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Sample records for del asma bronchial

  1. Atypical Bronchial Carcinoid Masquerading as Bronchial Asthma.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, V; Iqbal; Kumar, Vinod

    2015-11-01

    A case study of 35-year-old woman with persistent breathlessness and wheezing that had been unsuccessfully treated with inhaled beta 2-agonists and steroids for about two years. Patient developed dry cough and haemoptysis, so investigated further. Spirometry demonstrated a restrictive pattern. Chest CT demonstrated well defined hyperdense lesion in right middle lobe. Biopsy taken from the mass during bronchoscopy demonstrated the picture of atypical bronchial carcinoid. In this case, due to the lack of awareness, diagnosis of carcinoid was delayed by two years. PMID:27608788

  2. Bronchial secretion concentrations of tobramycin.

    PubMed

    Alexander, M R; Schoell, J; Hicklin, G; Kasik, J E; Coleman, D

    1982-02-01

    The mean concentrations of tobramycin in bronchial secretions from patients with pneumonia were almost two times greater than secretions from patients free of lung infection. Mean tobramycin bronchial secretion to serum concentration ratios also were higher when obtained from infected lungs (0.66 versus 0.17) These data suggest that lung infection enhances the concentrations of tobramycin in bronchial secretions. PMID:7065524

  3. Unusual bronchial foreign body.

    PubMed

    Kuba, Paresh Kumar; Sharma, Jasvinder; Sharma, Ashok Kumar

    2015-11-01

    We present an unusual case of bronchial foreign body in an adult who presented with bronchiectasis more than two decades later. The patient was unaware of his accidental aspiration of the foreign body, and the final diagnosis was made intraoperatively. PMID:26113734

  4. Bronchial carcinoma and hypercalcaemia

    PubMed Central

    Azzopardi, J. G.; Whittaker, R. S.

    1969-01-01

    Hypercalcaemia due to malignant disease, in the absence of bone metastases, is generally regarded as a rare event. It occurred in 16% of a series of cases of bronchial carcinoma coming to necropsy. Hypercalcaemia is a relatively common complication of bronchial carcinoma. The hypercalcaemia is usually accompanied by hypophosphataemia and, in this respect, must be distinguished from the hypercalcaemia that may be found with breast carcinoma. It is frequently accompanied by hypokalaemic alkalosis; this must not be confused with the metabolic disorder that results from the production of ectopic `ACTH'. The bones sometimes show changes of osteitis fibrosa akin to those seen in hyperparathyroidism. Cystic disease of bone recognizable radiologically is rare, probably because of the relatively short duration of the metabolic disturbance. The parathyroids are usually mildly atrophic. There is no evidence that the main pathogenetic mechanism is stimulation of the parathyroids by the tumour. Acceptable instances of parathyroid hyperplasia are very rare: the significance of these exceptional cases awaits further study. Squamous carcinoma of the bronchus is the type mainly incriminated. Oat-cell carcinoma and bronchial adenocarcinoma are involved less frequently than expected by chance. The significance of the tumour types implicated is discussed in relation to the possible pathogenesis. Images PMID:5365347

  5. [Bronchial mucoepidermoid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Bregante, J I; Rituerto, B; Font de Mora, F; Alonso, F; Andreu, M J; Figuerola, J; Mulet, J F

    1998-07-01

    We submit the case of a child afflicted with a mucoepidermoid bronchial tumor. The patient is a boy, aged seven, who after undergoing antibiotic treatment for six weeks because of a fever and atelectasia-condensation in the right lower lobe showed no signs of clinical improvement and was sent to our department to undergo further study and treatment. A bronchoscopy performed shows a polypoid mass that partially blocks the main bronchial tube a few milimiters under the access to the right upper lobe. A biopsy is carried out and the anatomopathological test shows there is a low degree epidermoid carcinoma. We decide to perform a lobectomy which for the tumor location and the lung condition has to be medium and lower right. We proceed to remove the adenopaty of hilium not affected by the tumor. The postoperative period develops without incidents. A check-up bronchoscopy performed three months later shows two polypoid masses in the right bronchial tube which, once a biopsy is performed, proved to be granulation tissue. Twelve months after undergoing surgery, the patient's condition is good, there is no evidence of tumor relapse and the breathing capacity is adequate, though there is an obstructive restrictive pattern in the espirometry. Even taking into consideration that lung tumors are extremely unusual, the epidermoid carcinoma is the one which most frequently occurs. The tumor's low malignancy is a sign that points to a good prognosis. Performing conservative surgery by means of bronchoplasty should be taken into account so as to keep the sequelae on the lung condition to a minimum, even though in this case the tumor location made it impossible. PMID:12602035

  6. MANNITOL BRONCHIAL CHALLENGE TEST IN ASTHMATIC CHILDREN.

    PubMed

    Miraglia Del Giudice, M; Capristo, C; Decima, F; Coronella, A; Indolfi, C; Parisi, G; Maiello, N

    2015-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by bronchial obstruction, usually reversible spontaneously or after therapy, bronchial hyperreactivity and accelerated decrease of lung function that may possibly evolve into irreversible obstruction of the respiratory tract. Bronchial provocation tests can be used in order to assess the presence and degree of bronchial hyper reactivity. The recently introduced mannitol powder inhalation indirect test seems to have an interesting and promising role, especially in childhood, because of its high diagnostic specificity, easiness of execution and best standardization. In this study the authors focused on the significance and clinical use of mannitol bronchial challenge test in asthmatic children. PMID:26634590

  7. Does bronchial hyperresponsiveness in asthma matter?

    PubMed

    Currie, Graeme P; Jackson, Catherine M; Lipworth, Brian J

    2004-01-01

    Bronchial hyperresponsiveness is a fundamental component of the asthmatic inflammatory process causing airway narrowing on exposure to a bronchoconstrictor stimulus. This in turn causes patients to experience symptoms of breathlessness, chest tightness, cough and wheeze. Bronchial challenge tests can be performed in the laboratory to establish the degree of bronchial hyperresponsiveness to both direct and indirect stimuli. The extent to which asthma pharmacotherapy attenuates bronchial hyperresponsiveness is therefore an important measure of efficacy. This review article discusses the effects of inhaled and oral asthma treatment upon bronchial hyperresponsiveness and highlights how, in conjunction with conventional measures of asthma control, it can be used as an aid to optimally manage patients. PMID:15260457

  8. [Anesthetic management in bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Kozian, Alf; Schilling, Thomas; Hachenberg, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    In daily practice, acute and chronic pulmonary diseases are common issues presenting to the anesthetist. Respiratory physiology in general is affected by both general and regional anesthesia, which results in an increased number of perioperative complications in pulmonary risk patients. Therefore, anesthetic management of patients with bronchial asthma needs to address different clinical topics: the physical appearance of pulmonary disease, type and extent of surgical intervention as well as effects of therapeutic drugs, anesthetics and mechanical ventilation on respiratory function. The present work describes important precautions in preoperative scheduling of the asthmatic patient. In the operative course, airway manipulation and a number of anesthetics are able to trigger intraoperative bronchial spasm with possibly fatal outcome. It is essential to avoid these substances to prevent asthma attack. If asthmatic status occurs, appropriate procedures according to therapeutic standards have to be applied to the patient. Postoperatively, sufficient pain therapy avoids pulmonary complications and improves outcome. PMID:27359239

  9. [Non-specific bronchial hyper-responsiveness and polymorphysm of xenobiotics biotransformation GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes under neutrophilic bronchial asthma in children].

    PubMed

    Ivanova, L A; Mykaliuk, L V; Hryhola, O H

    2014-01-01

    With a view to study the effect of genes GSTT1 and GSTM1 deletion on the non-specific bronchial hyperresponsiveness in children with neutrophilic bronchial asthma (BA) 46 school age children having neutrophilic BA (1st clinical group) and their 48 coevals with eosinophilic phenotype of the disease (2nd clinical group) were subjected to a complex examination at the pulmo-allergologic department of the regional child clinical hospital of Chernivtsi. The study proved that genotype T1+M1del was more frequently registered in patients with the neutrophilic phenotype of the disease, and genotype T1delM1del was equifrequent in patients with different types of the inflammation of the respiratory ways. In patients with neutrophilic BA and deletion polymorphism of genes GSTT1 and GSTM1, there was a tendency to decreasing of the bronchial lability index through the decrease of bronchodilation, and bronchial response to histamine occurred to be higher than in children with the absence of polymorphism of the referred genes of the xenobiotics biotransformation system. PMID:24908960

  10. [Thoracic actinomycosis versus bronchial cancer].

    PubMed

    Brombacher-Frey, I; Wöckel, W; Kreusser, T

    1992-01-01

    We report on 4 thoracic actinomycoses; in three of these four cases a bronchial carcinoma was suspected, and in case No. 2 this carcinoma had been considered to be in a very advanced and inoperable stage. A man of 51 years of age was in a generally run-down condition. He also noticed that his sputum was tinged with blood. The x-ray film showed a large space-occupying growth at the right lung hilus. Repeated perbronchial biopsies of the focus did not yield any diagnosis. Actinomycosis was identified histologically only in the tissue samples obtained via thoracotomy. After a three-month penicillin course the hilar shadow receded. A 61-year old male patient was transferred to our Pneumological Hospital, being strongly suspected of suffering from an extensive bronchial carcinoma, and having multiple intrathoracic space-occupying growths as well as pleural effusions, a pericardial effusion, and an infiltration of the left thoracic wall with fistula formation; however, histological examination of skin biopsies revealed that he was suffering from actinomycosis. Antibiotic therapy cured him completely in a six-month course. In a man of 32 years of age who had been indulging for many years in a severe abuse of nicotin, we suspected a central bronchial carcinoma on the basis of his x-ray, but histology of the tissue taken from the space-occupying growth via diagnostic thoracotomy revealed that this patient, too, suffered from actinomycosis. Complete recession occurred after several months of antibiotic treatment. A woman of 82 years had been an inpatient for several months in another hospital because of relapsing pleuropneumonias on the right side. She was transferred to us as an outpatient after a renewed relapse. We conducted a transcutaneous fine-needle biopsy of the right indurating pleural effusion. A few actinomyces filaments were seen on histological examination of the purulent exudate. Hence, actinomycosis was confirmed. After antibiotic therapy the finding receded

  11. [Bilateral bronchial rupture: problems of respiratory management].

    PubMed

    Sztark, F; Thicoïpé, M; Favarel-Garrigues, J F; Velly, J F; Lassié, P

    1995-01-01

    The authors report the case of bilateral bronchial rupture in a 39-year-old multiple trauma patient. During the thoracotomy for right main bronchus repair, a partial left bronchial rupture was recognized because of severe hypoxaemia after left selective intubation. PMID:7486281

  12. [Endobronchial aspergilloma revealing a bronchial carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Slimani, Hajar; Soualhi, Mouna; Sadak, Nouzha; Zahraoui, Rachida; Bourkadi, Jamal-Eddine

    2016-08-01

    Endobronchial aspergillosis is a rare presentation of pulmonary aspergillosis in immunocompetent patients; this raises questions about structural changes inducing airflow stasis in order to colonize the bronchial lumen. We present the case of a patient diagnosed with endobronchial aspergilloma covering a bronchial adenocarcinoma. PMID:27475005

  13. [Eosinophilic oesophagitis in bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Mikhaleva, L M; Barkhina, T G; Golovanova, V E; Shchegoleva, N N; Gracheva, N A

    2012-01-01

    Combination of bronchial asthma and gastrointestinal pathology is frequently encountered in clinical practice. Clinical symptoms of this condition are highly diversified and gastrointestinal diseases play an important role in exacerbation of bronchial asthma. The prevalence of allergic diseases has recently become rampant. Eosinophilic oesophagitis is worth of special attention because its histological criteria, unlike clinical ones, are well defined. They include chronic immune antigen-mediated inflammatory oesophageal disease with pronounced intraepithelial eosinophilic infiltration and clinical symptoms resulting from oesophageal dysfunction that resemble manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease but fail to respond to antireflux and antacid therapy. Many specific and practical aspects of the problem remain to be elucidated. The poor awareness of clinicians of this disease hampers its adequate diagnostics and treatment. In order to revise and optimize the former diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm., an interdisciplinary expert group was set up in 2010 constituted by specialists of the American College of Gastroenterology, American Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Immunology, and Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition. Results of the work of this group together with the literature data on eosinophilic esopahgitis are discussed in the present review. PMID:23516863

  14. Impact of bronchial circulation on bronchial exudation following combined burn and smoke inhalation injury in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Naoki; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Maybauer, Dirk M.; Maybauer, Marc O.; Westphal, Martin; Murakami, Kazunori; Hawkins, Hal K.; Cox, Robert A.; Traber, Lillian. D.; Traber, Daniel L.

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported bronchial circulation contributes to pulmonary edema and increases shunt fraction following smoke inhalation, and bronchial blood flow significantly increases in inhalation injury. We hypothesized reduction of bronchial blood flow reduces exudation to the airway and ameliorates lung injury from combined burn and smoke insults (B & S injury). Method Merino ewes (n=28) randomly divided into three groups (1: bronchial artery ligated and injured (Injury + ligation group); 2: bronchial artery left intact and injured (Injury + no ligation group); 3: bronchial artery ligated but not injured (No injury + ligation group) were subjected to a flame burn and inhalation injury under halothane anesthesia. Parameters were analyzed using Scheffe’s post hoc test (P<0.05). All Groups were resuscitated with Ringer lactate solution and placed on a ventilator for 48 hours. Results Pulmonary gas exchange (PaO2/FiO2) improved in injury + ligation group. Further, obstruction score, an index of airway cast formation, significantly changed between injury + no ligation group compared to both ligation groups. Conclusion Bronchial circulation plays a significant role in lung injury after B & S injury, and reduction of bronchial blood flow by bronchial artery ligation reduces bronchial exudation, resulting in improved gas exchange. PMID:21195551

  15. Permanent Cortical Blindness After Bronchial Artery Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Doorn, Colette S. van De Boo, Diederick W.; Weersink, Els J. M.; Delden, Otto M. van Reekers, Jim A. Lienden, Krijn P. van

    2013-12-15

    A 35-year-old female with a known medical history of cystic fibrosis was admitted to our institution for massive hemoptysis. CTA depicted a hypertrophied bronchial artery to the right upper lobe and showed signs of recent bleeding at that location. Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) was performed with gelfoam slurry, because pronounced shunting to the pulmonary artery was present. Immediately after BAE, the patient developed bilateral cortical blindness. Control angiography showed an initially not opacified anastomosis between the embolized bronchial artery and the right subclavian artery, near to the origin of the right vertebral artery. Cessation of outflow in the bronchial circulation reversed the flow through the anastomosis and allowed for spill of embolization material into the posterior circulation. Unfortunately the cortical blindness presented was permanent.

  16. [CYTYOGENETIC MARKERS OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA IN CHILDREN].

    PubMed

    Lytvynets', L Ia

    2014-01-01

    The learning of cytyogenetic special of cariotip in children with the bronchial asthma maked by course of the investigation of prometahyases chromosomes of limphocytes of the periferic bloods. The quantity of association of acrocentric chromosome was analised. The 82 children in age 6-18 years old with the bronchial asthma and with the different control were learned by results of asthma--test control. In children with the noncontrol bronchial asthma the big frequency of of association of acrocentric chromosome 13-15 (D-D), 21-22 (G-G) n 13-15--21-22 (D-G) were received. In patients with the bronchial asthma the lover mitotic activity by healthy were marked (P(N) < 0.05). With the degree of activity it was decreased. PMID:26118082

  17. Penetration of pefloxacin into bronchial secretions.

    PubMed Central

    Bonmarchand, G; Grès, J J; Lerebours, G; Massari, P; Mayoux, J J; Montay, A; Leroy, J

    1989-01-01

    Twelve patients, intubated for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, received six intravenous doses of 400 mg of pefloxacin at 12-h intervals. Samples of blood and bronchial secretions were taken simultaneously, before the injection and at 0.5, 3, 6, 9, and 12 h after the end of the sixth infusion. There was a large variation in pefloxacin levels in both serum and bronchial secretions. The mean concentrations of pefloxacin in bronchial secretions ranged from 6.51 to 11.1 micrograms/ml and were higher than the corresponding concentrations in serum at all times. Of 61 bronchial specimens, 48 (79%) contained more than 8 micrograms of the antibiotic per ml. PMID:2729932

  18. Treatment of bronchial obstruction in asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Spicak, V; Kacirek, S; Pohunek, P

    1987-01-01

    In asthmatic children, clenbuterol causes bronchodilatation for 12h. Ipratropium bromide plus fenoterol is effective in stopping dry irritable cough related to bronchial obstruction. Sustained-release theophylline is effective with therapeutic serum and saliva concentrations for 16h. Ambroxol hydrochloride provides an additional therapy for bronchial obstructure since it reduces cough and sputum output. Cromoglycate and ketotifen are appropriate for long term treatment, and a combination of bronchodilators may offer better control of nocturnal asthma. PMID:3664019

  19. Anatomical modeling of the bronchial tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentschel, Gerrit; Klinder, Tobias; Blaffert, Thomas; Bülow, Thomas; Wiemker, Rafael; Lorenz, Cristian

    2010-02-01

    The bronchial tree is of direct clinical importance in the context of respective diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It furthermore constitutes a reference structure for object localization in the lungs and it finally provides access to lung tissue in, e.g., bronchoscope based procedures for diagnosis and therapy. This paper presents a comprehensive anatomical model for the bronchial tree, including statistics of position, relative and absolute orientation, length, and radius of 34 bronchial segments, going beyond previously published results. The model has been built from 16 manually annotated CT scans, covering several branching variants. The model is represented as a centerline/tree structure but can also be converted in a surface representation. Possible model applications are either to anatomically label extracted bronchial trees or to improve the tree extraction itself by identifying missing segments or sub-trees, e.g., if located beyond a bronchial stenosis. Bronchial tree labeling is achieved using a naïve Bayesian classifier based on the segment properties contained in the model in combination with tree matching. The tree matching step makes use of branching variations covered by the model. An evaluation of the model has been performed in a leaveone- out manner. In total, 87% of the branches resulting from preceding airway tree segmentation could be correctly labeled. The individualized model enables the detection of missing branches, allowing a targeted search, e.g., a local rerun of the tree-segmentation segmentation.

  20. Recent developments regarding periostin in bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Izuhara, Kenji; Matsumoto, Hisako; Ohta, Shoichiro; Ono, Junya; Arima, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Masahiro

    2015-09-01

    Although it is currently recognized that bronchial asthma is not a single disease but a syndrome, we have not yet made use of our new understanding of this heterogeneity as we treat asthma patients. To increase the efficacy of anti-asthma drugs and to decrease costs, it is important to stratify asthma patients into subgroups and to develop therapeutic strategies for each subgroup. Periostin has recently emerged as a biomarker for bronchial asthma, unique in that it is useful not in diagnosis but in categorizing asthma patients. We first found that periostin is a novel component of subepithelial fibrosis in bronchial asthma downstream of IL-13 signals. Thereafter, it was shown that periostin can be a surrogate biomarker of type 2 immune responses, the basis of the notion that a detection system of serum periostin is potentially a companion diagnostic for type 2 antagonists. Furthermore, we have recently shown that serum periostin can predict resistance or hyporesponsiveness to inhaled corticosteroids, based on its contribution to tissue remodeling or fibrosis in bronchial asthma. Thus, serum periostin has two characteristics as a biomarker for bronchial asthma: it is both a surrogate biomarker of type 2 immune responses and a biomarker reflecting tissue remodeling or fibrosis. We can take advantage of these characteristics to develop stratified medicine in bronchial asthma. PMID:26344077

  1. Anoctamin 1 dysregulation alters bronchial epithelial repair in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Ruffin, Manon; Voland, Mélanie; Marie, Solenne; Bonora, Monique; Blanchard, Elise; Blouquit-Laye, Sabine; Naline, Emmanuel; Puyo, Philippe; Le Rouzic, Philippe; Guillot, Loic; Corvol, Harriet; Clement, Annick; Tabary, Olivier

    2013-12-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) airway epithelium is constantly subjected to injury events due to chronic infection and inflammation. Moreover, abnormalities in CF airway epithelium repair have been described and contribute to the lung function decline seen in CF patients. In the last past years, it has been proposed that anoctamin 1 (ANO1), a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel, might offset the CFTR deficiency but this protein has not been characterized in CF airways. Interestingly, recent evidence indicates a role for ANO1 in cell proliferation and tumor growth. Our aims were to study non-CF and CF bronchial epithelial repair and to determine whether ANO1 is involved in airway epithelial repair. Here, we showed, with human bronchial epithelial cell lines and primary cells, that both cell proliferation and migration during epithelial repair are delayed in CF compared to non-CF cells. We then demonstrated that ANO1 Cl(-) channel activity was significantly decreased in CF versus non-CF cells. To explain this decreased Cl(-) channel activity in CF context, we compared ANO1 expression in non-CF vs. CF bronchial epithelial cell lines and primary cells, in lung explants from wild-type vs. F508del mice and non-CF vs. CF patients. In all these models, ANO1 expression was markedly lower in CF compared to non-CF. Finally, we established that ANO1 inhibition or overexpression was associated respectively with decreases and increases in cell proliferation and migration. In summary, our study demonstrates involvement of ANO1 decreased activity and expression in abnormal CF airway epithelial repair and suggests that ANO1 correction may improve this process. PMID:24080196

  2. An optimal bronchial treemay be dangerous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauroy, B.; Filoche, M.; Weibel, E. R.; Sapoval, B.

