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Sample records for dei coralli mediterranei

  1. Genomic stability in the archaeae Haloferax volcanii and Haloferax mediterranei.

    PubMed Central

    López-García, P; St Jean, A; Amils, R; Charlebois, R L

    1995-01-01

    Through hybridization of available probes, we have added nine genes to the macrorestriction map of the Haloferax mediterranei chromosome and five genes to the contig map of Haloferax volcanii. Additionally, we hybridized 17 of the mapped cosmid clones from H. volcanii to the H. mediterranei genome. The resulting 35-point chromosomal comparison revealed only two inversions and a few translocations. Forces known to promote rearrangement, common in the haloarchaea, have been ineffective in changing global gene order throughout the nearly 10(7) years of these species' divergent evolution. PMID:7868620

  2. 75 FR 21650 - Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, Biscayne National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... National Park Service Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement... Availability of the Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Coral Reef Restoration Plan... Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the Coral Reef Restoration Plan for Biscayne National Park,...

  3. Elaborazione dei dati sperimentali

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dapor, M.; Ropele, M.

    L'analisi statistica dei dati sperimentali, la loro elaborazione ed una corretta stima degli errori sono conoscenze necessarie agli studenti di fisica, biologia, chimica, ingegneria e dei corsi di specializzazione tecnico-scientifici in cui a di laboratorio. Chi si occupa di problemi tecnici e di misure, per studio o per lavoro, deve possedere gli strumenti matematici di calcolo e di analisi necessari ad una corretta interpretazione dei dati sperimentali. Il testo fornisce in modo sintetico, chiaro ed esaustivo, tutte le nozioni e le conoscenze utili allo scopo.

  4. Activation of a dormant replication origin is essential for Haloferax mediterranei lacking the primary origins

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Haibo; Wu, Zhenfang; Liu, Jingfang; Liu, Xiaoqing; Wang, Lei; Cai, Shuangfeng; Xiang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    The use of multiple origins for chromosome replication has been demonstrated in archaea. Similar to the dormant origins in eukaryotes, some potential origins in archaea appear to be inactive during genome replication. We have comprehensively explored the origin utilization in Haloferax mediterranei. Here we report three active chromosomal origins by genome-wide replication profiling, and demonstrate that when these three origins are deleted, a dormant origin becomes activated. Notably, this dormant origin cannot be further deleted when the other origins are already absent and vice versa. Interestingly, a potential origin that appears to stay dormant in its native host H. volcanii lacking the main active origins becomes activated and competent for replication of the entire chromosome when integrated into the chromosome of origin-deleted H. mediterranei. These results indicate that origin-dependent replication is strictly required for H. mediterranei and that dormant replication origins in archaea can be activated if needed. PMID:26374389

  5. A halocin-H4 mutant Haloferax mediterranei strain retains the ability to inhibit growth of other halophilic archaea.

    PubMed

    Naor, Adit; Yair, Yael; Gophna, Uri

    2013-11-01

    Many members of the Halobacteriaceae were found to produce halocins, molecules that inhibit the growth of other halophilic archaea. Halocin H4 that is produced by Haloferax mediterranei and inhibits the growth of Halobacterium salinarum is one of the best studied halocins to date. The gene encoding this halocin had been previously identified as halH4, located on one of Hfx. mediterranei megaplasmids. We generated a mutant of the halH4 gene and examined the killing ability of the Haloferax mediterranei halH4 mutant with respect to both Halobacterium salinarum and Haloferax volcanii. We showed that both wild-type Hfx. mediterranei and the halH4 mutant strain efficiently inhibited the growth of both species, indicating halocin redundancy. Surprisingly, the halH4 deletion mutant exhibited faster growth in standard medium than the wild type, and is likely to have a better response to several nucleotides, which could explain this phenotype. PMID:24037372

  6. Evaluation of the Synthetic Potential of an AHBA Knockout Mutant of the Rifamycin Producer Amycolatopsis mediterranei.

    PubMed

    Bułyszko, Ilona; Dräger, Gerald; Klenge, Anja; Kirschning, Andreas

    2015-12-21

    Supplementing an AHBA(-) mutant strain of Amycolatopsis mediterranei, the rifamycin producer, with a series of benzoic acid derivatives yielded new tetraketides containing different phenyl groups. These mutasynthetic studies revealed unique reductive properties of A. mediterranei towards nitro- and azidoarenes, leading to the corresponding anilines. In selected cases, the yields of mutaproducts (fermentation products isolated after feeding bacteria with chemically prepared analogs of natural building blocks) obtained are in a range (up to 118 mg L(-1)) that renders them useful as chiral building blocks for further synthetic endeavors. The configuration of the stereogenic centers at C6 and C7 was determined to be 6R,7S for one representative tetraketide. Importantly, processing beyond the tetraketide stage is not always blocked when the formation of the bicyclic naphthalene precursor cannot occur. This was proven by formation of a bromo undecaketide, an observation that has implications regarding the evolutionary development of rifamycin biosynthesis. PMID:26559164

  7. Haloferax mediterranei GlnK proteins are post-translationally modified by uridylylation.

    PubMed

    Pedro-Roig, Laia; Camacho, Mónica; Bonete, María José

    2013-04-01

    In this work we report for the first time a post-translational modification of PII homologues from the Archaea Domain. Haloferax mediterranei is the first haloarchaea whose PII proteins have been studied, it possesses two of them (GlnK1 and GlnK2 ), both encoded adjacent to a gene for the ammonia transporter Amt. An approach based on 2DE, anti-GlnK immunoblot and peptide mass fingerprint (MALDI-TOF-MS) of the reactive spots showed that GlnK proteins in H. mediterranei are post-translationally uridylylated. A third spot with lower pI suggests the existence of a non-descript post-translational modification in this protein family. PMID:23420616

  8. The effect of ammonium on assimilatory nitrate reduction in the haloarchaeon Haloferax mediterranei.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Espinosa, Rosa María; Lledó, Belén; Marhuenda-Egea, Frutos C; Bonete, María José

    2007-11-01

    Physiology, regulation and biochemical aspects of the nitrogen assimilation are well known in Prokarya or Eukarya but they are poorly described in Archaea domain. The haloarchaeon Haloferax mediterranei can use different nitrogen inorganic sources (NO (3) (-) , NO (2) (-) or NH (4) (+) ) for growth. Different approaches were considered to study the effect of NH (4) (+) on nitrogen assimilation in Hfx. mediterranei cells grown in KNO(3) medium. The NH (4) (+) addition to KNO(3) medium caused a decrease of assimilatory nitrate (Nas) and nitrite reductases (NiR) activities. Similar effects were observed when nitrate-growing cells were transferred to NH (4) (+) media. Both activities increased when NH (4) (+) was removed from culture, showing that the negative effect of NH (4) (+) on this pathway is reversible. These results suggest that ammonium causes the inhibition of the assimilatory nitrate pathway, while nitrate exerts a positive effect. This pattern has been confirmed by RT-PCR. In the presence of both NO (3) (-) and NH (4) (+) , NH (4) (+) was preferentially consumed, but NO (3) (-) uptake was not completely inhibited by NH (4) (+) at prolonged time scale. The addition of MSX to NH (4) (+) or NO (3) (-) cultures results in an increase of Nas and NiR activities, suggesting that NH (4) (+) assimilation, rather than NH (4) (+ ) per se, has a negative effect on assimilatory nitrate reduction in Hfx. mediterranei. PMID:17572840

  9. Enoyl-CoA hydratase mediates polyhydroxyalkanoate mobilization in Haloferax mediterranei

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guiming; Cai, Shuangfeng; Hou, Jing; Zhao, Dahe; Han, Jing; Zhou, Jian; Xiang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Although polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) accumulation and mobilization are one of the most general mechanisms for haloarchaea to adapt to the hypersaline environments with changeable carbon sources, the PHA mobilization pathways are still not clear for any haloarchaea. In this study, the functions of five putative (R)-specific enoyl-CoA hydratases (R-ECHs) in Haloferax mediterranei, named PhaJ1 to PhaJ5, respectively, were thoroughly investigated. Through gene deletion and complementation, we demonstrated that only certain of these ECHs had a slight contribution to poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) biosynthesis. But significantly, PhaJ1, the only R-ECH that is associated with PHA granules, was shown to be involved in PHA mobilization in this haloarchaeon. PhaJ1 catalyzes the dehydration of (R)-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA, the common product of PHA degradation, to enoyl-CoA, the intermediate of the β-oxidation cycle, thus could link PHA mobilization to β-oxidation pathway in H. mediterranei. This linkage was further indicated from the up-regulation of the key genes of β-oxidation under the PHA mobilization condition, as well as the obvious inhibition of PHA degradation upon inhibition of the β-oxidation pathway. Interestingly, 96% of phaJ-containing haloarchaeal species possess both phaC (encoding PHA synthase) and the full set genes of β-oxidation, implying that the mobilization of carbon storage in PHA through the β-oxidation cycle would be general in haloarchaea. PMID:27052994

  10. Coral microbiology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberg, Eugene; Kellogg, Christina A.; Rohwer, Forest

    2007-01-01

    In the last 30 years, there has been approximately a 30% loss of corals worldwide, largely due to emerging diseases (Harvell et al., 2002, 2007; Hughes et al., 2003). Coral microbiology is a new field, driven largely by a desire to understand the interactions between corals and their symbiotic microorganisms and to use this knowledge to eventually prevent the spread of coral diseases.

  11. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of binary and ternary complexes of Haloferax mediterranei glucose dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Esclapez, Julia; Britton, K. Linda; Baker, Patrick J.; Fisher, Martin; Pire, Carmen; Ferrer, Juan; Bonete, María José; Rice, David W.

    2005-08-01

    Single crystals of binary and ternary complexes of wild-type and D38C mutant H. mediterranei glucose dehydrogenase have been obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Haloferax mediterranei glucose dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.47) belongs to the medium-chain alcohol dehydrogenase superfamily and requires zinc for catalysis. In the majority of these family members, the catalytic zinc is tetrahedrally coordinated by the side chains of a cysteine, a histidine, a cysteine or glutamate and a water molecule. In H. mediterranei glucose dehydrogenase, sequence analysis indicates that the zinc coordination is different, with the invariant cysteine replaced by an aspartate residue. In order to analyse the significance of this replacement and to contribute to an understanding of the role of the metal ion in catalysis, a range of binary and ternary complexes of the wild-type and a D38C mutant protein have been crystallized. For most of the complexes, crystals belonging to space group I222 were obtained using sodium/potassium citrate as a precipitant. However, for the binary and non-productive ternary complexes with NADPH/Zn, it was necessary to replace the citrate with 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol. Despite the radical change in conditions, the crystals thus formed were isomorphous.

  12. Influence of nutritive factors on C50 carotenoids production by Haloferax mediterranei ATCC 33500 with two-stage cultivation.

    PubMed

    Fang, Chun-Jen; Ku, Kuo-Lung; Lee, Min-Hsiung; Su, Nan-Wei

    2010-08-01

    The production of pigments by Haloferax mediterranei ATCC 33500 with two-stage cultivation in response to nutritive factors in culture media was studied. Sodium chloride and magnesium sulfate in the second-stage media showed a marked effect upon the production of pigments, and sodium acetate could enhance the production. As the cells were harvested at mid-log phase of growth in first-stage cultivation and transferred to the defined media containing 5% sodium chloride, 0.1% sodium acetate and 8% magnesium sulfate at 37 degrees C, 120 rpm for further 24 h of cultivation, H. mediterranei exhibited to be an efficient producer of pigments. The yield of pigments could reach up to 0.604 A(494 nm) mL(-1) broth. TLC analysis and the UV-Vis spectra of individual spots thereof revealed that H. mediterranei produced three red pigments of C(50) carotenoid, namely bisanhydrobacterioruberin, monoanhydrobacterioruberin and bacterioruberin, as well as a C(45) carotenoid, 2-isopentenyl-3,4-dehydrorhodopin. PMID:20362434

  13. Analysis of protein solvent interactions in glucose dehydrogenase from the extreme halophile Haloferax mediterranei

    PubMed Central

    Britton, K. Linda; Baker, Patrick J.; Fisher, Martin; Ruzheinikov, Sergey; Gilmour, D. James; Bonete, María-José; Ferrer, Juan; Pire, Carmen; Esclapez, Julia; Rice, David W.

    2006-01-01

    The structure of glucose dehydrogenase from the extreme halophile Haloferax mediterranei has been solved at 1.6-Å resolution under crystallization conditions which closely mimic the “in vivo” intracellular environment. The decoration of the enzyme’s surface with acidic residues is only partially neutralized by bound potassium counterions, which also appear to play a role in substrate binding. The surface shows the expected reduction in hydrophobic character, surprisingly not from changes associated with the loss of exposed hydrophobic residues but rather arising from a loss of lysines consistent with the genome wide-reduction of this residue in extreme halophiles. The structure reveals a highly ordered, multilayered solvation shell that can be seen to be organized into one dominant network covering much of the exposed surface accessible area to an extent not seen in almost any other protein structure solved. This finding is consistent with the requirement of the enzyme to form a protective shell in a dehydrating environment. PMID:16551747

  14. Identification of several intracellular carbohydrate-degrading activities from the halophilic archaeon Haloferax mediterranei.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pomares, F; Díaz, S; Bautista, V; Pire, C; Bravo, G; Esclapez, J; Zafrilla, B; Bonete, María-José

    2009-07-01

    Three different amylolytic activities, designated AMY1, AMY2, and AMY3 were detected in the cytoplasm of the extreme halophilic archaeon Haloferax mediterranei grown in a starch containing medium. This organism had also been reported to excrete an alpha-amylase into the external medium in such conditions. The presence of these different enzymes which are also able to degrade starch may be related to the use of the available carbohydrates and maltodextrins, including the products obtained by the action of the extracellular amylase on starch that may be transported to the cytoplasm of the organism. The behavior of these intracellular hydrolytic enzymes on starch is reported here and compared with their extracellular counterpart. Two of these glycosidic activities (AMY1, AMY3) have also been purified and further characterized. As with other halophilic enzymes, they were salt dependent and displayed maximal activity at 3 M NaCl, and 50 degrees C. The purification steps and molecular masses have also been reported. The other activity (AMY2) was also detected in extracts from cells grown in media with glycerol instead of starch and in a yeast extract medium. This enzyme was able to degrade starch yielding small oligosaccharides and displayed similar halophilic behavior with salt requirement in the range 1.5-3 M NaCl. PMID:19396510

  15. Utilization of vinasse for production of poly-3-(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) by Haloferax mediterranei.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Anirban; Pramanik, Arnab; Maji, Sudipta Kumar; Haldar, Saubhik; Mukhopadhyay, Ujjal Kumar; Mukherjee, Joydeep

    2012-01-01

    Vinasse, a highly polluting waste of the ethanol industry was utilized for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) by the extremely halophilic archaeon, Haloferax mediterranei in shake-flasks. Following pre-treatment through adsorption on activated carbon, 25%-50% (v/v) pre-treated vinasse was utilized leading to 70% maximum accumulation of PHA. Maximum PHA concentration of 19.7 g/l, product yield coefficient (based on total carbohydrates) of 0.87 and 0.21 g/l h volumetric productivity were achieved. Concomitant lowering of BOD5 of pre-treated vinasse by at least 78% and COD by at least 80% was attained at the end of this process. The PHA was recovered by osmotic lysis of the cells and purification by sodium hypochlorite and organic solvents. Through UV-vis spectroscopy, gas chromatography, differential scanning calorimetry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, the PHA was identified as poly-3-(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate). The 3-hydroxyvalerate content was 12.36 mol % (utilizing 25% pre-treated vinasse) and 14.09 mol % (utilizing 50% pre-treated vinasse). High salt concentration in the medium allowed this process without sterile conditions and thus reduction in costs of sterilization can be envisaged. Activated charcoal pre-treatment of vinasse is economical than competing processes such as ultrafiltration of whey, extrusion and enzymatic treatment of rice and corn starch. Without impacting sugar prices, this process can easily be integrated into a distillery that has fermentation equipment and trained personnel. High PHA content, productivity, zero-cost carbon source, low-cost isolation of a high-purity product and potential integration into ethanol manufacturing unit with concomitant wastewater treatment should merit further development of this process to higher scales. PMID:22776040

  16. Utilization of vinasse for production of poly-3-(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) by Haloferax mediterranei

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Vinasse, a highly polluting waste of the ethanol industry was utilized for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) by the extremely halophilic archaeon, Haloferax mediterranei in shake-flasks. Following pre-treatment through adsorption on activated carbon, 25%-50% (v/v) pre-treated vinasse was utilized leading to 70% maximum accumulation of PHA. Maximum PHA concentration of 19.7 g/l, product yield coefficient (based on total carbohydrates) of 0.87 and 0.21 g/l h volumetric productivity were achieved. Concomitant lowering of BOD5 of pre-treated vinasse by at least 78% and COD by at least 80% was attained at the end of this process. The PHA was recovered by osmotic lysis of the cells and purification by sodium hypochlorite and organic solvents. Through UV–vis spectroscopy, gas chromatography, differential scanning calorimetry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, the PHA was identified as poly-3-(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate). The 3-hydroxyvalerate content was 12.36 mol % (utilizing 25% pre-treated vinasse) and 14.09 mol % (utilizing 50% pre-treated vinasse). High salt concentration in the medium allowed this process without sterile conditions and thus reduction in costs of sterilization can be envisaged. Activated charcoal pre-treatment of vinasse is economical than competing processes such as ultrafiltration of whey, extrusion and enzymatic treatment of rice and corn starch. Without impacting sugar prices, this process can easily be integrated into a distillery that has fermentation equipment and trained personnel. High PHA content, productivity, zero-cost carbon source, low-cost isolation of a high-purity product and potential integration into ethanol manufacturing unit with concomitant wastewater treatment should merit further development of this process to higher scales. PMID:22776040

  17. Coral choreography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Viewers clicking onto the Waikiki Aquarium's “Coral Research Cam” any time during daylight hours in Hawaii can catch the latest action of three species of living corals (Acropora sp., Acropora elseyi,and Montipora digitata) and the yellow tang and blue tang fish swimming amongst them in an outdoor aquarium.Waikiki Aquarium Director Bruce Carlson says the camera is part of a new exhibit, “Corals Are Alive!,” which encourages people to view living corals close-up at the aquarium or via the Internet, in order to gain a better appreciation of the corals. “Hopefully through education and awareness, people will be more interested and willing to help with conservation efforts to preserve coral reefs,” says Carlson.

  18. The "Casa dei Bambini": A Century Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the early history of Montessori education from the Italian State Orthophrenic School to the opening of the original Casa dei Bambini in San Lorenzo, Italy on January 6, 1907. Includes a synopsis of Maria Montessori's progressive revelations of the child's developing self over the past century. (JPB)

  19. Production of poly-3-(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) by Haloferax mediterranei using rice-based ethanol stillage with simultaneous recovery and re-use of medium salts.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Anirban; Saha, Jayeeta; Haldar, Saubhik; Bhowmic, Asit; Mukhopadhyay, Ujjal Kumar; Mukherjee, Joydeep

    2014-03-01

    Haloferax mediterranei holds promise for competitive industrial-scale production of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) because cheap carbon sources can be used thus lowering production costs. Although high salt concentration in production medium permits a non-sterile, low-cost process, salt disposal after process completion is a problem as current environmental standards do not allow total dissolved solids (TDS) above 2000 mg/l in discharge water. As the first objective of this work, the waste product of rice-based ethanol industry, stillage, was used for the production of PHA by H. mediterranei in shake flasks. Utilization of raw stillage led to 71 ± 2% (of dry cell weight) PHA accumulation and 16.42 ± 0.02 g/l PHA production. The product yield coefficient was 0.35 while 0.17 g/l h volumetric productivity was attained. Simultaneous reduction of BOD5 and COD values of stillage by 83% was accomplished. The PHA was isolated by osmotic lysis of cells, purification by sodium dodecyl sulfate and organic solvents. The biopolymer was identified as poly-3-(hydroxybutyrate-co-15.4 mol%-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV). This first report on utilization of rice-based ethanol stillage for PHBV production by H. mediterranei is currently the most cost effective. As the second objective, directional properties of decanoic acid together with temperature dependence of water solubility in decanoic acid were applied for two-stage desalination of the spent stillage medium. We report for the first time, recovery and re-use of 96% of the medium salts for PHA production thus removing the major bottleneck in the potential application of H. mediterranei for industrial production of PHBV. Final discharge water had TDS content of 670 mg/l. PMID:24442255

  20. Rifamycins Production by Amycolatopsis mediterranei in Batch and Repeated Batch Cultures Using Immobilized Cells in Alginate and Modified Alginate Beads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Enshasy, Hesham A.; Beshay, Usama I.; El-Diwany, Ahmed I.; Omar, Hoda M.; El-Kholy, Abdel Ghany E.; El-Najar, Rabab

    The production of rifamycins B and SV by Amycolatopsis mediterranei using immobilization technique was investigated. Alginate beads proved to be an alternative method for the production of rifamycin antibiotic as it has many advantage over using free cells such as it enables the operation at higher dilution rates without the danger of wash out, ease of handling and facilitates recycling or reverse of using microorganism. Different hardening agents were used to improve the stability of the beads and decrease cells escapement. Gum Arabic and gellan gum were used and the rate of rifamycin production increased by using gellan gum as hardening agent compared to pure alginate beads. The rifamycins B and SV increased from 685 to 810 and from 547.5 to 702 mg L-1, respectively by using gellan-gum modified beads compared to the non-treated beads. In repeated batch production, the beads were stable and no breaking of the gel beads was observed throughout the experiment time. The total amount of rifamycin B and SV during the five repeated batches (each of 144 h) reached 3360 and 2309 mg L-1, respectively. On reducing the batch time to only 72 h, the antibiotic production was not influenced and the total concentration of rifamycins B and SV for five batches was 3785 and 2393 mg L-1, respectively.

  1. Improved Rifamycin B Production by Nocardia mediterranei MTCC 14 under Solid-State Fermentation through Process Optimization.

    PubMed

    Vastrad, Basavaraj M; Neelagund, Shivayogeshwar E; Iiger, Sudhir R; Godbole, Ajeet M; Kulkarni, Venkatrao

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of various production parameters using response surface methodology (RSM) was performed to assess maximum yield of rifamycin B from Nocardia mediterranei MTCC 14. Plackett-Burman design test was applied to determine the significant effects of various production parameters such as glucose, maltose, ribose, galactose, beef extract, peanut meal, ammonium chloride, ammonium sulphate, barbital, pH, and moisture content on production of rifamycin B. Among the eleven variables tested, galactose, ribose, glucose, and pH were found to have significant effect on rifamycin B production. Optimum levels of the significant variables were decided by using a central composite design. The most appropriate condition for production of rifamycin B was found to be a single step production at galactose (8% w/w), ribose (3% w/w), glucose (9% w/w), and pH (7.0). At these optimum production parameters, the maximum yield of rifamycin B obtained experimentally (9.87 g/kgds dry sunflower oil cake) was found to be very close to its predicted value of 10.35 g/kgds dry sunflower oil cake. The mathematical model developed was found to fit greatly with the experimental data of rifamycin B production. PMID:25371823

  2. Improved Rifamycin B Production by Nocardia mediterranei MTCC 14 under Solid-State Fermentation through Process Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Vastrad, Basavaraj M.; Neelagund, Shivayogeshwar E.; Iiger, Sudhir R.; Godbole, Ajeet M.; Kulkarni, Venkatrao

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of various production parameters using response surface methodology (RSM) was performed to assess maximum yield of rifamycin B from Nocardia mediterranei MTCC 14. Plackett-Burman design test was applied to determine the significant effects of various production parameters such as glucose, maltose, ribose, galactose, beef extract, peanut meal, ammonium chloride, ammonium sulphate, barbital, pH, and moisture content on production of rifamycin B. Among the eleven variables tested, galactose, ribose, glucose, and pH were found to have significant effect on rifamycin B production. Optimum levels of the significant variables were decided by using a central composite design. The most appropriate condition for production of rifamycin B was found to be a single step production at galactose (8% w/w), ribose (3% w/w), glucose (9% w/w), and pH (7.0). At these optimum production parameters, the maximum yield of rifamycin B obtained experimentally (9.87 g/kgds dry sunflower oil cake) was found to be very close to its predicted value of 10.35 g/kgds dry sunflower oil cake. The mathematical model developed was found to fit greatly with the experimental data of rifamycin B production. PMID:25371823

  3. A Patatin-Like Protein Associated with the Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Granules of Haloferax mediterranei Acts as an Efficient Depolymerase in the Degradation of Native PHA

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guiming; Hou, Jing; Cai, Shuangfeng; Zhao, Dahe; Cai, Lei; Han, Jing; Zhou, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The key enzymes and pathways involved in polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biosynthesis in haloarchaea have been identified in recent years, but the haloarchaeal enzymes for PHA degradation remain unknown. In this study, a patatin-like PHA depolymerase, PhaZh1, was determined to be located on the PHA granules in the haloarchaeon Haloferax mediterranei. PhaZh1 hydrolyzed the native PHA (nPHA) [including native polyhydroxybutyrate (nPHB) and native poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (nPHBV) in this study] granules in vitro with 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) monomer as the primary product. The site-directed mutagenesis of PhaZh1 indicated that Gly16, Ser47 (in a classical lipase box, G-X-S47-X-G), and Asp195 of this depolymerase were essential for its activity in nPHA granule hydrolysis. Notably, phaZh1 and bdhA (encoding putative 3HB dehydrogenase) form a gene cluster (HFX_6463 to _6464) in H. mediterranei. The 3HB monomer generated from nPHA degradation by PhaZh1 could be further converted into acetoacetate by BdhA, indicating that PhaZh1-BdhA may constitute the first part of a PHA degradation pathway in vivo. Interestingly, although PhaZh1 showed efficient activity and was most likely the key enzyme in nPHA granule hydrolysis in vitro, the knockout of phaZh1 had no significant effect on the intracellular PHA mobilization, implying the existence of an alternative PHA mobilization pathway(s) that functions effectively within the cells of H. mediterranei. Therefore, identification of this patatin-like depolymerase of haloarchaea may provide a new strategy for producing the high-value-added chiral compound (R)-3HB and may also shed light on the PHA mobilization in haloarchaea. PMID:25710370

  4. Propionyl Coenzyme A (Propionyl-CoA) Carboxylase in Haloferax mediterranei: Indispensability for Propionyl-CoA Assimilation and Impacts on Global Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Propionyl coenzyme A (propionyl-CoA) is an important intermediate during the biosynthesis and catabolism of intracellular carbon storage of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) in haloarchaea. However, the haloarchaeal propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC) and its physiological significance remain unclear. In this study, we identified a PCC that catalyzed propionyl-CoA carboxylation with an acetyl-CoA carboxylation side activity in Haloferax mediterranei. Gene knockout/complementation demonstrated that the PCC enzyme consisted of a fusion protein of a biotin carboxylase and a biotin-carboxyl carrier protein (PccA [HFX_2490]), a carboxyltransferase component (PccB [HFX_2478]), and an essential small subunit (PccX [HFX_2479]). Knockout of pccBX led to an inability to utilize propionate and a higher intracellular propionyl-CoA level, indicating that the PCC enzyme is indispensable for propionyl-CoA utilization. Interestingly, H. mediterranei DBX (pccBX-deleted strain) displayed multiple phenotypic changes, including retarded cell growth, decreased glucose consumption, impaired PHBV biosynthesis, and wrinkled cells. A propionyl-CoA concentration equivalent to the concentration that accumulated in DBX cells was demonstrated to inhibit succinyl-CoA synthetase of the tricarboxylic acid cycle in vitro. Genome-wide microarray analysis showed that many genes for glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation, PHBV accumulation, electron transport, and stress responses were affected in DBX. This study not only identified the haloarchaeal PCC for the metabolism of propionyl-CoA, an important intermediate in haloarchaea, but also demonstrated that impaired propionyl-CoA metabolism affected global metabolism in H. mediterranei. PMID:25398867

  5. A Novel DNA-Binding Protein, PhaR, Plays a Central Role in the Regulation of Polyhydroxyalkanoate Accumulation and Granule Formation in the Haloarchaeon Haloferax mediterranei

