4.5 decision tree were used. To obtain good results in the profile extraction only DNA spots are useful; therefore, it was necessary to solve a two-class classification problem among DNA spots and no-DNA spots. In order to perform the classification process with high velocity, effectiveness and robustness, comparative classification studies among support vector machine (SVM), K-NN and PLS-DA classifiers were made. The best results obtained with the SVM classifier demonstrated the advantages attributed to it in the literature as a two-class classifier. A Sequential Cluster Leader Algorithm and another one developed for the restoration of pattern missing spots were needed to conclude the profiles extraction step. The experimental results show that this method has a very effective computational behavior and effectiveness, and provide a very useful tool to decrease the time and increase the quality of the specialist responses. PMID:17605982

  5. The effect of dilution and the use of a post-extraction nucleic acid purification column on the accuracy, precision, and inhibition of environmental DNA samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mckee, Anna M.; Spear, Stephen F.; Pierson, Todd W.

    2015-01-01

    Isolation of environmental DNA (eDNA) is an increasingly common method for detecting presence and assessing relative abundance of rare or elusive species in aquatic systems via the isolation of DNA from environmental samples and the amplification of species-specific sequences using quantitative PCR (qPCR). Co-extracted substances that inhibit qPCR can lead to inaccurate results and subsequent misinterpretation about a species’ status in the tested system. We tested three treatments (5-fold and 10-fold dilutions, and spin-column purification) for reducing qPCR inhibition from 21 partially and fully inhibited eDNA samples collected from coastal plain wetlands and mountain headwater streams in the southeastern USA. All treatments reduced the concentration of DNA in the samples. However, column purified samples retained the greatest sensitivity. For stream samples, all three treatments effectively reduced qPCR inhibition. However, for wetland samples, the 5-fold dilution was less effective than other treatments. Quantitative PCR results for column purified samples were more precise than the 5-fold and 10-fold dilutions by 2.2× and 3.7×, respectively. Column purified samples consistently underestimated qPCR-based DNA concentrations by approximately 25%, whereas the directional bias in qPCR-based DNA concentration estimates differed between stream and wetland samples for both dilution treatments. While the directional bias of qPCR-based DNA concentration estimates differed among treatments and locations, the magnitude of inaccuracy did not. Our results suggest that 10-fold dilution and column purification effectively reduce qPCR inhibition in mountain headwater stream and coastal plain wetland eDNA samples, and if applied to all samples in a study, column purification may provide the most accurate relative qPCR-based DNA concentrations estimates while retaining the greatest assay sensitivity.

  6. Simultaneous Single-Molecule Force and Fluorescence Sampling of DNA Nanostructure Conformations Using Magnetic Tweezers.

    PubMed

    Kemmerich, Felix E; Swoboda, Marko; Kauert, Dominik J; Grieb, M Svea; Hahn, Steffen; Schwarz, Friedrich W; Seidel, Ralf; Schlierf, Michael

    2016-01-13

    We present a hybrid single-molecule technique combining magnetic tweezers and Frster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements. Through applying external forces to a paramagnetic sphere, we induce conformational changes in DNA nanostructures, which are detected in two output channels simultaneously. First, by tracking a magnetic bead with high spatial and temporal resolution, we observe overall DNA length changes along the force axis. Second, the measured FRET efficiency between two fluorescent probes monitors local conformational changes. The synchronized orthogonal readout in different observation channels will facilitate deciphering the complex mechanisms of biomolecular machines. PMID:26632021

  7. Increased presence of Epstein-Barr virus DNA in ocular fluid samples from HIV negative immunocompromised patients with uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Ongkosuwito, J.; Van der Lelij, A.; Bruinenberg, M.; Doorn, M. W.; Feron, E.; Hoyng, C.; de Keizer, R. J W; Klok, A.; Kijlstra, A.