    2004-02-01

    The geometry and dimensions of branched structures such as blood vessels or airways are important factors in determining the efficiency of physiological processes. It has been shown that fractal trees can be space filling and can ensure minimal dissipation. The bronchial tree of most mammalian lungs is a good example of an efficient distribution system with an approximate fractal structure. Here we present a study of the compatibility between physical optimization and physiological robustness in the design of the human bronchial tree. We show that this physical optimization is critical in the sense that small variations in the geometry can induce very large variations in the net air flux. Maximum physical efficiency therefore cannot be a sufficient criterion for the physiological design of bronchial trees. Rather, the design of bronchial trees must be provided with a safety factor and the capacity for regulating airway calibre. Paradoxically, our results suggest that bronchial malfunction related to asthma is a necessary consequence of the optimized efficiency of the tree structure.

  3. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness decreases through childhood.

    PubMed

    Riiser, Amund; Hovland, Vegard; Mowinckel, Petter; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Carlsen, Karin Lødrup

    2012-02-01

    Limited knowledge exists about development of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) through adolescence. We aimed to assess changes in and risk factors for BHR in adolescence. From a Norwegian birth cohort 517 subjects underwent clinical examinations, structured interviews and methacholine challenges at age 10 and 16. BHR was divided into four categories: no BHR (cumulative methacholine dose required to reduce FEV(1) by 20% (PD(20)) >16 μmol), borderline BHR (PD(20) ≤16 and >8 μmol), mild to moderate BHR (PD(20) ≤8 and >1 μmol), and severe BHR (PD(20) ≤ 1 μmol). Logistic regression analysis was used to assess risk factors and possible confounders. The number of children with PD(20) ≤ 8 decreased from 172 (33%) to 79 (15%) from age 10-16 (p < 0.001). Most children (n = 295, 57%) remained in the same BHR (category) from age 10-16 (50% with no BHR), whereas the majority 182 (82%) of the 222 children who changed BHR category, had decreased severity at age 16. PD(20) ≤ 8 at age 10 was the major risk factor for PD(20) ≤ 8 6 years later (odds ratio 6.3), without significant confounding effect (>25% change) of gender, active rhinitis, active asthma, height, FEV(1)/FVC, or allergic sensitization. BHR decreased overall in severity through adolescence, was stable for the majority of children and only a minority (8%) had increased BHR from age 10 to 16. Mild to moderate and severe BHR at age 10 were major risk factors for PD(20) ≤ 8 at 16 years and not modified by asthma or body size. PMID:22015380

  4. [Cytomorphological analysis of remodeling of the bronchial wall in different types of bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Gereng, E A; Sukhodolo, I V; Pleshko, R I; Ogorodova, L M; Selivanova, P A; Dziuman, A N

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to search for the tissue and cellular markers of remodeling of bronchial mucosa in the patients with different clinical forms of bronchial asthma (BA). The use of up-to-date morphometric techniques has demonstrated that mild and moderately severe forms of bronchial asthma are accompanied by the development of Th2-immune response associated with increased production of interleukin-4 and marked degranulation of eosinophilic granulocytes resulting in desquamation of epithelium and goblet cell hyperplasia. The severe BA phenotype of "chronic asthma with fixed obstruction" is associated with the development of non-atopic inflammation in the bronchial mucous membrane that manifests itself as the increased concentration of interleukin-8 in bronchial mucosa and its neutrophilic infiltration leading to the development of pronounced subepithelial fibrosis, thickening of the basal membrane, and atrophy of epithelium. Specific structural changes in bronchial mucosa of the patients presenting with BA underlie functional disturbances that cause severe bronchial obstructive syndrome. PMID:22645957

  5. Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis Complicating Bronchial Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Qadi, Mazen O.; Reddy, Dereddi Raja S.; Larsen, Brandon T.; Iyer, Vivek N.

    2014-01-01

    Bronchial atresia is a rare pulmonary developmental anomaly characterized by the presence of a focal obliteration of a segmental or lobar bronchial lumen. The lung distal to the atretic bronchus is typically emphysematous along with the presence of mucus filled ectatic bronchi (mucoceles). BA is usually asymptomatic but pulmonary infections can rarely develop in the emphysematous lung distal to the atretic bronchus. We present a unique case of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) in a patient with BA with no evidence of immune dysfunction. The patient was treated initially with voriconazole and subsequently underwent surgical excision of the involved area. On follow-up, she has done extremely well with no evidence for recurrence. In summary, we describe the first case of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis in an immunocompetent patient with bronchial atresia. PMID:25587281

  6. Bronchial cancer - chest x-ray (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This is a chest x-ray of a person with bronchial cancer. This is a front view. The lungs are the two dark ... white areas visible in the middle of the chest. The light areas that appear as subtle branches ...

  7. [Skin metastases revealing a bronchial adenocarcinoma].

    PubMed

    Zemmez, Youssef; Zegmout, Adil; Hamama, Jalal; Bouhamidi, Ahmed; El Amraoui, Mohammed; El Azhari, Jaouad; Boui, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of bronchial carcinoma revealed by metastatic skin nodules on the scalp. This fairly common mode of discovery is often associated with poor prognosis. This study aims to underline the importance of directing the search for a primary lung cancer in cases of secondary skin involvement. PMID:27583066

  8. Irritant exposure, bronchial reactivity and asthma.

    PubMed

    Gordon, S B; Morice, A H

    1997-10-01

    The role of irritant exposure in the pathogenesis of bronchial reactivity and asthma is uncertain. This paper reviews the evidence from environmental epidemiological surveys, studies of occupationally exposed populations and chamber studies of asthmatic and nonasthmatic subjects exposed to irritant fumes. The reactive airways dysfunction syndrome and occupational asthma due to irritant exposure are considered in the context of these results. Although several irritants cause acute bronchoconstriction by a number of mechanisms in chamber studies, there is little convincing evidence to suggest that irritant exposure without pulmonary injury is a risk factor for the development of bronchial hyperresponsiveness. This is the case both in relatively intense concentrations, such as those experienced in industrial or chamber exposure, and at the levels experienced by the general population. PMID:9510667

  9. Mediastinitis and Bronchial Perforations Due to Mucormycosis.

    PubMed

    Dhooria, Sahajal; Agarwal, Ritesh; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke

    2015-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common predisposing condition for mucormycosis, which is emerging as an important invasive fungal infection worldwide. Isolated mediastinitis is a very rare presentation of mucormycosis. A 57-year-old woman with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus and ketoacidosis presented with septic shock and was subsequently found to have mucor mediastinitis with multiple bronchial perforations. The organism was identified as Rhizopus oryzae with the help of DNA sequencing. PMID:26348693

  10. Confocal fluorescence microendoscopy of bronchial epithelium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Pierre M.; Lam, Stephen; McWilliams, Annette; Leriche, Jean C.; Anderson, Marshall W.; Macaulay, Calum E.

    2009-03-01

    Confocal microendoscopy permits the acquisition of high-resolution real-time confocal images of bronchial mucosa via the instrument channel of an endoscope. We report here on the construction and validation of a confocal fluorescence microendoscope and its use to acquire images of bronchial epithelium in vivo. Our objective is to develop an imaging method that can distinguish preneoplastic lesions from normal epithelium to enable us to study the natural history of these lesions and the efficacy of chemopreventive agents without biopsy removal of the lesion that can introduce a spontaneous regression bias. The instrument employs a laser-scanning engine and bronchoscope-compatible confocal probe consisting of a fiber-optic image guide and a graded-index objective lens. We assessed the potential of topical application of physiological pH cresyl violet (CV) as a fluorescence contrast-enhancing agent for the visualization of tissue morphology. Images acquired ex vivo with the confocal microendoscope were first compared with a bench-top confocal fluorescence microscope and conventional histology. Confocal images from five sites topically stained with CV were then acquired in vivo from high-risk smokers and compared to hematoxylin and eosin stained sections of biopsies taken from the same site. Sufficient contrast in the confocal imagery was obtained to identify cells in the bronchial epithelium. However, further improvements in the miniature objective lens are required to provide sufficient axial resolution for accurate classification of preneoplastic lesions.

  11. A rare case of bilateral bronchial foreign body

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, ZhiGang; Gao, Qian; Song, PengLong

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a 7-year-old male patient with bilateral bronchial cocklebur fruit aspiration, which he sustained while playing. The patient presented with a triad of cough, wheezing, and decreased breath sounds (decreased in the right lung and absent in the left). These symptoms led to a diagnosis of bilateral bronchial foreign body, which was confirmed by computed tomography three-dimensional reconstruction of the bronchial tree. The patient was on the verge of death during operation but was ultimately rescued. Our therapeutic experience in treating this case of bilateral bronchial cocklebur fruit aspiration may provide a good reference for others. PMID:26101515

  12. Bronchial wall region extraction algorithm using multi-slice CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akashi, Kengo; Saita, Shinsuke; Kubo, Mitsuru; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Nakano, Yasutaka; Niimi, Akio; Matsumoto, Hisako; Oguma, Tsuyoshi; Takiguchi, Yuichi; Kawata, Naoko; Tanabe, Nobuhiro; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Eguchi, Kenji; Kaneko, Masahiro; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2009-02-01

    As multi-slice CT develops, there are great expectations for an automatic and computer-support diagnoses. This research is on bronchial area which is composed of the bronchial wall regions and the air regions in the internal bronchial tube. Since to diagnose this is difficult, support diagnosis using CT images is desired. The thickness of bronchial wall changes as the airway of early lung cancer, bronchial asthma and the bronchial enhancing syndrome and others change into a malignant state. These changes are detected and the thickness of bronchial wall becomes important information. In this research, the extraction accuracy of the algorithm for bronchial wall evaluation is good.

  13. Bronchial Aneurysms Mimicking Aortic Aneurysms: Endovascular Treatment in Two Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Vernhet, Helene; Bousquet, Claudine; Jean, Betty; Lesnik, Alvian; Durand, Gerard; Giron, Jacques; Senac, Jean Paul

    1999-05-15

    Bronchial artery dilatation and aneurysm formation is a potential complication of local inflammation, especially in bronchiectasis. When the bronchial artery has an ectopic origin from the inferior segment of the aortic arch, aneurysms may mimick aortic aneurysms. Despite this particular location, endovascular treatment is possible. We report two such aneurysms that were successfully embolized with steel coils.

  14. Cytokine production by cell cultures from bronchial subepithelial myofibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S; Howarth, P H; Roche, W R

    1996-09-01

    Myofibroblasts have been previously described beneath the bronchial epithelium and were found to increase in number proportional to the accumulation of extracellular matrix in the bronchial lamina reticularis in asthma. The aim of this study was to assess further the contribution of these structural cells to allergic inflammation in the bronchial mucosa through their cytokine expression. Cell cultures were established from the lamina reticularis of human bronchial biopsies from asthmatic and non-asthmatic subjects. Cytokine secretion was measured by ELISA in supernatants of cultures with or without tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). The mRNA levels for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in the cultures were examined by ribonuclease protection assays (RPAs). Bronchial myofibroblasts grown from bronchial biopsies were capable of producing GM-CSF, interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and stem cell factor (SCF) constitutively. The GM-CSF production by myofibroblasts was significantly increased in response to TNF-alpha simulation with a corresponding increase in GM-CSF mRNA expression. The enhancement of GM-CSF production by TNF-alpha in myofibroblasts was blocked by the inhibition of RNA synthesis. Prednisolone abolished the GM-CSF production. This study provides evidence for the role of bronchial myofibroblasts in the regulation of inflammatory cell recruitment and activation by interaction in the cytokine network in the bronchial mucosa. PMID:8943823

  15. Endocrine and metabolic disordes in bronchial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Azzopardi, J G; Freeman, E; Poole, G

    1970-11-28

    In an unselected series of 185 patients with histologically confirmed bronchial carcinoma 16 had endocrine disturbances attributable to the tumour (excluding pulmonary osteoarthropathy). Of these, 11 patients had hypercalcaemia; three inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone; one Cushing's disease; three hypertrophic osteoarthropathy; and one gynaecomastia. Cushing's disease and inappropriate antidiuresis are specifically associated with oat-cell tumours, and hypercalcaemia occurs most frequently with squamous carcinoma. A negative correlation exists between gynaecomastia and osteoarthropathy on the one hand and oat-cell carcinoma on the other. PMID:5483322

  16. Neglected foreign body aspiration mimicking bronchial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Afghani, Reza; Khandashpour Ghomi, Mahmoud; Khandoozi, Seyed Reza; Yari, Behrouz

    2016-07-01

    Foreign body aspiration can occur in any age group, but it is more commonly seen in children. In adults, there is usually a predisposing condition that poses a risk of aspiration. If aspiration occurs, prompt diagnosis and extraction of the foreign body is needed to prevent early and late complications. We report a rare case of neglected foreign body aspiration in a 45-year-old schizophrenic opium addicted patient, which resulted in an occlusive lesion in the bronchus, mimicking bronchial carcinoma. PMID:27273232

  17. Synthesis and characterization of fac-Re(CO)3-aspartic-N-monoacetic acid, a structural analogue of a potential new renal tracer, fac-99mTc(CO)3(ASMA)

    PubMed Central

    Klenc, Jeffrey; Lipowska, Malgorzata; Taylor, Andrew T.; Marzilli, Luigi G.

    2013-01-01

    The reaction of an aminopolycarboxylate ligand, aspartic-N-monoacetic acid (ASMA), with [Re(CO)3(H2O)3]+ was examined. The tridentate coordination of ASMA to this ReI tricarbonyl precursor yielded fac-Re(CO)3(ASMA) as a mixture of diastereomers. The chemistry is analogous to that of the TcI tricarbonyl complex, which yields fac-99mTc(CO)3(ASMA) under similar conditions. The formation, structure, and isomerization of fac-Re(CO)3(ASMA) products were characterized by HPLC, 1H NMR spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography. The two major fac-Re(CO)3(ASMA) diastereomeric products each have a linear ONO coordination mode with two adjacent five-membered chelate rings, but they differ in the endo or exo orientation of the uncoordinated acetate group, in agreement with expectations based on previous studies. Conditions have been identified for the expedient isomerization of fac-Re(CO)3(ASMA) to a mixture consisting primarily of one major product. Because different isomeric species typically have different pharmacokinetic characteristics, these conditions may provide for the practical isolation of a single 99mTc(CO)3(ASMA) species, thus allowing the isolation of the isomer that has optimal imaging and pharmacokinetic characteristics. This information will aid in the design of future 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals. PMID:24273448

  18. [Psychosomatic Aspects of Bronchial Asthma in Children].

    PubMed

    Krivonogova, T S; Shemyakina, T A; Babikova, Yu A; Gavrilova, A N

    2015-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is the most common chronic disease in children affecting 30% of the child population. The purpose of this review was to analyze and summarize the works offoreign and Russian authors who evaluated the impact of mental disorders on the course of asthma in children. The article presents the definition of asthma as a psychosomatic disease and relevance of the study against this background. The authors adduce the results of research studies which allow us to estimate the interaction between the degree of anxiety, accentuation of the nature, severity of asthma, and the duration of the disease. The existing publications demonstrate that the researchers' opinions are polarized regarding the cause-and-effect relationship between psychological disorders and controlled asthma. The authors came to a conclusion that early detection ofpsychopathological symptoms and appropriate psychotherapeutic administration would improve the efficacy of treatment in children with bronchial asthma and the social adaptation, adjust the system offamily relations, and have a positive effect on the course of the disease. PMID:26846074

  19. [Bronchial parameters in inhabitants from the North].

    PubMed

    Shishkin, G S; Goncharov, V V; Valitskaia, R I; Valitskiĭ, Iu N; Ustiuzhaninova, N V

    2001-01-01

    The number of branches in the bronchial tree as a whole and in each generation was calculated on corrosion preparations of the right lung in 16 male inhabitants of Novosibirsk and Magadan. Diameters and lengths of a trachea, main, lobar, segmentary and subsegmentary bronchi, interlobular, lobular and terminal bronchioles were determined. The parameters of the 9 first generations were measured completely while those of distal airways--by 15% occasional choice. In both groups the number of branches in the generation was established to grow proportionally to generation number growth and then to decrease due to asymmetry of branches and termination of the part of them at the level of terminal bronchiole. In Magadan inhabitants bronchial tree was longer and wider. The anatomical dead space was 1.6 fold larger in North inhabitants than in that of Novosibirsk. Comparison to physiological data shows that in Novosibirsk inhabitants anatomic dead space makes 27% of respiratory volume, while in that of Magadan--34%. As a result the volume of the air inhaled in North inhabitants which is blended in airways is greater than in Western Siberia people. PMID:11534145

  20. Quantitative architectural analysis of bronchial intraepithelial neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillaud, Martial; MacAulay, Calum E.; Le Riche, Jean C.; Dawe, Chris; Korbelik, Jagoda; Lam, Stephen

    2000-04-01

    Considerable variation exists among pathologist in the interpretation of intraepithelial neoplasia making it difficult to determine the natural history of these lesion and to establish management guidelines for chemoprevention. The aim of the study is to evaluate architectural features of pre-neoplastic progression in lung cancer, and to search for a correlation between architectural index and conventional pathology. Quantitative architectural analysis was performed on a series of normal lung biopsies and Carcinoma In Situ (CIS). Centers of gravity of the nuclei within a pre-defined region of interest were used as seeds to generate a Voronoi Diagram. About 30 features derived from the Voronoi diagram, its dual the Delaunay tessellation, and the Minimum Spanning Tree were extracted. A discriminant analysis was performed to separate between the two groups. The architectural Index was calculated for each of the bronchial biopsies that were interpreted as hyperplasia, metaplasia, mild, moderate or severe dysplasia by conventional histopathology criteria. As a group, lesions classified as CIS by conventional histopathology criteria could be distinguished from dysplasia using the architectural Index. Metaplasia was distinct from hyperplasia and hyperplasia from normal. There was overlap between severe and moderate dysplasia but mild dysplasia could be distinguished form moderate dysplasia. Bronchial intraepithelial neoplastic lesions can be degraded objectively by architectural features. Combination of architectural features and nuclear morphometric features may improve the quantitation of the changes occurring during the intra-epithelial neoplastic process.

