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Sample records for degree polarization rotator

  1. Detection of degree-scale B-mode polarization and studying cosmic polarization rotation with the BICEP1 and BICEP2 telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Jonathan Philip

    The BICEP1 and BICEP2 telescopes studied the temperature and polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) from 2006 -- 2008 and 2010 -- 2012, respectively, producing the deepest maps of polarization created to date. From BICEP2 three-year data, we detect B-mode polarization at the degree-scale above the expectation from lensed-ΛCDM to greater than 5sigma significance, consistent with that expected from gravitational waves created during Inflation. Instrumental systematic effects have been characterized and ruled out, and galactic foreground contamination is disfavored by the data. Additionally, correlations between temperature and B-mode polarization and between E-mode and B-mode polarization show evidence of polarization rotation of --1° to 5sigma significance; however, adding systematic uncertainty reduces this significance to ˜ 2sigma. These measurements, combined with other CMB and astrophysical measurements, point to possible parity violating physics like cosmic birefringence, but more precise calibration techniques are required to break the degeneracy between cosmic polarization rotation and systematic effects. Improved calibration is possible with current generation technology and may be achieved within the next few years. In this work, I present experimental and analysis techniques employed for BICEP1 and BICEP2 to measure B-mode polarization and temperature and polarization correlations, as well as the scientific motivation, results, and a path forward for future measurements.

  2. A Translational Polarization Rotator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David T.; Wollack, Edward J.; Pisano, Giampaolo; Ackiss, Sheridan; U-Yen, Kongpop; Ng, Ming wah

    2012-01-01

    We explore a free-space polarization modulator in which a variable phase introduction between right- and left-handed circular polarization components is used to rotate the linear polarization of the outgoing beam relative to that of the incoming beam. In this device, the polarization states are separated by a circular polarizer that consists of a quarter-wave plate in combination with a wire grid. A movable mirror is positioned behind and parallel to the circular polarizer. As the polarizer-mirror distance is separated, an incident liear polarization will be rotated through an angle that is proportional to the introduced phase delay. We demonstrate a prototype device that modulates Stokes Q and U over a 20% bandwidth.

  3. Polarizance of a synthetic mica crystal polarizer and the degree of linear polarization of an undulator beamline at 880 eV evaluated by the rotating-analyzer method

    SciTech Connect

    Imazono, Takashi; Hirono, Toko; Kimura, Hiroaki; Saitoh, Yuji; Ishino, Masahiko; Muramatsu, Yasuji; Koike, Masato; Sano, Kazuo

    2005-12-15

    The polarization performance of a reflection-type polarizer made with a synthetic mica (fluorophlogopite) single crystal (002) in symmetric Bragg geometry was evaluated at the photon energy of 880 eV by means of the rotating-analyzer method. An experiment was performed at the undulator beamline at the SPring-8. The reflectance in the s-polarization configuration was 2.6% at an incidence angle of around 45 deg. As the result of the analysis based on the rotating-analyzer method, the polarizance of the polarizer and the degree of linear polarization of the incident light at 880 eV were found to be 0.997{+-}0.002 and 0.993{+-}0.004, respectively.

  4. Linear polarization of rapidly rotating ultracool dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles-Páez, P. A.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Pallé, E.; Peña Ramírez, K.

    2013-08-01

    Aims: We aim to study the near-infrared linear polarization signal of rapidly rotating ultracool dwarfs with spectral types ranging from M7 through T2 and projected rotational velocities of v sin i ≳ 30 km s-1. These dwarfs are believed to have dusty atmospheres and oblate shapes, which is an appropriate scenario to produce measurable linear polarization of the continuum light. Methods: Linear polarimetric images were collected in the J-band for a sample of 18 fast-rotating ultracool dwarfs, of which five were also observed in the Z-band using the Long-slit Intermediate Resolution Infrared Spectrograph (LIRIS) on the Cassegrain focus of the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope. The measured median uncertainty in the linear polarization degree is ±0.13% for our sample, which allowed us to detect polarization signatures above ~0.39% with a confidence interval of ≥3σ. Results: About 40 ± 15% of the sample is linearly polarized in the Z- and J-bands. All positive detections have linear polarization degrees ranging from 0.4% to 0.8% in both filters independent of spectral type and spectroscopic rotational velocity. However, simple statistics point at the fastest rotators (v sin i ≳ 60 km s-1) having a larger fraction of positive detections and a larger averaged linear polarization degree than the moderately rotating dwarfs (v sin i = 30-60 km s-1). Our data suggest little linear polarimetric variability on short timescales (i.e., observations separated by a few ten rotation periods), and significant variability on long timescales (i.e., hundred to thousand rotation cycles), supporting the presence of long-term weather in ultracool dwarf atmospheres.

  5. Detection of endometrial lesions by degree of linear polarization maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jihoon; Fazleabas, Asgerally; Walsh, Joseph T.

    2010-02-01

    Endometriosis is one of the most common causes of chronic pelvic pain and infertility and is characterized by the presence of endometrial glands and stroma outside of the uterine cavity. A novel laparoscopic polarization imaging system was designed to detect endometriosis by imaging endometrial lesions. Linearly polarized light with varying incident polarization angles illuminated endometrial lesions. Degree of linear polarization image maps of endometrial lesions were constructed by using remitted polarized light. The image maps were compared with regular laparoscopy image. The degree of linear polarization map contributed to the detection of endometriosis by revealing structures inside the lesion. The utilization of rotating incident polarization angle (IPA) for the linearly polarized light provides extended understanding of endometrial lesions. The developed polarization system with varying IPA and the collected image maps could provide improved characterization of endometrial lesions via higher visibility of the structure of the lesions and thereby improve diagnosis of endometriosis.

  6. Cosmic polarization rotation: An astrophysical test of fundamental physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Serego Alighieri, Sperello

    2015-02-01

    Possible violations of fundamental physical principles, e.g. the Einstein equivalence principle on which all metric theories of gravity are based, including general relativity (GR), would lead to a rotation of the plane of polarization for linearly polarized radiation traveling over cosmological distances, the so-called cosmic polarization rotation (CPR). We review here the astrophysical tests which have been carried out so far to check if CPR exists. These are using the radio and ultraviolet polarization of radio galaxies and the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (both E-mode and B-mode). These tests so far have been negative, leading to upper limits of the order of one degree on any CPR angle, thereby increasing our confidence in those physical principles, including GR. We also discuss future prospects in detecting CPR or improving the constraints on it.

  7. Spectral degree of polarization uniformity for polarization-sensitive OCT

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Bernhard; Zotter, Stefan; Pircher, Michael; Götzinger, Erich; Rauscher, Sabine; Glösmann, Martin; Lammer, Jan; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula; Gröger, Marion; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.

    2015-01-01

    Depolarization of light can be measured by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) and has been used to improve tissue discrimination as well as segmentation of pigmented structures. Most approaches to depolarization assessment for PS-OCT – such as the degree of polarization uniformity (DOPU) – rely on measuring the uniformity of polarization states using spatial evaluation kernels. In this article, we present a different approach which exploits the spectral dimension. We introduce the spectral DOPU for the pixelwise analysis of polarization state variations between sub-bands of the broadband light source spectrum. Alongside a comparison with conventional spatial and temporal DOPU algorithms, we demonstrate imaging in the healthy human retina, and apply the technique for contrasting hard exudates in diabetic retinopathy and investigating the pigment epithelium of the rat iris. PMID:26689829

  8. Spectral degree of polarization uniformity for polarization-sensitive OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Bernhard; Zotter, Stefan; Pircher, Michael; Götzinger, Erich; Rauscher, Sabine; Glösmann, Martin; Lammer, Jan; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula; Gröger, Marion; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.

    2015-12-01

    Depolarization of light can be measured by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) and has been used to improve tissue discrimination as well as segmentation of pigmented structures. Most approaches to depolarization assessment for PS-OCT - such as the degree of polarization uniformity (DOPU) - rely on measuring the uniformity of polarization states using spatial evaluation kernels. In this article, we present a different approach which exploits the spectral dimension. We introduce the spectral DOPU for the pixelwise analysis of polarization state variations between sub-bands of the broadband light source spectrum. Alongside a comparison with conventional spatial and temporal DOPU algorithms, we demonstrate imaging in the healthy human retina, and apply the technique for contrasting hard exudates in diabetic retinopathy and investigating the pigment epithelium of the rat iris.

  9. Electrically rotating suspended films of polar liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirsavar, R.; Amjadi, A.; Tonddast-Navaei, A.; Ejtehadi, M. R.

    2011-02-01

    Controlled rotation of a suspended soap water film, simply generated by applying an electric field, has been reported recently. The film rotates when the applied electric field exceeds a certain threshold. In this study, we investigate the phenomenon in films made of a number of other liquids with various physical and chemical properties. Our measurements show that the intrinsic electrical dipole moments of the liquid molecules seems to be vital for the corresponding film rotation. All the investigated rotating liquids have a molecular electric dipole moment of above 1 Debye, while weakly polar liquids do not rotate. However, the liquids investigated here cover a wide range of physical parameters (e.g. viscosity, density, conductivity, etc.). So far, no significant correlation has been observed between the electric field thresholds and macroscopic properties of the liquids.

  10. Toroidal rotation driven by the polarization drift.

    PubMed

    McDevitt, C J; Diamond, P H; Gürcan, O D; Hahm, T S

    2009-11-13

    Starting from a phase space conserving gyrokinetic formulation, a systematic derivation of parallel momentum conservation uncovers a novel mechanism by which microturbulence may drive intrinsic rotation. This mechanism, which appears in the gyrokinetic formulation through the parallel nonlinearity, emerges due to charge separation induced by the polarization drift. The derivation and physical discussion of this mechanism will be pursued throughout this Letter. PMID:20365987

  11. Renormalized vacuum polarization of rotating black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Hugo R. C.

    2015-04-01

    Quantum field theory on rotating black hole spacetimes is plagued with technical difficulties. Here, we describe a general method to renormalize and compute the vacuum polarization of a quantum field in the Hartle-Hawking state on rotating black holes. We exemplify the technique with a massive scalar field on the warped AdS3 black hole solution to topologically massive gravity, a deformation of (2 + 1)-dimensional Einstein gravity. We use a "quasi-Euclidean" technique, which generalizes the Euclidean techniques used for static spacetimes, and we subtract the divergences by matching to a sum over mode solutions on Minkowski spacetime. This allows us, for the first time, to have a general method to compute the renormalized vacuum polarization, for a given quantum state, on a rotating black hole, such as the physically relevant case of the Kerr black hole in four dimensions.

  12. Polarization Properties of Rotation Powered Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding Alice K.

    2009-01-01

    Polarization measurements of rotation-powered pulsars and their nebulae have unique diagnostic potential. The polarization position angle of the pulsar wind nebula, as is know for the Crab pulsar, can tell us the orientation of the spin axis. Phase-resolved polarimetry of pulsars has had enormous diagnostic capability at radio and optical wavelengths and could also be a powerful diagnostic in the X-ray range. Measurement of the polarization properties as a function of pulse phase can therefore provide a multidimensional mapping of the pulsar emission. In the 'rotating vector' model, radiation originating near a magnetic pole is expected to show a characteristic S-shaped swing of the position angle vs. pulse phase. In this case it is possible to determine the magnetic inclination and viewing angles. Radiation originating further from the poles or further above the neutron star surface will have a more complex polarization signature, as a result of relativistic effects of aberration and time-of-flight delays and may also cause depolarization of the signal. I will discuss predicted polarization properties of pulsed emission in polar cap models, where radiation originates near the neutron star surface at the magnetic poles, and in slot gap and outer gap models, where radiation originates over a range of altitudes out to the speed-of-light cylinder.

  13. Optical polarization plane rotation for the blazar PG 1553+113

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blinov, D.; Casadi, C.

    2016-09-01

    We report about RoboPol observations of the ongoing rotation of the optical polarization angle for the blazar PG 1553+113 (RA=15h55m43s; Dec=+11d11m24s). The rotation began around August, 19. So far the total amplitude of the rotation is ~130 degrees with an average rate of ~8 deg/day.

  14. Developments in Coherent Perfect Polarization Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crescimanno, Michael; Andrews, James; Zhou, Chaunhong; Baker, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Coherent Perfect Polarization Rotation (CPR) is a useful technique akin to Coherent Perfect Absorption (CPA, also known as the anti-laser) but that results in very high efficiency optical mode conversion. We describe the analysis of recent experimental data from our CPR testbed, the use of CPR in miniaturizing optical isolators and CPR phenomena in non-linear optics. Work supported by the N.S.F. under Grant No. ECCS-1360725.

  15. Evolution of the polarization of the He-Ne-laser radiation in a rotating insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladyshev, V. O.; Portnov, D. I.

    2015-04-01

    The propagation of the polarized coherent radiation of a He-Ne laser in a rotating insulator is experimentally studied. The reversible transient process of the rotation of the polarization plane and variations in the degree of ellipticity, depolarization, and deflection of the laser beam with a relaxation time of τ = 102-103 s are observed at an insulator rotation frequency of f = 2-250 Hz.

  16. Macroscopic rotation of photon polarization induced by a single spin

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Christophe; Demory, Justin; Loo, Vivien; Lemaître, Aristide; Sagnes, Isabelle; Glazov, Mikhaïl; Krebs, Olivier; Voisin, Paul; Senellart, Pascale; Lanco, Loïc

    2015-01-01

    Entangling a single spin to the polarization of a single incoming photon, generated by an external source, would open new paradigms in quantum optics such as delayed-photon entanglement, deterministic logic gates or fault-tolerant quantum computing. These perspectives rely on the possibility that a single spin induces a macroscopic rotation of a photon polarization. Such polarization rotations induced by single spins were recently observed, yet limited to a few 10−3 degrees due to poor spin–photon coupling. Here we report the enhancement by three orders of magnitude of the spin–photon interaction, using a cavity quantum electrodynamics device. A single hole spin in a semiconductor quantum dot is deterministically coupled to a micropillar cavity. The cavity-enhanced coupling between the incoming photons and the solid-state spin results in a polarization rotation by ±6° when the spin is optically initialized in the up or down state. These results open the way towards a spin-based quantum network. PMID:25687134

  17. Macroscopic rotation of photon polarization induced by a single spin.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Christophe; Demory, Justin; Loo, Vivien; Lemaître, Aristide; Sagnes, Isabelle; Glazov, Mikhaïl; Krebs, Olivier; Voisin, Paul; Senellart, Pascale; Lanco, Loïc

    2015-01-01

    Entangling a single spin to the polarization of a single incoming photon, generated by an external source, would open new paradigms in quantum optics such as delayed-photon entanglement, deterministic logic gates or fault-tolerant quantum computing. These perspectives rely on the possibility that a single spin induces a macroscopic rotation of a photon polarization. Such polarization rotations induced by single spins were recently observed, yet limited to a few 10(-3) degrees due to poor spin-photon coupling. Here we report the enhancement by three orders of magnitude of the spin-photon interaction, using a cavity quantum electrodynamics device. A single hole spin in a semiconductor quantum dot is deterministically coupled to a micropillar cavity. The cavity-enhanced coupling between the incoming photons and the solid-state spin results in a polarization rotation by ± 6° when the spin is optically initialized in the up or down state. These results open the way towards a spin-based quantum network. PMID:25687134

  18. Degree of Polarization at Simultaneous Transmit: Theoretical Aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Galletti M.; Zrnic, D. S.

    2012-05-01

    We consider weather radar measurements at simultaneous transmission and simultaneous reception of horizontal and vertical polarizations and show that the degree of polarization at simultaneous transmit (p{sub s}) is related to differential reflectivity and copolar correlation coefficient at simultaneous transmit (namely, Z{sub DR}s and {rho}{sub hy}s). We evaluate the potential of degree of polarization at simultaneous transmit for weather radar applications. Ultimately, we explore the consequences of adjusting the transmit polarization state of dual-polarization weather radars to circular polarization.

  19. Ultra-thin, single-layer polarization rotator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, T. V.; Truong, V. V.; Do, P. A.; Haché, A.

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate light polarization control over a broad spectral range by a uniform layer of vanadium dioxide as it undergoes a phase transition from insulator to metal. Changes in refractive indices create unequal phase shifts on s- and p-polarization components of incident light, and rotation of linear polarization shows intensity modulation by a factor of 103 when transmitted through polarizers. This makes possible polarization rotation devices as thin as 50 nm that would be activated thermally, optically or electrically.

  20. Polarization-Rotating Sensors Connected To Optical Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazer, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed optoelectronic sensor system includes polarization-rotating sensing elements interrogated by polarized light transmitted to and from sensing elements along optical fibers. Polarization of light altered by combinations of inherent birefringence, stress-induced birefrigence, and Faraday rotation. Advantages include: light weight, fast response, immunity to electromagnetic interference at radio and lower frequencies, and no need to supply electrical power to sensing elements.

  1. Freely tunable broadband polarization rotator for terahertz waves.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ren-Hao; Zhou, Yu; Ren, Xiao-Ping; Peng, Ru-Wen; Jiang, Shang-Chi; Xu, Di-Hu; Xiong, Xiang; Huang, Xian-Rong; Wang, Mu

    2015-02-18

    A freely tunable polarization rotator for broadband terahertz waves is demonstrated using a three-rotating-layer metallic grating structure, which can conveniently rotate the polarization of a linearly polarized terahertz wave to any desired direction with nearly perfect conversion efficiency. This low-cost, high-efficiency, and freely tunable device has potential applications as material analysis, wireless communication, and THz imaging. PMID:25545177

  2. Polarization rotator-splitters in standard active silicon photonics platforms.

    PubMed

    Sacher, Wesley D; Barwicz, Tymon; Taylor, Benjamin J F; Poon, Joyce K S

    2014-02-24

    We demonstrate various silicon-on-insulator polarization management structures based on a polarization rotator-splitter that uses a bi-level taper TM0-TE1 mode converter. The designs are fully compatible with standard active silicon photonics platforms with no new levels required and were implemented in the IME baseline and IME-OpSIS silicon photonics processes. We demonstrate a polarization rotator-splitter with polarization crosstalk < -13 dB over a bandwidth of 50 nm. Then, we improve the crosstalk to < -22 dB over a bandwidth of 80 nm by integrating the polarization rotator-splitter with directional coupler polarization filters. Finally, we demonstrate a polarization controller by integrating the polarization rotator-splitters with directional couplers, thermal tuners, and PIN diode phase shifters. PMID:24663698

  3. Dynamic rotation and stretch tensors from a dynamic polar decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haller, George

    2016-01-01

    The local rigid-body component of continuum deformation is typically characterized by the rotation tensor, obtained from the polar decomposition of the deformation gradient. Beyond its well-known merits, the polar rotation tensor also has a lesser known dynamical inconsistency: it does not satisfy the fundamental superposition principle of rigid-body rotations over adjacent time intervals. As a consequence, the polar rotation diverts from the observed mean material rotation of fibers in fluids, and introduces a purely kinematic memory effect into computed material rotation. Here we derive a generalized polar decomposition for linear processes that yields a unique, dynamically consistent rotation component, the dynamic rotation tensor, for the deformation gradient. The left dynamic stretch tensor is objective, and shares the principal strain values and axes with its classic polar counterpart. Unlike its classic polar counterpart, however, the dynamic stretch tensor evolves in time without spin. The dynamic rotation tensor further decomposes into a spatially constant mean rotation tensor and a dynamically consistent relative rotation tensor that is objective for planar deformations. We also obtain simple expressions for dynamic analogues of Cauchy's mean rotation angle that characterize a deforming body objectively.

  4. Polarization Rotation by Multilayered Chiral Metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yumin; Nathan Burford Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Traditionally, negative permittivity was realized by plasma resonance of the metallic structures, and negative permeability was achieved by a resonant LC circuit. Chiral metamaterial is another route to achieve negative permittivity and permeability, and such structures were investigated at different frequency domains. Recently, it was demonstrated that a two-dimensional lattice of three-dimensional gold spirals can effectively block circular polarized light with the same handedness for a frequency range exceeding one octave. From the point of view of applications, metamaterials must be fabricated easily and cheaply, and one way to achieve this goal is planarization. We designed a multiple-layer quasi-helix PCB structure and had it fabricated. The sample was tested with automated free space microwave material measurement system at X-band. These layers of PCB can be arranged in two different configurations: left-handed or right- handed helix. We found that the polarization plane is rotated in the opposite direction for the left- and right-handed samples, and the measured S-parameters agree with the simulation result relatively well. The authors would like to acknowledge the support from GRFC grant from Southeast Missouri State University.

  5. Freely-tunable broadband polarization rotator for terahertz waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Ru-Wen; Fan, Ren-Hao; Zhou, Yu; Jiang, Shang-Chi; Xiong, Xiang; Huang, Xian-Rong; Wang, Mu

    It is known that commercially-available terahertz (THz) emitters usually generate linearly polarized waves only along certain directions, but in practice, a polarization rotator that is capable of rotating the polarization of THz waves to any direction is particularly desirable and it will have various important applications. In this work, we demonstrate a freely tunable polarization rotator for broadband THz waves using a three-rotating-layer metallic grating structure, which can conveniently rotate the polarization of a linearly polarized THz wave to any desired direction with nearly perfect conversion efficiency. The device performance has been experimentally demonstrated by both THz transmission spectra and direct imaging. The polarization rotation originates from multi wave interference in the three-layer grating structure based on the scattering-matrix analysis. We can expect that this active broadband polarization rotator has wide applications in analytical chemistry, biology, communication technology, imaging, etc.. Reference: R. H. Fan, Y. Zhou, X. P. Ren, R. W. Peng, S. C. Jiang, D. H. Xu, X. Xiong, X. R. Huang, and Mu Wang, Advanced Materials 27,1201(2015). Freely-tunable broadband polarization rotator for terahertz waves.

  6. Spirit 360-Degree View, Sol 388 (polar)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on Spirit's 388th martian day, or sol (Feb. 4, 2005). Spirit had driven about 13 meters (43 feet) uphill toward 'Cumberland Ridge' on this sol. This location is catalogued as Spirit's Site 102, Position 513. The view is presented in a cylindrical projection with geometric and brightness seam correction.

  7. Apodised aperture using rotation of plane of polarization

    DOEpatents

    Simmons, W.W.; Leppelmeier, G.W.; Johnson, B.C.

    1975-09-01

    An apodised aperture based on the rotation of plane of polarization producing desirable characteristics on a transmitted light beam such as beam profiling in high flux laser amplifier chains is described. The apodised aperture is made with a lossless element by using one or more polarizers and/or analyzers and magneto-optical Faraday means for selectively rotating the plane of polarized radiation over the cross section to effect the desired apodisation. (auth)

  8. Laser scanning by rotating polarization gratings.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuan; Fan, Dapeng; Fan, Shixun; Chen, Ying; Liu, Guangcan

    2016-07-01

    Laser beam scanning can be realized using two independently rotating, inline polarization gratings, termed Risley gratings, in a fashion similar to Risley prisms. The analytical formulas of pointing position as well as their inverse solutions are described. On this basis, the beam scanning is investigated and the performance of scanning imaging is evaluated. It is shown that the scanning function in 1D scanning evolves from a sinusoidal to triangular scan and the duty cycle increases rapidly as the ratio of grating period to wavelength is reduced toward 2. The scan pattern in 2D scanning is determined by the ratio k of the gratings' rotatory frequency. In imaging applications, when k tends toward 1 or -1, the scan pattern becomes dense and is inclined to be spiral or rose-like, respectively, which is desirable for the purpose of enhancing spatial resolution. There is a direct trade-off between spatial resolution and frame rate. The spiral and rose scanning enable multiresolution imaging, providing a preview of the scanned area in a fraction of the overall scan time, which is extremely useful for fast, real-time imaging applications. PMID:27409203

  9. Measurement of Small Optical Polarization Rotations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2009-01-01

    When data with and without an optically active sample are acquired simultaneously while one manually rotates the analyser, the graph of the first signal versus the second one is an ellipse whose shape shows the phase shift between the two signals; this shift is twice the optical rotation. There is no need to measure the rotation of the analyser or…

  10. Polarization rotation under two-photon Raman resonance for magnetometry

    SciTech Connect

    Pradhan, S.; Behera, R.; Das, A. K.

    2012-04-23

    The polarization rotation and coherent population trapping signal arising due to two photon process using linearly polarized light are found to be significantly enhanced for a Zeeman degenerate system. The zero crossing of the dispersive profile is found to be shifting proportional to the applied magnetic field, albeit the absorptive profile position remains invariant for a slightly imbalanced orthogonal circular polarization component. It provides an alternative method for precise measurement of vector magnetic field without requirement of a bias field. The use of polarization rotation signal for magnetic field measurement offers added advantage due to improved signal to noise ratio.

  11. On the Rotation of Sunspots and Their Magnetic Polarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jianchuan; Yang, Zhiliang; Guo, Kaiming; Wang, Haimin; Wang, Shuo

    2016-07-01

    The rotation of sunspots of 2 yr in two different solar cycles is studied with the data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory and the Michelson Doppler Imager instrument on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observataory. We choose the α sunspot groups and the relatively large and stable sunspots of complex active regions in our sample. In the year of 2003, the α sunspot groups and the preceding sunspots tend to rotate counterclockwise and have positive magnetic polarity in the northern hemisphere. In the southern hemisphere, the magnetic polarity and rotational tendency of the α sunspot groups and the preceding sunspots are opposite to the northern hemisphere. The average rotational speed of these sunspots in 2003 is about 0.°65 hr‑1. From 2014 January to 2015 February, the α sunspot groups and the preceding sunspots tend to rotate clockwise and have negative magnetic polarity in the northern hemisphere. The patterns of rotation and magnetic polarity of the southern hemisphere are also opposite to those of the northern hemisphere. The average rotational speed of these sunspots in 2014/2015 is about 1.°49 hr‑1. The rotation of the relatively large and stable preceding sunspots and that of the α sunspot groups located in the same hemisphere have opposite rotational direction in 2003 and 2014/2015.

  12. Integrated polarization rotator/converter by stimulated Raman adiabatic passage.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiao; Zou, Chang-Ling; Ren, Xi-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2013-07-15

    We proposed a polarization rotator inspired by stimulated Raman adiabatic passage model from quantum optics, which is composed of a signal waveguide and an ancillary waveguide. The two orthogonal modes in signal waveguide and the oblique mode in ancillary waveguide form a Λ-type three-level system. By controlling the width of signal waveguide and the gap between two waveguides, adiabatic conversion between two orthogonal modes can be realized in the signal waveguide. With such adiabatic passage, polarization conversion is completed within 150 μm length, with the efficiencies over 99% for both conversions between horizontal polarization and vertical polarization. In addition, such a polarization rotator is quite robust against fabrication error, allowing a wide range of tolerances for the rotator geometric parameters. Our work is not only significative to photonic simulations of coherent quantum phenomena with engineered photonic waveguides, but also enlightens the practical applications of these phenomena in optical device designs. PMID:23938558

  13. New Constraints on Cosmic Polarization Rotation from B-Mode Polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Serego Alighieri, Sperello; Ni, Wei-Tou; Pan, Wei-Ping

    2014-09-01

    SPTpol, POLARBEAR, and BICEP2 have recently measured the cosmic microwave background (CMB) B-mode polarization in various sky regions of several tens of square degrees and obtained BB power spectra in the multipole range 20-3000, detecting the components due to gravitational lensing and to inflationary gravitational waves. We analyze jointly the results of these three experiments and propose modifications to their analyses of the spectra to include in the model, in addition to the gravitational lensing and the inflationary gravitational wave components, and also the effects induced by the cosmic polarization rotation (CPR), if it exists within current upper limits. Although in principle our analysis would also lead to new constraints on CPR, in practice these can only be given on its fluctuations langδα2rang, since constraints on its mean angle are inhibited by the derotation which is applied by current CMB polarization experiments, in order to cope with the insufficient calibration of the polarization angle. The combined data fits from all three experiments (with 29% CPR-SPTpol correlation, depending on the theoretical model) gives the constraint langδα2rang1/2 < 27.3 mrad (1.°56), with r = 0.194 ± 0.033. These results show that the present data are consistent with no CPR detection and the constraint on CPR fluctuation is about 1.°5. This method of constraining the CPR is new, is complementary to previous tests, which use the radio and optical/UV polarization of radio galaxies and the CMB E-mode polarization, and adds a new constraint for the sky areas observed by SPTpol, POLARBEAR, and BICEP2.

  14. New constraints on cosmic polarization rotation from B-mode polarization in the cosmic microwave background

    SciTech Connect

    Alighieri, Sperello di Serego; Ni, Wei-Tou; Pan, Wei-Ping E-mail: weitou@gmail.com

    2014-09-01

    SPTpol, POLARBEAR, and BICEP2 have recently measured the cosmic microwave background (CMB) B-mode polarization in various sky regions of several tens of square degrees and obtained BB power spectra in the multipole range 20-3000, detecting the components due to gravitational lensing and to inflationary gravitational waves. We analyze jointly the results of these three experiments and propose modifications to their analyses of the spectra to include in the model, in addition to the gravitational lensing and the inflationary gravitational wave components, and also the effects induced by the cosmic polarization rotation (CPR), if it exists within current upper limits. Although in principle our analysis would also lead to new constraints on CPR, in practice these can only be given on its fluctuations (δα{sup 2}), since constraints on its mean angle are inhibited by the derotation which is applied by current CMB polarization experiments, in order to cope with the insufficient calibration of the polarization angle. The combined data fits from all three experiments (with 29% CPR-SPTpol correlation, depending on the theoretical model) gives the constraint (δα{sup 2}){sup 1/2} < 27.3 mrad (1.°56), with r = 0.194 ± 0.033. These results show that the present data are consistent with no CPR detection and the constraint on CPR fluctuation is about 1.°5. This method of constraining the CPR is new, is complementary to previous tests, which use the radio and optical/UV polarization of radio galaxies and the CMB E-mode polarization, and adds a new constraint for the sky areas observed by SPTpol, POLARBEAR, and BICEP2.

  15. Traceability study of optical fiber degree of polarization (DOP) measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Nan; Li, Jianwei; Li, Jian; Zhang, Zhixin

    2013-09-01

    Degree of polarization (DOP) is an important physical quantity for describing the optical polarization effect and is widely applied in optical fiber communication, optical fiber gyro and the related technologies. Currently, the optical polarization degree tester for the purpose of communication uses mainly two kinds of measurement methods: Stokes vector method and extremum method. At present, there isn't a standard to measure the accuracy and consistency of DOP parameter measurement by the devices listed above, affecting seriously the application of DOP parameter measurement in the fields of optical fiber gyro and optical fiber communication. So, it is urgent to table the accurate guarantees to trace the source of quantitative values of the DOP measuring devices and testers. In this paper, the polarization beam combination method is raised to research and manufacture the standard optical fiber light source device with the variable DOP, and an indicated error measurement has been conducted for a DOP meter. A kind of standard optical fiber light source device that uses a single light source to realize the variable DOP is put forward. It is used to provide the accurate and variable optical fiber polarization degree light with a scope of 0~100%. It is used to calibrate the DOP meters and widely applied in the field of national defense and optical communication fields. By using the standard optical power meter, DOP value by which the optical power meter calculates the optical signal can be measured, which will be used ultimately for calibration of the DOP meter. A measurement uncertainty of 0.5% is obtained using the polarization beam combination method.

  16. Primordial gravitational waves measurements and anisotropies of CMB polarization rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Si-Yu; Xia, Jun-Qing; Li, Mingzhe; Li, Hong; Zhang, Xinmin

    2015-12-01

    Searching for the signal of primordial gravitational waves in the B-modes (BB) power spectrum is one of the key scientific aims of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiments. However, this could be easily contaminated by several foreground issues, such as the interstellar dust grains and the galactic cyclotron electrons. In this paper we study another mechanism, the cosmic birefringence, which can be introduced by a CPT-violating interaction between CMB photons and an external scalar field. Such kind of interaction could give rise to the rotation of the linear polarization state of CMB photons, and consequently induce the CMB BB power spectrum, which could mimic the signal of primordial gravitational waves at large scales. With the recently released polarization data of BICEP2 and the joint analysis data of BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck, we perform a global fitting analysis on constraining the tensor-to-scalar ratio r by considering the polarization rotation angle [ α (n ˆ)] which can be separated into a background isotropic part [ α bar ] and a small anisotropic part [ Δα (n ˆ)]. Since the data of BICEP2 and Keck Array experiments have already been corrected by using the "self-calibration" method, here we mainly focus on the effects from the anisotropies of CMB polarization rotation angle. We find that including Δα (n ˆ) in the analysis could slightly weaken the constraints on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r, when using current CMB polarization measurements. We also simulate the mock CMB data with the BICEP3-like sensitivity. Very interestingly, we find that if the effects of the anisotropic polarization rotation angle could not be taken into account properly in the analysis, the constraints on r will be dramatically biased. This implies that we need to break the degeneracy between the anisotropies of the CMB polarization rotation angle and the CMB primordial tensor perturbations, in order to measure the signal of primordial gravitational

  17. Magnetic-Field-Induced Rotation of Polarized Light Emission from Monolayer WS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Robert; Arora, Ashish; Plechinger, Gerd; Nagler, Philipp; Granados del Águila, Andrés; Ballottin, Mariana V.; Christianen, Peter C. M.; Michaelis de Vasconcellos, Steffen; Schüller, Christian; Korn, Tobias; Bratschitsch, Rudolf

    2016-08-01

    We control the linear polarization of emission from the coherently emitting K+ and K- valleys (valley coherence) in monolayer WS2 with an out-of-plane magnetic field of up to 25 T. The magnetic-field-induced valley Zeeman splitting causes a rotation of the emission polarization with respect to the excitation by up to 35° and reduces the polarization degree by up to 16%. We explain both of these phenomena with a model based on two noninteracting coherent two-level systems. We deduce that the coherent light emission from the valleys decays with a time constant of τc=260 fs .

  18. Changes in the earth's rotation and low-degree gravitational field induced by earthquakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, B. Fong; Gross, Richard S.

    1987-01-01

    Analytical formulas based on the normal-mode theory are used together with a spherically symmetric earth model and the centroid-moment tensor solutions for earthquake sources to compute the earthquake-induced changes in the earth's rotation and low-degree harmonics of the gravitational field for the period 1977-1985. Spectral and statistical analyses are conducted on these changes. It is found that the earthquake-induced changes are two orders of magnitude smaller than those observed; most of these changes show strong evidence of nonrandomness either in their polarity or in their directions.

  19. Polarization of Directly Imaged Young Giant Planets as a Probe of Mass, Rotation, and Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, Mark Scott; Sengupta, Sujan

    2012-01-01

    Young, hot gas giant planets at large separations from their primaries have been directly imaged around several nearby stars. More such planets will likely be detected by ongoing and new imaging surveys with instruments such as the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). Efforts continue to model the spectra of these planets in order to constrain their masses, effective temperatures, composition, and cloud structure. One potential tool for analyzing these objects, which has received relatively less attention, is polarization. Linear polarization of gas giant exoplanets can arise from the combined influences of light scattering by atmospheric dust and a rotationally distorted shape. The oblateness of gas giant planet increases of course with rotation rate and for fixed rotation also rises with decreasing gravity. Thus young, lower mass gas giant planets with youthful inflated radii could easily have oblateness greater than that of Saturn s 10%. We find that polarizations of over 1% may easily be produced in the near-infrared in such cases. This magnitude of polarization may be measurable by GPI and other instruments. Thus if detected, polarization of a young Jupiter places constraints on the combination of its gravity, rotation rate, and degree of cloudiness. We will present results of our multiple scattering analysis coupled with a self-consistent dusty atmospheric models to demonstrate the range of polarizations that might be expected from resolved exoplanets and the range of parameter space that such observations may inform.

  20. Measurement of polarization with the Degree Angular Scale Interferometer.

    PubMed

    Leitch, E M; Kovac, J M; Pryke, C; Carlstrom, J E; Halverson, N W; Holzapfel, W L; Dragovan, M; Reddall, B; Sandberg, E S

    Measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation can reveal with remarkable precision the conditions of the Universe when it was approximately 400,000 years old. The three most fundamental properties of the CMB are its frequency spectrum (which determines the temperature), and the fluctuations in both the temperature and polarization across a range of angular scales. The frequency spectrum has been well determined, and considerable progress has been made in measuring the power spectrum of the temperature fluctuations. But despite many efforts to measure the polarization, detection of this property of the CMB has hitherto been beyond the reach of even the most sensitive observations. Here we describe the Degree Angular Scale Interferometer (DASI), an array of radio telescopes, which for the past two years has conducted polarization-sensitive observations of the CMB from the Amundsen-Scott South Pole research station. PMID:12490940

  1. Degree of polarization of light diffracted from resting striated muscle.

    PubMed

    Leung, A F

    1987-04-01

    A laser light diffractometer has been developed to measure directly the total degree of polarization of (alpha t) of light diffracted and randomly scattered from striated muscle fibers. From alpha t the degree of polarization (alpha d) of light diffracted from the periodically arranged contractile filaments is determined. Measurements on single muscle fibers and small fiber bundles indicate that both alpha t and alpha d of the first-order diffraction decrease monotonically with sarcomere length. For the second-order diffraction, alpha t and alpha d exhibit a peak at sarcomere length of about 3.0 micron. A proposed theory based on the anisotropic light scattering efficiencies of the thick and thin filaments can account for the measurements. The comparison between the theory and measurements indicates that the A-band, as well as the I-band, are optically anisotropic. PMID:2443248

  2. Ultracompact silicon-on-insulator polarization rotator for polarization-diversified circuits.

    PubMed

    Guan, Hang; Ma, Yangjin; Shi, Ruizhi; Novack, Ari; Tao, Jingcheng; Fang, Qing; Lim, Andy Eu-Jin; Lo, Guo-Qiang; Baehr-Jones, Tom; Hochberg, Michael

    2014-08-15

    We present an ultracompact (15.3 μm long) and high-efficiency silicon-on-insulator polarization rotator designed for polarization-diversified circuits. The rotator is comprised of a bilevel-tapered TM0-to-TE1 mode converter and a novel bent-tapered TE1-to-TE0 mode converter. The rotator has a simulated polarization conversion loss lower than 0.2 dB and a polarization-extinction ratio larger than 25 dB over a wavelength range of 80 nm around 1550 nm. The rotator has a SiO2 top-cladding and can be fabricated in a CMOS-compatible process. PMID:25121853

  3. Polarization Shaping for Unidirectional Rotational Motion of Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karras, G.; Ndong, M.; Hertz, E.; Sugny, D.; Billard, F.; Lavorel, B.; Faucher, O.

    2015-03-01

    Control of the orientation of the angular momentum of linear molecules is demonstrated by means of laser polarization shaping. For this purpose, we combine two orthogonally polarized and partially time-overlapped femtosecond laser pulses so as to produce a spinning linear polarization which in turn induces unidirectional rotation of N2 molecules. The evolution of the rotational response is probed by a third laser beam that can be either linearly or circularly polarized. The physical observable is the frequency shift imparted to the probe beam as a manifestation of the angular Doppler effect. Our experimental results are confirmed by theoretical computations, which allow one to gain a deep physical insight into the laser-molecule interaction.

  4. Polarization shaping for unidirectional rotational motion of molecules.

    PubMed

    Karras, G; Ndong, M; Hertz, E; Sugny, D; Billard, F; Lavorel, B; Faucher, O

    2015-03-13

    Control of the orientation of the angular momentum of linear molecules is demonstrated by means of laser polarization shaping. For this purpose, we combine two orthogonally polarized and partially time-overlapped femtosecond laser pulses so as to produce a spinning linear polarization which in turn induces unidirectional rotation of N2 molecules. The evolution of the rotational response is probed by a third laser beam that can be either linearly or circularly polarized. The physical observable is the frequency shift imparted to the probe beam as a manifestation of the angular Doppler effect. Our experimental results are confirmed by theoretical computations, which allow one to gain a deep physical insight into the laser-molecule interaction. PMID:25815926

  5. Ultrasmall polarization rotation measurements via weak value amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima Bernardo, Bertúlio; Azevedo, Sérgio; Rosas, Alexandre

    2014-06-01

    We propose a framework to analyze weak measurements based on an angular version of the von Neumann measurement scheme, where the coupling between the system and the meter causes rotation of the measuring variable. We also discuss an experimental application of this theory in which measurements of weak optical activity and reflection-induced polarization rotation could be amplified in nearly two orders of magnitude. It can shed a new light on a great variety of physical chemistry, molecular biology and nanotechnology studies.

  6. Increase of spin dephasing times in a 2D electron system with degree of initial spin polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stich, D.; Korn, T.; Schulz, R.; Schuh, D.; Wegscheider, W.; Schüller, C.

    2008-03-01

    We report on time-resolved Faraday/Kerr rotation measurements on a high-mobility 2D electron system. A variable initial spin polarization is created in the sample by a circularly polarized pump pulse, and the spin polarization is tracked by measuring the Faraday/Kerr rotation of a time-delayed probe pulse. By varying the pump intensity, the initial spin polarization is changed from the low-polarization limit to a polarization degree of several percent. The observed spin dephasing time increases from less than 20 ps to more than 200 ps as the initial spin polarization is increased. To exclude sample heating effects, additional measurements with constant pump intensity and variable degree of circular polarization are performed. The results confirm the theoretical prediction by Weng and Wu [Phys. Rev. B 68 (2003) 075312] that the spin dephasing strongly depends on the initial spin polarization degree. The microscopic origin for this is the Hartree-Fock term in the Coulomb interaction, which acts as an effective out-of plane magnetic field.

  7. Searching for Faraday rotation in cosmic microwave background polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Granados, B.; Battaner, E.; Florido, E.

    2016-08-01

    We use the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) 9th-year foreground reduced data at 33, 41 and 61 GHz to derive a Faraday rotation at map and at angular power spectrum levels taking into account their observational errors. A processing mask provided by WMAP is used to avoid contamination from the disc of our Galaxy and local spurs. We have found a Faraday rotation component at both, map and power spectrum levels. The lack of correlation of the Faraday rotation with Galactic Faraday rotation, synchrotron and dust polarization from our Galaxy or with cosmic microwave background anisotropies or lensing suggests that it could be originated at reionization (ℓ ≲ 12). Even if the detected Faraday rotation signal is weak, the present study could contribute to establish magnetic fields strengths of B0 ˜ 10-8 G at reionization.

  8. Zeno inhibition of polarization rotation in an optically active medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalo, Isabel; Porras, Miguel A.; Luis, Alfredo

    2015-07-01

    We describe an experiment in which the rotation of the polarization of light propagating in an optically active water solution of D-fructose tends to be inhibited by frequent monitoring whether the polarization remains unchanged. This is an example of the Zeno effect that has remarkable pedagogical interest because of its conceptual simplicity, easy implementation, low cost, and because the same the Zeno effect holds at classical and quantum levels. An added value is the demonstration of the Zeno effect beyond typical idealized assumptions in a practical setting with real polarizers.

  9. Comparison of 180-degree and 90-degree needle rotation to reduce wound size in PIT-injected juvenile Chinook salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Bryson, Amanda J.; Woodley, Christa M.; Karls, Rhonda K.; Hall, Kathleen D.; Weiland, Mark A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Eppard, Matthew B.

    2013-04-30

    Animal telemetry, which requires the implantation of passive transponders or active transmitters, is used to monitor and assess fish stock and conservation to gain an understanding of fish movement and behavior. As new telemetry technologies become available, studies of their effects on species of interest are imperative as is development of implantation techniques. In this study, we investigated the effects of bevel rotation (0-, 90-, 180-degree axis rotation) on wound extent, tag loss, and wound healing rates in juvenile Chinook salmon injected with an 8-gauge needle, which is required for implantation of the novel injectable Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry Systems (JSATS) acoustic transmitter or large passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. Although the injection sites were not closed after injection (e.g., with sutures or glue), there were no mortalities, dropped tags, or indications of fungus, ulceration, and/or redness around the wound. On Day 0 and post-implantation Day 7, the 90-degree bevel rotation produced smaller wound extent than the 180-degree bevel rotation. No axis rotation (0-degrees) resulted in the PIT tag frequently misleading or falling out upon injection. The results of this study indicated the 90-degree bevel rotation was the more efficient technique, produced less wound extent. Given the wound extent compared to size of fish, we recommend researchers should consider a 90-degree rotation over the 180-degree rotation in telemetry studies. Highlights •Three degrees of needle rotation were examined for effects in Chinook salmon. •Mortality, tag loss, wound extent, healing, and infection indicators were measured. •There were no mortalities, tag loss, or indications of infection. •The 90-degree needle rotation through Day 7 produced the smallest wound extent.

  10. Nonlinear polarization rotation and orthogonal polarization generation experienced in a single-beam configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minkovski, N.; Petrov, G. I.; Saltiel, S. M.; Albert, O.; Etchepare, J.

    2004-09-01

    Nonlinear polarization rotation and generation of a polarization component orthogonal to the input beam were observed along fourfold axes of YVO4 and BaF2 crystals. We demonstrate experimentally that in both crystals the angle of rotation is proportional, at low intensities, to the square of the product of the input intensity and the crystal length and is the result of simultaneous action of two third-order processes. This type of nonlinear polarization rotation is driven by the real part of the cubic susceptibility. The recorded energy exchange between the two orthogonal components can exceed 10%. It is to our knowledge the highest energy-conversion efficiency achieved in a single beam nonresonant χ(3) interaction. A simple theoretical model is elaborated to describe the dependence of nonlinear polarization rotation and orthogonal polarization generation on the intensity of the input beam at both low- and high-intensity levels. It reveals the potential contributions from the real and the imaginary parts of the susceptibility tensor. Moreover, this kind of measurement is designed to permit the determination of the magnitude and the sign of the anisotropy of the real part of third-order nonlinearity in crystals with cubic or tetragonal symmetry on the basis of polarization-rotation measurements. The χxxxx(3) component of the third-order susceptibility tensor and its anisotropy sign and amplitude value for BaF2 and YVO4 crystals are estimated and discussed.

  11. Process and apparatus for measuring degree of polarization and angle of major axis of polarized beam of light

    DOEpatents

    Decker, Derek E.; Toeppen, John S.

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus and process are disclosed for calibrating measurements of the phase of the polarization of a polarized beam and the angle of the polarized optical beam's major axis of polarization at a diagnostic point with measurements of the same parameters at a point of interest along the polarized beam path prior to the diagnostic point. The process is carried out by measuring the phase angle of the polarization of the beam and angle of the major axis at the point of interest, using a rotatable polarizer and a detector, and then measuring these parameters again at a diagnostic point where a compensation apparatus, including a partial polarizer, which may comprise a stack of glass plates, is disposed normal to the beam path between a rotatable polarizer and a detector. The partial polarizer is then rotated both normal to the beam path and around the axis of the beam path until the detected phase of the beam polarization equals the phase measured at the point of interest. The rotatable polarizer at the diagnostic point may then be rotated manually to determine the angle of the major axis of the beam and this is compared with the measured angle of the major axis of the beam at the point of interest during calibration. Thereafter, changes in the polarization phase, and in the angle of the major axis, at the point of interest can be monitored by measuring the changes in these same parameters at the diagnostic point.

  12. Optimization of polarizer angles for measurements of the degree and angle of linear polarization for linear polarizer-based polarimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Run-Qiu; Wang, Xia; Jin, Wei-Qi; Liang, Jian-An

    2015-10-01

    Linear polarizer-based polarimeters that measure the degree of linear polarization (DoLP) and the angle of polarization (AoP) were considered in this study. Variances of DoLP and AoP of the region of interest (ROI) to be measured were analyzed using a statistical method. To simplify the calculation, only additive noise and shot noise were considered. Optimized combinations of the polarizers that can minimize the variances of DoLP and AoP were determined by investigating the variances of different polarizer combinations. Several regularities were found when analyzing the data obtained from the optimized combinations. Some variables in the combinations are inversely proportional to the cube or square root of the signal-to-noise ratio of the output signals from sensors without polarizer filtering, and these variables are functions of the DoLP of the ROI to be measured.

  13. Spirit 360-Degree View on Sol 409 (polar)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on Spirit's 409th martian day, or sol (Feb. 26, 2005). Spirit had driven 2 meters (7 feet) on this sol to get in position on 'Cumberland Ridge' for looking into 'Tennessee Valley' to the east. This location is catalogued as Spirit's Site 108. Rover-wheel tracks from climbing the ridge are visible on the right. The summit of 'Husband Hill' is at the center, to the south. This view is presented in a polar projection with geometric and brightness seam correction.

  14. ON THE RELIABILITY OF POLARIZATION ESTIMATION USING ROTATION MEASURE SYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect

    Macquart, J.-P.; Ekers, R. D.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.

    2012-05-10

    We benchmark the reliability of the rotation measure (RM) synthesis algorithm using the 1005 Centaurus A field sources of Feain et al. The RM synthesis solutions are compared with estimates of the polarization parameters using traditional methods. This analysis provides verification of the reliability of RM synthesis estimates. We show that estimates of the polarization parameters can be made at lower signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) if the range of RMs is bounded, but reliable estimates of individual sources with unusual RMs require unconstrained solutions and higher S/N. We derive from first principles the statistical properties of the polarization amplitude associated with RM synthesis in the presence of noise. The amplitude distribution depends explicitly on the amplitude of the underlying (intrinsic) polarization signal. Hence, it is necessary to model the underlying polarization signal distribution in order to estimate the reliability and errors in polarization parameter estimates. We introduce a Bayesian method to derive the distribution of intrinsic amplitudes based on the distribution of measured amplitudes. The theoretically derived distribution is compared with the empirical data to provide quantitative estimates of the probability that an RM synthesis solution is correct as a function of S/N. We provide quantitative estimates of the probability that any given RM synthesis solution is correct as a function of measured polarized amplitude and the intrinsic polarization amplitude compared to the noise.

  15. Compact polarization rotators for integrated polarization diversity in InP-based waveguides.

    PubMed

    Beggs, Daryl M; Midrio, Michele; Krauss, Thomas F

    2007-08-01

    We present the design, fabrication, and operation of a polarization converter based on angled waveguides in the InP/InGaAsP material system. By combining design elements from mode evolution and birefringent devices, the total device length is kept short (less than 50 microm) and the insertion efficiency high at 81%+/-19%, which corresponds to an insertion loss of 1 dB. Devices operate broadband, i.e., the polarization conversion exceeds 15 dB over a 100 nm wavelength range. A polarization rotator with these specifications is a prime candidate for use in an integrated polarization diversity scheme. PMID:17671575

  16. Compact polarization rotators for integrated polarization diversity in InP-based waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beggs, Daryl M.; Midrio, Michele; Krauss, Thomas F.

    2007-08-01

    We present the design, fabrication, and operation of a polarization converter based on angled waveguides in the InP/InGaAsP material system. By combining design elements from mode evolution and birefringent devices, the total device length is kept short (less than 50μm) and the insertion efficiency high at 81%+/-19%, which corresponds to an insertion loss of 1dB. Devices operate broadband, i.e., the polarization conversion exceeds 15dB over a 100nm wavelength range. A polarization rotator with these specifications is a prime candidate for use in an integrated polarization diversity scheme.

  17. Protein rotational motion in solution measured by polarized fluorescence depletion.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, T M; Barisas, B G

    1986-01-01

    A microscope-based system is described for directly measuring protein rotational motion in viscous environments such as cell membranes by polarized fluorescence depletion (PFD). Proteins labeled with fluorophores having a high quantum yield for triplet formation, such as eosin isothiocyanate (EITC), are examined anaerobically in a fluorescence microscope. An acousto-optic modulator generates a several-microsecond pulse of linearly polarized light which produces an orientationally-asymmetric depletion of ground state fluorescence in the sample. When the sample is then probed with light polarized parallel to the excitation pulse, fluorescence recovers over 0-1,000 microseconds as the sum of two exponentials. One exponential corresponds to triplet decay and the other to the rotational relaxation. An exciting pulse perpendicular to the probe beam is then applied. Fluorescence recovery following this pulse is the difference of the same two exponentials. Equations for fluorescence recovery kinetics to be expected in various experimentally significant cases are derived. Least-squares analysis using these equations then permits the triplet lifetime and rotational correlation time to be determined directly from PFD data. Instrumentation for PFD measurements is discussed that permits photobleaching recovery measurements of lateral diffusion coefficients using the same microscope system. With this apparatus, both rotational and translational diffusion coefficients (Dr, Dt) were measured for EITC-labeled bovine serum albumin in glycerol solutions. Values obtained for Dr and Dt are discussed in light of both the PFD models and the experimental system. PMID:3730506

  18. Rotational polarities of sudden impulses in the magnetotail lobe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawano, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Kokubun, S.; Lepping, R. P.

    1992-01-01

    A sudden impulse (SI) is a sudden change in the magnetic field strength which is caused by a change in the solar wind pressure and is observed throughout the magnetosphere. In this report we have examined the rotations of the magnetic field vectors at times of SIs in the magnetotail lobe, by using IMP 6, 7, and 8 magnetometer data. The following properties have been found: (1) at the time of SI the arrowhead of the magnetic vector tends to rotate in one plane; (2) the plane of rotation tends to include the unperturbed magnetic field vector; (3) the plane of rotation tends to be aligned with the radial direction from the magnetotail axis; and (4) the magnetic vectors have a particular rotational polarity: when the plane of rotation is viewed so that the Sun is to the right of the viewed plane and the magnetotail axis is to the bottom, the arrowhead of the vector tends to rotate counterclockwise in this plane. These magnetic vector properties are consistent with those expected when part of an increase in solar wind lateral pressure squeezes the magnetotail axisymmetrically while moving tailward.

  19. Earth rotation and polar motion - Measurements and implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickey, J. O.; Eubanks, T. M.

    1985-01-01

    Several methods used to measure earth rotation and polar motion are discussed. The development of techniques for combining smoothing, and intercomparing geodetic measurements is described. Emphasis is given to measurements obtained since 1980 using VLBI, lunar laser ranging (LLR) and satellite laser ranging (SLR) techniques. The calculation of atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) excitation functions is outlined, and a comparison of AAM excitation functions with variations in the length of day (LOD) and polar motion data is presented. The geophysical implications of geodetic measurements are addressed.

  20. NON-ZEEMAN CIRCULAR POLARIZATION OF MOLECULAR ROTATIONAL SPECTRAL LINES

    SciTech Connect

    Houde, Martin; Jones, Scott; Rajabi, Fereshte; Hezareh, Talayeh

    2013-02-10

    We present measurements of circular polarization from rotational spectral lines of molecular species in Orion KL, most notably {sup 12}CO (J = 2 {yields} 1), obtained at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory with the Four-Stokes-Parameter Spectral Line Polarimeter. We find levels of polarization of up to 1%-2% in general; for {sup 12}CO (J = 2 {yields} 1) this level is comparable to that of linear polarization also measured for that line. We present a physical model based on resonant scattering in an attempt to explain our observations. We discuss how slight differences in scattering amplitudes for radiation polarized parallel and perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field, responsible for the alignment of the scattering molecules, can lead to the observed circular polarization. We also show that the effect is proportional to the square of the magnitude of the plane of the sky component of the magnetic field and therefore opens up the possibility of measuring this parameter from circular polarization measurements of Zeeman insensitive molecules.

  1. Ultra-wideband and high-efficiency polarization rotator based on metasurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yongtao; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Wenbo; Gong, Shuxi

    2016-08-01

    An ultra-wideband and high-efficiency polarization rotator based on a metasurface is proposed in this paper. The unit cell of the proposed polarization rotator consists of two pairs of L-shaped metallic patches printed on a substrate, which is backed by a metallic ground and covered by a superstrate. The superstrate is composed of a dielectric layer and a pair of L-shaped metallic patches printed on the dielectric layer. The proposed polarization rotator can rotate the polarization of linearly polarized electromagnetic (EM) wave to its orthogonal counterpart after reflection when the incident EM wave is y-/x-polarized. Simulated results show that the polarization rotator can perform 90° polarization rotation with very high efficiency at seven different frequencies and achieve a polarization conversion ratio higher than 0.9 in the frequency range of 7.8-34.7 GHz at normal incidence. Good agreement between the experimental results and simulated ones has been obtained.

  2. Type Synthesis of Two-Degrees-of-Freedom Rotational Parallel Mechanism with Two Continuous Rotational Axes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yundou; Zhang, Dongsheng; Wang, Min; Yao, Jiantao; Zhao, Yongsheng

    2016-04-01

    The two-rotational-degrees-of-freedom(2R) parallel mechanism(PM) with two continuous rotational axes(CRAs) has a simple kinematic model. It is therefore easy to implement trajectory planning, parameter calibration, and motion control, which allows for a variety of application prospects. However, no systematic analysis on structural constraints of the 2R-PM with two CRAs has been performed, and there are only a few types of 2R-PM with two CRAs. Thus, a theory regarding the type synthesis of the 2R-PM with two CRAs is systematically established. First, combining the theories of reciprocal screw and space geometry, the spatial arrangement relationships of the constraint forces applied to the moving platform by the branches are explored, which give the 2R-PM two CRAs. The different distributions of the constraint forces in each branch are also studied. On the basis of the obtained structural constraints of branches, and considering the geometric relationships of constraint forces in each branch, the appropriate kinematic chains are constructed. Through the reasonable configuration of branch kinematic chains corresponding to every structural constraint, a series of new 2R-PMs with two CRAs are finally obtained.

  3. Role of rotational degrees of freedom in heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Moretto, L.G.

    1982-04-01

    The degrees of freedom affected by the angular momentum are identified. The relevance of the equilibrium fluctuations in a diffusive evolution of the system is discussed. The statistical limit is described and chosen as a reference for comparing with experiment. The rigid rotation regime is shown to be reached in a variety of reactions. The fragment spin alignment is measured from ..gamma..-ray multiplicities and anisotropies as well as from sequential fission angular distributions. Good agreement is obtained with the statistical model for the P/sub zz/ component of the polarization tensor. The P/sub xy/ component seems also to reach the statistical limit at large Q-value. The effect of shells on the angular momentum transferred to the fragments and on its misalignment is discussed theoretically and specific predictions are made.

  4. The role of rotation and polar-cap currents on pulsar radio emission and polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, D.; Gangadhara, R. T. E-mail: ganga@iiap.res.in

    2013-06-01

    Perturbations such as rotation and polar-cap current (PC-current) have been believed to greatly affect the pulsar radio emission and polarization. The two effects have not been considered simultaneously in the literature; each one of these has been considered separately, and a picture has been deduced by simply superposing them, but such an approach can lead to spurious results. Hence, by considering pulsar rotation and PC-current perturbations together instead of one at a time, we have developed a single particle curvature radiation model, which is expected to be much more realistic. By simulating a set of typical pulse profiles, we have made an attempt to explain most of the observational results of pulsar radio emission and polarization. The model predicts that due to the perturbations the leading side component can become either stronger or weaker than the corresponding trailing one in any given cone, depending on the passage of the sight line and modulation (nonuniform source distribution). Further, we find that the phase delay of the polarization angle inflection point with respect to the core component greatly depends on the viewing geometry. The correlation between the sign reversal of circular polarization and the polarization angle swing in the case of core-dominated pulsars becomes obscure once the perturbations and modulation become significant. However, the correlation between the negative circular polarization and the increasing polarization angle and vice versa is very clear in the case of conal-double pulsars. The 'kinky'-type distortions in polarization angle swing could be due to the incoherent superposition of modulated emission in the presence of strong perturbations.

  5. A method to polarize stored antiprotons to a high degree.

    PubMed

    Rathmann, F; Lenisa, P; Steffens, E; Contalbrigo, M; Dalpiaz, P F; Kacharava, A; Lehrach, A; Lorentz, B; Maier, R; Prasuhn, D; Ströher, H

    2005-01-14

    Polarized antiprotons can be produced in a storage ring by spin-dependent interaction in a purely electron-polarized hydrogen gas target. The polarizing process is based on spin transfer from the polarized electrons of the target atoms to the orbiting antiprotons. After spin filtering for about two beam lifetimes at energies T approximately equal 40-170 MeV using a dedicated large acceptance ring, the antiproton beam polarization would reach P=0.2-0.4. Polarized antiprotons would open new and unique research opportunities for spin-physics experiments in p(-) p interactions. PMID:15698088

  6. Magnetic-Field-Induced Rotation of Polarized Light Emission from Monolayer WS_{2}.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Robert; Arora, Ashish; Plechinger, Gerd; Nagler, Philipp; Granados Del Águila, Andrés; Ballottin, Mariana V; Christianen, Peter C M; Michaelis de Vasconcellos, Steffen; Schüller, Christian; Korn, Tobias; Bratschitsch, Rudolf

    2016-08-12

    We control the linear polarization of emission from the coherently emitting K^{+} and K^{-} valleys (valley coherence) in monolayer WS_{2} with an out-of-plane magnetic field of up to 25 T. The magnetic-field-induced valley Zeeman splitting causes a rotation of the emission polarization with respect to the excitation by up to 35° and reduces the polarization degree by up to 16%. We explain both of these phenomena with a model based on two noninteracting coherent two-level systems. We deduce that the coherent light emission from the valleys decays with a time constant of τ_{c}=260  fs. PMID:27563997

  7. Ultrashort polarization rotator based on cross-symmetry waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xu; Dong, Jianji

    2016-05-01

    An ultrashort polarization rotator (PR) based on cross-symmetry waveguide is proposed and discussed. At the operating wavelength of 1 . 55 μ m , the presented PR has a small conversion length of 3 . 3 μ m . The polarization conversion efficiency (PCE) is 99 . 8 % (TE-TM) and 99 . 97 % (TM-TE). The PR can achieve rather high conversion efficiency (> 97 %) over a broad bandwidth (1450 - 1700 nm). The cross-symmetry structure can significantly improve the extinction ratio. The extinction ratio is 27 . 7 dB (TE-TM) and 35 . 9 dB (TM-TE) with the insertion loss of 0 . 28 dB . The fabrication tolerances for the waveguide for both transverse and horizontal directions are also studied.

  8. Three-parameter error analysis method based on rotating coordinates in rotating birefringent polarizer system

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Junjie; Jia, Hongzhi

    2015-11-15

    We propose error analysis using a rotating coordinate system with three parameters of linearly polarized light—incidence angle, azimuth angle on the front surface, and angle between the incidence and vibration planes—and demonstrate the method on a rotating birefringent prism system. The transmittance and angles are calculated plane-by-plane using a birefringence ellipsoid model and the final transmitted intensity equation is deduced. The effects of oblique incidence, light interference, beam convergence, and misalignment of the rotation and prism axes are discussed. We simulate the entire error model using MATLAB and conduct experiments based on a built polarimeter. The simulation and experimental results are consistent and demonstrate the rationality and validity of this method.