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Shuangfeng; Cai, Lei; Zhao, Dahe; Liu, Guiming; Han, Jing; Zhou, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are synthesized and assembled as PHA granules that undergo well-regulated formation in many microorganisms. However, this regulation remains unclear in haloarchaea. In this study, we identified a PHA granule-associated regulator (PhaR) that negatively regulates the expression of both its own gene and the granule structural gene phaP in the same operon (phaRP) in Haloferax mediterranei. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR (ChIP-qPCR) assays demonstrated a significant interaction between PhaR and the phaRP promoter in vivo. Scanning mutagenesis of the phaRP promoter revealed a specific cis-element as the possible binding position of the PhaR. The haloarchaeal homologs of the PhaR contain a novel conserved domain that belongs to a swapped-hairpin barrel fold family found in AbrB-like proteins. Amino acid substitution indicated that this AbrB-like domain is critical for the repression activity of PhaR. In addition, the phaRP promoter had a weaker activity in the PHA-negative strains, implying a function of the PHA granules in titration of the PhaR. Moreover, the H. mediterranei strain lacking phaR was deficient in PHA accumulation and produced granules with irregular shapes. Interestingly, the PhaR itself can promote PHA synthesis and granule formation in a PhaP-independent manner. Collectively, our results demonstrated that the haloarchaeal PhaR is a novel bifunctional protein that plays the central role in the regulation of PHA accumulation and granule formation in H. mediterranei. PMID:25344243

  6. A patatin-like protein associated with the polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) granules of Haloferax mediterranei acts as an efficient depolymerase in the degradation of native PHA.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guiming; Hou, Jing; Cai, Shuangfeng; Zhao, Dahe; Cai, Lei; Han, Jing; Zhou, Jian; Xiang, Hua

    2015-05-01

    The key enzymes and pathways involved in polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biosynthesis in haloarchaea have been identified in recent years, but the haloarchaeal enzymes for PHA degradation remain unknown. In this study, a patatin-like PHA depolymerase, PhaZh1, was determined to be located on the PHA granules in the haloarchaeon Haloferax mediterranei. PhaZh1 hydrolyzed the native PHA (nPHA) [including native polyhydroxybutyrate (nPHB) and native poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (nPHBV) in this study] granules in vitro with 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) monomer as the primary product. The site-directed mutagenesis of PhaZh1 indicated that Gly16, Ser47 (in a classical lipase box, G-X-S47-X-G), and Asp195 of this depolymerase were essential for its activity in nPHA granule hydrolysis. Notably, phaZh1 and bdhA (encoding putative 3HB dehydrogenase) form a gene cluster (HFX_6463 to _6464) in H. mediterranei. The 3HB monomer generated from nPHA degradation by PhaZh1 could be further converted into acetoacetate by BdhA, indicating that PhaZh1-BdhA may constitute the first part of a PHA degradation pathway in vivo. Interestingly, although PhaZh1 showed efficient activity and was most likely the key enzyme in nPHA granule hydrolysis in vitro, the knockout of phaZh1 had no significant effect on the intracellular PHA mobilization, implying the existence of an alternative PHA mobilization pathway(s) that functions effectively within the cells of H. mediterranei. Therefore, identification of this patatin-like depolymerase of haloarchaea may provide a new strategy for producing the high-value-added chiral compound (R)-3HB and may also shed light on the PHA mobilization in haloarchaea. PMID:25710370

  7. Identification and functional analysis of a nitrate assimilation operon nasACKBDEF from Amycolatopsis mediterranei U32.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zhihui; Gao, Jin; Ding, Xiaoming; Wang, Jin; Chiao, Juishen; Zhao, Guoping

    2011-07-01

    Nitrate assimilation has been well studied for Gram-negative bacteria but not so much in the Gram-positive actinomycetes up to date. In a rifamycin SV-producing actinomycete, Amycolatopsis mediterranei strain U32, nitrate not only can be used as a sole nitrogen source but also remarkably stimulates the antibiotic production along with regulating the related metabolic enzymes. A gene cluster of nasACKBDEF was cloned from a U32 genomic library by in situ hybridization screening with a heterogeneous nasB probe and confirmed later by whole genome sequence, corresponding to the protein coding genes of AMED_1121 to AMED_1127. These genes were co-transcribed as an operon, concomitantly repressed by ammonium while activated with supplement of either nitrate or nitrite. Genetic and biochemical analyses identified the essential nitrate/nitrite assimilation functions of the encoded proteins, orderly, the assimilatory nitrate reductase catalytic subunit (NasA), nitrate reductase electron transfer subunit (NasC), nitrate/nitrite transporter (NasK), assimilatory nitrite reductase large subunit (NasB) and small subunit (NasD), bifunctional uroporphyrinogen-III synthase (NasE), and an unknown function protein (NasF). Comparing rifamycin SV production and the level of transcription of nasB and rifE from U32 and its individual nas mutants in Bennet medium with or without nitrate indicated that nitrate assimilation function encoded by the nas operon played an essential role in the "nitrate stimulated" rifamycin production but had no effect upon the transcription regulation of the primary and secondary metabolic genes related to rifamycin biosynthesis. PMID:21424691

  8. Spectopotentiometric properties and salt-dependent thermotolerance of a [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin-involved nitrate assimilation in Haloferax mediterranei.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Espinosa, Rosa María; Richardson, David J; Butt, Julea N; Bonete, María José

    2007-12-01

    Haloferax mediterranei is a halophilic archaeon that can grow using nitrate as the sole nitrogen source. A ferredoxin that serves as the physiological electron donor to the nitrate and nitrite reductases in this assimilatory process has been characterized. The ferredoxin was found to contain approximately two atoms of iron and two atoms of sulphur, indicative of the binding of a [2Fe-2S] cluster. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum of the reduced form of the protein displayed a rhombic signal, with g(x)=1.91, g(y)=1.98, g(z)=2.07, that shows considerable similarity to plant and algal [2Fe-2S] ferredoxins. UV-visible spectropotentiometric analysis determined a midpoint redox potential for the [2Fe-2S](2+/1+) transition of around -285 mV vs. SHE that was independent of salt concentration. UV-visible spectroscopy was also used to establish that the [2Fe-2S] cluster integrity of this protein was maintained over the pH range 5-11. Significantly, the Haloferax mediterranei ferredoxin was shown to be a highly thermostable protein. It was stable up to 60 degrees C in a low-salt (0.2 M) medium and this increased to 80 degrees C in a high-salt (4 M) medium. This thermostability at high salt concentration is an essential physiological characteristic because haloarchaea are mainly found in environments where high temperatures and concentrated salt water occur. PMID:17986084

  9. New insights into Oculina patagonica coral diseases and their associated Vibrio spp. communities

    PubMed Central

    Rubio-Portillo, Esther; Yarza, Pablo; Peñalver, Cindy; Ramos-Esplá, Alfonso A; Antón, Josefa

    2014-01-01

    Bleaching of Oculina patagonica has been extensively studied in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, although no studies have been carried out in the Western basin. In 1996 Vibrio mediterranei was reported as the causative agent of bleaching in O. patagonica but it has not been related to bleached or healthy corals since 2003, suggesting that it was no longer involved in bleaching of O. patagonica. In an attempt to clarify the relationship between Vibrio spp., seawater temperature and coral diseases, as well as to investigate the putative differences between Eastern and Western Mediterranean basins, we have analysed the seasonal patterns of the culturable Vibrio spp. assemblages associated with healthy and diseased O. patagonica colonies. Two sampling points located in the Spanish Mediterranean coast were chosen for this study: Alicante Harbour and the Marine Reserve of Tabarca. A complex and dynamic assemblage of Vibrio spp. was present in O. patagonica along the whole year and under different environmental conditions and coral health status. While some Vibrio spp. were detected all year around in corals, the known pathogens V. mediteranei and V. coralliilyticus were only present in diseased specimens. The pathogenic potential of these bacteria was studied by experimental infection under laboratory conditions. Both vibrios caused diseased signs from 24 °C, being higher and faster at 28 °C. Unexpectedly, the co-inoculation of these two Vibrio species seemed to have a synergistic pathogenic effect over O. patagonica, as disease signs were readily observed at temperatures at which bleaching is not normally observed. PMID:24621525

  10. ASSESSMENT OF CORAL CONDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Complex reef structures formed by calcified coral skeletons provide a physical habitat that produces highly-valued ecosystem services, including shoreline protection and a high diversity and abundance of marine organisms that support lucrative fishing and tourism. Yet, coral reef...

  11. 76 FR 51395 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the General Management Plan (DEIS/GMP), Canaveral...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... National Park Service Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the General Management Plan (DEIS/GMP... Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the General Management Plan (DEIS/GMP), Canaveral National... 1969 the NPS announces the availability of a DEIS/GMP for Canaveral National Seashore, Florida....

  12. 47 CFR 1.1315 - The Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS); Comments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false The Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS... § 1.1315 The Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS); Comments. (a) The DEIS shall include: (1) A... qualified in any way to comment on the environmental impact of the facilities, a statement of his or...

  13. Multiple propionyl coenzyme A-supplying pathways for production of the bioplastic poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) in Haloferax mediterranei.

    PubMed

    Han, Jing; Hou, Jing; Zhang, Fan; Ai, Guomin; Li, Ming; Cai, Shuangfeng; Liu, Hailong; Wang, Lei; Wang, Zejian; Zhang, Siliang; Cai, Lei; Zhao, Dahe; Zhou, Jian; Xiang, Hua

    2013-05-01

    Haloferax mediterranei is able to accumulate the bioplastic poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) with more than 10 mol% 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) from unrelated carbon sources. However, the pathways that produce propionyl coenzyme A (propionyl-CoA), an important precursor of 3HV monomer, have not yet been determined. Bioinformatic analysis of H. mediterranei genome indicated that this strain uses multiple pathways for propionyl-CoA biosynthesis, including the citramalate/2-oxobutyrate pathway, the aspartate/2-oxobutyrate pathway, the methylmalonyl-CoA pathway, and a novel 3-hydroxypropionate pathway. Cofeeding of pathway intermediates and inactivating pathway-specific genes supported that these four pathways were indeed involved in the biosynthesis of 3HV monomer. The novel 3-hydroxypropionate pathway that couples CO2 assimilation with PHBV biosynthesis was further confirmed by analysis of (13)C positional enrichment in 3HV. Notably, (13)C metabolic flux analysis showed that the citramalate/2-oxobutyrate pathway (53.0% flux) and the 3-hydroxypropionate pathway (30.6% flux) were the two main generators of propionyl-CoA from glucose. In addition, genetic perturbation on the transcriptome of the ΔphaEC mutant (deficient in PHBV accumulation) revealed that a considerable number of genes in the four propionyl-CoA synthetic pathways were significantly downregulated. We determined for the first time four propionyl-CoA-supplying pathways for PHBV production in haloarchaea, particularly including a new 3-hydroxypropionate pathway. These results would provide novel strategies for the production of PHBV with controllable 3HV molar fraction. PMID:23435886

  14. Multiple Propionyl Coenzyme A-Supplying Pathways for Production of the Bioplastic Poly(3-Hydroxybutyrate-co-3-Hydroxyvalerate) in Haloferax mediterranei

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jing; Hou, Jing; Zhang, Fan; Ai, Guomin; Li, Ming; Cai, Shuangfeng; Liu, Hailong; Wang, Lei; Wang, Zejian; Zhang, Siliang; Cai, Lei; Zhao, Dahe; Zhou, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Haloferax mediterranei is able to accumulate the bioplastic poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) with more than 10 mol% 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) from unrelated carbon sources. However, the pathways that produce propionyl coenzyme A (propionyl-CoA), an important precursor of 3HV monomer, have not yet been determined. Bioinformatic analysis of H. mediterranei genome indicated that this strain uses multiple pathways for propionyl-CoA biosynthesis, including the citramalate/2-oxobutyrate pathway, the aspartate/2-oxobutyrate pathway, the methylmalonyl-CoA pathway, and a novel 3-hydroxypropionate pathway. Cofeeding of pathway intermediates and inactivating pathway-specific genes supported that these four pathways were indeed involved in the biosynthesis of 3HV monomer. The novel 3-hydroxypropionate pathway that couples CO2 assimilation with PHBV biosynthesis was further confirmed by analysis of 13C positional enrichment in 3HV. Notably, 13C metabolic flux analysis showed that the citramalate/2-oxobutyrate pathway (53.0% flux) and the 3-hydroxypropionate pathway (30.6% flux) were the two main generators of propionyl-CoA from glucose. In addition, genetic perturbation on the transcriptome of the ΔphaEC mutant (deficient in PHBV accumulation) revealed that a considerable number of genes in the four propionyl-CoA synthetic pathways were significantly downregulated. We determined for the first time four propionyl-CoA-supplying pathways for PHBV production in haloarchaea, particularly including a new 3-hydroxypropionate pathway. These results would provide novel strategies for the production of PHBV with controllable 3HV molar fraction. PMID:23435886

  15. Corals diseases are a major cause of coral death

    EPA Science Inventory

    Corals, like humans, are susceptible to diseases. Some coral diseases are associated with pathogenic bacteria; however, the causes of most remain unknown. Some diseases trigger rapid and extensive mortality, while others slowly cause localized color changes or injure coral tiss...

  16. Radioactivity level and toxic elemental concentration in groundwater at Dei-Dei and Kubwa areas of Abuja, north-central Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, O.; Wagiran, H.; Lee, S. K.; Embong, Z.; Ugwuoke, P. E.

    2015-02-01

    The activity concentrations of uranium and toxic elements in Dei-Dei borehole, Kubwa borehole, Water Board and hand-dug well water samples in Abuja area were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) system. The results obtained were used to calculate human radiological risk over lifetime consumption by the inhabitants in the area. The activity concentrations of 238U in all the water supplies for drinking ranges from 0.849 mBq L-1 to 2.699 mBq L-1 with the highest value of 2.699 mBq L-1 noted at Dei-Dei borehole whereas the lowest value of 0.849 mBq L-1 was noted in Kubwa borehole. The highest annual effective dose from natural 238U in all the water samples was found in Dei-Dei borehole with a value of 8.9×10-5 mSv y-1 whereas the lowest value was noted in Kubwa borehole with a value of 2.8×10-5 mSv y-1. The radiological risks for cancer mortality were found distinctly low, with the highest value of 1.01×10-7 reported at Dei-Dei borehole compared to Kubwa borehole with a value of 3.01×10-8. The cancer morbidity risk was noted higher in Dei-Dei borehole with a value of 1.55×10-7 whereas lower value of 4.88×10-9 was reported in Kubwa borehole. The chemical toxicity risk of 238U in drinking water over a lifetime consumption has a value of 0.006 μg kg-1 day-1 in Dei-Dei borehole whereas lower value of 0.002 μg kg-1 day-1 was found in Kubwa borehole. Measured lead (Pb) and chromium (Cr) concentrations reported higher in Water Board compared to Dei-Dei and Kubwa borehole samples. Significantly, this study inferred that the 238U concentrations originate from granitic strata of the tectonic events in the area; thus, there was a trend of diffusion towards north to south and re-deposition towards Dei-Dei area.

  17. Opus Dei Tutors Kids in Aquinas and Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, John W.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the mentorship programs of the Midtown Education Foundation (MEF), Chicago (Illinois), an initiative that began as an outreach of the Catholic Opus Dei movement. The MEF emphasis on biblically based character development, taught by role models, and embedded in an academic curriculum, is very popular. Early evaluation indicates that best…

  18. The Athletae Dei: Missing the Meaning of Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Shirl J.

    By making virtue of ascesis or self-discipline in their sport, the athlete evangelists (the "athletae-Dei"), unwittingly rob sport of its fundamental theological significance. These proponents of an evangelical brand of protestant theology have shifted drastically from an anti-sport stance of a century ago to a position that not only embraces…

  19. Corals as climate recorders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flannery, Jennifer A.; Poore, Richard Z.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coral Reef Ecosystem Studies (CREST) Project is analyzing corals from various sites in the Caribbean region, Dry Tortugas National Park, Biscayne National Park, other areas of the Florida Keys, and the Virgin Islands. The objective of this project is to develop records of past environmental change to better our understanding of climate variability. The records are being used to document changes over the last few centuries and to determine how corals and coral reefs have responded to any changes.

  20. The CORALS Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plankis, Brian; Klein, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    The Ocean, Reefs, Aquariums, Literacy, and Stewardship (CORALS) research program helps students connect global environmental issues to local concerns and personal choices. During the 18-week program, students strengthen their understanding of coral reef decline through a classroom aquarium activity, communicate with science experts, and create…

  1. Phage therapy for Florida corals?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellogg, Christina A.

    2007-01-01

    Coral disease is a major cause of reef decline in the Florida Keys. Bacterium has been defined as the most common pathogen (disease-causing organism). Although much is being done to catalog coral diseases, map their locations, determine the causes of disease, or measure the rates of coral demise, very little research has been directed toward actually preventing or eliminating the diseases affecting coral and coral reef decline.

  2. Three of Four GlnR Binding Sites Are Essential for GlnR-Mediated Activation of Transcription of the Amycolatopsis mediterranei nas Operon

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Jing-Zhi; Shao, Zhi-Hui; Yuan, Hua; Lu, Yin-Hua; Jiang, Wei-Hong

    2013-01-01

    In Amycolatopsis mediterranei U32, genes responsible for nitrate assimilation formed one operon, nasACKBDEF, whose transcription is induced by the addition of nitrate. Here, we characterized GlnR as a direct transcriptional activator for the nas operon. The GlnR-protected DNA sequences in the promoter region of the nas operon were characterized by DNase I footprinting assay, the previously deduced Streptomyces coelicolor double 22-bp GlnR binding consensus sequences comprising a1, b1, a2, and b2 sites were identified, and the sites were then mutated individually to test their roles in both the binding of GlnR in vitro and the GlnR-mediated transcriptional activation in vivo. The results clearly showed that only three GlnR binding sites (a1, b1, and b2 sites) were required by GlnR for its specific binding to the nas promoter region and efficient activation of the transcription of the nas operon in U32, while the a2 site seemed unnecessary. PMID:23543714

  3. Development of pyrF-based gene knockout systems for genome-wide manipulation of the archaea Haloferax mediterranei and Haloarcula hispanica.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hailong; Han, Jing; Liu, Xiaoqing; Zhou, Jian; Xiang, Hua

    2011-06-20

    The haloarchaea Haloferax mediterranei and Haloarcula hispanica are both polyhydroxyalkanoate producers in the domain Archaea, and they are becoming increasingly attractive for research and biotechnology due to their unique genetic and metabolic features. To accelerate their genome-level genetic and metabolic analyses, we have developed specific and highly efficient gene knockout systems for these two haloarchaea. These gene knockout systems consist of a suicide plasmid vector with the pyrF gene as the selection marker and a uracil auxotrophic haloarchaeon (ΔpyrF) as the host. For in-frame deletion of a target gene, the suicide plasmid carrying the flanking region of the target gene was transferred into the corresponding ΔpyrF host. After positive selection of the single-crossover integration recombinants (pop-in) on AS-168SY medium without uracil and counterselection of the double-crossover pyrF-excised recombinants (pop-out) with 5-fluoroorotic acid (5-FOA), the target gene knockout mutants were confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis. We have demonstrated the effectiveness of these systems by knocking out the crtB gene which encodes a phytoene synthase in these haloarchaea. In conclusion, these well-developed knockout systems would greatly accelerate the functional genomic research of these halophilic archaea. PMID:21703550

  4. Coral Bleaching: Coral 'refugia' amid heating seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldeira, Ken

    2013-05-01

    The Earth is getting hotter as carbon dioxide, predominantly from the burning of fossil fuels, continues to accumulate in the atmosphere. It is widely recognized that increasing temperatures pose a threat to coral reefs, but just how large a risk are these reefs facing?

  5. Disease of coral and coral reef fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panek, Frank

    2008-01-01

    The Department of the Interior protects sensitive habitats amounting to about 3,600,000 acres of coral reefs and other submerged lands. These reefs are important ecosystems in 13 National Wildlife Refuges, 10 National Parks and in certain territorial waters such as the Wake Atoll.

  6. Hurricanes benefit bleached corals

    PubMed Central

    Manzello, Derek P.; Brandt, Marilyn; Smith, Tyler B.; Lirman, Diego; Hendee, James C.; Nemeth, Richard S.

    2007-01-01

    Recent, global mass-mortalities of reef corals due to record warm sea temperatures have led researchers to consider global warming as one of the most significant threats to the persistence of coral reef ecosystems. The passage of a hurricane can alleviate thermal stress on coral reefs, highlighting the potential for hurricane-associated cooling to mitigate climate change impacts. We provide evidence that hurricane-induced cooling was responsible for the documented differences in the extent and recovery time of coral bleaching between the Florida Reef Tract and the U.S. Virgin Islands during the Caribbean-wide 2005 bleaching event. These results are the only known scenario where the effects of a hurricane can benefit a stressed marine community. PMID:17606914

  7. Hurricanes benefit bleached corals.

    PubMed

    Manzello, Derek P; Brandt, Marilyn; Smith, Tyler B; Lirman, Diego; Hendee, James C; Nemeth, Richard S

    2007-07-17

    Recent, global mass-mortalities of reef corals due to record warm sea temperatures have led researchers to consider global warming as one of the most significant threats to the persistence of coral reef ecosystems. The passage of a hurricane can alleviate thermal stress on coral reefs, highlighting the potential for hurricane-associated cooling to mitigate climate change impacts. We provide evidence that hurricane-induced cooling was responsible for the documented differences in the extent and recovery time of coral bleaching between the Florida Reef Tract and the U.S. Virgin Islands during the Caribbean-wide 2005 bleaching event. These results are the only known scenario where the effects of a hurricane can benefit a stressed marine community. PMID:17606914

  8. Warm waters, bleached corals

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, L.

    1990-10-12

    Two researchers, Tom Goreau of the Discovery Laboratory in Jamaica and Raymond Hayes of Howard University, claim that they have evidence that nearly clinches the temperature connection to the bleached corals in the Caribbean and that the coral bleaching is an indication of Greenhouse warming. The incidents of scattered bleaching of corals, which have been reported for decades, are increasing in both intensity and frequency. The researchers based their theory on increased temperature of the seas measured by satellites. However, some other scientists feel that the satellites measure the temperature of only the top few millimeters of the water and that since corals lie on reefs perhaps 60 to 100 feet below the ocean surface, the elevated temperatures are not significant.

  9. Coral bleaching: Thermal adaptation in reef coral symbionts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowan, Rob

    2004-08-01

    Many corals bleach as a result of increased seawater temperature, which causes them to lose their vital symbiotic algae (Symbiodinium spp.) - unless these symbioses are able to adapt to global warming, bleaching threatens coral reefs worldwide. Here I show that some corals have adapted to higher temperatures, at least in part, by hosting specifically adapted Symbiodinium. If other coral species can host these or similar Symbiodinium taxa, they might adapt to warmer habitats relatively easily.

  10. Coral reefs: Turning back time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lough, Janice M.

    2016-03-01

    An in situ experiment finds that reducing the acidity of the seawater surrounding a natural coral reef significantly increases reef calcification, suggesting that ocean acidification may already be slowing coral growth. See Letter p.362

  11. Investigating coral hyperspectral properties across coral species and coral state using hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrubeoglu, Mehrube; Smith, Dustin K.; Smith, Shane W.; Strychar, Kevin B.; McLauchlan, Lifford

    2013-09-01

    Coral reefs are one of the most diverse and threatened ecosystems in the world. Corals worldwide are at risk, and in many instances, dying due to factors that affect their environment resulting in deteriorating environmental conditions. Because corals respond quickly to the quality of the environment that surrounds them, corals have been identified as bioindicators of water quality and marine environmental health. The hyperspectral imaging system is proposed as a noninvasive tool to monitor different species of corals as well as coral state over time. This in turn can be used as a quick and non-invasive method to monitor environmental health that can later be extended to climate conditions. In this project, a laboratory-based hyperspectral imaging system is used to collect spectral and spatial information of corals. In the work presented here, MATLAB and ENVI software tools are used to view and process spatial information and coral spectral signatures to identify differences among the coral data. The results support the hypothesis that hyperspectral properties of corals vary among different coral species, and coral state over time, and hyperspectral imaging can be a used as a tool to document changes in coral species and state.

  12. Coral Mortality and Bleaching Output

    EPA Science Inventory

    COMBO is a spreadsheet-based model for the use of managers, conservationists, and biologists for projecting the effects of climate change on coral reefs at local-to-regional scales. The COMBO (Coral Mortality and Bleaching Output) model calculates the impacts to coral reefs from...

  13. Effects of juvenile coral-feeding butterflyfishes on host corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, A. J.; Pratchett, M. S.

    2011-09-01

    Corals provide critical settlement habitat for a wide range of coral reef fishes, particularly corallivorous butterflyfishes, which not only settle directly into live corals but also use this coral as an exclusive food source. This study examines the consequences of chronic predation by juvenile coral-feeding butterflyfishes on their specific host corals. Juvenile butterflyfishes had high levels of site fidelity for host corals with 88% (38/43) of small (<30 mm) juveniles of Chaetodon plebeius feeding exclusively from a single host colony. This highly concentrated predation had negative effects on the condition of these colonies, with tissue biomass declining with increasing predation intensity. Declines were consistent across both field observations and a controlled experiment. Coral tissue biomass declined by 26.7, 44.5 and 53.4% in low, medium and high predation intensity treatments. Similarly, a 41.7% difference in coral tissue biomass was observed between colonies that were naturally inhabited by juvenile butterflyfish compared to uninhabited control colonies. Total lipid content of host corals declined by 29-38% across all treatments including controls and was not related to predation intensity; rather, this decline coincided with the mass spawning of corals and the loss of lipid-rich eggs. Although the speed at which lost coral tissue is regenerated and the long-term consequences for growth and reproduction remain unknown, our findings indicate that predation by juvenile butterflyfishes represents a chronic stress to these coral colonies and will have negative energetic consequences for the corals used as settlement habitat.

  14. Purification, characterization, and specificity of dextranase inhibitor (Dei) expressed from Streptococcus sobrinus UAB108 gene cloned in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Sun, J W; Wanda, S Y; Curtiss, R

    1995-01-01

    The dextranase inhibitor gene (dei) from Streptococcus sobrinus UAB108 was previously cloned, expressed, and sequenced. Its gene product (Dei) has now been purified as a single band with apparent molecular mass of 43 kDa, as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The specific activity of Dei increased 121-fold upon purification. Most Dei activity (91.2%) was located in the periplasmic fraction from recombinant Escherichia coli cells. Dei competitively inhibits dextranase (Dex). This competitive inhibition mechanism has been further shown by detection and recovery of the intermediate enzyme-inhibitor (Dex-Dei) complex by gel filtration technology using fast protein liquid chromatography. Calibration of their molecular masses indicated that native Dei exists as a tetramer, Dex exists as dimer, and the Dex-Dei complex consists of two Dex molecules with two Dei molecules. Deletion analysis indicates that the intact Dei molecule is essential for Dei activity but not for glucan binding and immune cross-reaction. Dei is a special kind of glucan-binding protein with ability to inhibit Dex with high specificity. It can inhibit endogenous Dex, which can make more branches in glucan with the cooperation of the glucosyltransferase GTF-I. This inhibition cause the accumulation of water-soluble glucan. The latter reaction product can inhibit plaque formation and adherence of the mutans group of streptococcal cells. Dei derived from S. sobrinus UAB108 can inhibit only Dex from S. sobrinus (serotypes d and g), S. downei (previously S. sobrinus, serotype h), and S. macacae (serotype h). This finding suggests that Dei is another important protein existing in some serotypes of the mutans group of streptococci which participates in sucrose metabolism through its interaction with Dex. PMID:7896691

  15. Chronic coral consumption by butterflyfishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, A. J.; Lawton, R. J.; Pratchett, M. S.; Wilson, S. K.

    2011-03-01

    Interactions between predators and prey organisms are of fundamental importance to ecological communities. While the ecological impact that grazing predators can have in terrestrial and temperate marine systems are well established, the importance of coral grazers on tropical reefs has rarely been considered. In this study, we estimate the biomass of coral tissue consumed by four prominent species of corallivorous butterflyfishes. Sub-adult butterflyfishes (60-70 mm, 6-11 g) remove between 0.6 and 0.9 g of live coral tissue per day, while larger adults (>110 mm, ~40-50 g) remove between 1.5 and 3 g of coral tissue each day. These individual consumption rates correspond to the population of coral-feeding butterflyfishes at three exposed reef crest habitats at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, consuming between 14.6 g (±2.0) and 19.6 g (±3.9) .200 m-2 day-1 of coral tissue. When standardised to the biomass of butterflyfishes present, a combined reefwide removal rate of 4.2 g (±1.2) of coral tissue is consumed per 200 m-2 kg-1 of coral-feeding butterflyfishes. The quantity of coral tissue removed by these predators is considerably larger than previously expected and indicates that coral grazers are likely to play an important role in the transfer of energy fixed by corals to higher consumers. Chronic coral consumption by butterflyfishes is expected to exact a large energetic cost upon prey corals and contribute to an increased rate of coral loss on reefs already threatened by anthropogenic pressure and ongoing climate change.