  1. Effects of acupuncture in bronchial asthma: preliminary communication.

    PubMed Central

    Dias, P L; Subramaniam, S; Lionel, N D

    1982-01-01

    Twenty patients randomly assigned to an experimental and a control group participated in a double blind study to assess the effectiveness of acupuncture in bronchial asthma, using the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) as an index of bronchial patency. All patients in the control group showed a significant improvement in their PEFR while only 3 patients in the treated group showed an improvement. A subjective improvement and a reduction in drug dosages were observed in both groups. It is concluded that acupuncture has a placebo effect in bronchial asthma. PMID:7040659

  2. [Bronchial asthma - many types, different therapies].

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Karl-Christian

    2016-05-01

    Around 9 % of the German population is affected by bronchial asthma. This serious problem diminishes the quality of life as well as performance of the patients. Triggers and individual courses of the illness are very diverse. Therapy for mild asthma (stage 1 and 2) can take place at the patient's general practitioner. Is the effect of the medication insufficient, the patient should be referred to a specialist. The aim of the therapy is controlled asthma without symptoms during day or night and patients who only rarely need medication on demand and who are not limited in their daily activities. With the help of three further escalation steps in medication including modern biologicals, specialists have extended possibilities to reach a controlled disease stage. PMID:27176061

  3. Bronchial pleomorphic adenoma coexisting with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Goto, Taichiro; Maeshima, Arafumi; Akanabe, Kumi; Hamaguchi, Reo; Wakaki, Misa; Oyamada, Yoshitaka; Kato, Ryoichi

    2011-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma usually occurs in the salivary glands but rarely in the trachea or bronchi. A 71-year-old man had abnormal shadows on a chest X-ray. Chest CT revealed one tumor in the right basal segment of the lung and another, in the left main bronchus. Bronchoscopic biopsy of the right tumor revealed well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Right lower lobectomy and lymph node dissection were performed (pT2N0M0, stage IB). At the orifice of the left main bronchus, bronchoscopy identified a polypoid lesion nearly obstructing the airway. The lesion was resected with hot snare ablation. The histological examination revealed a mixture of epithelial and myxoid mesenchymal elements, characterized by ductal structures, squamous metaplasia, and cartilage tissue. The diagnosis was bronchial pleomorphic adenoma coexisting with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. PMID:21597416

  4. Congenital bronchial atresia: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuqi; Dai, Weimin; Sun, Yu'e; Chu, Xiangyang; Yang, Bo; Zhao, Ming

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to retrospectively summarize the clinical signs, diagnosis, and treatment of congenital bronchial atresia (CBA) in 12 patients. Chest radiographs and computed tomographic (CT) images of 12 patients with CBA treated in the Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital were reviewed. Analysis of chest radiographs revealed ten patients had hilar mass-like shadows and two had pneumonia-like shadows; most patients (n = 8) showed hyperlucency of the peripheral lung fields. CT revealed a mucocele in all the patients (n = 12); the mucoceles were round in four patients and club-like in eight. In 80% of the cases (n = 10), associated anomalies, including occlusions of the bronchus central to the mucocele, emphysematous changes of the peripheral lung fields, bronchogenic cyst, and anomalous branching of the bronchial tree and vascular structure were observed. CBA was detected in the right lobe in eight patients and the left lobe in the remaining four. No surgical intervention was performed in 5 CBA patients and the remaining 7 patients underwent surgery, including lobectomy in 5 patients and local resection in 2 patients. Among these 7 patients, 3 had a preoperative diagnosis of malignant disease, and the remaining 4 had severe clinical symptoms that could not be effectively treated by medicines. All patients were followed up, and none experienced obvious discomfort. CBA is a relatively rare and benign malformation disease. Chest CT is the procedure of choice for diagnosis. The presence of a bronchocele and surrounding emphysematous changes are typical radiologic findings in CBA. Surgery should be reserved only for patients with serious complications secondary to the atretic bronchus. PMID:22408569

  5. Congenital Bronchial Atresia: Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuqi; Dai, Weimin; Sun, Yu'e; Chu, Xiangyang; Yang, Bo; Zhao, Ming

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to retrospectively summarize the clinical signs, diagnosis, and treatment of congenital bronchial atresia (CBA) in 12 patients. Chest radiographs and computed tomographic (CT) images of 12 patients with CBA treated in the Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital were reviewed. Analysis of chest radiographs revealed ten patients had hilar mass-like shadows and two had pneumonia-like shadows; most patients (n = 8) showed hyperlucency of the peripheral lung fields. CT revealed a mucocele in all the patients (n = 12); the mucoceles were round in four patients and club-like in eight. In 80% of the cases (n = 10), associated anomalies, including occlusions of the bronchus central to the mucocele, emphysematous changes of the peripheral lung fields, bronchogenic cyst, and anomalous branching of the bronchial tree and vascular structure were observed. CBA was detected in the right lobe in eight patients and the left lobe in the remaining four. No surgical intervention was performed in 5 CBA patients and the remaining 7 patients underwent surgery, including lobectomy in 5 patients and local resection in 2 patients. Among these 7 patients, 3 had a preoperative diagnosis of malignant disease, and the remaining 4 had severe clinical symptoms that could not be effectively treated by medicines. All patients were followed up, and none experienced obvious discomfort. CBA is a relatively rare and benign malformation disease. Chest CT is the procedure of choice for diagnosis. The presence of a bronchocele and surrounding emphysematous changes are typical radiologic findings in CBA. Surgery should be reserved only for patients with serious complications secondary to the atretic bronchus. PMID:22408569

  6. Bronchial-pulmonary arterial fistula with primary racemose hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Kato, Miharu; Morio, Yoshiteru; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Shiraishi, Akihiko; Uekusa, Toshimasa; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2016-04-01

    Bronchial-pulmonary arterial fistula (BPAF) is a rare vascular malformation complicated with racemose hemangioma. We report a case of a 65-year-old male with BPAF with primary racemose hemangioma. Bronchial arteriography demonstrated convolution, dilation, and aneurysm connected with pulmonary artery, suggesting the presence of BPAF, in the left upper lobe. Since a 20-mm sized aneurysm of bronchial artery and BPAF coexisted, he underwent ligation of bronchial arterial aneurysm and left upper lobectomy to prevent hemoptysis. As neither history of prior illness nor histopathologic findings of vascular inflammation was seen, the present case demonstrated BPAF with primary racemose hemangioma. Establishment of non-invasive treatment strategy for BPAF is urgently required. PMID:27081488

  7. Endobronchial lipoma: a rare cause of bronchial occlusion.

    PubMed

    Triviño, Ana; Mora-Cabezas, Montserrat; Vallejo-Benitez, Ana; García-Escudero, Antonio; González-Cámpora, Ricardo

    2013-11-01

    Endobronchial lipoma is a rare benign neoplasm of the tracheobronchial tree. Despite its benign nature, associated endoluminal polypoid growth can cause bronchial occlusion. In this paper, we present the consequences of a late diagnosis of this condition. PMID:23680317

  8. Environmental risk factors and allergic bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G; Liccardi, G; D'Amato, M; Holgate, S

    2005-09-01

    The prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases such as bronchial asthma has increased in recent years, especially in industrialized countries. A change in the genetic predisposition is an unlikely cause of the increase in allergic diseases because genetic changes in a population require several generations. Consequently, this increase may be explained by changes in environmental factors, including indoor and outdoor air pollution. Over the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in studies of air pollution and its effects on human health. Although the role played by outdoor pollutants in allergic sensitization of the airways has yet to be clarified, a body of evidence suggests that urbanization, with its high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle are linked to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases observed in most industrialized countries, and there is considerable evidence that asthmatic persons are at increased risk of developing asthma exacerbations with exposure to ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and inhalable particulate matter. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of air pollution on the timing of asthma exacerbations and on the prevalence of asthma in general. As concentrations of airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of allergic respiratory allergy and bronchial asthma. Pollinosis is frequently used to study the interrelationship between air pollution and respiratory allergy. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction. By attaching to the surface of pollen grains and of plant-derived particles of paucimicronic size, pollutants could modify not only the morphology of these antigen-carrying agents but also their allergenic

  9. Diagnose of occult bronchial foreign body

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lan; Pudasaini, Bigyan; Wang, Xue-Fen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Occult bronchial foreign body can be very difficult to diagnose early in an adult patient without acute symptoms. This report describes a rare case of undetected Chinese medicine “Coptis chinensis” aspiration for 10 long years. Methods: A case was reported that a female patient complained of a 10-year history of productive cough. A battery of tests were given to confirm the diagnosis. Results: Chest computed tomography (CT) showed extensive bronchiectasis and multiple nodules, along with stenosis of left lower lobar bronchus. An extensive solid lesion with surrounding inflammatory granulation tissue was seen on her first bronchoscopy and biopsy revealed chronic mucosal inflammation. A neglected history of Coptis chinensis regularly kept in-mouth while sleeping for the last 10 years in this patient provided clues for a final diagnosis. Confirmatory diagnosis of bilateral tracheobronchial foreign bodies caused by recurrent inhalation of Coptis chinensis was made by a second bronchoscopy. Conclusions: This case clearly demonstrates that a precise medical history is often overlooked. A high index of suspicion, a precise medical history, radiographic features of chronic respiratory symptoms not explained by other conditions were keys to diagnosing this case. PMID:27495017

  10. Bronchial Artery Aneurysm Embolization with NBCA

    SciTech Connect

    Aburano, Hiroyuki Kawamori, Yasuhiro; Horiti, Yasushi; Kitagawa, Kiyohide; Sanada, Junichiro; Matsui, Osamu

    2006-12-15

    We present a case of asymptomatic bronchial artery aneurysm that formed a fistula with part of the pulmonary artery (there was no definite fistula with the pulmonary vein). We were able to catheterize the feeding vessel but could not reach the aneurysm. We therefore injected a mixture of N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA; Histoacryl, B. Braun, Melsungen, Germany) and iodized oil (Lipiodol; Guerbet, Aulnay-sous-Bois, France) from the feeding vessel. The fistula, aneurysm, and feeding vessel were almost totally occluded. After embolization, the patient coughed a little; there were no other definite side effects or complications. One and 3 months later, on chest CT, the aneurysm was almost completely occupied with hyperattenuating NBCA-Lipiodol embolization. NBCA is a liquid embolization material whose time to coagulation after injection can be controlled by diluting it with Lipiodol. It is therefore possible to embolize an aneurysm, feeding vessels, and efferent vessels (in our case, it was a fistula) by using an NBCA-Lipiodol mixture of an appropriate concentration, regardless of whether the catheter can reach the aneurysm or not.

  11. [Bronchial rupture in blunt thoracic trauma].

    PubMed

    López Espadas, F; Zabalo, M; Encinas, M; Díaz Regañón, G; Pagola, M A; González Fernández, C

    2000-12-01

    In closed chest trauma, bronchial rupture is an unusual but potentially serious complication, with an associated mortality rate of 30%. Recent decades have seen an increase in incidence parallel to greater use of transport. Eighty percent of injuries are located 2.5 cm from the carina. Diagnosis is based on clinical signs, imaging and bronchoscopy. Subcutaneous emphysema and respiratory insufficiency are the most common findings. Images show the presence of pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum or both. Bronchoscopy is the diagnostic method of choice and must be performed early. Treatment consists of reestablishing anatomical continuity of the tracheobronchial tree by surgical repair if the lesion affects more than a third of the circumference and/or pneumothorax is not resolved after two chest drainages. This type of injury should be recognized and treated early, both to restore lung function and to prevent associated complications caused by delay. However, initial findings are seldom specific, requiring the physician to display a high degree of suspicion and explaining why diagnosis often comes late. PMID:11171438

  12. The porcine bronchial artery: surgical and angiographic anatomy

    PubMed Central

    GADE, JOHN; NORGAARD, MARTIN A.; ANDERSEN, CLAUS B.; PETTERSSON, GÖSTA; SVENDSEN, ULRIK G.; OLSEN, PETER S.

    1999-01-01

    The pig is often used in experimental studies on the significance of bronchial artery circulation, but the anatomy of this artery is only poorly described. The purpose of this study was to improve the anatomical basis for experimental studies on the porcine bronchial artery circulation. The origin of the artery from the aorta is described in 32 pigs. Heart–lung blocks were perfused with saline and removed in 16 pigs, and the broncho-oesophageal orifice was identified and cannulated. In these 16 specimens the intrapulmonary ramification was studied by angiography, and the extrapulmonary distribution and supply area by injection of Evans Blue. The broncho-oesophageal artery originated from the aorta as a single trunk in 91%. Angiography showed that each principal bronchus was accompanied by 2 bronchial artery branches far into the lung parenchyma. The central branching pattern of the artery between the aorta and the principal bronchi was divided into 3 subtypes. Evans Blue showed communication with the whole mediastinum. The anatomical relations are described. It is concluded that the broncho-oesophageal artery divides to follow each bronchus with 2 bronchial branches. A nomenclature for these branches is suggested. The pig anatomy is suited for experimental investigations on the bronchial circulation. PMID:10337956

  13. Histopathological study on changes of bronchial epithelium among chromate workers

    SciTech Connect

    Mikami, H.

    1982-09-01

    There have been many reports on lung cancer among chromate workers. Chromate compounds are thought to be a carcinogen and lung cancer among chromate workers is considered one of the occupational lung cancers. Recently, it is debated that metaplastic and hyperplastic changes of bronchial epithelium are revealed or not to the development of bronchogenic carcinoma. Histopathological study on changes of bronchial epithelium among chromate workers was performed in order to clarify the effect of chromate compounds to bronchial epithelium. The subjects were 14 cases of lung cancer among chromate workers. As a control, 18 cases of non cancer among chromate workers. Lung tissue which was obtained at necropsy or surgery was fixed by formalin and was produced cross-sections and was stained on Haematoxylin-Eosin. The results were as follows. 1. Of examined 235 cross-sections, basal cell hyperplasia of bronchial epithelium was found in 13 per cent. Squamous metaplasia was found in 29 per cent, on the contrary, atypical metaplastic changes were observed in 34 per cent. 2. Of four cases of carcinoma in situ and two cases of small invasive carcinoma, four cases revealed development from atypical squamous metaplasia to precancerous changes. 3. These cases developed invasive carcinoma from atypical squamous metaplasia for a long period, of which were found by successive exfoliative cytology of sputum. From these findings, it was concluded that inhalation of chromate dust affected bronchial epithelium and caused highly atypical squamous metaplasia which developed to carcinoma in situ and finally to invasive carcinoma.

  14. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness in women cooks and cleaners.

    PubMed

    Karadzinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka; Minov, Jordan; Risteska-Kuc, Snezana; Stoleski, Saso; Mijakoski, Dragan

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) in 43 women cleaners (aged 26 to 57) and 37 women cooks (aged 29 to 55) and compare them with 45 controls (women office workers aged 27 to 58). The evaluation of all subjects included a questionnaire, skin prick tests to common aeroallergens, spirometry, and histamine challenge (PC20 < or = 8 mg mL(-1)). We found higher BHR prevalence in cleaners and cooks than in office workers (30.2 % and 29.7 %, vs. 17.7 %, respectively), but statistical significance was not reached. The prevalence of mild and moderate to severe BHR was similar in all groups. Borderline BHR prevalence was significantly higher in cleaners than in controls (16.2 % vs. 6.6 %, P=0.032) whereas the difference was on the verge of significance in cooks (13.5 % vs. 6.6 %, P=0.081). Moderate to severe BHR was strongly associated with positive family history of asthma and atopy in all groups. Mild BHR was significantly associated with daily smoking in cleaners (P=0.031) and cooks (P=0.021), as well as with the duration of exposure in cleaners (P=0.038). Borderline BHR was closely related to daily smoking and duration of exposure in both cleaners and cooks. Our findings indicate an important role of workplace exposure in borderline BHR development, as well as the significant effect of smoking on mild BHR development in women cleaners and cooks. PMID:17562606

  15. Eosinophilic Pneumonia in a Patient with Bronchial Myiasis

    PubMed Central

    Aich, Arindom; Al-Ismaili, Suad; Ramadhan, Fatma A.; Al-Wardi, Talal H. M.; Al-Salmi, Quasem; Al-Hashami, Hilal

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary myiasis is an unusual form of myiasis in humans and has been recently identified as a cause of eosinophilic pneumonia. We report the case of a 13-year-old Omani boy who presented to the Royal Hospital, Muscat, Oman, in October 2014 with respiratory distress. Bronchial aspirates revealed features of eosinophilic pneumonia. Possible larvae identified in the cytology report, a high immunoglobulin E level and the patient history all indicated bronchial myiasis. The patient was treated with steroids and ventilation and has since been disease-free with no long-term side-effects. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case of bronchial myiasis in Oman. PMID:26629385

  16. 21 CFR 868.5740 - Tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube.../bronchial differential ventilation tube. (a) Identification. A tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube is a device used to isolate the left or the right lung of a patient for anesthesia or...

  17. Anaesthetic management of left main bronchial glomus tumour

    PubMed Central

    Krishnakumar, Mathangi; Sharma, Rammurti; Pawar, Harshwardhan Singh; Hasnain, Shahbaz

    2016-01-01

    Glomus tumours involving bronchus are rare. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice for this tumour, with excellent prognosis. The nature and location of tumour pose a significant challenge for perioperative anaesthetic management. However, there is a paucity of case reports on anaesthetic risks involved in case of a bronchial glomus tumour. We present a case of glomus tumour involving left main stem bronchus, subjected to bronchial sleeve resection. The various anaesthetic implications of this tumour type and airway management with right double lumen tube are discussed. PMID:27141112

  18. Transection of a Coopdech bronchial blocker tip during bronchial resection for right upper lobectomy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong-Hun; Yang, Hye Mo; Kim, Hyun-Chang; Bahk, Jae-Hyon

    2015-01-01

    A bronchial blocker (BB) is preferred for lung separation in patients with difficult airways. However, BBs, unlike double-lumen tubes, must be placed in the bronchus of the lung being operated on, hence can be damaged by surgical manipulation. Intubation was unexpectedly difficult in this male patient, so a Coopdech BB was placed in the right mainstem bronchus through a single-lumen tracheoscopic ventilation tube for a thoracoscopic right upper lobectomy. During the bronchial resection, however, the distal tip of the BB was transected and pinched in the staple line, so the staple line was partially opened, and the BB was withdrawn into the trachea. The opened bronchial stump was sutured manually under apnea without conversion to an open thoracotomy, and there was no significant air leakage through the suture line. This case underlines the importance of frequently evaluating the position of a BB during lung surgery. PMID:26045933

  19. Towards a consensus-based biokinetic model for green microalgae - The ASM-A.

    PubMed

    Wágner, Dorottya S; Valverde-Pérez, Borja; Sæbø, Mariann; Bregua de la Sotilla, Marta; Van Wagenen, Jonathan; Smets, Barth F; Plósz, Benedek Gy

    2016-10-15

    Cultivation of microalgae in open ponds and closed photobioreactors (PBRs) using wastewater resources offers an opportunity for biochemical nutrient recovery. Effective reactor system design and process control of PBRs requires process models. Several models with different complexities have been developed to predict microalgal growth. However, none of these models can effectively describe all the relevant processes when microalgal growth is coupled with nutrient removal and recovery from wastewaters. Here, we present a mathematical model developed to simulate green microalgal growth (ASM-A) using the systematic approach of the activated sludge modelling (ASM) framework. The process model - identified based on a literature review and using new experimental data - accounts for factors influencing photoautotrophic and heterotrophic microalgal growth, nutrient uptake and storage (i.e. Droop model) and decay of microalgae. Model parameters were estimated using laboratory-scale batch and sequenced batch experiments using the novel Latin Hypercube Sampling based Simplex (LHSS) method. The model was evaluated using independent data obtained in a 24-L PBR operated in sequenced batch mode. Identifiability of the model was assessed. The model can effectively describe microalgal biomass growth, ammonia and phosphate concentrations as well as the phosphorus storage using a set of average parameter values estimated with the experimental data. A statistical analysis of simulation and measured data suggests that culture history and substrate availability can introduce significant variability on parameter values for predicting the reaction rates for bulk nitrate and the intracellularly stored nitrogen state-variables, thereby requiring scenario specific model calibration. ASM-A was identified using standard cultivation medium and it can provide a platform for extensions accounting for factors influencing algal growth and nutrient storage using wastewater resources. PMID:27525381