  9. Three-parameter error analysis method based on rotating coordinates in rotating birefringent polarizer system.

    PubMed

    Cao, Junjie; Jia, Hongzhi

    2015-11-01

    We propose error analysis using a rotating coordinate system with three parameters of linearly polarized light--incidence angle, azimuth angle on the front surface, and angle between the incidence and vibration planes--and demonstrate the method on a rotating birefringent prism system. The transmittance and angles are calculated plane-by-plane using a birefringence ellipsoid model and the final transmitted intensity equation is deduced. The effects of oblique incidence, light interference, beam convergence, and misalignment of the rotation and prism axes are discussed. We simulate the entire error model using MATLAB and conduct experiments based on a built polarimeter. The simulation and experimental results are consistent and demonstrate the rationality and validity of this method. PMID:26628116

  10. Automation of Mode Locking in a Nonlinear Polarization Rotation Fiber Laser through Output Polarization Measurements.

    PubMed

    Olivier, Michel; Gagnon, Marc-Daniel; Habel, Joé

    2016-01-01

    When a laser is mode-locked, it emits a train of ultra-short pulses at a repetition rate determined by the laser cavity length. This article outlines a new and inexpensive procedure to force mode locking in a pre-adjusted nonlinear polarization rotation fiber laser. This procedure is based on the detection of a sudden change in the output polarization state when mode locking occurs. This change is used to command the alignment of the intra-cavity polarization controller in order to find mode-locking conditions. More specifically, the value of the first Stokes parameter varies when the angle of the polarization controller is swept and, moreover, it undergoes an abrupt variation when the laser enters the mode-locked state. Monitoring this abrupt variation provides a practical easy-to-detect signal that can be used to command the alignment of the polarization controller and drive the laser towards mode locking. This monitoring is achieved by feeding a small portion of the signal to a polarization analyzer measuring the first Stokes parameter. A sudden change in the read out of this parameter from the analyzer will occur when the laser enters the mode-locked state. At this moment, the required angle of the polarization controller is kept fixed. The alignment is completed. This procedure provides an alternate way to existing automating procedures that use equipment such as an optical spectrum analyzer, an RF spectrum analyzer, a photodiode connected to an electronic pulse-counter or a nonlinear detecting scheme based on two-photon absorption or second harmonic generation. It is suitable for lasers mode locked by nonlinear polarization rotation. It is relatively easy to implement, it requires inexpensive means, especially at a wavelength of 1550 nm, and it lowers the production and operation costs incurred in comparison to the above-mentioned techniques. PMID:26967924

  11. 360-degree table-top display with rotating transmissive screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwang-Soo; Jeon, Hosung; Lee, Sang Kil; Kim, Hwi; Hahn, Joonku

    2015-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) display usually provides binocular disparity to observer. To construct 360degree table-top display, lots of views are required. In order to display a large amount of views to observer, time-multiplexing technique is applied. We suggest a new structure for view-sequential 360-degree table-top display system. In my system, a transmissive screen is used and digital micromirror device (DMD) image is projected on it. This system defines the direction of bundle of rays to configure the sequential view. It has some advantages resulting from the transmissive flat screen. When the transmissive screen is used instead of the reflective one, the light power efficiency is improved. Moreover, the arrangement of the pixel is more uniform when the screen is flat instead of a static conic screen. We construct a table-top display with about 288views around 360degree and its feasibilities are confirmed.

  12. Continuum estimates of rotational dielectric friction and polar solvation

    SciTech Connect

    Maroncelli, M.

    1997-01-01

    Dynamical solvation data recently obtained with the probe solute coumarin 153 are used to test the reliability of dielectric continuum models for estimating dielectric friction effects. In particular, the predictions of the Nee{endash}Zwanzig theory of rotational dielectric friction are examined in some detail. The analysis undertaken here uncovers an error made in virtually all previous applications of the Nee{endash}Zwanzig formalism. The error involves neglect of the solvent{close_quote}s electronic polarizability when calculating dielectric friction constants. In highly polar solvents the effect of this neglect is shown to be minor, so that the results of past studies should not be appreciably altered. However, in weakly polar and especially in nondipolar solvents, the proper inclusion of electronic polarizability terms is essential. The equivalence between the Nee{endash}Zwanzig theory of dielectric friction and more general continuum treatments of polar solvation dynamics is also demonstrated. This equivalence enables the use of solvation data to test the reliability of the Nee{endash}Zwanzig description of electrical interactions between a solute and solvent that form the core of this and related continuum theories of dielectric friction. Comparisons to experimental data show that, with the important exception of nondipolar solvents, such continuum treatments provide reasonably accurate ({plus_minus}40{percent}) predictors of time-dependent solvation and/or dielectric friction. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. THE ROTATION PROFILE OF SOLAR MAGNETIC FIELDS BETWEEN {+-}60 Degree-Sign LATITUDES

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, X. J.; Xie, J. L.

    2013-08-10

    Through a cross-correlation analysis of the Carrington synoptic maps of solar photospheric magnetic fields from Carrington Rotation Nos. 1625 to 2129 (from 1975 February to 2012 October), the sidereal rotation rates of solar magnetic fields between {+-}60 Degree-Sign latitudes are investigated. It seems that the temporal variation of rotation rates should be related to the solar cycle phase. The rotation profile of magnetic fields is obtained: the sidereal rotation rates decrease from the equator to mid-latitude and reach their minimum values of about 13.16 deg day{sup -1} (13.17 deg day{sup -1}) at 53 Degree-Sign (54 Degree-Sign ) latitude in the northern (southern) hemisphere, then increase toward higher latitudes. This rotation profile is different from the differential rotation law obtained by Snodgrass from a cross-correlation analysis of daily magnetograms, in which the rotation rates show a steep decrease from the equator to the poles. However, it is much closer to the quasi-rigid rotation law derived by Stenflo from an auto-correlation analysis of daily magnetograms. Some possible interpretations are discussed for the resulting rotation profile.

  14. RoboPol: optical polarization-plane rotations and flaring activity in blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blinov, D.; Pavlidou, V.; Papadakis, I. E.; Hovatta, T.; Pearson, T. J.; Liodakis, I.; Panopoulou, G. V.; Angelakis, E.; Baloković, M.; Das, H.; Khodade, P.; Kiehlmann, S.; King, O. G.; Kus, A.; Kylafis, N.; Mahabal, A.; Marecki, A.; Modi, D.; Myserlis, I.; Paleologou, E.; Papamastorakis, I.; Pazderska, B.; Pazderski, E.; Rajarshi, C.; Ramaprakash, A.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Reig, P.; Tassis, K.; Zensus, J. A.

    2016-04-01

    We present measurements of rotations of the optical polarization of blazars during the second year of operation of RoboPol, a monitoring programme of an unbiased sample of gamma-ray bright blazars specially designed for effective detection of such events, and we analyse the large set of rotation events discovered in two years of observation. We investigate patterns of variability in the polarization parameters and total flux density during the rotation events and compare them to the behaviour in a non-rotating state. We have searched for possible correlations between average parameters of the polarization-plane rotations and average parameters of polarization, with the following results: (1) there is no statistical association of the rotations with contemporaneous optical flares; (2) the average fractional polarization during the rotations tends to be lower than that in a non-rotating state; (3) the average fractional polarization during rotations is correlated with the rotation rate of the polarization plane in the jet rest frame; (4) it is likely that distributions of amplitudes and durations of the rotations have physical upper bounds, so arbitrarily long rotations are not realized in nature.

  15. Laser Oscillator Incorporating a Wedged Polarization Rotator and a Porro Prism as Cavity Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Steven

    2011-01-01

    A laser cavity was designed and implemented by using a wedged polarization rotator and a Porro prism in order to reduce the parts count, and to improve the laser reliability. In this invention, a z-cut quartz polarization rotator is used to compensate the wavelength retardance introduced by the Porro prism. The polarization rotator rotates the polarization of the linear polarized beam with a designed angle that is independent of the orientation of the rotator. This unique property was used to combine the retardance compensation and a Risley prism to a single optical component: a wedged polarization rotator. This greatly simplifies the laser alignment procedure and reduces the number of the laser optical components.

  16. Arc-Polarized, Nonlinear Alfven Waves and Rotational Discontinuities: Directions of Propogation?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, B. T.; Ho, C. M.; Sakurai, R.; Arballo, J. K.; Riley, P.; Balogh, A.

    1996-01-01

    Large amplitude, noncompressive Alfven waves and rotational discontinuities are shown to be arc-polarized. The slowly rotating Alfven wave portion plus the fast rotating discontinuity comprise 360(deg) in phase rotation. The magnetic field vector perturbation lies in a plane. There are two (or more) possible interpretations to the observations.

  17. Influence of neglected covariances on the estimation of Earth rotation parameters, geophysical excitation functions and second degree gravity field coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiker, Andrea; Kutterer, Hansjörg

    2010-05-01

    The Earth rotation variability is redundantly described by the combination of Earth rotation parameters (polar motion and length of day), geophysical excitation functions and second degree gravity field coefficients. There exist some publications regarding the comparison of the Earth rotation parameters and excitation functions. However, most authors do not make use of the redundancy. In addition, existing covariances between the input parameters are not considered. As shown in previous publications we use the redundancy for the independent mutual validation of the Earth rotation parameters, excitation functions and second degree gravity field coefficients based on an extended Gauss-Markov model and least-squares adjustment. The work regarding the mutual validation is performed within the project P9 "Combined analysis and validation of Earth rotation models and observations" of the research Unit FOR 584 ("Earth rotation and global dynamic processes") which is funded by the German Research Unit (DFG); see also abstract "Combined Analysis and Validation of Earth Rotation Models and Observations". The adjustment model is determined at first by the joint functional relations between the parameters and second by the stochastic model of the input data. A variance-covariance component estimation is included in the adjustment model. The functional model is based on the linearized Euler-Liouville equation. The construction of an appropriate stochastic model is prevented in practice by insufficient knowledge on variances and covariances. However, some numerical results derived from arbitrarily chosen stochastic models indicate that the stochastic model may be crucial for a correct estimation. The missing information is approximated by analyzing the input data. Synthetic variance-covariance matrices are constructed by considering empirical auto- and cross-correlation functions. The influence of neglected covariances is quantified and discussed by comparing the results derived

  18. General relativistic x ray (UV) polarization rotations as a quantitative test for black holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, Richard F.

    1989-01-01

    It is now 11 years since a potentially easily observable and quantitative test for black holes using general relativistic polarization rotations was proposed (Stark and Connors 1977, and Connors and Stark 1977). General relativistic rotations of the x ray polarization plane of 10 to 100 degrees with x ray energy (between 1 and 100 keV) are predicted for black hole x ray binaries. (Classically, by symmetry, there is no rotation.) Unfortunately, x ray polarimetry has not been taken sufficiently seriously during this period, and this test has not yet been performed. A similar (though probably less clean) effect is expected in the UV for supermassive black holes in some quasars active galactic nuclei. Summarizing: (1) a quantitative test (proposed in 1977) for black holes exists; (2) x ray polarimetry of galactic x ray binaries sensitive to at least 1/2 percent between 1 keV and 100 keV is needed (polarimetry in the UV of quasars and AGN will also be of interest); and (3) proportional counters using timerise discrimination were shown in laboratory experiments able to perform x ray polarimetry and this and other methods need to be developed.

  19. Rotational inertia of continents: A proposed link between polar wandering and plate tectonics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, M.F.

    1972-01-01

    A mechanism is proposed whereby displacement between continents and the earth's pole of rotation (polar wandering) gives rise to latitudinal transport of continental plates (continental drift) because of their relatively greater rotational inertia. When extended to short-term polar wobble, the hypothesis predicts an energy change nearly equivalent to the seismic energy rate.

  20. A technique for measuring vertically and horizontally polarized microwave brightness temperatures using electronic polarization-basis rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasiewski, Albin J.

    1992-01-01

    This technique for electronically rotating the polarization basis of an orthogonal-linear polarization radiometer is based on the measurement of the first three feedhorn Stokes parameters, along with the subsequent transformation of this measured Stokes vector into a rotated coordinate frame. The technique requires an accurate measurement of the cross-correlation between the two orthogonal feedhorn modes, for which an innovative polarized calibration load was developed. The experimental portion of this investigation consisted of a proof of concept demonstration of the technique of electronic polarization basis rotation (EPBR) using a ground based 90-GHz dual orthogonal-linear polarization radiometer. Practical calibration algorithms for ground-, aircraft-, and space-based instruments were identified and tested. The theoretical effort consisted of radiative transfer modeling using the planar-stratified numerical model described in Gasiewski and Staelin (1990).

  1. Degree of polarization and source counts of faint radio sources from Stacking Polarized intensity

    SciTech Connect

    Stil, J. M.; George, S. J.; Keller, B. W.; Taylor, A. R.

    2014-06-01

    We present stacking polarized intensity as a means to study the polarization of sources that are too faint to be detected individually in surveys of polarized radio sources. Stacking offers not only high sensitivity to the median signal of a class of radio sources, but also avoids a detection threshold in polarized intensity, and therefore an arbitrary exclusion of sources with a low percentage of polarization. Correction for polarization bias is done through a Monte Carlo analysis and tested on a simulated survey. We show that the nonlinear relation between the real polarized signal and the detected signal requires knowledge of the shape of the distribution of fractional polarization, which we constrain using the ratio of the upper quartile to the lower quartile of the distribution of stacked polarized intensities. Stacking polarized intensity for NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) sources down to the detection limit in Stokes I, we find a gradual increase in median fractional polarization that is consistent with a trend that was noticed before for bright NVSS sources, but is much more gradual than found by previous deep surveys of radio polarization. Consequently, the polarized radio source counts derived from our stacking experiment predict fewer polarized radio sources for future surveys with the Square Kilometre Array and its pathfinders.

  2. The tidal-rotational shape of the Moon and evidence for polar wander.

    PubMed

    Garrick-Bethell, Ian; Perera, Viranga; Nimmo, Francis; Zuber, Maria T

    2014-08-14

    The origin of the Moon's large-scale topography is important for understanding lunar geology, lunar orbital evolution and the Moon's orientation in the sky. Previous hypotheses for its origin have included late accretion events, large impacts, tidal effects and convection processes. However, testing these hypotheses and quantifying the Moon's topography is complicated by the large basins that have formed since the crust crystallized. Here we estimate the large-scale lunar topography and gravity spherical harmonics outside these basins and show that the bulk of the spherical harmonic degree-2 topography is consistent with a crust-building process controlled by early tidal heating throughout the Moon. The remainder of the degree-2 topography is consistent with a frozen tidal-rotational bulge that formed later, at a semi-major axis of about 32 Earth radii. The probability of the degree-2 shape having both tidal-heating and frozen shape characteristics by chance is less than 1%. We also infer that internal density contrasts eventually reoriented the Moon's polar axis by 36 ± 4°, to the configuration we observe today. Together, these results link the geology of the near and far sides, and resolve long-standing questions about the Moon's large-scale shape, gravity and history of polar wander. PMID:25079322

  3. Femtosecond Raman induced polarization spectroscopy studies of coherent rotational dynamics in molecular fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Morgen, M M

    1997-05-01

    We develop a polarization-sensitive femtosecond pump probe technique, Raman induced polarization spectroscopy (RIPS), to study coherent rotation in molecular fluids. By observing the collisional dephasing of the coherently prepared rotational states, we are able to extract information concerning the effects of molecular interactions on the rotational motion. The technique is quite sensitive because of the zero background detection method, and is also versatile due to its nonresonant nature.

  4. Direct formulation of a 4-node hybrid shell element with rotational degrees of freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aminpour, Mohammad A.

    1990-01-01

    A simple 4-node assumed-stress hybrid quadrilateral shell element with rotational or drilling degrees of freedom is formulated. The element formulation is based directly on a 4-node element. This direct formulation requires fewer computations than a similar element that is derived from an internal 8-node isoparametric element in which the midside degrees of freedom are eliminated in favor of rotational degree of freedom at the corner nodes. The formulation is based on the principle of minimum complementary energy. The membrane part of the element has 12 degrees of freedom including rotational degrees of freedom. The bending part of the element also has 12 degrees of freedom. The bending part of the quadratic variations for both in-plane and out-of-plane displacement fields and linear variations for both in-plane and out-of-plane rotation fields are assumed along the edges of the element. The element Cartesian-coordinate system is chosen such as to make the stress field invariant with respect to node numbering. The membrane part of the stress field is based on a 9-parameter equilibrating stress field, while the bending part is based on a 13-parameter equilibrating stress field. The element passes the patch test, is nearly insensitive to mesh distortion, does not lock, possesses the desirable invariance properties, has no spurious modes, and produces accurate and reliable results.

  5. Realization of a compact polarization splitter-rotator on silicon.

    PubMed

    Dai, Daoxin; Wu, Hao

    2016-05-15

    A novel compact polarization splitter-rotator (PSR) is proposed and realized with silicon-on-insulator nanowires. The present PSR consists of an adiabatic taper, an asymmetric directional coupler (ADC), and a multimode interference (MMI) mode filter. The adiabatic taper enables an efficient mode conversion from the launched TM0 mode to the TE1 mode in a wide waveguide, which is then coupled to the TE0 mode of a narrow waveguide through the ADC. Meanwhile, the launched TE0 mode does not have mode conversion and outputs from the through port directly. The MMI mode filter is cascaded at the through port to filter out the residual power of the TE1 mode so that the extinction ratio of the PSR is improved greatly. The total length of the PSR is ∼70  μm and the fabricated PSR has an extinction ratio of ∼20  dB over a broadband ranging from 1547 to 1597 nm. PMID:27176999

  6. Soliton polarization rotation and switching in type II second-harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollame, Riccardo; Trillo, Stefano; Assanto, Gaetano

    1996-12-01

    We predict that solitary waves of dispersive type II second-harmonic generation may experience large uniform nonlinear polarization rotations. The nonlinear medium followed by a polarization analyzer permits undistorted all-optical switching of pulses controlled by the input polarization.

  7. Experimentally determined characteristics of the degree of polarization of backscattered light from polystyrene sphere suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ping; Ma, Yongchao; Liu, Wei; Xu, Chengwei; Sun, Xiaochun

    2013-05-01

    The degree of polarization (DOP) can be used to characterize the polarization-maintaining ability of a beam of polarized light propagating through a turbid medium. Experiments on polystyrene (PST) sphere suspensions show that, the linearly polarized light propagating through the PST sphere suspension of Rayleigh scatterers has better polarization-maintaining ability, whereas the circularly polarized light propagating through the PST sphere suspension of Mie scatterers has better polarization-maintaining ability. Moreover, helicity flipping occurs to the circularly polarized light propagating in the extremely weak PST sphere suspensions or on the surface of suspensions. In addition, the DOP is dependent on the wavelength of incident light. The results can be helpful to image in turbid media by use of diffuse backscattered light.

  8. Dual-channel chaos synchronization and communication based on unidirectionally coupled VCSELs with polarization-rotated optical feedback and polarization-rotated optical injection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiao; Wu, Zheng-Mao; Xia, Guang-Qiong

    2009-07-20

    A novel dual-channel chaotic synchronization configuration is proposed. This system is constructed on the basis of two unidirectionally coupled vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), where a VCSEL subjected to polarization-rotated optical feedback is used as a transmitter and the other VCSEL subjected to polarization-rotated optical injection is used as a receiver. The synchronization and communication performances of such a system are numerically investigated. The results show that, similar to polarization-preserved coupled system with polarization-preserved optical feedback at the T-VCSEL port and polarization-preserved optical injection at the R-VCSEL port, such polarization-rotated coupled system can also realize complete synchronization between each pair of linear polarization (LP) modes and the total output of T-VCSEL and R-VCSEL. Compared with the polarization-preserved coupled system, this proposed system has higher tolerance to mismatched parameters. Furthermore, the average intensities of two orthogonal LP modes are almost the same so that this framework may be used to realize dual-channel chaos communication. Under the additive chaos modulation (ACM) encryption scheme, the encoded messages can be successfully extracted for both of orthogonal LP modes. PMID:19654666

  9. Transient stability enhancement of electric power generating systems by 120-degree phase rotation

    DOEpatents

    Cresap, Richard L.; Taylor, Carson W.; Kreipe, Michael J.

    1982-01-01

    A method and system for enhancing the transient stability of an intertied three-phase electric power generating system. A set of power exporting generators (10) is connected to a set of power importing generators (20). When a transient cannot be controlled by conventional stability controls, and imminent loss of synchronism is detected (such as when the equivalent rotor angle difference between the two generator sets exceeds a predetermined value, such as 150 degrees), the intertie is disconnected by circuit breakers. Then a switch (30) having a 120-degree phase rotation, or a circuit breaker having a 120-degree phase rotation is placed in the intertie. The intertie is then reconnected. This results in a 120-degree reduction in the equivalent rotor angle difference between the two generator sets, making the system more stable and allowing more time for the conventional controls to stabilize the transient.

  10. A near-transparent 90∘ polarization rotator with an array of L-shaped holes inside a glass cube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yan-Lin; Zhao, Yan; Lu, He-Ping

    2016-07-01

    We report a near-transparent 90∘ polarization rotator by using a single-layer microstructure. The co-polarization light has been suppressed by using destructive interference. At the same time, the transmission of cross-polarization light has been improved with inference effect between surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and localized surface plasmons (LSPs). This efficient polarization rotation mechanism may be very useful in designing polarization rotators.

  11. A white-light amplitude interferometer with 180-degree rotational shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breckinridge, J. B.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reports on the fabrication, alignment, and test techniques of an equal-path, wave-front, folding amplitude interferometer with 180-degree rotational shear. The device may be used for measuring atmospheric phase-perturbing properties and designing optical filters used in processing spatial information. The instrument has been used to photograph the Michelson Stellar interferometer fringes.

  12. Degree of polarization fading of light passing through birefringent medium with optical axis variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makowski, Piotr L.; Domański, Andrzej W.

    2010-09-01

    Numerical implementation of Mueller-Stokes matrix calculus for polychromatic light is used to analyze and plainly illustrate polarization properties of multi-section linearly birefringent systems illuminated by the light of any spectrum profile. Numerical investigations are preceded by a detailed review of known concepts for modeling the depolarization phenomenon in anisotropic media. The numerical study examines efficiency of the Lyot depolarizer system undergoing variations from the optimal configuration. In addition, the power spectrum density profile and intrinsic polarization state of light passing through the system are considered as interesting degrees of freedom. The comparative analysis makes use of the degree of polarization and the depolarization index diagrams.

  13. Rotation of the polarization vector from distant radio galaxies in the perturbed FRW metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarty, Sankha Subhra

    2016-06-01

    Analysis of the correlation between the angular positions of distant radio galaxies on the sky and the orientations of their polarization vectors with respect to their major axes indicates a dipolar anisotropy in the large scale. We consider a single mode of large-scale scalar perturbation to the FRW metric. Using Newman-Penrose formalism, we calculate the rotation of the galaxy major axis with respect to the polarization vector as the elliptic image and the polarization vector are carried through the perturbed spacetime. The dependence of the rotation on the polar angular coordinate of the galaxy is qualitatively similar to the claimed dipole pattern.

  14. Measurement of the degree of polarization of the spectra from laser produced recombining Al plasmas.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaehoon; Kim, Dong-Eon

    2002-07-01

    Using a polarization-resolved UV-visible spectrometer, the degree of polarization of the spectra from laser produced Al plasmas was measured. The polarization resolution was achieved by using either a dichroic polarizer or a calcite crystal. The degree of polarization of Al III 4s(2)S(1/2)-4p(2)P(o)(3/2) transition at 569.66 nm was measured at different positions from a target surface. The degree of polarization was observed to be 2.1+/-0.13% at a distance of 220 microm from the target and decreased as the distance from the target increased, vanishing at a distance of about 1.3 mm from the target. To avoid the possible error due to the shot-to-shot variation of the line intensity, a calcite crystal was used to simultaneously observe the two polarization components, obtaining a similar result. The electron temperature of about 3 eV and the density of 2 x 10(17) cm(-3) measured spectroscopically indicates that the plasma was in the recombining phase. This is a report on the observation of the polarization of a transition in a laser-produced recombining Al plasma. PMID:12241524

  15. Correction for nonlinearity and polarization-dependent sensitivity in the detection system of rotating analyzer ellipsometers.

    PubMed

    Russev, S H

    1989-04-15

    Systematic errors due to nonlinearity and polarization-dependent sensitivity in the detection system of rotating analyzer ellipsometers are described. Post Fourier analysis procedures for detection and correction of these effects are presented. PMID:20548687

  16. Progress Towards the Detection of Faraday Rotation on Spin Polarized 3He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abney, Josh; Broering, Mark; Korsch, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    Off-resonance Faraday rotation can offer a new method to monitor the nuclear spin polarization of a dense 3He target and gain access to new information about the magnetic polarizability of the 3He nucleus. The interaction of the polarization state of light with the nuclear spin of the helium atom is very weak and has never been detected. A sensitive triple modulation technique has been developed which can detect the expected rotation angle on the order of 100 nrad. Once a Faraday rotation signal is observed, the next step is to separate the magnetic and electric contributions to the rotation by utilizing their different frequency dependencies. Recent studies involved optimizing several parameters which impact 3He target polarization. Progress towards detecting nuclear spin optical rotation on 3He will be reported. This research is supported by DOE Grant DE-FG02-99ER41101.

  17. Progress Towards the Detection of Faraday Rotation on Spin Polarized 3He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abney, Joshua; Broering, Mark; Korsch, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    Off-resonance Faraday rotation can offer a method to measure the nuclear spin optical rotation of the 3 He nucleus and gain access to new information about the atomic polarizability of the Helium atom. The interaction of the polarization state of light with the nuclear spin of the helium atom is very weak and has never been detected. A sensitive triple modulation technique has been developed which can detect the expected rotation angle on the order of 100 nrad. Once a Faraday rotation signal is observed, the next step is to separate the magnetic and electric contributions to the rotation by utilizing their different frequency dependencies. Recent studies involved optimizing several parameters which impact 3 He target polarization. Progress towards detecting nuclear spin optical rotation on 3 He will be reported. This research is supported by DOE Grant DE-FG02-99ER41101.

  18. Long-axis rotation: a missing degree of freedom in avian bipedal locomotion.

    PubMed

    Kambic, Robert E; Roberts, Thomas J; Gatesy, Stephen M

    2014-08-01

    Ground-dwelling birds are typically characterized as erect bipeds having hind limbs that operate parasagittally. Consequently, most previous research has emphasized flexion/extension angles and moments as calculated from a lateral perspective. Three-dimensional (3D) motion analyses have documented non-planar limb movements, but the skeletal kinematics underlying changes in foot orientation and transverse position remain unclear. In particular, long-axis rotation of the proximal limb segments is extremely difficult to measure with topical markers. Here, we present six degree of freedom skeletal kinematic data from maneuvering guineafowl acquired by marker-based XROMM (X-ray Reconstruction of Moving Morphology). Translations and rotations of the hips, knees, ankles and pelvis were derived from animated bone models using explicit joint coordinate systems. We distinguished sidesteps, sidestep yaws, crossover yaws, sidestep turns and crossover turns, but birds often performed a sequence of blended partial maneuvers. Long-axis rotation of the femur (up to 38 deg) modulated the foot's transverse position. Long-axis rotation of the tibiotarsus (up to 65 deg) also affected medio-lateral positioning, but primarily served to either re-orient a swing phase foot or yaw the body about a stance phase foot. Tarsometatarsal long-axis rotation was minimal, as was hip, knee and ankle abduction/adduction. Despite having superficially hinge-like joints, birds coordinate substantial long-axis rotations of the hips and knees to execute complex 3D maneuvers while striking a diversity of non-planar poses. PMID:24855675

  19. Polar flagella rotation in Vibrio parahaemolyticus confers resistance to bacteriophage infection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Li, Lu; Zhao, Zhe; Peng, Daxin; Zhou, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophage has been recognized as a novel approach to treat bacterial infectious diseases. However, phage resistance may reduce the efficacy of phage therapy. Here, we described a mechanism of bacterial resistance to phage infections. In Gram-negative enteric pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus, we found that polar flagella can reduce the phage infectivity. Deletion of polar flagella, but not the lateral flagella, can dramatically promote the adsorption of phage to the bacteria and enhances the phage infectivity to V. parahaemolyticus, indicating that polar flagella play an inhibitory role in the phage infection. Notably, it is the rotation, not the physical presence, of polar flagella that inhibits the phage infection of V. parahaemolyticus. Strikingly, phage dramatically reduces the virulence of V. parahaemolyticus only when polar flagella were absent both in vitro and in vivo. These results indicated that polar flagella rotation is a previously unidentified mechanism that confers bacteriophage resistance. PMID:27189325

  20. Polar flagella rotation in Vibrio parahaemolyticus confers resistance to bacteriophage infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Li, Lu; Zhao, Zhe; Peng, Daxin; Zhou, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophage has been recognized as a novel approach to treat bacterial infectious diseases. However, phage resistance may reduce the efficacy of phage therapy. Here, we described a mechanism of bacterial resistance to phage infections. In Gram-negative enteric pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus, we found that polar flagella can reduce the phage infectivity. Deletion of polar flagella, but not the lateral flagella, can dramatically promote the adsorption of phage to the bacteria and enhances the phage infectivity to V. parahaemolyticus, indicating that polar flagella play an inhibitory role in the phage infection. Notably, it is the rotation, not the physical presence, of polar flagella that inhibits the phage infection of V. parahaemolyticus. Strikingly, phage dramatically reduces the virulence of V. parahaemolyticus only when polar flagella were absent both in vitro and in vivo. These results indicated that polar flagella rotation is a previously unidentified mechanism that confers bacteriophage resistance. PMID:27189325

  1. Long-Lived Hole Spin/Valley Polarization Probed by Kerr Rotation in Monolayer WSe2.

    PubMed

    Song, Xinlin; Xie, Saien; Kang, Kibum; Park, Jiwoong; Sih, Vanessa

    2016-08-10

    Time-resolved Kerr rotation and photoluminescence measurements are performed on MOCVD-grown monolayer tungsten diselenide (WSe2). We observe a surprisingly long-lived Kerr rotation signal (∼80 ns) at 10 K, which is attributed to spin/valley polarization of the resident holes. This polarization is robust to transverse magnetic field (up to 0.3 T). Wavelength-dependent measurements reveal that only excitation near the free exciton energy generates this long-lived spin/valley polarization. PMID:27466727

  2. Interesting polarization-independent SERS detection performance induced by the rotation symmetry of multiparticle nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Chao; Zhao, Yan; Jiang, Yijian

    2016-01-01

    In this work, on the basis of finite difference time domain simulations and group theory, by employing regular nanosphere trimers as the main examples, we analyse and discuss the polarization-independent surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) phenomenon arising from the rotation symmetry of coined metallic nanomultimers. The results demonstrate why the rotationally symmetrical nanomultimers can show polarization-independent SERS performance. Because of the dramatically hybridized polarization-independent SERS performance over the whole 360° range, rotationally symmetrical coined metal nanomultimers, such as regular trimers, regular triangular tetramers and regular pentamers, are reliable and reproducible SERS substrates, which have the potential for convenient and flexible practical SERS detection without the need for optimally incident polarization outside the laboratory setting.

  3. Interesting polarization-independent SERS detection performance induced by the rotation symmetry of multiparticle nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chao; Zhao, Yan; Jiang, Yijian

    2016-01-29

    In this work, on the basis of finite difference time domain simulations and group theory, by employing regular nanosphere trimers as the main examples, we analyse and discuss the polarization-independent surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) phenomenon arising from the rotation symmetry of coined metallic nanomultimers. The results demonstrate why the rotationally symmetrical nanomultimers can show polarization-independent SERS performance. Because of the dramatically hybridized polarization-independent SERS performance over the whole 360° range, rotationally symmetrical coined metal nanomultimers, such as regular trimers, regular triangular tetramers and regular pentamers, are reliable and reproducible SERS substrates, which have the potential for convenient and flexible practical SERS detection without the need for optimally incident polarization outside the laboratory setting. PMID:26655083

  4. Self-Calibration of BICEP1 Three-Year Data and Constraints on Astrophysical Polarization Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, J. P.; Miller, N. J.; Shimon, M.; Barkats, D.; Bischoff, C.; Buder, I.; Keating, B. G.; Kovac, J. M.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aikin, R.; Battle, J. O.; Bierman, E. M.; Bock, J. J.; Chiang, H. C.; Dowell, C. D.; Duband, L.; Filippini, J.; Hivon, E. F.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hristov, V. V.; Jones, W. C.; Kernasovskiy, S. S.; Kuo, C. L.; Leitch, E. M.; Mason, P. V.

    2014-01-01

    Cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarimeters aspire to measure the faint B-mode signature predicted to arise from inflationary gravitational waves. They also have the potential to constrain cosmic birefringence, rotation of the polarization of the CMB arising from parity-violating physics, which would produce nonzero expectation values for the CMB's temperature to B-mode correlation (TB) and E-mode to B-mode correlation (EB) spectra. However, instrumental systematic effects can also cause these TB and EB correlations to be nonzero. In particular, an overall miscalibration of the polarization orientation of the detectors produces TB and EB spectra which are degenerate with isotropic cosmological birefringence, while also introducing a small but predictable bias on the BB spectrum. We find that BICEP1 three-year spectra, which use our standard calibration of detector polarization angles from a dielectric sheet, are consistent with a polarization rotation of alpha = -2.77deg +/- 0.86deg (statistical) +/- 1.3deg (systematic). We have revised the estimate of systematic error on the polarization rotation angle from the two-year analysis by comparing multiple calibration methods. We also account for the (negligible) impact of measured beam systematic effects. We investigate the polarization rotation for the BICEP1 100 GHz and 150 GHz bands separately to investigate theoretical models that produce frequency-dependent cosmic birefringence. We find no evidence in the data supporting either of these models or Faraday rotation of the CMB polarization by the Milky Way galaxy's magnetic field. If we assume that there is no cosmic birefringence, we can use the TB and EB spectra to calibrate detector polarization orientations, thus reducing bias of the cosmological B-mode spectrum from leaked E-modes due to possible polarization orientation miscalibration. After applying this "self-calibration" process, we find that the upper limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio decreases

  5. Alignment, rotation, and spinning of single plasmonic nanoparticles and nanowires using polarization dependent optical forces.

    PubMed

    Tong, Lianming; Miljković, Vladimir D; Käll, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate optical alignment and rotation of individual plasmonic nanostructures with lengths from tens of nanometers to several micrometers using a single beam of linearly polarized near-infrared laser light. Silver nanorods and dimers of gold nanoparticles align parallel to the laser polarization because of the high long-axis dipole polarizability. Silver nanowires, in contrast, spontaneously turn perpendicular to the incident polarization and predominantly attach at the wire ends, in agreement with electrodynamics simulations. Wires, rods, and dimers all rotate if the incident polarization is turned. In the case of nanowires, we demonstrate spinning at an angular frequency of approximately 1 Hz due to transfer of spin angular momentum from circularly polarized light. PMID:20030391

  6. Birefringence and polarization rotator induced by electromagnetically induced transparency in rare earth ion-doped crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhixiang; Liu, Jianji; Yu, Ping; Zhang, Guoquan

    2016-05-01

    The birefringence induced by the electromagnetically induced transparency effect in a {Pr}^{3+}:{Y}_2 {SiO}_5 crystal was studied by using a balanced polarimeter technique. The results show that it is possible to control the polarization state of the output probe beam by adjusting the experimental conditions. Particularly, the coherently prepared {Pr}^{3+}:{Y}_2 {SiO}_5 crystal can serve as a polarization rotator for a linearly polarized input probe beam at the two-photon resonant condition. Such coherent control on the polarization of light should be useful for polarization-based classical and quantum information processing such as all-optical switching, polarization preserving light pulse memory and polarization qubits based on rare earth ion-doped solids.

  7. Rotation-Enabled 7-Degree of Freedom Seismometer for Geothermal Resource Development. Phase 1 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, Bob; Laughlin, Darren

    2013-10-29

    Under this Department of Energy (DOE) grant, A-Tech Corporation d.b.a. Applied Technology Associates (ATA), seeks to develop a seven-degree-of-freedom (7-DOF) seismic measurement tool for high-temperature geothermal applications. The Rotational-Enabled 7-DOF Seismometer includes a conventional tri-axial accelerometer, a conventional pressure sensor or hydrophone, and a tri-axial rotational sensor. The rotational sensing capability is novel, based upon ATA's innovative research in rotational sensing technologies. The geothermal industry requires tools for high-precision seismic monitoring of crack formation associated with Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) stimulation activity. Currently, microseismic monitoring is conducted by deploying many seismic tools at different depth levels along a 'string' within drilled observation wells. Costs per string can be hundreds of thousands of dollars. Processing data from the spatial arrays of linear seismometers allows back-projection of seismic wave states. In contrast, a Rotational-Enabled 7-DOF Seismometer would simultaneously measure p-wave velocity, s-wave velocity, and incident seismic wave direction all from a single point measurement. In addition, the Rotational-Enabled 7-DOF Seismometer will, by its nature, separate p- and s-waves into different data streams, simplifying signal processing and facilitating analysis of seismic source signatures and geological characterization. By adding measurements of three additional degrees-of-freedom at each level and leveraging the information from this new seismic observable, it is likely that an equally accurate picture of subsurface seismic activity could be garnered with fewer levels per hole. The key cost savings would come from better siting of the well due to increased information content and a decrease in the number of confirmation wells drilled, also due to the increase in information per well. Improved seismic tools may also increase knowledge, understanding, and confidence

  8. Rotation of the cosmic microwave background polarization from weak gravitational lensing.

    PubMed

    Dai, Liang

    2014-01-31

    When a cosmic microwave background (CMB) photon travels from the surface of last scatter through spacetime metric perturbations, the polarization vector may rotate about its direction of propagation. This gravitational rotation is distinct from, and occurs in addition to, the lensing deflection of the photon trajectory. This rotation can be sourced by linear vector or tensor metric perturbations and is fully coherent with the curl deflection field. Therefore, lensing corrections to the CMB polarization power spectra as well as the temperature-polarization cross correlations due to nonscalar perturbations are modified. The rotation does not affect lensing by linear scalar perturbations, but needs to be included when calculations go to higher orders. We present complete results for weak lensing of the full-sky CMB power spectra by general linear metric perturbations, taking into account both deflection of the photon trajectory and rotation of the polarization. For the case of lensing by gravitational waves, we show that the B modes induced by the rotation largely cancel those induced by the curl component of deflection. PMID:24580435

  9. Photoelectron spectroscopic studies of polyatomic molecules: Degree of orientation and ionization of rotationally state selected, oriented molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, N.; Chakraborty, M.

    1991-11-01

    In this paper we report theoretical studies of angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) and of circular dichroism in photoelectron angular distribution (CDAD) for ionization in molecules oriented in a single ‖JKJMJ> rotational eigenstate. These processes have been investigated also as two of the possible alternatives to photodissociation to determine orientational distribution function of rotationally state selected, oriented molecules. Expressions are derived which can be used to calculate ARPES and CDAD for such molecular species from ab initio methods or to analyze these experimentally observed spectra for extracting information about the degree of orientation of the molecular framework. These formulas are put in their simplest possible forms using the transformation properties of the molecular point group to their full advantage. The ionization amplitude is thus shown to decompose into a sum of transitions each involving the final state wave function belonging to an irreducible representation of the point group of the target molecule. It is found that, similar to the case of photodissociation, one can determine the rotational quantum number J purely from experimental photoionization data. Expressions developed herein are used to study ARPES and CDAD for ionization in a1 orbital of those rotationally state selected and oriented spherical top molecules which transform according to the Td point symmetry group. In this case, the detection-integrated cross section, singly differential in molecular orientation, is found to be independent of the photoionization dynamics and directly gives the molecular orientational function. The other ARPES and CDAD formulas are shown to depend upon the dynamics through the integrated partial cross section σ¯, the angularly asymmetry parameter β¯, the phase shift of the continuum waves representing the photoelectron, and the phase of the dipole transition amplitudes. The formulation presented in this paper sets a

  10. Deterministic Polarization Entanglement Purification of W State in Multiple Degrees of Freedom with Hyper-Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Hongyan; Guo, Ying

    2015-01-01

    We present two deterministic entanglement purification protocols for distilling W state in polarization entanglement in a one-step fashion. The three parties can obtain a maximally entangled W polarization state with success probability 100 % from the hyper-entangled W state in multiple degrees of freedom (DOFs), and they do not require the quantum system to be entangled in polarization DOF but in spatial DOF. The former protocol is implemented with the passive linear optics, which is feasible with current experiments. The later one is implemented with cross-Kerr-nonlinearities, which can achieve higher efficiency of the entanglement transformation among different DOFs since it does not require the sophisticated single-photon detector. The present protocols are both suitable for polarization entanglement purification of multi-photon-entangled W state in quantum computation network because they need less operations and classical communications in the practical implementation.

  11. Tools for detecting entanglement between different degrees of freedom in quadrature squeezed cylindrically polarized modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, C.; Aiello, A.; Berg-Johansen, S.; Marquardt, Ch.; Leuchs, G.

    2012-07-01

    Quadrature squeezed cylindrically polarized modes contain entanglement not only in the polarization and spatial electric field variables but also between these two degrees of freedom [C. Gabriel et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 060502 (2011)]. In this paper we present tools to generate and detect this entanglement. Experimentally we demonstrate the generation of quadrature squeezing in cylindrically polarized modes by mode transforming a squeezed Gaussian mode. Specifically, -1.2 dB ± 0.1 dB of amplitude squeezing are achieved in the radially and azimuthally polarized mode. Furthermore, theoretically it is shown how the entanglement contained within these modes can be measured and how strong the quantum correlations are, depending on the measurement scheme.

  12. Differential Rotation and Magnetic Polarity Patterns on AB Doradus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donati, J.-F.; Collier Cameron, A.; Hussain, G. A. J.; Semel, M.

    We report new Zeeman-Doppler imaging observations of the rapidly rotating young K0 dwarf AB Doradus, obtained with the Anglo-Australian Telescope in 1996 December. We show simultaneous brightness and magnetic images of the stellar photosphere, reconstructed at three different epochs over the course of a seven-night observing run. Latitude-by-latitude cross-correlation of the resulting images confirms the form and amplitude of the surface differential pattern found in the previous year's observations by Donati & Cameron (1997), with the pole rotating slower than the equator by about one part in 220. We also present dynamic spectra showing the distribution of H alpha-absorbing clouds in the stellar corona at the same epoch.

  13. Demanding response time requirements on coherent receivers due to fast polarization rotations caused by lightning events.

    PubMed

    Krummrich, Peter M; Ronnenberg, David; Schairer, Wolfgang; Wienold, Daniel; Jenau, Frank; Herrmann, Maximilian

    2016-05-30

    Lightning events can cause fast polarization rotations and phase changes in optical transmission fibers due to strong electrical currents and magnetic fields. Whereas these are unlikely to affect legacy transmission systems with direct detection, different mechanisms have to be considered in systems with local oscillator based coherent receivers and digital signal processing. A theoretical analysis reveals that lightning events can result in polarization rotations with speeds as fast as a few hundred kRad/s. We discuss possible mechanisms how such lightning events can affect coherent receivers with digital signal processing. In experimental investigations with a high current pulse generator and transponder prototypes, we observed post FEC errors after polarization rotation events which can be expected from lightning strikes. PMID:27410158

  14. Analysis of the polarization rotation effect in the inversely tapered spot size converter.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lianxi; Zhou, Haifeng; Liow, Tsung-Yang; Song, Junfeng; Huang, Ying; Tu, Xiaoguang; Luo, Xianshu; Li, Chao; Fang, Qing; Yu, Mingbin; Lo, Guoqiang

    2015-10-19

    Inversely tapered spot size converter (SSC) is widely used to connect silicon waveguide with fiber in silicon photonics. However, the tapered structure may cause polarization rotation and further generate interference fluctuation in the transmission spectrum even of a straight waveguide. We analyzed the light propagation in a straight waveguide with SSC at the both ends with coupling matrix and transmission matrix methods. The analysis results matched with the phenomena we observed in the transmission spectrum. Combining the analysis with the measurement results, we calculated the polarization rotation efficiency of the SSC in different samples and analyzed the origin of the polarization rotation effect. Finally, we discussed the influence of the effect to the DP-QPSK signal and proposed several methods to release the impact. PMID:26480439

  15. Rotations of molecular photoelectron angular distributions with intense ultrashort circularly polarized attosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Kai-Jun; Chelkowski, Szczepan; Bandrauk, André D.

    2013-04-01

    Molecular photoelectron angular distributions (MPADs) by intense (I0 ⩾ 1014 W/cm2) circularly polarized ultrashort, few cycle (attosecond) ultraviolet laser pulses are presented from numerical solutions of time dependent Schrödinger equations. For the aligned molecular ion H_2^+, the MPADs exhibit rotations with respect to the polarization and molecular symmetry axes which are determined by the symmetry of the initial electronics states. It is also found that the rotation angle of MPADs is insensitive to the pulse intensity. We attribute these effects to the asymmetry between the parallel and perpendicular (to the molecular axis) polarization photoionization. Influence of the molecular alignment and ionizing pulse ellipticity on the rotation of MPADs is also shown to allow control of the nonsymmetric ionization.

  16. Cross polarization with long delayed contact in rotating solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Shangwu; McDowell, Charles A.

    1996-06-01

    The cross polarization NMR spectra and cross relaxation rates of polycrystalline hexamethylbenzene and adamantane were obtained by employing a long delay before contact for samples spinning at, and off, the magic angle with respect to the static magnetic field. The results are compared with those obtained by using the conventional cross polarization pulse sequence. The results support the memory effect explanation of origin of the SPEDA spectra in contrast with the assumptions that the high resolution SPEDA spectra arising either, from the nearly isotropic motion of a very small fraction, or a pool of highly thermo-activated molecules, or from special spin pairs within the crystallites which are orientated at the magic angle with respect to the static magnetic field.

  17. Band gap engineering strategy via polarization rotation in perovskite ferroelectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Fenggong Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2014-04-14

    We propose a strategy to engineer the band gaps of perovskite oxide ferroelectrics, supported by first principles calculations. We find that the band gaps of perovskites can be substantially reduced by as much as 1.2 eV through local rhombohedral-to-tetragonal structural transition. Furthermore, the strong polarization of the rhombohedral perovskite is largely preserved by its tetragonal counterpart. The B-cation off-center displacements and the resulting enhancement of the antibonding character in the conduction band give rise to the wider band gaps of the rhombohedral perovskites. The correlation between the structure, polarization orientation, and electronic structure lays a good foundation for understanding the physics of more complex perovskite solid solutions and provides a route for the design of photovoltaic perovskite ferroelectrics.

  18. Polarization rotation and coupling between silicon waveguide and hybrid plasmonic waveguide

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangsik; Qi, Minghao

    2015-01-01

    We present a polarization rotation and coupling scheme that rotates a TE0 mode in a silicon waveguide and simultaneously couples the rotated mode to a hybrid plasmonic (HP0) waveguide mode. Such a polarization rotation can be realized with a partially etched asymmetric hybrid plasmonic waveguide consisting of a silicon strip waveguide, a thin oxide spacer, and a metal cap made from copper, gold, silver or aluminum. Two implementations, one with and one without the tapering of the metal cap are presented, and different taper shapes (linear and exponential) are also analyzed. The devices have large 3 dB conversion bandwidths (over 200 nm at near infrared) and short length (< 5 μm), and achieve a maximum coupling factor of ∼ 78% with a linearly tapered silver metal cap. PMID:25969038

  19. Second-harmonic generation polarization microscopy by rotation of excitation light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fwu, Peter Tramyeon; Chou, Chen-Kuan; Chen, Wei-Liang; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2007-02-01

    When imaging anisotropic samples with a laser scanning optical microscope, the results are often affected by the polarization of the excitation light source. Quantifying the polarization dependence of biological fibrous material such as muscle and collagen allows us to gain molecular information at length scale below the resolution of optical microscopes. One problem associated with rotating the direction of linearly polarized excitation light for an epi-illuminated laser scanning microscope is due to the reflective properties of the main dichroic mirror. Depending on the direction of the incident polarization, the dichroic mirror can induce different amount of phase retardation, thus altering the desired output polarization. In this work, we theoretically determined the needed combination of wave plates and their angular positions to compensate for the effect of the dichroic mirror, thus achieving any arbitrary linear polarization angle for the excitation incident on sample.

  20. Real-time image difference detection using a polarization rotation spacial light modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Liu, Hua-Kuang (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An image difference detection system is described, of the type wherein two created image representations such as transparencies representing the images to be compared lie coplanar, while light passes through the two transparencies and is formed into coincident images at the image plane for comparison. The two transparencies are formed by portions of a polarization rotation spacial light modulator display such as a multi-pixel liquid crystal display or a magneto optical rotation type. In a system where light passing through the two transparencies is polarized in transverse directions to enable the use of a Wollaston prism to bring the images into coincidence, a liquid crystal display can be used which is devoid of polarizing sheets that would interfere with transverse polarizing of the light passing through the two transparencies.

  1. Real-time image difference detection using a polarization rotation spacial light modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Liu, Hua-Kuang (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    An image difference detection system is described, of the type wherein two created image representations such as transparencies representing the images to be compared lie coplanar, while light passes through the two transparencies and is formed into coincident images at the image plane for comparison. The two transparencies are formed by portions of a polarization-rotation spatial light modulator display such as a multi-pixel liquid crystal display or a magnetooptical rotation type display. In a system where light passing through the two transparencies is polarized in transverse directions to enable the use of a Wollaston prism to bring the images into coincidence, a liquid crystal display can be used which is devoid of polarizing sheets that would interfere with transverse polarizing of the light passing through the two transparencies.

  2. Magneto-optical polarization rotation in a ladder-type atomic system for tunable offset locking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parniak, Michał; Leszczyński, Adam; Wasilewski, Wojciech

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate an easily tunable locking scheme for stabilizing frequency-sum of two lasers on a two-photon ladder transition based on polarization rotation in warm rubidium vapors induced by magnetic field and circularly polarized drive field. Unprecedented tunability of the two-photon offset frequency is due to strong splitting and shifting of magnetic states in external field. In our experimental setup, we achieve two-photon detuning of up to 700 MHz.

  3. Fast passage dynamic nuclear polarization on rotating solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mentink-Vigier, Frederic; Akbey, Ümit; Hovav, Yonatan; Vega, Shimon; Oschkinat, Hartmut; Feintuch, Akiva

    2012-11-01

    Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) has proven to be a very powerful way to improve the signal to noise ratio of NMR experiments on solids. The experiments have in general been interpreted considering the Solid-Effect (SE) and Cross-Effect (CE) DNP mechanisms while ignoring the influence of sample spinning. In this paper, we show experimental data of MAS-DNP enhancements of 1H and 13C in proline and SH3 protein in glass forming water/glycerol solvent containing TOTAPOL. We also introduce a theoretical model that aims at explaining how the nuclear polarization is built in MAS-DNP experiments. By using Liouville space based simulations to include relaxation on two simple spin models, {electron-nucleus} and {electron-electron-nucleus}, we explain how the basic MAS-SE-DNP and MAS-CE-DNP processes work. The importance of fast energy passages and short level anti-crossing is emphasized and the differences between static DNP and MAS-DNP is explained. During a single rotor cycle the enhancement in the {electron-electron-nucleus} system arises from MAS-CE-DNP involving at least three kinds of two-level fast passages: an electron-electron dipolar anti-crossing, a single quantum electron MW encounter and an anti-crossing at the CE condition inducing nuclear polarization in- or decrements. Numerical, powder-averaged, simulations were performed in order to check the influence of the experimental parameters on the enhancement efficiencies. In particular we show that the spinning frequency dependence of the theoretical MAS-CE-DNP enhancement compares favorably with the experimental 1H and 13C MAS-DNP enhancements of proline and SH3.

  4. Rotation of the optical polarization angle associated with the 2008 γ-ray flare of blazar W Comae

    SciTech Connect

    Sorcia, Marco; Benítez, Erika; Cabrera, José I.; Hiriart, David; López, José M.; Mújica, Raúl

    2014-10-10

    An R-band photopolarimetric variability analysis of the TeV bright blazar W Comae between 2008 February 28 and 2013 May 17 is presented. The source showed a gradual tendency to decrease its mean flux level with a total change of 3 mJy. A maximum and minimum brightness states in the R band of 14.25 ± 0.04 and 16.52 ± 0.1 mag, respectively, were observed, corresponding to a maximum variation of ΔF = 5.40 mJy. We estimated a minimum variability timescale of Δt = 3.3 days. A maximum polarization degree P = 33.8% ± 1.6%, with a maximum variation of ΔP = 33.2%, was found. One of our main results is the detection of a large rotation of the polarization angle from 78° to 315° (Δθ ∼ 237°) that coincides in time with the γ-ray flare observed in 2008 June. This result indicates that both optical and γ-ray emission regions could be co-spatial. During this flare, a correlation between the R-band flux and polarization degree was found with a correlation coefficient of r {sub F} {sub –} {sub p} = 0.93 ± 0.11. From the Stokes parameters, we infer the existence of two optically thin synchrotron components that contribute to the polarized flux. One of them is stable with a constant polarization degree of 11%. Assuming a shock-in jet model during the 2008 flare, we estimated a maximum Doppler factor δ {sub D} ∼ 27 and a minimum of δ {sub D} ∼ 16; a minimum viewing angle of the jet ∼2.°0; and a magnetic field B ∼ 0.12 G.

  5. Enhancement of optical polarization degree of AlGaN quantum wells by using staggered structure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiying; Lu, Huimin; Fu, Lei; He, Chenguang; Wang, Mingxing; Tang, Ning; Xu, Fujun; Yu, Tongjun; Ge, Weikun; Shen, Bo

    2016-08-01

    Staggered AlGaN quantum wells (QWs) are designed to enhance the transverse-electric (TE) polarized optical emission in deep ultraviolet (DUV) light- emitting diodes (LED). The optical polarization properties of the conventional and staggered AlGaN QWs are investigated by a theoretical model based on the k·p method as well as polarized photoluminescence (PL) measurements. Based on an analysis of the valence subbands and momentum matrix elements, it is found that AlGaN QWs with step-function-like Al content in QWs offers much stronger TE polarized emission in comparison to that from conventional AlGaN QWs. Experimental results show that the degree of the PL polarization at room temperature can be enhanced from 20.8% of conventional AlGaN QWs to 40.2% of staggered AlGaN QWs grown by MOCVD, which is in good agreement with the theoretical simulation. It suggests that polarization band engineering via staggered AlGaN QWs can be well applied in high efficiency AlGaN-based DUV LEDs. PMID:27505782

  6. Degree and plane of polarization of multiple scattered light. 2: Earth's atmosphere with aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plass, G. N.; Kattawar, G. W.

    1972-01-01

    The degree of polarization, as well as the direction of the plane of polarization, were calculated by a Monte Carlo method for the reflected and transmitted photons from the earth's atmosphere. The solar photons were observed during multiple collisions with aerosols and the Rayleigh scattering centers in the atmosphere. The aerosol number density, as well as the ratio of aerosol to Rayleigh scattering, varies with height. The proportion of aerosol to Rayleigh scattering was appropriately chosen at each wavelength 0.4 microns and 0.7 microns; ozone absorption was included where appropriate. Three different aerosol number densities were used to study the effects of aerosol variations. Results are given for a solar zenith angle of 81.37 deg and a surface albedo of zero. The polarization of the reflected and transmitted photons was found to be sensitive to the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere at certain angles of observation.

  7. Demonstration of integrated polarization rotator based on an asymmetric silicon waveguide with a trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yudeuk; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Moon-Hyeok; Lee, Min Hee; Yoo, Dong Eun; Kim, Ki Nam; Jeon, Sang Chul; Kim, Kyong Hon

    2016-09-01

    An integrated polarization rotator is demonstrated experimentally by forming a strip waveguide with an asymmetric trench on a silicon-on-insulator wafer. The trench is located asymmetrically in the strip waveguide. It induces the evolution of an orthogonal polarization mode upon a linearly polarized beam input, and thus causes polarization rotation. The device is fabricated using a conventional complementary metal oxide semiconductor process with a single dry etching step. The fabricated device shows a maximum transverse electric (TE)-to-transverse magnetic (TM) polarization conversion efficiency of 21.3 dB and an insertion loss of ‑0.95 dB at a 1550 nm wavelength with a device length of 67 μm. The device exhibits a polarization conversion efficiency and insertion loss of 21.1 dB and ‑2.12 dB, respectively, for the TM-to-TE polarization conversion. The optimum parameters for the waveguide size and trench size are investigated by performing numerical simulations, and by demonstrating experimental fabrication and measurement.

  8. Detection of polarization in the cosmic microwave background using DASI. Degree Angular Scale Interferometer.

    PubMed

    Kovac, J M; Leitch, E M; Pryke, C; Carlstrom, J E; Halverson, N W; Holzapfel, W L

    The past several years have seen the emergence of a standard cosmological model, in which small temperature differences in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation on angular scales of the order of a degree are understood to arise from acoustic oscillations in the hot plasma of the early Universe, arising from primordial density fluctuations. Within the context of this model, recent measurements of the temperature fluctuations have led to profound conclusions about the origin, evolution and composition of the Universe. Using the measured temperature fluctuations, the theoretical framework predicts the level of polarization of the CMB with essentially no free parameters. Therefore, a measurement of the polarization is a critical test of the theory and thus of the validity of the cosmological parameters derived from the CMB measurements. Here we report the detection of polarization of the CMB with the Degree Angular Scale Interferometer (DASI). The polarization is deteced with high confidence, and its level and spatial distribution are in excellent agreement with the predictions of the standard theory. PMID:12490941

  9. Fiber laser modelocked by nonlinear polarization rotation in a fiber loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzin, Evgueni A.; Ibarra-Escamilla, Baldeamr; Gomez-Garcia, D. E.; Haus, Joseph W.

    2002-07-01

    We present the experimental demonstration of a new fiber laser configuration based on the nonlinear optical loop mirror with a symmetrical coupler, and highly twisted low- birefringent fiber in the loop. The nonlinear optical loop mirror configuration operates by nonlinear polarization rotation.

  10. Rotation of the optical polarization plane for the blazar 4C +38.41

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panopoulou, G. V.; Maragkakis, G. M.; Xexakis, K.

    2016-08-01

    We report on the ongoing rotation of the optical polarization angle (R-band) seen in the monitored blazar 4C +38.41 (RA=16:35:15.5, DEC=38:08:05, J2000) as recorded within the framework of the RoboPol program.

  11. The rotation of scissioning nucleus considered trajectory calculations for ternary fission induced by cold polarized neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guseva, I.; Gusev, Yu.

    2009-10-01

    On the base of modified trajectory calculations the shift of angular distribution of α-particles accompanied the reaction 235U(n,f) induced by cold polarized neutrons is evaluated. It was supposed that angular distribution shift is caused by the rotation of nuclear system before scission. The orientation of a rotation motion is determined by the neutron spin polarization along and opposite to the beam direction. For the first time the estimation was done in the frame of trajectory calculations assuming the rotation motion of scissioning nucleus [1]. The result of the calculation is in a good agreement with experimental data of paper [2], where this new phenomenon was named as ROT-effect.

  12. Degree-scale Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization Measurements from Three Years of BICEP1 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkats, D.; Aikin, R.; Bischoff, C.; Buder, I.; Kaufman, J. P.; Keating, B. G.; Kovac, J. M.; Su, M.; Ade, P. A. R.; Battle, J. O.; Bierman, E. M.; Bock, J. J.; Chiang, H. C.; Dowell, C. D.; Duband, L.; Filippini, J.; Hivon, E. F.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hristov, V. V.; Jones, W. C.; Kuo, C. L.; Leitch, E. M.; Mason, P. V.; Matsumura, T.; Nguyen, H. T.; Ponthieu, N.; Pryke, C.; Richter, S.; Rocha, G.; Sheehy, C.; Kernasovskiy, S. S.; Takahashi, Y. D.; Tolan, J. E.; Yoon, K. W.

    2014-03-01

    BICEP1 is a millimeter-wavelength telescope designed specifically to measure the inflationary B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background at degree angular scales. We present results from an analysis of the data acquired during three seasons of observations at the South Pole (2006-2008). This work extends the two-year result published in Chiang et al., with additional data from the third season and relaxed detector-selection criteria. This analysis also introduces a more comprehensive estimation of band power window functions, improved likelihood estimation methods, and a new technique for deprojecting monopole temperature-to-polarization leakage that reduces this class of systematic uncertainty to a negligible level. We present maps of temperature, E- and B-mode polarization, and their associated angular power spectra. The improvement in the map noise level and polarization spectra error bars are consistent with the 52% increase in integration time relative to Chiang et al. We confirm both self-consistency of the polarization data and consistency with the two-year results. We measure the angular power spectra at 21 <= l <= 335 and find that the EE spectrum is consistent with Lambda cold dark matter cosmology, with the first acoustic peak of the EE spectrum now detected at 15σ. The BB spectrum remains consistent with zero. From B-modes only, we constrain the tensor-to-scalar ratio to r = 0.03^{+0.27}_{-0.23}, or r < 0.70 at 95% confidence level.

  13. Circular Polarizations of Gravitational Waves from Core-Collapse Supernovae: A Clear Indication of Rapid Rotation.

    PubMed

    Hayama, Kazuhiro; Kuroda, Takami; Nakamura, Ko; Yamada, Shoichi

    2016-04-15

    We propose to employ the circular polarization of gravitational waves emitted by core-collapse supernovae as an unequivocal indication of rapid rotation deep in their cores just prior to collapse. It has been demonstrated by three dimensional simulations that nonaxisymmetric accretion flows may develop spontaneously via hydrodynamical instabilities in the postbounce cores. It is not surprising, then, that the gravitational waves emitted by such fluid motions are circularly polarized. We show, in this Letter, that a network of the second generation detectors of gravitational waves worldwide may be able to detect such polarizations up to the opposite side of the Galaxy as long as the rotation period of the core is shorter than a few seconds prior to collapse. PMID:27127951

  14. Semiconductor sensor for optically measuring polarization rotation of optical wavefronts using rare earth iron garnets

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, Paul G.

    2002-01-01

    Described are the design of a rare earth iron garnet sensor element, optical methods of interrogating the sensor element, methods of coupling the optical sensor element to a waveguide, and an optical and electrical processing system for monitoring the polarization rotation of a linearly polarized wavefront undergoing external modulation due to magnetic field or electrical current fluctuation. The sensor element uses the Faraday effect, an intrinsic property of certain rare-earth iron garnet materials, to rotate the polarization state of light in the presence of a magnetic field. The sensor element may be coated with a thin-film mirror to effectively double the optical path length, providing twice the sensitivity for a given field strength or temperature change. A semiconductor sensor system using a rare earth iron garnet sensor element is described.

