Science.gov

Sample records for dehydration operations topical

  1. Task 23 - background report on subsurface environmental issues relating to natural gas sweetening and dehydration operations. Topical report, February 1, 1994--February 28, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, J.A.

    1998-12-31

    This report describes information pertaining to environmental issues, toxicity, environmental transport, and fate of alkanolamines and glycols associated with natural gas sweetening and dehydration operations. Waste management associated with the operations is also discussed.

  2. Dehydration

    MedlinePlus

    ... to be a little more careful. Signs of dehydration in adults include Being thirsty Urinating less often ... skin Feeling tired Dizziness and fainting Signs of dehydration in babies and young children include a dry ...

  3. First Aid: Dehydration

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Dehydration KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Dehydration Print A A A Text Size Dehydration ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Summer Safety Heat Illness First Aid: Heat Illness Sun Safety Dehydration Diarrhea Vomiting Word! ...

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of PEM Dehydration and Gas Manifold Flooding During Continuous Fuel Cell Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Minard, Kevin R.; Vishwanathan, Vilanyur V.; Majors, Paul D.; Wang, Li Q.; Rieke, Peter C.

    2006-10-27

    The methods, apparatus, and results are reported for in-situ, near real time, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of MEA dehydration and gas manifold flooding in an operating PEM fuel cell. To acquire high-resolution, artifact-free images for visualizing water distribution, acquisition parameters for a standard, two-dimensional (2D), spin-echo sequence were first optimized for the measured magnetic field heterogeneity induced by fuel cell components. 2D images of water inside the fuel cell were then acquired every 128 seconds during 11.4 hours of continuous operation under constant load. Collected images revealed that MEA dehydration proceeded non-uniformly across its plane, starting from gas inlets and ending at gas outlets, and that upon completion of this dehydration process manifold flooding began. To understand these observations, acquired images were correlated to the current output and operating characteristics of the fuel cell. Results demonstrate the power of MRI for in-situ, near real-time imaging of water distribution and non-uniformity in operating PEM fuel cells, and highlight its utility for understanding PEM fuel cell operation, the causes of cell failure, and for developing new strategies of water management.

  5. Dehydration (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... En Español Making a Change – Your Personal Plan Hot Topics Meningitis Choosing Your Mood Prescription Drug Abuse ... from lots of physical activity, especially on a hot day. Even mild dehydration can affect an athlete's ...

  6. Onion dehydration

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.; Lienau, P.J.

    1994-07-01

    This article describes the onion dehydration process as generally practiced in the United States. The actual processing steps from harvest to final product, and geothermal applications for power production and energy requirements in the dehydration industry are discussed. A design of a dehydrator converted to geothermal energy usage is included.

  7. Onion dehydration

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.

    1995-12-31

    Onion dehydration consists of a continuous operation, belt conveyor using fairly low-temperature hot air from 38-104{degrees}C (100 to 200{degrees}F). Typical processing plants will handle 4500 kg (10,000 pounds) of raw product per hour (single line), reducing the moisture from around 83 % to 4 % (680 to 820 kg - 1,500 to 1,800 pounds finished product). An example of a geothermal processing plant is Integrate Ingredients at Empire, Nevada, in the San Emidio Desert. A total of 6.3 million kg (14 million pounds) of dry product are produced annually: 60% onion and 40% garlic. A 130{degrees}C (266{degrees}F) well provide the necessary heat for the plant.

  8. Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teaching, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Topics discussed in this column include patterns of inverse multipliers in modular arithmetic; diagrams for product sets, set intersection, and set union; function notation; patterns in the number of partitions of positive integers; and tessellations. (DT)

  9. Topics in Cognitive Development: Language and Operational Thought. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presseisen, Barbara Z.; And Others

    This is the second volume in a series that records the official Symposium Proceedings of the Jean Piaget Society and examines the theoretical, empirical, and applied aspects of Jean Piaget's seminal epistemology. The 12 papers are divided into four areas: language development, formal reasoning, social cognition, and applied research. The topics of…

  10. Thirst, Drinking Behavior, And Dehydration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John

    1996-01-01

    Report describes review of physiological mechanisms of involuntary dehydration. Researchers considered cellular dehydration and effects of sodium on thirst, as well as extracellular dehydration and restoration of vascular volume, effects of renin on thirst, and effects of heat.

  11. METHOD OF DEHYDRATING URANIUM TETRAFLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Davis, J.O.; Fogel, C.C.; Palmer, W.E.

    1962-12-18

    Drying and dehydration of aqueous-precipitated uranium tetrafluoride are described. The UF/sub 4/ which normally contains 3 to 4% water, is dispersed into the reaction zone of an operating reactor wherein uranium hexafluoride is being reduced to UF/sub 4/ with hydrogen. The water-containing UF/sub 4/ is dried and blended with the UF/sub 4/ produced in the reactor without interfering with the reduction reaction. (AEC)

  12. Dehydration processes using membranes with hydrophobic coating

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yu; Baker, Richard W; Aldajani, Tiem; Ly, Jennifer

    2013-07-30

    Processes for removing water from organic compounds, especially polar compounds such as alcohols. The processes include a membrane-based dehydration step, using a membrane that has a dioxole-based polymer selective layer or the like and a hydrophilic selective layer, and can operate even when the stream to be treated has a high water content, such as 10 wt % or more. The processes are particularly useful for dehydrating ethanol.

  13. Sports Dehydration Safety Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... drinking plenty of fluids. Dehydration occurs when a body loses more water than it takes in (such as through sweating). ... Move the athlete to shade and cool the body with cold water. Have the athlete drink cool water, remove any ...

  14. Electrolyte Concentrates Treat Dehydration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Wellness Brands Inc. of Boulder, Colorado, exclusively licensed a unique electrolyte concentrate formula developed by Ames Research Center to treat and prevent dehydration in astronauts returning to Earth. Marketed as The Right Stuff, the company's NASA-derived formula is an ideal measure for athletes looking to combat dehydration and boost performance. Wellness Brands also plans to expand with products that make use of the formula's effective hydration properties to help treat conditions including heat stroke, altitude sickness, jet lag, and disease.

  15. Dehydrate ethanol without distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    Usina da Pedra (Serrana, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil) produces 60 million gal/yr of ethanol in 180 operating days. Until this year, the plant made 96 vol.% ethanol that is used as automotive fuel, and absolute ethanol (99.5 vol. %), which is blended with gasoline. Water is the remainder in both products. The ethanol is produced from the fermentation of sugar cane, and distilled with benzene. Benzene lowers the boiling point of the ethanol-water mixture and ties up the water. In May, Usina da Pedra installed a process that dehydrates ethanol by adsorption, not distillation. A vapor-phase process containing molecular sieves, handles throughputs as high as 160,000 acfh and has a maximum capacity of 70 million gal/yr. In addition to generating safer products, the energy savings gained by switching from distillation to adsorption are significant. The adsorptive system requires input of only 2,900 Btu per gallon of ethanol; one-third the energy consumed by distillation systems that employ benzene or cyclohexane.

  16. Editors' preface for the topical issue on Seven papers on Noncommutative Geometry and Operator Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guido, Daniele; Landi, Giovanni; Vassout, Stéphane

    2016-07-01

    This topical issue grew out of the International Conference "Noncommutative Geometry and Applications" held 16-21 June 2014 at Villa Mondragone, Frascati (Roma). The main purpose of the conference was to have a unified view of different incarnations of noncommutative geometry and its applications. The seven papers collected in the present topical issue represent a good sample of the topics covered at the workshop. The conference itself was one of the climaxes of the Franco-Italian project GREFI-GENCO, which was initiated in 2007 by CNRS and INDAM to promote and enhance collaboration and exchanges between French and Italian researchers in the area of noncommutative geometry.

  17. Olfactory contributions to dehydration-induced anorexia in weanling rats.

    PubMed

    Bruno, J P; Hall, W G

    1982-11-01

    By 20 days of age, dehydration produces a clear anorexia, even though weanling rats have had only limited feeding and drinking experience. Their lack of ingestive experience makes weanlings good subjects for studying the physiological mechanisms subserving anorexic phenomena because learned contributions are unlikely to add significant complications. Twenty-day-old rats dehydrated by hypertonic saline injection were anorexic when offered milk or solid food (rat chow), but not when offered sucrose solutions (Experiment I). However, when the scent of almond was associated with sucrose solutions, or with water, intake of these solutions was depressed by dehydration (Experiment II). Thus for dehydrated rats, olfactory stimulation may help produce dehydration-induced anorexia. Making rats anosmic by intransal lavage with ZnSO4 (Experiment III) eliminated the anorexia to almond-scented water and partially eliminated that to milk. For these fluids, an odor cue seems a requirement for the occurrence of dehydration-anorexia. In Experiment IV, we found that dehydration-anorexia did not occur when milk was infused directly into pups' mouths. This finding suggests that the inhibitory process mediating dehydration-anorexia influences the approach to food and not the actual consumatory response that occurs once food is in the mouth. The inhibition of feeding produced by dehydration, therefore, may depend largely on olfactory cues, and seems to operate at a distance, as rats locate and approach food. PMID:7152117

  18. Topical versus intravenous tranexamic acid as a blood conservation intervention for reduction of post-operative bleeding in hemiarthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Emara, Walid Mohamed; Moez, Khaled K.; Elkhouly, Abeer H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study was performed to test the effectiveness of topical tranexamic acid (TXA) in reducing blood loss in pelvic hemiarthoplasty surgeries compared with intravenous TXA, regarding the incidence of thromboembolic complications (deep vein thrombosis [DVT], pulmonary embolism (PE) and cerebrovascular stroke [CVS]). Patients and Methods: After obtaining institutional ethical approval 60 patients divided into three groups. Group A: Received intravenous TXA Group B: Received topical TXA Group C: Control group (placebo saline). All patients were received general anesthesia and post-operative bleeding, immediate and 24 h post-operatively, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, platelets and coagulation profile (prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and international normalized ratio) baseline, immediate and 24 h post-operatively. Thromboelastography was recorded baseline, immediate and 24 h post-operatively. Incidence of DVT, PE and CVS was recorded. Results: There was statistical significant elevation hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit in both Groups A and B, significant increase in blood loss in Group C, significant increase in number of patients receiving blood in Group C, there was a significant decrease in “r” and “k” times and a significant increase in maximum amplitude and α-angle in Group A, statistically significant increase in the incidence of thromboembolic events in the form of DVT, PE and CVS in Group A. Conclusion: Topical TXA is effective in decreasing post-operative blood loss with possible side-effects of this route of administration. PMID:25886103

  19. Fruits and vegetables dehydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ita, A.; Flores, G.; Franco, F.

    2015-01-01

    Dehydration diagrams were determined by means of Differential Thermal Analysis, DTA, and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis, TGA, curves of several simultaneous fruits and vegetables, all under the same conditions. The greater mass loss is associated with water containing in the structure of the investigated materials at low temperature. In poblano chile water is lost in a single step. The banana shows a very sharply two stages, while jicama can be observed although with a little difficulty three stages. The major mass loss occurs in the poblano chile and the lower in banana. The velocity and temperature of dehydration vary within a small range for most materials investigated, except for banana and cactus how are very different.

  20. Molten-Caustic-Leaching (MCL or Gravimelt) System Integration Project. Topical report for test circuit operation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    This is a report of the results obtained from the operation of an integrated test circuit for the Molten-Caustic-Leaching (MCL or Gravimelt) process for the desulfurization and demineralization of coal. The objectives of operational testing of the 20 pounds of coal per hour integrated MCL test circuit are: (1) to demonstrate the technical capability of the process for producing a demineralized and desulfurized coal that meets New Source Performance Standards (NSPS); (2) to determine the range of effective process operation; (3) to test process conditions aimed at significantly lower costs; and (4) to deliver product coal.

  1. Biomass energy analysis for crop dehydration

    SciTech Connect

    Whittier, J.P.; Haase, S.G.; Quinn, M.W.; Zachritz, W.; Lansford, R.; Swanson, D.

    1995-06-01

    In 1994, an agricultural processing facility began constructing a new spice and herb dehydration facility in southern New Mexico. Because of the considerable energy intensity of the dehydration operation, management of energy costs is of special concern to the facility. Biomass energy conversion offers the potential for firms to reduce annual operating costs-especially firms with access to low-cost resources. Because the selected facility produces a biomass by-product as a result of its dehydration operation, it is appropriate to explore the technical, regulatory, institutional and economic conditions that affect the successful utilization of biomass resources. The facility is characterized as a small-scale installation, relative to other energy users. In this context, small-scale represents less than 100 million Btu per hour of thermal load and less than 1 MWe of electrical load. However, the projected annual energy bill is approximately $1.1 million and represents a significant portion of operational costs for the firm. For this study, the biomass resources in southern New Mexico and western Texas are detailed. Annual supplies of various biomass resources (i.e., wood chips, pecan shells, discarded tires and cotton gin trash) were inventoried. Further, delivered costs are projected for each of the resource forms. A technical assessment for the small-scale gasification and combustion systems is presented.

  2. Onion dehydration: a review.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Jayeeta; Shrivastava, S L; Rao, P S

    2012-06-01

    Onion (Allium cepa), a very commonly used vegetable, ranks third in the world production of major vegetables. Apart from imparting a delicious taste and flavour due to its pungency in many culinary preparations, it serves several medicinal purposes also. Processing and preservation of onion by suitable means is a major thrust area since a long time. The various kinds of treatments followed for dehydration of onion such as convective air drying, solar drying, fluidized bed drying, vacuum microwave drying, infrared drying and osmotic drying are reviewed here. These techniques are mainly used for preservation and value addition of onion. Several researchers have tried for decades to model the drying kinetics and quality parameters, which are also compiled here briefly. PMID:23729847

  3. Molten-Caustic-Leaching (Gravimelt) System Integration Project, Phase 2. Topical report for test circuit operation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The objective of the task (Task 6) covered in this document was to operate the refurbished/modified test circuit of the Gravimeh Process in a continuous integrated manner to obtain the engineering and operational data necessary to assess the technical performance and reliability of the circuit. This data is critical to the development of this technology as a feasible means of producing premium clean burning fuels that meet New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). Significant refurbishments and design modifications had been made to the facility (in particular to the vacuum filtration and evaporation units) during Tasks 1 and 2, followed by off-line testing (Task 3). Two weeks of continuous around-the-clock operation of the refurbished/modified MCL test circuit were performed. During the second week of testing, all sections of the plant were operated in an integrated fashion for an extended period of time, including a substantial number of hours of on-stream time for the vacuum filters and the caustic evaporation unit. A new process configuration was tested in which centrate from the acid wash train (without acid addition) was used as the water makeup for the water wash train, thus-eliminating the one remaining process waste water stream. A 9-inch centrifuge was tested at various solids loadings and at flow rates up to 400 lbs/hr of coal feed to obtain a twenty-fold scaleup factor over the MCL integrated test facility centrifuge performance data.

  4. Topics in gradient maintenance and slat recycling in an operational solar pond

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, A.H.P.; Golding, P. . Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering)

    1992-02-01

    Since 1986, the 3355 m{sup 2} salt gradient solar pond facility in El Paso, Texas, has operated with a temperature difference between the upper and lower zones of 55 to 75{degrees}C while delivering industrial process heat, grid-connected electrical power, and thermal energy for the experimental production of desalted water. Because the El Paso solar pond is an inland facility, it is necessary to recycle the salt in a sustainable salt management system. A method that uses the main pond surface for initial brine concentration and short-term storage was developed after it became evident that the original evaporation pond system was undersized. This paper examines the method for brine concentration and storage, the effects of a brine storage zone on pond operation, and the installation of an enhanced evaporation net system and an automatic scanning injection system. A short description of the performance history and current status of the project is also included.

  5. TOPICAL REVIEW: Strategies for increasing the operating frequency range of vibration energy harvesters: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Dibin; Tudor, Michael J.; Beeby, Stephen P.

    2010-02-01

    This review presents possible strategies to increase the operational frequency range of vibration-based micro-generators. Most vibration-based micro-generators are spring-mass-damper systems which generate maximum power when the resonant frequency of the generator matches the frequency of the ambient vibration. Any difference between these two frequencies can result in a significant decrease in generated power. This is a fundamental limitation of resonant vibration generators which restricts their capability in real applications. Possible solutions include the periodic tuning of the resonant frequency of the generator so that it matches the frequency of the ambient vibration at all times or widening the bandwidth of the generator. Periodic tuning can be achieved using mechanical or electrical methods. Bandwidth widening can be achieved using a generator array, a mechanical stopper, nonlinear (e.g. magnetic) springs or bi-stable structures. Tuning methods can be classified into intermittent tuning (power is consumed periodically to tune the device) and continuous tuning (the tuning mechanism is continuously powered). This review presents a comprehensive review of the principles and operating strategies for increasing the operating frequency range of vibration-based micro-generators presented in the literature to date. The advantages and disadvantages of each strategy are evaluated and conclusions are drawn regarding the relevant merits of each approach.

  6. Phase 3 Final Topical Report for the Remote Operated Vehicle with C02 Blasting (ROVCO2)

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-14

    This report documents the third and final phase of the Remote Operated Vehicle with CO2 Blasting (ROVCO2) Program. The Program=s goal is to develop and demonstrate a tool to improve the productivity of concrete floor decontamination. In Phase 3 of the ROVCO2 program, the workhead and the COYOTEE end-effector were redesigned, and effectiveness and productivity tests were performed. This report documents the development activities. The results show that the ROVCO2 system is an efficient decontamination tool, but with relatively slow production rates.

  7. Virtual reality in planning and operations from research topic to practical issue

    SciTech Connect

    Rindahl, G.; Johnsen, T.; Mark, N. K. F.; Meyer, G.

    2006-07-01

    During the last decade of research and development on advanced visualization systems for the nuclear industry, the available technology has evolved significantly. In the same period, nuclear companies have entered a more competitive environment due to the increasingly open electricity market, resulting in strong demands on cost effective operations. This paper reports on some of the 3D applications developed by Inst. for Energy Technology in this time period, and on the emerging possibilities for practical applications of Virtual and Augmented Reality. Finally the paper proposes that well-considered deployment of recent and on-going technological advances in this field can be a contribution to improving economy and efficiency without compromising safety. (authors)

  8. TOPICAL REVIEW: Braided affine geometry and q-analogs of wave operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurevich, Dimitri; Saponov, Pavel

    2009-08-01

    The main goal of this review is to compare different approaches to constructing the geometry associated with a Hecke type braiding (in particular, with that related to the quantum group Uq(sl(n))). We place emphasis on the affine braided geometry related to the so-called reflection equation algebra (REA). All objects of such a type of geometry are defined in the spirit of affine algebraic geometry via polynomial relations on generators. We begin by comparing the Poisson counterparts of 'quantum varieties' and describe different approaches to their quantization. Also, we exhibit two approaches to introducing q-analogs of vector bundles and defining the Chern-Connes index for them on quantum spheres. In accordance with the Serre-Swan approach, the q-vector bundles are treated as finitely generated projective modules over the corresponding quantum algebras. Besides, we describe the basic properties of the REA used in this construction and compare different ways of defining q-analogs of partial derivatives and differentials on the REA and algebras close to them. In particular, we present a way of introducing a q-differential calculus via Koszul type complexes. The elements of the q-calculus are applied to defining q-analogs of some relativistic wave operators.

  9. External Validation and Comparison of Three Pediatric Clinical Dehydration Scales

    PubMed Central

    Jauregui, Joshua; Nelson, Daniel; Choo, Esther; Stearns, Branden; Levine, Adam C.; Liebmann, Otto; Shah, Sachita P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To prospectively validate three popular clinical dehydration scales and overall physician gestalt in children with vomiting or diarrhea relative to the criterion standard of percent weight change with rehydration. Methods We prospectively enrolled a non-consecutive cohort of children ≤ 18 years of age with an acute episode of diarrhea or vomiting. Patient weight, clinical scale variables and physician clinical impression, or gestalt, were recorded before and after fluid resuscitation in the emergency department and upon hospital discharge. The percent weight change from presentation to discharge was used to calculate the degree of dehydration, with a weight change of ≥ 5% considered significant dehydration. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves were constructed for each of the three clinical scales and physician gestalt. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated based on the best cut-points of the ROC curve. Results We approached 209 patients, and of those, 148 were enrolled and 113 patients had complete data for analysis. Of these, 10.6% had significant dehydration based on our criterion standard. The Clinical Dehydration Scale (CDS) and Gorelick scales both had an area under the ROC curve (AUC) statistically different from the reference line with AUCs of 0.72 (95% CI 0.60, 0.84) and 0.71 (95% CI 0.57, 0.85) respectively. The World Health Organization (WHO) scale and physician gestalt had AUCs of 0.61 (95% CI 0.45, 0.77) and 0.61 (0.44, 0.78) respectively, which were not statistically significant. Conclusion The Gorelick scale and Clinical Dehydration Scale were fair predictors of dehydration in children with diarrhea or vomiting. The World Health Organization scale and physician gestalt were not helpful predictors of dehydration in our cohort. PMID:24788134

  10. Dehydration kinetics of shocked serpentine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyburczy, James A.; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental rates of dehydration of shocked and unshocked serpentine were determined using a differential scanning calorimetric technique. Dehydration rates in shocked serpentine are enhanced by orders of magnitude over corresponding rates in unshocked material, even though the impact experiments were carried out under conditions that inhibited direct impact-induced devolatilization. Extrapolation to temperatures of the Martian surface indicates that dehydration of shocked material would occur 20 to 30 orders of magnitude more rapidly than for unshocked serpentine. The results indicate that impacted planetary surfaces and associated atmospheres would reach chemical equilibrium much more quickly than calculations based on unshocked material would indicate, even during the earliest, coldest stages of accretion. Furthermore, it is suggested that chemical weathering of shocked planetary surfaces by solid-gas reactions would be sufficiently rapid that true equilibrium mineral assemblages should form.

  11. Geothermal vegetable dehydration at Brady`s Hot Springs, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.

    1994-07-01

    This article describes the utilization of the Brady`s Springs geothermal resource for heat generation used in the food dehydration process. This geothermal system is located in the Forty-Mile Desert area of Nevada. Geothermal Food Processors, Inc. of Reno, Nevada started construction of the geothermal vegetable dehydration plant in 1978, and the plant started operations in 1979. The industrial process of vegetable dehydration at the plant is described. In July of 1992, the Brady`s Springs geothermal system began being used for power generation by the Brady`s Hot Springs geothermal power plant, operated by Oxbow Power Services, Inc. As a result, the water levels in the food processing plant wells have dropped below usable levels and the geothermal brine is now being supplied by the Oxbow power plant.

  12. A small scale honey dehydrator.

    PubMed

    Gill, R S; Hans, V S; Singh, Sukhmeet; Pal Singh, Parm; Dhaliwal, S S

    2015-10-01

    A small scale honey dehydrator has been designed, developed, and tested to reduce moisture content of honey below 17 %. Experiments have been conducted for honey dehydration by using drying air at ambient temperature, 30 and 40 °C and water at 35, 40 and 45 °C. In this dehydrator, hot water has been circulated in a water jacket around the honey container to heat honey. The heated honey has been pumped through a sieve to form honey streams through which drying air passes for moisture removal. The honey streams help in increasing the exposed surface area of honey in contact with drying air, thus resulting in faster dehydration of honey. The maximum drying rate per square meter area of honey exposed to drying air was found to be 197.0 g/h-m(2) corresponding to the drying air and water temperature of 40 and 45 °C respectively whereas it was found to be minimum (74.8 g/h-m(2)) corresponding to the drying air at ambient temperature (8-17 °C) and water at 35 °C. The energy cost of honey moisture content reduction from 25.2 to 16.4 % was Rs. 6.20 to Rs. 17.36 (US $ 0.10 to US $ 0.28 (One US $ = 62.00 Indian Rupee on February, 2014) per kilogram of honey. PMID:26396418

  13. Biomass energy analysis for crop dehydration

    SciTech Connect

    Whittier, J.P.; Haase, S.G.; Quinn, M.W.

    1994-12-31

    In 1994, an agricultural processing facility was constructed in southern New Mexico for spice and herb dehydration. Annual operational costs are dominated by energy costs, due primarily to the energy intensity of dehydration. A feasibility study was performed to determine whether the use of biomass resources as a feedstock for a cogeneration system would be an economical option. The project location allowed access to unusual biomass feedstocks including cotton gin trash, pecan shells and in-house residues. A resource assessment of the immediate project area determined that approximately 120,000 bone dry tons of biomass feedstocks are available annually. Technology characterization for the plant energy requirements indicated gasification systems offer fuel flexibility advantages over combustion systems although vendor support and commercial experience are limited. Regulatory siting considerations introduce a level of uncertainty because of a lack of a precedent in New Mexico for gasification technology and because vendors of commercial gasifiers have little experience operating such a facility nor gathering emission data. A public opinion survey indicated considerable support for renewable energy use and biomass energy utilization. However, the public opinion survey also revealed limited knowledge of biomass technologies and concerns regarding siting of a biomass facility within the geographic area. The economic analysis conducted for the study is based on equipment vendor quotations, and indicates there will be difficulty competing with current prices of natural gas.

  14. Dehydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friebele, Elaine

    The news that the Earth is losing 1,000 gallons of water every day is nothing for the planet's inhabitants to sweat, given the vast amount of water in the oceans. But this new information, gathered from measurements on the POLAR satellite, has shed new light on ways that water and other materials leave the atmosphere. The new data should also improve models of how the atmospheres of Earth and other planets evolve.Using a unique instrument to reduce electrical interference from the satellite, the research team took the first accurate high-altitude measurements of the polar wind—charged gas or plasma that escapes from Earth and its ionosphere through the poles. The team, headed by Los Alamos physicist Beth Nordholt, proved that the polar wind is one mechanism by which the atomic constituents of water vapor and other atmospheric gases are dragged outward from the ionosphere, where they spiral along the planet's magnet field lines. Sunlight breaks the water into ionized hydrogen and oxygen gases in the upper atmosphere.

  15. Dehydration

    MedlinePlus

    ... too much, for example, from exercising in hot weather Fever Vomiting or diarrhea Urinating too much (uncontrolled ... when you are well. Drink more when the weather is hot or you are exercising. If anyone ...

  16. The BUDDY (Bedside Ultrasound to Detect Dehydration in Youth) study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prior research suggests that the ratio of the ultrasound-measured diameter of the inferior vena cava to the aorta correlates with the level of dehydration in children. This study was designed to externally validate this and to access the accuracy of the ultrasound measured inspiratory IVC collapse and physician gestalt to predict significant dehydration in children in the emergency department. Methods We prospectively enrolled a non-consecutive cohort of children ≤18 years old. Patient weight, ultrasound measurements of the IVC and Ao, and physician gestalt were recorded. The percent weight change from presentation to discharge was used to calculate the degree of dehydration. A weight change of ≥5% was considered clinically significant dehydration. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed for each of the ultrasound measurements and physician gestalt. Sensitivity (SN) and specificity (SP) were calculated based on previously established cutoff points of the IVC/Ao ratio (0.8), the IVC collapsibility index of 50%, and a new cut off point of IVC collapsibility index of 80% or greater. Intra-class correlation coefficients were calculated to assess the degree of inter-rater reliability between ultrasound observers. Results Of 113 patients, 10.6% had significant dehydration. The IVC/Ao ratio had an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.72 (95% CI 0.53 to 0.91) and, with a cutoff of 0.8, produced a SN of 67% and a SP of 71% for the diagnosis of significant dehydration. The IVC collapsibility index of 50% had an AUC of 0.58 (95% CI 0.44 to 0.72) and, with a cutoff of 80% collapsibility, produced a SN of 83% and a SP of 42%. The intra-class correlation coefficient was 0.83 for the IVC/Ao ratio and 0.70 for the IVC collapsibility. Physician gestalt had an AUC of 0.61 (95% CI 0.44 to 0.78) and, with a cutoff point of 5, produced a SN of 42% and a SP of 65%. Conclusions The ultrasound-measured IVC/Ao ratio is a modest predictor of significant

  17. A dehydration mechanism for the stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielsen, E. F.

    1982-01-01

    Although mean circulations are generally credited with dehydration of the earth's stratosphere, convective instability in the tropics converts mean circulations to small residuals of local convective circulations. The effects of large cumulonimbus which penetrate the stratosphere and form huge anvils in the lower stratosphere are discussed with respect to hydration and dehydration of the stratosphere. Radiative heating at anvil base combined with cooling at anvil top drives a dehydration engine considered essential to explain the dry stratosphere. Seasonal and longitudinal variations in dehydration potentials are examined with maximum potential attributed to Micronesian area during winter and early spring.

  18. Detecting dehydration in older people: useful tests.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Lee; Bunn, Diane

    Dehydration is common in older people, leading to longer hospital stays and increased disability and mortality. Health professionals can diagnose water-loss dehydration by taking a blood sample and measuring serum osmolality, but a less-invasive test would be useful. Evidence that tests, clinical signs or questions tested to date are useful when screening for dehydration in older people is limited. This article looks at known risk factors, signs and test for dehydration, and outlines evidence on how useful they have proven to be. Part 2 describes how a care home has used a multicomponent strategy to improve hydration. PMID:26455128

  19. Ciclopirox Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... ciclopirox topical solution.Ciclopirox topical solution may catch fire. Do not use this medication near heat or ... have ever had any disease that affects your immune system, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or ...

  20. Testosterone Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... in which the body does not produce enough natural testosterone). Testosterone is used only for men with ... topical may control your symptoms but will not cure your condition. Continue to use testosterone topical even ...

  1. Microfluidic Droplet Dehydration for Concentrating Processes in Biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anna, Shelley

    2014-03-01

    Droplets in microfluidic devices have proven useful as picoliter reactors for biochemical processing operations such as polymerase chain reaction, protein crystallization, and the study of enzyme kinetics. Although droplets are typically considered to be self-contained, constant volume reactors, there can be significant transport between the dispersed and continuous phases depending on solubility and other factors. In the present talk, we show that water droplets trapped within a microfluidic device for tens of hours slowly dehydrate, concentrating the contents encapsulated within. We use this slow dehydration along with control of the initial droplet composition to influence gellation, crystallization, and phase separation processes. By examining these concentrating processes in many trapped drops at once we gain insight into the stochastic nature of the events. In one example, we show that dehydration rate impacts the probability of forming a specific crystal habit in a crystallizing amino acid. In another example, we phase separate a common aqueous two-phase system within droplets and use the ensuing two phases to separate DNA from an initial mixture. We further influence wetting conditions between the two aqueous polymer phases and the continuous oil, promoting complete de-wetting and physical separation of the polymer phases. Thus, controlled dehydration of droplets allows for concentration, separation, and purification of important biomolecules on a chip.

  2. Spectral effects of dehydration on phyllosilicates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruckenthal, E. A.; Singer, R. B.

    1987-01-01

    Six phyllosilicates were progressively dehydrated under controlled conditions in an effort to study the spectral effects of their dehydration. The spectra obtained at each level of hydration provide information that may be used in future spectroscopic observations of the planets, as well as a data set which compliments the existing body of terrestrial soil knowledge.

  3. Dehydration Accelerates Respiration in Postharvest Sugarbeet Roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) roots lose water during storage and often become severely dehydrated after prolonged storage and at the outer regions of storage piles which have greater wind and sun exposure. Sucrose loss is known to be elevated in dehydrated roots, although the metabolic processes re...

  4. 7 CFR 929.11 - To can, freeze, or dehydrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... dehydrate. To can, freeze, or dehydrate means to convert cranberries into canned, frozen, or dehydrated cranberries or other cranberry products by any commercial process....

  5. 7 CFR 929.11 - To can, freeze, or dehydrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... dehydrate. To can, freeze, or dehydrate means to convert cranberries into canned, frozen, or dehydrated cranberries or other cranberry products by any commercial process....

  6. 7 CFR 929.11 - To can, freeze, or dehydrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... dehydrate. To can, freeze, or dehydrate means to convert cranberries into canned, frozen, or dehydrated cranberries or other cranberry products by any commercial process....

  7. 7 CFR 929.11 - To can, freeze, or dehydrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... dehydrate. To can, freeze, or dehydrate means to convert cranberries into canned, frozen, or dehydrated cranberries or other cranberry products by any commercial process....

  8. 7 CFR 929.11 - To can, freeze, or dehydrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... dehydrate. To can, freeze, or dehydrate means to convert cranberries into canned, frozen, or dehydrated cranberries or other cranberry products by any commercial process....

  9. A wideband scalar network analyzer for biomedical dehydration measurements.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, M; Nehring, J; Weigel, R; Fischer, G; Kissinger, D

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a wideband microwave approach towards biomedical dehydration monitoring. The introduced concept is verified via invasive measurements on several blood samples. A microwave measurement circuit, based of a two-port scalar vector network analyzer is presented. The circuit operates between 5GHz and 20GHz using a planar permittivity sensor. Measurements of all subcomponents are shown together with measurements of a Water-NaCl-Glycerol solution. PMID:24110621

  10. Results of a survey of natural gas transmission companies operating continuous emission monitoring systems. Topical report, January-June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-01

    A summary is presented to the results of a survey of continuous emission monitoring (CEM) systems operating on reciprocating engines and turbines of gas transmission companies. For this survey, three natural gas transmission companies were visited. Information on various aspects of CEM systems within the industry was gathered. It included characteristics of emission sources with emission reduction techniques where applied; CEM system outdoor shelters; monitoring techniques; costs; installation and startup; personnel training; operations and maintenance; performance evaluations and quality assurance; and data acquisition systems. The survey finds that the industry`s experience with CEM systems remains limited. Some recommendations are presented for the future, when the use of CEM systems may increase.

  11. Water-loss dehydration and aging.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Lee; Bunn, Diane; Jimoh, Florence O; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J

    2014-01-01

    This review defines water-loss and salt-loss dehydration. For older people serum osmolality appears the most appropriate gold standard for diagnosis of water-loss dehydration, but clear signs of early dehydration have not been developed. In older adults, lower muscle mass, reduced kidney function, physical and cognitive disabilities, blunted thirst, and polypharmacy all increase dehydration risk. Cross-sectional studies suggest a water-loss dehydration prevalence of 20-30% in this population. Water-loss dehydration is associated with higher mortality, morbidity and disability in older people, but evidence is still needed that this relationship is causal. There are a variety of ways we may be able to help older people reduce their risk of dehydration by recognising that they are not drinking enough, and being helped to drink more. Strategies to increase fluid intake in residential care homes include identifying and overcoming individual and institutional barriers to drinking, such as being worried about not reaching the toilet in time, physical inability to make or to reach drinks, and reduced social drinking and drinking pleasure. Research needs are discussed, some of which will be addressed by the FP7-funded NU-AGE (New dietary strategies addressing the specific needs of elderly population for a healthy ageing in Europe) trial. PMID:24333321

  12. Evaluation of enhanced recovery operations in Smackover fields of southwest Alabama. Draft topical report on Subtasks 5 and 6

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, D.R.

    1992-06-01

    This report contains detailed geologic and engineering information on enhanced-recovery techniques used in unitized Smackover fields in Alabama. The report also makes recommendations on the applicability of these enhanced-recovery techniques to fields that are not now undergoing enhanced recovery. Eleven Smackover fields in Alabama have been unitized. Three fields were unitized specifically to allow the drilling of a strategically placed well to recover uncontacted oil. Two fields in Alabama are undergoing waterflood projects. Five fields are undergoing gas-injection programs to increase the ultimate recovery of hydrocarbons. Silas and Choctaw Ridge fields were unitized but no enhanced-recovery operations have been implemented.

  13. Gas distribution industry survey: Costs of installation, maintenance and repair, and operations, version 1. Topical report, December 1993-March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Biederman, N.

    1996-05-01

    The U.S. natural gas distribution industry spends $40 - $45 billion each year to buy gas and deliver it to the customers and to expand and renew the distribution piping system. More than half of these expenditures are paid to suppliers and transporters of gas. The way in which the balance (nearly $18 billion) is spent is controlled by the local gas distribution companies. This research is aimed to provide a better understanding of how and why these costs are incurred. It is based on interviews with 24 gas distribution companies and the data collected on a wide variety of maintenance, installation, and operations activities.

  14. Problem: Thirst, Drinking Behavior, and Involuntary Dehydration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1992-01-01

    The phenomenon of involuntary dehydration, the delay in full restoration of a body water deficit by drinking, has been described extensively but relatively little is known about its physiological mechanism. It occurs primarily in humans when they are exposed to various stresses including exercise, environmental heat and cold, altitude, water immersion, dehydration, and perhaps microgravity, singly and in various combinations. The level of involuntary dehydration is approximately proportional to the degree of total stress imposed on the body. Involuntary dehydration appears to be controlled by more than one factor including social customs that influence what is consumed, the capacity and rate of fluid absorption from the gastrointestinal system, the level of cellular hydration involving the osmotic-vasopressin interaction with sensitive cells or structures in the central nervous system, and, to a lesser extent, hypovolemic-angiotensin II stimuli. Since humans drink when there is no apparent physiological stimulus, the psychological component should always be considered when investigating the total mechanisms for drinking.

  15. DEHYDRATION OF LOW WATER CONTENT ETHANOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pervaporation has emerged as an economically viable alternative technology for the dehydration of organic solvents, removal of organic compounds from water and organic/organic separations. Development of a membrane system with suitable flux and selectivity characteristics plays a...

  16. Dehydration resistance of liposomes containing trehalose glycolipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyberg, Kendra; Goulding, Morgan; Parthasarathy, Raghuveer

    2010-03-01

    The pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has an unusual outer membrane containing trehalose glycolipids that may contribute to its ability to survive freezing and dehydration. Based on our recent discovery that trehalose glycolipids confer dehydration resistance to supported lipid monolayers (Biophys. J. 94: 4718-4724 (2008); Langmuir 25: 5193-5198, (2009)), we hypothesized that liposomes containing synthetic trehalose glycolipids may be dehydration-resistant as well. To test this, we measured the leakage of encapsulated fluorophores and larger macromolecular cargo from such liposomes subject to freeze drying. Both leakage assays and size measurements show that the liposomes are dehydration-resistant. In addition to demonstrating a possibly technologically useful encapsulation platform, our results corroborate the view that encapsulation in a trehalose-glycolipid-rich membrane is a biophysically viable route to protection of mycobacteria from environmental stresses.

  17. Dehydration Kinetics of Volterra Gypsum: Experiments and Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llana-Funez, S.; Wheeler, J.; Faulkner, D.

    2007-12-01

    Dehydration reactions are often envisaged as a triggering mechanism for seismicity in rocks under tectonic loads due to the reduction in effective pressure during the release of fluids that may eventually produce mechanical embrittlement. Understanding of metamorphic transformation in deforming rocks is even more important in fault zones where periods of seismic slip are reported. Dehydration of gypsum under controlled conditions, in laboratory experiments and in numerical models, provides information on deformation processes operating in seismically active regions and may be of help in understanding their cyclicity and their evolution. Two series of simple heating experiments of Volterra gypsum samples at room pressure, using intact and powdered specimens, provide reference data for further experiments under confining and differential stress during dehydration. Heating experiments were run at constant temperature between 80 degC and 140 °C in intact specimens and at 86 °C and 97 °C using powders with five different grain size fractions: <0.063, 0.063-0.125, 0.125-0.25, 0.25-0.5 and >0.5 mm. The complete dehydration of 1 mol of gypsum produces 1 mol of anhydrite and two moles of water generating a porosity of about 38% and implying a weight loss of 21% upon removal of water. The progressive loss of weight during dehydration was used as the method to estimate the progress of the reaction. The reaction is characterized by an initial stage under 10% reaction were reaction rate accelerates, which is followed by a linear stage for about 50 to 70% of the reaction and a final third stage with decelerating reaction rates. All tests run above 85 °C reached about 90% reaction. Those below 85 °C seem to converge to a lower final fraction (75%) suggesting partial dehydration, very likely to bassanite. The temperature dependence of the linear rates indicates in an Arrhenius plot that the full dehydration of gypsum has an activation enthalpy of 96 kJ/mol. The two

  18. Crystal Dehydration in Membrane Protein Crystallography.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Weatherby, Juan; Moraes, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Crystal dehydration has been successfully implemented to facilitate the structural solution of a number of soluble and membrane protein structures over the years. This chapter will present the currently available tools to undertake controlled crystal dehydration, focusing on some successful membrane protein cases. Also discussed here will be some practical considerations regarding membrane protein crystals and the relationship between different techniques in order to help researchers to select the most suitable technique for their projects. PMID:27553236

  19. Dehydration: why is it still a problem?

    PubMed

    Campbell, Naomi

    Reports from organisations such as the Care Quality Commission have identified many hospital patients, particularly older people, are suffering from dehydration. A range of national initiatives have emphasised the importance of hydration and nutrition, and offered guidance to help address shortcomings, yet the problems persist. This article examines the interplay of factors that affect the assessment and identification of dehydration, and its prevention. It also offers strategies to help nurses to ensure patients receive adequate hydration. PMID:21761784

  20. Rehydration with soft drink-like beverages exacerbates dehydration and worsens dehydration-associated renal injury.

    PubMed

    García-Arroyo, Fernando E; Cristóbal, Magdalena; Arellano-Buendía, Abraham S; Osorio, Horacio; Tapia, Edilia; Soto, Virgilia; Madero, Magdalena; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Roncal-Jiménez, Carlos; Bankir, Lise; Johnson, Richard J; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura-Gabriela

    2016-07-01

    Recurrent dehydration, such as commonly occurs with manual labor in tropical environments, has been recently shown to result in chronic kidney injury, likely through the effects of hyperosmolarity to activate both vasopressin and aldose reductase-fructokinase pathways. The observation that the latter pathway can be directly engaged by simple sugars (glucose and fructose) leads to the hypothesis that soft drinks (which contain these sugars) might worsen rather than benefit dehydration associated kidney disease. Recurrent dehydration was induced in rats by exposure to heat (36°C) for 1 h/24 h followed by access for 2 h to plain water (W), a 11% fructose-glucose solution (FG, same composition as typical soft drinks), or water sweetened with noncaloric stevia (ST). After 4 wk plasma and urine samples were collected, and kidneys were examined for oxidative stress, inflammation, and injury. Recurrent heat-induced dehydration with ad libitum water repletion resulted in plasma and urinary hyperosmolarity with stimulation of the vasopressin (copeptin) levels and resulted in mild tubular injury and renal oxidative stress. Rehydration with 11% FG solution, despite larger total fluid intake, resulted in greater dehydration (higher osmolarity and copeptin levels) and worse renal injury, with activation of aldose reductase and fructokinase, whereas rehydration with stevia water had opposite effects. In animals that are dehydrated, rehydration acutely with soft drinks worsens dehydration and exacerbates dehydration associated renal damage. These studies emphasize the danger of drinking soft drink-like beverages as an attempt to rehydrate following dehydration. PMID:27053647

  1. 21 CFR 73.40 - Dehydrated beets (beet powder).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dehydrated beets (beet powder). 73.40 Section 73... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.40 Dehydrated beets (beet powder). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive dehydrated beets is a dark red powder prepared by dehydrating...

  2. 21 CFR 73.40 - Dehydrated beets (beet powder).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dehydrated beets (beet powder). 73.40 Section 73... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.40 Dehydrated beets (beet powder). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive dehydrated beets is a dark red powder prepared by dehydrating...

  3. D-TRANSPOSITION OF THE GREAT ARTERIES: Hot Topics in the Current Era of the Arterial Switch Operation

    PubMed Central

    Villafañe, Juan; Lantin-Hermoso, M. Regina; Bhatt, Ami B.; Tweddell, James S.; Geva, Tal; Nathan, Meena; Elliott, Martin J.; Vetter, Victoria L.; Paridon, Stephen M.; Kochilas, Lazaros; Jenkins, Kathy J.; Beekman, Robert H.; Wernovsky, Gil; Towbin, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper aims to update clinicians on “Hot Topics” in the management of patients with d-transposition of the great arteries (D-TGA) in the current surgical era. Background The arterial switch operation (ASO) has replaced atrial switch procedures for D-TGA and 90% of patients now reach adulthood. Methods The Adult Congenital and Pediatric Cardiology Council (ACPC) of the American College of Cardiology assembled a team of experts to summarize current knowledge on genetics, prenatal diagnosis, surgical timing, balloon atrial septostomy (BAS), prostaglandin therapy (PGE), intraoperative techniques, imaging, coronary obstruction, arrhythmias, sudden death, aortic dilation and regurgitation (AR), neurodevelopmental (ND) issues and lifelong care of D-TGA patients. Results In simple D-TGA, 1) familial recurrence risk is low; 2) children diagnosed prenatally have improved cognitive skills compared with those diagnosed postnatally; 3) echocardiography helps to identify risk factors; 4) routine use of BAS and PGE may not be beneficial in some cases; 5) early ASO improves outcomes and reduces costs with a low mortality. Single or intramural coronary arteries remain risk factors; 6) post-ASO arrhythmias and cardiac dysfunction should raise suspicion of coronary insufficiency; 7) coronary insufficiency and arrhythmias are rare but associated with sudden death; 8) early and late-onset ND abnormalities are common; 9) AR and aortic root dilation are well tolerated; and 10) the aging ASO patient may benefit from “exercise-prescription” rather than restriction. Conclusions Significant strides have been made in understanding risk factors for cardiac, ND and other important clinical outcomes after ASO. PMID:25082585

  4. Control of gasifier operations using neural networks, Task 7.11. Topical report, September 1992--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Cisney, S.; Erjavec, J.; Rao, C.N.

    1994-04-01

    The incentive for this project was to investigate applicability of a new modeling tool -- a system of equations which emulate the human brain, called neural nets -- for chemical process modeling and control at the Dakota Gasification Company (DGC) coal gasification plant in Beulah, North Dakota. The specific goals were (1) to determine guidelines for identifying likely candidate processes for the use of neural nets, (2) to screen the various process areas of the Beulah plant, using these guidelines, (3) select a process area to study, and (4) apply neural nets to model that particular process area. The gasification area was the prominent candidate for the application of neural nets. Calculations showed that it was possible to save over $500,000 by increasing the steam-to-oxygen (S:O) ratio. The problem is that when the S:O ratio is increased, more gas liquor is produced, and there is a limit to how much gas liquor can be handled downstream. Thus, if a model were available to predict how much gas liquor would be produced, the S:O ratio could be increased to the operating limits. The performance of the neural net was apparently hindered by the type of data input used. Once the known effects of oxygen flow rate and S:O ratio were taken into account, there was no correlation left between any of the input data and the gas liquor flow rate. This result was verified using regression analysis, so there is likely no problem with the neutral net itself. Rather, the conclusion is that the data used did not give any information useful for predicting gas liquor flow. Therefore, in order to apply neural nets to go after the savings, more variables must be logged on a regular basis. The most important variable needed to continue this project is probably the volatiles content of the coal.

  5. Estradiol Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... a medication that is applied topically to the vagina. Estradiol is in a class of medications called ... swelling, redness, burning, irritation, or itching of the vagina vaginal discharge Some side effects can be serious. ...

  6. Mometasone Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Mometasone comes as a topical cream, ointment, and lotion. It usually is applied externally once a day. ... affected skin areas once daily.To apply the lotion, place a few drops on the affected areas ...

  7. Fluorouracil Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused by years of too much exposure to sunlight). Fluorouracil cream and topical solution are also used ... plan to avoid unnecessary or prolonged exposure to sunlight and UV light (such as tanning booths) and ...

  8. Bexarotene Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... talking to your doctor.Bexarotene gel may catch fire. Do not use this medication near a source ... sunlamps and to wear protective clothing, sunglasses, and sunscreen. Topical bexarotene may make your skin sensitive to ...

  9. Fluorouracil Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... topical solution are used to treat actinic or solar keratoses (scaly or crusted lesions [skin areas] caused ... you are using fluorouracil to treat actinic or solar keratoses, you should continue using it until the ...

  10. Hydrated Salts: Dehydration, Dissolution, and Incongruent Melting In Terrestrial Evaporites and at Meridiani Planum, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, J. S.; Dougherty, A.; Feldman, W.; Hogenboom, D.; Marion, G.; McCarthy, C.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.

    2004-12-01

    The Opportunity rover and orbital observations of Meridiani Planum (Mars) have revealed much about the region's stratigraphy, chemistry, sedimentology, and mineralogy of what appears to be a layered lacustrine sedimentary sequence, including chemical sediments deposited by evaporative or freezing processes in a large, saline lake or sea. The roles of evaporation versus freezing are not clearly elucidated in the data, but both freezing and evaporation are likely on Mars for any paleoclimate scenario that minimizes excursions from current climate. The rock sequences reveal many interesting features reported in press accounts, NASA press releases, and in conference presentations by the MER science teams. The topic dealt with here concerns indirect sedimentologic indications of phase changes that seem to have generated negative volume changes due to dehydration, dissolution, and/or annealing. These indicators include microkarstic and polygonal structures in the laminated chemical sediments. These processes have operated on a small scale at Meridiani Planum, and serve as possible analogs for processes operative on mega scales elsewhere on Mars. Comparable processes are common in terrestrial evaporite basins and in sequences of evaporitic rocks. Fluctuations of mineral water content drive large changes in volume and pore fluid pressure, and these exert stresses that can drive extensional fracturing and faulting, folding, thrusting, and diapirism. These processes may be even more important on Mars than on Earth, because on Mars solid salts may be more abundant, more widespread, and subject to larger ranges of hydration states; the effects of these processes may be better preserved for lack of erasure by fluvial erosional processes and other degradational processes on Earth's more active surface. Specific processes and reactions proposed here can account for the sedimentologic structures observed at Meridiani Planum based on aqueous chemical phase equilibria and phase

  11. Gunion - Nevada`s most innovative geothermal food dehydration facility

    SciTech Connect

    Trexler, D.T.; Taylan, G.; Stewart, M.B.; Baker, S.

    1995-12-31

    The Gunion (garlic and onion) dehydration plant, owned and operated by Integrated Ingredients, a Division of Burns Philp Food, Incorporated, uses geothermal fluids at a temperature of 306{degrees}F to dehydrate 50 to 70-thousand pounds per day of garlic and onions. The geothermal fluids are provided by Empire Farms, who has the rights for development of the resource and is the lease holder of fee land known as the Kosmos Lease. The San Emidio KGRA is located in northern Washoe County, 90 miles north-northeast of Reno, Nevada and 20 miles south of Gerlach, Nevada. Geothermal fluids exit the plant at 242{degrees}F and are piped to an injection well located 3,000 feet south-southwest of the plant. The plant location was selected not only for the geothermal resource, but also for the area`s low relative humidity. Currently, 1100-1200 gpm of geothermal fluids, at an inlet temperature of 302{degrees}F, are sufficient to provide the dryer line with ample BTU`s. Three geothermal wells drilled to depths ranging from 493 to 1817 feet produce fluids ranging in temperature from 266 to 306{degrees}F. One well can easily provide the heat required by the dryer line and will be capable of providing heat for a planned three-fold expansion of the facility. The remaining two wells are used as backup, or may be used for other applications such as soil sterilization. The fluid exiting the plant at 242{degrees}F may be cascaded and used for greenhouses and soil warming in the future. Geothermal heat is also used to dehumidify onions placed in the cold storage facility. The dehydration process takes 5-6 hours to dry the product to a 4.5% moisture content. The dried product is then milled to various sizes from powder to granules. The dehydration plant operates 24 hours/day 7 days a week. Currently 80 people are employed full-time at the plant. The dehydrated onion and garlic are used in condiments, soups, sauces and salad dressing.

  12. Energy conservation in fruit dehydrators utilizing recirculation of exhaust air and heat-recovery heat exchangers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Groh, J.E.; Thompson, T.L.

    1981-12-01

    Dehydration of fruit in the United States is often done by means of a tunnel dehydrator utilizing large quantities of fossil fuel. Existing dehydrators have been designed to operate with maximum product through-put and with little regard for energy efficiency. By incorporating dampers for air recirculation and thermal energy recovery equipment on the exhaust air, the energy required in dehydration was cut by over 40%, satisfying the original objectives of the program. A commercial dehydrator tunnel was modified by installing a heat recovery heat exchanger and an exhaust air recirculation damper. Another tunnel was equipped with the exhaust air recirculation damper only. A third tunnel was unmodified. These three tunnels of a 24 tunnel facility were equipped with individual natural gas meters to measure energy consumption. The energy consumption of the heat exchanger equipped tunnel normally amounted to approximately 40% of the unmodified tunnel during raisin production.

  13. Double Seismic Zones and Dehydration Embrittlement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seno, T.; Yamasaki, T.

    2001-12-01

    Dehydration embrittlement is still an attractive mechanism for intermediate-depth earthquake occurrence. We explore the possibility whether this hypothesis can explain the observed geometry of the double seismic zones. We calculate transient temperature structures of slabs using a finite element method, based on geologically estimated subduction histories for NE Japan, SW Japan, E. Aleutian, N. Chile, Taiwan, and Cape Mendocino, where double zones have been observed. We then delineate the dehydration loci utilizing the phase diagrams of serpentine by Wunder and Schreyer (1997), Bose and Navrotsky (1998) and Ulmer and Trommsdorff (1995), and of meta-basalt by Kerrick and Connolly (2001). For slabs whose crust passes from blueschist to lawsonite-eclogite facies, we take the glaucophane-out boundary as the upper limit of the significant dehydration of meta-basalt. The dehydration loci of serpentine produces a double-layered structure for NE Japan, E. Aleutian, N. Chile, and Taiwan, whose slabs are older than 40 Ma at the trench. In these regions, the lower zone of the double zones can be explained by the lower dehydration locus of serpentine, and the upper zone by that of meta-basalt. The deepest portion of the upper zone might contain the upper dehydration locus of serpentine; however, this occurs only in NE Japan and E. Aleutian. The dehydration loci of serpentine degenerate into a single one in SW Japan and Cape Mendocino whose slabs are younger than 20 Ma at the trench. For these regions, the lower zone of the double zone is explained by the degenerated dehydration locus of serpentine and the upper zone by successive dehydration of meta-basalt from greenschist to dry eclogite facies in the shallow depth. Provided that the oceanic crust is metamorphosed into hydrated minerals at the mid-ocean ridge, the condition for the existence of a double zone is the serpentinization of the subducting oceanic plate at mid-plate depth for a cold slab and at shallow depth for a

  14. Spotlight Topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A Spotlight Topic consists of a set of two or more review articles focused on a specific subject in surface science. The topics are recommended by the Board of Editors. A topic may be chosen because it is particularly new or fast-breaking, thus deserving introduction to the general readership. Or, it may be because a topic is especially controversial or confusing, requiring clarification by experts. Each review will give a critical assessment rather than an encyclopedic report. While our editors always will insist on fairness and accuracy, any review which forwards an opinion is bound to be somewhat subjective. Therefore, it is the editors' wish that the set of reviews written by different authors on the same subject matter will provide a broad and balanced viewpoint. It is often the case that an author who is an expert in a technique or method may be especially enthusiastic or critical about this technique or method. A companion review in the set may provide a different viewpoint. We are hopeful that the reader, after studying these reviews and checking some of the key references, will obtain an informed opinion of the subject. We think the set of reviews in a spotlight area will considerably shorten the ``learning time'' that a nonexpert would otherwise need to become knowledgeable about a subject. In this issue, we feature a spotlight topic on oxide surfaces. The set contains an overview article by Jacques Jupille, and four articles written by G. Pacchioni, F. Cosandey and T. E. Madey, B. G. Daniels, R. Lindsay and G. Thornton, and C. Noguera respectively. Of these, the article by Pacchioni has already appeared in SRL 7, 277 (2000). The other three articles appear in this issue. A reader who wishes to suggest a spotlight topic or recommend authors to write such reviews should contact the Editor-in-Chief. We would like to hear from you.

  15. Dehydration kinetics of talc at 1 bar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganguly, J.; Bose, K.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental results on the dehydration kinetics of talc, which is likely to be a major potential resource for water and hydrogen in carbonaceous chondrites, is presented. The rate of dehydration of an essentially pure Mg-end member natural talc, (Mg(.99)Fe(.01))3Si4O10(OH)2, was studied by measuring in situ weight change under isothermal condition at 1 bar as a function of time in the temperature range 775 to 985 C. The grain size of the starting material was 0.7 to 1 micron. It was found that the data up to 50 to 60 percent dehydration can be fitted by an equation of the form alpha = exp(-Kt(exp n)), where alpha is the weight fraction of talc remaining, K is a rate constant and n is a numerical constant for a given temperature. For any set of isothermal data, there is a major change in the value of n for larger dehydration. For up to approximately 50 percent dehydration, all rate constants can be described by an Arrheniun relation with an activation energy of 432 (+/- 30) kJ/mol; n has a nearly constant value of 0.54 between 775 and 875 C, but increases almost linearly according to n = -10.77 + 0.012T C at T greater than or equal to 875 C.

  16. Dehydration-responsive features of Atrichum undulatum.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ruoyang; Xiao, Lihong; Bao, Fang; Li, Xuedong; He, Yikun

    2016-09-01

    Drought is an increasingly important limitation on plant productivity worldwide. Understanding the mechanisms of drought tolerance in plants can lead to new strategies for developing drought-tolerant crops. Many moss species are able to survive desiccation-a more severe state of dehydration than drought. Research into the mechanisms and evolution of desiccation tolerance in basal land plants is of particular significance to both biology and agriculture. In this study, we conducted morphological, cytological, and physiological analyses of gametophytes of the highly desiccation-tolerant bryophyte Atrichum undulatum (Hedw.) P. Beauv during dehydration and rehydration. Our results suggested that the mechanisms underlying the dehydration-recovery cycle in A. undulatum gametophytes include maintenance of membrane stability, cellular structure protection, prevention of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, elimination of ROS, protection against ROS-induced damage, and repair of ROS-induced damage. Our data also indicate that this dehydration-recovery cycle consists not only of the physical removal and addition of water, but also involves a highly organized series of cytological, physiological, and biochemical changes. These attributes are similar to those reported for other drought- and desiccation-tolerant plant species. Our findings provide major insights into the mechanisms of dehydration-tolerance in the moss A. undulatum. PMID:27255889

  17. Glucose loading and dehydration in the camel.

    PubMed

    Yagil, R; Berlyne, G M

    1977-05-01

    Five female bedouin camels were subjected to large infusions of glucose, both when water was readily available and following 10 days of water deprivation. When the camels were hydrated the extra glucose was readily given off in the urine with only a slight increase in blood levels. Following dehydration, the blood glucose levels increased greatly while the urinary excretion was limited. Dehydration led to decreased blood insulin levels, while glucose infusion led to increased levels. The data show that the acclimatization of the camel to dehydration is not only a question of long-term adaption to desert conditions but that even following acute nonphysiological stress, i.e., glucosuria, excess loss of body water was prevented. PMID:863833

  18. Geothermal demonstration: Zunil food dehydration facility

    SciTech Connect

    Maldonado, O. ); Altseimer, J.; Thayer, G.R. ); Cooper, L. ); Caicedo, A. . Inst. Nacional de Electrificacion)

    1991-08-01

    A food dehydration facility was constructed near the town of Zunil, Guatemala, to demonstrate the use of geothermal energy for industrial applications. The facility, with some modifications to the design, was found to work quite satisfactorily. Tests using five different products were completed during the time geothermal energy was used in the plant. During the time the plant was not able to use geothermal energy, a temporary diesel-fueled boiler provided the energy to test dehydration on seven other crops available in this area. The system demonstrates that geothermal heat can be used successfully for dehydrating food products. Many other industrial applications of geothermal energy could be considered for Zunil since a considerable amount of moderate-temperature heat will become available when the planned geothermal electrical facility is constructed there. 6 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Topical anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mritunjay; Chawla, Rajiv; Goyal, Manish

    2015-01-01

    Topical anesthetics are being widely used in numerous medical and surgical sub-specialties such as anesthesia, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology, dentistry, urology, and aesthetic surgery. They cause superficial loss of pain sensation after direct application. Their delivery and effectiveness can be enhanced by using free bases; by increasing the drug concentration, lowering the melting point; by using physical and chemical permeation enhancers and lipid delivery vesicles. Various topical anesthetic agents available for use are eutectic mixture of local anesthetics, ELA-max, lidocaine, epinephrine, tetracaine, bupivanor, 4% tetracaine, benzocaine, proparacaine, Betacaine-LA, topicaine, lidoderm, S-caine patch™ and local anesthetic peel. While using them, careful attention must be paid to their pharmacology, area and duration of application, age and weight of the patients and possible side-effects. PMID:26702198

  20. Topical anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Mritunjay; Chawla, Rajiv; Goyal, Manish

    2015-01-01

    Topical anesthetics are being widely used in numerous medical and surgical sub-specialties such as anesthesia, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology, dentistry, urology, and aesthetic surgery. They cause superficial loss of pain sensation after direct application. Their delivery and effectiveness can be enhanced by using free bases; by increasing the drug concentration, lowering the melting point; by using physical and chemical permeation enhancers and lipid delivery vesicles. Various topical anesthetic agents available for use are eutectic mixture of local anesthetics, ELA-max, lidocaine, epinephrine, tetracaine, bupivanor, 4% tetracaine, benzocaine, proparacaine, Betacaine-LA, topicaine, lidoderm, S-caine patch™ and local anesthetic peel. While using them, careful attention must be paid to their pharmacology, area and duration of application, age and weight of the patients and possible side-effects. PMID:26702198

  1. Dehydration in the Winter Arctic Tropopause Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Leonhard; Jensen, Eric; Podolske, James; Selkirk, Henry; Anderson, Bruce; Avery, Melody; Diskin. Glenn

    2004-01-01

    Recent work has shown that limited amounts of tropospheric air can penetrate as much as 1 km into the middleworld stratosphere during the arctic winter. This, coupled with temperatures that are cold enough to produce saturation mixing ratios of less than 5 ppmv at the tropopause, results in stratospheric cloud formation and upper tropospheric dehydration. Even though these "cold outbreaks" occupy only a small portion of the area in the arctic (1-2%), their importance is magnified by an order of magnitude because of the air flow through them. This is reinforced by evidence of progressive drying through the winter measured during SOLVE-1. The significance of this process lies in its effect on the upper tropospheric water content of the middle and high latitude tropopause region, which plays an important role in regulating the earth's radiative balance. There appears to be significant year-to-year variability in the incidence of the cold outbreaks. This work has two parts. First, we describe case studies of dehydration taken from the SOLVE and SOLVE2 aircraft sampling missions during the Arctic winters of 2000 and 2003 respectively. Trajectory based microphysical modeling is employed to examine the sensitivity of the dehydration to microphysical parameters and the nature of sub-grid scale temperature fluctuations. We then examine the year-to-year variations in potential dehydration using a trajectory climatology.