    1998-01-01

    AIMSTo investigate whether routine testing for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is necessary in the examination of a patient with uveitis.?METHODSIntraocular EBV DNA was determined in 183ocular fluid samples taken from patients with AIDS and uveitis, HIV negative immunocompromised uveitis, acute retinal necrosis, toxoplasma chorioretinitis, intraocular lymphoma, anterior uveitis, and miscellaneous uveitis of unknown cause. In 82samples from this group of patients paired serum/ocular fluid analysis was performed to detect local antibody production against EBV. Controls (n=46) included ocular fluid samples taken during surgery for diabetic retinopathy, macular pucker, or cataract.?RESULTSSerum antibody titres to EBV capsid antigen proved to be significantly increased in HIV negative immunocompromised patients with uveitis (p<0.01) compared with controls. Local antibody production revealed only three positive cases out of 82patients tested, two results were borderline positive and one patient had uveitis caused by VZV. EBV DNA was detected in three out of 46control ocular fluid samples. In the different uveitis groups EBV DNA was noted, but was not significantly higher than in the controls, except in six out of 11HIV negative immunocompromised patients (p=0.0008). In four out of these six cases another infectious agent (VZV, HSV, CMV, or Toxoplasma gondii) had previously been identified as the cause of the uveitis.?CONCLUSIONSWhen comparing various groups of uveitis patients, EBV DNA was found more often in HIV negative immunocompromised patients with uveitis. Testing for EBV does not have to be included in the routine management of patients with uveitis, since indications for an important role of this virus were not found in the pathogenesis of intraocular inflammation.?? Keywords: Epstein-Barr virus; intraocular fluid; polymerase chain reaction; uveitis PMID:9602620

  8. Association of RNA with the uracil-DNA-degrading factor has major conformational effects and is potentially involved in protein folding.

    PubMed

    Bekesi, Angela; Pukancsik, Maria; Haasz, Peter; Felfoldi, Lilla; Leveles, Ibolya; Muha, Villo; Hunyadi-Gulyas, Eva; Erdei, Anna; Medzihradszky, Katalin F; Vertessy, Beata G

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a novel uracil-DNA-degrading factor protein (UDE) was identified in Drosophila melanogaster, with homologues only in pupating insects. Its unique uracil-DNA-degrading activity and a potential domain organization pattern have been described. UDE seems to be the first representative of a new protein family with unique enzyme activity that has a putative role in insect development. In addition, UDE may also serve as potential tool in molecular biological applications. Owing to lack of homology with other proteins with known structure and/or function, de novo data are required for a detailed characterization of UDE structure and function. Here, experimental evidence is provided that recombinant protein is present in two distinct conformers. One of these contains a significant amount of RNA strongly bound to the protein, influencing its conformation. Detailed biophysical characterization of the two distinct conformational states (termed UDE and RNA-UDE) revealed essential differences. UDE cannot be converted into RNA-UDE by addition of the same RNA, implying putatively joint processes of RNA binding and protein folding in this conformational species. By real-time PCR and sequencing after random cloning, the bound RNA pool was shown to consist of UDE mRNA and the two ribosomal RNAs, also suggesting cotranslational RNA-assisted folding. This finding, on the one hand, might open a way to obtain a conformationally homogeneous UDE preparation, promoting successful crystallization; on the other hand, it might imply a further molecular function of the protein. In fact, RNA-dependent complexation of UDE was also demonstrated in a fruit fly pupal extract, suggesting physiological relevance of RNA binding of this DNA-processing enzyme. PMID:21134127

  9. Identification of grass-associated and toluene-degrading diazotrophs, Axoarcus spp., by analyses of partial 16S ribosomal DNA sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Hurek, T.; Reinhold-Hurek, B.