  15. Polarization singularities and orbital angular momentum sidebands from rotational symmetry broken by the Pockels effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiancong; Wu, Ziwen; Zhang, Wuhong; Chen, Lixiang

    2014-05-01

    The law of angular momentum conservation is naturally linked to the rotational symmetry of the involved system. Here we demonstrate theoretically how to break the rotational symmetry of a uniaxial crystal via the electro-optic Pockels effect. By numerical method based on asymptotic expansion, we discover the 3D structure of polarization singularities in terms of C lines and L surfaces embedded in the emerging light. We visualize the controllable dynamics evolution of polarization singularities when undergoing the Pockels effect, which behaves just like the binary fission of a prokaryotic cell, i.e., the splitting of C points and fission of L lines are animated in analogy with the cleavage of nucleus and division of cytoplasm. We reveal the connection of polarization singularity dynamics with the accompanying generation of orbital angular momentum sidebands. It is unexpected that although the total angular momentum of light is not conserved, the total topological index of C points is conserved.

  16. Polarization singularities and orbital angular momentum sidebands from rotational symmetry broken by the Pockels effect

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiancong; Wu, Ziwen; Zhang, Wuhong; Chen, Lixiang

    2014-01-01

    The law of angular momentum conservation is naturally linked to the rotational symmetry of the involved system. Here we demonstrate theoretically how to break the rotational symmetry of a uniaxial crystal via the electro-optic Pockels effect. By numerical method based on asymptotic expansion, we discover the 3D structure of polarization singularities in terms of C lines and L surfaces embedded in the emerging light. We visualize the controllable dynamics evolution of polarization singularities when undergoing the Pockels effect, which behaves just like the binary fission of a prokaryotic cell, i.e., the splitting of C points and fission of L lines are animated in analogy with the cleavage of nucleus and division of cytoplasm. We reveal the connection of polarization singularity dynamics with the accompanying generation of orbital angular momentum sidebands. It is unexpected that although the total angular momentum of light is not conserved, the total topological index of C points is conserved. PMID:24784778

  17. Polarization singularities and orbital angular momentum sidebands from rotational symmetry broken by the Pockels effect.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiancong; Wu, Ziwen; Zhang, Wuhong; Chen, Lixiang

    2014-01-01

    The law of angular momentum conservation is naturally linked to the rotational symmetry of the involved system. Here we demonstrate theoretically how to break the rotational symmetry of a uniaxial crystal via the electro-optic Pockels effect. By numerical method based on asymptotic expansion, we discover the 3D structure of polarization singularities in terms of C lines and L surfaces embedded in the emerging light. We visualize the controllable dynamics evolution of polarization singularities when undergoing the Pockels effect, which behaves just like the binary fission of a prokaryotic cell, i.e., the splitting of C points and fission of L lines are animated in analogy with the cleavage of nucleus and division of cytoplasm. We reveal the connection of polarization singularity dynamics with the accompanying generation of orbital angular momentum sidebands. It is unexpected that although the total angular momentum of light is not conserved, the total topological index of C points is conserved. PMID:24784778

  18. Circular Polarizations of Gravitational Waves from Core-Collapse Supernovae: A Clear Indication of Rapid Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayama, Kazuhiro; Kuroda, Takami; Nakamura, Ko; Yamada, Shoichi

    2016-04-01

    We propose to employ the circular polarization of gravitational waves emitted by core-collapse supernovae as an unequivocal indication of rapid rotation deep in their cores just prior to collapse. It has been demonstrated by three dimensional simulations that nonaxisymmetric accretion flows may develop spontaneously via hydrodynamical instabilities in the postbounce cores. It is not surprising, then, that the gravitational waves emitted by such fluid motions are circularly polarized. We show, in this Letter, that a network of the second generation detectors of gravitational waves worldwide may be able to detect such polarizations up to the opposite side of the Galaxy as long as the rotation period of the core is shorter than a few seconds prior to collapse.

  19. Self-calibration of BICEP1 three-year data and constraints on astrophysical polarization rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, J. P.; Miller, N. J.; Shimon, M.; Barkats, D.; Bischoff, C.; Buder, I.; Keating, B. G.; Kovac, J. M.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aikin, R.; Battle, J. O.; Bierman, E. M.; Bock, J. J.; Chiang, H. C.; Dowell, C. D.; Duband, L.; Filippini, J.; Hivon, E. F.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hristov, V. V.; Jones, W. C.; Kernasovskiy, S. S.; Kuo, C. L.; Leitch, E. M.; Mason, P. V.; Matsumura, T.; Nguyen, H. T.; Ponthieu, N.; Pryke, C.; Richter, S.; Rocha, G.; Sheehy, C.; Su, M.; Takahashi, Y. D.; Tolan, J. E.; Yoon, K. W.

    2014-03-01

    Cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarimeters aspire to measure the faint B-mode signature predicted to arise from inflationary gravitational waves. They also have the potential to constrain cosmic birefringence, rotation of the polarization of the CMB arising from parity-violating physics, which would produce nonzero expectation values for the CMB's temperature to B-mode correlation (TB) and E-mode to B-mode correlation (EB) spectra. However, instrumental systematic effects can also cause these TB and EB correlations to be nonzero. In particular, an overall miscalibration of the polarization orientation of the detectors produces TB and EB spectra which are degenerate with isotropic cosmological birefringence, while also introducing a small but predictable bias on the BB spectrum. We find that Bicep1 three-year spectra, which use our standard calibration of detector polarization angles from a dielectric sheet, are consistent with a polarization rotation of α =-2.77°±0.86°(statistical)±1.3°(systematic). We have revised the estimate of systematic error on the polarization rotation angle from the two-year analysis by comparing multiple calibration methods. We also account for the (negligible) impact of measured beam systematic effects. We investigate the polarization rotation for the Bicep1 100 GHz and 150 GHz bands separately to investigate theoretical models that produce frequency-dependent cosmic birefringence. We find no evidence in the data supporting either of these models or Faraday rotation of the CMB polarization by the Milky Way galaxy's magnetic field. If we assume that there is no cosmic birefringence, we can use the TB and EB spectra to calibrate detector polarization orientations, thus reducing bias of the cosmological B-mode spectrum from leaked E-modes due to possible polarization orientation miscalibration. After applying this "self-calibration" process, we find that the upper limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio decreases slightly, from r<0

  20. High-Frequency Dynamic Nuclear Polarization in the Nuclear Rotating Frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrar, C. T.; Hall, D. A.; Gerfen, G. J.; Rosay, M.; Ardenkjær-Larsen, J.-H.; Griffin, R. G.

    2000-05-01

    A proton dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) NMR signal enhancement (ɛ) close to thermal equilibrium, ɛ = 0.89, has been obtained at high field (B0 = 5 T, νepr = 139.5 GHz) using 15 mM trityl radical in a 40:60 water/glycerol frozen solution at 11 K. The electron-nuclear polarization transfer is performed in the nuclear rotating frame with microwave irradiation during a nuclear spin-lock pulse. The growth of the signal enhancement is governed by the rotating frame nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time (T1ρ), which is four orders of magnitude shorter than the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time (T1n). Due to the rapid polarization transfer in the nuclear rotating frame the experiment can be recycled at a rate of 1/T1ρ and is not limited by the much slower lab frame nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate (1/T1n). The increased repetition rate allowed in the nuclear rotating frame provides an effective enhancement per unit time1/2 of ɛt = 197. The nuclear rotating frame-DNP experiment does not require high microwave power; significant signal enhancements were obtained with a low-power (20 mW) Gunn diode microwave source and no microwave resonant structure. The symmetric trityl radical used as the polarization source is water-soluble and has a narrow EPR linewidth of 10 G at 139.5 GHz making it an ideal polarization source for high-field DNP/NMR studies of biological systems.

  1. Omni-directional and holonomic rolling platform with decoupled rotational and translational degrees of freedom

    DOEpatents

    Pin, Francois G.; Killough, Stephen M.

    1994-01-01

    A wheel assembly includes a support, a cage rotatably mounted on the support and having a longitudinal rotation axis, a first ball wheel rotatably mounted in the cage and having a rotation axis orthogonal to the rotation axis of the cage, and a second ball wheel rotatably mounted in the cage and having a rotation axis orthogonal to the rotation axis or the cage and to the rotation axis of the first ball wheel. A control circuit includes a photodetector signal which indicates ground contact for each ball wheel, and a tachometer which indicates actual drive shaft velocity.

  2. Omni-directional and holonomic rolling platform with decoupled rotational and translational degrees of freedom

    DOEpatents

    Pin, F.G.; Killough, S.M.

    1994-12-20

    A wheel assembly includes a support, a cage rotatably mounted on the support and having a longitudinal rotation axis, a first ball wheel rotatably mounted in the cage and having a rotation axis orthogonal to the rotation axis of the cage, and a second ball wheel rotatably mounted in the cage and having a rotation axis orthogonal to the rotation axis or the cage and to the rotation axis of the first ball wheel. A control circuit includes a photodetector signal which indicates ground contact for each ball wheel, and a tachometer which indicates actual drive shaft velocity. 6 figures.

  3. Design of polarization rotators in TE-TM mode conversion optical isolator with Ce:YIG guiding layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Yukihiro; Tamura, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Kouya; Yokoi, Hideki

    2015-09-01

    An optical isolator with a (CeY)3Fe5O12 guiding layer employing TE-TM mode conversion was investigated. The optical isolator consisted of a nonreciprocal polarization rotator and a reciprocal polarization rotator. The reciprocal polarization rotator was realized by inserting a polyimide half-wave plate into a groove in the magnetooptic waveguide. Propagation distances required for the nonreciprocal polarization rotator were calculated at a wavelength of 1.55 µm. Diffraction loss due to the insertion of the half-wave plate was also calculated. The reciprocal polarization rotator integrated with a spot-size converter was proposed for suppressing the diffraction loss. By introducing the spot-size converter for an input facet and an output facet of the half-wave plate, a calculated total insertion loss was reduced to 0.22 dB.

  4. Polarized fluorescence photobleaching recovery for measuring rotational diffusion in solutions and membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Velez, M; Axelrod, D

    1988-01-01

    A variation of fluorescence photobleaching recovery (FPR) suitable for measuring the rate of rotational molecular diffusion in solution and cell membranes is presented in theory and experimental practice for epi-illumination microscopy. In this technique, a brief flash of polarized laser light creates an anisotropic distribution of unbleached fluorophores which relaxes by rotational diffusion, leading to a time-dependent postbleach fluorescence. Polarized FPR (PFPR) is applicable to any time scales from seconds to microseconds. However, at fast (microsecond) time scales, a partial recovery independent of molecular orientation tends to obscure rotational effects. The theory here presents a method for overcoming this reversible photobleaching, and includes explicit results for practical geometries, fast wobble of fluorophores, and arbitrary bleaching depth. This variation of a polarized luminescence "pump-and-probe" technique is compared with prior ones and with "pump-only" time-resolved luminescence anisotropy decay methods. The technique is experimentally verified on small latex beads with a variety of diameters, common fluorophore labels, and solvent viscosities. Preliminary measurements on a protein (acetylcholine receptor) in the membrane of nondeoxygenated cells in live culture (rat myotubes) show a difference in rotational diffusion between clustered and nonclustered receptors. In most experiments, signal averaging, high laser power, and automated sample translation must be employed to achieve adequate statistical accuracy. PMID:3382712

  5. Evaluation of polarization rotation in the scattering responses from individual semiconducting oxide nanorods

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Daniel S.; Singh, Manpreet; Zhou, Hebing; Milchak, Marissa; Monahan, Brian; Hahm, Jong-in

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the interaction of visible light with the solid matters of semiconducting oxide nanorods (NRs) of zinc oxide (ZnO), indium tin oxide (ITO), and zinc tin oxide (ZTO) at the single nanomaterial level. We subsequently identify an intriguing, material-dependent phenomenon of optical rotation in the electric field oscillation direction of the scattered light by systematically controlling the wavelength and polarization direction of the incident light, the NR tilt angle, and the analyzer angle. This polarization rotation effect in the scattered light is repeatedly observed from the chemically pure and highly crystalline ZnO NRs, but absent on the chemically doped NR variants of ITO and ZTO under all measurement circumstances. We further elucidate that the phenomenon of polarization rotation detected from single ZnO NRs is affected by the NR tilt angle, while the phenomenon itself occurs irrespective of the wavelength and incident polarization direction of the visible light. Combined with the widespread optical and optoelectronic use of the semiconducting oxide nanomaterials, these efforts may provide much warranted fundamental bases to tailor material-specific, single nanomaterial-driven, optically modulating functionalities which, in turn, can be beneficial for the realization of high-performance integrated photonic circuits and miniaturized bio-optical sensing devices. PMID:27158560

  6. Evaluation of polarization rotation in the scattering responses from individual semiconducting oxide nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Daniel S.; Singh, Manpreet; Zhou, Hebing; Milchak, Marissa; Monahan, Brian; Hahm, Jong-in

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the interaction of visible light with the solid matters of semiconducting oxide nanorods (NRs) of zinc oxide (ZnO), indium tin oxide (ITO), and zinc tin oxide (ZTO) at the single nanomaterial level. We subsequently identify an intriguing, material-dependent phenomenon of optical rotation in the electric field oscillation direction of the scattered light by systematically controlling the wavelength and polarization direction of the incident light, the NR tilt angle, and the analyzer angle. This polarization rotation effect in the scattered light is repeatedly observed from the chemically pure and highly crystalline ZnO NRs, but absent on the chemically doped NR variants of ITO and ZTO under all measurement circumstances. We further elucidate that the phenomenon of polarization rotation detected from single ZnO NRs is affected by the NR tilt angle, while the phenomenon itself occurs irrespective of the wavelength and incident polarization direction of the visible light. Combined with the widespread optical and optoelectronic use of the semiconducting oxide nanomaterials, these efforts may provide much warranted fundamental bases to tailor material-specific, single nanomaterial-driven, optically modulating functionalities which, in turn, can be beneficial for the realization of high-performance integrated photonic circuits and miniaturized bio-optical sensing devices.

  7. Design of 45-degree Linearly Polarized Substrate Integrated Waveguide-fed Slot Array Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qingfeng; Lu, Yilong

    2008-11-01

    This paper presents a method of designing substrate integrated waveguide-fed (SIW-fed) slot array antennas. The design theory is based on the circuit model of slot and via as well as the reflection canceling. To prove the feasibility of this method, a 10-element K-band SIW-fed 45-degree linearly polarized slot array antenna with uniform power distribution is designed. By full-wave simulation, the antenna has a good impedance bandwidth of 7.5% and uniform power distribution. Besides, a maximum gain of 15.3dBi is obtained in the broadside and the cross polarization is suppressed below -23.5dB in the boresight. This type of SIW-fed slot array antennas can be a good candidate for microwave and millimeter-wave applications, especially for auto-motive collision-avoidance radar systems.

  8. Degradation in the degree of polarization in human retinal nerve fiber layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Biwei; Wang, Bingqing; Rylander, Henry G.; Milner, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Using a fiber-based swept-source (SS) polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) system, we investigate the degree of polarization (DOP) of light backscattered from the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in normal human subjects. Algorithms for processing data were developed to analyze the deviation in phase retardation and intensity of backscattered light in directions parallel and perpendicular to the nerve fiber axis (fast and slow axes of RNFL). Considering superior, inferior, and nasal quadrants, we observe the strongest degradation in the DOP with increasing RNFL depth in the temporal quadrant. Retinal ganglion cell axons in normal human subjects are known to have the smallest diameter in the temporal quadrant, and the greater degradation observed in the DOP suggests that higher polarimetric noise may be associated with neural structure in the temporal RNFL. The association between depth degradation in the DOP and RNFL structural properties may broaden the utility of PS-OCT as a functional imaging technique.

  9. Earth rotation and polar motion from laser ranging to the moon and artificial satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aardoom, L.

    1978-01-01

    Earth-based laser ranging to artificial satellites and to the moon is considered as a technique for monitoring the Earth's polar motion and diurnal rotation. The kinematics of Earth rotation as related to laser ranging is outlined. The current status of laser ranging as regards its measuring capabilities is reviewed. The relative merits of artificial satellite and lunar laser ranging are pointed out. It appears that multistation combined artificial satellite and lunar laser ranging is likely to ultimately meet a 0.002 arcseconds in pole position and 0.1 msec in UT1 daily precision requirement.

  10. Polarized Electronic Absorption Spectrum at 300 Degree K and 77 Degree K: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, L. W.; Wong, K.

    1979-01-01

    This experiment demonstrates the polarization properties of the transition moment, vibronic activity in an excited state, cyrogenic techniques, crystal site splitting, and the use of mixed crystals. (BB)

  11. Deterministic Polarization Entanglement Purification of Cluster State in Multiple Degrees of Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhisheng; Guo, Ying; Shi, Ronghua; Huang, Dazu

    2015-04-01

    We propose a deterministic polarization entanglement purification protocol (EPP) towards four-photon Cluster state, resorting to linear optic technology and multiple degrees of freedom (DOF). All of the participants can jointedly distill the maximally entangled states from the mixed states after transmission through a noisy channel with success probability 100 % in principle. The proposed protocol can be employed for the purification of any other multi-partite maximally entangled states, such as the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state and W state, which is actually an universally feasible entanglement purification scheme towards multi-photon entanglement system.

  12. Degree-scale cosmic microwave background polarization measurements from three years of BICEP1 data

    SciTech Connect

    Barkats, D.; Aikin, R.; Bock, J. J.; Filippini, J.; Hristov, V. V.; Bischoff, C.; Buder, I.; Kovac, J. M.; Kaufman, J. P.; Keating, B. G.; Bierman, E. M.; Su, M.; Ade, P. A. R.; Battle, J. O.; Dowell, C. D.; Chiang, H. C.; Duband, L.; Hivon, E. F.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Jones, W. C.; and others

    2014-03-10

    BICEP1 is a millimeter-wavelength telescope designed specifically to measure the inflationary B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background at degree angular scales. We present results from an analysis of the data acquired during three seasons of observations at the South Pole (2006-2008). This work extends the two-year result published in Chiang et al., with additional data from the third season and relaxed detector-selection criteria. This analysis also introduces a more comprehensive estimation of band power window functions, improved likelihood estimation methods, and a new technique for deprojecting monopole temperature-to-polarization leakage that reduces this class of systematic uncertainty to a negligible level. We present maps of temperature, E- and B-mode polarization, and their associated angular power spectra. The improvement in the map noise level and polarization spectra error bars are consistent with the 52% increase in integration time relative to Chiang et al. We confirm both self-consistency of the polarization data and consistency with the two-year results. We measure the angular power spectra at 21 ≤ ℓ ≤ 335 and find that the EE spectrum is consistent with Lambda cold dark matter cosmology, with the first acoustic peak of the EE spectrum now detected at 15σ. The BB spectrum remains consistent with zero. From B-modes only, we constrain the tensor-to-scalar ratio to r=0.03{sub −0.23}{sup +0.27}, or r < 0.70 at 95% confidence level.

  13. Algal fluorescence: impact and potential for retrieval from measurements of the underwater degree of polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, S.; Tonizzo, A.; Ibrahim, A.; Gilerson, A.; Gross, B.; Moshary, F.

    2012-09-01

    Algorithms for retrieving inherent optical properties (IOPs) in coastal waters from remote sensing of water leaving reflectance spectra, are increasingly focused on red and near infrared (NIR) spectral bands, since the simple blue - green ratio approaches, valid in open oceans, fail when in coastal waters with strongly scattering inorganic particles and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). NIR spectra can however be significantly impacted by overlapping chlorophyll a fluorescence, and considerable progress has been made to quantify its contribution, and hence achieve more accurate [Chl] retrievals. Recently we have been studying multiangular hyperspectral polarization characteristics of underwater scattered light, using our recently developed Stokes vector polarimeter to fully measure Stokes parameters. From these studies, information on IOPs, in particular the characteristics of non - algal particles (NAP), which are the primary source of underwater polarized elastic scattering, can be obtained. Multiangular hyperspectral polarization measurements, combined with those of IOPs collected in eutrophic waters of Chesapeake/Virginia and New York Harbor/Hudson River areas, showed that chlorophyll a fluorescence markedly impacts (reduces) the underwater degree of polarization (DOP) in the 650 - 700 nm spectral region. By noting the unpolarized nature of algal fluorescence and the partially polarized properties of elastic scattering, we are able to separate the chlorophyll a fluorescence signal from the total reflectance. The analysis is based on comparisons of experimental measurements with vector/scalar radiative transfer computations using measured IOPs as inputs. Relationships between change in observed DOP and fluorescence contributions are examined, and the possibility of using DOP measurements for underwater fluorescence retrieval is evaluated for different scattering geometries.

  14. Polarization Rotation and Circular Dichroism Near the Potassium D2 Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conover, Charles; Thiha, Htet; Dahnke, Jennifer

    2010-03-01

    We have experimentally measured the Faraday rotation and the differential absorption of the two circular polarizations for light tuned near the D2 line in potassium (766.7 nm). In particular we have explored the vapor temperature and magnetic field dependence of the frequency of the zero crossings of the lineshapes from the circular analyzer and the balanced polarimeter used in the measurements. These signals are routinely used as frequency references for laser locking and we discuss the sensitivity to experimental parameters.

  15. The dynamics of plus end polarization and microtubule assembly during Xenopus cortical rotation.

    PubMed

    Olson, David J; Oh, Denise; Houston, Douglas W

    2015-05-15

    The self-organization of dorsally-directed microtubules during cortical rotation in the Xenopus egg is essential for dorsal axis formation. The mechanisms controlling this process have been problematic to analyze, owing to difficulties in visualizing microtubules in living egg. Also, the order of events occurring at the onset of cortical rotation have not been satisfactorily visualized in vivo and have been inferred from staged fixed samples. To address these issues, we have characterized the dynamics of total microtubule and plus end behavior continuously throughout cortical rotation, as well as in oocytes and unfertilized eggs. Here, we show that the nascent microtubule network forms in the cortex but associates with the deep cytoplasm at the start of rotation. Importantly, plus ends remain cortical and become increasingly more numerous and active prior to rotation, with dorsal polarization occurring rapidly after the onset of rotation. Additionally, we show that vegetally localized Trim36 is required to attenuate dynamic plus end growth, suggesting that vegetal factors are needed to locally coordinate growth in the cortex. PMID:25753733

  16. Digital Beam Steering Device Based on Decoupled Birefringent Prism Deflector and Polarization Rotator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pishnyak, Oleg; Kreminska, Lyubov; Laventovich, Oleg D.; Pouch, John J.; Miranda, Felix A.; Winker, Bruce K.

    2004-01-01

    We describe digital beam deflectors (DBDs) based on liquid crystals. Each stage of the device comprises a polarization rotator and a birefringent prism deflector. The birefringent prism deflects the beam by an angle that depends on polarization of the incident beam. The prism can be made of the uniaxial smectic A (SmA) liquid crystal (LC) or a solid crystal such as yttrium orthovanadate (YVO4). SmA prisms have high birefringence and can be constructed in a variety of shapes, including single prisms and prismatic blazed gratings of different angles and profiles. We address the challenges of uniform alignment of SmA, such as elimination of focal conic domains. Rotation of linear polarization is achieved by an electrically switched twisted nematic (TN) cell. A DBD composed of N rotator-deflector pairs steers the beam into 2(sup N) directions. As an example, we describe a four-stage DBD deflecting normally incident laser beam within the range of +/- 56 mrad with 8 mrad steps. Redirection of the beam is achieved by switching the TN cells.

  17. Rotation measure synthesis study and polarized properties of PSR J1745-2900 at 7 mm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravchenko, E. V.; Cotton, W. D.; Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Kovalev, Y. Y.

    2016-06-01

    We present results of interferometric polarization observations of the recently discovered magnetar J1745-2900 in the vicinity of the Galactic Centre. The observations were made with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) on 2014 February 21 in the range 40-48 GHz. The full polarization mode and A configuration of the array were used. The average total and linearly polarized flux density of the pulsar amounts to 2.3 ± 0.31 and 1.5 ± 0.2 mJy beam-1, respectively. Analysis shows a rotation measure (RM) of (-67 ± 3) × 103 rad m-2, which is in good agreement with previous measurements at longer wavelengths. These high-frequency observations are sensitive to RM values of up to ˜2 × 107 rad m-2. However, application of the Faraday RM synthesis technique did not reveal other significant RM components in the pulsar emission. This supports an external nature of a single thin Faraday-rotating screen which should be located close to the Galactic Centre. The Faraday-corrected intrinsic electric vector position angle is 16 ± 9 deg east of north, and coincides with the position angle of the pulsar's transverse velocity. All measurements of the pulsar's RM value to date, including the one presented here, well agree within errors, which points towards a steady nature of the Faraday-rotating medium.

  18. Polarization rotator of arbitrary angle based on simple slot-array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoming; Cao, Xiaohang; Yu, Junsheng; Chen, Xiaodong; Yao, Yuan; Qi, Limei; Chen, Zhijiao; Zhou, Jun

    2015-12-01

    A novel polarization rotator of arbitrary angle was proposed and realized based on simple slot arrays. To achieve the rotation of an arbitrary angle α, the slots on the first layer have to be at an angle of α to the slots on the second layer. Consequently, 90° rotation can be realized using two perpendicularly oriented slot arrays, which overturns the conventional notion of that perpendicular slot arrays are not possible to pass electromagnetic wave. In addition, such structure provides the same bandwidth comparing to its counterpart utilized for frequency selective surface (FSS). Furthermore, such structure is much easier to be fabricated compared to the substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) array. Moreover, low insertion loss can be achieved based on metallic material.

  19. Renormalized vacuum polarization on rotating warped AdS3 black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Hugo R. C.; Louko, Jorma

    2015-01-01

    We compute the renormalized vacuum polarization of a massive scalar field in the Hartle-Hawking state on (2 +1 )-dimensional rotating, spacelike stretched black hole solutions to topologically massive gravity, surrounded by a Dirichlet mirror that makes the state well defined. The Feynman propagator is written as a mode sum on the complex Riemannian section of the spacetime, and a Hadamard renormalization procedure is implemented by matching to a mode sum on the complex Riemannian section of a rotating Minkowski spacetime. No analytic continuation in the angular momentum parameter is invoked. Selected numerical results are given, demonstrating the numerical efficacy of the method. We anticipate that this method can be extended to wider classes of rotating black hole spacetimes, in particular to the Kerr spacetime in four dimensions.

  20. VCSEL-powered and polarization-maintaining fiber-optic grating vector rotation sensor.

    PubMed

    Guo, Tuan; Liu, Fu; Du, Fa; Zhang, Zhaochuan; Li, Chunjie; Guan, Bai-Ou; Albert, Jacques

    2013-08-12

    A compact fiber-optic vector rotation sensor in which a short section of polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber stub containing a straight fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is spliced to another single mode fiber without any lateral offset is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Due to the intrinsic birefringence of the PM fiber, two well-defined resonances (i.e. orthogonally polarized FBG core modes) with wavelength separation of 0.5 nm have been achieved in reflection, and they exhibit a high sensitivity to fiber rotation. Both the orientation and the angle of rotation can be determined unambiguously via simple power detection of the relative amplitudes of the orthogonal core reflections. Meanwhile, instead of using a broadband source (BBS), the sensor is powered by a commercial vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) with the laser wavelength matched to the PM-FBG core modes, which enables the sensor to work at much higher power levels (~15 dB better than BBS). This improves the signal-to-noise ratio considerably (~50 dB), and makes a demodulation filter unnecessary. Vector rotation measurement with a sensitivity of 0.09 dB/deg has been achieved via cost-effective single detector real time power measurement, and the unwanted power fluctuations and temperature perturbations can be effectively referenced out. PMID:23938824

  1. Rotating-frame perspective on high-order-harmonic generation of circularly polarized light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reich, Daniel M.; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2016-04-01

    We employ a rotating frame of reference to elucidate high-order-harmonic generation of circularly polarized light by bicircular driving fields. In particular, we show how the experimentally observed circular components of the high-order-harmonic spectrum can be directly related to the corresponding quantities in the rotating frame. Supported by numerical simulations of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, we deduce an optimal strategy for maximizing the cutoff in the high-order-harmonic plateau while keeping the two circular components of the emitted light spectrally distinct. Moreover, we show how the rotating-frame picture can be more generally employed for elliptical drivers. Finally, we point out how circular and elliptical driving fields show a near-duality to static electric and magnetic fields in a rotating-frame description. This demonstrates how high-order-harmonic generation of circularly polarized light under static electromagnetic fields can be emulated in practice even at static field strengths beyond current experimental capabilities.

  2. SCIENTIFIC VERIFICATION OF FARADAY ROTATION MODULATORS: DETECTION OF DIFFUSE POLARIZED GALACTIC EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Moyerman, S.; Bierman, E.; Kaufman, J.; Keating, B. G.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aiken, R.; Hristov, V. V.; Jones, W. C.; Mason, P. V.; Barkats, D.; Bischoff, C.; Kovac, J. M.; Bock, J. J.; Dowell, C. D.; Chiang, H. C.; Duband, L.; Hivon, E. F.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Kuo, C. L.; Leitch, E. M.; and others

    2013-03-01

    The design and performance of a wide bandwidth linear polarization modulator based on the Faraday effect is described. Faraday Rotation Modulators (FRMs) are solid-state polarization switches that are capable of modulation up to 10 kHz. Six FRMs were utilized during the 2006 observing season in the Background Imaging of Cosmic Extragalactic Polarization (BICEP) experiment; three FRMs were used at each of BICEP's 100 and 150 GHz frequency bands. The technology was verified through high signal-to-noise detection of Galactic polarization using two of the six FRMs during four observing runs in 2006. The features exhibit strong agreement with BICEP's measurements of the Galaxy using non-FRM pixels and with the Galactic polarization models. This marks the first detection of high signal-to-noise mm-wave celestial polarization using fast, active optical modulation. The performance of the FRMs during periods when they were not modulated was also analyzed and compared to results from BICEP's 43 pixels without FRMs.

  3. Error motion compensating tracking interferometer for the position measurement of objects with rotational degree of freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holler, Mirko; Raabe, Jörg

    2015-05-01

    The nonaxial interferometric position measurement of rotating objects can be performed by imaging the laser beam of the interferometer to a rotating mirror which can be a sphere or a cylinder. This, however, requires such rotating mirrors to be centered on the axis of rotation as a wobble would result in loss of the interference signal. We present a tracking-type interferometer that performs such measurement in a general case where the rotating mirror may wobble on the axis of rotation, or even where the axis of rotation may be translating in space. Aside from tracking, meaning to measure and follow the position of the rotating mirror, the interferometric measurement errors induced by the tracking motion of the interferometer itself are optically compensated, preserving nanometric measurement accuracy. As an example, we show the application of this interferometer in a scanning x-ray tomography instrument.

  4. Rotatable spin-polarized electron source for inverse-photoemission experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Stolwijk, S. D. Wortelen, H.; Schmidt, A. B.; Donath, M.

    2014-01-15

    We present a ROtatable Spin-polarized Electron source (ROSE) for the use in spin- and angle-resolved inverse-photoemission (SR-IPE) experiments. A key feature of the ROSE is a variable direction of the transversal electron beam polarization. As a result, the inverse-photoemission experiment becomes sensitive to two orthogonal in-plane polarization directions, and, for nonnormal electron incidence, to the out-of-plane polarization component. We characterize the ROSE and test its performance on the basis of SR-IPE experiments. Measurements on magnetized Ni films on W(110) serve as a reference to demonstrate the variable spin sensitivity. Moreover, investigations of the unoccupied spin-dependent surface electronic structure of Tl/Si(111) highlight the capability to analyze complex phenomena like spin rotations in momentum space. Essentially, the ROSE opens the way to further studies on complex spin-dependent effects in the field of surface magnetism and spin-orbit interaction at surfaces.

  5. ROTATIONAL VARIABILITY OF EARTH'S POLAR REGIONS: IMPLICATIONS FOR DETECTING SNOWBALL PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Robinson, Tyler; Agol, Eric; Meadows, Victoria S.; Shields, Aomawa L.; Livengood, Timothy A.; Deming, Drake; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Wellnitz, Dennis D.; Charbonneau, David; Lisse, Carey M.

    2011-04-10

    We have obtained the first time-resolved, disk-integrated observations of Earth's poles with the Deep Impact spacecraft as part of the EPOXI mission of opportunity. These data mimic what we will see when we point next-generation space telescopes at nearby exoplanets. We use principal component analysis (PCA) and rotational light curve inversion to characterize color inhomogeneities and map their spatial distribution from these unusual vantage points, as a complement to the equatorial views presented by Cowan et al. in 2009. We also perform the same PCA on a suite of simulated rotational multi-band light curves from NASA's Virtual Planetary Laboratory three-dimensional spectral Earth model. This numerical experiment allows us to understand what sorts of surface features PCA can robustly identify. We find that the EPOXI polar observations have similar broadband colors as the equatorial Earth, but with 20%-30% greater apparent albedo. This is because the polar observations are most sensitive to mid-latitudes, which tend to be more cloudy than the equatorial latitudes emphasized by the original EPOXI Earth observations. The cloudiness of the mid-latitudes also manifests itself in the form of increased variability at short wavelengths in the polar observations and as a dominant gray eigencolor in the south polar observation. We construct a simple reflectance model for a snowball Earth. By construction, our model has a higher Bond albedo than the modern Earth; its surface albedo is so high that Rayleigh scattering does not noticeably affect its spectrum. The rotational color variations occur at short wavelengths due to the large contrast between glacier ice and bare land in those wavebands. Thus, we find that both the broadband colors and diurnal color variations of such a planet would be easily distinguishable from the modern-day Earth, regardless of viewing angle.

  6. Rotational Variability of Earth's Polar Regions: Implications for Detecting Snowball Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Robinson, Tyler; Livengood, Timothy A.; Deming, Drake; Agol, Eric; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Charbonneau, David; Lisse, Carey M.; Meadows, Victoria S.; Seager, Sara; Shields, Aomawa L.; Wellnitz, Dennis D.

    2011-04-01

    We have obtained the first time-resolved, disk-integrated observations of Earth's poles with the Deep Impact spacecraft as part of the EPOXI mission of opportunity. These data mimic what we will see when we point next-generation space telescopes at nearby exoplanets. We use principal component analysis (PCA) and rotational light curve inversion to characterize color inhomogeneities and map their spatial distribution from these unusual vantage points, as a complement to the equatorial views presented by Cowan et al. in 2009. We also perform the same PCA on a suite of simulated rotational multi-band light curves from NASA's Virtual Planetary Laboratory three-dimensional spectral Earth model. This numerical experiment allows us to understand what sorts of surface features PCA can robustly identify. We find that the EPOXI polar observations have similar broadband colors as the equatorial Earth, but with 20%-30% greater apparent albedo. This is because the polar observations are most sensitive to mid-latitudes, which tend to be more cloudy than the equatorial latitudes emphasized by the original EPOXI Earth observations. The cloudiness of the mid-latitudes also manifests itself in the form of increased variability at short wavelengths in the polar observations and as a dominant gray eigencolor in the south polar observation. We construct a simple reflectance model for a snowball Earth. By construction, our model has a higher Bond albedo than the modern Earth; its surface albedo is so high that Rayleigh scattering does not noticeably affect its spectrum. The rotational color variations occur at short wavelengths due to the large contrast between glacier ice and bare land in those wavebands. Thus, we find that both the broadband colors and diurnal color variations of such a planet would be easily distinguishable from the modern-day Earth, regardless of viewing angle.

  7. Polarization rotator based on augmented low-index-guiding waveguide on silicon nitride/silicon-on-insulator platform.

    PubMed

    Sun, X; Alam, M Z; Aitchison, J S; Mojahedi, M

    2016-07-15

    Using a newly proposed augmented low-index-guiding scheme with silicon nitride/silicon dual-core waveguide, we have designed, fabricated, and characterized a transverse electric (TE) to transverse magnetic (TM) and TM-to-TE compact polarization rotator. The polarization rotation is realized in an asymmetric directional coupler. The measured peak conversion efficiencies for the TE-to-TM and TM-to-TE rotations are approximately 97%. The measured polarization extinction ratio for the TE-to-TM rotation is greater than 20 dB over 50-nm bandwidth, while for the TM-to-TE rotation it is greater than 15 dB over the C-band. PMID:27420502

  8. New kind of polarotaxis governed by degree of polarization: attraction of tabanid flies to differently polarizing host animals and water surfaces.

    PubMed

    Egri, Ádám; Blahó, Miklós; Sándor, András; Kriska, György; Gyurkovszky, Mónika; Farkas, Róbert; Horváth, Gábor

    2012-05-01

    Aquatic insects find their habitat from a remote distance by means of horizontal polarization of light reflected from the water surface. This kind of positive polarotaxis is governed by the horizontal direction of polarization (E-vector). Tabanid flies also detect water by this kind of polarotaxis. The host choice of blood-sucking female tabanids is partly governed by the linear polarization of light reflected from the host's coat. Since the coat-reflected light is not always horizontally polarized, host finding by female tabanids may be different from the established horizontal E-vector polarotaxis. To reveal the optical cue of the former polarotaxis, we performed choice experiments in the field with tabanid flies using aerial and ground-based visual targets with different degrees and directions of polarization. We observed a new kind of polarotaxis being governed by the degree of polarization rather than the E-vector direction of reflected light. We show here that female and male tabanids use polarotaxis governed by the horizontal E-vector to find water, while polarotaxis based on the degree of polarization serves host finding by female tabanids. As a practical by-product of our studies, we explain the enigmatic attractiveness of shiny black spheres used in canopy traps to catch tabanids. PMID:22580753

  9. New kind of polarotaxis governed by degree of polarization: attraction of tabanid flies to differently polarizing host animals and water surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egri, Ádám; Blahó, Miklós; Sándor, András; Kriska, György; Gyurkovszky, Mónika; Farkas, Róbert; Horváth, Gábor

    2012-05-01

    Aquatic insects find their habitat from a remote distance by means of horizontal polarization of light reflected from the water surface. This kind of positive polarotaxis is governed by the horizontal direction of polarization (E-vector). Tabanid flies also detect water by this kind of polarotaxis. The host choice of blood-sucking female tabanids is partly governed by the linear polarization of light reflected from the host's coat. Since the coat-reflected light is not always horizontally polarized, host finding by female tabanids may be different from the established horizontal E-vector polarotaxis. To reveal the optical cue of the former polarotaxis, we performed choice experiments in the field with tabanid flies using aerial and ground-based visual targets with different degrees and directions of polarization. We observed a new kind of polarotaxis being governed by the degree of polarization rather than the E-vector direction of reflected light. We show here that female and male tabanids use polarotaxis governed by the horizontal E-vector to find water, while polarotaxis based on the degree of polarization serves host finding by female tabanids. As a practical by-product of our studies, we explain the enigmatic attractiveness of shiny black spheres used in canopy traps to catch tabanids.

  10. Mode-evolution-based polarization rotator-splitter design via simple fabrication process.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wangqing; Kojima, Keisuke; Wang, Bingnan; Koike-Akino, Toshiaki; Parsons, Kieran; Nishikawa, Satoshi; Yagyu, Eiji

    2012-04-23

    A mode-evolution-based polarization rotator-splitter built on InP substrate is proposed by combining a mode converter and an adiabatic asymmetric Y-coupler. The mode converter, consisting of a bi-level taper and a width taper, effectively converts the fundamental TM mode into the second order TE mode without changing the polarization of the fundamental TE mode. The following adiabatic asymmetric Y-coupler splits the fundamental and the second order TE modes and also converts the second order TE mode into the fundamental TE mode. A shallow etched structure is proposed for the width taper to enhance the polarization conversion efficiency. The device has a total length of 1350 µm, a polarization extinction ratio over 25 dB and an insertion loss below 0.5 dB both for TE and TM modes, over the wavelength range from 1528 to 1612 nm covering all C + L band. Because the device is designed based on mode evolution principle, it has a large fabrication tolerance. The insertion loss remains below 1 dB and the polarization extinction ratio remains over 17 dB with respect to a width variation of +/- 0.12 µm at the wavelength of 1570 nm, or +/- 0.08 µm over the entire C + L band. PMID:22535107

  11. Stable multi-wavelength fiber laser based on a compounded nonlinear polarization rotation effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Hui; Lou, Shuqin; Ma, Jianli; Su, Wei; Han, Bolin; Shen, Xiao

    2014-11-01

    A stable multi-wavelength polarization-maintaining erbium-doped fiber (PM-EDF) laser with high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) based on a compounded nonlinear polarization rotation effect (CNPRE) is proposed and demonstrated. In order to effectively reduce homogeneous broadening of EDF and then to the alleviate mode competition, two sandwich configurations formed by a polarization dependent isolator (PDI) or a segment of single-mode fiber sandwiched between two polarization controllers (PC), are introduced into the ring cavity to generate the CNPRE. A home-made asymmetry twin-core fiber (ATCF) is also incorporated in the ring cavity as a comb filter. With only 150 mW pump power, there are up to 45-wavelengths lasing with the approximate amplitude in a 3 dB bandwidth generated at room temperature. The wavelength spacing between the adjacent peaks is 0.29 nm and the highest SNRs reach 41.5 dB by optimizing the state of polarization of PCs. The power fluctuation and wavelength shift for each lasing wavelength are less than 0.05 dB and 0.02 nm, respectively. This indicates that the proposed multi-wavelength fiber laser can be stably operated at room temperature.

  12. Angular momentum transfer and polarization degree of ions with one-valence electron by electron impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akita, Kenichi; Kai, Takeshi; Nakazaki, Shinobu; Igarashi, Akinori

    2009-04-01

    We carry out the R-matrix calculations for electron-impact excitations of ions with one valence electron. The integral cross sections and polarization degree are obtained for the excitation process from the ground state to the first 2P° state of Li2+, B2+ and Al2+ as functions of electron incident energy. The differential cross sections and angular momentum transfer are also shown at non-resonant low-energy points. As for the angular momentum transfer (L⊥) at small scattering angles, they are negative for B2+ and Al2+, while it is positive for Li2+. Thus L⊥ of doubly charged ions with one-valence electron is not simple.

  13. Where are the BTZ black hole degrees of freedom? The rotating case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Joseph M.

    2016-07-01

    Recent work has shown that the entropy of the non-rotating BTZ black hole can be derived from a dual conformal description at any spatial location. In this followup it is shown that a dual conformal description exists at any spatial location for the rotating BTZ black hole as well. As in the non-rotating case, two copies of the central charge {c}+/- =3{\\ell }/2G are recovered and the microcanonical Cardy formula yields the correct Bekenstein–Hawking entropy.

  14. Triaxial Earth's rotation: Chandler wobble, free core nutation and diurnal polar motion (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, R.; Shen, W.-B.

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we formulate two-layered triaxial Earth rotation theory, focusing on the influence of the triaxiality on the Chandler wobble (CW), free core nutation (FCN) and diurnal polar motion. We estimate the frequencies of the normal modes CW and FCN, and results show that though the influence of two-layer triaxiality on the CW and FCN frequencies are very small, there appear some new natures. The response of the Earth's polar motion to the excitation consists of two parts. One is in response to the same frequency excitation and the other is in response to the opposite frequency excitation. For an Earth model with triaxial mantle and core, both of these two parts have four resonant frequencies rather than two that are suggested by rotational symmetric Earth model. However, due to the small strength of these new resonances, the effects of these resonances are only significant when the excitation frequencies are very near to these resonance frequencies. In addition, compared to the biaxial case, the influences of the triaxiality on the prograde and retrograde diurnal polar motions excited by ocean tide component K1 are estimated as - 1.4 μas and - 0.9 μas respectively, which should be taken into account in theory. This study is supported by National 973 Project China (grant No. 2013CB733305), NSFC (grant Nos. 41174011, 41210006, 41128003, 41021061).

  15. In-line polarization rotator based on the quantum-optical analogy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Qu, Ke-Nan; Shen, Heng; Zhang, Wei-Gang; Chou, Keng C; Liu, Qian; Yan, Tie-Yi; Wang, Biao; Wang, Song

    2016-05-01

    An in-line polarization rotator (PR) is proposed based on the quantum-optical analogy (QOA). The proposed PR possesses an auxiliary E7 liquid crystal (LC) waveguide in the vicinity of the single-mode fiber (SMF) core. Because of the matched core size, the PR demonstrates good compatibility with the established backbone networks which are composed of conventional SMFs. With optimized parameters for the auxiliary waveguide, the PR offers a near 100% polarization conversion efficiency at the 1550 nm band with a bandwidth of ∼30  nm, a length of ∼4625.9  μm with a large tolerance of ∼550  μm, and a tolerance of the input light polarization angle and rotation angle of the E7 LC of ∼π/30 and ∼π/36  rad, respectively. The performance was verified by the full-vector finite-element method. The proposed PR can be easily fabricated based on the existing photonics crystal fiber manufacturing process, making it a potentially inexpensive device for applications in modern communication systems. Moreover, the QOA, compared with the previous supermode-theory design method, allows a designer to consider several waveguides separately. Therefore, various unique characteristics can be met simultaneously which is consistent with the trend of modern fiber design. PMID:27128087

  16. Realization of Hadamard, Pauli-X and rotation gate for polarization-encoded qubits on chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilmann, Rene; Graefe, Markus; Nolte, Stefan; Szameit, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    The implementation of quantum operations in photonic devices plays a central role towards quantum computing, as light is a logical choice when low decoherence and stability is of interest. Particular interest is thereby given to polarization-encoded photonic qubits on chip that are superior in terms of stability and size. However, to date waveguide-based modulating polarization states was beyond technological capabilities, preventing from the implementation of universal quantum computing algorithms on chip. In our work we close this gap and present integrated Hadamard, Pauli-X and rotation gates of high fidelity for photonic polarization qubits by employing a reorientation of the birefringent waveguide's optical axis. To this end, we employ laser-written waveguides and use several of their unique features. Due to the impact of an artificial stress field created by an additional defect close to the waveguide, its optical axis is rotated. Further on, by adjusting the length of the defect, the retardation between ordinary and extraordinary field components is precisely tunable including half-wave plate and quarter-wave plate operations. A theoretical treatment as well as characterization of the implemented gates by classical and quantum light are presented.

  17. Inducing self-rotation of cells with natural and artificial melanin in a linearly polarized alternating current electric field

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Mengxing; Ki Cheung, Wing; Liang, Wenfeng; Mai, John D.; Keung Liu, Wing; Jung Li, Wen

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon of self-rotation observed in naturally and artificially pigmented cells under an applied linearly polarized alternating current (non-rotating) electrical field has been investigated. The repeatable and controllable rotation speeds of the cells were quantified and their dependence on dielectrophoretic parameters such as frequency, voltage, and waveform was studied. Moreover, the rotation behavior of the pigmented cells with different melanin content was compared to quantify the correlation between self-rotation and the presence of melanin. Most importantly, macrophages, which did not originally rotate in the applied non-rotating electric field, began to exhibit self-rotation that was very similar to that of the pigmented cells, after ingesting foreign particles (e.g., synthetic melanin or latex beads). We envision the discovery presented in this paper will enable the development of a rapid, non-intrusive, and automated process to obtain the electrical conductivities and permittivities of cellular membrane and cytoplasm in the near future. PMID:24404075

  18. Polarization rotator-splitters and controllers in a Si3N4-on-SOI integrated photonics platform.

    PubMed

    Sacher, Wesley D; Huang, Ying; Ding, Liang; Barwicz, Tymon; Mikkelsen, Jared C; Taylor, Benjamin J F; Lo, Guo-Qiang; Poon, Joyce K S

    2014-05-01

    We demonstrate novel polarization management devices in a custom-designed silicon nitride (Si(3)N(4)) on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) integrated photonics platform. In the platform, Si(3)N(4) waveguides are defined atop silicon waveguides. A broadband polarization rotator-splitter using a TM0-TE1 mode converter in a composite Si(3)N(4)-silicon waveguide is demonstrated. The polarization crosstalk, insertion loss, and polarization dependent loss are less than -19 dB, 1.5 dB, and 1.0 dB, respectively, over a bandwidth of 80 nm. A polarization controller composed of polarization rotator-splitters, multimode interference couplers, and thin film heaters is also demonstrated. PMID:24921814

  19. Polar studies of the sphericity degree of V/HTR nuclear fuel particles

    SciTech Connect

    Robert-Inacio, F. . E-mail: frederique.robert@isen.fr; Boschet, C.; Charollais, F.

    2006-06-15

    Advanced nuclear power reactor designs such as (Very) High Temperature Reactors (V/HTR) employ TRISO fuel particles that typically have a sub-millimetre U-based fuel kernel coated with three isotropic ceramic layers-a layer of silicon carbide sandwiched between pyrocarbon layers of different density. Evaluation of the ceramic layer thickness and of the degree of sphericity of these typical nuclear fuel particles is required at each step of the fabrication, in order to estimate future fuel performance under irradiation conditions. This study is based on the image processing of polished cross-sections, realized near the equatorial plane. From these 2D images, some measurements are carried out, giving an estimation of the diameter values for a sample of particles at each step of the coating process. These values are then statistically extended to the third dimension in order to obtain the thickness of each layer and the degree of sphericity of each particle. A representation of diameter and layer thickness in polar coordinates enables one to identify steps for which the coating process is defective or deviating from nominal objectives.

  20. New Atmospheric and Oceanic Angular Momentum Datasets for Predictions of Earth Rotation/Polar Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salstein, D. A.; Stamatakos, N.

    2014-12-01

    We are reviewing the state of the art in available datasets for both atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) and oceanic angular momentum (OAM) for the purposes of analysis and prediction of both polar motion and length of day series. Both analyses and forecasts of these quantities have been used separately and in combination to aid in short and medium range predictions of Earth rotation parameters. The AAM and OAM combination, with the possible addition of hydrospheric angular momentum can form a proxy index for the Earth rotation parameters themselves due to the conservation of angular momentum in the Earth system. Such a combination of angular momentum of the geophysical fluids has helped in forecasts within periods up to about 10 days, due to the dynamic models, and together with extended statistical predictions of Earth rotation parameters out even as far as 90 days, according to Dill et al. (2013). We assess other dataset combinations that can be used in such analysis and prediction efforts for the Earth rotation parameters, and demonstrate the corresponding skill levels in doing so.

  1. Photonic crystal fiber polarization rotator based on the topological Zeeman effect.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Zhang, Wei-Gang; Yan, Tie-Yi; Wang, Li; Sieg, Jonathan; Wang, Biao; Zhou, Quan; Zhang, Li-Yu

    2015-08-01

    A photonic crystal fiber polarization rotator (PR) is proposed based on the topological Zeeman effect. The proposed PR is achieved by permanently twisting a segment of sixfold symmetric photonic crystal fiber with a matched length, and under the optimized parameters, the PR can offer an almost 100% polarization conversion ratio in the wavelength of 1.55-μm band (∼200  nm bandwidth) and a compact length of about 157 μm based on the numerical simulation result of the full-vector finite-element method. The proposed in-line PCF PR can be easily fabricated based on state-of-art PCF manufacturing, and it is a potential inexpensive candidate in the application of modern communication systems. PMID:26258329

  2. Quasiequilibrium nonlinearities in Faraday and Kerr rotation from spin-polarized carriers in GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshua, Arjun; Venkataraman, V.

    2010-01-01

    Semiconductor Bloch equations (SBEs), which microscopically describe optical properties in terms of the dynamics of a Coulomb interacting, spin-unpolarized electron-hole plasma, can be solved in two limits: the coherent and the quasiequilibrium regimes. Recently, Nemec et al. [1] reported circularly polarized pump-probe absorption spectra in the quasiequilibrium regime for carrier spin-polarized bulk GaAs at room temperature, which lacked a suitable microscopic theoretical understanding. We have very recently explained their results by solving the spin-SBEs in the quasiequilibrium regime (spin-Bethe-Salpeter equation), and accounted for spin-dependent mechanisms of optical nonlinearity [2]. Here, we extend our theory to the microscopic calculation of Kerr and Faraday rotation in the quasiequilibrium regime, for which there are no experimental or theoretical results available.

  3. Evaluation of diseased coronary arterial branches by polar representations of thallium-201 rotational myocardial imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Iino, T.; Toyosaki, N.; Katsuki, T.; Noda, T.; Natsume, T.; Yaginuma, T.; Hosoda, S.; Furuse, M.

    1987-09-01

    The perfusion territories in polar representations of stress Tl-201 rotational myocardial imaging in patients with angina pectoris who had one diseased coronary segment were analyzed. The lesions proximal or distal to the first major septal perforator in left anterior descending arteries were detected by the presence or absence of defects at the base of the anterior septum. Right coronary artery lesions were detected by the presence of defects at the basal posterior septum, in contrast to the preservation of myocardial uptake at this portion in lesions of the left circumflex artery. The specific defect patterns were detected in cases with lesions at the first diagonal, obtuse marginal, and posterolateral branches. Recognition of these defects in the polar maps allows detailed detection of diseased coronary arterial branches.

  4. Vector carrier frequency by interfering the kth harmonic of two rulings rotated polarly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meneses-Fabian, Cruz; Kantun-Montiel, Rosaura; Lemus-Alonso, Gildardo-Pablo

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a method for introducing carrier fringes inclined at any angle into an interferogram. The setup is built on a 4f optical system consisting of two apertures in the input plane and a Ronchi ruling in the Fourier plane. Additionally, a Ronchi ruling rotated on polar direction is placed at each aperture and two passband filters are placed in the Fourier plane for filtering the kth harmonic of their spectra. We demonstrated that the magnitude and direction of the vector carrier frequency depend on the grating period at the input plane, the polar angles, and the kth harmonic, which gives this method the ability to modulate its magnitude only, or its direction only, or both in a wide range. The theoretical model and experimental results are shown in this paper.

  5. Anomalous incident-angle and elliptical-polarization rotation of an elastically refracted P-wave

    PubMed Central

    Fa, Lin; Fa, Yuxiao; Zhang, Yandong; Ding, Pengfei; Gong, Jiamin; Li, Guohui; Li, Lijun; Tang, Shaojie; Zhao, Meishan

    2015-01-01

    We report a newly discovered anomalous incident-angle of an elastically refracted P-wave, arising from a P-wave impinging on an interface between two VTI media with strong anisotropy. This anomalous incident-angle is found to be located in the post-critical incident-angle region corresponding to a refracted P-wave. Invoking Snell’s law for a refracted P-wave provides two distinctive solutions before and after the anomalous incident-angle. For an inhomogeneously refracted and elliptically polarized P-wave at the anomalous incident-angle, its rotational direction experiences an acute variation, from left-hand elliptical to right-hand elliptical polarization. The new findings provide us an enhanced understanding of acoustical-wave scattering and lead potentially to widespread and novel applications. PMID:26244284

  6. Reconstruction of polar magnetic field from single axis tomography of Faraday rotation in plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Flacco, A.; Rax, J.-M.; Malka, V.

    2012-10-15

    An integral back-transform has been developed to retrieve the polar magnetic component in a cylindrically symmetric plasma from a single projection. The formula is derived from parallel forward Radon transform (Abel transform) of a source-free vector field. Two numerical schemes are proposed to solve the backward transform. These schemes have been tested successfully with predefined plasma parameters. The practical application to the analysis of experimental Faraday rotation measurements is also presented, leading to the reconstruction of the transverse profile of the magnetic field.

  7. High frequency optical pulse generation by frequency doubling using polarization rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we propose and experimentally characterize a stable 40 GHz optical pulse generation by frequency doubling using polarization rotation in a phase modulator (PM). Only half the electrical driving frequency is required (i.e. 20 GHz); hence the deployment cost can be reduced. Besides, precise control of the bias of the PM is not required. The generated optical pulses have a high center-mode-suppression-ratio (CMSR) of  >  28 dB. The single sideband (SSB) noise spectrum is also measured, and the time-domain waveforms under different CMSRs are also analyzed and discussed.

  8. Analysis of High-Speed Rotating Flow in 2D Polar (r - θ)Coordinate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, S.

    2016-03-01

    The generalized analytical model for the radial boundary layer in a high-speed rotating cylinder is formulated for studying the gas flow field due to insertion of mass, momentum and energy into the rotating cylinder in the polar (r - θ) plane. The analytical solution includes the sixth order differential equation for the radial boundary layer at the cylindrical curved surface in terms of master potential (χ) , which is derived from the equations of motion in a polar (r - θ) plane. The linearization approximation (Wood & Morton, J. Fluid Mech-1980; Pradhan & Kumaran, J. Fluid Mech-2011; Kumaran & Pradhan, J. Fluid Mech-2014) is used, where the equations of motion are truncated at linear order in the velocity and pressure disturbances to the base flow, which is a solid-body rotation. Additional assumptions in the analytical model include constant temperature in the base state (isothermal condition), and high Reynolds number, but there is no limitation on the stratification parameter. In this limit, the gas flow is restricted to a boundary layer of thickness (Re (1 / 3) R) at the wall of the cylinder. Here, the stratification parameter A = √ ((mΩ 2R2) / (2kB T)) . This parameter Ais the ratio of the peripheral speed, ΩR , to the most probable molecular speed, √(2 k_B T/m), the Reynolds number Re = (ρ _w ΩR2 / μ) , where m is the molecular mass, Ω and R are the rotational speed and radius of the cylinder, k_B is the Boltzmann constant, T is the gas temperature, ρ_w is the gas density at wall, and μ is the gas viscosity. The analytical solutions are then compared with direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) simulations.

  9. INTEGRATED POLARIZATION OF SOURCES AT {lambda} {approx} 1 m AND NEW ROTATION MEASURE AMBIGUITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Farnsworth, Damon; Rudnick, Lawrence; Brown, Shea

    2011-06-15

    We present an analysis of the polarization of compact radio sources from six pointings of the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope at 350 MHz with 35% coverage in {lambda}{sup 2}. After correcting for the off-axis instrumental polarization with a simple analytical model, only a small number of 585 strong sources have significant polarizations at these wavelengths. The median depolarization ratio from 1.4 GHz for the strongest sources is <0.2, reinforcing the likelihood that radio galaxies are found in magnetized environments, even outside of rich clusters. Seven sources with significant 350 MHz polarization were selected for a more in-depth Faraday structure analysis. We fit the observed values Q/I and U/I as a function of {lambda}{sup 2} using both a depolarizing screen and two-component models. We also performed rotation measure (RM) Synthesis/Clean and standard fitting of polarization angle versus {lambda}{sup 2}. We find that a single RM, as found using polarization angle fitting or simple screen models, commonly provides a poor fit when the solutions are translated back into Q, U space. Thus, although a single 'characteristic' RM may be found using these techniques, the Faraday structure of the source may not be adequately represented. We also demonstrate that RM Synthesis may yield an erroneous Faraday structure in the presence of multiple, interfering RM components, even when cleaning of the Faraday spectrum is performed. We briefly explore the conditions under which RMs and Faraday structure results can be reliable. Many measurements in the literature do not meet these criteria; we discuss how these influence the resulting scientific conclusions and offer a prescription for obtaining reliable RMs.

  10. Mode-locked fiber laser using the Sagnac interferometer and the nonlinear polarization rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra-Escamilla, Baldeamr; Kuzin, Evgueni A.; Haus, Joseph W.; Pottiez, Olivier; Gomez-Garcia, Dario E.; Gutierrez-Zainos, Francisco; Mendoza-Vazquez, Sergio; Grajales-Coutico, Ruben

    2003-07-01

    In figure-eight lasers (F8L) mode locking is achieved through a nonlinear fiber amplifier loop mirror (NALM) or an asymmetrical nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM). Recently, we have theoretically shown that the symmetrical NOLM with a twisted fiber is useful for passive mode locking of fiber lasers. In this work we experimentally demonstrate the operation of a F8L based on the symmetrical NOLM with a twisted low-birefringence fiber in the loop. The modelocking operation is achieved by nonlinear polarization rotation. We found that the counter-propagating beams accumulate a differential nonlinear phase shift when they have different As (where As is the Stokes parameter). At the input NOLM, we used a polarizer controller to adjust the clockwise beam to be circularly polarized, As=1. In the loop of the NOLM, we used a quarter-wave retarder to transform the counter-clockwise beam to linear polarization, As=0. The quarter-wave retarder was the only element that we adjust to achieve modelocking. The pulse repetition frequency was 0.8 MHz. The FWHM of the autocorrelation function was 0.7 ps. We used a pump power of 80 mW to get the modelocking operation. The modelocked laser ran in stable operation for hours. Even in this first experiments the laser shown several advantages. The adjustment procedure was straightforward. The laser shows stable operation and exhibits high pulse energy. We achieved stable generation of subpicosecond pulses with milliwatts of average output power.

  11. NMR Properties of the Polar Phase of Superfluid ^3He in Anisotropic Aerogel Under Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mineev, V. P.

    2016-09-01

    The polar phase of superfluid ^3He is stable in "nematically ordered" densed aerogel. A rotating vessel with the polar superfluid can be filled either by an array of the single quantum vortices or by an array of the half-quantum vortices. It is shown that the inhomogeneous distribution of the spin part of the order parameter arising in an array of half-quantum vortices in strong enough magnetic field tilted to the average direction of aerogel strands leads to the appearance of a satellite in the NMR signal shifted in the negative direction with respect to the Larmor frequency. The satellite is absent in the case of an array of single quantum vortices which allows to distinguish these two configurations. The polar state in the anisotropic aerogel with lower density transforms at lower temperatures to the axipolar state. The array of half-quantum vortices created in the polar phase keeps its structure under transition to the axipolar state. The temperature dependence of the vortex-satellite NMR frequency is found to be slower below the transition temperature to the axipolar state.

  12. Polar octahedral rotations, cation displacement and ferroelectricity in multiferroic SmCrO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, A.; Dey, K.; Chakraborty, M.; Majumdar, S.; Giri, S.

    2014-08-01

    Our thorough synchrotron diffraction studies provide a clue on the origin of ferroelectricity in SmCrO3. Careful observation demonstrates that polar order develops in the paramagnetic state. Rietveld refinement of the diffraction data confirms that emergence of polar order is correlated with the structural transformation from centrosymmetric Pbnm to non-centrosymmetric Pna21 space group of the distorted orthorhombic structure. Rotations of polar CrO6 octahedra and Sm displacement are proposed to be correlated with the emergence of polar order, which is extended over a wide temperature range and increases gradually with decreasing temperature. This is consistent with the relaxor behavior as evident from the frequency-dependent dielectric response satisfying the Vogel-Fulcher law. A non-collinear to collinear spin transformation is suggested well below the spin reorientation transition. Appearance of ferroelectricity without any correlation to the antiferromagnetic order in SmCrO3 suggests a new class of ferroelectricity. All-electron full-potential first-principles calculation demonstrates significant Sm-Cr hybridization near the Fermi level, which substantiates the experimental findings.

  13. NMR Properties of the Polar Phase of Superfluid ^3 He in Anisotropic Aerogel Under Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mineev, V. P.

    2016-04-01

    The polar phase of superfluid ^3 He is stable in "nematically ordered" densed aerogel. A rotating vessel with the polar superfluid can be filled either by an array of the single quantum vortices or by an array of the half-quantum vortices. It is shown that the inhomogeneous distribution of the spin part of the order parameter arising in an array of half-quantum vortices in strong enough magnetic field tilted to the average direction of aerogel strands leads to the appearance of a satellite in the NMR signal shifted in the negative direction with respect to the Larmor frequency. The satellite is absent in the case of an array of single quantum vortices which allows to distinguish these two configurations. The polar state in the anisotropic aerogel with lower density transforms at lower temperatures to the axipolar state. The array of half-quantum vortices created in the polar phase keeps its structure under transition to the axipolar state. The temperature dependence of the vortex-satellite NMR frequency is found to be slower below the transition temperature to the axipolar state.