  20. Dermal and bronchial hyperreactivity in urticarial dermographism and urticaria factitia.

    PubMed

    Henz, B M; Jeep, S; Ziegert, F S; Niemann, J; Kunkel, G

    1996-03-01

    For investigation of a possible relationship between cutaneous and bronchial hyperreactivity, 74 subjects were grouped according to the presence (n = 33) or absence (n = 41) of urticarial dermographism after application of a standardized shearing pressure with a dermographometer (12.7 x 10(5) Pa). the two groups did not differ in age, sex, smoking habits, presence of urticaria and atopy, or serum IgE levels. Erythema of the dermographic test sites was always significantly greater (P < 0.001) in the group with urticarial dermographism at 2, 4, and 8 min, and cutaneous reactivity with titrated prick tests was significantly increased in this group with low concentrations of histamine, 0.01% and substance P (0.25 mM) (P < 0.05). After bronchial provocation with acetylcholine, 51 of the 74 subjects, 25 with and 26 without urticarial dermographism, exhibited bronchial hyperreactivity. However, significantly more subjects with urticarial dermographism had an increase in airway resistance and a decrease in specific airway conductance (P < 0.05). In the subgroup (n = 9) of subjects with symptomatic urticarial dermographism (urticaria factitia), these differences were even more significant (P < 0.001). These subjects also had larger skin test reactions and significantly higher IgE levels (P < 0.01). Thus, the present data show an association, which may be based on common mechanisms of allergic inflammation, between cutaneous and bronchial hyperreactivity. PMID:8781671

  1. Acetylcholinesterase-positive nerves of the rhesus monkey bronchial tree.

    PubMed Central

    El-Bermani, A W; Grant, M

    1975-01-01

    The rhesus monkey lung was stained both by histological methods and histochemically for specific acetylcholinesterase (AChE). AChE-containing nerves in bundles were demonstrated in connective tissue of the hilum and in association with clusters of ganglion cells. These bundles become associated with the bronchial tree as they enter the lung parenchyma, and their numbers of myelinated fibres diminish as they pass scattered ganglion cells along the bronchial system. Extrachondral and subchondral plexuses of nerves were found to be interconnected and to contribute to the perimuscular varicose nerve plexus of the bronchi and bronchioles. These nerve plexuses were found to extend as far as the respiratory bronchioles. In the bronchial submucosa there are AChE-positive nerve plexuses which arise from three sources: (1) the adventitial plexus in bronchioles, or the subchondral plexus in bronchi, (2) the perimuscular nerve plexus, and (3) AChe-containing nerves associated with the bronchial artery. The submucosal plexus appears to innervate the acinar submucosal glands in bronchi as well as continuing as central nerves in the mucosal folds. In the bronchioles the nerves in the mucosal fold are in close relationship with the mucosa. Images PMID:1179313

  2. Processing bronchial sonograms to detect respiratory cycle fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bureev, A. Sh; Zhdanov, D. S.; Zemlyakov, I. Yu; Svetlik, M. V.

    2014-10-01

    This article describes the authors' results of work on the development of a method for the automated assessment of the state of the human bronchopulmonary system based on acoustic data. In particular, the article covers the method of detecting breath sounds on bronchial sonograms obtained during the auscultation process.

  3. [Chronic bronchial dilatations in different colonies of laboratory rats].

    PubMed

    Miguel, Juan Carlos; Erazo, Ariana; Beduino, Fernanda; Picena, Juan Carlos; Luciano, María Isabel; Pizzutti, Gustavo; Tarrés, María Cristina; Montenegro, Silvana; Martínez, Stella Maris

    2002-06-01

    Bronchiectasis occurred naturally in 12-month-old spontaneously diabetic eSS male rats. The lungs of 3 and 6-month-old eSS rats were compared in eumetabolic eSS rats from three inbred lines consisting of inbred spontaneously diabetic eSS derived from IIM strain; these were compared with eumetabolic, outbred Wistar rats, paired by sex and age. Acrylic casts of bronchial tree were obtained after injection of a plastic substance. The casts were pruned to focus on the first four bronchial branchings. Diameter and volume of the conductive bronchial tree were determined using a binocular magnifier. Histological sections were obtained. All lines showed multiple bronchiectasis, mostly fusiform, bronchial dilatation and inflammatory response with lymphocytic infiltrates. These symptoms were much more severe in 180-day-old eSS males. Bacteria were isolated from the lungs in 70% of cases (n = 32), except in eSS rats. Pseudomonas spp. (38%) and Gram-positive cocci as coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. (20%) were detected. Neither pathogenic bacteria nor saprophyte fungi were found. Although all lines were affected, diabetes in eSS appears to be an aggravating factor. PMID:12152476

  4. Accurate 3D quantification of the bronchial parameters in MDCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saragaglia, A.; Fetita, C.; Preteux, F.; Brillet, P. Y.; Grenier, P. A.

    2005-08-01

    The assessment of bronchial reactivity and wall remodeling in asthma plays a crucial role in better understanding such a disease and evaluating therapeutic responses. Today, multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) makes it possible to perform an accurate estimation of bronchial parameters (lumen and wall areas) by allowing a quantitative analysis in a cross-section plane orthogonal to the bronchus axis. This paper provides the tools for such an analysis by developing a 3D investigation method which relies on 3D reconstruction of bronchial lumen and central axis computation. Cross-section images at bronchial locations interactively selected along the central axis are generated at appropriate spatial resolution. An automated approach is then developed for accurately segmenting the inner and outer bronchi contours on the cross-section images. It combines mathematical morphology operators, such as "connection cost", and energy-controlled propagation in order to overcome the difficulties raised by vessel adjacencies and wall irregularities. The segmentation accuracy was validated with respect to a 3D mathematically-modeled phantom of a pair bronchus-vessel which mimics the characteristics of real data in terms of gray-level distribution, caliber and orientation. When applying the developed quantification approach to such a model with calibers ranging from 3 to 10 mm diameter, the lumen area relative errors varied from 3.7% to 0.15%, while the bronchus area was estimated with a relative error less than 5.1%.

  5. Morphological integrity of the bronchial epithelium in mild asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Lozewicz, S; Wells, C; Gomez, E; Ferguson, H; Richman, P; Devalia, J; Davies, R J

    1990-01-01

    In severe asthma bronchial epithelial cells are damaged and detached, and it has been proposed that such damage might lead to the bronchial hyperresponsiveness that characterises asthma. To investigate the relation between airway hyperresponsiveness and epithelial damage, biopsy specimens of the bronchial mucus membrane were obtained at fibreoptic bronchoscopy from 11 patients with mild atopic asthma and airway hyperresponsiveness (provocative concentration of methacholine causing a 20% fall in FEV1 (PC20) less than 1.0 mg/ml), and from 17 healthy non-atopic subjects who did not have airway hyperresponsiveness (PC20 methacholine greater than 8.0 mg/ml). Observers who were blind to the presence or absence of asthma examined the biopsy specimens by light and electron microscopy. Epithelial cells, intercellular spaces, and goblet cells were counted. Intercellular junctional complexes were examined, and a semiquantitative assessment was made of ciliary loss, non-parallel central ciliary filaments, and vacuoles in ciliated cells. There were no differences between the asthmatic and healthy groups in any of these measurements. These findings indicate that airway hyperresponsiveness may be present when there is no apparent change in the structure of the bronchial epithelium. PMID:2321171

  6. Bronchial carcinoma in a Red Shouldered Hawk (Buteo lineatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neoplasms of respiratory tract are rare in birds. This report describes carcinoma of the bronchial epithelium in a Red Shouldered Hawk (Buteo lineatus). Grossly, the caudal air sac and coelomic cavity contained approximately 15 ml of dark brown cloudy fluid that displaced the intestines cranially....

  7. Continuous monitoring of the bronchial epithelial lining fluid by microdialysis

    PubMed Central

    Tyvold, Stig S; Solligård, Erik; Lyng, Oddveig; Steinshamn, Sigurd L; Gunnes, Sigurd; Aadahl, Petter

    2007-01-01

    Background Contents of the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of the bronchi are of central interest in lung diseases, acute lung injury and pharmacology. The most commonly used technique broncheoalveolar lavage is invasive and may cause lung injury. Microdialysis (MD) is a method for continuous sampling of extracellular molecules in the immediate surroundings of the catheter. Urea is used as an endogenous marker of dilution in samples collected from the ELF. The aim of this study was to evaluate bronchial MD as a continuous monitor of the ELF. Methods Microdialysis catheters were introduced into the right main stem bronchus and into the right subclavian artery of five anesthetized and normoventilated pigs. The flowrate was 2 μl/min and the sampling interval was 60 minutes. Lactate and fluorescein-isothiocyanate-dextran 4 kDa (FD-4) infusions were performed to obtain two levels of steady-state concentrations in blood. Accuracy was defined as [bronchial-MD] divided by [arterial-MD] in percent. Data presented as mean ± 95 percent confidence interval. Results The accuracy of bronchial MD was calculated with and without correction by the arteriobronchial urea gradient. The arteriobronchial lactate gradient was 1.2 ± 0.1 and FD-4 gradient was 4.0 ± 1.2. Accuracy of bronchial MD with a continuous lactate infusion was mean 25.5% (range 5.7–59.6%) with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 62.6%. With correction by the arteriobronchial urea gradient accuracy was mean 79.0% (57.3–108.1%) with a CV of 17.0%. Conclusion Urea as a marker of catheter functioning enhances bronchial MD and makes it useful for monitoring substantial changes in the composition of the ELF. PMID:17976234

  8. Bilateral renal dysplasia, nephroblastomatosis, and bronchial stenosis. A new syndrome?

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Maria Matilde; Correa-Medina, Mayrin; Whittington, Elizabeth E

    2015-06-01

    Bilateral nephroblastomatosis (NB) is an uncommon renal anomaly characterized by multiple confluent nephrogenic rests scattered through both kidneys, with only a limited number of cases reported in the medical literature. Some of these children may have associated either Perlman or Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and others do not demonstrate syndromic features. We report a full-term boy with anteverted nose, bilateral bronchial stenosis due to lack of cartilage, bilateral obstructive renal dysplasia and NB with glomeruloid features. The infant had visceromegaly, but neither gigantism nor hemihypertrophy. Immunohistochemistry for PAX2 (Paired box gene-2) and WT-1 (Wilms Tumor 1) were strongly positive in the areas of NB. GLEPP-1 (Glomerular Epithelial Protein) did not stain the areas of NB with a glomeruloid appearance, but was positive in the renal glomeruli as expected. We found neither associated bronchial stenosis nor the histology of NB resembling giant glomeruli in any of the reported cases of NB. PMID:25871299

  9. Physical conditioning programme for children with bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Olivia, C K

    1990-04-01

    Exercise-induced bronchospasm limits physical activity in most asthmatic children. Twelve children with stable chronic asthma were enrolled in a physical conditioning program to improve ventilation mechanics and to promote physical activity. The program consisted of eight weekly sessions of one-and-a-half hours each, followed by three months of weekly swimming lessons. The activities were preceded by a warm-up period and interspersed with rest. Premedication with an aerosol bronchodilator or sodium cromoglycate was allowed before training. Cardiorespiratory status was studied before and after the program. The program was well received by the children with no bronchospasm. Five showed improvement in lung volumes and/or flow rates. Bronchial liability remained the same. The basal heart rate slowed in four children. No significant arrhythmia was detected. With continued practice, cardiorespiratory function might improve further. The program should be incorporated as part of the overall management of bronchial asthma. PMID:2116067

  10. Bilateral Renal Dysplasia, Nephroblastomatosis, and Bronchial Stenosis. A New Syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Maria Matilde; Correa-Medina, Mayrin; Whittington, Elizabeth E.

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral nephroblastomatosis (NB) is an uncommon renal anomaly characterized by multiple confluent nephrogenic rests scattered through both kidneys, with only a limited number of cases reported in the medical literature. Some of these children may have associated either Perlman or Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome and others do not demonstrate syndromic features. We report a full-term boy with anteverted nose, bilateral bronchial stenosis due to lack of cartilage, bilateral obstructive renal dysplasia and NB with glomeruloid features. The infant had visceromegaly, but neither gigantism nor hemihypertrophy. Immunohistochemistry for PAX2 (Paired box gene-2) and WT-1 (Wilms Tumor 1) were strongly positive in the areas of NB. GLEPP-1 (Glomerular Epithelial Protein) did not stain the areas of NB with a glomeruloid appearance, but was positive in the renal glomeruli as expected. We found neither associated bronchial stenosis nor the histology of NB resembling giant glomeruli in any of the reported cases of NB. PMID:25871299

  11. [Experience with ciclesonide in patients with mild persistent bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Bartosíková, L; Necas, J; Frána, L; Bartosík, T

    2007-12-01

    Experience with ciclesonide in patients with mild persistent bronchial asthma The study aimed to monitor the effectiveness and safety of the treatment with ciclesonide, administered once a day in a 160 microg dose, over a 3-month period, to a group of 100 patients diagnosed with mild persistent bronchial asthma with deterioration of problems after exercise. The results of the study prove significant positive effects of the preparation used. A significant improvement of FEV1 and PEF values was observed, as well as a statistically significant remission of both day and nocturnal symptoms of the disease, a significantly lower consumption of short-acting beta2-sympathomimetics, and an improvement of all evaluated data relating to the quality of life of the asthmatic patients. No adverse effects were registered. PMID:18257418

  12. Techniques of protection and revascularization of the bronchial anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Venuta, Federico; Diso, Daniele; Anile, Marco; Rendina, Erino A

    2016-03-01

    Airway anastomosis has been traditionally considered at risk for the onset of complications, particularly dehiscence with consequent infection and erosion in the adjacent vessels. Although the modifications and improvements of the surgical technique has contributed to reduce the incidence of complications, the protection and revascularization of the anastomotic site is still considered mandatory at many centers Many techniques have been proposed for encircling the bronchial anastomosis. PMID:26981269

  13. Techniques of protection and revascularization of the bronchial anastomosis

    PubMed Central

    Diso, Daniele; Anile, Marco; Rendina, Erino A.

    2016-01-01

    Airway anastomosis has been traditionally considered at risk for the onset of complications, particularly dehiscence with consequent infection and erosion in the adjacent vessels. Although the modifications and improvements of the surgical technique has contributed to reduce the incidence of complications, the protection and revascularization of the anastomotic site is still considered mandatory at many centers Many techniques have been proposed for encircling the bronchial anastomosis. PMID:26981269

  14. Nitric oxide synthases are associated with bronchial dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Puhakka, Airi R A; Harju, Terttu H; Pääkkö, Paavo K; Soini, Ylermi M; Kinnula, Vuokko L

    2006-03-01

    Recent studies suggest that reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) are highly associated with the pathogenesis of cigarette smoke related lung diseases but their role in the malignant conversion of bronchial epithelium is unclear. The immunohistochemical expression of inducible, endothelial and neuronal nitric oxide synthases (iNOS, eNOS and nNOS) and nitrotyrosine as a biomarker of oxidative/nitrosative stress was evaluated in 79 cases including 13 non-smokers, 20 smokers without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 22 with COPD and 24 with metaplasia-dysplasia-sequence of the bronchial epithelium. Normal lung of non-smokers was mainly negative for nitrotyrosine, while it was higher in the alveolar macrophages of cigarette smokers and COPD than in non-smokers (p=0.025, p<0.001), and in the alveolar epithelium of smokers and COPD than in non-smokers (p=0.049). There were no major differences in the nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity between the metaplastic/dysplastic lesions and bronchial epithelium of cigarette smokers. Inducible NOS and nNOS were mainly non-detectable or weak in the normal looking bronchial epithelium of smokers and COPD, whereas metaplasia and dysplasia showed positivity for iNOS (22/24) and nNOS (14/24) in the majority of cases. Strong immunoreactivity for iNOS and nNOS was also found more often in dysplastic than metaplastic (p=0.011 and p=0.049, respectively) specimens. Thus, smoking can cause protein nitration also in normal lung. Prominent iNOS and nNOS immunoreactivity in the metaplasia-dysplasia-lesions suggests a divergent role of NOSs in lung carcinogenesis. PMID:16420964

  15. Embolisation of a Bronchial Artery of Anomalous Origin in Massive Haemoptysis

    PubMed Central

    Md Ralib, Ahmad Razali; Han, Ng Teck; Hin, How Soon; Muda, Ahmad Sobri

    2010-01-01

    Massive haemoptysis is the most dreaded of all respiratory emergencies. Bronchial artery embolisation is known to be a safe and effective procedure in massive haemoptysis. Bronchial artery of anomalous origin presents a diagnostic challenge to interventional radiologists searching for the source of haemorrhage. Here, we report a case of massive haemoptysis secondary to a lung carcinoma with the bronchial artery originating directly from the right subclavian artery. This artery was not evident during the initial flush thoracic aortogram. The anomalous-origin bronchial artery was then embolised using 15% diluted glue with good results. An anomalous-origin bronchial artery should be suspected if the source of haemorrhage is not visualised in the normally expected bronchial artery location. PMID:22135550

  16. Orbital Cellulitis: A Rare Presentation of Metastatic Bronchial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rohit; Issing, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Objective. We report a rare and unusual case of bronchial carcinoma presenting with symptoms of complications of sinonasal disease. Case Report. A 66-year-old lady was referred with a 1-week history of progressive ocular pain, chemosis, and visual disturbance. Computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses revealed frontal and ethmoidal sinus opacification with orbital involvement consistent with a diagnosis of orbital cellulitis secondary to sinusitis. Surgical exploration revealed that the sinuses and right orbit were filled with soft tissue and subsequent histopathological examination of the biopsies indicating metastases from an adenosquamous bronchial carcinoma. Further imaging revealed a large, asymptomatic, bronchial primary with deposits in the brain and liver. The advanced presentation of the disease limited treatment to best supportive care. Conclusion. Orbital cellulitis and sinonasal malignancies have a similar pattern of clinical presentation, posing a potential diagnostic pitfall. There are only two previously reported cases of metastatic lung carcinoma in the frontal sinus with 15 cases of sinonasal tract involvement reported overall. There are no reported cases of adenosquamous carcinoma in the sinonasal tract. PMID:22937366

  17. Decreased physical activity in adults with bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    van 't Hul, Alex J; Frouws, Siete; van den Akker, Edmee; van Lummel, Rob; Starrenburg-Razenberg, Anja; van Bruggen, Alie; Braunstahl, Gert-Jan; In 't Veen, Johannes C C M

    2016-05-01

    Contradictory findings have been reported in the literature on the impact that bronchial asthma may have on habitual physical activity. The present study was designed to compare physical activity, objectively measured with an activity monitor, between adults with bronchial asthma and apparently healthy controls. Valid registrations of physical activity were obtained in 226 patients with asthma and 201 healthy controls. A multiple general linear model was used to test between group differences and to correct for confounding of the results due to between group differences in BMI and employment status. In the patients, statistically significantly lower values were found for average steps/day (-1202; CI -1893 to -511; P = 0.001), physical activity level based on an estimate of a person's total energy expenditure (-0.035; CI -0.067 to -0.003); P = 0.034) and daily time (minutes) spent at vigorous intensive physical activity (-11; CI -17 to -1; P < 0.001). In addition, weak albeit significant correlations were found between measures of physical activity and asthma control. We conclude that bronchial asthma in adults is associated with a significant reduction in physical activity as compared to apparently healthy controls and is accompanied by a lower perceived health status. This is in support of the postulation of PA as potential pathway to better the outcome of care for these patients. PMID:27109814