  16. Corals from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patzert, William C.

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this research is to monitor the health and vigor of coral reef ecosystems, and their sensitivity to natural and anthropogenic climate changes. To achieve these lofty goals, this research is investigating the feasibility of using spaceborne high-resolution spectrometers (on the US Landsat, French Systeme Probatoire pour l'Observation de la Terre [SPOT] and/or the Indian Resources Satellite [IRS 1C & 1D] spacecraft) to first map the aerial extent of coral reef systems, and second separate the amount of particular corals. If this is successful, we could potentially provide a quantum leap in our understanding of coral reef systems, as well as provide much needed baseline data to measure future changes in global coral reef ecosystems. In collaboration with Tomas Tomascik, Yann Morel, and other colleagues, a series of experiments were planned to coordinate in situ coral observations, high-resolution spaceborne imagery (from Landsat, SPOT, and, possibly, IRS IC spacecraft), and NASA Space Shuttle photographs and digital images. Our eventual goal is to develop "coral health algorithms" that can be used to assess time series of imagery collected from satellite sensors (Landsat since 1972, SPOT since 1986) in concert with in situ observations. The bad news from last year was that from 1997 to mid- 1998, the extreme cloudiness over southeast Asia due to prolonged smoke from El Nino-related fires and the economic chaos in this region frustrated both our space and reef-based data collection activities. When this volatile situation stabilizes, we will restart these activities. The good news was that in collaboration with Al Strong at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) we had an exciting year operationally using the NOAA's Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer sensor derived sea surface temperature products to warn of coral "bleaching" at many locations throughout the tropics. Data from NOAA's satellites showed that during the El Nino of

  17. CORAL REEF BIOCRITERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coral reefs worldwide are experiencing the greatest decline of their known existence and few tools are available to offset the growing impacts of human coastal and watershed activities. Biocriteria are a potentially effective means to evaluate and restore impaired waters, but are...

  18. Coral Reef Biological Criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coral reefs worldwide are experiencing decline from a variety of stressors. Some important stressors are land-based sources of pollution and human activities in the coastal zone. However, few tools are available to offset the impact of these stressors. The Clean Water Act (CWA...

  19. Coral Reef Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yap, Helen T.

    Coral reefs are geological structures of significant dimensions, constructed over millions of years by calcifying organisms. The present day reef-builders are hard corals belonging to the order Scleractinia, phylum Cnidaria. The greatest concentrations of coral reefs are in the tropics, with highest levels of biodiversity situated in reefs of the Indo-West Pacific region. These ecosystems have provided coastal protection and livelihood to human populations over the millennia. Human activities have caused destruction of these habitats, the intensity of which has increased alarmingly since the latter decades of the twentieth century. The severity of this impact is directly related to exponential growth rates of human populations especially in the coastal areas of the developing world. However, a more recently recognized phenomenon concerns disturbances brought about by the changing climate, manifested mainly as rising sea surface temperatures, and increasing acidification of ocean waters due to greater drawdown of higher concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Management efforts have so far not kept pace with the rates of degradation, so that the spatial extent of damaged reefs and the incidences of localized extinction of reef species are increasing year after year. The major management efforts to date consist of establishing marine protected areas and promoting the active restoration of coral habitats.

  20. Ecological intereactions of reef building corals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coral reefs are very important marine ecosystems because they support tremendous biodiversity and reefs are critical economic resources many coastal nations. Tropical reef structures are largely built by stony corals. This presentation provides background on basic coral biology t...

  1. To understand coral disease, look at coral cells.

    PubMed

    Work, Thierry; Meteyer, Carol

    2014-12-01

    Diseases threaten corals globally, but 40 years on their causes remain mostly unknown. We hypothesize that inconsistent application of a complete diagnostic approach to coral disease has contributed to this slow progress. We quantified methods used to investigate coral disease in 492 papers published between 1965 and 2013. Field surveys were used in 65% of the papers, followed by biodetection (43%), laboratory trials (20%), microscopic pathology (21%), and field trials (9%). Of the microscopic pathology efforts, 57% involved standard histopathology at the light microscopic level (12% of the total investigations), with the remainder dedicated to electron or fluorescence microscopy. Most (74%) biodetection efforts focused on culture or molecular characterization of bacteria or fungi from corals. Molecular and immunological tools have been used to incriminate infectious agents (mainly bacteria) as the cause of coral diseases without relating the agent to specific changes in cell and tissue pathology. Of 19 papers that declared an infectious agent as a cause of disease in corals, only one (5%) used microscopic pathology, and none fulfilled all of the criteria required to satisfy Koch's postulates as applied to animal diseases currently. Vertebrate diseases of skin and mucosal surfaces present challenges similar to corals when trying to identify a pathogen from a vast array of environmental microbes, and diagnostic approaches regularly used in these cases might provide a model for investigating coral diseases. We hope this review will encourage specialists of disease in domestic animals, wildlife, fish, shellfish, and humans to contribute to the emerging field of coral disease. PMID:24723160

  2. To understand coral disease, look at coral cells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, Thierry M.; Meteyer, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Diseases threaten corals globally, but 40 years on their causes remain mostly unknown. We hypothesize that inconsistent application of a complete diagnostic approach to coral disease has contributed to this slow progress. We quantified methods used to investigate coral disease in 492 papers published between 1965 and 2013. Field surveys were used in 65% of the papers, followed by biodetection (43%), laboratory trials (20%), microscopic pathology (21%), and field trials (9%). Of the microscopic pathology efforts, 57% involved standard histopathology at the light microscopic level (12% of the total investigations), with the remainder dedicated to electron or fluorescence microscopy. Most (74%) biodetection efforts focused on culture or molecular characterization of bacteria or fungi from corals. Molecular and immunological tools have been used to incriminate infectious agents (mainly bacteria) as the cause of coral diseases without relating the agent to specific changes in cell and tissue pathology. Of 19 papers that declared an infectious agent as a cause of disease in corals, only one (5%) used microscopic pathology, and none fulfilled all of the criteria required to satisfy Koch’s postulates as applied to animal diseases currently. Vertebrate diseases of skin and mucosal surfaces present challenges similar to corals when trying to identify a pathogen from a vast array of environmental microbes, and diagnostic approaches regularly used in these cases might provide a model for investigating coral diseases. We hope this review will encourage specialists of disease in domestic animals, wildlife, fish, shellfish, and humans to contribute to the emerging field of coral disease.

  3. Seaweed-coral interactions: variance in seaweed allelopathy, coral susceptibility, and potential effects on coral resilience.

    PubMed

    Bonaldo, Roberta M; Hay, Mark E

    2014-01-01

    Tropical reefs are in global decline with seaweeds commonly replacing corals. Negative associations between macroalgae and corals are well documented, but the mechanisms involved, the dynamics of the interactions, and variance in effects of different macroalgal-coral pairings are poorly investigated. We assessed the frequency, magnitude, and dynamics of macroalgal-coral competition involving allelopathic and non-allelopathic macroalgae on three, spatially grouped pairs of no-take Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and non-MPAs in Fiji. In non-MPAs, biomass of herbivorous fishes was 70-80% lower, macroalgal cover 4-9 fold higher, macroalgal-coral contacts 5-15 fold more frequent and 23-67 fold more extensive (measured as % of colony margin contacted by macroalgae), and coral cover 51-68% lower than in MPAs. Coral contacts with allelopathic macroalgae occurred less frequently than expected by chance across all sites, while contact with non-allelopathic macroalgae tended to occur more frequently than expected. Transplants of allelopathic macroalgae (Chlorodesmis fastigiata and Galaxaura filamentosa) against coral edges inflicted damage to Acropora aspera and Pocillopora damicornis more rapidly and extensively than to Porites cylindrica and Porites lobata, which appeared more resistant to these macroalgae. Montipora digitata experienced intermediate damage. Extent of damage from macroalgal contact was independent of coral colony size for each of the 10 macroalgal-coral pairings we established. When natural contacts with Galaxaura filamentosa were removed in the field, recovery was rapid for Porites lobata, but Pocillopora damicornis did not recover and damage continued to expand. As macroalgae increase on overfished tropical reefs, allelopathy could produce feedbacks that suppress coral resilience, prevent coral recovery, and promote the stability of algal beds in habitats previously available to corals. PMID:24465707

  4. Seaweed-Coral Interactions: Variance in Seaweed Allelopathy, Coral Susceptibility, and Potential Effects on Coral Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Bonaldo, Roberta M.; Hay, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    Tropical reefs are in global decline with seaweeds commonly replacing corals. Negative associations between macroalgae and corals are well documented, but the mechanisms involved, the dynamics of the interactions, and variance in effects of different macroalgal-coral pairings are poorly investigated. We assessed the frequency, magnitude, and dynamics of macroalgal-coral competition involving allelopathic and non-allelopathic macroalgae on three, spatially grouped pairs of no-take Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and non-MPAs in Fiji. In non-MPAs, biomass of herbivorous fishes was 70–80% lower, macroalgal cover 4–9 fold higher, macroalgal-coral contacts 5–15 fold more frequent and 23–67 fold more extensive (measured as % of colony margin contacted by macroalgae), and coral cover 51–68% lower than in MPAs. Coral contacts with allelopathic macroalgae occurred less frequently than expected by chance across all sites, while contact with non-allelopathic macroalgae tended to occur more frequently than expected. Transplants of allelopathic macroalgae (Chlorodesmis fastigiata and Galaxaura filamentosa) against coral edges inflicted damage to Acropora aspera and Pocillopora damicornis more rapidly and extensively than to Porites cylindrica and Porites lobata, which appeared more resistant to these macroalgae. Montipora digitata experienced intermediate damage. Extent of damage from macroalgal contact was independent of coral colony size for each of the 10 macroalgal-coral pairings we established. When natural contacts with Galaxaura filamentosa were removed in the field, recovery was rapid for Porites lobata, but Pocillopora damicornis did not recover and damage continued to expand. As macroalgae increase on overfished tropical reefs, allelopathy could produce feedbacks that suppress coral resilience, prevent coral recovery, and promote the stability of algal beds in habitats previously available to corals. PMID:24465707

  5. In Brief: Coral ecosystems plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2007-08-01

    With climate change, unsustainable fishing practices, and disease ``transforming coral communities at regional to global scales,'' a 30 July report from the U.S. Geological Survey outlines a strategy for conducting research on coral ecosystems. The report indicates that USGS coral ecosystem research will focus on three major themes during the next five years, as funding permits: reef structure, ecological integrity, and the role of marine reserves; land-based and local impacts; and responses to global change.

  6. Spectral response of the coral rubble, living corals, and dead corals: study case on the Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurdin, Nurjannah; Komatsu, Teruhisa; Yamano, Hiroya; Arafat, Gulam; Rani, Chair; Akbar AS, M.

    2012-10-01

    Coral reefs play important ecological services such as providing foods, biodiversity, nutrient recycling etc. for human society. On the other hand, they are threatened by human impacts such as illegal fishing and environmental changes such as rises of sea water temperature and sea level due to global warming. Thus, it is very important to monitor dynamic spatial distributions of coral reefs and related habitats such as coral rubble, dead coral, bleached corals, seagrass, etc. Hyperspectral data, in particular, offer high potential for characterizing and mapping coral reefs because of their capability to identify individual reef components based on their detailed spectral response. We studied the optical properties by measuring in situ spectra of living corals, dead coral and coral rubble covered with algae. Study site was selected in Spermonde archipelago, South Sulawesi, Indonesia because this area is included in the highest diversity of corals in the world named as Coral Triangle, which is recognized as the global centre of marine biodiversity and a global priority for conservation. Correlation analysis and cluster analysis support that there are distinct differences in reflectance spectra among categories. Common spectral characteristic of living corals, dead corals and coral rubble covered with algae was a reflectance minimum at 674 nm. Healthy corals, dead coral covered with algae and coral rubble covered with algae showed high similarity of spectral reflectance. It is estimated that this is due to photsynthetic pigments.

  7. Integration of poly-3-(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) production by Haloferax mediterranei through utilization of stillage from rice-based ethanol manufacture in India and its techno-economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Anirban; Jana, Kuntal; Haldar, Saubhik; Bhowmic, Asit; Mukhopadhyay, Ujjal Kumar; De, Sudipta; Mukherjee, Joydeep

    2015-05-01

    Haloferax mediterranei has potential for economical industrial-scale production of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) as it can utilize cheap carbon sources, has capacity for nonsterile cultivation and allows simple product recovery. Molasses-based Indian distilleries are converting themselves to cereal-based distilleries. Waste stillage (14 l) of rice-based ethanol industry was used for the production of PHA by H. mediterranei in the simple plug-flow reactor configuration of the activated sludge process. Cells utilized stillage and accumulated 63 ± 3 % PHA of dry cell weight and produced 13.12 ± 0.05 g PHA/l. The product yield coefficient was 0.27 while 0.14 g/l h volumetric productivity was reached. Simultaneous lowering of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand values of stillage by 82 % was attained. The biopolymer was characterized as poly-3-(hydroxybutyrate-co-17.9 mol%-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV). Directional properties of decanoic acid jointly with temperature-dependent water solubility in decanoic acid were employed for two-step desalination of the spent stillage medium in a cylindrical baffled-tank with an immersed heater and a stirrer holding axial and radial impellers. 99.3 % of the medium salts were recovered and re-used for PHA production. The cost of PHBV was estimated as US$2.05/kg when the annual production was simulated as 1890 tons. Desalination contributed maximally to the overall cost. Technology and cost-analysis demonstrate that PHA production integrated with ethanol manufacture is feasible in India. This study could be the basis for construction of a pilot plant. PMID:25690843

  8. Evaluation of Stony Coral Indicators for Coral Reef Management.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Colonies of reef-building stony corals at 57 stations around St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands were characterized by species, size and percentage of living tissue. Taxonomic, biological and physical indicators of coral condition were derived from these measurements and assessed for ...

  9. Coral reefs and carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Buddemeier, R.W.

    1996-03-01

    This commentary argues the conclusion from a previous article, which investigates diurnal changes in carbon dioxide partial pressure and community metabolism on coral reefs, that coral `reefs might serve as a sink, not a source, for atmospheric carbon dioxide.` Commentaries from two groups are given along with the response by the original authors, Kayanne et al. 27 refs.

  10. Coral can have growth anomalies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coral growth anomalies (GAs) are changes in the coral cells that deposit the calcium carbonate skeleton. They usually appear as raised areas of the skeleton and tissue that are different from the surrounding normal areas on the same colony. The features include abnormal shape a...

  11. The future of coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowlton, Nancy

    2001-05-01

    Coral reefs, with their millions of species, have changed profoundly because of the effects of people, and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future. Reefs are subject to many of the same processes that affect other human-dominated ecosystems, but some special features merit emphasis: (i) Many dominant reef builders spawn eggs and sperm into the water column, where fertilization occurs. They are thus particularly vulnerable to Allee effects, including potential extinction associated with chronic reproductive failure. (ii) The corals likely to be most resistant to the effects of habitat degradation are small, short-lived "weedy" corals that have limited dispersal capabilities at the larval stage. Habitat degradation, together with habitat fragmentation, will therefore lead to the establishment of genetically isolated clusters of inbreeding corals. (iii) Increases in average sea temperatures by as little as 1°C, a likely result of global climate change, can cause coral "bleaching" (the breakdown of coral-algal symbiosis), changes in symbiont communities, and coral death. (iv) The activities of people near reefs increase both fishing pressure and nutrient inputs. In general, these processes favor more rapidly growing competitors, often fleshy seaweeds, and may also result in explosions of predator populations. (v) Combinations of stress appear to be associated with threshold responses and ecological surprises, including devastating pathogen outbreaks. (vi) The fossil record suggests that corals as a group are more likely to suffer extinctions than some of the groups that associate with them, whose habitat requirements may be less stringent.

  12. STONY CORAL RAPID BIOASSESSMENT PROTOCOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    At a time when coral reefs worldwide are in the greatest decline of their known existence, and despite the enormous value of coral reef ecosystem services, there are relatively few tools available to resource managers to offset the growing impact of human activities. However, we...

  13. Coral reef bleaching: ecological perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glynn, P. W.

    1993-03-01

    Coral reef bleaching, the whitening of diverse invertebrate taxa, results from the loss of symbiotic zooxanthellae and/or a reduction in photosynthetic pigment concentrations in zooxanthellae residing within the gastrodermal tissues of host animals. Of particular concern are the consequences of bleaching of large numbers of reef-building scleractinian corals and hydrocorals. Published records of coral reef bleaching events from 1870 to the present suggest that the frequency (60 major events from 1979 to 1990), scale (co-occurrence in many coral reef regions and often over the bathymetric depth range of corals) and severity (>95% mortality in some areas) of recent bleaching disturbances are unprecedented in the scientific literature. The causes of small scale, isolated bleaching events can often be explained by particular stressors (e.g., temperature, salinity, light, sedimentation, aerial exposure and pollutants), but attempts to explain large scale bleaching events in terms of possible global change (e.g., greenhouse warming, increased UV radiation flux, deteriorating ecosystem health, or some combination of the above) have not been convincing. Attempts to relate the severity and extent of large scale coral reef bleaching events to particular causes have been hampered by a lack of (a) standardized methods to assess bleaching and (b) continuous, long-term data bases of environmental conditions over the periods of interest. An effort must be made to understand the impact of bleaching on the remainder of the reef community and the long-term effects on competition, predation, symbioses, bioerosion and substrate condition, all factors that can influence coral recruitment and reef recovery. If projected rates of sea warming are realized by mid to late AD 2000, i.e. a 2°C increase in high latitude coral seas, the upper thermal tolerance limits of many reef-building corals could be exceeded. Present evidence suggests that many corals would be unable to adapt

  14. Fungi and their role in corals and coral reef ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Raghukumar, Chandralata; Ravindran, J

    2012-01-01

    Fungi in coral reefs exist as endoliths, endobionts, saprotrophs and as pathogens. Although algal and fungal endoliths in corals were described way back in 1973, their role in microboring, carbonate alteration, discoloration, density banding, symbiotic or parasitic association was postulated almost 25 years later. Fungi, as pathogens in corals, have become a much discussed topic in the last 10 years. It is either due to the availability of better tools for investigations or greater awareness among the research communities. Fungi which are exclusive as endoliths (endemic) in corals or ubiquitous forms seem to play a role in coral reef system. Fungi associated with sponges and their role in production or induction of secondary metabolites in their host is of primary interest to various pharmaceutical industries and funding agencies. Fungal enzymes in degradation of coral mucus, and plant detritus hold great promise in biotechnological applications. Unravelling fungal diversity in corals and associated reef organisms using culture and culture-independent approaches is a subject gaining attention from research community world over. PMID:22222828

  15. Coral reproduction in Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Speed, Conrad W.; Babcock, Russ

    2016-01-01

    Larval production and recruitment underpin the maintenance of coral populations, but these early life history stages are vulnerable to extreme variation in physical conditions. Environmental managers aim to minimise human impacts during significant periods of larval production and recruitment on reefs, but doing so requires knowledge of the modes and timing of coral reproduction. Most corals are hermaphroditic or gonochoric, with a brooding or broadcast spawning mode of reproduction. Brooding corals are a significant component of some reefs and produce larvae over consecutive months. Broadcast spawning corals are more common and display considerable variation in their patterns of spawning among reefs. Highly synchronous spawning can occur on reefs around Australia, particularly on the Great Barrier Reef. On Australia’s remote north-west coast there have been fewer studies of coral reproduction. The recent industrial expansion into these regions has facilitated research, but the associated data are often contained within confidential reports. Here we combine information in this grey-literature with that available publicly to update our knowledge of coral reproduction in WA, for tens of thousands of corals and hundreds of species from over a dozen reefs spanning 20° of latitude. We identified broad patterns in coral reproduction, but more detailed insights were hindered by biased sampling; most studies focused on species of Acropora sampled over a few months at several reefs. Within the existing data, there was a latitudinal gradient in spawning activity among seasons, with mass spawning during autumn occurring on all reefs (but the temperate south-west). Participation in a smaller, multi-specific spawning during spring decreased from approximately one quarter of corals on the Kimberley Oceanic reefs to little participation at Ningaloo. Within these seasons, spawning was concentrated in March and/or April, and October and/or November, depending on the timing of

  16. Coral reproduction in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, James; Speed, Conrad W; Babcock, Russ

    2016-01-01

    Larval production and recruitment underpin the maintenance of coral populations, but these early life history stages are vulnerable to extreme variation in physical conditions. Environmental managers aim to minimise human impacts during significant periods of larval production and recruitment on reefs, but doing so requires knowledge of the modes and timing of coral reproduction. Most corals are hermaphroditic or gonochoric, with a brooding or broadcast spawning mode of reproduction. Brooding corals are a significant component of some reefs and produce larvae over consecutive months. Broadcast spawning corals are more common and display considerable variation in their patterns of spawning among reefs. Highly synchronous spawning can occur on reefs around Australia, particularly on the Great Barrier Reef. On Australia's remote north-west coast there have been fewer studies of coral reproduction. The recent industrial expansion into these regions has facilitated research, but the associated data are often contained within confidential reports. Here we combine information in this grey-literature with that available publicly to update our knowledge of coral reproduction in WA, for tens of thousands of corals and hundreds of species from over a dozen reefs spanning 20° of latitude. We identified broad patterns in coral reproduction, but more detailed insights were hindered by biased sampling; most studies focused on species of Acropora sampled over a few months at several reefs. Within the existing data, there was a latitudinal gradient in spawning activity among seasons, with mass spawning during autumn occurring on all reefs (but the temperate south-west). Participation in a smaller, multi-specific spawning during spring decreased from approximately one quarter of corals on the Kimberley Oceanic reefs to little participation at Ningaloo. Within these seasons, spawning was concentrated in March and/or April, and October and/or November, depending on the timing of the

  17. Coral reef protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration announced the establishment on 13 November of the first U.S. zone to protect a sensitive coral reef area from potential damage by ships.The Florida Keys' Particularly Sensitive Sea Area, just one of a handful of such areas globally, has been designated by the International Maritime Organization, a specialized agency of the United Nations. The area protects a zone of more than 3,000 square nautical miles stretching from the Biscayne National Park to the Dry Tortugas.

  18. 76 FR 50187 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for a Study on the Feasibility of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ...The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps), Charleston District, intends to prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS), for the Charleston Harbor Deepening Study (Post-45 study). The purpose of this DEIS and feasibility study is to investigate modification of the existing Charleston Harbor project in the interest of navigation...

  19. Effects of cold stress and heat stress on coral fluorescence in reef-building corals

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Melissa S.; Deheyn, Dimitri D.

    2013-01-01

    Widespread temperature stress has caused catastrophic coral bleaching events that have been devastating for coral reefs. Here, we evaluate whether coral fluorescence could be utilized as a noninvasive assessment for coral health. We conducted cold and heat stress treatments on the branching coral Acropora yongei, and found that green fluorescent protein (GFP) concentration and fluorescence decreased with declining coral health, prior to initiation of bleaching. Ultimately, cold-treated corals acclimated and GFP concentration and fluorescence recovered. In contrast, heat-treated corals eventually bleached but showed strong fluorescence despite reduced GFP concentration, likely resulting from the large reduction in shading from decreased dinoflagellate density. Consequently, GFP concentration and fluorescence showed distinct correlations in non-bleached and bleached corals. Green fluorescence was positively correlated with dinoflagellate photobiology, but its closest correlation was with coral growth suggesting that green fluorescence could be used as a physiological proxy for health in some corals. PMID:23478289

  20. Coral chronometers: seasonal growth bands in reef corals.

    PubMed

    Knutson, D W; Buddemeier, R W; Smith, S V

    1972-07-21

    Autoradiagraphs and x-radiographs have been made of vertical sections through the centers of reef corals from Eniwetok. Radioactivity bands in the coral structure are caused by strontium-90 and are related to specific series of nuclear tests, thus making possible calculation of long-term growth rates. These data indicate that the cyclic variations in radial density revealed by x-radiography are annual. PMID:17815626

  1. Coral transplantation triggers shift in microbiome and promotion of coral disease associated potential pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Jordan M.; Connolly, Sean R.; Ainsworth, Tracy D.

    2015-01-01

    By cultivating turf algae and aggressively defending their territories, territorial damselfishes in the genus Stegastes play a major role in shaping coral-algal dynamics on coral reefs. The epilithic algal matrix (EAM) inside Stegastes’ territories is known to harbor high abundances of potential coral disease pathogens. To determine the impact of territorial grazers on coral microbial assemblages, we established a coral transplant inside and outside of Stegastes’ territories. Over the course of one year, the percent mortality of transplanted corals was monitored and coral samples were collected for microbial analysis. As compared to outside damselfish territories, Stegastes were associated with a higher rate of mortality of transplanted corals. However, 16S rDNA sequencing revealed that territorial grazers do not differentially impact the microbial assemblage of corals exposed to the EAM. Regardless of Stegastes presence or absence, coral transplantation resulted in a shift in the coral-associated microbial community and an increase in coral disease associated potential pathogens. Further, transplanted corals that suffer low to high mortality undergo a microbial transition from a microbiome similar to that of healthy corals to that resembling the EAM. These findings demonstrate that coral transplantation significantly impacts coral microbial communities, and transplantation may increase susceptibility to coral disease. PMID:26144865

  2. Coral transplantation triggers shift in microbiome and promotion of coral disease associated potential pathogens.

    PubMed

    Casey, Jordan M; Connolly, Sean R; Ainsworth, Tracy D

    2015-01-01

    By cultivating turf algae and aggressively defending their territories, territorial damselfishes in the genus Stegastes play a major role in shaping coral-algal dynamics on coral reefs. The epilithic algal matrix (EAM) inside Stegastes' territories is known to harbor high abundances of potential coral disease pathogens. To determine the impact of territorial grazers on coral microbial assemblages, we established a coral transplant inside and outside of Stegastes' territories. Over the course of one year, the percent mortality of transplanted corals was monitored and coral samples were collected for microbial analysis. As compared to outside damselfish territories, Stegastes were associated with a higher rate of mortality of transplanted corals. However, 16S rDNA sequencing revealed that territorial grazers do not differentially impact the microbial assemblage of corals exposed to the EAM. Regardless of Stegastes presence or absence, coral transplantation resulted in a shift in the coral-associated microbial community and an increase in coral disease associated potential pathogens. Further, transplanted corals that suffer low to high mortality undergo a microbial transition from a microbiome similar to that of healthy corals to that resembling the EAM. These findings demonstrate that coral transplantation significantly impacts coral microbial communities, and transplantation may increase susceptibility to coral disease. PMID:26144865

  3. Advancing Ocean Monitoring Near Coral Reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heron, Scott F.; Steinberg, Craig R.; Heron, Mal L.; Mantovanelli, Alessandra; Jaffrés, Jasmine B. D.; Skirving, William J.; McAllister, Felicity; Rigby, Paul; Wisdom, Daniel; Bainbridge, Scott

    2010-10-01

    Corals, the foundation of tropical marine ecosystems, exist in a symbiotic relationship with zooxanthellae (algae). The corals obtain much of their energy by consuming compounds derived from photosynthesis by these microorganisms; the microorganisms, which reside in the coral tissue, in turn use waste products from the corals to sustain photosynthesis. This symbiosis is very sensitive to subtle changes in environment, such as increased ocean acidity, temperature, and light. When unduly stressed, the colorful algae are expelled from the corals, causing the corals to “bleach” and potentially die [e.g., van Oppen and Lough, 2009].

  4. Coral Sr-U thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCarlo, Thomas M.; Gaetani, Glenn A.; Cohen, Anne L.; Foster, Gavin L.; Alpert, Alice E.; Stewart, Joseph A.