  2. What's the Big Sweat about Dehydration? (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Back-to-School Butterflies? Read This ... What's the Big Sweat About Dehydration? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's the Big Sweat About Dehydration? Print A ...

  3. Hydration-dehydration, heat, humidity, and "cool, clear, water".

    PubMed

    Lockett, Lawrence J

    2012-12-01

    Personal recollections of dehydration meltdowns during the Kona Ironman Triathlon, reflections on their cause, and the author's experiential recommendations regarding hydration, prevention of dehydration, and "beat the heat and humidity" measures. PMID:23147099

  4. 21 CFR 73.40 - Dehydrated beets (beet powder).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Identity. (1) The color additive dehydrated beets is a dark red powder prepared by dehydrating sound... specifications: Volatile matter, not more than 4 percent. Acid insoluble ash, not more than 0.5 percent. Lead...

  5. 21 CFR 73.40 - Dehydrated beets (beet powder).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Identity. (1) The color additive dehydrated beets is a dark red powder prepared by dehydrating sound... specifications: Volatile matter, not more than 4 percent. Acid insoluble ash, not more than 0.5 percent. Lead...

  6. Dehydration and rehydration of a tuff vitrophyre

    SciTech Connect

    Vaniman, D.; Bish, D., Chipera, S.

    1993-12-10

    The basal vitrophyre of the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is a perlitic glass with 2.8 to 4.6% water. The dehydration of this vitrophyre was studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and by isothermal heating at 50{degrees}, 100{degrees}, 200{degrees}, and 400{degrees}C for 3.4 years followed by 1.1 years of rehydration at high controlled humidity ({approximately}79% relative humidity). No crystallization of the glass was observed in long-term dehydration or rehydration; the only observed chemical alteration was loss of up to 60% of original fluorine. TGA studies show a characteristic two-stage dehydration of the vitrophyre, with two-thirds to three-fourths weight loss occurring most rapidly at temperatures ranging from 278{degrees} to 346{degrees}C in 10{degrees}C/min heating experiments. The remaining water, about 1% in all of the vitrophyre samples studied regardless of total water content, is lost only on second-stage heating to temperatures above 650{degrees}C. Long-term isothermal heating at {le}400{degrees}C releases only the first-stage water. Loss of essentially all first-stage water occurred in less than 1 hour at 400{degrees}C; proportionately lower losses were obtained at 200{degrees} and 100{degrees}C. Small (0.2%) water loss occurred in the 50{degrees}C experiment. A time-temperature-dehydration diagram generated from the isothermal heating data shows a clustering of dehydration contours that are the equilibrium equivalent of the rapid first-stage water loss in dynamic TGA experiments. These dry-heating experiments provide an end-member characterization of glass transformations for comparison with water-saturated heating experiments in which glass alteration is prominent. 29 figs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Topic: Mastery Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killoran, James, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    This journal issue addresses the topic of mastery learning at both the elementary and secondary school levels. The first article, "The Theory and Practice of Mastery Learning" (Guskey), gives a definition of and information about the development, operation, and application of mastery learning, based on the theories of Benjamin Bloom. In addition,…

  8. Topical Steroids.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Gretchen M; Harvey, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is an inflammatory condition with heterogeneous pathophysiology. A cornerstone of the management of this condition is the use of anti-inflammatory agents. Corticosteroids are very effective and the most commonly used, but other drugs with immunodulatory activity such as anti-IL5, doxycycline (Th2), and macrolides (anti-neutrophilic/IL8) have been shown to have efficacy. Although systemic corticosteroids have shown benefit in managing this condition, the frequency of use often required in this condition is associated with significant adverse effects. Topical corticosteroids, particularly when utilized after endoscopic sinus surgery and delivered in a high volume, high pressure manner, provide the desired anti-inflammatory effects with nearly negligible systemic absorption. Studies assessing the long-term use of second generation topical corticosteroids have demonstrated no significant effects on cortisol levels, growth rate, intraocular pressures or lens opacification, or local mucosal atrophy. Patients who often respond most favorably to corticosteroid treatment are those with a Th2-mediated, highly eosinophilic CRSwNP. However, there is a subset of patients who are steroid resistant. In the case of a predominantly neutrophilic CRSwNP, it is important to be aware that patients may respond well to the use of macrolide therapy. Additionally, the use of verapamil has shown promise in increasing steroid responsiveness in a difficult to treat group of patients with steroid resistance. Topical corticosteroids play a key role in the long term management of this complicated inflammatory condition by providing the much needed pharmacologic local control with minimal systemic adverse effects. PMID:27466854

  9. 21 CFR 73.40 - Dehydrated beets (beet powder).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dehydrated beets (beet powder). 73.40 Section 73.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.40 Dehydrated beets (beet powder). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive dehydrated beets...

  10. Effect of cation on HTO / H{sub 2}O separation and dehydration characteristics of Y-type zeolite adsorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Iwai, Y.; Uzawa, M.; Yamanishi, T.

    2008-07-15

    Several types of adsorbers have been studied as they are considered for the first stage of water detritiation systems processing more than 100 kg/h of high-level tritiated water generated in a future fusion plant. Zeolite is a suitable adsorbent since it is an inorganic material having a large water capacity. Rapid dehydration characteristics as well as a large HTO/H{sub 2}O separation factor is necessary for the adsorber to minimize its size. Present experiments were focused on the effect of cations on HTO /H{sub 2}O separation and dehydration characteristics of Y-type zeolites. The selected cations are Na, K and Ca. The framework SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratio of the zeolites is fixed to 5.0 in the present experiments. It was found that the isotope separation factors are around 1.1-1.2 under static conditions. As for dehydration, operating temperature fixes the capacity of movable water from the zeolites. The capacity at room temperature is NaY > CaY > KY. HTO dehydration characteristics depend on the accumulated purge gas amount, while the purge gas rate is less influential. Effect of temperature on HTO dehydration is also less influential especially in the early stage of dehydration. Pressure swing is an effective method for HTO dehydration. (authors)

  11. Accuracy of Inferior Vena Cava Ultrasound for Predicting Dehydration in Children with Acute Diarrhea in Resource-Limited Settings

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Payal; Glavis-Bloom, Justin; Nasrin, Sabiha; Guy, Allysia; Rege, Soham; Noble, Vicki E.; Alam, Nur H.; Levine, Adam C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although dehydration from diarrhea is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children under five, existing methods of assessing dehydration status in children have limited accuracy. Objective To assess the accuracy of point-of-care ultrasound measurement of the aorta-to-IVC ratio as a predictor of dehydration in children. Methods A prospective cohort study of children under five years with acute diarrhea was conducted in the rehydration unit of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b). Ultrasound measurements of aorta-to-IVC ratio and dehydrated weight were obtained on patient arrival. Percent weight change was monitored during rehydration to classify children as having “some dehydration” with weight change 3–9% or “severe dehydration” with weight change > 9%. Logistic regression analysis and Receiver-Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves were used to evaluate the accuracy of aorta-to-IVC ratio as a predictor of dehydration severity. Results 850 children were enrolled, of which 771 were included in the final analysis. Aorta to IVC ratio was a significant predictor of the percent dehydration in children with acute diarrhea, with each 1-point increase in the aorta to IVC ratio predicting a 1.1% increase in the percent dehydration of the child. However, the area under the ROC curve (0.60), sensitivity (67%), and specificity (49%), for predicting severe dehydration were all poor. Conclusions Point-of-care ultrasound of the aorta-to-IVC ratio was statistically associated with volume status, but was not accurate enough to be used as an independent screening tool for dehydration in children under five years presenting with acute diarrhea in a resource-limited setting. PMID:26766306

  12. Dehydration, Hyperthermia, and Athletes: Science and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Objective: To present the recent research that underscores the value of preventing both dehydration and hyperthermia. Such efforts will improve the athlete's capacity to perform physical activity and reduce the risk of heat-related problems. Data Sources: Data were drawn from an extensive review of the scientific literature over the past 50 years with an emphasis on recent research (> 1990) that focuses on the physiological and performance benefits of fluid replacement. Data Synthesis: Even low levels of dehydration (eg, less than a 2% loss of body weight) impair cardiovascular and thermoregulatory response and reduce the capacity for exercise. Heat exposure also reduces the athlete's ability to train and compete, an effect that can be independent of hydration status. Even if athletes are well hydrated, hot weather alone will reduce their capacity to exercise. Optimal performance is possible only when dehydration and hyperthermia are minimized by ingesting ample volumes of fluid during exercise and by taking common-sense precautions in keeping cool. Recent research has demonstrated that consuming fluid in volumes approximating sweat loss maintains important physiological functions and significantly improves exercise performance, even during exercise lasting only 1 hour. Carbohydrate ingestion also improves exercise performance, an effect that is independent of, and additive to, preventing dehydration. Conclusion/Application: Athletes should follow an aggressive fluid replacement and temperature regulation regimen. Successful implementation of this regimen requires that athletic trainers, coaches, athletes, and support personnel are made aware of the benefits of adequate fluid replacement, that appropriate fluid replacement strategies are developed and implemented, that athletes have the opportunity to train themselves to ingest larger volumes of fluid more frequently, and that other practical steps are taken to keep athletes cool during both training and

  13. Dehydration-induced drinking in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    The human tendency to experience a delay in rehydration (involuntary dehydration) after fluid loss is considered. The two primary factors contributing to involuntary dehydration are probably upright posture, and extracellular fluid and electrolyte loss by sweating from exercise and heat exposure. First, as the plasma sodium and osmotic concentrations remain virtually unchanged for supine to upright postural changes, the major stimuli for drinking appear to be associated with the hypovolemia and increase in the renin-angiotension system. Second, voluntary drinking during the heat experiments was 146% greater than in cool experiments; drinking increased by 109% with prior dehydration as opposed to normal hydration conditions; and drinking was increased by 41% after exercise as compared with the resting condition. Finally, it is concluded that the rate of sweating and the rate of voluntary fluid intake are highly correlated, and that the dispogenic factors of plasma volume, osmolality, and plasma renin activity are unrelated to sweat rate, but are likely to induce drinking in humans.

  14. Fasting headache, weight loss, and dehydration.

    PubMed

    Mosek, A; Korczyn, A D

    1999-03-01

    Recently, we showed that fasting is a strong headache precipitator unrelated to coffee, tea, or smoking withdrawal or to oversleeping. In the current study, we evaluated the role of dehydration as a possible precipitator of fasting headache. The effects of a 25-hour fast of the Jewish Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement) were studied in women who participated in our previous Yom Kippur study. We asked the subjects to weigh themselves at the beginning and at the end of the Yom Kippur fast, assuming that the weight loss would largely reflect dehydration. In all but 1 of the 56 participants, the fast resulted in weight loss but only 28 (50%) reported headache. The average weight loss was 1.4 +/- 0.8 kg in those who developed headache and 1.2 +/- 0.5 kg in those who did not. This small difference was not statistically significant. We conclude that dehydration, as reflected by acute weight loss, is an unlikely cause of headache during a single day of fasting. The mechanism of fasting headache remains unclear. PMID:15613218

  15. Solar energy food dehydration system: Concept development

    SciTech Connect

    Pham, L.V.

    1988-01-01

    The research activities to be carried out to form the body of this work were planned, first, to increase the general knowledge in the areas of solar energy application and, secondly, to provide sufficient data for the development of a new solar energy powered food dehydrating system. The research work does not aim merely at pursuing the study and development of a new component or a new type of material to be used in the solar industry. But the final and main part of this research is devoted to the development and design of a solar energy system uncharted before the purpose of dehydrating various agricultural products. This proposed solar powered system development is thereby a contribution of technological knowledge to the field of Applied Sciences. It is one of the viable and effective solutions to solving the world's food and energy shortage problem, especially in the less developed regions of the world. The body of this work, thus is divided into three major parts as follows: (1) The search for a thorough understanding of the origin and fundamental characteristics of solar energy. (2) Past and present applications of solar energy. (3) The development and design of a new solar energy powered system for the dehydration of food crops.

  16. May eclogite dehydration cause slab fracturation ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loury, Chloé; Lanari, Pierre; Rolland, Yann; Guillot, Stéphane; Ganino, Clément

    2015-04-01

    Petrological and geophysical evidences strongly indicate that fluids releases play a fundamental role in subduction zones as in subduction-related seismicity and arc magmatism. It is thus important to assess quantitatively their origin and to try to quantify the amount of such fluids. In HP metamorphism, it is well known that pressure-dependent dehydration reactions occur during the prograde path. Many geophysical models show that the variations in slab physical properties along depth could be linked to these fluid occurrences. However it remains tricky to test such models on natural sample, as it is difficult to assess or model the water content evolution in HP metamorphic rocks. This difficulty is bound to the fact that these rocks are generally heterogeneous, with zoned minerals and preservation of different paragenesis reflecting changing P-T conditions. To decipher the P-T-X(H2O) path of such heterogeneous rocks the concept of local effective bulk (LEB) composition is essential. Here we show how standardized X-ray maps can be used to constrain the scale of the equilibration volume of a garnet porphyroblast and to measure its composition. The composition of this equilibrium volume may be seen as the proportion of the rock likely to react at a given time to reach a thermodynamic equilibrium with the growing garnet. The studied sample is an eclogite coming from the carboniferous South-Tianshan suture (Central Asia) (Loury et al. in press). Compositional maps of a garnet and its surrounding matrix were obtained from standardized X-ray maps processed with the program XMapTools (Lanari et al, 2014). The initial equilibration volume was modeled using LEB compositions combined together with Gibbs free energy minimization. P-T sections were calculated for the next stages of garnet growth taking into account the fractionation of the composition at each stage of garnet growth. The modeled P-T-X(H2O) path indicates that the rock progressively dehydrates during the

  17. [Topical contraceptives].

    PubMed

    Alipov, V I; Korkhov, V V

    1982-02-01

    Recently there has been little interest in topical contraceptives. The most popular are the cervical cap and the diaphragm. Other types of mechanical contraceptive devices are being investigated. Standley and Kessler have developed a device for introduction into the cervical canal with a reservoir of spermatocide, it does not block the flow of blood during menstruation. New models of vaginal rings are also being developed which are simple enough for self-insertion and also contain a reservoir of spermatocide. Work is being done on spermatocide-containing sponges in many countries. Another project being investigated is the possibility of using natural proteins, collagens, and other substances which absorb spermatozoids. The ancients used various vaginal suppositories to kill spermatozoids; in the late 19th century quinine sulfate was used for this, and a variety of substances have been used recently. These spermicidal creams also have the advantage of acting as anti-infectious agents in many cases. But they do have some negative effects. They are about 85% effective, are local irritants, and some cause discomfort during intercourse. And it is possible that some are resorbed by the body and act on the liver and other organs. Vaginal globules and suppositories are also popular. The "Kontraceptin-T" brand contains quinosol, boric acid, and tannin. There are also foaming tablets which are mixed with water and then introduced. New locally-active chemical substances are being developed in Japan, West Germany, and the USSR. Kontraceptin-E contains paranonyl-phenoxypolyethylene glycol and sodium dioctylsulfosuccinate. The "Norforks" and other preparations contain mercurial compounds which may turn out to be harmful. The future promises the development of products which will act to prevent fertilization by acting on the hyaluronidase and the acrosine of the spermatozoid, thus preventing it from penetrating the ovum. It would be best to find enzyme inhibitors which are

  18. Wet fractionation of forage to reduce energy requirements of dehydration. Final technical report, August 12, 1978-April 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.H.; Kohler, G.O.

    1982-07-01

    Wet processing fractionates fresh alfalfa into leaf protein concentrate (LPC), alfalfa solubles, and press cake products. The process can reduce energy consumption compared to normal dehydration of freshly chopped alfalfa by recovering sensible and latent heat from the dryer exhaust gases using a gas recycle system and waste heat evaporator, and by reducing the water evaporated per ton of product produced. A conventional commercial alfalfa dehydration plant (Valley Dehydrating Company, Sterling Co; VDC) was modified to an LPC operation with a design capacity of 30 tons of chopped alfalfa per hour. During the experimental period the plant operated at 15 to 24 tons/h, and produced an average LPC yield of 12.8% (dry basis). The VDC plant consumed 25% less total energy (29% less natural gas; 108% more electrical energy) than that estimated for conventional dehydration of chopped alfalfa. Energy savings were lower than anticipated because of inefficiencies resulting from plant operation at less than design capacity. Based on the experience at VDC, future LPC plants are projected to reduce overall energy consumption by 35% (39% less natural gas; 63% more electrical energy) as compared to conventional dehydration. The VDC products were marketed readily; the press cake was sold to cattle feeders at a price equivalent to dehydrated alfalfa, and the LPC to a broiler producer at prices varying from $430 to $590/ton. Animal performance trials using VDC produced products were highly satisfactory. Projected current cost of a new LPC plant processing 40 tons of chopped alfalfa per hour is 4.7 million dollars; the cost of converting an existing 20 ton/h dehydration plant to a 40 ton/h LPC plant is estimated at 3.6 million dollars. The calculated rate of return on investment for the new plant was 12.0, 26.2 and 40.4% for operating seasons of 130, 180 and 230 days, respectively. Suggestions are made for process improvements and improving process economics.

  19. Dehydration of plutonium or neptunium trichloride hydrate

    DOEpatents

    Foropoulos, Jr., Jerry; Avens, Larry R.; Trujillo, Eddie A.

    1992-01-01

    A process of preparing anhydrous actinide metal trichlorides of plutonium or neptunium by reacting an aqueous solution of an actinide metal trichloride selected from the group consisting of plutonium trichloride or neptunium trichloride with a reducing agent capable of converting the actinide metal from an oxidation state of +4 to +3 in a resultant solution, evaporating essentially all the solvent from the resultant solution to yield an actinide trichloride hydrate material, dehydrating the actinide trichloride hydrate material by heating the material in admixture with excess thionyl chloride, and recovering anhydrous actinide trichloride is provided.

  20. Dehydration of plutonium or neptunium trichloride hydrate

    DOEpatents

    Foropoulos, J. Jr.; Avens, L.R.; Trujillo, E.A.

    1992-03-24

    A process is described for preparing anhydrous actinide metal trichlorides of plutonium or neptunium by reacting an aqueous solution of an actinide metal trichloride selected from the group consisting of plutonium trichloride or neptunium trichloride with a reducing agent capable of converting the actinide metal from an oxidation state of +4 to +3 in a resultant solution, evaporating essentially all the solvent from the resultant solution to yield an actinide trichloride hydrate material, dehydrating the actinide trichloride hydrate material by heating the material in admixture with excess thionyl chloride, and recovering anhydrous actinide trichloride.

  1. Intrastab Earthquakes: Dehydration of the Cascadia Slab

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Preston, L.A.; Creager, K.C.; Crosson, R.S.; Brocher, T.M.; Trehu, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    We simultaneously invert travel times of refracted and wide-angle reflected waves for three-dimensional compressional-wave velocity structure, earthquake locations, and reflector geometry in northwest Washington state. The reflector, interpreted to be the crust-mantle boundary (Moho) of the subducting Juan de Fuca plate, separates intrastab earthquakes into two groups, permitting a new understanding of the origins of intrastab earthquakes in Cascadia. Earthquakes up-dip of the Moho's 45-kilometer depth contour occur below the reflector, in the subducted oceanic mantle, consistent with serpentinite dehydration; earthquakes located down-dip occur primarily within the subducted crust, consistent with the basalt-to-eclogite transformation.

  2. Intraslab earthquakes: dehydration of the Cascadia slab.

    PubMed

    Preston, Leiph A; Creager, Kenneth C; Crosson, Robert S; Brocher, Thomas M; Trehu, Anne M

    2003-11-14

    We simultaneously invert travel times of refracted and wide-angle reflected waves for three-dimensional compressional-wave velocity structure, earthquake locations, and reflector geometry in northwest Washington state. The reflector, interpreted to be the crust-mantle boundary (Moho) of the subducting Juan de Fuca plate, separates intraslab earthquakes into two groups, permitting a new understanding of the origins of intraslab earthquakes in Cascadia. Earthquakes up-dip of the Moho's 45-kilometer depth contour occur below the reflector, in the subducted oceanic mantle, consistent with serpentinite dehydration; earthquakes located down-dip occur primarily within the subducted crust, consistent with the basalt-to-eclogite transformation. PMID:14615535

  3. Reducing dehydration in residents of care homes.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Lee; Whitelock, Suzan; Bunn, Diane

    Dehydration can have serious consequences for older people and is a particular problem for residents of nursing and care homes. This article, the second in a two-part series, describes how a specialist care home for people with dementia in Great Yarmouth introduced high-quality hydration care to frail residents. By involving all staff and ensuring residents take a litre of fluid by the end of a relaxed and extended breakfast, staff have reduced anxiety and aggression and created a calmer and more sociable atmosphere. This has benefitted residents, visitors and staff, and is reflected in low levels of unplanned hospital admissions and paramedic call-outs. PMID:26492664

  4. Effects of Dehydration on Fish Muscles at Chilled Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miki, Hidemasa; Seto, Fuminori; Nishimoto, Motomi; Nishimoto, Junichi

    Recently,new method of removing water from fish fillet at low temperature using dehydration sheet have been reported. The present study is concerned with the factors to affect the quality during dehydration of horse mackerel muscle at low temperature. The rate of dehydration at -3 °C was about two times faster than that at 0 °C. The rate of denaturation of fish muscle protein was kept less than about 10 % (ATPase activity) of the undenaturated initial values after removing free water content. Present results suggest the practical possibility of the dehydration at -3 °C for keeping quality of fish flesh.

  5. Dehydration-mediated cluster formation of nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Sungsook; Joon Lee, Sang

    2015-06-01

    Drying procedure is a powerful method to modulate the bottom-up assembly of basic building component. The initially weak attraction between the components screened in a solution strengthens as the solvent evaporates, organizing the components into structures. Drying is process-dependent, irreversible, and nonequilibrated, thus the mechanism and the dynamics are influenced by many factors. Therefore, the interaction of the solvent and the elements during the drying procedure as well as the resulting pattern formations are strongly related. Nonetheless still many things are open in questions in terms of their dynamics. In this study, nanoscale dehydration procedure is experimentally investigated using a nanoparticle (NP) model system. The role of water is verified in a single NP scale and the patterns of collective NP clusters are determined. Stepwise drying procedures are proposed based on the location from which water is removed. Effective water exodus from a unit NP surface enhances the attractive interaction in nanoscale and induces heterogeneous distribution in microscale. This study provides fundamental proof of systematic relation between the dehydration process and the resultant cluster patterns in hierarchical multiscales.

  6. Dehydration-mediated cluster formation of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sungsook; Lee, Sang Joon

    2015-01-01

    Drying procedure is a powerful method to modulate the bottom-up assembly of basic building component. The initially weak attraction between the components screened in a solution strengthens as the solvent evaporates, organizing the components into structures. Drying is process-dependent, irreversible, and nonequilibrated, thus the mechanism and the dynamics are influenced by many factors. Therefore, the interaction of the solvent and the elements during the drying procedure as well as the resulting pattern formations are strongly related. Nonetheless still many things are open in questions in terms of their dynamics. In this study, nanoscale dehydration procedure is experimentally investigated using a nanoparticle (NP) model system. The role of water is verified in a single NP scale and the patterns of collective NP clusters are determined. Stepwise drying procedures are proposed based on the location from which water is removed. Effective water exodus from a unit NP surface enhances the attractive interaction in nanoscale and induces heterogeneous distribution in microscale. This study provides fundamental proof of systematic relation between the dehydration process and the resultant cluster patterns in hierarchical multiscales. PMID:26077841

  7. Dehydration-mediated cluster formation of nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sungsook; Joon Lee, Sang

    2015-01-01

    Drying procedure is a powerful method to modulate the bottom-up assembly of basic building component. The initially weak attraction between the components screened in a solution strengthens as the solvent evaporates, organizing the components into structures. Drying is process-dependent, irreversible, and nonequilibrated, thus the mechanism and the dynamics are influenced by many factors. Therefore, the interaction of the solvent and the elements during the drying procedure as well as the resulting pattern formations are strongly related. Nonetheless still many things are open in questions in terms of their dynamics. In this study, nanoscale dehydration procedure is experimentally investigated using a nanoparticle (NP) model system. The role of water is verified in a single NP scale and the patterns of collective NP clusters are determined. Stepwise drying procedures are proposed based on the location from which water is removed. Effective water exodus from a unit NP surface enhances the attractive interaction in nanoscale and induces heterogeneous distribution in microscale. This study provides fundamental proof of systematic relation between the dehydration process and the resultant cluster patterns in hierarchical multiscales. PMID:26077841

  8. Intermediate magnetite formation during dehydration of goethite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özdemir, Özden; Dunlop, David J.

    2000-04-01

    The dehydration of goethite has been studied by low-temperature induced magnetization (LTIM) and X-ray diffraction on well-characterized acicular crystals. Fresh samples were heated in air to temperatures between 155°C and 610°C. Goethite and hematite were the magnetically dominant phases after all runs except 500°C and 610°C, for which only hematite was found. However, partially dehydrated goethites after the 238-402°C runs had broad peaks or inflections in the LTIM curves around 120 K, suggesting the formation of an intermediate spinel phase. These samples were next given a saturation remanence in a field of 2 T at 10 K and the remanence was measured continuously during zero-field warming to 300 K. There was a decrease in remanence at the Verwey transition (120 K), diagnostic of magnetite. The possible formation of a small amount of magnetite is of serious concern in studies of goethite-bearing sediments and rocks. Chemical remanent magnetization (CRM) of this strongly magnetic spinel phase could significantly modify the direction as well as the intensity of the original goethite CRM. As well, it would be a new source of paleomagnetic noise as far as primary remanence carried by other mineral phases is concerned.

  9. Dehydration Parameters and Standards for Laboratory Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bekkevold, Christine M; Robertson, Kimberly L; Reinhard, Mary K; Battles, August H; Rowland, Neil E

    2013-01-01

    Water deprivation and restriction are common features of many physiologic and behavioral studies; however, there are no data-driven humane standards regarding mice on water deprivation or restriction studies to guide IACUC, investigators, and veterinarians. Here we acutely deprived outbred CD1 mice of water for as long as 48 h or restricted them to a 75% or 50% water ration; physical and physiologic indicators of dehydration were measured. With acute water deprivation, the appearance and attitude of mice deteriorated after 24 h, and weight loss exceeded 15%. Plasma osmolality was increased, and plasma volume decreased with each time interval. Plasma corticosterone concentration increased with duration of deprivation. There were no differences in any dehydration measures between mice housed in conventional static cages or ventilated racks. Chronic water restriction induced no significant changes compared with ad libitum availability. We conclude that acute water deprivation of as long as 24 h produces robust physiologic changes; however, deprivation in excess of 24 h is not recommended in light of apparent animal distress. Although clearly thirsty, mice adapt to chronic water restriction of as much as 50% of the ad libitum daily ration that is imposed over an interval of as long as 8 d. PMID:23849404

  10. Dehydration-driven topotaxy in subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padrón-Navarta, José Alberto; Tommasi, Andréa; Garrido, Carlos J.

    2014-05-01

    Mineral replacement reactions play a fundamental role in the chemistry and the strength of the lithosphere. When externally or internally derived fluids are present, interface-coupled dissolution-precipitation is the driving mechanism for such reactions [1]. One of the microstructural features of this process is a 3D arrangement of crystallographic axes across internal interfaces (topotaxy) between reactant and product phases. Dehydration reactions are a special case of mineral replacement reaction that generates a transient fluid-filled porosity. Among others, the dehydration serpentinite is of special relevance in subduction zones because of the amount of fluids involved (potentially up to 13 wt.%). Two topotatic relationships between olivine and antigorite (the serpentine mineral stable at high temperature and pressure) have been reported in partially hydrated mantle wedge xenoliths [2]. Therefore, if precursor antigorite serpentine has a strong crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) its dehydration might result in prograde peridotite with a strong inherited CPO. However for predicting the importance of topotactic reactions for seismic anisotropy of subduction zones we also need to consider the crystallization orthopyroxene + chlorite in the prograde reaction and, more importantly, the fact that this dehydration reaction produces a transient porosity of ca. 20 % vol. that results in local fluctuations of strain during compaction and fluid migration. We address this issue by a microstructural comparison between the CPO developed in olivine, orthopyroxene and chlorite during high-pressure antigorite dehydration in piston cylinder experiments (at 750ºC and 20 kbar and 1000ºC and 30 kbar, 168 h) and that recorded in natural samples (Cerro del Almirez, Betic Cordillera, Spain). Experimentally developed CPOs are strong. Prograde minerals show a significant inheritance of the former antigorite foliation. Topotactic relations are dominated by (001)atg//(100)ol

  11. Double seismic zone and dehydration embrittlement of the subducting slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasaki, Tadashi; Seno, Tetsuzo

    2003-04-01

    Dehydration embrittlement of metamorphosed oceanic crust and mantle in the subducting slab may be responsible for the occurrence of intermediate-depth earthquakes. We explore the possibility that this hypothesis can explain the morphology of the double seismic zones observed in northeast Japan, southwest Japan, northeast Taiwan, northern Chile, Cape Mendocino, and eastern Aleutians. We calculate transient temperature structures of slabs based on geologically estimated subduction histories of these regions. We then determine dehydration loci of metamorphosed oceanic crust and serpentinized mantle using experimentally derived phase diagrams. The depth range of the dehydration loci of metamorphosed oceanic crust and serpentine is dependent on slab age. The dehydration loci of serpentine produce a double-layered structure. Because the upper dehydration loci of serpentine are mostly located in the wedge mantle above the slab, we regard the upper plane seismicity representing dehydration embrittlement in the oceanic crust, and we fix the slab geometry so that the upper plane seismicity is just below the upper surface of the slab. We find that the lower plane seismicity is located at the lower dehydration loci of serpentine, which indicates that the morphology of the double seismic zones is consistent with the dehydration embrittlement.

  12. Dehydration accelerates root respiration and impacts sugarbeet raffinose metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarbeet roots lose water during storage and often become severely dehydrated after prolonged storage and at the outer portions of piles which have greater wind and sun exposure. Sucrose loss is known to be elevated in dehydrated roots, although the metabolic processes responsible for this loss ar...

  13. Smackerels of Somethings: Dehydrating Food and How to Use It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditzler, Carmen

    1994-01-01

    Provides ideas about how to add variety, flavor, texture, and nutrition to outdoor meals by dehydrating food and using it on camping trips. The goal is to prepare nutritious and appealing meals without spending a lot of money on commercially dehydrated or freeze-dried foods. Includes instructions for rehydrating foods. (LP)

  14. Retention of nutrients in green leafy vegetables on dehydration.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sheetal; Gowri, B S; Lakshmi, A Jyothi; Prakash, Jamuna

    2013-10-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of dehydration on nutrient composition of Amaranthus gangeticus, Chenopodium album, Centella asiatica, Amaranthus tricolor and Trigonella foenum graecum. The green leafy vegetables (GLV) were steam blanched for 5 min after pretreatment and dried in an oven at 60 °C for 10-12 h. The fresh and dehydrated samples were analyzed for selected proximate constituents, vitamins, minerals, antinutrients and dialyzable minerals. Dehydration seems to have little effect on the proximate, mineral and antinutrient content of the GLV. Among the vitamins, retention of ascorbic acid was 1-14%, thiamine 22-71%, total carotene 49-73% and β-carotene 20-69% respectively, of their initial content. Dialyzable iron and calcium in the fresh vegetables ranged between 0.21-3.5 mg and 15.36-81.33 mg/100 g respectively, which reduced to 0.05-0.53 mg and 6.94-58.15 mg/100 g on dehydration. Dehydration seems to be the simplest convenient technology for preserving these sources of micronutrients, especially when they are abundantly available. Irrespective of the losses of vitamins that take place during dehydration, dehydrated GLV are a concentrated natural source of micronutrients and they can be used in product formulations. Value addition of traditional products with dehydrated GLV can be advocated as a feasible food-based approach to combat micronutrient malnutrition. PMID:24425998

  15. Two-stage dehydration of sugars

    DOEpatents

    Holladay, Johnathan E.; Hu, Jianli; Wang, Yong; Werpy, Todd A.

    2009-11-10

    The invention includes methods for producing dianhydrosugar alcohol by providing an acid catalyst within a reactor and passing a starting material through the reactor at a first temperature. At least a portion of the staring material is converted to a monoanhydrosugar isomer during the passing through the column. The monoanhydrosugar is subjected to a second temperature which is greater than the first to produce a dianhydrosugar. The invention includes a method of producing isosorbide. An initial feed stream containing sorbitol is fed into a continuous reactor containing an acid catalyst at a temperature of less than 120.degree. C. The residence time for the reactor is less than or equal to about 30 minutes. Sorbitol converted to 1,4-sorbitan in the continuous reactor is subsequently provided to a second reactor and is dehydrated at a temperature of at least 120.degree. C. to produce isosorbide.

  16. Avoiding failed reconstitution of ultradeformable liposomes upon dehydration.

    PubMed

    Montanari, J; Roncaglia, D I; Lado, L A; Morilla, M J; Romero, E L

    2009-05-01

    Although freeze-drying is an ordinarily used technique to dehydrate conventional liposomes, we have found that ultradeformable liposomes (UDLs) suffered irreversible aggregation when rehydrated upon freeze-drying (99.4% water elimination), even in high sugar content (4/1 sucrose/lipid mass ratio). When dehydrated by speed vac and vacuum drying, two alternative techniques that rendered less pronounced dehydration (94.27 and 96.2% water elimination, respectively) and avoid ice formation, however, UDL could only be successfully rehydrated when vacuum dried in 4/1 sucrose/lipid mass ratios. Conventional liposomes, on the other hand, were successfully reconstituted upon dehydrated by the three methods in lower sugar content (2/1 sucrose/lipid mass ratio). These results indicated that the 27% mole sodium cholate within the UDL lipid matrix was responsible for a greater and differential mechanical sensitivity of the bilayers to the different dehydration stress, as compared to conventional liposomes. PMID:19429279

  17. DMSO induces dehydration near lipid membrane surfaces.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chi-Yuan; Song, Jinsuk; Pas, Jolien; Meijer, Lenny H H; Han, Songi

    2015-07-21

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has been broadly used in biology as a cosolvent, a cryoprotectant, and an enhancer of membrane permeability, leading to the general assumption that DMSO-induced structural changes in cell membranes and their hydration water play important functional roles. Although the effects of DMSO on the membrane structure and the headgroup dehydration have been extensively studied, the mechanism by which DMSO invokes its effect on lipid membranes and the direct role of water in this process are unresolved. By directly probing the translational water diffusivity near unconfined lipid vesicle surfaces, the lipid headgroup mobility, and the repeat distances in multilamellar vesicles, we found that DMSO exclusively weakens the surface water network near the lipid membrane at a bulk DMSO mole fraction (XDMSO) of <0.1, regardless of the lipid composition and the lipid phase. Specifically, DMSO was found to effectively destabilize the hydration water structure at the lipid membrane surface at XDMSO <0.1, lower the energetic barrier to dehydrate this surface water, whose displacement otherwise requires a higher activation energy, consequently yielding compressed interbilayer distances in multilamellar vesicles at equilibrium with unaltered bilayer thicknesses. At XDMSO >0.1, DMSO enters the lipid interface and restricts the lipid headgroup motion. We postulate that DMSO acts as an efficient cryoprotectant even at low concentrations by exclusively disrupting the water network near the lipid membrane surface, weakening the cohesion between water and adhesion of water to the lipid headgroups, and so mitigating the stress induced by the volume change of water during freeze-thaw. PMID:26200868

  18. Experimental investigation of bioethanol liquid phase dehydration using natural clinoptilolite

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Samira; Ghobadian, Barat; Omidkhah, Mohammad-Reza; Towfighi, Jafar; Tavakkoli Yaraki, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    An experimental study of bioethanol adsorption on natural Iranian clinoptilolite was carried out. Dynamic breakthrough curves were used to investigate the best adsorption conditions in bioethanol liquid phase. A laboratory setup was designed and fabricated for this purpose. In order to find the best operating conditions, the effect of liquid pressure, temperature and flow rate on breakthrough curves and consequently, maximum ethanol uptake by adsorbent were studied. The effects of different variables on final bioethanol concentration were investigated using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The results showed that by working at optimum condition, feed with 96% (v/v) initial ethanol concentration could be purified up to 99.9% (v/v). In addition, the process was modeled using Box–Behnken model and optimum operational conditions to reach 99.9% for final ethanol concentration were found equal to 10.7 °C, 4.9 bar and 8 mL/min for liquid temperature, pressure and flow rate, respectively. Therefore, the selected natural Iranian clinoptilolite was found to be a promising adsorbent material for bioethanol dehydration process. PMID:27222748

  19. Experimental investigation of bioethanol liquid phase dehydration using natural clinoptilolite.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Samira; Ghobadian, Barat; Omidkhah, Mohammad-Reza; Towfighi, Jafar; Tavakkoli Yaraki, Mohammad

    2016-05-01

    An experimental study of bioethanol adsorption on natural Iranian clinoptilolite was carried out. Dynamic breakthrough curves were used to investigate the best adsorption conditions in bioethanol liquid phase. A laboratory setup was designed and fabricated for this purpose. In order to find the best operating conditions, the effect of liquid pressure, temperature and flow rate on breakthrough curves and consequently, maximum ethanol uptake by adsorbent were studied. The effects of different variables on final bioethanol concentration were investigated using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The results showed that by working at optimum condition, feed with 96% (v/v) initial ethanol concentration could be purified up to 99.9% (v/v). In addition, the process was modeled using Box-Behnken model and optimum operational conditions to reach 99.9% for final ethanol concentration were found equal to 10.7 °C, 4.9 bar and 8 mL/min for liquid temperature, pressure and flow rate, respectively. Therefore, the selected natural Iranian clinoptilolite was found to be a promising adsorbent material for bioethanol dehydration process. PMID:27222748

  20. Onion and garlic dehydration in the San Emidio Desert, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.; Lienau, P.J.

    1994-07-01

    Integrated Ingredients dedicated their new onion and garlic processing plant on May 25th. {open_quotes}Grunion{close_quotes} as the new community of 72 employees has been labeled, is located just south of Empire and Gerlach and about 100 miles north of Reno, Nevada. The plant, run by Integrated Ingredients (based in Alameda, CA), is a division of Burns Philp Food, Inc., which owns brands such as Spice Islands, Durkee-French and Fleischmann`s. This plant gives the company the ability to produce its own products for industrial and consumer markets instead of purchasing them. The plant was located in the San Emidio Desert at the edge of the vast Black Rock Desert and the Great Basin to take advantage of the high temperature geothermal resource (approximately 270{degrees}F). The resource is also used by the OESI/AMOR II 3.6 MW binary plant about a mile south of the dehydration plant and a gold heap leaching operation just to the north of the plant (Wind Mt. mine operated by AMAX). In addition to the geothermal energy, the high desert is an ideal location for onion and garlic processing because the cold winters kill damaging microbes. Dry winters and summers also help.

  1. Hyponatremic dehydration: an analysis of 78 cases.

    PubMed

    Caksen, H; Odabaş, D; Sar, S; Celebi, V; Arslan, S; Kuru, M; Abuhandan, M

    2001-01-01

    Our purpose was to determine the frequency of convulsion in children with hyponatremic dehydration (HD). We also investigated whether or not there was a relationship between the severity of hyponatremia and the degrees of malnutrition in our region (Eastern Anatolia of Turkey) in where malnutrition is frequently observed. In this study, the clinical and laboratory findings of 78 patients with diarrhoea (acute, persistent or chronic diarrhoea) and HD were studied. When diarrhoea lasts longer than 2 and 4 weeks they were accepted as persistent and chronic diarrhoea, respectively. Patients were said to have HD if they had the clinical findings of dehydration associated with hyponatremia [Serum sodium (SNa) <130 mmol/L)]. Nutritional status of the children was assessed by the Gomez classification using weight for age; it was accepted as normal those were between 90%-110%, mild malnutrition 75%-89%, moderate malnutrition 60%-74% and severe malnutrition <60%. Of 78 patients, 40 were boys, 38 were girls. The age and weight of the patients ranged from 40 days to 36 months (8.94 +/- 5.49 months) and from 2000 to 10,300 g (5535.25 +/- 1702.10 g) respectively. All patients except four had malnutrition; 15 (20.3%) had mild malnutrition, 30 (40.5%) had moderate malnutrition and 29 (39.2%) had severe malnutrition. Forty-seven patients had acute, 16 patients had persistent, and 15 patients had chronic diarrhoea. SNa levels were between 104 and 129 mmol/L (121.21 +/- 6.12 mmol/L). There was not statistically a significant difference between SNa level and the degree of malnutrition, and SNa level and the types (acute, persistent or chronic) of diarrhoea (p > 0.05). Of 78 patients, 12 (15.3%) patients had convulsion, of whom eight had convulsion associated with fever. Convulsion was noted in nine (19.1%) and three (18.7%) patients with acute and persistent diarrhoea, respectively (p > 0.05). Also, we observed that when hyponatremia was severer, convulsions tended to be more occuring

  2. Assembly of light-emitting diode based on hydrophilic CdTe quantum dots incorporating dehydrated silica gel.

    PubMed

    Du, Jinhua; Wang, Chunlei; Xu, Xiaojing; Wang, Zhuyuan; Xu, Shuhong; Cui, Yiping

    2016-03-01

    Stable photoluminescence QD light-emitting diodes (QD-LEDs) were made based on hydrophilic CdTe quantum dots (QDs). A quantum dot-inorganic nanocomposite (hydrophilic CdTe QDs incorporating dehydrated silica gel) was prepared by two methods (rotary evaporation and freeze drying). Taking advantage of its viscosity, plasticity and transparency, dehydrated silica gel could be coated on the surface of ultraviolet (UV) light LEDs to make photoluminescence QD-LEDs. This new photoluminescence QD-LED, which is stable, environmentally non-toxic, easy to operate and low cost, could expand the applications of hydrophilic CdTe QDs in photoluminescence. PMID:26199049

  3. Transient dehydration of lungs in tail-suspended rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, A. R.; Steskal, J.; Morey-Holton, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    The fluid balance in the lungs of rats exposed to head-down tilt is examined. Six Munich-Wister rats were suspended for 7 days and 10 Sprague-Dawley rats for 14 days using the technique of Morey (1979). The water contents of the lungs of the suspended and a control group are calculated and compared. The data reveal that the two-days suspended rats had dehydrated lungs; however, the lungs of the 14-day suspended and control group rats were similar. It is noted that the dehydration in the 2-day suspended rats is caused by general dehydration not the head-tilt position.

  4. Formation of sulphate ion during the dehydration of sulphited vegetables.

    PubMed

    Wedzicha, B L; Herrera-Viloria, J C

    1991-01-01

    A reverse isotope dilution procedure was used to measure the formation of sulphate ion during the air dehydration of sulphited cabbage, carrot and potato at 80 degrees C. The conversion of sulphite to sulphate was found to be of first order with respect to sulphite. The formation of sulphate in the vegetables during dehydration accounts for only part of the sulphate in the dehydrated products; the remainder comes from the scald liquor. The technique for sulphate determination is critically evaluated and the observed yields discussed. PMID:1812014

  5. Renal tubular vasopressin receptors downregulated by dehydration

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, M.; Phillips, M.I. )

    1988-03-01

    Receptors for arginine vasopressin (AVP) were characterized in tubular epithelial basolateral membranes (BL membranes) prepared from the kidneys of male Spraque-Dawley rats. Association of ({sup 3}H)AVP was rapid, reversible, and specific. Saturation studies revealed a single class of saturable binding sites with a maximal binding (B{sub max}) of 184 {plus minus} 15 fmol/mg protein. The V{sub 2} receptor antagonist was more than 3,700 times as effective in displacing ({sup 3}H)AVP than was the V{sub 1} antagonist. To investigate the physiological regulation of vasopressin receptors, the effects of elevated levels of circulating AVP on receptor characteristics were studied. Seventy-two-hour water deprivation significantly elevated plasma osmolality and caused an 11.5-fold increase in plasma (AVP). Scatchard analysis revealed a 38% decreased in the number of AVP receptors on the BL membranes from dehydrated animals. The high-affinity binding sites on the BL membranes fit the pharmacological profile for adenylate cyclase-linked vasopressin receptors (V{sub 2}), which mediate the antidiuretic action of the hormone. The authors conclude that physiologically elevated levels of AVP can downregulate vasopressin receptors in the kidney.

  6. Effects of dehydration on performance in man: Annotated bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    A compilation of studies on the effect of dehydration on human performance and related physiological mechanisms. The annotations are listed in alphabetical order by first author and cover material through June 1973.

  7. 25. BUILDING NO. 527, DEHYDRATING HOUSE, DETAIL OF SOLVENT RECOVERY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. BUILDING NO. 527, DEHYDRATING HOUSE, DETAIL OF SOLVENT RECOVERY DUCTS. SOUTH SIDE OF BUILDING. - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  8. Survey of quality indicators in commercial dehydrated fruits.

    PubMed

    Megías-Pérez, Roberto; Gamboa-Santos, Juliana; Soria, Ana Cristina; Villamiel, Mar; Montilla, Antonia

    2014-05-01

    Physical and chemical quality parameters (dry matter, aw, protein, carbohydrates, vitamin C, 2-furoylmethyl amino acids, rehydration ratio and leaching loss) have been determined in 30 commercial dehydrated fruits (strawberry, blueberry, raspberry, cranberry, cherry, apple, grapefruit, mango, kiwifruit, pineapple, melon, coconut, banana and papaya). For comparison purposes, strawberry samples processed in the laboratory by freeze-drying and by convective drying were used as control samples. Overall quality of dehydrated fruits seemed to be greatly dependent on processing conditions and, in a cluster analysis, samples which were presumably subjected to osmotic dehydration were separated from the rest of fruits. These samples presented the lowest concentration of vitamin C and the highest evolution of Maillard reaction, as evidenced by its high concentration of 2-furoylmethyl amino acids. This is the first study on the usefulness of this combination of chemical and physical indicators to assess the overall quality of commercial dehydrated fruits. PMID:24360417

  9. NOVEL POLYMERIC MEMBRANE FOR DEHYDRATION OF ORGANIC SOLVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pervaporation has emerged as an economically viable alternative technology for dehydration of organic solvents, removal of organic compounds and organic/organic separations. Development of a membrane system with suitable flux and selectivity characteristics plays a critical role...

  10. Osmotic factors in restitution from thermal dehydration in rats.

    PubMed

    Nose, H; Yawata, T; Morimoto, T

    1985-08-01

    The degree of voluntary dehydration after thermal dehydration was assessed while supplying drinking water of varying NaCl concentrations. Adult male albino rats were exposed to a hot-dry environment (dry bulb temp 36 degrees C; relative humidity 20%) for 6-8 h, and dehydration of 7% body wt was induced. After dehydration the rats were divided into three groups, and distilled water and 0.45 or 0.9% NaCl solution was given ad libitum. The amount of fluid intake reached an equilibrium in 6-12 h; the 0.45 and 0.9% NaCl groups regained almost all lost water, whereas the distilled water group regained only half. During rehydration the 0.45 and 0.9% NaCl groups gained Na by approximately 430-650 mueq and lost K by 90-130 mueq, whereas the distilled water group lost Na slightly and K by 80 mueq/100 g body wt. As for the electrolyte balance during thermal dehydration, rats excreted Na and K into urine and saliva. Na loss was 200 mueq/100 g, almost all of which was derived from the interstitial space of skin and skeletal muscle, and K loss was 230 mueq/100 g, almost all of which was derived from intracellular space of skeletal muscle. Total cation loss (Na, K) during thermal dehydration, including K excretion during rehydration, was 510-560 mueq/100 g, which was almost identical to the Na gained by rats given 0.45 or 0.9% NaCl solution. These results suggest that voluntary dehydration is caused by the dilutional inhibition of drinking due to loss of electrolytes during thermal dehydration. PMID:4025574

  11. Dehydration of cyclohexanol as a test reaction for zeolite acidity

    SciTech Connect

    Karge, H.G.; Kosters, H.; Wada, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Dehydration of cyclohexanol was investigated using a fixed-bed continuous flow reactor with acidic mordenite-type, clinoptilolite-type, and faujasite-type (Y) zeolites as catalysts. The surface acidity of the catalysts employed was studied by IR using pyridine or 2,6-di-tert. butylpyridine as probe molecules. A correlation between the acidity and the rates of dehydration was clearly shown.

  12. Site Development, Operations, and Closure Plan Topical Report 5 An Assessment of Geologic Carbon Sequestration Options in the Illinois Basin. Phase III

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, Robert; Payne, William; Kirksey, Jim

    2015-06-01

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) has partnered with Archer Daniels Midland Company (ADM) and Schlumberger Carbon Services to conduct a large-volume, saline reservoir storage project at ADM’s agricultural products processing complex in Decatur, Illinois. The Development Phase project, named the Illinois Basin Decatur Project (IBDP) involves the injection of 1 million tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) into a deep saline formation of the Illinois Basin over a three-year period. This report focuses on objectives, execution, and lessons learned/unanticipated results from the site development (relating specifically to surface equipment), operations, and the site closure plan.

  13. Fructokinase activity mediates dehydration-induced renal injury.

    PubMed

    Roncal Jimenez, Carlos A; Ishimoto, Takuji; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Rivard, Christopher J; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Ejaz, A Ahsan; Cicerchi, Christina; Inaba, Shinichiro; Le, MyPhuong; Miyazaki, Makoto; Glaser, Jason; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; González, Marvin A; Aragón, Aurora; Wesseling, Catharina; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura G; Johnson, Richard J

    2014-08-01

    The epidemic of chronic kidney disease in Nicaragua (Mesoamerican nephropathy) has been linked with recurrent dehydration. Here we tested whether recurrent dehydration may cause renal injury by activation of the polyol pathway, resulting in the generation of endogenous fructose in the kidney that might subsequently induce renal injury via metabolism by fructokinase. Wild-type and fructokinase-deficient mice were subjected to recurrent heat-induced dehydration. One group of each genotype was provided water throughout the day and the other group was hydrated at night, after the dehydration. Both groups received the same total hydration in 24 h. Wild-type mice that received delayed hydration developed renal injury, with elevated serum creatinine, increased urinary NGAL, proximal tubular injury, and renal inflammation and fibrosis. This was associated with activation of the polyol pathway, with increased renal cortical sorbitol and fructose levels. Fructokinase-knockout mice with delayed hydration were protected from renal injury. Thus, recurrent dehydration can induce renal injury via a fructokinase-dependent mechanism, likely from the generation of endogenous fructose via the polyol pathway. Access to sufficient water during the dehydration period can protect mice from developing renal injury. These studies provide a potential mechanism for Mesoamerican nephropathy. PMID:24336030

  14. Kinetics of volatile extraction from carbonaceous chondrites: Dehydration of talc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, Kunal; Ganguly, Jibamitra

    1991-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites are believed to be the primary constituents of near-Earth asteroids and Phobos and Deimos, and are potential resources of fuels that may be exploited for future planetary missions. Calculations of equilibrium phase relations suggest that talc (Ta) and antigorite (Ant) are likely to be the major hydrous phases in the C1 and C2 meteorites (Ganguly and Saxena, 1989), which constitute the most volatile rich classes of carbonaceous chondrites. The dehydration kinetics of talc are studied as a function of temperature, grain size, composition and fluid fugacity, as part of a systematic study of the reaction kinetics of the volatile bearing phases that are either known or likely to be present in carbonaceous chondrites. The dehydration kinetics were investigated at 1 bar, 775 to 875 C by monitoring the in-situ weight loss as a function of time of a natural talc. The talc platelets had a dimension of 0.8 to 1 micron. The run durations varied from 233.3 hours at 775 C (48 percent dehydration) to 20.8 hours at 875 C (80 pct. dehydration). The results can be adequately represented by a given rate equation. Theoretical analysis suggests that the reduction in the concentration of H2O in the environment of dehydrating talc, as would be encountered in processing chondritic materials, will have negligible effect on the rate of dehydration, unless there is a change of reaction mechanism owing to the presence of other volatile species.

  15. Whole transcriptome organisation in the dehydrated supraoptic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Hindmarch, C C T; Franses, P; Goodwin, B; Murphy, D

    2013-12-01

    The supraoptic nucleus (SON) is part of the central osmotic circuitry that synthesises the hormone vasopressin (Avp) and transports it to terminals in the posterior lobe of the pituitary. Following osmotic stress such as dehydration, this tissue undergoes morphological, electrical and transcriptional changes to facilitate the appropriate regulation and release of Avp into the circulation where it conserves water at the level of the kidney. Here, the organisation of the whole transcriptome following dehydration is modelled to fit Zipf's law, a natural power law that holds true for all natural languages, that states if the frequency of word usage is plotted against its rank, then the log linear regression of this is -1. We have applied this model to our previously published euhydrated and dehydrated SON data to observe this trend and how it changes following dehydration. In accordance with other studies, our whole transcriptome data fit well with this model in the euhydrated SON microarrays, but interestingly, fit better in the dehydrated arrays. This trend was observed in a subset of differentially regulated genes and also following network reconstruction using a third-party database that mines public data. We make use of language as a metaphor that helps us philosophise about the role of the whole transcriptome in providing a suitable environment for the delivery of Avp following a survival threat like dehydration. PMID:24345907

  16. Seawater drinking restores water balance in dehydrated harp seals.

    PubMed

    How, Ole-Jakob; Nordøy, Erling S

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to answer the question of whether dehydrated harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) are able to obtain a net gain of water from the intake of seawater. Following 24 h of fasting, three subadult female harp seals were dehydrated by intravenous administration of the osmotic diuretic, mannitol. After another 24 h of fasting, the seals were given 1,000 ml seawater via a stomach tube. Urine and blood were collected for measurement of osmolality and osmolytes, while total body water (TBW) was determined by injections of tritiated water. In all seals, the maximum urinary concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) were higher than in seawater, reaching 540 and 620 mM, respectively, compared to 444 and 535 mM in seawater. In another experiment, the seals were given ad lib access to seawater for 48 h after mannitol-induced hyper-osmotic dehydration. In animals without access to seawater, the mean blood osmolality increased from 331 to 363 mOsm kg(-1) during dehydration. In contrast, the blood osmolality, hematocrit and TBW returned to normal when the seals were permitted ad lib access to seawater after dehydration. In conclusion, this study shows that harp seals have the capacity to gain net water from mariposa (voluntarily drinking seawater) and are able to restore water balance after profound dehydration by drinking seawater. PMID:17375309

  17. Lehmann discontinuity due to dehydration of phengite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, S.

    2007-12-01

    convective flow in the upper mantle and intersects the dehydration boundary of phengite, the released water migrates into the surrounding mantle rock and the sharp boundary between the anisotropic and the isotropic structure is formed at around 220 km depth, because water enhances the change in the deformation mechanism of olivine. The Lehmann discontinuity is likely to be related with this boundary corresponding to the change in the deformation mechanism. As this exists only in regions of stagnated sediment, the local detection of the discontinuity is consistent with the hypothesis of sediment dehydration. The most characteristic features of the Lehmann discontinuity, such as 220 km depth, negative seismological Clapeyron slope, local detection, seismic velocity jump, and the seismological anisotropic to isotropic transition can be reasonably explained by our new model [2]. [1] Ono (1998) J. Geophys. Res., 103, 18253-18267. [2] Ono (2007) The Open Mineralogy Journal, 1, 1-4.

  18. Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Norton, Anderson; Boyce, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has documented schemes and operations that undergird students' understanding of fractions. This prior research was based, in large part, on small-group teaching experiments. However, written assessments are needed in order for teachers and researchers to assess students' ways of operating on a whole-class scale. In this…

  19. Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Yarrowia lipolytica to Dehydration Induced by Air-Drying and Freezing

    PubMed Central

    Pénicaud, Caroline; Landaud, Sophie; Jamme, Frédéric; Talbot, Pauline; Bouix, Marielle; Ghorbal, Sarrah; Fonseca, Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    Organisms that can withstand anhydrobiosis possess the unique ability to temporarily and reversibly suspend their metabolism for the periods when they live in a dehydrated state. However, the mechanisms underlying the cell’s ability to tolerate dehydration are far from being fully understood. The objective of this study was to highlight, for the first time, the cellular damage to Yarrowia lipolytica as a result of dehydration induced by drying/rehydration and freezing/thawing. Cellular response was evaluated through cell cultivability determined by plate counts, esterase activity and membrane integrity assessed by flow cytometry, and the biochemical composition of cells as determined by FT-IR spectroscopy. The effects of the harvesting time (in the log or stationary phase) and of the addition of a protective molecule, trehalose, were investigated. All freshly harvested cells exhibited esterase activity and no alteration of membrane integrity. Cells freshly harvested in the stationary phase presented spectral contributions suggesting lower nucleic acid content and thicker cell walls, as well as longer lipid chains than cells harvested in the log phase. Moreover, it was found that drying/rehydration induced cell plasma membrane permeabilization, loss of esterase activity with concomitant protein denaturation, wall damage and oxidation of nucleic acids. Plasma membrane permeabilization and loss of esterase activity could be reduced by harvesting in the stationary phase and/or with trehalose addition. Protein denaturation and wall damage could be reduced by harvesting in the stationary phase. In addition, it was shown that measurements of loss of membrane integrity and preservation of esterase activity were suitable indicators of loss and preservation of cultivability, respectively. Conversely, no clear effect of freezing/thawing could be observed, probably because of the favorable operating conditions applied. These results give insights into Y. lipolytica

  20. Special topics--Mitigation of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from animal operations: III. A review of animal management mitigation options.