  18. Complete video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) bronchial sleeve lobectomy

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jun; Li, Shuben; Hao, Zhexue; Chen, Hanzhang; He, Jiaxi; Xu, Xin; Qiu, Yuan; Dong, Qinglong; Liang, Lixia; Pan, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Background To explore the effectiveness of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) bronchial sleeve resection and reconstruction. Methods The clinical data of patients who had received VATS bronchial sleeve lobectomy in our center from January 2008 to February 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Results Totally 118 patients (105 men and 13 women) received the VATS bronchial sleeve lobectomy. The procedures included sleeve resection of right upper lobe (n=59), right middle lobe (n=7), right lower lobe (n=8), left upper lobe (n=34), and left lower lobe (n=10). The lesions were confirmed to be squamous cell carcinoma (n=68), adenocarcinoma (n=16), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (n=8), adenosquamous carcinoma (n=7), large cell carcinoma (n=1), carcinoids (n=5), and others (n=13; including small cell carcinoma, pleomorphic carcinoma, and inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor). Operations lasted 118–223 min [mean ± standard deviations (SD): 124.00±31.75 min]. The length of removed bronchus was 1.50–2.00 cm (mean ± SD: 1.75±0.26 cm). The duration of bronchial anastomosis (from the first puncture to the completion of knotting) was 15–42 min (mean ± SD: 30.20±7.97 min). The number of dissected lymph node stations (at least three mediastinal lymph node stations, including station 7) was 5–9 stations (mean ± SD: 6.50±1.18 min). The number of dissected lymph nodes was 10–46 (mean ± SD: 26.00±10.48). The intraoperative blood loss was 20–400 mL (mean ± SD: 71.00±43.95 mL), and no blood transfusion was performed. All patients were observed in intensive care unit (ICU) for 1 day. Postoperative drainage was performed for 3–8 days (mean ± SD: 5.00±1.49 days). Postoperative hospital stay was 3–8 days (mean ± SD: 5.10±2.07 days). Conclusions VATS bronchial sleeve resection and reconstruction is a safe and feasible technique. PMID:27076954

  19. Increased wheeze but not bronchial hyperreactivity near power stations.

    PubMed Central

    Halliday, J A; Henry, R L; Hankin, R G; Hensley, M J

    1993-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--In a previous study a higher than expected prevalence of asthma was found in Lake Munmorah, a coastal town near two power stations, compared with another coastal control town. This study aimed to compare atopy, bronchial hyperreactivity, and reported symptoms of asthma in the power station town and a second control area with greater socioeconomic similarity. DESIGN--A cross sectional survey was undertaken. SETTINGS--Lake Munmorah, a coastal town near two power stations, and Dungog, a country town in the Hunter Valley, NSW, Australia. PARTICIPANTS--All children attending kindergarten to year 6 at all schools in the two towns were invited to participate in 1990. The response rates for the questionnaire for reported symptoms and associated demographic data were 92% in Lake Munmorah and 93% in Dungog, with 84% and 90% of children respectively being measured for lung function, atopy, and bronchial reactivity. There were 419 boys and 432 girls aged 5 to 12 years. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Main outcome measures were current wheeze and bronchial hyper-reactivity, defined as a fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) or peak expiratory flow (PEF) of 20% or more. Current wheeze was reported in 24.8% of the Lake Munmorah children compared with 14.6% of the Dungog children. Bronchial hyper-reactivity was similar for both groups--25.2% in Lake Munmorah and 22.3% in Dungog. The mean baseline FEV1 was lower in Lake Munmorah than in Dungog (p < 0.001). Dungog children were more likely to have positive skin test to house dust mite (Dungog 27.0%, Lake Munmorah 20.2%, p = 0.028) but there were no other differences in skin test atopy in the two towns. After adjusting for age, gender, any smoker in the house, and positive dust mite skin test, the odds of current wheeze in Lake Munmorah compared with Dungog was 2.16 (95% confidence interval 1.45, 3.15). CONCLUSIONS--Baseline lung function was lower and reported symptoms of asthma were higher in the power

  20. Aortic ostia of the bronchial arteries and tracheal bifurcation: MDCT analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ziyawudong, Julaiti; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Sato, Morio; Ikoma, Akira; Sanda, Hiroki; Takeuchi, Taizo; Minamiguchi, Hiroki; Nakai, Motoki; Tanaka, Takami; Sonomura, Tetsuo

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To explore the anatomical relationships between bronchial artery and tracheal bifurcation using computed tomography angiography (CTA). METHODS: One hundred consecutive patients (84 men, 16 women; aged 46-85 years) who underwent CTA using multi-detector row CT (MDCT) were investigated retrospectively. The distance between sites of bronchial artery ostia and tracheal bifurcation, and dividing directions were explored. The directions of division from the descending aorta were described as on a clock face. RESULTS: We identified ostia of 198 bronchial arteries: 95 right bronchial arteries, 67 left bronchial arteries, 36 common trunk arteries. Of these, 172 (87%) divided from the descending aorta, 25 (13%) from the aortic arch, and 1 (0.5%) from the left subclavian artery. The right, left, and common trunk bronchial arteries divided at -1 to 2 cm from tracheal bifurcation with frequencies of 77% (73/95), 82% (54/66), and 70% (25/36), respectively. The dividing direction of right bronchial arteries from the descending aorta was 9 to 10 o’clock with a frequency of 81% (64/79); that of left and common tract bronchial arteries was 11 to 1 o’clock with frequencies of 70% (43/62) and 77% (24/31), respectively. CONCLUSION: CTA using MDCT provides details of the relation between bronchial artery ostia and tracheal bifurcation. PMID:22328969

  1. The dual phosphodiesterase 3 and 4 inhibitor RPL554 stimulates CFTR and ciliary beating in primary cultures of bronchial epithelia.

    PubMed

    Turner, Mark J; Matthes, Elizabeth; Billet, Arnaud; Ferguson, Amy J; Thomas, David Y; Randell, Scott H; Ostrowski, Lawrence E; Abbott-Banner, Kathy; Hanrahan, John W

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF), a genetic disease caused by mutations in the CFTR gene, is a life-limiting disease characterized by chronic bacterial airway infection and severe inflammation. Some CFTR mutants have reduced responsiveness to cAMP/PKA signaling; hence, pharmacological agents that elevate intracellular cAMP are potentially useful for the treatment of CF. By inhibiting cAMP breakdown, phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors stimulate CFTR in vitro and in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that PDE inhibition by RPL554, a drug that has been shown to cause bronchodilation in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, stimulates CFTR-dependent ion secretion across bronchial epithelial cells isolated from patients carrying the R117H/F508del CF genotype. RPL554-induced CFTR activity was further increased by the potentiator VX-770, suggesting an additional benefit by the drug combination. RPL554 also increased cilia beat frequency in primary human bronchial epithelial cells. The results indicate RPL554 may increase mucociliary clearance through stimulation of CFTR and increasing ciliary beat frequency and thus could provide a novel therapeutic option for CF. PMID:26545902

  2. Lack of Dystrophin Affects Bronchial Epithelium in mdx Mice.

    PubMed

    Morici, Giuseppe; Rappa, Francesca; Cappello, Francesco; Pace, Elisabetta; Pace, Andrea; Mudò, Giuseppa; Crescimanno, Grazia; Belluardo, Natale; Bonsignore, Maria R

    2016-10-01

    Mild exercise training may positively affect the course of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). Training causes mild bronchial epithelial injury in both humans and mice, but no study assessed the effects of exercise in mdx mice, a well known model of DMD. The airway epithelium was examined in mdx (C57BL/10ScSn-Dmdmdx) mice, and in wild type (WT, C57BL/10ScSc) mice either under sedentary conditions (mdx-SD, WT-SD) or during mild exercise training (mdx-EX, WT-EX). At baseline, and after 30 and 45 days of training (5 d/wk for 6 weeks), epithelial morphology and markers of regeneration, apoptosis, and cellular stress were assessed. The number of goblet cells in bronchial epithelium was much lower in mdx than in WT mice under all conditions. At 30 days, epithelial regeneration (PCNA positive cells) was higher in EX than SD animals in both groups; however, at 45 days, epithelial regeneration decreased in mdx mice irrespective of training, and the percentage of apoptotic (TUNEL positive) cells was higher in mdx-EX than in WT-EX mice. Epithelial expression of HSP60 (marker of stress) progressively decreased, and inversely correlated with epithelial apoptosis (r = -0.66, P = 0.01) only in mdx mice. Lack of dystrophin in mdx mice appears associated with defective epithelial differentiation, and transient epithelial regeneration during mild exercise training. Hence, lack of dystrophin might impair repair in bronchial epithelium, with potential clinical consequences in DMD patients. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2218-2223, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26868633

  3. Pulmonary artery--bronchial fistula: a new complication of Swan-Ganz catheterization.

    PubMed

    Rubin, S A; Puckett, R P

    1979-04-01

    A patient with a Swan-Ganz catheter developed massive hemoptysis. Injection of radiographic contrast media through the catheter revealed rapid filling of the tracheo-bronchial tree, consistent with direct pulmonary artery-bronchial communication. Development of hemoptysis in a patient with a Swan-Ganz catheter should alert the clinician to this possibility. PMID:446146

  4. Intrabronchial Infusion of Autologous Blood Plus Thrombin for Intractable Pneumothorax After Bronchial Occlusion Using Silicon Spigots

    PubMed Central

    Nakahara, Yasuharu; Kawamura, Tetsuji; Sasaki, Shin; Tsukamoto, Hiroaki; Mochiduki, Yoshiro

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bronchial occlusion therapy using silicon spigots is effective for intractable pneumothorax. However, sometimes the pneumothorax is refractory to bronchial occlusion because of collateral ventilation. For such difficult pneumothoraces, we attempted an intrabronchial infusion of autologous blood plus thrombin to control collateral ventilation and stop air leaks. Methods: We performed bronchial occlusions using silicon spigots in patients with spontaneous pneumothorax secondary to emphysema and refractory to chest drainage, but which was inoperable owing to each patient’s poor surgical candidacy and poor overall health condition. When bronchial occlusion proved ineffective, we undertook intrabronchial infusion of autologous blood plus thrombin, 2 to 4 days after bronchial occlusion. A catheter was inserted into the subpleural area, through a gap between the silicon spigot and the bronchial wall, using a flexible bronchoscope under fluoroscopic guidance. Autologous blood, followed by a thrombin solution, was infused using the catheter. We repeated the same infusion a total of 4 to 6 times while changing the target bronchi. All interventions were performed under local anesthesia. Results: The subjects were 9 men, aged from 61 to 88 years, with smoking histories. Three patients also had interstitial pneumonia, and 6 patients had undergone pleurodesis in vain before bronchial occlusion. For 4of the 9 patients, autologous blood plus thrombin infusions successfully stopped air leaks, and in 3 patients, intrabronchial infusions and pleurodesis halted leaks altogether. Conclusion: Intrabronchial infusion of autologous blood plus thrombin was effective for intractable pneumothoraces that could not be clinically managed, even by bronchial occlusion using silicon spigots. PMID:27454474

  5. Usefulness of Digital Tomosynthesis for the Detection of Airway Obstruction: A Case Report of Bronchial Carcinosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung-Joon; Choo, Ji Yung; Lee, Ki Yeol; Kim, Je-Hyeong; Choi, Jung-Woo; Yeom, Suk Keu; Kim, Baek Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Bronchial carcinosarcoma is a very rare malignant tumor that is composed of carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements. We describe the first case in which digital tomosynthesis was useful for the evaluation of airway obstruction by bronchial carcinosarcoma that was overlooked on initial chest radiography. PMID:25381829

  6. CYTOTOXICITY OF CHEMICAL CARCINOGENS TOWARDS HUMAN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS EVALUATED IN A CLONAL ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Survival of human bronchial epithelial cells after administration of four chemical carcinogens was measured in a clonal assay. Human bronchial epithelial cells were obtained from outgrowths of explanted tissue pieces. Serum-free medium was used for both explant culture and clonal...

  7. [Research advances in association between pediatric obesity and bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lian; Xu, Zhi-Liang; Cheng, Yan-Yang

    2016-07-01

    This review article introduces the research advances in the pathophysiological mechanism of obesity in inducing pediatric bronchial asthma, including the role of leptin in obesity and asthma, the association of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 with obesity and asthma, the association of adiponectin and interleukins with obesity and asthma, and the influence of neurotransmitter on asthma. In particular, this article introduces the latest research on the inhibition of allergic asthma through targeting at the nociceptor of dorsal root ganglion and blocking the signaling pathway of the nociceptor. PMID:27412555

  8. [Bronchial asthma in a hairdresser caused by hair bleach].

    PubMed

    Schwaiblmair, M; Baur, X; Fruhmann, G

    1990-05-01

    Three years after starting to work as a hairdresser a 33-year-old woman developed urticaria on contact with hairbleach. After a further four years rhinoconjunctivitis set in and later also bronchial asthma on contact with such bleaches. Extensive tests revealed hypersensitivity to widely used persulphate-containing bleaching liquids which ultimately forced the patient to give up her profession. The causative role of this group of chemicals was proven by positive skin tests and specific workplace-related provocation tests. But specific IgE antibodies could not be demonstrated. The findings suggest a pseudoallergic reaction. PMID:2139846

  9. [Removal of bronchial foreign bodies by suction with a bronchoscope].

    PubMed

    Mita, Y; Dobashi, K; Saitoh, R; Tsuchiya, S; Nakano, H; Watanabe, S; Makimoto, T; Ishihara, S; Mori, M

    1997-04-01

    We report two cases in which intrabronchial foreign bodies were removed with a fiberoptic bronchoscope. In both cases the foreign body was a seed of a small Japanese apricot. Atelectasis or obstructive pneumonia was seen on chest roentgenograms. The foreign bodies were associated with slight inflammation and polyps on the bronchial epithelium. The foreign bodies were removed by applying suction with a fiberoptic bronchoscope. This method may also be useful for removing other large, hard, uneven, and ball-like foreign bodies. PMID:9212671

  10. Sensitivity of detection of asbestos bodies in sputa and bronchial washings

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, T.M.; Johnson, E.H.; Coughlin, D.; Greenberg, S.D.

    1988-09-01

    While asbestos bodies (ABs) in sputum and/or bronchial washings are highly specific markers for significant asbestos exposure, comparison of the sensitivity between sputum cytology and bronchial washing cytology for the detection of ABs had not been documented. Review of the files of the Cytopathology Laboratory, Methodist Hospital, Houston, Texas, for the period 1973 to 1984 identified 11 patients with slides available for review who (1) had been examined by both sputum cytology and bronchial washing cytology and (2) had at least one specimen positive for ABs. Of the 11 evaluable cases, all had ABs in the bronchial washings but ony 6 had ABs in the sputum. In addition, iron stain (e.g., the Prussian blue stain) was found to be more sensitive than the Papanicolaou stain for the detection of ABs in these cases. These findings indicate that iron-stained bronchial washing specimens should be preferred for the cytologic detection of asbestos exposure.

  11. Modified bronchial anastomosis in video-assisted thoracoscopic sleeve lobectomy: a report of 32 cases

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hao; Huang, Lin; Xu, Guobing; Zheng, Bin; Zheng, Wei; Zhu, Yong; Guo, Zhaohui

    2016-01-01

    Background Bronchial anastomosis is a key technical challenge in sleeve lobectomy, especially when using the video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) approach. A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility and safety of a modified bronchial anastomosis technique developed by the authors at Fujian Union Hospital. Methods From October 2010 to October 2015, we performed 32 cases of VATS sleeve lobectomy through a three-port or single-port approach. All bronchial anastomoses were performed using modified bronchial anastomosis technique: the bronchial anastomosis was begun with an initial stitch on the posterior wall, and the bilateral quarters of the circumference were continuously sutured. The other two bilateral quarters were then similarly sutured, and the last knot was made outside the bronchial lumen. Results All cases were completed uneventfully. No perioperative deaths or serious complications occurred. The mean operative time, bronchial anastomosis time, and blood loss volume were 271.8±67.5, 37.6±12.0 min, and 177.5±102.9 mL, respectively. The mean follow-up time was 21.0±11.7 months, and the follow-up rate was 96.9% (31/32). An electronic bronchoscope scan was performed 6 months after surgery, and a fine healing stoma was detected in all cases. No anastomotic fistula, anastomotic stenosis, or other serious postoperative anastomotic complications occurred until the end of follow-up. Conclusions Modified bronchial anastomosis technique applied in bronchial anastomosis was safe and feasible in three-port and single-port VATS sleeve lobectomy with good short-term and long-term therapeutic results. Adequate management of the operative process and implementation of a skilled bronchial anastomosis technique could help to reduce the difficulty of VATS sleeve lobectomy. PMID:27621881

  12. Monitoring asthma in childhood: lung function, bronchial responsiveness and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Alexander; Carlsen, Kai-Hakon; Sly, Peter D; Baraldi, Eugenio; Piacentini, Giorgio; Pavord, Ian; Lex, Christiane; Saglani, Sejal

    2015-06-01

    This review focuses on the methods available for measuring reversible airways obstruction, bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and inflammation as hallmarks of asthma, and their role in monitoring children with asthma. Persistent bronchial obstruction may occur in asymptomatic children and is considered a risk factor for severe asthma episodes and is associated with poor asthma outcome. Annual measurement of forced expiratory volume in 1 s using office based spirometry is considered useful. Other lung function measurements including the assessment of BHR may be reserved for children with possible exercise limitations, poor symptom perception and those not responding to their current treatment or with atypical asthma symptoms, and performed on a higher specialty level. To date, for most methods of measuring lung function there are no proper randomised controlled or large longitudinal studies available to establish their role in asthma management in children. Noninvasive biomarkers for monitoring inflammation in children are available, for example the measurement of exhaled nitric oxide fraction, and the assessment of induced sputum cytology or inflammatory mediators in the exhaled breath condensate. However, their role and usefulness in routine clinical practice to monitor and guide therapy remains unclear, and therefore, their use should be reserved for selected cases. PMID:26028633

  13. Endoscopic bronchial occlusion with silicone spigots under virtual bronchoscopic navigation

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Shingo; Shiroyama, Takayuki; Nishida, Takuji; Nishihara, Takashi; Okamoto, Norio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A 68‐year‐old woman with interstitial lung disease related to dermatomyositis and systemic scleroderma was admitted to our hospital with fever and dyspnoea. Although the fever was reduced after antibiotic therapy, a left pneumothorax suddenly occurred on day 27 after admission. A continuous air leak persisted despite chest drainage with three tubes and repeated pleurodesis. Chest computed tomography (CT) images showed a cavitary lesion with a pinhole in the left upper division, which was suspected to be the affected lesion with the air leak. Virtual bronchoscopic navigation images were constructed from CT data. Bronchial occlusion with Endobronchial Watanabe Spigots (EWSs) was performed on day 52. Two medium‐sized EWSs were inserted into the left B1 + 2a and B1 + 2b, and the air leak stopped immediately. No procedure‐related adverse events occurred. All three chest tubes were successfully removed by day 60. This case demonstrates that virtual bronchoscopic navigation can improve bronchial occlusion procedures using EWSs. PMID:27512560

  14. Laser-assisted solder closure of bronchial stumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oz, Mehmet C.; Williams, Matthew R.; Moscarelli, Richard D.; Kaynar, Murat; Fras, Christian I.; Libutti, Steven K.; Smith, Hillary; Setton, Adrianne J.; Treat, Michael R.; Nowygrod, Roman

    1992-06-01

    Broncho-pleural fistula is a difficult clinical problem without a simple solution. Laser-assisted solder techniques potentially offer a means to precisely fix tissue glues into the fistulae through a bronchoscopic approach. Using a canine model, secondary bronchi were sealed with cryoprecipitate made from solvent/detergent treated plasma (treated to inactivate membrane enveloped virus) mixed with indocyanine green (absorption 805 nm). Diode laser energy (emission 808 nm, 7.3 W/cm2) was applied to the solder until desiccation was observed. Leakage pressures ranged between 18 - 86 mmHg with a mean of 46 +/- 24 mmHg. Laser-assisted solder techniques provide a reliably strong seal over leaking bronchial stumps and use of dye enhancement prevents undesired collateral thermal injury to surrounding bronchial tissue. Solvent/detergent plasma, prepared by methods shown to inactivate large quantities of HIV, HBV, and HCV, is an effective source of cyroprecipitate and should allow widespread use of pooled human material in a clinical setting.