    2016-06-01

    Coral skeletons archive past climate variability with unrivaled temporal resolution. However, extraction of accurate temperature information from coral skeletons has been limited by "vital effects," which confound, and sometimes override, the temperature dependence of geochemical proxies. We present a new approach to coral paleothermometry based on results of abiogenic precipitation experiments interpreted within a framework provided by a quantitative model of the coral biomineralization process. DeCarlo et al. (2015a) investigated temperature and carbonate chemistry controls on abiogenic partitioning of Sr/Ca and U/Ca between aragonite and seawater and modeled the sensitivity of skeletal composition to processes occurring at the site of calcification. The model predicts that temperature can be accurately reconstructed from coral skeleton by combining Sr/Ca and U/Ca ratios into a new proxy, which we refer to hereafter as the Sr-U thermometer. Here we test the model predictions with measured Sr/Ca and U/Ca ratios of 14 Porites sp. corals collected from the tropical Pacific Ocean and the Red Sea, with a subset also analyzed using the boron isotope (δ11B) pH proxy. Observed relationships among Sr/Ca, U/Ca, and δ11B agree with model predictions, indicating that the model accounts for the key features of the coral biomineralization process. By calibrating to instrumental temperature records, we show that Sr-U captures 93% of mean annual temperature variability (26-30°C) and has a standard deviation of prediction of 0.5°C, compared to 1°C using Sr/Ca alone. The Sr-U thermometer may offer significantly improved reliability for reconstructing past ocean temperatures from coral skeletons.

  5. Microbial Regulation in Gorgonian Corals

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Laura R.; Smith, Stephanie M.; Downum, Kelsey R.; Mydlarz, Laura D.

    2012-01-01

    Gorgonian corals possess many novel natural products that could potentially mediate coral-bacterial interactions. Since many bacteria use quorum sensing (QS) signals to facilitate colonization of host organisms, regulation of prokaryotic cell-to-cell communication may represent an important bacterial control mechanism. In the present study, we examined extracts of twelve species of Caribbean gorgonian corals, for mechanisms that regulate microbial colonization, such as antibacterial activity and QS regulatory activity. Ethanol extracts of gorgonians collected from Puerto Rico and the Florida Keys showed a range of both antibacterial and QS activities using a specific Pseudomonas aeruginosa QS reporter, sensitive to long chain AHLs and a short chain N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHL) biosensor, Chromobacterium violaceium. Overall, the gorgonian corals had higher antimicrobial activity against non-marine strains when compared to marine strains. Pseudopterogorgia americana, Pseusopterogorgia acerosa, and Pseudoplexuara flexuosa had the highest QS inhibitory effect. Interestingly, Pseudoplexuara porosa extracts stimulated QS activity with a striking 17-fold increase in signal. The stimulation of QS by P. porosa or other elements of the holobiont may encourage colonization or recruitment of specific microbial species. Overall, these results suggest the presence of novel stimulatory QS, inhibitory QS and bactericidal compounds in gorgonian corals. A better understanding of these compounds may reveal insight into coral-microbial ecology and whether a therapeutic potential exists. PMID:22822369

  6. Coral reef resilience through biodiversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, Caroline S.

    2013-01-01

    Irrefutable evidence of coral reef degradation worldwide and increasing pressure from rising seawater temperatures and ocean acidification associated with climate change have led to a focus on reef resilience and a call to “manage” coral reefs for resilience. Ideally, global action to reduce emission of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases will be accompanied by local action. Effective management requires reduction of local stressors, identification of the characteristics of resilient reefs, and design of marine protected area networks that include potentially resilient reefs. Future research is needed on how stressors interact, on how climate change will affect corals, fish, and other reef organisms as well as overall biodiversity, and on basic ecological processes such as connectivity. Not all reef species and reefs will respond similarly to local and global stressors. Because reef-building corals and other organisms have some potential to adapt to environmental changes, coral reefs will likely persist in spite of the unprecedented combination of stressors currently affecting them. The biodiversity of coral reefs is the basis for their remarkable beauty and for the benefits they provide to society. The extraordinary complexity of these ecosystems makes it both more difficult to predict their future and more likely they will have a future.

  7. Coral calcification and ocean acidification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jokiel, Paul L.; Jury, Christopher P.; Kuffner, Ilsa B.

    2016-01-01

    Over 60 years ago, the discovery that light increased calcification in the coral plant-animal symbiosis triggered interest in explaining the phenomenon and understanding the mechanisms involved. Major findings along the way include the observation that carbon fixed by photosynthesis in the zooxanthellae is translocated to animal cells throughout the colony and that corals can therefore live as autotrophs in many situations. Recent research has focused on explaining the observed reduction in calcification rate with increasing ocean acidification (OA). Experiments have shown a direct correlation between declining ocean pH, declining aragonite saturation state (Ωarag), declining [CO32_] and coral calcification. Nearly all previous reports on OA identify Ωarag or its surrogate [CO32] as the factor driving coral calcification. However, the alternate “Proton Flux Hypothesis” stated that coral calcification is controlled by diffusion limitation of net H+ transport through the boundary layer in relation to availability of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). The “Two Compartment Proton Flux Model” expanded this explanation and synthesized diverse observations into a universal model that explains many paradoxes of coral metabolism, morphology and plasticity of growth form in addition to observed coral skeletal growth response to OA. It is now clear that irradiance is the main driver of net photosynthesis (Pnet), which in turn drives net calcification (Gnet), and alters pH in the bulk water surrounding the coral. Pnet controls [CO32] and thus Ωarag of the bulk water over the diel cycle. Changes in Ωarag and pH lag behind Gnet throughout the daily cycle by two or more hours. The flux rate Pnet, rather than concentration-based parameters (e.g., Ωarag, [CO3 2], pH and [DIC]:[H+] ratio) is the primary driver of Gnet. Daytime coral metabolism rapidly removes DIC from the bulk seawater. Photosynthesis increases the bulk seawater pH while providing the energy that drives

  8. THE CONDITION OF CORAL REEFS IN SOUTH FLORIDA (2000) USING CORAL DISEASE AND BLEACHING AS INDICATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The destruction for coral reef habitats is occurring at unprecedented levels. Coral disease epizootics in the Southwestern Atlantic have lead to coral replacement by turf algae, prompting a call to classify some coral species as endangered. In addition, a massive bleaching event ...

  9. Ocean acidification worse in coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betz, Eric O.

    2014-12-01

    The rate of ocean acidification in coral reefs outpaces the rise in carbon dioxide (CO2) in Earth's atmosphere, indicating that anthropogenic carbon emissions alone are not to blame for the threat to coral reefs, a new study shows.

  10. CORAL DISEASE & HEALTH CONSORTIUM: FINDING SOLUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Department of Interior (DOI) developed the framework for a Coral Disease and Health Consortium (CDHC) for the United States Coral Reef Task Force (USCRTF) through an interag...

  11. Coral calcification in a changing ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuffner, Ilsa B.

    2010-01-01

    One of the goals of the Coral Reef Ecosystem Studies (CREST) project is to examine how calcification rates in reef-building corals and encrusting coralline algae are changing in response to changes in the ocean environment.

  12. Coral diseases and bleaching on Colombian Caribbean coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Navas-Camacho, Raúl; Gil-Agudelo, Diego Luis; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Alberto; Reyes-Nivia, María Catalina; Garzón-Ferreira, Jaime

    2010-05-01

    Since 1998 the National Monitoring System for the Coral Reefs of Colombia (SIMAC) has monitored the occurrence of coral bleaching and diseases in some Colombian coral reefs (permanent stations at San Andres Island, Rosario Islands, Tayrona, San Bernardo Islands and Urabá). The main purpose is to evaluate their health status and to understand the factors that have been contributing to their decline. To estimate these occurrences, annual surveys in 126 permanent belt transects (10 x 2m) with different depth intervals (3-6 meters, 9-12 meters and 15-18 meters) are performed at all reef sites. Data from the 1998-2004 period, revealed that San Andrés Island had many colonies with diseases (38.9 colonies/m2), and Urabá had high numbers with bleaching (54.4 colonies/m2). Of the seven reported coral diseases studied, Dark Spots Disease (DSD), and White Plague Disease (WPD) were noteworthy because they occurred in all Caribbean monitored sites, and because of their high interannual infection incidence. Thirty five species of scleractinian corals were affected by at least one disease and a high incidence of coral diseases on the main reef builders is documented. Bleaching was present in 34 species. During the whole monitoring period, Agaricia agaricites and Siderastrea siderea were the species most severely affected by DSD and bleaching, respectively. Diseases on species such as Agaricia fragilis, A. grahamae, A. humilis, Diploria clivosa, Eusmilia fastigiata, Millepora complanata, and Mycetophyllia aliciae are recorded for first time in Colombia. We present bleaching and disease incidences, kinds of diseases, coral species affected, reef localities studied, depth intervals of surveys, and temporal (years) variation for each geographic area. This variation makes difficult to clearly determine defined patterns or general trends for monitored reefs. This is the first long-term study of coral diseases and bleaching in the Southwestern Caribbean, and one of the few long

  13. Competitive strategies of soft corals (Coelenterata: Octocorallia): Allelopathic effects on selected scleractinian corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sammarco, P. W.; Coll, J. C.; La Barre, S.; Willis, B.

    1983-09-01

    A striking retardation of grwoth was observed in the scleractinian coral Pavona cactus (Coelenterata: Scleractinia) growing in the vicinity of the soft coral Sinularia flexibilis (Coelenterata: Alcyonacea). More extensive field observations of naturally occurring interactions between soft corals and scleractinian corals suggested that members of the former group can be the more effective competitors for space on hard substrate. To test this hypothesis, colonies of three soft corals, Lobophytum pauciflorum, Sinularia pavida, and Xenia sp. aff. danae, were relocated next to stands of two hard corals, Pavona cactus and Porites andrewsi (=Porites cylindrica), and compared with undisturbed control areas. In areas where soft corals and scleractinian corals were in direct contact, significantly high levels of local mortality in the latter occurred in three of the six interaction pairs. One soft coral, L. pauciflorum, also caused extensive and significant mortality in Porites andrewsi in a non-contact situation. The scleractinian corals had no effect on the soft corals considered here. These results indicate that soft corals can effectively compete for space against hard corals. Furthermore, it is inferred that toxic exudates from the soft coral might be responsible for causing localized mortality in hard corals, since extensive mortality occurred in certain cases in the absence of contact. Competitive abilities of soft corals in interactions with hard corals varied in a species-specific manner. Susceptibility of hard corals to competitive mechanisms utilized by soft corals, particularly allelopathic ones, likewise varied species-specifically. It is commonly believed that the adaptive value of toxic compounds in soft corals stems from their effectiveness as a chemical defence mechanism in predator-prey interactions. This study has demonstrated their further role as allelopathic agents in interspecific competitive interactions.

  14. Applying New Methods to Diagnose Coral Diseases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellogg, Christina A.; Zawada, David G.

    2009-01-01

    Coral disease, one of the major causes of reef degradation and coral death, has been increasing worldwide since the 1970s, particularly in the Caribbean. Despite increased scientific study, simple questions about the extent of disease outbreaks and the causative agents remain unanswered. A component of the U.S. Geological Survey Coral Reef Ecosystem STudies (USGS CREST) project is focused on developing and using new methods to approach the complex problem of coral disease.

  15. The secret lives of corals: Climate records from coral chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, J.W.; Smoker, M.; Burr, G.

    1995-12-01

    Corals can provide archives of a diverse suite of information about the ocean surface mixed layer, including records of ocean surface temperature (via coral Sr/Ca or U/Ca measurements), salinity (via {gamma}{sup 18}O measurements), biologic activity (via {gamma}{sup 13}C measurements), and ocean/atmosphere CO{sub 2} exchange rates (via {sup 14}C/{sup 12}C measurements). Recently, it has been shown that corals record evidence of large seasonal oscillations in {sup 14}C concentration of the ocean surface mixed layer, and that such oscillations are modulated by ENSO. These oscillations are related to seasonal changes in the surface wind velocity field, changes in the patterns of regional upwelling, as well as seasonal changes in the strength of the thermocline. High frequency AMS {sup 14}C analyses of corals shows that ENSO events can dramatically diminish the annual range in ocean mixed layer {sup 14}C concentration in this region. Our work on a coral from Vanuatu in the western equatorial Pacific also documents large seasonal changes in {sup 14}C concentration (3-5%) as well as ENSO modulation of these variations during the 82-83 ENSO event.

  16. 40 CFR 230.44 - Coral reefs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Coral reefs. 230.44 Section 230.44... Aquatic Sites § 230.44 Coral reefs. (a) Coral reefs consist of the skeletal deposit, usually of calcareous... organisms present in growing portions of the reef. (b) Possible loss of values: The discharge of dredged...

  17. 40 CFR 230.44 - Coral reefs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coral reefs. 230.44 Section 230.44... Aquatic Sites § 230.44 Coral reefs. (a) Coral reefs consist of the skeletal deposit, usually of calcareous... organisms present in growing portions of the reef. (b) Possible loss of values: The discharge of dredged...

  18. 50 CFR 223.208 - Corals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Sanctuaries Act 16 U.S.C. 1431 et seq. NOAA, NOS Coral Reef Conservation Act 16 U.S.C. 6406 Commandant, U.S... Management; Coral Reef RestorationFL Statute § 390.0558 Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission... course of conducting a restoration activity directed at elkhorn or staghorn coral which is authorized...

  19. 50 CFR 223.208 - Corals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Sanctuaries Act 16 U.S.C. 1431 et seq. NOAA, NOS Coral Reef Conservation Act 16 U.S.C. 6406 Commandant, U.S... Management; Coral Reef RestorationFL Statute § 390.0558 Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission... course of conducting a restoration activity directed at elkhorn or staghorn coral which is authorized...

  20. 40 CFR 230.44 - Coral reefs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coral reefs. 230.44 Section 230.44... Aquatic Sites § 230.44 Coral reefs. (a) Coral reefs consist of the skeletal deposit, usually of calcareous... organisms present in growing portions of the reef. (b) Possible loss of values: The discharge of dredged...

  1. 50 CFR 223.208 - Corals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Sanctuaries Act 16 U.S.C. 1431 et seq. NOAA, NOS Coral Reef Conservation Act 16 U.S.C. 6406 Commandant, U.S... Management; Coral Reef RestorationFL Statute § 390.0558 Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission... course of conducting a restoration activity directed at elkhorn or staghorn coral which is authorized...

  2. 40 CFR 230.44 - Coral reefs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coral reefs. 230.44 Section 230.44... Aquatic Sites § 230.44 Coral reefs. (a) Coral reefs consist of the skeletal deposit, usually of calcareous... organisms present in growing portions of the reef. (b) Possible loss of values: The discharge of dredged...

  3. REEF MANAGER'S GUIDE TO CORAL BLEACHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Reef Manager's Guide to Coral Bleaching is the result of a collaborative effort by over 50 scientists and managers to: (1) engage in information-sharing in the areas of coral reef science and management for climate change and coral bleaching; and (2) compile a management tool ...

  4. CORAL DISEASE & HEALTH CONSORTIUM; PARTNERS FOR PRESERVATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presented at EMAP Symposium 2001: Coastal Monitoring Through Partnerships, 24-27 April 2001, Pensacola Beach, FL.

    The Coral Disease and Health Consortium (CDHC) was one recommendation to the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force (CRTF), to conserve the coral reef ecosystems of the U...

  5. COral Mortality and Bleaching Output (COMBO) Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    COMBO estimates the effects of climate change and ocean acidification on coral reefs at local-to-regional scales. The COMBO model calculates the impacts to coral reefs (change in coral cover) from changes in average SST and CO2 concentrations, and from high temperature mortality ...

  6. Island Formation: Constructing a Coral Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Heather; Edd, Amelia

    2009-01-01

    The process of coral island formation is often difficult for middle school students to comprehend. Coral island formation is a dynamic process, and students should have the opportunity to experience this process in a synergistic context. The authors provide instructional guidelines for constructing a coral island. Students play an interactive role…

  7. CORAL REEFS. Genomic determinants of coral heat tolerance across latitudes.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Groves B; Davies, Sarah W; Aglyamova, Galina A; Meyer, Eli; Bay, Line K; Matz, Mikhail V

    2015-06-26

    As global warming continues, reef-building corals could avoid local population declines through "genetic rescue" involving exchange of heat-tolerant genotypes across latitudes, but only if latitudinal variation in thermal tolerance is heritable. Here, we show an up-to-10-fold increase in odds of survival of coral larvae under heat stress when their parents come from a warmer lower-latitude location. Elevated thermal tolerance was associated with heritable differences in expression of oxidative, extracellular, transport, and mitochondrial functions that indicated a lack of prior stress. Moreover, two genomic regions strongly responded to selection for thermal tolerance in interlatitudinal crosses. These results demonstrate that variation in coral thermal tolerance across latitudes has a strong genetic basis and could serve as raw material for natural selection. PMID:26113720

  8. Global microbialization of coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Haas, Andreas F; Fairoz, Mohamed F M; Kelly, Linda W; Nelson, Craig E; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A; Edwards, Robert A; Giles, Steve; Hatay, Mark; Hisakawa, Nao; Knowles, Ben; Lim, Yan Wei; Maughan, Heather; Pantos, Olga; Roach, Ty N F; Sanchez, Savannah E; Silveira, Cynthia B; Sandin, Stuart; Smith, Jennifer E; Rohwer, Forest

    2016-01-01

    Microbialization refers to the observed shift in ecosystem trophic structure towards higher microbial biomass and energy use. On coral reefs, the proximal causes of microbialization are overfishing and eutrophication, both of which facilitate enhanced growth of fleshy algae, conferring a competitive advantage over calcifying corals and coralline algae. The proposed mechanism for this competitive advantage is the DDAM positive feedback loop (dissolved organic carbon (DOC), disease, algae, microorganism), where DOC released by ungrazed fleshy algae supports copiotrophic, potentially pathogenic bacterial communities, ultimately harming corals and maintaining algal competitive dominance. Using an unprecedented data set of >400 samples from 60 coral reef sites, we show that the central DDAM predictions are consistent across three ocean basins. Reef algal cover is positively correlated with lower concentrations of DOC and higher microbial abundances. On turf and fleshy macroalgal-rich reefs, higher relative abundances of copiotrophic microbial taxa were identified. These microbial communities shift their metabolic potential for carbohydrate degradation from the more energy efficient Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway on coral-dominated reefs to the less efficient Entner-Doudoroff and pentose phosphate pathways on algal-dominated reefs. This 'yield-to-power' switch by microorganism directly threatens reefs via increased hypoxia and greater CO2 release from the microbial respiration of DOC. PMID:27572833

  9. Strontianite in coral skeletal aragonite

    SciTech Connect

    Greegor, R.B.; Pingitore, N.E. Jr.; Lytle, F.W.

    1997-03-07

    An x-ray spectroscopic study of scleractinian coral skeletons indicated that, although some strontium substitutes for calcium in the aragonite structure, at concentrations of about 7500 parts per million, as much as 40 percent of the strontium resides in strontianite (SrCO{sub 3}). A doublet peak in the Fourier transform of the extended x-ray absorption fine structure of the coral correspond to six metal and 13 oxygen neighbors surrounding strontium at about 4.05 angstroms in strontium-substituted aragonite and at about 4.21 angstroms in strontianite. Thus, the mechanism of the temperature-sensitive partitioning of strontium between seawater and coral skeleton used for paleothermometry is unexpectedly complex. 11 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Miocene reef corals: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, S.H.

    1988-01-01

    Tectonic blockage in the Middle East of westward-flowing Tethys surface circulation during the latest Oligocene led to creation in the earliest Miocene of endemic Mediterranean, Western Atlantic-Caribbean, and Indo-Pacific realms. A great reduction in reef coral diversity from 60-80 Oligocene species to 25-35 early Miocene species occurred in the Western Atlantic-Caribbean and Mediterranean areas accompanied by a decrease in reef growth. A slower and less drastic change apparently occurred in the Indo-Pacific area. Early Miocene reef corals of the Western Atlantic-Caribbean comprise a transition between the cosmopolitan Oligocene fauna and its endemic mid-Miocene to modern counterpart. Although early Miocene reefs were dominated by a Porites-Montastrea assemblage, eastward flow of Pacific circulation brought with it ''exotic'' corals such as Coscinaraea and Pseudocolumnastrea. Also, many cosmopolitan genera persisted from the Oligocene. During the middle to late Miocene, most of the species still living on Holocene reefs evolved. As the Mediterranean basin became more restricted, there was a slow decline in reef corals from 20 - 25 species in the Aquitainian to less than five species in the Messinian. Eustatic lowstand led to the extinction of reef-building corals in the late Messinian. In the Indo-Pacific, Neogene evolution of reef corals was conservative. Excluding the Acroporidae and Seriatoporidae, most Holocene framework species had evolved by the middle Miocene. Interplay between regional tectonics and eustatic sea level changes led to extensive development of middle to late Miocene pinnacle reefs over the southwestern Pacific.

  11. A novel reef coral symbiosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantos, O.; Bythell, J. C.

    2010-09-01

    Reef building corals form close associations with unicellular microalgae, fungi, bacteria and archaea, some of which are symbiotic and which together form the coral holobiont. Associations with multicellular eukaryotes such as polychaete worms, bivalves and sponges are not generally considered to be symbiotic as the host responds to their presence by forming physical barriers with an active growth edge in the exoskeleton isolating the invader and, at a subcellular level, activating innate immune responses such as melanin deposition. This study describes a novel symbiosis between a newly described hydrozoan ( Zanclea margaritae sp. nov.) and the reef building coral Acropora muricata (= A. formosa), with the hydrozoan hydrorhiza ramifying throughout the coral tissues with no evidence of isolation or activation of the immune systems of the host. The hydrorhiza lacks a perisarc, which is typical of symbiotic species of this and related genera, including species that associate with other cnidarians such as octocorals. The symbiosis was observed at all sites investigated from two distant locations on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, and appears to be host species specific, being found only in A. muricata and in none of 30 other species investigated at these sites. Not all colonies of A. muricata host the hydrozoans and both the prevalence within the coral population (mean = 66%) and density of emergent hydrozoan hydranths on the surface of the coral (mean = 4.3 cm-2, but up to 52 cm-2) vary between sites. The form of the symbiosis in terms of the mutualism-parasitism continuum is not known, although the hydrozoan possesses large stenotele nematocysts, which may be important for defence from predators and protozoan pathogens. This finding expands the known A. muricata holobiont and the association must be taken into account in future when determining the corals’ abilities to defend against predators and withstand stress.

  12. Past corals and recent reefs in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boekschoten, G. J.; Best, Maya Borel; Oosterbaan, A.; Molenkamp, F. M.

    During the Snellius-II Expedition Lower Pilocene coral material was collected near Salayer, and Quaternary reefs were sampled on Ambon and Sumba. Coral collections from the Pliocene of Nias were also available for study. This new material is presented together with earlier data. Preservation potentials of different coral growth forms are reviewed. The absence of Acropora and Montipora from Quaternary coral faunae is striking. This is interpreted with the model of POTTS (1983), on the disturbance by Pleistocene sea level fluctuations in the reef coral fauna. Diversification within both genera is apparently very recent, which may explain their complex taxonomy. Given the dominant role of Acropora and Montipora in many present day Indonesian reefs, these are better described as transitional assemblages of corals than as established coral communities.

  13. Wave transformation over coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Ian R.

    1989-07-01

    Ocean wave attenuation on coral reefs is discussed using data obtained from a preliminary field experiment and from the Seasat altimeter. Marked attenuation of the waves is observed, the rate being consistent with existing theories of bottom friction and wave breaking decay. In addition, there is a significant broadening of the spectrum during propagation across reefs. Three-dimensional effects, such as refraction and defraction, can also lead to substantial wave height reduction for significant distances adjacent to coral reefs. As a result, a matrix of such reefs provides significantly more wave attenuation than may initially be expected.

  14. CORAL Server and CORAL Server Proxy: Scalable Access to Relational Databases from CORAL Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Valassi, A.; Bartoldus, R.; Kalkhof, A.; Salnikov, A.; Wache, M.; /Mainz U., Inst. Phys.

    2012-04-19

    The CORAL software is widely used at CERN by the LHC experiments to access the data they store on relational databases, such as Oracle. Two new components have recently been added to implement a model involving a middle tier 'CORAL server' deployed close to the database and a tree of 'CORAL server proxies', providing data caching and multiplexing, deployed close to the client. A first implementation of the two new components, released in the summer 2009, is now deployed in the ATLAS online system to read the data needed by the High Level Trigger, allowing the configuration of a farm of several thousand processes. This paper reviews the architecture of the software, its development status and its usage in ATLAS.

  15. CORAL Server and CORAL Server Proxy: Scalable Access to Relational Databases from CORAL Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valassi, A.; Bartoldus, R.; Kalkhof, A.; Salnikov, A.; Wache, M.

    2011-12-01

    The CORAL software is widely used at CERN by the LHC experiments to access the data they store on relational databases, such as Oracle. Two new components have recently been added to implement a model involving a middle tier "CORAL server" deployed close to the database and a tree of "CORAL server proxies", providing data caching and multiplexing, deployed close to the client. A first implementation of the two new components, released in the summer 2009, is now deployed in the ATLAS online system to read the data needed by the High Level Trigger, allowing the configuration of a farm of several thousand processes. This paper reviews the architecture of the software, its development status and its usage in ATLAS.

  16. Contrasting rates of coral recovery and reassembly in coral communities on the Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johns, K. A.; Osborne, K. O.; Logan, M.

    2014-09-01

    Changes in the relative abundances of coral taxa during recovery from disturbance may cause shifts in essential ecological processes on coral reefs. Coral cover can return to pre-disturbance levels (coral recovery) without the assemblage returning to its previous composition (i.e., without reassembly). The processes underlying such changes are not well understood due to a scarcity of long-term studies with sufficient taxonomic resolution. We assessed the trajectories and time frames for coral recovery and reassembly of coral communities following disturbances, using modeled trajectories based on data from a broad spatial and temporal monitoring program. We studied coral communities at six reefs that suffered substantial coral loss and subsequently regained at least 50 % of their pre-disturbance coral cover. Five of the six communities regained their coral cover and the rates were remarkably consistent, taking 7-10 years. Four of the six communities reassembled to their pre-disturbance composition in 8-13 years. The coral communities at three of the reefs both regained coral cover and reassembled ten years. The trajectories of two communities suggested that they were unlikely to reassemble and the remaining community did not regain pre-disturbance coral cover. The communities that regained coral cover and reassembled had high relative abundance of tabulate Acropora spp. Coral communities of this composition appear likely to persist in a regime of pulse disturbances at intervals of ten years or more. Communities that failed to either regain coral cover or reassemble were in near-shore locations and had high relative abundance of Porites spp. and soft corals. Under current disturbance regimes, these communities are unlikely to re-establish their pre-disturbance community composition.

  17. Enumerating viruses in coral mucus.

    PubMed

    Leruste, Amandine; Bouvier, Thierry; Bettarel, Yvan

    2012-09-01

    The distribution of viruses inhabiting the coral mucus remains undetermined, as there is no suitable standardized procedure for their separation from this organic matrix, principally owing to its viscosity and autofluorescence. Seven protocols were tested, and the most efficient separations were obtained from a chemical treatment requiring potassium citrate. PMID:22729548

  18. Quantifying Coral Reef Ecosystem Services

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coral reefs have been declining during the last four decades as a result of both local and global anthropogenic stresses. Numerous research efforts to elucidate the nature, causes, magnitude, and potential remedies for the decline have led to the widely held belief that the recov...

  19. Probing Alzheimers Disease Pathology and Early Detection at the NSLS with Infrared, XRF, and DEI

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong,Z.; Bennett, D.; Chapman, D.; Chen, J.; Connor, D.; Dilmanian, A.; Faulconer, L.; Kao, T.; Leskovjan, A.; et al

    2008-01-01

    We explored diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) in both planar and computed tomography (CT) modes for early detection of beta amyloid deposition, a hallmark feature in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Since amyloid plaques precede clinical symptoms by years, their early detection is of great interest. These findings were correlated with results from synchrotron infrared microspectroscopic imaging and X-ray fluorescence microscopy, to determine the secondary structure of the amyloid beta protein and metal concentration in the amyloid plaques, respectively.

  20. [The Accademia dei Lincei (1603-1630) and the Accademia del Cimento (1657-1667].