    PubMed

    Hristov, A N; Ott, T; Tricarico, J; Rotz, A; Waghorn, G; Adesogan, A; Dijkstra, J; Montes, F; Oh, J; Kebreab, E; Oosting, S J; Gerber, P J; Henderson, B; Makkar, H P S; Firkins, J L

    2013-11-01

    The goal of this review was to analyze published data on animal management practices that mitigate enteric methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from animal operations. Increasing animal productivity can be a very effective strategy for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit of livestock product. Improving the genetic potential of animals through planned cross-breeding or selection within breeds and achieving this genetic potential through proper nutrition and improvements in reproductive efficiency, animal health, and reproductive lifespan are effective approaches for improving animal productivity and reducing GHG emission intensity. In subsistence production systems, reduction of herd size would increase feed availability and productivity of individual animals and the total herd, thus lowering CH4 emission intensity. In these systems, improving the nutritive value of low-quality feeds for ruminant diets can have a considerable benefit on herd productivity while keeping the herd CH4 output constant or even decreasing it. Residual feed intake may be a tool for screening animals that are low CH4 emitters, but there is currently insufficient evidence that low residual feed intake animals have a lower CH4 yield per unit of feed intake or animal product. Reducing age at slaughter of finished cattle and the number of days that animals are on feed in the feedlot can significantly reduce GHG emissions in beef and other meat animal production systems. Improved animal health and reduced mortality and morbidity are expected to increase herd productivity and reduce GHG emission intensity in all livestock production systems. Pursuing a suite of intensive and extensive reproductive management technologies provides a significant opportunity to reduce GHG emissions. Recommended approaches will differ by region and species but should target increasing conception rates in dairy, beef, and buffalo, increasing fecundity in swine and small ruminants, and reducing

  1. Freshman Health Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovde, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article examines a cluster of health topics that are frequently selected by students in lower division classes. Topics address issues relating to addictive substances, including alcohol and tobacco, eating disorders, obesity, and dieting. Analysis of the topics examines their interrelationships and organization in the reference literature.…

  2. Ice Cloud Formation and Dehydration in the Tropical Tropopause Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Eric; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Stratospheric water vapor is important not only for its greenhouse forcing, but also because it plays a significant role in stratospheric chemistry. Several recent studies have focused on the potential for dehydration due to ice cloud formation in air rising slowly through the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). Holton and Gettelman showed that temperature variations associated with horizontal transport of air in the TTL can drive ice cloud formation and dehydration, and Gettelman et al. recently examined the cloud formation and dehydration along kinematic trajectories using simple assumptions about the cloud properties. In this study, a Lagrangian, one-dimensional cloud model has been used to further investigate cloud formation and dehydration as air is transported horizontally and vertically through the TTL. Time-height curtains of temperature are extracted from meteorological analyses. The model tracks the growth, advection, and sedimentation of individual cloud particles. The regional distribution of clouds simulated in the model is comparable to the subvisible cirrus distribution indicated by SAGE II. The simulated cloud properties and cloud frequencies depend strongly on the assumed supersaturation threshold for ice nucleation. The clouds typically do not dehydrate the air along trajectories down to the temperature minimum saturation mixing ratio. Rather the water vapor mixing ratio crossing the tropopause along trajectories is 10-50% larger than the saturation mixing ratio. I will also discuss the impacts of Kelvin waves and gravity waves on cloud properties and dehydration efficiency. These simulations can be used to determine whether observed lower stratospheric water vapor mixing ratios can be explained by dehydration associated with in situ TTL cloud formation alone.

  3. Implications of dehydration reactions on the earthquake mechanics and faulting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, J.; LECLÈRE, H.; Faulkner, D. R.; Mariani, E.

    2013-12-01

    Dehydration reactions are inferred to occur along subduction zones where rocks from the oceanic crust undergo a series of metamorphic reactions during their burial. Metamorphic dehydration reactions of hydrous minerals such as clays and serpentines have been suggested as a possible origin for intermediate depth earthquakes in subducting slabs. Indeed, fluid releasing and mechanical compaction of pores during dehydration reactions may induce fault instabilities. However, our understanding of the feedbacks between dehydration reaction, fluid flow properties and mechanical behavior is not yet integrated into a single unified model. In this study, we try to unravel the behavior of dehydration reactions from laboratory experiments conducted on gypsum with a triaxial deformation rigs under controlled temperature (30-140°C) and confining pressure (0-300 MPa). The aim of our set of experiments is to understand the coupling and feedbacks between the state of stress, the mechanical and hydraulic properties of gypsum and the metamorphic reactions. We monitor fluid expulsion, fluid pressure and strain evolution for a given confining pressure, differential stress and temperature during all experiments. In parallel, SEM observations and EBSD analyses are used to constrain reaction and deformation mechanisms occurring at grain scale during each experiment. These analyses conducted at grain scale allow us to discriminate the mechanism of deformation occurring in parallel of dehydration reaction and give information about the rheological laws and behavior of the material for the tested conditions. Llana Funez et al. (2012) focused on the link between fluid pressure and reaction rate. The samples, being porous, compacted, and in new work we examine that process in more detail. The results of laboratory experiments and microstructural analyses are then used to estimate the implications of dehydration reaction on earthquake mechanics and faulting in seismogenic geological contexts

  4. Using Wind and Temperature Fields to Study Dehydration Mechanisms in the Tropical Tropopause Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pittman, Jasna; Miller, Timothy; Robertson, Franklin

    2008-01-01

    The tropics are the main region for troposphere-to-stratosphere transport (TST) of air. One of the dominant mechanisms that control tropical TST of water vapor is freeze-drying by the cold tropical tropopause. This mechanism is supported by evidence from satellite observations of the "tape recorder", where seasonal changes in stratospheric water vapor are in phase with seasonal changes in tropopause temperatures in the tropics. Over the last few years, however, the concept of the tropical tropopause has evolved from a single material surface to a layer called the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL). A recent hypothesis on dehydration mechanisms suggests that dehydration and entry point into the stratosphere are not always co-located (Holton and Gettelman, 2001). Instead, dehydration can occur during horizontal advection through Lagrangian 'cold pools', or coldest regions along a parcel's trajectory, as air ascends within the TTL while the entry point into the stratosphere occurs at a different geographical location. In this study, we investigate the impact that these Lagrangian cold pools have on TTL moisture. For this purpose, we use in situ measurements of TTL water vapor obtained aboard NASA's WB-57 aircraft over the Eastern Tropical Pacific, and we compare these measurements to minimum saturation water vapor mixing ratios obtained from three-dimensional backward trajectory calculations. Aircraft measurements show frequent unsaturated conditions, which suggest that the entry value of stratospheric water vapor in this region was not set by local saturation conditions. Trajectory calculations, driven by both ECMWF operational analysis and reanalysis winds and temperature fields, are used to explore the impact (e.g., geographical location, timing, dehydration magnitude) of the Lagrangian cold pools intercepted by the parcels sampled by the aircraft. We find noteworthy differences in the location of the Lagrangian cold pools using the two ECMWF data sets, namely

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of calculated serum osmolarity to predict dehydration in older people: adding value to pathology laboratory reports

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, Lee; Abdelhamid, Asmaa; Ali, Adam; Bunn, Diane K; Jennings, Amy; John, W Garry; Kerry, Susan; Lindner, Gregor; Pfortmueller, Carmen A; Sjöstrand, Fredrik; Walsh, Neil P; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Potter, John F; Hunter, Paul R; Shepstone, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess which osmolarity equation best predicts directly measured serum/plasma osmolality and whether its use could add value to routine blood test results through screening for dehydration in older people. Design Diagnostic accuracy study. Participants Older people (≥65 years) in 5 cohorts: Dietary Strategies for Healthy Ageing in Europe (NU-AGE, living in the community), Dehydration Recognition In our Elders (DRIE, living in residential care), Fortes (admitted to acute medical care), Sjöstrand (emergency room) or Pfortmueller cohorts (hospitalised with liver cirrhosis). Reference standard for hydration status Directly measured serum/plasma osmolality: current dehydration (serum osmolality >300 mOsm/kg), impending/current dehydration (≥295 mOsm/kg). Index tests 39 osmolarity equations calculated using serum indices from the same blood draw as directly measured osmolality. Results Across 5 cohorts 595 older people were included, of whom 19% were dehydrated (directly measured osmolality >300 mOsm/kg). Of 39 osmolarity equations, 5 showed reasonable agreement with directly measured osmolality and 3 had good predictive accuracy in subgroups with diabetes and poor renal function. Two equations were characterised by narrower limits of agreement, low levels of differential bias and good diagnostic accuracy in receiver operating characteristic plots (areas under the curve >0.8). The best equation was osmolarity=1.86×(Na++ K+)+1.15×glucose+urea+14 (all measured in mmol/L). It appeared useful in people aged ≥65 years with and without diabetes, poor renal function, dehydration, in men and women, with a range of ages, health, cognitive and functional status. Conclusions Some commonly used osmolarity equations work poorly, and should not be used. Given costs and prevalence of dehydration in older people we suggest use of the best formula by pathology laboratories using a cutpoint of 295 mOsm/L (sensitivity 85%, specificity 59%), to report

  6. Dehydration and Cognition in Geriatrics: A Hydromolecular Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Sfera, Adonis; Cummings, Michael; Osorio, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Dehydration is one of the ten most frequent diagnoses responsible for the hospital admission of elderly in the United States. It is associated with increased mortality, morbidity and an estimated cost of 1.14 billion per year (Xiao et al., 2004; Schlanger et al., 2010; Pretorius et al., 2013; Frangeskou et al., 2015). Older individuals are predisposed to dehydration encephalopathy as a result of decreased total body water (TBW) and diminished sensation of thirst. We hypothesize that thirst blunting in older individuals is the result of a defective microRNA-6842-3p failing to silence the expression of the vesicular GABA transporters (VGAT) and alpha 7 cholinergic nicotinic receptors in the subfornical organ (SFO) of the hypothalamus. We hypothesize further that resultant dehydration facilitates protein misfolding and aggregation, predisposing to neurocognitive disorders. We completed a search of predicted microRNA targets, utilizing the public domain tool miRDB and found that microRNA-6842-3p modulates the SLC6A1 and CHRNA7 genes both of which were previously hypothesized to inhibit the thirst sensation by their action on SFO. The primary aim of this article is to answer two questions: Can prevention and correction of dehydration in elderly lower age-related cognitive deterioration? Can exosomal miR-6842 in the peripheral blood predict dehydration encephalopathy in elderly? PMID:27252943

  7. Dehydration and Cognition in Geriatrics: A Hydromolecular Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Sfera, Adonis; Cummings, Michael; Osorio, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Dehydration is one of the ten most frequent diagnoses responsible for the hospital admission of elderly in the United States. It is associated with increased mortality, morbidity and an estimated cost of 1.14 billion per year (Xiao et al., 2004; Schlanger et al., 2010; Pretorius et al., 2013; Frangeskou et al., 2015). Older individuals are predisposed to dehydration encephalopathy as a result of decreased total body water (TBW) and diminished sensation of thirst. We hypothesize that thirst blunting in older individuals is the result of a defective microRNA-6842-3p failing to silence the expression of the vesicular GABA transporters (VGAT) and alpha 7 cholinergic nicotinic receptors in the subfornical organ (SFO) of the hypothalamus. We hypothesize further that resultant dehydration facilitates protein misfolding and aggregation, predisposing to neurocognitive disorders. We completed a search of predicted microRNA targets, utilizing the public domain tool miRDB and found that microRNA-6842-3p modulates the SLC6A1 and CHRNA7 genes both of which were previously hypothesized to inhibit the thirst sensation by their action on SFO. The primary aim of this article is to answer two questions: Can prevention and correction of dehydration in elderly lower age-related cognitive deterioration? Can exosomal miR-6842 in the peripheral blood predict dehydration encephalopathy in elderly? PMID:27252943

  8. Topical cocaine for relief of mucosal pain.

    PubMed

    Newport, Kristina; Coyne, Patrick

    2010-06-01

    Painful mucosal lesions negatively affect quality of life. When located in the oral cavity, they can cause pain that interferes with speech and swallowing. Acute pain from intra-oral lesions is difficult to treat with conventional methods such as systemic opioids or viscous lidocaine. These cases exemplify a safe, fast and effective method for treating painful mouth lesions that are not responsive to standard treatments. Mr. D and Mr. G had from painful oral lesions caused by squamous cell carcinoma. Severe pain interfered with their ability to speak and swallow, resulting in poor nutrition and dehydration. 4% liquid cocaine, self-applied topically to the open mouth sores, resulted in relief within minutes in both cases. Repeated dosing every six hours allowed both patients to restart oral nutrition without any reported side effects. Topical cocaine has not been described for repeated dosing for oral or other mucosal pain. Potential side effects of mucosal administration include gingival recession and erythematous lesions. If the recommended topical doses are exceeded, liquid cocaine may be absorbed systemically causing a stimulant response or addiction. When used appropriately, however, this intervention can result in a dramatic improvement in quality of life and functional status. PMID:20504138

  9. Difference in dehydration condition and variation in amount of dehydration water: a possible origin of HIMU-FOZO-PREMA reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoda, G.; Kogiso, T.

    2015-12-01

    Isotopic composition of the ocean island basalts (OIB) are commonly explained by mixing of mantle reservoirs, such as depleted MORB mantle (DMM), HIMU (high-u: u = 238U/204Pb) EM1 (Enriched Mantle 1) and EM2. In addition, reservoirs whose isotopic compositions are common and intermediate has been pointed out, such as, FOZO (Focal Zone) and PREMA (Prevalent Mantle). Although these intermediate reservoirs have been used to describe the isotopic distribution of OIB, geochemical relationship between the intermediate and conventional reservoirs are still ambiguous. To elucidate the relationship, geochemical modeling has been conducted that focuses on origin of HIMU, FOZO, and PREMA. Our model includes magma differentiation process at mid-ocean ridges and variable dehydration conditions at subduction zones. The effect of magma differentiation process at a mid-ocean ridge was estimated by comparing the chemical composition of common and differentiated MORBs, which are determined based on the magnesium number of MORB. The variation in dehydration conditions are examined with different amount of water of dehydration with partition coefficients of aqueous and supercritical fluids reported by Kessel et al. (2005). The results suggest that the common MORBs without subduction modification could evolve to have isotopic signatures of PREMA after ca. 1-2 Ga since they are recycled back into the mantle, suggesting the importance of recycling of "dry" MORBs. In contrast, intensively dehydrated common MORBs can produce the FOZO isotopic signatures. Thus, variation in amount of dehydration water could be responsible for the FOZO-PREMA isotopic array. For the production of HIMU isotopic signature, additional conditions may be required, i.e., prolonged dehydration from sub-arc to sub-backarc. Difference in dehydration pressure could induce chemical fractionation between Pb, Th and U. We also found that only the strongly dehydrated differentiated MORBs can produce extreme HIMU isotopic

  10. Effects of fixation, dehydration and staining on dimensions of myxosporidan.

    PubMed

    Parker, J D; Warner, M C

    1970-10-01

    The effects of fixation, dehydration and staining on the morphological dimensions of myxo- and microsporidan spores were tested. Seven fixatives, two dehydrants and five stains were tested. Ten % formalin produced the least shrinkage and provided the best cytological detail of fixed material in both types of spores. All fixatives caused shrinkage of myxosporidan spore length and polar capsule length. Spore capsule width and polar capsule width were unaffected by 10% formalin. Ethyl alcohol caused no significant change in spore width. Microsporidan spore length shrunk with all fixatives, but spore width was generally unaffected. Dehydration, with either isopropyl alcohol or acetone, produced additional, significant shrinkage. The influence of stains on spore size was negligible. Heidenhains iron hematoxylin followed by eosin, and Mallory's analine-blue collagen stain, effectively stained myxo- and microsporidan spores. PMID:16512155

  11. Dehydration of glycerol over niobia-supported silicotungstic acid catalysts.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Yi; Ok, Hye Jeong; Moon, Dong Ju; Kim, Jong Ho; Park, Nam Cook; Kim, Young Chul

    2013-01-01

    Liquid-phase dehydration of glycerol to acrolein over nanosized niobia-supported silicotungstic acid catalysts was performed to investigate the effect of the silicotungstic acid loading on the catalytic performance of the catalysts. The catalysts were prepared by following an impregnation method with different HSiW loadings in the range of 10-50 wt%. The prepared catalysts were characterized by N2 physisorption, XRD, FT-IR, TPD of ammonia, and TGA. Dehydration of glycerol was conducted in an autoclave reactor under the conditions of controlled reaction temperatures under corresponding pressure. Increasing HSiW loading rapidly increased the acidity of HSiW/Nb205 catalyst and rate of glycerol conversion, but acrolein selectivity decreased due to enhanced deactivation of the catalyst by carbon deposit. Consequently, it was confirmed that catalytic activity for the dehydration of glycerol to acrolein was dependant on the acidity of catalyst and can be controlled by HSiW loading. PMID:23646735

  12. Isothermal dehydration of thin films of water and sugar solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyd, R.; Rampino, A.; Bellich, B.; Elisei, E.; Cesàro, A.; Saboungi, M.-L.

    2014-03-01

    The process of quasi-isothermal dehydration of thin films of pure water and aqueous sugar solutions is investigated with a dual experimental and theoretical approach. A nanoporous paper disk with a homogeneous internal structure was used as a substrate. This experimental set-up makes it possible to gather thermodynamic data under well-defined conditions, develop a numerical model, and extract needed information about the dehydration process, in particular the water activity. It is found that the temperature evolution of the pure water film is not strictly isothermal during the drying process, possibly due to the influence of water diffusion through the cellulose web of the substrate. The role of sugar is clearly detectable and its influence on the dehydration process can be identified. At the end of the drying process, trehalose molecules slow down the diffusion of water molecules through the substrate in a more pronounced way than do the glucose molecules.

  13. Isothermal dehydration of thin films of water and sugar solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Heyd, R.; Rampino, A.; Bellich, B.; Elisei, E.; Cesàro, A.; Saboungi, M.-L.

    2014-03-28

    The process of quasi-isothermal dehydration of thin films of pure water and aqueous sugar solutions is investigated with a dual experimental and theoretical approach. A nanoporous paper disk with a homogeneous internal structure was used as a substrate. This experimental set-up makes it possible to gather thermodynamic data under well-defined conditions, develop a numerical model, and extract needed information about the dehydration process, in particular the water activity. It is found that the temperature evolution of the pure water film is not strictly isothermal during the drying process, possibly due to the influence of water diffusion through the cellulose web of the substrate. The role of sugar is clearly detectable and its influence on the dehydration process can be identified. At the end of the drying process, trehalose molecules slow down the diffusion of water molecules through the substrate in a more pronounced way than do the glucose molecules.

  14. Ice Cloud Formation and Dehydration in the Tropical Tropopause Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Eric; Pfister, Leonhard; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Stratospheric water vapor is important not only for its greenhouse forcing, but also because it plays a significant role in stratospheric chemistry. several recent studies have focused on the potential for dehydration due to ice cloud formation in air rising slowly through the tropical tropopause layer. Holton and Gettelman showed that temperature variations associated with horizontal transport of air in the tropopause layer can drive ice cloud formation and dehydration, and Gettelman et al. recently examined the cloud formation and dehydration along kinematic trajectories using simple assumptions about the cloud properties. In this study, we use a Lagrangian, one-dimensional cloud model to further investigate cloud formation and dehydration as air is transported horizontally and vertically through the tropical tropopause layer. Time-height curtains of temperature are extracted from meteorological analyses. The model tracks the growth and sedimentation of individual cloud particles. The regional distribution of clouds simulated in the model is comparable to the subvisible cirrus distribution indicated by SAGE II. The simulated cloud properties depend strongly on the assumed ice supersaturation threshold for ice nucleation. with effective nuclei present (low supersaturation threshold), ice number densities are high (0.1--10 cm(circumflex)-3), and ice crystals do not grow large enough to fall very far, resulting in limited dehydration. With higher supersaturation thresholds, ice number densities are much lower (less than 0.01 cm(circumflex)-3), and ice crystals grow large enough to fall substantially; however, supersaturated air often crosses the tropopause without cloud formation. The clouds typically do not dehydrate the air along trajectories down to the temperature minimum saturation mixing ratio. Rather the water vapor mixing ratio crossing the tropopause along trajectories is typically 10-50% larger than the saturation mixing ratio.

  15. Ductile Deformation of Dehydrating Serpentinite Evidenced by Acoustic Signal Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasc, J.; Hilairet, N.; Wang, Y.; Schubnel, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    Serpentinite dehydration is believed to be responsible for triggering earthquakes at intermediate depths (i.e., 60-300 km) in subduction zones. Based on experimental results, some authors have proposed mechanisms that explain how brittle deformation can occur despite high pressure and temperature conditions [1]. However, reproducing microseismicity in the laboratory associated with the deformation of dehydrating serpentinite remains challenging. A recent study showed that, even for fast dehydration kinetics, ductile deformation could take place rather than brittle faulting in the sample [2]. This latter study was conducted in a multi-anvil apparatus without the ability to control differential stress during dehydration. We have since conducted controlled deformation experiments in the deformation-DIA (D-DIA) on natural serpentinite samples at sector 13 (GSECARS) of the APS. Monochromatic radiation was used with both a 2D MAR-CCD detector and a CCD camera to determine the stress and the strain of the sample during the deformation process [3]. In addition, an Acoustic Emission (AE) recording setup was used to monitor the microseismicity from the sample, using piezo-ceramic transducers glued on the basal truncation of the anvils. The use of six independent transducers allows locating the AEs and calculating the corresponding focal mechanisms. The samples were deformed at strain rates of 10-5-10-4 s-1 under confining pressures of 3-5 GPa. Dehydration was triggered during the deformation by heating the samples at rates ranging from 5 to 60 K/min. Before the onset of the dehydration, X-ray diffraction data showed that the serpentinite sustained ~1 GPa of stress which plummeted when dehydration occurred. Although AEs were recorded during the compression and decompression stages, no AEs ever accompanied this stress drop, suggesting ductile deformation of the samples. Hence, unlike many previous studies, no evidence for fluid embrittlement and anticrack generation was found

  16. The solvent-free thermal dehydration of tetritols on zeolites.

    PubMed

    Kurszewska, M; Skorupa, E; Kasprzykowska, R; Sowiński, P; Wiśniewski, A

    2000-06-30

    A new alditol dehydration method at high temperatures, in the presence of molecular sieves without solvent in an argon atmosphere, is described. Investigations on tetritols have been carried out. Products arising after the intramolecular and intermolecular elimination of water, with retention or inversion of the configuration of asymmetric carbon atoms, were observed. Complete analytical separation of reaction products was achieved by means of GLC. The chemical structures of the compounds obtained were assigned using co-injection with standards, GLC-CIMS and GLC-EIMS analyses. Two intermolecular dehydration products of tetritols were isolated by HPLC and identified by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. PMID:10890272

  17. Process and apparatus for dehydrating waste solids concentrates

    SciTech Connect

    Bonanno, A.J.; Greenfield, C.

    1983-03-22

    An apparatus and process for dehydrating waste solids concentrates including secondary and digested sewage sludges and those concentrates prone to form emulsions upon the addition of oil are obtained and accomplished by mixing the sludge or other concentrate with fluidizing oil prior to dehydration by heat evaporation to maintain pumpability; recycling a portion of the substantially anhydrous waste solids and oil evaporator output slurry, and admixing it with the fluidizing oil and input sludge or concentrate to regulate the solids content and viscosity of the steady state feed mixture and thereby prevent fouling of the evaporator heat transfer surfaces and convert emulsions to suspensions.

  18. EPR study on gamma-irradiated fruits dehydrated via osmosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yordanov, N. D.; Aleksieva, K.

    2007-06-01

    The shape and time stability of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of non- and γ-irradiated papaya, melon, cherry and fig samples dehydrated via osmosis are reported. It is shown that non-irradiated samples are generally EPR silent whereas γ-irradiated exhibit "sugar-like" EPR spectra. The recorded EPR spectra are monitored for a period of 7 months after irradiation (stored at low humidity and in the dark). The results suggest longer period of unambiguous identification of the radiation processing of osmose dehydrated fruits. Therefore, the Protocol EN 13708,2001 issued by CEN is fully applicable for the studied fruit samples.

  19. PREFACE: CEWQO Topical Issue CEWQO Topical Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozic, Mirjana; Man'ko, Margarita

    2009-09-01

    by Adam et al. In the paper by V Man'ko et al the diagonal representation of the density operator (usually called P-function of Glauber-Sudarshan) is related to the star-product quantization method and to the tomographic-probability representation of quantum states. Laskowski et al suggest an elegant geometrical criterion for the separability, which is based on the local correlation measurements readily available in the laboratory. Mizrahi describes a method to derive the Pauli-Schrödinger equation starting from a simple model of a qubit carried by a massive particle. By analyzing unavoidable quantum losses as they appear in neutron phase-echo and spin rotation experiments, Rauch concludes that basic quantum irreversibility exists in neutron interferometry. Rauch also shows how entanglement effects in a single particle system demonstrate quantum contextuality, and then argues that a quantum system carries much more information than is usually extracted. Kupczynski advocates various statistical tests which could be used to search for a fine structure in experimental data in order to answer the question: is quantum theory predictably complete? For an ion confined within a Paul trap, Mihalcea constructs an invariant operator based on the Lews and Riesenfeld approach and determines the spectrum of the quasienergy operator. Popov et al construct pair-coherent states of the Barut-Girardello kind for two noninteracting subsystems of pseudoharmonic oscillators and examine their statistical properties in different regions of parameters. The property of entanglement, considered to be the most intriguing property of composite quantum systems, has been an important research subject in recent years. It is considered to be a possible resource for quantum computation and communication. Therefore, a substantial number of papers in this topical issue is devoted to entanglement. Leon et al write that two-photon emission from two atoms initially excited in a common electromagnetic

  20. Salicylic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Propa pH® Peel-Off Acne Mask ... pimples and skin blemishes in people who have acne. Topical salicylic acid is also used to treat ... medications called keratolytic agents. Topical salicylic acid treats acne by reducing swelling and redness and unplugging blocked ...

  1. Health Topic XML File Description

    MedlinePlus

    ... has its own topic> element. This topic title is the value of the element. The attributes ... topic pages and other pages. Example: topic title="Abdominal Pain" url="https://www.nlm.nih.gov/ ...

  2. Finding scientific topics

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Thomas L.; Steyvers, Mark

    2004-01-01

    A first step in identifying the content of a document is determining which topics that document addresses. We describe a generative model for documents, introduced by Blei, Ng, and Jordan [Blei, D. M., Ng, A. Y. & Jordan, M. I. (2003) J. Machine Learn. Res. 3, 993-1022], in which each document is generated by choosing a distribution over topics and then choosing each word in the document from a topic selected according to this distribution. We then present a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm for inference in this model. We use this algorithm to analyze abstracts from PNAS by using Bayesian model selection to establish the number of topics. We show that the extracted topics capture meaningful structure in the data, consistent with the class designations provided by the authors of the articles, and outline further applications of this analysis, including identifying “hot topics” by examining temporal dynamics and tagging abstracts to illustrate semantic content. PMID:14872004

  3. DEHYDRATION OF ALCOHOLS VIA PREVAPORATION USING A NOVEL HYDROPHILIC MEMBRANE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pervaporation has emerged as an economically viable alternative technology for the dehydration of organic solvents, removal of organic compounds from water and organic/organic separations. Development of a suitable membrane system with high flux and high selectivity plays a criti...

  4. DEHYDRATION OF ALCOHOLS VIA PERVAPORATION USING A NOVEL HYDROHILIC MEMBRANE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pervaporation has emerged as an economically viable alternative technology for the dehydration of organic solvents, removal of organic compounds from water and organic/organic separations. Development of a suitable membrane system with high flux and high selectivity plays a criti...

  5. Study of wound dressing structure and hydration/dehydration properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugão, A. B.; Machado, L. D. B.; Miranda, L. F.; Alvarez, M. R.; Rosiak, J. M.

    1998-06-01

    Hydrogels manufactured by radio-induced crosslinking and simultaneous sterilisation of hydrogels of PVP, PEG and agar, according to the Rosiak method, have many desirable properties for using as wound dressings. However, some properties need to be improved or better controlled. The membranes need to be strong enough to be freely used. Another important property to be controlled is the capacity of absorption of exudate and the kinetics of drying. Therefore, it was necessary to understand the role of main parameters (agar, PVP, PEG concentration and dose) in the structure of the net and in the hydration and dehydration properties. The structure of the membranes was studied by sol analysis and the hydrating/dehydrating properties were studied by isothermal thermogravimetric analysis. The gel content for all samples were always in agreement with expected values considering that only PVP undergoes crosslinking. The hydrating and dehydration results did not show variation with the tested parameters. It was concluded that the network was solely composed of crosslinked PVP plasticezed by the other compounds. The properties of hydration/dehydration is related rather to diffusion than to capillarity or osmose and to the chemical retention of water in the polymeric matrix.

  6. Science Study Aids 1: Dehydration for Food Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeschen, John; And Others

    This publication is the first of a series of seven supplementary investigative materials for use in secondary science classes providing up-to-date research-related investigations. This unit is structured for grades 9 through 12. It is concerned with the osmatic dehydration of fruits. The guide provides students with information about food…

  7. Increased efficiency using the encapsulation-dehydration cryopreservation technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arabidopsis thaliana shoot tips were successfully cryopreserved using encapsulation-dehydration cryopreservation methods. Between one and seven shoot tips were encapsulated within 4 mm calcium-alginate beads. Beads were formed in the presence of 2 M glycerol+0.4M sucrose. The time required to mak...

  8. POULTRY EXCRETA DEHYDRATION AND UTILIZATION: SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A manure handling and drying system involving caged layers with daily manure collection, air drying, and dehydration in a flash-type dryer has been studied. Objectives of the study were to: (1) Develop a complete manure handling system to maximize pollution control; (2) determine...

  9. Diagnosis of Pneumonia in Children with Dehydrating Diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Ronan, Anne; Khan, Wasif Ali; Salam, Mohammed Abdus

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for diagnosis of pneumonia are based on the history of cough or difficult breathing and age-adjusted respiration rates. Metabolic acidosis associated with dehydrating diarrhoea also influences the respiration rate. Two hundred and four children, aged 2 to 59 months, with dehydrating diarrhoea and a history of cough and/or fast breathing, were enrolled in a prospective study. Pneumonia diagnoses were made on enrollment and again 6 hours post-enrollment (after initial rehydration), using the WHO guidelines. These were compared with investigators’ clinical diagnosis based on history and findings of physical examination and a chest x-ray at the same time points. Using the WHO guidelines, 149/152 (98%) infants in the 2-11 months age-group and 38/40 (95%) children in the 12-59 months age-group were diagnosed to have pneumonia on enrollment, which dropped to 107 (70%) and 30 (75%) respectively at 6 hours post-enrollment. The specificity of the WHO guidelines for diagnosis of pneumonia was very low (6.9%) at enrollment but increased to 65.5% at 6 hours post-enrollment, after initial rehydration. The specificity of the WHO guidelines for diagnosis of pneumonia in young children is significantly reduced in dehydrating diarrhoea. For young children with dehydrating diarrhoea, rehydration, clinical and radiological assessments are useful in identifying those with true pneumonia. PMID:24847588

  10. Slab dehydration and deep water recycling through time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magni, Valentina; Bouilhol, Pierre; van Hunen, Jeroen

    2015-04-01

    The fate of water in subduction zones is a key feature that influences the magmatism of the arcs, the rheology of the mantle, and the recycling of volatiles. We investigate the dehydration processes in subduction zones and their implications for the water cycle throughout Earth's history. We use a numerical tool that combines thermo-mechanical models with a thermodynamic database to examine slab dehydration for present-day and early Earth settings and its consequences for the deep water recycling. We investigate the reactions responsible for releasing water from the crust and the hydrated lithospheric mantle and how they change with subduction velocity, slab age, and mantle potential temperature. Our results show that faster slabs dehydrate over a wide area: they start dehydrating shallower and they carry water deeper into the mantle. A hotter mantle (i.e., early Earth setting) drives the onset of crustal dehydration slightly shallower, but, mostly, dehydration reactions are very similar to those occurring in present-day setting. However, for very fast slabs and very hot mantle epidote is involved as a dehydrating crustal phase. Moreover, we provide a scaling law to estimate the amount of water that can be carried deep into the mantle. We generally observe that a 1) 100°C increase in the mantle temperature, or 2) ~15 Myr decrease of plate age, or 3) decrease in subduction velocity of ~2 cm/yr all have the same effect on the amount of water retained in the slab at depth, corresponding to a decrease of ~2.2x105 kg/m2 of H2O. We estimate that for present-day conditions ~26% of the global influx water, or 7x108 Tg/Myr of H2O, is recycled into the mantle. Using a realistic distribution of subduction parameters, we illustrate that deep water recycling might still be possible in early Earth conditions, although its efficiency would generally decrease. Indeed, 0.5-3.7x108 Tg/Myr of H2O could still be recycled in the mantle at 2.8 Ga.

  11. Topical diclofenac solution.

    PubMed

    Moen, Marit D

    2009-01-01

    Topical diclofenac solution (Pennsaid) is a liquid formulation containing the NSAID diclofenac sodium (1.5% w/w). The solution base contains 45% w/w dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to enhance the absorption of diclofenac through the skin. Topical diclofenac solution is applied directly to the knee for treatment of symptoms associated with osteoarthritis of the knee. In well designed 4- to 12-week trials in patients with primary osteoarthritis of the knee, topical diclofenac solution (40 drops four times daily) was significantly more effective than placebo or vehicle control (carrier solution without diclofenac) for improving Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Osteoarthritis Index pain and physical function, and improving patient global assessment (PGA) and/or patient overall health assessment scores from baseline to the final assessments. Topical diclofenac solution (50 drops three times daily) was as effective as oral diclofenac 150 mg/day for improving WOMAC pain and physical function and PGA scores in a 12-week double-blind study in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Topical diclofenac solution was generally well tolerated. The most common treatment-emergent adverse event experienced by topical diclofenac solution recipients was dry skin at the application site. Gastrointestinal adverse events and abnormal laboratory parameters were less common with topical diclofenac solution than with oral diclofenac. PMID:19943711

  12. 40 CFR 407.50 - Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... dehydrated potato products subcategory. 407.50 Section 407.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Dehydrated Potato Products Subcategory § 407.50 Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  13. 40 CFR 407.50 - Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... dehydrated potato products subcategory. 407.50 Section 407.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Dehydrated Potato Products Subcategory § 407.50 Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  14. 40 CFR 407.50 - Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... dehydrated potato products subcategory. 407.50 Section 407.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Dehydrated Potato Products Subcategory § 407.50 Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  15. 40 CFR 407.50 - Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... dehydrated potato products subcategory. 407.50 Section 407.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Dehydrated Potato Products Subcategory § 407.50 Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  16. 40 CFR 407.50 - Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... dehydrated potato products subcategory. 407.50 Section 407.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Dehydrated Potato Products Subcategory § 407.50 Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1275 - Glycol dehydration unit process vent standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Glycol dehydration unit process vent... Storage Facilities § 63.1275 Glycol dehydration unit process vent standards. (a) This section applies to each glycol dehydration unit subject to this subpart that must be controlled for air emissions...

  18. 40 CFR 63.765 - Glycol dehydration unit process vent standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Glycol dehydration unit process vent... Facilities § 63.765 Glycol dehydration unit process vent standards. (a) This section applies to each glycol dehydration unit subject to this subpart with an actual annual average natural gas flowrate equal to...

  19. 40 CFR 63.1275 - Glycol dehydration unit process vent standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Glycol dehydration unit process vent... Storage Facilities § 63.1275 Glycol dehydration unit process vent standards. (a) This section applies to each glycol dehydration unit subject to this subpart that must be controlled for air emissions...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1275 - Glycol dehydration unit process vent standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Glycol dehydration unit process vent... Facilities § 63.1275 Glycol dehydration unit process vent standards. (a) This section applies to each glycol dehydration unit subject to this subpart with an actual annual average natural gas flowrate equal to...

  1. 40 CFR 63.765 - Glycol dehydration unit process vent standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Glycol dehydration unit process vent... Facilities § 63.765 Glycol dehydration unit process vent standards. (a) This section applies to each glycol dehydration unit subject to this subpart that must be controlled for air emissions as specified in...

  2. 40 CFR 63.765 - Glycol dehydration unit process vent standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Glycol dehydration unit process vent... Facilities § 63.765 Glycol dehydration unit process vent standards. (a) This section applies to each glycol dehydration unit subject to this subpart that must be controlled for air emissions as specified in...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1275 - Glycol dehydration unit process vent standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Glycol dehydration unit process vent... Facilities § 63.1275 Glycol dehydration unit process vent standards. (a) This section applies to each glycol dehydration unit subject to this subpart with an actual annual average natural gas flowrate equal to...

  4. 40 CFR 63.1275 - Glycol dehydration unit process vent standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Glycol dehydration unit process vent... Facilities § 63.1275 Glycol dehydration unit process vent standards. (a) This section applies to each glycol dehydration unit subject to this subpart with an actual annual average natural gas flowrate equal to...

  5. Reversion and dehydration reactions of glucose during the dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis of cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Helm, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The inaccessibility of all glycosidic bonds necessitates industrial conversion schemes which employ a dilute acid catalyst at high temperatures. Process conditions also promote further reactions of glucose via the reversion and dehydration pathways. Quantitative determination of the yields of the major reversion and dehydration products is important for understanding and predicting the amounts of these materials expected under envisioned industrial operating conditions. Microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel) was hydrolyzed with sulfuric acid (0.0-1.25 wt.%), at high temperatures (160-250/sup 0/C), and at a 3:1 liquid-to-solid ratio. The hydrolysis was monitored by evaluating the amount of cellulose remaining and the yields of glucose, solid humin, levulinic acid, formic acid, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), and reversion products as a function of the aforementioned reaction conditions. Analysis of the reversion products required the development of a technique for the quantitation of trace carbohydrates in complex mixtures and led to the development of a reduction/permethylation gas chromatographic procedure. Cellulose hydrolysis followed pseudo-homogeneous first-order kinetics. Glucose yield was adequately described as consecutive first-order reactions. Anhydrosugars formed via reversion followed equilibrium reaction kinetics whereas the disaccharides did not. Total reversion product yields approached 10% at 250/sup 0/C. Quantitative determination of the major dehydration products provided important information concerning the destruction of glucose. HMF was produced in up to 12% yields based on the theoretical amount of glucose available, and furfural was detected in up to 5% yields. A carbon mass balance based on the determined product yields revealed that approximately 90% of all carbon was accounted for at maximum glucose yields.

  6. Women's Health Topics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Women's Health 10903 New Hampshire Avenue WO32-2333 Silver Spring, MD 20993 More in Women's Health Topics ... Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 1-888-INFO-FDA (1- ...

  7. Diclofenac Topical (osteoarthritis pain)

    MedlinePlus

    ... growths on the skin caused by too much sun exposure). This monograph only gives information about diclofenac gel ( ... you should know that you should not apply sunscreens, cosmetics, lotions, moisturizers, insect repellents, or other topical ...

  8. TOPICAL TREATMENT OF MELASMA

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata

    2009-01-01

    Melasma is a common hypermelanotic disorder affecting the face that is associated with considerable psychological impacts. The management of melasma is challenging and requires a long-term treatment plan. In addition to avoidance of aggravating factors like oral pills and ultraviolet exposure, topical therapy has remained the mainstay of treatment. Multiple options for topical treatment are available, of which hydroquinone (HQ) is the most commonly prescribed agent. Besides HQ, other topical agents for which varying degrees of evidence for clinical efficacy exist include azelaic acid, kojic acid, retinoids, topical steroids, glycolic acid, mequinol, and arbutin. Topical medications modify various stages of melanogenesis, the most common mode of action being inhibition of the enzyme, tyrosinase. Combination therapy is the preferred mode of treatment for the synergism and reduction of untoward effects. The most popular combination consists of HQ, a topical steroid, and retinoic acid. Prolonged HQ usage may lead to untoward effects like depigmentation and exogenous ochronosis. The search for safer alternatives has given rise to the development of many newer agents, several of them from natural sources. Well-designed controlled clinical trials are needed to clarify their role in the routine management of melasma. PMID:20101327

  9. Hydrothermal Dehydration of Aqueous Fructose Solutions in a Closed System

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Chunhua; Shin, Yongsoon; Wang, Li Q.; Windisch, Charles F.; Samuels, William D.; Arey, Bruce W.; Wang, Chong M.; Risen Jr., William M.; Exarhos, Gregory J.

    2007-10-25

    The synthesis of materials with targeted size and shape has attracted much attention. Specifically, colloidal spheres with targeted and uniform sizes have opened the door for a variety of applications associated with drug delivery, and manipulation of light (photonic band-gap crystals). Surface modification is a key to realizing many of these applications owing to the inherent inert surface.The remarkable transformation of carbohydrate molecules including sugars to homogeneous carbon spheres is found to readily occur by a dehydration mechanism and subsequent sequestering in aqueous solutions that are heated at 160-180oC in a pressurized vessel. Under such conditions, these molecules actually dehydrate even though they are dissolved in water. Size-tunable metal and metal oxides with uniform shells have also been prepared by using carbon spheres as templates.

  10. Dehydration and oxidation of cellulose hydrolysis products in acidic solution

    SciTech Connect

    Garves, K.

    1981-01-01

    The dehydration of cotton cellulose in aqueous solutions in the presence of Ac/sub 2/O, AcOH, HCl, H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ or HBr proceeded by hydrolysis to carbohydrates with acetate groups, followed by conversion to 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (I) and then, to levulinic acid (II) accompanied by humic acids. For the formation of I, HCl was a more efficient and selective catalyst than H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, and the formation of II was promoted by high acid and H/sub 2/O concentrations in the medium. The addition of FeCl/sub 3/ to the dehydration mixture with HCl and continuous distillation led to the isolation of furfural.

  11. Methods for dehydration of sugars and sugar alcohols

    DOEpatents

    Holladay, Johnathan E [Kennewick, WA; Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Zhang, Xinjie [Burlington, MA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2010-08-10

    The invention includes a method of dehydration of a sugar using a dehydration catalyst and a co-catalyst within a reactor. A sugar is introduced and H.sub.2 is flowed through the reactor at a pressure of less than or equal to about 300 psig to convert at least some of the sugar into an anhydrosugar product. The invention includes a process for producing isosorbide. A starting material comprising sorbitol is flowed into a reactor. H.sub.2 is counter flowed through the reactor. The starting material is exposed to a catalyst in the presence of a co-catalyst which comprises at least one metal. The exposing is conducted at a hydrogen pressure of less than or equal to 300 psig within the reactor and the hydrogen removes at least some of any water present during the exposing and inhibits formation of colored byproducts.

  12. Hydration and dehydration of zeolitic tuff from Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Kranz, R.L.; Bish, D.L.; Blacic, J.D. )

    1989-10-01

    Naturally occurring zeolites expand and contract when hydrated or dehydrated. In tuffaceous rock composed largely of such zeolites, the entire rock may swell or contract significantly as the rock becomes saturated or dries out. If such rock is constrained, significant stresses may develop as a result of hydration or dehydration. We present experimental results that substantiates this. In a zeolitized, non-welded tuff from Yucca Mountain, NV, rock permeability governs the swelling rate since the major constituent, clinoptilolite, hydrates as fast as it can be exposed to water. At Yucca Mountain, where a nuclear waste repository is proposed, strata of welded, devitrified tuff overlie non-welded, zeolitic tuff. Should the hydration state of the units change significantly over the repository lifetime, additional stresses on the same order of magnitude as now exist may develop. {copyright} American Geophysical Union 1989

  13. Improvements in the order, isotropy and electron density of glypican-1 crystals by controlled dehydration

    SciTech Connect

    Awad, Wael; Svensson Birkedal, Gabriel; Thunnissen, Marjolein M. G. M.; Mani, Katrin; Logan, Derek T.

    2013-12-01

    The anisotropy of crystals of glypican-1 was significantly reduced by controlled dehydration using the HC1 device, allowing the building of previously disordered parts of the structure. The use of controlled dehydration for improvement of protein crystal diffraction quality is increasing in popularity, although there are still relatively few documented examples of success. A study has been carried out to establish whether controlled dehydration could be used to improve the anisotropy of crystals of the core protein of the human proteoglycan glypican-1. Crystals were subjected to controlled dehydration using the HC1 device. The optimal protocol for dehydration was developed by careful investigation of the following parameters: dehydration rate, final relative humidity and total incubation time T{sub inc}. Of these, the most important was shown to be T{sub inc}. After dehydration using the optimal protocol the crystals showed significantly reduced anisotropy and improved electron density, allowing the building of previously disordered parts of the structure.

  14. IP Internal Movement and Topicalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Pei-Jung

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation, I investigate the phenomenon of internal topicalization cross-linguistically, using Chinese as a starting point. Internal topicalization refers to constructions in which a topic phrase is placed between the subject and the verb (in contrast to external topicalization, which involves a topic in the CP domain). I argue that…

  15. Metabolic Acidosis Without Clinical Signs of Dehydration in Young Calves

    PubMed Central

    Kasari, T. R.; Naylor, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis without clinical signs of dehydration was diagnosed in four calves between nine and 21 days of age. In each calf either coma or depression with weakness and ataxia was observed. Two calves had slow deep respirations. Treatment with intravenous administration of solutions of sodium bicarbonate was accompanied by a rise in blood pH and a return to normal demeanor, ambulation and appetites, allowing these calves to return to their respective herds. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:17422463

  16. Dehydration-induced porosity waves and episodic tremor and slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skarbek, Rob M.; Rempel, Alan W.

    2016-02-01

    Episodic tremor and slip (ETS) along the subduction interface takes place where there is abundant evidence for elevated, near-lithostatic pore pressures, at sufficiently great depths (30-45 km) that chemical dehydration reactions must act as their dominant source. We simulate fluid and heat flow while tracking the location of a vertically oriented, one-dimensional column of material as it subducts through the slow slip and tremor zone. The material in the column is transformed through a pressure-dependent and temperature-dependent dehydration reaction that we describe with a generalized nonlinear kinetic rate law. Column deformation is largely dominated by viscous creep, with a closure rate that depends linearly on porosity. This behavior causes the dehydration reaction to generate traveling porosity waves that transport increased fluid pressures within the slow slip region. To explore the possibility that the observed periodicity of slow slip and tremor in subduction zones can be explained by the migration of such porosity waves, we derive a dispersion relation that accurately describes our numerical results. We also obtain an expression for how the thickness of the dehydrating layer is expected to vary as a function of the parameters in the reaction rate law. Although the amplitudes of pore pressure perturbations rival those that are produced by known external forcings (e.g., tides or passing surface waves), our analysis suggests that given reasonable estimates of rock viscosity, permeabilities in the range 6.5×10-15 to 5×10-10 m2 are required for porosity wave trains to form at periods comparable to those of slow slip and tremor.

  17. 30. BUILDING NO. 527, DEHYDRATING PRESSES, LOOKING SOUTH. ALUMINUM NARROWGUAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. BUILDING NO. 527, DEHYDRATING PRESSES, LOOKING SOUTH. ALUMINUM NARROW-GUAGE GONDOLA CAR IN LEFT BACKGROUND BROUGHT MOISTENED GUN COTTON FROM REST HOUSE (BUILDING NO. 320-B) IN CANS. (ONE OF THESE CANS IS ON UNLOADING PLATFORM RUNNING BESIDE PRESSES). CONTENTS OF CANS WERE UNLOADED INTO PRESSES BY HAND. - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  18. 28. BUILDING NO. 527, DEHYDRATING HOUSE, LOOKING SOUTH AT NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. BUILDING NO. 527, DEHYDRATING HOUSE, LOOKING SOUTH AT NORTH (REAR) ELEVATION OF PRELIMINARY SOLVENT RECOVERY WING. RAILS LEADING FROM DOORS CARRIED STANDARD GUAGE R.R. CARTS ONTO SMALL FLATCARS RIDING IN TRACKS IN FOREGROUND. FROM HERE THE CARS WERE TAKEN TO BUILDING NO. 533, SOLVENT RECOVERY. BUILDING NO. 540, LOADING DOCK (STORAGE FOR POWDER BUGGIES) IN BACKGROUND LEFT. - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  19. The physiological effects of dehydration caused by sweat loss. [athletes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israel, S.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanisms of fluid loss in the human body while sweating due to physical exercise are discussed. Trained and untrained persons were examined and compared. Since sweat is hypotonous, a disruption in the hydrosalinic balance occurs; the consequences of this finding, also pertaining to the fluid and electrolytic substitution, are presented. Further explanations on the problem of dehydration refer to reactions of individual organ systems, to alterations in bodily capabilities as well as to questions relating to sex and age.

  20. [A case of hypernatremic dehydration due to breast-feeding].

    PubMed

    Marzouk, M; Neffati, F; Khelifa, H; Douki, W; Monastiri, K; Gueddiche, M N; Ben Amor, A; Najjar, M F

    2008-01-01

    The authors report an 11-day-old exclusively breast-fed female, with a birth weight of 3 300 g, who had suffered from dehydration stage I, with acute renal failure and metabolic acidosis, with 170 mmol/L of serum sodium. Renal ultrasounds were normal but the rate of sodium in mother's milk was three times higher than controls (87 versus 21 mmol/L). Intravenous rehydration allowed the correction of hydroelectrolytic disorders. PMID:18725352

  1. Theoretical and experimental investigation of desalting and dehydration of crude oil by assistance of ultrasonic irradiation.

    PubMed

    Check, Gholam Reza; Mowla, Dariush

    2013-01-01

    In this paper desalting/dehydration process of crude oil by ultrasonic irradiation in a novel batch standing-wave resonator reactor is studied both theoretically and experimentally. The effect of main parameters including ultrasonic irradiation parameters, namely irradiation input power and irradiation time, and also operating parameters, such as temperature and injected water, on the removal efficiencies of salt and water is examined. The obtained results demonstrate that finding the optimum values of the above mentioned parameters is important to prevent a significant decrease in the removal efficiencies of water and especially salt. Thus, crude oil was subjected to optimal ultrasonic irradiation with an input power of 57.7 W, and irradiation time of 6.2 min at temperature of 100 °C. The injected water to dissolve the salt of crude oil was 7 vol.%. Also, the applied settling time and dosage of chemical demulsifier were 60 min and 2 ppm, respectively. Under these optimum conditions the removal efficiencies of the desalting/dehydration process were 84% and 99.8%, respectively, which are suitable for refineries. Also, based on the optimal experimental data, two inferential estimators are developed to obtain the relationships between the salt and water removal efficiencies, and input energy density. These empirical relationships can offer a proper estimation for the salt and water removal efficiencies with irradiation input energy. PMID:22795230

  2. Modelling of mass transfer kinetic in osmotic dehydration of kiwifruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabrayili, Sharokh; Farzaneh, Vahid; Zare, Zahra; Bakhshabadi, Hamid; Babazadeh, Zahra; Mokhtarian, Mohsen; Carvalho, Isabel S.

    2016-04-01

    Osmotic dehydration characteristics of kiwifruit were predicted by different activation functions of an artificial neural network. Osmotic solution concentration (y1), osmotic solution temperature (y2), and immersion time (y3) were considered as the input parameters and solid gain value (x1) and water loss value (x2) were selected as the outlet parameters of the network. The result showed that logarithm sigmoid activation function has greater performance than tangent hyperbolic activation function for the prediction of osmotic dehydration parameters of kiwifruit. The minimum mean relative error for the solid gain and water loss parameters with one hidden layer and 19 nods were 0.00574 and 0.0062% for logarithm sigmoid activation function, respectively, which introduced logarithm sigmoid function as a more appropriate tool in the prediction of the osmotic dehydration of kiwifruit slices. As a result, it is concluded that this network is capable in the prediction of solid gain and water loss parameters (responses) with the correlation coefficient values of 0.986 and 0.989, respectively.

  3. Dehydration of different ketoses and aldoses to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural.

    PubMed

    van Putten, Robert-Jan; Soetedjo, Jenny N M; Pidko, Evgeny A; van der Waal, Jan C; Hensen, Emiel J M; de Jong, Ed; Heeres, Hero J

    2013-09-01

    5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is considered an important building block for future bio-based chemicals. Here, we present an experimental study using different ketoses (fructose, sorbose, tagatose) and aldoses (glucose, mannose, galactose) under aqueous acidic conditions (65 g L(-1) substrate, 100-160 °C, 33-300 mM H2 SO4 ) to gain insights into reaction pathways for hexose dehydration to HMF. Both reaction rates and HMF selectivities were significantly higher for ketoses than for aldoses, which is in line with literature. Screening and kinetic experiments showed that the reactivity of the different ketoses is a function of the hydroxyl group orientation at the C3 and C4 positions. These results, in combination with DFT calculations, point to a dehydration mechanism involving cyclic intermediates. For aldoses, no influence of the hydroxyl group orientation was observed, indicating a different rate-determining step. The combination of the knowledge from the literature and the findings in this work indicates that aldoses require an isomerization to ketose prior to dehydration to obtain high HMF yields. PMID:24039165

  4. Mass transfer kinetics during osmotic dehydration of pomegranate arils.

    PubMed

    Mundada, Manoj; Hathan, Bahadur Singh; Maske, Swati

    2011-01-01

    The mass transfer kinetics during osmotic dehydration of pomegranate arils in osmotic solution of sucrose was studied to increase palatability and shelf life of arils. The freezing of the whole pomegranate at -18 °C was carried out prior to osmotic dehydration to increase the permeability of the outer cellular layer of the arils. The osmotic solution concentrations used were 40, 50, 60°Bx, osmotic solution temperatures were 35, 45, 55 °C. The fruit to solution ratio was kept 1:4 (w/w) during all the experiments and the process duration varied from 0 to 240 min. Azuara model and Peleg model were the best fitted as compared to other models for water loss and solute gain of pomegranate arils, respectively. Generalized Exponential Model had an excellent fit for water loss ratio and solute gain ratio of pomegranate arils. Effective moisture diffusivity of water as well as solute was estimated using the analytical solution of Fick's law of diffusion. For above conditions of osmotic dehydration, average effective diffusivity of water loss and solute gain varied from 2.718 × 10(-10) to 5.124 × 10(-10) m(2)/s and 1.471 × 10(-10) to 5.147 × 10(-10) m(2)/s, respectively. The final product was successfully utilized in some nutritional formulations such as ice cream and bakery products. PMID:21535673

  5. Inhibition of chloroplastic respiration by osmotic dehydration. [Spinacia oleracea L

    SciTech Connect

    Willeford, K.O.; Ahluwalia, K.J.K.; Gibbs, M. )

    1989-04-01

    The respiratory capacity of isolated spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) chloroplasts, measured as the rate of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} evolved from the oxidative pentose phosphate cycle in darkened chloroplasts exogenously supplied with ({sup 14}C)glucose, was progressively diminished by escalating osmotic dehydration with betaine or sorbitol. Comparing the inhibitions of CO{sub 2} evolution generated by osmotic dehydration in chloroplasts given C-1 and C-6 labeled glucose, 54% and 84%, respectively, indicates that osmotic dehydration effects to a greater extent the recycling of the oxidative pentose phosphate intermediates, fructose-6P and glyceraldehyde-3P. Respiratory inhibition in the darkened chloroplast could be alleviated by addition of NH{sub 4}Cl (a stromal alkylating agent), iodoacetamide (an inhibitor of glyceraldehyde-3P dehydrogenase), or glycolate-2P (an inhibitor of phosphofructokinase). It is concluded that the site which primarily mediates respiratory inhibition in the darkened chloroplast occurs at the fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase/phosphofructokinase junction.

  6. Inhibition of plasma vasopressin after drinking in dehydrated humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geelen, G.; Keil, L. C.; Kravik, S. E.; Wade, C. E.; Thrasher, T. N.; Barnes, P. R.; Pyka, G.; Nesvig, C.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of nonosmotic and nonvolumetric factors on vasopressin secretion in dehydrated humans has been investigated experimentally, before and after drinking. The subjects of the experiment were five adult men and three adult women weighing 69-77 kg. In order to determine the influence of nonosmotic and nonvolumetric factors on vasopressin secretion, measurements were obtained of the following blood hematological indices: serum Na(+) content; serum K(+) content; osmolality; and hemoglobin. Measurements of hematocrit, plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP), aldosterone, and renin activity were also obtained. It is found that dehydration increased mean serum Na(+) content, osmolality,and AVP. No significant changes were observed in renin activity, hemoglobin, hematocrit, or plasma volume, while plasma aldosterone increased from 11.1 ng/dl after dehydration to 15.6 ng/dl between 30 and 60 min after drinking. A rapid fall of AVP content following rehydration occurred in the absence of changes in the primary regulators of AVP osmolality and plasma volume, with no change in blood pressure. On the basis of the experimental results, it is suggested that oropharyngeal factors may be the mechanism, for the observed decrease in AVP following rehydration.

  7. PREFACE: CEWQO Topical Issue CEWQO Topical Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozic, Mirjana; Man'ko, Margarita

    2009-09-01

    This topical issue of Physica Scripta collects selected peer-reviewed contributions based on invited and contributed talks and posters presented at the 15th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics (CEWQO) which took place in Belgrade 29 May-3 June 2008 (http://cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu). On behalf of the whole community took place in Belgrade 29 May-3 June 2008 (http://cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu, cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu). On behalf of the whole community of the workshop, we thank the referees for their careful reading and useful suggestions which helped to improve all of the submitted papers. A brief description of CEWQO The Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics is a series of conferences started informally in Budapest in 1992. Sometimes small events transform into important conferences, as in the case of CEWQO. Professor Jozsef Janszky, from the Research Institute of Solid State Physics and Optics, is the founder of this series. Margarita Man'ko obtained the following information from Jozsef Janszky during her visit to Budapest, within the framework of cooperation between the Russian and Hungarian Academies of Sciences in 2005. He organized a small workshop on quantum optics in Budapest in 1992 with John Klauder as a main speaker. Then, bearing in mind that a year before Janszky himself was invited by Vladimir Buzek to give a seminar on the same topic in Bratislava, he decided to assign the name 'Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics', considering the seminar in Bratislava to be the first workshop and the one in Budapest the second. The third formal workshop took place in Bratislava in 1993 organized by Vladimir Buzek, then in 1994 (Budapest, by Jozsef Janszky), 1995 and 1996 (Budmerice, Slovakia, by Vladimir Buzek), 1997 (Prague, by Igor Jex), 1999 (Olomouc, Czech Republic, by Zdenek Hradil), 2000 (Balatonfüred, Hungary, by Jozsef Janszky ), 2001 (Prague, by Igor Jex), 2002 (Szeged, Hungary, by Mihaly Benedict), 2003 (Rostock,Germany, by Werner Vogel and

  8. Topical antibiotics in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Hirschmann, J V

    1988-11-01

    Topical antibiotics are safe and effective in certain conditions, primarily acne, rosacea, and nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus. They are useful in impetigo only when it is of limited extent. Their efficacy in other pyodermas is unclear, although mupirocin is probably effective in many cases. In "infected eczema" that does not require systemic therapy they seem to add little to what topical corticosteroids alone achieve. They are ineffective in reducing the incidence of significant infection with indwelling intravenous catheters. They are safe preparations, but extensive use, especially in closed populations, may encourage the emergence of resistant bacteria. PMID:2972259

  9. Topical Therapies for Pruritus

    PubMed Central

    Elmariah, Sarina B.; Lerner, Ethan A.