  15. Interactive navigation and bronchial tube tracking in virtual bronchoscopy.

    PubMed

    Heng, P A; Fung, P F; Wong, T T; Siu, Y H; Sun, H

    1999-01-01

    An interactive virtual environment for simulation of bronchoscopy is developed. Medical doctor can safely plan their surgical bronchoscopy using the virtual environment without any invasive diagnosis which may risk the patient's health. The 3D pen input device of the system allows the doctor to navigate and visualize the bronchial tree of the patient naturally and interactively. To navigate the patient's bronchial tree, a vessel tracking process is required. While manual tracking is tedious and labor-intensive, fully automatic tracking may not be reliable. We propose a semi-automatic tracking technique called Intelligent Path Tracker which provides automation and enough user control during the vessel tracking. To support an interactive frame rate, we also introduce a new volume rendering acceleration technique, named as IsoRegion Leaping. The volume rendering is further accelerated by distributed rendering on a TCP/IP-based network of low-cost PCs. With these approaches, a 256 x 256 x 256 volume data of human lung, can be navigated and visualized at a frame rate of over 10 Hz in our virtual bronchoscopy system. PMID:10538342

  16. The role of inflammation in bronchial stump healing.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, R N; Faraci, R P; Goodman, D G; Militano, T C; Geelhoed, G W; Chretien, P B

    1975-01-01

    The roles of inflammatory response and closure technique in the development of bronchopleural fistula were evaluated. Canine bronchial stumps closed with 3-0 silk and studied 14 days later were characterized by a dense inflammatory infiltrate. Stumps closed with 3-0 chromic catgut suture showed a moderate inflammatory response with disintegration of suture material. However, stumps closed with the automatic stapling device (TA-30) showed the best healing and a minimal degree of inflammation. These findings correlated well with leakage pressures. The average leakage pressure for the silk closed stumps was 139.44 mm Hg plus or minus 78.9 SD. This was significantly lower (P less than 0.02) than the average leakage pressure for staple closed stumps (251.25 mm Hg plus or minus 82.9 SD). It is concluded that the minimal amount of inflammation following staple closure will be associated with improved bronchial stump healing and a lower incidence of bronchopleural fistula. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:1130855

  17. Bronchial hyperreactivity is correlated with increased baseline airway tone.

    PubMed

    Bergner, A; Kellner, J; Kemp da Silva, A; Fischer, R; Gamarra, F; Huber, R M

    2006-02-21

    Physiologically, airways are not completely relaxed but maintain a baseline airway tone (BAT). Although not fulfilling the criteria for obstructive airway disease, increased BAT may nevertheless be important because the same amount of airway narrowing can be well tolerated or can cause severe airway obstruction depending on the starting point of the narrowing. In this study, we aimed at studying if BAT is correlated with bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR). For in vitro studies, airways in murine lung slices were digitally recorded and the change in cross-sectional area with time was quantified. BAT was measured by the amount of relaxation induced by permeabilization of the cell membrane with beta-escin in zero external calcium. BHR was induced by incubation of lung slices with interleukin-13 (IL-13). T-bet knock-out mice served as an additional model for BHR. T-bet knock-out mice show a shift towards TH2-lymphocytes and display histological as well as functional characteristics of asthma. In vivo, the specific airway resistance of healthy non-smoking volunteers was assessed before and after inhalation of formoterol and bronchial challenge was performed using methacholin. In murine lung slices that had been cultivated without serum, only a minimal BAT could be observed. But, after cultivation with 10 % new born calve serum, airways showed a BAT of approximately 13 % that could be reduced by incubation with an IL-13 receptor antagonist. Atropine, isoproterenol and indomethacin failed to relax airways regardless of cultivation with serum. Incubation of lung slices without serum but with IL-13 increased BAT as well as airway responsiveness to acetylcholine and both effects were more pronounced in small compared to large airways. In lung slices from T-bet knock-out mice, airways were hyperreactive compared to airways in slices from wild type mice and BAT was found to be increased. Again, both effects were more pronounced in small compared to large airways. In human non

  18. Bronchial brush biopsies for studies of epithelial inflammation in stable asthma and nonobstructive chronic bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Riise, G C; Andersson, B; Ahlstedt, S; Enander, I; Söderberg, M; Löwhagen, O; Larsson, S

    1996-08-01

    Recently, bronchial brush biopsy (BBB) has been introduced as a complimentary method to bronchial forceps biopsy for the study of bronchial epithelial cells. We wanted to determine whether epithelial inflammatory cells in bronchial brush biopsies can reflect mucosal inflammation assessed indirectly by levels of cellular activation markers in bronchial lavage fluid. We studied 15 healthy controls, 11 asthmatics with regular steroid inhalation therapy, 13 asthmatics without steroids, and 10 smokers with nonobstructive chronic bronchitis. Differential counts of epithelial and inflammatory cells were made from the BBB material. Bronchial lavage levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), myeloperoxidase (MPO), tryptase, hyaluronan and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were measured as indirect markers for inflammatory cell activation. We found an increased percentage of eosinophil granulocytes in the BBB from the steroid-untreated asthmatic patients (1.16%) in comparison to the other groups (0.11%, 0.09% and 0.02%, respectively; p<0.01). In the steroid-untreated asthmatic patients, the percentage of eosinophils correlated with ECP in bronchial lavage fluid (r=0.73; p<0.01), indicating that the BBB method can reflect the degree of eosinophilic activation. A negative correlation was found for the percentage of eosinophils in BBB with levels of provocative concentration of methacholine causing a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (PC20) for the asthmatic patients in the study (r= -0.67; p<0.003). The bronchial brush biopsy method appears to give information on the changes present in superficial bronchial epithelium in inflammatory airways disease. These changes appear to relate to the degree of inflammatory activity and disease severity in asthma. PMID:8866592

  19. Bronchial compression due to stent placement in pulmonary artery in a child with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Mónica; Beleña, José; Cabeza, Raúl; Beltrán, María

    2005-12-01

    Congenital heart disease, such as transposition of the great vessels (TGV), requires surgical procedures which can lead to important complications. We report on a case of bronchial obstruction following placement of a pulmonary artery stent in a 4-year-old boy who had undergone a Rastelli procedure to correct TGV, ventricular septal defect and pulmonary stenosis. There are many complications that can arise as a consequence of intravascular stents in heart surgery, as well as many causes of bronchial compression. However we have not found any report which describes bronchial compression as a direct consequence of endovascular stent. PMID:16324040

  20. Bronchial asthma: advice for patients traveling to high altitude.

    PubMed

    Cogo, Annalisa; Fiorenzano, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the possibility of traveling to altitude for patients suffering from bronchial asthma. The mountain environment, the adaptations of the respiratory system to high altitude, the underlying patho-physiologies of asthma, and the recommendations for patients, according to altitude, are discussed. In summary, staying at low altitude has a significant beneficial effect for asthmatic patients, due to the reduction of airway inflammation and the lower response to bronchoconstrictor stimuli; for staying at moderate altitude, there is conflicting information and no clinical data; at high altitude, the environment seems beneficial for well-controlled asthmatics, but intense exercise and upper airway infections (frequent during trekking) can be additional risks and should be avoided. Further, in remote areas health facilities are often difficult to reach. PMID:19519226

  1. [Complementary therapies in the treatment of bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Filip-Ciubotaru, Florina; Pandele, G I; Foia, Liliana

    2005-01-01

    The clinical and paraclinical benefits of drugs that are not included in the standard therapy strategies, to patients suffering from bronchial asthma, are illustrated in a particularly rich specialty literature. Magnesium, furosemide, heparins, antioxidative drugs, nitric oxide donor substances have real qualities, that make them useful in the management of patients suffering from asthma. The tremendous amount of studies that inspired this work suggests that, for the asthmatic patients, there are other alternative therapies, which can be administrated as adjuvant medication to the classical medication. At the same time, unconventional treatments are a solution worth considering for treatment-resisting cases, for cases in which side reactions develop to the standard therapy, and a source of inspiration for future research. PMID:16607735

  2. Recurrent acute kidney injury associated with metastatic bronchial carcinoid.

    PubMed

    Barton, James C; Barton, J Clayborn; Bertoli, Luigi F

    2012-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a rare complication of carcinoid syndrome. A 61-year-old man developed carcinoid syndrome 51 months after pneumonectomy for bronchial carcinoid, and 8 episodes of AKI 101 to 118 months after pneumonectomy. Serum chromogranin A and urine 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels were elevated for more than 1 year before AKI occurred. Each episode was characterized by flushing, facial edema, mild diarrhea, necrosis of hepatic metastatic nodules, mild oliguria, hyponatremia, acidosis, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia and hyperphosphatemia. He did not have elevated urine sodium levels or osmolality, hypotension or hypertension. Plasma levels of dopamine, epinephrine and norepinephrine, measured during a single episode, were markedly elevated. Serum creatinine levels returned to normal after most episodes. Hyponatremia persisted but was more severe during AKI. Elevated plasma levels of vasoactive substances other than 5-hydroxytryptamine, perhaps dopamine or other catecholamines, could explain recurrent AKI. The natriuretic effect of elevated plasma dopamine levels could explain chronic hyponatremia. PMID:22008780

  3. Novel human bronchial epithelial cell lines for cystic fibrosis research

    PubMed Central

    Fulcher, M. L.; Gabriel, S. E.; Olsen, J. C.; Tatreau, J. R.; Gentzsch, M.; Livanos, E.; Saavedra, M. T.; Salmon, P.; Randell, S. H.

    2009-01-01

    Immortalization of human bronchial epithelial (hBE) cells often entails loss of differentiation. Bmi-1 is a protooncogene that maintains stem cells, and its expression creates cell lines that recapitulate normal cell structure and function. We introduced Bmi-1 and the catalytic subunit of telomerase (hTERT) into three non-cystic fibrosis (CF) and three ΔF508 homozygous CF primary bronchial cell preparations. This treatment extended cell life span, although not as profoundly as viral oncogenes, and at passages 14 and 15, the new cell lines had a diploid karyotype. Ussing chamber analysis revealed variable transepithelial resistances, ranging from 200 to 1,200 Ω·cm2. In the non-CF cell lines, short-circuit currents were stimulated by forskolin and inhibited by CFTR(inh)-172 at levels mostly comparable to early passage primary cells. CF cell lines exhibited no forskolin-stimulated current and minimal CFTR(inh)-172 response. Amiloride-inhibitable and UTP-stimulated currents were present, but at lower and higher amplitudes than in primary cells, respectively. The cells exhibited a pseudostratified morphology, with prominent apical membrane polarization, few apoptotic bodies, numerous mucous secretory cells, and occasional ciliated cells. CF and non-CF cell lines produced similar levels of IL-8 at baseline and equally increased IL-8 secretion in response to IL-1β, TNF-α, and the Toll-like receptor 2 agonist Pam3Cys. Although they have lower growth potential and more fastidious growth requirements than viral oncogene transformed cells, Bmi-1/hTERT airway epithelial cell lines will be useful for several avenues of investigation and will help fill gaps currently hindering CF research and therapeutic development. PMID:18978040

  4. Functional Metagenomics of the Bronchial Microbiome in COPD.

    PubMed

    Millares, Laura; Pérez-Brocal, Vicente; Ferrari, Rafaela; Gallego, Miguel; Pomares, Xavier; García-Núñez, Marian; Montón, Concepción; Capilla, Silvia; Monsó, Eduard; Moya, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    The course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is frequently aggravated by exacerbations, and changes in the composition and activity of the microbiome may be implicated in their appearance. The aim of this study was to analyse the composition and the gene content of the microbial community in bronchial secretions of COPD patients in both stability and exacerbation. Taxonomic data were obtained by 16S rRNA gene amplification and pyrosequencing, and metabolic information through shotgun metagenomics, using the Metagenomics RAST server (MG-RAST), and the PICRUSt (Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States) programme, which predict metagenomes from 16S data. Eight severe COPD patients provided good quality sputum samples, and no significant differences in the relative abundance of any phyla and genera were found between stability and exacerbation. Bacterial biodiversity (Chao1 and Shannon indexes) did not show statistical differences and beta-diversity analysis (Bray-Curtis dissimilarity index) showed a similar microbial composition in the two clinical situations. Four functional categories showed statistically significant differences with MG-RAST at KEGG level 2: in exacerbation, Cell growth and Death and Transport and Catabolism decreased in abundance [1.6 (0.2-2.3) vs 3.6 (3.3-6.9), p = 0.012; and 1.8 (0-3.3) vs 3.6 (1.8-5.1), p = 0.025 respectively], while Cancer and Carbohydrate Metabolism increased [0.8 (0-1.5) vs 0 (0-0.5), p = 0.043; and 7 (6.4-9) vs 5.9 (6.3-6.1), p = 0.012 respectively]. In conclusion, the bronchial microbiome as a whole is not significantly modified when exacerbation symptoms appear in severe COPD patients, but its functional metabolic capabilities show significant changes in several pathways. PMID:26632844

  5. Spectral analysis of heart rate variability in bronchial asthma patients.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Jitendra; Dube, Amitabh; Singh, Virendra; Gupta, R C

    2012-01-01

    The study was carried in the Departments of Physiology and Medicine at S.M.S. Medical College, Jaipur. Thirty patients of bronchial asthma, aged 20-30 years attending outpatient clinics of S.M.S. Hospital and thirty healthy volunteers were recruited in the present study for spectral analysis of Heart Rate Variability (HRV) using impedance peripheral pulse in the right forearm. Two spectral components were recorded namely high frequency (HF) component (0.15-0.4 Hz), an indicator of vagal efferent activity and low frequency (LF) component (0.04-0.15 Hz), replicator of composite sympatho-vagal interplay. These components were analyzed as LF nu (Low Frequency normalized unit), HF nu (High Frequency normalized unit) and LF/HF ratio. Low frequency component in absolute units of the asthmatic patients differed insignificantly (P > 0.05) from LF of the subjects, whereas the same calculated as normalized units was found to be significantly low in the patient group (P < 0.01), as compared to that of the control group. The High Frequency (in absolute units) index of HRV was significantly high in asthmatics (P < 0.01) as compared to the HF (absolute units) of controls. Similar trend was observed in the normalized units of HF (P<0.01). LF/HF ratio was not significantly different in patient and control groups (P > 0.05). It was concluded that a significantly raised central vagal outflow and a concomitant significantly low central sympathetic efferent could be appreciated in asymptomatic asthmatic patients as compared to that in the control group. This deranged sympathovagal interplay with parasympathetic dominance could be a plausible pathophysiological mechanism leading to airway obstruction, the hallmark of bronchial asthma. PMID:23781652

  6. Parasympathetic Stimuli on Bronchial and Cardiovascular Systems in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Zannin, Emanuela; Pellegrino, Riccardo; Di Toro, Alessandro; Antonelli, Andrea; Dellacà, Raffaele L.; Bernardi, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Background It is not known whether parasympathetic outflow simultaneously acts on bronchial tone and cardiovascular system waxing and waning both systems in parallel, or, alternatively, whether the regulation is more dependent on local factors and therefore independent on each system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the simultaneous effect of different kinds of stimulations, all associated with parasympathetic activation, on bronchomotor tone and cardiovascular autonomic regulation. Methods Respiratory system resistance (Rrs, forced oscillation technique) and cardio-vascular activity (heart rate, oxygen saturation, tissue oxygenation index, blood pressure) were assessed in 13 volunteers at baseline and during a series of parasympathetic stimuli: O2 inhalation, stimulation of the carotid sinus baroreceptors by neck suction, slow breathing, and inhalation of methacholine. Results Pure cholinergic stimuli, like O2 inhalation and baroreceptors stimulation, caused an increase in Rrs and a reduction in heart rate and blood pressure. Slow breathing led to bradycardia and hypotension, without significant changes in Rrs. However slow breathing was associated with deep inhalations, and Rrs evaluated at the baseline lung volumes was significantly increased, suggesting that the large tidal volumes reversed the airways narrowing effect of parasympathetic activation. Finally inhaled methacholine caused marked airway narrowing, while the cardiovascular variables were unaffected, presumably because of the sympathetic activity triggered in response to hypoxemia. Conclusions All parasympathetic stimuli affected bronchial tone and moderately affected also the cardiovascular system. However the response differed depending on the nature of the stimulus. Slow breathing was associated with large tidal volumes that reversed the airways narrowing effect of parasympathetic activation. PMID:26046774

  7. Variations of respiratory impedance with lung volume in bronchial hyperreactivity.

    PubMed

    van den Elshout, F J; van de Woestijne, K P; Folgering, H T

    1990-08-01

    The total respiratory impedance was measured at various frequencies (4 to 52 Hz) with a pseudo-random-noise forced oscillation technique (FOT). The apparatus (Oscillaire) was connected with a spirometer forming a closed respiratory circuit in which gas concentrations were kept constant. Measurements were made in 15 healthy subjects (group 1) and in 30 asthmatic patients with bronchial hyperreactivity, subdivided into group 2 treated only with inhaled beta 2-mimetics (n = 15) and in group 3 using both beta 2-mimetics and steroids in inhalation (n = 15). No significant differences were found between the impedance data obtained with the Oscillaire alone and those obtained with the Oscillaire connected with the spirometer circuit. The impedance was measured at FRC level, and at FRC +1 L and -1 L. The relative changes of the resistance at 8 Hz were -23.2 percent (13.8) at FRC +1 L and +40.9 percent (29.3) at FRC -1 L relative to the values at resting FRC. This inverse relation between airway resistance and lung volume was similar in all groups. The average reactance decreased at FRC -1 L in all groups. However, at FRC +1 L the average reactance increased 50.6 percent in group 2 and 94.2 percent in group 3, but decreased in group 1. Concomitant changes were observed in the resonant frequency and in the frequency dependence of resistance. Because of these qualitatively different responses of the impedance data to changes in lung volume (both for the whole group and for each individual) between healthy subjects and asthmatic patients, this test might be useful for the diagnosis of bronchial hyperreactivity. PMID:2376168

  8. Functional Metagenomics of the Bronchial Microbiome in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Millares, Laura; Pérez-Brocal, Vicente; Ferrari, Rafaela; Gallego, Miguel; Pomares, Xavier; García-Núñez, Marian; Montón, Concepción; Capilla, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is frequently aggravated by exacerbations, and changes in the composition and activity of the microbiome may be implicated in their appearance. The aim of this study was to analyse the composition and the gene content of the microbial community in bronchial secretions of COPD patients in both stability and exacerbation. Taxonomic data were obtained by 16S rRNA gene amplification and pyrosequencing, and metabolic information through shotgun metagenomics, using the Metagenomics RAST server (MG-RAST), and the PICRUSt (Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States) programme, which predict metagenomes from 16S data. Eight severe COPD patients provided good quality sputum samples, and no significant differences in the relative abundance of any phyla and genera were found between stability and exacerbation. Bacterial biodiversity (Chao1 and Shannon indexes) did not show statistical differences and beta-diversity analysis (Bray-Curtis dissimilarity index) showed a similar microbial composition in the two clinical situations. Four functional categories showed statistically significant differences with MG-RAST at KEGG level 2: in exacerbation, Cell growth and Death and Transport and Catabolism decreased in abundance [1.6 (0.2–2.3) vs 3.6 (3.3–6.9), p = 0.012; and 1.8 (0–3.3) vs 3.6 (1.8–5.1), p = 0.025 respectively], while Cancer and Carbohydrate Metabolism increased [0.8 (0–1.5) vs 0 (0–0.5), p = 0.043; and 7 (6.4–9) vs 5.9 (6.3–6.1), p = 0.012 respectively]. In conclusion, the bronchial microbiome as a whole is not significantly modified when exacerbation symptoms appear in severe COPD patients, but its functional metabolic capabilities show significant changes in several pathways. PMID:26632844

  9. CARCINOGENIC RISK OF NONUNIFORM ALPHA PARTICLE IRRADIATION IN THE LUNGS: RADON PROGENY EFFECTS AT BRONCHIAL BIFURCATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The combined effect of enhanced deposition and reduced clearance at bronchial bifurcations leads to increased radon progeny doses within branching sites compared to uniformly distributed activity within a given airway generation. ulti-stage carcinogenesis model was used to predic...