    1995-06-01

    The genus Azoarcus includes nitrogen-fixing, grass-associated strains as well as denitrifying toluene degraders. In order to identify and group members of the genus Azoarcus, phylogenetic analysis based on partial sequences of 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNAs) is proposed. 16S rRNA-targeted PCR using specific primers to exclude amplification in the majority of other members of the beta subclass of the class Proteobacteria was combined with direct sequencing of the PCR products. Tree inference from comparisons of 446-bp rDNA fragments yielded similar results for the three known Azoarcus spp. sequences and for analysis of the complete 16S rDNA sequence. These three species formed a phylogenetically coherent group with representatives of two other Azoarcus species which were subjected to 16S rRNA sequencing in this study. This group was related to Rhodocyclus purpureus and Thaurea selenatis. New isolates and also sequences of so far uncultured bacteria from roots of Kallar grass were assigned to the genus Azoarcus as well. Also, strains degrading monoaromatic hydrocarbons anaerobically in the presence of nitrate clustered within this genus, albeit not with grass-associated isolates. All representative members of the five species harboring rhizospheric bacteria were able to form N{sub 2}O from nitrate and showed anaerobic growth on malic acid with nitrate but not on toluene. In order to visualize different Azoarcus spp. by whole-cell in situ hybridizations, we generated 16S rRNA-targeted, fluorescent probes by in vitro transcription directly from PCR products which spanned the variable region V2. Hybridization was species specific for Azoarcus communis and Azoarcus indigens. The proposed scheme of phylogenetic analysis of PCR-generated 16S rDNA segements will facilitate studies on ecological distribution, host range, and diversity of Azoarcus spp. and may even allow rapid identification of unc ultured strains from environmental DNAs. 30 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Sonochemical degradation of ethyl paraben in environmental samples: Statistically important parameters determining kinetics, by-products and pathways.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Costas; Frontistis, Zacharias; Antonopoulou, Maria; Venieri, Danae; Konstantinou, Ioannis; Mantzavinos, Dionissios

    2016-07-01

    The sonochemical degradation of ethyl paraben (EP), a representative of the parabens family, was investigated. Experiments were conducted at constant ultrasound frequency of 20kHz and liquid bulk temperature of 30°C in the following range of experimental conditions: EP concentration 250-1250μg/L, ultrasound (US) density 20-60W/L, reaction time up to 120min, initial pH 3-8 and sodium persulfate 0-100mg/L, either in ultrapure water or secondary treated wastewater. A factorial design methodology was adopted to elucidate the statistically important effects and their interactions and a full empirical model comprising seventeen terms was originally developed. Omitting several terms of lower significance, a reduced model that can reliably simulate the process was finally proposed; this includes EP concentration, reaction time, power density and initial pH, as well as the interactions (EP concentration)×(US density), (EP concentration)×(pHo) and (EP concentration)×(time). Experiments at an increased EP concentration of 3.5mg/L were also performed to identify degradation by-products. LC-TOF-MS analysis revealed that EP sonochemical degradation occurs through dealkylation of the ethyl chain to form methyl paraben, while successive hydroxylation of the aromatic ring yields 4-hydroxybenzoic, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acids. By-products are less toxic to bacterium V. fischeri than the parent compound. PMID:26964924

  11. Tissue-Specific DNA Methylation Patterns in Forensic Samples Detected by Pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Joana; Balamurugan, Kuppareddi; Duncan, George; McCord, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    In certain circumstances the outcome of a trial may hinge on the ability of a forensic laboratory to determine the identity of biological stains present at crime scenes. An example of such a situation would be the detection of blood, saliva, vaginal fluid, or other body fluid in a specific location whereby its presence would reinforce the victim's or suspect's version of the events that happened during the commission of a crime. However, current serological methods used for identifying body fluids may lack the sensitivity and specificity to identify these fluids, particularly for trace levels. New procedures using proteomic methods and RNA-based gene expression show promise in addressing this issue; however, concerns about stability and relative levels of gene expression remain. An alternative approach is to utilize patterns of epigenetic DNA methylation. DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism that regulates the specificity of genes being expressed or silenced in cells. Regions in the human genome referred to as tissue-specific differentially methylated regions account for unique patterns of DNA methylation that are specific for each cell type. This chapter addresses the application of bisulfite-modified PCR combined with Pyrosequencing() to detect tissue-specific DNA methylation patterns and perform trace serological analysis. The quantitative nature and precision available with Pyrosequencing presents major advantages in these studies as it permits detection of and contrast between cells with differential levels of methylation. The procedure can be applied to a variety of biological fluids which may be present at crime scenes. PMID:26103913