    2011-01-01

    Itch, or pruritus, is the predominant symptom associated with acute and chronic cutaneous disease and in some cases, may be debilitating. To date, there is no single universally effective anti-itch treatment. As the pathophysiology of itch in most cutaneous or systemic disorders remains unclear, anti-pruritic therapy is often directed against a variety of targets, including the epidermal barrier, immune system, or the nervous system. Topical therapy is the mainstay of dermatologic management of acute or localized itch or in patients with contraindications to systemic therapies. This review will summarize current topical therapies to treat pruritus and discuss potential future therapies. PMID:21767774

  10. Analysis of Dehydration and Strength in Elite Badminton Players

    PubMed Central

    Abián-Vicén, Javier; Del Coso, Juan; González-Millán, Cristina; Salinero, Juan José; Abián, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Background The negative effects of dehydration on aerobic activities are well established. However, it is unknown how dehydration affects intermittent sports performance. The purpose of this study was to identify the level of dehydration in elite badminton players and its relation to muscle strength and power production. Methodology Seventy matches from the National Spanish badminton championship were analyzed (46 men’s singles and 24 women’s singles). Before and after each match, jump height and power production were determined during a countermovement jump on a force platform. Participants’ body weight and a urine sample were also obtained before and after each match. The amount of liquid that the players drank during the match was also calculated by weighing their individual drinking bottles. Results and Discussion Sweat rate during the game was 1.14±0.46 l/h in men and 1.02±0.64 l/h in women. The players rehydrated at a rate of 1.10±0.55 l/h and 1.01±0.44 l/h in the male and female groups respectively. Thus, the dehydration attained during the game was only 0.37±0.50% in men and 0.32±0.83% in women. No differences were found in any of the parameters analyzed during the vertical jump (men: from 31.82±5.29 to 32.90±4.49 W/kg; p>0.05, women: from 26.36±4.73 to 27.25±4.44 W/kg; p>0.05). Post-exercise urine samples revealed proteinuria (60.9% of cases in men and 66.7% in women), leukocyturia (men = 43.5% and women = 50.0%) and erythrocyturia (men = 50.0% and women = 21.7%). Conclusions Despite a moderate sweat rate, badminton players adequately hydrated during a game and thus the dehydration attained was low. The badminton match did not cause muscle fatigue but it significantly increased the prevalence of proteinuria, leukocyturia and erythrocyturia. PMID:22666396

  11. Effects of dehydration and rehydration on thermoregulatory sweating in goats.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, M A

    1989-01-01

    1. Measurement of rectal temperature (Tr), sweat rate, respiratory frequency (f) and respiratory evaporation (Eresp) were made in one Nubian and four Alpine-Toggenberg goats while they stood for 90 min in a climate chamber at 40 degrees C ambient temperature (Ta). The animals were studied when they were hydrated, when they had been dehydrated by 48 h water deprivation, and when they were rehydrated by voluntary drinking of water or saline or by intraruminal water administration. Plasma osmolality (Posm), plasma protein concentration (PP) and haematocrit (Hct) were measured before every experiment and before and after voluntary drinking. 2. Hydrated animals increased evaporation by panting and sweating during heat exposure and Tr rose about 1 degree C. The rate of sweating was as high or higher than Eresp. Dehydrated animals had lower sweat rates and higher Tr than hydrated animals, but f and Eresp were the same in hydrated and dehydrated animals. 3. When dehydrated goats were allowed to drink after 60 min of heat exposure, sweating began abruptly within 3 min of the start of drinking in every animal whether water or saline was drunk. Sweat rate returned to hydrated levels or higher before any change occurred in Posm, PP or Hct. Respiratory frequency was higher after drinking than in dehydrated animals which were not allowed to drink. 4. When water was administered by rumen tube after 60 min of heat exposure, sweating in the Nubian occurred with a short latency, similar to the onset after drinking. In the other four animals, sweating onset occurred on average at 13 min 42 s after intraruminal water administration. 5. It is concluded that sweating is a significant avenue of evaporative heat loss in these goats when they are hydrated and exposed to high Ta. Sweat rate is markedly reduced after water deprivation but returns to hydrated levels within 3 min after the start of drinking. The rapid recovery of sweating after voluntary drinking is not initiated by changes in

  12. Slab dehydration recorded in subducted serpentine sea-mount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, K.; Fukumura, S.; Ishimori, C.; Jung, H.

    2014-12-01

    It has been considered that there is a correlation between the double seismic zones and metamorphic dehydration reaction in deep slab. The lower seismic plane of the double seismic zone is considered to be located on the 600 oC isotherm in the subducting lithosphere. Antigorite terminal reaction is highly temperature sensitive around 600 oC. Therefore it has been proposed that the oceanic lithosphere was hydrated forming serpentine prior to subduction, then serpentine was decomposed to release fluid causing dehydration embrittlement in the slab. In order to unravel relation between dehydration and seismic deformation, we have investigated dehydration process of natural metamorphic rocks recording very cold geothermal history in the crust and lithosphere in the slab. Metamorphic olivine after antigorite has been described in Italian Alps and also from the Mt. Shiraga, Japan [1]. However, the olivine was formed with talc and fluid by antigorite breakdown reaction in pressures lower than 1.5 GPa. Spinifex olivine with opx in the Cerro del Almirez [2], is the product at pressures (P > 1.5 GPa) relevant to the lower seismic plane beneath Northeast Japan. It clearly indicates the presence of large amount of water facilitate crystallization of elongated olivine with opx. It is also supported by LPO pattern of olivines determined by EBSD. Fine-grained olivine-rich samples shows that Type-C fabric pattern is dominant, suggesting deformation under water-rich condition [3]. With metamorphic olivines, chlorite was also recrystallized, suggesting that water would be transported farther down to deep. The estimated dehydration reaction has a negative P-T slope at pressures higher than 1.5 GPa. The reaction is volume reducing reaction and the olivine-opx spinifex texture was formed under volume reducing reaction. In the warm slab beneath SW Japan, the reaction has a positive slope in P-T space and forms olivine+talc+fluid. From microstrucral and petrological analysis of the

  13. [Preparation and analysis of dehydrated mixtures of vegetables and underutilized fish species flours: I. Dehydrated mixtures of cereal-fish].

    PubMed

    Luna, G; Rey, J L; Castro, L M; Corona, N; Ferreiros, E; Luzardo, M

    1990-09-01

    For the purpose of providing possible solutions to the malnutrition problems affecting those populations where cereals and tubers form an important portion of their daily intake, products were prepared from dehydrated mixtures of cereals and under-utilized fish, but which contain high-quality protein. Two cereals were selected for our experiments: rice and corn, and a marine under-utilized fish species (Macrodon ancyclodon). The minced fish muscle recovered by mechanical deboning was mixed with the cereal, obtaining mixtures with 5%, 10% and 15% fish on a dry basis. Feeding experiments using Wistar weaning rats were then carried out to evaluate the most important characteristics. An amino acid profile which reflected high-quality protein was obtained, as evidenced by the excellent PER, NPU, NPR and digestibility values determined. The dehydrated mixtures of fish/cereal flour prepared with 5% and up to 10% fish (dry basis), did not present any odour, but as of the 15% level, fish odour was perceived. Therefore, the use of dehydrated mixtures of fish/cereal flours with up to 10% fish in preparing food products, is recommended, since these would be of great help in solving the scarcity of good-quality protein, particularly in the developing countries. PMID:2134143

  14. Historical Topics in Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Inc., Reston, VA.

    This is a reprint of the historical capsules dealing with algebra from the 31st Yearbook of NCTM,"Historical Topics for the Mathematics Classroom." Included are such themes as the change from a geometric to an algebraic solution of problems, the development of algebraic symbolism, the algebraic contributions of different countries, the origin and…

  15. Topics for Mathematics Clubs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, LeRoy C., Ed.; Snyder, Henry D., Ed.

    The ten chapters in this booklet cover topics not ordinarily discussed in the classroom: Fibonacci sequences, projective geometry, groups, infinity and transfinite numbers, Pascal's Triangle, topology, experiments with natural numbers, non-Euclidean geometries, Boolean algebras, and the imaginary and the infinite in geometry. Each chapter is…

  16. Housing: Topic Paper F.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on the Handicapped, Washington, DC.

    This paper, one of a series of topic papers assessing federal laws and programs affecting persons with disabilities, addresses the issue of housing. Major federal responsibilities are to develop additional housing opportunities for persons with disabilities and to assure that currently available housing is equally open to individuals with…

  17. Differential Topic Models.

    PubMed

    Chen, Changyou; Buntine, Wray; Ding, Nan; Xie, Lexing; Du, Lan

    2015-02-01

    In applications we may want to compare different document collections: they could have shared content but also different and unique aspects in particular collections. This task has been called comparative text mining or cross-collection modeling. We present a differential topic model for this application that models both topic differences and similarities. For this we use hierarchical Bayesian nonparametric models. Moreover, we found it was important to properly model power-law phenomena in topic-word distributions and thus we used the full Pitman-Yor process rather than just a Dirichlet process. Furthermore, we propose the transformed Pitman-Yor process (TPYP) to incorporate prior knowledge such as vocabulary variations in different collections into the model. To deal with the non-conjugate issue between model prior and likelihood in the TPYP, we thus propose an efficient sampling algorithm using a data augmentation technique based on the multinomial theorem. Experimental results show the model discovers interesting aspects of different collections. We also show the proposed MCMC based algorithm achieves a dramatically reduced test perplexity compared to some existing topic models. Finally, we show our model outperforms the state-of-the-art for document classification/ideology prediction on a number of text collections. PMID:26353238

  18. Topical Research: Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Karen

    This lesson plan can be used in social studies, language arts, or library research. The instructional objective is for students to select a topic of study relating to Africa, write a thesis statement, collect information from media sources, and develop a conclusion. The teacher may assign the lesson for written or oral evaluation. The teacher…

  19. Topical delivery of hexamidine.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Nicola; Paz-Alvarez, Miguel; Matts, Paul J; Lever, Rebecca; Hadgraft, Jonathan; Lane, Majella E

    2016-06-15

    Hexamidine diisethionate (HEX D) has been used for its biocidal actions in topical preparations since the 1950s. Recent data also suggest that it plays a beneficial role in skin homeostasis. To date, the extent to which this compound penetrates the epidermis has not been reported nor how its topical delivery may be modulated. In the present work we set out to characterise the interaction of HEX D with the skin and to develop a range of simple formulations for topical targeting of the active. A further objective was to compare the skin penetration of HEX D with its corresponding dihydrochloride salt (HEX H) as the latter has more favourable physicochemical properties for skin uptake. Candidate vehicles were evaluated by in vitro Franz cell permeation studies using porcine skin. Initially, neat solvents were investigated and subsequently binary systems were examined. The solvents and chemical penetration enhancers investigated included glycerol, dimethyl isosorbide (DMI), isopropyl alcohol (IPA), 1,2-pentanol (1,2-PENT), polyethylene glycol (PEG) 200, propylene glycol (PG), propylene glycol monolaurate (PGML) and Transcutol(®)P (TC). Of a total of 30 binary solvent systems evaluated only 10 delivered higher amounts of active into the skin compared with the neat solvents. In terms of topical efficacy, formulations containing PGML far surpassed all other solvents or binary combinations. More than 70% of HEX H was extracted from the skin following application in PG:PGML (50:50). Interestingly, the same vehicle effectively promoted skin penetration of HEX D but demonstrated significantly lower uptake into and through the skin (30%). The findings confirm the unpredictable nature of excipients on delivery of actives with reference to skin even where there are minor differences in molecular structures. We also believe that they underline the ongoing necessity for fundamental studies on the interaction of topical excipients with the skin. PMID:27130367

  20. Topic maps for archiving space plant experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinckmann, Enno; Karoliussen, Irene; Hauan, Tore Martin; Fossum, Knut R.

    The increasing amount of data collected during Space flight experiments, especially on the ISS, requires a new approach for data archiving. The "ULISSE" project, funded by the European Commission, combines the knowledge of the User Support Operation Centers (USOCs) of the ISS and their industrial partners to build up a database for the integration and dissemination of Space experiments. For plant experiments in Space, the N-USOC in Trondheim (Norway) is responsible to collect and implement the needs of scientists working in the field of plant biology for this bio-informatics tool. Each experiment can be found in a topic map providing interfaces to other experiments or other topics. Topic maps describe among others the ex-periment environment in orbit or on ground, experimental methods, hardware and software, biological processes, and experimental results. Each of these topics needs to be identified by an unambiguous definition, usually a link to a database like a thesaurus or an ontology. A survey was done to see in which of the common ontology databases suitable definitions of the topic names of the N-USOC Topic Map could be found. Thus, the draft N-USOC Topic Map could be linked almost completely to Web based definitions. This will allow embedding Space plant biology experiments into public data management systems. Credits: European Commission (FP7/2007-2013, grant agreement n218815).

  1. Impact of dehydration on a full body resistance exercise protocol.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Justin A; Green, James M; Bishop, Phillip A; Richardson, Mark T; Neggers, Yasmin H; Leeper, James D

    2010-05-01

    This study examined effects of dehydration on a full body resistance exercise workout. Ten males completed two trials: heat exposed (with 100% fluid replacement) (HE) and dehydration (approximately 3% body mass loss with no fluid replacement) (DEHY) achieved via hot water bath (approximately 39 degrees C). Following HE and DEHY, participants performed three sets to failure (using predetermined 12 repetition maximum) of bench press, lat pull down, overhead press, barbell curl, triceps press, and leg press with a 2-min recovery between each set and 2 min between exercises. A paired t test showed total repetitions (all sets combined) were significantly lower for DEHY: (144.1 +/- 26.6 repetitions) versus HE: (169.4 +/- 29.1 repetitions). ANOVAs showed significantly lower repetitions (approximately 1-2 repetitions on average) per exercise for DEHY versus HE (all exercises). Pre-set rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and pre-set heart rate (HR) were significantly higher [approximately 0.6-1.1 units on average in triceps press, leg press, and approached significance in lat pull down (P = 0.14) and approximately 6-13 b min(-1) on average in bench press, lat pull down, triceps press, and approached significance for overhead press (P = 0.10)] in DEHY versus HE. Session RPE difference approached significance (DEHY: 8.6 +/- 1.9, HE: 7.4 +/- 2.3) (P = 0.12). Recovery HR was significantly higher for DEHY (116 +/- 15 b min(-1)) versus HE (105 +/- 13 b min(-1)). Dehydration (approximately 3%) impaired resistance exercise performance, decreased repetitions, increased perceived exertion, and hindered HR recovery. Results highlight the importance of adequate hydration during full body resistance exercise sessions. PMID:20066432

  2. Thirst perception and drinking in euhydrate and dehydrate human subjects.

    PubMed

    Obika, L F O; Idu, F K; George, G O; Ajayi, O I; Mowoe, R S

    2009-06-01

    Studies on how the body senses the need to correct extracellular and intracellular volumes and ionic concentration changes is relatively scanty. The present studies were designed to determine the effect of oral distilled water (DW) and saline loads, gargling with DW and DW preload on thirst perception (TP) and drinking in euhydrate and dehydrated subjects. The subjects were healthy male volunteers between the ages of 17 and 35 years. Group A subjects were given DW or various concentrations of sodium chloride [NaCl] orally. Subjects in groups B, C and D were dehydrated for 18 hours before the experiment. Group B gargled 500 ml of DW in divided volume of 50 ml at five minutes interval over a period of 50 minutes. Group C gargled with DW and different concentrations of NaCl. Group D were preloaded with four volumes of DW before ad libitum DW intake. TP was rated using the Visual Analogue Scale. Results showed that in Group A, drinking DW reduced TP, suggesting that baseline TP in normal euhydrate subjects is slightly elevated. Drinking DW reduced TP more than drinking NaCl solutions. Gargling resulted in a gradual fall in TP. The decrease in TP was statistically significant after 30 minutes of gargling. Gargling with different concentrations of NaCl solutions resulted in significant reductions in TP in all the groups. There was a significant decrease in TP in the group preloaded with 1000 ml of distilled water at 5 minutes of rehydration. At 20 minutes TP was abolished suggesting that approximately 1000 ml of water was needed for the rehydration. These results show that baseline TP in euhydrates is elevated and that TP increases in dehydrated subjects. Gargling reduces TP, but did not abolish thirst. It is suggested that a fall in plasma osmolality due to drinking may be responsible for abolishing thirst. PMID:19826461

  3. Topical retinoids for acne.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Lindsey; Bonati, Lauren Meshkov; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2016-06-01

    Topical retinoids are currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of acne vulgaris in nonpregnant, nonlactating patients 12 years of age and older. Their efficacy, safety, and tolerability are well documented for inflammatory and noninflammatory acne with studies repeatedly demonstrating a decrease in the number of lesions, significant improvement in acne severity, improvement in the cosmetic appearance of acne, and the prevention of acne lesions through microcomedone formation. There is some variability between prescription retinoid products regarding efficacy, safety, and tolerability; with erythema, peeling, and dryness being common, potential side effects. Due to their efficacious and safe profile, topical retinoids remain the first-line treatment for acne vulgaris. PMID:27416308

  4. [Osmotic dehydration of apple (Grany Smith) with different osmotic solutions].

    PubMed

    Mercado-Silva, E; Vidal-Brotons, D

    1994-06-01

    The process of osmotic dehydration in apple rings at 40 degrees, 50 degrees and 60 degrees C in two osmotic agents were studied. The agents were similar in concentration, water activity and viscosity but differed in composition. The weight loss, water content, solids uptake and Brix showed differences in the medius studied. In syrup corn medium, the weight loss was higher and the solids uptake was lower than syrup sucrose. The polysacharides from the syrup corn lowered solutes uptake and the water out was facilited. PMID:7733790

  5. Dehydration of incoming sediments at the Japan Trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, M.; Kameda, J.; Hamada, Y.; Kimura, G.

    2013-12-01

    In the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake, the seismic fault slip propagated close to the axis of the Japan Trench and caused an extremely large tsunami (Ide et al., 2011). It is generally considered that ductile deformation of unconsolidated sediments is commonly prominent in the aseismic shallow parts of the subduction zone. Therefore, it is unknown how the seismic rupture reached the nearby trench axis. The plate-boundary megathrust of the Japan Trench is characterized by a prominent seismic reflector, suggesting that the megathrust may host highly pressurized fluids (Kimura et al., 2012). Based on the result of Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Leg 56 at site 436 (reference, 1977), it is expected that the subducting sediments at the Japan Trench mainly consist of vitric diatomaceous and radiolarian ooze with pelagic clay intervals. Opal-A in the pelagic sediments transforms into quartz, and smectite transforms into illite. Kinetic modeling demonstrated that these reactions will progress with active dehydration at 50-60 km horizontally away from the deformation front and with a temperature of 100-120°C. This region coincides with the plate-boundary marked by a prominent seismic reflector, and suggests that the main source of highly pressured fluids is the dehydration of pelagic sediments (Kimura et al., 2012). However, detailed dehydration processes are still unclear mainly due to lack of quantitative sediment composition data. Therefore, in this study, we examined whole rock composition including amorphous silica of the core samples recovered at site 436 as well as those from the Japan Trench by the IODP 343 Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project (JFAST). Analysis of amorphous silica at site 436 documents that dehydration of the sediments is able to contribute to excess pressure at the shallow part of the megathrust if they underthrust as the same composition. At the drilling site of JFAST, a plate-boundary shear zone was identified around 820 mbsf, which was supposed to

  6. Dehydration of incoming sediments at the Japan Trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, M.; Kameda, J.; Hamada, Y.; Tanikawa, W.; Kimura, G.

    2014-12-01

    In the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake, the seismic fault slip propagated to the trench axis and caused an extremely large tsunami (Ide et al., 2011). Ductile deformation of unconsolidated sediments is commonly prominent in the aseismic shallow parts of the subduction zone. It is unknown how the seismic rupture reached the nearby trench axis. Based on the result of Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Leg 56 at site 436 (reference, 1977), it is expected that the subducting sediments at the Japan Trench mainly consist of vitric diatomaceous and radiolarian ooze with pelagic clay intervals. Opal and smectite in the pelagic sediments transform respectively into quartz and illite. Kinetic modeling demonstrated that these reactions will progress with active dehydration at 50-60 km horizontally away from the trench axis and with a temperature of 100-120°C. This region coincides with the plate-boundary marked by a prominent seismic reflector. It suggests that the main source of highly pressured fluids is the dehydration of pelagic sediments (Kimura et al., 2012). However, detailed dehydration processes are still unclear mainly due to lack of quantitative sediment composition data. Therefore, in this study, we examined whole rock composition including amorphous silica of the core samples recovered at site 436 as well as those from the Japan Trench by the IODP 343 Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project (JFAST). Analysis of amorphous silica at the drilling site of J-FAST documents that dehydration of the sediments is able to contribute to excess pressure at the shallow part of the megathrust if they underthrust as the same composition. At the drilling site of JFAST, a plate-boundary shear zone was identified around 820 mbsf (Chester et al., 2012). Our analysis showed that the shear zone is characterized by extremely high concentration of smectite (~70 wt%).These results suggest that the abundant smectite may have possibly fostered localized rupture and slip during the earthquake

  7. Observations of denitrification and dehydration in the winter polar stratospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahey, D. W.; Kelly, K. K.; Kawa, S. R.; Tuck, A. F.; Loewenstein, M.

    1990-01-01

    It is argued that denitrification of the Arctic stratosphere can be explained by the selective growth and sedimentation of aerosol particles rich in nitric acid. Because reactive nitrogen species moderate the destruction of ozone by chlorine-catalyzed reactions by sequestering chlorine in reservoir species such as ClONO2, the possibility of the removal of reactive nitrogen without dehydration should be allowed for in attempts to model ozone depletion in the Arctic. Indeed, denitrification along with elevated concentrations of reactive chlorine observed in 1989 indicate that the Arctic was chemically primed for ozone destruction without an extended period of temperatures below the frost point, as is characteristic of the Antarctic.

  8. Surgical management of left ventricular thrombus following severe dehydration.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yuki; Nie, Masaki; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Ohara, Kuniyoshi; Miyaji, Kagami

    2016-08-01

    We experienced a case involving a left ventricular ball-like thrombus caused by severe following a 150 mile cycling road race. The patient had lower-limb arterial obstruction due to systemic thromboembolism on admission with no significant embolism, including the cerebral arteries, were detected. Left ventricular wall motion was good with no evidence of left and right coronary artery occlusion; therefore, we performed emergency left ventricular thrombectomy. Although there are many reports of left ventricular thrombus following acute myocardial infarction, dehydration is a very rare cause. Herein, we describe the surgical and management approaches to the treatment of left ventricular thrombectomy in this case. PMID:26266631

  9. Dehydration and Performance on Clinical Concussion Measures in Collegiate Wrestlers

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Amanda Friedline; Mihalik, Jason P.; Register-Mihalik, Johna K.; Mays, Sally; Prentice, William E.; Guskiewicz, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    Context: The effects of dehydration induced by wrestling-related weight-cutting tactics on clinical concussion outcomes, such as neurocognitive function, balance performance, and symptoms, have not been adequately studied. Objective: To evaluate the effects of dehydration on the outcome of clinical concussion measures in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate wrestlers. Design: Repeated-measures design. Setting: Clinical research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty-two Division I healthy collegiate male wrestlers (age = 20.0 ± 1.4 years; height = 175.0 ± 7.5 cm; baseline mass = 79.2 ± 12.6 kg). Intervention(s): Participants completed preseason concussion baseline testing in early September. Weight and urine samples were also collected at this time. All participants reported to prewrestling practice and postwrestling practice for the same test battery and protocol in mid-October. They had begun practicing weight-cutting tactics a day before prepractice and postpractice testing. Differences between these measures permitted us to evaluate how dehydration and weight-cutting tactics affected concussion measures. Main Outcome Measures: Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 2 (SCAT2), Balance Error Scoring System, Graded Symptom Checklist, and Simple Reaction Time scores. The Simple Reaction Time was measured using the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics. Results: The SCAT2 measurements were lower at prepractice (P = .002) and postpractice (P < .001) when compared with baseline. The BESS error scores were higher at postpractice when compared with baseline (P = .015). The GSC severity scores were higher at prepractice (P = .011) and postpractice (P < .001) than at baseline and at postpractice when than at prepractice (P = .003). The number of Graded Symptom Checklist symptoms reported was also higher at prepractice (P = .036) and postpractice (P < .001) when compared with baseline, and at postpractice when compared with

  10. Topicality matters: position-specific demands on Chinese discourse processing.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yu-Chen; Schumacher, Petra B

    2012-03-01

    We report an event-related potential study designed to explore the nature of context-induced topicality in Chinese discourse processing. Topic is what an utterance is about and represents the most prominent discourse element, which occurs sentence-initially in Chinese. We tested question-answer pairs consisting of topic and non-topic questions followed by different continuations (Topic-Continuity, Topic-Shift, Novel-Topic). ERPs were measured at distinct sentential positions and revealed that sentence-initially information processing is guided by topicality, which affects N400 and Late Positivity effects alike. In non-initial positions, the given-new distinction is the dominant principle, also modulating N400 and Late Positivity. The language processor hence utilizes a few core operations for information processing that depend on position-specific constraints. PMID:22266598

  11. A rapid dehydration leaf assay reveals stomatal response differences in grapevine genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Hopper, Daniel W; Ghan, Ryan; Cramer, Grant R

    2014-01-01

    A simple and reliable way of phenotyping plant responses to dehydration was developed. Fully-developed leaves were detached and placed in a closed plastic box containing a salt solution to control the atmospheric water potential in the container. Three hours of dehydration (weight loss of the leaf) was optimal for measuring changes in stomatal response to dehydration. Application of the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) prior to leaf detachment decreased the amount of water loss, indicating that the assay was able to detect differences based on a stomatal response to dehydration. Five different Vitis genotypes (V. riparia, V. champinii, V. vinifera cv. Shiraz, V. vinifera cv. Grenache and V. vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) with known differences in drought tolerance were screened for their dehydration response and the results obtained corresponded to previous reports of stomatal responses in the vineyard. Significant differences in stomatal density along with differences in the amount and rate of water lost indicate differences in dehydration sensitivity among the genotypes screened. Differences in stomatal response to ABA were also detected. Shiraz had the lowest stomatal density and the highest ABA sensitivity among the genotypes screened, yet Shiraz lost the most amount of water, indicating that it was the least sensitive to dehydration. Despite having the highest stomatal density and intermediate stomatal sensitivity to ABA, V. riparia lost the smallest amount of water, indicating that it was the most sensitive to dehydration. The assay presented here represents a simple and reliable phenotyping method for plant responses to leaf dehydration. PMID:26504528

  12. Twin formation in hematite during dehydration of goethite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Genki; Kunisada, Yuji; Nomura, Takahiro; Sakaguchi, Norihito; Akiyama, Tomohiro

    2016-07-01

    Twin formation in hematite during dehydration was investigated using X-ray diffraction, electron diffraction, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). When synthetic goethite was heated at different temperatures between 100 and 800 °C, a phase transformation occurred at temperatures above 250 °C. The electron diffraction patterns showed that the single-crystalline goethite with a growth direction of [001]G was transformed into hematite with a growth direction of [100]H. Two non-equivalent structures emerged in hematite after dehydration, with twin boundaries at the interface between the two variants. As the temperature was increased, crystal growth occurred. At 800 °C, the majority of the twin boundaries disappeared; however, some hematite particles remained in the twinned variant. The electron diffraction patterns and high-resolution TEM observations indicated that the twin boundaries consisted of crystallographically equivalent prismatic (100) (010), and (1bar{1} 0) planes. According to the total energy calculations based on spin-polarized density functional theory, the twin boundary of prismatic (100) screw had small interfacial energy (0.24 J/m2). Owing to this low interfacial energy, the prismatic (100) screw interface remained after higher-temperature treatment at 800 °C.

  13. Enzyme dehydration using Microglassification™ preserves the protein's structure and function.

    PubMed

    Aniket; Gaul, David A; Bitterfield, Deborah L; Su, Jonathan T; Li, Victoria M; Singh, Ishita; Morton, Jackson; Needham, David

    2015-02-01

    Controlled enzyme dehydration using a new processing technique of Microglassification™ has been investigated. Aqueous solution microdroplets of lysozyme, α-chymotrypsin, catalase, and horseradish peroxidase were dehydrated in n-pentanol, n-octanol, n-decanol, triacetin, or butyl lactate, and changes in their structure and function were analyzed upon rehydration. Water solubility and microdroplet dissolution rate in each solvent decreased in the order: butyl lactate > n-pentanol > triacetin > n-octanol > n-decanol. Enzymes Microglassified™ in n-pentanol retained higher activity (93%-98%) than n-octanol (78%-85%) or n-decanol (75%-89%), whereas those Microglassified™ in triacetin (36%-75%) and butyl lactate (48%-79%) retained markedly lower activity. FTIR spectroscopy analyses showed α-helix to β-sheet transformation for all enzymes upon Microglassification™, reflecting a loss of bound water in the dried state; however, the enzymes reverted to native-like conformation upon rehydration. Accelerated stressed-storage tests using Microglassified™ lysozyme showed a significant (p < 0.01) decrease in enzymatic activity from 46,560 ± 2736 to 31,060 ± 4327 units/mg after 3 months of incubation; however, it was comparable to the activity of the lyophilized formulation throughout the test period. These results establish Microglassification™ as a viable technique for enzyme preservation without affecting its structure or function. PMID:25557848

  14. Osmotic dehydration of fruits and vegetables: a review.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ashok Kumar; Singh, Satya Vir

    2014-09-01

    The main cause of perishability of fruits and vegetables are their high water content. To increase the shelf life of these fruits and vegetables many methods or combination of methods had been tried. Osmotic dehydration is one of the best and suitable method to increase the shelf life of fruits and vegetables. This process is preferred over others due to their vitamin and minerals, color, flavor and taste retention property. In this review different methods, treatments, optimization and effects of osmotic dehydration have been reviewed. Studied showed that combination of different osmotic agents were more effective than sucrose alone due to combination of properties of solutes. During the experiments it was found that optimum osmosis was found at approximately 40 °C, 40 °B of osmotic agent and in near about 132 min. Pretreatments also leads to increase the osmotic process in fruits and vegetables. Mass transfer kinetics study is an important parameter to study osmosis. Solids diffusivity were found in wide range (5.09-32.77 kl/mol) studied by Fick's laws of diffusion. These values vary depending upon types of fruits and vegetables and osmotic agents. PMID:25190823

  15. Catalytic Ethanol Dehydration over Different Acid-activated Montmorillonite Clays.

    PubMed

    Krutpijit, Chadaporn; Jongsomjit, Bunjerd

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the catalytic dehydration of ethanol to obtain ethylene over montmorillonite clays (MMT) with mineral acid activation including H2SO4 (SA-MMT), HCl (HA-MMT) and HNO3 (NA-MMT) was investigated at temperature range of 200 to 400°C. It revealed that HA-MMT exhibited the highest catalytic activity. Ethanol conversion and ethylene selectivity were found to increase with increased reaction temperature. At 400°C, the HA-MMT yielded 82% of ethanol conversion having 78% of ethylene yield. At lower temperature (i.e. 200 to 300°C), diethyl ether (DEE) was a major product. The highest activity obtained from HA-MMT can be attributed to an increase of weak acid sites and acid density by the activation of MMT with HCl. It can be also proven by various characterization techniques that in most case, the main structure of MMT did not alter by acid activation (excepted for NA-MMT). Upon the stability test for 72 h during the reaction, the MMT and HA-MMT showed only slight deactivation due to carbon deposition. Hence, the acid activation of MMT by HCl is promising to enhance the catalytic dehydration of ethanol. PMID:27041515

  16. Creatine Use and Exercise Heat Tolerance in Dehydrated Men

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Greig; Casa, Douglas J; Fiala, Kelly A; Hile, Amy; Roti, Melissa W; Healey, Julie C; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Maresh, Carl M

    2006-01-01

    Context: Creatine monohydrate (CrM) use is highly prevalent in team sports (eg, football, lacrosse, ice hockey) and by athletes at the high school, college, professional, and recreational levels. Concerns have been raised about whether creatine use is associated with increased cramping, muscle injury, heat intolerance, and risk of dehydration. Objective: To assess whether 1 week of CrM supplementation would compromise hydration status, alter thermoregulation, or increase the incidence of symptoms of heat illness in dehydrated men performing prolonged exercise in the heat. Design: Double-blind, randomized, crossover design. Setting: Human Performance Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twelve active males, age = 22 ± 1 year, height = 180 ± 3 cm, mass = 78.8 ± 1.2 kg, body fat = 9 ± 1%, V̇o2peak = 50.9 ± 1 ml·kg−1·min−1. Intervention(s): Subjects consumed 21.6 g·d−1 of CrM or placebo for 7 days, underwent 48 ± 10 days of washout between treatments, and then crossed over to the alternate treatment in the creatine group. On day 7 of each treatment, subjects lost 2% body mass by exercising in 33.5°C and then completed an 80-minute exercise heat-tolerance test (33.5°C ± 0.5°C, relative humidity = 41 ± 12%). The test consisted of four 20-minute sequences of 4 minutes of rest, alternating a 3-minute walk and 1-minute high-intensity run 3 times, and walking for 4 minutes. Main Outcome Measures: Thermoregulatory, cardiorespiratory, metabolic, urinary, and perceptual responses. Results: On day 7, body mass had increased 0.88 kg. No interaction or treatment differences for placebo versus CrM during the exercise heat-tolerance test were noted in thermoregulatory (rectal temperature, 39.3 ± 0.4°C versus 39.4 ± 0.4°C) cardiorespiratory (V̇o2, 21.4 ± 2.7 versus 20.0 ± 1.8 ml·kg−1·min−1; heart rate, 192 ± 10 versus 192 ± 11 beats·min−1; mean arterial pressure, 90 ± 9 versus 88 ± 5 mm Hg), metabolic (lactate, 6.7 ± 2.7 versus 7.0

  17. Decision Point 1 Topical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Yablonsky, Al; Barsoumian, Shant; Legere, David

    2013-05-01

    This Topical Report addresses accomplishments achieved during Phase 2a of the SkyMine® Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project. The primary objectives of this project are to design, construct, and operate a system to capture CO2 from a slipstream of flue gas from a commercial coal-fired cement kiln, convert that CO2 to products having commercial value (i.e., beneficial use), show the economic viability of the CO2 capture and conversion process, and thereby advance the technology to the point of readiness for commercial scale demonstration and proliferation. The overall process is carbon negative, resulting in mineralization of CO2 that would otherwise be released into the atmosphere. The project will also substantiate market opportunities for the technology by sales of chemicals into existing markets, and identify opportunities to improve technology performance and reduce costs at the commercial scale. The project is being conducted in two phases. The primary objectives of Phase 1 were to elaborate proven SkyMine® process chemistry to commercial pilot-scale operation and complete the preliminary design for the pilot plant to be built and operated in Phase 2, complete a NEPA evaluation, and develop a comprehensive carbon life cycle analysis. The objective of the current Phase (2a) is to complete the detailed design of the pilot plant to be built in Phase 2b.

  18. Dehydration pathways of 1-propanol on HZSM-5 in the presence and absence of water

    SciTech Connect

    Zhi, Yuchun; Shi, Hui; Mu, Linyu; Liu, Yue; Mei, Donghai; Camaioni, Donald M.; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2015-12-23

    The Brønsted acid-catalyzed gas-phase dehydration of 1-propanol (0.075-4 kPa) was studied on zeolite H-MFI (Si/Al = 26, containing minimal amounts of extraframework Al moieties) in the absence and presence of co-fed water (0-2.5 kPa) at 413-443 K. It is shown that propene can be formed from monomeric and dimeric adsorbed 1-propanol. The stronger adsorption of 1-propanol relative to water indicates that the reduced dehydration rates in the presence of water are not a consequence of the competitive adsorption between 1-propanol and water. Instead, the deleterious effect is related to the different extents of stabilization of adsorbed intermediates and the relevant elimination/substitution transition states by water. Water stabilizes the adsorbed 1-propanol monomer significantly more than the elimination transition state, leading to a higher activation barrier and a greater entropy gain for the rate-limiting step, which eventually leads to propene. In a similar manner, an excess of 1-propanol stabilizes the adsorbed state of 1-propanol more than the elimination transition state. In comparison with the monomer-mediated pathway, adsorbed dimer and the relevant transition states for propene and ether formation are similarly, while less effectively, stabilized by intrazeolite water molecules. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences, and was performed in part using the Molecular Sciences Computing Facility (MSCF) in the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a DOE national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated by Battelle for DOE.

  19. Topics in Chemical Instrumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Galen W., Ed.

    1975-01-01

    Surveys the range of electronic calculators currently available and their capabilities. Prices range from $20.00 to $800.00, and functions performed range from the four arithmetic operations to complex operations such as the computation of standard deviation, vector addition, and programs with up to 100 steps. (MLH)

  20. Symbiosis: Rich, Exciting, Neglected Topic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Jane Thomas

    1974-01-01

    Argues that the topic of symbiosis has been greatly neglected and underemphasized in general-biology textbooks. Discusses many types and examples of symbiosis, and provides an extensive bibliography of the literature related to this topic. (JR)

  1. The Usefulness of Clinical and Laboratory Parameters for Predicting Severity of Dehydration in Children with Acute Gastroenteritis

    PubMed Central

    Hoxha, Teuta Faik; Azemi, Mehmedali; Avdiu, Muharrem; Ismaili-jaha, Vlora; Grajqevci, Violeta; Petrela, Ela

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: An accurate assessment of the degree of dehydration in infants and children is important for proper decision-making and treatment. This emphasizes the need for laboratory tests to improve the accuracy of clinical assessment of dehydration. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between clinical and laboratory parameters in the assessment of dehydration. Methods: We evaluated prospectively 200 children aged 1 month to 5 years who presented with diarrhea, vomiting or both. Dehydration assessment was done following a known clinical scheme. Results: We enrolled in the study 200 children (57.5% were male). The mean age was 15.62±9.03 months, with more than half those studied being under 24 months old. Overall, 46.5% (93) had mild dehydration, 34% (68) had moderate dehydration, 5.5% (11) had severe dehydration whereas, 14% (28) had no dehydration. Patients historical clinical variables in all dehydration groups did not differ significantly regarding age, sex, fever, frequency of vomiting, duration of diarrhea and vomiting, while there was a trend toward severe dehydration in children with more frequent diarrhea (p=0.004). Serum urea and creatinine cannot discriminate between mild and moderate dehydration but they showed a good specificity for severe dehydration of 99% and 100% respectively. Serum bicarbonates and base excess decreased significantly with a degree of dehydration and can discriminate between all dehydration groups (P<0.001). Conclusion: Blood gases were useful to diagnose the degree of dehydration status among children presenting with acute gastroenteritis. Serum urea and creatinine were the most specific tests for severe dehydration diagnosis. Historical clinical patterns apart from frequency of diarrhea did not correlate with dehydration status. Further studies are needed to validate our results. PMID:25568559

  2. 76 FR 4284 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Tulkoff Food Products, Inc. (Dehydrated Garlic), Baltimore...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... given in the Federal Register (74 FR 40567, 8-12-2009) and the application has been processed pursuant... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Tulkoff Food Products, Inc. (Dehydrated... following conditions: 1. All foreign-origin dehydrated garlic admitted to the subzone in foreign status...

  3. Quality of frozen fruit bars manufactured through infrared pre-dehydration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, frozen restructured whole apple and strawberry bars were manufactured by partial dehydration, using infrared (IR) heating, followed by restructuring and freezing. The objective of this investigation was to determine the effect of IR partial dehydration on the quality of restructured f...

  4. 21 CFR 573.400 - Ethoxyquin in certain dehydrated forage crops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... vegetable oils are to be used in the oil mix. (f) The label of any dehydrated forage crops treated with the... and vitamin E in the forage crops. (c) It is added to the dehydrated forage crops in an oil mixture containing only suitable animal or suitable vegetable oil, prior to grinding and mixing. (d) The...

  5. 21 CFR 573.400 - Ethoxyquin in certain dehydrated forage crops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... vegetable oils are to be used in the oil mix. (f) The label of any dehydrated forage crops treated with the... and vitamin E in the forage crops. (c) It is added to the dehydrated forage crops in an oil mixture containing only suitable animal or suitable vegetable oil, prior to grinding and mixing. (d) The...

  6. 21 CFR 573.400 - Ethoxyquin in certain dehydrated forage crops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... vegetable oils are to be used in the oil mix. (f) The label of any dehydrated forage crops treated with the... and vitamin E in the forage crops. (c) It is added to the dehydrated forage crops in an oil mixture containing only suitable animal or suitable vegetable oil, prior to grinding and mixing. (d) The...

  7. HIGH PERMEABILITY MEMBRANES FOR THE DEHYDRATION OF LOW WATER CONTENT ETHANOL BY PERVAPORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Energy efficient dehydration of low water content ethanol is a challenge for the sustainable production of fuel-grade ethanol. Pervaporative membrane dehydration using a recently developed hydrophilic polymer membrane formulation consisting of a cross-linked mixture of poly(allyl...

  8. Investigation of structural changes of silica particles during dehydration and chemosorption

    SciTech Connect

    Ogenko, V.M.; Ivashechkin, V.G.; Chuiko, A.A.; Mironyuk, I.F.

    1986-05-01

    Investigations have been made of changes in the structures of ultradisperse pyrogenic silica particles by small-angle x-ray scattering during dehydration and chemosorption. It has been established that during dehydration there are abrupt changes in the geometrical dimensions of the particles, caused by breakdown of coordination complexes between surface silicon atoms and water molecules.

  9. Dehydration of 2-Methyl-1-Cyclohexanol: New Findings from a Popular Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, J. Brent; Schretzman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The mineral acid-catalyzed dehydration of 2-methyl-1-cyclohexanol has been a popular laboratory exercise in second-year organic chemistry for several decades. The dehydration experiment is often performed by organic chemistry students to illustrate Zaitsev's rule. However, sensitive analytical techniques reveal that the results do not entirely…

  10. Hypersensitivity to topical corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, S M

    1994-01-01

    Contact hypersensitivity from topical corticosteroids is becoming increasingly recognized; it is present in 2-5% of the patients attending contact dermatitis clinics. The use of a corticosteroid series containing tixocortal pivalate 1% (petrolatum), to detect hypersensitivity to hydrocortisone, and other steroids 1% (ethanol), depending on local corticosteroid usage, detects the majority of cases of corticosteroid hypersensitivity. In selected cases, the use of intradermal tests further improves the diagnosis of corticosteroid hypersensitivity. Corticosteroid hypersensitivity occurs most frequently among patients with stasis dermatitis. However, corticosteroid hypersensitivity is also common in other types of dermatitis, occurring as frequently as hypersensitivity to several allergens (e.g. wool alcohols and colophony) in the European standard battery. Although hypersensitivity has mainly been reported with corticosteroids applied to the skin, reactions may also occur on mucosal surfaces, following systemic administration and with sex steroids. PMID:8313630

  11. Outcomes related to dehydration in the pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Scherb, Cindy A; Stevens, Marcia S; Busman, Carol

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was twofold: 1) to determine whether there was a statistically significant difference in nursing-sensitive patient outcome ratings from admission to discharge, and 2) to describe nursing interventions used to care for children admitted with a primary diagnosis of dehydration to a 272-bed Midwestern community hospital. Twenty-nine patient care records meeting study criteria were extracted from all pediatric admission records during the study period. The patient care records are part of a computerized clinical documentation system using the standardized nursing languages of the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, the Nursing Interventions Classification, and the Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC). A statistically significant improvement in outcome ratings from admission to discharge was demonstrated for seven of eight NOC outcomes. PMID:17889729

  12. Malnutrition and Dehydration in the Third World: Practical Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Cowtan, Edgar R.

    1985-01-01

    Malnutrition coupled with dehydration (usually secondary to diarrhea) is one of the major causes of morbidity and death in the Third World. The mortality rate is high, especially in children; four to five million die each year. However, diagnosis and treatment of these problems has improved in the past decade. In therapeutic feeding programs, which are designed for markedly malnourished children, oral rehydration solution is likely the most important medicine that can be offered. After initial rehydration, the malnutrition can be treated with six to nine meals daily, and/or nasal-gastric feeding and special high energy milk formulas. Patients usually require four to six weeks before moving to a supplementary program, which supplies an additional 350-500 kilocalories and an extra 15 g of protein to the daily diet. This program is for those at high risk: children under age five, pregnant and lactating women, and certain debilitated patients. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:21274127

  13. Characterization of dehydration-induced luminescence of kaolinite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lahav, N.; Coyne, L.; Lawless, J. G.

    1985-01-01

    The dehydration-induced luminescence of a colloidal kaolinite is investigated experimentally, with particular attention given to the effect of various treatments on the luminescence characteristics. It is found that the total photon count of the emitted light is linearly related to the film thickness up to a thickness of 30 microns; mechanical stress in the form of grinding increases the photon output and produces extensive changes in the emission kinetics. A direct check of the emission wavelength dependence (by using color filters) indicates that roughly 75 percent of the emission occurs in the wavelength range below 410 nm. It is also found that incorporation of fluorescent molecules into the kaolinite paste increases the photon output and may indicate the transfer of ultraviolet photons to the fluorescent probe.

  14. Benefits of tankage dehydration in the refinery process

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, S.M. )

    1989-01-01

    The goal of every refinery is to produce marketable products to achieve profit objectives. In order to accomplish this goal contaminants or impurities found in hydrocarbon feedstocks must be removed prior to refinement. Efficient removal can produce finished products that meet quality specifications. The author discusses how crude oil desalting satisfies this requirement as the first step toward contaminant removal in the refining process. The purpose of desalting is to reduce the salt and water content of crude oil to the lowest level that is economically practical. The desalting process can be further enhanced by pre-treating crude in tankage to remove brine before the crude is desalted. Tankage dehydration is presented as a simple treatment process designed to reduce the brine content of crude feedstocks in storage.

  15. Dehydration of oil waste emulsions by means of flocculants

    SciTech Connect

    Gandurina, L.V.; Butseva, L.N.; Shtondina, V.S.

    1995-05-01

    Oil waste emulsions are formed in the course of pumping petroleum crudes and products and are collected from the surfaces of equipment in recirculating water systems and wastewater disposal facilities (oil separators, sand traps, oil traps, holding pits for accidental spills, settlers, ponds, sludge accumulators, and so on). Emulsions are also obtained in the course of cleaning equipment in crude oil desalting and dehydration units. Such emulsions are stable, structurized systems that are very resistant to dewatering by heating and settling in separator tanks. In order to break stabilized emulsions, i.e., in order to ensure complete coalescence of drops when they collide, it is not sufficient to increase the forces of mutual attraction of drops at the moment of collision; in addition, the protective shell must be either destroyed or weakened. Demulsifying agents, or surfactants, will displace the stabilizers. This report is concerned with demulsifier efficiency.

  16. A generic protocol for protein crystal dehydration using the HC1b humidity controller

    PubMed Central

    Lobley, Carina M. C.; Sandy, James; Sanchez-Weatherby, Juan; Mazzorana, Marco; Krojer, Tobias; Nowak, Radosław P.; Sorensen, Thomas L.

    2016-01-01

    Dehydration may change the crystal lattice and affect the mosaicity, resolution and quality of X-ray diffraction data. A dehydrating environment can be generated around a crystal in several ways with various degrees of precision and complexity. This study uses a high-precision crystal humidifier/dehumidifier to provide an airstream of known relative humidity in which the crystals are mounted: a precise yet hassle-free approach to altering crystal hydration. A protocol is introduced to assess the impact of crystal dehydration systematically applied to nine experimental crystal systems. In one case, that of glucose isomerase, dehydration triggering a change of space group from I222 to P21212 was observed. This observation is supported by an extended study of the behaviour of the glucose isomerase crystal structure during crystal dehydration. PMID:27139626

  17. A generic protocol for protein crystal dehydration using the HC1b humidity controller.

    PubMed

    Lobley, Carina M C; Sandy, James; Sanchez-Weatherby, Juan; Mazzorana, Marco; Krojer, Tobias; Nowak, Radosław P; Sorensen, Thomas L

    2016-05-01

    Dehydration may change the crystal lattice and affect the mosaicity, resolution and quality of X-ray diffraction data. A dehydrating environment can be generated around a crystal in several ways with various degrees of precision and complexity. This study uses a high-precision crystal humidifier/dehumidifier to provide an airstream of known relative humidity in which the crystals are mounted: a precise yet hassle-free approach to altering crystal hydration. A protocol is introduced to assess the impact of crystal dehydration systematically applied to nine experimental crystal systems. In one case, that of glucose isomerase, dehydration triggering a change of space group from I222 to P21212 was observed. This observation is supported by an extended study of the behaviour of the glucose isomerase crystal structure during crystal dehydration. PMID:27139626

  18. ROLE OF PRESSURE IN SMECTITE DEHYDRATION - EFFECTS ON GEOPRESSURE AND SMECTITE-TO-ILLITE TRANSFORMATION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colten-Bradley, Virginia, A.

    1987-01-01

    Evaluation of the effects of pressure on the temperature of interlayer water loss (dehydration) by smectites under diagenetic conditions indicates that smectites are stable as hydrated phases in the deep subsurface. Hydraulic and differential pressure conditions affect dehydration differently. The temperature of dehydration increase with pore fluid pressure and interlayer water density. The temperatures of dehydration increase with pore fluid pressure and interlayer water density. The temperatures of dehydration under differential-presssure conditions are inversely related to pressure and interlayer water density. The model presented assumes the effects of pore fluid composition and 2:1 layer reactivity to be negligible. Agreement between theoretical and experimental results validate this assumption. Additional aspects of the subject are discussed.

  19. Medicaid Information by Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... and demonstration authorities to allow states flexibility in operating Medicaid programs. Each authority has a distinct purpose, ... in the Long-Term Services & Supports section. Delivery Systems States have choices in their approach to reimbursement ...

  20. Nitric Acid Dehydration Using Perfluoro Carboxylate and Mixed Sulfonate/Carboxylate Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    R.L. Ames

    2004-09-01

    Perfluoro ionomer membranes are tetrafluoro ethylene-based materials with microheterogeneous structures consisting of a hydrophobic polymer backbone and a hydrophilic side-chain cluster region. Due to the ionomer cluster morphology, these films exhibit unique transport properties. Recent investigations with perfluoro sulfonate and perfluoro sulfonate/carboxylate composite polymers have demonstrated their value in the dehydration of nitric acid and they show potential as an alternative to conventional, energy intensive unit operations in the concentration of acid feeds. As a result, investigations were conducted to determine the feasibility of using pure perfluoro carboxylate and mixed perfluoro sulfonate/carboxylate films for the dehydration of nitric acid because of the speculation of improved water selectivity of the carboxylate pendant chain. During the first phase of these investigations the effort was focused on generating a thin, solution cast perfluoro carboxylate ionomer film, to evaluate the general, chemical and physical characteristics of the polymer, and to assess the material's aqueous transport performance (flux and nitrate separation efficiencies) in pervaporation and high-pressure environments. Results demonstrated that generating robust solution-cast films was difficult yet a number of membranes survived high trans-membrane pressures up to 700 psig. General characterization of the solution cast product showed reduced ion exchange capacities when compared with thicker, ''as received'' perfluoro carboxylate and similar sulfonate films. Small angle x-ray scattering analysis results suggested that the solution cast carboxylate films contained a small fraction of sulfonate terminated side-chains. Aqueous transport experimentation showed that permeate fluxes for both pure water and nitric acid were approximately two orders of magnitude smaller for the carboxylate solution cast membranes when compared to their sulfonate counterparts of similar thickness

  1. [Learning to prevent dehydration in distant Mexican communities and markets].

    PubMed

    Alvarez Larrauri, S; Alvarez Larrauri, C; Jufresa Carreras, J

    1994-06-01

    Child mortality due to diarrheal diseases is high in Mexico. Official records reported 14,000 children died in 1990 of this cause. Yet, we do not know the real extent of the problem since unregistered child deaths in our countryside seem to be far more frequent than acknowledged by government information. Most of these deaths occur among poor peasants and indigenous people living far from medical services. There are more than 100,000 communities with less than 500 inhabitants. This population does not benefit from medical services due to several problems, such as accessibility and linguistic and cultural gaps. In order to promote Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT) within these communities, the authors implemented an education strategy, aimed at this specific population, to enhance their learning of prevention of diarrhea and dehydration, and thereby to increase their use of ORT. While rendering account of research devised to prove the extensibility to larger scales of methods formerly tried at an experimental (pilot) level, this paper further discusses and reinforces the contribution of the insights of a critical sociology epistemological framework in planning and conducting sociological interventions in the field of health as well as in any other field. The basic assumption of this point of view is that to adopt rationalized solutions to their problems (e.g. the prevention of dehydration of their children by means of the ORT) people should have the opportunity to deliberate rationally about them in order to be able to justify or validate their actions regarding the course of events and the opinions and norms of their closest community.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8036530

  2. Advancing microwave technology for dehydration processing of biologics.

    PubMed

    Cellemme, Stephanie L; Van Vorst, Matthew; Paramore, Elisha; Elliott, Gloria D

    2013-10-01

    Our prior work has shown that microwave processing can be effective as a method for dehydrating cell-based suspensions in preparation for anhydrous storage, yielding homogenous samples with predictable and reproducible drying times. In the current work an optimized microwave-based drying process was developed that expands upon this previous proof-of-concept. Utilization of a commercial microwave (CEM SAM 255, Matthews, NC) enabled continuous drying at variable low power settings. A new turntable was manufactured from Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMW-PE; Grainger, Lake Forest, IL) to provide for drying of up to 12 samples at a time. The new process enabled rapid and simultaneous drying of multiple samples in containment devices suitable for long-term storage and aseptic rehydration of the sample. To determine sample repeatability and consistency of drying within the microwave cavity, a concentration series of aqueous trehalose solutions were dried for specific intervals and water content assessed using Karl Fischer Titration at the end of each processing period. Samples were dried on Whatman S-14 conjugate release filters (Whatman, Maidestone, UK), a glass fiber membrane used currently in clinical laboratories. The filters were cut to size for use in a 13 mm Swinnex(®) syringe filter holder (Millipore(™), Billerica, MA). Samples of 40 μL volume could be dehydrated to the equilibrium moisture content by continuous processing at 20% with excellent sample-to-sample repeatability. The microwave-assisted procedure enabled high throughput, repeatable drying of multiple samples, in a manner easily adaptable for drying a wide array of biological samples. Depending on the tolerance for sample heating, the drying time can be altered by changing the power level of the microwave unit. PMID:24835259

  3. Spring dehydration in the Antarctic stratospheric vortex observed by HALOE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, R. Bradley; Grose, William L.; Russell, James M., III; Tuck, Adrian F.; Swinbank, Richard; O'Neill, Alan

    1994-01-01

    The distribution of dehydrated air in the middle and lower stratosphere during the 1992 Southern Hemisphere spring is investigated using Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) observations and trajectory techniques. Comparisons between previously published Version 9 and the improved Version 16 retrievals on the 700-K isentropic surface show very slight (0.05 ppmv) increases in Version 16 CH4 relative to Version 9 within the polar vortex. Version 16 H2O mixing ratios show a reduction of 0.5 ppmv relative to Version 9 within the polar night jet and a reduction of nearly 1.0 ppmv in middle latitudes when compared to Version 9. The version 16 HALOE retrievals show low mixing ratios of total hydrogen (2CH4 + H2O) within the polar vortex on both 700 and 425 K isentropic surfaces relative to typical middle-stratospheric 2CH4 + H2O mixing ratios. The low 2CH4 + H2O mixing ratios are associated with dehydration. Slight reductions in total hydrogen, relative to typical middle-stratospheric values, are found at these levels throughout the Southern Hemisphere during this period. Trajectory calculations show that middle-latitude air masses are composed of a mixture of air from within the polar night jet and air from middle latitudes. A strong kinematic barrier to large-scale exchange is found on the poleward flank of the polar night jet at 700 K. A much weaker kinematic barrier is found at 425 K. The impact of the finite tangent pathlength of the HALOE measurements is investigated using an idealized tracer distribution. This experiment suggests that HALOE should be able to resolve the kinematic barrier, if it exists.

  4. Dehydration of isobutanol to isobutene in a slurry reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Latshaw, B.E.

    1994-02-01

    The April 1990 Alternative Fuels Proposal to the Department of Energy involved the development of new technology, based on the liquid phase process, for conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to oxygenated hydrocarbon fuels, fuel additives, and fuel intermediates. The objective of this work was to develop a slurry reactor based process for the dehydration of isobutanol to isobutene. The isobutene can serve as a feedstock for the high octane oxygenated fuel additive methyl tertiary-butyl either (MTBE). Alumina catalysts were investigated because of their wide use as a dehydration catalyst. Four commercially available alumina catalysts (Catapal B, Versal B, Versal GH, and Al-3996R) were evaluated for both activity and selectivity to the branched olefin. All four catalysts demonstrated conversions greater than 80% at 290 C, while conversions of near 100% could be obtained at 330 C. The reaction favors low pressures and moderate to low space velocities. A yield of 0.90 mole isobutene per mole reacted isobutanol or better was obtained at conversions of 60--70% and higher. From 75 to 98% conversion, the four catalysts all provide isobutene yields ranging from 0.92 to 0.94 with the maximum occurring around 90% conversion. At low conversions, the concentration of diisobutyl ether becomes significant while the concentration of linear butenes is essentially a linear function of isobutanol conversion. Doping the catalyst with up to 0.8 wt % potassium showed a modest increase in isobutene selectivity; however, this increase was more than offset by a reduction in activity. Investigations using a mixed alcohols feed (consistent with isobutanol synthesis from syngas) demonstrated a small increase in the C4 iso-olefin selectivity over that observed for a pure isobutanol feed. 55 refs.

  5. [Classical topical therapy of psoriasis].