  14. Polarity mechanisms such as contact inhibition of locomotion regulate persistent rotational motion of mammalian cells on micropatterns

    PubMed Central

    Camley, Brian A.; Zhang, Yunsong; Zhao, Yanxiang; Li, Bo; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Levine, Herbert; Rappel, Wouter-Jan

    2014-01-01

    Pairs of endothelial cells on adhesive micropatterns rotate persistently, but pairs of fibroblasts do not; coherent rotation is present in normal mammary acini and kidney cells but absent in cancerous cells. Why? To answer this question, we develop a computational model of pairs of mammalian cells on adhesive micropatterns using a phase field method and study the conditions under which persistent rotational motion (PRM) emerges. Our model couples the shape of the cell, the cell’s internal chemical polarity, and interactions between cells such as volume exclusion and adhesion. We show that PRM can emerge from this minimal model and that the cell-cell interface may be influenced by the nucleus. We study the effect of various cell polarity mechanisms on rotational motion, including contact inhibition of locomotion, neighbor alignment, and velocity alignment, where cells align their polarity to their velocity. These polarity mechanisms strongly regulate PRM: Small differences in polarity mechanisms can create significant differences in collective rotation. We argue that the existence or absence of rotation under confinement may lead to insight into the cell’s methods for coordinating collective cell motility. PMID:25258412

  15. Effect of molecular anisotropy on the intensity and degree of polarization of light scattered from model atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahethi, O. P.; Fraser, R. S.

    1975-01-01

    Computations of the intensity, flux, degree of polarization, and the positions of neutral points are presented for models of the terrestrial gaseous and hazy atmospheres by incorporating the molecular anisotropy due to air in the Rayleigh scattering optical thickness and phase matrix. Molecular anisotropy causes significant changes in the intensity, flux and the degree of polarization of the scattered light. The positions of neutral points do not change significantly. When the Rayleigh scattering optical thickness is kept constant and the molecular anisotropy factor is included only in the Rayleigh phase matrix, the flux does not change and the intensity and positions of neutron points change by a small amount. The changes in the degree of polarization are still significant.

  16. Subnanosecond polarized fluorescence photobleaching: rotational diffusion of acetylcholine receptors on developing muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Y; Axelrod, D

    1995-01-01

    Polarized fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (PFRAP) is a technique for measuring the rate of rotational motion of biomolecules on living, nondeoxygenated cells with characteristic times previously ranging from milliseconds to many seconds. Although very broad, that time range excludes the possibility of quantitatively observing freely rotating membrane protein monomers that typically should have a characteristic decay time of only several microseconds. This report describes an extension of the PFRAP technique to a much shorter time scale. With this new system, PFRAP experiments can be conducted with sample time as short as 0.4 microseconds and detection of possible characteristic times of less than 2 microseconds. The system is tested on rhodamine-alpha-bungarotoxin-labeled acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) on myotubes grown in primary cultures of embryonic rat muscle, in both endogenously clustered and nonclustered regions of AChR distribution. It is found that approximately 40% of the AChRs in nonclustered regions undergoes rotational diffusion fast enough to possibly arise from unrestricted monomer Brownian motion. The AChRs in clusters, on the other hand, are almost immobile. The effects of rat embryonic brain extract (which contains AChR aggregating factors) on the myotube AChR were also examined by the fast PFRAP system. Brain extract is known to abolish the presence of endogenous clusters and to induce the formation of new clusters. It is found here that rotational diffusion of AChR in the extract-induced clusters is as slow as that in endogenous clusters on untreated cells but that rotational diffusion in the nonclustered regions of extract-treated myotubes remains rapid. Images FIGURE 3 PMID:8527682

  17. Determination of polar motion and earth rotation from laser tracking of satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. E.; Kolenkiewicz, R.; Dunn, P. J.; Torrence, M.

    1979-01-01

    Laser tracking of the Lageos spacecraft has been used to derive the position of the earth's pole of rotation at intervals during October, November and December 1976. The estimated precision of the results is 0.01 to 0.02 arcseconds in both x and y components, although the formal uncertainty is an order of magnitude better, and there is general agreement with the Bureau International de l'Heure smoothed pole path to about 0.02 arcseconds. Present orbit determination capability of Lageos is limited to about 25 cm rms fit to data over periods of 5 days and about 50 cm over 50 days. The present major sources of error in the perturbations of Lageos are earth and ocean tides followed by the earth's gravity field, and solar and earth reflected radiation pressure. Ultimate accuracy for polar motion and earth rotation from Lageos after improved modeling of the perturbing forces appears to be of order + or - 5 cm for polar motion over a period of about one day and about + or - 0.2 to + or - 0.3 milliseconds in UT for periods up to 2 or 3 months.

  18. Mode-evolution-based polarization rotation and coupling between silicon and hybrid plasmonic waveguides

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangsik; Qi, Minghao

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid plasmonic (HP) modes allow strong optical field confinement and simultaneously low propagation loss, offering a potentially compact and efficient platform for on-chip photonic applications. However, their implementation is hampered by the low coupling efficiency between dielectric guided modes and HP modes, caused by mode mismatch and polarization difference. In this work, we present a mode-evolution-based polarization rotation and coupling structure that adiabatically rotates the TE mode in a silicon waveguide and couples it to the HP mode in a strip silicon-dielectric-metal waveguide. Simulation shows that high coupling factors of 92%, 78%, 75%, and 73% are achievable using Ag, Au, Al, and Cu as the metal cap, respectively, at a conversion length of about 5 μm. For an extremely broad wavelength range of 1300–1800 nm, the coupling factor is >64% with a Ag metal cap, and the total back-reflection power, including all the mode reflections and backscattering, is below −40 dB, due to the adiabatic mode transition. Our device does not require high-resolution lithography and is tolerant to fabrication variations and imperfections. These attributes together make our device suitable for optical transport systems spanning all telecommunication bands. PMID:26680655

  19. Effect of molecular anisotropy on the intensity and degree of polarization of light scattered from model atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahethi, O. P.; Fraser, R. S.

    1980-01-01

    Computations of the properties of sunlight scattered from models of the earth-atmosphere system are presented to show the effect of molecular anisotropy on the intensity, flux, and degree of polarization of the scattered light. The values of these parameters change significantly when the anisotropy factor is neglected in the molecular optical thickness and scattering phase matrix. However, if the Rayleigh scattering optical thickness is kept constant and the molecular anisotropy factor is included only in the Rayleigh phase matrix, the flux does not change, the intensity changes by a small amount, but the changes in the degree of polarization are still significant.

  20. {100}<100> or 45.degree.-rotated {100}<100>, semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, Amit

    2012-05-15

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, {100}<100> or 45.degree.-rotated {100}<100> oriented, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  1. Blastomeres show differential fate changes in 8-cell Xenopus laevis embryos that are rotated 90 degrees before first cleavage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, S.; Johnson, K. E.; Wang, H. Z.

    1998-01-01

    To study the mechanisms of dorsal axis specification, the alteration in dorsal cell fate of cleavage stage blastomeres in axis-respecified Xenopus laevis embryos was investigated. Fertilized eggs were rotated 90 degrees with the sperm entry point up or down with respect to the gravitational field. At the 8-cell stage, blastomeres were injected with the lineage tracers, Texas Red- or FITC-Dextran Amines. The distribution of the labeled progeny was mapped at the tail-bud stages (stages 35-38) and compared with the fate map of an 8-cell embryo raised in a normal orientation. As in the normal embryos, each blastomere in the rotated embryos has a characteristic and predictable cell fate. After 90 degrees rotation the blastomeres in the 8-cell stage embryo roughly switched their position by 90 degrees, but the fate of the blastomeres did not simply show a 90 degrees switch appropriate for their new location. Four types of fate change were observed: (i) the normal fate of the blastomere is conserved with little change; (ii) the normal fate is completely changed and a new fate is adopted according to the blastomere's new position: (iii) the normal fate is completely changed, but the new fate is not appropriate for its new position; and (4) the blastomere partially changed its fate and the new fate is a combination of its original fate and a fate appropriate to its new location. According to the changed fates, the blastomeres that adopt dorsal fates were identified in rotated embryos. This identification of dorsal blastomeres provides basic important information for further study of dorsal signaling in Xenopus embryos.

  2. Polar cap models of gamma-ray pulsars: Emision from single poles of nearly aligned rotators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, Joseph K.; Harding, Alice K.

    1994-01-01

    We compare a new Monte Carlo simulation of polar cap models for gamma-ray pulsars with observations of sources detected above 10 MeV by the Compton Observatory (CGRO). We find that for models in which the inclination of the magnetic axis is comparable to the angular radius of the polar cap, the radiation from a single cap may exhibit a pusle with either a single broad peak as in PSR 1706-44 and PSR 1055-52, or a doubly peaked profile comparable to those observed from the Crab, Vela and Geminga pulsars. In general, double pulses are seen by observers whose line of sight penetrates into the cap interior and are due to enhanced emission near the rim. For cascades induced by culvature radiation, increased rim emission occurs even when electrons are accelerated over the entire cap, since electrons from the interior escape along magnetic field lines with less curvature and hence emit less radiation. However, we obtain better fits to the duty cycles of observed profiles if we make the empirical assumption that acceleration occurs only near the rim. In either case, the model energy spectra are consistent with most of the observed sources. The beaming factors expected from nearly aligned rotators, based on standard estimates for the cap radius, imply that their luminosities need not be as large as in the case of orthogonal rotators. However, small beam angles are also a difficutly with this model because they imply low detection probablities. In either case the polar cap radius is a critical factor, and in this context we point out that plasma loading of the field lines should make the caps larger than the usual estimates based on pure dipole fields.

  3. Correlated polarization switching in the proximity of a 180 degrees domain wall

    SciTech Connect

    Aravind, Vasudeva Rao; Morozovska, A. N.; Bhattacharya, S.; Lee, Dongwa; Jesse, Stephen; Grinberg, I; Li, Y L; Choudhury, S; Wu, P; Seal, Katyayani; Rappe, Andrew M; Rar, Andrei; Svechnikov, S. V.; Eliseev, Eugene; Phillpot, S. R.; Chen, L. Q.; Gopalana, V.; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2010-01-01

    Domain-wall dynamics in ferroic materials underpins functionality of data storage and information technology devices. Using localized electric field of a scanning probe microscopy tip, we experimentally demonstrate a surprisingly rich range of polarization reversal behaviors in the vicinity of the initially flat 180 degrees ferroelectric domain wall. The nucleation bias is found to increase by an order of magnitude from a two-dimensional (2D) nucleus at the wall to three-dimensional nucleus in the bulk. The wall is thus significantly ferroelectrically softer than the bulk. The wall profoundly affects switching on length scales on the order of micrometers. The mechanism of correlated switching is analyzed using analytical theory and phase-field modeling. The long-range effect is ascribed to wall bending under the influence of a tip with bias that is well below the bulk nucleation level at large distances from the wall. These studies provide an experimental link between the macroscopic and mesoscopic physics of domain walls in ferroelectrics and atomistic models of 2D nucleation.

  4. CMOS-compatible polarization rotator design based on asymmetrical periodic loaded waveguide structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yao; Ye, Winnie N.

    2016-03-01

    Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology has been a promising platform for photonic applications. However, the high index-contrast between silicon and the top cladding (SiO2 or air) of the SOI waveguides makes the modal birefringence hard to control. Consequently, SOI based photonics integrated circuits (PICs) are in general highly polarization-sensitive, making polarization management important. In this paper, a polarization rotator (PR) design on the 220 nm SOI platform is demonstrated through numerical simulations and experiments. The demonstrated PR design is based on asymmetrical periodic loaded waveguide structures. The demonstrated design features compact device footprint and can be fabricated by CMOS compatible process. In addition, no special cladding is required to break the vertical symmetry of the waveguide. The design has shown promising performance over the C-band wavelengths (1530 nm-1565 nm) by simulations. However, the fabrication requirements are stringent for the design, thus the performance of the fabricated devices are limited by the current fabrication technology.

  5. The polarization electric field and its effects in an anisotropic rotating magnetospheric plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, T. S.; Birmingham, T. J.

    1992-01-01

    Spatial variations of density and temperature along a magnetic field line are evaluated for a plasma undergoing adiabatic motion in a rotating magnetosphere. The effects of centrifugal and gravitational forces are accounted for, as is anisotropy in the pitch angle distribution functions of individual species. A polarization electric field is invoked to eliminate the net electric charge density resulting from the aforementioned mass dependent forces and different anisotropies. The position of maximum density in a two-component, electron-ion plasma is determined both in the absence and in the presence of the polarization effect and compared. A scale height, generalized to include anisotropies, is derived for the density fall-off. The polarization electric field is also included in the parallel guiding center equation; equilibrium points are determined and compared in both individual and average senses with the position of density maximum. Finally a transverse (to magnetic field lines) electric component is deduced as a consequence of dissimilar charge neutralization on adjacent field lines. The E x B velocity resultant from such a 'fringing' electric field is calculated and compared with the magnitude of other drifts.

  6. Climatic impact of glacial cycle polar motion: Coupled oscillations of ice sheet mass and rotation pole position

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bills, Bruce G.; James, Thomas S.; Mengel, John G.

    1999-01-01

    Precessional motion of Earth's rotation axis relative to its orbit is a well-known source of long-period climatic variation. It is less well appreciated that growth and decay of polar ice sheets perturb the symmetry of the global mass distribution enough that the geographic location of the rotation axis will change by at least 15 km and possibly as much as 100 km during a single glacial cycle. This motion of the pole will change the seasonal and latitudinal pattern of temperatures. We present calculations, based on a diurnal average energy balance, which compare the summer and winter temperature anomalies due to a 1° decrease in obliquity with those due to a 1° motion of the rotation pole toward Hudson Bay. Both effects result in peak temperature perturbations of about 1° Celsius. The obliquity change primarily influences the amplitude of the seasonal cycle, while the polar motion primarily changes the annual mean temperatures. The polar motion induced temperature anomaly is such that it will act as a powerful negative feedback on ice sheet growth. We also explore the evolution of the coupled system composed of ice sheet mass and pole position. Oscillatory solutions result from the conflicting constraints of rotational and thermal stability. A positive mass anomaly on an otherwise featureless Earth is in rotational equilibrium only at the poles or the equator. The two polar equilibria are rotationally unstable, and the equatorial equilibrium, though rotationally stable, is thermally unstable. We find that with a plausible choice for the strength of coupling between the thermal and rotational systems, relatively modest external forcing can produce significant response at periods of 104–106 years, but it strongly attenuates polar motion at longer periods. We suggest that these coupled oscillations may contribute to the observed dominance of 100 kyr glacial cycles since the mid-Pleistocene and will tend to stabilize geographic patterns that are suitable to

  7. Designing Ferroelectric Field-Effect Transistors Based on the Polarization-Rotation Effect for Low Operating Voltage and Fast Switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yubo; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2015-10-01

    The effect of polarization rotation on the performance of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors is investigated with a Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire theory-based model. In this analytical model, the depolarization field, polarization rotations, and electrostatic properties of the doped silicon substrate are considered to illustrate the size effect of ferroelectric oxides and the stability of polarization in each direction. Based on this model, we provide guidance in designing electronic logic devices with low operating voltages and low active-energy consumption: First, we demonstrate that MOSFET operation could be achieved by polarization reorientation with a low operating voltage, if the thickness of the ferroelectric oxide is properly selected. Polarization reorientation can boost the surface potential of the silicon substrate, leading to a subthreshold swing S lower than 60 mV /decade . We also demonstrate that, compared with polarization inversion, polarization rotation offers significant advantages, including a lower energy barrier and a wider range of transferability in nanoelectronic devices.

  8. Influence of third-degree geometric nonlinearities on the vibration and stability of pretwisted, preconed, rotating blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subrahmanyam, K. B.; Kaza, K. R. V.

    1986-01-01

    The governing coupled flapwise bending, edgewise bending, and torsional equations are derived including third-degree geometric nonlinear elastic terms by making use of the geometric nonlinear theory of elasticity in which the elongations and shears are negligible compared to unity. These equations are specialized for blades of doubly symmetric cross section with linear variation of pretwist over the blade length. The nonlinear steady state equations and the linearized perturbation equations are solved by using the Galerkin method, and by utilizing the nonrotating normal modes for the shape functions. Parametric results obtained for various cases of rotating blades from the present theoretical formulation are compared to those produced from the finite element code MSC/NASTRAN, and also to those produced from an in-house experimental test rig. It is shown that the spurious instabilities, observed for thin, rotating blades when second degree geometric nonlinearities are used, can be eliminated by including the third-degree elastic nonlinear terms. Furthermore, inclusion of third degree terms improves the correlation between the theory and experiment.

  9. Ultra-compact and fabrication-tolerant polarization rotator based on a bend asymmetric-slab waveguide.

    PubMed

    Cao, Tongtong; Chen, Shaowu; Fei, Yonghao; Zhang, Libin; Xu, Qing-Yang

    2013-02-10

    We propose and analyze a polarization rotator based on a bend asymmetric-slab waveguide on the silicon-on-insulator platform. The device can be fabricated using standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process involving only two dry etching steps. Compared with the formerly reported polarization rotators based on two-step etching, our introduced device demonstrates a significant improvement for fabrication tolerance. Furthermore, an ultra compact structure of ~5 μm conversion length, an insertion loss of only 0.5 dB, and an extinction ratio of >40 dB for both TE to TM polarization conversion and TM to TE polarization conversion are exhibited. Operation wavelength and the influence of environmental temperature on our device are also discussed. PMID:23400060

  10. Computational efficiency improvement with Wigner rotation technique in studying atoms in intense few-cycle circularly polarized pulses.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Minghu; Lü, Rui; Feng, Liqiang; Chu, Tianshu

    2014-02-21

    We show that by introducing Wigner rotation technique into the solution of time-dependent Schrödinger equation in length gauge, computational efficiency can be greatly improved in describing atoms in intense few-cycle circularly polarized laser pulses. The methodology with Wigner rotation technique underlying our openMP parallel computational code for circularly polarized laser pulses is described. Results of test calculations to investigate the scaling property of the computational code with the number of the electronic angular basis function l as well as the strong field phenomena are presented and discussed for the hydrogen atom. PMID:24559339

  11. Computational efficiency improvement with Wigner rotation technique in studying atoms in intense few-cycle circularly polarized pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Minghu; Feng, Liqiang; Lü, Rui; Chu, Tianshu E-mail: tschu008@163.com

    2014-02-21

    We show that by introducing Wigner rotation technique into the solution of time-dependent Schrödinger equation in length gauge, computational efficiency can be greatly improved in describing atoms in intense few-cycle circularly polarized laser pulses. The methodology with Wigner rotation technique underlying our openMP parallel computational code for circularly polarized laser pulses is described. Results of test calculations to investigate the scaling property of the computational code with the number of the electronic angular basis function l as well as the strong field phenomena are presented and discussed for the hydrogen atom.

  12. Effects of polar ice on the earth's rotation and gravitational potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trupin, Andrew S.

    1993-01-01

    The contributions of the Antarctic and the Greenland ice sheets to the earth's gravity, displacement, and rotation are estimated using gridded values of the net surface accumulation rates in the ice sheets of these two regions. It is found that the contributions to the low-order zonal harmonic coefficients of the earth's gravitational potential from Antarctica are between 2 and 10 times larger than the uncertainties of the zonal harmonics derived from satellite solutions; for Greenland, the coefficients are within an order of magnitude of the uncertainties of the satellite solutions. Polar contributions to the displacement of the center of mass of the solid earth, as seen in the frame of reference of satellites tracked from the earth surface, range from less than 1 mm to 1.5 cm over a 60-yr period.

  13. All-reflective, highly accurate polarization rotator for high-power short-pulse laser systems.

    PubMed

    Keppler, S; Hornung, M; Bödefeld, R; Kahle, M; Hein, J; Kaluza, M C

    2012-08-27

    We present the setup of a polarization rotating device and its adaption for high-power short-pulse laser systems. Compared to conventional halfwave plates, the all-reflective principle using three zero-phase shift mirrors provides a higher accuracy and a higher damage threshold. Since plan-parallel plates, e.g. these halfwave plates, generate postpulses, which could lead to the generation of prepulses during the subsequent laser chain, the presented device avoids parasitic pulses and is therefore the preferable alternative for high-contrast applications. Moreover the device is easily scalable for large beam diameters and its spectral reflectivity can be adjusted by an appropriate mirror coating to be well suited for ultra-short laser pulses. PMID:23037123

  14. Faraday rotation from magnesium II absorbers toward polarized background radio sources

    SciTech Connect

    Farnes, J. S.; O'Sullivan, S. P.; Corrigan, M. E.; Gaensler, B. M.

    2014-11-01

    Strong singly ionized magnesium (Mg II) absorption lines in quasar spectra typically serve as a proxy for intervening galaxies along the line of sight. Previous studies have found a correlation between the number of these Mg II absorbers and the Faraday rotation measure (RM) at ≈5 GHz. We cross-match a sample of 35,752 optically identified non-intrinsic Mg II absorption systems with 25,649 polarized background radio sources for which we have measurements of both the spectral index and RM at 1.4 GHz. We use the spectral index to split the resulting sample of 599 sources into flat-spectrum and steep-spectrum subsamples. We find that our flat-spectrum sample shows significant (∼3.5σ) evidence for a correlation between Mg II absorption and RM at 1.4 GHz, while our steep-spectrum sample shows no such correlation. We argue that such an effect cannot be explained by either luminosity or other observational effects, by evolution in another confounding variable, by wavelength-dependent polarization structure in an active galactic nucleus, by the Galactic foreground, by cosmological expansion, or by partial coverage models. We conclude that our data are most consistent with intervenors directly contributing to the Faraday rotation along the line of sight, and that the intervening systems must therefore have coherent magnetic fields of substantial strength ( B-bar =1.8±0.4 μG). Nevertheless, the weak nature of the correlation will require future high-resolution and broadband radio observations in order to place it on a much firmer statistical footing.

  15. Influence of collision energy and reagent rotation on the cross sections and product polarizations of the reaction F+ HCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Zhi Xin; Li, Wen Liang; Qiu, Ming Hui

    2012-04-01

    Quasiclassical trajectory calculations have been carried out for the F+HCl reaction in three dimensions on a recent DHSN PES of the ground 12A' electronic state [M. P. Deskevich, M. Y. Hayes, K. Takahashi, R. T. Skodje, and D. J. Nesbitt, J. Chem. Phys. 124, 224303 (2006)]. The effects of the collision energy and the reagent initial rotational excitation on the cross sections and product polarization are studied for the v = 0 and j ⩽ 10 states of HCl over a wide collision energy range. It has been found that either the collision energy or the HCl rotational excitation increase remarkably reaction cross sections. The QCT-calculated integral cross sections are in good agreement with previous QM results. A detailed study on product polarization for the title reaction is also performed. The calculated results show that the product rotational angular momentum j' is not only aligned, but also oriented along the direction perpendicular to the scattering plane. The orientation of the HF product rotational angular momentum vector j' depends very sensitively on the collision energy and also affected by the reagent rotation. The theoretical findings and especially the roles of the collision energy and initial rotational momentum on the product polarization are discussed and reasonably explained by the HLH mass combination, the property of the PES, as well as the reactive mechanism.

  16. Chaos synchronization in vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser based on rotated polarization-preserved optical feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazhan, Salam; Ghassemlooy, Zabih; Busawon, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of the rotating polarization-preserved optical feedback on the chaos synchronization of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) is investigated experimentally. Two VCSELs' polarization modes (XP) and (YP) are gradually rotated and re-injected back into the VCSEL. The anti-phase dynamics synchronization of the two polarization modes is evaluated using the cross-correlation function. For a fixed optical feedback, a clear relationship is found between the cross-correlation coefficient and the polarization angle θp. It is shown that high-quality anti-phase polarization-resolved chaos synchronization is achieved at higher values of θp. The maximum value of the cross-correlation coefficient achieved is -0.99 with a zero time delay over a wide range of θp beyond 65° with a poor synchronization dynamic at θp less than 65°. Furthermore, it is observed that the antiphase irregular oscillation of the XP and YP modes changes with θp. VCSEL under the rotating polarization optical feedback can be a good candidate as a chaotic synchronization source for a secure communication system.

  17. Random Forest and Rotation Forest for fully polarized SAR image classification using polarimetric and spatial features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Peijun; Samat, Alim; Waske, Björn; Liu, Sicong; Li, Zhenhong

    2015-07-01

    Fully Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR) has the advantages of all-weather, day and night observation and high resolution capabilities. The collected data are usually sorted in Sinclair matrix, coherence or covariance matrices which are directly related to physical properties of natural media and backscattering mechanism. Additional information related to the nature of scattering medium can be exploited through polarimetric decomposition theorems. Accordingly, PolSAR image classification gains increasing attentions from remote sensing communities in recent years. However, the above polarimetric measurements or parameters cannot provide sufficient information for accurate PolSAR image classification in some scenarios, e.g. in complex urban areas where different scattering mediums may exhibit similar PolSAR response due to couples of unavoidable reasons. Inspired by the complementarity between spectral and spatial features bringing remarkable improvements in optical image classification, the complementary information between polarimetric and spatial features may also contribute to PolSAR image classification. Therefore, the roles of textural features such as contrast, dissimilarity, homogeneity and local range, morphological profiles (MPs) in PolSAR image classification are investigated using two advanced ensemble learning (EL) classifiers: Random Forest and Rotation Forest. Supervised Wishart classifier and support vector machines (SVMs) are used as benchmark classifiers for the evaluation and comparison purposes. Experimental results with three Radarsat-2 images in quad polarization mode indicate that classification accuracies could be significantly increased by integrating spatial and polarimetric features using ensemble learning strategies. Rotation Forest can get better accuracy than SVM and Random Forest, in the meantime, Random Forest is much faster than Rotation Forest.

  18. ROTATING MOTIONS AND MODELING OF THE ERUPTING SOLAR POLAR-CROWN PROMINENCE ON 2010 DECEMBER 6

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Yingna; Van Ballegooijen, Adriaan

    2013-02-10

    A large polar-crown prominence composed of different segments spanning nearly the entire solar disk erupted on 2010 December 6. Prior to the eruption, the filament in the active region part split into two layers: a lower layer and an elevated layer. The eruption occurs in several episodes. Around 14:12 UT, the lower layer of the active region filament breaks apart: One part ejects toward the west, while the other part ejects toward the east, which leads to the explosive eruption of the eastern quiescent filament. During the early rise phase, part of the quiescent filament sheet displays strong rolling motion (observed by STEREO-B) in the clockwise direction (viewed from east to west) around the filament axis. This rolling motion appears to start from the border of the active region, then propagates toward the east. The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) observes another type of rotating motion: In some other parts of the erupting quiescent prominence, the vertical threads turn horizontal, then turn upside down. The elevated active region filament does not erupt until 18:00 UT, when the erupting quiescent filament has already reached a very large height. We develop two simplified three-dimensional models that qualitatively reproduce the observed rolling and rotating motions. The prominence in the models is assumed to consist of a collection of discrete blobs that are tied to particular field lines of a helical flux rope. The observed rolling motion is reproduced by continuous twist injection into the flux rope in Model 1 from the active region side. Asymmetric reconnection induced by the asymmetric distribution of the magnetic fields on the two sides of the filament may cause the observed rolling motion. The rotating motion of the prominence threads observed by AIA is consistent with the removal of the field line dips in Model 2 from the top down during the eruption.

  19. Structured caustic vector vortex optical field: manipulating optical angular momentum flux and polarization rotation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rui-Pin; Chen, Zhaozhong; Chew, Khian-Hooi; Li, Pei-Gang; Yu, Zhongliang; Ding, Jianping; He, Sailing

    2015-01-01

    A caustic vector vortex optical field is experimentally generated and demonstrated by a caustic-based approach. The desired caustic with arbitrary acceleration trajectories, as well as the structured states of polarization (SoP) and vortex orders located in different positions in the field cross-section, is generated by imposing the corresponding spatial phase function in a vector vortex optical field. Our study reveals that different spin and orbital angular momentum flux distributions (including opposite directions) in different positions in the cross-section of a caustic vector vortex optical field can be dynamically managed during propagation by intentionally choosing the initial polarization and vortex topological charges, as a result of the modulation of the caustic phase. We find that the SoP in the field cross-section rotates during propagation due to the existence of the vortex. The unique structured feature of the caustic vector vortex optical field opens the possibility of multi-manipulation of optical angular momentum fluxes and SoP, leading to more complex manipulation of the optical field scenarios. Thus this approach further expands the functionality of an optical system. PMID:26024434

  20. Optically controlled microwave phase shifter based on nonlinear polarization rotation in a highly nonlinear fiber.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Sun, Wen Hui; Wang, Wen Ting; Zhu, Ning Hua

    2014-06-01

    This Letter reports an optically controlled microwave phase shifter with an ultra-wideband working bandwidth and a full 360° phase shifting range based on nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) in a highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF). A continuous wave probe light is modulated by a polarization modulator (PolM) that is driven by a microwave signal to be phase shifted. The optical carrier and the first-order sidebands of the probe light experience different phase shifts due to the NPR induced by the control light in the HNLF. An optical bandpass filter is used to realize single-sideband modulation of the probe light by removing one of the first-order sidebands, as well as to reject the control light. After detecting by a photodetector, the phase of the recovered microwave signal is continuously tunable by adjusting the power of the control light. The proposed approach is theoretically analyzed and experimentally verified. A full 360° tunable phase shift is realized over an ultra-wideband frequency range from 8 to 38 GHz when the power of the control light is tuned from 0 to 570 mW. PMID:24876035

  1. High degree of polarization of the near-band-edge photoluminescence in ZnO nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the polarization dependence of the near-band-edge photoluminescence in ZnO strain-free nanowires grown by vapor phase technique. The emission is polarized perpendicular to the nanowire axis with a large polarization ratio (as high as 0.84 at 4.2 K and 0.63 at 300 K). The observed polarization ratio is explained in terms of selection rules for excitonic transitions derived from the k·p theory for ZnO. The temperature dependence of the polarization ratio evidences a gradual activation of the XC excitonic transition. PACS: 78.55.Cr, 77.22.Ej, 81.07.Gf. PMID:21854578

  2. Three-party Quantum Secure Direct Communication with Single Photons in both Polarization and Spatial-mode Degrees of Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, LiLi; Ma, WenPing; Wang, MeiLing; Shen, DongSu

    2016-05-01

    We present an efficient three-party quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocol with single photos in both polarization and spatial-mode degrees of freedom. The three legal parties' messages can be encoded on the polarization and the spatial-mode states of single photons independently with desired unitary operations. A party can obtain the other two parties' messages simultaneously through a quantum channel. Because no extra public information is transmitted in the classical channels, the drawback of information leakage or classical correlation does not exist in the proposed scheme. Moreover, the comprehensive security analysis shows that the presented QSDC network protocol can defend the outsider eavesdropper's several sorts of attacks. Compared with the single photons with only one degree of freedom, our protocol based on the single photons in two degrees of freedom has higher capacity. Since the preparation and the measurement of single photon quantum states in both the polarization and the spatial-mode degrees of freedom are available with current quantum techniques, the proposed protocol is practical.

  3. Measuring cloud droplet effective radius and liquid water content using changes in degree of linear polarization along cloud depth.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dukhyeon; Lee, Jeongsoon

    2014-06-15

    Two important parameters of liquid clouds are the cloud effective size (CES) and liquid water content (LWC). To measure these parameters, we have used two multiple scattering depolarization effects: (1) the slope of the degree of linear polarization (SLDLP) at the cloud base, and (2) the saturated degree of linear polarization (SADLP) at infinite altitude. We used Monte Carlo simulation to validate this method, with the assumption that the water cloud droplet size follows a Gamma distribution. From our calculation, we find that although the SADLP varies with both extinction coefficient (or LWC) and the CES, the SLDLP varies only with the extinction coefficient. After extracting the extinction coefficient using the SLDLP, we can easily obtain the CES using the SADLP. As a result, we found that the CES and the LWC can be extracted from the experimental parameters of SLDLP and SADLP, which can be easily measured using a single wavelength depolarization LIDAR. PMID:24978490

  4. Comparative analysis on arthroscopic sutures of large and extensive rotator cuff injuries in relation to the degree of osteopenia☆

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Alexandre; Atti, Vinícius; Agostini, Daniel Cecconi; Valin, Márcio Rangel; de Almeida, Nayvaldo Couto; Agostini, Ana Paula

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the results from arthroscopic suturing of large and extensive rotator cuff injuries, according to the patient's degree of osteopenia. Method 138 patients who underwent arthroscopic suturing of large and extensive rotator cuff injuries between 2003 and 2011 were analyzed. Those operated from October 2008 onwards formed a prospective cohort, while the remainder formed a retrospective cohort. Also from October 2008 onwards, bone densitometry evaluation was requested at the time of the surgical treatment. For the patients operated before this date, densitometry examinations performed up to two years before or after the surgical treatment were investigated. The patients were divided into three groups. Those with osteoporosis formed group 1 (n = 16); those with osteopenia, group 2 (n = 33); and normal individuals, group 3 (n = 55). Results In analyzing the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) scores of group 3 and comparing them with group 2, no statistically significant difference was seen (p = 0.070). Analysis on group 3 in comparison with group 1 showed a statistically significant difference (p = 0.027). Conclusion The results from arthroscopic suturing of large and extensive rotator cuff injuries seem to be influenced by the patient's bone mineral density, as assessed using bone densitometry. PMID:26229899

  5. Efficient Bidirectional Quantum Secure Direct Communication with Single Photons in Both Polarization and Spatial-Mode Degrees of Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L. L.; Ma, W. P.; Shen, D. S.; Wang, M. L.

    2015-10-01

    With single photos in both polarization and spatial-mode degrees of freedom,we present an efficient bidirectional quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocol is proposed. The participants' secret messages can be transmitted directly in a quantum channel through performing different local unitary operations, which are chosen by the two participants separately from the Pauli operations and Hadamard operations, on the polarization states and the spatial-mode states of single photons. Each single photon in two degrees of freedom can carry two bits of information. Thus the capacity of quantum communication of our protocol is improved. Moreover, we discuss the security of our QSDC network protocol comprehensively. It is showed that the proposed scheme not only can defend several outsider eavesdropper's attacks but also can remove the drawback of information leakage, which prevents the secret messages being leaked out to other people through the public information. In addition, our protocol is practical since the preparation and the measurement of single photon quantum states in both the polarization and the spatial-mode degrees of freedom are available with current quantum techniques.

  6. 90-degree polarization switching in BaTiO3 crystals without domain wall motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. W.; Scott, J. F.; Fang, D. N.; Li, F. X.

    2013-12-01

    We report 90° polarization switching in a BaTiO3 crystal without domain wall (DW) motion by prefabricating samples with interlocking domains via compression. During electric re-poling of the depoled and aged crystals, 90° domain nucleation still exists, but 90° DW motion is inhibited by the strong constraints from surrounding domains, leading to DW-free 90° polarization switching. The measured coercive field of 500 V/mm for the DW-free 90° switching is close to the intrinsic values and much larger than that of 80 V/mm via 90° DW motion. Compared to the rather difficult domain-free 180° polarization switching in ultrathin films, 90° DW-free switching is easier.

  7. Degrees of polarization of reflected light eliciting polarotaxis in dragonflies (Odonata), mayflies (Ephemeroptera) and tabanid flies (Tabanidae).

    PubMed

    Kriska, György; Bernáth, Balázs; Farkas, Róbert; Horváth, Gábor

    2009-12-01

    With few exceptions insects whose larvae develop in freshwater possess positive polarotaxis, i.e., are attracted to sources of horizontally polarized light, because they detect water by means of the horizontal polarization of light reflected from the water surface. These insects can be deceived by artificial surfaces (e.g. oil lakes, asphalt roads, black plastic sheets, dark-coloured cars, black gravestones, dark glass surfaces, solar panels) reflecting highly and horizontally polarized light. Apart from the surface characteristics, the extent of such a 'polarized light pollution' depends on the illumination conditions, direction of view, and the threshold p* of polarization sensitivity of a given aquatic insect species. p* means the minimum degree of linear polarization p of reflected light that can elicit positive polarotaxis from a given insect species. Earlier there were no quantitative data on p* in aquatic insects. The aim of this work is to provide such data. Using imaging polarimetry in the red, green and blue parts of the spectrum, in multiple-choice field experiments we measured the threshold p* of ventral polarization sensitivity in mayflies, dragonflies and tabanid flies, the positive polarotaxis of which has been shown earlier. In the blue (450nm) spectral range, for example, we obtained the following thresholds: dragonflies: Enallagma cyathigerum (0%

  8. Variation of optical characteristics of polarized laser radiation in dielectric upon its low-frequency rotation and heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladyshev, V. O.; Portnov, D. I.; Sadovnikov, S. V.; Kauts, V. L.; Sharandin, E. A.

    2015-08-01

    The results of experiments in which coherent laser radiation with wavelength λ = 0.632991 µm experienced rotation of its plane of polarization, beam deviation, and change of intensity after propagating through an optical disk made of TF3 glass with refractive index n = 1.71250 and glued to a gyromotor, are discussed. The experiments were conducted at angle of incidence of the beam on a flat surface of the optical disk v = 60°. The rotational frequency of the disk was varied from 2 to 10 Hz for two directions of rotation. At low speed of rotation, the main factor causing mechanical deformations and, as a result, changes in optical characteristics of radiation propagated through the optical disk is heating of the metal—glass interface.

  9. Electric field induced critical points and polarization rotations in relaxor ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutnjak, Zdravko; Blinc, Robert; Ishibashi, Y.

    2007-09-01

    The giant electromechanical response in ferroelectric relaxors such as Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) is of great importance for a number of ultrasonic and medical applications as well as in telecommunications. On the basis of the dielectric, heat capacity, and piezoelectric investigations on PMN-PT crystals of various PT compositions and bias fields, we have recently shown the existence of a line of critical points for the paraelectric to ferroelectric transformations in the composition-temperature-electric field (x-T-E) phase diagram. Here, we show the piezobehavior in more detail and present a theoretical evaluation of the Widom line and the critical line. This line effectively terminates a surface of first order transitions. Above this line, supercritical evolution has been observed. On approaching the critical point, both the enthalpy cost to induce the intermediate monoclinic states and thus the barrier for polarization rotations decrease significantly. The maximum of the piezoelectric response is not at E=0 , but at the critical field values. It is shown that the critical fluctuations in the proximity of the critical points are directly responsible for the observed enhancement of the electromechanical response in the PMN-PT system. In view of the large electric field dependence of the dielectric constant near the critical point, these systems may also be important as electric field tunable elements.

  10. Absolute intensity and polarization of rotational Raman scattering from N2, O2, and CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penney, C. M.; St.peters, R. L.; Lapp, M.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental examination of the absolute intensity, polarization, and relative line intensities of rotational Raman scattering (RRS) from N2, O2, and CO2 is reported. The absolute scattering intensity for N2 is characterized by its differential cross section for backscattering of incident light at 647.1 nm, which is calculated from basic measured values. The ratio of the corresponding cross section for O2 to that for N2 is 2.50 plus or minus 5 percent. The intensity recent for N2, O2, and CO2 are shown to compare favorably to values calculated from recent measurements of the depolarization of Rayleigh scattering plus RRS. Measured depolarizations of various RRS lines agree to within a few percent with the theoretical value of 3/4. Detailed error analyses are presented for intensity and depolarization measurements. Finally, extensive RRS spectra at nominal gas temperatures of 23 C, 75 C, and 125 C are presented and shown to compare favorably to theoretical predictions.

  11. All-optical quantization and coding scheme for ultrafast analog-to-digital conversion exploiting polarization switches based on nonlinear polarization rotation in semiconductor optical amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Huashun; Wang, Hongxiang; Ji, Yuefeng

    2012-08-01

    A novel all-optical quantization and coding scheme for ultrafast analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion exploiting polarization switches (PSWs) based on nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) in semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) is proposed. In addition, a theoretical model for the polarization switch based on NPR is presented. Through cascading two PSWs, a 2-period transfer function for 3-bit long all-optical quantization and coding is realized numerically for the first time to the authors' knowledge. The effective number of bits (ENOB), the limitation of bandwidth and conversion speed and the scalability are also investigated. The proposed all-optical quantization and coding scheme, combined with existing all-optical sampling techniques, will enable ultrafast A/D conversion at operating speed of hundreds of Gs/s with at least 3 bit resolution, and allows low optical power requirements, photonic integration, and easy scalability.

  12. Ultracompact and high efficient silicon-based polarization splitter-rotator using a partially-etched subwavelength grating coupler

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yin; Xiao, Jinbiao

    2016-01-01

    On-chip polarization manipulation is pivotal for silicon-on-insulator material platform to realize polarization-transparent circuits and polarization-division-multiplexing transmissions, where polarization splitters and rotators are fundamental components. In this work, we propose an ultracompact and high efficient silicon-based polarization splitter-rotator (PSR) using a partially-etched subwavelength grating (SWG) coupler. The proposed PSR consists of a taper-integrated SWG coupler combined with a partially-etched waveguide between the input and output strip waveguides to make the input transverse-electric (TE) mode couple and convert to the output transverse-magnetic (TM) mode at the cross port while the input TM mode confine well in the strip waveguide during propagation and directly output from the bar port with nearly neglected coupling. Moreover, to better separate input polarizations, an additional tapered waveguide extended from the partially-etched waveguide is also added. From results, an ultracompact PSR of only 8.2 μm in length is achieved, which is so far the reported shortest one. The polarization conversion loss and efficiency are 0.12 dB and 98.52%, respectively, together with the crosstalk and reflection loss of −31.41/−22.43 dB and −34.74/−33.13 dB for input TE/TM mode at wavelength of 1.55 μm. These attributes make the present device suitable for constructing on-chip compact photonic integrated circuits with polarization-independence. PMID:27306112

  13. Ultracompact and high efficient silicon-based polarization splitter-rotator using a partially-etched subwavelength grating coupler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yin; Xiao, Jinbiao

    2016-06-01

    On-chip polarization manipulation is pivotal for silicon-on-insulator material platform to realize polarization-transparent circuits and polarization-division-multiplexing transmissions, where polarization splitters and rotators are fundamental components. In this work, we propose an ultracompact and high efficient silicon-based polarization splitter-rotator (PSR) using a partially-etched subwavelength grating (SWG) coupler. The proposed PSR consists of a taper-integrated SWG coupler combined with a partially-etched waveguide between the input and output strip waveguides to make the input transverse-electric (TE) mode couple and convert to the output transverse-magnetic (TM) mode at the cross port while the input TM mode confine well in the strip waveguide during propagation and directly output from the bar port with nearly neglected coupling. Moreover, to better separate input polarizations, an additional tapered waveguide extended from the partially-etched waveguide is also added. From results, an ultracompact PSR of only 8.2 μm in length is achieved, which is so far the reported shortest one. The polarization conversion loss and efficiency are 0.12 dB and 98.52%, respectively, together with the crosstalk and reflection loss of ‑31.41/‑22.43 dB and ‑34.74/‑33.13 dB for input TE/TM mode at wavelength of 1.55 μm. These attributes make the present device suitable for constructing on-chip compact photonic integrated circuits with polarization-independence.

  14. Ultracompact and high efficient silicon-based polarization splitter-rotator using a partially-etched subwavelength grating coupler.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yin; Xiao, Jinbiao

    2016-01-01

    On-chip polarization manipulation is pivotal for silicon-on-insulator material platform to realize polarization-transparent circuits and polarization-division-multiplexing transmissions, where polarization splitters and rotators are fundamental components. In this work, we propose an ultracompact and high efficient silicon-based polarization splitter-rotator (PSR) using a partially-etched subwavelength grating (SWG) coupler. The proposed PSR consists of a taper-integrated SWG coupler combined with a partially-etched waveguide between the input and output strip waveguides to make the input transverse-electric (TE) mode couple and convert to the output transverse-magnetic (TM) mode at the cross port while the input TM mode confine well in the strip waveguide during propagation and directly output from the bar port with nearly neglected coupling. Moreover, to better separate input polarizations, an additional tapered waveguide extended from the partially-etched waveguide is also added. From results, an ultracompact PSR of only 8.2 μm in length is achieved, which is so far the reported shortest one. The polarization conversion loss and efficiency are 0.12 dB and 98.52%, respectively, together with the crosstalk and reflection loss of -31.41/-22.43 dB and -34.74/-33.13 dB for input TE/TM mode at wavelength of 1.55 μm. These attributes make the present device suitable for constructing on-chip compact photonic integrated circuits with polarization-independence. PMID:27306112

  15. Polarized foreground removal at low radio frequencies using rotation measure synthesis: uncovering the signature of hydrogen reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geil, Paul M.; Gaensler, B. M.; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.

    2011-11-01

    Measurement of redshifted 21-cm emission from neutral hydrogen promises to be the most effective method for studying the reionization history of hydrogen and, indirectly, the first galaxies. These studies will be limited not by raw sensitivity to the signal, but rather, by bright foreground radiation from Galactic and extragalactic radio sources and the Galactic continuum. In addition, leakage due to gain errors and non-ideal feeds conspire to further contaminate low-frequency radio observations. This leakage leads to a portion of the complex linear polarization signal finding its way into Stokes I, and inhibits the detection of the non-polarized cosmological signal from the epoch of reionization. In this work, we show that rotation measure synthesis can be used to recover the signature of cosmic hydrogen reionization in the presence of contamination by polarized foregrounds. To achieve this, we apply the rotation measure synthesis technique to the Stokes I component of a synthetic data cube containing Galactic foreground emission, the effect of instrumental polarization leakage and redshifted 21-cm emission by neutral hydrogen from the epoch of reionization. This produces an effective Stokes I Faraday dispersion function for each line of sight, from which instrumental polarization leakage can be fitted and subtracted. Our results show that it is possible to recover the signature of reionization in its late stages (z≈ 7) by way of the 21-cm power spectrum, as well as through tomographic imaging of ionized cavities in the intergalactic medium.

  16. Prediction of Heat and Mass Transfer in a Rotating Ribbed Coolant Passage With a 180 Degree Turn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, David L.

    1999-01-01

    Numerical results are presented for flow in a rotating internal passage with a 180 degree turn and ribbed walls. Reynolds numbers ranging from 5200 to 7900, and Rotation numbers of 0.0 and 0.24 were considered. The straight sections of the channel have a square cross section, with square ribs spaced one hydraulic diameter (D) apart on two opposite sides. The ribs have a height of 0.1D and are not staggered from one side to the other. The full three dimensional Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved combined with the Wilcox k-omega turbulence model. By solving an additional equation for mass transfer, it is possible to isolate the effect of buoyancy in the presence of rotation. That is, heat transfer induced buoyancy effects can be eliminated as in naphthalene sublimation experiments. Heat transfer, mass transfer and flow field results are presented with favorable agreement with available experimental data. It is shown that numerically predicting the reattachment between ribs is essential to achieving an accurate prediction of heat/mass transfer. For the low Reynolds numbers considered, the standard turbulence model did not produce reattachment between ribs. By modifying the wall boundary condition on omega, the turbulent specific dissipation rate, much better agreement with the flow structure and heat/ mass transfer was achieved. It is beyond the scope of the present work to make a general recommendation on the omega wall boundary condition. However, the present results suggest that the omega boundary condition should take into account the proximity to abrupt changes in geometry.

  17. Controlled quantum secure communication protocol with single photons in both polarization and spatial-mode degrees of freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lili; Ma, Wenping

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a new controlled quantum secure direct communication (CQSDC) protocol with single photons in both polarization and spatial-mode degrees of freedom. Based on the defined local collective unitary operations, the sender’s secret messages can be transmitted directly to the receiver through encoding secret messages on the particles. Only with the help of the third side, the receiver can reconstruct the secret messages. Each single photon in two degrees of freedom can carry two bits of information, so the cost of our protocol is less than others using entangled qubits. Moreover, the security of our QSDC network protocol is discussed comprehensively. It is shown that our new CQSDC protocol cannot only defend the outsider eavesdroppers’ several sorts of attacks but also the inside attacks. Besides, our protocol is feasible since the preparation and the measurement of single photon quantum states in both the polarization and the spatial-mode degrees of freedom are available with current quantum techniques.

  18. Current-induced giant polarization rotation using a ZnO single crystal doped with nitrogen ions

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Naoya; Kawazoe, Tadashi; Nomura, Wataru; Ohtsu, Motoichi

    2015-01-01

    Giant polarization rotation in a ZnO single crystal was experimentally demonstrated based on a novel phenomenon occurring at the nanometric scale. The ZnO crystal was doped with N+ and N2+ ions serving as p-type dopants. By applying an in-plane current using a unique arrangement of electrodes on the device, current-induced polarization rotation of the incident light was observed. From the results of experimental demonstrations and discussions, it was verified that this novel behavior originates from a specific distribution of dopants and the corresponding light–matter interactions in a nanometric space, which are allowed by the existence of such a dopant distribution. PMID:26246456

  19. Rotation of Nuclei as Observed in Ternary Fission of the Reaction 235U(nth,f) Induced by Polarized Neutron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gönnenwein, F.; Gagarski, A.; Guseva, I.; Petrov, G.; Sokolov, V.; Zavarukhkina, T.; Mutterer, M.; Nesvizhevski, V.; Bunakov, V.; Kadmensky, S.

    2007-05-01

    Ternary fission of the standard reaction 235U(nth,f) induced by cold polarized neutrons has been investigated. Fission fragments and light charged particles were recorded in coincidence. Following cold neutron capture the compound nucleus 236U* has spin 3- or 4-. At the saddle point of the fissioning 236U* nucleus these states are collective. They are expected to retain a sizable collectivity down to the scission point. In fact, a collective rotation has been sensed by the shift in the angular distribution of the light charged particles which depends on the orientation of neutron polarization. Direct observation of the rotation of 236U* excited in a cold neutron reaction is reported here for the first time. It is proposed to call the new phenomenon the "ROT-effect".

  20. Rotation of X-ray polarization in the glitches of a silicon crystal monochromator

    PubMed Central

    Sutter, John P.; Boada, Roberto; Bowron, Daniel T.; Stepanov, Sergey A.; Díaz-Moreno, Sofía

    2016-01-01

    EXAFS studies on dilute samples are usually carried out by collecting the fluorescence yield using a large-area multi-element detector. This method is susceptible to the ‘glitches’ produced by all single-crystal monochromators. Glitches are sharp dips or spikes in the diffracted intensity at specific crystal orientations. If incorrectly compensated, they degrade the spectroscopic data. Normalization of the fluorescence signal by the incident flux alone is sometimes insufficient to compensate for the glitches. Measurements performed at the state-of-the-art wiggler beamline I20-scanning at Diamond Light Source have shown that the glitches alter the spatial distribution of the sample’s quasi-elastic X-ray scattering. Because glitches result from additional Bragg reflections, multiple-beam dynamical diffraction theory is necessary to understand their effects. Here, the glitches of the Si(111) four-bounce monochromator of I20-scanning just above the Ni K edge are associated with their Bragg reflections. A fitting procedure that treats coherent and Compton scattering is developed and applied to a sample of an extremely dilute (100 micromolal) aqueous solution of Ni(NO3)2. The depolarization of the wiggler X-ray beam out of the electron orbit is modeled. The fits achieve good agreement with the sample’s quasi-elastic scattering with just a few parameters. The X-ray polarization is rotated up to ±4.3° within the glitches, as predicted by dynamical diffraction. These results will help users normalize EXAFS data at glitches. PMID:27504076

  1. Design of a compact and integrated TM-rotated/TE-through polarization beam splitter for silicon-based slot waveguides.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yin; Xiao, Jinbiao

    2016-01-20

    A compact and integrated TM-rotated/TE-through polarization beam splitter for silicon-based slot waveguides is proposed and characterized. For the input TM mode, it is first transferred into the cross strip waveguide using a tapered directional coupler (DC), and then efficiently rotated to the corresponding TE mode using an L-shaped bending polarization rotator (PR). Finally, the TE mode for slot waveguide at the output end is obtained with the help of a strip-to-slot mode converter. By contrast, for the input TE mode, it almost passes through the slot waveguide directly and outputs at the bar end with nearly neglected coupling due to a large mode mismatch. Moreover, an additional S-bend connecting the tapered DC and bending PR is used to enhance the performance. Results show that a total device length of 19.6 μm is achieved, where the crosstalk (CT) and polarization conversion loss are, respectively -26.09 and 0.54 dB, for the TM mode, and the CT and insertion loss are, respectively, -22.21 and 0.41 dB, for the TE mode, both at 1.55 μm. The optical bandwidth is approximately 50 nm with a CT<-20  dB. In addition, fabrication tolerances and field evolution are also presented. PMID:26835937

  2. Obtaining high degree of circular polarization at x-ray free electron lasers via a reverse undulator taper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneidmiller, E. A.; Yurkov, M. V.

    2013-11-01

    Baseline design of a typical x-ray free electron laser (FEL) undulator assumes a planar configuration which results in a linear polarization of the FEL radiation. However, many experiments at x-ray FEL user facilities would profit from using a circularly polarized radiation. As a cheap upgrade, one can consider an installation of a short helical (or cross-planar) afterburner, but then one should have an efficient method to suppress the powerful linearly polarized background from the main undulator. In this paper we propose a new method for such a suppression: an application of the reverse taper in the main undulator. We discover that in a certain range of the taper strength, the density modulation (bunching) at saturation is practically the same as in the case of a nontapered undulator while the power of linearly polarized radiation is suppressed by orders of magnitude. Then strongly modulated electron beam radiates at full power in the afterburner. Considering the SASE3 undulator of the European XFEL as a practical example, we demonstrate that soft x-ray radiation pulses with peak power in excess of 100 GW and an ultimately high degree of circular polarization can be produced. The proposed method is rather universal, i.e., it can be used at SASE FELs and seeded (self-seeded) FELs, with any wavelength of interest, in a wide range of electron beam parameters, and with any repetition rate. It can be used at different x-ray FEL facilities, in particular at Linac Coherent Light Source after installation of the helical afterburner in the near future.

  3. Silicon waveguide polarization rotation Bragg grating with phase shift section and sampled grating scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okayama, Hideaki; Onawa, Yosuke; Shimura, Daisuke; Yaegashi, Hiroki; Sasaki, Hironori

    2016-08-01

    We describe a Bragg grating with a phase shift section and a sampled grating scheme that converts input polarization to orthogonal polarization. A very narrow polarization-independent wavelength peak can be generated by phase shift structures and polarization-independent multiple diffraction peaks by sampled gratings. The characteristics of the device were examined by transfer matrix and finite-difference time-domain methods.

  4. Interlocked chiral/polar domain walls and large optical rotation in Ni{sub 3}TeO{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xueyun; Huang, Fei-Ting; Yang, Junjie; Oh, Yoon Seok; Cheong, Sang-Wook

    2015-07-01

    Chirality, i.e., handedness, pervades much of modern science from elementary particles, DNA-based biology to molecular chemistry; however, most of the chirality-relevant materials have been based on complex molecules. Here, we report inorganic single-crystalline Ni{sub 3}TeO{sub 6}, forming in a corundum-related R3 structure with both chirality and polarity. These chiral Ni{sub 3}TeO{sub 6} single crystals exhibit a large optical specific rotation (α)—1355° dm{sup −1} cm{sup 3} g{sup −1}. We demonstrate, for the first time, that in Ni{sub 3}TeO{sub 6}, chiral and polar domains form an intriguing domain pattern, resembling a radiation warning sign, which stems from interlocked chiral and polar domain walls through lowering of the wall energy.

  5. A dead-zone free ⁴He atomic magnetometer with intensity-modulated linearly polarized light and a liquid crystal polarization rotator.

    PubMed

    Wu, T; Peng, X; Lin, Z; Guo, H

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate an all-optical (4)He atomic magnetometer experimental scheme based on an original Bell-Bloom configuration. A single intensity-modulated linearly polarized laser beam is used both for generating spin polarization within a single (4)He vapor and probing the spin precessing under a static magnetic field. The transmitted light signal from the vapor is then phase-sensitively detected at the modulation frequency and its harmonics, which lead to the atomic magnetic resonance signals. Based on this structure, a liquid crystal is added in our magnetometer system and constitutes a polarization rotator. By controlling the voltage applied on the liquid crystal, the light linear polarization vector can be kept perpendicular with the ambient magnetic field direction, which in turn provides the maximum resonance signal amplitude. Moreover, the system exhibits a magnetic-field noise floor of about 2pT/√Hz, which is not degraded due to the presence of the liquid crystal and varying magnetic field direction. The experiment results prove that our method can eliminate the dead-zone effect, improve the system spatial isotropy, and thus be suitable in mobile applications. PMID:26520938

  6. Deterministic Polarization Entanglement Purification of χ-type entangled states in Multiple Degrees of Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ronghua; Liu, Shaorong; Wang, Shuo; Guo, Ying

    2015-02-01

    We present two deterministic entanglement purifications protocols for χ-type entangled states, resorting to multiple degrees of freedom. One protocol is implemented with the spatial entanglement to distill the maximally entangled states from the mixed states, resorting to some linear optical elements. Another one is implemented with the frequency entanglement for the purification. All the parties can jointly distill the maximally entangled states from the mixed states affected by the environmental noise during transmission. Both of the protocols can work in a deterministic way with the success probability 100 %, in principle. The derived features may make the protocols useful in the practical long-distance quantum communication.

  7. Rotational infrared polarization modulator using a MEMS-based air turbine with different types of journal bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Motoaki; Tanaka, Shuji; Esashi, Masayoshi

    2003-03-01

    This paper describes rotational infrared polarization modulators using a micro-electromechanical-system-based (MEMS-based) air turbine with different types of journal bearing. Three types of journal bearing, circular, symmetrical two-lobed and asymmetrical seven-lobed journal bearing, were compared. Using an optical displacement meter and a high speed camera, it was confirmed that all turbines exhibit three modes of rotation: (a) low speed mode, (b) intermediate mode and (c) high speed mode in this order, when decreasing N2 flow rate to an aerostatic thrust bearing. In the low speed mode, the rotor is lifted up by excess flow to the thrust bearing, making a contact with an upper layer. In the high speed mode, the rotor is levitated without any contact to the upper and lower layers by balanced flow to the thrust bearing, and the maximum rotational speed of 74000 rpm was achieved using the asymmetrical seven-lobed bearing. The rotation in this mode is, however, discontinuous due to the collision between the rotor and the journal bearing. It was concluded that a journal bearing with sufficient load capacity is necessary for continuous high speed rotation.

  8. BICEP3: a 95GHz refracting telescope for degree-scale CMB polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Z.; Amiri, M.; Benton, S. J.; Bock, J. J.; Bowens-Rubin, R.; Buder, I.; Bullock, E.; Connors, J.; Filippini, J. P.; Grayson, J. A.; Halpern, M.; Hilton, G. C.; Hristov, V. V.; Hui, H.; Irwin, K. D.; Kang, J.; Karkare, K. S.; Karpel, E.; Kovac, J. M.; Kuo, C. L.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nguyen, H. T.; O'Brient, R.; Ogburn, R. W.; Pryke, C.; Reintsema, C. D.; Richter, S.; Thompson, K. L.; Turner, A. D.; Vieregg, A. G.; Wu, W. L. K.; Yoon, K. W.

    2014-08-01

    Bicep3 is a 550 mm-aperture refracting telescope for polarimetry of radiation in the cosmic microwave background at 95 GHz. It adopts the methodology of Bicep1, Bicep2 and the Keck Array experiments | it possesses sufficient resolution to search for signatures of the inflation-induced cosmic gravitational-wave background while utilizing a compact design for ease of construction and to facilitate the characterization and mitigation of systematics. However, Bicep3 represents a significant breakthrough in per-receiver sensitivity, with a focal plane area 5x larger than a Bicep2/Keck Array receiver and faster optics (f=1:6 vs. f=2:4). Large-aperture infrared-reflective metal-mesh filters and infrared-absorptive cold alumina filters and lenses were developed and implemented for its optics. The camera consists of 1280 dual-polarization pixels; each is a pair of orthogonal antenna arrays coupled to transition-edge sensor bolometers and read out by multiplexed SQUIDs. Upon deployment at the South Pole during the 2014-15 season, Bicep3 will have survey speed comparable to Keck Array 150 GHz (2013), and will signifcantly enhance spectral separation of primordial B-mode power from that of possible galactic dust contamination in the Bicep2 observation patch

  9. Unidirectional cross polarization rotator with enhanced broadband transparency by cascading twisted nanobars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying-Hua; Shao, Jian; Li, Jie; Zhu, Ming-Jie; Li, Jiaqi; Dong, Zheng-Gao

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate the optical activity for linear polarization by twisting cascading multilayer nanobars, for which the x- (y-)polarized light is significantly transformed to a y- (x-)polarized one with enhanced transmittance in a unidirectional manner, and the bandwidth can be broadened by increasing the cascading number of layers. The polarization conversion rate reaches nearly 100% with a maximum cross-polarization transmission coefficient larger than 0.95. This phenomenon is attributed to the chiral structural arrangement and anisotropic resonance of nanobars, which consequently leads to different cross-polarization conversions between forward and backward incident lights, and thus the unidirectional transmission with an extinction ratio up to 103. These characteristics show application potential in optical nano-devices.

  10. A two degree of freedom micro-gripper with grasping and rotating functions for optical fibers assembling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weihai; Shi, Xiaohui; Chen, Wenjie; Zhang, Jianbin

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, a two degree of freedom flexure-based micro-gripper is proposed and applied in the complicated assembling process of optical fibers. The design concept is modeled on the manipulation of human fingers. Therefore, the two tips of micro-gripper, just like human fingers, can easily grasp the optical fiber with a controllable force and precisely rotate it by the rubbing operation. In addition, some sensors installed on the micro-gripper can enhance the operating accuracy. In the developing process, pseudo-rigid-body model method and virtual work principle are employed to conduct theoretical design. Then the obtained theoretical model is validated and optimized by the finite element analysis. Fabrication of the micro-gripper adopts wire electro discharge machining technology and material of aluminum alloy (AL-7075). Experimental studies are carried out on the prototype to further validate the performance of micro-gripper. Experimental results indicate that the developed micro-gripper can well satisfy the requirements of our mission, which also means that it can be widely used in micro-manipulation field. PMID:24289441

  11. A two degree of freedom micro-gripper with grasping and rotating functions for optical fibers assembling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Weihai; Shi, Xiaohui; Chen, Wenjie; Zhang, Jianbin

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, a two degree of freedom flexure-based micro-gripper is proposed and applied in the complicated assembling process of optical fibers. The design concept is modeled on the manipulation of human fingers. Therefore, the two tips of micro-gripper, just like human fingers, can easily grasp the optical fiber with a controllable force and precisely rotate it by the rubbing operation. In addition, some sensors installed on the micro-gripper can enhance the operating accuracy. In the developing process, pseudo-rigid-body model method and virtual work principle are employed to conduct theoretical design. Then the obtained theoretical model is validated and optimized by the finite element analysis. Fabrication of the micro-gripper adopts wire electro discharge machining technology and material of aluminum alloy (AL-7075). Experimental studies are carried out on the prototype to further validate the performance of micro-gripper. Experimental results indicate that the developed micro-gripper can well satisfy the requirements of our mission, which also means that it can be widely used in micro-manipulation field.