  12. Comparison of RNA- and DNA-based bacterial communities in a lab-scale methane-degrading biocover.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Gwan; Moon, Kyung-Eun; Yun, Jeonghee; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2013-04-01

    Methanotrophs must become established and active in a landfill biocover for successful methane oxidation. A lab-scale biocover with a soil mixture was operated for removal of methane and nonmethane volatile organic compounds, such as dimethyl sulfide (DMS), benzene (B), and toluene (T). The methane elimination capacity was 21140 g?m(-2) d(-1) at inlet loads of 330-516 g?m(-2) d(-1). DMS, B, and T were completely removed at the bottom layer (40-50 cm) with inlet loads of 221.692.2, 99.619.5, and 23.44.9 mg m(-2) d(-1), respectively. The bacterial community was examined based on DNA and RNA using ribosomal tag pyrosequencing. Interestingly, methanotrophs comprised 80% of the active community (RNA) while 29% of the counterpart (DNA). Types I and II methanotrophs equally contributed to methane oxidation, and Methylobacter, Methylocaldum, and Methylocystis were dominant in both communities. The DNA vs. RNA comparison suggests that DNA-based analysis alone can lead to a significant underestimation of active members. PMID:22573274

  13. Fragmentation of Contaminant and Endogenous DNA in Ancient Samples Determined by Shotgun Sequencing; Prospects for Human Palaeogenomics

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Quinto, Federico; Ramirez, Oscar; Calafell, Francesc; Civit, Sergi; Lalueza-Fox, Carles

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite the successful retrieval of genomes from past remains, the prospects for human palaeogenomics remain unclear because of the difficulty of distinguishing contaminant from endogenous DNA sequences. Previous sequence data generated on high-throughput sequencing platforms indicate that fragmentation of ancient DNA sequences is a characteristic trait primarily arising due to depurination processes that create abasic sites leading to DNA breaks. Methodology/Principals Findings To investigate whether this pattern is present in ancient remains from a temperate environment, we have 454-FLX pyrosequenced different samples dated between 5,500 and 49,000 years ago: a bone from an extinct goat (Myotragus balearicus) that was treated with a depurinating agent (bleach), an Iberian lynx bone not subjected to any treatment, a human Neolithic sample from Barcelona (Spain), and a Neandertal sample from the El Sidrn site (Asturias, Spain). The efficiency of retrieval of endogenous sequences is below 1% in all cases. We have used the non-human samples to identify human sequences (0.35 and 1.4%, respectively), that we positively know are contaminants. Conclusions We observed that bleach treatment appears to create a depurination-associated fragmentation pattern in resulting contaminant sequences that is indistinguishable from previously described endogenous sequences. Furthermore, the nucleotide composition pattern observed in 5? and 3? ends of contaminant sequences is much more complex than the flat pattern previously described in some Neandertal contaminants. Although much research on samples with known contaminant histories is needed, our results suggest that endogenous and contaminant sequences cannot be distinguished by the fragmentation pattern alone. PMID:21904610

  14. Mite species identification in the production of allergenic extracts for clinical use and in environmental samples by ribosomal DNA amplification.