    PubMed

    Gerdes, S; Mrowietz, U

    2006-08-01

    In most cases mild to moderate forms of psoriasis can be treated with topical therapy. In addition, topical agents are also routinely combined with UV or systemic therapy to treat severe forms of psoriasis. A variety of standard products are available. The oldest topical treatment is anthralin. Since 1952 the development of topical corticosteroids has revolutionized not only dermatological treatment in general but the treatment of psoriasis in particular. Through the continuous development of these compounds, a better risk-benefit profile has been achieved. Corticosteroids are the most frequently employed topical agent for psoriasis treatment worldwide. PMID:16841204

  6. Dehydration markedly impairs cardiovascular function in hyperthermic endurance athletes during exercise.

    PubMed

    González-Alonso, J; Mora-Rodríguez, R; Below, P R; Coyle, E F

    1997-04-01

    We identified the cardiovascular stress encountered by superimposing dehydration on hyperthermia during exercise in the heat and the mechanisms contributing to the dehydration-mediated stroke volume (SV) reduction. Fifteen endurance-trained cyclists [maximal O2 consumption (VO2max) = 4.5 l/min] exercised in the heat for 100-120 min and either became dehydrated by 4% body weight or remained euhydrated by drinking fluids. Measurements were made after they continued exercise at 71% VO2max for 30 min while 1) euhydrated with an esophageal temperature (T(es)) of 38.1-38.3 degrees C (control); 2) euhydrated and hyperthermic (39.3 degrees C); 3) dehydrated and hyperthermic with skin temperature (T(sk)) of 34 degrees C; 4) dehydrated with T(es) of 38.1 degrees C and T(sk) of 21 degrees C; and 5) condition 4 followed by restored blood volume. Compared with control, hyperthermia (1 degrees C T(es) increase) and dehydration (4% body weight loss) each separately lowered SV 7-8% (11 +/- 3 ml/beat; P < 0.05) and increased heart rate sufficiently to prevent significant declines in cardiac output. However, when dehydration was superimposed on hyperthermia, the reductions in SV were significantly (P < 0.05) greater (26 +/- 3 ml/beat), and cardiac output declined 13% (2.8 +/- 0.3 l/min). Furthermore, mean arterial pressure declined 5 +/- 2%, and systemic vascular resistance increased 10 +/- 3% (both P < 0.05). When hyperthermia was prevented, all of the decline in SV with dehydration was due to reduced blood volume (approximately 200 ml). These results demonstrate that the superimposition of dehydration on hyperthermia during exercise in the heat causes an inability to maintain cardiac output and blood pressure that makes the dehydrated athlete less able to cope with hyperthermia. PMID:9104860

  7. A DFT-based comparative equilibrium study of thermal dehydration and hydrolysis of CaCl₂ hydrates and MgCl₂ hydrates for seasonal heat storage.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Amar Deep; Nedea, Silvia; Zondag, Herbert; Rindt, Camilo; Smeulders, David

    2016-04-21

    Salt hydrates store solar energy in chemical form via a reversible dehydration-hydration reaction. However, as a side reaction to dehydration, hydrolysis (HCl formation) may occur in chloride based salt hydrates (specially in MgCl2 hydrates), affecting the durability of the storage system. The mixture of CaCl2 and MgCl2 hydrates has been shown experimentally to have exceptional cycle stability and improved kinetics. However, the optimal operating conditions for the mixture are unknown. To understand the appropriate balance between dehydration and hydrolysis kinetics in the mixtures, it is essential to gain in-depth insight into the mixture components. We present a GGA-DFT level study to investigate the various gaseous structures of CaCl2 hydrates and to understand the relative stability of their conformers. The hydration strength and relative stability of conformers are dominated by electrostatic interactions. A wide network of intramolecular homonuclear and heteronuclear hydrogen bonds is observed in CaCl2 hydrates. Equilibrium product concentrations are obtained during dehydration and hydrolysis reactions under various temperature and pressure conditions. The trend of the dehydration curve with temperature in CaCl2 hydrates is similar to the experiments. Comparing these results to those of MgCl2 hydrates, we find that CaCl2 hydrates are more resistant towards hydrolysis in the temperature range of 273-800 K. Specifically, the present study reveals that the onset temperatures of HCl formation, a crucial design parameter for MgCl2 hydrates, are lower than for CaCl2 hydrates except for the mono-hydrate. PMID:27004734

  8. Current Topics in Epilepsy Surgery.

    PubMed

    Usui, Naotaka

    2016-05-15

    This article reviews the current topics in the field of epilepsy surgery. Each type of epilepsy is associated with a different set of questions and goals. In mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) with hippocampal sclerosis (HS), postoperative seizure outcome is satisfactory. A recent meta-analysis revealed superior seizure outcome after anterior temporal lobectomy compared with selective amygdalohippocampectomy; in terms of cognitive outcome; however, amygdalohippocampectomy may be beneficial. In temporal lobe epilepsy with normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), postoperative seizure outcome is not as favorable as it is in MTLE with HS; further improvement of seizure outcome in these cases is necessary. Focal cortical dysplasia is the most common substrate in intractable neocortical epilepsy, especially in children, as well as in MRI-invisible neocortical epilepsy. Postoperative seizure-free outcome is approximately 60-70%; further diagnostic and therapeutic improvement is required. Regarding diagnostic methodology, an important topic currently under discussion is wideband electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis. Although high-frequency oscillations and ictal direct current shifts are considered important markers of epileptogenic zones, the clinical significance of these findings should be clarified further. Regarding alternatives to surgery, neuromodulation therapy can be an option for patients who are not amenable to resective surgery. In addition to vagus nerve stimulation, intracranial stimulation such as responsive neurostimulation or anterior thalamic stimulation is reported to have a modest seizure suppression effect. Postoperative management such as rehabilitation and antiepileptic drug (AED) management is important. It has been reported that postoperative rehabilitation improves postoperative employment status. Pre- and post-operative comprehensive care is mandatory for postoperative improvement of quality of life. PMID:26984452

  9. Current Topics in Epilepsy Surgery

    PubMed Central

    USUI, Naotaka

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the current topics in the field of epilepsy surgery. Each type of epilepsy is associated with a different set of questions and goals. In mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) with hippocampal sclerosis (HS), postoperative seizure outcome is satisfactory. A recent meta-analysis revealed superior seizure outcome after anterior temporal lobectomy compared with selective amygdalohippocampectomy; in terms of cognitive outcome; however, amygdalohippocampectomy may be beneficial. In temporal lobe epilepsy with normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), postoperative seizure outcome is not as favorable as it is in MTLE with HS; further improvement of seizure outcome in these cases is necessary. Focal cortical dysplasia is the most common substrate in intractable neocortical epilepsy, especially in children, as well as in MRI-invisible neocortical epilepsy. Postoperative seizure-free outcome is approximately 60–70%; further diagnostic and therapeutic improvement is required. Regarding diagnostic methodology, an important topic currently under discussion is wideband electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis. Although high-frequency oscillations and ictal direct current shifts are considered important markers of epileptogenic zones, the clinical significance of these findings should be clarified further. Regarding alternatives to surgery, neuromodulation therapy can be an option for patients who are not amenable to resective surgery. In addition to vagus nerve stimulation, intracranial stimulation such as responsive neurostimulation or anterior thalamic stimulation is reported to have a modest seizure suppression effect. Postoperative management such as rehabilitation and antiepileptic drug (AED) management is important. It has been reported that postoperative rehabilitation improves postoperative employment status. Pre- and post-operative comprehensive care is mandatory for postoperative improvement of quality of life. PMID:26984452

  10. Topics in Nuclear Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budnitz, Robert J.

    2011-11-01

    The 104 nuclear plants operating in the US today are far safer than they were 20-30 years ago. For example, there's been about a 100-fold reduction in the occurrence of "significant events" since the late 1970s. Although the youngest of currently operating US plants was designed in the 1970s, all have been significantly modified over the years. Key contributors to the safety gains are a vigilant culture, much improved equipment reliability, greatly improved training of operators and maintenance workers, worldwide sharing of experience, and the effective use of probabilistic risk assessment. Several manufacturers have submitted high quality new designs for large reactors to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for design approval, and some designers are taking a second look at the economies of smaller, modular reactors.

  11. Topics in Nuclear Power

    SciTech Connect

    Budnitz, Robert J.

    2011-11-04

    The 104 nuclear plants operating in the US today are far safer than they were 20-30 years ago. For example, there's been about a 100-fold reduction in the occurrence of 'significant events' since the late 1970s. Although the youngest of currently operating US plants was designed in the 1970s, all have been significantly modified over the years. Key contributors to the safety gains are a vigilant culture, much improved equipment reliability, greatly improved training of operators and maintenance workers, worldwide sharing of experience, and the effective use of probabilistic risk assessment. Several manufacturers have submitted high quality new designs for large reactors to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for design approval, and some designers are taking a second look at the economies of smaller, modular reactors.

  12. Topics in statistical mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Elser, V.

    1984-05-01

    This thesis deals with four independent topics in statistical mechanics: (1) the dimer problem is solved exactly for a hexagonal lattice with general boundary using a known generating function from the theory of partitions. It is shown that the leading term in the entropy depends on the shape of the boundary; (2) continuum models of percolation and self-avoiding walks are introduced with the property that their series expansions are sums over linear graphs with intrinsic combinatorial weights and explicit dimension dependence; (3) a constrained SOS model is used to describe the edge of a simple cubic crystal. Low and high temperature results are derived as well as the detailed behavior near the crystal facet; (4) the microscopic model of the lambda-transition involving atomic permutation cycles is reexamined. In particular, a new derivation of the two-component field theory model of the critical behavior is presented. Results for a lattice model originally proposed by Kikuchi are extended with a high temperature series expansion and Monte Carlo simulation. 30 references.

  13. Organic solvent topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Cowley, W.L.

    1998-04-30

    This report is the technical basis for the accident and consequence analyses used in the Hanford Tank Farms Basis for Interim Operation. The report also contains the scientific and engineering information and reference material needed to understand the organic solvent safety issue. This report includes comments received from the Chemical Reactions Subcommittee of the Tank Advisory Panel.

  14. Discovering Health Topics in Social Media Using Topic Models

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Michael J.; Dredze, Mark

    2014-01-01

    By aggregating self-reported health statuses across millions of users, we seek to characterize the variety of health information discussed in Twitter. We describe a topic modeling framework for discovering health topics in Twitter, a social media website. This is an exploratory approach with the goal of understanding what health topics are commonly discussed in social media. This paper describes in detail a statistical topic model created for this purpose, the Ailment Topic Aspect Model (ATAM), as well as our system for filtering general Twitter data based on health keywords and supervised classification. We show how ATAM and other topic models can automatically infer health topics in 144 million Twitter messages from 2011 to 2013. ATAM discovered 13 coherent clusters of Twitter messages, some of which correlate with seasonal influenza (r = 0.689) and allergies (r = 0.810) temporal surveillance data, as well as exercise (r = .534) and obesity (r = −.631) related geographic survey data in the United States. These results demonstrate that it is possible to automatically discover topics that attain statistically significant correlations with ground truth data, despite using minimal human supervision and no historical data to train the model, in contrast to prior work. Additionally, these results demonstrate that a single general-purpose model can identify many different health topics in social media. PMID:25084530

  15. Ozone fumigation for safety and quality of wine grapes in postharvest dehydration.

    PubMed

    Botondi, Rinaldo; De Sanctis, Federica; Moscatelli, Niccolò; Vettraino, Anna Maria; Catelli, Cesare; Mencarelli, Fabio

    2015-12-01

    This paper proposes postharvest ozone fumigation (as a method) to control microorganisms and evaluate the effect on polyphenols, anthocyanins, carotenoids and cell wall enzymes during the grape dehydration for wine production. Pignola grapes were ozone-treated (1.5 g/h) for 18 h (A=shock treatment), then dehydrated or ozone-treated (1.5 g/h) for 18 h and at 0.5 g/h for 4 h each day (B=long-term treatment) during dehydration. Treatment and dehydration were performed at 10 °C. No significant difference was found for total carotenoid, total phenolic and total anthocyanin contents after 18 h of O3 treatment. A significant decrease in phenolic and anthocyanin contents occurred during treatment B. Also carotenoids were affected by B ozone treatment. Pectin methylesterase (PME) and polygalacturonase (PG) activities were higher in A-treated grapes during dehydration. Finally, ozone reduced fungi and yeasts by 50%. Shock ozone fumigation (A treatment) before dehydration can be used to reduce the microbial count during dehydration without affecting polyphenol and carotenoid contents. PMID:26041242

  16. Wet fractionation of forage to reduce energy requirements of dehydration. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The Valley Dehydrating Company of Atwood, Colorado, was founded in 1952 to dehydrate alfalfa. Subsequently, it was realized that the rapidly escalating cost of natural gas, burned to provide heat for the dehydration of the alfalfa, would make the traditional process of direct dehydration uneconomical. As an alternative, the use of green crop fractionation in combination with waste heat recovery from the main dryer was investigated. In the wet, or green crop fractionation process, freshly cut alfalfa is brought to the processing site where it is first macerated to rupture the plant cells and then is pressed to remove as much juice as possible. The fiber fraction from the pressing contains only about half as much moisture as the original alfalfa; and thus, can be dehydrated at a much lower cost. The juice which contains plant proteins and lipids as well as a variety of soluble components, is heated to above 80/sup 0/C in order to coagulate the protein. When this material is separated from the residual liquid and dried a high protein, high xanthophyll product (Pro-Xan) results. The remaining solubles are concentrated, using the waste heat from the main dryer to yield a molasses-like product. Instead of the one product, (dehydrated alfalfa) produced by the traditional process, green crop fractionation produces three: dehydrated pressed alfalfa, leaf nutrient concentrate, and molasses.

  17. Effects of dehydration on the viscoelastic properties of vocal folds in large deformations.

    PubMed

    Miri, Amir K; Barthelat, François; Mongeau, Luc

    2012-11-01

    Dehydration may alter vocal fold viscoelastic properties, thereby hampering phonation. The effects of water loss induced by an osmotic pressure potential on vocal fold tissue viscoelastic properties were investigated. Porcine vocal folds were dehydrated by immersion in a hypertonic solution, and quasi-static and low-frequency dynamic traction tests were performed for elongations of up to 50%. Digital image correlation was used to determine local strains from surface deformations. The elastic modulus and the loss factor were then determined for normal and dehydrated tissues. An eight-chain hyperelastic model was used to describe the observed nonlinear stress-stretch behavior. Contrary to the expectations, the mass history indicated that the tissue absorbed water during cyclic extension when submerged in a hypertonic solution. During loading history, the elastic modulus was increased for dehydrated tissues as a function of strain. The response of dehydrated tissues was much less affected when the load was released. This observation suggests that hydration should be considered in micromechanical models of the vocal folds. The internal hysteresis, which is often linked to phonation effort, increased significantly with water loss. The effects of dehydration on the viscoelastic properties of vocal fold tissue were quantified in a systematic way. A better understanding of the role of hydration on the mechanical properties of vocal fold tissue may help to establish objective dehydration and phonotrauma criteria. PMID:22483778

  18. Intra- and extracellular dehydration-induced thirst-related behavior in an amphibian.

    PubMed

    Taylor, K; Mayer, L P; Propper, C R

    The behavioral response to dehydration is critical to an animal's survival. Because of their permeable skin, amphibians are particularly sensitive to dehydrating conditions. We tested the hypothesis that different forms of dehydration induce water absorption response (WR) behavior in the desert spadefoot toad, Scaphiopus couchii. First, we determined the behavioral response to intracellular dehydration by treating fully hydrated toads with increasing concentrations of hypertonic solutions of NaCl or sucrose via intraperitoneal injection (i.p.). Animals that were treated to induce intracellular dehydration with either solute exhibited a significant increase in WR behavior compared to vehicle-treated controls. To distinguish that the response was a result of an increased osmotic gradient between the intra- and extracellular compartments, we treated fully hydrated animals i.p. with urea, which freely passes into the intracellular compartment and increases overall animal osmolarity. Urea treatment did not induce WR behavior. To determine the response to extracellular dehydration, the blood volume of fully hydrated toads was reduced via cardiac puncture, and the WR behavior was measured. Animals who had a reduction in blood volume exhibited a significant increase in WR behavior compared to sham-punctured controls. Our results are the first to demonstrate that multiple forms of dehydration can induce thirst-related behavior in amphibians. PMID:10073473

  19. Effects of Dehydration on the Viscoelastic Properties of Vocal Folds in Large Deformations

    PubMed Central

    Miri, Amir K.; Barthelat, François; Mongeau, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Summary Dehydration may alter vocal fold viscoelastic properties, which may hamper phonation. The effects of water loss induced by an osmotic-pressure potential on vocal fold tissue viscoelastic properties were investigated. Porcine vocal folds were dehydrated by immersion in a hypertonic solution, and quasi-static and low-frequency dynamic traction tests were performed for elongations of up to 50%. Digital image correlation was used to determine local strains from surface deformations. The elastic modulus and the loss factor were then determined for normal and dehydrated tissues. An eight-chain hyperelastic model was used to describe the observed nonlinear stress-stretch behavior. Contrary to expectations, the mass history indicated that the tissue absorbed water during cyclic extension when submerged in a hypertonic solution. During loading history, the elastic modulus was increased for dehydrated tissues as a function of strain. The response of dehydrated tissues was much less affected when the load was releasing. This calls more attention to the modeling of vocal folds in micromechanics modeling. The internal hysteresis, which is often linked to phonation effort, increased significantly with water loss. The effects of dehydration on the viscoelastic properties of vocal fold tissue were quantified in a systematic way. The results will contribute to a better understanding of the basic biomechanics of voice production and ultimately will help establish objective dehydration and phonotrauma criteria. PMID:22483778

  20. Topics in nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Budnitz, Robert J.

    2015-03-30

    The 101 nuclear plants operating in the US today are far safer than they were 20-30 years ago. For example, there's been about a 100-fold reduction in the occurrence of 'significant events' since the late 1970s. Although the youngest of currently operating US plants was designed in the 1970s, all have been significantly modified over the years. Key contributors to the safety gains are a vigilant culture, much improved equipment reliability, greatly improved training of operators and maintenance workers, worldwide sharing of experience, and the effective use of probabilistic risk assessment. Several manufacturers have submitted high quality new designs for large reactors to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for design approval, and several companies are vigorously working on designs for smaller, modular reactors. Although the Fukushima reactor accident in March 2011 in Japan has been an almost unmitigated disaster for the local population due to their being displaced from their homes and workplaces and also due to the land contamination, its 'lessons learned' have been important for the broader nuclear industry, and will surely result in safer nuclear plants worldwide - indeed, have already done so, with more safety improvements to come.

  1. Topics in nuclear power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budnitz, Robert J.

    2015-03-01

    The 101 nuclear plants operating in the US today are far safer than they were 20-30 years ago. For example, there's been about a 100-fold reduction in the occurrence of "significant events" since the late 1970s. Although the youngest of currently operating US plants was designed in the 1970s, all have been significantly modified over the years. Key contributors to the safety gains are a vigilant culture, much improved equipment reliability, greatly improved training of operators and maintenance workers, worldwide sharing of experience, and the effective use of probabilistic risk assessment. Several manufacturers have submitted high quality new designs for large reactors to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for design approval, and several companies are vigorously working on designs for smaller, modular reactors. Although the Fukushima reactor accident in March 2011 in Japan has been an almost unmitigated disaster for the local population due to their being displaced from their homes and workplaces and also due to the land contamination, its "lessons learned" have been important for the broader nuclear industry, and will surely result in safer nuclear plants worldwide - indeed, have already done so, with more safety improvements to come.

  2. Bonding by Hydroxide-Catalyzed Hydration and Dehydration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwo, Dz-Hung

    2008-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive method for bonding solid objects exploits hydroxide-catalyzed hydration and dehydration to form silicate-like networks in thin surface and interfacial layers between the objects. The method can be practiced at room temperature or over a wide range of temperatures. The method was developed especially to enable the formation of precise, reliable bonds between precise optical components. The bonds thus formed exhibit the precision and transparency of bonds formed by the conventional optical-contact method and the strength and reliability of high-temperature frit bonds. The method also lends itself to numerous non-optical applications in which there are requirements for precise bonds and/or requirements for bonds, whether precise or imprecise, that can reliably withstand severe environmental conditions. Categories of such non-optical applications include forming composite materials, coating substrates, forming laminate structures, and preparing objects of defined geometry and composition. The method is applicable to materials that either (1) can form silicate-like networks in the sense that they have silicate-like molecular structures that are extensible into silicate-like networks or (2) can be chemically linked to silicate-like networks by means of hydroxide-catalyzed hydration and dehydration. When hydrated, a material of either type features surface hydroxyl (-OH) groups. In this method, a silicate-like network that bonds two substrates can be formed either by a bonding material alone or by the bonding material together with material from either or both of the substrates. Typically, an aqueous hydroxide bonding solution is dispensed and allowed to flow between the mating surfaces by capillary action. If the surface figures of the substrates do not match precisely, bonding could be improved by including a filling material in the bonding solution. Preferably, the filling material should include at least one ingredient that can be hydrated to

  3. Observational constraints on the efficiency of dehydration mechanisms in the tropical tropopause layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollins, A. W.; Thornberry, T. D.; Gao, R. S.; Woods, S.; Lawson, R. P.; Bui, T. P.; Jensen, E. J.; Fahey, D. W.

    2016-03-01

    The efficiency of dehydration in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) determines how closely water vapor will be reduced to the lowest saturation mixing ratio encountered along a trajectory to the stratosphere, thereby strongly influencing stratospheric humidity. The NASA Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment (ATTREX) provided an unprecedented number and quality of in situ observations to constrain the key mechanisms controlling this dehydration. Statistical analyses of the ATTREX data show that nucleation, growth, and sedimentation each result in TTL dehydration becoming increasingly inefficient at temperatures below 200 K. Because of these inefficiencies, models that ignore these mechanisms likely underestimate water vapor at the stratospheric entry point by ~10-20% at the lowest temperatures.

  4. Iron-Catalyzed Dehydration of Aldoximes to Nitriles Requiring Neither Other Reagents Nor Nitrile Media.

    PubMed

    Hyodo, Kengo; Kitagawa, Saki; Yamazaki, Masayuki; Uchida, Kingo

    2016-05-01

    The dehydration of aldoximes is an environmentally benign reaction affording the desired nitrile and water as a by-product. However, most of the reported catalytic dehydration reactions of aldoximes require a solvent containing nitrile to synthesize the corresponding nitrile compounds. Inspired by recent reports on the enzymatic synthesis under nitrile-free conditions, we here describe that a simple iron salt catalyzes the dehydration of aldoximes requiring neither other reagents nor nitrile media. Our method can be applied to the one-pot synthesis of nitiriles from aldehydes. PMID:26910510

  5. Molecular and structural preservation of dehydrated bio-tissue for THz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Png, Gretel M.; Choi, Jin Wook; Guest, Ian; Ng, Brian W.-H.; Mickan, Samuel P.; Abbott, Derek; Zhang, Xi-Cheng

    2007-12-01

    Terahertz transmission through freshly excised biological tissue is limited by the tissue's high water content. Tissue fixation methods that remove water, such as fixation in Formalin, destroy the structural information of proteins hence are not suitable for THz applications. Dehydration is one possible method for revealing the tissue's underlying molecular structure and components. In this study, we measured the THz responses over time of dehydrating fresh, necrotic and lyophilized rat tissue. Our results show that as expected, THz absorption increases dramatically with drying and tissue freshness can be maintained through lyophilization. Dehydrated biological tissue with retained molecular structure can be useful for future laser-based THz wave molecular analysis.

  6. Topicality 1 and Topicality 2: A Quest for True Meaning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Clark D.; Vasilius, Janet M.

    The actual nature of topicality as it is presented in intercollegiate debate rounds has become so split that there are two different types of topicality. The first type (T1) is a "real" argument that is subjective, intentional, absolute, jurisdictional, pragmatic, and focuses on content and product. The second type (T2) is strategic, objective,…

  7. Topical Knowledge and Topical Interest Predictors of Listening Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Victoria Chou; Devine, Denise A.

    A study was designed to determine whether scores for general knowledge, specific knowledge, and general interest on a topic could be used as predictors of children's listening comprehension. Baseball and dolls were chosen as the topics because their stereotypic nature would allow the data to be generalized across the subject population. Data were…

  8. On the dehydration mechanism of Mg(OH){sub 2} by a high-energy electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Su Dong; Jiang, Nan; Spence, John C. H.; He Feng; Petuskey, William T.

    2008-09-15

    The dehydration process in Mg(OH){sub 2} induced by high-energy electron irradiation is studied by in situ electron energy loss spectroscopy. During dehydration, both the low energy-loss spectra and the Mg L{sub 23} edge show the existence of partially oxidized Mg- or O-deficient MgO in the dehydrated products, which is not seen in the thermally dehydrated MgO. This indicates that the dehydration mechanism under the electron beam may be different from the mechanism involved in a thermal process.

  9. Use of a Dehydrated Amniotic Membrane Allograft on Lower Extremity Ulcers in Patients with Challenging Wounds: A Retrospective Case Series.

    PubMed

    Lintzeris, Dimitrios; Yarrow, Kari; Johnson, Laura; White, Amber; Hampton, Amanda; Strickland, Andy; Albert, Kristy; Cook, Arlene

    2015-10-01

    Lower extremity ulcers in patients with diabetes mellitus may take a long time to heal despite the use of advanced topical therapies. A retrospective review of cases was conducted to assess the use of a dehydrated amniotic membrane allograft (DAMA) in a convenience sample of 9 wounds in 8 patients (5 men, 3 women, average age 62 years [range 31-81 years]) with diabetes mellitus and/or vascular disease. Wound data and patient characteristics were abstracted from medical records. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data. In 5 of 9 wounds, DAMA was applied after a failure to demonstrate a 50% reduction in area after 4 weeks of treatment with advanced wound care, offloading, and compression as indicated. In 4 wounds, DAMA was applied 2-4 weeks after presentation because of concerns about existing patient risk factors for nonhealing. Wounds were present for an average of 11 weeks (range 1-35 weeks) before application of DAMA. Mean baseline wound area and volume were 3.11 cm2 (± 3.73) and 0.55 cm3 (± 0.58), respectively. All wounds healed in an average of 5.7 (± 2.9) weeks (range: 1-9 weeks) after a mean of 2.7 applications (± 1.7) (range 1-5 applications). No adverse events occurred. These observations suggest prospective, randomized, controlled clinical studies to compare the use of DAMA to other topical treatment modalities are warranted. PMID:26479124

  10. Special Operation. Module 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on special operations, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers two topics: topstitching and mitering. For each topic these components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, a student self-check, and a check-out…

  11. Tropical Tropopause Layer Cloud Formation, Convection and Stratospheric Dehydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoeberl, M. R.; Dessler, A. E.; Wang, T.; Avery, M. A.; Jensen, E. J.

    2014-12-01

    Using MERRA reanalysis winds, temperatures and anvil cloud ice, we use our domain-filling, forward trajectory model to study the impact that more realistic cloud formation and convective water injection has on stratospheric water vapor. Our model computed cloud fraction shows reasonable agreement with cloud frequency observed by HIRDLS and CALIOP in the tropical troposphere layer (TTL). Our results suggest that ~64% of the cirrus formed in the TTL are due convection. Overall we find that inclusion of cloud microphysical processes increases stratospheric water vapor by 0.5 ppmv. Adding anvil ice increases stratospheric water vapor by an additional 0.5-0.6 ppmv but has a bigger impact on cloud formation with an increase of ~20-30% in TTL cloud fraction. With convection and cloud dehydration global 18-30 km average water vapor is ~5-7% higher than MLS water vapor observations. Adding waves to the MERRA temperature fields reduces stratospheric water vapor bringing our estimates to within 3% of MLS.

  12. Ethanol Dehydration to Ethylene in a Stratified Autothermal Millisecond Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, MJ; Michor, EL; Fan, W; Tsapatsis, M; Bhan, A; Schmidt, LD

    2011-08-10

    The concurrent decomposition and deoxygenation of ethanol was accomplished in a stratified reactor with 50-80 ms contact times. The stratified reactor comprised an upstream oxidation zone that contained Pt-coated Al(2)O(3) beads and a downstream dehydration zone consisting of H-ZSM-5 zeolite films deposited on Al(2)O(3) monoliths. Ethanol conversion, product selectivity, and reactor temperature profiles were measured for a range of fuel:oxygen ratios for two autothermal reactor configurations using two different sacrificial fuel mixtures: a parallel hydrogen-ethanol feed system and a series methane-ethanol feed system. Increasing the amount of oxygen relative to the fuel resulted in a monotonic increase in ethanol conversion in both reaction zones. The majority of the converted carbon was in the form of ethylene, where the ethanol carbon-carbon bonds stayed intact while the oxygen was removed. Over 90% yield of ethylene was achieved by using methane as a sacrificial fuel. These results demonstrate that noble metals can be successfully paired with zeolites to create a stratified autothermal reactor capable of removing oxygen from biomass model compounds in a compact, continuous flow system that can be configured to have multiple feed inputs, depending on process restrictions.

  13. Dehydrating and Sterilizing Wastes Using Supercritical CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Ian J.

    2006-01-01

    A relatively low-temperature process for dehydrating and sterilizing biohazardous wastes in an enclosed life-support system exploits (1) the superior mass-transport properties of supercritical fluids in general and (2) the demonstrated sterilizing property of supercritical CO2 in particular. The wastes to be treated are placed in a chamber. Liquid CO2, drawn from storage at a pressure of 850 psi (approx.=5.9 MPa) and temperature of 0 C, is compressed to pressure of 2 kpsi (approx.=14 MPa) and made to flow into the chamber. The compression raises the temperature to 10 C. The chamber and its contents are then further heated to 40 C, putting the CO2 into a supercritical state, in which it kills microorganisms in the chamber. Carrying dissolved water, the CO2 leaves the chamber through a back-pressure regulator, through which it is expanded back to the storage pressure. The expanded CO2 is refrigerated to extract the dissolved water as ice, and is then returned to the storage tank at 0 C

  14. Chryseobacterium limigenitum sp. nov., isolated from dehydrated sludge.

    PubMed

    Kämpfer, Peter; Trček, Janja; Skok, Barbara; Šorgo, Andrej; Glaeser, Stefanie P

    2015-06-01

    An intense yellow pigmented strain (SUR2(T)) isolated from dehydrated activated sludge was studied in detail to clarify its taxonomic assignment. Cells of the isolate showed a rod-shaped morphology and stained Gram-negative. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed highest similarities to the type strains of Chryseobacterium polytrichastri YG4-6(T) (98.6 %), Chryseobacterium aahli T68F(T) (97.9 %), Chryseobacterium daeguense K105(T) and Chryseobacterium gregarium DSM 79109(T) (both 97.4 %). 16S rRNA gene-sequence similarities to all other Chryseobacterium species were below 97.3 %. The fatty acid analysis of strain SUR2(T) revealed a Chryseobacterium typical profile composed mainly of the fatty acids C15:0 iso, C15:0 iso 2-OH, C17:1 iso ω9c, and C17:0 iso 3-OH. DNA-DNA hybridizations with the type strains of C. polytrichastri, C. aahli, C. daeguense and C. gregarium resulted in values below 70 %. Differentiating biochemical and chemotaxonomic properties showed differences to the most closely related species and suggest that the isolate SUR2(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Chryseobacterium limigenitum sp. nov. (type strain SUR2(T) = ZIM B1019(T) = CCM 8594(T) = LMG 28734(T)) is proposed. PMID:25812970

  15. Evaluation of biohazards in dehydrated biofilms on foodstuff packaging.

    PubMed

    Le Magrex-Debar, E; Lemoine, J; Gellé, M P; Jacquelin, L F; Choisy, C

    2000-04-10

    Plastic materials used for food packaging are clean but not sterile when the food is just packaged. Accidental wet contamination may occur at every moment between packaging and opening by the consumer: on polyethylene (PET), bacteria may adhere strongly and constitute a biofilm in less than 24 h. By rolling on themselves, PET sheets may contaminate food. We tried to show that contact with salted foodstuffs favoured microbial recovery. Four strains were chosen to perform biofilms on PET: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. Biofilms were dried up 24 h. Biofilm bacteria were stressed by adhesion, by starvation and by dehydration. However, they were capable of recovery in salted solutions or media, probably because one (or more) stress protected them against another stress. Stress was demonstrated by stress protein production, by mean of electrophoresis, and membrane lesions by mean of flow cytometry. Stress recovery was performed in aqueous salted solutions or salted brain-heart infusion with NaCl 9, 15, 20 and 30 g/l. Staphylococci were more sensitive to these stresses and recovery was a function of salt concentration. Gram-negative bacteria were little affected by stresses; salt effects were less important. If all these biofilms were capable of recovery from stresses in salted media, flexible PET could possibly lead to a health hazard when it is used for wet salt meats, e.g. PMID:10791750

  16. Ethanol dehydration to ethylene in a stratified autothermal millisecond reactor.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Michael J; Michor, Edward L; Fan, Wei; Tsapatsis, Michael; Bhan, Aditya; Schmidt, Lanny D

    2011-08-22

    The concurrent decomposition and deoxygenation of ethanol was accomplished in a stratified reactor with 50-80 ms contact times. The stratified reactor comprised an upstream oxidation zone that contained Pt-coated Al(2)O(3) beads and a downstream dehydration zone consisting of H-ZSM-5 zeolite films deposited on Al(2)O(3) monoliths. Ethanol conversion, product selectivity, and reactor temperature profiles were measured for a range of fuel:oxygen ratios for two autothermal reactor configurations using two different sacrificial fuel mixtures: a parallel hydrogen-ethanol feed system and a series methane-ethanol feed system. Increasing the amount of oxygen relative to the fuel resulted in a monotonic increase in ethanol conversion in both reaction zones. The majority of the converted carbon was in the form of ethylene, where the ethanol carbon-carbon bonds stayed intact while the oxygen was removed. Over 90% yield of ethylene was achieved by using methane as a sacrificial fuel. These results demonstrate that noble metals can be successfully paired with zeolites to create a stratified autothermal reactor capable of removing oxygen from biomass model compounds in a compact, continuous flow system that can be configured to have multiple feed inputs, depending on process restrictions. PMID:21834091

  17. Dehydration of ethanol by facile synthesized glucose-based silica.

    PubMed

    Tang, Baokun; Bi, Wentao; Row, Kyung Ho

    2013-02-01

    Bioethanol is considered a potential liquid fuel that can be produced from biomass by fermentation and distillation. Although most of the water is removed by distillation, the purity of ethanol is limited to 95-96 % due to the formation of a low-boiling point, water-ethanol azeotrope. To improve the use of ethanol as a fuel, many methods, such as dehydration, have been proposed to avoid distillation and improve the energy efficiency of extraction. Glucose-based silica, as an adsorbent, was prepared using a simple method, and was proposed for the adsorption of water from water-ethanol mixtures. After adsorption using 0.4 g of adsorbent for 3 h, the initial water concentration of 20 % (water, v/v) was decreased to 10 % (water, v/v). For water concentrations less than 5 % (water, v/v), the adsorbent could concentrate ethanol to 99 % (ethanol, v/v). The Langmuir isotherms used to describe the adsorption of water on an adsorbent showed a correlation coefficient of 0.94. The separation factor of the adsorbent also decreased with decreasing concentration of water in solution. PMID:23299980

  18. Basic Study on Sludge Concentration and Dehydration with Ultrasonic Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Yuta; Nagashima, Satoshi; Uchida, Takeyoshi; Kawashima, Norimichi; Takeuchi, Shinichi; Akita, Masashi; Nagaoka, Hiroshi

    2005-06-01

    We study the condensation of sludge and the improvement of the dehydration efficiency of sludge by acoustic cavitation for efficiency improvement and cost reduction in water treatment. An ultrasound wave was irradiated into activated sludge in the water tank of our ultrasound exposure system and a standing wave acoustic field was formed using a vibrating disk driven by a Langevin-type transducer. The vibrating disk was mounted on the bottom of the water tank. Acoustic cavitation was generated in the activated sludge suspension and the sludge was floated to the water surface by ultrasound exposure with this system. We observed B-mode ultrasound images of the activated sludge suspension before ultrasound exposure and that of the floated sludge and treated water after ultrasound exposure. The ultrasound diagnostic equipment was used for the observation of the B-mode ultrasound images of the sludge. It was found that the sludge floated to the water surface because of adhesion of microbubbles generated by acoustic cavitation to the sludge particles, which decreased the sludge density. It can be expected that the drifting sludge in water can be recovered by the flotation thickening method of sludge as an application of the results of this study. It is difficult to recover the drifting sludge in water by the conventional gravity thickening method.

  19. Freeze avoidance: a dehydrating moss gathers no ice.

    PubMed

    Lenné, Thomas; Bryant, Gary; Hocart, Charles H; Huang, Cheng X; Ball, Marilyn C

    2010-10-01

    Using cryo-SEM with EDX fundamental structural and mechanical properties of the moss Ceratodon purpureus (Hedw.) Brid. were studied in relation to tolerance of freezing temperatures. In contrast to more complex plants, no ice accumulated within the moss during the freezing event. External ice induced desiccation with the response being a function of cell type; water-filled hydroid cells cavitated and were embolized at -4 °C while parenchyma cells of the inner cortex exhibited cytorrhysis, decreasing to ∼ 20% of their original volume at a nadir temperature of -20 °C. Chlorophyll fluorescence showed that these winter acclimated mosses displayed no evidence of damage after thawing from -20 °C while GCMS showed that sugar concentrations were not sufficient to confer this level of freezing tolerance. In addition, differential scanning calorimetry showed internal ice nucleation occurred in hydrated moss at ∼-12 °C while desiccated moss showed no evidence of freezing with lowering of nadir temperature to -20 °C. Therefore the rapid dehydration of the moss provides an elegantly simple solution to the problem of freezing; remove that which freezes. PMID:20525002

  20. Protoplast dehydration correlated with heat resistance of bacterial spores.

    PubMed Central

    Nakashio, S; Gerhardt, P

    1985-01-01

    Water content of the protoplast in situ within the fully hydrated dormant bacterial spore was quantified by use of a spore in which the complex of coat and outer (pericortex) membrane was genetically defective or chemically removed, as evidenced by susceptibility of the cortex to lysozyme and by permeability of the periprotoplast integument to glucose. Water content was determined by equilibrium permeability measurement with 3H-labeled water (confirmed by gravimetric measurement) for the entire spore, with 14C-labeled glucose for the integument outside the inner (pericytoplasm) membrane, and by the difference for the protoplast. The method was applied to lysozyme-sensitive spores of Bacillus stearothermophilus, B. subtilis, B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, and B. megaterium (four types). Comparable lysozyme-resistant spores, in which the outer membrane functioned as the primary permeability barrier to glucose, were employed as controls. Heat resistances were expressed as D100 values. Protoplast water content of the lysozyme-sensitive spore types correlated with heat resistance exponentially in two distinct clusters, with the four B. megaterium types in one alignment, and with the four other species types in another. Protoplast water contents of the B. megaterium spore types were sufficiently low (26 to 29%, based on wet protoplast weight) to account almost entirely for their lesser heat resistance. Corresponding values of the other species types were similar or higher (30 to 55%), indicating that these spores depended on factors additional to protoplast dehydration for their much greater heat resistance. PMID:3988704

  1. Flexible Asymmetric Encapsulation for Dehydration-Responsive Hybrid Microfibers.

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Ankur S; Sajjadi, Shahriar

    2016-08-01

    A new class of smart alginate microfibers with asymmetric oil encapsulates is introduced. These fibers are produced by injecting an aqueous alginate solution into an outer aqueous calcium chloride solution to form alginate fibers, which are asymmetrically loaded with oil entities through eccentrically aligned inner capillaries. The fiber morphology and its degree of asymmetry can be tuned via altering the size, location, and frequency of the oil encapsulates. These asymmetric fibers reveal significant potential for applications where conventional symmetric fibers fail to perform. It is shown how asymmetric oil-encapsulated fibers can become dehydration-sensitive, and trigger the release of encapsulates if their hydration level drops below a critical value. It is also shown how the triggered response could be switched off on demand by stabilizing the oil encapsulates. The capability of asymmetric fibers to carry and release multiple cargos in parallel is demonstrated. The fibers loaded with equal-sized spheres are more asymmetric than those containing unequal drops, have a higher tensile strength, and show better potential for a triggered response. PMID:27352241

  2. Linguistic Extensions of Topic Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd-Graber, Jordan

    2010-01-01

    Topic models like latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) provide a framework for analyzing large datasets where observations are collected into groups. Although topic modeling has been fruitfully applied to problems social science, biology, and computer vision, it has been most widely used to model datasets where documents are modeled as exchangeable…

  3. Hot topics for leadership development.

    PubMed

    Bleich, Michael R

    2015-02-01

    Three areas stand out from a health systems perspective that should be on the development agenda for all leaders. These topics include population health, predictive analytics, and supply chain management. Together, these topics address access, quality, and cost management. PMID:25633301

  4. Research on the application of solar energy to industrial drying or dehydration processes. Fourth phase. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    The operation and maintenance of this proof-of-concept solar dehydration facility in Fresno, California is reported. Phase I of this project incorporated the analysis and design of an inexpensive solar collector unit, coupled with a commercial heat recovery unit and rock storage facilities. These three components supplied about 85% of the hot air required by a single tunnel of the Lamanuzzi and Pantaleo (L and P) dehydration facility in Fresno, California. A relatively simple air solar collector and heat storage system, was used. This facility was built during Phase II. The system is comprised of 22,000 square feet of single glazed air solar collectors, 700 tons of rock storage, and a heat recovery wheel, and is controlled by a microcomputer control system. The facility was monitored and evaluated over the first drying season of 133 days in Fresno, California. In the last Phase, the glazings on the solar collectors were replaced. That is, one-third of the field was replaced with glass, another one-third of the field with Filon, and one-third of the field with Lexan. Also, a new microcomputer control system was designed, tested, and installed using readily available parts and based upon the Apple II microcomputer system.

  5. Advancements in Topical Antifungal Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Kircik, Leon H

    2016-02-01

    The primary treatment for superficial fungal infections is antifungal topical formulations, and allylamines and azoles represent the two major classes of topical formulations that are used to treat these infections. The stratum corneum (SC) is composed of keratinocytes that are surrounded by a matrix of lipids. The efficacy of topically applied formulations depends on their ability to penetrate this lipid matrix, and the vehicle plays an integral role in the penetration of active molecule into skin. There are several challenges to formulating topical drugs, which include the biotransformation of the active molecules as they pass through the SC and the physical changes that occur to the vehicle itself when it is applied to the skin. This article will review current and emerging topical antifungal vehicles. PMID:26885798

  6. Dehydration of Methanediol in Aqueous Solution: An ONIOM(QM/MM) Study.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Satoshi; Sameera, W M C

    2016-08-25

    We used ONIOM(QM/MM) method to examine the dehydration of a methanediol in aqueous solution. A methanediol and a small number of water molecules in the proximity of the methanediol are calculated with quantum mechanics (QM), while a number of water molecules far from the methanediol are calculated with molecular mechanics (MM). A molecular dynamical simulation shows that 12 water molecules are located within the hydration shell of a methanediol. The energy barrier for the dehydration of a methanediol decreases when we increase the number of water molecules in the QM region and converges toward a finite value when 12 water molecules are included in the QM region. This indicates a significant effect of water molecules within the hydration shell on the dehydration process of a methanediol in aqueous solution. The dehydration rate calculated with the ONIOM(QM/MM) method agrees well with that obtained from a laboratory experiment. PMID:27490867

  7. Effect of simultaneous infrared dry-blanching and dehydration on quality characteristics of carrot slices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the effects of various processing parameters on carrot slices exposed to infrared (IR) radiation heating for achieving simultaneous infrared dry-blanching and dehydration (SIRDBD). The investigated parameters were product surface temperature, slice thickness and processing ti...

  8. Energy Efficient Hybrid Vapor Stripping-Vapor Permeation Process for Ethanol Recovery ad Dehydration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Distillation combined with molecular sieve dehydration is the current state of the art for fuel grade ethanol production from fermentation broths. To improve the sustainability of bioethanol production, energy efficient separation alternatives are needed, particularly for lower f...

  9. Energy efficient recovery and dehydration of ethanol from fermentation broths by Membrane Assisted Vapor Stripping technology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Distillation combined with molecular sieve dehydration is the current state of the art for fuel grade ethanol production from fermentation broths. To improve the sustainability of bioethanol production, energy efficient separation alternatives are needed, particularly for lower ...

  10. A NOVEL HYDROPHILIC POLYMER MEMBRANE FOR THE DEHYDRATION OF ORGANIC SOLVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Novel hydrophilic polymer membranes based on polyallylamine ydrochloride- polyvinylalcohol are developed. The high selectivity and flux characteristics of these membranes for the dehydration of organic solvents are evaluated using pervaporation technology and are found to be ver...

  11. Dehydration and Denitrification in the Arctic Polar Vortex During the 1995-1996 Winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hintsa, E. J.; Newman, P. A.; Jonsson, H. H.; Webster, C. R.; May, R. D.; Herman, R. L.; Lait, L. R.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Elkins, J. W.; Wamsley, P. R.; Dutton, G. S.; Bui, T. P.; Kohn, D. W.; Anderson, J. G.

    1998-01-01

    Dehydration of more than 0.5 ppmv water was observed between 18 and 19 km (0-450-465 K) at the edge of the Arctic polar vortex on February 1, 1996. More than half the reactive nitrogen (NO(y)) had also been removed, with layers of enhanced NO(y) at lower altitudes. Back trajectory calculations show that air parcels sampled inside the vortex had experienced temperatures as low as 188 K within the previous 12 days, consistent with a small amount of dehydration. The depth of the dehydrated layer (approximately 1 km) and the fact that trajectories passed through the region of ice saturation in one day imply selective growth of a small fraction of particles to sizes large enough (>10 microns) to be irreversibly removed on this timescale. Over 25% of the Arctic vortex in a 20-30 K range of 0 is estimated to have been dehydrated in this event.

  12. Dehydration and Denitrification in the Arctic Polar Vortex During the 1995-1996 Winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hintsa, E. J.; Newman, P. A.; Jonsson, H. H.; Webster, C. R.; May, R. D.; Herman, R. L.; Lait, L. R.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Elkins, J. W.; Wamsley, P. R.; Dutton, G. S.; Bui, T. P.; Kohn, D. W.; Anderson, J. G.

    1998-01-01

    Dehydration of more than 0.5 ppmv water was observed between 18 and 19 km (theta about 450-465 K) at the edge of the Arctic polar vortex on February 1, 1996. More than half the reactive nitrogen (NO(sub y)) had also been removed, with layers of enhanced (sub y) at lower altitudes. Back trajectory calculations show that air parcels sampled inside the vortex had experienced temperatures as low as 188 K within the previous 12 days, consistent with a small amount of dehydration. The depth of the dehydrated layer (about 1 km) and the fact that trajectories passed through the region of ice saturation in one day imply selective growth of a small fraction of particles to sizes large enough (>10 micron) to be irreversibly removed on this timescale. Over 25% of the Arctic vortex in a 20-30 K range of theta is estimated to have been dehydrated in this event.

  13. Dehydration and Denitrification in the Arctic Polar Vortex During the 1995-1996 Winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hintsa, E. J.; Newman, P. A.; Jonsson, H. H.; Webster, C. R.; May, R. D.; Herman, R. L.; Lait, L. R.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Elkins, J. W.; Wamsley, P. R.; Dutton, G. S.; Bui, T. P.; Kohn, D. W.; Anderson, J. G.

    1998-01-01

    Dehydration of more than 0.5 ppmv water was observed between 18 and 19 km (theta approximately 450-465 K) at the edge of the Arctic polar vortex on February 1, 1996. More than half the reactive nitrogen (NO(y)) had also been removed, with layers of enhanced NO(y) at lower altitudes. Back trajectory calculations show that air parcels sampled inside the vortex had experienced temperatures as low as 188 K within the previous 12 days, consistent with a small amount of dehydration. The depth of the dehydrated layer (approximately 1 km) and the fact that trajectories passed through the region of ice saturation in one day imply selective growth of a small fraction of particles to sizes large enough (>10 micrometers) to be irreversibly removed on this timescale. Over 25% of the Arctic vortex in a 20-30 K range Transport of theta is estimated to have been dehydrated in this event.

  14. Dehydration and Denitrification in the Arctic Polar Vortex During the 1995-1996 Winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hintsa, E. J.; Newman, P. A.; Jonsson, H. H.; Webster, C. R.; May, R. D.; Herman, R. L.; Lait, L. R.; Schoerberl, M. R.; Elkins, J. W.; Wamsley, P. R.

    1998-01-01

    Dehydration of more than 0.5 ppmv water was observed between 18 and 19 km (theta = 450-465 K) at the edge of the Arctic polar vortex on February 1, 1996. More than half the reactive nitrogen (NOy) had also been removed, with layers of enhanced NOy at lower altitudes. Back trajectory calculations show that air parcels sampled inside the vortex had experienced temperatures as low as 188 K within the previous 12 days, consistent with a small amount of dehydration. The depth of the dehydrated layer (approx. 1 km) and the fact that trajectories passed through the region of ice saturation in one day imply selective growth of a small fraction of particles to sizes large enough (>10 micrometers) to be irreversibly removed on this timescale. Over 25% of the Arctic vortex in a 20-30 K range of theta is estimated to have been dehydrated in this event.

  15. Membrane-based recovery and dehydration of alcohols from fermentation broths - of materials and modules

    EPA Science Inventory

    Distillation combined with molecular sieve dehydration is the current state of the art for fuel grade ethanol production from fermentation broths. As the liquid biofuels industry transitions to lignocellulosic feedstocks, expands the end product portfolio to include other alcoho...

  16. Liquid-phase and vapor-phase dehydration of organic/water solutions

    DOEpatents

    Huang, Yu; Ly, Jennifer; Aldajani, Tiem; Baker, Richard W.

    2011-08-23

    Processes for dehydrating an organic/water solution by pervaporation or vapor separation using fluorinated membranes. The processes are particularly useful for treating mixtures containing light organic components, such as ethanol, isopropanol or acetic acid.

  17. Mixed Matrix Silicone and Fluorosilicone/Zeolite 4A Membranes for Ethanol Dehydration by Pervaporation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability of homogeneous and mixed matrix membranes prepared using standard silicone rubber, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), and fluorosilicone rubber, poly(trifluoropropylmethylsiloxane) (PTFPMS), to dehydrate ethanol by pervaporation was evaluated. Although PDMS is generally c...

  18. Tracking Multiple Topics for Finding Interesting Articles

    SciTech Connect

    Pon, R K; Cardenas, A F; Buttler, D J; Critchlow, T J

    2007-02-15

    We introduce multiple topic tracking (MTT) for iScore to better recommend news articles for users with multiple interests and to address changes in user interests over time. As an extension of the basic Rocchio algorithm, traditional topic detection and tracking, and single-pass clustering, MTT maintains multiple interest profiles to identify interesting articles for a specific user given user-feedback. Focusing on only interesting topics enables iScore to discard useless profiles to address changes in user interests and to achieve a balance between resource consumption and classification accuracy. Also by relating a topic's interestingness to an article's interestingness, iScore is able to achieve higher quality results than traditional methods such as the Rocchio algorithm. We identify several operating parameters that work well for MTT. Using the same parameters, we show that MTT alone yields high quality results for recommending interesting articles from several corpora. The inclusion of MTT improves iScore's performance by 9% to 14% in recommending news articles from the Yahoo! News RSS feeds and the TREC11 adaptive filter article collection. And through a small user study, we show that iScore can still perform well when only provided with little user feedback.

  19. Effective hepatitis A virus inactivation during low-heat dehydration of contaminated green onions.

    PubMed

    Laird, David T; Sun, Yan; Reineke, Karl F; Shieh, Y Carol

    2011-08-01

    Preserving fruits and vegetables by dehydration is common; however, information is limited concerning viral survival on the produce during the process. This work demonstrated the effects of low heat dehydration on inactivating hepatitis A virus (HAV) on contaminated green onions. Inoculated and uninoculated onion samples were dehydrated at target temperatures of 45-65 °C for 20 h. HAV from artificially contaminated onions (fresh or dehydrated) was eluted by shaking at 145 rpm at 20 °C for 20 min with 3% beef extract, pH 8, and followed by 0.2 μM-membrane filtration before plaque assay and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis. Dilutions of the filtrates were made for obtaining countable plaques on FRhK-4 cell monolayers in 6-well plates, and also for eliminating inhibitors in qRT-PCR. Average water activity of the onions after 20 h-dehydration was 0.227, regardless of temperature used (47.9 °C or 65.1 °C). Eight dehydration trials resulted in a linear relationship between HAV inactivation and dehydration temperature, with HAV log reduction = 0.1372x(°C) - 5.5572, r(2) = 0.88. Therefore, the 20 h-heating at 47.8, 55.1, and 62.4 °C reduced infectious HAV in onions by 1, 2, and 3 logs respectively, the Z value being 7.3 °C. It was concluded that low heat dehydration using 62.5 °C or above could effectively inactivate HAV on contaminated onions by >3 logs. PMID:21569944

  20. Formation of Linear Polyenes in Thermal Dehydration of Polyvinyl Alcohol, Catalyzed by Phosphotungstic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretinnikov, O. N.; Sushko, N. I.

    2015-01-01

    In order to obtain linear polyenes in polyvinyl alcohol films via acid-catalyzed thermal dehydration of the polyvinyl alcohol, we used phosphotungstic acid as the catalyst: a safe and heat-stable solid chemical compound. We established that phosphotungstic acid, introduced as solid nanoparticles into polyvinyl alcohol films, is a more effective dehydration catalyst than hydrochloric acid, since in contrast to HCl it does not evaporate from the film during heat treatment.

  1. Ammonia-methane two-stage anaerobic digestion of dehydrated waste-activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Nakashimada, Yutaka; Ohshima, Yasutaka; Minami, Hisao; Yabu, Hironori; Namba, Yuzaburo; Nishio, Naomichi

    2008-07-01

    The study investigated methane production from dehydrated waste-activated sludge (DWAS) with approximately 80% water content under thermophilic conditions. The repeated batch-wise treatment of DWAS using methanogenic sludge unacclimated to high concentrations of ammonia, increased the ammonia production up to 7,600 mg N per kilogram total wet sludge of total ammonia concentration, and stopped the methane production. Investigation revealed that the loading ratio of DWAS for methanogenic sludge influences anaerobic digestion. Methane production significantly decreased and ammonia concentration increased with the increase in loading ratio of DWAS. Since the semicontinuous culture revealed that approximately 50% of organic nitrogen in DWAS converted to ammonia at sludge retention time (SRT) after 4 days at 37 degrees C and 1.33 days at 55 degrees C, the previous stripping of the ammonia produced from DWAS was carried out. The stripping of ammonia increased methane production significantly. This ammonia-methane two-stage anaerobic digestion demonstrated a successful methane production at SRT 20 days in the semicontinuous operation using a laboratory-scale reactor system. PMID:18491038

  2. Dehydration modifies guanidino compound concentrations in the different zones of the rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Levillain, Olivier; Marescau, Bart; Possemiers, Ilse; De Deyn, Paul

    2002-05-01

    Guanidino compounds (GCs) related to arginine (Arg) are unevenly distributed along the cortico-papillary axis of the rat kidney. Inasmuch as the concentration of alpha-keto-delta-guanidinovaleric acid (alpha-keto-delta-GVA), guanidinosuccinic acid (GSA), creatinine (CTN), gamma-guanidinobutyric acid (gamma-GBA) and methylguanidine (MG) increased steeply along the inner medulla in parallel to the urea and osmotic gradients, the question arose as to whether dehydration enhances their renal content and distribution. To examine this possibility, adult male rats were dehydrated by removing the drinking water for 24 or 48 h. The kidneys were sliced and cut in seven sections along the cortico-papillary axis. Twelve GCs were determined by liquid chromatography in each renal zone. Dehydration modified GC concentrations and regional distribution. The renal content of Arg, guanidine and MG was decreased while that of alpha-keto-delta-GVA, gamma-GBA, alpha- N-acetyl-arginine and homoarginine remained unchanged. In contrast, GSA, guanidinoacetic acid (GAA), creatine (CT), CTN and beta-guanidinopropionic acid (beta-GPA) concentrations were enhanced significantly in different renal zones after 24 and 48 h dehydration. In addition, the tissue level of GCs supplying energy, such as CT and beta-GPA, the precursor of CT (GAA) and its metabolite (CTN) were enhanced under dehydration. Arg and CT account for 80-90% of the GCs located in the renal cortex. Variations of some GC levels under dehydration may modify enzyme activities, renal metabolism and cell function. PMID:11976926

  3. Application of anhydrobiosis and dehydration of yeasts for non-conventional biotechnological goals.

    PubMed

    Rapoport, Alexander; Turchetti, Benedetta; Buzzini, Pietro

    2016-06-01

    Dehydration of yeast cells causes them to enter a state of anhydrobiosis in which their metabolism is temporarily and reversibly suspended. This unique state among organisms is currently used in the production of active dry yeasts, mainly used in baking and winemaking. In recent decades non-conventional applications of yeast dehydration have been proposed for various modern biotechnologies. This mini-review briefly summarises current information on the application of dry yeasts in traditional and innovative fields. It has been shown that dry yeast preparations can be used for the efficient protection, purification and bioremediation of the environment from heavy metals. The high sorption activity of dehydrated yeasts can be used as an interesting tool in winemaking due to their effects on quality and taste. Dry yeasts are also used in agricultural animal feed. Another interesting application of yeast dehydration is as an additional stage in new methods for the stable immobilisation of microorganisms, especially in cases when biotechnologically important strains have no affinity with the carrier. Such immobilisation methods also provide a new approach for the successful conservation of yeast strains that are very sensitive to dehydration. In addition, the application of dehydration procedures opens up new possibilities for the use of yeast as a model system. Separate sections of this review also discuss possible uses of dry yeasts in biocontrol, bioprotection and biotransformations, in analytical methods as well as in some other areas. PMID:27116970

  4. Repeated bouts of dehydration deplete nutrient reserves and reduce egg production in the mosquito Culex pipiens

    PubMed Central

    Benoit, Joshua B.; Patrick, Kevin R.; Desai, Karina; Hardesty, Jeffrey J.; Krause, Tyler B.; Denlinger, David L.

    2010-01-01

    In this study of the mosquito, Culex pipiens, we examined the impact of multiple bouts of dehydration and rehydration on survival, depletion of metabolic reserves and egg production in both non-diapausing and diapausing females. Mosquitoes provided with access to sugar during rehydration survived longer than those allowed to rehydrate without sugar, and their survival was similar to that of mosquitoes of the same age that were not dehydrated. Among mosquitoes not provided with sugar, each dehydration bout reduced the mosquito's dry mass – an effect likely to be due to the utilization of carbohydrates and lipid reserves. The toll on glycogen and lipid reserves is likely to be especially costly for diapausing mosquitoes that are dependent on these stored reserves for winter survival. Egg production in both non-diapausing and post-diapausing C. pipiens was also reduced in response to multiple bouts of dehydration. Although egg quality was not compromised, the number of eggs produced was reduced. Both non-diapausing and diapausing females can compensate for the nutrient loss due to dehydration by sugar feeding but the opportunity to feed on sugar is likely to be rarely available in the overwintering habitat of diapausing females, thus the impact of dehydration may be especially pronounced in overwintering populations of C. pipiens. PMID:20675546

  5. Organ Specific Proteomic Dissection of Selaginella bryopteris Undergoing Dehydration and Rehydration

    PubMed Central

    Deeba, Farah; Pandey, Ashutosh K.; Pandey, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    To explore molecular mechanisms underlying the physiological response of Selaginella bryopteris, a comprehensive proteome analysis was carried out in roots and fronds undergoing dehydration and rehydration. Plants were dehydrated for 7 days followed by 2 and 24 h of rehydration. In roots out of 59 identified spots, 58 protein spots were found to be up-regulated during dehydration stress. The identified proteins were related to signaling, stress and defense, protein and nucleotide metabolism, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, storage and epigenetic control. Most of these proteins remained up-regulated on first rehydration, suggesting their role in recovery phase also. Among the 90 identified proteins in fronds, about 49% proteins were up-regulated during dehydration stress. Large number of ROS scavenging proteins was enhanced on dehydration. Many other proteins involved in energy, protein turnover and nucleotide metabolism, epigenetic control were also highly upregulated. Many photosynthesis related proteins were upregulated during stress. This would have helped plant to recover rapidly on rehydration. This study provides a comprehensive picture of different cellular responses elucidated by the proteome changes during dehydration and rehydration in roots and fronds as expected from a well-choreographed response from a resurrection plant. PMID:27092152

  6. Effects of surface dehydration on mucosal wave amplitude and frequency in excised canine larynges

    PubMed Central

    Witt, Rachel E.; Taylor, Lindsay N.; Regner, Michael F.; Jiang, Jack J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the effect of vocal fold surface dehydration on mucosal wave amplitude and frequency. Study Design Controlled test-retest. Setting Larynges were mounted on an excised larynx phonation system and attached to a pseudolung in a triple-walled sound-attenuated room that eliminated background noise and maintained a stabilized room temperature and humidity level. Subjects and Methods High-speed video was recorded for eight excised canine larynges during exposure to dehumidified air at 20 cm H2O. Control trials consisted of high-speed videos recorded for two excised canine larynges during exposure to humidified air at the same pressure. Results In the majority of larynges, increased levels of dehydration were correlated with decreased amplitude and frequency. The slope of the linear regression fitted to the change in amplitude (p=0.003) as well as the percent change (p<0.001) between the initial and final trials were significantly decreased in dehydrated larynges. These measurements with respect to the change in frequency were also significantly decreased in dehydrated larynges (p<0.001; p=0.027). Conclusion Vocal fold surface dehydration caused a decrease in mucosal wave amplitude and frequency. This study provides objective, quantitative support for the mechanism of voice deterioration observed after extreme surface dehydration. PMID:21493398

  7. Intermediate-depth earthquake faulting by dehydration embrittlement with negative volume change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Haemyeong; Green, Harry W., II; Dobrzhinetskaya, Larissa F.

    2004-04-01

    Earthquakes are observed to occur in subduction zones to depths of approximately 680km, even though unassisted brittle failure is inhibited at depths greater than about 50km, owing to the high pressures and temperatures. It is thought that such earthquakes (particularly those at intermediate depths of 50-300km) may instead be triggered by embrittlement accompanying dehydration of hydrous minerals, principally serpentine. A problem with failure by serpentine dehydration is that the volume change accompanying dehydration becomes negative at pressures of 2-4GPa (60-120km depth), above which brittle fracture mechanics predicts that the instability should be quenched. Here we show that dehydration of antigorite serpentinite under stress results in faults delineated by ultrafine-grained solid reaction products formed during dehydration. This phenomenon was observed under all conditions tested (pressures of 1-6GPa temperatures of 650-820°C), independent of the sign of the volume change of reaction. Although this result contradicts expectations from fracture mechanics, it can be explained by separation of fluid from solid residue before and during faulting, a hypothesis supported by our observations. These observations confirm that dehydration embrittlement is a viable mechanism for nucleating earthquakes independent of depth, as long as there are hydrous minerals breaking down under a differential stress.