  10. Origin of bronchial and pulmonary elastic fibers and their role in some pathological events.

    PubMed

    Gabbrielli, S; Stanflin, N; Di Preta, F

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of this contribution is to place a higher value on the existence of a turn-over of bronchial and pulmonary elastic fibers: the former would derive from the smooth muscle cells of the bronchial wall, the latter from the interstitial myofibroblasts of the alveolar septa. The reduction of the number of the elastic fibers in the bronchial wall during chronic atrophic bronchitis depend on the atrophy of the bronchial smooth muscle cells; in the alveolar septa the hyperplasia of the elastic fibers during pulmonary fibroses depend on the myofibroblastic proliferation, while the reduction of the elastic fibers number during pulmonary enphysema depend on the reduction in the number of myofibroblasts. PMID:7808795

  11. Pulmonary and bronchial circulations: contributions to heat and water exchange in isolated lungs.

    PubMed

    Serikov, V B; Fleming, N W

    2001-11-01

    The relative contribution of the pulmonary and bronchial circulatory systems to heat and water exchange in normal lungs was evaluated in 20 isolated, in situ perfused dog lungs and in four patients undergoing elective cardiopulmonary bypass. In isolated dog lungs, if the pulmonary artery was perfused at a nominal flow rate (0.5 l/min), bronchial artery perfusion (up to 70 ml/min) did not significantly affect the expired gas temperature. When the lungs were not perfused through either system, 8 min of ventilation with cool, dry gas decreased the temperature of the expired gas by 6.2 +/- 1.4 degrees C. Selective perfusion of bronchial arteries at 68 +/- 10 mmHg resulted in a mean flow rate of 28 +/- 16 ml/min and increased the average temperature of the expired gas by 0.6 degrees C. An increase in the rate of bronchial arterial perfusion to 55 +/- 14 ml/min increased the average temperature of the expired gas by 1.3 degrees C. The time constant for equilibration of tritiated water between the perfusate and the lung parenchyma was 130 +/- 33 min for pulmonary arterial perfusion and 35 +/- 13 min for combined bronchial and pulmonary perfusion, which indicated that filtration of water from high-pressure bronchial vessels facilitated water exchange in the lung interstitium. The rate of tracer equilibration was similar between the perfusate and gas in both variants of perfusion, but the ratios of tracer gas to perfusate were different (0.42 +/- 0.06 for pulmonary, 0.98 +/- 0.07 for combined), which indicates that bronchial vessels contribute mainly to the hydration of the bronchial mucosa. In humans, the bronchial blood flow was capable of maintaining heat supply after the initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass. Before bypass, when both pulmonary and bronchial blood flow were present, the mean time constant of the temperature decay after a switch to ventilation with cool, dry gas was 35 +/- 12 s. The average temperature difference between the blood and expired gas was 2

  12. Assessment of bronchial responsiveness following exposure to inhaled occupational and environmental agents.

    PubMed

    Currie, Graeme P; Ayres, Jon G

    2004-01-01

    Inhalation of a range of agents can result in airway inflammation and/or irritation. This may result in occupational asthma or reactive airways dysfunction syndrome. Reactive airways dysfunction syndrome follows a single large exposure to a chemical agent but is now frequently embraced under the wider term of irritant-induced asthma, a term that also includes asthma due to persistent, lower dose irritant exposures. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness is a hallmark of both occupational asthma and reactive airways dysfunction syndrome, although some patients with occupational asthma may occasionally have typical clinical features without increased bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Following removal of the causal agent in occupational asthma, bronchial hyperresponsiveness generally returns towards normal over a 2-year period, although some individuals demonstrate increased bronchial hyperresponsiveness for longer. Measurement of specific bronchial hyperresponsiveness to the primary causal agent in occupational asthma is used diagnostically but not for assessing prognosis. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness to inhaled methacholine can be measured across individual workshifts to assess work-related change. It may also be measured at the end of a work period when exposure has occurred, and compared with values following a period away from work. There have been no direct, systematic comparisons of changes in methacholine responsiveness in the diagnosis of occupational asthma compared with the more frequently used serial peak flow measurements. Patients with reactive airways dysfunction syndrome classically exhibit non-specific bronchial hyperresponsiveness, which can be readily measured by evaluating responses to inhaled methacholine. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness in reactive airways dysfunction syndrome can persist for many years after initial exposure and serial changes can be used to assess recovery and subsequent disability over time. PMID:15578862

  13. He-Ne laser radiation in combined therapy of children's bronchial asthma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhilnikov, Dmitriy V.; Varavva, Andrey S.; Tarasova, Olga N.; Plaksina, Galina V.; Barybin, Vitaliy F.; Khlutkova, Svetlana N.

    2004-02-01

    In this paper the medical application of He-Ne lasers for the treatment of bronchial asthma is described. Research objective of this work was the development of a treatment method for children with bronchial asthman of heavy and medium-heavy forms, resistant to the base therapy, with the help of low-intensive laser radiation with wave length λ=0,63 μm.

  14. Decreased expression of TGF-ß type II receptor in bronchial glands of smokers with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Baraldo, S; Bazzan, E; Turato, G; Calabrese, F; Beghe, B; Papi, A; Maestrelli, P; Fabbri, L; Zuin, R; Saetta, M

    2005-01-01

    Background: The role of transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is still controversial, but it has been proposed that it may protect from mucus hypersecretion since it is able to downregulate mucin production. A study was undertaken to investigate the expression of TGF-ß1 and its type II receptor (TGF-ß RII) in the bronchial glands of smokers with COPD. Methods: The expression of TGF-ß1 and TGF-ß RII were examined immunohistochemically in the bronchial glands of 24 smokers undergoing lung resection for solitary peripheral nodules: 12 with airflow limitation (smokers with COPD) and 12 with normal lung function. Results: The expression of TGF-ß1 in bronchial glands was similar in the two groups of subjects while that of TGF-ß RII was lower in smokers with COPD than in smokers with normal lung function (p = 0.004). TGF-ß RII expression was inversely correlated with the values of Reid's index, a measure of gland size (p = 0.02, r = –0.50). Conclusions: In the bronchial glands of smokers with COPD there is decreased expression of TGF-ß RII which is associated with bronchial gland enlargement. These findings support the view that the absence of TGF-ß signalling may induce structural changes in the bronchial glands which, in turn, may promote mucus hypersecretion. PMID:16227324

  15. Experience of hemostasis in tracheal bleeding very close to the carina by the bronchial blocker: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Son, MinKi; Lee, Sangjun; Lee, Sang Hyun; Lee, Soo Kyung; Lee, Kook Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Massive hemoptysis is respiratory compromise which should be managed as a life-threatening condition. In our case, the bronchial blocker played a role in hemostasis of tracheal bleeding very close to the carina and prevented further spillage into the contralateral lung. Right-sided one-lung isolation in an 87-year-old female, who received cardiopulmonary resuscitation due to myocardial infarction, was requested due to hemoptysis. Right-sided bronchial bleeding was suspected on auscultation, but esophageal and tracheal bleeding due to violent intubation with a stylet was also considered. We attempted one-lung isolation with the bronchial blocker. The bronchial blocker was inadvertently advanced to the left mainstem bronchus, but the inflated balloon of the bronchial blocker compressed the site of bleeding, which was within 1 cm proximal and left posterior to the carina. Tracheal bleeding stopped, and we confirmed that hemostasis was achieved with the balloon of the bronchial blocker using a fiberoptic bronchoscope. PMID:27274373

  16. Experience of hemostasis in tracheal bleeding very close to the carina by the bronchial blocker: a case report.

    PubMed

    Son, MinKi; Lee, Sangjun; Lee, Sang Hyun; Lim, Taewan; Lee, Soo Kyung; Lee, Kook Hyun

    2016-06-01

    Massive hemoptysis is respiratory compromise which should be managed as a life-threatening condition. In our case, the bronchial blocker played a role in hemostasis of tracheal bleeding very close to the carina and prevented further spillage into the contralateral lung. Right-sided one-lung isolation in an 87-year-old female, who received cardiopulmonary resuscitation due to myocardial infarction, was requested due to hemoptysis. Right-sided bronchial bleeding was suspected on auscultation, but esophageal and tracheal bleeding due to violent intubation with a stylet was also considered. We attempted one-lung isolation with the bronchial blocker. The bronchial blocker was inadvertently advanced to the left mainstem bronchus, but the inflated balloon of the bronchial blocker compressed the site of bleeding, which was within 1 cm proximal and left posterior to the carina. Tracheal bleeding stopped, and we confirmed that hemostasis was achieved with the balloon of the bronchial blocker using a fiberoptic bronchoscope. PMID:27274373

  17. Prevention of antigen-induced bronchial hyperreactivity and airway inflammation in sensitized guinea-pigs by tacrolimus.

    PubMed Central

    Lapa e Silva, J R; Ruffié, C; Lefort, J; Nahori, M A; Vargaftig, B B; Pretolani, M

    1999-01-01

    We examined the effect of the immunosuppressive agent, tacrolimus (FK506), on antigen-induced bronchial hyperreactivity to acetylcholine and leukocyte infiltration into the airways of ovalbumin-challenged guinea-pigs. Subcutaneous injection of 0.5 mg/kg of FK506, 1 h before and 5 h after intra-nasal antigen challenge prevented bronchial hyperreactivity to aerosolized acetylcholine, eosinophilia in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and bronchial tissue and the invasion of the bronchial wall by CD4+ T-lymphocytes. FK506 also suppressed ovalbumin-induced increase in the number of leukocytes adhering to the pulmonary vascular endothelium and expressing alpha4-integrins. Inhibition by FK506 of antigen-induced bronchial hyperreactivity in sensitized guinea-pigs may thus relate to its ability to prevent the emergence of important inflammatory components of airway inflammation, such as eosinophil accumulation, as well as CD4+ T-lymphocyte infiltration into the bronchial tissue. PMID:10704085

  18. Tracheal and bronchial involvement in colitis ulcerosa - a colo-bronchitic syndrome? A case report and some additional considerations.

    PubMed

    von Wichert, Peter; Barth, Peter; von Wichert, Goetz

    2015-01-01

    Systemic involvement is well known in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), but there are only few data looking to Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) separately instead of lumping together both entities to IBD. The frequency of bronchial involvement in UC is not yet exactly analysed but reported to be rare. We asked 100 patients with UC for bronchial complaints, and found in 13 patients a bronchial affection. From reports in the literature it is known that sometimes a bronchial involvement in patients with UC can affect the whole bronchial tree including small bronchi. The involvement of bronchial system in UC is obviously more prominent than previously thought and may fulfil the criteria for a separate syndrome. These relations may have consequences for pathogenetic understanding of UC as well as bronchitis and also consequences for treatment regimes. PMID:25834480

  19. Duodenal-bronchial fistula: an unusual cause of shortness of breath and a productive cough.

    PubMed

    Wong, Cynthia; Khan, Kalim; Byass, Oliver

    2016-09-01

    Duodenal-bronchial fistulas are very uncommon, even among the already rare subgroup of abdominal-bronchial fistulas. We describe a case of a woman with Crohn's disease who presented with shortness of breath and a productive cough who was found to have a duodeanl bronchial fistula on computed tomography scan. We demonstrate with this case how these rare cases can lead to chronic lung aspirations and require multidisciplinary involvement. PMID:27594936

  20. Relationship between blood and bronchial submucosal eosinophilia and reticular basement membrane thickening in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Eltboli, Osama; Mistry, Vijay; Barker, Bethan; Brightling, Chris E

    2015-05-01

    A sputum eosinophilia is observed in 10-40% of COPD subjects. The blood eosinophil count is a biomarker of sputum eosinophilia, but whether it is associated with bronchial submucosal eosinophils is unclear. In 20 COPD subjects and 21 controls we assessed the number of bronchial submucosal eosinophils and reticular basement membrane thickening and found these were positively correlated with the blood eosinophil percentage. In COPD, blood eosinophils are a good biomarker of bronchial eosinophilia and remodelling. PMID:25645275

  1. Relationship between blood and bronchial submucosal eosinophilia and reticular basement membrane thickening in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Eltboli, Osama; Mistry, Vijay; Barker, Bethan

    2015-01-01

    A sputum eosinophilia is observed in 10–40% of COPD subjects. The blood eosinophil count is a biomarker of sputum eosinophilia, but whether it is associated with bronchial submucosal eosinophils is unclear. In 20 COPD subjects and 21 controls we assessed the number of bronchial submucosal eosinophils and reticular basement membrane thickening and found these were positively correlated with the blood eosinophil percentage. In COPD, blood eosinophils are a good biomarker of bronchial eosinophilia and remodelling. PMID:25645275

  2. Paracellular Transport through Healthy and Cystic Fibrosis Bronchial Epithelial Cell Lines – Do We Have a Proper Model?

    PubMed Central

    Weiser, Nelly; Kusche-Vihrog, Kristina; Günzel, Dorothee; Schillers, Hermann

    2014-01-01

    It has been reported recently that the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) besides transcellular chloride transport, also controls the paracellular permeability of bronchial epithelium. The aim of this study was to test whether overexpressing wtCFTR solely regulates paracellular permeability of cell monolayers. To answer this question we used a CFBE41o– cell line transfected with wtCFTR or mutant F508del-CFTR and compered them with parental line and healthy 16HBE14o– cells. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and paracellular fluorescein flux were measured under control and CFTR-stimulating conditions. CFTR stimulation significant decreased TER in 16HBE14o– and also in CFBE41o– cells transfected with wtCFTR. In contrast, TER increased upon stimulation in CFBE41o– cells and CFBE41o– cells transfected with F508del-CFTR. Under non-stimulated conditions, all four cell lines had similar paracellular fluorescein flux. Stimulation increased only the paracellular permeability of the 16HBE14o– cell monolayers. We observed that 16HBE14o– cells were significantly smaller and showed a different structure of cell-cell contacts than CFBE41o– and its overexpressing clones. Consequently, 16HBE14o– cells have about 80% more cell-cell contacts through which electrical current and solutes can leak. Also tight junction protein composition is different in ‘healthy’ 16HBE14o– cells compared to ‘cystic fibrosis’ CFBE41o– cells. We found that claudin-3 expression was considerably stronger in 16HBE14o– cells than in the three CFBE41o– cell clones and thus independent of the presence of functional CFTR. Together, CFBE41o– cell line transfection with wtCFTR modifies transcellular conductance, but not the paracellular permeability. We conclude that CFTR overexpression is not sufficient to fully reconstitute transport in CF bronchial epithelium. Hence, it is not recommended to use those cell lines to study CFTR

  3. Detection of trisomy 7 in bronchial cells from uranium miners

    SciTech Connect

    Lechner, J.F.; Neft, R.E.; Belinsky, S.A.

    1995-12-01

    New Mexico was the largest producer of uranium in the western world during 1960s and 1970s. Investigators at the University of New Mexico School of Medicine`s Epidemiology and Cancer Control Program have been conducting epidemiological studies on uranium miners over the past 2 decades. Currently, this cohort includes more than 3600 men who had completed at least 1 y of underground work experience in New Mexico by December 31, 1976. These miners, who are now in their 5th through 7th decades, the age when lung cancer incidence is highest, are at high risk for developing this disease because they were exposed to high levels of radon progeny in the mines, and they also smoked tobacco. However, not all people comparably exposed develop lung cancer; in fact, the lifetime risk of lung cancer for the smoking uranium miners has been projected by epidemiological analyses to be no higher than 50%. Therefore, the identification of gene alterations in bronchial epithelium would be a valuable tool to ascertain which miners are at greatest risk for lung cancer. The underlying significance of the current effort confirms the hypothesis that chronic exposure to high concentrations of {alpha}-particles and tobacco smoke produces genetically altered lung epithelial cells throughout the respiratory tract of some susceptible individuals before they develop clinical disease.

  4. Endoscopic bronchial valve treatment: patient selection and special considerations

    PubMed Central

    Eberhardt, Ralf; Gompelmann, Daniela; Herth, Felix JF; Schuhmann, Maren

    2015-01-01

    As well as lung volume reduction surgery, different minimally invasive endoscopic techniques are available to achieve lung volume reduction in patients with severe emphysema and significant hyperinflation. Lung function parameters and comorbidities of the patient, as well as the extent and distribution of the emphysema are factors to be considered when choosing the patient and the intervention. Endoscopic bronchial valve placement with complete occlusion of one lobe in patients with heterogeneous emphysema is the preferred technique because of its reversibility. The presence of high interlobar collateral ventilation will hinder successful treatment; therefore, endoscopic coil placement, polymeric lung volume reduction, or bronchoscopic thermal vapor ablation as well as lung volume reduction surgery can be used for treating patients with incomplete fissures. The effect of endoscopic lung volume reduction in patients with a homogeneous distribution of emphysema is still unclear and this subgroup should be treated only in clinical trials. Precise patient selection is necessary for interventions and to improve the outcome and reduce the risk and possible complications. Therefore, the patients should be discussed in a multidisciplinary approach prior to determining the most appropriate treatment for lung volume reduction. PMID:26504379

  5. Antiproteases modulate bronchial epithelial cell responses to endotoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, S.; Rennard, S. I.; Claassen, L.; Robbins, R. A.

    1995-01-01

    Escherichia coli endotoxin (0.1 to 1000 micrograms/ml) stimulated the release of neutrophil chemotactic activity (P < 0.001) and induced bronchial epithelial cell (BEC) cytotoxicity assessed by lactate dehydrogenase release (P < 0.001). Endotoxin (100 micrograms/ml) inhibited BEC accumulation (P < 0.001). In the present study, we investigated the role of proteolytic activity of BECs per se in response to endotoxin. Several structurally and functionally different antiproteases, alpha 1 protease inhibitor, soybean trypsin inhibitor, two chloromethyl ketone derivatives (N-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone and methoxysuccinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Val chloromethyl ketone), and L-658,758, a neutrophil elastase inhibitor, attenuated the release of neutrophil chemotactic activity and lactate dehydrogenase (P < 0.01). alpha 1-Protease inhibitor and N-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone attenuated the inhibition of BEC accumulation by endotoxin (P < 0.001). The proteolytic enzyme activity measured by synthetic substrates revealed that endotoxin significantly augmented the serine proteolytic activity in the cell layers. Culture supernatant fluids and cell lysates of BECs in the presence of endotoxin solubilized 14C-labeled casein. These data suggest that responses of BECs to endotoxin may involve activation of cellular proteolytic activity. PMID:7747815

  6. A locus regulating bronchial hyperresponsiveness maps to chromosome 5q

    SciTech Connect

    Levitt, R.C.; Meyers, D.A.; Bleecker, E.R.

    1994-09-01

    Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) is one of the hallmarks of asthma. BHR correlates well with asthmatic symptoms and the response to treatment. Moreover, BHR appears to be closely related to airways inflammation. Numerous studies have demonstrated a familial aggregation; however, this phenotype is not likely inherited as a simple Mendelian trait. BHR is also closely associated with total serum IgE levels, as are allergy and asthma. We studied 92 families from Northern Holland ascertained through a parent with asthma who were originally studied between 1962-1970. Since there are a number of candidate genes on chromosome 5q potentially important in producing BHR, families were genotyped for markers in this region. These genes regulate IgE production and the cellular elements that are likely involved in inflammation associated with BHR, allergy and asthma. They include IL-4, IL-3, IL-5, IL-9, IL-12, IL-13 and GM-CSF. Linkage of BHR with markers on 5q was tested using a model free sib-pair method. The data suggest a locus for BHR maps near the cytokine gene cluster on 5q. This region appears critical in producing susceptibility to BHR and possibly to asthma.