    PubMed

    Beroiz, B; Couso-Ferrer, F; Ortego, F; Chamorro, M J; Arteaga, C; Lombardero, M; Castaera, P; Hernndez-Crespo, P

    2014-09-01

    The identification of allergy-causing mites is conventionally based on morphological characters. However, molecular taxonomy using ribosomal DNA (rDNA) may be particularly useful in the analysis of mite cultures and purified mite fractions in the production of allergenic extracts. Full-length internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) were obtained from Dermatophagoides farinae, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides microceras and Euroglyphus maynei (Astigmata: Pyroglyphidae), Glycyphagus domesticus and Lepidoglyphus destructor (Astigmata: Glycyphagidae), Tyrophagus fanetzhangorum, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Tyrophagus longior, Tyrophagus neiswanderi, Acarus farris and Acarus siro (Astigmata: Acaridae), and Blomia tropicalis (Astigmata: Echymopodidae), using mite-specific primers. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were digested with HpaII and RsaI restriction enzymes in order to produce species-specific PCR restricted fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) profiles. A semi-nested re-amplification step was introduced before the RFLP in order to apply the method to environmental samples. Results demonstrate that rDNA sequences can be used for the unambiguous identification of mite species. The PCR-RFLP system allows the identification of species in purified mite fractions when the availability of intact adult mite bodies for morphological identification is limited. This reliable and straightforward PCR-RFLP system and the rDNA sequences obtained can be of use in the identification of allergy-causing mite species. PMID:24617319

  15. DNA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stent, Gunther S.

    1970-01-01

    This history for molecular genetics and its explanation of DNA begins with an analysis of the Golden Jubilee essay papers, 1955. The paper ends stating that the higher nervous system is the one major frontier of biological inquiry which still offers some romance of research. (Author/VW)

  16. A Mouse Model Uncovers LKB1 as an UVB-Induced DNA Damage Sensor Mediating CDKN1A (p21WAF1/CIP1) Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Esteve-Puig, Rosaura; Gil, Rosa; González-Sánchez, Elena; Bech-Serra, Joan Josep; Grueso, Judit; Hernández-Losa, Javier; Moliné, Teresa; Canals, Francesc; Ferrer, Berta; Cortés, Javier; Bastian, Boris; Ramón y Cajal, Santiago; Martín-Caballero, Juan; Flores, Juana Maria; Vivancos, Ana; García-Patos, Vicenç; Recio, Juan Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunlight accounts for 90% of the symptoms of premature skin aging and skin cancer. The tumor suppressor serine-threonine kinase LKB1 is mutated in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome and in a spectrum of epithelial cancers whose etiology suggests a cooperation with environmental insults. Here we analyzed the role of LKB1 in a UV-dependent mouse skin cancer model and show that LKB1 haploinsufficiency is enough to impede UVB-induced DNA damage repair, contributing to tumor development driven by aberrant growth factor signaling. We demonstrate that LKB1 and its downstream kinase NUAK1 bind to CDKN1A. In response to UVB irradiation, LKB1 together with NUAK1 phosphorylates CDKN1A regulating the DNA damage response. Upon UVB treatment, LKB1 or NUAK1 deficiency results in CDKN1A accumulation, impaired DNA repair and resistance to apoptosis. Importantly, analysis of human tumor samples suggests that LKB1 mutational status could be a prognostic risk factor for UV-induced skin cancer. Altogether, our results identify LKB1 as a DNA damage sensor protein regulating skin UV-induced DNA damage response. PMID:25329316

  17. Methods to characterize selective sweeps using time serial samples: an ancient DNA perspective.

    PubMed

    Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo

    2016-01-01

    With hundreds of ancient genomes becoming available this year, ancient DNA research has now entered the genomics era. Utilizing the temporal aspect of these new data, we can now address fundamental evolutionary questions such as the characterization of selection processes shaping the genomes. The temporal dimension in the data has spurred the development in the last 10 years of new methods allowing the detection of loci evolving non-neutrally but also the inference of selection coefficients across genomes capitalizing on these time serial data. To guide empirically oriented researchers towards the statistical approach most appropriate for their data, this article reviews several of those methods, discussing their underlying assumptions and the parameter ranges for which they have been developed. While I discuss some methods developed for experimental evolution, the main focus is ancient DN