    PubMed

    Mazzolini, Renato G

    2008-01-01

    The development of scientific academies during the 17th century in the old Italian States is illustrated on the basis of two examples: that of the Accademia dei Lincei with seat in Rome and that of the Accademia del Cimento with seat in the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. After a short survey of their activities follow some reflections on the causes of their ending. PMID:20617611

  1. Evaluating coral reef health in American Samoa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Rameyer, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    The study of coral disease has suffered from an absence of systematic approaches that are commonly used to determine causes of diseases in animals. There is a critical need to develop a standardized and portable nomenclature for coral lesions in the field and to incorporate more commonly available biomedical tools in coral disease surveys to determine the potential causes of lesions in corals. We characterized lesions in corals from American Samoa based on gross and microscopic morphology and classified them as discoloration, growth anomalies, or tissue loss. The most common microscopic finding in corals manifesting discoloration was the depletion of zooxanthellae, followed by necrosis, sometimes associated with invasive algae or fungi. The most common microscopic lesion in corals manifesting tissue loss was cell necrosis often associated with algae, fungi, or protozoa. Corals with growth anomaly had microscopic evidence of hyperplasia of gastrovascular canals, followed by necrosis associated with algae or metazoa (polychaete worms). Several species of apparently normal corals also had microscopic changes, including the presence of bacterial aggregates or crustacea in tissues. A single type of gross lesion (e.g., discoloration) could have different microscopic manifestations. This phenomenon underlines the importance of using microscopy to provide a more systematic description of coral lesions and to detect potential pathogens associated with these lesions.

  2. Characterizing lesions in corals from American Samoa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, Thierry M.; Rameyer, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    The study of coral disease has suffered from an absence of systematic approaches that are commonly used to determine causes of diseases in animals. There is a critical need to develop a standardized and portable nomenclature for coral lesions in the field and to incorporate more commonly available biomedical tools in coral disease surveys to determine the potential causes of lesions in corals. We characterized lesions in corals from American Samoa based on gross and microscopic morphology and classified them as discoloration, growth anomalies, or tissue loss. The most common microscopic finding in corals manifesting discoloration was the depletion of zooxanthellae, followed by necrosis, sometimes associated with invasive algae or fungi. The most common microscopic lesion in corals manifesting tissue loss was cell necrosis often associated with algae, fungi, or protozoa. Corals with growth anomaly had microscopic evidence of hyperplasia of gastrovascular canals, followed by necrosis associated with algae or metazoa (polychaete worms). Several species of apparently normal corals also had microscopic changes, including the presence of bacterial aggregates or crustacea in tissues. A single type of gross lesion (e.g., discoloration) could have different microscopic manifestations. This phenomenon underlines the importance of using microscopy to provide a more systematic description of coral lesions and to detect potential pathogens associated with these lesions.

  3. 15. Photocopy of Photograph (original print in the Coral Gables ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photocopy of Photograph (original print in the Coral Gables Public Library, Fishbaugh Collection, M 3872) Photographer unknown, 1923-25 VIEW OF COUNTRY CLUB PRADO BOULEVARD - Coral Gables (Entrances, Streets, Gates, & Squares), Coral Gables, Miami-Dade County, FL

  4. 4. Photocopy of Photograph (original print in the Coral Gables ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of Photograph (original print in the Coral Gables Public Library, Fishbaugh Collection, M 3686) Photographer unknown, 1923-25 GRANADA ENTRANCE, TAMIAMI TRAIL - Coral Gables (Entrances, Streets, Gates, & Squares), Coral Gables, Miami-Dade County, FL

  5. 8. Photocopy of Photograph (original print in the Coral Gables ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photocopy of Photograph (original print in the Coral Gables Public Library, Fishbaugh Collection, M 3829) Photographer unknown, 1923-25 SEGOVIA PLAZA AT NORTH GREENWAY DRIVE - Coral Gables (Entrances, Streets, Gates, & Squares), Coral Gables, Miami-Dade County, FL

  6. 7. Photocopy of Photograph (original print in the Coral Gables ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of Photograph (original print in the Coral Gables Public Library, Fishbaugh Collection, M 3828) Photographer unknown, 1923-25 SEGOVIA PLAZA - Coral Gables (Entrances, Streets, Gates, & Squares), Coral Gables, Miami-Dade County, FL

  7. 12. Photocopy of Photograph (original print in the Coral Gables ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopy of Photograph (original print in the Coral Gables Public Library, Fishbaugh Collection, M 3110) Photographer unknown, 1923-25 BALBOA PLAZA, DESOTO BOULVARD - Coral Gables (Entrances, Streets, Gates, & Squares), Coral Gables, Miami-Dade County, FL

  8. 9. Photocopy of Photograph (original print in the Coral Gables ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy of Photograph (original print in the Coral Gables Public Library, Fishbaugh Collection, M 3812) Photographer unknown, 1923-25 DESOTO PLAZA FOUNTAIN - Coral Gables (Entrances, Streets, Gates, & Squares), Coral Gables, Miami-Dade County, FL

  9. 6. Photocopy of Photograph (original print in the Coral Gables ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of Photograph (original print in the Coral Gables Public Library, Fishbaugh Collection, M 3791) Photographer unknown, 1923-25 ALHAMBRA ENTRANCE (COMMERCIAL ENTRANCE) - Coral Gables (Entrances, Streets, Gates, & Squares), Coral Gables, Miami-Dade County, FL

  10. 14. Photocopy of Photograph (original print in the Coral Gables ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photocopy of Photograph (original print in the Coral Gables Public Library, Fishbaugh Collection, CK 109) Photographer unknown, 1923-25 ALHANBRA CIRCLE, VIEW TOWARDS GRANADA PLAZA - Coral Gables (Entrances, Streets, Gates, & Squares), Coral Gables, Miami-Dade County, FL

  11. Bottlenecks to coral recovery in the Seychelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong-Seng, K. M.; Graham, N. A. J.; Pratchett, M. S.

    2014-06-01

    Processes that affect recovery of coral assemblages require investigation because coral reefs are experiencing a diverse array of more frequent disturbances. Potential bottlenecks to coral recovery include limited larval supply, low rates of settlement, and high mortality of new recruits or juvenile corals. We investigated spatial variation in local abundance of scleractinian corals in the Seychelles at three distinct life history stages (recruits, juveniles, and adults) on reefs with differing benthic conditions. Following widespread coral loss due to the 1998 bleaching event, some reefs are recovering (i.e., relatively high scleractinian coral cover: `coral-dominated'), some reefs have low cover of living macrobenthos and unconsolidated rubble substrates (`rubble-dominated'), and some reefs have high cover of macroalgae (`macroalgal-dominated'). Rates of coral recruitment to artificial settlement tiles were similar across all reef conditions, suggesting that larval supply does not explain differential coral recovery across the three reef types. However, acroporid recruits were absent on macroalgal-dominated reefs (0.0 ± 0.0 recruits tile-1) in comparison to coral-dominated reefs (5.2 ± 1.6 recruits tile-1). Juvenile coral colony density was significantly lower on macroalgal-dominated reefs (2.4 ± 1.1 colonies m-2), compared to coral-dominated reefs (16.8 ± 2.4 m-2) and rubble-dominated reefs (33.1 ± 7.3 m-2), suggesting that macroalgal-dominated reefs have either a bottleneck to successful settlement on the natural substrates or a high post-settlement mortality bottleneck. Rubble-dominated reefs had very low cover of adult corals (10.0 ± 1.7 %) compared to coral-dominated reefs (33.4 ± 3.6 %) despite no statistical difference in their juvenile coral densities. A bottleneck caused by low juvenile colony survivorship on unconsolidated rubble-dominated reefs is possible, or alternatively, recruitment to rubble-dominated reefs has only recently begun. This

  12. 76 FR 66273 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States and Coral and Coral Reefs Fishery in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... Atlantic States and Coral and Coral Reefs Fishery in the South Atlantic; Exempted Fishing Permit AGENCY... Plan (FMP) for the Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region and the FMP for Coral,...

  13. Competition between corals and algae on coral reefs: a review of evidence and mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCook, L.; Jompa, J.; Diaz-Pulido, G.

    2001-05-01

    Despite widespread acceptance that competition between scleractinian corals and benthic algae is important to the structure of coral reef communities, there is little direct experimental evidence that corals and algae do compete, and very little data on the processes and causality of their interactions. Most available evidence is observational or correlative, with intrinsic risks of confounded causality. This paper reviews and categorises the available evidence, concluding that competition between corals and algae probably is widespread on coral reefs, but also that the interaction varies considerably. Widespread replacement of corals by algae may often indicate coral mortality due to external disturbances, rather than competitive overgrowth, but may lead to competitive inhibition of coral recruitment, with consequences for reef recovery. We list eight specific processes by which corals and algae may affect each other, and suggest life history properties that will influence which of these interactions are possible. We propose a matrix for algal effects on corals, which lists the subset of processes possible for each combination of coral life form and algal functional group. This table provides a preliminary framework for improved understanding and interpretation of coral-algal interactions.

  14. NOAA Lists 20 Coral Species as Threatened

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-09-01

    Twenty coral species have been listed as threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) announced on 27 August. This is NOAA's largest ESA rule making. The coral species include 15 found in the Indo-Pacific region and 5 that are located in the Caribbean. They join two other Caribbean coral species that NOAA listed as threatened in 2006.

  15. Algae as Reservoirs for Coral Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Sweet, Michael J.; Bythell, John C.; Nugues, Maggy M.

    2013-01-01

    Benthic algae are associated with coral death in the form of stress and disease. It's been proposed that they release exudates, which facilitate invasion of potentially pathogenic microbes at the coral-algal interface, resulting in coral disease. However, the original source of these pathogens remains unknown. This study examined the ability of benthic algae to act as reservoirs of coral pathogens by characterizing surface associated microbes associated with major Caribbean and Indo-Pacific algal species/types and by comparing them to potential pathogens of two dominant coral diseases: White Syndrome (WS) in the Indo-Pacific and Yellow Band Disease (YBD) in the Caribbean. Coral and algal sampling was conducted simultaneously at the same sites to avoid spatial effects. Potential pathogens were defined as those absent or rare in healthy corals, increasing in abundance in healthy tissues adjacent to a disease lesion, and dominant in disease lesions. Potentially pathogenic bacteria were detected in both WS and YBD and were also present within the majority of algal species/types (54 and 100% for WS and YBD respectively). Pathogenic ciliates were associated only with WS and not YBD lesions and these were also present in 36% of the Indo-Pacific algal species. Although potential pathogens were associated with many algal species, their presence was inconsistent among replicate algal samples and detection rates were relatively low, suggestive of low density and occurrence. At the community level, coral-associated microbes irrespective of the health of their host differed from algal-associated microbes, supporting that algae and corals have distinctive microbial communities associated with their tissue. We conclude that benthic algae are common reservoirs for a variety of different potential coral pathogens. However, algal-associated microbes alone are unlikely to cause coral death. Initial damage or stress to the coral via other competitive mechanisms is most likely a

  16. Live coral repels a common reef fish ectoparasite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artim, J. M.; Sikkel, P. C.

    2013-06-01

    Coral reefs are undergoing rapid changes as living corals give way to dead coral on which other benthic organisms grow. This decline in live coral could influence habitat availability for fish parasites with benthic life stages. Gnathiid isopod larvae live in the substratum and are common blood-feeding parasites of reef fishes. We examined substrate associations and preferences of a common Caribbean gnathiid, Gnathia marleyi. Emergence traps set over predominantly live coral substrata captured significantly fewer gnathiids than traps set over dead coral substrata. In laboratory experiments, gnathiids preferred dead coral and sponge and tended to avoid contact with live coral. When live gnathiids were added to containers with dead or live coral, significantly fewer were recovered from the latter after 24 h. Our data therefore suggest that live coral is not suitable microhabitat for parasitic gnathiid isopods and that a decrease in live coral cover increases available habitat for gnathiids.

  17. Population control in symbiotic corals

    SciTech Connect

    Falkowski, P.G. ); Dubinsky, Z. ); Muscatine, L. ); McCloskey, L. )

    1993-10-01

    Stability in symbiotic association requires control of population growth between symbionts. The population density of zooxanthellae per unit surface area of most symbiotic corals is remarkably consistant. How is the population density of zooxanthellae maintained and what happens to the symbiotic association if the balance between algae and host is perturbed. The answers to these question, examined in this paper, provide a framework for understanding how the size of the component populations is controlled in symbiotic associations. The topic areas covered include the following: carbon economy in a symbiotic coral; effects of nutrient enrichment; the chemostat model of population control; the effects of exposure to ammonium levels. Ammonium ions and organic materials are the factors which maintain the density of zooxanthellae. 32 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Imaging lobular breast carcinoma: comparison of synchrotron radiation DEI-CT technique with clinical CT, mammography and histology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiedler, S.; Bravin, A.; Keyriläinen, J.; Fernández, M.; Suortti, P.; Thomlinson, W.; Tenhunen, M.; Virkkunen, P.; Karjalainen-Lindsberg, M.-L.

    2004-01-01

    Different modalities for imaging cancer-bearing breast tissue samples are described and compared. The images include clinical mammograms and computed tomography (CT) images, CT images with partly coherent synchrotron radiation (SR), and CT and radiography images taken with SR using the diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) method. The images are evaluated by a radiologist and compared with histopathological examination of the samples. Two cases of lobular carcinoma are studied in detail. The indications of cancer are very weak or invisible in the conventional images, but the morphological changes due to invasion of cancer become pronounced in the images taken by the DEI method. The strands penetrating adipose tissue are seen clearly in the DEI-CT images, and the histopathology confirms that some strands contain the so-called 'Indian file' formations of cancer cells. The radiation dose is carefully measured for each of the imaging modalities. The mean glandular dose (MGD) for 50% glandular breast tissue is about 1 mGy in conventional mammography and less than 0.25 mGy in projection DEI, while in the clinical CT imaging the MGD is very high, about 45 mGy. The entrance dose of 95 mGy in DEI-CT imaging gives rise to an MGD of 40 mGy, but the dose may be reduced by an order of magnitude, because the contrast is very large in most images.

  19. Competitive interactions between corals and turf algae depend on coral colony form.

    PubMed

    Swierts, Thomas; Vermeij, Mark Ja

    2016-01-01

    Turf algae are becoming more abundant on coral reefs worldwide, but their effects on other benthic organisms remain poorly described. To describe the general characteristics of competitive interactions between corals and turf algae, we determined the occurrence and outcomes of coral-turf algal interactions among different coral growth forms (branching, upright, massive, encrusting, plating, and solitary) on a shallow reef in Vietnam. In total, the amount of turf algal interaction, i.e., the proportion of the coral boundary directly bordering turf algae, was quantified for 1,276 coral colonies belonging to 27 genera and the putative outcome of each interaction was noted. The amount of turf algal interaction and the outcome of these interactions differed predictably among the six growth forms. Encrusting corals interacted most often with turf algae, but also competed most successfully against turf algae. The opposite was observed for branching corals, which rarely interacted with turf algae and rarely won these competitive interactions. Including all other growth forms, a positive relationship was found between the amount of competitive interactions with neighboring turf algae and the percentage of such interaction won by the coral. This growth form dependent ability to outcompete turf algae was not only observed among coral species, but also among different growth forms in morphologically plastic coral genera (Acropora, Favia, Favites, Montastrea, Montipora, Porites) illustrating the general nature of this relationship. PMID:27190707

  20. Identification of Candidate Coral Pathogens on White Band Disease-Infected Staghorn Coral

    PubMed Central

    Gignoux-Wolfsohn, Sarah A.; Vollmer, Steven V.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial diseases affecting scleractinian corals pose an enormous threat to the health of coral reefs, yet we still have a limited understanding of the bacteria associated with coral diseases. White band disease is a bacterial disease that affects the two Caribbean acroporid corals, the staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis and the elkhorn coral A. palmate. Species of Vibrio and Rickettsia have both been identified as putative WBD pathogens. Here we used Illumina 16S rRNA gene sequencing to profile the bacterial communities associated with healthy and diseased A. cervicornis collected from four field sites during two different years. We also exposed corals in tanks to diseased and healthy (control) homogenates to reduce some of the natural variation of field-collected coral bacterial communities. Using a combination of multivariate analyses, we identified community-level changes between diseased and healthy corals in both the field-collected and tank-exposed datasets. We then identified changes in the abundances of individual operational taxonomic units (OTUs) between diseased and healthy corals. By comparing the diseased and healthy-associated bacteria in field-collected and tank-exposed corals, we were able to identify 16 healthy-associated OTUs and 106 consistently disease-associated OTUs, which are good candidates for putative WBD pathogens. A large percentage of these disease-associated OTUs belonged to the order Flavobacteriales. In addition, two of the putative pathogens identified here belong to orders previously suggested as WBD pathogens: Vibronales and Rickettsiales. PMID:26241853

  1. Tumor formations in scleractinian corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loya, Y.; Bull, G.; Pichon, M.

    1984-03-01

    A highly localized incidence of skeletal malformations (tumors) in the scleractinian corals Platygyra pini and P. sinensis on an inshore fringing reef at Cockle Bay, Magnetic Island within the Great Barrier Reef province is reported. These tumors are typified by a localized area of increased growth rate resulting in roughly circular protuberances extending up to 4.5 cm above the colony's surface. In both species, similar proportions of their populations carried tumors (24.1 % in P. pini and 18.7 % in P. sinensis). Larger colonies (>80 cm in diameter) are at least 7 times more likely to possess tumors than smaller colonies (<40 cm in diameter). X-radiographs of the skeletal malformations indicate a point of origin, presumably from a single budded polyp with subsequent, localized, accelerated growth. The mean radial growth rate of the tumorous area was 29 % greater than that of the surrounding normal regions. In contrast to the normal tissue, the tumorous tissue exhibited proliferation of cells, atrophied gastrodermal cells and mesenterial filaments which were larger and disordered in structure. The environmental conditions at Cockle Bay are relatively extreme with high turbidity, periodic exposure of the reef flat, abrupt changes in salinity during the wet season and mechanical damage to corals caused by unpredictable cyclonic storms. It is suggested that a combination of environmental stresses coupled with an injury inflicted on the corals are possible stimuli that initiate the development of these abnormal growth through either bacterial attack or the development of an aberrant polyp during tissue repair.

  2. La meridiana di Egnazio Danti nella Torre dei Venti in Vaticano: un'icona della riforma Gregoriana del calendario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2014-05-01

    La Torre dei Venti domina l’angolo Sud Ovest del cortile della Pigna (nell'area dei Musei Vaticani), ed è inclusa negli ambienti dell'Archivio Segreto Vaticano. Non è aperta al pubblico, ma è universalmente nota per la fama che da oltre quattrocento anni la circonda, legata alle vicende della riforma Gregoriana del calendario. La meridiana tracciata da padre Egnazio Danti (1536-1586) nella torre dei Venti, fu visitata anche da Gregorio XIII, probabilmente il 21 marzo 1581 come suppone il padre Stein, per convincersi dell'anticipo ormai arrivato a dieci giorni dell'equinozio di primavera sulla data che il concilio di Nicea aveva fissato al 21 marzo per il computo pasquale. La ricognizione astrometrica del febbraio-marzo 2009 fatta dall'autore viene qui presentata.

  3. 50 CFR 223.208 - Corals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... paragraphs (1) through (6): (1) Permitted scientific research and enhancement. Any export or take of elkhorn or staghorn corals resulting from conducting scientific research or enhancement directed at elkhorn... or staghorn coral. (3) Section 10 scientific and enhancement permits. The Assistant Administrator...

  4. EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND UVR ON CORALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of UVR on coral bleaching will be evaluated via both field and laboratory experiments. Laboratory studies will test UVR effects using a solar simulator as the irradiation source, and various cutoff filters to control UVR doses. Laboratory studies will include corals c...

  5. PhyloChip Tackles Coral Disease

    SciTech Connect

    DeSantis, Todd

    2009-01-01

    Scientists at Berkeley Lab and the University of California, Merced are using an innovative DNA array developed at Berkeley Lab to catalog the microbes that live among coral in the tropical waters off the coast of Puerto Rico. More info: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2009/02/02/coral-reefs/

  6. PhyloChip Tackles Coral Disease

    ScienceCinema

    DeSantis, Todd

    2013-05-29

    Scientists at Berkeley Lab and the University of California, Merced are using an innovative DNA array developed at Berkeley Lab to catalog the microbes that live among coral in the tropical waters off the coast of Puerto Rico. More info: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2009/02/02/coral-reefs/

  7. CORAL REEF RESPONSES TO GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased emissions of greenhouse gases and synthetic compounds are related to rising sea temperatures and increased penetration of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), two factors that are consistently linked to bleaching and disease of corals. Coral reefs play a major role in the envir...

  8. 13. Photocopy of Photograph (original print in the Coral Gables ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of Photograph (original print in the Coral Gables Public Library, Fishbaugh Collection, M 3327) Photographer unknown, 1923-25 LE JEUNE PLAZA, VIEW FROM CORAL WAY - Coral Gables (Entrances, Streets, Gates, & Squares), Coral Gables, Miami-Dade County, FL

  9. 11. Photocopy of Photograph (original Print in the Coral Gables ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photocopy of Photograph (original Print in the Coral Gables Public Library, Fishbaugh Collection, M 3809) Photographer unknown, 1923-25 PONCE DE LEON PLAZA, FROM CORAL WAY AND GRANADA BOULEVARD - Coral Gables (Entrances, Streets, Gates, & Squares), Coral Gables, Miami-Dade County, FL

  10. 5. Photocopy of Photograph (original print in the Coral Gables ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy of Photograph (original print in the Coral Gables Public Library, Fishbaugh Collection, M 3292) Photographer unknown, 1923-25 AERIAL VIEW OF CORAL GABLES BUSINESS SECTION - Coral Gables (Entrances, Streets, Gates, & Squares), Coral Gables, Miami-Dade County, FL

  11. Ecology of the south Florida coral reefs: a community profile

    SciTech Connect

    Jaap, W.C.

    1984-08-01

    An overview of coral reef research in southern Florida is provided as a prelude to a genuine description of the coral reef ecosystem in the Florida Keys and surrounding environments. Coral reef community types, reef benthos, plankton and reef fish are given specific treatment. Coral reef ecology and management are described. 27 figs., 31 tabs.

  12. OCT structural examination of Madonna dei Fusi by Leonardo da Vinci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Targowski, Piotr; Iwanicka, Magdalena; Sylwestrzak, Marcin; Kaszewska, Ewa A.; Frosinini, Cecilia

    2013-05-01

    Madonna dei Fusi (`Madonna of the Yarnwider') is a spectacular example of Italian Renaissance painting, attributed to Leonardo da Vinci. The aim of this study is to give an account of past restoration procedures. The evidence of a former retouching campaign will be presented with cross-sectional images obtained non-invasively with Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). Specifically, the locations of overpaintings/retouchings with respect to the original paint layer and secondary varnishes will be given. Additionally, the evidence of a former transfer of the pictorial layer to the new canvas support by detecting the presence of its structure incised into paint layer will be shown.

  13. A microsampling method for genotyping coral symbionts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, D. W.; Fitt, W. K.; Schmidt, G. W.

    2008-06-01

    Genotypic characterization of Symbiodinium symbionts in hard corals has routinely involved coring, or the removal of branches or a piece of the coral colony. These methods can potentially underestimate the complexity of the Symbiodinium community structure and may produce lesions. This study demonstrates that microscale sampling of individual coral polyps provided sufficient DNA for identifying zooxanthellae clades by RFLP analyses, and subclades through the use of PCR amplification of the ITS-2 region of rDNA and denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis. Using this technique it was possible to detect distinct ITS-2 types of Symbiodinium from two or three adjacent coral polyps. These methods can be used to intensely sample coral-symbiont population/communities while causing minimal damage. The effectiveness and fine scale capabilities of these methods were demonstrated by sampling and identifying phylotypes of Symbiodinium clades A, B, and C that co-reside within a single Montastraea faveolata colony.

  14. Competitive interactions between corals and turf algae depend on coral colony form

    PubMed Central

    Vermeij, Mark JA

    2016-01-01

    Turf algae are becoming more abundant on coral reefs worldwide, but their effects on other benthic organisms remain poorly described. To describe the general characteristics of competitive interactions between corals and turf algae, we determined the occurrence and outcomes of coral–turf algal interactions among different coral growth forms (branching, upright, massive, encrusting, plating, and solitary) on a shallow reef in Vietnam. In total, the amount of turf algal interaction, i.e., the proportion of the coral boundary directly bordering turf algae, was quantified for 1,276 coral colonies belonging to 27 genera and the putative outcome of each interaction was noted. The amount of turf algal interaction and the outcome of these interactions differed predictably among the six growth forms. Encrusting corals interacted most often with turf algae, but also competed most successfully against turf algae. The opposite was observed for branching corals, which rarely interacted with turf algae and rarely won these competitive interactions. Including all other growth forms, a positive relationship was found between the amount of competitive interactions with neighboring turf algae and the percentage of such interaction won by the coral. This growth form dependent ability to outcompete turf algae was not only observed among coral species, but also among different growth forms in morphologically plastic coral genera (Acropora, Favia, Favites, Montastrea, Montipora, Porites) illustrating the general nature of this relationship. PMID:27190707

  15. Micro-topography mediates interactions between corals, algae, and herbivorous fishes on coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandl, S. J.; Hoey, A. S.; Bellwood, D. R.

    2014-06-01

    Processes occurring during the early life stages of corals are important for the replenishment of coral assemblages and the resilience of coral reefs. However, the factors influencing early life stages of corals are not well understood, and the role of micro-topographic complexity for habitat associations of juvenile corals is largely unexplored. This study investigated the microhabitat distribution patterns of early life stages of corals and a potential macroalgal competitor ( Turbinaria ornata) across two reef zones (reef crest and outer reef flat) on Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef. In both reef zones, both corals and T. ornata were significantly more abundant in concealed microhabitats than in semi-concealed or open microhabitats (GLMM: P < 0.001). The prevalence of juvenile corals and T. ornata within concealed environments suggests that they might be effective refuges from grazing by herbivorous fishes. The density of juvenile corals was positively related, and density of T. ornata negatively related to the abundance of two groups of herbivorous fishes, pairing rabbitfishes, and surgeonfishes in the genus Zebrasoma (BEST ENV-BIO: r s = 0.72, P < 0.01), which feed in concealed microhabitats. This correlative evidence suggests that crevices may be important for early life stages of both coral and macroalgae, and that a specific suite of crevice-feeding fishes may influence benthic community dynamics in these microhabitats.

  16. Climate-driven coral reorganisation influences aggressive behaviour in juvenile coral-reef fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kok, Judith E.; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; Hoogenboom, Mia O.

    2016-06-01

    Globally, habitat degradation is altering the abundance and diversity of species in a variety of ecosystems. This study aimed to determine how habitat degradation, in terms of changing coral composition under climate change, affected abundance, species richness and aggressive behaviour of juveniles of three damselfishes ( Pomacentrus moluccensis, P. amboinensis and Dischistodus perspicillatus, in order of decreasing reliance on coral). Patch reefs were constructed to simulate two types of reefs: present-day reefs that are vulnerable to climate-induced coral bleaching, and reefs with more bleaching-robust coral taxa, thereby simulating the likely future of coral reefs under a warming climate. Fish communities were allowed to establish naturally on the reefs during the summer recruitment period. Climate-robust reefs had lower total species richness of coral-reef fishes than climate-vulnerable reefs, but total fish abundance was not significantly different between reef types (pooled across all species and life-history stages). The nature of aggressive interactions, measured as the number of aggressive chases, varied according to coral composition; on climate-robust reefs, juveniles used the substratum less often to avoid aggression from competitors, and interspecific aggression became relatively more frequent than intraspecific aggression for juveniles of the coral-obligate P. moluccensis. This study highlights the importance of coral composition as a determinant of behaviour and diversity of coral-reef fishes.

  17. Effects of coral bleaching on the obligate coral-dwelling crab Trapezia cymodoce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stella, J. S.; Munday, P. L.; Jones, G. P.

    2011-09-01

    Corals are an essential and threatened habitat for a diverse range of reef-associated animals. Episodes of coral bleaching are predicted to increase in frequency and intensity over coming decades, yet the effects of coral-host bleaching on the associated animal communities remain poorly understood. The present study investigated the effects of host-colony bleaching on the obligate coral-dwelling crab, Trapezia cymodoce, during a natural bleaching event in the lagoon of Lizard Island, Australia. Branching corals, which harbour the highest diversity of coral associates, comprised 13% of live coral cover at the study site, with 83% affected by bleaching. Crabs on healthy and bleached colonies of Pocillopora damicornis were monitored over a 5-week period to determine whether coral bleaching affected crab density and movement patterns. All coral colonies initially contained one breeding pair of crabs. There was a significant decline in crab density on bleached corals after 5 weeks, with many corals losing one or both crabs, yet all healthy colonies retained a mating pair. Fecundity of crabs collected from bleached and healthy colonies of P. damicornis was also compared. The size of egg clutches of crabs collected from bleached hosts was 40% smaller than those from healthy hosts, indicating a significant reduction in fecundity. A laboratory experiment on movement patterns found that host-colony bleaching also prompted crabs to emigrate in search of more suitable colonies. Emigrant crabs engaged in aggressive interactions with occupants of healthy hosts, with larger crabs always usurping occupants of a smaller size. Decreased densities and clutch sizes, along with increased competitive interactions, could potentially result in a population decline of these important coral associates with cascading effects on coral health.