  8. Organic solvent topical report

    SciTech Connect

    COWLEY, W.L.

    1999-05-13

    This report provides the basis for closing the organic solvent safety issue. Sufficient information is presented to conclude that risk posed by an organic solvent fire is within risk evaluation guidelines. This report updates information contained in Analysis of Consequences of Postulated Solvent Fires in Hanford Site Waste Tanks. WHC-SD-WM-CN-032. Rev. 0A (Cowley et al. 1996). However, this document will not replace Cowley et al (1996) as the primary reference for the Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) until the recently submitted BIO amendment (Hanson 1999) is approved by the US Department of Energy. This conclusion depends on the use of controls for preventing vehicle fuel fires and for limiting the use of flame cutting in areas where hot metal can fall on the waste surface.The required controls are given in the Tank Waste Remediation System Technical Safety Requirements (Noorani 1997b). This is a significant change from the conclusions presented in Revision 0 of this report. Revision 0 of this calcnote concluded that some organic solvent fire scenarios exceeded risk evaluation guidelines, even with controls imposed.

  9. Hot Topic Talk 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosten, Onur

    2016-05-01

    I will focus on our experiments with cold atoms highlighting some of the most recent developments in the prospect of using quantum entanglement to improve the precision of atomic and optical sensors. The first part of the talk will describe the generation of 20 dB spin-squeezed states of half a million 87Rb atoms inside of an optical cavity. The second part will describe the experimental demonstration of a new concept we call quantum phase magnification. The demonstrated 20 dB squeezing enables a 100-fold reduction in averaging time or a 100-fold reduction in atom numbers to achieve a given sensing precision. As part of this work we show an atomic clock operating 10 dB beyond the classical limit. Some of the states prepared in these experiments possess in excess of 680 atom entanglement. The quantum phase magnification experiment shows that detection noise levels below the standard quantum limit is in fact not a requirement to realize the benefits of the intrinsic sensitivity provided by exotic quantum states. Here, optical cavity-aided effective interactions between atoms magnify signals to-be-measured to levels that can easily be detected with a rather inefficient fluorescence imaging system. The method relaxes stringent detection requirements which have been the main bottleneck in quantum metrology experiments, and can also be implemented in physical platforms other than cold atom-cavity systems.

  10. Water incorporation in NAMs after antigorite and chlorite dehydration reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padrón-Navarta, José Alberto; Hermann, Jörg

    2014-05-01

    Subduction zones play a fundamental role in the deep water cycle making the Earth unique among other terrestrial planets. Water is incorporated into hydrous minerals during seafloor alteration of the oceanic lithosphere. During subduction of the oceanic lithosphere, dehydration of these hydrous minerals produces a fluid phase. A part of this fluid phase will be recycled back to the Earth's surface through hydrothermal aqueous fluids or through hydrous arc magmas, whereas another part of the water will be transported to the deep mantle by Nominally Anhydrous Minerals (NAMs) such as olivine, pyroxene and garnet. The partitioning of water between these two processes is crucial for our understanding of the mantle-scale water recycling in the Earth. This can be investigated experimentally under water-saturated conditions because this situation is met during dehydration reactions. However relatively low temperature conditions for such reactions make challenging these experiments. An alternative can be found in the natural record. The Alpine Betic-Rif orogen together with Central and Western Alps offer an invaluable diversity of ultramafic lenses that record a significant range of pressure-temperature and cooling rates. Hence these samples portray an excellent data set of 24 samples to survey the transfer of fluids from hydrous phases (brucite, antigorite and chlorite) to NAMs (olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene and garnet). Well-studied samples from these localities have been selected for water measurement using FTIR spectroscopy. The selected suite comprises the following high-pressure peridotite outcrops: Malenco serpentinite, Cerro del Almirez (1.6-1.9 GPa and 680-710ºC), Alpe Arami (3.2 GPa and 840ºC), Cima di Gagnone (3.0 GPa and 750-800ºC) and Alpe Albion (0.6 GPa and 730ºC). The infrared signature of olivine in all localities contains water (hydroxyl groups) associated to intrinsic defects (mostly point defects related to Ti4+) and extrinsic submicroscopic

  11. Crustal Dehydration and Overpressure Development on the San Andreas Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulton, P. M.; Saffer, D. M.; Bekins, B. A.

    2005-12-01

    Previous authors have hypothesized that the apparent weakness of the San Andreas Fault may be explained by fluid overpressures resulting from the combination of crustal dehydration of the Franciscan mélange and the presence of a low-permeability serpentinite cap at its geologic contact with the Great Valley Sequence. We previously evaluated this hypothesis by calculating the spatial and temporal distribution of fluid sources and then incorporating these sources in 2-D models of fluid flow and heat transport perpendicular to the fault. We have refined our fluid source calculations using theoretical values of whole-rock H2O content and PT histories for the Franciscan crust in the wake of northward migration of the Mendocino Triple Junction (MTJ). The sources obtained reach peak values of 10-16 s-1. The coupled fluid flow and heat transport model now accommodates large-scale crustal deformation in a more rigorous manner by constructing new model grids after each change in crustal thickness. In the models, we assign permeability of the crust as a function of depth. A 500-m-thick, low-permeability serpentinite body (k=10-20 m-2) extends across the eastern half of the 50 km-wide model domain at a depth of 2 km. In addition, various model simulations include fault structures centered in the model domain such as: a 500 m wide low permeability fault barrier (kfault = kcrust/100), a fault conduit (kfault = kcrust x 100), a barrier within a 1.5 km wide conduit damage zone, and a conduit plugged by a 3 km-thick and 2 km-wide barrier simulating a broad, clay-rich, low-permeability zone, at shallow depth within the fault system, which is one possible interpretation of seismic and electromagnetic data. We also test additional scenarios to evaluate sensitivity to changes in model permeability. Model results show overpressures, as large as 162% of hydrostatic (62% of lithostatic) for the model with a serpentinite cap and fault barrier, develop within 4 Ma of Mendocino Triple

  12. Diamond Formation in association with Deep Mantle Dehydration Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harte, B.

    2009-12-01

    2SiO4 with and fPer + mpv indicate the preservation of UM/LM boundary reaction, which from experimental data is expected to be sharply constrained in depth, though the presence of H2O will broaden the reaction zone due to the potential stability of hydrous ringwoodite. Considerations of the preservation of hydrous peridotitic assemblages in subduction zones (Komabayashi, 2006, AGU monograph), show that an initially cool subducted slab may preserve hydrous assemblages to the lower part of the upper mantle and into the lower mantle. Here stagnation and warming of the slab may cause dehydration with the formation of fluids/melts which provide the potential location for diamond formation. At the top of the Transition Zone, Bercovici and Karato (2003, Nature 245) have suggested the existence of a melt zone. The location of this melt zone at its intersection with the upper surface of a subducting slab, provides an ideal location for the crystallisation of the majorite assemblages from around the top of the Transition Zone. This also accords with the crustal carbon isotope signatures in the host diamonds and the wide variations in REE abundances in the majorites. Deep diamond inclusions provide strong evidence for dehydration zones near the top and bottom of the Transition Zone.

  13. Topic Model for Graph Mining.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Junyu; Lu, Jie; Zhang, Guangquan; Luo, Xiangfeng

    2015-12-01

    Graph mining has been a popular research area because of its numerous application scenarios. Many unstructured and structured data can be represented as graphs, such as, documents, chemical molecular structures, and images. However, an issue in relation to current research on graphs is that they cannot adequately discover the topics hidden in graph-structured data which can be beneficial for both the unsupervised learning and supervised learning of the graphs. Although topic models have proved to be very successful in discovering latent topics, the standard topic models cannot be directly applied to graph-structured data due to the "bag-of-word" assumption. In this paper, an innovative graph topic model (GTM) is proposed to address this issue, which uses Bernoulli distributions to model the edges between nodes in a graph. It can, therefore, make the edges in a graph contribute to latent topic discovery and further improve the accuracy of the supervised and unsupervised learning of graphs. The experimental results on two different types of graph datasets show that the proposed GTM outperforms the latent Dirichlet allocation on classification by using the unveiled topics of these two models to represent graphs. PMID:25616091

  14. Mental Mechanisms for Topics Identification

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Topics identification (TI) is the process that consists in determining the main themes present in natural language documents. The current TI modeling paradigm aims at acquiring semantic information from statistic properties of large text datasets. We investigate the mental mechanisms responsible for the identification of topics in a single document given existing knowledge. Our main hypothesis is that topics are the result of accumulated neural activation of loosely organized information stored in long-term memory (LTM). We experimentally tested our hypothesis with a computational model that simulates LTM activation. The model assumes activation decay as an unavoidable phenomenon originating from the bioelectric nature of neural systems. Since decay should negatively affect the quality of topics, the model predicts the presence of short-term memory (STM) to keep the focus of attention on a few words, with the expected outcome of restoring quality to a baseline level. Our experiments measured topics quality of over 300 documents with various decay rates and STM capacity. Our results showed that accumulated activation of loosely organized information was an effective mental computational commodity to identify topics. It was furthermore confirmed that rapid decay is detrimental to topics quality but that limited capacity STM restores quality to a baseline level, even exceeding it slightly. PMID:24744775

  15. Selective Brain Cooling Reduces Water Turnover in Dehydrated Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, W. Maartin; Hetem, Robyn S.; Mitchell, Duncan; Maloney, Shane K.; Meyer, Leith C. R.; Fuller, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In artiodactyls, arterial blood destined for the brain can be cooled through counter-current heat exchange within the cavernous sinus via a process called selective brain cooling. We test the hypothesis that selective brain cooling, which results in lowered hypothalamic temperature, contributes to water conservation in sheep. Nine Dorper sheep, instrumented to provide measurements of carotid blood and brain temperature, were dosed with deuterium oxide (D2O), exposed to heat for 8 days (40◦C for 6-h per day) and deprived of water for the last five days (days 3 to 8). Plasma osmolality increased and the body water fraction decreased over the five days of water deprivation, with the sheep losing 16.7% of their body mass. Following water deprivation, both the mean 24h carotid blood temperature and the mean 24h brain temperature increased, but carotid blood temperature increased more than did brain temperature resulting in increased selective brain cooling. There was considerable inter-individual variation in the degree to which individual sheep used selective brain cooling. In general, sheep spent more time using selective brain cooling, and it was of greater magnitude, when dehydrated compared to when they were euhydrated. We found a significant positive correlation between selective brain cooling magnitude and osmolality (an index of hydration state). Both the magnitude of selective brain cooling and the proportion of time that sheep spent selective brain cooling were negatively correlated with water turnover. Sheep that used selective brain cooling more frequently, and with greater magnitude, lost less water than did conspecifics using selective brain cooling less efficiently. Our results show that a 50kg sheep can save 2.6L of water per day (~60% of daily water intake) when it employs selective brain cooling for 50% of the day during heat exposure. We conclude that selective brain cooling has a water conservation function in artiodactyls. PMID:25675092

  16. Unwinding of double-stranded DNA helix by dehydration.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, C H; Mizusawa, H; Kakefuda, T

    1981-01-01

    Conformation changes of the double-stranded DNA helix in response to dehydration were investigated by monitoring, by agarose gel electrophoresis, the linking number of covalently closed circular DNA generated by ligation of linear DNA in the presence of different organic solvents or different temperatures. It was found that: (i) The DNA helix unwinds upon addition of certain organic solvents or elevation of temperature. (ii) The conformational change observed under the experimental conditions is a continuous process in response to the organic solvent concentration. (iii) The delta H of unwinding one linking of the DNA helix is constant at approximately 12.2 +/- 0.4 kcal/mol (1 kcal = 4.184 kJ); the corresponding delta S and d(delta S)/dn are 2nkR and 2kR, in which n is the relative equivalent linking number (referred to the state of delta S = 0 for unwinding) of the DNA, R is the gas constant, and k is equal to 1117/number of base pairs. The delta H, delta S, and d(delta S)/dn for unwinding i linkings are i X 12.2 kcal/mol, 2inkR, and 2ikR, respectively. (iv) d(delta S)/dn, like k, is inversely proportional to the number of base pairs in DNA. (v) Double-stranded DNAs of different chain lengths have average delta S = 35 cal/mol.K for unwinding one linking under the experimental conditions; this corresponds to 127 +/- 14 base pairs per "relative linking." Images PMID:7019913

  17. Thermogravimetric study of the dehydration and reduction of red mud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teplov, O. A.; Korenovskii, N. L.; Lainer, Yu. A.

    2015-01-01

    The processes of drying and reduction of red mud in the pure state and with coal additions in vacuum or in gaseous media (helium, hydrogen) have been experimentally studied by thermogravimetry using a Setaram TAG24 thermogravimetric analyzer. The minimum total weight loss (˜20%) is observed for red mud samples without additives in forevacuum, and the maximum loss (˜38%) is detected in samples with coal. It is demonstrated that, for this type of red mud with iron oxide Fe2O3, water molecules are bonded in the form of iron hydroxide Fe2O3 · 3H2O rather than goethite FeOOH. The peak of magnetite formation is observed in differential thermogravimetry (DTG) curve in the range 270-400°C. The simulation of the magnetite dehydration and formation rates under experimental conditions in the relevant temperature ranges agrees with the experimental data. A peak of wustite formation in hydrogen above ˜600°C is recorded in a DTG curve, and the removal of one-third of sodium oxide, which is likely not to be fixed into strong sodium alumosilicate, is observed in the range 800-1000°C. The peak detected in the DTG curve of the mud with charcoal in helium in the range 350-450°C is similar to the peak of hematite reduction in magnetite in a hydrogen atmosphere. The most probable source of hydrogen-containing gases in this temperature range consists of the residual hydrocarbons of charcoal. The reduction reactions of disperse iron oxides with coal proceed only at temperatures above 600°C. These processes occur in the same temperature range (600-900°C) both in forevacuum and in a helium atmosphere. It is experimentally demonstrated that sintering process occurs in the mud in the temperature range 450-850°C.

  18. The future of topical analgesics.

    PubMed

    Arnstein, Paul M

    2013-07-01

    Topically applied analgesic therapies have been used throughout history to treat a variety of patient conditions that present with pain. Before modem pharmaceuticals became readily available, mud-based emollients, salves, cold therapies, and other natural remedies were often used. Now we have effective therapies and are developing advanced topical analgesics as we learn more about the physiology and pathophysiology of pain. The use of topical analgesics may be associated with fewer patient systemic side effects than are seen with oral, parenteral, or transdermally administered agents, making the topical route of administration attractive to prescribers and patients. With further refinement of existing drugs and the development of novel agents, topical analgesics may offer relief for treating patient pain conditions that are currently challenging to treat, such as pain resulting from burns, wound debridement, and pressure ulcers. Recognizing the value of a multimodal approach, topical analgesics may offer a therapeutic option that can become part of a comprehensive treatment plan for the patient. With continued advancements in targeted drug-delivery systems, topical analgesics may be able to provide a method to prevent or reverse the phenomena of peripheral and central sensitization, or the neuroplastic changes believed to be responsible for the transition from acute to chronic pain states in patients. For those patients at risk for developing chronic pain states, such as complex regional pain syndrome, the combination of cutaneous stimulation (achieved through rubbing during application) and analgesic effects produced by the drug itself may prevent the disabling pain that often emerges during the subacute phase of disease. In summary, better utilization of currently available topical analgesics and continued research promise to ensure that topical analgesics are, and will continue to be, important tools in the treatment of patients with resistant pain. PMID

  19. APT accelerator. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, G.; Rusthoi, D.

    1995-03-01

    The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project, sponsored by Department of Energy Defense Programs (DOE/DP), involves the preconceptual design of an accelerator system to produce tritium for the nation`s stockpile of nuclear weapons. Tritium is an isotope of hydrogen used in nuclear weapons, and must be replenished because of radioactive decay (its half-life is approximately 12 years). Because the annual production requirements for tritium has greatly decreased since the end of the Cold War, an alternative approach to reactors for tritium production, based on a linear accelerator, is now being seriously considered. The annual tritium requirement at the time this study was undertaken (1992-1993) was 3/8 that of the 1988 goal, usually stated as 3/8-Goal. Continued reduction in the number of weapons in the stockpile has led to a revised (lower) production requirement today (March, 1995). The production requirement needed to maintain the reduced stockpile, as stated in the recent Nuclear Posture Review (summer 1994) is approximately 3/16-Goal, half the previous level. The Nuclear Posture Review also requires that the production plant be designed to accomodate a production increase (surge) to 3/8-Goal capability within five years, to allow recovery from a possible extended outage of the tritium plant. A multi-laboratory team, collaborating with several industrial partners, has developed a preconceptual APT design for the 3/8-Goal, operating at 75% capacity. The team has presented APT as a promising alternative to the reactor concepts proposed for Complex-21. Given the requirements of a reduced weapons stockpile, APT offers both significant safety, environmental, and production-fexibility advantages in comparison with reactor systems, and the prospect of successful development in time to meet the US defense requirements of the 21st Century.

  20. Topical Steroid-Damaged Skin

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Anil; Roga, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    Topical steroids, commonly used for a wide range of skin disorders, are associated with side effects both systemic and cutaneous. This article aims at bringing awareness among practitioners, about the cutaneous side effects of easily available, over the counter, topical steroids. This makes it important for us as dermatologists to weigh the usefulness of topical steroids versus their side effects, and to make an informed decision regarding their use in each individual based on other factors such as age, site involved and type of skin disorder. PMID:25284849

  1. Permeability control on transient slip weakening during gypsum dehydration: Implications for earthquakes in subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclère, Henri; Faulkner, Daniel; Wheeler, John; Mariani, Elisabetta

    2016-05-01

    A conflict has emerged from recent laboratory experiments regarding the question of whether or not dehydration reactions can promote unstable slip in subduction zones leading to earthquakes. Although reactions produce mechanical weakening due to pore-fluid pressure increase, this weakening has been associated with both stable and unstable slip. Here, new results monitoring strength, permeability, pore-fluid pressure, reaction progress and microstructural evolution during dehydration reactions are presented to identify the conditions necessary for mechanical instability. Triaxial experiments are conducted using gypsum and a direct shear sample assembly with constant normal stress that allows the measurement of permeability during sliding. Tests are conducted with temperature ramp from 70 to 150 °C and with different effective confining pressures (50, 100 and 150 MPa) and velocities (0.1 and 0.4 μm s-1). Results show that gypsum dehydration to bassanite induces transient stable-slip weakening that is controlled by pore-fluid pressure and permeability evolution. At the onset of dehydration, the low permeability promoted by pore compaction induces pore-fluid pressure build-up and stable slip weakening. The increase of bassanite content during the reaction shows clear evidence of dehydration related with the development of R1 Riedel shears and P foliation planes where bassanite is preferentially localized along these structures. The continued production of bassanite, which is stronger than gypsum, provides a supporting framework for newly formed pores, thus resulting in permeability increase, pore-fluid pressure drop and fault strength increase. After dehydration reaction, deformation is characterized by unstable slip on the fully dehydrated reaction product, controlled by the transition from velocity-strengthening to velocity-weakening behaviour of bassanite at temperature above ∼140 °C and the localization of deformation along narrow Y-shear planes. This study

  2. In-situ Dehydration Studies of Fully K- Rb- and Cs-exchanged Natrolites

    SciTech Connect

    Y Lee; D Seoung; D Liu; M Park; S Hong; H Chen; J Bai; C Kao; T Vogt; Y Lee

    2011-12-31

    In-situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction studies of K-, Rb-, and Cs-exchanged natrolites between room temperature and 425 C revealed that the dehydrated phases with collapsed frameworks start to form at 175, 150, and 100 C, respectively. The degree of the framework collapse indicated by the unit-cell volume contraction depends on the size of the non-framework cation: K-exchanged natrolite undergoes an 18.8% unit-cell volume contraction when dehydrated at 175 C, whereas Rb- and Cs-exchanged natrolites show unit-cell volume contractions of 18.5 and 15.2% at 150 and 100 C, respectively. In the hydrated phases, the dehydration-induced unit-cell volume reduction diminishes as the cation size increases and reveals increasingly a negative slope as smaller cations are substituted into the pores of the natrolite structure. The thermal expansion of the unit-cell volumes of the dehydrated K-, Rb-, and Cs-phases have positive thermal expansion coefficients of 8.80 x 10{sup -5} K{sup -1}, 1.03 x 10{sup -4} K{sup 01}, and 5.06 x 10{sup -5} K{sup -1}, respectively. Rietveld structure refinements of the dehydrated phases at 400 C reveal that the framework collapses are due to an increase of the chain rotation angles, {Psi}, which narrow the channels to a more elliptical shape. Compared to their respective hydrated structures at ambient conditions, the dehydrated K-exchanged natrolite at 400 C shows a 2.2-fold increase in {Psi}, whereas the dehydrated Rb- and Cs-natrolites at 400 C reveal increases of {Psi} by ca. 3.7 and 7.3 times, respectively. The elliptical channel openings of the dehydrated K-, Rb-, to Cs-phases become larger as the cation size increases. The disordered non-framework cations in the hydrated K-, Rb-, and Cs-natrolite order during dehydration and the subsequent framework collapse. The dehydrated phases of Rb- and Cs-natrolite can be stabilized at ambient conditions.

  3. Health Topics: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/healthtopics.html Health Topics To use the sharing features on this ... Children and Teenagers Men Population Groups Seniors Women Health and Wellness Disasters Fitness and Exercise Food and ...

  4. Topical treatment of hyperpigmentation disorders.

    PubMed

    Rendon, M; Horwitz, S

    2012-12-01

    Hyperpigmentation has traditionally been a relatively difficult condition to treat, especially in darker racial ethnic groups. Multiple topical agents available act upon different steps of the pigmentation pathway. We review these topical agents, their mechanisms of action, and their effectiveness as monotherapy and in combination with other compounds. Ultimately, combination therapy is the most efficacious when considering overall depigmentation as well as treatment time required to achieve clinical improvement. PMID:23522631

  5. Switching control of sympathetic activity from forebrain to hindbrain in chronic dehydration

    PubMed Central

    Colombari, Débora S A; Colombari, Eduardo; Freiria-Oliveira, Andre H; Antunes, Vagner R; Yao, Song T; Hindmarch, Charles; Ferguson, Alastair V; Fry, Mark; Murphy, David; Paton, Julian F R

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the mechanisms responsible for increased blood pressure and sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) caused by 2–3 days dehydration (DH) both in vivo and in situ preparations. In euhydrated (EH) rats, systemic application of the AT1 receptor antagonist Losartan and subsequent pre-collicular transection (to remove the hypothalamus) significantly reduced thoracic (t)SNA. In contrast, in DH rats, Losartan, followed by pre-collicular and pontine transections, failed to reduce tSNA, whereas transection at the medulla–spinal cord junction massively reduced tSNA. In DH but not EH rats, selective inhibition of the commissural nucleus tractus solitarii (cNTS) significantly reduced tSNA. Comparable data were obtained in both in situ and in vivo (anaesthetized/conscious) rats and suggest that following chronic dehydration, the control of tSNA transfers from supra-brainstem structures (e.g. hypothalamus) to the medulla oblongata, particularly the cNTS. As microarray analysis revealed up-regulation of AP1 transcription factor JunD in the dehydrated cNTS, we tested the hypothesis that AP1 transcription factor activity is responsible for dehydration-induced functional plasticity. When AP1 activity was blocked in the cNTS using a viral vector expressing a dominant negative FosB, cNTS inactivation was ineffective. However, tSNA was decreased after pre-collicular transection, a response similar to that seen in EH rats. Thus, the dehydration-induced switch in control of tSNA from hypothalamus to cNTS seems to be mediated via activation of AP1 transcription factors in the cNTS. If AP1 activity is blocked in the cNTS during dehydration, sympathetic activity control reverts back to forebrain regions. This unique reciprocating neural structure-switching plasticity between brain centres emphasizes the multiple mechanisms available for the adaptive response to dehydration. PMID:21708906

  6. Investigating dehydration from compacts using terahertz pulsed, Raman, and near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kogermann, Karin; Zeitler, J Axel; Rantanen, Jukka; Rades, Thomas; Taday, Philip F; Pepper, Michael; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Strachan, Clare J

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the dehydration of piroxicam monohydrate (PRXMH) in compacts using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy (TPS), Raman spectroscopy, and reflectance near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Compacts were prepared by using PRXMH and poly(tetrafluoro)ethylene powders and combining them in three different manners before compression to produce compacts in which the PRXMH was dispersed throughout the compact, deposited on one face of the compact, or included as a layer within the compact. TPS was a suitable technique to assess the effect of sample preparation on dehydration, whereas Raman and NIR spectroscopy were limited by their sampling depth and the interference of the polymer matrix. TPS revealed that the dehydration behavior depended largely on the compact preparation method. Non-isothermal dehydration was investigated with all three spectroscopic techniques, combined with principal component analysis (PCA) on samples where the PRXMH was deposited on one face of the compact. In addition, variable temperature X-ray powder diffractometry (VT-XRPD) was used to verify the transformation from PRXMH to anhydrous PRX form I, while thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to monitor the water loss. All three spectroscopic techniques allowed in situ monitoring of the dehydration from the surface layers of the compacts. TPS and Raman spectroscopy detected structural changes of the crystal, while NIR spectroscopy was more sensitive to water loss. PCA of the TPS, Raman spectroscopy, and XRPD data revealed similar dehydration profiles. In contrast, the NIR spectroscopy profile was more similar to the TGA results. The spectroscopic techniques were more suitable than slower techniques such as VT-XRPD for monitoring rapid structural changes that occurred during the dehydration. PMID:18198016

  7. Transcriptome sequencing and whole genome expression profiling of chrysanthemum under dehydration stress

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chrysanthemum is one of the most important ornamental crops in the world and drought stress seriously limits its production and distribution. In order to generate a functional genomics resource and obtain a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms regarding chrysanthemum responses to dehydration stress, we performed large-scale transcriptome sequencing of chrysanthemum plants under dehydration stress using the Illumina sequencing technology. Results Two cDNA libraries constructed from mRNAs of control and dehydration-treated seedlings were sequenced by Illumina technology. A total of more than 100 million reads were generated and de novo assembled into 98,180 unique transcripts which were further extensively annotated by comparing their sequencing to different protein databases. Biochemical pathways were predicted from these transcript sequences. Furthermore, we performed gene expression profiling analysis upon dehydration treatment in chrysanthemum and identified 8,558 dehydration-responsive unique transcripts, including 307 transcription factors and 229 protein kinases and many well-known stress responsive genes. Gene ontology (GO) term enrichment and biochemical pathway analyses showed that dehydration stress caused changes in hormone response, secondary and amino acid metabolism, and light and photoperiod response. These findings suggest that drought tolerance of chrysanthemum plants may be related to the regulation of hormone biosynthesis and signaling, reduction of oxidative damage, stabilization of cell proteins and structures, and maintenance of energy and carbon supply. Conclusions Our transcriptome sequences can provide a valuable resource for chrysanthemum breeding and research and novel insights into chrysanthemum responses to dehydration stress and offer candidate genes or markers that can be used to guide future studies attempting to breed drought tolerant chrysanthemum cultivars. PMID:24074255

  8. Water Temperature, Voluntary Drinking and Fluid Balance in Dehydrated Taekwondo Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Khamnei, Saeed; Hosseinlou, Abdollah; Zamanlu, Masumeh

    2011-01-01

    Voluntary drinking is one of the major determiners of rehydration, especially as regards exercise or workout in the heat. The present study undertakes to search for the effect of voluntary intake of water with different temperatures on fluid balance in Taekwondo athletes. Six young healthy male Taekwondo athletes were dehydrated by moderate exercise in a chamber with ambient temperature at 38-40°C and relative humidity between 20-30%. On four separate days they were allowed to drink ad libitum plane water with the four temperatures of 5, 16, 26, and 58°C, after dehydration. The volume of voluntary drinking and weight change was measured; then the primary percentage of dehydration, sweat loss, fluid deficit and involuntary dehydration were calculated. Voluntary drinking of water proved to be statistically different in the presented temperatures. Water at 16°C involved the greatest intake, while fluid deficit and involuntary dehydration were the lowest. Intake of water in the 5°C trial significantly correlated with the subject’s plasma osmolality change after dehydration, yet it showed no significant correlation with weight loss. In conclusion, by way of achieving more voluntary intake of water and better fluid state, recommending cool water (~16°C) for athletes is in order. Unlike the publicly held view, drinking cold water (~5°C) does not improve voluntary drinking and hydration status. Key points For athletes dehydrated in hot environments, maximum voluntary drinking and best hydration state occurs with 16°C water. Provision of fluid needs and thermal needs could be balanced using 16°C water. Drinking 16°C water (nearly the temperature of cool tap water) could be recommended for exercise in the heat. PMID:24149564

  9. Slow slip generated by dehydration reaction coupled with slip-induced dilatancy and thermal pressurization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Teruo; Schubnel, Alexandre

    2016-05-01

    Sustained slow slip, which is a distinctive feature of slow slip events (SSEs), is investigated theoretically, assuming a fault embedded within a fluid-saturated 1D thermo-poro-elastic medium. The object of study is specifically SSEs occurring at the down-dip edge of seismogenic zone in hot subduction zones, where mineral dehydrations (antigorite, lawsonite, chlorite, and glaucophane) are expected to occur near locations where deep slow slip events are observed. In the modeling, we introduce dehydration reactions, coupled with slip-induced dilatancy and thermal pressurization, and slip evolution is assumed to interact with fluid pressure change through Coulomb's frictional stress. Our calculations show that sustained slow slip events occur when the dehydration reaction is coupled with slip-induced dilatancy. Specifically, slow slip is favored by a low initial stress drop, an initial temperature of the medium close to that of the dehydration reaction equilibrium temperature, a low permeability, and overall negative volume change associated with the reaction (i.e., void space created by the reaction larger than the space occupied by the fluid released). Importantly, if we do not assume slip-induced dilatancy, slip is accelerated with time soon after the slip onset even if the dehydration reaction is assumed. This suggests that slow slip is sustained for a long time at hot subduction zones because dehydration reaction is coupled with slip-induced dilatancy. Such slip-induced dilatancy may occur at the down-dip edge of seismogenic zone at hot subduction zones because of repetitive occurrence of dehydration reaction there.

  10. Treatment of lip hemangioma using forced dehydration with induced photocoagulation via diode laser: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Jasper, Juliana; Camilotti, Renata Stifelman; Pagnoncelli, Rogério Miranda; Poli, Vladimir Dourado; da Silveira Gerzson, Alexandre; Gavin Zakszeski, Ana Maria

    2015-03-01

    Several vascular lesions are related to the lip area. There is no universally accepted protocol for the treatment of hemangiomas and vascular malformations. In the oral cavity, high-power lasers represent an excellent therapeutic option for this type of lesion. Their coagulative properties allow for the performance of procedures without the risk of bleeding, which promotes a better healing pattern and a differentiated postoperative appearance. This study describes three cases of lip hemangioma treated with forced dehydration with induced photocoagulation (FDIP) via diode laser. All the reported cases were followed up until complete healing of the operated area had total remission of lesions, with no complications or adverse effects. The findings of the present study suggest that FDIP is effective and useful in the treatment of hemangiomas in the oral cavity. Laser treatment of these lesions prevents their recurrence and is well tolerated by patients. PMID:25577591

  11. Temperature dependent elasticity and damping in dehydrated sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darling, T. W.; Struble, W.

    2013-12-01

    Work reported previously at this conference, outlining our observation of anomalously large elastic softening and damping in dehydrated Berea sandstone at elevated temperatures, has been analysed to study shear and compressional effects separately. Modeling of the sample using COMSOL software was necessary to identify modes, as the vibration spectrum of the sample is poorly approximated by a uniform isotropic solid. The first torsional mode of our evacuated, dry, core softens at nearly twice the rate of Young's modulus modes (bending and compressional) and is also damped nearly twice as strongly as temperature increases. We consider two possible models for explaining this behavior, based on the assumption that the mechanical properties of the sandstone are dominated by the framework of quartz grains and polycrystalline cementation, neglecting initially the effects of clay and feldspar inclusions. The 20cm x 2.54cm diameter core is dry such that the pressure of water vapor in the experiment chamber is below 1e-6 Torr at 70C, suggesting that surface water beyond a small number of monolayers is negligible. Our models consider (1) enhanced sliding of grain boundaries in the cementation at elevated temperature and reduced internal water content, and (2) strain microcracking of the cementatioin at low water content due to anisotropic expansion in the quartz grains. In model (1) interfaces parallel to polyhedral grain surfaces were placed in the cement bonds and assigned frictional properties. Model (2) has not yet been implemented. The overall elasticity of a 3-D several-grain model network was determined by modeling quasistatic loading and measuring displacements. Initial results with a small number of grains/bonds suggests that only the first model provides softening and damping for all the modes, however the details of the effects of defect motioin at individual interfaces as the source for the frictional properties is still being evaluated. Nonlinear effects are

  12. Glycerol dehydrates oedematous as well as normal brain in dogs.

    PubMed

    Wang, J Y; Chen, J L

    1994-04-01

    1. Although the effect of glycerol on reducing intracranial pressure has been widely investigated, only a few studies have reported its dehydrating effect on brain oedema caused by infarction, ischaemia, microembolism and cold injury, but none on traumatic oedema. In this study the effects of glycerol (1 g/kg, i.v. bolus infusion at a rate of 0.04 g/kg per min) on traumatic and cryogenic cerebral oedema and on normal brain were compared in the anaesthetized dog. The tissue water content was measured with the gravimetric method. 2. Oedema resulting from mechanical trauma was initiated 4 h prior to treatment with glycerol (8 dogs) or vehicle (5 dogs) by closed head contusion with fixed force under general anaesthesia. Tissue samples underneath the region of contusion were taken, before and 1 h after infusion of glycerol or vehicle, for the measurement of water content. 3. Glycerol infusion decreased the water content in white matter of the traumatic brain model from 76.54 +/- 1.70% to 70.73 +/- 1.54% (P < 0.001). In normal brain the reduction was from 68.42 +/- 0.48% to 65.36 +/- 0.39% (P < 0.001). Neither vehicle nor glycerol infusion resulted in significant changes in specific gravity of the gray matter. 4. Cryogenic oedema was initiated 3 h prior to the infusion of glycerol or vehicle by applying unilaterally a brass conical cup (bottom diameter 1 cm) filled with dry ice-acetone (-65 degrees C) to the exposed dura for 1 min. The contralateral hemisphere, which was not subjected to cold injury, was used for determination of water content of normal gray and white matter. 5. Glycerol infusion decreased the water content in the white matter of the cold-injured region from 75.38 +/- 0.69% to 72.57 +/- 0.58% (P < 0.001). In the normal white matter the reduction was from 68.63 +/- 0.34% to 65.48 +/- 0.49% (P < 0.001). 6. Our data indicate that glycerol decreases water content of the white matter in traumatic and cold-injured oedematous brain as well as in normal brain

  13. Web mining for topics defined by complex and precise predicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ching-Cheng; Sampathkumar, Sushma

    2004-04-01

    The enormous growth of the World Wide Web has made it important to perform resource discovery efficiently for any given topic. Several new techniques have been proposed in the recent years for this kind of topic specific web-mining, and among them a key new technique called focused crawling which is able to crawl topic-specific portions of the web without having to explore all pages. Most existing research on focused crawling considers a simple topic definition that typically consists of one or more keywords connected by an OR operator. However this kind of simple topic definition may result in too many irrelevant pages in which the same keyword appears in a wrong context. In this research we explore new strategies for crawling topic specific portions of the web using complex and precise predicates. A complex predicate will allow the user to precisely specify a topic using Boolean operators such as "AND", "OR" and "NOT". Our work will concentrate on defining a format to specify this kind of a complex topic definition and secondly on devising a crawl strategy to crawl the topic specific portions of the web defined by the complex predicate, efficiently and with minimal overhead. Our new crawl strategy will improve the performance of topic-specific web crawling by reducing the number of irrelevant pages crawled. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the above approach, we have built a complete focused crawler called "Eureka" with complex predicate support, and a search engine that indexes and supports end-user searches on the crawled pages.

  14. Pyropia yezoensis can utilize CO2 in the air during moderate dehydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wei; He, Linwen; Yang, Fang; Lin, Apeng; Zhang, Baoyu; Niu, Jianfeng; Wang, Guangce

    2014-03-01

    Pyropia yezoensis, an intertidal seaweed, experiences regular dehydration and rehydration with the tides. In this study, the responses of P. yezoensis to dehydration and rehydration under high and low CO2 concentrations ((600-700)×10-6 and (40-80)×10-6, named Group I and Group II respectively) were investigated. The thalli of Group I had a significantly higher effective photosystem II quantum yield than the thalli of Group II at 71% absolute water content (AWC). There was little difference between thalli morphology, total Rubisco activity and total protein content at 100% and 71% AWC, which might be the basis for the normal performance of photosynthesis during moderate dehydration. A higher effective photosystem I quantum yield was observed in the thalli subjected to a low CO2 concentration during moderate dehydration, which might be caused by the enhancement of cyclic electron flow. These results suggested that P. yezoensis can directly utilize CO2 in ambient air during moderate dehydration.

  15. CH2-units on (poly-)ethylene glycol radially dehydrate cytoplasm of resting skinned skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Masako; Takemori, Shigeru

    2008-06-01

    Observing the optical cross-section and electron micrographs of mechanically skinned fibres of frog skeletal muscle, we found that ethylene glycols (EGs) of small (mono-, di-, tri- and tetra-EGs; M(r) 62-194) and medium (poly-EGs; M(r) 900 and 3350) molecular weights efficiently dehydrate the fibres to shrink them radially without microscopic inhomogeneity. The medium-sized poly-EGs at 30% weight/weight concentration absorbed almost all the evaporable water from the fibre. Passive tension measurement at near slack sarcomere spacing indicated that this dehydration by EGs did not accompany longitudinal fibre shrinkage. Chemically relevant fully hydric alcohols (glycerol, threitol, ribitol and mannitol; M(r) 92-182) showed no appreciable dehydrating ability on fibres. An intimate correlation was found between fibre dehydration and CH(2)-concentration of the solutions. Viscosity measurements indicated that the hydrodynamic radii of the alcohols were comparable to those of the small EGs. Therefore, hydrodynamic radii are not a primary determinant of the dehydrating ability. Additionally, CH(2)-concentration of EGs but not alcohols was found to correlate intimately with the measured viscosity of the bulk solution of EGs. These results suggested that the interaction between water molecules and CH(2)-units in crowded cytoplasm of skeletal muscle affects cytoplasm as a whole to realize anisotropic fibre shrinkage. PMID:18583358

  16. Airway Surface Dehydration Aggravates Cigarette Smoke-Induced Hallmarks of COPD in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Seys, Leen J. M.; Verhamme, Fien M.; Dupont, Lisa L.; Desauter, Elke; Duerr, Julia; Seyhan Agircan, Ayca; Conickx, Griet; Joos, Guy F.; Brusselle, Guy G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Airway surface dehydration, caused by an imbalance between secretion and absorption of ions and fluid across the epithelium and/or increased epithelial mucin secretion, impairs mucociliary clearance. Recent evidence suggests that this mechanism may be implicated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the role of airway surface dehydration in the pathogenesis of cigarette smoke (CS)-induced COPD remains unknown. Objective We aimed to investigate in vivo the effect of airway surface dehydration on several CS-induced hallmarks of COPD in mice with airway-specific overexpression of the β-subunit of the epithelial Na+ channel (βENaC). Methods βENaC-Tg mice and wild-type (WT) littermates were exposed to air or CS for 4 or 8 weeks. Pathological hallmarks of COPD, including goblet cell metaplasia, mucin expression, pulmonary inflammation, lymphoid follicles, emphysema and airway wall remodelling were determined and lung function was measured. Results Airway surface dehydration in βENaC-Tg mice aggravated CS-induced airway inflammation, mucin expression and destruction of alveolar walls and accelerated the formation of pulmonary lymphoid follicles. Moreover, lung function measurements demonstrated an increased compliance and total lung capacity and a lower resistance and hysteresis in βENaC-Tg mice, compared to WT mice. CS exposure further altered lung function measurements. Conclusions We conclude that airway surface dehydration is a risk factor that aggravates CS-induced hallmarks of COPD. PMID:26066648

  17. Plant Organellar Proteomics in Response to Dehydration: Turning Protein Repertoire into Insights

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Deepti B.; Rai, Yogita; Gayali, Saurabh; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    Stress adaptation or tolerance in plants is a complex phenomenon involving changes in physiological and metabolic processes. Plants must develop elaborate networks of defense mechanisms, and adapt to and survive for sustainable agriculture. Water-deficit or dehydration is the most critical environmental factor that plants are exposed to during their life cycle, which influences geographical distribution and productivity of many crop species. The cellular responses to dehydration are orchestrated by a series of multidirectional relays of biochemical events at organelle level. The new challenge is to dissect the underlying mechanisms controlling the perception of stress signals and their transmission to cellular machinery for activation of adaptive responses. The completeness of current descriptions of spatial distribution of proteins, the relevance of subcellular locations in diverse functional processes, and the changes of protein abundance in response to dehydration hold the key to understanding how plants cope with such stress conditions. During past decades, organellar proteomics has proved to be useful not only for deciphering reprograming of plant responses to dehydration, but also to dissect stress–responsive pathways. This review summarizes a range of organellar proteomics investigations under dehydration to gain a holistic view of plant responses to water-deficit conditions, which may facilitate future efforts to develop genetically engineered crops for better adaptation. PMID:27148291

  18. Dehydration of Glucose to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Using Nb-doped Tungstite.

    PubMed

    Yue, Chaochao; Li, Guanna; Pidko, Evgeny A; Wiesfeld, Jan J; Rigutto, Marcello; Hensen, Emiel J M

    2016-09-01

    Dehydration of glucose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) remains a significant problem in the context of the valorization of lignocellulosic biomass. Hydrolysis of WCl6 and NbCl5 leads to precipitation of Nb-containing tungstite (WO3 ⋅H2 O) at low Nb content and mixtures of tungstite and niobic acid at higher Nb content. Tungstite is a promising catalyst for the dehydration of glucose to HMF. Compared with Nb2 O5 , fewer by-products are formed because of the low Brønsted acidity of the (mixed) oxides. In water, an optimum yield of HMF was obtained for Nb-W oxides with low Nb content owing to balanced Lewis and Brønsted acidity. In THF/water, the strong Lewis acidity and weak Brønsted acidity caused the reaction to proceed through isomerization to fructose and dehydration of fructose to a partially dehydrated intermediate, which was identified by LC-ESI-MS. The addition of HCl to the reaction mixture resulted in rapid dehydration of this intermediate to HMF. The HMF yield obtained in this way was approximately 56 % for all tungstite catalysts. Density functional theory calculations show that the Lewis acid centers on the tungstite surface can isomerize glucose into fructose. Substitution of W by Nb lowers the overall activation barrier for glucose isomerization by stabilizing the deprotonated glucose adsorbate. PMID:27493127

  19. A New Freezing Method Using Pre-Dehydration by Microwave-Vacuum Drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuruta, Takaharu; Hamidi, Nurkholis

    Partial dehydration by microwave-vacuum drying has been applied to tuna and strawberry in order to reduce cell-damages caused by the formation of large ice-crystals during freezing. The samples were subjected to microwave vacuum drying at pressure of 5 kPa and temperature less than 27°C to remove small amount of water prior to freezing. The tuna were cooled by using the freezing chamber at temperature -50°C or -150°C, while the strawberries were frozen at temperature -30°C or -80°C, respectively. The temperature transients in tuna showed that removing some water before freezing made the freezing time shorter. The observations of ice crystal clearly indicated that rapid cooling and pre-dehydration prior to freezing were effective in minimizing the size of ice crystal. It is also understood that the formation of large ice crystals has a close relation to the cell damages. After thawing, the observation of microstructure was done on the tuna and strawberry halves. The pre-dehydrated samples showed a better structure than the un-dehydrated one. It is concluded that the pre-dehydration by microwave-vacuum drying is one promising method for the cryo-preservation of foods.

  20. Anomalous dehydration of the TTL during January 2013: evidence from balloon, aircraft and satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaykin, Sergey; Pommereau, Jean-Pierre; Hauchecorne, Alain; Rivière, Emmanuel; Amarouche, Nadir; Ghysel, Melanie; Wienhold, Frank; Held, Gerard; Evan, Stephanie; Thornberry, Troy; Rollins, Andrew; Fahey, David; Vömel, Holger; Fujiwara, Masatomo; Rosenlof, Karen

    2015-04-01

    The goal of this study is to comprehensively document an anomalous dehydration of the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) related to a major Sudden Stratospheric Warming (SSW) in January 2013. The analysis involves the data of balloon soundings of water vapour at various tropical locations using FLASH-B, Pico-SDLA and CFH hygrometers as well as NOAA Water instrument flown onboard high-altitude Global Hawk aircraft. Simultaneous water vapour and backscatter measurements by FLASH-B and COBALD sondes provide information on tropopause clouds formation process. Satellite observations of water vapour by Aura MLS are used to derive the deviation from climatological values. Trajectory modeling is applied for locating the dehydration source spots. Spatiotemporal evolution of dehydration at different scales is characterized after combining the consistent in situ and satellite water vapour observations. All data sets provide evidence of rapid and severe dehydration of the TTL throughout the tropical belt shortly after the onset of SSW. In situ measurements around the Cold Point Tropopause (CPT) show up to 2 ppmv of negative deviation from MLS 10-year climatology with extreme water mixing ratios below 1 ppmv in the Western Pacific region. The TTL dehydration case of 2013 is compared with previous similar occurrences and the role of extra-tropical dynamics in setting the global stratospheric water budget through thermal response in the TTL is pointed out

  1. (100) facets of γ-Al2O3: the active surfaces for alcohol dehydration reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kwak, Ja Hun; Mei, Donghai; Peden, Charles HF; Rousseau, Roger J.; Szanyi, Janos

    2011-05-01

    Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) of ethanol, and methanol dehydration reaction were studied on γ-Al2O3 in order to identify the catalytic active sites for alcohol dehydration reactions. Two high temperature (> 473 K) desorption features were observed following ethanol adsorption. Samples calcined at T≤473 K displayed a desorption feature in the 523-533 K temperature range, while those calcined at T ≥ 673 K showed a single desorption feature at 498 K. The switch from the high to low temperature ethanol desorption correlated well with the dehydroxylation of the (100) facets of γ-Al2O3 that was predicted at 550 K DFT calculations. Theoretical DFT simulations of the mechanism of dehydration. on clean and hydroxylated γ-Al2O3(100) surfaces, find that a concerted elimination of ethylene from an ethanol molecule chemisorbed at an Al3+ pentacoordinated site is the rate limiting step for catalytic cycle on both surfaces. Furthermore, titration of the pentacoordinate Al3+ sites on the (100) facets of γ-Al2O3 by BaO completely turned off the methanol dehydration reaction activity. These results unambiguously demonstrate that only the (100) facets on γ-Al2O3 are the catalytic active surfaces for alcohol dehydration.

  2. Ethanol dehydration in HZSM-5 studied by density functional theory: evidence for a concerted process.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seonah; Robichaud, David J; Beckham, Gregg T; Paton, Robert S; Nimlos, Mark R

    2015-04-16

    Dehydration over acidic zeolites is an important reaction class for the upgrading of biomass pyrolysis vapors to hydrocarbon fuels or to precursors for myriad chemical products. Here, we examine the dehydration of ethanol at a Brønsted acid site, T12, found in HZSM-5 using density functional theory (DFT). The geometries of both cluster and mixed quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM:MM) models are prepared from the ZSM-5 crystal structure. Comparisons between these models and different DFT methods are conducted to show similar results among the models and methods used. Inclusion of the full catalyst cavity through a QM:MM approach is found to be important, since activation barriers are computed on average as 7 kcal mol(-1) lower than those obtained with a smaller cluster model. Two different pathways, concerted and stepwise, have been considered when examining dehydration and deprotonation steps. The current study shows that a concerted dehydration process is possible with a lower (4-5 kcal mol(-1)) activation barrier while previous literature studies have focused on a stepwise mechanism. Overall, this work demonstrates that fairly high activation energies (∼50 kcal mol(-1)) are required for ethanol dehydration. A concerted mechanism is favored over a stepwise mechanism because charge separation in the transition state is minimized. QM:MM approaches appear to provide superior results to cluster calculations due to a more accurate representation of charges on framework oxygen atoms. PMID:25802969

  3. Optical mechanical refinement of human amniotic membrane by dehydration and cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yuji; Kubota, Akira; Yokokura, Shunji; Uematsu, Masafumi; Shi, Dong; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo; Quantock, Andrew J; Nishida, Kohji

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a method for refining the optical and mechanical properties of human amniotic membrane (AM) to provide ophthalmic transparent implants for use during severe donor cornea shortages. AM was allowed to gradually dehydrate at 4-8 °C with and without chemical cross-linking. To improve the transparency of AM, a simple dehydration process using a refrigerator at 4-8 °C overnight was examined. For further improvements, dehydrated AM was then cross-linked with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide and N-hydroxy-succimide before rehydration. Light transmittance and tensile strength of individual specimens were evaluated. Light transmittance of AM improved from 50.9-77.7% at 550 nm by this simple low temperature dehydration process. Its high light transmittance was partially maintained at 70.1%, even after rehydration with normal saline. Interestingly, chemically cross-linked AM showed a significantly greater light transmittance of 81.5% under wet conditions. In addition, tensile strength was significantly increased after cross-linking from 2.32 N/mm(2) (native tissue) to 11.78 N/mm(2) (cross-linked specimens). Light transmittance and tensile strength were successfully improved by these approaches, including low temperature dehydration with and without chemical cross-linking. The use of refined AM could be feasible for use in current and future ophthalmic treatments. PMID:22489071

  4. Plant Organellar Proteomics in Response to Dehydration: Turning Protein Repertoire into Insights.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Deepti B; Rai, Yogita; Gayali, Saurabh; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    Stress adaptation or tolerance in plants is a complex phenomenon involving changes in physiological and metabolic processes. Plants must develop elaborate networks of defense mechanisms, and adapt to and survive for sustainable agriculture. Water-deficit or dehydration is the most critical environmental factor that plants are exposed to during their life cycle, which influences geographical distribution and productivity of many crop species. The cellular responses to dehydration are orchestrated by a series of multidirectional relays of biochemical events at organelle level. The new challenge is to dissect the underlying mechanisms controlling the perception of stress signals and their transmission to cellular machinery for activation of adaptive responses. The completeness of current descriptions of spatial distribution of proteins, the relevance of subcellular locations in diverse functional processes, and the changes of protein abundance in response to dehydration hold the key to understanding how plants cope with such stress conditions. During past decades, organellar proteomics has proved to be useful not only for deciphering reprograming of plant responses to dehydration, but also to dissect stress-responsive pathways. This review summarizes a range of organellar proteomics investigations under dehydration to gain a holistic view of plant responses to water-deficit conditions, which may facilitate future efforts to develop genetically engineered crops for better adaptation. PMID:27148291

  5. The dehydration kinetics of gypsum at high pressure and high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chuanjiang; Zheng, Haifei; Wang, Duojun

    2015-07-01

    An in situ dehydration kinetics study of gypsum under water-saturated condition was performed in the temperature and pressure ranges of 383-423 K and 343-1085 MPa by using a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell and Raman spectroscopy. Kinetic analysis shows that the dehydration rate k increases with pressure, suggesting a negative pressure dependence on dehydration rate. The elevation of temperature can contribute to the dehydration. The n values increase with pressure, indicating that the nucleation process becomes slower relative to the growth process. According to the n values of ∼1.0, the dehydration of gypsum is dominated by an instantaneous nucleation and diffusion-controlled growth mechanism. The obtained average activation volume ▵V is equal to 5.69 cm3/mol and the calculated activation energy Ea and the pre-exponential factor A are 66.9 kJ/mol and 4.66 × 105 s-1. The activation energy may be dependent upon grain size, shape, temperature and pressure, and surrounding water.

  6. Impact induced dehydration of serpentine and the evolution of planetary atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Lange, M.A.; Ahrens, T.J.

    1982-11-15

    Shock recovery experiments in the 25 to 45 GPa range on antigorite serpentine determine the amount of shock-induced loss of structural water as a function of shock pressure. Infrared absorption spectra of shock recovered samples demonstrate systematic changes in the amount of structural water and molecular, surface adsorbed water. These yield qualitative estimates of shock-induced water loss and demonstrate that a portion of the shock release structural water is readsorbed on interfacial grain surfaces. Determination of the post-shock water content of the shocked samples relates shock-induced water loss and shock pressure. Based on the present results and theoretical predictions, we conclude that shock pressures of from 20 to approx.60 GPa induce incipient to complete water loss, respectively. This result agrees closely with theoretical estimates for total dehydration. The dehydration interval and the activation energies for dehydration in shocked samples decrease systematically with increasing shock pressure as experienced by the sample. We believe the present experiments are applicable to describing dehydration processes of serpentine-like minerals in the accretional environment of the terrestrial planets. We conclude that complete loss of structural water in serpentine could have occurred from accretional impacts of approx.3 km/sec when earth and Venus have grown to about 50% of their final size. Accreting planetesimals, impacting Mars, never reached velocities sufficient for complete dehydration of serpentine. Our results support a model in which an impact generated atmosphere/hydrosphere forms while the earth is accreting.

  7. ABI3 mediates dehydration stress recovery response in Arabidopsis thaliana by regulating expression of downstream genes.

    PubMed

    Bedi, Sonia; Sengupta, Sourabh; Ray, Anagh; Nag Chaudhuri, Ronita

    2016-09-01

    ABI3, originally discovered as a seed-specific transcription factor is now implicated to act beyond seed physiology, especially during abiotic stress. In non-seed plants, ABI3 is known to act in desiccation stress signaling. Here we show that ABI3 plays a role in dehydration stress response in Arabidopsis. ABI3 gene was upregulated during dehydration stress and its expression was maintained during subsequent stress recovery phases. Comparative gene expression studies in response to dehydration stress and stress recovery were done with genes which had potential ABI3 binding sites in their upstream regulatory regions. Such studies showed that several genes including known seed-specific factors like CRUCIFERIN1, CRUCIFERIN3 and LEA-group of genes like LEA76, LEA6, DEHYDRIN LEA and LEA-LIKE got upregulated in an ABI3-dependent manner, especially during the stress recovery phase. ABI3 got recruited to regions upstream to the transcription start site of these genes during dehydration stress response through direct or indirect DNA binding. Interestingly, ABI3 also binds to its own promoter region during such stress signaling. Nucleosomes covering potential ABI3 binding sites in the upstream sequences of the above-mentioned genes alter positions, and show increased H3 K9 acetylation during stress-induced transcription. ABI3 thus mediates dehydration stress signaling in Arabidopsis through regulation of a group of genes that play a role primarily during stress recovery phase. PMID:27457990

  8. Tracking Multiple Topics for Finding Interesting Articles

    SciTech Connect

    Pon, R K; Cardenas, A F; Buttler, D J; Critchlow, T J

    2008-01-03

    We introduce multiple topic tracking (MTT) for iScore to better recommend news articles for users with multiple interests and to address changes in user interests over time. As an extension of the basic Rocchio algorithm, traditional topic detection and tracking, and single-pass clustering, MTT maintains multiple interest profiles to identify interesting articles for a specific user given user-feedback. Focusing on only interesting topics enables iScore to discard useless profiles to address changes in user interests and to achieve a balance between resource consumption and classification accuracy. iScore is able to achieve higher quality results than traditional methods such as the Rocchio algorithm. We identify several operating parameters that work well for MTT. Using the same parameters, we show that MTT alone yields high quality results for recommending interesting articles from several corpora. The inclusion of MTT improves iScore's performance by 25% in recommending news articles from the Yahoo! News RSS feeds and the TREC11 adaptive filter article collection. And through a small user study, we show that iScore can still perform well when only provided with little user feedback.

  9. Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teaching, 1972

    1972-01-01

    This column discusses problems involving a paper folding game for bicimals, the sum of exterior angles of polygons and polyhedra, solving quadratic equations in finite arithmetics, nomograms, and cube folding patterns. (DT)

  10. Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teaching, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Problems involving divisibility, the ten coin triangle, five times a week with 4 D, a nomogram for the lens formula, the box and ladder problem, chains of circles, tessellating hexagons, topological woggles, and numbers of triangles are discussed. (CT)

  11. Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teaching, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Notes on divisibility using manipulative materials, cyclic groups of functions, Horner's method of synthetic division, arc lengths of cycloids and cardioids, number squares, and students' concepts of mathematics. (MM)

  12. Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teaching, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Notes on De Morgan's rules; a perpetual calendar; the use of coloured rods; a balance problem; a graphical approach to natural logarithms; a problem in geometric probability; and the parallelogram law of forces. (MM)

  13. Topical corticosteroid addiction and phobia.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Aparajita; Sengupta, Sujata; Coondoo, Arijit; Jana, Amlan Kusum

    2014-09-01

    Corticosteroids, one of the most widely prescribed topical drugs, have been used for about six decades till date. However, rampant misuse and abuse down the years has given the drug a bad name. Topical steroid abuse may lead to two major problems which lie at the opposing ends of the psychosomatic spectrum. Topical steroid addiction, a phenomenon that came to be recognized about a decade after the introduction of the molecule is manifested as psychological distress and rebound phenomenon on stoppage of the drug. The rebound phenomenon, which can affect various parts of the body particularly the face and the genitalia has been reported by various names in the literature. TC phobia which lies at the opposite end of the psychiatric spectrum of steroid abuse has been reported particularly among parents of atopic children. Management of both conditions is difficult and frustrating. Psychological counseling and support can be of immense help in both the conditions. PMID:25284851

  14. Topical Corticosteroid Addiction and Phobia

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Aparajita; Sengupta, Sujata; Coondoo, Arijit; Jana, Amlan Kusum

    2014-01-01

    Corticosteroids, one of the most widely prescribed topical drugs, have been used for about six decades till date. However, rampant misuse and abuse down the years has given the drug a bad name. Topical steroid abuse may lead to two major problems which lie at the opposing ends of the psychosomatic spectrum. Topical steroid addiction, a phenomenon that came to be recognized about a decade after the introduction of the molecule is manifested as psychological distress and rebound phenomenon on stoppage of the drug. The rebound phenomenon, which can affect various parts of the body particularly the face and the genitalia has been reported by various names in the literature. TC phobia which lies at the opposite end of the psychiatric spectrum of steroid abuse has been reported particularly among parents of atopic children. Management of both conditions is difficult and frustrating. Psychological counseling and support can be of immense help in both the conditions. PMID:25284851

  15. Haloprogin: a Topical Antifungal Agent

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, E. F.; Zwadyk, P.; Bequette, R. J.; Hamlow, E. E.; Tavormina, P. A.; Zygmunt, W. A.

    1970-01-01

    Haloprogin was shown to be a highly effective agent for the treatment of experimentally induced topical mycotic infections in guinea pigs. Its in vitro spectrum of activity also includes yeasts, yeastlike fungi (Candida species), and certain gram-positive bacteria. The in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of haloprogin against dermatophytes was equal to that observed with tolnaftate. The striking differences between the two agents were the marked antimonilial and selective antibacterial activities shown by haloprogin, contrasted with the negligible activities found with tolnaftate. Addition of serum decreased the in vitro antifungal activity of haloprogin to a greater extent than that of tolnaftate; however, diminished antifungal activity was not observed when haloprogin was applied topically to experimental dermatophytic infections. Based on its broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, haloprogin may prove to be a superior topical agent in the treatment of dermatophytic and monilial infections in man. PMID:5422306

  16. Topical treatments for hypertrophic scars.

    PubMed

    Zurada, Joanna M; Kriegel, David; Davis, Ira C

    2006-12-01

    Hypertrophic scars represent an abnormal, exaggerated healing response after skin injury. In addition to cosmetic concern, scars may cause pain, pruritus, contractures, and other functional impairments. Therapeutic modalities include topical medications, intralesional corticosteroids, laser therapy, and cryosurgery. Topical therapies, in particular, have become increasingly popular because of their ease of use, comfort, noninvasiveness, and relatively low cost. This review will discuss the properties and effectiveness of these agents, including pressure therapy, silicone gel sheeting and ointment, polyurethane dressing, onion extract, imiquimod 5% cream, and vitamins A and E in the prevention and treatment of hypertrophic scars. PMID:17097399

  17. Crustal Recycling, Mantle Dehydration and the Thermal Evolution of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morschhauser, A.; Grott, M.; Breuer, D.