  12. Detection of B-mode polarization at degree angular scales by BICEP2.

    PubMed

    Ade, P A R; Aikin, R W; Barkats, D; Benton, S J; Bischoff, C A; Bock, J J; Brevik, J A; Buder, I; Bullock, E; Dowell, C D; Duband, L; Filippini, J P; Fliescher, S; Golwala, S R; Halpern, M; Hasselfield, M; Hildebrandt, S R; Hilton, G C; Hristov, V V; Irwin, K D; Karkare, K S; Kaufman, J P; Keating, B G; Kernasovskiy, S A; Kovac, J M; Kuo, C L; Leitch, E M; Lueker, M; Mason, P; Netterfield, C B; Nguyen, H T; O'Brient, R; Ogburn, R W; Orlando, A; Pryke, C; Reintsema, C D; Richter, S; Schwarz, R; Sheehy, C D; Staniszewski, Z K; Sudiwala, R V; Teply, G P; Tolan, J E; Turner, A D; Vieregg, A G; Wong, C L; Yoon, K W

    2014-06-20

    We report results from the BICEP2 experiment, a cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarimeter specifically designed to search for the signal of inflationary gravitational waves in the B-mode power spectrum around ℓ∼80. The telescope comprised a 26 cm aperture all-cold refracting optical system equipped with a focal plane of 512 antenna coupled transition edge sensor 150 GHz bolometers each with temperature sensitivity of ≈300  μK(CMB)√s. BICEP2 observed from the South Pole for three seasons from 2010 to 2012. A low-foreground region of sky with an effective area of 380 square deg was observed to a depth of 87 nK deg in Stokes Q and U. In this paper we describe the observations, data reduction, maps, simulations, and results. We find an excess of B-mode power over the base lensed-ΛCDM expectation in the range 30 < ℓ < 150, inconsistent with the null hypothesis at a significance of >5σ. Through jackknife tests and simulations based on detailed calibration measurements we show that systematic contamination is much smaller than the observed excess. Cross correlating against WMAP 23 GHz maps we find that Galactic synchrotron makes a negligible contribution to the observed signal. We also examine a number of available models of polarized dust emission and find that at their default parameter values they predict power ∼(5-10)× smaller than the observed excess signal (with no significant cross-correlation with our maps). However, these models are not sufficiently constrained by external public data to exclude the possibility of dust emission bright enough to explain the entire excess signal. Cross correlating BICEP2 against 100 GHz maps from the BICEP1 experiment, the excess signal is confirmed with 3σ significance and its spectral index is found to be consistent with that of the CMB, disfavoring dust at 1.7σ. The observed B-mode power spectrum is well fit by a lensed-ΛCDM+tensor theoretical model with tensor-to-scalar ratio r = 0

  13. Multi-order bunched soliton pulse generation by nonlinear polarization rotation mode-locking erbium-doped fiber lasers with weak or strong polarization-dependent loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Sheng-Fong; Wang, Huai-Yung; Su, Yu-Chuan; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2014-10-01

    With the assistance of weak or strong polarization-dependent loss (PDL) in the cavity, nonlinear polarization rotation mode-locking (NPRML) of an erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) is demonstrated to show transformation on the soliton from a single to multiple bunched state with nearly one order of magnitude variation on pulsewidth. With the bent intracavity fiber providing the weak PDL, the NPRML shortens the pulsewidth from only 5.3 ps to 4.9 ps and correspondingly broadens the spectral linewidth from 0.43 nm to 0.56 nm when enlarging the pump power from 100 mW to 325 mW. With the use of an inserted polarizer providing strong PDL in an EDFL, the fundamental soliton pulsewidth is significantly compressed to 390 fs, with the spectral linewidth as wide as 7.14 nm. In particular, the parameters of the soliton pulses are nearly unchanged at different pump powers; however, the soliton pulses split to form tightly bunched pulses circulating in the EDFL cavity. There are as many as 18 solitons tightly bunched together at the maximum pump power of up to 325 mW. Such a tightly bunched package can be elucidated by soliton energy quantization and long-range soliton interaction according to the perturbation theory in a passively mode-locked EDFL.

  14. Optical system for study of temporal dynamics of a change in the complex degree of polarization in liquor laser images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovitch, D. T.

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a description of the principles defining period of death by polarimetric study temporal dynamics of changes in optical anisotropy of the cerebrospinal fluid of the human body. The optical model of polycrystalline networks of human body liquor is suggested. The results of investigating the interrelation between the values of statistical (statistical moments of the 1st-4th order), correlation (correlation area, asymmetry coefficient and autocorrelation function excess) and fractal (dispersion of logarithmic dependencies of power spectra) parameters are presented. They characterize the coordinate distributions of absolute value and phase of complex degree of mutual polarization in the points of laser images of liquor and temporal dynamics of optical anisotropy of human body liquor. The diagnostic criteria of death coming prescription are determined.

  15. Orientation and Rotational Motions of Single Molecules by Polarized Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy (polTIRFM)

    PubMed Central

    Beausang, John F.; Sun, Yujie; Quinlan, Margot E.; Forkey, Joseph N.; Goldman, Yale E.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we describe methods to detect the spatial orientation and rotational dynamics of single molecules using polarized total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (polTIRFM). polTIRFM determines the three-dimensional angular orientation and the extent of wobble of a fluorescent probe bound to the macromolecule of interest. We discuss single-molecule versus ensemble measurements, as well as single-molecule techniques for orientation and rotation, and fluorescent probes for orientation studies. Using calmodulin (CaM) as an example of a target protein, we describe a method for labeling CaM with bifunctional rhodamine (BR). We also describe the physical principles and experimental setup of polTIRFM. We conclude with a brief introduction to assays using polTIRFM to assess the interaction of actin and myosin. PMID:22550303

  16. Microwave studies of collision-induced transitions between rotational levels. VIII. Collisions between NH/sub 3/ and polar molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Fabris, A.R.; Oka, T.

    1983-03-15

    The technique of four-level microwave double resonance has been applied to the study of rotation-inversion transitions of NH/sub 3/ induced by collisions with various polar molecules. H/sub 2/O, D/sub 2/O, CH/sub 3/OH, CH/sub 3/X and CHX/sub 3/ (X = F, Cl, Br, I), NO, CO, and OCS were used as collision partners. The values of eta = ..delta..I/I observed for many four-level systems which are connected by dipole-type transitions (..delta..J = +- 1, ..delta..K = 0, parity +bold-arrow-left-right-) are given and qualitatively explained taking into account the long-range dipole--dipole interaction and the pattern of rotational energy levels of the collision partners.

  17. Quantum switching of π-electron rotations in a nonplanar chiral molecule by using linearly polarized UV laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Mineo, Hirobumi; Yamaki, Masahiro; Teranishi, Yoshiaki; Hayashi, Michitoshi; Lin, Sheng Hsien; Fujimura, Yuichi

    2012-09-01

    Nonplanar chiral aromatic molecules are candidates for use as building blocks of multidimensional switching devices because the π electrons can generate ring currents with a variety of directions. We employed (P)-2,2'-biphenol because four patterns of π-electron rotations along the two phenol rings are possible and theoretically determine how quantum switching of the π-electron rotations can be realized. We found that each rotational pattern can be driven by a coherent excitation of two electronic states under two conditions: one is the symmetry of the electronic states and the other is their relative phase. On the basis of the results of quantum dynamics simulations, we propose a quantum control method for sequential switching among the four rotational patterns that can be performed by using ultrashort overlapped pump and dump pulses with properly selected relative phases and photon polarization directions. The results serve as a theoretical basis for the design of confined ultrafast switching of ring currents of nonplanar molecules and further current-induced magnetic fluxes of more sophisticated systems. PMID:22889209

  18. THE MAGNETIZATION DEGREE OF THE OUTFLOW POWERING THE HIGHLY POLARIZED REVERSE-SHOCK EMISSION OF GRB 120308A

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Shuai; Jin, Zhi-Ping; Wei, Da-Ming E-mail: dmwei@pmo.ac.cn

    2015-01-01

    GRB 120308A, a long duration γ-ray burst (GRB) detected by Swift, was distinguished by a highly polarized early optical afterglow emission that strongly suggests an ordered magnetic field component in the emitting region. In this work, we model the optical and X-ray emission in the reverse and forward shock scenario and show that the strength of the magnetic field in the reverse-shock region is ∼10 times stronger than that in the forward shock region. Consequently, the outflow powering the highly polarized reverse-shock optical emission was mildly magnetized at a degree of σ ∼ a few percent. Considering the plausible magnetic energy dissipation in both the acceleration and prompt emission phases of the GRB outflow, the afterglow data of GRB 120308A provides us with compelling evidence that, at least for some GRBs, a nonignorable fraction of the energy was released in the form of Poynting flux, confirming the finding first made in the reverse-forward shock emission modeling of the optical afterglow of GRB 990123 by Fan et al. in 2002 and Zhang et al. in 2003.

  19. Linear and nonlinear Faraday rotations of light polarization in a four-level active-Raman-gain medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chengjie; Deng, L.; Hagley, E. W.

    2013-08-01

    We investigate linear and nonlinear Faraday effects in a room-temperature, coherently driven four-level active-Raman-gain (ARG) medium. By using the multiple-scale method, we derive two nonlinear coupled envelope equations governing the dynamics of left- and right-polarized components of a linearly polarized probe field. Under the weak probe field approximation, we demonstrate a factor of four increase of the Faraday rotation angle by the linear and nonlinear response of the ARG scheme without probe field loss. We further compare this ARG system with an M-type five-state electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) scheme and demonstrate the superiority of the ARG scheme over the conventional EIT scheme.

  20. Polarization rotation associated critical phenomena in epitaxial PbTiO3 thin films near room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Wenhui

    2016-04-01

    Strain-driven and temperature-driven monoclinic-orthorhombic phase transition in epitaxial PbTiO3 exhibit similar behavior under electric field, i.e., polarization discontinuity is reduced at the first-order ferroelectric-ferroelectric transition whose latent heat vanishes at a critical point. Due to critical phenomena the energy barrier for polarization rotation significantly diminishes, and hence thermodynamic response functions tend to diverge in the induced monoclinic states. Phenomenological calculations show that dielectric and piezoelectric properties are highly tunable by in-plane strain and electric field, and large electromechanical response may occur in epitaxial PbTiO3 thin films at room temperature. Phenomenological calculations show that large electrocaloric responsivity can also be expected at room temperature by manipulating the phase transition.

  1. Optical Properties of CuInSe2 Bulk Material Characterized by a Fixed Polarizer-Rotating Analyzer Spectroscopic Ellipsometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo, M. L.; Lachab, M.; Zouaoui, A.; Alhamed, M.; Llinares, C.; Peyrade, J. P.; Galibert, J.

    1997-03-01

    In the present paper, we have investigated the optical properties of CuInSe2 single and polycrystals using a broad band fixed polarizer-rotating analyzer spectroscopic ellipsometer (RAE) in the spectral range 250 to 1700 nm. The wavelength dependence of CuInSe2 optical constants was studied assuming a two-phase system: the ambient medium and the sample. We have determined interband transition energies near and above the bandgap by a detailed analysis of the absorption spectrum and through the third joint-density-of-states (JDOS) derivative computation. Measurements were carried out on nearly-stoichiometric and In-rich CuInSe2 substrates.

  2. Reflection-induced linear polarization rotation and phase modulation between orthogonal waves for refractive index variation measurement.

    PubMed

    Twu, Ruey-Ching; Wang, Jhao-Sheng

    2016-04-01

    An optical phase interrogation is proposed to study reflection-induced linear polarization rotation in a common-path homodyne interferometer. This optical methodology can also be applied to the measurement of the refractive index variation of a liquid solution. The performance of the refractive index sensing structure is discussed theoretically, and the experimental results demonstrated a very good ability based on the proposed schemes. Compared with a conventional common-path heterodyne interferometer, the proposed homodyne interferometer with only a single channel reduced the usage of optic elements. PMID:27192320

  3. A widely tunable wavelength converter based on nonlinear polarization rotation in a carbon-nanotube-deposited D-shaped fiber.

    PubMed

    Chow, K K; Yamashita, S; Song, Y W

    2009-04-27

    We demonstrate widely tunable wavelength conversion based on cross-phase modulation induced nonlinear polarization rotation in a carbon nanotubes (CNTs) deposited D-shaped fiber. A 5-centimeter-long CNT-deposited D-shaped fiber is used as the nonlinear medium for wavelength conversion of a 10 Gb/s non-return-to-zero signal. Wavelength tunable converted signal over 40 nm is obtained with around 2.5-dB power penalty in the bit-error-rate measurements. PMID:19399145

  4. Proposal for fabrication-tolerant SOI polarization splitter-rotator based on cascaded MMI couplers and an assisted bi-level taper

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Qi, Minghao; Xuan, Yi; Huang, Haiyang; Li, You; Li, Ming; Chen, Xin; Jia, Qi; Sheng, Zhen; Wu, Aimin; Li, Wei; Wang, Xi; Zou, Shichang; Gan, Fuwan

    2014-01-01

    A novel silicon-on-insulator (SOI) polarization splitter-rotator (PSR) with a large fabrication tolerance is proposed based on cascaded multimode interference (MMI) couplers and an assisted mode-evolution taper. The tapers are designed to adiabatically convert the input TM0 mode into the TE1 mode, which will output as the TE0 mode after processed by the subsequent MMI mode converter, 90-degree phase shifter (PS) and MMI 3 dB coupler. The numerical simulation results show that the proposed device has a < 0.5 dB insertion loss with < −17 dB crosstalk in C optical communication band. Fabrication tolerance analysis is also performed with respect to the deviations of MMI coupler width, PS width, slab height and upper-cladding refractive index, showing that this device could work well even when affected by considerable fabrication errors. With such a robust performance with a large bandwidth, this device offers potential applications for CMOS-compatible polarization diversity, especially in the booming 100 Gb/s coherent optical communications based on silicon photonics technology. PMID:25402029

  5. Proposal for fabrication-tolerant SOI polarization splitter-rotator based on cascaded MMI couplers and an assisted bi-level taper.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Qi, Minghao; Xuan, Yi; Huang, Haiyang; Li, You; Li, Ming; Chen, Xin; Jia, Qi; Sheng, Zhen; Wu, Aimin; Li, Wei; Wang, Xi; Zou, Shichang; Gan, Fuwan

    2014-11-17

    A novel silicon-on-insulator (SOI) polarization splitter-rotator (PSR) with a large fabrication tolerance is proposed based on cascaded multimode interference (MMI) couplers and an assisted mode-evolution taper. The tapers are designed to adiabatically convert the input TM(0) mode into the TE(1) mode, which will output as the TE(0) mode after processed by the subsequent MMI mode converter, 90-degree phase shifter (PS) and MMI 3 dB coupler. The numerical simulation results show that the proposed device has a < 0.5 dB insertion loss with < -17 dB crosstalk in C optical communication band. Fabrication tolerance analysis is also performed with respect to the deviations of MMI coupler width, PS width, slab height and upper-cladding refractive index, showing that this device could work well even when affected by considerable fabrication errors. With such a robust performance with a large bandwidth, this device offers potential applications for CMOS-compatible polarization diversity, especially in the booming 100 Gb/s coherent optical communications based on silicon photonics technology. PMID:25402029

  6. Changes in the spectrum, in the spectral degree of polarization, and in the spectral degree of coherence of a partially coherent beam propagating through a gradient-index fiber.

    PubMed

    Roychowdhury, Hema; Agrawal, Govind P; Wolf, Emil

    2006-04-01

    Expressions are derived for the cross-spectral density matrix of an electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model beam propagating through a paraxial ABCD system. Using the recently developed unified theory of coherence and polarization of electromagnetic beams and the ABCD matrix for gradient-index fibers, we study the changes of the spectral density, of the spectral degree of polarization, and of the spectral degree of coherence of such a beam as it travels through the fiber. Effects of material dispersion are also considered. PMID:16604779

  7. Asters, Vortices, and Rotating Spirals in Active Gels of Polar Filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, K.; Joanny, J. F.; Jülicher, F.; Prost, J.; Sekimoto, K.

    2004-02-01

    We develop a general theory for active viscoelastic materials made of polar filaments. This theory is motivated by the dynamics of the cytoskeleton. The continuous consumption of a fuel generates a nonequilibrium state characterized by the generation of flows and stresses. Our theory applies to any polar system with internal energy consumption such as active chemical gels and cytoskeletal networks which are set in motion by active processes at work in cells.

  8. [The Measuring Method of Atomic Polarization of Alkali Metal Vapor Based on Optical Rotation and the Analysis of the Influence Factors].

    PubMed

    Shang, Hui-ning; Quan, Wei; Chen, Yao; Li, Yang; Li, Hong

    2016-02-01

    High sensitivity measurements of inertia and magnetic field could be achieved by utilizing a category of devices, which manipulate the atomic spins in the spin-exchange-relaxation-free regime. The alkali cell which contains the alkali metal vapor is used to sense magnetic field and inertia. The atomic number density of alkali vapor and the polarization of alkali metal vapor are two of the most important parameters of the cell. They play an important role in the research on atomic spins in the spin-exchange-relaxation-free regime. Besides, optical polarization plays an important role in quantum computing and atomic physics. We propose a measurement of alkali vapor polarization and alkali number density by detecting the optical rotation in one system. This method simplifies existing experimental equipment and processes. A constant bias magnetic field is applied and the Faraday rotation angle is detected by a bunch of the probe beam to deduce alkali-metal density. Then the magnetic field is closed and a bunch of the pump laser is utilized to polarize alkali-metal. Again, the probe beam is utilized to obtain the polarization of alkali metal. The alkali density obtained at first is used to deduce the polarization. This paper applies a numerical method to analyze the Faraday rotation and the polarization rotation. According to the numerical method, the optimal wavelength for the experiment is given. Finally, the fluctuation of magnetic field and wavelength on signal analysis are analyzed. PMID:27209720

  9. Minimal model for spontaneous cell polarization and edge activity in oscillating, rotating and migrating cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raynaud, Franck; Ambühl, Mark E.; Gabella, Chiara; Bornert, Alicia; Sbalzarini, Ivo F.; Meister, Jean-Jacques; Verkhovsky, Alexander B.

    2016-04-01

    How cells break symmetry and organize activity at their edges to move directionally is a fundamental question in cell biology. Physical models of cell motility commonly incorporate gradients of regulatory proteins and/or feedback from the motion itself to describe the polarization of this edge activity. These approaches, however, fail to explain cell behaviour before the onset of polarization. We use polarizing and moving fish epidermal cells as a model system to bridge the gap between cell behaviours before and after polarization. Our analysis suggests a novel and simple principle of self-organizing cell activity, in which local cell-edge dynamics depends on the distance from the cell centre, but not on the orientation with respect to the front-back axis. We validate this principle with a stochastic model that faithfully reproduces a range of cell-migration behaviours. Our findings indicate that spontaneous polarization, persistent motion and cell shape are emergent properties of the local cell-edge dynamics controlled by the distance from the cell centre.

  10. A mode-locked fibre laser using a Sagnac interferometer and nonlinear polarization rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra-Escamilla, B.; Kuzin, E. A.; Gomez-Garcia, D. E.; Gutierrez-Zainos, F.; Mendoza-Vazquez, S.; Haus, J. W.

    2003-09-01

    We analyse the propagation in a nonlinear, birefringent optical fibre with twist. The results show that the polarization evolution is periodic and they are applied to the analysis of a Sagnac interferometer. We give a useful way to visualize the behaviour of the nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM) (as a function of birefringence, twist, length, and input polarization) in terms of the Poincaré sphere. We describe a new fibre laser configuration based on the NOLM with a symmetrical coupler, quarter-wave retarder, and highly twisted, birefringent fibre in the loop. We achieved stable generation of subpicosecond pulses with milliwatts of average output power.

  11. General circulation driven by baroclinic forcing due to cloud layer heating: Significance of planetary rotation and polar eddy heat transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Masaru; Takahashi, Masaaki

    2016-04-01

    A high significance of planetary rotation and poleward eddy heat fluxes is determined for general circulation driven by baroclinic forcing due to cloud layer heating. In a high-resolution simplified Venus general circulation model, a planetary-scale mixed Rossby-gravity wave with meridional winds across the poles produces strong poleward heat flux and indirect circulation. This strong poleward heat transport induces downward momentum transport of indirect cells in the regions of weak high-latitude jets. It also reduces the meridional temperature gradient and vertical shear of the high-latitude jets in accordance with the thermal wind relation below the cloud layer. In contrast, strong equatorial superrotation and midlatitude jets form in the cloud layer in the absence of polar indirect cells in an experiment involving Titan's rotation. Both the strong midlatitude jet and meridional temperature gradient are maintained in the situation that eddy horizontal heat fluxes are weak. The presence or absence of strong poleward eddy heat flux is one of the important factors determining the slow or fast superrotation state in the cloud layer through the downward angular momentum transport and the thermal wind relation. For fast Earth rotation, a weak global-scale Hadley circulation of the low-density upper atmosphere maintains equatorial superrotation and midlatitude jets above the cloud layer, whereas multiple meridional circulations suppress the zonal wind speed below the cloud layer.

  12. A Cross-Polarization Based Rotating-Frame Separated-Local-Field NMR Experiment Under Ultrafast MAS Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rongchun; Damron, Joshua; Vosegaard, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Rotating-frame separated-local-field solid-state NMR experiments measure highly resolved heteronuclear dipolar couplings which, in turn, provide valuable interatomic distances for structural and dynamic studies of molecules in the solid-state. Though many different rotating-frame SLF sequences have been put forth, recent gains in ultrafast MAS technology have considerably simplified pulse sequence requirements due to the suppression of proton-proton dipolar interactions. In this study we revisit a simple two-dimensional 1H-13C dipolar coupling/chemical shift correlation experiment using 13C detected Cross-Polarization with a Variable Contact time (CPVC) and systematically study the conditions for its optimal performance at 60 kHz MAS. In addition, we demonstrate the feasibility of a proton-detected version of the CPVC experiment. The theoretical analysis of the CPVC pulse sequence under different Hartmann-Hahn matching conditions confirms that it performs optimally under the ZQ (w1H-w1C=±wr) condition for polarization transfer. The limits of the cross polarization process are explored and precisely defined as a function of offset and Hartmann-Hahn mismatch via spin dynamics simulation and experiments on a powder sample of uniformly 13C-labeled L-isoleucine. Our results show that the performance of the CPVC sequence and subsequent determination of 1H-13C dipolar couplings are insensitive to 1H/13C frequency offset frequency when high RF fields are used on both RF channels. Conversely, the CPVC sequence is quite sensitive to the Hartmann-Hahn mismatch, particularly for systems with weak heteronuclear dipolar couplings. We demonstrate the use of the CPVC based SLF experiment as a tool to identify different carbon groups, and hope to motivate the exploration of more sophisticated 1H detected avenues for ultrafast MAS. PMID:25486635

  13. Dark SPOT Detection Using Intensity and the Degree of Polarization in Fully Polarimetric SAR Images for Oil Polution Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakeri, F.; Amini, J.

    2015-12-01

    Oil spill surveillance is of great environmental and economical interest, directly contributing to improve environmental protection. Monitoring of oil spills using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has received a considerable attention over the past few years, notably because of SAR data abilities like all-weather and day-and-night capturing. The degree of polarization (DoP) is a less computationally complex quantity characterizing a partially polarized electromagnetic field. The key to the proposed approach is making use of DoP as polarimetric information besides intensity ones to improve dark patches detection as the first step of oil spill monitoring. In the proposed approach first simple intensity threshold segmentation like Otsu method is applied to the image. Pixels with intensities below the threshold are regarded as potential dark spot pixels while the others are potential background pixels. Second, the DoP of potential dark spot pixels is estimated. Pixels with DoP below a certain threshold are the real dark-spot pixels. Choosing the threshold is a critical and challenging step. In order to solve choosing the appropriate threshold, we introduce a novel but simple method based on DoP of potential dark spot pixels. Finally, an area threshold is used to eliminate any remaining false targets. The proposed approach is tested on L band NASA/JPL UAVSAR data, covering the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Comparing the obtained results from the new method with conventional approaches like Otsu, K-means and GrowCut shows better achievement of the proposed algorithm. For instance, mean square error (MSE) 65%, Overall Accuracy 20% and correlation 40% are improved.

  14. New Constraints on Cosmic Polarization Rotation from the ACTPol Cosmic Microwave Background B-mode Polarization Observation and the BICEP2 Constraint Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Hsien-Hao; Ni, Wei-Tou; Pan, Wei-Ping; Xu, Lixin; di Serego Alighieri, Sperello

    2015-06-01

    Recently, ACTPol measured the cosmic microwave background (CMB) B-mode and E-mode polarizations and obtained TE, EE, BB, TB, and EB power spectra in the multipole range 225-8725. In our previous paper (Paper I), we jointly analyzed the results of three experiments on the CMB B-mode polarization—SPTpol, POLARBEAR, and BICEP2—to include in the model, in addition to the gravitational lensing and inflationary gravitational waves components, the fluctuation effects induced by cosmic polarization rotation (CPR) if it exists within the upper limits at the time. In this paper, we fit both the mean CPR angle < α > and its fluctuation < δ {{α }2}> from the new ACTPol data, and update our fitting of CPR fluctuations using the BICEP2 data taking the new Planck dust measurement results into consideration. We follow the same method used in Paper I. The mean CPR angle is constrained from the EB correlation power spectra to |< α > |\\lt 14 mrad (0.°8) and the fluctuation (rms) is constrained from the BB correlation power spectra to {{< δ {{α }2}> }1/2}\\lt 29.3 mrad (1.°68). Assuming that the polarization angle of Tau A does not change from 89.2 to 146 GHz, the ACTPol data give < α > =1.0+/- 0\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 63. These results suggest that the inclusion of the present ACTPol data is consistent with no CPR detection. Using the new Planck dust measurement, we update our fits of the BICEP2 CPR fluctuation constraint to be 32.8 mrad (1.°88). The joint ACTPol-BICEP2-POLARBEAR CPR fluctuation constraint is 23.7 mrad (1.°36).

  15. New Constraints on Cosmic Polarization Rotation from the ACTPol Cosmic Microwave Background B-mode Polarization Observation and the BICEP2 Constraint Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Hsien-Hao; Ni, Wei-Tou; Pan, Wei-Ping; Xu, Lixin; di Serego Alighieri, Sperello

    2015-06-01

    Recently, ACTPol measured the cosmic microwave background (CMB) B-mode and E-mode polarizations and obtained TE, EE, BB, TB, and EB power spectra in the multipole range 225–8725. In our previous paper (Paper I), we jointly analyzed the results of three experiments on the CMB B-mode polarization—SPTpol, POLARBEAR, and BICEP2—to include in the model, in addition to the gravitational lensing and inflationary gravitational waves components, the fluctuation effects induced by cosmic polarization rotation (CPR) if it exists within the upper limits at the time. In this paper, we fit both the mean CPR angle < α > and its fluctuation < δ {{α }2}> from the new ACTPol data, and update our fitting of CPR fluctuations using the BICEP2 data taking the new Planck dust measurement results into consideration. We follow the same method used in Paper I. The mean CPR angle is constrained from the EB correlation power spectra to |< α > |\\lt 14 mrad (0.°8) and the fluctuation (rms) is constrained from the BB correlation power spectra to {{< δ {{α }2}> }1/2}\\lt 29.3 mrad (1.°68). Assuming that the polarization angle of Tau A does not change from 89.2 to 146 GHz, the ACTPol data give < α > =1.0+/- 0\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 63. These results suggest that the inclusion of the present ACTPol data is consistent with no CPR detection. Using the new Planck dust measurement, we update our fits of the BICEP2 CPR fluctuation constraint to be 32.8 mrad (1.°88). The joint ACTPol-BICEP2-POLARBEAR CPR fluctuation constraint is 23.7 mrad (1.°36).

  16. Flow-Induced Stiffness Enables Torsional Oscillations in a Two-Degree-of-Freedom, Flexibly-Mounted and Free-to-Rotate Rigid Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourazarm, Pariya; Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya

    2015-11-01

    We study flow-induced oscillations of a flexibly-mounted rigid flat plate placed in water, for a plate with two degrees of freedom in the torsional and transverse directions, with no torsional spring, i.e., no structural stiffness in the torsional direction. At low flow velocities, the plate rotates in the clockwise or counterclockwise direction several times while oscillating in the transverse direction. The frequency of these full rotations converges to a constant number for the majority of flow velocities. At higher flow velocities, the full rotations stop and the plate starts to oscillate in the torsional direction as well, as if there existed a torsional spring. It is concluded that these oscillations in the torsional direction are made possible due to the flow-induced stiffness, since there is no structural stiffness in that direction. The support provided by the National Science Foundation, grant CBET-1437988 is acknowledged.

  17. Fluctuations in polarized fluorescence: evidence that muscle cross bridges rotate repetitively during contraction.

    PubMed Central

    Borejdo, J; Putnam, S; Morales, M F

    1979-01-01

    Particular thiols of the myosin subfragment 1 moieties of single glycerinated muscle fibers are covalently labeled with rhodamine. By using appropriate solutions such fibers can be relaxed, be in rigor, or develop active isometric tension. The rhodamine is excited by polarized 514.5-nm laser light; the greater than 580-nm fluorescence is resolved into orthogonal components and the intensity of each is measured by a computer-interfaced photon counting system. Fluctuations over-and-above noise appear in steady-state activity but not in relaxation or rigor and not when the fluorophore is actin-attached instead of myosin-attached. Fluctuations also appear in ratios of polarized intensities--quantities sensitive to fluorophore attitude but not to fluorophore number. The fluctuations are dominated by low (approximately 2 Hz) frequencies similar to separately measured ATPase frequencies. The fluctuations are ascribed to repetitive motion of the cross bridges to which the rhodamine is attached. Images PMID:160564

  18. Information Leakage Problem in Efficient Bidirectional Quantum Secure Direct Communication with Single Photons in Both Polarization and Spatial-Mode Degrees of Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhi-Hao; Chen, Han-Wu; Liu, Wen-Jie

    2016-06-01

    The information leakage problem in the efficient bidirectional quantum secure direct communication protocol with single photons in both polarization and spatial-mode degrees of freedom is pointed out. Next, a way to revise this protocol to a truly secure one is given. We hope people pay more attention to the information leakage problem in order to design truly secure quantum communication protocols.

  19. Unpinning of rotating spiral waves in cardiac tissues by circularly polarized electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xia; Gao, Xiang; Pan, De-Bei; Li, Bing-Wei; Zhang, Hong

    2014-04-01

    Spiral waves anchored to obstacles in cardiac tissues may cause lethal arrhythmia. To unpin these anchored spirals, comparing to high-voltage side-effect traditional therapies, wave emission from heterogeneities (WEH) induced by the uniform electric field (UEF) has provided a low-voltage alternative. Here we provide a new approach using WEH induced by the circularly polarized electric field (CPEF), which has higher success rate and larger application scope than UEF, even with a lower voltage. And we also study the distribution of the membrane potential near an obstacle induced by CPEF to analyze its mechanism of unpinning. We hope this promising approach may provide a better alternative to terminate arrhythmia.

  20. Cycloid manipulation by electric field in BiFeO3 films: Coupling between polarization, octahedral rotation, and antiferromagnetic order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popkov, A. F.; Kulagin, N. E.; Soloviov, S. V.; Sukmanova, K. S.; Gareeva, Z. V.; Zvezdin, A. K.

    2015-10-01

    The room temperature multiferroic BiFeO3, by far the most studied experimentally, exhibits outstanding ferroelectric properties with a cycloidal magnetic order in the bulk and many unexpected advantages for possible applications in spintronics, sensor techniques, and photovoltaics. To consider ferroelectric and magnetic phase transitions in multiferroic BiFeO3 under electric field, we suggest the Ginsburg-Landau-like approach based on the symmetry and P -ω -L coupling, where the order parameters are: P is the electric polarization, ω is the axial vector of antidistorsion (describing a rotation of the oxygen octahedrons), and L is the antiferromagnetic vector. The theoretical model is consistent with experiment and ab initio calculations data. We give the complete set of numerical coefficients of the model and explore the behavior of P and ω vectors in strong electric field. The proposed approach is particularly promising for the analysis of magnetoelectric phenomena whose length scale is significantly larger than the length of the cell used in ab initio calculations. The considered cycloid problem is the clear example of such a system. Electric field-induced transformations of cycloid are exemplified on an epitaxial BiFeO3 film grown on the (001)-oriented substrate. We show that the jump of vectors P and ω in the field E =6 MV/m is accompanied by a jump of a cycloid spin rotation plane. This effect is of particular interest for spintronics and nanoelectronics.

  1. The effect of surface alignment on analog control of director rotation in polarization stiffened SmC* devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reznikov, Mitya; Lopatina, Lena M.; O'Callaghan, Michael J.; Bos, Philip J.

    2011-03-01

    The effect of surface alignment on the achievement of analog ("V"-shaped) electric field control of director rotation in SmC* liquid crystal devices is investigated experimentally and through numerical modeling. Ferroelectric SmC* liquid crystals are intrinsically analog and thresholdless, i.e. the director can be rotated freely around the tilt cone. Whether or not a SmC* liquid crystal cell exhibits thresholdless switching depends strongly on the influence of the cell's alignment layers, on the magnitude of the liquid crystal's spontaneous polarization, and on whether smectic layers adopt a bookshelf or chevron configuration. To study the effect of the surface alignment layers, we have exploited a technique for the vertical (bookshelf) alignment of the smectic layers that does not depend on surface anisotropy. The alignment technique allows an experimental study of the influence of surfaces spanning a wide range of pretilt angles, azimuthal and zenithal anchoring energies. This technique is used to study the effect of surfaces on the threshold behavior of director rotation in SmC* materials under the influence of an electric field. The alignment technique also allowed us to use a high-PS liquid crystal material having an I-A-C phase sequence and reduced layer shrinkage thought to be well suited to thresholdless switching. We show that the alignment layer has a strong effect, and that excellent analog response can be achieved for the case of alignment layers which promote homeotropic director orientation. We further model and discuss the potential effect of a thin layer of nematic at the surface and the possibility of gliding of the easy axis during switching.

  2. Pulse bundles and passive harmonic mode-locked pulses in Tm-doped fiber laser based on nonlinear polarization rotation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiong; Zhou, Pu; Wang, Xiaolin; Xiao, Hu; Liu, Zejin

    2014-03-10

    We demonstrate the nanosecond-level pulses in Tm-doped fiber laser generated by passively harmonic mode-locking. Nonlinear polarization rotation performed by two polarization controllers (PCs) is employed to induce the self-starting harmonic mode-locking. The fundamental repetition rate of the laser is 448.8 kHz, decided by the length of the cavity. Bundles of pulses with up to 17 uniform subpulses are generated due to the split of pulse when the pump power increases and the PCs are adjusted. Continuous harmonic mode-locked pulse trains are obtained with 1st to 6th and even more than 15th order when the positions of the PCs are properly fixed and the pump power is scaled up. The widths of all the uniform individual pulses are mostly 3-5 ns, and pulse with width of 304 ns at fundamental repetition rate can also be generated by adjusting the PCs. Hysteresis phenomenon of the passively harmonic mode-locked pulses' repetition frequency versus pump power is observed. The rather wide 3dB spectral bandwidth of the pulse train (25 nm) indicates that they may resemble noise-like pulses. PMID:24663948

  3. Twisted nematic liquid crystal cell characterization using rotating polarizers including full-field cell gap thickness measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev, Kapil; Prakarsa, Andy; Jiang, Yin Xi; Lee, Hooi Leng; Asundi, Anand

    2009-12-01

    Liquid crystal cells have always been an important part of commercially available displays, modulators and projectors. In this paper, Jones matrix representation including four independent parameters for twisted nematic liquid crystal (TN-LC) cell has been demonstrated. The physical parameters of the TN-LC cell such as twist angle, birefringence and director orientation at the input face of cell has been calculated using intensity transmittance of an experimental set-up that includes circularly polarized light and TN-LC cell sandwiched between two polarizers. The physical parameters have been calculated without any ambiguity using three different wavelengths. The knowledge from above measurement gives the general information about the birefringence and hence liquid crystal cell gap thickness. To acquire full-field liquid crystal cell gap thickness measurement phase shift polariscope has been adopted. The four phase shifted images through the rotating analyzer gives the full-field cell gap thickness measurement. The experimental results have been compared with the commercial point wise measurement and are in good agreement.

  4. Twisted nematic liquid crystal cell characterization using rotating polarizers including full-field cell gap thickness measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev, Kapil; Prakarsa, Andy; Jiang, Yin Xi; Lee, Hooi Leng; Asundi, Anand

    2010-03-01

    Liquid crystal cells have always been an important part of commercially available displays, modulators and projectors. In this paper, Jones matrix representation including four independent parameters for twisted nematic liquid crystal (TN-LC) cell has been demonstrated. The physical parameters of the TN-LC cell such as twist angle, birefringence and director orientation at the input face of cell has been calculated using intensity transmittance of an experimental set-up that includes circularly polarized light and TN-LC cell sandwiched between two polarizers. The physical parameters have been calculated without any ambiguity using three different wavelengths. The knowledge from above measurement gives the general information about the birefringence and hence liquid crystal cell gap thickness. To acquire full-field liquid crystal cell gap thickness measurement phase shift polariscope has been adopted. The four phase shifted images through the rotating analyzer gives the full-field cell gap thickness measurement. The experimental results have been compared with the commercial point wise measurement and are in good agreement.

  5. Quantum coherent π-electron rotations in a non-planar chiral molecule induced by using a linearly polarized UV laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mineo, Hirobumi; Fujimura, Yuichi

    2015-06-01

    We propose an ultrafast quantum switching method of π-electron rotations, which are switched among four rotational patterns in a nonplanar chiral aromatic molecule (P)-2,2’- biphenol and perform the sequential switching among four rotational patterns which are performed by the overlapped pump-dump laser pulses. Coherent π-electron dynamics are generated by applying the linearly polarized UV pulse laser to create a pair of coherent quasidegenerated excited states. We also plot the time-dependent π-electron ring current, and discussed ring current transfer between two aromatic rings.

  6. Analyzing the propagation behavior of coherence and polarization degrees of a phase-locked partially coherent radial flat-topped array laser beam in underwater turbulence.

    PubMed

    Kashani, Fatemeh Dabbagh; Yousefi, Masoud

    2016-08-10

    In this research, based on an analytical expression for cross-spectral density (CSD) matrix elements, coherence and polarization properties of phase-locked partially coherent flat-topped (PCFT) radial array laser beams propagating through weak oceanic turbulence are analyzed. Spectral degrees of coherence and polarization are analytically calculated using CSD matrix elements. Also, the effective width of spatial degree of coherence (EWSDC) is calculated numerically. The simulation is done by considering the effects of source parameters (such as radius of the array setup's circle, effective width of the spectral degree of coherence, and wavelength) and turbulent ocean factors (such as the rate of dissipation of the turbulent kinetic energy per unit mass of fluid and relative strength of temperature and salinity fluctuations, Kolmogorov micro-scale, and rate of dissipation of the mean squared temperature) in detail. Results indicate that any change in the amount of turbulence factors that increase the turbulence power reduces the EWSDC significantly and causes the reduction in the degree of polarization, and occurs at shorter propagation distances but with smaller magnitudes. In addition, being valid for all conditions, the degradation rate of the EWSDC of Gaussian array beams are more in comparison with the PCFT ones. The simulation and calculation results are shown by graphs. PMID:27534473

  7. Modulation of cosmic microwave background polarization with a warm rapidly rotating half-wave plate on the Atacama B-Mode Search instrument.

    PubMed

    Kusaka, A; Essinger-Hileman, T; Appel, J W; Gallardo, P; Irwin, K D; Jarosik, N; Nolta, M R; Page, L A; Parker, L P; Raghunathan, S; Sievers, J L; Simon, S M; Staggs, S T; Visnjic, K

    2014-02-01

    We evaluate the modulation of cosmic microwave background polarization using a rapidly rotating, half-wave plate (HWP) on the Atacama B-Mode Search. After demodulating the time-ordered-data (TOD), we find a significant reduction of atmospheric fluctuations. The demodulated TOD is stable on time scales of 500-1000 s, corresponding to frequencies of 1-2 mHz. This facilitates recovery of cosmological information at large angular scales, which are typically available only from balloon-borne or satellite experiments. This technique also achieves a sensitive measurement of celestial polarization without differencing the TOD of paired detectors sensitive to two orthogonal linear polarizations. This is the first demonstration of the ability to remove atmospheric contamination at these levels from a ground-based platform using a rapidly rotating HWP. PMID:24593374

  8. Distortion-free {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy in coal: {sup 1}H rotating-frame dynamic nuclear polarization and {sup 1}H-{sup 13}C cross-polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Wind, R.A.

    1993-12-31

    A {sup 1}H-{sup 13}C cross-polarization (CP) experiment is described in which the {sup 1}H magnetization, used in CP, is obtained via dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) in the proton rotating frame (RF DNP). This experiment can be carried out in coal and other solids containing unpaired electrons. In this so-called RF DNP-CP experiment, interplay effects between the {sup 1}H-{sup 13}C polarization-transfer times and the {sup 1}H rotating-frame relaxation time are avoided; thus {sup 13}C spectral distortions due to these effects are prevented. Moreover, multiple-contact RF DNP-CP experiments are possible, and these experiments reduce the measuring time of a {sup 13}C spectrum. An application of the RF DNP-CP technique in a low-volatile bituminous coal is given. 25 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Rotations of molecular photoelectron angular distributions in above threshold ionization of H2+ by intense circularly polarized attosecond UV laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Kai-Jun; Chelkowski, Szczepan; Bandrauk, André D.

    2014-10-01

    We present molecular photoelectron angular distributions (MPADs) in multi-photon ionization processes by circularly polarized attosecond UV laser pulses. Simulations are performed on the single electron aligned molecular ion H_2^+ by solving corresponding 3D time-dependent Schrödinger equations. Numerical results of molecular above threshold ionization (MATI) show that rotations of MPADs with respect to the molecular and polarization axes depend on pulse intensities and photoelectron kinetic energies. We attribute the rotation to Γ, the difference between parallel and perpendicular ionization probabilities. It is found that in a resonant ionization process, the rotation angle is also a function of the symmetry of intermediate electronic states. The coherent population transfer between the initial and the resonant electronic states is controlled by pulse intensities. Such dependence of rotations on the pulse intensity is absent in Rydberg resonant ionizations as well as in MATI at large energy photons ℏω > Ip, where ω is angular frequency of photons and Ip is the molecular ionization potential. We describe these processes by a multi-photon perturbation theory model. Effects of molecular alignment and pulse ellipticities on rotations are investigated, confirming the essence of the ionization parameter Γ in rotations of MPADs.

  10. Molecular photoelectron angular distribution rotations in multi-photon resonant ionization of H{sub 2}{sup +} by circularly polarized ultraviolet laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Kai-Jun Chelkowski, Szczepan; Bandrauk, André D.

    2015-04-14

    We study effects of pulse durations on molecular photoelectron angular distributions (MPADs) in ultrafast circular polarization ultraviolet resonant ionization processes. Simulations performed on aligned H{sub 2}{sup +} by numerically solving time dependent Schrödinger equations show rotations of MPADs with respect to the molecular symmetry axes. It is found that in multi-photon resonant ionization processes, rotation angles are sensitive to pulse durations, which we attribute to the coherent resonant excitation between the ground state and the intermediate excited electronic state induced by Rabi oscillations. Multi-photon nonresonant and single photon ionization processes are simulated and compared which exhibit a constant rotation angle. An asymmetry parameter is introduced to describe the pulse duration sensitivity by perturbation theory models. Influence of pulse frequency detunings on MPADs is also investigated where oscillations of rotations are absent at long pulse durations due to nonresonance excitation.

  11. Flow and Heat Transfer in 180-Degree Turn Square Ducts: Effects of Turning Configuration and System Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See; Chyu, Ming-King

    1993-01-01

    Forced flow through channels connected by sharp bends is frequently encountered in various rocket and gas turbine engines. For example, the transfer ducts, the coolant channels surround the combustion chamber, the internal cooling passage in a blade or vane, the flow path in the fuel element of a nuclear rocket engine, the flow around a pressure relieve valve piston, and the recirculated base flow of multiple engine clustered nozzles. Transport phenomena involved in such a flow passage are complex and considered to be very different from those of conventional turning flow with relatively mild radii of curvature. While previous research pertaining to this subject has been focused primarily on the experimental heat transfer, very little analytical work is directed to understanding the flowfield and energy transport in the passage. Therefore, the primary goal of this paper is to benchmark the predicted wall heat fluxes using a state-of-the-art computational fluid dynamics (CFD) formulation against those of measurement for a rectangular turn duct. Other secondary goals include studying the effects of turning configurations, e.g., the semi-circular turn, and the rounded-corner turn, and the effect of system rotation. The computed heat fluxes for the rectangular turn duct compared favorably with those of the experimental data. The results show that the flow pattern, pressure drop, and heat transfer characteristics are different among the three turning configurations, and are substantially different with system rotation. Also demonstrated in this work is that the present computational approach is quite effective and efficient and will be suitable for flow and thermal modeling in rocket and turbine engine applications.

  12. Flow and heat transfer in 180-degree turn square ducts: Effects of turning configuration and system rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ten-See; Chyu, Ming-King

    1993-07-01

    Forced flow through channels connected by sharp bends is frequently encountered in various rocket and gas turbine engines. For example, the transfer ducts, the coolant channels surround the combustion chamber, the internal cooling passage in a blade or vane, the flow path in the fuel element of a nuclear rocket engine, the flow around a pressure relieve valve piston, and the recirculated base flow of multiple engine clustered nozzles. Transport phenomena involved in such a flow passage are complex and considered to be very different from those of conventional turning flow with relatively mild radii of curvature. While previous research pertaining to this subject has been focused primarily on the experimental heat transfer, very little analytical work is directed to understanding the flowfield and energy transport in the passage. Therefore, the primary goal of this paper is to benchmark the predicted wall heat fluxes using a state-of-the-art computational fluid dynamics (CFD) formulation against those of measurement for a rectangular turn duct. Other secondary goals include studying the effects of turning configurations, e.g., the semi-circular turn, and the rounded-corner turn, and the effect of system rotation. The computed heat fluxes for the rectangular turn duct compared favorably with those of the experimental data. The results show that the flow pattern, pressure drop, and heat transfer characteristics are different among the three turning configurations, and are substantially different with system rotation. Also demonstrated in this work is that the present computational approach is quite effective and efficient and will be suitable for flow and thermal modeling in rocket and turbine engine applications.

  13. Single-frequency pulsed Brillouin-thulium fiber laser at 2 µm with nonlinear polarization rotation and active phase modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiong; Lv, Haibin; Zhou, Pu; Wu, Weijun; Wang, Xiaolin; Xiao, Hu; Liu, Zejin

    2014-10-01

    We present a single-frequency (SF) pulsed fiber laser at 2 µm based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in a thulium-doped fiber laser. The effective feedback of the fiber laser is quite weak to induce pulse operation. Nonlinear polarization rotation and active phase modulation are employed to compress the pulse width and stabilize the pulse train. This SF pulsed Brillouin-thulium fiber laser (BTFL) can generate a stable pulse train with a repetition rate of ˜310 kHz and a pulse width of ˜200 ns. The repetition rate of the pulse train can be adjusted by controlling the cavity length, and the pulse width can be tuned between 200 and 500 ns. The central wavelength locates at 1971.58 nm with an optical signal-to-noise ratio of more than 40 dB, and the linewidth is about 6 MHz. This is the first demonstration of the SF pulsed BTFL as far as we know.

  14. Applications of PTTI to new techniques for determining crustal movements, polar motion, and the rotation of the earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, P. L.

    1974-01-01

    New extra-terrestrial techniques are discussed for geodesy and geodynamics include laser range measurements to the moon or to artificial satellites, Doppler measurements with the Transit satellite system, and both independent-clock and linked-antenna microwave interferometry. The ways in which PTTI measurements are used in these techniques will be reviewed, and the accuracies expected during the latter half of the 1970's will be discussed. At least 3 of the techniques appear capable of giving accuracies of 5 cm or better in each coordinate for many points on the earth's surface, and comparable accuracies for the earth's rotation and polar motion. For fixed stations or for sites a few hundred km apart, baseline lengths accurate to 1 cm may be achieved. Ways in which the complementary aspects of the different techniques can be exploited will be discussed, as well as how they tie in with improved ground techniques for determining crustal movements. Some recent results from the extra-terrestrial methods will be mentioned.

  15. A measurement of the cosmic microwave background B-mode polarization power spectrum at sub-degree scales with POLARBEAR

    SciTech Connect

    Ade, P. A. R.; Akiba, Y.; Hasegawa, M.; Anthony, A. E.; Halverson, N. W.; Arnold, K.; Atlas, M.; Barron, D.; Boettger, D.; Elleflot, T.; Feng, C.; Borrill, J.; Errard, J.; Chapman, S.; Chinone, Y.; Flanigan, D.; Dobbs, M.; Gilbert, A.; Fabbian, G.; Collaboration: Polarbear Collaboration; and others

    2014-10-20

    We report a measurement of the B-mode polarization power spectrum in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) using the POLARBEAR experiment in Chile. The faint B-mode polarization signature carries information about the universe's entire history of gravitational structure formation, and the cosmic inflation that may have occurred in the very early universe. Our measurement covers the angular multipole range 500 < ℓ < 2100 and is based on observations of an effective sky area of 25 deg{sup 2} with 3.'5 resolution at 150 GHz. On these angular scales, gravitational lensing of the CMB by intervening structure in the universe is expected to be the dominant source of B-mode polarization. Including both systematic and statistical uncertainties, the hypothesis of no B-mode polarization power from gravitational lensing is rejected at 97.2% confidence. The band powers are consistent with the standard cosmological model. Fitting a single lensing amplitude parameter A{sub BB} to the measured band powers, A{sub BB}=1.12±0.61(stat){sub −0.12}{sup +0.04}(sys)±0.07(multi), where A{sub BB} = 1 is the fiducial WMAP-9 ΛCDM value. In this expression, 'stat' refers to the statistical uncertainty, 'sys' to the systematic uncertainty associated with possible biases from the instrument and astrophysical foregrounds, and 'multi' to the calibration uncertainties that have a multiplicative effect on the measured amplitude A{sub BB}.

  16. A Measurement of the Cosmic Microwave Background B-mode Polarization Power Spectrum at Sub-degree Scales with POLARBEAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Polarbear Collaboration: P. A. R. Ade; Akiba, Y.; Anthony, A. E.; Arnold, K.; Atlas, M.; Barron, D.; Boettger, D.; Borrill, J.; Chapman, S.; Chinone, Y.; Dobbs, M.; Elleflot, T.; Errard, J.; Fabbian, G.; Feng, C.; Flanigan, D.; Gilbert, A.; Grainger, W.; Halverson, N. W.; Hasegawa, M.; Hattori, K.; Hazumi, M.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hori, Y.; Howard, J.; Hyland, P.; Inoue, Y.; Jaehnig, G. C.; Jaffe, A. H.; Keating, B.; Kermish, Z.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.; Le Jeune, M.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Linder, E.; Lungu, M.; Matsuda, F.; Matsumura, T.; Meng, X.; Miller, N. J.; Morii, H.; Moyerman, S.; Myers, M. J.; Navaroli, M.; Nishino, H.; Orlando, A.; Paar, H.; Peloton, J.; Poletti, D.; Quealy, E.; Rebeiz, G.; Reichardt, C. L.; Richards, P. L.; Ross, C.; Schanning, I.; Schenck, D. E.; Sherwin, B. D.; Shimizu, A.; Shimmin, C.; Shimon, M.; Siritanasak, P.; Smecher, G.; Spieler, H.; Stebor, N.; Steinbach, B.; Stompor, R.; Suzuki, A.; Takakura, S.; Tomaru, T.; Wilson, B.; Yadav, A.; Zahn, O.

    2014-10-01

    We report a measurement of the B-mode polarization power spectrum in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) using the POLARBEAR experiment in Chile. The faint B-mode polarization signature carries information about the universe's entire history of gravitational structure formation, and the cosmic inflation that may have occurred in the very early universe. Our measurement covers the angular multipole range 500 < l < 2100 and is based on observations of an effective sky area of 25 \\deg ^2 with 3.'5 resolution at 150 GHz. On these angular scales, gravitational lensing of the CMB by intervening structure in the universe is expected to be the dominant source of B-mode polarization. Including both systematic and statistical uncertainties, the hypothesis of no B-mode polarization power from gravitational lensing is rejected at 97.2% confidence. The band powers are consistent with the standard cosmological model. Fitting a single lensing amplitude parameter ABB to the measured band powers, ABB = 1.12 +/- 0.61 (stat) +0.04-0.12(sys) +/- 0.07 (multi), where ABB = 1 is the fiducial WMAP-9 ΛCDM value. In this expression, "stat" refers to the statistical uncertainty, "sys" to the systematic uncertainty associated with possible biases from the instrument and astrophysical foregrounds, and "multi" to the calibration uncertainties that have a multiplicative effect on the measured amplitude ABB .

  17. GroundBIRD: Observing Cosmic Microwave Polarization at Large Angular Scale with Kinetic Inductance Detectors and High-Speed Rotating Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguri, S.; Choi, J.; Damayanthi, T.; Hattori, M.; Hazumi, M.; Ishitsuka, H.; Karatsu, K.; Mima, S.; Minowa, M.; Nagasaki, T.; Otani, C.; Sekimoto, Y.; Tajima, O.; Tomita, N.; Yoshida, M.; Won, E.

    2016-08-01

    Cosmic microwave background (CMB) is an important source of information about the origin of our universe. In particular, odd-parity large angular scale patterns in the CMB polarization, the primordial B-modes, are strong evidence for an inflationary universe, related to the accelerating expansion of the metric. We are developing a unique telescope, GroundBIRD, to take CMB polarization measurements. The telescope combines novel techniques: high-speed rotation scanning, cold optics, and microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs). We evaluated the response of MKIDs on the rotation stage. Method of shielding from the geo-magnetic field is established. We have also developed a receiver cryostat. We are able to maintain a sufficient cold status for observations on the optical configuration. We plan to start commissioning the system by observing CMB in Japan in 2015-2016. We will then deploy GroundBIRD in the Canary Islands for further scientific observations.

  18. Faraday rotators for use in multijoule Nd:Cr:GSGG and Nd:glass, phase and polarization conjugated multiple-pass amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackel, Steven M.; Moshe, Inon; Kaufman, Alon; Lavi, Raphael; Lallouz, Raphael; Jackel, Z.

    1997-09-01

    High fluence solid-state lasers were built using Nd:Cr:GSGG or Nd:glass in oscillator/multiple-pass phase and polarization conjugated amplifier configurations. Beam path control, thermal stress induced birefringence correction, and isolation were achieved using Faraday rotators. Damage threshold on material and on pulse duration were investigated. Terbium glass was found to have a damage threshold five times greater than that of TGG. The damage threshold of both Terbium doped materials was virtually independent of pulse duration.

  19. Light-induced rotations of chiral birefringent microparticles in optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Donato, M G; Mazzulla, A; Pagliusi, P; Magazzù, A; Hernandez, R J; Provenzano, C; Gucciardi, P G; Maragò, O M; Cipparrone, G

    2016-01-01

    We study the rotational dynamics of solid chiral and birefringent microparticles induced by elliptically polarized laser light in optical tweezers. We find that both reflection of left circularly polarized light and residual linear retardance affect the particle dynamics. The degree of ellipticity of laser light needed to induce rotations is found. The experimental results are compared with analytical calculations of the transfer of angular moment from elliptically polarized light to chiral birefringent particles. PMID:27601200

  20. Light-induced rotations of chiral birefringent microparticles in optical tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Donato, M. G.; Mazzulla, A.; Pagliusi, P.; Magazzù, A.; Hernandez, R. J.; Provenzano, C.; Gucciardi, P. G.; Maragò, O. M.; Cipparrone, G.

    2016-01-01

    We study the rotational dynamics of solid chiral and birefringent microparticles induced by elliptically polarized laser light in optical tweezers. We find that both reflection of left circularly polarized light and residual linear retardance affect the particle dynamics. The degree of ellipticity of laser light needed to induce rotations is found. The experimental results are compared with analytical calculations of the transfer of angular moment from elliptically polarized light to chiral birefringent particles. PMID:27601200

  1. Improving the Electrical Properties of Zr-Doped Bi3.15Nd0.85Ti3O12 Thin Films by Engineering Polarization Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Feng; Guo, Yichen; Zong, Zhihao; Hao, Xuehong; Shi, Yiwen; Tang, Minghua

    2016-07-01

    Nd3+/Zr4+-cosubstituted bismuth titanate (BNTZ x , x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5) thin films have been fabricated by chemical solution deposition and their polarization hysteresis loops, leakage current, and capacitance butterfly loops investigated. Results show that, at Zr content of x = 0.1, both capacitance and remanent polarization can be greatly improved. The BNTZ0.1 film also exhibits fatigue-free, excellent leakage current characteristics ( I ≈ 9.44 × 10-9 A) at applied voltage of 3 V. High-quality c-axis-oriented BNTZ x = 0.1 films with improved electrical properties were fabricated; this finding supports the feasibility of engineering polarization rotation in ferroelectric bismuth titanate (as suggested theoretically by Roy et al. in Appl. Phys. Lett. 102:182901, 2013).

  2. Negative initial phase shift of Kerr rotation generated from the building-up process of resident electron spin polarization in a CdTe single quantum well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, L.-P.; Kurosawa, M.; Kaji, R.; Karczewski, G.; Takeyama, S.; Adachi, S.

    2014-11-01

    Initial phase shift in a precessional motion of resident electron-spin polarization is studied in a CdTe/Cd 0.85Mg0.15Te single quantum well using a time-resolved Kerr rotation technique. The generation dynamics of resident electron-spin polarization involve the formation and transformation of the associated optically excited states and are complicated particularly in the early time region. A careful analysis of the phase shift gives a deep understanding of the generation processes. In the experiments, the negative phase shift of the resident electron-spin polarization is observed, and the mechanism associated especially with a quick hole spin flip in negative trions is studied through the dependences on excitation power and magnetic field strength.

  3. Improving the Electrical Properties of Zr-Doped Bi3.15Nd0.85Ti3O12 Thin Films by Engineering Polarization Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Feng; Guo, Yichen; Zong, Zhihao; Hao, Xuehong; Shi, Yiwen; Tang, Minghua

    2016-04-01

    Nd3+/Zr4+-cosubstituted bismuth titanate (BNTZ x , x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5) thin films have been fabricated by chemical solution deposition and their polarization hysteresis loops, leakage current, and capacitance butterfly loops investigated. Results show that, at Zr content of x = 0.1, both capacitance and remanent polarization can be greatly improved. The BNTZ0.1 film also exhibits fatigue-free, excellent leakage current characteristics (I ≈ 9.44 × 10-9 A) at applied voltage of 3 V. High-quality c-axis-oriented BNTZ x = 0.1 films with improved electrical properties were fabricated; this finding supports the feasibility of engineering polarization rotation in ferroelectric bismuth titanate (as suggested theoretically by Roy et al. in Appl. Phys. Lett. 102:182901, 2013).

  4. Information Leakage in Efficient Bidirectional Quantum Secure Direct Communication with Single Photons in Both Polarization and Spatial-Mode Degrees of Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cai; Situ, Haozhen

    2016-06-01

    Recently, Wang et al. presented a bidirectional quantum secure direct communication protocol with single photons in both polarization and spatial-mode degrees of freedom (Int. J. Theor. Phys. 54(10): 3443-3453, 2015). They claimed that their protocol was efficient and removed the drawback of information leakage. However, we found that the information leakage actually exists in their protocol. In this paper, we analyze Wang et al.'s protocol in detail. In addition, we propose an improvement to avoid the information leakage. The security of the improved protocol has also been discussed.

  5. A simple model for the rotation of a trapped chiral nematic droplet under the action of a linearly polarized laser beam.

    PubMed

    Mosallaeipour, Marjan; Ananthamurthy, Sharath; Madhusudana, N V

    2013-08-01

    There have been recent reports of continuous rotation of chiral nematic droplets in restricted ranges of diameter/pitch (d /p) values, trapped by a linearly polarized laser beam. We have developed a simple model to calculate the distortion in the helical structure of a set of flat layers, caused by the action of the strong electric field of the propagating laser beam on the dielectric anisotropy of the medium. The resulting change in the polarization state of the beam passing through the sample is then used to calculate the torque on the sample as a function of the azimuthal angle of the first layer. The main results are: i) the torque tends to zero even with circularly polarized beam for samples with thicknesses around integral multiples of 0.5p ; ii) the undistorted sample takes an equilibrium orientation for linearly polarized beam, which jumps by π/2 rad at the same sample thicknesses; iii) these samples will have a nonzero torque at all azimuthal angles of the first slice when the helical structure is distorted by the linearly polarized beam. The calculations show that a propagating accordion mode, in which the helical pitch alternately expands and contracts, gives rise to the nonzero torque. The theoretical predictions are in broad agreement with experimental results. PMID:23989758

  6. A spin-optoelectronic detector for the simultaneous measurement of the degree of circular polarization and intensity of a laser beam

    SciTech Connect

    Khamari, Shailesh K. Porwal, S.; Oak, S. M.; Sharma, T. K.

    2015-08-17

    Simultaneous measurement of the degree of circular polarization and intensity of a laser beam is essential in advanced photonic applications. However, it is not feasible with conventional helicity dependent detectors where an additional detector is needed to measure the intensity. Here, we report the development of a spin-optoelectronic detector that can measure the degree of circular polarization and the intensity of a laser beam simultaneously. The principle of operation of device is based on the two independent fundamental phenomena occurring in Au/InP hybrid structures, namely, Inverse Spin Hall Effect (ISHE) and the Photo-Voltaic (PV) Effect. The magnitude of ISHE and PV signals is simultaneously measured across the two pairs of contacts that are made on the top of device. No cross talk is observed between the two detectors made on the same chip. The all-electronic compact device is fast, operates at room temperature, and opens up the possibility of many applications in an integrated optoelectronic platform.

  7. ACS Polarization Calibration - II. The POLV Filter Angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biretta, J.; Kozhurina-Platais, V.