  18. Carbonate mound evolution and coral diagenesis viewed by U-series dating of deep water corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, N.; Ricard, E.; Blamart, D.; van der Land, C.; Colin, C.; Foubert, A.; van Rooij, D.; van Weering, T.

    2007-12-01

    U-series dating of constructional deep sea corals is a powerful tool to reconstruct the evolution of carbonate mound sediments driven by coral growth, sediment trapping and diagenesis. Here we have investigated in great detail the time framework of constructional corals such as L. pertusa and M. oculata on 5 different mounds of the eastern North Atlantic (on Rockall Bank and in Porcupine Seabight) taken at variable depth and location (610 to 880m water depth). Periods favorable for coral growth are the Holocene and prior interglacials such as marine isotope stage 5 and 7, while glacial coral growth seems inhibited or extremely reduced. Coral development is almost continuous throughout the Holocene since mound re-colonization about 10,500 years ago. Mound accumulation rates vary between 20 and 220 cm/kyr determined from the coral age - depth relationship in each core. Those changes are most likely driven by changes between horizontal and vertical mound accumulation, food supply and ocean circulation. In addition, coral dating allowed to identify an important erosional event recorded in core MD01-2455G from Rockall Bank. Here a 1m thick sediment layer containing ancient corals likely from the start of Holocene re-colonization was displaced (collapsed) from further upslope on top of younger corals of ~2500 to 3000 years age. Prior to the initiation of coral growth diagenesis occurred frequently resulting in (1) the construction of so called carbonate hardgrounds and/or (2) the dissolution of the pre-Holocene coral framework. Solely, the deepest selected core in Porcupine Seabight (MD01-2463G at 880m depth) reveals coral re-colonization on an undisturbed ancient reef structure that dates back to 250,000 years. Diagenesis of earlier coral reef generations leading to coral dissolution leads to a loss of magnetic susceptibility and open system behavior of the coral skeletons with respect to U-series dating. While the processes causing such diagenetic layers are barely

  19. The condition of coral reefs in South Florida (2000) using Coral disease and bleaching as indicators.

    PubMed

    Santavy, Deborah L; Summers, J Kevin; Engle, Virginia D; Harwell, Linda C

    2005-01-01

    The destruction of coral reef habitats has occurred at unprecedented levels during the last three decades. Coral disease and bleaching in the Caribbean and South Florida have caused extensive coral mortality with limited recovery, often coral reefs are being replaced with turf algae. Acroporids were once dominant corals and have diminished to the state where they are being considered as endangered species. Our survey assessed the condition of reef corals throughout South Florida. A probability-based design produced unbiased estimates of the spatial extent of ecological condition, measured as the absence or presence and frequency or prevalence of coral diseases and bleaching intensity over large geographic regions. This approach allowed us to calculate a quantifiable level of uncertainty. Coral condition was estimated for 4100 hectares (ha) (or 41.0 km2) of coral reefs in South Florida, including reefs in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS), New Grounds, Dry Tortugas National Park (DTNP), and Biscayne National Park (BNP). The absence or presence of coral disease, 'causal' coral bleaching, partial bleaching and coral paling were not good indicators of overall coral condition. It was more useful to report the prevalence of anomalies that indicated a compromised condition at both the population and community levels. For example, 79% of the area in South Florida had less than 6% of the coral colonies diseased, whereas only 2.2% (97.15 ha) of the sampled area had a maximum prevalence of 13% diseased coral colonies at any single location. The usefulness of 'causal bleaching' might be more important when considering the prevalence of each of the three different states at a single location. For example, paling was observed over the entire area, whereas bleaching and partial bleaching occurred at 19 and 41% of the area, respectively. An index for coral reef condition might integrate the prevalence and species affected by each bleaching state at individual

  20. Metagenomic and ecophysiological analysis of biofilms colonizing coral substrates: "Life after death of coral"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, A., Sr.; Cerqueda-Garcia, D.; Falcón, L. I.; Iglesias-Prieto, R., Sr.

    2015-12-01

    Coral reefs are the most productive ecosystems on the planet and are the most important carbonated structures of biological origin. However, global warming is affecting the health and functionality of these ecosystems. Specifically, most of the Acropora sp. stony corals have declined their population all over the Mexican Caribbean in more than ~80% of their original coverage, resulting in vast extensions of dead coral rubble. When the coral dies, the skeleton begins to be colonized by algae, sponges, bacteria and others, forming a highly diverse biofilm. We analyzed the metagenomes of the dead A. palmata rubbles from Puerto Morelos, in the Mexican Caribbean. Also, we quantified the elemental composition of biomass and measured nitrogen fixation and emission of greenhouse gases over 24 hrs. This works provides information on how the community is composed and functions after the death of the coral, visualizing a possible picture for a world without coral reefs.

  1. Generating viral metagenomes from the coral holobiont.

    PubMed

    Weynberg, Karen D; Wood-Charlson, Elisha M; Suttle, Curtis A; van Oppen, Madeleine J H

    2014-01-01

    Reef-building corals comprise multipartite symbioses where the cnidarian animal is host to an array of eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms, and the viruses that infect them. These viruses are critical elements of the coral holobiont, serving not only as agents of mortality, but also as potential vectors for lateral gene flow, and as elements encoding a variety of auxiliary metabolic functions. Consequently, understanding the functioning and health of the coral holobiont requires detailed knowledge of the associated viral assemblage and its function. Currently, the most tractable way of uncovering viral diversity and function is through metagenomic approaches, which is inherently difficult in corals because of the complex holobiont community, an extracellular mucus layer that all corals secrete, and the variety of sizes and structures of nucleic acids found in viruses. Here we present the first protocol for isolating, purifying and amplifying viral nucleic acids from corals based on mechanical disruption of cells. This method produces at least 50% higher yields of viral nucleic acids, has very low levels of cellular sequence contamination and captures wider viral diversity than previously used chemical-based extraction methods. We demonstrate that our mechanical-based method profiles a greater diversity of DNA and RNA genomes, including virus groups such as Retro-transcribing and ssRNA viruses, which are absent from metagenomes generated via chemical-based methods. In addition, we briefly present (and make publically available) the first paired DNA and RNA viral metagenomes from the coral Acropora tenuis. PMID:24847321

  2. Coral larvae move toward reef sounds.

    PubMed

    Vermeij, Mark J A; Marhaver, Kristen L; Huijbers, Chantal M; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Simpson, Stephen D

    2010-01-01

    Free-swimming larvae of tropical corals go through a critical life-phase when they return from the open ocean to select a suitable settlement substrate. During the planktonic phase of their life cycle, the behaviours of small coral larvae (<1 mm) that influence settlement success are difficult to observe in situ and are therefore largely unknown. Here, we show that coral larvae respond to acoustic cues that may facilitate detection of habitat from large distances and from upcurrent of preferred settlement locations. Using in situ choice chambers, we found that settling coral larvae were attracted to reef sounds, produced mainly by fish and crustaceans, which we broadcast underwater using loudspeakers. Our discovery that coral larvae can detect and respond to sound is the first description of an auditory response in the invertebrate phylum Cnidaria, which includes jellyfish, anemones, and hydroids as well as corals. If, like settlement-stage reef fish and crustaceans, coral larvae use reef noise as a cue for orientation, the alleviation of noise pollution in the marine environment may gain further urgency. PMID:20498831

  3. Coral Larvae Move toward Reef Sounds

    PubMed Central

    Vermeij, Mark J. A.; Marhaver, Kristen L.; Huijbers, Chantal M.; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Simpson, Stephen D.

    2010-01-01

    Free-swimming larvae of tropical corals go through a critical life-phase when they return from the open ocean to select a suitable settlement substrate. During the planktonic phase of their life cycle, the behaviours of small coral larvae (<1 mm) that influence settlement success are difficult to observe in situ and are therefore largely unknown. Here, we show that coral larvae respond to acoustic cues that may facilitate detection of habitat from large distances and from upcurrent of preferred settlement locations. Using in situ choice chambers, we found that settling coral larvae were attracted to reef sounds, produced mainly by fish and crustaceans, which we broadcast underwater using loudspeakers. Our discovery that coral larvae can detect and respond to sound is the first description of an auditory response in the invertebrate phylum Cnidaria, which includes jellyfish, anemones, and hydroids as well as corals. If, like settlement-stage reef fish and crustaceans, coral larvae use reef noise as a cue for orientation, the alleviation of noise pollution in the marine environment may gain further urgency. PMID:20498831

  4. Evidence of photosymbiosis in Palaeozoic tabulate corals

    PubMed Central

    Zapalski, Mikołaj K.

    2014-01-01

    Coral reefs form the most diverse of all marine ecosystems on the Earth. Corals are among their main components and owe their bioconstructing abilities to a symbiosis with algae (Symbiodinium). The coral–algae symbiosis had been traced back to the Triassic (ca 240 Ma). Modern reef-building corals (Scleractinia) appeared after the Permian–Triassic crisis; in the Palaeozoic, some of the main reef constructors were extinct tabulate corals. The calcium carbonate secreted by extant photosymbiotic corals bears characteristic isotope (C and O) signatures. The analysis of tabulate corals belonging to four orders (Favositida, Heliolitida, Syringoporida and Auloporida) from Silurian to Permian strata of Europe and Africa shows these characteristic carbon and oxygen stable isotope signatures. The δ18O to δ13C ratios in recent photosymbiotic scleractinians are very similar to those of Palaeozoic tabulates, thus providing strong evidence of such symbioses as early as the Middle Silurian (ca 430 Ma). Corals in Palaeozoic reefs used the same cellular mechanisms for carbonate secretion as recent reefs, and thus contributed to reef formation. PMID:24307674

  5. Generating viral metagenomes from the coral holobiont

    PubMed Central

    Wood-Charlson, Elisha M.; Suttle, Curtis A.; van Oppen, Madeleine J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Reef-building corals comprise multipartite symbioses where the cnidarian animal is host to an array of eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms, and the viruses that infect them. These viruses are critical elements of the coral holobiont, serving not only as agents of mortality, but also as potential vectors for lateral gene flow, and as elements encoding a variety of auxiliary metabolic functions. Consequently, understanding the functioning and health of the coral holobiont requires detailed knowledge of the associated viral assemblage and its function. Currently, the most tractable way of uncovering viral diversity and function is through metagenomic approaches, which is inherently difficult in corals because of the complex holobiont community, an extracellular mucus layer that all corals secrete, and the variety of sizes and structures of nucleic acids found in viruses. Here we present the first protocol for isolating, purifying and amplifying viral nucleic acids from corals based on mechanical disruption of cells. This method produces at least 50% higher yields of viral nucleic acids, has very low levels of cellular sequence contamination and captures wider viral diversity than previously used chemical-based extraction methods. We demonstrate that our mechanical-based method profiles a greater diversity of DNA and RNA genomes, including virus groups such as Retro-transcribing and ssRNA viruses, which are absent from metagenomes generated via chemical-based methods. In addition, we briefly present (and make publically available) the first paired DNA and RNA viral metagenomes from the coral Acropora tenuis. PMID:24847321

  6. New directions in coral reef microbial ecology.

    PubMed

    Garren, Melissa; Azam, Farooq

    2012-04-01

    Microbial processes largely control the health and resilience of coral reef ecosystems, and new technologies have led to an exciting wave of discovery regarding the mechanisms by which microbial communities support the functioning of these incredibly diverse and valuable systems. There are three questions at the forefront of discovery: What mechanisms underlie coral reef health and resilience? How do environmental and anthropogenic pressures affect ecosystem function? What is the ecology of microbial diseases of corals? The goal is to understand the functioning of coral reefs as integrated systems from microbes and molecules to regional and ocean-basin scale ecosystems to enable accurate predictions of resilience and responses to perturbations such as climate change and eutrophication. This review outlines recent discoveries regarding the microbial ecology of different microenvironments within coral ecosystems, and highlights research directions that take advantage of new technologies to build a quantitative and mechanistic understanding of how coral health is connected through microbial processes to its surrounding environment. The time is ripe for natural resource managers and microbial ecologists to work together to create an integrated understanding of coral reef functioning. In the context of long-term survival and conservation of reefs, the need for this work is immediate. PMID:21955796

  7. Does seaweed-coral competition make seaweeds more palatable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, G. O.; Hay, M. E.

    2015-03-01

    Seaweed-coral interactions are increasingly common on modern coral reefs, but the dynamics, processes, and mechanisms affecting these interactions are inadequately understood. We investigated the frequency and effect of seaweed-coral contacts for common seaweeds and corals in Belize. Effects on corals were evaluated by measuring the frequency and extent of bleaching when contacted by various seaweeds, and effects on a common seaweed were evaluated by assessing whether contact with coral made the seaweed more palatable to the sea urchin Diadema antillarum. Coral-seaweed contacts were particularly frequent between Agaricia corals and the seaweed Halimeda opuntia, with this interaction being associated with coral bleaching in 95 % of contacts. Pooling across all coral species, H. opuntia was the seaweed most commonly contacting corals and most frequently associated with localized bleaching at the point of contact. Articulated coralline algae, Halimeda tuna and Lobophora variegata also frequently contacted corals and were commonly associated with bleaching. The common corals Agaricia and Porites bleached with similar frequency when contacted by H. opuntia (95 and 90 %, respectively), but Agaricia experienced more damage than Porites when contacted by articulated coralline algae or H. tuna. When spatially paired individuals of H. opuntia that had been in contact with Agaricia and not in contact with any coral were collected from the reefs and offered to D. antillarum, urchins consumed about 150 % more of thalli that had been competing with Agaricia. Contact and non-contact thalli did not differ in nutritional traits (ash-free-dry-mass, C or N concentrations), suggesting that Halimeda chemical defenses may have been compromised by coral-algal contact. If competition with corals commonly enhances seaweed palatability, then the dynamics and nuances of small-scale seaweed-coral-herbivore interactions at coral edges are deserving of greater attention in that such

  8. Cryptic effects of habitat declines: coral-associated fishes avoid coral-seaweed interactions due to visual and chemical cues.

    PubMed

    Brooker, Rohan M; Brandl, Simon J; Dixson, Danielle L

    2016-01-01

    Seaweed-dominated coral reefs are becoming increasingly common as environmental conditions shift away from those required by corals and toward those ideal for rampant seaweed growth. How coral-associated organisms respond to seaweed will not only impact their fate following environmental change but potentially also the trajectories of the coral communities on which they rely. However, behavioral responses by coral-associated organisms to seaweeds are poorly understood. This study examined interactions between a guild of obligate and opportunistic coral-feeding butterflyfishes (Chaetodontidae) and scleractinian corals to determine whether fishes continue to interact with corals in contact with seaweed or if they are avoided. Under natural conditions, all species interacted almost exclusively with seaweed-free corals. In a controlled patch reef experiment, fishes avoided corals in physical contact with seaweed, irrespective of dietary preferences. When visual seaweed cues were removed, butterflyfish continued to avoid corals that had been in contact with the allelopathic Galaxaura filamentosa, suggesting that chemical cues produced by coral-seaweed interactions are repellent. These findings suggest that, due to deleterious visual and chemical cues produced by coral-seaweed interactions, coral-associated organisms may struggle to locate resources as seaweed-free corals decline in abundance. PMID:26725835

  9. Cryptic effects of habitat declines: coral-associated fishes avoid coral-seaweed interactions due to visual and chemical cues

    PubMed Central

    Brooker, Rohan M.; Brandl, Simon J.; Dixson, Danielle L.

    2016-01-01

    Seaweed-dominated coral reefs are becoming increasingly common as environmental conditions shift away from those required by corals and toward those ideal for rampant seaweed growth. How coral-associated organisms respond to seaweed will not only impact their fate following environmental change but potentially also the trajectories of the coral communities on which they rely. However, behavioral responses by coral-associated organisms to seaweeds are poorly understood. This study examined interactions between a guild of obligate and opportunistic coral-feeding butterflyfishes (Chaetodontidae) and scleractinian corals to determine whether fishes continue to interact with corals in contact with seaweed or if they are avoided. Under natural conditions, all species interacted almost exclusively with seaweed-free corals. In a controlled patch reef experiment, fishes avoided corals in physical contact with seaweed, irrespective of dietary preferences. When visual seaweed cues were removed, butterflyfish continued to avoid corals that had been in contact with the allelopathic Galaxaura filamentosa, suggesting that chemical cues produced by coral-seaweed interactions are repellent. These findings suggest that, due to deleterious visual and chemical cues produced by coral-seaweed interactions, coral-associated organisms may struggle to locate resources as seaweed-free corals decline in abundance. PMID:26725835

  10. Linking Wave Forcing to Coral Cover and Structural Complexity Across Coral Reef Flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, D. L.; Rovere, A.; Parravicini, V.; Casella, E.

    2015-12-01

    The hydrodynamic regime is a significant component in the geomorphic and ecological development of coral reefs. The energy gradients and flow conditions generated by the breaking and transformation of waves across coral reef crests and flats drive changes in geomorphic structure, and coral growth form and distribution. One of the key aspects in regulating the wave energy propagating across reef flats is the rugosity or roughness of the benthic substrate. Rugosity and structural complexity of coral reefs is also a key indicator of species diversity, ecological functioning, and reef health. However, the links between reef rugosity, coral species distribution and abundance, and hydrodynamic forcing are poorly understood. In this study we examine this relationship by using high resolution measurement of waves in the surf zone and coral reef benthic structure.Pressure transducers (logging at 4 Hz) were deployed in cross reef transects at two sites (Tiahura and Ha'apiti reef systems) in Moorea, French Polynesia with wave characteristics determined on a wave by wave basis. A one dimensional hydrodynamic model (XBeach) was calibrated from this data to determine wave processes on the reef flats under average conditions. Transects of the reef benthic structure were conducted using photographic analysis and the three dimensional reef surface was constructed using structure from motion procedures. From this analysis reef rugosity, changes in coral genus and growth form, and across reef shifts in benthic community were determined. The results show clear changes in benthic assemblages along wave energy gradients with some indication of threshold values of wave induced bed shear stress above which live coral cover was reduced. Reef rugosity was shown to be significantly along the cross-reef transect which has important implications for accurate assessment of wave dissipation across coral reef flats. Links between reef rugosity and coral genus were also observed and may indicate

  11. Helium-uranium dating of corals.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, M. L.

    1973-01-01

    Fanale and Schaeffer (1965) determined He/U ages of corals and other aragonitic fossils, and found that the results generally agreed with independent age estimates. As a more extensive and rigorous test of the reliability of He/U ages of fossil corals, I have determined He/U ages of forty-five independently dated Cenozoic corals. Uranium and thorium isotope compositions and Rn-222 retentivities were also determined as consistency checks. The results indicate that reliable ages are obtained when certain consistency tests are met and specified corrections are made.

  12. USGS research on Atlantic coral reef ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Yates, Kimberly K.; Zawada, David G.; Richey, Julie N.; Kellogg, Christina A.; Toth, Lauren T.

    2015-01-01

    Coral reefs are massive, biomineralized structures that protect coastal communities by acting as barriers to hazards such as hurricanes and tsunamis. They provide sand for beaches through the natural process of erosion, support tourism and recreational industries, and provide essential habitat for fisheries. The continuing global degradation of coral reef ecosystems is well documented. There is a need for focused, coordinated science to understand the complex physical and biological processes and interactions that are impacting the condition of coral reefs and their ability to respond to a changing environment.

  13. Corals Like It Waxed: Paraffin-Based Antifouling Technology Enhances Coral Spat Survival

    PubMed Central

    Tebben, Jan; Guest, James R.; Sin, Tsai M.; Steinberg, Peter D.; Harder, Tilmann

    2014-01-01

    The early post-settlement stage is the most sensitive during the life history of reef building corals. However, few studies have examined the factors that influence coral mortality during this period. Here, the impact of fouling on the survival of newly settled coral spat of Acropora millepora was investigated by manipulating the extent of fouling cover on settlement tiles using non-toxic, wax antifouling coatings. Survival of spat on coated tiles was double that on control tiles. Moreover, there was a significant negative correlation between percentage cover of fouling and spat survival across all tiles types, suggesting that fouling in direct proximity to settled corals has detrimental effects on early post-settlement survival. While previous studies have shown that increased fouling negatively affects coral larval settlement and health of juvenile and adult corals, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show a direct relationship between fouling and early post-settlement survival for a broadcast spawning scleractinian coral. The negative effects of fouling on this sensitive life history stage may become more pronounced in the future as coastal eutrophication increases. Our results further suggest that targeted seeding of coral spat on artificial surfaces in combination with fouling control could prove useful to improve the efficiency of sexual reproduction-based coral propagation for reef rehabilitation. PMID:24489936

  14. Density-associated recruitment mediates coral population dynamics on a coral reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramanti, Lorenzo; Edmunds, Peter J.

    2016-06-01

    Theory suggests that density-associated processes can modulate community resilience following declines in population size. Here, we demonstrate density-associated processes in two scleractinian populations on the outer reef of Moorea, French Polynesia, that are rapidly increasing in size following the effects of two catastrophic disturbances. Between 2006 and 2010, predation by the corallivorous crown-of-thorns sea star reduced coral cover by 93 %; in 2010, the dead coral skeletons were removed by a cyclone, and in 2011 and 2012, high coral recruitment initiated population recovery. Coral recruitment was associated with coral cover, but the relationship differed between two coral genera that are almost exclusively broadcast spawners in Moorea. Acroporids recruited at low densities, and the density of recruits was positively associated with cover of Acropora, whereas pocilloporids recruited at high densities, and densities of their recruits were negatively associated with cover of Pocillopora. Together, our results suggest that associations between adult cover and density of both juveniles and recruits can mediate rapid coral community recovery after large disturbances. The difference between taxa in sign of the relationships between recruit density and coral cover indicate that they reflect contrasting mechanisms with the potential to mediate temporal shifts in taxonomic composition of coral communities.

  15. NOAA Coral Reef Watch: Decision Support Tools for Coral Reef Managers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauenzahn, J.; Eakin, C.; Skirving, W. J.; Burgess, T.; Christensen, T.; Heron, S. F.; Li, J.; Liu, G.; Morgan, J.; Nim, C.; Parker, B. A.; Strong, A. E.

    2010-12-01

    A multitude of natural and anthropogenic stressors exert substantial influence on coral reef ecosystems and contribute to bleaching events, slower coral growth, infectious disease outbreaks, and mortality. Satellite-based observations can monitor, at a global scale, environmental conditions that influence both short-term and long-term coral reef ecosystem health. From research to operations, NOAA Coral Reef Watch (CRW) incorporates paleoclimatic, in situ, and satellite-based biogeophysical data to provide near-real-time and forecast information and tools to help managers, researchers, and other stakeholders interpret coral health and stress. CRW has developed an operational, near-real-time product suite that includes sea surface temperature (SST), SST time series data, SST anomaly charts, coral bleaching HotSpots, and Degree Heating Weeks (DHW). Bi-weekly global SST analyses are based on operational nighttime-only SST at 50-km resolution. CRW is working to develop high-resolution products to better address thermal stress on finer scales and is applying climate models to develop seasonal outlooks of coral bleaching. Automated Satellite Bleaching Alerts (SBAs), available at Virtual Stations worldwide, provide the only global early-warning system to notify managers of changing reef environmental conditions. Currently, CRW is collaborating with numerous domestic and international partners to develop new tools to address ocean acidification, infectious diseases of corals, combining light and temperature to detect coral photosystem stress, and other parameters.

  16. 76 FR 38642 - Process To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the Alaska Department of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... period. SUMMARY: In the May 20, 2011 issue of the Federal Register (76 FR 98:29218-29219), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) published its intent to prepare a DEIS to identify and analyze the potential impacts associated with the proposed Foothills West Transportation Access Project (Foothills Project)....

  17. 75 FR 68312 - Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for New Medium- and Heavy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78) or you may visit http://www.dot.gov/privacy.html . Confidential Business... union, etc.). You may review DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register at 65 FR 19477... the DEIS. \\6\\ See 75 FR 67059 (Nov. 1, 2010). How do I submit confidential business information?...

  18. 78 FR 2423 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the Proposed Shu'luuk Wind Project on the Campo...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... temporary concrete batch plant. The wind power generation facility would operate year-round for a minimum of...-MW to 2.3-MW wind turbines. Each turbine would have a hub height of up to 308 feet, rotor diameter of... Bureau of Indian Affairs Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the Proposed Shu'luuk...

  19. River discharge reduces reef coral diversity in Palau.

    PubMed

    Golbuu, Yimnang; van Woesik, Robert; Richmond, Robert H; Harrison, Peter; Fabricius, Katharina E

    2011-04-01

    Coral community structure is often governed by a suite of processes that are becoming increasingly influenced by land-use changes and related terrestrial discharges. We studied sites along a watershed gradient to examine both the physical environment and the associated biological communities. Transplanted corals showed no differences in growth rates and mortality along the watershed gradient. However, coral cover, coral richness, and coral colony density increased with increasing distance from the mouth of the bay. There was a negative relationship between coral cover and mean suspended solids concentration. Negative relationships were also found between terrigenous sedimentation rates and the richness of adult and juvenile corals. These results have major implications not only for Pacific islands but for all countries with reef systems downstream of rivers. Land development very often leads to increases in river runoff and suspended solids concentrations that reduce coral cover and coral diversity on adjacent reefs. PMID:21251680

  20. The Urgent Need for Robust Coral Disease Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, F. Joseph; Morris, Pamela J.; Willis, Bette L.; Bourne, David G.

    2011-01-01

    Coral disease has emerged over recent decades as a significant threat to coral reef ecosystems, with declines in coral cover and diversity of Caribbean reefs providing an example of the potential impacts of disease at regional scales. If similar trends are to be mitigated or avoided on reefs worldwide, a deeper understanding of the factors underlying the origin and spread of coral diseases and the steps that can be taken to prevent, control, or reduce their impacts is required. In recent years, an increased focus on coral microbiology and the application of classic culture techniques and emerging molecular technologies has revealed several coral pathogens that could serve as targets for novel coral disease diagnostic tools. The ability to detect and quantify microbial agents identified as indicators of coral disease will aid in the elucidation of disease causation and facilitate coral disease detection and diagnosis, pathogen monitoring in individuals and ecosystems, and identification of pathogen sources, vectors, and reservoirs. This information will advance the field of coral disease research and contribute knowledge necessary for effective coral reef management. This paper establishes the need for sensitive and specific molecular-based coral pathogen detection, outlines the emerging technologies that could serve as the basis of a new generation of coral disease diagnostic assays, and addresses the unique challenges inherent to the application of these techniques to environmentally derived coral samples. PMID:22028646

  1. The urgent need for robust coral disease diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Pollock, F Joseph; Morris, Pamela J; Willis, Bette L; Bourne, David G

    2011-10-01

    Coral disease has emerged over recent decades as a significant threat to coral reef ecosystems, with declines in coral cover and diversity of Caribbean reefs providing an example of the potential impacts of disease at regional scales. If similar trends are to be mitigated or avoided on reefs worldwide, a deeper understanding of the factors underlying the origin and spread of coral diseases and the steps that can be taken to prevent, control, or reduce their impacts is required. In recent years, an increased focus on coral microbiology and the application of classic culture techniques and emerging molecular technologies has revealed several coral pathogens that could serve as targets for novel coral disease diagnostic tools. The ability to detect and quantify microbial agents identified as indicators of coral disease will aid in the elucidation of disease causation and facilitate coral disease detection and diagnosis, pathogen monitoring in individuals and ecosystems, and identification of pathogen sources, vectors, and reservoirs. This information will advance the field of coral disease research and contribute knowledge necessary for effective coral reef management. This paper establishes the need for sensitive and specific molecular-based coral pathogen detection, outlines the emerging technologies that could serve as the basis of a new generation of coral disease diagnostic assays, and addresses the unique challenges inherent to the application of these techniques to environmentally derived coral samples. PMID:22028646

  2. Modeling Reef Hydrodynamics to Predict Coral Bleaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, James; Steinberg, Craig; Hardy, Tom

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this study is to use environmental physics to predict water temperatures around and within coral reefs. Anomalously warm water is the leading cause for mass coral bleaching; thus a clearer understanding of the oceanographic mechanisms that control reef water temperatures will enable better reef management. In March 1998 a major coral bleaching event occurred at Scott Reef, a 40 km-wide lagoon 300 km off the northwest coast of Australia. Meteorological and coral cover observations were collected before, during, and after the event. In this study, two hydrodynamic models are applied to Scott Reef and validated against oceanographic data collected between March and June 2003. The models are then used to hindcast the reef hydrodynamics that led up to the 1998 bleaching event. Results show a positive correlation between poorly mixed regions and bleaching severity.