    2010-12-01

    We have reinvestigated the coupled thermal and crustal evolution of Mars using 1D parametrized thermal evolution models [1] and taking new data concerning the content and distribution of heat producing elements [2] as well as new laboratory data concerning the flow behavior of iron-rich olivine [3] into account. The high enrichment of radioactive elements in the crust leads to a less efficient heat transport from the lithospheric base, resulting in a thinning of the stagnant lid. If the stagnant lid becomes thinner than the crust, crustal material can be recycled back into the mantle by the vigourous convective motion. However, crustal recycling appears to be incompatible with an early separation of geochemical reservoirs [4] and valid models are required to show no episodes of crustal recycling. Furthermore, admissible models have to reproduce the Martian crust formation history and to allow the formation of partial melt under present-day mantle conditions. Taking dehydration stiffening of the mantle into account, we find that admissible models have low initial upper mantle temperatures between 1600 and 1700 K, a primordial crustal thickness of 30 km, and an initially wet mantle rheology. The crust formation process on Mars would then have been driven by the extraction of a primordial crust after core formation which was cooling the mantle to temperatures close to the peridotite solidus. The second stage of global crust formation took place over a more extended period of time, waning at around 1300-1700 Myr, and was driven by heat produced by the decay of radioactive elements. Finally, present-day volcanism is explained by convective mantle plumes and thermal insulation under regions of locally thickened crust. Water extraction from the mantle was found to be relatively efficient and close to 50 percent of the total inventory is lost from the mantle in most models. Assuming an initial mantle water content of 100 ppm and that 10% of the extracted water is supplied

  18. Severe hypernatremic dehydration and metabolic acidosis due to neonatal intestinal microvillus inclusion disease.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Shaneela; Fraser, Douglas D; Driman, David K; Bax, Kevin C

    2012-01-01

    Neonatal microvillus inclusion disease (MID) is a congenital secretory diarrhea diagnosed by morphological enterocyte abnormalities on histology. The secretory diarrhea associated with MID occurs within the first few hours of birth and is exacerbated by enteral feeding. Affected newborns will die of dehydration and acid-base disturbances if MID is not rapidly recognized and treated with massive intravenous fluid replacement and gut rest. We report a case of a 4-day-old neonate presenting with 18% weight loss, hypernatremic dehydration and metabolic acidosis. Despite aggressive fluid resuscitation (206 ml/kg for the first 24 h), the dehydration and metabolic acidosis were only minimally improved. The diapers were found soaked with clear, non-odorous fluid on repeated examinations. Persistent secretory diarrhea was suspected. Stool electrolytes analyses showed a high NaCl content typical of secretory diarrhea and intestinal biopsy with electron microscopy was diagnostic of MID. PMID:21968248

  19. Influence of Air Temperature and Humidity on Dehydration Equilibria and Kinetics of Theophylline

    PubMed Central

    Touil, Amira; Peczalski, Roman; Timoumi, Souad; Zagrouba, Fethi

    2013-01-01

    The effect of hygrothermal conditions (air temperature and relative humidity) on the dehydration of theophylline monohydrate was investigated. Firstly, the equilibrium states of theophylline were investigated. The data from gravimetric analysis at constant temperature and humidity were reported as desorption isotherms. The PXRD analysis was used to identify the different polymorphic forms of theophylline: the monohydrate, the metastable anhydrate, and the stable anhydrate. Solid-solid phase diagrams for two processing times were proposed. Secondly, the dehydration kinetics were studied. The water content evolutions with time were recorded at several temperatures from 20°C to 80°C and several relative humidities from 4% to 50%. Different mathematical models were used to fit the experimental data. The spatially averaged solution of 2D Fickian transient diffusion equation best represented the water mass loss versus time experimental relationship. The dehydration rate constant was found to increase exponentially with air temperature and to decrease exponentially with air relative humidity. PMID:26556000

  20. Influence of Air Temperature and Humidity on Dehydration Equilibria and Kinetics of Theophylline.

    PubMed

    Touil, Amira; Peczalski, Roman; Timoumi, Souad; Zagrouba, Fethi

    2013-01-01

    The effect of hygrothermal conditions (air temperature and relative humidity) on the dehydration of theophylline monohydrate was investigated. Firstly, the equilibrium states of theophylline were investigated. The data from gravimetric analysis at constant temperature and humidity were reported as desorption isotherms. The PXRD analysis was used to identify the different polymorphic forms of theophylline: the monohydrate, the metastable anhydrate, and the stable anhydrate. Solid-solid phase diagrams for two processing times were proposed. Secondly, the dehydration kinetics were studied. The water content evolutions with time were recorded at several temperatures from 20°C to 80°C and several relative humidities from 4% to 50%. Different mathematical models were used to fit the experimental data. The spatially averaged solution of 2D Fickian transient diffusion equation best represented the water mass loss versus time experimental relationship. The dehydration rate constant was found to increase exponentially with air temperature and to decrease exponentially with air relative humidity. PMID:26556000

  1. Synthesis of butenes through 2-butanol dehydration over mesoporous materials produced from ferrierite

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Soyeon; Kim, Hyeonjoo; Bae, Jung A.; Kim, Do Heui; Peden, Charles HF; Park, Young-Kwon; Jeon, Jong Ki

    2012-05-20

    Mesoporous materials synthesized from commercial ferrierite (MMZ-FER) were applied to butanol dehydration. The MMZ-FER was produced by disassembling ferrierite into unit structures in the presence of an alkali solution, adding a surfactant as a templating material, followed by hydrothermal treatment. The effect of the alkali/(Si+Al) ratio in the disassembling step on the characteristics of the catalyst and butanol dehydration performance were investigated. The MMZ-FER materials, synthesized in a condition in which the NaOH/(Si + Al) mole ratio in the disassembling step was 0.67 and 1.0, demonstrated similar textural properties to those of MCM-41. Many weak acid sites developed on the MMZ-FER(0.67) and MMZ-FER(1.0) samples, which is attributed to the creation of ferrierite-induced acid sites. The MMZ-FER materials showed excellent catalytic activity, selectivity, and stability during the dehydration of 2-butanol.

  2. Improvement of Freezing Quality of Food by Pre-dehydration with Microwave-Vacuum Drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidi, Nurkholis; Tsuruta, Takaharu

    Partial dehydration by microwave vacuum drying has been applied to tuna, oyster and mackerel prior to freezing in order to reduce quality damages due to freezing and thawing. Samples were dehydrated at pressure of 4kPa and temperature lower than 25°C. Two cooling conditions were tested in the experiment by using the freezing chamber of temperatures -20°C and -80°C. The experimental results showed that decreasing the water content in tuna could lower the freezing point temperature and made the freezing time shorter. It was also found that removing some water was effective to reduce the size of ice crystal and the drip loss in mackerel. After thawing, the pre-dehydrated mackerel showed better microstructure than that frozen without pre-treatment. Furthermore, the sensory tests have been done by a group of panelist for the evaluation on aroma, flavor, and general acceptability of mackerels.

  3. Dehydration of Ions in Voltage-Gated Carbon Nanopores Observed by in Situ NMR.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhi-Xiang; Xing, Yun-Zhao; Liu, Shubin; Ling, Yan-Chun; Kleinhammes, Alfred; Wu, Yue

    2015-12-17

    Ion transport through nanochannels is of fundamental importance in voltage-gated protein ion channels and energy storage devices. Direct microscopic observations are critical for understanding the intricacy of ionic processes in nanoconfinement. Here we report an in situ nuclear magnetic resonance study of ion hydration in voltage-gated carbon nanopores. Nucleus-independent chemical shift was employed to monitor the ionic processes of NaF aqueous electrolyte in nanopores of carbon supercapacitors. The state of ion hydration was revealed by the chemical shift, which is sensitive to the hydration number. A large energy barrier was observed for ions to enter nanopores smaller than the hydrated ion size. Increasing the gating voltage above 0.4 V overcomes this barrier and brings F(-) into the nanopores without dehydration. Partial dehydration of F(-) occurs only at gating voltage above 0.7 V. No dehydration was observed for Na(+) cations, in agreement with their strong ion hydration. PMID:26629712

  4. Dehydration and acute weight gain in mixed martial arts fighters before competition.

    PubMed

    Jetton, Adam M; Lawrence, Marcus M; Meucci, Marco; Haines, Tracie L; Collier, Scott R; Morris, David M; Utter, Alan C

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the magnitude of acute weight gain (AWG) and dehydration in mixed martial arts (MMA) fighters before competition. Urinary measures of hydration status and body mass were determined approximately 24 hours before and then again approximately 2 hours before competition in 40 MMA fighters (mean ± SE, age: 25.2 ± 0.65 years, height: 1.77 ± 0.01 m, body mass: 75.8 ± 1.5 kg). The AWG was defined as the amount of body weight the fighters gained in the approximately 22-hour period between the official weigh-in and the actual competition. On average, the MMA fighters gained 3.40 ± 2.2 kg or 4.4% of their body weight in the approximately 22-hour period before competition. Urine specific gravity significantly decreased (p < 0.001) from 1.028 ± 0.001 to 1.020 ± 0.001 during the approximately 22-hour rehydration period. Results demonstrated that 39% of the MMA fighters presented with a Usg of >1.021 immediately before competition indicating significant or serious dehydration. The MMA fighters undergo significant dehydration and fluctuations in body mass (4.4% avg.) in the 24-hour period before competition. Urinary measures of hydration status indicate that a significant proportion of MMA fighters are not successfully rehydrating before competition and subsequently are competing in a dehydrated state. Weight management guidelines to prevent acute dehydration in MMA fighters are warranted to prevent unnecessary adverse health events secondary to dehydration. PMID:23439336

  5. Effect of dehydration reactions on earthquake nucleation: Stable sliding, slow transients, and unstable slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brantut, N.; Sulem, J.; Schubnel, A.

    2011-05-01

    We study the influence of metamorphic dehydration reactions on the stability of slip in a one-dimensional, spring-slider model. The equations that govern the evolution of the velocity of sliding block and of pore pressure and temperature inside the slip zone are deduced from the mass and energy balance of the multiphases saturated medium and from the kinetics of the dehydration reaction. Such reactions induce two competing effects: a direct increase in pore pressure because they release fluid and a limit in temperature increase because part of the frictional heat is absorbed in the endothermic reactions. The effect of the chemical reaction on the stability of stationary slip is studied. Dehydration reactions increase the critical stiffness at which the system becomes unstable. Depending on the sign of the perturbations, it is shown that dehydration reactions can either (1) trigger a catastrophic increase of pore pressure at quasi-constant temperature leading to vanishing effective stress or (2) trigger an arrest of the fault. Numerical simulations demonstrate the crucial role of initial pore pressure and temperature in the slip zone prior to the onset of the chemical reaction on the subsequent evolution of the system. For highly pressurized fault zones, in which the creep motion of the fault is stable in absence of dehydration reactions, the onset of the reaction can trigger transient slip events induced by chemical pressurization. The magnitude of such events appears to be proportional to the reaction progress. We conclude that metamorphic dehydration reactions strongly modify the nucleation of unstable slip and are a possible origin for slow slip events in subduction zones.

  6. Integrated analysis of the effects of cold and dehydration on rice metabolites, phytohormones, and gene transcripts.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Kyonoshin; Urano, Kaoru; Yoshiwara, Kyouko; Morishita, Yoshihiko; Sakurai, Nozomu; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Shibata, Daisuke; Saito, Kazuki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2014-04-01

    Correlations between gene expression and metabolite/phytohormone levels under abiotic stress conditions have been reported for Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, little is known about these correlations in rice (Oryza sativa 'Nipponbare'), despite its importance as a model monocot. We performed an integrated analysis to clarify the relationships among cold- and dehydration-responsive metabolites, phytohormones, and gene transcription in rice. An integrated analysis of metabolites and gene expression indicated that several genes encoding enzymes involved in starch degradation, sucrose metabolism, and the glyoxylate cycle are up-regulated in rice plants exposed to cold or dehydration and that these changes are correlated with the accumulation of glucose (Glc), fructose, and sucrose. In particular, high expression levels of genes encoding isocitrate lyase and malate synthase in the glyoxylate cycle correlate with increased Glc levels in rice, but not in Arabidopsis, under dehydration conditions, indicating that the regulation of the glyoxylate cycle may be involved in Glc accumulation under dehydration conditions in rice but not Arabidopsis. An integrated analysis of phytohormones and gene transcripts revealed an inverse relationship between abscisic acid (ABA) signaling and cytokinin (CK) signaling under cold and dehydration stresses; these stresses increase ABA signaling and decrease CK signaling. High levels of Oryza sativa 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase transcripts correlate with ABA accumulation, and low levels of Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 735A transcripts correlate with decreased levels of a CK precursor in rice. This reduced expression of CYP735As occurs in rice but not Arabidopsis. Therefore, transcriptional regulation of CYP735As might be involved in regulating CK levels under cold and dehydration conditions in rice but not Arabidopsis. PMID:24515831

  7. Dehydration kinetics of talc and 10 Å phase: Consequences for subduction zone seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chollet, Mélanie; Daniel, Isabelle; Koga, Kenneth T.; Petitgirard, Sylvain; Morard, Guillaume

    2009-06-01

    The process of dehydration embrittlement is usually proposed as an explanation for the presence of intermediate-depth earthquakes in subduction zones. It assumes that the release of water by hydrous mineral breakdown is fast enough to provoke brittle failure. We performed high-pressure, high-temperature, dehydration experiments of talc and 10 Å phase coupled with in situ measurement of reaction kinetics using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Newly developed, X-ray transparent, pressure-sealed, titanium capsule ensured a closed thermochemical environment. From isothermal kinetics data fitted to the Avrami's equation and from the texture of reaction products, we conclude that dehydration rates of these minerals are limited by diffusion. Predicted minimum rates of fluid release range from 10 - 4 to 9 × 10 - 6 m 3fluid m - 3 rock s - 1 , and are fast enough to provoke hydraulic rupture since Maxwell relaxation rate of rocks relevant of subduction zones are slower than the rate of fluid release. These rates are comparable between talc, 10 Å phase and antigorite also [Perrillat, J.-P., Daniel, I., Koga, K.T., Reynard, B., Cardon, H., Crichton, W.A., 2005. Kinetics of antigorite dehydration: a real-time X-ray diffraction study. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 236, 899-913]. Consequently, we suggest that the dehydration of hydrous minerals may eventually be fast enough to trigger the intermediate-depth earthquakes, and that the deepest among intermediate-depth earthquakes may actually locate the limits for dehydration of hydrous minerals in the downgoing lithosphere.

  8. Dehydration kinetics and thermochemistry of selected hydrous phases, and simulated gas release pattern in carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, Kunal; Ganguly, J.

    1992-01-01

    As part of our continued program of study on the volatile bearing phases and volatile resource potential of carbonaceous chondrite, results of our experimental studies on the dehydration kinetics of talc as a function of temperature and grain size (50 to 0.5 microns), equilibrium dehydration boundary of talc to 40 kbars, calorimetric study of enthalpy of formation of both natural and synthetic talc as a function of grain size, and preliminary results on the dehydration kinetics of epsomite are reported. In addition, theoretical calculations on the gas release pattern of Murchison meteorite, which is a C2(CM) carbonaceous chondrite, were performed. The kinetic study of talc leads to a dehydration rate constant for 40-50 microns size fraction of k = (3.23 x 10(exp 4))exp(-Q/RT)/min with the activation energy Q = 376 (plus or minus 20) kJ/mole. The dehydration rate was found to increase somewhat with decreasing grain size. The enthalpy of formation of talc from elements was measured to be -5896(10) kJ/mol. There was no measurable effect of grain size on the enthalpy beyond the limits of precision of the calorimetric studies. Also the calorimetric enthalpy of both synthetic and natural talc was found to be essentially the same, within the precision of measurements, although the natural talc had a slightly larger field of stability in our phase equilibrium studies. The high pressure experimental data the dehydration equilibrium of talc (talc = enstatite + coesite + H2O) is in strong disagreement with that calculated from the available thermochemical data, which were constrained to fit the low pressure experimental results. The calculated gas release pattern of Murchison meteorite were in reasonable agreement with that determined by stepwise heating in a gas chromatograph.

  9. Vital Topics in School Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garber, Darrell H.

    A study to determine the topics considered vital by principals and members of the American Education Finance Association (AEFA) is described in this paper. Questionnaires mailed to two random samples of 61 AEFA members and 181 elementary/secondary principals respectively, yielded 35 returns, a 57 percent response rate, and 113 returns, a 62…

  10. Resources for Topics in Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riordan, Dale B.

    This guide is intended to help the user become familiar with a selected group of reference tools and resources which are useful in nursing education and practice. It is important for students to use the correct medical or scientific terminology, understand the scope of a topic, and then utilize the tools necessary to research subjects of interest.…

  11. Topics in optics and music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, Andrew W.

    2012-10-01

    While the use of optics in the playback of music has been a tremendously successful technology and laser light shows are a common occurrence, other intersections of optics and music tend to be less well known. Topics such as optics-based instruments, performance tools and effects, instrument characterization and manufacturing, recording, playback, and signal processing are explored.

  12. Topical Knowledge and ESL Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Ling; Shi, Ling

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of topical knowledge on ESL (English as a Second Language) writing performance in the English Language Proficiency Index (LPI), a standardized English proficiency test used by many post-secondary institutions in western Canada. The participants were 50 students with different levels of English proficiency…

  13. Topic Development in USENET Newsgroups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Larry N.

    1998-01-01

    USENET newsgroup topics are created, and they evolve, mutate, and become extinct in ways fundamentally different from spoken dialog. These differences can be explained partially by the asynchronous nature of electronic communication, as well as by other factors unique to such wide-scale multi-user media. (Author)

  14. The Health Curriculum: 500 Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Oliver E.

    2001-01-01

    This 1958 paper divides 500 health topics into 20 categories: health as a social accomplishment/social problem; nutrition; physical fitness; mental health and disease; heredity/eugenics; infection/immunity; chronic and degenerative disease; substance abuse; skin care; vision, hearing, and speech; dental health; safety; physical environment; health…

  15. Seven topics in perturbative QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Buras, A.J.

    1980-09-01

    The following topics of perturbative QCD are discussed: (1) deep inelastic scattering; (2) higher order corrections to e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation, to photon structure functions and to quarkonia decays; (3) higher order corrections to fragmentation functions and to various semi-inclusive processes; (4) higher twist contributions; (5) exclusive processes; (6) transverse momentum effects; (7) jet and photon physics.

  16. Helping Kids Choose a Topic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunce-Crim, Marna

    1991-01-01

    Thinking about how published authors get their ideas for stories is one way for children to generate their own story ideas. The article discusses how elementary teachers can use storytelling, reading, examining picture books, and learning writing techniques to help their students select a topic. (SM)

  17. Conducting Surveys on Sensitive Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, John H.

    2004-01-01

    Many institutions are surveying students about sensitive topics such as alcohol and drug use, sexual behavior, and academic dishonesty. Yet these can be some of the most difficult surveys to administer successfully, given reluctance on the part of respondents both to participate and to provide truthful answers. (Contains 1 table.)

  18. Vocational Education Today: Topical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenway, Jane, Ed.; Tregenza, Karen, Ed.; Watkins, Peter, Ed.

    This book contains 13 papers examining topical issues in vocational education and training (VET) in Victoria, Australia. The following papers are included: "Vocational Education and Schooling: The Changing Scene" (Jane Kenway, Sue Willis, Peter Watkins, Karen Tregenza); "The Enterprise Approach" (James Mulraney); "VET Programs at James Harrison…

  19. Topics in Biomedical Optics: Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebden, Jeremy C.; Boas, David A.; George, John S.; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2003-06-01

    The field of biomedical optics is experiencing tremendous growth. Biomedical technologies contribute in the creation of devices used in healthcare of various specialties (ophthalmology, cardiology, anesthesiology, and immunology, etc.). Recent research in biomedical optics is discussed. Overviews of meetings held at the 2002 Optical Society of America Biomedical Topical Meetings are presented.

  20. Alcohol Dehydration on Monooxo W=O and Dioxo O=W=O Species

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhenjun; Smid, Bretislav; Kim, Yu Kwon; Matolin, Vladimir; Kay, Bruce D.; Rousseau, Roger J.; Dohnalek, Zdenek

    2012-08-16

    The dehydration of 1-propanol on nanoporous WO3 films prepared via ballistic deposition at ~20 K has been investigated using temperature programmed desorption, infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy and density functional theory. The as deposited films are extremely efficient in 1-propanol dehydration to propene. This activity is correlated with the presence of dioxo O=W=O groups while monooxo W=O species are shown to be inactive. Annealing of the film induces densification that results in the loss of catalytic activity due to annihilation O=W=O species.

  1. Uranyl p-toluenesulphonate and its crystal hydrates. Synthesis and dehydration-hydration processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baluev, A. V.; Mityakhina, V. S.; Bogachev, S. V.; Suglobova, I. G.

    2003-01-01

    Lowest hydrates of uranyl p-toluenesulphonate (UPTS) and anhydrous salt were synthesised. The dehydration-hydration processes were studied by thermal gravimetric analysis. It has been established that the hydrate shell of UPTS has a layered structure. The IR spectra of UPTS and its hydrates were recorded. It was found that the IR spectra of UPTS crystal hydrates of the same composition, produced in dehydration-hydration, noticeably differ in the range of water vibrations and are the same in the range corresponding to vibrations of sulphonate groups.

  2. Structural characterization and dehydration kinetics of Kirka inderite mineral: Application of non-isothermal models

    SciTech Connect

    Figen, Aysel Kantuerk; Yilmaz, Muege Sari; Piskin, Sabriye

    2010-06-15

    Coats-Redfern, Arrhenius, Ozawa, Kissinger, and Doyle non-isothermal kinetic models were used to calculate the dynamic kinetic parameters for dehydration reaction of Mg-borate mineral, inderite (Kirka - Turkey) based on thermogravimetric analysis, derivative thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis. Dehydration experiments were carried out at different heating rates of 2, 5, 10, 15, and 20 deg. C/min in a pure nitrogen atmosphere. Structural and morphological properties have been characterized by X-Ray diffraction, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy, and Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy techniques.

  3. Overpressure Caused by the Smectite Dehydration Influences on the triggering of fault slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wen-Sheng; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Chang, Han-Yuan

    2015-04-01

    Overpressure, which is pore fluid pressure higher than hydrostatic pressure, is observed in numerous mechanical processes along major faults. Many investigations currently show that the pore fluid pressure has been observed to influence the thrust fault strength and slip behavior and updip limit of the seismogenic zone. Clay dehydration is one key control on overpressure generation under undrained condition in thermal pressurization processes. Increasing pressure and temperature with depth depending on the local geological setting and conditions can cause clay dehydration which has been proposed as an explanation for the generation of overpressure. However, study about the effect of excess pore pressure caused by clay dehydration on the triggering of earthquake is seldom addressed in Taiwan. In fault zones like the Chelungpu Fault, clay minerals are abundant in the fault gouge. Therefore, to quantify the effect of overpressure caused by clay dehydration on the triggering of earthquake under undrained condition, we adopt the chemical thermodynamic model and chemical kinetic model to calculate the amount of water expelled from clay dehydration; derive the three-dimensional governing equation of groundwater flow with clay dehydration varied with pressure and temperature; follow the Coulomb-Mohr frictional failure model of earthquake occurrence to evaluate the influence of the pore pressure on the change of effective Coulomb stress. Finally, development of numerical model to simulate the effect of excess pore pressure caused by clay dehydration on the coulomb failure stress coupled thermal-hydraulic-mechanical-chemical has been performed. Moreover, field application with numerical model to quantify analysis of the effect of overpressure caused by clay dehydration on the triggering of earthquake has been progressed. Coulomb stress increases of ≥0.01 MPa have been shown to be associated with seismicity rate increase and in many cases triggering earthquakes. The results

  4. Technique of ethanol food grade production with batch distillation and dehydration using starch-based adsorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widjaja, Tri; Altway, Ali; Ni'mah, Hikmatun; Tedji, Namira; Rofiqah, Umi

    2015-12-01

    Development and innovation of ethanol food grade production are becoming the reasearch priority to increase economy growth. Moreover, the government of Indonesia has established regulation for increasing the renewable energy as primary energy. Sorghum is cerealia plant that contains 11-16% sugar that is optimum for fermentation process, it is potential to be cultivated, especially at barren area in Indonesia. The purpose of this experiment is to learn about the effect of microorganisms in fermentation process. Fermentation process was carried out batchwise in bioreactor and used 150g/L initial sugar concentration. Microorganisms used in this experiment are Zymomonas mobilis mutation (A3), Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mixed of Pichia stipitis. The yield of ethanol can be obtained from this experiment. For ethanol purification result, distillation process from fermentation process has been done to search the best operation condition for efficiency energy consumption. The experiment for purification was divided into two parts, which are distillation with structured packing steel wool and adsorption (dehydration) sequencely. In distillation part, parameters evaluation (HETP and pressure drop) of distillation column that can be used for scale up are needed. The experiment was operated at pressure of 1 atm. The distillation stage was carried out at 85 °C and reflux ratio of 0.92 with variety porosities of 20%, 40%, and 60%. Then the adsorption process was done at 120°C and two types of adsorbent, which are starch - based adsorbent with ingredient of cassava and molecular sieve 3A, were used. The adsorption process was then continued to purify the ethanol from impurities by using activated carbon. This research shows that the batch fermentation process with Zymomonas mobilis A3 obtain higher % yield of ethanol of 40,92%. In addition to that, for purification process, the best operation condition is by using 40% of porosity of stuctured packing steel wool in distillation

  5. Operation Waste Watch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groover, Richard S.

    1981-01-01

    Operation Waste Watch is a seven-unit program for grades K-6 which addresses such topics as litter control, recycling, and resources recovery. It is designed to instill in students positive feelings about the environment. (DS)

  6. Associations Between Dehydration, Cognitive Impairment, and Frailty in Older Hospitalized Patients: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    McCrow, Judy; Morton, Margaret; Travers, Catherine; Harvey, Keren; Eeles, Eamonn

    2016-05-01

    HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ARTICLE INSTRUCTIONS 1.2 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded once you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. To obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Associations Between Dehydration, Cognitive Impairment, and Frailty in Older Hospitalized Patients: An Exploratory Study" found on pages 19-27, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website listed above to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name; contact information; and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until April 30, 2019. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. ACTIVITY OBJECTIVES 1. Describe the incidence of dehydration in older hospitalized

  7. Effect of blanching, dehydration method and temperature on the ascorbic acid, colour, sliminess and other constituents of okra fruit.

    PubMed

    Inyang, U E; Ike, C I

    1998-03-01

    Freshly harvested okra fruits were blanched in boiling water (with or without 0.2% sodium metablsulphite salt) and the effect of this treatment, dehydration methods and temperature on certain characteristics of okra investigated. Blanching resulted in the slight decrease in carbohydrate, fat, ash, colour components, ascorbic acid and viscosity. Besides this initial loss, blanching in sulphite solution led to the retention of more of the colour components and ascorbic acid during dehydration. All dehydrated okra samples had higher contents of carbohydrate, fat and ash but lesser contents of protein and ascorbic acid than fresh okra. Fresh okra fruits, on the other hand, had higher content of the colour pigments and were more viscous than all dehydrated products. Samples blanched prior to dehydration retained more of the colour components but were less viscous than unblanched samples. Vacuum dehydrated samples retained more ascorbic acid, colour pigment and mucilage at each of the dehydration temperatures than those from a hot air oven. High dehydration temperatures had negative effect on the colour, ascorbic acid and viscosity of okra. PMID:9713583

  8. Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling of Apple Slice under Simultaneous Infrared Dry-Blanching and Dehydration Process

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To develop a new simultaneous infrared dry blanching and dehydration process for producing high-quality blanched and partially dehydrated products, apple slices with three different thicknesses, 5, 9, and 13 mm, were heated using infrared for up to 10 min at 4000W/m2 IR intensity. The surface and ce...

  9. The response difference of mitochondria in recalcitrant Antiaris toxicaria axes and orthodox Zea mays embryos to dehydration injury.

    PubMed

    Song, Song-Quan; Tian, Mei-Hua; Kan, Jing; Cheng, Hong-Yan

    2009-07-01

    Long-term preservation of recalcitrant seeds is very difficult because the physiological basis on their desiccation sensitivity is poorly understood. Survival of Antiaris toxicaria axes rapidly decreased and that of immature maize embryos very slowly decreased with dehydration. To understand their different responses to dehydration, we examined the changes in mitochondria activity during dehydration. Although activities of cytochrome (Cyt) c oxidase and malate dehydrogenase of the A. toxicaria axis and maize embryo mitochondria decreased with dehydration, the parameters of maize embryo mitochondria were much higher than those of A. toxicaria, showing that the damage was more severe for the A. toxicaria axis mitochondria than for those of maize embryo. The state I and III respiration of the A. toxicaria axis mitochondria were higher than those of maize embryo, the former rapidly decreased, and the latter slowly decreased with dehydration. The proportion of Cyt c pathway to state III respiration for the A. toxicaria axis mitochondria was low and rapidly decreased with dehydration, and the proportion of alternative oxidase pathway was high and slightly increased with dehydration. In contrast, the proportion of Cyt c pathway for maize embryo mitochondria was high, and that of alternative oxidase pathway was low. Both pathways decreased slowly with dehydration. PMID:19566643

  10. GLYCOL DEHYDRATOR BTEX AND VOC EMISSIONS TESTING RESULTS AT TWO UNITS IN TEXAS AND LOUISIANA - VOLUME II. APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of the collection of emissions tests data at two triethylene glycol (TEG) units to provide data for comparison to GRI-GLYCalc, a computer program developed to estimate emissions from glycol dehydrators. (NOTE: Glycol dehydrators are used in the natural ga...

  11. GLYCOL DEHYDRATOR BTEX AND VOC EMISSIONS TESTING RESULTS AT TWO UNITS IN TEXAS AND LOUISIANA - VOLUME I. TECHNICAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of the collection of emissions tests data at two triethylene glycol (TEG) units to provide data for comparison to GRI-GLYCalc, a computer program developed to estimate emissions from glycol dehydrators. (NOTE: Glycol dehydrators are used in the natural ga...

  12. GLYCOL DEHYDRATOR BTEX AND VOC EMISSIONS TESTING RESULTS AT TWO UNITS IN TEXAS AND LOUISIANA VOL. II: APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of the collection of emissions test data st two triethylene glycol units to provide data for the comparison to GRI-GLYCalc, a computer program developed to estimate emissions from glycol dehydrators. [NOTE: Glycol dehydrators are used in the natural gas i...

  13. GLYCOL DEHYDRATOR BTEX AND VOC EMISSIONS TESTING RESULTS AT TWO UNITS IN TEXAS AND LOUISIANA VOL. I: TECHNICAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of the collection of emissions tests data at two triethylene glycol units to provide data for comparison to GRI-GLYCalc, a computer program developed to estimate emissions from glycol dehydrators. (NOTE: Glycol dehydrators are used in the natural gas indu...

  14. Drying rate and dehydrin synthesis associated with abscisic acid-induced dehydration tolerance in Spathoglottis plicata orchidaceae protocorms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing-Jun; Loh, Chiang-Shiong; Yeoh, Hock-Hin; Sun, Wendell Q

    2002-03-01

    Dehydration tolerance of in vitro orchid protocorms was investigated under controlled drying conditions and after abscisic acid (ABA) pretreatment. Protocorms were obtained by germinating seeds on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 10% (v/v) coconut water, 2% (w/v) sucrose and 0.8% (w/v) agar, and were dehydrated in relative humidities (RH) ranging from 7% to 93% at 25 degrees C. The critical water content of dehydration tolerance was determined, using the electrolyte leakage method. Drying rate affected the critical water content. Slow drying under high RH conditions achieved the greatest tolerance to dehydration. ABA pretreatment decreased the drying rate of protocorms, and increased dehydration tolerance. Improved tolerance to dehydration after ABA treatment was correlated with the effect of ABA on drying rate of protocorms. When critical water content of protocorms dried under different RH was plotted as a function of actual drying rate, no significant difference in tolerance to dehydration was observed between ABA-treated and control protocorms. ABA pretreatment and dehydration of orchid protocorms induced the synthesis of dehydrin, especially under the slow drying conditions. ABA pretreatment also promoted dry matter accumulation such as carbohydrates and soluble proteins and increased the concentration of K(+) and Na(+) ions in protocorms. The ABA-induced decrease in drying rate was correlated with lower osmotic potential, the enhanced maturity of protocorms and the accumulation of dehydrin in protocorms during pretreatment. PMID:11847254

  15. Do scientists trace hot topics?

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Tian; Li, Menghui; Wu, Chensheng; Yan, Xiao-Yong; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru; Wu, Jinshan

    2013-01-01

    Do scientists follow hot topics in their scientific investigations? In this paper, by performing analysis to papers published in the American Physical Society (APS) Physical Review journals, it is found that papers are more likely to be attracted by hot fields, where the hotness of a field is measured by the number of papers belonging to the field. This indicates that scientists generally do follow hot topics. However, there are qualitative differences among scientists from various countries, among research works regarding different number of authors, different number of affiliations and different number of references. These observations could be valuable for policy makers when deciding research funding and also for individual researchers when searching for scientific projects. PMID:23856680

  16. Retapamulin: a newer topical antibiotic.

    PubMed

    Dhingra, D; Parakh, A; Ramachandran, S

    2013-01-01

    Impetigo is a common childhood skin infection. There are reports of increasing drug resistance to the currently used topical antibiotics including fusidic acid and mupirocin. Retapamulin is a newer topical agent of pleuromutilin class approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of impetigo in children and has been recently made available in the Indian market. It has been demonstrated to have low potential for the development of antibacterial resistance and a high degree of potency against poly drug resistant Gram-positive bacteria found in skin infections including Staphylococcus aureus strains. The drug is safe owing to low systemic absorption and has only minimal side-effect of local irritation at the site of application. PMID:23793314

  17. Major research topics in combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Hussaini, M.Y.; Kumar, A.; Voigt, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    The Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering (ICASE) and NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) hosted a workshop on October 2--4, 1989 to discuss some combustion problems of technological interest to LaRC and to foster interaction with the academic community in these research areas. The topics chosen for this purpose were flame structure, flame holding/extinction, chemical kinetics, turbulence-kinetics interaction, transition to detonation, and reacting free shear layers. This document contains the papers and edited versions of general discussions on these topics. The lead paper set the stage for the meeting by discussing the status and issues of supersonic combustion relevant to the scramjet engine. Experts were then called upon to review the current knowledge in the aforementioned areas, to focus on how this knowledge can be extended and applied to high-speed combustion, and to suggest future directions of research in these areas.

  18. Hot topics from the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Glenzinski, D.; /Fermilab

    2008-01-01

    The Tevatron Run-II began in March 2001. To date, both the CDF and D0 experiments have collected 1 fb{sup -1} of data each. The results obtained from this data set were summarized at this conference in 39 parallel session presentations covering a wide range of topics. The author summarizes the most important of those results here and comments on some of the prospects for the future.

  19. Topical fluoride for caries prevention

    PubMed Central

    Weyant, Robert J.; Tracy, Sharon L.; Anselmo, Theresa (Tracy); Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio D.; Donly, Kevin J.; Frese, William A.; Hujoel, Philippe P.; Iafolla, Timothy; Kohn, William; Kumar, Jayanth; Levy, Steven M.; Tinanoff, Norman; Wright, J. Timothy; Zero, Domenick; Aravamudhan, Krishna; Frantsve-Hawley, Julie; Meyer, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Background A panel of experts convened by the American Dental Association (ADA) Council on Scientific Affairs presents evidence-based clinical recommendations regarding professionally applied and prescription-strength, home-use topical fluoride agents for caries prevention. These recommendations are an update of the 2006 ADA recommendations regarding professionally applied topical fluoride and were developed by using a new process that includes conducting a systematic review of primary studies. Types of Studies Reviewed The authors conducted a search of MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library for clinical trials of professionally applied and prescription-strength topical fluoride agents—including mouthrinses, varnishes, gels, foams and pastes—with caries increment outcomes published in English through October 2012. Results The panel included 71 trials from 82 articles in its review and assessed the efficacy of various topical fluoride caries-preventive agents. The panel makes recommendations for further research. Practical Implications The panel recommends the following for people at risk of developing dental caries: 2.26 percent fluoride varnish or 1.23 percent fluoride (acidulated phosphate fluoride) gel, or a prescription-strength, home-use 0.5 percent fluoride gel or paste or 0.09 percent fluoride mouthrinse for patients 6 years or older. Only 2.26 percent fluoride varnish is recommended for children younger than 6 years. The strengths of the recommendations for the recommended products varied from “in favor” to “expert opinion for.” As part of the evidence-based approach to care, these clinical recommendations should be integrated with the practitioner's professional judgment and the patient's needs and preferences. PMID:24177407

  20. Cushing's syndrome from topical glucocorticoids.

    PubMed

    Teelucksingh, S; Bahall, M; Coomansingh, D; Suite, M; Bartholomew, C

    1993-06-01

    A case of Cushing's syndrome is described in a woman who self-treated psoriasis with a variety of potent topical glucocorticoids over 15 years. She was successfully weaned off corticosteroids and was treated with alternative anti-psoriatic drugs. The disappearance, nine months later, of most features of Cushing's syndrome, and the normal suppression of cortisol in response to dexamethasone, excluded endogenous hypercorticolism. The apparent widespread availability across the counter of potent corticosteroids is a cause for concern. PMID:8367969

  1. Tantalum compounds as heterogeneous catalysts for saccharide dehydration to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fengli; Liu, Qishun; Yue, Min; Bai, Xuefang; Du, Yuguang

    2011-04-21

    A new solid acid, based on tantalum hydroxide, was used to catalyze saccharide dehydration into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) with high catalytic activity and excellent stability in a water-2-butanol biphasic system. Furthermore, good results were also obtained from Jerusalem artichoke juice with the catalyst under the same conditions. PMID:21369620

  2. Enhancement of the promiscuous aldolase and dehydration activities of 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase by protein engineering.

    PubMed

    Zandvoort, Ellen; Geertsema, Edzard M; Quax, Wim J; Poelarends, Gerrit J

    2012-06-18

    Double play: The enzyme 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase (4-OT) catalyzes not only the initial cross-coupling of acetaldehyde and benzaldehyde to yield 3-hydroxy-3-phenylpropanal, but also the subsequent dehydration of this aldol compound to yield cinnamaldehyde as the final product. Mechanism-inspired engineering provided an active site mutant (F50A) with strongly enhanced aldol condensation activity. PMID:22615135

  3. Dehydration hardly slows hopping toads (Rhinella granulosa) from xeric and mesic environments.

    PubMed

    Prates, Ivan; Angilleta, Michael J; Wilson, Robbie S; Niehaus, Amanda C; Navas, Carlos A

    2013-01-01

    The locomotor capacity of amphibians depends strongly on temperature and hydration. Understanding the potential interactions between these variables remains an important challenge because temperature and water availability covary strongly in natural environments. We explored the effects of temperature and hydration on the hopping speeds of Rhinella granulosa, a small toad from the semiarid Caatinga and the Atlantic Rain Forest in Brazil. We asked whether thermal and hydric states interact to determine performance and whether toads from the Caatinga differ from their conspecifics from the Atlantic Forest. Both dehydration and cooling impaired hopping speed, but effects were independent of one another. In comparison to performances of other anurans, the performance of R. granulosa was far less sensitive to dehydration. Consequently, dehydrated members of this species may be able to sustain performance through high body temperatures, which agrees with the exceptional heat tolerance of this species. Surprisingly, toads from both the Caatinga and the Atlantic Forest were relatively insensitive to dehydration. This observation suggests that migration or gene flow between toads from the forest and those from a drier region occurred or that toads from a dry region colonized the forest secondarily. PMID:23799839

  4. Global Analysis of WRKY Genes and Their Response to Dehydration and Salt Stress in Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hui; Wang, Pengfei; Hou, Lei; Zhao, Shuzhen; Zhao, Chuanzhi; Xia, Han; Li, Pengcheng; Zhang, Ye; Bian, Xiaotong; Wang, Xingjun

    2016-01-01

    WRKY proteins are plant specific transcription factors involved in various developmental and physiological processes, especially in biotic and abiotic stress resistance. Although previous studies suggested that WRKY proteins in soybean (Glycine max var. Williams 82) involved in both abiotic and biotic stress responses, the global information of WRKY proteins in the latest version of soybean genome (Wm82.a2v1) and their response to dehydration and salt stress have not been reported. In this study, we identified 176 GmWRKY proteins from soybean Wm82.a2v1 genome. These proteins could be classified into three groups, namely group I (32 proteins), group II (120 proteins), and group III (24 proteins). Our results showed that most GmWRKY genes were located on Chromosome 6, while chromosome 11, 12, and 20 contained the least number of this gene family. More GmWRKY genes were distributed on the ends of chromosomes to compare with other regions. The cis-acting elements analysis suggested that GmWRKY genes were transcriptionally regulated upon dehydration and salt stress. RNA-seq data analysis indicated that three GmWRKY genes responded negatively to dehydration, and 12 genes positively responded to salt stress at 1, 6, and 12 h, respectively. We confirmed by qRT-PCR that the expression of GmWRKY47 and GmWRKY 58 genes was decreased upon dehydration, and the expression of GmWRKY92, 144 and 165 genes was increased under salt treatment. PMID:26870047

  5. Hydrous mineral dehydration around heat-generating nuclear waste in bedded salt formations.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Amy B; Boukhalfa, Hakim; Caporuscio, Florie A; Robinson, Bruce A; Stauffer, Philip H

    2015-06-01

    Heat-generating nuclear waste disposal in bedded salt during the first two years after waste emplacement is explored using numerical simulations tied to experiments of hydrous mineral dehydration. Heating impure salt samples to temperatures of 265 °C can release over 20% by mass of hydrous minerals as water. Three steps in a series of dehydration reactions are measured (65, 110, and 265 °C), and water loss associated with each step is averaged from experimental data into a water source model. Simulations using this dehydration model are used to predict temperature, moisture, and porosity after heating by 750-W waste canisters, assuming hydrous mineral mass fractions from 0 to 10%. The formation of a three-phase heat pipe (with counter-circulation of vapor and brine) occurs as water vapor is driven away from the heat source, condenses, and flows back toward the heat source, leading to changes in porosity, permeability, temperature, saturation, and thermal conductivity of the backfill salt surrounding the waste canisters. Heat pipe formation depends on temperature, moisture availability, and mobility. In certain cases, dehydration of hydrous minerals provides sufficient extra moisture to push the system into a sustained heat pipe, where simulations neglecting this process do not. PMID:25965632

  6. 40 CFR 63.765 - Glycol dehydration unit process vent standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... directly to the atmosphere may be used on the air emission control equipment installed to comply with... satisfaction, that the total HAP emissions to the atmosphere from the glycol dehydration unit process vent are... demonstrates, to the Administrator's satisfaction, that total emissions to the atmosphere from the...

  7. Water Replacement Hypothesis in Atomic Detail—Factors Determining the Structure of Dehydrated Bilayer Stacks

    PubMed Central

    Golovina, Elena A.; Golovin, Andrey V.; Hoekstra, Folkert A.; Faller, Roland

    2009-01-01

    Abstract According to the water replacement hypothesis, trehalose stabilizes dry membranes by preventing the decrease of spacing between membrane lipids under dehydration. In this study, we use molecular-dynamics simulations to investigate the influence of trehalose on the area per lipid (APL) and related structural properties of dehydrated bilayers in atomic detail. The starting conformation of a palmitoyloleolylphosphatidylcholine lipid bilayer in excess water was been obtained by self-assembly. A series of molecular-dynamics simulations of palmitoyloleolylphosphatidylcholine with different degrees of dehydration (28.5, 11.7, and 5.4 waters per lipid) and different molar trehalose/lipid ratios (<1:1, 1:1, and >1:1) were carried out in the NPT ensemble. Water removal causes the formation of multilamellar “stacks” through periodic boundary conditions. The headgroups reorient from pointing outward to inward with dehydration. This causes changes in the electrostatic interactions between interfaces, resulting in interface interpenetration. Interpenetration creates self-spacing of the bilayers and prevents gel-phase formation. At lower concentrations, trehalose does not separate the interfaces, and acting together with self-spacing, it causes a considerable increase of APL. APL decreases at higher trehalose concentrations when the layer of sugar physically separates the interfaces. When interfaces are separated, the model confirms the water replacement hypothesis. PMID:19619463

  8. 21 CFR 573.400 - Ethoxyquin in certain dehydrated forage crops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethoxyquin in certain dehydrated forage crops. 573.400 Section 573.400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing §...

  9. 21 CFR 573.400 - Ethoxyquin in certain dehydrated forage crops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethoxyquin in certain dehydrated forage crops. 573.400 Section 573.400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing §...

  10. Anhydrobiosis in yeast: cell wall mannoproteins are important for yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae resistance to dehydration.

    PubMed

    Borovikova, Diana; Teparić, Renata; Mrša, Vladimir; Rapoport, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    The state of anhydrobiosis is linked with the reversible delay of metabolism as a result of strong dehydration of cells, and is widely distributed in nature. A number of factors responsible for the maintenance of organisms' viability in these conditions have been revealed. This study was directed to understanding how changes in cell wall structure may influence the resistance of yeasts to dehydration-rehydration. Mutants lacking various cell wall mannoproteins were tested to address this issue. It was revealed that mutants lacking proteins belonging to two structurally and functionally unrelated groups (proteins non-covalently attached to the cell wall, and Pir proteins) possessed significantly lower cell resistance to dehydration-rehydration than the mother wild-type strain. At the same time, the absence of the GPI-anchored cell wall protein Ccw12 unexpectedly resulted in an increase of cell resistance to this treatment; this phenomenon is explained by the compensatory synthesis of chitin. The results clearly indicate that the cell wall structure/composition relates to parameters strongly influencing yeast viability during the processes of dehydration-rehydration, and that damage to cell wall proteins during yeast desiccation can be an important factor leading to cell death. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27510749

  11. A Triple Iron Triathlon Leads to a Decrease in Total Body Mass but Not to Dehydration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas; Oliver, Senn

    2010-01-01

    A loss in total body mass during an ultraendurance performance is usually attributed to dehydration. We identified the changes in total body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, and selected markers of hydration status in 31 male nonprofessional ultratriathletes participating in a Triple Iron triathlon involving 11.4 km swimming, 540 km cycling…

  12. Recent development in osmotic dehydration of fruit and vegetables: a review.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Suresh; Kumari, Durvesh

    2015-01-01

    Osmotic dehydration of fruits and vegetables is achieved by placing the solid/semi solid, whole or in pieces, in a hypertonic solution (sugar and/or salt) with a simultaneous counter diffusion of solutes from the osmotic solution into the tissues. Osmotic dehydration is recommended as a processing method to obtain better quality of food products. Partial dehydration allows structural, nutritional, sensory, and other functional properties of the raw material to be modified. However, the food industry uptake of osmotic dehydration of foods has not been extensive as expected due to the poor understanding of the counter current flow phenomena associated with it. However, these flows are in a dynamic equilibrium with each other and significantly influence the final product in terms of preservation, nutrition, and organoleptic properties. The demand of healthy, natural, nutritious, and tasty processed food products continuously increases, not only for finished products, but also for ingredient to be included in complex foods such as ice cream, cereals, dairy, confectionaries, and bakery products. PMID:24915357

  13. Dehydration and vernalization treatments identify overlapping molecular networks impacting endodormancy maintenance in leafy spurge crown buds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) is an herbaceous perennial weed that reproduces vegetatively from an abundance of underground adventitious buds (UABs), which undergo well-defined phases of seasonal dormancy (para-, endo- and eco-dormancy). In this study, the effects of dehydration-stress on vegeta...

  14. Dehydration of the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere by Subvisible Cirrus Clouds Near the Tropical Tropopause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Eric J.; Toon, Owen B.; Pfister, Leonhard; Selkirk, Henry B.

    1996-01-01

    The extreme dryness of the lower stratosphere is believed to be caused by freeze-drying of air as it enters the stratosphere through the cold tropical tropopause. Previous investigations have been focused on dehydration occurring at the tops of deep convective cloud systems, However, recent observations of a ubiquitous stratiform cirrus cloud layer near the tropical tropopause suggest the possibility of dehydration as air is slowly lifted by large-scale motions, In this study, we have evaluated this possibility using a detailed ice cloud model. Simulations of ice cloud formation in the temperature minima of gravity waves (wave periods of 1 - 2 hours) indicate that large numbers of ice crystals will likely form due to the low temperatures and rapid cooling. As a result, the crystals do not grow larger than about 10 microns, fallspeeds are no greater than a few cm/s, and little or no precipitation or dehydration occurs. However, ice cloud's formed by large-scale vertical motions (with lifetimes of a day or more) should have,fever crystals and more time for crystal sedimentation to occur, resulting in water vapor depletions as large as 1 ppmv near the tropopause. We suggest that gradual lifting near the tropical tropopause, accompanied by formation of thin cirrus, may account for the dehydration.

  15. Exploiting the Genomes of Dehydration/Desiccation-Tolerant Species in Crop Improvement Strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An understanding of plant responses to dehydration has important consequences for plant biology in general and direct impacts for agriculture. Over 10% of arable lands are affected by drought, declining average yields for most crops by more than 50%. Thus, improving drought tolerance is a priority a...

  16. Cigarette smoke exposure induces CFTR internalization and insolubility, leading to airway surface liquid dehydration.

    PubMed

    Clunes, Lucy A; Davies, Catrin M; Coakley, Raymond D; Aleksandrov, Andrei A; Henderson, Ashley G; Zeman, Kirby L; Worthington, Erin N; Gentzsch, Martina; Kreda, Silvia M; Cholon, Deborah; Bennett, William D; Riordan, John R; Boucher, Richard C; Tarran, Robert

    2012-02-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure induces mucus obstruction and the development of chronic bronchitis (CB). While many of these responses are determined genetically, little is known about the effects CS can exert on pulmonary epithelia at the protein level. We, therefore, tested the hypothesis that CS exerts direct effects on the CFTR protein, which could impair airway hydration, leading to the mucus stasis characteristic of both cystic fibrosis and CB. In vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that CS rapidly decreased CFTR activity, leading to airway surface liquid (ASL) volume depletion (i.e., dehydration). Further studies revealed that CS induced internalization of CFTR. Surprisingly, CS-internalized CFTR did not colocalize with lysosomal proteins. Instead, the bulk of CFTR shifted to a detergent-resistant fraction within the cell and colocalized with the intermediate filament vimentin, suggesting that CS induced CFTR movement into an aggresome-like, perinuclear compartment. To test whether airway dehydration could be reversed, we used hypertonic saline (HS) as an osmolyte to rehydrate ASL. HS restored ASL height in CS-exposed, dehydrated airway cultures. Similarly, inhaled HS restored mucus transport and increased clearance in patients with CB. Thus, we propose that CS exposure rapidly impairs CFTR function by internalizing CFTR, leading to ASL dehydration, which promotes mucus stasis and a failure of mucus clearance, leaving smokers at risk for developing CB. Furthermore, our data suggest that strategies to rehydrate airway surfaces may provide a novel form of therapy for patients with CB. PMID:21990373

  17. Effect of Pulsed Electric Field Pre-Treatment on Osmotic Dehydration of Strawberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to study the effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF) as a pre-treatment on osmotic dehydration characteristics and quality of strawberries. The studied PDF treatment conditions included three strengths of electric field (1.0, 2.0, 3.0 Kw/cm) and three numbers of pu...

  18. Multivariate analysis of the sensory changes in the dehydrated cowpea leaves.

    PubMed

    Nyambaka, Hudson; Ryley, Janice

    2004-09-01

    Processing of foods, especially dehydration is known to result in alteration of sensory and nutritional qualities. Cowpea leaves is one of the common leafy vegetables consumed in Kenya that contain high levels of pro-vitamin A compounds and has good carotene retention during processing. A tasting panel was trained using a quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) test that was developed and used to characterize the sensory properties of dehydrated cowpea leaves. The panel identified sensory attributes in dehydrated cowpea leaves that were important in discriminating the dehydrated samples from the fresh material. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to analyze the QDA scores. The first principal component (PC1) which accounted for 85% of the variance was an index of the interrelationship among variables in differentiating the samples while PC2, which accounted for the remaining variance measured the attributes influence in discriminating samples. The results of the sensory attributes mean scores showed that aroma, texture and appearance had high influence in discriminating between the fresh, the sun-dried and the solar-dried samples. The solar dried products were close to the fresh material, which was characterized, as soft and tender with an appealing dark green color, than the sun dried product. The sun dried products differed from the other products more on appearance. PMID:18969564

  19. Dehydration, rehydration and overhydration alter patterns of gene expression in the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated molecular responses elicited by three types of dehydration (fast, slow and cryoprotective), rehydration and overhydration in larvae of the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica. The larvae spend most the year encased in ice but during the austral summer are vulnerable to summer storms,...

  20. 40 CFR 63.765 - Glycol dehydration unit process vent standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... directly to the atmosphere may be used on the air emission control equipment installed to comply with... satisfaction, that the total HAP emissions to the atmosphere from the glycol dehydration unit process vent are... demonstrates, to the Administrator's satisfaction, that total emissions to the atmosphere from the...

  1. Polymeric blend nanocomposite membranes for ethanol dehydration-effect of morphology and membrane-solvent interactions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nanocomposite membranes (NCMs) of sodium alginate/poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) blend polymers incorporated with varying concentrations of phosphotungstic acid (H3PW12O40) (PWA) nanoparticles have been prepared and used in ethanol dehydration by the pervaporation (PV) technique. Effe...

  2. Pervaporation process and use in treating waste stream from glycol dehydrator

    DOEpatents

    Kaschemekat, Jurgen; Baker, Richard W.

    1994-01-01

    Pervaporation processes and apparatus with few moving parts. Ideally, only one pump is used to provide essentially all of the motive power and driving force needed. The process is particularly useful for handling small streams with flow rates less than about 700 gpd. Specifically, the process can be used to treat waste streams from glycol dehydrator regeneration units.

  3. LOW-COST ZEOLITE MEMBRANE MODULES FOR SOLVENT DEHYDRATION - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of very high-volume liquid chemicals form azeotropes with water and can be dehydrated to required purity levels only through the use of entrainers or drying agents. The handling and disposal of these additional chemicals present significant environmental risk...

  4. Diagenesis and dehydration of subducting oceanic crust within seismogenic subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameda, J.; Yamaguchi, A.; Hamada, Y.; Hashimoto, Y.; Kimura, G.

    2012-12-01

    Diagenesis and dehydration of subducting oceanic crust is thought to have strong influence on mechanical and hydrologic properties of seismogenic plate interfaces beneath the accretionary wedges (Kameda et al., 2011). In this work, we analyzed five representative pillow basalts exposed in the ancient accretionary complex, the Shimanto belt in southwest Japan, in order to derive details on a suite of mineral reactions within the subducting oceanic crust. Based on the vitrinite reflectance measurement of terrigenous sediments accompanied by these rocks, they are estimated to have been subjected to burial diagenenesis at 150-300 C. Whole rock and clay-fraction X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses indicate that sequential saponite to chlorite transformation through mixed-layer phases proceeds under the relatively constant bulk rock composition. Such clay mineral reaction may persist to deep crustal level (~290 C) and contribute to bulk dehydration as a dominant fluid supplier to the plate-boundary fault system. The dehydration may cause abnormal fluid pressurization around the plate-boundary fault zone with a maximum at a certain horizon below the fault (within the intact oceanic crust), resulting in underplating of the upper basement rock into the overriding accretionary prism. Such dehydration-induced weakening process well explains the thickness distribution of the accreted basaltic crust fragments as observed in the onland exposures (Kimura and Ludden, 1995). The breakage of the oceanic crust potentially nucleates seismic slip to propagate along the seismogenic plate interface.

  5. Inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii of dehydrated infant formula by gamma-irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ju-Woon; Oh, Sang-Hee; Byun, Eui-Baek; Kim, Jae-Hun; Kim, Jang-Ho; Woon, Jae-Ho; Byun, Myung-Woo

    2007-11-01

    Enterobacter sakazakii has been implicated as a causal organism in a severe form of neonatal meningitis, with reported mortality rates of 20%. The population at greatest risk is immunocompromised infants of any age. Dried infant formula has been identified as a potential source of the organism in both outbreaks and sporadic cases. The objective of this study was to investigate theirradiation effect of the inactivation on E. sakazakii (ATCC 29544) of a dehydrated infant formula. The D10-values were 0.22-0.27 and 0.76 kGy for broth and dehydrated infant formula, respectively. The irradiation at 5.0 kGy was able to completely eliminate the E. sakazakii inoculated at 8.0 to 9.0 log CFU g -1 onto a dehydrated infant formula. There was no regrowth for all samples during the time they were stored at 10 °C for 6 h after rehydration. The present results indicated that a gamma-irradiation could potentially be used to inactivate E. sakazakii in a dehydrated powdered infant formula.