    2004-06-01

    During the astrometric calibration of the polarizer filters, it was noticed that residual star positions between polarized and non-polarized images were highly anisotropic, and rotate modulo the 60 degree rotations of the polarizer filters. We speculate that this anisotropy is produced during manufacture of the polaroid material, and use this to derive the E-vector directions of the POLV filter set. The resulting angles are within 0.3 degrees of those expected from the ACS design specifications, except for the POL60V filter which shows a difference of 1.5 degrees. This strongly confirms the POLV filters are mounted in the filter wheel near their expected rotation angles, and confirms our overall understanding of the camera geometry.

  8. A Study of Broadband Faraday Rotation and Polarization Behavior over 1.3--10 GHz in 36 Discrete Radio Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, C. S.; Gaensler, B. M.; Feain, I. J.

    2016-07-01

    We present a broadband polarization analysis of 36 discrete polarized radio sources over a very broad, densely sampled frequency band. Our sample was selected on the basis of polarization behavior apparent in narrowband archival data at 1.4 GHz: half the sample shows complicated frequency-dependent polarization behavior (i.e., Faraday complexity) at these frequencies, while half shows comparatively simple behavior (i.e., they appear Faraday simple). We re-observed the sample using the Australia Telescope Compact Array in full polarization, with 6 GHz of densely sampled frequency coverage spanning 1.3–10 GHz. We have devised a general polarization modeling technique that allows us to identify multiple polarized emission components in a source, and to characterize their properties. We detect Faraday complex behavior in almost every source in our sample. Several sources exhibit particularly remarkable polarization behavior. By comparing our new and archival data, we have identified temporal variability in the broadband integrated polarization spectra of some sources. In a number of cases, the characteristics of the polarized emission components, including the range of Faraday depths over which they emit, their temporal variability, spectral index, and the linear extent of the source, allow us to argue that the spectropolarimetric data encode information about the magneto-ionic environment of active galactic nuclei themselves. Furthermore, the data place direct constraints on the geometry and magneto-ionic structure of this material. We discuss the consequences of restricted frequency bands on the detection and interpretation of polarization structures, and the implications for upcoming spectropolarimetric surveys.

  9. Rotationally inelastic scattering of NO(A{sup 2}Σ{sup +}) + Ar: Differential cross sections and rotational angular momentum polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Sharples, Thomas R.; Luxford, Thomas F. M.; McKendrick, Kenneth G.; Costen, Matthew L.; Townsend, Dave

    2015-11-28

    We present the implementation of a new crossed-molecular beam, velocity-map ion-imaging apparatus, optimized for collisions of electronically excited molecules. We have applied this apparatus to rotational energy transfer in NO(A{sup 2}Σ{sup +}, v = 0, N = 0, j = 0.5) + Ar collisions, at an average energy of 525 cm{sup −1}. We report differential cross sections for scattering into NO(A{sup 2}Σ{sup +}, v = 0, N′ = 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9), together with quantum scattering calculations of the differential cross sections and angle dependent rotational alignment. The differential cross sections show dramatic forward scattered peaks, together with oscillatory behavior at larger scattering angles, while the rotational alignment moments are also found to oscillate as a function of scattering angle. In general, the quantum scattering calculations are found to agree well with experiment, reproducing the forward scattering and oscillatory behavior at larger scattering angles. Analysis of the quantum scattering calculations as a function of total rotational angular momentum indicates that the forward scattering peak originates from the attractive minimum in the potential energy surface at the N-end of the NO. Deviations in the quantum scattering predictions from the experimental results, for scattering at angles greater than 10°, are observed to be more significant for scattering to odd final N′. We suggest that this represents inaccuracies in the potential energy surface, and in particular in its representation of the difference between the N- and O-ends of the molecule, as given by the odd-order Legendre moments of the surface.

  10. Development of a Precise Polarization Modulator for UV Spectropolarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, S.; Shimizu, T.; Kano, R.; Bando, T.; Ishikawa, R.; Giono, G.; Tsuneta, S.; Nakayama, S.; Tajima, T.

    2015-10-01

    We developed a polarization modulation unit (PMU) to rotate a waveplate continuously in order to observe solar magnetic fields by spectropolarimetry. The non-uniformity of the PMU rotation may cause errors in the measurement of the degree of linear polarization (scale error) and its angle (crosstalk between Stokes-Q and -U), although it does not cause an artificial linear polarization signal (spurious polarization). We rotated a waveplate with the PMU to obtain a polarization modulation curve and estimated the scale error and crosstalk caused by the rotation non-uniformity. The estimated scale error and crosstalk were {<} 0.01 % for both. This PMU will be used as a waveplate motor for the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha SpectroPolarimeter (CLASP) rocket experiment. We confirm that the PMU performs and functions sufficiently well for CLASP.

  11. Reducing the influence of direct reflection on return signal detection in a 3D imaging lidar system by rotating the polarizing beam splitter.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunhui; Lee, Xiaobao; Cui, Tianxiang; Qu, Yang; Li, Yunxi; Li, Hailong; Wang, Qi

    2016-03-01

    The direction rule of the laser beam traveling through a deflected polarizing beam splitter (PBS) cube is derived. It reveals that, due to the influence of end-face reflection of the PBS at the detector side, the emergent beam coming from the incident beam parallels the direction of the original case without rotation, with only a very small translation interval between them. The formula of the translation interval is also given. Meanwhile, the emergent beam from the return signal at the detector side deflects at an angle twice that of the PBS rotation angle. The correctness has been verified by an experiment. The intensity transmittance of the emergent beam when propagating in the PBS is changes very little if the rotation angle is less than 35 deg. In a 3D imaging lidar system, by rotating the PBS cube by an angle, the direction of the return signal optical axis is separated from that of the origin, which can decrease or eliminate the influence of direct reflection caused by the prism end face on target return signal detection. This has been checked by experiment. PMID:26974613

  12. Full-duplex radio over fiber link with colorless source-free base station based on single sideband optical mm-wave signal with polarization rotated optical carrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jianxin

    2016-07-01

    A full-duplex radio-over fiber (RoF) link scheme based on single sideband (SSB) optical millimeter (mm)-wave signal with polarization-rotated optical carrier is proposed to realize the source-free colorless base station (BS), in which a polarization beam splitter (PBS) is used to abstract part of the optical carrier for conveying the uplink data. Since the optical carrier for the uplink does not bear the downlink signal, no cross-talk from the downlink contaminates the uplink signal. The simulation results demonstrate that both down- and up-links maintain good performance. The mm-wave signal distribution network based on the proposed full duplex fiber link scheme can use the uniform source-free colorless BSs, which makes the access system very simpler.

  13. Diffraction image formation in optical systems with polarization aberrations. II - Amplitude response matrices for rotationally symmetric systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, James P., Jr.; Chipman, Russell A.

    1991-01-01

    In the previous paper in this series (McGuire and Chipman, 1990), a formulation was established for the calculation and analysis of diffraction image quality in polarizing optical systems illuminated with partially polarized, partially coherent light. In the present paper, the effect of second- and fourth-order polarization aberrations on the image plane diffraction patterns are examined. The amplitude response matrix is calculated for optical systems with small numerical apertures. Numerical results are presented for optical systems with circular apertures for three of the aberration types.

  14. SAGE II (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment) observations of polar stratospheric clouds near 50 degree N January 31-February 2, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, M.C. ); Poole, L.R.; McCormick, M.P. )

    1990-03-01

    Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) form at very cold temperatures which typically occur only at high latitudes during local winter. However, meteorological circumstances in the Arctic during late January 1989 led to PSC formation unusually far to the south, at latitudes (near 50{degree}N) being sampled during the period (January 31-February 2) by the orbiting SAGE II instrument. These unusual PSC sightings and the evolution of meteorological conditions which produced the episode are described. Profiles of SAGE II extinction measurements at 0.525 and 1.02 {mu}m show clear signatures of PSCs and indicate that the cloud particles were considerably larger than the background aerosol. It is most important to note that the clouds were sighted at a latitude where there was extensive sunlight, thus increasing the likelihood of ozone loss both locally and downstream due to enhancements in reactive chlorine expected from heterogeneous chemical processing within the PSCs.

  15. The study of temporal dynamics of a change in the degree of polarizing laser radiation scattered by liquor layers for determining the prescription of death coming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachunskyi, V. T.; Pavlukovych, O. V.; Hadniuk, S. V.

    2012-01-01

    This paper was provide a description of the principles defining prescription death by polarimetric study the temporal dynamics of changes in optical anisotropy of the cerebrospinal fluid of the human body. The optical model of polycrystalline networks of human body liquor is suggested. The results of investigating the interrelation between the values of statistical (statistical moments of the 1st-4th order), correlation (correlation area, asymmetry coefficient and autocorrelation function excess) and fractal (dispersion of logarithmic dependencies of power spectra) parameters are presented. They characterize the coordinate distributions of absolute value and phase of complex degree of mutual polarization in the points of laser images of liquor and temporal dynamics of optical anisotropy of human body liquor. The diagnostic criteria of death coming prescription are determined.

  16. The study of temporal dynamics of a change in the degree of polarizing laser radiation scattered by liquor layers for determining the prescription of death coming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachunskyi, V. T.; Pavlukovych, O. V.; Hadniuk, S. V.

    2011-09-01

    This paper was provide a description of the principles defining prescription death by polarimetric study the temporal dynamics of changes in optical anisotropy of the cerebrospinal fluid of the human body. The optical model of polycrystalline networks of human body liquor is suggested. The results of investigating the interrelation between the values of statistical (statistical moments of the 1st-4th order), correlation (correlation area, asymmetry coefficient and autocorrelation function excess) and fractal (dispersion of logarithmic dependencies of power spectra) parameters are presented. They characterize the coordinate distributions of absolute value and phase of complex degree of mutual polarization in the points of laser images of liquor and temporal dynamics of optical anisotropy of human body liquor. The diagnostic criteria of death coming prescription are determined.

  17. Cyclobutadiene automerization and rotation of ethylene: energetics of the barriers by using spin-polarized wave functions.

    PubMed

    San-Fabián, Emilio; Moscardó, Federico

    2014-07-01

    Spin-projected spin polarized Møller-Plesset and spin polarized coupled clusters calculations have been made to estimate the cyclobutadiene automerization, the ethylene torsion barriers in their ground state, and the gap between the singlet and triplet states of ethylene. The results have been obtained optimizing the geometries at MP4 and/or CCSD levels, by an extensive Gaussian basis set. A comparative analysis with more complex calculations, up to MP5 and CCSDTQP, together with others from the literature, have also been made, showing the efficacy of using spin-polarized wave functions as a reference wave function for Møller-Plesset and coupled clusters calculations, in such problems. PMID:24817406

  18. Asymptotic expansion homogenization of discrete fine-scale models with rotational degrees of freedom for the simulation of quasi-brittle materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezakhani, Roozbeh; Cusatis, Gianluca

    2016-03-01

    Discrete fine-scale models, in the form of either particle or lattice models, have been formulated successfully to simulate the behavior of quasi-brittle materials whose mechanical behavior is inherently connected to fracture processes occurring in the internal heterogeneous structure. These models tend to be intensive from the computational point of view as they adopt an "a priori" discretization anchored to the major material heterogeneities (e.g. grains in particulate materials and aggregate pieces in cementitious composites) and this hampers their use in the numerical simulations of large systems. In this work, this problem is addressed by formulating a general multiple scale computational framework based on classical asymptotic analysis and that (1) is applicable to any discrete model with rotational degrees of freedom; and (2) gives rise to an equivalent Cosserat continuum. The developed theory is applied to the upscaling of the Lattice Discrete Particle Model (LDPM), a recently formulated discrete model for concrete and other quasi-brittle materials, and the properties of the homogenized model are analyzed thoroughly in both the elastic and the inelastic regime. The analysis shows that the homogenized micropolar elastic properties are size-dependent, and they are functions of the RVE size and the size of the material heterogeneity. Furthermore, the analysis of the homogenized inelastic behavior highlights issues associated with the homogenization of fine-scale models featuring strain-softening and the related damage localization. Finally, nonlinear simulations of the RVE behavior subject to curvature components causing bending and torsional effects demonstrate, contrarily to typical Cosserat formulations, a significant coupling between the homogenized stress-strain and couple-curvature constitutive equations.

  19. Rotational master equation for cold laser-driven molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Adelswaerd, A.; Wallentowitz, S.; Vogel, W.

    2003-06-01

    The equations of motion for the molecular rotation are derived for vibrationally cold dimers that are polarized by off-resonant laser light. It is shown that, by eliminating electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom, a quantum master equation for the reduced rotational density operator can be obtained. The coherent rotational dynamics is caused by stimulated Raman transitions, whereas spontaneous Raman transitions lead to decoherence in the motion of the quantized angular momentum. As an example the molecular dynamics for the optical Kerr effect is chosen, revealing decoherence and heating of the molecular rotation.

  20. The Rotational and Gravitational Effect of Earthquakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Richard

    2000-01-01

    The static displacement field generated by an earthquake has the effect of rearranging the Earth's mass distribution and will consequently cause the Earth's rotation and gravitational field to change. Although the coseismic effect of earthquakes on the Earth's rotation and gravitational field have been modeled in the past, no unambiguous observations of this effect have yet been made. However, the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite, which is scheduled to be launched in 2001, will measure time variations of the Earth's gravitational field to high degree and order with unprecedented accuracy. In this presentation, the modeled coseismic effect of earthquakes upon the Earth's gravitational field to degree and order 100 will be computed and compared to the expected accuracy of the GRACE measurements. In addition, the modeled second degree changes, corresponding to changes in the Earth's rotation, will be compared to length-of-day and polar motion excitation observations.

  1. Passive polarization rotator based on silica photonic crystal fiber for 1.31-μm and 1.55-μm bands via adjusting the fiber length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lei; Zhang, Wei-Gang; Wang, Li; Bai, Zhi-Yong; Zhang, Shan-Shan; Wang, Biao; Yan, Tie-Yi; Jonathan, Sieg

    2014-10-01

    A new polarization rotator based on the silica photonic crystal fiber is proposed. The proposed polarization rotator photonic crystal fiber (PR-PCF) possesses a triangle jigsaw-shape core region. The full-vector finite-element method is used to analyze the phenomenon of polarization conversion between the quasi-TE and quasi-TM modes. Numerical simulations show that the wavelengths of 1.31 μm and 1.55 μm are converted with a nearly 100% polarization conversion ratio with their matched coupling length and has a relatively strong realistic fabrication tolerance -100 nm on the y axis and 50 nm on the x axis. The full vectorial finite difference beam propagation method is used to confirm the performance of the proposed PR-PCF.

  2. Numerical calculation of the ion polarization in MEIC

    SciTech Connect

    Derbenev, Yaroslav; Lin, Fanglei; Morozov, Vasiliy; Zhang, Yuhong; Kondratenko, Anatoliy M.; Kondratenko, M. A.; Filatov, Yury N.

    2015-09-01

    Ion polarization in the Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) is controlled by means of universal 3D spin rotators designed on the basis of "weak" solenoids. We use numerical calculations to demonstrate that the 3D rotators have negligible effect on the orbital properties of the ring. We present calculations of the polarization dynamics along the collider's orbit for both longitudinal and transverse polarization directions at a beam interaction point. We calculate the degree of depolarization due to the longitudinal and transverse beam emittances in case when the zero-integer spin resonance is compensated.

  3. Quantitative Analysis of the Degree of Frontal Rotation Required to Anatomically Align the First Metatarsal Phalangeal Joint During Modified Tarsal-Metatarsal Arthrodesis Without Capsular Balancing.

    PubMed

    Dayton, Paul; Kauwe, Merrell; DiDomenico, Lawrence; Feilmeier, Mindi; Reimer, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    The data from 35 consecutive patients with hallux valgus undergoing triplane arthrodesis at the first tarsal metatarsal joint were studied to determine the amount of first metatarsal frontal plane rotation (supination) needed to anatomically align the first metatarsal phalangeal joint on an anterior posterior radiograph without soft tissue balancing at the first metatarsal phalangeal joint. Radiographs were measured both pre- and postoperatively to assess the 1-2 intermetatarsal angle, hallux abductus angle, and tibial sesamoid position (TSP). The mean amount of varus (supination) rotation performed during correction was 22.1° ± 5.2° and the mean amount of intermetatarsal angle reduction achieved after completion of the procedure was 6.9° ± 3.0°. The TSP changed by a mean of 3.3° ± 1.2°. A series of univariate linear regression analyses was performed to analyze the relationship between the frontal plane rotation of the first metatarsal performed during the operation and the preoperative intermetatarsal angle, hallux abductus angle, and TSP. Greater preoperative TSP scores were associated with greater intraoperative varus (supination) rotation required for joint alignment. Direct observation of the alignment changes at the first metatarsal phalangeal joint after metatarsal rotation without distal procedures strengthened the notion that the frontal plane rotational position plays an important role in the bunion deformity. PMID:26481263

  4. Alignment of the Earth's Magnetic Field with the Axis of Rotation and Reversals of Polarity: Laboratory Experiments on a Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Crane, H. R.

    1974-01-01

    A mechanism that can cause the earth's external magnetic field to be aligned with the axis of rotation and to reverse at random times is described. It depends upon two arbitrary assumptions: (a) A dipole magnetic source, of unspecified nature, deep within the core, wanders randomly in direction. (b) The conducting fluid at the outer boundary of the core circulates in a pattern that is symmetrical with respect to the earth's axis of rotation. It is shown that such a circulating layer will act as an anisotropic screen, which will suppress the field of the transverse component of the source dipole. The field observed outside the core will be mainly that of the axial component of the source, and it will reverse abruptly whenever the direction of the source crosses the equatorial plane. Quantitative experimental studies, made on small-scale models, of the effects and their properties are described. The only datum that even suggests a value that may be used for the angular velocity of the circulating outer layer with respect to the source is the angular velocity of the westward drift of the earth's nondipolar field. If that value is used, the anisotropic screening effect comes out to be strong enough to give alignment and reversal characteristics that are similar to those found from paleomagnetic studies. PMID:16592194

  5. A low-temperature spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscope operating in a fully rotatable magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Meckler, S; Gyamfi, M; Pietzsch, O; Wiesendanger, R

    2009-02-01

    A new scanning tunneling microscope for spin-polarized experiments has been developed. The microscope is operated at 4.7 K in a superconducting triple axis vector magnet providing the possibility for measurements depending on the direction of the magnetic field. In single axis mode the maximum field is 5 T perpendicular to the sample plane and 1.3 T in the sample plane, respectively. In cooperative mode fields are limited to 3.5 T perpendicular and 1 T in plane. The microscope is operated in an ultrahigh vacuum system providing optimized conditions for the self-assembled growth of magnetic structures at the atomic scale. The available temperature during growth ranges from 10 up to 1100 K. The performance of the new instrument is illustrated by spin-polarized measurements on 1.6 atomic layers Fe/W(110). It is demonstrated that the magnetization direction of ferromagnetic Fe and Gd tips can be adjusted using the external magnetic field. Atomic resolution is demonstrated by imaging an Fe monolayer on Ru(0001). PMID:19256654

  6. Theoretical prediction of energy dependence for D + BrO → DBr + O reaction: The rate constant and product rotational polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying-Ying; Xie, Ting-Xian; Li, Ze-Rui; Shi, Ying; Jin, Ming-Xing

    2015-03-01

    A quasi-classical trajectory (QCT) calculation is used to investigate the vector and scalar properties of the D + BrO → DBr + O reaction based on an ab initio potential energy surface (X1A’ state) with collision energy ranging from 0.1 kcal/mol to 6 kcal/mol. The reaction probability, the cross section, and the rate constant are studied. The probability and the cross section show decreasing behaviors as the collision energy increases. The distribution of the rate constant indicates that the reaction favorably occurs in a relatively low-temperature region (T<100 K). Meanwhile, three product angular distributions P(θr), P(ϕr), and P(θr, ϕr) are presented, which reflect the positive effect on the rotational angular momentum j’ polarization of the DBr product molecule. In addition, two of the polarization-dependent generalized differential cross sections (PDDCSs), PDDCS00 and PDDCS20, are computed as well. Our results demonstrate that both vector and scalar properties have strong energy dependence. Project supported by the Jilin University, China (Grant No. 419080106440), the Chinese National Fusion Project for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) (Grant No. 2010GB104003), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 10974069).

  7. Novel ultra-broadband polarization splitter-rotator based on mode-evolution tapers and a mode-sorting asymmetric Y-junction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Niu, Ben; Sheng, Zhen; Wu, Aimin; Li, Wei; Wang, Xi; Zou, Shichang; Qi, Minghao; Gan, Fuwan

    2014-01-01

    A novel silicon-on-insulator (SOI) polarization splitter-rotator is proposed based on mode-evolution tapers and a mode-sorting asymmetric Y-junction. The tapers are designed to adiabatically convert the input TM0 mode into the TE1 mode, which will evolve into the TE0 mode in the wide output arm while the input TE0 mode excites the TE0 mode in the narrow arm. The numerical simulation results show that the mode conversion efficiency increases with the lengths of the tapers and the Y-junction for the output waveguide widths in a large range. This proposed device has < 0.4 dB insertion loss with > 12 dB extinction ratio in an ultra-broad wavelength range from 1350 nm to 1750 nm. With such a broad operating bandwidth, this device offers potential applications for polarization diversity operating across every communication bands. Fabrication tolerance analysis is also performed in terms of the device width variation, the slab height variation and the variation of the upper-cladding refractive index. PMID:24921550

  8. Novel ultra-broadband polarization splitter-rotator based on mode-evolution tapers and a mode-sorting asymmetric Y-junction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Niu, Ben; Sheng, Zhen; Wu, Aimin; Li, Wei; Wang, Xi; Zou, Shichang; Qi, Minghao; Gan, Fuwan

    2014-06-01

    A novel silicon-on-insulator (SOI) polarization splitter-rotator is proposed based on mode-evolution tapers and a mode-sorting asymmetric Y-junction. The tapers are designed to adiabatically convert the input TM0 mode into the TE1 mode, which will evolve into the TE0 mode in the wide output arm while the input TE0 mode excites the TE0 mode in the narrow arm. The numerical simulation results show that the mode conversion efficiency increases with the lengths of the tapers and the Y-junction for the output waveguide widths in a large range. This proposed device has < 0.4 dB insertion loss with > 12 dB extinction ratio in an ultra-broad wavelength range from 1350 nm to 1750 nm. With such a broad operating bandwidth, this device offers potential applications for polarization diversity operating across every communication bands. Fabrication tolerance analysis is also performed in terms of the device width variation, the slab height variation and the variation of the upper-cladding refractive index. PMID:24921550

  9. Correlation of the Miocene Peach Spring Tuff with the geomagnetic polarity time scale and new constraints on tectonic rotations in the Mojave Desert, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hillhouse, John W.; Miller, David M.; Turrin, Brent D.

    2010-01-01

    We report new paleomagnetic results and 40Ar/39Ar ages from the Peach Spring Tuff (PST), a key marker bed that occurs in the desert region between Barstow, California, and Peach Springs, Arizona. The 40Ar/39Ar ages were determined using individual hand-picked sanidine crystals from ash-flow specimens used in previous paleomagnetic studies at eight sites correlated by mineralogy, stratigraphic position, and magnetic inclination. Site-mean ages, which range from 18.43 Ma to 18.78 Ma with analytical precision (1 s.d.) typically 0.04 Ma, were obtained from areas near Fort Rock, AZ; McCullough Mts, NV; Cima Dome, Parker Dam, Danby, Ludlow, Kane Walsh, and Stoddard Wash, CA. The regional mean age determination is 18.71 ± 0.13 Ma, after the data were selected for sanidine crystals that yielded greater than 90% radiogenic argon (N=40). This age determination is compatible with previous 40Ar/39Ar dating of the PST after taking various neutron-flux monitor calibrations into account. We report paleomagnetic results from eight new sites that bear on reconstructions of the Miocene basins associated with the Hector Formation, Barstow Formation, and similar fine-grained sedimentary deposits in the Barstow region. Key findings of the new paleomagnetic study pertain to age control of the Hector Formation and clockwise rotation of the Northeast Mojave Domain. Our study of a rhyolitic ash flow at Baxter Wash, northern Cady Mountains, confirms the correlation of the PST within the Hector Formation and prompts reinterpretation of the previously determined magnetostratigraphy. Our model correlates the PST to the normal-polarity zone just below the C6-C5E boundary (18.748 Ma) of the astronomically tuned Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale. After emplacement of the Peach Spring Tuff at Alvord Mountain and the Cady Mountains, the southern part of the Northeast Mojave Domain (between Cady and Coyote Lake faults) underwent clockwise rotation of 30°–55°. Clockwise rotations increase with

  10. Correlation of the Miocene Peach Spring Tuff with the geomagnetic polarity time scale and new constraints on tectonic rotations in the Mojave Desert, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hillhouse, John W.; Miller, David M.; Turrin, Brent D.

    2010-01-01

    We report new paleomagnetic results and 40Ar/39Ar ages from the Peach Spring Tuff (PST), a key marker bed that occurs in the desert region between Barstow, California, and Peach Springs, Arizona. The 40Ar/39Ar ages were determined using individual hand-picked sanidine crystals from ash-flow specimens used in previous paleomagnetic studies at eight sites correlated by mineralogy, stratigraphic position, and magnetic inclination. Site-mean ages, which range from 18.43 Ma to 18.78 Ma with analytical precision (1 s.d.) typically 0.04 Ma, were obtained from areas near Fort Rock, AZ; McCullough Mts, NV; Cima Dome, Parker Dam, Danby, Ludlow, Kane Wash, and Stoddard Wash, CA. The regional mean age determination is 18.71 ± 0.13 Ma, after the data were selected for sanidine crystals that yielded greater than 90% radiogenic argon (N = 40). This age determination is compatible with previous 40Ar/39Ar dating of the PST after taking various neutron-flux monitor calibrations into account. We report paleomagnetic results from eight new sites that bear on reconstructions of the Miocene basins associated with the Hector Formation, Barstow Formation, and similar fine-grained sedimentary deposits in the Barstow region. Key findings of the new paleomagnetic study pertain to age control of the Hector Formation and clockwise rotation of the Northeast Mojave Domain. Our study of a rhyolitic ash flow at Baxter Wash, northern Cady Mountains, confirms the correlation of the PST within the Hector Formation and prompts reinterpretation of the previously determined magnetostratigraphy. Our model correlates the PST to the normal-polarity zone just below the C6–C5E boundary (18.748 Ma) of the astronomically tuned Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale. After emplacement of the Peach Spring Tuff at Alvord Mountain and the Cady Mountains, the southern part of the Northeast Mojave Domain (between Cady and Coyote Lake faults) underwent clockwise rotation of 30°–55°. Clockwise rotations increase with

  11. Blazed vector grating liquid crystal cells with photocrosslinkable polymeric alignment films fabricated by one-step polarizer rotation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Kotaro; Kuzuwata, Mitsuru; Sasaki, Tomoyuki; Noda, Kohei; Kawatsuki, Nobuhiro; Ono, Hiroshi

    2014-12-01

    Blazed vector grating liquid crystal (LC) cells, in which the directors of low-molar-mass LCs are antisymmetrically distributed, were fabricated by one-step exposure of an empty glass cell inner-coated with a photocrosslinkable polymer LC (PCLC) to UV light. By adopting a LC cell structure, twisted nematic (TN) and homogeneous (HOMO) alignments were obtained in the blazed vector grating LC cells. Moreover, the diffraction efficiency of the blazed vector grating LC cells was greatly improved by increasing the thickness of the device in comparison with that of a blazed vector grating with a thin film structure obtained in our previous study. In addition, the diffraction efficiency and polarization states of ±1st-order diffracted beams from the resultant blazed vector grating LC cells were controlled by designing a blazed pattern in the alignment films, and these diffraction properties were well explained on the basis of Jones calculus and the elastic continuum theory of nematic LCs.

  12. Anisotropic strain relaxation and the resulting degree of polarization by one- and two-step growth in nonpolar a-plane GaN grown on r-sapphire substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Shih-Wei; Chen, Yu-Yu; Lai, Chih-Ming; Tu, Li-Wei; Han, Jung

    2013-12-01

    Anisotropic strain relaxation and the resulting degree of polarization of the electronic transition in nonpolar a-plane GaN using one- and two-step growth are studied. By using two-step growth, a slower coalescence and a longer roughening-recovery process lead to larger anisotropic strain relaxation, a less striated surface, and lower densities of basal stacking fault (BSF) and prismatic stacking fault (PSF). It is suggested that anisotropic in-plane strains, surface striation, and BSF and PSF densities in nonpolar a-GaN are consequences of the rate of coalescence, the period of roughening-recovery process, and the degree of anisotropic strain relaxation. In addition, the two-step growth mode can enhance the degree of polarization of the electronic transition. The simulation results of the kṡp perturbation approach show that the oscillator strength and degree of polarization of the electronic transition strongly depend on the in-plane strains upon anisotropic in-plane strain relaxation. The research results provide important information for optimized growth of nonpolar III-nitrides. By using two-step growth and by fabricating the devices on the high-quality nonpolar free-standing GaN substrates, high-efficiency nonpolar a-plane InGaN LEDs can be realized. Nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN LEDs can exhibit a strongly polarized light to improve the contrast, glare, eye discomfort and eye strain, and efficiency in display application.

  13. Anisotropic strain relaxation and the resulting degree of polarization by one- and two-step growth in nonpolar a-plane GaN grown on r-sapphire substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Shih-Wei Chen, Yu-Yu; Lai, Chih-Ming; Tu, Li-Wei; Han, Jung

    2013-12-21

    Anisotropic strain relaxation and the resulting degree of polarization of the electronic transition in nonpolar a-plane GaN using one- and two-step growth are studied. By using two-step growth, a slower coalescence and a longer roughening-recovery process lead to larger anisotropic strain relaxation, a less striated surface, and lower densities of basal stacking fault (BSF) and prismatic stacking fault (PSF). It is suggested that anisotropic in-plane strains, surface striation, and BSF and PSF densities in nonpolar a-GaN are consequences of the rate of coalescence, the period of roughening-recovery process, and the degree of anisotropic strain relaxation. In addition, the two-step growth mode can enhance the degree of polarization of the electronic transition. The simulation results of the k⋅p perturbation approach show that the oscillator strength and degree of polarization of the electronic transition strongly depend on the in-plane strains upon anisotropic in-plane strain relaxation. The research results provide important information for optimized growth of nonpolar III-nitrides. By using two-step growth and by fabricating the devices on the high-quality nonpolar free-standing GaN substrates, high-efficiency nonpolar a-plane InGaN LEDs can be realized. Nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN LEDs can exhibit a strongly polarized light to improve the contrast, glare, eye discomfort and eye strain, and efficiency in display application.

  14. Rotational Electrophoresis of Striped Metallic Microrods

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, K A; Meier, J A; Dougherty, G M; Santiago, J G

    2005-11-28

    Analytical models are developed for the translation and rotation of metallic rods in a uniform electric field. The limits of thin and thick electric double layers are considered. These models include the effect of stripes of different metals along the length of the particle. Modeling results are compared to experimental measurements for metallic rods. Experiments demonstrate the increased alignment of particles with increasing field strength and the increase in degree of alignment of thin versus thick electric double layers. The metal rods polarize in the applied field and align parallel to its direction due to torques on the polarized charge. The torque due to polarization has a second order dependence on the electric field strength. The particles are also shown to have an additional alignment torque component due to non-uniform densities along their length. The orientation distributions of dilute suspensions of particles are also shown to agree well with results predicted by a rotational convective-diffusion equation.

  15. Structural characteristics of yeast F1-ATPase before and after 16-degree rotation of the γ subunit: theoretical analysis focused on the water-entropy effect.

    PubMed

    Yoshidome, Takashi; Ito, Yuko; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki; Ikeguchi, Mitunori; Kinoshita, Masahiro

    2012-07-21

    We have recently proposed a novel picture of the rotation mechanism for F(1)-ATPase [T. Yoshidome, Y. Ito, M. Ikeguchi, and M. Kinoshita, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133, 4030 (2011)]. In the picture, the asymmetric packing in F(1)-ATPase, originating from the water-entropy effect, plays the key role in the rotation. Here, we analyze the differences between the experimentally determined structures of yeast F(1)-ATPase before and after 16° rotation of the γ subunit with the emphasis on the water-entropy effect. For each of these structures, we calculate the hydration entropies of three sub-complexes comprising the γ subunit, one of the β subunits, and two α subunits adjacent to them. The β(E), β(TP), and β(DP) subunits are involved in sub-complexes I, II, and III, respectively. The calculation is performed using a hybrid of the angle-dependent integral equation theory combined with the molecular model for water and the morphometric approach. The absolute value of the hydration entropy is in the following order: sub-complex I > sub-complex II > sub-complex III. The packing efficiency of the sub-complex follows the opposite order. The rotation gives rise to less efficient packing in sub-complex III and a corresponding water-entropy loss. However, the other two sub-complexes, accompanying water-entropy gains, become more efficiently packed. These results are consistent with our picture of the rotation mechanism, supporting its validity. The water-entropy analysis shows that the interfaces of α(DP)-β(DP) and α(E)-β(E) become more open after the rotation, which is in accord with the experimental observation. PMID:22830731

  16. Polarization Aberrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, James P., Jr.; Chipman, Russell A.

    1990-01-01

    The analysis of the polarization characteristics displayed by optical systems can be divided into two categories: geometrical and physical. Geometrical analysis calculates the change in polarization of a wavefront between pupils in an optical instrument. Physical analysis propagates the polarized fields wherever the geometrical analysis is not valid, i.e., near the edges of stops, near images, in anisotropic media, etc. Polarization aberration theory provides a starting point for geometrical design and facilitates subsequent optimization. The polarization aberrations described arise from differences in the transmitted (or reflected) amplitudes and phases at interfaces. The polarization aberration matrix (PAM) is calculated for isotropic rotationally symmetric systems through fourth order and includes the interface phase, amplitude, linear diattenuation, and linear retardance aberrations. The exponential form of Jones matrices used are discussed. The PAM in Jones matrix is introduced. The exact calculation of polarization aberrations through polarization ray tracing is described. The report is divided into three sections: I. Rotationally Symmetric Optical Systems; II. Tilted and Decentered Optical Systems; and Polarization Analysis of LIDARs.

  17. Device For Viewing Polarized Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David A.

    1995-01-01

    Technique for detection of polarized light based on observation of scene through two stacked polarizing disks. No need to rotate polarizers to create flicker indicative of polarization. Implemented by relatively simple, lightweight apparatus. Polarization seen as bow-tie rainbow pattern. Advantageous for detecting polarization in variety of meteorological, geological, astronomical, and related applications.

  18. Visible and infrared polarization ratio spectroreflectometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batten, C. E. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The instrument assists in determining the refractive index and absorption index, at different spectral frequencies, of a solid sample by illuminating the sample at various angles in incidence and measuring the corresponding reflected intensities at various spectral frequencies and polarization angles. The ratio of the intensity of the reflected light for parallel polarized light to that for perpendicular polarized light at two different angles of incidence can be used to determine the optical constants of the sample. The invention involves an apparatus for facilitating the utilization of a wide variety of angles of incidence. The light source and polarizing element are positioned on an outer platform; the sample is positioned on an inner platform. The two platforms rotate about a common axis and cooperate in their rotation such that the sample is rotated one degree for every two degrees of rotation of the light source. This maintains the impingement of the reflected light upon the detector for any angle of incidence without moving or adjusting the detector which allows a continuous change in the angle of incidence.

  19. A revolutionary rotatable electron energy analyzer for advanced high-resolution spin-polarized photoemission studies. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Waddill, G. D.; Willis, R. F.

    1999-10-01

    This report details the construction and testing of a unique analyzer for spin-polarized photoemission studies of magnetic materials. This report details the progress of this project for the period from 9/1/96 through 8/31/99. Progress can be divided into two distinct areas. These are the fabrication, construction, and initial testing of the instrumentation, and the concurrent program of preliminary investigations into materials and experiments appropriate for future studies using the instrumentation developed. The analyzer complete with special input electron optics and Mott detector has been assembled in a special design UHV chamber equipped with all the capabilities needed to perform the described programs of research. These include a sophisticated five motorized axis sample manipulator with low and high temperature capability and rapid temperature cycling (acquired in collaboration with Dr. J.G. Tobin of LLNL), vacuum leak detection and gauging, in situ thin film growth instrumentation, and sample cleaning and magnetizing capabilities, The initial testing of the analyzer has been completed with successful data acquisition using both the multichannel detector mode, and spin-dependent using the Mott detector channeltrons. The data collected using the Mott detector were not truly spin dependent (see below), but demonstrate the operation of the lens and detector design. Acquisition of truly spin-dependent data await use of the EPU. Preliminary indications suggest that the analyzer performs at or above the original design parameters. In the second area of progress, we have conducted a number of preliminary studies toward the ends of identifying appropriate initial systems for investigation, and to further explore new experiments that the new instrumentation will help to pioneer. More detailed descriptions of all of these advances are given.

  20. Efficient and broadband polarization conversion with the coupled metasurfaces.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cheng-ping

    2015-12-14

    Coupled metasurfaces may refer to a composite plasmonic structure, which consists of multilayered but usually different metasurfaces. A pair of orthogonal plasmonic polarizers, which represents one of such systems, can induce a transmission of light and 90-degree polarization rotation. We explored the effect systematically and found that such effect may be highly efficient and broadband in the near-infrared region. By combining the low-loss metal (silver), the longer operating wavelength, and a work style using propagating waveguide mode, conversion efficiency more than 80% has been suggested near the telecom wavelength. We also suggested that, by overlapping the internal surface-plasmon (2, 0) and (1, 1) modes, an efficient and wideband polarization rotation can be realized. The maximal efficiency is 83% around the wavelength 1340 nm, and the working bandwidth reaches 300 nm. Similar effect has also been revealed in the THz band. The results are useful for constructing compact and high-performance polarization rotators. PMID:26698992

  1. USING COORDINATED OBSERVATIONS IN POLARIZED WHITE LIGHT AND FARADAY ROTATION TO PROBE THE SPATIAL POSITION AND MAGNETIC FIELD OF AN INTERPLANETARY SHEATH

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Ming; Feng, Xueshang; Liu, Ying D.; Davies, Jackie A.; Harrison, Richard A.; Owens, Mathew J.; Davis, Chris J.

    2013-11-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) can be continuously tracked through a large portion of the inner heliosphere by direct imaging in visible and radio wavebands. White light (WL) signatures of solar wind transients, such as CMEs, result from Thomson scattering of sunlight by free electrons and therefore depend on both viewing geometry and electron density. The Faraday rotation (FR) of radio waves from extragalactic pulsars and quasars, which arises due to the presence of such solar wind features, depends on the line-of-sight magnetic field component B{sub ∥} and the electron density. To understand coordinated WL and FR observations of CMEs, we perform forward magnetohydrodynamic modeling of an Earth-directed shock and synthesize the signatures that would be remotely sensed at a number of widely distributed vantage points in the inner heliosphere. Removal of the background solar wind contribution reveals the shock-associated enhancements in WL and FR. While the efficiency of Thomson scattering depends on scattering angle, WL radiance I decreases with heliocentric distance r roughly according to the expression I∝r {sup –3}. The sheath region downstream of the Earth-directed shock is well viewed from the L4 and L5 Lagrangian points, demonstrating the benefits of these points in terms of space weather forecasting. The spatial position of the main scattering site r{sub sheath} and the mass of plasma at that position M{sub sheath} can be inferred from the polarization of the shock-associated enhancement in WL radiance. From the FR measurements, the local B{sub ∥sheath} at r{sub sheath} can then be estimated. Simultaneous observations in polarized WL and FR can not only be used to detect CMEs, but also to diagnose their plasma and magnetic field properties.

  2. Using Coordinated Observations in Polarized White Light and Faraday Rotation to Probe the Spatial Position and Magnetic Field of an Interplanetary Sheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Ming; Davies, Jackie A.; Feng, Xueshang; Owens, Mathew J.; Harrison, Richard A.; Davis, Chris J.; Liu, Ying D.

    2013-11-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) can be continuously tracked through a large portion of the inner heliosphere by direct imaging in visible and radio wavebands. White light (WL) signatures of solar wind transients, such as CMEs, result from Thomson scattering of sunlight by free electrons and therefore depend on both viewing geometry and electron density. The Faraday rotation (FR) of radio waves from extragalactic pulsars and quasars, which arises due to the presence of such solar wind features, depends on the line-of-sight magnetic field component B ∥ and the electron density. To understand coordinated WL and FR observations of CMEs, we perform forward magnetohydrodynamic modeling of an Earth-directed shock and synthesize the signatures that would be remotely sensed at a number of widely distributed vantage points in the inner heliosphere. Removal of the background solar wind contribution reveals the shock-associated enhancements in WL and FR. While the efficiency of Thomson scattering depends on scattering angle, WL radiance I decreases with heliocentric distance r roughly according to the expression Ivpropr -3. The sheath region downstream of the Earth-directed shock is well viewed from the L4 and L5 Lagrangian points, demonstrating the benefits of these points in terms of space weather forecasting. The spatial position of the main scattering site r sheath and the mass of plasma at that position M sheath can be inferred from the polarization of the shock-associated enhancement in WL radiance. From the FR measurements, the local B ∥sheath at r sheath can then be estimated. Simultaneous observations in polarized WL and FR can not only be used to detect CMEs, but also to diagnose their plasma and magnetic field properties.

  3. Polarization Property Measurement of the Long Undulator Radiation Using Cr/C Multilayer Polarization Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niibe, Masahito; Mukai, Mikihito; Kimura, Hiroaki; Shoji, Yoshihiko

    2004-05-01

    A rotating analyzer ellipsometry (RAE) system was developed with Cr/C multilayers that function as polarization elements for photon energy range of 110 - 280 eV. Polarization properties of a planar undulator change axisymmetrically in off-axial manner, and the second harmonic is more remarkable for the change. By using the RAE system, the polarization property of the second harmonic radiation from the NewSUBARU long undulator at the energy of 180 eV was examined. The degree of linear polarization of the on-axis radiation was over 0.996. The spatial distribution of the polarization azimuth was measured and was in fair agreement with the theoretical calculation. A peculiar behavior of the polarization property near the radiation peak of the second harmonic was observed by changing the height of the undulator gap.

  4. Polarization Property Measurement of the Long Undulator Radiation Using Cr/C Multilayer Polarization Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Niibe, Masahito; Mukai, Mikihito; Shoji, Yoshihiko; Kimura, Hiroaki

    2004-05-12

    A rotating analyzer ellipsometry (RAE) system was developed with Cr/C multilayers that function as polarization elements for photon energy range of 110 - 280 eV. Polarization properties of a planar undulator change axisymmetrically in off-axial manner, and the second harmonic is more remarkable for the change. By using the RAE system, the polarization property of the second harmonic radiation from the NewSUBARU long undulator at the energy of 180 eV was examined. The degree of linear polarization of the on-axis radiation was over 0.996. The spatial distribution of the polarization azimuth was measured and was in fair agreement with the theoretical calculation. A peculiar behavior of the polarization property near the radiation peak of the second harmonic was observed by changing the height of the undulator gap.

  5. Rotational variation of daughter species production rates in Comet 103P/Hartley: Implications for the progeny of daughter species and the degree of chemical heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Adam J.; Chanover, Nancy J.; DiSanti, Michael A.; Morgenthaler, Jeffrey P.; Cochran, Anita L.; Harris, Walter M.; Russo, Neil Dello

    2014-03-01

    We present analysis of high spectral resolution optical spectra of Comet 103P/Hartley taken during its Fall 2010 apparition. These spectra include transitions belonging to CN, C2, CH, NH2, and OI. We measure production rates and mixing ratios from these spectra. We find evidence for large changes in production rates (factors of a few) over the course of a nucleus rotation, in agreement with other measurements. We also measure variability with rotational phase in the CN/H2O and C2/CN ratios, which has not been previously reported for any comet. There may also be variability in the NH2/H2O ratio with rotational phase, but this trend is not as clear as for CN/H2O. We interpret the changing mixing ratios as due to H2O and C2 being released primarily from the icy grain halo, while the CN parent molecule comes directly from the nucleus. There is evidence that the CH/CN ratio is higher pre-perihelion than post-perihelion. We conclude that the observed CN and NH2 abundances are consistent with HCN and NH3 being the dominant parent molecules for these species. The C2 and CH abundances are higher than those of candidate parent molecules (C2H2 and CH4 respectively), so there must be another source for these molecules in 103P’s coma. Carbonaceous dust grains could serve as this source.

  6. Rotational Variation of Daughter Species Production Rates in Comet 103P/Hartley: Implications for the Progeny of Daughter Species and the Degree of Chemical Heterogeneity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Adam J.; Chanover, Nancy J.; DiSanti, Michael A.; Morgenthaler, Jeffrey P.; Cochran, Anita L.; Harris, Walter M.; Russo, Neil Dello

    2013-01-01

    We present analysis of high spectral resolution optical spectra of Comet 103P/Hartley taken during its Fall 2010 apparition. These spectra include transitions belonging to CN, C2, CH, NH2, and OI. We measure production rates and mixing ratios from these spectra. We find evidence for large changes in production rates (factors of a few) over the course of a nucleus rotation, in agreement with other measurements. We also measure variability with rotational phase in the CN/H2O and C2/CN ratios, which has not been previously reported for any comet. There may also be variability in the NH2/H2O ratio with rotational phase, but this trend is not as clear as for CN/H2O. We interpret the changing mixing ratios as due to H2O and C2 being released primarily from the icy grain halo, while the CN parent molecule comes directly from the nucleus. There is evidence that the CH/CN ratio is higher pre-perihelion than post-perihelion. We conclude that the observed CN and NH2 abundances are consistent with HCN and NH3 being the dominant parent molecules for these species. The C2 and CH abundances are higher than those of candidate parent molecules (C2H2 and CH4 respectively), so there must be another source for these molecules in 103P's coma. Carbonaceous dust grains could serve as this source.

  7. Earth Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickey, Jean O.

    1995-01-01

    The study of the Earth's rotation in space (encompassing Universal Time (UT1), length of day, polar motion, and the phenomena of precession and nutation) addresses the complex nature of Earth orientation changes, the mechanisms of excitation of these changes and their geophysical implications in a broad variety of areas. In the absence of internal sources of energy or interactions with astronomical objects, the Earth would move as a rigid body with its various parts (the crust, mantle, inner and outer cores, atmosphere and oceans) rotating together at a constant fixed rate. In reality, the world is considerably more complicated, as is schematically illustrated. The rotation rate of the Earth's crust is not constant, but exhibits complicated fluctuations in speed amounting to several parts in 10(exp 8) [corresponding to a variation of several milliseconds (ms) in the Length Of the Day (LOD) and about one part in 10(exp 6) in the orientation of the rotation axis relative to the solid Earth's axis of figure (polar motion). These changes occur over a broad spectrum of time scales, ranging from hours to centuries and longer, reflecting the fact that they are produced by a wide variety of geophysical and astronomical processes. Geodetic observations of Earth rotation changes thus provide insights into the geophysical processes illustrated, which are often difficult to obtain by other means. In addition, these measurements are required for engineering purposes. Theoretical studies of Earth rotation variations are based on the application of Euler's dynamical equations to the problem of finding the response of slightly deformable solid Earth to variety of surface and internal stresses.

  8. Effective 90-degree magnetization rotation in Co2FeAl thin film/piezoelectric system probed by microstripline ferromagnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gueye, M.; Zighem, F.; Belmeguenai, M.; Gabor, M. S.; Tiusan, C.; Faurie, D.

    2015-07-01

    Microstripline ferromagnetic resonance technique has been used to study the indirect magnetoelectric coupling occurring in an artificial magnetoelectric heterostructure consisting of a magnetostrictive thin film cemented onto a piezoelectric actuator. Two different modes (sweep-field and sweep-frequency modes) of this technique have been employed to quantitatively probe the indirect magnetoelectric coupling and to observe a voltage induced magnetization rotation (of 90°). This latter has been validated by the experimental frequency variation of the uniform mode and by the amplitude of the sweep-frequency spectra.

  9. Polarization-dependent aluminum metasurface operating at 450 nm.

    PubMed

    Højlund-Nielsen, Emil; Zhu, Xiaolong; Carstensen, Marcus S; Sørensen, Michael K; Vannahme, Christoph; Asger Mortensen, N; Kristensen, Anders

    2015-11-01

    We report on a polarization-dependent plasmonic aluminum-based high-density metasurface operating at blue wavelengths. The fabricated sub-wavelength structures, tailored in size and geometry, possess strong, localized, plasmonic resonances able to control linear polarization. Best performance is achieved by rotating an elongated rectangular structure of length 180 nm and width 110 nm inside a square lattice of period 250 nm. In the case of 45 degrees rotation of the structure with respect to the lattice, the normal-incidence reflectance drops around the resonance wavelength of 457 nm from about 60 percent to below 2 percent. PMID:26561151

  10. Theory of coherent polarization anisotropy in time-resolved two-photon ionization of isolated molecules. Effects of Coriolis couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, S.; Nomura, Y.; Fujimura, Y.

    1987-09-01

    Effects of vibration-rotation (Coriolis) couplings on the coherent polarization anisotropy are theoretically studied in a time-resolved two-photon ionization of a symmetric top molecule. This polarization anisotropy originates from a coherent excitation of the resonant rovibronic molecular eigenstates (rovibronic coherence) whose zeroth order states are mixed through the Coriolis coupling. Expressions for the time-dependent degree of polarization after the coherent excitation of the rovibronic states produced by the Coriolis coupling are derived as a function of the delay time in the pump-probe two-photon ionization. Model calculations of the time-dependent degree of polarization as well as the probabilities of the two-photon ionization are performed to demonstrate the Coriolis coupling effects in the low excess energy regions of the resonant intermediate state. It is shown that oscillatory behaviors in the time-dependent degree of polarization should be observed as a result of the creation of the rovibronic coherence. It is demonstrated that oscillations of the degree of polarization involve both contribution of the purely rotational J-coherence and that of the rovibronic coherence in the resonant manifold when the rotational branches are coherently excited and the characteristic rotation-vibration interaction energy is larger than a typical free rotational energy under jet-cooled condition.

  11. Faraday rotation measurement method and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockman, M. H. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A method and device for measuring Faraday rotation of a received RF signal is described. A simultaneous orthogonal polarization receiver compensates for a 3 db loss due to splitting of a received signal into left circular and right circular polarization channels. The compensation is achieved by RF and modulation arraying utilizing a specific receiver array which also detects and measures Faraday rotation in the presence or absence of spin stabilization effects on a linear polarization vector. Either up-link or down-link measurement of Faraday rotation is possible. Specifically, the Faraday measurement apparatus utilized in conjunction with the specific receiver array provides a means for comparing the phase of a reference signal in the receiver array to the phase of a tracking loop signal related to the incoming signal, and comparing the phase of the reference signal to the phase of the tracking signal shifted in phase by 90 degrees. The averaged and unaveraged signals, are compared, the phase changes between the two signals being related to Faraday rotation.

  12. Jupiter Polar Winds Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Bands of eastward and westward winds on Jupiter appear as concentric rotating circles in this movie composed of Cassini spacecraft images that have been re-projected as if the viewer were looking down at Jupiter's north pole and the planet were flattened.

    The sequence covers 70 days, from October 1 to December 9, 2000. Cassini's narrow-angle camera captured the images of Jupiter's atmosphere in the near-infrared region of the spectrum.

    What is surprising in this view is the coherent nature of the high-latitude flows, despite the very chaotic, mottled and non-banded appearance of the planet's polar regions. This is the first extended movie sequence to show the coherence and longevity of winds near the pole and the features blown around the planet by them.

    There are thousands of spots, each an active storm similar to the size to the largest of storms on Earth. Large terrestrial storms usually last only a week before they dissolve and are replaced by other storms. But many of the Jovian storms seen here, while occasionally changing latitude or merging with each other, persist for the entire 70 days. Until now, the lifetime of the high-latitude features was unknown. Their longevity is a mystery of Jovian weather.

    Cassini collected images of Jupiter for months before and after it passed the planet on December 30, 2000. Six or more images of the planet in each of several spectral filters were taken at evenly spaced intervals over the course of Jupiter's 10-hour rotation period. The entire sequence was repeated generally every other Jupiter rotation, yielding views of every sector of the planet at least once every 20 hours.

    The images used for the movie shown here were taken every 20 hours through a filter centered at a wavelength of 756 nanometers, where there are almost no absorptions in the planet's atmosphere. The images covering each rotation were mosaiced together to form a cylindrical map extending from 75 degrees north to 75 degrees south in

  13. Perceiving polarization with the naked eye: characterization of human polarization sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Temple, Shelby E; McGregor, Juliette E; Miles, Camilla; Graham, Laura; Miller, Josie; Buck, Jordan; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E; Roberts, Nicholas W

    2015-07-22

    Like many animals, humans are sensitive to the polarization of light. We can detect the angle of polarization using an entoptic phenomenon called Haidinger's brushes, which is mediated by dichroic carotenoids in the macula lutea. While previous studies have characterized the spectral sensitivity of Haidinger's brushes, other aspects remain unexplored. We developed a novel methodology for presenting gratings in polarization-only contrast at varying degrees of polarization in order to measure the lower limits of human polarized light detection. Participants were, on average, able to perform the task down to a threshold of 56%, with some able to go as low as 23%. This makes humans the most sensitive vertebrate tested to date. Additionally, we quantified a nonlinear relationship between presented and perceived polarization angle when an observer is presented with a rotatable polarized light field. This result confirms a previous theoretical prediction of how uniaxial corneal birefringence impacts the perception of Haidinger's brushes. The rotational dynamics of Haidinger's brushes were then used to calculate corneal retardance.We suggest that psychophysical experiments, based upon the perception of polarized light, are amenable to the production of affordable technologies for self-assessment and longitudinal monitoring of visual dysfunctions such as age-related macular degeneration. PMID:26136441

  14. Perceiving polarization with the naked eye: characterization of human polarization sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Temple, Shelby E.; McGregor, Juliette E.; Miles, Camilla; Graham, Laura; Miller, Josie; Buck, Jordan; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E.; Roberts, Nicholas W.

    2015-01-01

    Like many animals, humans are sensitive to the polarization of light. We can detect the angle of polarization using an entoptic phenomenon called Haidinger's brushes, which is mediated by dichroic carotenoids in the macula lutea. While previous studies have characterized the spectral sensitivity of Haidinger's brushes, other aspects remain unexplored. We developed a novel methodology for presenting gratings in polarization-only contrast at varying degrees of polarization in order to measure the lower limits of human polarized light detection. Participants were, on average, able to perform the task down to a threshold of 56%, with some able to go as low as 23%. This makes humans the most sensitive vertebrate tested to date. Additionally, we quantified a nonlinear relationship between presented and perceived polarization angle when an observer is presented with a rotatable polarized light field. This result confirms a previous theoretical prediction of how uniaxial corneal birefringence impacts the perception of Haidinger's brushes. The rotational dynamics of Haidinger's brushes were then used to calculate corneal retardance. We suggest that psychophysical experiments, based upon the perception of polarized light, are amenable to the production of affordable technologies for self-assessment and longitudinal monitoring of visual dysfunctions such as age-related macular degeneration. PMID:26136441

  15. [Utilization of a transferred arc-plasma rotating furnace to melt and found oxide mixtures at around 2000 degrees C (presentation of the film VULCANO)].

    PubMed

    Cognet, G; Laffont, G; Jegou, C; Pierre, J; Journeau, C; Sudreau, F; Roubaud, A

    1999-03-01

    Unless security measures are taken, a hypothetical accident resulting from the loss of the cooling circuit in a pressurized water nuclear reactor could cause the heart of the reactor to melt forming a bath, called the corium, mainly composed of uranium, zirconium and iron oxides as well as the structural steel. This type of situation would be similar to the Three Mile Island accident in 1979. In order to limit the consequences of such an accident, the Atomic Energy Commission has implemented a large study program [1] to improve our understanding of corium behavior and determine solutions to stabilize it and avoid its propagation outside the unit. The VULCANO installation was designed in order to perform the trials using real materials which are indispensable to study all the phenomena involved. A film on the VULCANO trials was presented at the Henri Moissan commemorative session organized by the French National Academy of Pharmacy. The rotating furnace used to melt and found the mixture simulating the corium is a direct descendant of the pioneer work by Henri Moissan. An electrical arc is directed at the center of the load to melt which is maintained against the walls by centrifugal force. After six high-temperature trials performed with compositions without uranium oxide, the first trial with real corium showed that the magma spread rather well, a result which is quite favorable for cooling. PMID:10365468

  16. Hybrid polarization control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, George R.; Ibragimov, Edem; Sluz, Joseph; Sova, Raymond

    2005-05-01

    We demonstrate a novel method of polarization control that combines rotatable waveplates (angle control) and variable retarders (retardance control). Such a "hybrid" polarization controller performs far better than conventional controllers, allowing nearly perfect arbitrary-to-arbitrary polarization transformations. We show theoretically that the two control parameters augment one another because they tend to result in orthogonal movements on the Poincaré sphere.

  17. Saturn's North Polar Vortex Revealed by Cassini/VIMS: Zonal Wind Structure and Constraints on Cloud Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baines, Kevin H.; Momary, T. W.; Fletcher, L. N.; Buratti, B. J.; Roos-Serote, M.; Showman, A. P.; Brown, R. H.; Clark, R. N.; Nicholson, P. D.

    2008-09-01

    We present the first high-spatial resolution, near-nadir imagery and movies of Saturn's north polar region that reveal the wind structure of a north polar vortex. Obtained by Cassini/VIMS on June 15, 2008 from high over Saturn's polar region (sub-spacecraft latitude of 65 degrees N. lat) at an altitude of 0.42 million km during the long polar night, these 210-per-pixel images of the polar region north of 73 degrees N. latitude show several concentric cloud rings and hundreds of individual cloud features in silhouette against the 5-micron background thermal glow of Saturn's deep atmosphere. In contrast to the clear eye of the south polar vortex, the north polar vortex sports a central cloud feature about 650-km in diameter. Zonal winds reach a maximum of 150 m/s near 88 degrees N. latitude (planetocentric) - comparable to the south polar vortex maximum of 190 m/s near 88 degrees S. latitude - and fall off nearly monotonically to 10 m/s near 80 degrees N. latitude. At slightly greater distance from the pole, inside the north polar hexagon in the 75-77 degree N. latitude region, zonal winds increase dramatically to 130 m/s, as silhouetted clouds are seen speeding aroud the "race track” of the hexagonal feature. VIMS 5-micron thermal observations over a 1.6-year period from October 29, 2006 to June 15, 2008 are consistent with the polar hexagon structure itself remaining fixed in the Voyager-era radio rotation rate (Desch and Kaiser, Geophys. Res. Lett, 8, 253-256, 1981) to within an accuracy of 3 seconds per rotational period. This agrees with the stationary nature of the wave in this rotation system found by Godfrey (Icarus 76, 335-356, 1988), but is inconsistent with rotation rates found during the current Cassini era.

  18. Measurements of E-Mode Polarization and Temperature-E-Mode Correlation in the Cosmic Microwave Background from 100 Square Degrees of SPTpol Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crites, A. T.; Henning, J. W.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aird, K. A.; Austermann, J. E.; Beall, J. A.; Bender, A. N.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Chiang, H. C.; Cho, H.-M.; Citron, R.; Crawford, T. M.; de Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Everett, W.; Gallicchio, J.; Gao, J.; George, E. M.; Gilbert, A.; Halverson, N. W.; Hanson, D.; Harrington, N.; Hilton, G. C.; Holder, G. P.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hoover, S.; Hou, Z.; Hrubes, J. D.; Huang, N.; Hubmayr, J.; Irwin, K. D.; Keisler, R.; Knox, L.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Li, D.; Liang, C.; Luong-Van, D.; McMahon, J. J.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S. S.; Mocanu, L.; Montroy, T. E.; Natoli, T.; Nibarger, J. P.; Novosad, V.; Padin, S.; Pryke, C.; Reichardt, C. L.; Ruhl, J. E.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Sayre, J. T.; Schaffer, K. K.; Smecher, G.; Stark, A. A.; Story, K. T.; Tucker, C.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Wang, G.; Whitehorn, N.; Yefremenko, V.; Zahn, O.

    2015-05-01

    We present measurements of E-mode polarization and temperature-E-mode correlation in the cosmic microwave background using data from the first season of observations with SPTpol, the polarization-sensitive receiver currently installed on the South Pole Telescope (SPT). The observations used in this work cover 100 {{deg }2} of sky with arcminute resolution at 150 GHz. We report the E-mode angular auto-power spectrum (EE) and the temperature-E-mode angular cross-power spectrum (TE) over the multipole range 500 < ℓ ≤ 5000. These power spectra improve on previous measurements in the high-ℓ (small-scale) regime. We fit the combination of the SPTpol power spectra, data from Planck, and previous SPT measurements with a six-parameter ΛCDM cosmological model. We find that the best-fit parameters are consistent with previous results. The improvement in high-ℓ sensitivity over previous measurements leads to a significant improvement in the limit on polarized point-source power: after masking sources brighter than 50 mJy in unpolarized flux at 150 GHz, we find a 95% confidence upper limit on unclustered point-source power in the EE spectrum of {{D}\\ell }=\\ell (\\ell +1){{C}\\ell }/2π \\lt 0.40 μ {{K}2} at \\ell =3000, indicating that future EE measurements will not be limited by power from unclustered point sources in the multipole range \\ell \\lt 3600, and possibly much higher in \\ell .

  19. (abstract) Effect of Long Period Ocean Tides on the Earth's Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, R. S.; Chao, B. F.; Desai, S.

    1996-01-01

    The second-degree zonal tide raising potential, which is responsible for tidal changes in the Earth's rotation rate and length-of-day, is symmetric about the polar axis and hence can excite the Earth's polar motion only through its action upon nonaxisymmetric features of the Earth such as the oceans. Ocean tidal excitation of polar motion in the diurnal and semidiurnal tidal bands has been previously detected and extensively examined. Here, the detection of ocean tidal excitation of polar motion in the long-period tidal band, specifically at the Mf' (13.63-day) and Mf (13.66-day) tidal frequencies, is reported.

  20. Gamma-ray burst polarization reduction induced by the Lorentz invariance violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hai-Nan; Li, Xin; Chang, Zhe

    2016-08-01

    It has been observed that photons in the prompt emission of some gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are highly polarized. The high polarization is used by some authors to give a strict constraint on the Lorentz invariance violation (LIV). If the Lorentz invariance is broken, the polarization vector of a photon may rotate during its propagation. The rotation angle of polarization vector depends on both the photon energy and the distance of source. It is believed that if high polarization is observed, then the relative rotation angle (denoted by α) of polarization vector of the highest energy photon with respect to that of the lowest energy photon should be no more than π/2. Otherwise, the net polarization will be severely suppressed, thus couldn't be as high as what was actually observed. In this paper, we will give a detailed calculation on the evolution of GRB polarization arising from LIV effect duration the propagation. It is shown that the polarization degree rapidly decrease as α increases, and reaches a local minimum at α ≈ π, then increases until α ≈ 3π/2, after that decreases again until α ≈ 2π, etc. The polarization degree as a function of α oscillates with a quasi-period T ≈ π, while the oscillating amplitude gradually deceases to zero. Moreover, we find that a considerable amount (more than 60% of the initial polarization) of polarization degree can be conserved when α ≈ π/2. The polarization observation in a higher and wider energy band, a softer photon spectrum, and a higher redshift GRB is favorable in order to tightly constrain LIV effect.