  3. PhyloChip Tackles Coral Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Todd DeSantis

    2009-01-30

    Scientists at Berkeley Lab and the University of California, Merced are using an innovative DNA array developed at Berkeley Lab to catalog the microbes that live among coral in the tropical waters off the coast of Puerto Rico.

  4. Marine biology: The coral disease triangle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, John F.

    2015-04-01

    The underlying causes of biodiversity loss can be numerous and difficult to identify. Now evidence suggests that disease outbreaks triggered by warming oceans are a primary cause of the disappearance of Caribbean coral reefs.

  5. Seismic refraction profile in coral sea basin.

    PubMed

    Shor, G G

    1967-11-17

    A refraction profile near the south edge of Coral Sea Basin shows sediments, "second layer," and oceanic crust all thicker than normal for an oceanic station; normal mantle lies at a depth of 19 kilometers. PMID:17753600

  6. PhyloChip Tackles Coral Disease

    ScienceCinema

    Todd DeSantis

    2010-01-08

    Scientists at Berkeley Lab and the University of California, Merced are using an innovative DNA array developed at Berkeley Lab to catalog the microbes that live among coral in the tropical waters off the coast of Puerto Rico.

  7. MANGROVE-DERIVED NUTRIENTS AND CORAL REEFS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding the consequences of the declining global cover of mangroves due to anthropogenic disturbance necessitates consideration of how mangrove-derived nutrients contribute to threatened coral reef systems. We sampled potential sources of organic matter and a suite of sessi...

  8. Lithifying Microbes Associated to Coral Rubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltran, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Microbial communities taking part in calcium carbonate lithification processes are particularly relevant to coral reef formation in as much as this lithification allows the stabilization of secondary reef structure. This second framework promotes long-term permanence of the reef, favoring the establishment of macro-reef builders, including corals. The reef-bacterial crusts formed by microbial communities are composed of magnesium calcite. Although prokaryotes are not proper calcifiers, carbonate precipitation can be induced by their metabolic activity and EPS production. Coral reefs are rapidly declining due to several variables associated to environmental change. Specifically in the Caribbean, stony coral Acropora palmata have suffered damage due to diseases, bleaching and storms. Some reports show that in highly disturbed areas wide ridges of reef rubbles are formed by biological and physical lithification. In this study we explore microbial diversity associated to lithified rubbles left after the great decline of reef-building A. palmata.

  9. New protection initiatives announced for coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Off the coasts of some of the South Pacific's most idyllic-sounding atolls, Austin Bowden-Kerby has seen first-hand the heavy damage to coral reefs from dynamite and cyanide fishing. For instance, while snorkeling near Chuuk, an island in Micronesia, he has observed craters and rubble beds of coral, which locals have told him date to World War II ordnance.A marine biologist and project scientist for the Coral Gardens Initiative of the Foundation for the Peoples of the South Pacific, Bowden-Kerby has also identified what he says are some public health effects related to destroyed coral reefs and their dying fisheries. These problems include protein and vitamin A deficiency and blindness, all of which may—in some instances—be linked to poor nutrition resulting from lower reef fish consumption by islanders, according to Bowden-Kerby.

  10. EPA Field Manual for Coral Reef Assessments

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Quality Research Program (WQRP) supports development of coral reef biological criteria. Research is focused on developing methods and tools to support implementation of legally defensible biological standards for maintaining biological integrity, which is protected by ...

  11. Coral-algal phase shifts on coral reefs: Ecological and environmental aspects [review article

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McManus, John W.; Polsenberg, Johanna F.

    2004-02-01

    This paper briefly reviews coral-algal phase shifts on coral reefs, with particular regard to summarizing the exogenous and endogenous factors in support of a proposed conceptual model, and to identifying critical information gaps. A phase shift occurs on a coral reef when the cover of a substrate by scleractinian corals is reduced in favor of macroalgal dominance, and resilience of the former condition is retarded because of ecological processes and/or environmental conditions. The change is often, but not always, associated with a perturbation such as coral bleaching, outbreaks of a coral-eating species, or storm damage. The new state is generally associated with some combination of reduced herbivory (from disease and/or fishing) and nutrient enrichment, although the relative importance of these factors is under debate and may vary among locations and even across single reefs. Disturbances that result in a state of generally low biotic three-dimensional structural complexity often precede a phase shift. Following such a disturbance, the system will pass to a state of higher biotic structural complexity, with either macroalgae or coral dominating. As the community progresses towards larger and more three-dimensionally complex corals or macroalgae, it exhibits greater resistance to shifting dominance from one state to the other. Studies of the phase-shift phenomena have been generally conducted at scales that are small relative to the sizes and inherent variability of whole coral reefs and systems of reefs. There is an urgent need for studies aimed at quantifying and simulating cause and effect aspects of the phase shift, including human-environment coupling, particularly in support of coral reef decision-making.

  12. Astronaut Photography of Coral Reefs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Noordeloos, Marco

    2001-01-01

    Astronaut photographs of tropical coastal areas may contain information on submerged features, including coral reefs, up to depths of about 15 m in clear waters. Previous research efforts have shown that astronaut photographs can aid in estimating coral reef locations and extent on national, regional and global scales, and allow characterization of major geomorphological rim and lagoon features (Andrefouet et al. 2000, in preparation). They can be combined with traditional satellite data to help distinguish between clouds and lagoon features such as pinnacles (Andrefouet and Robinson, in review). Furthermore, astronaut photographs may provide reef scientists and managers with information on the location and extent of river plumes and sediment run off, or facilitate identification of land cover types, including mangroves (Webb et al., in press). Photographs included in the section were selected based on several criteria. The primary consideration of the editors was that the photographs represent a worldwide distribution of coral reefs, have extremely low visual interference by cloud cover, and display a spatial scale reasonable for examining reef-related features. Once photographs were selected, they were digitized from 2nd generation copies. The color and contrast were hand corrected to an approximation of natural color (required to account for spectral differences between photographs due to the color sensitivities of films used, and differences in sun angle and exposure of the photographs). None of the photographs shown here have been georeferenced to correct them to a map projection and scale. Any distortions in features due to slightly oblique look angles when the photographs were taken through spacecraft windows remain. When feasible, near vertical photographs have been rotated so that north is toward the top. An approximate scale bar and north arrow have added using distinctive features on each photograph with reference to a 1:1,000,000 scale navigation chart

  13. Mass Spawning in Tropical Reef Corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Peter L.; Babcock, Russell C.; Bull, Gordon D.; Oliver, James K.; Wallace, Carden C.; Willis, Bette L.

    1984-03-01

    Synchronous multispecific spawning by a total of 32 coral species occurred a few nights after late spring full moons in 1981 and 1982 at three locations on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. The data invalidate the generalization that most corals have internally fertilized, brooded planula larvae. In every species observed, gametes were released; external fertilization and development then followed. The developmental rates of externally fertilized eggs and longevities of planulae indicate that planulae may be dispersed between reefs.

  14. Coral photobiology: new light on old views.

    PubMed

    Iluz, David; Dubinsky, Zvy

    2015-04-01

    The relationship between reef-building corals and light-harvesting pigments of zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium sp.) has been acknowledged for decades. The photosynthetic activity of the algal endocellular symbionts may provide up to 90% of the energy needed for the coral holobiont. This relationship limits the bathymetric distribution of coral reefs to the upper 100 m of tropical shorelines. However, even corals growing under high light intensities have to supplement the photosynthates translocated from the algae by predation on nutrient-rich zooplankton. New information has revealed how the fate of carbon acquired through photosynthesis differs from that secured by predation, whose rates are controlled by light-induced tentacular extension. The Goreau paradigm of "light-enhanced calcification" is being reevaluated, based on evidence that blue light stimulates coral calcification independently from photosynthesis rates. Furthermore, under dim light, calcification rates were stoichiometrically uncoupled from photosynthesis. The rates of photosynthesis of the zooxanthellae exhibit a clear endogenous rhythmicity maintained by light patterns. This daily pattern is concomitant with a periodicity of all the antioxidant protective mechanisms that wax and wane to meet the concomitant fluctuation in oxygen evolution. The phases of the moon are involved in the triggering of coral reproduction and control the spectacular annual mass-spawning events taking place in several reefs. The intensity and directionality of the underwater light field affect the architecture of coral colonies, leading to an optimization of the exposure of the zooxanthellae to light. We present a summary of major gaps in our understanding of the relationship between light and corals as a roadmap for future research. PMID:25467066

  15. High prevalence of obligate coral-dwelling decapods on dead corals in the Chagos Archipelago, central Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, Catherine E. I.; Bonsall, Michael B.; Koldewey, Heather; Pratchett, Morgan S.; Speight, Martin; Rogers, Alex D.

    2015-09-01

    Small and cryptic organisms that live within the interstices of reef habitats contribute greatly to coral reef biodiversity, but are poorly studied. Many species of cryptofauna have seemingly obligate associations with live coral and are therefore considered to be very vulnerable to coral mortality. Here we report the unanticipated prevalence of obligate coral-dwelling decapod crustaceans on dead colonies of branching corals in the Chagos Archipelago (British Indian Ocean Territory) in the central Indian Ocean. A total of 205 obligate coral-dwelling decapods, including Trapezia crabs, were recorded from 43 (out of 54) dead coral colonies of Acropora and Pocillopora collected across five different atolls. Trapezia individuals found on dead corals were mainly juveniles, and the few adults were almost exclusively male. Among the shrimps (Pontoniinae), however, it was predominantly adult females found on dead corals. Obligate coral-dwelling species that typically occur only on live Pocillopora hosts (e.g., Trapezia spp.) were recorded on dead Acropora. These findings suggests that these obligate coral-dwelling decapods are not simply persisting on coral hosts that have died, but may be explicitly recruiting to or moving to dead coral hosts at certain stages in their life cycle. Variation in the abundance of live coral among sites had no affect on the presence or abundance of obligate coral-dwelling decapods on dead corals. This study shows that habitat associations of obligate coral-dwelling organisms, and their reliance on different habitat types, are complex and further work is required to establish their vulnerability to widespread habitat degradation on coral reefs.

  16. Fluorescence lifetime imaging of coral fluorescent proteins.

    PubMed

    Cox, Guy; Matz, Mikhail; Salih, Anya

    2007-03-01

    Corals, like many other coelenterates, contain fluorescent pigments that show considerable homology with the well known green fluorescent protein of the jellyfish Aequoria. In corals, unlike jellyfish, multiple proteins are present and the range of excitations and emissions suggest the possibility of energy transfer. The occurrence of Förster resonant energy transfer (FRET) between fluorescent proteins in corals has already been reported and time-resolved spectra have shown the effect on fluorescent lifetime, but without any spatial resolution. Lifetime confocal microscopy offers lower time resolution but excellent spatial resolution. Lifetimes of the isolated A. millepora pigments amilFP490, amilFP504, and amilFP593 (names indicate emission peaks) were 2.8, 2.9, and 2.9 ns, respectively. In the coral sample, imaging the entire emission spectrum from 420 nm, the mean lifetime was reduced to 1.5 ns, implying that FRET was occurring. Looking just at the fluorescence from FRET donors the lifetime was even shorter, at 1.3 ns, supporting this interpretation. In contrast, no reduction in lifetime is seen in the coral Euphyllia ancora, where the pigment distribution also suggests that the pigments are unlikely to be involved in photoprotection. This study set out to determine the extent of FRET between pigments in two corals, Acropora millepora and Euphyllia, ancora which differ in the arrangement of their pigments and hence possibly in pigment function. PMID:17279514

  17. Symbiodinium Clade Affects Coral Skeletal Isotopic Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carilli, J.; Charles, C. D.; Garren, M.; McField, M.; Norris, R. D.

    2011-12-01

    The influence of different physiologies of Symbiodinium dinoflagellate symbiont clades on the skeletal chemistry of associated coral hosts has not previously been investigated. This is an important issue because coral skeletons are routinely used for tropical paleoclimatic reconstructions. We analyzed coral skeletal samples collected simultaneously from neighboring colonies off Belize and found that those harboring different clades of Symbiodinium displayed significantly different skeletal oxygen isotopic compositions. We also found evidence for mean shifts in skeletal oxygen isotopic composition after coral bleaching (the loss and potential exchange of symbionts) in two of four longer coral cores from the Mesoamerican Reef, though all experienced similar climatic conditions. Thus, we suggest that symbiont clade identity leaves a signature in the coral skeletal archive and that this influence must be considered for quantitative environmental reconstruction. In addition, we suggest that the skeletal isotopic signature may be used to identify changes in the dominant symbiont clade that have occurred in the past, to identify how common and widespread this phenomenon is--a potential adaptation to climate change.

  18. Chemically rich seaweeds poison corals when not controlled by herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Rasher, Douglas B.; Hay, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Coral reefs are in dramatic global decline, with seaweeds commonly replacing corals. It is unclear, however, whether seaweeds harm corals directly or colonize opportunistically following their decline and then suppress coral recruitment. In the Caribbean and tropical Pacific, we show that, when protected from herbivores, ~40 to 70% of common seaweeds cause bleaching and death of coral tissue when in direct contact. For seaweeds that harmed coral tissues, their lipid-soluble extracts also produced rapid bleaching. Coral bleaching and mortality was limited to areas of direct contact with seaweeds or their extracts. These patterns suggest that allelopathic seaweed-coral interactions can be important on reefs lacking herbivore control of seaweeds, and that these interactions involve lipid-soluble metabolites transferred via direct contact. Seaweeds were rapidly consumed when placed on a Pacific reef protected from fishing but were left intact or consumed at slower rates on an adjacent fished reef, indicating that herbivory will suppress seaweeds and lower frequency of allelopathic damage to corals if reefs retain intact food webs. With continued removal of herbivores from coral reefs, seaweeds are becoming more common. This occurrence will lead to increasing frequency of seaweed-coral contacts, increasing allelopathic suppression of remaining corals, and continuing decline of reef corals. PMID:20457927

  19. Vortical ciliary flows actively enhance mass transport in reef corals

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Orr H.; Fernandez, Vicente I.; Garren, Melissa; Guasto, Jeffrey S.; Debaillon-Vesque, François P.; Kramarsky-Winter, Esti; Vardi, Assaf; Stocker, Roman

    2014-01-01

    The exchange of nutrients and dissolved gasses between corals and their environment is a critical determinant of the growth of coral colonies and the productivity of coral reefs. To date, this exchange has been assumed to be limited by molecular diffusion through an unstirred boundary layer extending 1–2 mm from the coral surface, with corals relying solely on external flow to overcome this limitation. Here, we present direct microscopic evidence that, instead, corals can actively enhance mass transport through strong vortical flows driven by motile epidermal cilia covering their entire surface. Ciliary beating produces quasi-steady arrays of counterrotating vortices that vigorously stir a layer of water extending up to 2 mm from the coral surface. We show that, under low ambient flow velocities, these vortices, rather than molecular diffusion, control the exchange of nutrients and oxygen between the coral and its environment, enhancing mass transfer rates by up to 400%. This ability of corals to stir their boundary layer changes the way that we perceive the microenvironment of coral surfaces, revealing an active mechanism complementing the passive enhancement of transport by ambient flow. These findings extend our understanding of mass transport processes in reef corals and may shed new light on the evolutionary success of corals and coral reefs. PMID:25192936

  20. Coral mucus fuels the sponge loop in warm- and cold-water coral reef ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Rix, Laura; de Goeij, Jasper M.; Mueller, Christina E.; Struck, Ulrich; Middelburg, Jack J.; van Duyl, Fleur C.; Al-Horani, Fuad A.; Wild, Christian; Naumann, Malik S.; van Oevelen, Dick

    2016-01-01

    Shallow warm-water and deep-sea cold-water corals engineer the coral reef framework and fertilize reef communities by releasing coral mucus, a source of reef dissolved organic matter (DOM). By transforming DOM into particulate detritus, sponges play a key role in transferring the energy and nutrients in DOM to higher trophic levels on Caribbean reefs via the so-called sponge loop. Coral mucus may be a major DOM source for the sponge loop, but mucus uptake by sponges has not been demonstrated. Here we used laboratory stable isotope tracer experiments to show the transfer of coral mucus into the bulk tissue and phospholipid fatty acids of the warm-water sponge Mycale fistulifera and cold-water sponge Hymedesmia coriacea, demonstrating a direct trophic link between corals and reef sponges. Furthermore, 21–40% of the mucus carbon and 32–39% of the nitrogen assimilated by the sponges was subsequently released as detritus, confirming a sponge loop on Red Sea warm-water and north Atlantic cold-water coral reefs. The presence of a sponge loop in two vastly different reef environments suggests it is a ubiquitous feature of reef ecosystems contributing to the high biogeochemical cycling that may enable coral reefs to thrive in nutrient-limited (warm-water) and energy-limited (cold-water) environments. PMID:26740019

  1. Coral-Bacterial Communities before and after a Coral Mass Spawning Event on Ningaloo Reef

    PubMed Central

    Ceh, Janja; Raina, Jean-Baptiste; Soo, Rochelle M.; van Keulen, Mike; Bourne, David G.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria associated with three coral species, Acropora tenuis, Pocillopora damicornis and Tubastrea faulkneri, were assessed before and after coral mass spawning on Ningaloo Reef in Western Australia. Two colonies of each species were sampled before and after the mass spawning event and two additional samples were collected for P. damicornis after planulation. A variable 470 bp region of the 16 S rRNA gene was selected for pyrosequencing to provide an understanding of potential variations in coral-associated bacterial diversity and community structure. Bacterial diversity increased for all coral species after spawning as assessed by Chao1 diversity indicators. Minimal changes in community structure were observed at the class level and data at the taxonomical level of genus incorporated into a PCA analysis indicated that despite bacterial diversity increasing after spawning, coral-associated community structure did not shift greatly with samples grouped according to species. However, interesting changes could be detected from the dataset; for example, α-Proteobacteria increased in relative abundance after coral spawning and particularly the Roseobacter clade was found to be prominent in all coral species, indicating that this group may be important in coral reproduction. PMID:22629343

  2. INDICATORS OF UV EXPOSURE IN CORAL AND THEIR RELEVANCE TO GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE AND CORAL BLEACHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A compelling aspect of the deterioration of coral reefs is the phenomenon of coral bleaching. Bleaching can destroy large areas of a reef with limited recovery or recruitment, and it may be induced by a variety of stressors ranging from exposure to temperature and salinity extrem...

  3. INDICATORS OF UV EXPOSURE IN CORALS: RELEVANCE TO GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE AND CORAL BLEACHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased exposure to solar UV radiation and elevated water temperatures are believed to play a role in the bleaching of corals. To provide additional tools for evaluating the role of UV radiation, we have examined UV-specific effects in coral and have characterized factors that ...

  4. Coral mucus fuels the sponge loop in warm- and cold-water coral reef ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Rix, Laura; de Goeij, Jasper M; Mueller, Christina E; Struck, Ulrich; Middelburg, Jack J; van Duyl, Fleur C; Al-Horani, Fuad A; Wild, Christian; Naumann, Malik S; van Oevelen, Dick

    2016-01-01

    Shallow warm-water and deep-sea cold-water corals engineer the coral reef framework and fertilize reef communities by releasing coral mucus, a source of reef dissolved organic matter (DOM). By transforming DOM into particulate detritus, sponges play a key role in transferring the energy and nutrients in DOM to higher trophic levels on Caribbean reefs via the so-called sponge loop. Coral mucus may be a major DOM source for the sponge loop, but mucus uptake by sponges has not been demonstrated. Here we used laboratory stable isotope tracer experiments to show the transfer of coral mucus into the bulk tissue and phospholipid fatty acids of the warm-water sponge Mycale fistulifera and cold-water sponge Hymedesmia coriacea, demonstrating a direct trophic link between corals and reef sponges. Furthermore, 21-40% of the mucus carbon and 32-39% of the nitrogen assimilated by the sponges was subsequently released as detritus, confirming a sponge loop on Red Sea warm-water and north Atlantic cold-water coral reefs. The presence of a sponge loop in two vastly different reef environments suggests it is a ubiquitous feature of reef ecosystems contributing to the high biogeochemical cycling that may enable coral reefs to thrive in nutrient-limited (warm-water) and energy-limited (cold-water) environments. PMID:26740019

  5. RESISTANCE AND RESILIENCE TO CORAL BLEACHING: IMPLICATIONS FOR CORAL REEF CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The massive scale of the 1997-1998 El Nino-associated coral bleaching event underscores the need for strategies to mitigate biodiversity losses resulting from temperature-induced coral mortality. As baseline sea surface temperatures continue to rise, climate change may represent ...

  6. INDICATORS OF UV EXPOSURE IN CORALS AND THEIR RELEVANCE TO GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE AND CORAL BLEACHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A compelling aspect of the deterioration of coral reefs is the phenomenon of coral bleaching. Through interactions with other factors such as sedimentation, pollution, and bacterial infection, bleaching can impact large areas of a reef with limited recovery, and it might be induc...

  7. Monitoring Growth of Hard Corals as Performance Indicators for Coral Reefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crabbe, M. James; Karaviotis, Sarah; Smith, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Digital videophotography, computer image analysis and physical measurements have been used to monitor sedimentation rates, coral cover, genera richness, rugosity, and estimated recruitment dates of massive corals at three different sites in the Wakatobi Marine National Park, Indonesia, and on the reefs around Discovery Bay, Jamaica.…

  8. Arrecifes de Coral: Una Coleccion de Actividades en Espanol para Estudiantes de Escuela Intermedia (Coral Reefs: A Spanish Compilation of Activities for Middle School Students).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Sharon H.; Newton, R. Amanda; Ortiz, Alida

    This activity book for middle school students on coral reefs is divided into 10 sections. Section 1 is the introduction. Section 2 describes what coral reefs are while section 3 describes how coral reefs reproduce and grow. Section 4 describes where coral reefs are found, and section 5 describes life on a coral reef. Section 6 describes the…

  9. Anthropogenic mortality on coral reefs in Caribbean Panama predates coral disease and bleaching.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Katie L; Jackson, Jeremy B C; Angioletti, Christopher V; Leonard-Pingel, Jill; Guilderson, Thomas P

    2012-06-01

    Caribbean reef corals have declined precipitously since the 1980s due to regional episodes of bleaching, disease and algal overgrowth, but the extent of earlier degradation due to localised historical disturbances such as land clearing and overfishing remains unresolved. We analysed coral and molluscan fossil assemblages from reefs near Bocas del Toro, Panama to construct a timeline of ecological change from the 19th century-present. We report large changes before 1960 in coastal lagoons coincident with extensive deforestation, and after 1960 on offshore reefs. Striking changes include the demise of previously dominant staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis and oyster Dendrostrea frons that lives attached to gorgonians and staghorn corals. Reductions in bivalve size and simplification of gastropod trophic structure further implicate increasing environmental stress on reefs. Our paleoecological data strongly support the hypothesis, from extensive qualitative data, that Caribbean reef degradation predates coral bleaching and disease outbreaks linked to anthropogenic climate change. PMID:22462739

  10. Toxic coral gobies reduce the feeding rate of a corallivorous butterflyfish on Acropora corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirnwoeber, M.; Herler, J.

    2013-03-01

    The obligate coral-dwelling gobiid genus Gobiodon inhabits Acropora corals and has developed various physiological, morphological and ethological adaptations towards this life habit. While the advantages of this coral-fish association are well documented for Gobiodon, possible fitness-increasing factors for the host coral are unknown. This study examines the influence of coral-dwelling gobies on the feeding behaviour of obligate corallivorous butterflyfishes. In an aquarium experiment using video observation, the corallivorous butterflyfish Chaetodon austriacus fed significantly less on corals inhabited by two Gobiodon species compared to unoccupied coral colonies of similar size. The more agonistic species G. histrio, which mostly displayed directed movements towards butterflyfishes, decreased butterflyfish bite rate by 62-98 % compared to uninhabited colonies. For Gobiodon sp. 3, which mostly displayed undirected movements in response to visits by C. austriacus, bite rate reduction was 64-68 %. The scale-less skin of Gobiodon spp. is covered by mucus that is toxic and multi-functional by reducing predation as well as affecting parasite attachment. A choice flume experiment suggests that the highly diluted skin mucus of Gobiodon spp. also functions as a corallivore repellent. This study demonstrates that Gobiodon spp. exhibit resource defence against coral-feeding butterflyfishes and also that coral colonies without resident Gobiodon suffer higher predation rates. Although the genus Gobiodon is probably a facultative corallivore, this study shows that by reducing predation on inhabited colonies by other fishes, these obligate coral-dwellers either compensate for their own fitness-decreasing impact on host colonies or live in a mutualistic association with them.

  11. Toxic coral gobies reduce the feeding rate of a corallivorous butterflyfish on Acropora corals.

    PubMed

    Dirnwoeber, M; Herler, J

    2013-03-01

    The obligate coral-dwelling gobiid genus Gobiodon inhabits Acropora corals and has developed various physiological, morphological and ethological adaptations towards this life habit. While the advantages of this coral-fish association are well documented for Gobiodon, possible fitness-increasing factors for the host coral are unknown. This study examines the influence of coral-dwelling gobies on the feeding behaviour of obligate corallivorous butterflyfishes. In an aquarium experiment using video observation, the corallivorous butterflyfish Chaetodon austriacus fed significantly less on corals inhabited by two Gobiodon species compared to unoccupied coral colonies of similar size. The more agonistic species G. histrio, which mostly displayed directed movements towards butterflyfishes, decreased butterflyfish bite rate by 62-98 % compared to uninhabited colonies. For Gobiodon sp. 3, which mostly displayed undirected movements in response to visits by C. austriacus, bite rate reduction was 64-68 %. The scale-less skin of Gobiodon spp. is covered by mucus that is toxic and multi-functional by reducing predation as well as affecting parasite attachment. A choice flume experiment suggests that the highly diluted skin mucus of Gobiodon spp. also functions as a corallivore repellent. This study demonstrates that Gobiodon spp. exhibit resource defence against coral-feeding butterflyfishes and also that coral colonies without resident Gobiodon suffer higher predation rates. Although the genus Gobiodon is probably a facultative corallivore, this study shows that by reducing predation on inhabited colonies by other fishes, these obligate coral-dwellers either compensate for their own fitness-decreasing impact on host colonies or live in a mutualistic association with them. PMID:24443641

  12. 1. Photocopy of Photograph (original print in the Coral Gables ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of Photograph (original print in the Coral Gables Public Library, Fishbaugh Collection, M 3810) Photographer unknown, 1923-25 GRANADA PLAZA AND GRANADA BOULEVARD - Granada Plaza, Coral Gables, Miami-Dade County, FL

  13. Coral reef formation theory may apply to oil, gas exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-10

    This paper reports a coral reef formation theory that has implications for hydrocarbon exploration. The theory states that many coral reefs and carbonate buildups from at and are dependent upon nutrient rich fluids seeping through the seabed.