  6. TOPTRAC: Topical Trajectory Pattern Mining

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Younghoon; Han, Jiawei; Yuan, Cangzhou

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing use of GPS-enabled mobile phones, geo-tagging, which refers to adding GPS information to media such as micro-blogging messages or photos, has seen a surge in popularity recently. This enables us to not only browse information based on locations, but also discover patterns in the location-based behaviors of users. Many techniques have been developed to find the patterns of people's movements using GPS data, but latent topics in text messages posted with local contexts have not been utilized effectively. In this paper, we present a latent topic-based clustering algorithm to discover patterns in the trajectories of geo-tagged text messages. We propose a novel probabilistic model to capture the semantic regions where people post messages with a coherent topic as well as the patterns of movement between the semantic regions. Based on the model, we develop an efficient inference algorithm to calculate model parameters. By exploiting the estimated model, we next devise a clustering algorithm to find the significant movement patterns that appear frequently in data. Our experiments on real-life data sets show that the proposed algorithm finds diverse and interesting trajectory patterns and identifies the semantic regions in a finer granularity than the traditional geographical clustering methods. PMID:26709365

  7. Cavitation in dehydrating xylem of Picea abies: energy properties of ultrasonic emissions reflect tracheid dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Mayr, Stefan; Rosner, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic emission (UE) testing is used to analyse the vulnerability of xylem to embolism, but the number of UEs often does not sufficiently reflect effects on hydraulic conductivity. We monitored the absolute energy of UE signals in dehydrating xylem samples hypothesizing that (i) conduit diameter is correlated with UE energy and (ii) monitoring of UE energy may enhance the utility of this technique for analysis of xylem vulnerability. Split xylem samples were prepared from trunk wood of Picea abies, and four categories of samples, derived from mature (I: earlywood, II: 30–50% latewood, III: >50% latewood) or juvenile wood (IV: earlywood) were used. Ultrasonic emissions during dehydration were registered and anatomical parameters (tracheid lumen area, number per area) were analysed from cross-sections. Attenuation of UE energy was measured on a dehydrating wood beam by repeated lead breaks. Vulnerability to drought-induced embolism was analysed on dehydrating branches by hydraulic, UE number or UE energy measurements. In split samples, the cumulative number of UEs increased linearly with the number of tracheids per cross-section, and UE energy was positively correlated with the mean lumen area. Ultrasonic emission energies of earlywood samples (I and IV), which showed normally distributed tracheid lumen areas, increased during dehydration, whereas samples with latewood (II and III) exhibited a right-skewed distribution of lumina and UE energies. Ultrasonic emission energy was hardly influenced by moisture content until ~40% moisture loss, and decreased exponentially thereafter. Dehydrating branches showed a 50% loss of conductivity at −3.6 MPa in hydraulic measurements and at −3.9 and −3.5 MPa in UE analysis based on cumulative number or energy of signals, respectively. Ultrasonic emission energy emitted by cavitating conduits is determined by the xylem water potential and by the size of element. Energy patterns during dehydration are thus influenced by

  8. Mild dehydration modifies the cerebrovascular response to the cold pressor test.

    PubMed

    Perry, Blake G; Bear, Tracey L K; Lucas, Samuel J E; Mündel, Toby

    2016-01-01

    The cold pressor test (CPT) is widely used in clinical practice and physiological research. It is characterized by a robust autonomic response, with associated increases in heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and mean middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (MCAv(mean)). Hydration status is not commonly reported when conducting this test, yet blood viscosity alone can modulate MCAv(mean), potentially modifying the MCAv(mean) response to the CPT. We investigated the effect of mild dehydration on the physiological response to the CPT in 10 healthy men (mean ± SD: age 28 ± 5 years; body mass 83 ± 5 kg). All participants completed two CPTs, cold water (0°C) immersion of both feet for 90 s, with the order of the euhydration and dehydration trials counterbalanced. Beat-to-beat MCAv, MAP, HR and breath-by-breath partial pressure of end-tidal CO2 (P(ET,CO2)) were measured continuously. Participants' pain perception was measured 1 min into the CPT using a visual analog scale (no pain = 0; maximal pain = 10). Dehydration significantly elevated plasma osmolality and urine specific gravity and reduced body mass (all P < 0.01). The MAP and HR responses were not different between treatments (both P > 0.05). After 90 s of immersion, the change in MCAv(mean) from baseline was less in the dehydration compared with the euhydration trial (change 0 ± 5 versus 7 ± 7 cm s(-1), P = 0.01), as was P(ET,CO2) (change -3 ± 2 versus 0 ± 3 mmHg, P = 0.02). Dehydration was associated with greater relative pain sensation during the CPT (7.0 ± 1.3 vs 5.8 ± 1.8, P = 0.02). Our results demonstrate that mild dehydration can modify the cerebrovascular response to the CPT, with dehydration increasing perceived pain, lowering P ET ,CO2 and, ultimately, blunting the MCAv(mean) response. PMID:26374269

  9. Leaf Shrinkage with Dehydration: Coordination with Hydraulic Vulnerability and Drought Tolerance1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Scoffoni, Christine; Vuong, Christine; Diep, Steven; Cochard, Hervé; Sack, Lawren

    2014-01-01

    Leaf shrinkage with dehydration has attracted attention for over 100 years, especially as it becomes visibly extreme during drought. However, little has been known of its correlation with physiology. Computer simulations of the leaf hydraulic system showed that a reduction of hydraulic conductance of the mesophyll pathways outside the xylem would cause a strong decline of leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf). For 14 diverse species, we tested the hypothesis that shrinkage during dehydration (i.e. in whole leaf, cell and airspace thickness, and leaf area) is associated with reduction in Kleaf at declining leaf water potential (Ψleaf). We tested hypotheses for the linkage of leaf shrinkage with structural and physiological water relations parameters, including modulus of elasticity, osmotic pressure at full turgor, turgor loss point (TLP), and cuticular conductance. Species originating from moist habitats showed substantial shrinkage during dehydration before reaching TLP, in contrast with species originating from dry habitats. Across species, the decline of Kleaf with mild dehydration (i.e. the initial slope of the Kleaf versus Ψleaf curve) correlated with the decline of leaf thickness (the slope of the leaf thickness versus Ψleaf curve), as expected based on predictions from computer simulations. Leaf thickness shrinkage before TLP correlated across species with lower modulus of elasticity and with less negative osmotic pressure at full turgor, as did leaf area shrinkage between full turgor and oven desiccation. These findings point to a role for leaf shrinkage in hydraulic decline during mild dehydration, with potential impacts on drought adaptation for cells and leaves, influencing plant ecological distributions. PMID:24306532

  10. The effect of dehydration on muscle metabolism and time trial performance during prolonged cycling in males.

    PubMed

    Logan-Sprenger, Heather M; Heigenhauser, George J F; Jones, Graham L; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2015-08-01

    This study combined overnight fluid restriction with lack of fluid intake during prolonged cycling to determine the effects of dehydration on substrate oxidation, skeletal muscle metabolism, heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) response, and time trial (TT) performance. Nine males cycled at ~65% VO2peak for 90 min followed by a TT (6 kJ/kg BM) either with fluid (HYD) or without fluid (DEH). Blood samples were taken every 20 min and muscle biopsies were taken at 0, 45, and 90 min of exercise and after the TT. DEH subjects started the trial with a -0.6% BM from overnight fluid restriction and were dehydrated by 1.4% after 45 min, 2.3% after 90 min of exercise, and 3.1% BM after the TT. There were no significant differences in oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production, or total sweat loss between the trials. However, physiological parameters (heart rate [HR], rate of perceived exertion, core temperature [Tc], plasma osmolality [Posm], plasma volume [Pvol] loss, and Hsp72), and carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation and muscle glycogen use were greater during 90 min of moderate cycling when subjects progressed from 0.6% to 2.3% dehydration. TT performance was 13% slower when subjects began 2.3% and ended 3.1% dehydrated. Throughout the TT, Tc, Posm, blood and muscle lactate [La], and serum Hsp72 were higher, even while working at a lower power output (PO). The accelerated muscle glycogen use during 90 min of moderate intensity exercise with DEH did not affect subsequent TT performance, rather augmented Tc, RPE and the additional physiological factors were more important in slowing performance when dehydrated. PMID:26296770

  11. The effect of dehydration on muscle metabolism and time trial performance during prolonged cycling in males

    PubMed Central

    Logan-Sprenger, Heather M; Heigenhauser, George JF; Jones, Graham L; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2015-01-01

    This study combined overnight fluid restriction with lack of fluid intake during prolonged cycling to determine the effects of dehydration on substrate oxidation, skeletal muscle metabolism, heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) response, and time trial (TT) performance. Nine males cycled at ∼65% VO2peak for 90 min followed by a TT (6 kJ/kg BM) either with fluid (HYD) or without fluid (DEH). Blood samples were taken every 20 min and muscle biopsies were taken at 0, 45, and 90 min of exercise and after the TT. DEH subjects started the trial with a −0.6% BM from overnight fluid restriction and were dehydrated by 1.4% after 45 min, 2.3% after 90 min of exercise, and 3.1% BM after the TT. There were no significant differences in oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production, or total sweat loss between the trials. However, physiological parameters (heart rate [HR], rate of perceived exertion, core temperature [Tc], plasma osmolality [Posm], plasma volume [Pvol] loss, and Hsp72), and carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation and muscle glycogen use were greater during 90 min of moderate cycling when subjects progressed from 0.6% to 2.3% dehydration. TT performance was 13% slower when subjects began 2.3% and ended 3.1% dehydrated. Throughout the TT, Tc, Posm, blood and muscle lactate [La], and serum Hsp72 were higher, even while working at a lower power output (PO). The accelerated muscle glycogen use during 90 min of moderate intensity exercise with DEH did not affect subsequent TT performance, rather augmented Tc, RPE and the additional physiological factors were more important in slowing performance when dehydrated. PMID:26296770

  12. Cigarette smoke exposure induces CFTR internalization and insolubility, leading to airway surface liquid dehydration

    PubMed Central

    Clunes, Lucy A.; Davies, Catrin M.; Coakley, Raymond D.; Aleksandrov, Andrei A.; Henderson, Ashley G.; Zeman, Kirby L.; Worthington, Erin N.; Gentzsch, Martina; Kreda, Silvia M.; Cholon, Deborah; Bennett, William D.; Riordan, John R.; Boucher, Richard C.; Tarran, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure induces mucus obstruction and the development of chronic bronchitis (CB). While many of these responses are determined genetically, little is known about the effects CS can exert on pulmonary epithelia at the protein level. We, therefore, tested the hypothesis that CS exerts direct effects on the CFTR protein, which could impair airway hydration, leading to the mucus stasis characteristic of both cystic fibrosis and CB. In vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that CS rapidly decreased CFTR activity, leading to airway surface liquid (ASL) volume depletion (i.e., dehydration). Further studies revealed that CS induced internalization of CFTR. Surprisingly, CS-internalized CFTR did not colocalize with lysosomal proteins. Instead, the bulk of CFTR shifted to a detergent-resistant fraction within the cell and colocalized with the intermediate filament vimentin, suggesting that CS induced CFTR movement into an aggresome-like, perinuclear compartment. To test whether airway dehydration could be reversed, we used hypertonic saline (HS) as an osmolyte to rehydrate ASL. HS restored ASL height in CS-exposed, dehydrated airway cultures. Similarly, inhaled HS restored mucus transport and increased clearance in patients with CB. Thus, we propose that CS exposure rapidly impairs CFTR function by internalizing CFTR, leading to ASL dehydration, which promotes mucus stasis and a failure of mucus clearance, leaving smokers at risk for developing CB. Furthermore, our data suggest that strategies to rehydrate airway surfaces may provide a novel form of therapy for patients with CB.—Clunes, L. A., Davies, C. M., Coakley, R. D., Aleksandrov, A. A., Henderson, A. G., Zeman, K. L., Worthington, E. N., Gentzsch, M., Kreda, S. M., Cholon, D., Bennett, W. D., Riordan, J. R., Boucher, R. C., Tarran, R. Cigarette smoke exposure induces CFTR internalization and insolubility, leading to airway surface liquid dehydration. PMID:21990373

  13. Dehydration effects from contrails in a coupled contrail-climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, U.; Penner, J. E.; Chen, Yibin; Zhou, Cheng; Graf, K.

    2015-10-01

    The uptake of water by contrails in ice-supersaturated air and the release of water after ice particle advection and sedimentation dehydrates the atmosphere at flight levels and redistributes humidity mainly to lower levels. The dehydration is investigated by coupling a plume-scale contrail model with a global aerosol-climate model. The contrail model simulates all the individual contrails forming from global air traffic for meteorological conditions as defined by the climate model. The computed contrail cirrus properties compare reasonably with theoretical concepts and observations. The mass of water in aged contrails may exceed 106 times the mass of water emitted from aircraft. Many of the ice particles sediment and release water in the troposphere, on average 700 m below the mean flight levels. Simulations with and without coupling are compared. The drying at contrail levels causes thinner and longer-lived contrails with about 15 % reduced contrail radiative forcing (RF). The reduced RF from contrails is on the order of 0.06 W m-2, slightly larger than estimated earlier because of higher soot emissions. For normal traffic, the RF from dehydration is small compared to interannual variability. A case with emissions increased by 100 times is used to overcome statistical uncertainty. The contrails impact the entire hydrological cycle in the atmosphere by reducing the total water column and the cover by high- and low-level clouds. For normal traffic, the dehydration changes contrail RF by positive shortwave and negative longwave contributions on the order of 0.04 W m-2, with a small negative net RF. The total net RF from contrails and dehydration remains within the range of previous estimates.

  14. Dehydration effects from contrails in a coupled contrail-climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, U.; Penner, J. E.; Chen, Y.; Zhou, C.; Graf, K.

    2015-07-01

    Uptake of water by contrails in ice-supersaturated air and release of water after ice particle advection and sedimentation dehydrates the atmosphere at flight levels and redistributes humidity mainly to lower levels. The dehydration is investigated by coupling a plume-scale contrail model with a global aerosol-climate model. The contrail model simulates all the individual contrails forming from global air traffic for meteorological conditions as defined by the climate model. The computed contrail-cirrus properties compare reasonably with theoretical concepts and observations. The mass of water in aged contrails may exceed 106 times the mass of water emitted from aircraft. Many of the ice particles sediment and release water in the troposphere, on average 700 m below the mean flight levels. Simulations with and without coupling are compared. The drying at contrail levels causes thinner and longer lived contrails with about 15 % reduced contrail radiative forcing (RF). The reduced RF from contrails is of the order 0.06 W m-2, slightly larger than estimated earlier because of higher soot emissions. For normal traffic, the RF from dehydration is small compared to interannual variability. A case with 100 times increased emissions is used to overcome statistical uncertainty. The contrails impact the entire hydrological cycle in the atmosphere by reducing the total water column and the cover of high and low-level clouds. For normal traffic, the dehydration changes contrail RF by positive shortwave and negative longwave contributions of order 0.04 W m-2, with a small negative net RF. The total net RF from contrails and dehydration remains within the range of previous estimates.

  15. Supine exercise restores arterial blood pressure and skin blood flow despite dehydration and hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    González-Alonso, J; Mora-Rodríguez, R; Coyle, E F

    1999-08-01

    We determined whether the deleterious effects of dehydration and hyperthermia on cardiovascular function during upright exercise were attenuated by elevating central blood volume with supine exercise. Seven trained men [maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2 max)) 4.7 +/- 0. 4 l/min (mean +/- SE)] cycled for 30 min in the heat (35 degrees C) in the upright and in the supine positions (VO(2) 2.93 +/- 0.27 l/min) while maintaining euhydration by fluid ingestion or while being dehydrated by 5% of body weight after 2 h of upright exercise. When subjects were euhydrated, esophageal temperature (T(es)) was 37. 8-38.0 degrees C in both body postures. Dehydration caused equal hyperthermia during both upright and supine exercise (T(es) = 38. 7-38.8 degrees C). During upright exercise, dehydration lowered stroke volume (SV), cardiac output, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and cutaneous vascular conductance and increased heart rate and plasma catecholamines [30 +/- 6 ml, 3.0 +/- 0.7 l/min, 6 +/- 2 mmHg, 22 +/- 8%, 14 +/- 2 beats/min, and 50-96%, respectively; all P < 0. 05]. In contrast, during supine exercise, dehydration did not cause significant alterations in MAP, cutaneous vascular conductance, or plasma catecholamines. Furthermore, supine versus upright exercise attenuated the increases in heart rate (7 +/- 2 vs. 9 +/- 1%) and the reductions in SV (13 +/- 4 vs. 21 +/- 3%) and cardiac output (8 +/- 3 vs. 14 +/- 3%) (all P < 0.05). These results suggest that the decline in cutaneous vascular conductance and the increase in plasma norepinephrine concentration, independent of hyperthermia, are associated with a reduction in central blood volume and a lower arterial blood pressure. PMID:10444482

  16. Effect of hydrothermal circulation on slab dehydration for the subduction zone of Costa Rica and Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosas, Juan Carlos; Currie, Claire A.; Harris, Robert N.; He, Jiangheng

    2016-06-01

    Dehydration of subducting oceanic plates is associated with mantle wedge melting, arc volcanism, intraslab earthquakes through dehydration embrittlement, and the flux of water into the mantle. In this study, we present two-dimensional thermal models of the Costa Rica-Nicaragua subduction zone to investigate dehydration reactions within the subducting Cocos plate. Seismic and geochemical observations indicate that the mantle wedge below Nicaragua is more hydrated than that below Costa Rica. These trends have been hypothesized to be due to a variation in either the thermal state or the hydration state of the subducting slab. Despite only small variations in plate age along strike, heat flow measurements near the deformation front reveal significantly lower heat flow offshore Nicaragua than offshore Costa Rica. These measurements are interpreted to reflect an along-strike change in the efficiency of hydrothermal circulation in the oceanic crust. We parameterize thermal models in terms of efficient and inefficient hydrothermal circulation and explore their impact on slab temperature in the context of dehydration models. Relative to models without fluid flow, efficient hydrothermal circulation reduces slab temperature by as much at 60 °C to depths of ∼75 km and increases the predicted depth of eclogitization by ∼15 km. Inefficient hydrothermal circulation has a commensurately smaller influence on slab temperatures and the depth of eclogitization. For both regions, the change in eclogitization depth better fits the observed intraslab crustal seismicity, but there is not a strong contrast in the slab thermal structure or location of the main dehydration reactions. Consistent with other studies, these results suggest that observed along-strike differences in mantle wedge hydration may be better explained by a northwestward increase in the hydration state of the Cocos plate before it is subducted.

  17. Tracking the dehydration process of raw honey by synchronous two-dimensional near infrared correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guiyun; Sun, Xin; Huang, Yuping; Chen, Kunjie

    2014-11-01

    Though much attention is paid to honey quality assessment, few reports on characteristic of manually dehydrated honey have been found. The aim of this investigation is to track the dehydration process of raw honey using synchronous two-dimensional (2D) near infrared correlation spectroscopy. To minimize the impact of dehydration to honey quality, seventy-two honey samples from six different dehydration stages were obtained using drum wind drying method with temperature controlled at 40 °C. Their dynamic short-wave NIR spectra from 600 to 1100 nm were collected in the transmission mode from 10 to 50 °C with an increment of 5 °C and were analyzed using synchronous two-dimensional correlation method. Short-wave NIR spectral data has been exploited less than other NIR region for its weaker signal especially for water absorption's interference with useful information. The investigation enlarged the signal at this band using synchronous 2D correlation analysis, revealing the fingerprinting feature of rape honey and chaste honey during the artificial dehydration process. The results have shown that, with the help of 2D correlation analysis, this band can detect the variation of the second overtone of O-H and N-H groups vibration upon their H-bonds forming or collapsing resulted from the interactions between water and solute. The results have also shown that 2D-NIRS method is able to convert the tiny changes in honey constituents into the detectable fingerprinting difference, which provides a new method for assessing honey quality.

  18. Detecting Acoustic Emissions With/Without Dehydration of Serpentine Outside P-T Field of Conventional Brittle Failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, H.; Fei, Y.; Silver, P. G.; Green, H. W.

    2005-12-01

    It is currently thought that earthquakes cannot be triggered at depths greater than ~60 km by unassisted brittle failure or frictional sliding, but could be triggered by dehydration embrittlement of hydrous minerals (Raleigh and Paterson, 1965; Green and Houston, 1995; Kirby, 1995; Jung et al., 2004). Using a new multianvil-based system for detecting acoustic emissions with four channels at high pressure and high temperature that was recently developed (Jung et al., 2005), we tested this hypothesis by deforming samples of serpentine. We found that acoustic emissions were detected not only during/after the dehydration of serpentine, but even in the absence of dehydration. These emissions occurred at high pressure and high temperature, and thus outside pressure-temperature field of conventional brittle failure. Backscattered-electron images of microstructures of the post-run specimen revealed fault slip at elevated pressure, with offsets of up to ~500 μm, even without dehydration. Analysis of P-wave travel times from the four sensors confirmed that the acoustic emissions originated from within the specimen during fault slip. These observations suggest that earthquakes can be triggered by slip along a fault containing serpentine at significantly higher pressure and temperature conditions than that previously thought, even without dehydration. They are thus consistent with faulting mechanisms that appeal to dehydration embrittlement, as well as those that rely solely on the rheology of non-dehydrated serpentine.

  19. Theoretical Topics in Particle Physics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Lee Alan

    This dissertation contains three parts, each with a distinct topic. The three topics are (1) Higgs-boson decays at the superconducting super collider, (2) radiative corrections to the decay (pi)('o) (--->) (gamma)e('+)e(' -) and (3) generalised random paths in three and four dimensions. In Part I, distributions in cos(theta)(,lab), rapidity, energy, and p(,T) for the intermediate vector bosons resulting from p + p (--->) (H('o) (--->) W('+)W(' -), Z('o)Z('o)) + X and p + p (--->) (W('+)W('-),W('+)Z('o) + W('-)Z('o),Z('o)Z('o)) + X at SQRT.(s) = 40 TeV are compared for Higgs-boson masses of 5m(,w) and 7m(,w). The Higgs -boson-decay signal should be visible in the energy and p(,T) distributions of the vector bosons. In Part II, the radiative corrections to both the decay rate for (pi)('o) (--->) (gamma)e('+)e('-) and the differential spectrum in the invariant mass of the Dalitz pain for experiments with limited geometrical acceptance are calculated. In Part III, we introduce a generalised model for random paths (in arbitrary dimension) which smoothly interpolates between the standard paths (fermionic or bosonic) and the self-avoiding paths. An efficient Monte Carlo algorithm to simulate the model is presented along with some preliminary results for average length, intersection, overlap and mean square size of paths in three and four dimensions.

  20. Dehydration mediated microRNA response in the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cheng-Wei; Biggar, Kyle K; Storey, Kenneth B

    2013-10-25

    Exposure to various environmental stresses induces metabolic rate depression in many animal species, an adaptation that conserves energy until the environment is again conducive to normal life. The African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, is periodically subjected to arid summers in South Africa, and utilizes entry into the hypometabolic state of estivation as a mechanism of long term survival. During estivation, frogs must typically deal with substantial dehydration as their ponds dry out and X. laevis can endure >30% loss of its body water. We hypothesize that microRNAs play a vital role in establishing a reversible hypometabolic state and responding to dehydration stress that is associated with amphibian estivation. The present study analyzes the effects of whole body dehydration on microRNA expression in three tissues of X. laevis. Compared to controls, levels of miR-1, miR-125b, and miR-16-1 decreased to 37±6, 64±8, and 80±4% of control levels during dehydration in liver. By contrast, miR-210, miR-34a and miR-21 were significantly elevated by 3.05±0.45, 2.11±0.08, and 1.36±0.05-fold, respectively, in the liver. In kidney tissue, miR-29b, miR-21, and miR-203 were elevated by 1.40±0.09, 1.31±0.05, and 2.17±0.31-fold, respectively, in response to dehydration whereas miR-203 and miR-34a were elevated in ventral skin by 1.35±0.05 and 1.74±0.12-fold, respectively. Bioinformatic analysis of the differentially expressed microRNAs suggests that these are mainly involved in two processes: (1) expression of solute carrier proteins, and (2) regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. This study is the first report that shows a tissue specific mode of microRNA expression during amphibian dehydration, providing evidence for microRNAs as crucial regulators of metabolic depression. PMID:23958654

  1. Dehydration embrittlement of serpentine and its implications for earthquakes at depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, H.; Dobrzhinetskaya, L.; Green, H.

    2003-04-01

    Earthquakes at depths greater than ˜50 km cannot occur by unassisted brittle failure but could be triggered by embrittlement accompanying dehydration of hydrous minerals (e.g. Raleigh and Paterson, 1965). However, there is some question whether such embrittlement will occur if the ΔV of the dehydration reaction is negative, as occurs with increasing pressure for most low-pressure hydrous minerals. To test this hypothesis, we have chosen an extensively-serpentinized peridotite, in which the serpentine mineral present, antigorite, has a large stability field at elevated pressure and temperature. We conducted triaxial deformation experiments at constant strain rate using a Griggs-type apparatus at P = 1.0-3.4 GPa and T = 550-750 ^oC, and rapid-pumping experiments at comparable temperatures in a Walker-type multianvil apparatus, culminating at P = 6 GPa. Over this pressure range, the ΔV of reaction varies from highly positive to significantly negative. At the lowest temperatures, no reaction was observed. In deformation experiments at these conditions, faulting due to brittle failure was produced at low pressure but at high pressure deformation was ductile. At temperatures outside the stability field of antigorite, samples that were only pressurized and annealed did not show faulting. However, specimens subjected to a differential stress during dehydration displayed faults and localized zones of dehydration products consisting of very fine-grained new olivine or talc, +/- enstatite (grain size less than 200 nm). Deformed samples also showed Mode I cracks and fluid inclusions inside large crystals of relict olivine. Extensive fluid reactions were also observed along the grain boundaries between the relict olivine and antigorite. These observations indicate that antigorite dehydration under stress triggers faulting under conditions where the ΔV of reaction is negative as well as those where ΔV is positive. We do not yet know why this is so. We conclude that

  2. Air Dehydration Membranes for Nonaqueous Lithium-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jian; Xu, Wu; Li, Xiaohong S; Liu, Wei

    2010-06-11

    In this paper, several types of new membranes were innovated and used as an O2-selective and H2O barrier films attached onto the cathode of non-aqueous Li-air batteries for continuous supplying of dry air into the batteries from ambient air. The membranes were prepared by depositing an O2/H2O selective coating layer on the exterior surface of a newly-invented thin porous Ni substrate sheet at thickness of ~50µm. The coatings tried include hydrophobic silicalite type zeolite and Teflon (PTFE) materials. The melted PTFE-membrane on the porous Ni sheet at 360°C enabled the Li-air batteries with Ketjen black carbon air electrodes to operate in ambient air (with 20% RH) for 21 days with a specific capacity of 1022 mAh/g carbon and a specific energy of 2792 Wh/kg carbon. Its performance is much better than the battery assembled with the same battery material but by use of a commercial, porous PTFE diffusion membranes as the moisture barrier layer on the cathode, which only had a discharge time of five and half days corresponding to a specific capacity of 267 mAh/g carbon and a specific energy of 704Wh/kg carbon. The Li-air battery with the present selective membrane barrier layer even showed better performance in ambient air operation (20% RH) than the reference battery tested in the dry air box (< 1% RH).

  3. The mechanism of dehydration in chromophore maturation of wild-type green fluorescent protein: A theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yingying; Yu, Jian-Guo; Sun, Qiao; Li, Zhen; Smith, Sean C.

    2015-07-01

    An interesting aspect of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) is its autocatalytic chromophore maturation. Numerous experimental studies have indicated that dehydration is the last step in the chromophore maturation process of wild-type GFP. Based on the crystal structure of wild-type GFP, the mechanism of the reverse reaction of dehydration was investigated by using density functional theory (DFT) in this study. Our results proposed that the dehydration is exothermic. Moreover, the rate-limiting step of the mechanism is the proton on guanidinium of Arg96 transferring to the β-carbon anion of Tyr66, which is consistent with the experimental observation.

  4. Dehydrated Human Amnion/Chorion Membrane as Adjunctive Therapy in the Multidisciplinary Treatment of Pyoderma Gangrenosum: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Robert J; Ead, Joey; Glick, Brad; Cuffy, Cherlson

    2015-09-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is an uncommon chronic and progressive skin disorder that can lead to severe tissue necrosis, pathergy, horrendous pain, and disfigurement if not properly and promptly diagnosed and treated. Systemic treatment traditionally consists of long-term immunosuppression. Topical care of the painful wound often represents a clinical challenge. A 77-year-old woman with multiple comorbidities including venous insufficiency and diabetes mellitus was diagnosed through exclusion with refractory, painful PG. She was managed for 3 months by a multidisciplinary team comprised of an internist, 2 dermatologists, and a podiatric wound care specialist using immunosuppressive therapy, several local wound care modalities, and supportive bandages. During that time, severe wound pain continued unabated and the affected area changed from 3 separate wounds measuring 1.4 cm x 1.0 cm x .01 cm, 1.2 cm x 0.5 cm x 0.1 cm, and 0.6 cm x 0.5 cm x 0.1 cm to 1 wound measuring 8.0 cm x 10.3 cm x 0.1 cm. At that time, dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane (dHACM) allograft, previously reported to facilitate healing venous leg and diabetic foot ulcers, was incorporated into the treatment plan. The patient reported wound pain decreased from 10 out of 10 to 5 out of 10 within hours following application. At the 4 day follow-up visit, she reported no pain; after 1 week, the wound decreased 6.4 cm x 9.4 cm x 0.1 cm in size and after 2 months (3 applications) the wound had reduced in area from 103 cm2 to 57.96 cm2 (reduced by more than half [56%]). In this patient, following the application of dHACM as an adjunct to immunosuppressive therapy, pain receded and wound healing commenced. Additional controlled studies are needed to ascertain the generalizability of this observation. PMID:26367481

  5. [Topical treatments for psoriasis in 2009].

    PubMed

    Thielen, Anne-Marie; Laffitte, Emmanuel

    2009-04-22

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease causing important physical and psychological morbidity. Topical treatments are the first choice therapeutic alternatives for mild and moderate psoriasis. We review the different topical treatment options for this common skin disease. PMID:19438087

  6. Workplace Safety and Health Topics: Safety & Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Workplace Safety and Health Topics Industries & Occupations Hazards & Exposures Diseases & ... Pinterest Twitter YouTube NIOSH Homepage NIOSH A-Z Workplace Safety & Health Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH ...

  7. Topical Pain Relievers May Cause Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Topical Pain Relievers May Cause Burns Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... ts If you've ever rubbed a topical pain reliever—a cream, gel or other product applied to ...

  8. Topical therapy for fungal infections.

    PubMed

    Kyle, Amber A; Dahl, Mark V

    2004-01-01

    Fungi often infect the skin surface and subsequently invade the stratum corneum to avoid being shed from the skin surface by desquamation. Pharmacologic agents applied to the surface of the skin in the form of creams, lotions, or sprays, readily penetrate into the stratum corneum to kill the fungi (fungicidal agents), or at least render them unable to grow or divide (fungistatic agents). Thus, topical therapies work well to rid the skin of topical fungi and yeasts. Azole drugs such as miconazole, clotrimazole, and ketoconazole are fungistatic, limiting fungal growth but depending on epidermal turnover to shed the still-living fungus from the skin surface. Allylamines and benzylamines such as terbinafine, naftifine, and butenafine are fungicidal, actually killing the fungal organisms. Fungicidal drugs are often preferred over fungistatic drugs for treatment of dermatophytic fungal infections, since treatment times as short as one application daily for 1 week are associated with high cure rates. Furthermore, patients often stop treatments when the skin appears healed, usually after about a week of treatment. If this short-term treatment is stopped, fungi recur more often when fungistatic, rather than fungicidal, drugs have been used. Yeast infections such as those caused by Candida albicans respond less well to allylamine drugs. The azole drugs are often preferred for these types of infections. Nail infections are difficult to cure with topical therapies because the infections usually occur under the nail instead of on top of it and products penetrate poorly, if at all, through the nail plate. Infections of hair follicles, nails, and widespread infections often require systemic treatments. Antifungal agents are compounded into many different types of vehicles. Patients often prefer to treat weeping infections with spray formulations. Most physicians prescribe branded products in cream or lotion bases. Cost is a factor dictating prescription choice, especially since

  9. Toxicity and safety of topical sodium hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Bruch, Mary K

    2007-01-01

    The safety and toxicity of sodium hypochlorite is reviewed with particular correlation to topical use. Since sodium hypochlorite is one of the most widely used chemicals in the environment, its safety has been established by long use and toxicity profile. This chapter reviews recent toxicology testing including routine systemic LD50, topical LD50, topical toxicology, irritation and sensitization. The resulting toxicity or safety profile clarifies the safe topical use of electrolytically produced sodium hypochlorite solution (ExSept, Amuchina 10%). PMID:17099299

  10. Good and Bad Topics for Moral Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidman, Patricia; And Others

    This paper reports the opinions about moral topics expressed by 140 elementary and secondary student teachers, 49 in Indiana and 91 in California. Teachers' judgments of the suitability of topics were collected via a questionnaire containing 20 topics in two versions. The presentation consists of: (1) a description of the opinionnaire teachers…

  11. Topics and Terms in Environmental Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holum, John R.

    This reference is an expanded glossary of topics and terms currently related to environmental problems. These topics and terms are associated with energy, air pollution, water pollution, wastes, and pesticides. Included are 239 main entries ranging from acaricide to weathering. Each entry briefly describes the topic or term and often presents a…

  12. Effect of Temperature, Time, and Material Thickness on the Dehydration Process of Tomato.

    PubMed

    Correia, A F K; Loro, A C; Zanatta, S; Spoto, M H F; Vieira, T M F S

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of temperature, time, and thickness of tomatoes fruits during adiabatic drying process. Dehydration, a simple and inexpensive process compared to other conservation methods, is widely used in the food industry in order to ensure a long shelf life for the product due to the low water activity. This study aimed to obtain the best processing conditions to avoid losses and keep product quality. Factorial design and surface response methodology were applied to fit predictive mathematical models. In the dehydration of tomatoes through the adiabatic process, temperature, time, and sample thickness, which greatly contribute to the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the final product, were evaluated. The optimum drying conditions were 60°C with the lowest thickness level and shorter time. PMID:26904666

  13. Earth's interior. Dehydration melting at the top of the lower mantle.

    PubMed

    Schmandt, Brandon; Jacobsen, Steven D; Becker, Thorsten W; Liu, Zhenxian; Dueker, Kenneth G

    2014-06-13

    The high water storage capacity of minerals in Earth's mantle transition zone (410- to 660-kilometer depth) implies the possibility of a deep H2O reservoir, which could cause dehydration melting of vertically flowing mantle. We examined the effects of downwelling from the transition zone into the lower mantle with high-pressure laboratory experiments, numerical modeling, and seismic P-to-S conversions recorded by a dense seismic array in North America. In experiments, the transition of hydrous ringwoodite to perovskite and (Mg,Fe)O produces intergranular melt. Detections of abrupt decreases in seismic velocity where downwelling mantle is inferred are consistent with partial melt below 660 kilometers. These results suggest hydration of a large region of the transition zone and that dehydration melting may act to trap H2O in the transition zone. PMID:24926016

  14. The STF2p Hydrophilin from Saccharomyces cerevisiae Is Required for Dehydration Stress Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    López-Martínez, Gema; Rodríguez-Porrata, Boris; Margalef-Català, Mar; Cordero-Otero, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to overcome cell dehydration; cell metabolic activity is arrested during this period but restarts after rehydration. The yeast genes encoding hydrophilin proteins were characterised to determine their roles in the dehydration-resistant phenotype, and STF2p was found to be a hydrophilin that is essential for survival after the desiccation-rehydration process. Deletion of STF2 promotes the production of reactive oxygen species and apoptotic cell death during stress conditions, whereas the overexpression of STF2, whose gene product localises to the cytoplasm, results in a reduction in ROS production upon oxidative stress as the result of the antioxidant capacity of the STF2p protein. PMID:22442684

  15. Effect of Temperature, Time, and Material Thickness on the Dehydration Process of Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Correia, A. F. K.; Loro, A. C.; Zanatta, S.; Spoto, M. H. F.; Vieira, T. M. F. S.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of temperature, time, and thickness of tomatoes fruits during adiabatic drying process. Dehydration, a simple and inexpensive process compared to other conservation methods, is widely used in the food industry in order to ensure a long shelf life for the product due to the low water activity. This study aimed to obtain the best processing conditions to avoid losses and keep product quality. Factorial design and surface response methodology were applied to fit predictive mathematical models. In the dehydration of tomatoes through the adiabatic process, temperature, time, and sample thickness, which greatly contribute to the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the final product, were evaluated. The optimum drying conditions were 60°C with the lowest thickness level and shorter time. PMID:26904666

  16. From dehydration to hyperhidration isotonic and diuretic drinks and hyperhydratant aids in sport.

    PubMed

    Urdampilleta, Aritz; Gómez-Zorita, Saioa

    2014-01-01

    The needs of water and electrolytes are quite variants, depending on age, physiological or environmental conditions. In most long-term sports, usual weight loss of 3-6%, affect in athletic performance. The effects of a 6% dehydration could be improved with individualized diet-specific nutritional strategies and allow only a 2-3% dehydration, which affect metabolic efficiency but will not risk the health. On the contrary, hyperhydration can be dangerous and is associated with hyponatremia that can cause cerebral edema or respiratory failure. Sports drinks should moisturize, providing minerals and carbohydrates and increase the absorption of water by an ideal combination of salts and sugars. Therefore, it is important to provide correct hydration -protocols before, during and after physical activity, as well as know possible limitations of the sport. PMID:24483958

  17. Optimization of hydrous ferrous sulfate dehydration by microwave heating using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yan-Tao; Liu, Bing-Guo; Chen, Guo; Peng, Jin-Hui; Srinivasakannan, C

    2012-01-01

    The work relates to assessing the ability of the microwave for dehydration of large amount of waste hydrous ferrous sulfate generated from the titanium pigment process industry. The popular process optimization tool of response surface methodology with central composite design was adopted to estimate the effect of dehydration. The process variables were chosen to be power input, duration of heating and the bed thickness, while the response variable being the weight loss. An increase in all the three process variables were found to significantly increase the weight loss, while the effect of interaction among the parameters were found to be insignificant. The optimized process conditions that contribute to the maximum weight loss were identified to be a power input of 960 W, duration of heating of 14 min and bed thickness of 5 cm, resulting in a weight loss of 31.44%. The validity of the optimization process was tested with the repeat runs at optimized conditions. PMID:24432588

  18. [Acceleration of osmotic dehydration process through ohmic heating of foods: raspberries (Rubus idaeus)].

    PubMed

    Simpson, Ricardo R; Jiménez, Maite P; Carevic, Erica G; Grancelli, Romina M

    2007-06-01

    Raspberries (Rubus idaeus) were osmotically dehydrated by applying a conventional method under the supposition of a homogeneous solution, all in a 62% glucose solution at 50 degrees C. Raspberries (Rubus idaeus) were also osmotically dehydrated by using ohmic heating in a 57% glucose solution at a variable voltage (to maintain temperature between 40 and 50 degrees C) and an electric field intensity <100 V/cm. When comparing the results from both experiments it was evident that processing time is reduced when ohmic heating technique was used. In some cases this reduction reached even 50%. This is explained by the additional effect to the thermal damage that is generated in an ohmic process, denominated electroporation. PMID:17992985

  19. Relationship in humans between atrial natriuretic peptide and arginine vasopressin during dehydration

    SciTech Connect

    Burnett, J.C. Jr.; Wilson, D.M.; Kao, P.C.; Schwab, T.R.; Heublein, D.M.; Heser, D.W.

    1986-03-01

    The present study was designed to define in normal humans (n=6) the relationship between atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) during thirty-six hours of dehydration. Atrial natriuretic peptide was measured from extracted plasma by radioimmunoassay to alpha-human atrial natriuretic peptide; arginine vasopressin was measured from platelet free plasma by specific radioimmunoassay to AVP. Determinations were obtained of ANP, AVP and plasma osmolality (Posm) prior to and following fluid deprivation for thirty-six hours. The present study demonstrates that dehydration in humans increases plasma osmolality and arginine vasopressin but does not increase atrial natriuretic peptide. These investigations importantly dissociate these two peptide hormonal systems during the physiologic adaptation to fluid deprivation.

  20. Use of aluminum phosphate as the dehydration catalyst in single step dimethyl ether process

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Xiang-Dong; Parris, Gene E.; Toseland, Bernard A.; Battavio, Paula J.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention pertains to a process for the coproduction of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) directly from a synthesis gas in a single step (hereafter, the "single step DME process"). In this process, the synthesis gas comprising hydrogen and carbon oxides is contacted with a dual catalyst system comprising a physical mixture of a methanol synthesis catalyst and a methanol dehydration catalyst. The present invention is an improvement to this process for providing an active and stable catalyst system. The improvement comprises the use of an aluminum phosphate based catalyst as the methanol dehydration catalyst. Due to its moderate acidity, such a catalyst avoids the coke formation and catalyst interaction problems associated with the conventional dual catalyst systems taught for the single step DME process.

  1. TOPICAL REVIEW: Highly charged ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillaspy, J. D.

    2001-10-01

    This paper reviews some of the fundamental properties of highly charged ions, the methods of producing them (with particular emphasis on table-top devices), and their use as a tool for both basic science and applied technology. Topics discussed include: charge dependence and scaling laws along isoelectronic or isonuclear sequences (for wavefunction size or Bohr radius, ionization energy, dipole transition energy, relativistic fine structure, hyperfine structure, Zeeman effect, Stark effect, line intensities, linewidths, strength of parity violation, etc), changes in angular momentum coupling schemes, selection rules, interactions with surfaces, electron-impact ionization, the electron beam ion trap (EBIT), ion accelerators, atomic reference data, cosmic chronometers, laboratory x-ray astrophysics, vacuum polarization, solar flares, ion implantation, ion lithography, ion microprobes (SIMS and x-ray microscope), nuclear fusion diagnostics, nanotechnology, quantum computing, cancer therapy and biotechnology.

  2. [Regulatory requirements for topical preparations].

    PubMed

    Wohlrab, J; Klauck, D; Savtcheva, E

    2014-03-01

    Professional use of topical treatment in dermatological practice requires not only knowledge about the pharmacological properties, efficacy, safety and pharmaceutical quality of a preparation, but also about its regulatory classification. The latter essentially determines the physician's prescription practice and therapeutic freedom. The regulatory framework with which one is confronted unfortunately lacks transparency. It regulates not only the prescribability and reimbursability of proprietary medicinal products and extemporaneous preparations, but also the obligation to give information as well as the details of liability of both the prescriber (physician) and the manufacturer (pharmaceutical company or pharmacist). The prescriber needs to be aware of to what extent the pharmacist has the possibility and even obligation to change the prescribed preparation. In some cases this can directly affect the therapeutic concept of the physician and even impair the effectiveness and safety of the chosen therapy. PMID:24622851

  3. [Topical therapy in erectile dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Floth, A

    2000-01-01

    All forms of pharmacological therapy result in a relaxation of the corporeal smooth muscle. Intracorporeal injection of vasoactive drugs was introduced around 15 years ago and still is the most effective therapy in erectile dysfunction. Resulting in a consistent success rate of 70-80% this form of therapy will find numerous applications, even after the introduction of effective oral agents such as sildenafil. Prostaglandin E1 and--less frequently used--the combination of papaverine and phentolamine are the mainstay of intracorporeal injection therapy. Intraurethral prostaglandin (MUSE) has recently become available and is somewhat less effective than injection therapy. Externally applied drugs (nitroglycerin paste on the penile shaft and minoxidil solution on the glans penis) have not succeeded in the long run. Vacuum erection devices represent a form of physical topical therapy that is very versatile and also effective but rather infrequently applied. PMID:10746290

  4. Topical Immunotherapy in Alopecia Areata

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gurcharan; Lavanya, MS

    2010-01-01

    Alopecia Areata (AA) is a common non-scarring alopecia directed against the anagenic hair follicle. Various treatment modalities have been used for the treatment of severe AA. Topical immunotherapy is the best documented treatment so far for severe and refractory AA. Dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), squaric acid dibutylester (SADBE), and diphencyprone (DPCP) are the contact allergens used for this purpose. DNCB has been found to be mutagenic by the Ames test and is largely replaced by DPCP and SADBE. DPCP and SADBE are both known to be non-mutagenic compounds and have comparable efficacy results and relapse rates. SADBE requires special solvents and additives to maintain its potency and is more expensive than the rest. DPCP has a response rate varying from 60% in severe Alopecia Areata to 17% in patients with alopecia totalis or universalis, and shows about 88 to 100% high response rate in patients with patchy Alopecia Areata. PMID:21188022

  5. Basic Sewage Treatment Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

    This manual was developed for use at workshops designed to introduce operators to the fundamentals of sewage plant operation. The course consists of lecture-discussions and hands-on activities. Each of the lessons has clearly stated behavioral objectives to tell the trainee what he should know or do after completing that topic. Areas covered in…

  6. Chemical heterogeneity in the Hawaiian mantle plume from the alteration and dehydration of recycled oceanic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietruszka, Aaron J.; Norman, Marc D.; Garcia, Michael O.; Marske, Jared P.; Burns, Dale H.

    2013-01-01

    Inter-shield differences in the composition of lavas from Hawaiian volcanoes are generally thought to result from the melting of a heterogeneous mantle source containing variable amounts or types of oceanic crust (sediment, basalt, and/or gabbro) that was recycled into the mantle at an ancient subduction zone. Here we investigate the origin of chemical heterogeneity in the Hawaiian mantle plume by comparing the incompatible trace element abundances of tholeiitic basalts from (1) the three active Hawaiian volcanoes (Kilauea, Mauna Loa, and Loihi) and (2) the extinct Koolau shield (a compositional end member for Hawaiian volcanoes). New model calculations suggest that the mantle sources of Hawaiian volcanoes contain a significant amount of recycled oceanic crust with a factor of ˜2 increase from ˜8-16% at Loihi and Kilauea to ˜15-21% at Mauna Loa and Koolau. We propose that the Hawaiian plume contains a package of recycled oceanic crust (basalt and gabbro, with little or no marine sediment) that was altered by interaction with seawater or hydrothermal fluids prior to being variably dehydrated during subduction. The recycled oceanic crust in the mantle source of Loihi and Kilauea lavas is dominated by the uppermost portion of the residual slab (gabbro-free and strongly dehydrated), whereas the recycled oceanic crust in the mantle source of Mauna Loa and Koolau lavas is dominated by the lowermost portion of the residual slab (gabbro-rich and weakly dehydrated). The present-day distribution of compositional heterogeneities in the Hawaiian plume cannot be described by either a large-scale bilateral asymmetry or radial zonation. Instead, the mantle source of the active Hawaiian volcanoes is probably heterogeneous on a small scale with a NW-SE oriented spatial gradient in the amount, type (i.e., basalt vs. gabbro), and extent of dehydration of the ancient recycled oceanic crust.

  7. A Rare Cause of Retinal Artery Occlusion in Severe Hypernatremic Dehydration in Newborns.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Pinar Altiaylik; Kabatas, Emrah Utku; Kurtul, Bengi Ece; Dilli, Dilek; Zenciroglu, Aysegul; Okumus, Nurullah

    2016-05-01

    Neonatal hypernatremia is an important electrolyte disorder that may have serious complications. It may be a rare and underdiagnosed cause of venous and arterial thrombosis, leading to severe brain damage by cerebral edema and intracranial hemorrhage. Here, the authors present a case of bilateral central retinal artery occlusion in a newborn with severe hypernatremic dehydration who is found to be normal in terms of other causes of retinal arterial thromboembolization. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:482-485.]. PMID:27183555

  8. Dehydration of chlorite explains anomalously high electrical conductivity in the mantle wedges.

    PubMed

    Manthilake, Geeth; Bolfan-Casanova, Nathalie; Novella, Davide; Mookherjee, Mainak; Andrault, Denis

    2016-05-01

    Mantle wedge regions in subduction zone settings show anomalously high electrical conductivity (~1 S/m) that has often been attributed to the presence of aqueous fluids released by slab dehydration. Laboratory-based measurements of the electrical conductivity of hydrous phases and aqueous fluids are significantly lower and cannot readily explain the geophysically observed anomalously high electrical conductivity. The released aqueous fluid also rehydrates the mantle wedge and stabilizes a suite of hydrous phases, including serpentine and chlorite. In this present study, we have measured the electrical conductivity of a natural chlorite at pressures and temperatures relevant for the subduction zone setting. In our experiment, we observe two distinct conductivity enhancements when chlorite is heated to temperatures beyond its thermodynamic stability field. The initial increase in electrical conductivity to ~3 × 10(-3) S/m can be attributed to chlorite dehydration and the release of aqueous fluids. This is followed by a unique, subsequent enhancement of electrical conductivity of up to 7 × 10(-1) S/m. This is related to the growth of an interconnected network of a highly conductive and chemically impure magnetite mineral phase. Thus, the dehydration of chlorite and associated processes are likely to be crucial in explaining the anomalously high electrical conductivity observed in mantle wedges. Chlorite dehydration in the mantle wedge provides an additional source of aqueous fluid above the slab and could also be responsible for the fixed depth (120 ± 40 km) of melting at the top of the subducting slab beneath the subduction-related volcanic arc front. PMID:27386526

  9. Severe dehydration and acute renal failure associated with external ventricular drainage of cerebrospinal fluid in children.

    PubMed

    Simpson, S; Yung, M; Slater, A

    2006-10-01

    We report three paediatric cases of severe dehydration and hyponatraemia with circulatory compromise associated with the use of external ventricular drainage of cerebrospinal fluid. Two of the children had cardiac arrests. All were successfully resuscitated. While there were additional factors that contributed to other fluid losses, and fluid balance data are incomplete, these cases highlight a need for increased vigilance when managing children with external ventricular drains. PMID:17061645

  10. Compression of fractionated sun-cured and dehydrated alfalfa chops into cubes--specific energy models.

    PubMed

    Adapa, Phani; Schoenau, Greg; Tabil, Lope; Sokhansanj, Shahab; Singh, Asheesh

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the specific energy requirements for the compression of fractionated sun-cured and dehydrated alfalfa chops, when subjected to different pressures and holding times. The compression behavior of fractionated sun-cured and dehydrated alfalfa chops was studied using a single cubing unit capable of making one cube in a single stroke of the plunger. The cube die dimensions were 30 mm x 30 mm in cross-section and an effective depth of compression of 0.38 m. The initial moisture content of dehydrated and sun-cured chops were 6% and 7% (wb), respectively. A stack of two sieves (instead of five) was used along with a pan to achieve leaf and stem separation. The nominal opening sizes of two sieves with square holes were 3.96 and 1.17 mm, respectively. Leaf and stem fractions were combined later to obtain five different samples each for sun-cured and dehydrated alfalfa with leaf content ranging from 0% to 100% by mass in increments of 25%. The chop moisture content and preheat temperature before compaction was 10% (wb) and 75 degrees C, respectively. The cube die temperature was maintained at 90+/-5 degrees C. The mass of chops used for making each cube was 23+/-02 g. A hydraulic press was used to apply 9.0, 12.0 and 14.0 MPa of pressures through a plunger. After compression, the plunger was held in place for 10 and 30s, before the compacted forage was extracted. Empirical equations were fitted to the data relating specific energy for cube making to pressure, residence time, and leaf content. PMID:16442280

  11. Development and quality evaluation of dehydrated chicken meat rings using spent hen meat and different extenders.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Bidyut Prava; Chauhan, Geeta; Mendiratta, S K; Sharma, B D; Desai, B A; Rath, P K

    2015-04-01

    It is recommended that for effective utilization of spent hen meat, it should be converted into value added or shelf stable meat products. Since we are lacking in cold chain facilities, therefore there is imperative need to develop shelf stable meat products. The present study was envisaged with the objective to develop dehydrated chicken meat rings utilizing spent hen meat with different extenders. A basic formulation and processing conditions were standardized for dehydrated chicken meat rings. Extenders such as rice flour, barnyard millet flour and texturized soy granule powder at 5, 10 and 15 % levels were incorporated separately replacing the lean meat in pre standardized dehydrated chicken meat ring formulation. On the basis of physico-chemical properties and sensory scores optimum level of incorporation was adjudged as 10 %, 10 % and 5 % for rice flour, barnyard millet flour and texturized soy granule powder respectively. Products with optimum level of extenders were analysed for physico-chemical and sensory attributes. It was found that a good quality dehydrated chicken meat rings can be prepared by utilizing spent hen meat at 90 % level, potato starch 3 % and refined wheat flour 7 % along with spices, condiments, common salt and STPP. Addition of an optimum level of different extenders such as rice flour (10 %), barnyard millet flour (10 %) and TSGP (5 %) separately replacing lean meat in the formulation can give acceptable quality of the product. Rice flour was found to be the best among the three extenders studied as per the sensory evaluation. PMID:25829592

  12. Improved demulsifier chemistry; A novel approach in the dehydration of crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Staiss, F.; Boehm, R.; Kupfer, R. )

    1991-08-01

    With the ever-growing demand for more efficient dehydration and desalting of crude oil, classic demulsifiers no longer perform satisfactorily in most cases, and new chemical systems are required. This paper describes emulsion breakers, generally polyester amines, and gives detailed laboratory studies of their advantages over classic demulsifiers: more complete migration to the interface, improved emulsion breaking and coalescence, improved effluent water quality, and partial corrosion inhibition. These new demulsifiers combined with classic emulsion breakers have been successfully tested.

  13. Coping with dehydration: sympathetic activation and regulation of glutamatergic transmission in the hypothalamic PVN.

    PubMed

    Bardgett, Megan E; Chen, Qing-Hui; Guo, Qing; Calderon, Alfredo S; Andrade, Mary Ann; Toney, Glenn M

    2014-06-01

    Autonomic and endocrine profiles of chronic hypertension and heart failure resemble those of acute dehydration. Importantly, all of these conditions are associated with exaggerated sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) driven by glutamatergic activation of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Here, studies sought to gain insight into mechanisms of disease by determining the role of PVN ionotropic glutamate receptors in supporting SNA and mean arterial pressure (MAP) during dehydration and by elucidating mechanisms regulating receptor activity. Blockade of PVN N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors reduced (P < 0.01) renal SNA and MAP in urethane-chloralose-anesthetized dehydrated (DH) (48 h water deprivation) rats, but had no effect in euhydrated (EH) controls. Blockade of PVN α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors had no effect in either group. NMDA in PVN caused dose-dependent increases of renal SNA and MAP in both groups, but the maximum agonist evoked response (Emax) of the renal SNA response was greater (P < 0.05) in DH rats. The latter was not explained by increased PVN expression of NMDA receptor NR1 subunit protein, increased PVN neuronal excitability, or decreased brain water content. Interestingly, PVN injection of the pan-specific excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT) inhibitor DL-threo-β-benzyloxyaspartic acid produced smaller sympathoexcitatory and pressor responses in DH rats, which was associated with reduced glial expression of EAAT2 in PVN. Like chronic hypertension and heart failure, dehydration increases excitatory NMDA receptor tone in PVN. Reduced glial-mediated glutamate uptake was identified as a key contributing factor. Defective glutamate uptake in PVN could therefore be an important, but as yet unexplored, mechanism driving sympathetic hyperactivity in chronic cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24671240

  14. Membrane permeation process for dehydration of organic liquid mixtures using sulfonated ion-exchange polyalkene membranes

    DOEpatents

    Cabasso, Israel; Korngold, Emmanuel

    1988-01-01

    A membrane permeation process for dehydrating a mixture of organic liquids, such as alcohols or close boiling, heat sensitive mixtures. The process comprises causing a component of the mixture to selectively sorb into one side of sulfonated ion-exchange polyalkene (e.g., polyethylene) membranes and selectively diffuse or flow therethrough, and then desorbing the component into a gas or liquid phase on the other side of the membranes.

  15. Localised slip controlled by dehydration embrittlement of partly serpentinised dunites, Leka Ophiolite Complex, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkel, Kristina G.; Austrheim, Håkon; Cordonnier, Benoit; Jamtveit, Bjørn

    2016-04-01

    Dehydration of serpentinised ultramafic rocks can increase the pore fluid pressure and induce brittle failure; however the extents of strain localisation and unstable frictional sliding are still under debate. Microstructural and mineralogical evidence from dunites of the Leka Ophiolite Complex in the Central Norwegian Caledonides demonstrates that prograde metamorphism of serpentinite veins led to local fluid production and to the growth of large-grained olivine rich in magnetite inclusions. The epitaxial growth of comparatively Fe-poor prograde olivine on Fe-richer relics of primary olivine caused a high variability in Fe-content, even within single crystals. On a larger scale, the average Fe-content of olivine rises towards the vein edges, which reflects a decrease in the degree of initial serpentinisation towards the host rock. The former distribution of serpentine strongly influenced the mechanical response of the rock to the fluid production during deserpentinisation: The faulting caused by the associated dehydration embrittlement occurred along highly localized slip planes in the centres of the meta-serpentinite veins. Around these slip planes, the prograde olivine experienced significant grain size reduction, but very limited shear strain. The strain concentration on narrow faults, also documented by a sharp offset of chromite layers, and the brittle deformation of the surrounding olivine suggest unstable frictional sliding rather than slower creep. This natural example of deserpentinisation-induced embrittlement illustrates that structural heterogeneities in the form of serpentinite veins have first-order controls on strain localisation and frictional sliding. While strain may be distributed during dehydration of a homogeneous serpentinite, as has been observed in recent experimental studies, it may become strongly localised in a heterogeneous rock volume where fluid pressure is locally increased along pre-existing veins. As most of the oceanic lithosphere

  16. Dehydration of chlorite explains anomalously high electrical conductivity in the mantle wedges

    PubMed Central

    Manthilake, Geeth; Bolfan-Casanova, Nathalie; Novella, Davide; Mookherjee, Mainak; Andrault, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Mantle wedge regions in subduction zone settings show anomalously high electrical conductivity (~1 S/m) that has often been attributed to the presence of aqueous fluids released by slab dehydration. Laboratory-based measurements of the electrical conductivity of hydrous phases and aqueous fluids are significantly lower and cannot readily explain the geophysically observed anomalously high electrical conductivity. The released aqueous fluid also rehydrates the mantle wedge and stabilizes a suite of hydrous phases, including serpentine and chlorite. In this present study, we have measured the electrical conductivity of a natural chlorite at pressures and temperatures relevant for the subduction zone setting. In our experiment, we observe two distinct conductivity enhancements when chlorite is heated to temperatures beyond its thermodynamic stability field. The initial increase in electrical conductivity to ~3 × 10−3 S/m can be attributed to chlorite dehydration and the release of aqueous fluids. This is followed by a unique, subsequent enhancement of electrical conductivity of up to 7 × 10−1 S/m. This is related to the growth of an interconnected network of a highly conductive and chemically impure magnetite mineral phase. Thus, the dehydration of chlorite and associated processes are likely to be crucial in explaining the anomalously high electrical conductivity observed in mantle wedges. Chlorite dehydration in the mantle wedge provides an additional source of aqueous fluid above the slab and could also be responsible for the fixed depth (120 ± 40 km) of melting at the top of the subducting slab beneath the subduction-related volcanic arc front. PMID:27386526

  17. Unconventional application of the Mitsunobu reaction: Selective flavonolignan dehydration yielding hydnocarpins

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guozheng; Schramm, Simon; Heilmann, Jörg; Biedermann, David; Křen, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Summary Various Mitsunobu conditions were investigated for a series of flavonolignans (silybin A, silybin B, isosilybin A, and silychristin A) to achieve either selective esterification in position C-23 or dehydration in a one-pot reaction yielding the biologically important enantiomers of hydnocarpin D, hydnocarpin and isohydnocarpin, respectively. This represents the only one-pot semi-synthetic method to access these flavonolignans in high yields. PMID:27340458

  18. Unconventional application of the Mitsunobu reaction: Selective flavonolignan dehydration yielding hydnocarpins.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guozheng; Schramm, Simon; Heilmann, Jörg; Biedermann, David; Křen, Vladimír; Decker, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Various Mitsunobu conditions were investigated for a series of flavonolignans (silybin A, silybin B, isosilybin A, and silychristin A) to achieve either selective esterification in position C-23 or dehydration in a one-pot reaction yielding the biologically important enantiomers of hydnocarpin D, hydnocarpin and isohydnocarpin, respectively. This represents the only one-pot semi-synthetic method to access these flavonolignans in high yields. PMID:27340458

  19. Achieving hemostasis in dermatology-Part II: Topical hemostatic agents

    PubMed Central

    Glick, Jaimie B.; Kaur, Ravneet R.; Siegel, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Bleeding is a common occurrence during any dermatologic surgery that disrupts blood vessels. The complications of excess bleeding can include delayed wound healing, hematoma formation, infection, dehiscence, and necrosis. In part one of this review, we discussed the pre-operative, intra-operative, and post-operative management of patients undergoing dermatologic surgery. In Part two, we discuss traditional and new topical hemostatic agents used to achieve hemostasis in dermatological procedures and surgery. We will evaluate the caustic and non-caustic hemostatic agents as well as hemostatic dressings. The mechanisms of action, side effect profile, and advantages and disadvantages of the topical hemostatic agents are provided. Sources for this article were found searching the English literature in PubMed for the time period 1940 to March 2012. A thorough bibliography search was also performed and key references examined. PMID:23984226

  20. Effects of cold and hot temperature on dehydration: a mechanism of cardiovascular burden.

    PubMed

    Lim, Youn-Hee; Park, Min-Seon; Kim, Yoonhee; Kim, Ho; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2015-08-01

    The association between temperature (cold or heat) and cardiovascular mortality has been well documented. However, few studies have investigated the underlying mechanism of the cold or heat effect. The main goal of this study was to examine the effect of temperature on dehydration markers and to explain the pathophysiological disturbances caused by changes of temperature. We investigated the relationship between outdoor temperature and dehydration markers (blood urea nitrogen (BUN)/creatinine ratio, urine specific gravity, plasma tonicity and haematocrit) in 43,549 adults from Seoul, South Korea, during 1995-2008. We used piece-wise linear regression to find the flexion point of apparent temperature and estimate the effects below or above the apparent temperature. Levels of dehydration markers decreased linearly with an increase in the apparent temperature until a point between 22 and 27 °C, which was regarded as the flexion point of apparent temperature, and then increased with apparent temperature. Because the associations between temperature and cardiovascular mortality are known to be U-shaped, our findings suggest that temperature-related changes in hydration status underlie the increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity during high- or low-temperature conditions. PMID:25344017