  1. Polarized rainbow.

    PubMed

    Können, G P; de Boer, J H

    1979-06-15

    The Airy theory of the rainbow is extended to polarized light. For both polarization directions a simple analytic expression is obtained for the intensity distribution as a function of the scattering angle in terms of the Airy function and its derivative. This approach is valid at least down to droplet diameters of 0.3 mm in visible light. The degree of polarization of the rainbow is less than expected from geometrical optics; it increases with droplet size. For a droplet diameter >1 mm the locations of the supernumerary rainbows are equal for both polarization directions, but for a diameter <1 mm the supernumerary rainbows of the weaker polarization component are located between those in the strong component. PMID:20212586

  2. Polarization degrees of 3p 2P3/2-3s 2S1/2 transition in O5+(1s 23p) produced in collisions of O6+ with He and H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y. Q.; Liu, L.; Xue, P.; Wang, J. G.; Janev, R. K.

    2010-09-01

    Electron capture processes in collisions of O6+ with ground state He and H2 are investigated using the two-centre atomic orbital close-coupling method. Total and state-selective one-electron capture cross sections are obtained for collision energies between 0.5 and 300 keV/u. The comparison with the available experimental state-selective capture data in the overlapping energy range (0.5-100 keV/u for O6++He and 0.5-8 keV/u for O6++H2) shows a good overall agreement. The polarization degrees of 3p 2P3/2-3s 2S1/2 radiation from O5+(3p 2P3/2) produced in O6++He and O6++H2 collisions are calculated from the magnetic substate-selective cross sections with inclusion of cascade contributions from higher n = 4 and n = 5 states. Good agreement is obtained with the experimental data available in the energy range 3-8 keV/u. Below ~10 keV/u, the polarization degrees of O5+(3p 2P3/2) in both collision systems exhibit an oscillatory structure and above this energy they steadily increase with the increase of collision energy, reaching the values of about 0.37 at 300 keV/u. The energy behaviour of the polarization degree of O5+(3p 2P3/2) in the O6++He collision system is determined almost exclusively by the direct electron capture to 3p0 and 3p1 states of O5+, while in the case of the O6++H2 collision system in the energy region below ~40 keV/u it is strongly affected by the cascade contributions from the 4l states, which are the dominant capture states in this system.

  3. Hyperon polarization: An experimental overview

    SciTech Connect

    Lach, J.

    1992-12-01

    The fact that inclusively produced hyperons are produced with significant polarization was first discovered at Fermilab about seventeen years ago. This and subsequent experiments showed that [Lambda][degree] were produced polarized while [bar [Lambda] [degree

  4. Single-beam copying system of 360-degree viewable image-plane disk-type multiplex hologram and polarization effects on diffraction efficiency.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Hung; Cheng, Yih-Shyang; Lei, Zen-Yuan

    2007-08-20

    A two-step holographic process for the fabrication of an image-plane disk-type multiplex hologram is described in this paper. The diffraction efficiency of the transfer hologram is measured as a function of exposure. It is found to be influenced by the polarization of the light beams of the copying system, resulting in different diffraction efficiencies from different areas (under different interference conditions) of the hologram transfer. The factors which cause the phenomenon of diffraction-efficiency difference are demonstrated and the corresponding experimental results are discussed. PMID:19547437

  5. Individual degrees of freedom and the solvation properties of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bren, Urban; Janežič, Dušanka

    2012-07-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations in conjunction with home-developed Split Integration Symplectic Method we effectively decouple individual degrees of freedom of water molecules and connect them to corresponding thermostats. In this way, we facilitate elucidation of structural, dynamical, spectral, and hydration properties of bulk water at any given combination of rotational, translational, and vibrational temperatures. Elevated rotational temperature of the water medium is found to severely hinder hydration of polar molecules, to affect hydration of ionic species in a nonmonotonous way and to somewhat improve hydration of nonpolar species. As proteins consist of charged, polar, and nonpolar amino-acid residues, the developed methodology is also applied to critically evaluate the hypothesis that the overall decrease in protein hydration and the change in the subtle balance between hydration of various types of amino-acid residues provide a plausible physical mechanism through which microwaves enhance aberrant protein folding and aggregation.

  6. Individual degrees of freedom and the solvation properties of water.

    PubMed

    Bren, Urban; Janežič, Dušanka

    2012-07-14

    Using molecular dynamics simulations in conjunction with home-developed Split Integration Symplectic Method we effectively decouple individual degrees of freedom of water molecules and connect them to corresponding thermostats. In this way, we facilitate elucidation of structural, dynamical, spectral, and hydration properties of bulk water at any given combination of rotational, translational, and vibrational temperatures. Elevated rotational temperature of the water medium is found to severely hinder hydration of polar molecules, to affect hydration of ionic species in a nonmonotonous way and to somewhat improve hydration of nonpolar species. As proteins consist of charged, polar, and nonpolar amino-acid residues, the developed methodology is also applied to critically evaluate the hypothesis that the overall decrease in protein hydration and the change in the subtle balance between hydration of various types of amino-acid residues provide a plausible physical mechanism through which microwaves enhance aberrant protein folding and aggregation. PMID:22803529

  7. Polarity of the Amphibian Egg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malacinski, G. M.

    1983-01-01

    Amphibian egg polarity and the mechanism which generates the polarity is addressed. Of particular concern is the question of whether the activation rotation which responds to gravity is a prerequisite for normal development.

  8. Rotational relaxation rate of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene in cytoplasmic membranes of Bacillus subtilis. A new model of heterogeneous rotations.

    PubMed

    Konopásek, I; Svobodová, J; Toptygin, D D; Svoboda, P

    1990-01-01

    The temperature dependence of fluorescence anisotropy, lifetime and differential tangent of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) and its polar trimethylammonium derivative (TMA-DPH) were investigated in cytoplasmic membranes of Bacillus subtilis. The fluorescence parameters were compared in the two types of membranes prepared from bacteria cultivated at 20 and 40 degrees C. Steady-state anisotropy measurements showed that within a broad range of temperatures, membranes cultivated at 20 degrees C exhibit significantly lower values than those prepared from cells cultivated at 40 degrees C. The temperature dependence of lifetime and differential tangent measurements (differential polarized phase fluorimetry) were fully consistent with steady-state anisotropy data of both DPH and TMA-DPH. The low anisotropy values in the case of TMA-DPH could be explained by a shorter lifetime and higher temperature-induced decrease as compared with DPH. Surprisingly, the temperature dependence of rotational rate R calculated according to the model of hindered rotations (Lakowicz 1983) gave misleading results. When increasing the temperature from 5 to 25 degrees C, a marked drop of rotational relaxation rate was observed. The minimum R values were measured between 25 and 30 degrees C and further increase of temperature (up to 60 degrees C) was reflected as increase of the R values. Therefore, a new model of "heterogeneous rotations" was developed. This model assumes that even at low temperatures (approaching 0 degrees C) where the differential tangent reaches zero, a fraction of fast rotating molecules exists. The ratio between fast and slowly rotating molecules may be expressed by this model, the newly calculated rotational rates are fully consistent with anisotropy, lifetime and differential tangent measurements and represent the monotonically increasing function of temperature. PMID:2125290

  9. Crossed elliptical polarization undulator

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Shigemi

    1997-05-01

    The first switching of polarization direction is possible by installing two identical helical undulators in series in a same straight section in a storage ring. By setting each undulator in a circular polarization mode in opposite handedness, one can obtain linearly polarized radiation with any required polarization direction depending on the modulator setting between two undulators. This scheme can be used without any major degradation of polarization degree in any low energy low emittance storage ring.

  10. LIMITS ON COSMOLOGICAL BIREFRINGENCE FROM THE ULTRAVIOLET POLARIZATION OF DISTANT RADIO GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Alighieri, Sperello di Serego; Finelli, Fabio; Galaverni, Matteo

    2010-05-20

    We report on an update of the test on the rotation of the plane of linear polarization for light traveling over cosmological distances, using a comparison between the measured direction of the UV polarization in eight radio galaxies at z>2 and the direction predicted by the model of scattering of anisotropic nuclear radiation, which explains the polarization. No rotation is detected within a few degrees for each galaxy and, if the rotation does not depend on direction, then the all-sky-average rotation is constrained to be {theta} = -0.{sup 0}8 {+-} 2.{sup 0}2. We discuss the relevance of this result for constraining cosmological birefringence when this is caused by the interaction with a cosmological pseudo-scalar field or by the presence of a Cherns-Simons term.

  11. In-Flight Performance of the Polarization Modulator in the CLASP Rocket Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; Shimizu, Toshifumi; Kano, Ryohei; Bando, Takamasa; Ishikawa, Ryoko; Giono, Gabriel; Beabout, Dyana L.; Beabout, Brent L.; Nakayama, Satoshi; Tajima, Takao

    2016-01-01

    We developed a polarization modulation unit (PMU), a motor system to rotate a waveplate continuously. In polarization measurements, the continuous rotating waveplate is an important element as well as a polarization analyzer to record the incident polarization in a time series of camera exposures. The control logic of PMU was originally developed for the next Japanese solar observation satellite SOLAR-C by the SOLAR-C working group. We applied this PMU for the Chromospheric Lyman-alpha SpectroPolarimeter (CLASP). CLASP is a sounding rocket experiment to observe the linear polarization of the Lyman-alpha emission (121.6 nm vacuum ultraviolet) from the upper chromosphere and transition region of the Sun with a high polarization sensitivity of 0.1 % for the first time and investigate their vector magnetic field by the Hanle effect. The driver circuit was developed to optimize the rotation for the CLASP waveplate (12.5 rotations per minute). Rotation non-uniformity of the waveplate causes error in the polarization degree (i.e. scale error) and crosstalk between Stokes components. We confirmed that PMU has superior rotation uniformity in the ground test and the scale error and crosstalk of Stokes Q and U are less than 0.01 %. After PMU was attached to the CLASP instrument, we performed vibration tests and confirmed all PMU functions performance including rotation uniformity did not change. CLASP was successfully launched on September 3, 2015, and PMU functioned well as designed. PMU achieved a good rotation uniformity, and the high precision polarization measurement of CLASP was successfully achieved.

  12. Effects of rotation of fissioning nuclei in the angular distributions of prompt neutrons and gamma rays originating from the polarized-neutron-induced fission of 233U and 235U nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilyan, G. V.; Klenke, J.; Kopach, Yu. N.; Krakhotin, V. A.; Novitsky, V. V.; Pavlov, V. S.; Shatalov, P. B.

    2014-06-01

    The results of an experiment devoted to searches for effects of rotation of fissioning nuclei in the angular distributions of prompt neutrons and gamma rays originating from the polarized-neutron-induced fission of 233U nuclei are presented. The effects discovered in these angular distributions are opposite in sign to their counterparts in the polarized-neutron-induced fission of 235U nuclei. This is at odds with data on the relative signs of respective effects in the angular distribution of alpha particles from the ternary fission of the same nuclei and may be indicative of problems in the model currently used to describe the effect in question. The report on which this article is based was presented at the seminar held at the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics and dedicated to the 90th anniversary of the birth of Yu.G. Abov, corresponding member of Russian Academy of Sciences, Editor in Chief of the journal Physics of Atomic Nuclei.

  13. Observation of polar vortices in oxide superlattices.

    PubMed

    Yadav, A K; Nelson, C T; Hsu, S L; Hong, Z; Clarkson, J D; Schlepütz, C M; Schlepüetz, C M; Damodaran, A R; Shafer, P; Arenholz, E; Dedon, L R; Chen, D; Vishwanath, A; Minor, A M; Chen, L Q; Scott, J F; Martin, L W; Ramesh, R

    2016-02-11

    The complex interplay of spin, charge, orbital and lattice degrees of freedom provides a plethora of exotic phases and physical phenomena. In recent years, complex spin topologies have emerged as a consequence of the electronic band structure and the interplay between spin and spin-orbit coupling in materials. Here we produce complex topologies of electrical polarization--namely, nanometre-scale vortex-antivortex (that is, clockwise-anticlockwise) arrays that are reminiscent of rotational spin topologies--by making use of the competition between charge, orbital and lattice degrees of freedom in superlattices of alternating lead titanate and strontium titanate layers. Atomic-scale mapping of the polar atomic displacements by scanning transmission electron microscopy reveals the presence of long-range ordered vortex-antivortex arrays that exhibit nearly continuous polarization rotation. Phase-field modelling confirms that the vortex array is the low-energy state for a range of superlattice periods. Within this range, the large gradient energy from the vortex structure is counterbalanced by the corresponding large reduction in overall electrostatic energy (which would otherwise arise from polar discontinuities at the lead titanate/strontium titanate interfaces) and the elastic energy associated with epitaxial constraints and domain formation. These observations have implications for the creation of new states of matter (such as dipolar skyrmions, hedgehog states) and associated phenomena in ferroic materials, such as electrically controllable chirality. PMID:26814971

  14. Fast Deterministic Bipolar Switching in Orthogonal Spin Torque Devices via the Control of the Relative Spin Polarizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Junbo; Ralph, Daniel C.; Buhrman, Robert A.

    2014-03-01

    We model 100 ps pulse switching dynamics of orthogonal spin transfer (OST) devices that employ an out-of-plane polarizer (OPP) and an in-plane polarizer (IPP). Simulation results indicate that increasing the spin polarization ratio, CP =PIPP /POPP , results in deterministic switching of the free layer without over-rotation (360 degree rotation). By using spin torque asymmetry to realize an enhanced effective PIPP, we experimentally demonstrate this behavior in OST devices. Modeling predicts that decreasing the effective demagnetization field can substantially reduce the minimum CP required to attain deterministic bipolar switching, while retaining low critical switching current, Ip = 500 μA.

  15. Measurements of optical polarization properties in dental tissues and biomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Oliveras, Alicia; Pecho, Oscar E.; Rubiño, Manuel; Pérez, María M.

    2011-05-01

    Since biological tissues can have the intrinsic property of altering the polarization of incident light, optical polarization studies are important for a complete characterization. We have measured the polarized light scattered off of different dental tissues and biomaterials for a comparative study of their optical polarization property. The experimental setup was composed by a He-Ne laser, two linear polarizers and a detection system based on a photodiode. The laser beam was passed through one linear polarizer placed in front of the sample, beyond which the second linear polarizer (analyzer) and the photodiode detector were placed. First, the maximum laser-light intensity (reference condition) was attained without the sample in the laser path. Then, the sample was placed between the two polarizers and the polarization shift of the scattered laser light was determined by rotating the analyzer until the reference condition was reached. Two dental-resin composites (nanocomposite and hybrid) and two human dental tissues (enamel and dentine) were analyzed under repeatability conditions at three different locations on the sample: 20 measurements of the shift were taken and the average value and the uncertainty associated were calculated. For the human dentine the average value of the polarization shift found was 7 degrees, with an associated uncertainty of 2 degrees. For the human enamel and both dental-resin composites the average shift values were found to be similar to their corresponding uncertainties (2 degrees). The results suggest that although human dentine has notable polarization properties, dental-resin composites and human enamel do not show significant polarization shifts.

  16. Rotatable shear plate interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Duffus, Richard C.

    1988-01-01

    A rotatable shear plate interferometer comprises a transparent shear plate mounted obliquely in a tubular supporting member at 45.degree. with respect to its horizontal center axis. This tubular supporting member is supported rotatably around its center axis and a collimated laser beam is made incident on the shear plate along this center axis such that defocus in different directions can be easily measured.

  17. Online Degrees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolezalek, Holly

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the trend of trainers who are getting degrees through online courses delivered via the Internet. Addresses accreditation issues and what to ask before enrolling in online degree programs. (JOW)

  18. Vectorial rotating vortex Hankel laser beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotlyar, Victor V.; Kovalev, Alexey A.; Soifer, Victor A.

    2016-09-01

    We propose a generalization of spherical waves in the form of linearly polarized beams with embedded optical vortices. The source of these beams is an infinitely narrow light ring with an infinitely small radius. These vectorial beams are obtained based on scalar Hankel beams discovered by the authors recently. We have derived explicit relations for complex amplitudes of all six components of vectorial vortex Hankel beams. A closed analytical expression for the axial projection of the orbital angular momentum density in far field has been obtained. We also showed that the intensity distribution of the electric vector rotates by 90 degrees upon the beam propagation in near field.

  19. Dishonorary Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Carlin

    2008-01-01

    If an honorary degree lacks values to begin with, does withdrawing it deliver a rebuke to the recipient? Is whatever honor that comes with the distinction embedded in the fancy paper, or is it wholly in the eye of the degree holder? Are honorary degrees really such silly things that individuals should mock their bestowal or withdrawal? The case of…

  20. The rotation of the Sun's core.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterno, L.; Sofia, S.; di Mauro, M. P.

    1996-10-01

    The rotation of the Sun's core, below 0.3Rsun_, is inferred from two independent new results. The first is based on the recent oblateness measurements carried out by the Solar Disk Sextant (SDS) instrument outside the Earth's atmosphere, and the second on the very accurate measurements of rotational splittings of the lowest degree acoustic modes, carried out in the framework of the helioseismic network IRIS. By using the theory of slowly rotating stars applied to a solar standard model, we deduce a set of rotational laws for the innermost layers, which are consistent with both the measured oblateness value and the results of the inversion of helioseismic data. The SDS and IRIS results indicate that the Sun's central regions rotate at a rate in between 1.5 and 2 times the surface equatorial angular velocity. As a result of our analysis, we deduce a quadrupole moment J_2_=2.22x10^-7^, which implies an advance of Mercury's perihelion of 42.98arcsec/c, in agreement with the theory of General Relativity and the measurements of Mercury's orbit by means of planetary radar ranging. However, very recent results obtained by the helioseismic network BISON indicate that core rotation is even slower than the polar surface rotation and therefore imply a completely different scenario than that proposed here. If we assume the intermediate solution of rigid body rotation, an alternate source of the oblateness may be attributed to a magnetic field of the order of 10^5^Gauss in the interior of the Sun.

  1. Polarization twist in perovskite ferrielectrics

    PubMed Central

    Kitanaka, Yuuki; Hirano, Kiyotaka; Ogino, Motohiro; Noguchi, Yuji; Miyayama, Masaru; Moriyoshi, Chikako; Kuroiwa, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Because the functions of polar materials are governed primarily by their polarization response to external stimuli, the majority of studies have focused on controlling polar lattice distortions. In some perovskite oxides, polar distortions coexist with nonpolar tilts and rotations of oxygen octahedra. The interplay between nonpolar and polar instabilities appears to play a crucial role, raising the question of how to design materials by exploiting their coupling. Here, we introduce the concept of ‘polarization twist’, which offers enhanced control over piezoelectric responses in polar materials. Our experimental and theoretical studies provide direct evidence that a ferrielectric perovskite exhibits a large piezoelectric response because of extended polar distortion, accompanied by nonpolar octahedral rotations, as if twisted polarization relaxes under electric fields. The concept underlying the polarization twist opens new possibilities for developing alternative materials in bulk and thin-film forms. PMID:27586824

  2. Polarization twist in perovskite ferrielectrics.

    PubMed

    Kitanaka, Yuuki; Hirano, Kiyotaka; Ogino, Motohiro; Noguchi, Yuji; Miyayama, Masaru; Moriyoshi, Chikako; Kuroiwa, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Because the functions of polar materials are governed primarily by their polarization response to external stimuli, the majority of studies have focused on controlling polar lattice distortions. In some perovskite oxides, polar distortions coexist with nonpolar tilts and rotations of oxygen octahedra. The interplay between nonpolar and polar instabilities appears to play a crucial role, raising the question of how to design materials by exploiting their coupling. Here, we introduce the concept of 'polarization twist', which offers enhanced control over piezoelectric responses in polar materials. Our experimental and theoretical studies provide direct evidence that a ferrielectric perovskite exhibits a large piezoelectric response because of extended polar distortion, accompanied by nonpolar octahedral rotations, as if twisted polarization relaxes under electric fields. The concept underlying the polarization twist opens new possibilities for developing alternative materials in bulk and thin-film forms. PMID:27586824

  3. Observation of Polar Vortices in Oxide Superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, R.

    The complex interplay of spin, charge, orbital, and lattice degrees of freedom has provided for a plethora of exotic phase and physical phenomena. Among these, in recent years, topological states of matter and spin textures have emerged as fascinating consequences of the electronic band structure and the interplay between spin and spin-orbit coupling in materials. In this work, we leverage the competition between charge, orbital, and lattice degrees of freedom in superlattices of PbTiO3/SrTiO3 to produce complex, vortex-antivortex pairs (that exhibit smoothly varying ferroelectric polarization with a 10 nm periodicity) that are reminiscent of topological features such as skyrmions and merons. Using a combination of advanced layer-by-layer growth techniques, atomic-resolution mapping of structure and local polar distortions using scanning-transmission electron microscopy, and phase-field modeling approaches we present a comprehensive picture of the nature of the varying polarization profile in such vortex states. The continuous rotation of the polar state into the vortex structures is thought to occur from an interplay of polar discontinuities at the PbTiO3/SrTiO3 interface (where), the phase transformation strain and gradient energy in the PbTiO3 layer, and the strain imposed by the substrate. Finally, the implications of these observations are discussed as they pertain to producing new states of matter and phenomena in ferroic materials.

  4. Nonaxisymmetric oscillations of differentially rotating relativistic stars

    SciTech Connect

    Passamonti, Andrea; Stavridis, Adamantios; Kokkotas, Kostas D.

    2008-01-15

    Nonaxisymmetric oscillations of differentially rotating stars are studied using both slow rotation and Cowling approximation. The equilibrium stellar models are relativistic polytropes where differential rotation is described by the relativistic j-constant rotation law. The oscillation spectrum is studied versus three main parameters: the stellar compactness M/R, the degree of differential rotation A, and the number of maximum couplings l{sub max}. It is shown that the rotational splitting of the nonaxisymmetric modes are strongly enhanced by increasing the compactness of the star and the degree of differential rotation. Finally, we investigate the relation between the fundamental quadrupole mode and the corotation band of differentially rotating stars.

  5. Mechanisms for oscillatory true polar wander.

    PubMed

    Creveling, J R; Mitrovica, J X; Chan, N-H; Latychev, K; Matsuyama, I

    2012-11-01

    Palaeomagnetic studies of Palaeoproterozoic to Cretaceous rocks propose a suite of large and relatively rapid (tens of degrees over 10 to 100 million years) excursions of the rotation pole relative to the surface geography, or true polar wander (TPW). These excursions may be linked in an oscillatory, approximately coaxial succession about the centre of the contemporaneous supercontinent. Within the framework of a standard rotational theory, in which a delayed viscous adjustment of the rotational bulge acts to stabilize the rotation axis, geodynamic models for oscillatory TPW generally appeal to consecutive, opposite loading phases of comparable magnitude. Here we extend a nonlinear rotational stability theory to incorporate the stabilizing effect of TPW-induced elastic stresses in the lithosphere. We demonstrate that convectively driven inertia perturbations acting on a nearly prolate, non-hydrostatic Earth with an effective elastic lithospheric thickness of about 10 kilometres yield oscillatory TPW paths consistent with palaeomagnetic inferences. This estimate of elastic thickness can be reduced, even to zero, if the rotation axis is stabilized by long-term excess ellipticity in the plane of the TPW. We speculate that these sources of stabilization, acting on TPW driven by a time-varying mantle flow field, provide a mechanism for linking the distinct, oscillatory TPW events of the past few billion years. PMID:23135471

  6. Latitude 90 Degrees North to 90 Degrees South and Longitude -180 Degrees to 0 Degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The coordinates of the Lambert azimuthal equal area projection are latitude 90 degrees N. to 90 degrees S. and longitude -180 degrees to 0 degrees. The north polar residual ice cap of the Planum Boreum region, which is cut by spiral-patterned troughs, is located at top. The upper part is marked by large depression, Isidis basin, which contains light-colored plains. The upper part also includes the light-colored smooth plains of Elysium Planitia and dark plains of Vastitas Borealis. Together, these form a vast expanse of contiguous plains. Toward the bottom, on the other hand, the southern hemisphere is almost entirely made up of heavily cratered highlands. Toward the bottom, a conspicuous, relatively bright circular depression marks the ancient large Hellas impact basin.

  7. Latitude 90 Degrees North to 90 Degrees South and Longitude 0 Degrees to 180 Degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The coordinates of the Lambert azimuthal equal area projection are latitude 90 degrees N. to 90 degrees S. and longitude 0 degree to 180 degrees. Both polar residual ice caps are seen at top and bottom. The central part is dominated by the four largest and youngest volcanoes on Mars--Olympus, Arsia, Pavonis, and Ascraeus Montes--and by a vast system of canyons several thousand kilometers long--Valles Marineris. Directly to the northeast of Valles Marineris, several large outflow channels terminate at a dark depression, Chryse basin. The lower-right corner is marked by the large Argyre basin, defined by an expanse of light-colored plains 800 km across.

  8. Seismic Excitation of the Polar Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Benjamin Fong; Gross, Richard S.; Han, Yan-Ben

    1996-01-01

    The mass redistribution in the earth as a result of an earthquake faulting changes the earth's inertia tensor, and hence its rotation. Using the complete formulae developed by Chao and Gross (1987) based on the normal mode theory, we calculated the earthquake-induced polar motion excitation for the largest 11,015 earthquakes that occurred during 1977.0-1993.6. The seismic excitations in this period are found to be two orders of magnitude below the detection threshold even with today's high precision earth rotation measurements. However, it was calculated that an earthquake of only one tenth the size of the great 1960 Chile event, if happened today, could be comfortably detected in polar motion observations. Furthermore, collectively these seismic excitations have a strong statistical tendency to nudge the pole towards approx. 140 deg E, away from the actually observed polar drift direction. This non-random behavior, similarly found in other earthquake-induced changes in earth rotation and low-degree gravitational field by Chao and Gross (1987), manifests some geodynamic behavior yet to be explored.

  9. Observation of polar vortices in oxide superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, A. K.; Nelson, C. T.; Hsu, S. L.; Hong, Z.; Clarkson, J. D.; Schlepüetz, C. M.; Damodaran, A. R.; Shafer, P.; Arenholz, E.; Dedon, L. R.; Chen, D.; Vishwanath, A.; Minor, A. M.; Chen, L. Q.; Scott, J. F.; Martin, L. W.; Ramesh, R.

    2016-02-01

    The complex interplay of spin, charge, orbital and lattice degrees of freedom provides a plethora of exotic phases and physical phenomena. In recent years, complex spin topologies have emerged as a consequence of the electronic band structure and the interplay between spin and spin-orbit coupling in materials. Here we produce complex topologies of electrical polarization—namely, nanometre-scale vortex-antivortex (that is, clockwise-anticlockwise) arrays that are reminiscent of rotational spin topologies—by making use of the competition between charge, orbital and lattice degrees of freedom in superlattices of alternating lead titanate and strontium titanate layers. Atomic-scale mapping of the polar atomic displacements by scanning transmission electron microscopy reveals the presence of long-range ordered vortex-antivortex arrays that exhibit nearly continuous polarization rotation. Phase-field modelling confirms that the vortex array is the low-energy state for a range of superlattice periods. Within this range, the large gradient energy from the vortex structure is counterbalanced by the corresponding large reduction in overall electrostatic energy (which would otherwise arise from polar discontinuities at the lead titanate/strontium titanate interfaces) and the elastic energy associated with epitaxial constraints and domain formation. These observations have implications for the creation of new states of matter (such as dipolar skyrmions, hedgehog states) and associated phenomena in ferroic materials, such as electrically controllable chirality.

  10. Spin rotators and split Siberian Snakes

    SciTech Connect

    Roser, Thomas

    1994-03-01

    The study of spin effects in the collision of polarized high energy beams requires flexible and compact spin rotators to manipulate the beam polarization direction. Design criteria and specific examples are presented for high energy, orbit transparent spin rotators ranging from small angle rotators to be used for the excitation of spin resonances to large angle rotators to be used as Siberian Snakes. It is shown that all the requirements for spin rotators can be met with a simple 6-magnet spin rotator design, for which a complete continuous solution is presented.

  11. Three key regimes of single pulse generation per round trip of all-normal-dispersion fiber lasers mode-locked with nonlinear polarization rotation.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, Sergey; Kobtsev, Sergey; Kukarin, Sergey; Ivanenko, Aleksey

    2012-11-19

    We show experimentally and numerically new transient lasing regime between stable single-pulse generation and noise-like generation. We characterize qualitatively all three regimes of single pulse generation per round-trip of all-normal-dispersion fiber lasers mode-locked due to effect of nonlinear polarization evolution. We study spectral and temporal features of pulses produced in all three regimes as well as compressibility of such pulses. Simple criteria are proposed to identify lasing regime in experiment. PMID:23187603

  12. Characterizing the micro structure and kinetics of fast changing samples by simultaneous polarization measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Ran; He, Honghui; Zeng, Nan; Ma, Hui

    2015-03-01

    Taking accurate measurements of the state of polarization (SOP) is the key for the success of polarization sensitive techniques which can provide rich information on the microstructure of complex scattering media, such as biological tissues. For static or slow varying samples, SOP measurements can be achieved by time-sequential recoding of different polarization components controlled by rotating polarizers and wave plates or temporal modulation devices such as photoelastic modulators or liquid crystal variable retarders. When the sample is moving or changing its status quickly, polarization components recoded at different time may correspond to different SOPs, which can lead to significant errors in the final results. Simultaneous polarization measurements are necessary for probing such dynamic samples. In this paper, using the simultaneously recorded polarization components, we are able to mimic time sequential polarization schemes and evaluate the errors. The results show that the kinetics of the sample will affect the systematic error and an increase in the statistical errors of the measured degree of polarization (DOP). We change the kinetics of samples with different stirring speed, which is indicated by the characteristic time of the auto-correlation function. It is also demonstrated that the simultaneously recorded polarization components reveals additional information on the orientation of fibrous scatterers as well as their translation and rotation kinetics.

  13. Efficient polarization converter for projection displays.

    PubMed

    Yip, W C; Huang, H C; Kwok, H S

    1997-09-01

    In the waveguiding limit, a twisted nematic liquid crystal cell behaves as an achromatic polarization rotator. We propose and demonstrate the application of such a polarization rotator to convert unpolarized light into linearly polarized light with almost 100% efficiency. This polarization converter has a 2:1 aspect ratio, which is close to the 16:9 ratio for modern televisions. It can be used therefore in a projection display with polarization-dependent light valves such as a liquid crystal light valve. Both transmittive and reflective light valves can be used. The temperature dependence of the achromatic polarization rotator is also studied. PMID:18259503

  14. Polar Phenomena in Outer Planet Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orton, G.; Fletcher, L.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P.; Leyrat, C.; Greathouse, T.; Parrish, P.; Encrenaz, T.; Simon-Miller, A.

    2008-12-01

    Infrared observations of the polar regions of the outer planets have revealed similarities to the Earth's atmosphere and some new phenomena. The most dominant force which is apparent in time-dependent studies of the poles is seasonal radiative forcing, which was detected in Saturn's stratosphere as early as 1973. For Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, planets with substantial obliquities, the seasonally dependent changes are predictable and can be used to constrain abundances of optically active gases and the rate of restoration by stratospheric circulation. In the case of Neptune, recent evidence shows that the heating is sufficient to allow a "leak" from the reservoir of methane in the deep atmosphere into the polar stratosphere. New thermal images of Uranus show that the winter pole of Uranus which has only recently emerged fully from darkness is colder than when it was in the middle of winter when Voyager 2 visited, confirming the substantial seasonal phase delay associated with radiative heating and cooling models. Even Jupiter with its 3-degree obliquity shows clear evidence for seasonal forcing of temperatures in the upper troposphere and stratosphere. The second most prominent characteristic of the resolvable polar temperature fields in Jupiter and Saturn is the formation of polar vortices. Jupiter's polar vortices are cold, similar to those detected in the terrestrial planets; they have sharp equatorward boundaries which are characterized by Rossby waves which rotate at the speed of the local zonal wind flow and are coincident with the similarly irregular boundaries of a polar haze, also known as "polar hoods". The cold vortex at Saturn's northern winter pole is muted, but Saturn also has a unique "warm polar vortex" in the south (late summer) pole which shows no apparent wave structure. Saturn's warm polar vortex has no counterpart in the Earth's atmosphere, where summer radiative warming simply dissipates the cold winter vortex. Saturn also possesses

  15. Numerical studies of Siberian snakes and spin rotators for RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Luccio, A.

    1995-04-17

    For the program of polarized protons in RHIC, two Siberian snakes and four spin rotators per ring will be used. The Snakes will produce a complete spin flip. Spin Rotators, in pairs, will rotate the spin from the vertical direction to the horizontal plane at a given insertion, and back to the vertical after the insertion. Snakes, 180{degrees} apart and with their axis of spin precession at 90{degrees} to each other, are an effective means to avoid depolarization of the proton beam in traversing resonances. Classical snakes and rotators are made with magnetic solenoids or with a sequence of magnetic dipoles with fields alternately directed in the radial and vertical direction. Another possibility is to use helical magnets, essentially twisted dipoles, in which the field, transverse the axis of the magnet, continuously rotates as the particles proceed along it. After some comparative studies, the authors decided to adopt for RHIC an elegant solution with four helical magnets both for the snakes and the rotators proposed by Shatunov and Ptitsin. In order to simplify the construction of the magnets and to minimize cost, four identical super conducting helical modules will be used for each device. Snakes will be built with four right-handed helices. Spin rotators with two right-handed and two left-handed helices. The maximum field will be limited to 4 Tesla. While small bore helical undulators have been built for free electron lasers, large super conducting helical magnets have not been built yet. In spite of this difficulty, this choice is dictated by some distinctive advantages of helical over more conventional transverse snakes/rotators: (i) the devices are modular, they can be built with arrangements of identical modules, (ii) the maximum orbit excursion in the magnet is smaller, (iii) orbit excursion is independent from the separation between adjacent magnets, (iv) they allow an easier control of the spin rotation and the orientation of the spin precession axis.

  16. Dynamically polarized target for the gp2 and GpE experiments at Jefferson Lab

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pierce, J.; Maxwell, J.; Badman, T.; Brock, J.; Carlin, C.; Crabb, D. G.; Day, D.; Keith, C. D.; Kvaltine, N.; Meekins, D. G.; et al

    2013-12-16

    We describe a dynamically polarized target that has been utilized for two electron scattering experiments in Hall A at Jefferson Lab. The primary components of the target are a new, high cooling power 4 He evaporation refrigerator, and a re-purposed, superconducting split-coil magnet. It has been used to polarize protons in irradiated NH3 at a temperature of 1 K and at fields of 2.5 and 5.0 Tesla. The performance of the target material in the electron beam under these conditions will be discussed. The maximum polarizations of 28% and 95% were obtained at those fields, respectively. To satisfy the requirementsmore » of both experiments, the magnet had to be routinely rotated between angles of 0, 6, and 90 degrees with respect to the incident electron beam. This was accomplished using a new rotating vacuum seal which permits rotations to be performed in only a few minutes.« less

  17. Photoselection in polarized photolysis experiments on heme proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, A; Jones, C M; Henry, E R; Hofrichter, J; Eaton, W A

    1993-01-01

    Polarized photolysis experiments have been performed on the carbon monoxide complex of myoglobin to assess the effects of photoselection on the kinetics of ligand rebinding and to investigate the reorientational dynamics of the heme plane. The results are analyzed in terms of the optical theory developed in the preceding paper by Ansari and Szabo. Changes in optical density arising from rotational diffusion of the photoselected population produce large deviations from the true geminate ligand rebinding curves if measurements are made with only a single polarization. The apparent ligand rebinding curves are significantly distorted even at photolysis levels greater than 90%. These deviations are eliminated by obtaining isotropically-averaged optical densities from measurements using both parallel and perpendicular polarizations of the probe pulse. These experiments also yield the optical anisotropy, which gives a novel method for accurately determining the degree of photolysis, as well as important information on the reorientational dynamics of the heme plane. The correlation time for the overall rotational diffusion of the molecule is obtained from the decay of the anisotropy. The anisotropy prior to rotational diffusion is lower than that predicted for a rigidly attached, perfectly circular absorber, corresponding to an apparent order parameter of S = 0.95 +/- 0.02. Polarized absorption data on single crystals suggest that the decreased anisotropy results more from internal motions of the heme plane which take place on time scales shorter than the duration of the laser pulse (10 ns) than from out-of-plane polarized transitions. PMID:8471730

  18. Ulysses at 50{degrees} south: Constant immersion in the high-speed solar wind

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.L.; Bame, S.J.; Gosling, J.T.; McComas, D.J.; Balogh, A.; Goldstein, B.E.; Neugebauer, M.; Hoeksema, J.T.; Sheeley, N.R. Jr.; Wang, Y.M.

    1994-06-15

    The authors present speed observations from the Ulysses solar wind plasma experiment through 50{degrees} south latitude. The pronounced speed modulation arising from solar rotation and the tilt of the heliomagnetic current sheet has nearly disappeared. Ulysses is now observing wind speeds in the 700 to 800 km s{sup {minus}1} range, with a magnetic polarity indicating an origin in the large south polar coronal hole. The strong compressions, rarefactions, and shock waves previously seen have weakened or disappeared. Occasional coronal mass ejections characterized by low plasma density caused by radial expansion have been observed. The coronal configuration was simple and stable in 1993, indicating that the observed solar wind changes were caused by increasing latitude support previous findings. A decrease in peak speed southward of 40{degrees} latitude may indicate that the fastest solar wind comes from the equatorial extensions of the polar coronal holes. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Optical Production of Ultracold Polar Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Sage, Jeremy M.; Sainis, Sunil; DeMille, David; Bergeman, Thomas

    2005-05-27

    We demonstrate the production of ultracold polar RbCs molecules in their vibronic ground state, via photoassociation of laser-cooled atoms followed by a laser-stimulated state transfer process. The resulting sample of X{sup 1}{sigma}{sup +}(v=0) molecules has a translational temperature of {approx}100 {mu}K and a narrow distribution of rotational states. With the method described here it should be possible to produce samples even colder in all degrees of freedom, as well as other bialkali species.

  20. Polar nephelometer for atmospheric particulate studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, M. Z.; Evans, W. H.

    1980-01-01

    A polar nephelometer for use in studying atmospheric aerosols was developed. The nephelometer detects molecular scatter from air and measures scattering from very clean air using pure molecular scattering for calibration. A compact system using a folded light path with an air cooled argon laser for the light source was designed. A small, sensitive detector unit permits easy angular rotation for changing the scattering angle. A narrow detector field of view of + or - 1/4 degree of scattering along with a single wavelength of incident light is used to minimize uncertainties in the scattering theory. The system is automated for data acquisition of the scattering matrix elements over an angular range from 2 degrees to 178 degrees of scattering. Both laser output and detector sensitivity are monitored to normalize the measured light scattering.

  1. Flux and polarization signals of spatially inhomogeneous gaseous exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karalidi, T.; Stam, D. M.; Guirado, D.

    2013-07-01

    Aims: We present numerically calculated, disk-integrated, spectropolarimetric signals of starlight that is reflected by vertically and horizontally inhomogeneous gaseous exoplanets. We include various spatial features that are present on Solar System's gaseous planets: belts and zones, cyclonic spots, and polar hazes, to test whether such features leave traces in the disk-integrated fux and polarization signals. Methods: Broadband flux and polarization signals of starlight that is reflected by gaseous exoplanets are calculated using an efficient, adding-doubling radiative transfer code, that fully includes single and multiple scattering and polarization. The planetary model atmospheres are vertically inhomogeneous and can be horizontally inhomogeneous, and contain gas molecules and/or cloud and/or aerosol particles. Results: The broadband flux and polarization signals are sensitive to cloud top pressures, although in the presence of local pressure differences, such as in belts and clouds, the flux and polarization phase functions have similar shapes as those of horizontally homogeneous planets. Fitting flux phase functions of a planet with belts and zones using a horizontally homogeneous planet could theoretically yield cloud top pressures that differ by a few hundred mbar from those derived from fitting polarization phase functions. In practice, however, observational errors and uncertainties in cloud properties would make such a fit unreliable. A cyclonic spot like Jupiter's Great Red Spot, covering a few percent of the disk, located in equatorial regions, and rotating in and out of the observer's view yields a temporal variation of a few percent in the broadband flux and a few percent in the degree of polarization. Polar hazes leave strong traces in the polarization of reflected starlight in spatially resolved observations, especially seen at phase angles near 90°. Integrated across the planetary disk, polar hazes that cover only part of the planetary disk

  2. Rotational isotropy breaking as proof for spin-polarized Cooper pairs in the topological superconductor CuxBi2Se3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Yuki; Nakamura, Hiroki; Machida, Masahiko

    2012-09-01

    In the promising candidate for topological superconductors, CuxBi2Se3, we propose a way to exclusively determine the pairing symmetry. The proposal suggests that the angle dependence of the thermal conductivity in the basal ab plane shows a distinct strong anisotropy only when the pairing symmetry is an odd-parity spin-polarized triplet below the superconducting transition temperature (Tc). Such striking isotropy breaking below Tc is explicitly involved in the Dirac formalism for superconductors, in which the spin-orbit coupling is essential. We classify possible gap functions based on the Dirac formalism and clarify an origin of the isotropy breaking.

  3. Polarization control at spin-driven ferroelectric domain walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leo, Naëmi; Bergman, Anders; Cano, Andres; Poudel, Narayan; Lorenz, Bernd; Fiebig, Manfred; Meier, Dennis

    2015-04-01

    Unusual electronic states arise at ferroelectric domain walls due to the local symmetry reduction, strain gradients and electrostatics. This particularly applies to improper ferroelectrics, where the polarization is induced by a structural or magnetic order parameter. Because of the subordinate nature of the polarization, the rigid mechanical and electrostatic boundary conditions that constrain domain walls in proper ferroics are lifted. Here we show that spin-driven ferroelectricity promotes the emergence of charged domain walls. This provides new degrees of flexibility for controlling domain-wall charges in a deterministic and reversible process. We create and position a domain wall by an electric field in Mn0.95Co0.05WO4. With a magnetic field we then rotate the polarization and convert neutral into charged domain walls, while its magnetic properties peg the wall to its location. Using atomistic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert simulations we quantify the polarization changes across the two wall types and highlight their general occurrence.

  4. Polarization at SLC

    SciTech Connect

    Swartz, M.L.

    1988-07-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider has been designed to readily accommodate polarized electron beams. Considerable effort has been made to implement a polarized source, a spin rotation system, and a system to monitor the beam polarization. Nearly all major components have been fabricated. At the current time, several source and polarimeter components have been installed. The installation and commissioning of the entire system will take place during available machine shutdown periods as the commissioning of SLC progresses. It is expected that a beam polarization of 45% will be achieved with no loss in luminosity. 13 refs., 15 figs.

  5. Experiments with Fermilab polarized proton and polarized antiproton beams

    SciTech Connect

    Yokosawa, A.

    1990-01-01

    We summarize activities concerning the Fermilab polarized beams. They include a brief description of the polarized-beam facility, measurements of beam polarization by polarimeters, asymmetry measurements in the {pi}{degree} production at high p{sub {perpendicular}} and in the {Lambda} ({Sigma}{degree}), {pi}{sup {plus minus}}, {pi}{degree} production at large x{sub F}, and {Delta}{sigma}{sub L}(pp, {bar p}p) measurements. 18 refs.

  6. Textures in south polar ice cap #2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Textures of the south polar permanent residual ice cap and polar layered terrains. This 15 x 14 km area image (frame 7306) is centered near 87 degrees south, 341 degrees west.

    Figure caption from Science Magazine

  7. Textures in south polar ice cap #1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Textures of the south polar permanent residual ice cap and polar layered terrains. This 30 x 29 km area image (frame 7709) is centered near 87 degrees south, 77 degrees west.

    Figure caption from Science Magazine

  8. The GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager: polarization sensitivity and potential impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlman, Aaron J.; Cao, Changyong; Wu, Xiangqian

    2015-09-01

    In contrast to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's) current geostationary imagers for operational weather forecasting, the next generation imager, the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) aboard the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R-Series (GOES-R), will have six reflective solar bands - five more than currently available. These bands will be used for applications such as aerosol retrievals, which are influenced by polarization effects. These effects are determined by two factors: instrument polarization sensitivity and the polarization states of the observations. The former is measured as part of the pre-launch testing program performed by the instrument vendor. We analyzed the results of the pre-launch polarization sensitivity measurements of the 0.47 μm and 0.64 μm channels and used them in conjunction with simulated scene polarization states to estimate potential on-orbit radiometric impacts. The pre-launch test setups involved illuminating the ABI with an integrating sphere through either one or two polarizers. The measurement with one (rotating) polarizer yields the degree of linear polarization of ABI, and the measurements using two polarizers (one rotating and one fixed) characterized the non-ideal properties of the polarizer. To estimate the radiometric performance impacts from the instrument polarization sensitivity, we simulated polarized scenes using a radiative transfer code and accounted for the instrument polarization sensitivity over its field of regard. The results show the variation in the polarization impacts over the day and by regions of the full disk can reach up to 3.2% for the 0.47μm channel and 4.8% for the 0.64μm channel. Geostationary orbiters like the ABI give the unique opportunity to show these impacts throughout the day compared to low earth orbiters, which are more limited to certain times of day. This work may enhance the ability to diagnose anomalies on-orbit.

  9. Imaging Stokes polarimeter by dual rotating retarder and analyzer and its application of evaluation of Japanese lacquer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizutani, Ryota; Ishikawa, Tomoharu; Ayama, Miyoshi; Otani, Yukitoshi

    2012-11-01

    Lacquer crafts are distributed over Southeast Asia from the East Asia such as China and Korea, Vietnam, Myanmar including Japan. Especially, a Japanese lacquer is well-known traditional crafts. Its color is jet black but people feel different texture because it is made by complicated and multi step manufacturing process such as coating and polishing with different materials. In this report, we focus polarization properties of surface structures on black Japanese lacquer. All states of polarization can be expressed Stokes parameters, which are consisted on four elements as s0 to s3. These parameters are effective for the evaluation of the state of polarization. The polarization information of surface structure of Japanese lacquer can be visualized by using an imaging Stokes polarimeter by dual rotating retarder and analyzer. It is possible to evaluate surface character by comparing the degree of polarization. It is effective to evaluate the surface by using the polarization information.

  10. Polarization of neutron star surface emission: a systematic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taverna, R.; Turolla, R.; Gonzalez Caniulef, D.; Zane, S.; Muleri, F.; Soffitta, P.

    2015-12-01

    New-generation X-ray polarimeters currently under development promise to open a new window in the study of high-energy astrophysical sources. Among them, neutron stars (NSs) appear particularly suited for polarization measurements. Radiation from the (cooling) surface of an NS is expected to exhibit a large intrinsic polarization degree due to the star strong magnetic field (≈1012-1015 G), which influences the plasma opacity in the outermost stellar layers. The polarization fraction and polarization angle as measured by an instrument, however, do not necessary coincide with the intrinsic ones derived from models of surface emission. This is due to the effects of quantum electrodynamics in the highly magnetized vacuum around the star (the vacuum polarization) coupled with the rotation of the Stokes parameters in the plane perpendicular to the line of sight induced by the non-uniform magnetic field. Here, we revisit the problem and present an efficient method for computing the observed polarization fraction and polarization angle in the case of radiation coming from the entire surface of an NS, accounting for both vacuum polarization and geometrical effects due to the extended emitting region. Our approach is fairly general and is illustrated in the case of blackbody emission from an NS with either a dipolar or a (globally) twisted magnetic field.

  11. Determining the rotational mobility of a single molecule from a single image: a numerical study

    PubMed Central

    Backer, Adam S.; Moerner, W. E.

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of the orientational freedom with which a single molecule may rotate or ‘wobble’ about a fixed axis have provided researchers invaluable clues about the underlying behavior of a variety of biological systems. In this paper, we propose a measurement and data analysis procedure based on a widefield fluorescence microscope image for quantitatively distinguishing individual molecules that exhibit varying degrees of rotational mobility. Our proposed technique is especially applicable to cases in which the molecule undergoes rotational motions on a timescale much faster than the framerate of the camera used to record fluorescence images. Unlike currently available methods, sophisticated hardware for modulating the polarization of light illuminating the sample is not required. Additional polarization optics may be inserted in the microscope’s imaging pathway to achieve superior measurement precision, but are not essential. We present a theoretical analysis, and benchmark our technique with numerical simulations using typical experimental parameters for single-molecule imaging. PMID:25836463

  12. Earth rotation parameters from satellite techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaller, Daniela; Beutler, Gerhard; Jäggi, Adrian; Meindl, Michael; Dach, Rolf; Sosnica, Krzysztof; Baumann, Christian

    2013-04-01

    It has been demonstrated since several years that satellite techniques are capable of determining Earth Rotation Parameters (ERPs) with a daily or even sub-daily resolution. Especially Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) with their huge amount of observations can determine time series of polar motion (PM) and length of day (LOD) rather well. But also SLR with its spherical satellites whose orbital motions are easy to model and that allow long orbital arc lengths can deliver valuable contributions to Earth rotation. We analyze GNSS solutions (using GPS and GLONASS) and SLR solutions (using LAGEOS) regarding their potential of estimating polar motion and LOD with daily and subdaily temporal resolution. A steadily improving modeling applied in the analysis of space-geodetic data aims at improved time series of geodetic parameters, e.g., the ERPs. The Earth's gravity field and especially its temporal variations are one point of interest for an improved modeling for satellite techniques. For modeling the short-periodic gravity field variations induced by mass variations in the atmosphere and the oceans the GRACE science team provides the Atmosphere and Ocean Dealiasing (AOD) products. They contain 6-hourly gravity fields of the atmosphere and the oceans. We apply these corrections in the analysis of satellite-geodetic data and show the impact on the estimated ERPs. It is well known that the degree-2 coefficients of the Earth's gravity field are correlated with polar motion and LOD. We show to what extent temporal variations in the degree-2 coefficients are influencing the ERP estimates.

  13. Polarization modulation time-domain terahertz polarimetry.

    PubMed

    Morris, C M; Aguilar, R Valdés; Stier, A V; Armitage, N P

    2012-05-21

    We present high precision measurements of polarization rotations in the frequency range from 0.1 to 2.5 THz using a polarization modulation technique. A motorized stage rotates a polarizer at ~ 80 Hz, and the resulting modulation of the polarization is measured by a lock-in technique. We achieve an accuracy of 0.050° (900 μrad) and a precision of 0.02° (350 μrad) for small rotation angles. A detailed mathematical description of the technique is presented, showing its ability to fully characterize elliptical polarizations from 0.1 to 2.5 THz. PMID:22714218

  14. Composition law for polarizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lages, J.; Giust, R.; Vigoureux, J.-M.

    2008-09-01

    The polarization process when polarizers act on an optical field is studied. We give examples for two kinds of polarizers. The first kind presents an anisotropic absorption—as in a Polaroid film—and the second one is based on total reflection at the interface with a birefringent medium. Using the Stokes vector representation, we determine explicitly the trajectories of the wave light polarization during the polarization process. We find that such trajectories are not always geodesics of the Poincaré sphere as is usually thought. Using the analogy between light polarization and special relativity, we find that the action of successive polarizers on the light wave polarization is equivalent to the action of a single resulting polarizer followed by a rotation achieved, for example, by a device with optical activity. We find a composition law for polarizers similar to the composition law for noncollinear velocities in special relativity. We define an angle equivalent to the relativistic Wigner angle which can be used to quantify the quality of two composed polarizers.

  15. Probing the gravitational Faraday rotation using quasar X-ray microlensing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin

    2015-01-01

    The effect of gravitational Faraday rotation was predicted in the 1950s, but there is currently no practical method for measuring this effect. Measuring this effect is important because it will provide new evidence for correctness of general relativity, in particular, in the strong field limit. We predict that the observed degree and angle of the X-ray polarization of a cosmologically distant quasar microlensed by the random star field in a foreground galaxy or cluster lens vary rapidly and concurrently with flux during caustic-crossing events using the first simulation of quasar X-ray microlensing polarization light curves. Therefore, it is possible to detect gravitational Faraday rotation by monitoring the X-ray polarization of gravitationally microlensed quasars. Detecting this effect will also confirm the strong gravity nature of quasar X-ray emission. PMID:26574051

  16. Probing the gravitational Faraday rotation using quasar X-ray microlensing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bin

    2015-01-01

    The effect of gravitational Faraday rotation was predicted in the 1950s, but there is currently no practical method for measuring this effect. Measuring this effect is important because it will provide new evidence for correctness of general relativity, in particular, in the strong field limit. We predict that the observed degree and angle of the X-ray polarization of a cosmologically distant quasar microlensed by the random star field in a foreground galaxy or cluster lens vary rapidly and concurrently with flux during caustic-crossing events using the first simulation of quasar X-ray microlensing polarization light curves. Therefore, it is possible to detect gravitational Faraday rotation by monitoring the X-ray polarization of gravitationally microlensed quasars. Detecting this effect will also confirm the strong gravity nature of quasar X-ray emission. PMID:26574051

  17. A sensitivity-enhanced optical heterodyne polarimeter for the measurement of optical rotation angle of chiral media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Ying C.; Wu, Chien M.

    2004-09-01

    A novel heterodyne polarimeter is designed to measure the concentration of chiral media. Optical common-path for the interference of the TE and TM waves, after a polarizer, is set up in our system to reduce noises from the environment. A phase-variable waveplate is placed behind the sample to enhance the phase signal change of rotation of polarization introduced by the sample itself. This enhancement can be excess two orders in amplitude when the retardation of the phase-variable plate is set close to 180 degree. With this polarimeter, the measurement of optical rotation angle with high sensitivity of 6.5×10-4 degree experimentally can be achieved when phase retardation of the phase-variable waveplate is 178.5 degree. We expect that, by further improvement, it can be applied in noninvasive blood glucose concentration monitoring for diabetics in the future.

  18. An airborne system for collecting polarization imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildum, Edward A.; Spinhirne, James D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a recently completed electrooptical camera flying onboard the NASA ER-2 high altitude aircraft. The device includes a six-position filter wheel which can be fitted with a combination of polarizing and/or spectral filters. An alternate configuration will include a polarizing filter which can be rotated to any angle under computer control. The camera mount in the nose of the ER-2 can tilt forward or aft up to 40 degrees, both for bidirectional reflectance studies and for image motion compensation (the aircraft moves 34 meters between frame acquisitions). The ground resolution is nominally 5 meters from and altitude of 20 km. Spectral responsivity is that of the silicon imaging array (Kodak KAF-1400). Initial data sets were acquired in support of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Program Regional Experiment of November, 1991, and will be used to study cirrus cloud properties.

  19. Polarization transfer of bremsstrahlung arising from spin-polarized electrons.

    PubMed

    Märtin, R; Weber, G; Barday, R; Fritzsche, Y; Spillmann, U; Chen, W; DuBois, R D; Enders, J; Hegewald, M; Hess, S; Surzhykov, A; Thorn, D B; Trotsenko, S; Wagner, M; Winters, D F A; Yerokhin, V A; Stöhlker, Th

    2012-06-29

    We report on a study of the polarization transfer between transversely polarized incident electrons and the emitted x rays for electron-atom bremsstrahlung. By means of Compton polarimetry we performed for the first time an energy-differential measurement of the complete properties of bremsstrahlung emission related to linear polarization, i.e., the degree of linear polarization as well as the orientation of the polarization axis. For the high-energy end of the bremsstrahlung continuum the experimental results for both observables show a high sensitivity on the initial electron spin polarization and prove that the polarization orientation is virtually independent of the photon energy. PMID:23004992

  20. Rotational moulding.

    PubMed

    Crawford, R J; Kearns, M P

    2003-10-01

    Rotational moulding promises designers attractive economics and a low-pressure process. The benefits of rotational moulding are compared here with other manufacturing methods such as injection and blow moulding. PMID:14603714

  1. Rotating Vesta

    NASA Video Gallery

    Astronomers combined 146 exposures taken by NASA's Hubble SpaceTelescope to make this 73-frame movie of the asteroid Vesta's rotation.Vesta completes a rotation every 5.34 hours.› Asteroid and...

  2. Center is at Latitude 30 Degrees North, Longitude 30 Degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Center of the orthographic projection is at latitude 30 degrees N., longitude 30 degrees. The north polar residual ice cap, which is cut by spiral-patterned troughs, is located at the top. The central part is characterized by a dark depression, Chryse basin, where several large outflow channels terminate. The lower-left corner is marked by a vast system of canyons, Valles Marineris, which extends eastward for several thousand kilometers.

  3. Center is at Latitude 30 Degrees South., Longitude 330 Degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Center of the orthographic projection is at latitude 30 degrees S., longitude 330 degrees. Heavily cratered highlands dominate this view. Toward the lower right, a conspicuous light-colored circular depression marks the ancient large Hellas impact basin. Directly northeast of Hellas, several large ancient impacts dot the landscape, including Cassini, Schiaparelli, and Huygens. Several large outflow channels are located in the upper left-hand corner. The permanent, residual south polar ice cap is located near the bottom.

  4. Center is at Latitude 30 Degrees South, Longitude 210 Degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Center of the orthographic projection is at latitude 30 degrees S., longitude 210 degrees. Toward the top, the lowland plains of Elysium and Utopia Planitiae are separated from the darker heavily cratered highlands by a broad escarpment. The far bottom left is marked by the large light-colored ancient Hellas impact basin. The permanent south polar residual ice cap is located near the bottom.

  5. Rotation of the photospheric magnetic fields: A north-south asymmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antonucci, E.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Scherrer, P. H.

    1989-01-01

    During most of solar cycle 21 the large-scale photospheric field rotated more rapidly in the Northern Hemisphere than in the southern. The large-scale northern field rotated with a 26.9 day period (synodic), was centered at 15 degress N, and covered a latitude zone about 24 degrees wide. The large-scale southern field rotated with a periodicity of 28.1 days, was centered at 26 degrees S, and covered a latitude zone about 32 degrees wide. Our analysis showed rotational power at only a few discrete latitudes and frequencies in each hemisphere. The center of each peak lies near the sunspot differential rotation curve. The largest scale field contributes to the configuration of the coronal and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). The strength of the first harmonic of the northern field suggests that this structure may be related to the 4-sector pattern observed in the IMF polarity. The southern field had much lower power at the first harmonic of the solar rotation rate and so would contribute only to a 2-sector structure in the IMF. These results were discovered in Fourier analysis of photospheric synoptic charts obtained at the Wilcox Solar Observatory from 1976 to 1986 and confirmed in higher resolution maps from the National Solar Observatory. Mt. Wilson magnetic field measurements from solar cycle 20 show a similar north-south asymmetry.

  6. Rotationally Actuated Prosthetic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, William E.; Belcher, Jewell G., Jr.; Carden, James R.; Vest, Thomas W.

    1991-01-01

    Prosthetic hand attached to end of remaining part of forearm and to upper arm just above elbow. Pincerlike fingers pushed apart to degree depending on rotation of forearm. Simpler in design, simpler to operate, weighs less, and takes up less space.

  7. Full Quantitative Analysis of Arbitrary Cylindrically Polarized Pulses by Using Extended Stokes Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Masato; Yamane, Keisaku; Oka, Kazuhiko; Toda, Yasunori; Morita, Ryuji

    2015-01-01

    Cylindrically polarized (CP) modes are laser beam modes which have rotational symmetry of the polarization distribution around the beam axis. Considerable attention has been paid to CP modes for their various applications. In this paper, by using the extended Stokes parameters and the degree of polarization defined for the spatial distribution (DOP-SD), we fully-quantitatively characterize the spectrally-resolved polarization states of arbitrary CP (axisymmetrically polarized and higher-order cylindrically polarized) broadband pulses generated by coherent beam combining. All the generated pulse states were fully-quantitatively analyzed for the first time and proved to have high symmetry (DOP-SD ≳ 0.95) and low spectral dependence of polarization states. Moreover, we show the DOP-SD, which cannot be defined by the conventional higher-order and hybrid Stokes parameters, enables us to make a quantitative evaluation of small degradation of rotational symmetry of polarization distribution. This quantitative characterization with high precision is significant for applications of precise material processing, quantum information processing, magneto-optical storage and nonlinear spectroscopic polarimetry. PMID:26657149

  8. Denaturation of human serum albumin under the action of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide according to fluorescence polarization data of protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasova, I. M.; Zhuravleva, V. V.; Saletskii, A. M.

    2012-03-01

    Denaturation of human serum albumin (HSA) under the action of cationic detergent cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) is studied at different pH values by estimating the rotational diffusion of protein via fluorescence polarization. The degree of polarization of HSA tryptophan fluorescence, the rotational relaxation time, the rotational diffusion coefficient and the effective Einstein radius of the HSA molecules in solutions with different CTAB concentrations at different pH values are determined. The obtained rotational diffusion parameters of the HSA molecules show that under the action of CTAB, HSA denaturation has a one-stage character and proceeds more intensely and effectively at pH values higher than the p I value of protein (4.7).

  9. Stable polarization self-modulation in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Li, H.; Hohl, A.; Gavrielides, A.; Hou, H.; Choquette, K.D.

    1998-05-01

    The characteristics of polarization self-modulation in a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) were studied for frequencies up to {approx}9 GHz both experimentally and theoretically. Polarization self-modulation was obtained by rotating the linearly polarized output of the VCSEL by 90{degree} and reinjecting it into the laser. Experimentally we simultaneously recorded time traces, optical and radio-frequency spectra. We found for increasing modulation frequencies that the output characteristics changed from square-wave to sinusoidal and the VCSEL system assumed new polarization eigenstates that are different from the free-running VCSEL eigenstates. We modeled polarization self-modulation as an interband process and found a good qualitative agreement between our experimental and numerical results. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Polarization-sensitive spectroradiometer - Two methods for overcoming the problems of measuring reflectance spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auer, S.

    1979-01-01

    The spectra obtained using a spectroradiometer are incorrect if the incident light from the sample is polarized, and if, at the same time, polarization is introduced into the transmitted beam by components of the spectroradiometer. Two methods are proposed for obtaining correct power reflectance spectra. One way is to average two incorrect reflectance spectra, which are taken at mutually orthogonal angles of rotation of the radiometer about its optical axis. Another way is by averaging reflectance spectra of mutually orthogonal polarized light components. When the orientation of one component is chosen such that it is in the plane of polarization of the incoming light, the latter method also gives the correct degree of polarization.

  11. Rotational joint for prosthetic leg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. C.; Owens, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    Device is installed in standard 30 millimeter tubing used for lower leg prosthetics. Unit allows proper rotation (about 3 degrees) of foot relative to the hip, during normal walking or running. Limited rotational movement with restoring force results in a more natural gait.