  14. Marine biology: Coral animals combat stress with sulphur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Graham

    2013-10-01

    Photosynthetic algal symbionts of corals produce sulphur substances that are involved in the regulation of ocean temperatures. In a twist to the tale, it emerges that coral animals produce the same compounds. See Letter p.677

  15. FEATURE A. CONCRETE ANTIAIRCRAFT GUN POSITION, SHOWING CORAL RUBBLE BERM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE A. CONCRETE ANTI-AIRCRAFT GUN POSITION, SHOWING CORAL RUBBLE BERM, VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Battery-Anti-Aircraft Gun Position, South of Point Cruz Road & west of Coral Sea Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  16. Unseen players shape benthic competition on coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Barott, Katie L; Rohwer, Forest L

    2012-12-01

    Recent work has shown that hydrophilic and hydrophobic organic matter (OM) from algae disrupts the function of the coral holobiont and promotes the invasion of opportunistic pathogens, leading to coral morbidity and mortality. Here we refer to these dynamics as the (3)DAM [dissolved organic matter (DOM), direct contact, disease, algae and microbes] model. There is considerable complexity in coral-algae interactions; turf algae and macroalgae promote heterotrophic microbial overgrowth of coral, macroalgae also directly harm the corals via hydrophobic OM, whereas crustose coralline algae generally encourage benign microbial communities. In addition, complex flow patterns transport OM and pathogens from algae to downstream corals, and direct algal contact enhances their delivery. These invisible players (microbes, viruses, and OM) are important drivers of coral reefs because they have non-linear responses to disturbances and are the first to change in response to perturbations, providing near real-time trajectories for a coral reef, a vital metric for conservation and restoration. PMID:22944243

  17. Comparing Deep-Sea Fish Fauna between Coral and Non-Coral “Megahabitats” in the Santa Maria di Leuca Cold-Water Coral Province (Mediterranean Sea)

    PubMed Central

    D'Onghia, Gianfranco; Maiorano, Porzia; Carlucci, Roberto; Capezzuto, Francesca; Carluccio, Angela; Tursi, Angelo; Sion, Letizia

    2012-01-01

    Two experimental longline surveys were carried out in the Santa Maria di Leuca (SML) cold-water coral province (Mediterranean Sea) during May–June and September–October 2010 to investigate the effect of corals on fish assemblages. Two types of “megahabitat” characterized by the virtual absence of fishing were explored. One was characterized by complex topography including mesohabitats with carbonate mounds and corals. The other type of megahabitat, although characterized by complex topographic features, lacks carbonate mounds and corals. The fishing vessel was equipped with a 3,000 m monofilament longline with 500 hooks and snoods of 2.5 m in length. A total of 9 hauls, using about 4,500 hooks, were carried out both in the coral megahabitat and in the non-coral megahabitat during each survey. The fish Leucoraja fullonica and Pteroplatytrygon violacea represent new records for the SML coral province. The coral by-catch was only obtained in the coral megahabitat in about 55% of the stations investigated in both surveys. The total catches and the abundance indices of several species were comparable between the two habitat typologies. The species contributing most to the dissimilarity between the two megahabitat fish assemblages were Pagellus bogaraveo, Galeus melastomus, Etmopterus spinax and Helicolenus dactylopterus for density and P. bogaraveo, Conger conger, Polyprion americanus and G. melastomus for biomass. P. bogaraveo was exclusively collected in the coral megahabitat, whereas C. conger, H. dactylopterus and P. americanus were found with greater abundance in the coral than in the non-coral megahabitat. Differences in the sizes between the two megahabitats were detected in E. spinax, G. melastomus, C. conger and H. dactylopterus. Although these differences most probably related to the presence-absence of corals, both megahabitats investigated play the role of attraction-refuge for deep-sea fish fauna, confirming the important role of the whole SML coral

  18. Corals form characteristic associations with symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lema, Kimberley A; Willis, Bette L; Bourne, David G

    2012-05-01

    The complex symbiotic relationship between corals and their dinoflagellate partner Symbiodinium is believed to be sustained through close associations with mutualistic bacterial communities, though little is known about coral associations with bacterial groups able to fix nitrogen (diazotrophs). In this study, we investigated the diversity of diazotrophic bacterial communities associated with three common coral species (Acropora millepora, Acropora muricata, and Pocillopora damicormis) from three midshelf locations of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) by profiling the conserved subunit of the nifH gene, which encodes the dinitrogenase iron protein. Comparisons of diazotrophic community diversity among coral tissue and mucus microenvironments and the surrounding seawater revealed that corals harbor diverse nifH phylotypes that differ between tissue and mucus microhabitats. Coral mucus nifH sequences displayed high heterogeneity, and many bacterial groups overlapped with those found in seawater. Moreover, coral mucus diazotrophs were specific neither to coral species nor to reef location, reflecting the ephemeral nature of coral mucus. In contrast, the dominant diazotrophic bacteria in tissue samples differed among coral species, with differences remaining consistent at all three reefs, indicating that coral-diazotroph associations are species specific. Notably, dominant diazotrophs for all coral species were closely related to the bacterial group rhizobia, which represented 71% of the total sequences retrieved from tissue samples. The species specificity of coral-diazotroph associations further supports the coral holobiont model that bacterial groups associated with corals are conserved. Our results suggest that, as in terrestrial plants, rhizobia have developed a mutualistic relationship with corals and may contribute fixed nitrogen to Symbiodinium. PMID:22344646

  19. Hyperspectral and Physiological Analyses of Coral-Algal Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Barott, Katie; Smith, Jennifer; Dinsdale, Elizabeth; Hatay, Mark; Sandin, Stuart; Rohwer, Forest

    2009-01-01

    Space limitation leads to competition between benthic, sessile organisms on coral reefs. As a primary example, reef-building corals are in direct contact with each other and many different species and functional groups of algae. Here we characterize interactions between three coral genera and three algal functional groups using a combination of hyperspectral imaging and oxygen microprofiling. We also performed in situ interaction transects to quantify the relative occurrence of these interaction on coral reefs. These studies were conducted in the Southern Line Islands, home to some of the most remote and near-pristine reefs in the world. Our goal was to determine if different types of coral-coral and coral-algal interactions were characterized by unique fine-scale physiological signatures. This is the first report using hyperspectral imaging for characterization of marine benthic organisms at the micron scale and proved to be a valuable tool for discriminating among different photosynthetic organisms. Consistent patterns emerged in physiology across different types of competitive interactions. In cases where corals were in direct contact with turf or macroalgae, there was a zone of hypoxia and altered pigmentation on the coral. In contrast, interaction zones between corals and crustose coralline algae (CCA) were not hypoxic and the coral tissue was consistent across the colony. Our results suggest that at least two main characteristic coral interaction phenotypes exist: 1) hypoxia and coral tissue disruption, seen with interactions between corals and fleshy turf and/or some species of macroalgae, and 2) no hypoxia or tissue disruption, seen with interactions between corals and some species of CCA. Hyperspectral imaging in combination with oxygen profiling provided useful information on competitive interactions between benthic reef organisms, and demonstrated that some turf and fleshy macroalgae can be a constant source of stress for corals, while CCA are not. PMID

  20. 10. Photocopy of Photograph (original print in the Coral Gables ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of Photograph (original print in the Coral Gables Public Library, Fishbaugh Collection, M 3109) Photographer unknown, 1923-25 COLUMBUS PLAZA, COLUMBUS STREET AND INDIAN MOUNTAIN TRAIL - Coral Gables (Entrances, Streets, Gates, & Squares), Coral Gables, Miami-Dade County, FL

  1. 43 CFR 9266.4 - Viable coral communities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Viable coral communities. 9266.4 Section... § 9266.4 Viable coral communities. (a) Requirement for a permit. No person shall engage in any operation which directly causes damage or injury to a viable coral community that is located on the...

  2. 43 CFR 9266.4 - Viable coral communities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Viable coral communities. 9266.4 Section... § 9266.4 Viable coral communities. (a) Requirement for a permit. No person shall engage in any operation which directly causes damage or injury to a viable coral community that is located on the...

  3. 43 CFR 9266.4 - Viable coral communities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Viable coral communities. 9266.4 Section... § 9266.4 Viable coral communities. (a) Requirement for a permit. No person shall engage in any operation which directly causes damage or injury to a viable coral community that is located on the...

  4. 43 CFR 9266.4 - Viable coral communities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Viable coral communities. 9266.4 Section... § 9266.4 Viable coral communities. (a) Requirement for a permit. No person shall engage in any operation which directly causes damage or injury to a viable coral community that is located on the...

  5. Persistence of coral-rudist reefs into the Late Cretaceous

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, R.W. ); Fernandez-Mendiola, P.A. ); Gili, E. ); Simo, A. )

    1990-04-01

    During the Early Cretaceous, coral-algal communities occupied deeper water habitats in the reef ecosystem, and rudist communities generally populated the shallow-water, carbonate-sand substrates. During the middle Cretaceous, however, coral-algal communities became less common, and Late Cretaceous reef communities consisted of both rudist-dominated and rudist-coral communities. In the Pyrenean basins and other basins in the Mediterranean, coral associations co-existed with rudists forming complex buildups at the shelf-edge. In some parts of these buildups corals were nearly as abundant as rudists; in some complex buildups large coral colonies encrusted the rudists. Behind the shelf margin cylindrical, elevator rudists dominated the lenticular thickets that were interspersed with carbonate sands. Global changes in oceanic conditions, such as marine productivity and oxygen content, may have stressed the deeper coral-algal reef communities leaving rudists as the major shallow reef biota in Caribbean reefs. However, the co-occurrence of corals with rudists in these Pyrenean complex buildups suggests that corals were able to compete with rudists for resources. The corals in the complex buildups generally belong to genera different from those in the coral-algal communities. Perhaps this ecological stress in the mid-Cretaceous resulted in the evolution of new coral taxa.

  6. Unprecedented Disease-Related Coral Mortality in Southeastern Florida.

    PubMed

    Precht, William F; Gintert, Brooke E; Robbart, Martha L; Fura, Ryan; van Woesik, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Anomalously high water temperatures, associated with climate change, are increasing the global prevalence of coral bleaching, coral diseases, and coral-mortality events. Coral bleaching and disease outbreaks are often inter-related phenomena, since many coral diseases are a consequence of opportunistic pathogens that further compromise thermally stressed colonies. Yet, most coral diseases have low prevalence (<5%), and are not considered contagious. By contrast, we document the impact of an extremely high-prevalence outbreak (61%) of white-plague disease at 14 sites off southeastern Florida. White-plague disease was observed near Virginia Key, Florida, in September 2014, and after 12 months had spread 100 km north and 30 km south. The disease outbreak directly followed a high temperature coral-bleaching event and affected at least 13 coral species. Eusmilia fastigiata, Meandrina meandrites, and Dichocoenia stokesi were the most heavily impacted coral species, and were reduced to <3% of their initial population densities. A number of other coral species, including Colpophyllia natans, Pseudodiploria strigosa, Diploria labyrinthiformis, and Orbicella annularis were reduced to <25% of their initial densities. The high prevalence of disease, the number of susceptible species, and the high mortality of corals affected suggests this disease outbreak is arguably one of the most lethal ever recorded on a contemporary coral reef. PMID:27506875

  7. Light gradients and optical microniches in coral tissues

    PubMed Central

    Wangpraseurt, Daniel; Larkum, Anthony W. D.; Ralph, Peter J.; Kühl, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Light quantity and quality are among the most important factors determining the physiology and stress response of zooxanthellate corals. Yet, almost nothing is known about the light field that Symbiodinium experiences within their coral host, and the basic optical properties of coral tissue are unknown. We used scalar irradiance microprobes to characterize vertical and lateral light gradients within and across tissues of several coral species. Our results revealed the presence of steep light gradients with photosynthetically available radiation decreasing by about one order of magnitude from the tissue surface to the coral skeleton. Surface scalar irradiance was consistently higher over polyp tissue than over coenosarc tissue in faviid corals. Coral bleaching increased surface scalar irradiance by ~150% (between 500 and 700 nm) relative to a healthy coral. Photosynthesis peaked around 300 μm within the tissue, which corresponded to a zone exhibiting strongest depletion of scalar irradiance. Deeper coral tissue layers, e.g., ~1000 μm into aboral polyp tissues, harbor optical microniches, where only ~10% of the incident irradiance remains. We conclude that the optical microenvironment of corals exhibits strong lateral and vertical gradients of scalar irradiance, which are affected by both tissue and skeleton optical properties. Our results imply that zooxanthellae populations inhabit a strongly heterogeneous light environment and highlight the presence of different optical microniches in corals; an important finding for understanding the photobiology, stress response, as well as the phenotypic and genotypic plasticity of coral symbionts. PMID:22969755

  8. Light gradients and optical microniches in coral tissues.

    PubMed

    Wangpraseurt, Daniel; Larkum, Anthony W D; Ralph, Peter J; Kühl, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Light quantity and quality are among the most important factors determining the physiology and stress response of zooxanthellate corals. Yet, almost nothing is known about the light field that Symbiodinium experiences within their coral host, and the basic optical properties of coral tissue are unknown. We used scalar irradiance microprobes to characterize vertical and lateral light gradients within and across tissues of several coral species. Our results revealed the presence of steep light gradients with photosynthetically available radiation decreasing by about one order of magnitude from the tissue surface to the coral skeleton. Surface scalar irradiance was consistently higher over polyp tissue than over coenosarc tissue in faviid corals. Coral bleaching increased surface scalar irradiance by ~150% (between 500 and 700 nm) relative to a healthy coral. Photosynthesis peaked around 300 μm within the tissue, which corresponded to a zone exhibiting strongest depletion of scalar irradiance. Deeper coral tissue layers, e.g., ~1000 μm into aboral polyp tissues, harbor optical microniches, where only ~10% of the incident irradiance remains. We conclude that the optical microenvironment of corals exhibits strong lateral and vertical gradients of scalar irradiance, which are affected by both tissue and skeleton optical properties. Our results imply that zooxanthellae populations inhabit a strongly heterogeneous light environment and highlight the presence of different optical microniches in corals; an important finding for understanding the photobiology, stress response, as well as the phenotypic and genotypic plasticity of coral symbionts. PMID:22969755

  9. Coral feeding on microalgae assessed with molecular trophic markers.

    PubMed

    Leal, Miguel C; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine; Calado, Ricardo; Thompson, Megan E; Frischer, Marc E; Nejstgaard, Jens C

    2014-08-01

    Herbivory in corals, especially for symbiotic species, remains controversial. To investigate the capacity of scleractinian and soft corals to capture microalgae, we conducted controlled laboratory experiments offering five algal species: the cryptophyte Rhodomonas marina, the haptophytes Isochrysis galbana and Phaeocystis globosa, and the diatoms Conticribra weissflogii and Thalassiosira pseudonana. Coral species included the symbiotic soft corals Heteroxenia fuscescens and Sinularia flexibilis, the asymbiotic scleractinian coral Tubastrea coccinea, and the symbiotic scleractinian corals Stylophora pistillata, Pavona cactus and Oculina arbuscula. Herbivory was assessed by end-point PCR amplification of algae-specific 18S rRNA gene fragments purified from coral tissue genomic DNA extracts. The ability to capture microalgae varied with coral and algal species and could not be explained by prey size or taxonomy. Herbivory was not detected in S. flexibilis and S. pistillata. P. globosa was the only algal prey that was never captured by any coral. Although predation defence mechanisms have been shown for Phaeocystis spp. against many potential predators, this study is the first to suggest this for corals. This study provides new insights into herbivory in symbiotic corals and suggests that corals may be selective herbivorous feeders. PMID:24112432

  10. 50 CFR 665.169 - Gold coral harvest moratorium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gold coral harvest moratorium. 665.169 Section 665.169 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Fisheries § 665.169 Gold coral harvest moratorium. Fishing for, taking, or retaining any gold coral in...

  11. 50 CFR 665.169 - Gold coral harvest moratorium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gold coral harvest moratorium. 665.169 Section 665.169 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Fisheries § 665.169 Gold coral harvest moratorium. Fishing for, taking, or retaining any gold coral in...

  12. 50 CFR 665.270 - Gold coral harvest moratorium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gold coral harvest moratorium. 665.270 Section 665.270 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Fisheries § 665.270 Gold coral harvest moratorium. Fishing for, taking, or retaining any gold coral in...

  13. 50 CFR 665.270 - Gold coral harvest moratorium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gold coral harvest moratorium. 665.270 Section 665.270 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Fisheries § 665.270 Gold coral harvest moratorium. Fishing for, taking, or retaining any gold coral in...

  14. 50 CFR 665.169 - Gold coral harvest moratorium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gold coral harvest moratorium. 665.169 Section 665.169 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Fisheries § 665.169 Gold coral harvest moratorium. Fishing for, taking, or retaining any gold coral in...

  15. 50 CFR 665.270 - Gold coral harvest moratorium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gold coral harvest moratorium. 665.270 Section 665.270 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Fisheries § 665.270 Gold coral harvest moratorium. Fishing for, taking, or retaining any gold coral in...

  16. 50 CFR 665.270 - Gold coral harvest moratorium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gold coral harvest moratorium. 665.270 Section 665.270 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Fisheries § 665.270 Gold coral harvest moratorium. Fishing for, taking, or retaining any gold coral in...

  17. 50 CFR 665.169 - Gold coral harvest moratorium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gold coral harvest moratorium. 665.169 Section 665.169 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Fisheries § 665.169 Gold coral harvest moratorium. Fishing for, taking, or retaining any gold coral in...

  18. 50 CFR 665.270 - Gold coral harvest moratorium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gold coral harvest moratorium. 665.270 Section 665.270 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Fisheries § 665.270 Gold coral harvest moratorium. Fishing for, taking, or retaining any gold coral in...

  19. 50 CFR 665.169 - Gold coral harvest moratorium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gold coral harvest moratorium. 665.169 Section 665.169 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Fisheries § 665.169 Gold coral harvest moratorium. Fishing for, taking, or retaining any gold coral in...

  20. Unprecedented Disease-Related Coral Mortality in Southeastern Florida

    PubMed Central

    Precht, William F.; Gintert, Brooke E.; Robbart, Martha L.; Fura, Ryan; van Woesik, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Anomalously high water temperatures, associated with climate change, are increasing the global prevalence of coral bleaching, coral diseases, and coral-mortality events. Coral bleaching and disease outbreaks are often inter-related phenomena, since many coral diseases are a consequence of opportunistic pathogens that further compromise thermally stressed colonies. Yet, most coral diseases have low prevalence (<5%), and are not considered contagious. By contrast, we document the impact of an extremely high-prevalence outbreak (61%) of white-plague disease at 14 sites off southeastern Florida. White-plague disease was observed near Virginia Key, Florida, in September 2014, and after 12 months had spread 100 km north and 30 km south. The disease outbreak directly followed a high temperature coral-bleaching event and affected at least 13 coral species. Eusmilia fastigiata, Meandrina meandrites, and Dichocoenia stokesi were the most heavily impacted coral species, and were reduced to <3% of their initial population densities. A number of other coral species, including Colpophyllia natans, Pseudodiploria strigosa, Diploria labyrinthiformis, and Orbicella annularis were reduced to <25% of their initial densities. The high prevalence of disease, the number of susceptible species, and the high mortality of corals affected suggests this disease outbreak is arguably one of the most lethal ever recorded on a contemporary coral reef. PMID:27506875

  1. Developing a multi-stressor gradient for coral reefs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coral reefs are often found near coastal waters where multiple anthropogenic stressors co-occur at areas of human disturbance. Developing coral reef biocriteria under the U.S. Clean Water Act requires relationships between anthropogenic stressors and coral reef condition to be es...

  2. 78 FR 67128 - Coral Reef Conservation Program; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coral Reef Conservation Program; Meeting AGENCY: Coral Reef... of public comment. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of a public meeting of the U.S. Coral Reef Task.../uscrtf-registration-form . Commenters may address the meeting, the role of the USCRTF, or general...

  3. Coral Reefs: A Gallery Program, Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aquarium in Baltimore, MD. Dept. of Education.

    Gallery classes at the National Aquarium in Baltimore give the opportunity to study specific aquarium exhibits which demonstrate entire natural habitats. The coral reef gallery class features the gigantic western Atlantic coral reef (325,000 gallons) with over 1,000 fish. The exhibit simulates a typical Caribbean coral reef and nearby sandy…

  4. Environmental controls on uranium in reef corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Glen T.; Dunbar, Robert B.

    1995-05-01

    A survey of corals from a variety of tropical settings reveals previously unseen seasonal variations in skeletal U/Ca. Based upon two corals from the Galapagos Islands, a comparison of U/Ca with δ180 suggests a possible temperature dependence of +3-4% per degree centigrade cooling. An overall range in U/Ca of 1.03-1.37 μmol U/mol Ca (2.45-3.25 ppm) between corals from warm and cool water settings supports this interpretation. An alternative control, however, cannot be ruled out. Changes in the carbonate ion content of surface waters are sufficient to drive comparable variations, provided uranium is incorporated as UO 22+ or a carbonate complex thereof. In addition to these possible controls, we identify a probable salinity influence on coral U/Ca which suggests that uranium uptake depends upon [U] seawater and not [ U/Ca] seawater. Within individual corals, artifacts associated with "vital" influences appear minimal. Extension/calcification rate effects as assessed via comparisons of contemporaneous growth trajectories in individual colonies appear small relative to typical seasonal U/Ca variations of 10-20%. Excluding corals from the Galápagos cool regime, five species from warmer tropical settings exhibit remarkably little variability in mean U/Ca (1.03-1.09 μmol U/mol Ca). Our findings suggest that the range of U/Ca in modern corals defined by published data reflects a combination of interspecific variability and environmental control. The possibility that coral U/Ca is associated with temperature, alkalinity, and salinity suggests many uses for this new paleotracer. Rapid and precise measurement of uranium by isotope dilution ICP-MS will expedite future development and application. Key among the next steps must be studies to isolate the influences of the above mentioned environmental parameters. Additionally, potential microsampling artifacts (e.g., caused by drilling) and an apparent 6% "leachable" uranium fraction in a single test coral should be

  5. Growth study of branching coral Acropora formosa between natural reef habitats and in situ coral nurseries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Loke Hai; Hyde, Julian; Cob, Zaidi Che; Adzis, Kee Alfian Abdul

    2013-11-01

    Being a common reef building coral in Malaysian waters, growth of Acropora Formosa in natural reef habitat and coral nursery condition had been studied in aspects of extension growth, survival and proto-branch generation. The study sites took place at two separate islands with different environment conditions. In this study, A. formosa samples of natural reefs at Pangkor Island turbid waters recorded better growth in average extension rate (0.71 ±0.48 cm/month) and higher proto-branch generation rate (up to 52% after 6 months) than Tioman Island samples (0.38 ±0.34 cm/month, highest 17% after 6 months). However, Tioman Island natural reef samples maintained 100% survival throughout the study period. Then, branch fragments or nubbins of A. formosa were transplanted into two coral nursery sites at Tioman Island. Among these two coral nurseries, the Tekek site had better growth in all three aspects than Air Batang site. This was believed due to Tekek nursery had been setup with nubbins for more than 6 months before Air Batang nursery, thus the Tekek samples were conditioned long enough for growing in the coral nursery environment. The results of this study documented the growth of this particular coral species in two islands of Peninsular Malaysia, and demonstrated the potential application of A. Formosa for coral transplant, in situ nursery and active reef restoration.

  6. Coral diseases are major contributors to coral mortality in Shingle Island, Gulf of Mannar, southeastern India.

    PubMed

    Thinesh, T; Diraviya Raj, K; Mathews, G; Patterson Edward, J K

    2013-09-24

    The present study reports coral mortality, driven primarily by coral diseases, around Shingle Island, Gulf of Mannar (GOM), Indian Ocean. In total, 2910 colonies were permanently monitored to assess the incidence of coral diseases and consequent mortality for 2 yr. Four types of lesions consistent with white band disease (WBD), black disease (BD), white plaque disease (WPD), and pink spot disease (PSD) were recorded from 4 coral genera: Montipora, Pocillopora, Acropora, and Porites. Porites were affected by 2 disease types, while the other 3 genera were affected by only 1 disease type. Overall disease prevalence increased from 8% (n = 233 colonies) to 41.9% (n = 1219) over the 2 yr study period. BD caused an unprecedented 100% mortality in Pocillopora, followed by 20.4 and 13.1% mortality from WBD in Montipora and Acropora, respectively. Mean disease progression rates of 0.8 ± 1.0 and 0.6 ± 0.5 cm mo-1 over live coral colonies were observed for BD and WBD. Significant correlations between temperature and disease progression were observed for BD (r = 0.86, R2 = 0.75, p < 0.001) and WBD (R2 = 0.76, p < 0.001). This study revealed the increasing trend of disease prevalence and progression of disease over live coral in a relatively limited study area; further study should investigate the status of the entire coral reef in the GOM and the role of diseases in reef dynamics. PMID:24062554

  7. Thermal Stress and Coral Cover as Drivers of Coral Disease Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, John F; Selig, Elizabeth R; Casey, Kenneth S; Page, Cathie A; Willis, Bette L; Harvell, C. Drew; Sweatman, Hugh; Melendy, Amy M

    2007-01-01

    Very little is known about how environmental changes such as increasing temperature affect disease dynamics in the ocean, especially at large spatial scales. We asked whether the frequency of warm temperature anomalies is positively related to the frequency of coral disease across 1,500 km of Australia's Great Barrier Reef. We used a new high-resolution satellite dataset of ocean temperature and 6 y of coral disease and coral cover data from annual surveys of 48 reefs to answer this question. We found a highly significant relationship between the frequencies of warm temperature anomalies and of white syndrome, an emergent disease, or potentially, a group of diseases, of Pacific reef-building corals. The effect of temperature was highly dependent on coral cover because white syndrome outbreaks followed warm years, but only on high (>50%) cover reefs, suggesting an important role of host density as a threshold for outbreaks. Our results indicate that the frequency of temperature anomalies, which is predicted to increase in most tropical oceans, can increase the susceptibility of corals to disease, leading to outbreaks where corals are abundant. PMID:17488183

  8. Recognizing diversity in coral symbiotic dinoflagellate communities.

    PubMed

    Apprill, Amy M; Gates, Ruth D

    2007-03-01

    A detailed understanding of how diversity in endosymbiotic dinoflagellate communities maps onto the physiological range of coral hosts is critical to predicting how coral reef ecosystems will respond to climate change. Species-level taxonomy of the dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium has been predominantly examined using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal array (rDNA ITS2) and downstream screening for dominant types using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Here, ITS2 diversity in the communities of Symbiodinium harboured by two Hawaiian coral species was explored using direct sequencing of clone libraries. We resolved sixfold to eightfold greater diversity per coral species than previously reported, the majority of which corresponds to a novel and distinct phylogenetic lineage. We evaluated how these sequences migrate in DGGE and demonstrate that this method does not effectively resolve this diversity. We conclude that the Porites spp. examined here harbour diverse assemblages of novel Symbiodinium types and that cloning and sequencing is an effective methodological approach for resolving the complexity of endosymbiotic dinoflagellate communities harboured by reef corals. PMID:17391401

  9. Coral Skeletons Defend against Ultraviolet Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Reef, Ruth; Kaniewska, Paulina; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2009-01-01

    Background Many coral reef organisms are photosynthetic or have evolved in tight symbiosis with photosynthetic symbionts. As such, the tissues of reef organisms are often exposed to intense solar radiation in clear tropical waters and have adapted to trap and harness photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). High levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) associated with sunlight, however, represent a potential problem in terms of tissue damage. Methodology/Principal Findings By measuring UVR and PAR reflectance from intact and ground bare coral skeletons we show that the property of calcium carbonate skeletons to absorb downwelling UVR to a significant extent, while reflecting PAR back to the overlying tissue, has biological advantages. We placed cnidarians on top of bare skeletons and a UVR reflective substrate and showed that under ambient UVR levels, UVR transmitted through the tissues of cnidarians placed on top of bare skeletons were four times lower compared to their counterparts placed on a UVR reflective white substrate. In accordance with the lower levels of UVR measured in cnidarians on top of coral skeletons, a similar drop in UVR damage to their DNA was detected. The skeletons emitted absorbed UVR as yellow fluorescence, which allows for safe dissipation of the otherwise harmful radiation. Conclusions/Significance Our study presents a novel defensive role for coral skeletons and reveals that the strong UVR absorbance by the skeleton can contribute to the ability of corals, and potentially other calcifiers, to thrive under UVR levels that are detrimental to most marine life. PMID:19946361

  10. A coral-on-a-chip microfluidic platform enabling live-imaging microscopy of reef-building corals.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Orr H; Kramarsky-Winter, Esti; Gavish, Assaf R; Stocker, Roman; Vardi, Assaf

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs, and the unique ecosystems they support, are facing severe threats by human activities and climate change. Our understanding of these threats is hampered by the lack of robust approaches for studying the micro-scale interactions between corals and their environment. Here we present an experimental platform, coral-on-a-chip, combining micropropagation and microfluidics to allow direct microscopic study of live coral polyps. The small and transparent coral micropropagates are ideally suited for live-imaging microscopy, while the microfluidic platform facilitates long-term visualization under controlled environmental conditions. We demonstrate the usefulness of this approach by imaging coral micropropagates at previously unattainable spatio-temporal resolutions, providing new insights into several micro-scale processes including coral calcification, coral-pathogen interaction and the loss of algal symbionts (coral bleaching). Coral-on-a-chip thus provides a powerful method for studying coral physiology in vivo at the micro-scale, opening new vistas in coral biology. PMID:26940983