  12. GUIDE FOR POLARIZED NEUTRONS

    DOEpatents

    Sailor, V.L.; Aichroth, R.W.

    1962-12-01

    The plane of polarization of a beam of polarized neutrons is changed by this invention, and the plane can be flipped back and forth quicitly in two directions in a trouble-free manner. The invention comprises a guide having a plurality of oppositely directed magnets forming a gap for the neutron beam and the gaps are spaced longitudinally in a spiral along the beam at small stepped angles. When it is desired to flip the plane of polarization the magnets are suitably rotated to change the direction of the spiral of the gaps. (AEC)

  13. Polarization of radiation of point-like source reflected from turbulent magnetized atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silant'ev, N. A.; Gnedin, Yu. N.

    2008-04-01

    We consider the multiple scattering of the light from a point-like source located above the semi-infinite electron, turbulent, and magnetized atmospheres. The frozen magnetic field has both the regular B0 and stochastic B' components (B= B_0+ B'). The stochastic Faraday rotations due to fluctuations B' decrease the intensity of each separate polarized beam (the extinction factor is proportional to λ^4< B'^2>). This decrease at large λ dominates the usual decrease (∝λ^2B_0 cosΘ_0) caused by summing beams with very different Faraday's rotation angles. This effect changes the spectrum of polarization degree as compared with what is influenced by the regular magnetic field. We calculated the integral (observed) polarization of the reflected radiation with the inclusion of unpolarized radiation going directly from the point-like source. We present the observed polarization for various degrees of true absorption of the radiation into the atmosphere and the values of magnetic energy fluctuations. The spectra of polarization in the optical (λ =0-1 μm), infrared (λ =1-5 μ m), and X-ray (E=1-50 keV) regions of the wavelengths are presented. We discuss the possibility of estimating parameters of magnetic field fluctuations from the observation of the spectra of polarization in AGNs with the X-ray excesses and in the turbulent accretion disk in NGC 4258.

  14. Precision Polarization of Neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Elise; Barron-Palos, Libertad; Couture, Aaron; Crawford, Christopher; Chupp, Tim; Danagoulian, Areg; Estes, Mary; Hona, Binita; Jones, Gordon; Klein, Andi; Penttila, Seppo; Sharma, Monisha; Wilburn, Scott

    2009-05-01

    Determining polarization of a cold neutron beam to high precision is required for the next generation neutron decay correlation experiments at the SNS, such as the proposed abBA and PANDA experiments. Precision polarimetry measurements were conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory with the goal of determining the beam polarization to the level of 10-3 or better. The cold neutrons from FP12 were polarized using optically polarized ^3He gas as a spin filter, which has a highly spin-dependent absorption cross section. A second ^ 3He spin filter was used to analyze the neutron polarization after passing through a resonant RF spin rotator. A discussion of the experiment and results will be given.

  15. Climate model studies of synchronously rotating planets.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Manoj

    2003-01-01

    M stars constitute 75% of main sequence stars though, until recently, their star systems have not been considered suitable places for habitable planets to exist. In this study the climate of a synchronously rotating planet around an M dwarf star is evaluated using a three-dimensional global atmospheric circulation model. The presence of clouds and evaporative cooling at the surface of the planet result in a cooler surface temperature at the subsolar point. Water ice forms at the polar regions and on the dark side, where the minimum temperature lies between -30 degrees C and 0 degrees C. As expected, rainfall is extremely high on the starlit side and extremely low on the dark side. The presence of a dry continent causes higher temperatures on the dayside, and allows accumulation of snow on the nightside. The absence of any oceans leads to higher day-night temperature differences, consistent with previous work. The present study reinforces recent conclusions that synchronously rotating planets within the circumstellar habitable zones of M dwarf stars should be habitable, and therefore M dwarf systems should not be excluded in future searches for exoplanets. PMID:14577888

  16. Efficient IR Transmission Diffraction Grating for Circularly Polarized Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Helen; Chambers, Diana

    1999-01-01

    Numerical methods, using rigorous coupled wave theory, are used to design rectangular relief diffraction gratings for an infrared application which requires comparable first order efficiencies in the TE and TM polarization states. The depth, period, and fill factor of the grating are varied to identify optimal two level binary lamellar grating profiles which predict efficiencies for individual TM and TE polarizations above 75 percent, while keeping the difference between the two efficiencies within 10 percent. The application at hand is a rotating, transmissive diffractive scanner for space-based coherent lidar. The operating wavelength is 2.0 microns. A collimated, circularly polarized beam is incident on the diffractive scanner at the Bragg angle; 30 and 45 degree beam deflection angles being studied. Fused silica is the substrate material of choice. Selected designs are fabricated on 3 inch fused silica substrates using lithographic methods. The performance of the test pieces is measured and compared to theoretical predictions.

  17. Polarization of the spontaneous radiation of stressed laser heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ptashchenko, A. A.; Deych, M. V.; Mironchenko, N. B.; Ptashchenko, F. A.

    1994-06-01

    Measurement system with a rotating polaroid was constructed allowing to detect the degree of the light polarization (ρ) of 0.1% ρ as a function of driving current ( I) and axial stress (σ) was studied for spontaneous output of the AlGaAs lasers at low pumping levels. It was found that in the range of sufficiently small currents ρ linearly depends on I and σ. When extrapolated to I = 0, ρ depends not only on σ, but also on the light amplification parameters of the individual laser structure. These observations must be taken into account when one attempts to estimate the strain in the active layer of a diode laser through the polarization measurements. The Cassidy's one-dimensional model of the polarization effects in diode lasers was modified to include modulation of the optical absorption by the stimulated emission in the active region at very low pumping intensities.

  18. Device For Perception Of Polarization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, Victor S.; Coulson, Kinsel

    1993-01-01

    Polarized image viewed through rotating polarizing filter appears to pulsate. Optical device enables human observer to perceive polarization of light. Used alone for viewing in real time and/or in conjunction with video or movie camera to record for subsequent detailed quantitative analysis of polarization in scene. Device used in remote sensing to classify portions of scenes according to polarization characteristics, to enhance viewing through atmosphere and oceans and to enhance contrasts. Used to monitor oilspill from air and detect changes in soil moisture and to map wetlands, among many other possible civilian and military applications.

  19. Spin effects in Kapitza-Dirac scattering at light with elliptical polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erhard, Rico; Bauke, Heiko

    2015-10-01

    The Kapitza-Dirac effect, which refers to electron scattering at standing light waves, is studied in the Bragg regime with counterpropagating elliptically polarized electromagnetic waves with the same intensity, wavelength, and degree of polarization for two different setups. In the first setup, where the electric-field components of the counterpropagating waves have the same sense of rotation, we find distinct spin effects. The spins of the scattered electrons and of the nonscattered electrons, respectively, precess with a frequency that is of the order of the Bragg-reflection Rabi frequency. When the electric-field components of the counterpropagating waves have an opposite sense of rotation, which is the second considered setup, the standing wave has linear polarization, and no spin effects can be observed. Our results are based on numerical solutions of the time-dependent Dirac equation and the analytical solution of a relativistic Pauli equation, which accounts for the leading relativistic effects.

  20. Complete polarization conversion using one crystal with dual transverse Pockels effect.

    PubMed

    Li, Changsheng

    2008-05-01

    Based on dual transverse Pockels effect, complete polarization conversion can be achieved by using only one electro-optic crystal and its two externally applied voltages. The electro-optic phase retardation and the azimuth angle of the field-induced principal dielectric axes of the crystal can be independently and linearly controlled by the amplitude and direction of the applied electric field, and the formulas for this correlation are deduced for arbitrary input and output polarization states. The candidate crystals mainly include the uniaxial crystals of 3 m, 62 m, and 32 symmetry groups, and the cubic crystals of 43 m and 23 symmetry groups. Theoretical analysis demonstrates that one crystal exhibiting both dual transverse Pockels effect and optical activity can also be used for complete polarization converter. The continuous polarization rotation of a linearly polarized light from 0 degrees to 180 degrees has been performed experimentally by use of single lithium niobate crystal with four lateral electrodes. In addition the light beam position-dependent polarization conversion by using a bulk electro-optic crystal is also measured in the experiment. This new type of polarization converter will have potential applications in many fields due to its simple configuration, explicit control logic of polarization conversion, and lower power consumption. PMID:18449288

  1. Libration in the earth's rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, B. F.; Liu, H. S.; Dong, D. N.; Herring, T. A.

    1991-01-01

    External luni-solar torque exerted on the difference (B-A) of the earth's two equatorial principal moments of inertia gives rise to two types of librational motions in the earth's rotation: the semidiurnal libration in spin and the prograde diurnal libration in polar motion. Formulas for the librations considering a realistic earth model and their tidal decompositions are derived and evaluated. The spin libration has a maximum peal-to-peak amplitude of 0.90 milliarcseconds, that of the polar libration is 0.06 milliarcseconds. Implications concerning their detectability and role in the tidal variation of earth rotation are discussed.

  2. Diurnal polar motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclure, P.

    1973-01-01

    An analytical theory is developed to describe diurnal polar motion in the earth which arises as a forced response due to lunisolar torques and tidal deformation. Doodson's expansion of the tide generating potential is used to represent the lunisolar torques. Both the magnitudes and the rates of change of perturbations in the earth's inertia tensor are included in the dynamical equations for the polar motion so as to account for rotational and tidal deformation. It is found that in a deformable earth with Love's number k = 0.29, the angular momentum vector departs by as much as 20 cm from the rotation axis rather than remaining within 1 or 2 cm as it would in a rigid earth. This 20 cm separation is significant in the interpretation of submeter polar motion observations because it necessitates an additional coordinate transformation in order to remove what would otherwise be a 20 cm error source in the conversion between inertial and terrestrial reference systems.

  3. Paleomagnetic Determination of Vertical-Axis Block Rotation and Magnetostratigraphy in the Coachella Valley, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitroff, C.; Housen, B. A.; McNabb, J. C.; Dorsey, R. J.; Burmester, R. F.; Messe, G. T.

    2015-12-01

    Here, we report new paleomagnetism and magnetostratigraphy data from the Palm Spring Fm of the Mecca Hills, the Pleistocene conglomeratic sandstone in Desert Hot Springs and the Plio-Pleistocene San Timoteo beds from Live Oak Canyon. From the Mecca Hills, new data are from 29 sites and 112 samples. The paleomagnetic results yielded well-defined components of magnetization- defining seven polarity zones within the Ocotillo and upper Palm Spring Fm. Correlation to the geomagnetic polarity timescale, using the Bishop Ash near the top of the section as a tie point, places the Brunhes-Matuyama boundary near the base of the Ocotillo Fm, and the Jaramillo, Olduvai, and Reunion normal polarity sub-chrons in the upper Palm Spring Fm. This indicates the upper Palm Spring Fm in the Mecca Hills was deposited between 2.3 and 0.9 Ma. Sites from the Mecca Hills section have mean directions of D = 343, I = 53, α95 =11.3 N = 5 for normal sites, D = 175, I = -50, α95 = 4.9 N = 24 for reverse sites, and normal and reverse sites combined have a mean direction of D = 353, I = 51 α95 = 4.4. This indicates modest (7 degrees) CCW rotation of the section. Results from 19 sites (53 samples) of the Pleistocene conglomeritic sandstone from Desert Hot Springs have very well-defined paleomagnetic components. Six of the sites have normal polarity- 13 sites have reverse polarity. Sites with normal polarity have a mean direction of D = 358, I = 45, α95 = 13 and reverse sites have a mean of D = 182, I = -50, α95 = 6.6.The combined mean direction (in tilt-corrected coordinates) is D = 0.7, I = 49, α95 = 5.6 and indicates that 3.1° ± 2.3° of CW rotation has occurred at this location since ~1 to 1.5 Ma. Results from 8 sites (35 samples) of the upper-most San Timoteo beds from Live Oak Canyon also have well-defined paleomagnetic components for 6 sites. All of the results have normal polarity, and one site has a direction that is >40 degree from the other sites- the mean of the remaining 5

  4. Astronomical polarization studies at radio and infrared wavelengths. Part 2: Far infrared polarization of dust clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennison, B. K.

    1976-01-01

    Far infrared polarization of dust clouds is examined. The recently observed 10 micron polarization of the Orion Nebula and the Galactic Center suggests that far infrared polarization may be found in these objects. Estimates are made of the degree of far infrared polarization that may exist in the Orion Nebula. An attempt to observe far infrared polarization from the Orion Nebula was carried out.

  5. Dynamic polarization vision in mantis shrimps.

    PubMed

    Daly, Ilse M; How, Martin J; Partridge, Julian C; Temple, Shelby E; Marshall, N Justin; Cronin, Thomas W; Roberts, Nicholas W

    2016-01-01

    Gaze stabilization is an almost ubiquitous animal behaviour, one that is required to see the world clearly and without blur. Stomatopods, however, only fix their eyes on scenes or objects of interest occasionally. Almost uniquely among animals they explore their visual environment with a series pitch, yaw and torsional (roll) rotations of their eyes, where each eye may also move largely independently of the other. In this work, we demonstrate that the torsional rotations are used to actively enhance their ability to see the polarization of light. Both Gonodactylus smithii and Odontodactylus scyllarus rotate their eyes to align particular photoreceptors relative to the angle of polarization of a linearly polarized visual stimulus, thereby maximizing the polarization contrast between an object of interest and its background. This is the first documented example of any animal displaying dynamic polarization vision, in which the polarization information is actively maximized through rotational eye movements. PMID:27401817

  6. Dynamic polarization vision in mantis shrimps

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Ilse M.; How, Martin J.; Partridge, Julian C.; Temple, Shelby E.; Marshall, N. Justin; Cronin, Thomas W.; Roberts, Nicholas W.

    2016-01-01

    Gaze stabilization is an almost ubiquitous animal behaviour, one that is required to see the world clearly and without blur. Stomatopods, however, only fix their eyes on scenes or objects of interest occasionally. Almost uniquely among animals they explore their visual environment with a series pitch, yaw and torsional (roll) rotations of their eyes, where each eye may also move largely independently of the other. In this work, we demonstrate that the torsional rotations are used to actively enhance their ability to see the polarization of light. Both Gonodactylus smithii and Odontodactylus scyllarus rotate their eyes to align particular photoreceptors relative to the angle of polarization of a linearly polarized visual stimulus, thereby maximizing the polarization contrast between an object of interest and its background. This is the first documented example of any animal displaying dynamic polarization vision, in which the polarization information is actively maximized through rotational eye movements. PMID:27401817

  7. Polarization of Magnetic Dipole Emission and Spinning Dust Emission from Magnetic Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Thiem; Lazarian, Alex

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic dipole emission (MDE) from interstellar magnetic nanoparticles is potentially an important Galactic foreground in the microwave frequencies, and its polarization level may pose great challenges for achieving reliable measurements of cosmic microwave background B-mode signal. To obtain realistic predictions for the polarization of MDE, we first compute the degree of alignment of big silicate grains incorporated with magnetic inclusions. We find that thermally rotating big grains with magnetic inclusions are weakly aligned and can achieve alignment saturation when the magnetic alignment rate becomes much faster than the rotational damping rate. We then compute the degree of alignment for free-flying magnetic nanoparticles, taking into account various interaction processes of grains with the ambient gas and radiation field, including neutral collisions, ion collisions, and infrared emission. We find that the rotational damping by infrared emission can significantly decrease the degree of alignment of small particles from the saturation level, whereas the excitation by ion collisions can enhance the alignment of ultrasmall particles. Using the computed degrees of alignment, we predict the polarization level of MDE from free-flying magnetic nanoparticles to be rather low. Such a polarization level is within the upper limits measured for anomalous microwave emission (AME), which indicates that MDE from free-flying iron particles may not be ruled out as a source of AME. We also quantify rotational emission from free-flying iron nanoparticles with permanent magnetic moments and find that its emissivity is about one order of magnitude lower than that from spinning polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: IC 342 multi-frequency radio polarization study (Beck, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, R.

    2015-04-01

    The total and polarized radio continuum emission of IC 342 was observed with high spatial resolution in four wavelength bands with the Effelsberg and VLA telescopes. At λ6.2cm the data from both telescopes were combined. I separated thermal and nonthermal (synchrotron) emission components with the help of the spectral index distribution and derived maps of the magnetic field strength, degree of magnetic field order, magnetic pitch angle, Faraday rotation measure, and Faraday depolarization. (2 data files).

  9. Detection of a poorly resolved airplane using SWIR polarization imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl, Laura M.; Shaw, Joseph A.; Chenault, David B.

    2016-05-01

    Polarization can be used to detect manmade objects on the ground and in the air, as it provides additional information beyond intensity and color. Skylight can be strongly polarized, so the detection of airplanes in flight requires careful consideration of the skylight degree and angle of polarization (DoLP, AoP). In this study, we detect poorly resolved airplanes (>= 4 pixels on target) in flight during daytime partly cloudy and smoky conditions in Bozeman, Montana. We used a Polaris Sensor Technologies SWIR-MWIR rotating imaging polarimeter to measure the polarization signatures of airplanes and the surrounding skylight from 1.5 to 1.8 μm in the short-wave infrared (SWIR). An airplane flying in a clear region of partly cloudy sky was found to be 69% polarized at an elevation angle of 13° with respect to the horizon and the surrounding skylight was 4-8% polarized (maximum skylight DoLP was found to be 7-14% at an elevation angle of 50°). As the airplane increased in altitude, the DoLP for both airplane and surrounding sky pixels increased as the airplane neared the band of maximum sky polarization. We also observed that an airplane can be less polarized than its surrounding skylight when there is heavy smoke present. In such a case, the airplane was 30-38% polarized at an elevation angle of 17°, while the surrounding skylight was approximately 40% polarized (maximum skylight DoLP was 40-55% at an elevation angle of 34°). In both situations the airplane was most consistently observed in DoLP images rather than S0 or AoP images. In this paper, we describe the results in detail and discuss how this phenomenology could detect barely resolved aircrafts.

  10. Rotating Wavepackets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekner, John

    2008-01-01

    Any free-particle wavepacket solution of Schrodinger's equation can be converted by differentiations to wavepackets rotating about the original direction of motion. The angular momentum component along the motion associated with this rotation is an integral multiple of [h-bar]. It is an "intrinsic" angular momentum: independent of origin and…

  11. Thermal analysis and design of polarizer mirrors for waveguides in the DIII-D tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Baxi, C.B.; Doane, J.L.; Sevier, D.L.

    1992-07-01

    A new high power electron cyclotron heating (ECH) system designed to operate at 110 GHz with a power output of 2 MW has been introduced on DIII-D. All components of the system are capable of handling a 10 second pulse at an interval of 10 minutes. Transmission of ECH power from the the source (a millimeter-wave gyrotron) to the plasma through waveguide miter bends may change the polarization and rotate the polarization major axis. Polarizing elements are therefore required to correct for the effect of transmission lines and also to generate proper polarization for coupling into the plasma. Rotating mirrors with different rectangular grooved gratings in two successive miter bends can generate the required wide range of elliptical polarizations. Peak heat fluxes due to ohmic losses in these mirrors are several MW/m{sub 2} for a 0.5 MW gyrotron power. The complex distribution of losses in the grooves requires a detailed thermal stress analysis to ensure that temperature and stress limits are not exceeded. The desired pulse length is 10 sec, with a cooling time of 10 min between pulses. The temperature rise in the polarizing mirrors must be limited to less than 300{degree}C to prevent thermal fatigue and outgassing in the vacuum lines. This paper presents an analysis for the polarizing mirrors for the DIII-D ECH system.

  12. Seismic Excitation of the Polar Motion, 1977-1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Benjamin Fong; Gross, Richard S.; Han, Yan-Ben

    1996-01-01

    The mass redistribution in the earth as a result of an earthquake faulting changes the earth's inertia tensor, and hence its rotation. Using the complete formulae developed by CHAO and GROSS (1987) based on the normal mode theory, we calculated the earthquake-induced polar motion excitation for the largest 11,015 earthquakes that occurred during 1977.0-1993.6. The seismic excitations in this period are found to be two orders of magnitude below the detection threshold even with today's high precision earth rotation measurements. However, it was calculated that an earthquake of only one tenth the size of the great 1960 Chile event, if happened today, could be comfortably detected in polar motion observations. Furthermore, collectively these seismic excitations have a strong statistical tendency to nudge the pole towards approximately 140deg E, away from the actual observed polar drift direction. This non-random behavior, similarly found in other earthquake-induced changes in earth rotation and low-degree gravitational field by CHAO and GROSS (1987), manifests some geodynamic behavior yet to be explored.

  13. Polarized vacuum ultraviolet and X-radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.

    1978-01-01

    The most intense source of polarized vacuum UV and X radiation is synchrotron radiation, which exhibits a degree of partially polarized light between about 80-100%. However, the radiation transmitted by vacuum UV monochromators can also be highly polarized. The Seya-Namioka type of monochromator can produce partially polarized radiation between 50-80%. For certain experiments it is necessary to know the degree of polarization of the radiation being used. Also, when synchrotron radiation and a monochromator are combined the polarization characteristic of both should be known in order to make full use of these polarization properties. The polarizing effect of monochromators (i.e., diffraction gratings) have been measured at the Seya angle and at grazing angles for various spectral orders. Experimental evidence is presented which shows that the reciprocity law holds for polarization by reflection where the angle of incidence and diffraction are unequal. These results are reviewed along with the techniques for measuring the degree of polarization.

  14. Polarization observation of white light corona during the total solar eclipse on 2006 march 29

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhi; Zhang, Shu-Xin; Sin, Sun Ae; Pak, Hye Yong

    2006-12-01

    The digital photographic records of the white light corona polarization were made during the total solar eclipse on March 29, 2006 in El-Saloum (Egypt). By means of a reflector telescope, f=640mm (f/D=8), 20 pictures were obtained with different exposure time and successive rotation of a polaroid by 45°. The main results about the degree and direction of polarization in the range of 1.3Rsolar < r < 3.0Rsolar are discussed and graphically presented.

  15. Polarization-dependent fluorescence correlation spectroscopy for studying structural properties of proteins in living cell

    PubMed Central

    Oura, Makoto; Yamamoto, Johtaro; Ishikawa, Hideto; Mikuni, Shintaro; Fukushima, Ryousuke; Kinjo, Masataka

    2016-01-01

    Rotational diffusion measurement is predicted as an important method in cell biology because the rotational properties directly reflect molecular interactions and environment in the cell. To prove this concept, polarization-dependent fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (pol-FCS) measurements of purified fluorescent proteins were conducted in viscous solution. With the comparison between the translational and rotational diffusion coefficients obtained from pol-FCS measurements, the hydrodynamic radius of an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was estimated as a control measurement. The orientation of oligomer EGFP in living cells was also estimated by pol-FCS and compared with Monte Carlo simulations. The results of this pol-FCS experiment indicate that this method allows an estimation of the molecular orientation using the characteristics of rotational diffusion. Further, it can be applied to analyze the degree of molecular orientation and multimerization or detection of tiny aggregation of aggregate-prone proteins. PMID:27489044

  16. Dynamically polarized target for the gp2 and GpE experiments at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, J.; Maxwell, J.; Badman, T.; Brock, J.; Carlin, C.; Crabb, D. G.; Day, D.; Keith, C. D.; Kvaltine, N.; Meekins, D. G.; Mulholland, J.; Shields, J.; Slifer, K.

    2013-12-16

    We describe a dynamically polarized target that has been utilized for two electron scattering experiments in Hall A at Jefferson Lab. The primary components of the target are a new, high cooling power 4 He evaporation refrigerator, and a re-purposed, superconducting split-coil magnet. It has been used to polarize protons in irradiated NH3 at a temperature of 1 K and at fields of 2.5 and 5.0 Tesla. The performance of the target material in the electron beam under these conditions will be discussed. The maximum polarizations of 28% and 95% were obtained at those fields, respectively. To satisfy the requirements of both experiments, the magnet had to be routinely rotated between angles of 0, 6, and 90 degrees with respect to the incident electron beam. This was accomplished using a new rotating vacuum seal which permits rotations to be performed in only a few minutes.

  17. IO Rotation Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    During its 1979 flyby, Voyager 2 observed Io only from a distance. However, the volcanic activity discovered by Voyager 1 months earlier was readily visible. This sequence of nine color images was collected using the Blue, Green and Orange filters from about 1.2 million kilometers. A 2.5 hour period is covered during which Io rotates 7 degrees.

    Rotating into view over the limb of Io are the plumes of the volcanoes Amirani (top) and Maui (lower). These plumes are very distinct against the black sky because they are being illuminated from behind. Notice that as Io rotates, the proportion of Io which is sunlit decreases greatly. This changing phase angle is because Io is moving between the spacecraft and the Sun.

    This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1985.

  18. Two degree of freedom camera mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A two degree of freedom camera mount. The camera mount includes a socket, a ball, a first linkage and a second linkage. The socket includes an interior surface and an opening. The ball is positioned within an interior of the socket. The ball includes a coupling point for rotating the ball relative to the socket and an aperture for mounting a camera. The first and second linkages are rotatably connected to the socket and slidably connected to the coupling point of the ball. Rotation of the linkages with respect to the socket causes the ball to rotate with respect to the socket.

  19. Status of EBEX, a Balloon Borne CMB Polarization Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubmayr, Johannes; EBEX Collaboration

    2006-12-01

    We discuss the status of EBEX, a NASA funded balloon-borne polarimeter equipped with 1462 bolometric transition edge sensor (TES) detectors and designed to measure the B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation. EBEX will scan 350 square degrees of the sky over a 14 day long-duration balloon flight. Given the expected sensitivity we will put a 2σ upper limit of r ≤ 0.03. The EBEX instrument employs a 1.5 meter Gregorian-type telescope giving 8 arcminute resolution. Three frequency bands at 150, 250 and 420 GHz provide strong leverage against polarized dust foreground. Systematic errors are controlled by modulating the input polarization with a continuously rotating achromatic half wave plate (AHWP). Signal is detected in 1462 independent polarimeters distributed over two focal planes such that both polarization states are detected simultaneously. A superconducting magnetic bearing (SMB) allows smooth rotation of the AHWP with low heat dissipation suitable for a long duration balloon flight. The detectors are read out with a frequency domain multiplexing SQUID system.

  20. Supergranulation rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schou, Jesper; Beck, John G.

    2001-01-01

    Simple convection models estimate the depth of supergranulation at approximately 15,000 km which suggests that supergranules should rotate at the rate of the plasma in the outer 2% of the Sun by radius. Previous measurements (Snodgrass & Ulrich, 1990; Beck & Schou, 2000) found that supergranules rotate significantly faster than this, with a size-dependent rotation rate. We expand on previous work and show that the torsional oscillation signal seen in the supergranules tracks that obtained for normal modes. We also find that the amplitudes and lifetimes of the supergranulation are size dependent.

  1. Interferometric polarization control

    SciTech Connect

    Chuss, David T.; Wollack, Edward J.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Novak, Giles

    2006-07-20

    We develop the Jones and Mueller matrices for structures that allow control of the path length difference between two linear orthogonal polarizations and consider the effect of placing multiple devices in series. Specifically, we find that full polarization modulation (measurement of Stokes Q, U, and V) can be achieved by placing two such modulators in series if the relative angles of the beam-splitting grids with respect to the analyzer orientation are appropriately chosen. Such a device has several potential advantages over a spinning wave plate modulator for measuring astronomical polarization in the far infrared through millimeter: (i) The use of small, linear motions eliminates the need for cryogenic rotational bearings; (ii) the phase flexibility allows measurement of circular as well as linear polarization; and (iii) this architecture allows for both multiwavelength and broadband modulation. We also present initial laboratory results.

  2. Center is at Latitude 30 Degrees South, Longitude 90 Degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Center of the orthographic projection is at latitude 30 degrees S., longitude 90 degrees. The top half is dominated by the Tharsis Montes volcanoes, the large Alba Patera shield volcano, the dark Chryse basin, and a vast canyon system, Valles Marineris. In the central part, a prominent physiographic feature, Thaumasia plateau, includes a complex array of small- and large-scale faults and ridges and ancient volcanoes. The large conspicuous Argyre basin, southeast of the Thaumasia plateau, contains a broad expanse of light-colored plains 800 km across. The permanent south polar ice cap is located near the bottom.

  3. Center is at Latitude 30 Degrees North, Longitude 150 Degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Center of the orthographic projection is at latitude 30 degrees N., longitude 150 degrees. The north polar residual ice cap, which is cut by spiral-patterned troughs and surrounded by the dark lowland plains of Vastitas Borealis, is located at the top. The right-central part is dominated by the Tharsis Montes volcanoes. The most prominent of the Tharsis Montes volcanoes is the largest known volcano in the solar system, Olympus Mons. The light-colored lowland plains of Amazonis, Elysium, and Arcadia Planitiae lies north and west of Olympus Mons. The heavily cratered highlands dominate the lower one-third.

  4. Solar rotation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziembowski, W.

    Sunspot observations made by Johannes Hevelius in 1642 - 1644 are the first ones providing significant information about the solar differential rotation. In modern astronomy the determination of the rotation rate is done in a routine way by measuring positions of various structures on the solar surface as well as by studying the Doppler shifts of spectral lines. In recent years a progress in helioseismology enabled determination of the rotation rate in the layers inaccessible for direct observations. There are still uncertainties concerning, especially, the temporal variations of the rotation rate and its behaviour in the radiative interior. We are far from understanding the observations. Theoretical works have not yet resulted in a satisfactory model for the angular momentum transport in the convective zone.

  5. Rotational aerophones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, N. H.; Tarnopolsky, A. Z.; Lai, J. C. S.

    2002-03-01

    Free rotational aerophones such as the bullroarer, which consists of a wooden slat whirled around on the end of a string, and which emits a loud pulsating roar, have been used in many ancient and traditional societies for ceremonial purposes. This article presents an experimental and theoretical investigation of this instrument. The aerodynamics of rotational behavior is elucidated, and relates slat rotation frequency to slat width and velocity through the air. Analysis shows that sound production is due to generation of an oscillating-rotating dipole across the slat, the role of the vortices shed by the slat being relatively minor. Apparent discrepancies between the behavior of a bullroarer slat and a slat mounted on an axle in a wind tunnel are shown to be due to viscous friction in the bearings of the wind-tunnel experiment.

  6. The low-degree shape of Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Mark E.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Phillips, Roger J.; Barnouin, Olivier S.; Ernst, Carolyn M.; Kahan, Daniel S.; Solomon, Sean C.; Zuber, Maria T.; Smith, David E.; Hauck, Steven A.; Peale, Stanton J.; Margot, Jean-Luc; Mazarico, Erwan; Johnson, Catherine L.; Gaskell, Robert W.; Roberts, James H.; McNutt, Ralph L.; Oberst, Juergen

    2015-09-01

    The shape of Mercury, particularly when combined with its geoid, provides clues to the planet's internal structure, thermal evolution, and rotational history. Elevation measurements of the northern hemisphere acquired by the Mercury Laser Altimeter on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging spacecraft, combined with 378 occultations of radio signals from the spacecraft in the planet's southern hemisphere, reveal the low-degree shape of Mercury. Mercury's mean radius is 2439.36 ± 0.02 km, and there is a 0.14 km offset between the planet's centers of mass and figure. Mercury is oblate, with a polar radius 1.65 km less than the mean equatorial radius. The difference between the semimajor and semiminor equatorial axes is 1.25 km, with the long axis oriented 15° west of Mercury's dynamically defined principal axis. Mercury's geoid is also oblate and elongated, but it deviates from a sphere by a factor of 10 less than Mercury's shape, implying compensation of elevation variations on a global scale.

  7. Heme Distortions in Sperm-Whale Carbonmonoxy Myoglobin: Correlations between Rotational Strengths and Heme Distortions in MD-Generated Structures

    SciTech Connect

    KIEFL,CHRISTOPH; SCREERAMA,NARASIMHA; LU,YI; QIU,YAN; SHELNUTT,JOHN A.; WOODY,ROBERT W.

    2000-07-13

    The authors have investigated the effects of heme rotational isomerism in sperm-whale carbonmonoxy myoglobin using computational techniques. Several molecular dynamics simulations have been performed for the two rotational isomers A and B, which are related by a 180{degree} rotation around the {alpha}-{gamma} axis of the heme, of sperm-whale carbonmonoxy myoglobin in water. Both neutron diffraction and NMR structures were used as starting structures. In the absence of an experimental structure, the structure of isomer B was generated by rotating the heme in the structure of isomer A. Distortions of the heme from planarity were characterized by normal coordinate structural decomposition and by the angle of twist of the pyrrole rings from the heme plane. The heme distortions of the neutron diffraction structure were conserved in the MD trajectories, but in the NMR-based trajectories, where the heme distortions are less well defined, they differ from the original heme deformations. The protein matrix induced similar distortions on the heroes in orientations A and B. The results suggest that the binding site prefers a particular macrocycle conformation, and a 180{degree} rotation of the heme does not significantly alter the protein's preference for this conformation. The intrinsic rotational strengths of the two Soret transitions, separated according to their polarization in the heme plane, show strong correlations with the ruf-deformation and the average twist angle of the pyrrole rings. The total rotational strength, which includes contributions from the chromophores in the protein, shows a weaker correlation with heme distortions.

  8. Soliton mode locking by nonlinear Faraday rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wabnitz, S.; Westin, E.; Frey, R.; Flytzanis, C.

    1996-11-01

    We propose nonlinear Faraday rotation as a mechanism for achieving stable polarization mode locking of a soliton laser. We analyze by perturbation theory and beam-propagation simulations the interplay between bandwidth-limited gain, gain dichroism, and linear and nonlinear Faraday rotation. .

  9. Polarization at the SLC

    SciTech Connect

    Moffeit, K.C.

    1988-10-01

    The Stanford Linear collider was designed to accommodate polarized electron beams. Longitudinally polarized electrons colliding with unpolarized positrons at a center of mass energy near the Z/sup 0/ mass can be used as novel and sensitive probes of the electroweak process. A gallium arsenide based photon emission source will provide a beam of longitudinally polarized electrons of about 45 percent polarization. A system of bend magnets and a superconducting solenoid will be used to rotate the spins so that the polarization is preserved while the 1.21 GeV electrons are stored in the damping ring. Another set of bend magnets and two superconducting solenoids orient the spin vectors so that longitudinal polarization of the electrons is achieved at the collision point with the unpolarized positrons. A system to monitor the polarization based on Moller and Compton scattering will be used. Nearly all major components have been fabricated and tested. Subsystems of the source and polarimeters have been installed, and studies are in progress. The installation and commissioning of the entire system will take place during available machine shutdown periods as the commissioning of SLC progresses. 8 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Characterization of multi-angular hyperspectral polarized reflectance from coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilerson, A.; Tonizzo, A.; Zhou, J.; Dyer, R.; Chowdhary, J.; Gross, B.; Moshary, F.; Ahmed, S.

    2008-10-01

    Since scattering by molecules, particles, aerosols, hydrosols and reflection at the sea surface introduce and modify the polarization state of light, the polarized underwater light field contains embedded information about the intrinsic nature of various water constituents (biogenic, nonalgal and inorganic particles, dissolved matter), and can be used in retrieval algorithms for the separation of organic and inorganic particulates, in improving underwater visibility and in other active techniques and applications. To study underwater polarization characteristics a new instrument has been developed by the Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory at CCNY. The instrument consists of three Satlantic Hyperspectral radiance sensors mounted on a scanning system controlled by an underwater electric stepper motor. The motor rotates the sensors in a vertical plane in a specific angular range. This can be adjusted according to the solar altitude angle in order to cover the full 0-180° scattering angle range. Linear polarizers are attached in front of the sensors; the polarizers are oriented at 0° (vertical), 90 °(horizontal) and 45°. By rotating the sensors relative to the nadir direction, the instrument scans the angular features of the underwater polarized light field in a vertical plane defined by its azimuth angle relative to the sun. Angular variations of the degree of polarization are found to be consistent with theory. Maximum values of the degree of polarization do not exceed 0.5 while the position of the maximum is shifted from 90° towards higher scattering angles. The results presented here will need to be corroborated with additional measurements in varying water conditions.

  11. Silicon-on-insulator integrated tunable polarization controller (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarmiento-Merenguel, Jose-Dario; Alonso-Ramos, Carlos; Halir, Robert; Le Roux, Xavier; Vivien, Laurent; Cheben, Pavel; Durán-Valdeiglesias, Elena; Molina-Fernández, Iñigo; Marris-Morini, Delphine; Xu, Danxia; Schmid, Jens H.; Janz, Siegfried; Ortega-Moñux, Alejandro

    2016-05-01

    Polarization management is a key functionality in many photonic applications, including optical communications, imaging or quantum information. Developing integrated devices capable of reliably controlling polarization state would result in compact and low cost circuits with improved stability compared with fiber or bulk optics solutions. However, stringent fabrication tolerances make the integration of polarization managing elements highly challenging. The main challenge in polarization controllers, composed by polarization rotators and polarization phase shifters, is to precisely control rotation angle in integrated polarization rotators. Proposed solutions typically require sophisticated fabrication processes or extremely tight fabrication tolerances, seriously hindering their practical application. Here we present a technology independent polarization controller scheme that relies on phase shifters to largely relax fabrication tolerances of polarization rotators. In addition, these phase shifters enable dynamic wavelength tuning. In our scheme, three polarization rotation elements are interconnected with two tunable phase shifters to adjust the polarization extinction ratio, while an output polarization phase shifter is used to select the relative phase. This way we can achieve any desired output state of polarization. We have implemented this scheme in the silicon-on-insulator platform, experimentally demonstrating a record polarization extinction range of 40 dB (± 20 dB) with a 98% coverage of the Poincaré sphere. Furthermore, the device is tunable in the complete C-band. These results constitute, to the best of our knowledge, the highest polarization extinction range achieved in a fully integrated device.

  12. Polarization degree differences for the 3p2P3/2-3s2S1/2 transition of N4+(3p2P3/2) produced in N5+-He and N5+-H2 collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Zhao, Y. Q.; Wang, J. G.; Janev, R. K.; Tanuma, H.

    2010-01-01

    The magnetic substate-selective single-electron-capture cross sections in collisions of N5+ with He and H2 are calculated using the two-center atomic orbital close-coupling method, and the polarization of emitted radiation from the excited state of N4+ is investigated for projectile energies between 1.2 and 7 keV/u. The polarization degrees for the 3p2P3/2-3s2S1/2 transition of N4+(3p2P3/2) produced in N5++He and N5++H2 electron-capture collisions are in general agreement with the experimental measurements. It is found both experimentally and theoretically that there exists a large difference between the polarization degrees of this radiation resulting from the N5++He and N5++H2 electron-capture collisions, namely, ~0.25 and ~0, respectively. By studying the time evolution of electron-capture dynamics in the two systems we have found that this difference is caused mainly by the difference in the interactions in the two systems at relatively small internuclear distances, consistent with the molecular picture of the collision dynamics.

  13. Investigation of the asymmetric aerodynamic characteristics of cylindrical bodies of revolution with variations in nose geometry and rotational orientation at angles of attack to 58 degrees and Mach numbers to 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruse, R. L.; Keener, E. R.; Chapman, G. T.; Claser, G.

    1979-01-01

    Wind-tunnel tests were conducted to investigate the side forces and yawing moments that can occur at high angles of attack and zero sideslip for cylindrical bodies of revolution. Two bodies having several tangent ogive forebodies with fineness ratios of 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, and 3.5 were tested. The forebodies with fineness ratios of 2.5 and 3.5 had several bluntnesses. The cylindrical afterbodies had fineness ratios of 7 and 13. The model components - tip, forebody, and afterbody - were tested in various rotational positions about their axes of symmetry. Most of the tests were conducted at a Mach number of 0.25, a Reynolds number of 0.32 x 10 to the 6th power, and with the afterbody that had a fineness ratio of 7 and with selected forebodies. The effect of Mach number was determined with the afterbody that had a fineness ratio of 13 and with selected forebodies at mach numbers from 0.25 to 2 at Reynolds number = 0.32 X 10 to the 6th power. Maximum angle of attack was 58 deg.

  14. Electropumping of water with rotating electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luca, Sergio; Todd, B. D.; Hansen, J. S.; Daivis, Peter J.

    2013-04-01

    Pumping of fluids confined to nanometer dimension spaces is a technically challenging yet vitally important technological application with far reaching consequences for lab-on-a-chip devices, biomimetic nanoscale reactors, nanoscale filtration devices and the like. All current pumping mechanisms require some sort of direct intrusion into the nanofluidic system, and involve mechanical or electronic components. In this paper, we present the first nonequilibrium molecular dynamics results to demonstrate that non-intrusive electropumping of liquid water on the nanoscale can be performed by subtly exploiting the coupling of spin angular momentum to linear streaming momentum. A spatially uniform rotating electric field is applied to water molecules, which couples to their permanent electric dipole moments. The resulting molecular rotational momentum is converted into linear streaming momentum of the fluid. By selectively tuning the degree of hydrophobicity of the solid walls one can generate a net unidirectional flow. Our results for the linear streaming and angular velocities of the confined water are in general agreement with the extended hydrodynamical theory for this process, though also suggest refinements to the theory are required. These numerical experiments confirm that this new concept for pumping of polar nanofluids can be employed under laboratory conditions, opening up significant new technological possibilities.

  15. Laser-induced rotation and cooling of a trapped microgyroscope in vacuum.

    PubMed

    Arita, Yoshihiko; Mazilu, Michael; Dholakia, Kishan

    2013-01-01

    Quantum state preparation of mesoscopic objects is a powerful playground for the elucidation of many physical principles. The field of cavity optomechanics aims to create these states through laser cooling and by minimizing state decoherence. Here we demonstrate simultaneous optical trapping and rotation of a birefringent microparticle in vacuum using a circularly polarized trapping laser beam--a microgyroscope. We show stable rotation rates up to 5 MHz. Coupling between the rotational and translational degrees of freedom of the trapped microgyroscope leads to the observation of positional stabilization in effect cooling the particle to 40 K. We attribute this cooling to the interaction between the gyroscopic directional stabilization and the optical trapping field. PMID:23982323

  16. Laser-induced rotation and cooling of a trapped microgyroscope in vacuum

    PubMed Central

    Arita, Yoshihiko; Mazilu, Michael; Dholakia, Kishan

    2013-01-01

    Quantum state preparation of mesoscopic objects is a powerful playground for the elucidation of many physical principles. The field of cavity optomechanics aims to create these states through laser cooling and by minimizing state decoherence. Here we demonstrate simultaneous optical trapping and rotation of a birefringent microparticle in vacuum using a circularly polarized trapping laser beam—a microgyroscope. We show stable rotation rates up to 5 MHz. Coupling between the rotational and translational degrees of freedom of the trapped microgyroscope leads to the observation of positional stabilization in effect cooling the particle to 40 K. We attribute this cooling to the interaction between the gyroscopic directional stabilization and the optical trapping field. PMID:23982323

  17. Relativity on Rotated Graph Paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salgado, Roberto

    2011-11-01

    We present visual calculations in special relativity using spacetime diagrams drawn on graph paper that has been rotated by 45 degrees. The rotated lines represent lightlike directions in Minkowski spacetime, and the boxes in the grid (called light-clock diamonds) represent ticks of an inertial observer's lightclock. We show that many quantitative results can be read off a spacetime diagram by counting boxes, using a minimal amount of algebra.

  18. Effects of Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons in microcavities on the polarization of emitted light

    SciTech Connect

    Laussy, Fabrice P.; Shelykh, Ivan A.; Malpuech, Guillaume; Kavokin, Alexey

    2006-01-15

    It is shown theoretically that Bose condensation of spin-degenerated exciton polaritons results in spontaneous buildup of the linear polarization in emission spectra of semiconductor microcavities and therefore that linear polarization is a good order parameter for the polariton Bose condensation under unpolarized pumping. If spin degeneracy is lifted, an elliptically polarized light is emitted by the polariton condensate. The main axis of the ellipse rotates in time due to self-induced Larmor precession of the polariton condensate pseudospin. The polarization decay time is governed by the dephasing induced by the polariton-polariton interaction and is strongly dependent on the statistics of the condensed state. If the elliptical polarization preexists in the system as a result of pumping, the lifetime of the linear part of the polarization is also extremely sensitive to the degree of circular polarization induced in the system by pumping. This decay time can be used to measure the coherence degree of the condensate as a function of the polarization of the emitted light, as opposed to more conventional but harder particle counting experiments of the Hanbury Brown-Twiss type.

  19. Polarization property analysis of a periscopic scanner with three-dimensional polarization ray-tracing calculus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yufei; Yan, Changxiang

    2016-02-20

    The polarization properties of a two-axis periscopic optical scanner constituted by a pair of rotating planar mirrors have been studied by using the three-dimensional polarization ray-tracing matrix method. The separate and cumulative matrices that define the transformation of the polarization state are obtained and expressed in terms of the rotation angles of two mirrors. The variations of diattenuation and retardance are investigated and graphically shown as functions of the rotation angles. On this basis, a further investigation about the cumulative polarization aberrations of three different metal-coated periscopic scanners is accomplished. Finally, the output polarization states of the three metal-coated scanners are calculated with the input beam of the arbitrary polarization states, and the results show that aluminum film is more appropriate than gold film or silver film for the polarization-maintaining periscopic scanner. PMID:26906587

  20. INFLUENCE OF THE POLAR CAP CURRENT ON PULSAR POLARIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, D.; Gangadhara, R. T. E-mail: ganga@iiap.res.in

    2012-07-20

    We have developed a model for the polarization of curvature radiation by taking into account the polar-cap-current-induced perturbation on the dipolar magnetic field. We present the effects of the polar cap current on the pulsar radio emission in an artificial case when the rotation effects, such as aberration and retardation, are absent. Our model indicates that the intensity components and the polarization angle inflection point can be shifted to either the leading or the trailing side depending upon the prevailing conditions in the viewing geometry, the non-uniformity in source distribution (modulation), and the polar-cap-current-induced perturbation. Also, we find evidence for the origin of symmetric-type circular polarization in addition to the antisymmetric type. Our model predicts a stronger trailing component compared to that on the leading side of a given cone under some specific conditions.

  1. Rotation Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    In aircraft turbine engine research, certain investigations require extremely precise measurement of the position of a rotating part, such as the rotor, a disc-like part of the engine's compressor which revolves around a shaft at extremely high speeds. For example, in studies of airflow velocity within a compressor, researchers need to know-for data correlation the instantaneous position of a given spot on the rotor each time a velocity measurement is made. Earlier methods of measuring rotor shaft angle required a physical connection to the shaft, which limited the velocity of the rotating object.

  2. Mental Rotation: Cross-Task Training and Generalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stransky, Debi; Wilcox, Laurie M.; Dubrowski, Adam

    2010-01-01

    It is well established that performance on standard mental rotation tasks improves with training (Peters et al., 1995), but thus far there is little consensus regarding the degree of transfer to other tasks which also involve mental rotation. In Experiment 1, we assessed the effect of mental rotation training on participants' Mental Rotation Test…

  3. Rotating apparatus for isoelectric focusing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bier, Milan (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    This disclosure is directed to an isoelectric focusing apparatus, wherein stabilization of the fluid containing the isolated proteins is achieved by carrying out the separation in a rotating cylinder with the separation cavity of the cylinder being segmented by means of filter elements. The filter elements are constituted of a material offering some degree of resistance to fluid convection, but allowing relatively free and unhindered passage of current and transport of proteins. The combined effect of segmentation and rotation has been found to be superior to either segmentation or rotation alone in maintaining the stability of the migrated fractions.

  4. Angular distribution of photoelectrons at 584A using polarized radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hancock, W. H.; Samson, J. A. R.

    1975-01-01

    Photoelectron angular distributions for Ar, Xe, N2, O2, CO, CO2, and NH3 were obtained at 584 A by observing the photoelectrons at a fixed angle and simply rotating the plane of polarization of a highly polarized photon source. The radiation from a helium dc glow discharge source was polarized (84%) using a reflection type polarizer.

  5. Storage and retrieval of vector beams of light in a multiple-degree-of-freedom quantum memory.

    PubMed

    Parigi, Valentina; D'Ambrosio, Vincenzo; Arnold, Christophe; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Sciarrino, Fabio; Laurat, Julien

    2015-01-01

    The full structuration of light in the transverse plane, including intensity, phase and polarization, holds the promise of unprecedented capabilities for applications in classical optics as well as in quantum optics and information sciences. Harnessing special topologies can lead to enhanced focusing, data multiplexing or advanced sensing and metrology. Here we experimentally demonstrate the storage of such spatio-polarization-patterned beams into an optical memory. A set of vectorial vortex modes is generated via liquid crystal cell with topological charge in the optic axis distribution, and preservation of the phase and polarization singularities is demonstrated after retrieval, at the single-photon level. The realized multiple-degree-of-freedom memory can find applications in classical data processing but also in quantum network scenarios where structured states have been shown to provide promising attributes, such as rotational invariance. PMID:26166257

  6. Storage and retrieval of vector beams of light in a multiple-degree-of-freedom quantum memory

    PubMed Central

    Parigi, Valentina; D'Ambrosio, Vincenzo; Arnold, Christophe; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Sciarrino, Fabio; Laurat, Julien

    2015-01-01

    The full structuration of light in the transverse plane, including intensity, phase and polarization, holds the promise of unprecedented capabilities for applications in classical optics as well as in quantum optics and information sciences. Harnessing special topologies can lead to enhanced focusing, data multiplexing or advanced sensing and metrology. Here we experimentally demonstrate the storage of such spatio-polarization-patterned beams into an optical memory. A set of vectorial vortex modes is generated via liquid crystal cell with topological charge in the optic axis distribution, and preservation of the phase and polarization singularities is demonstrated after retrieval, at the single-photon level. The realized multiple-degree-of-freedom memory can find applications in classical data processing but also in quantum network scenarios where structured states have been shown to provide promising attributes, such as rotational invariance. PMID:26166257

  7. Orientational disorder: A key to understand polarity of molecular crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulliger, J.; Brahimi, K.; Burgener, M.; Dulcevscaia, G.

    2014-12-01

    Polarity of molecular crystals is understood here as a result of 180° orientational disorder of asymmetrical building blocks. Symmetry arguments based on (i) a single rotational degree of freedom, (ii) the finite size of crystals and (iii) interactions in between asymmetrical molecules lead to the conclusion that such crystals should express a bi-polar (∞/∞m) average state of zero polarity. This basic property of molecular crystals is exemplified by forming solid solutions of 4-iodo-4‧-nitro-biphenyl (INBP) and symmetrical bi-phenyls (BP: A-π-A, D-π-D; A: acceptor; D: donor). Monte Carlo simulations based on a layer-by-layer growth model predict a reversal of the bi-polar state of pure INBP by forming a solid solution of (INBP)1-x(D-π-D)x. In the case of the addition of A-π-A reversal as found for pure INBP is promoted, i.e. needs less growth steps (layers) to be accomplished. Real crystals representing solid solutions were grown from 2-butanon solutions using symmetrical BPs. Scanning pyroelectric microscopy confirmed the qualitative behavior seen in Monte Carlo simulations. These findings represent an experimentum crucis supporting the general validity of the theory of stochastic polarity formation applied to single component or solid solution molecular crystals.

  8. Seismic Rotations Observed with Inertial Seismic Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean, V.

    2006-12-01

    sensors while a translation effect quite similar on both components will require a quite coherent well polarized noise always oriented to N045. Geoscope stations of PPT (Papeete, Tahiti) and NOUC (Nouméa, New Caledonia) present this feature quite systematically. In the near field, tilt effect acts alone at the second order on the vertical component. The two horizontal components are recording linearly the tilt waves (with a great amplification especially at long period) and the rotation around the vertical axis. Therefore, the horizontal trace is the mixture of both the two rotating effects and the translating signal we can do discriminate. We may conclude that a sensor which will record the six degrees of freedom of the ground motion should be a quite important issue in the future if we want to understand correctly near-field ground motions. We may foresee that these new measurements will be information for better understanding the Earth structure and seismic source mechanisms.

  9. Polarization correlations of Dirac particles

    SciTech Connect

    Caban, Pawel; Dziegielewska, Agnieszka; Karmazyn, Anna; Okrasa, Malgorzata

    2010-03-15

    We calculate the polarization correlation function in the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-type experiments with relativistic spin-1/2 particles. This function depends monotonically on the particle momenta. Moreover, we also show that the polarization correlation function violates the Clauser-Horn-Shimony-Holt inequality and the degree of this violation can depend on the particle momenta and the motion of observers.

  10. Polarized beams at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Roser, T.

    1995-11-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven allows for the unique possibility of colliding two 250 GeV polarized proton beams at luminosities of up to 2 {times} 10{sup 32} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. A partial Siberian Snake in the AGS has recently been successfully tested and full Siberian Snakes, spin rotators, and polarimeters for RHIC are being developed to make the acceleration of polarized beams to 250 GeV possible. High energy polarized beam collisions will open up the unique physics opportunities of studying spin effects in hard processes, which will allow the study of the spin structure of the proton and also the verification of the many well documented expectations of spin effects in perturbative QCD and parity violation in W and Z production.

  11. Polarization shift keying for high-bit-rate multilevel soliton transmissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Midrio, M.; Franco, P.; Crivellari, M.; Romagnoli, M.; Matera, F.

    1996-07-01

    A novel scheme for high-capacity optical transmission is studied. The proposed system is based on a multilevel modulation technique that uses solitons. The basic idea relies on the property of solitons that the evolution of the state of polarization during propagation can be represented with a good degree of approximation with a rigid rotation of the Poincare sphere. Therefore, besides the rigid rotation that can be compensated for at the receiver, the state of polarization of the signal can be used to carry information. Here the limits of the rigid rotation that are due to polarization mode dispersion and amplified spontaneous emission noise are envisaged. Results show how this scheme permits the transmission-distance limit to be overcome for single-channel intensity-modulated direct-detection soliton systems. As an example we show how a 2.5-Gsymbol / s system with 24 polarization levels leads to a total capacity of 10 Gbits / s over distances up to 3000 km in links encompassing standard dispersion fibers.

  12. The drift of Saturn's north polar SPOT observed by the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, J.; Hua, X.-M.; Turgeon, B.; Westphal, J. A.; Barnet, C. D.

    1993-04-01

    Polar projections of 50 images of Saturn at 889 nanometers and 25 images at 718 nanometers taken by the HST in November 1990, as well as three images at each wavelength taken in June 1991, have been examined. Among them, 31 show the north polar spot, which is associated with Saturn's polar hexagon, in locations suitable for measurement. The movement of the spot with respect to Saturn's system III rotation rate was studied. During the period of observation, the polar spot had first a short-term westward movement and then a long-term eastward drift. The rate of the long-term drift was -0.060 +/- 0.008 deg/day with respect to system III, approximately 50 percent greater than previously determined from Voyager. The original 1980 and 1981 Voyager data were combined with the new Hubble images to form an 11-yr baseline. The eastward drift over the longer period was -0.0569 degrees per day. The long-term drift could be due to uncertainty in the standard value of the internal rotation period. The short-term movement in November 1990 has a rate that is greater in magnitude but opposite in sign and probably represents a real, transient motion of the spot relative to the internal rotation system.

  13. Collisional decoherence of polar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Kai; Stickler, Benjamin A.; Hornberger, Klaus

    2016-06-01

    The quantum state of motion of a large and rotating polar molecule can lose coherence through the collisions with gas atoms. We show how the associated quantum master equation for the center of mass can be expressed in terms of the orientationally averaged differential and total scattering cross sections, for which we provide approximate analytic expressions. The master equation is then utilized to quantify collisional decoherence in a interference experiment with polar molecules.

  14. Artificial anisotropy and polarizing filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flory, Francois; Escoubas, Ludovic; Lazarides, Basile

    2002-06-01

    The calculated spectral transmittance of a multilayer laser mirror is used to determine the effective index of the single layer equivalent to the multilayer stack. We measure the artificial anisotropy of photoresist thin films whose structure is a one-dimensional, subwavelength grating obtained from interference fringes. The limitation of the theory of the first-order effective index homogenization is discussed. We designed normal-incidence, polarizing coating and a polarization rotator by embedding anisotropic films in simple multilayer structures.

  15. The polarization and ultraviolet spectrum of Markarian 231

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Paul S.; Schmidt, Gary D.; Allen, Richard G.; Angel, J. R. P.

    1995-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectropolarimetry acquired with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) of the peculiar Seyfert galaxy Mrk 231 is combined with new high-quality ground-based measurements to provide the first, nearly complete, record of its linear polarization from 1575 to 7900 A. The accompanying ultraviolet spectrum portrays the heavily extinguished emission-line spectrum of the active nucleus plus the emergence of a blue continuum shortward of approximately 2400 A. In addition, absorption features due to He I lambda 3188, Mg I lambda 2853, Mg II lambda 2798, and especially several resonance multiplets of Fe II are identified with a well-known optical absorption system blueshifted approximately 4600 km/s with respect to emission lines. The continuum is attributed to approximately 10(exp 5) hot, young stars surrounding the nucleus. This component dilutes the polarized nuclear light, implying that the intrinsic polarization of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) spectrum approaches 20% at 2800 A. The rapid decline in degree of polarization toward longer wavelengths is best explained by the strongly frequency-dependent scattering cross section of dust grains coupled with modest starlight dilution. Peculiar S-shaped inflections in both the degree and position angle of polarization through H alpha and other major emission lines are interpreted as effects of scattering from two regions offset in velocity by several hundred km/s. A third source of (weakly) polarized flux is required to explain a nearly 40 deg rotation in position angle between 3200 and 1800 A. The displaced absorption features, polarimetry, and optical/infrared properties of Mrk 231 all point to its classification as a low-ionization, or Mg II broad absorption line quasar, in which most, if not all, lines of sight to the active nucleus are heavily obscured by dust and low-ionization gas clouds.

  16. The cell adhesion molecules Echinoid and Friend of Echinoid coordinate cell adhesion and cell signaling to regulate the fidelity of ommatidial rotation in the Drosophila eye.

    PubMed

    Fetting, Jennifer L; Spencer, Susan A; Wolff, Tanya

    2009-10-01

    Directed cellular movements are a universal feature of morphogenesis in multicellular organisms. Differential adhesion between the stationary and motile cells promotes these cellular movements to effect spatial patterning of cells. A prominent feature of Drosophila eye development is the 90 degrees rotational movement of the multicellular ommatidial precursors within a matrix of stationary cells. We demonstrate that the cell adhesion molecules Echinoid (Ed) and Friend of Echinoid (Fred) act throughout ommatidial rotation to modulate the degree of ommatidial precursor movement. We propose that differential levels of Ed and Fred between stationary and rotating cells at the initiation of rotation create a permissive environment for cell movement, and that uniform levels in these two populations later contribute to stopping the movement. Based on genetic data, we propose that ed and fred impart a second, independent, ;brake-like' contribution to this process via Egfr signaling. Ed and Fred are localized in largely distinct and dynamic patterns throughout rotation. However, ed and fred are required in only a subset of cells - photoreceptors R1, R7 and R6 - for normal rotation, cells that have only recently been linked to a role in planar cell polarity (PCP). This work also provides the first demonstration of a requirement for cone cells in the ommatidial rotation aspect of PCP. ed and fred also genetically interact with the PCP genes, but affect only the degree-of-rotation aspect of the PCP phenotype. Significantly, we demonstrate that at least one PCP protein, Stbm, is required in R7 to control the degree of ommatidial rotation. PMID:19736327

  17. New Insights into Lunar True Polar Wander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keane, J. T.; Matsuyama, I.; Siegler, M. A.

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies have revealed two new classes of lunar paleopole (the primordial fossil figure pole and the late polar volatile paleopole), opening up possibility of a unified chronology of the lunar rotational dynamics.

  18. Solar rotating magnetic dipole?. [around axis perpendicular to rotation axis of the sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antonucci, E.

    1974-01-01

    A magnetic dipole rotating around an axis perpendicular to the rotation axis of the sun can account for the characteristics of the surface large-scale solar magnetic fields through the solar cycle. The polarity patterns of the interplanetary magnetic field, predictable from this model, agree with the observed interplanetary magnetic sector structure.

  19. SCATTERING POLARIZATION IN SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Štěpán, Jiří; Heinzel, Petr

    2013-11-20

    There is ongoing debate about the origin and even the very existence of a high degree of linear polarization of some chromospheric spectral lines observed in solar flares. The standard explanation of these measurements is in terms of the impact polarization caused by non-thermal proton and/or electron beams. In this work, we study the possible role of resonance line polarization due to radiation anisotropy in the inhomogeneous medium of the flare ribbons. We consider a simple two-dimensional model of the flaring chromosphere and we self-consistently solve the non-LTE problem taking into account the role of resonant scattering polarization and of the Hanle effect. Our calculations show that the horizontal plasma inhomogeneities at the boundary of the flare ribbons can lead to a significant radiation anisotropy in the line formation region and, consequently, to a fractional linear polarization of the emergent radiation of the order of several percent. Neglecting the effects of impact polarization, our model can provide a clue for resolving some of the common observational findings, namely: (1) why a high degree of polarization appears mainly at the edges of the flare ribbons; (2) why polarization can also be observed during the gradual phase of a flare; and (3) why polarization is mostly radial or tangential. We conclude that radiation transfer in realistic multi-dimensional models of solar flares needs to be considered as an essential ingredient for understanding the observed spectral line polarization.

  20. Stress field rotation or block rotation: An example from the Lake Mead fault system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ron, Hagai; Nur, Amos; Aydin, Atilla

    1990-01-01

    The Coulomb criterion, as applied by Anderson (1951), has been widely used as the basis for inferring paleostresses from in situ fault slip data, assuming that faults are optimally oriented relative to the tectonic stress direction. Consequently if stress direction is fixed during deformation so must be the faults. Freund (1974) has shown that faults, when arranged in sets, must generally rotate as they slip. Nur et al., (1986) showed how sufficiently large rotations require the development of new sets of faults which are more favorably oriented to the principal direction of stress. This leads to the appearance of multiple fault sets in which older faults are offset by younger ones, both having the same sense of slip. Consequently correct paleostress analysis must include the possible effect of fault and material rotation, in addition to stress field rotation. The combined effects of stress field rotation and material rotation were investigated in the Lake Meade Fault System (LMFS) especially in the Hoover Dam area. Fault inversion results imply an apparent 60 degrees clockwise (CW) rotation of the stress field since mid-Miocene time. In contrast structural data from the rest of the Great Basin suggest only a 30 degrees CW stress field rotation. By incorporating paleomagnetic and seismic evidence, the 30 degrees discrepancy can be neatly resolved. Based on paleomagnetic declination anomalies, it is inferred that slip on NW trending right lateral faults caused a local 30 degrees counter-clockwise (CCW) rotation of blocks and faults in the Lake Mead area. Consequently the inferred 60 degrees CW rotation of the stress field in the LMFS consists of an actual 30 degrees CW rotation of the stress field (as for the entire Great Basin) plus a local 30 degrees CCW material rotation of the LMFS fault blocks.