  7. Antinuclear antibodies and anticytoplasmic antibodies in bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Menon, P; Menon, V; Hilman, B C; Wolf, R; Bairnsfather, L

    1989-12-01

    The presence of antinuclear antibodies and anticytoplasmic antibodies was evaluated in the sera of 50 patients with bronchial asthma and 35 matched control subjects with miscellaneous medical diseases with the use of an indirect immunofluorescent assay with HEp-2 cells as substrate. The results were compared to age, sex, atopic status, dose, and duration of the antiasthmatic medication, immunotherapy, severity of the disease, and presence or absence of myalgia. The patients had mild to moderate asthma. The incidence of fluorescent anticytoplasmic antibodies (FACA) in the sera of patients with asthma was statistically significant (p = 0.02) in comparison to FACA in the sera of the control subjects. The combined incidence of fluorescent antinuclear antibodies (FANA) and FACA was found to be significantly higher among atopic subjects with asthma (p = 0.03) and the subjects with asthma and with myalgia (p less than 0.05). The 20% incidence of FACA in this group of subjects with asthma was significantly greater (p less than 0.0001) than the reported 2.7% incidence of FACA in a group of patients with various rheumatologic diseases. Variables, such as dose and duration of antiasthma medications and immunotherapy did not appear to influence the presence of FANA and FACA in their sera. The significance of positive FANA and FACA in this group of subjects with asthma is not known and needs to be evaluated by long-term studies. PMID:2689497

  8. Tungsten-induced carcinogenesis in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Laulicht, Freda; Brocato, Jason; Cartularo, Laura; Vaughan, Joshua; Wu, Feng; Kluz, Thomas; Sun, Hong; Oksuz, Betul Akgol; Shen, Steven; Peana, Massimiliano; Medici, Serenella; Zoroddu, Maria Antonietta; Costa, Max

    2015-10-01

    Metals such as arsenic, cadmium, beryllium, and nickel are known human carcinogens; however, other transition metals, such as tungsten (W), remain relatively uninvestigated with regard to their potential carcinogenic activity. Tungsten production for industrial and military applications has almost doubled over the past decade and continues to increase. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate tungsten's ability to induce carcinogenic related endpoints including cell transformation, increased migration, xenograft growth in nude mice, and the activation of multiple cancer-related pathways in transformed clones as determined by RNA sequencing. Human bronchial epithelial cell line (Beas-2B) exposed to tungsten developed carcinogenic properties. In a soft agar assay, tungsten-treated cells formed more colonies than controls and the tungsten-transformed clones formed tumors in nude mice. RNA-sequencing data revealed that the tungsten-transformed clones altered the expression of many cancer-associated genes when compared to control clones. Genes involved in lung cancer, leukemia, and general cancer genes were deregulated by tungsten. Taken together, our data show the carcinogenic potential of tungsten. Further tests are needed, including in vivo and human studies, in order to validate tungsten as a carcinogen to humans. PMID:26164860

  9. [The follow up of patients with bronchial carcinoma (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Wilde, J

    1980-01-01

    The aims of follow up of patients with bronchial carcinoma are: 1. Complete use of all therapeutical possibilities. 2. Avoidance of preventable complications of therapeutical prescriptions. 3. Prevention of sicknesses beside the basic complaint. 4. The rehabilitation of the patient. The medical structure for realizing these aims, we suppose in the cooperation of the doctor of the family or the factory, who will see the patient in intervals of four weeks, and the ambulant working pulmologist, who will see the patient in intervals of 3 months, and the thorax-centre, what the patient will consult once or twice the year, and the centre for rehabilitation, where patients with limited cardiorespiratoric function will get an appropriated training of condition. Two cure-places with this special direction will satisfy the require in the GDR. The oncologist of the district where the patient lives will be the coordinator of all parts of this system and the controller to keep its function. The effectivity of follow up will be realised by clear and proofed recommendations by the therapeutical centres and the continued consultations on actual problem cases with the shared doctors. The data processing can do an useful help in this cooperation. PMID:6261467

  10. [A three dimensional fractal simulation of the lung bronchial tree].

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiuyi; Tan, Xiaoping; Pei, Juemin

    2004-06-01

    The lungs are naturally irregular and asymmetrical organ in anatomy. The conducting bronchial trees in the lungs display complex self-similar structure. We have established the host mesh coordinates of the right lung on the basis of the anatomical data from the literature. A three-dimensional fractal model of the conducting airways was set up by calculating the coordinates of the mass centers of the divided blocks, searching the branch direction and determining branch lengths with the use of the drawing tool OpenGL. Specific data of the lengths at various grades, branching angles, and capillary diameters were obtained. As a result, the computed data were identical with those of the existing statistical data. The fractal covering dimensionality obtained in the computation of this model was 2.19, which is very close to the ideal dimensionality, 2.17, from the literature. The present model has laid the foundation for further research of the gas diffusion and transfer performance in the lungs using the fractal concept, and furthermore, it helps to save the computer memories and fastening the graphic transfer. PMID:15250137

  11. Endoscopic bronchial valve treatment: patient selection and special considerations.

    PubMed

    Eberhardt, Ralf; Gompelmann, Daniela; Herth, Felix J F; Schuhmann, Maren

    2015-01-01

    As well as lung volume reduction surgery, different minimally invasive endoscopic techniques are available to achieve lung volume reduction in patients with severe emphysema and significant hyperinflation. Lung function parameters and comorbidities of the patient, as well as the extent and distribution of the emphysema are factors to be considered when choosing the patient and the intervention. Endoscopic bronchial valve placement with complete occlusion of one lobe in patients with heterogeneous emphysema is the preferred technique because of its reversibility. The presence of high interlobar collateral ventilation will hinder successful treatment; therefore, endoscopic coil placement, polymeric lung volume reduction, or bronchoscopic thermal vapor ablation as well as lung volume reduction surgery can be used for treating patients with incomplete fissures. The effect of endoscopic lung volume reduction in patients with a homogeneous distribution of emphysema is still unclear and this subgroup should be treated only in clinical trials. Precise patient selection is necessary for interventions and to improve the outcome and reduce the risk and possible complications. Therefore, the patients should be discussed in a multidisciplinary approach prior to determining the most appropriate treatment for lung volume reduction. PMID:26504379

  12. Bronchial thermoplasty failure in severe persistent asthma: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Doeing, Diana C.; Husain, Aliya N.; Naureckas, Edward T.; White, Steven R.; Hogarth, Douglas K.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) is an emerging therapy for patients with severe persistent asthma who remain poorly controlled despite standard maximal medical therapy. Thermoplasty elicits asthma control over time by applying thermal radiofrequency energy to airways to ablate underlying smooth muscle. While this therapy is suggested to eliminate such smooth muscle permanently, no human studies have examined the possibility of treatment failure. Case report We present a 62-year-old female with severe, refractory asthma symptoms who underwent BT without apparent complications. However, severe symptoms including multiple clinical exacerbations persisted despite BT treatment. Repeat endobronchial biopsy done six months after BT treatment demonstrated persistent smooth muscle hyperplasia in multiple airways that previously had been treated. The patient continued to have uncontrolled, refractory asthma despite multiple therapies. Conclusion This case is the first to describe a failure of BT to reduce or eliminate airway smooth muscle in a patient with severe persistent asthma. It suggests the potential for treatment failure in the management of these patients after BT and highlights the need for further study of potential BT-refractory patients. PMID:23651158

  13. Reactive airways dysfunction syndrome due to chlorine: sequential bronchial biopsies and functional assessment.

    PubMed

    Lemière, C; Malo, J L; Boutet, M

    1997-01-01

    Very little information is available on the acute histopathological bronchial alterations caused by reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS). We had the opportunity to carry out sequential bronchial biopsies in a subject with RADS due to chlorine (60 h, 15 days, 2 and 5 months after the acute exposure), and also to assess spirometry and bronchial responsiveness to methacholine. A 36 year old worker in a water-filtration plant (nonsmoker) abruptly inhaled high concentrations of chlorine on September 12, 1994. He experienced immediate nasal and throat burning, retrosternal burning and wheezing, and these symptoms persisted during and after the workshift. Two days later, he complained of retrosternal burning, dyspnoea and wheezing. Inspiratory wheezing was documented. His forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was 66% of predicted and the provocative concentration of methacholine causing a 20% fall in FEV1 (PC20) was slightly abnormal (2.5 mg.mL-1). On the following day, the patient underwent bronchial biopsies, which showed almost complete replacement of the epithelium by a fibrinohaemorhagic exsudate. The subject was prescribed inhaled steroids. Fifteen days after the accident, the PC20 was improved to 6 mg.mL-1. Bronchial biopsies showed considerable epithelial desquamation with an inflammatory exudate and swelling of the subepithelial space. Five weeks after the accident, the PC20 was normal (57 mg.mL-1). Inhaled steroids were stopped. Two months after the accident, the PC20 deteriorated to 4 mg.mL-1. Biopsies then showed regeneration of the epithelium by basal cells and there was still a pronounced inflammatory infiltrate. Inhaled steroids were restarted. Three and five months later, the PC20 was normal (24 mg.mL-1). Bronchial biopsies showed a greatly improved epithelium and reduction of the inflammatory infiltrate. This case report shows that reactive airways dysfunction syndrome can cause acute, marked, though partially reversible, histological

  14. Bronchial circulation angiogenesis in the rat quantified with SPECT and micro-CT

    PubMed Central

    Wietholt, Christian; Roerig, David L.; Gordon, John B.; Haworth, Steven T.; Molthen, Robert C.; Clough, Anne V.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction As pulmonary artery obstruction results in proliferation of the bronchial circulation in a variety of species, we investigated this angiogenic response using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and micro-CT. Materials and methods After surgical ligation of the left pulmonary artery of rats, they were imaged at 10, 20, or 40 days post-ligation. Before imaging, technetium-labeled macroaggregated albumin (99mTc MAA) was injected into the aortic arch (IA) labeling the systemic circulation. SPECT/micro-CT imaging was performed, the image volumes were registered, and activity in the left lung via the bronchial circulation was used as a marker of bronchial blood flow. To calibrate and to verify successful ligation, 99mTc MAA was subsequently injected into the left femoral vein (IV), resulting in accumulation within the pulmonary circulation. The rats were reimaged, and the ratio of the IA to the IV measurements reflected the fraction of cardiac output (CO) to the left lung via the bronchial circulation. Control and sham-operated rats were studied similarly. Results The left lung bronchial circulation of the control group was 2.5% of CO. The sham-operated rats showed no significant difference from the control. However, 20 and 40 days post-ligation, the bronchial circulation blood flow had increased to 7.9 and 13.9%, respectively, of CO. Excised lungs examined after barium filling of the systemic vasculature confirmed neovascularization as evidenced by tortuous vessels arising from the mediastinum and bronchial circulation. Conclusion Thus, we conclude that SPECT/micro-CT imaging is a valuable methodology for monitoring angiogenesis in the lung and, potentially, for evaluating the effects of pro- or anti-angiogenic treatments using a similar approach. PMID:18247028

  15. A novel bronchial ring bioassay for the evaluation of small airway smooth muscle function in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, John Q; Yang, Dennis; Folz, Rodney J

    2006-08-01

    Advances in our understanding of murine airway physiology have been hindered by the lack of suitable, ex vivo, small airway bioassay systems. In this study, we introduce a novel small murine airway bioassay system that permits the physiological and pharmacological study of intrapulmonary bronchial smooth muscle via a bronchial ring (BR) preparation utilizing BR segments as small as 200 microm in diameter. Using this ex vivo BR bioassay, we characterized small airway smooth muscle contraction and relaxation in the presence and absence of bronchial epithelium. In control BRs, the application of mechanical stretch is followed by spontaneous bronchial smooth muscle relaxation. BRs pretreated with methacholine (MCh) partially attenuate this stretch-induced relaxation by as much as 42% compared with control. MCh elicited a dose-dependent bronchial constriction with a maximal tension (E(max)) of 8.7 +/- 0.2 mN at an EC(50) of 0.33 +/- 0.02 microM. In the presence of nifedipine, ryanodine, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, and SKF-96365, E(max) to MCh was significantly reduced. In epithelium-denuded BRs, MCh-induced contraction was significantly enhanced to 11.4 +/- 1.0 mN with an EC(50) of 0.16 +/- 0.04 microM (P < 0.01). Substance P relaxed MCh-precontracted BR by 62.1%; however, this bronchial relaxation effect was completely lost in epithelium-denuded BRs. Papaverine virtually abolished MCh-induced constriction in both epithelium-intact and epithelium-denuded bronchial smooth muscle. In conclusion, this study introduces a novel murine small airway BR bioassay that allows for the physiological study of smooth muscle airway contractile responses that may aid in our understanding of the pathophysiology of asthma. PMID:16648239

  16. FEF(25-75) might be a predictive factor for bronchial inflammation and bronchial hyperreactivity in adolescents with allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Ciprandi, G; Tosca, M A; Castellazzi, A M; Cairello, F; Salpietro, C; Arrigo, T; Miraglia Del Giudice, M

    2011-10-01

    Allergic rhinitis and asthma are closely associated. Bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) is a pathophysiological characteristic of asthma. Allergic inflammation is characterized by eosinophilic infiltrate and may by indirectly assessed by exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). Forced expiratory flow between 25 percent and 75 percent of vital capacity (FEF25-75) may predict BHR in adult patients with allergic rhinitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of BHR in a large group of adolescents with allergic rhinitis and whether FEF25-75 might be related with BHR and FeNO. Methods 150 adolescents with allergic rhinitis were enrolled. Clinical examination, skin prick test, spirometry, methacholine challenge, and FeNO were performed in all patients. Results Severe BHR is quite frequent in allergic adolescents. Impaired FEF25-75 values (such as less than 65 percent of predicted) constitute a relevant predictive factor for severe BHR (OR 4.4). FeNO levels were significantly related with BHR. Conclusion This study provides evidence that impaired FEF25-75 values might predict severe BHR and BHR is related with FeNO in adolescents. Therefore, BHR should be suspected in adolescents with low FEF25-75 values. PMID:22032781

  17. Utility of Cell-Block of Bronchial Washings in Diagnosis of Lung Cancer- A Comparative Analysis with Conventional Smear Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Vadala, Rohit; Mandrekar, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Bronchoscopy is a safe & effective means of diagnosing bronchogenic carcinoma with a varying diagnostic yield of different bronchoscopic procedures. Cell-Block (CB) preparation of cytology specimen has been shown to increase the diagnostic yield further. To the authors’ knowledge, the diagnostic value of CB as an adjunct to conventional smear cytology (CS) of bronchial washing specimens in the detection of bronchogenic carcinoma has not been well evaluated. Aim The present study was aimed to evaluate the diagnostic utility of CB of bronchial washings when compared with CS. Materials and Methods A total of 104 patients of suspected bronchogenic carcinoma were subjected to bronchoscopy as per British Thoracic Society (BTS) protocol. Bronchial biopsy, brushings and washings were collected. Smears were prepared immediately of bronchial washings and another aliquot was subjected to CB preparation and further processing by paraffin embedding and H&E staining. Results Out of 104 patients, 92 were diagnosed by bronchoscopy with a cumulative diagnostic yield of all sampling techniques being 88.46%. Yield of CB of bronchial washings (44.23%) was higher than Bronchial washings – conventional smears (36.53%). CB detected additional 8 cases of malignancy where corresponding bronchial washings-conventional smears were negative. Exclusive diagnosis by CB was obtained in 2 cases. Brushings and biopsy confirmed malignancy in 49.03% and 57.69% cases. Conclusion CB of bronchial washings had a higher yield as compared to corresponding conventional smears. Increase in yield was also noted when CB of bronchial washings was combined with biopsy and compared to bronchial washings- conventional smears combined with biopsy. In limited resource settings, CB preparation is a simple method that increases diagnostic yield of flexible bronchoscopy, is cost effective & hence can be routinely used. The immunohistochemical and molecular studies are possible with CB only, which is a

  18. Management of occult adrenocorticotropin-secreting bronchial carcinoids: limits of endocrine testing and imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Loli, P; Vignati, F; Grossrubatscher, E; Dalino, P; Possa, M; Zurleni, F; Lomuscio, G; Rossetti, O; Ravini, M; Vanzulli, A; Bacchetta, C; Galli, C; Valente, D

    2003-03-01

    The differential diagnosis and the identification of the source of ACTH in occult ectopic Cushing's syndrome due to a bronchial carcinoid still represents a challenge for the endocrinologist. We report our experience in six patients with occult bronchial carcinoid in whom extensive hormonal, imaging, and scintigraphic evaluation was performed. All patients presented with hypercortisolism associated with high plasma ACTH values. The CRH test and high dose dexamethasone suppression test suggested an ectopic source of ACTH in three of six patients. During bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling, none of the patients showed a central to peripheral ACTH gradient. At the time of diagnosis, none of the patients had radiological evidence of the ectopic source of ACTH, whereas pentetreotide scintigraphy identified the lesion in two of four patients. Finally, a chest computed tomography scan revealed the presence of a bronchial lesion in all patients, and pentetreotide scintigraphy identified four of six lesions. In all patients a bronchial carcinoid was found and removed. In one patient with scintigraphic evidence of residual disease after two operations, radioguided surgery, using a hand-held gamma probe after iv administration of radiolabeled pentetreotide, was performed; this allowed detection and removal of residual multiple mediastinal lymph node metastases. In conclusion, our data show that there is not a single endocrine test or imaging procedure accurate enough to diagnose and localize occult ectopic ACTH-secreting bronchial carcinoids. Radioguided surgery appears to be promising in the presence of multiple tumor foci and previous incomplete removal of the tumor. PMID:12629081

  19. Captopril augments acetylcholine-induced bronchial smooth muscle contractions in vitro via kinin-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Naman; Akella, Aparna; Deshpande, Shripad B

    2016-06-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors therapy is aassociated with bothersome dry cough as an adverse effect. The mechanisms underlying this adverse effect are not clear. Therefore, influence of captopril (an ACE inhibitor) on acetylcholine (ACh)-induced bronchial smooth muscle contractions was investigated. Further, the mechanisms underlying the captopril-induced changes were also explored. In vitro contractions of rat bronchial smooth muscle to cumulative concentrations of ACh were recorded before and after exposure to captopril. Further, the involvement of kinin and inositol triphosphate (IP₃) pathways for captopril-induced alterations were explored. ACh produced concentration-dependent (5-500 µM) increase in bronchial smooth muscle contractions. Pre-treatment with captopril augmented the ACh-induced contractions at each concentration significantly. Pre-treatment with aprotinin (kinin synthesis inhibitor) or heparin (inositol triphosphate, IP₃-inhibitor), blocked the captopril-induced augmentation of bronchial smooth muscle contractions evoked by ACh. Further, captopril-induced augmentation was absent in calcium-free medium. These results suggest that captopril sensitizes bronchial smooth muscles to ACh-induced contractions. This sensitization may be responsible for dry cough associated with captopril therapy. PMID:27468462

  20. Telomerase expression in noncancerous bronchial epithelia is a possible marker of early development of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Miyazu, Yuka Matsuoka; Miyazawa, Teruomi; Hiyama, Keiko; Kurimoto, Noriaki; Iwamoto, Yasuo; Matsuura, Hiroo; Kanoh, Koji; Kohno, Nobuoki; Nishiyama, Masahiko; Hiyama, Eiso

    2005-11-01

    Centrally located lung cancers in smokers frequently associated with subsequent primary tumors. We evaluated the telomerase expression chronologically in noncancerous epithelia as a risk factor of susceptibility to lung cancer development. Telomerase protein expression was examined in situ by immunohistochemistry in 26 noncancerous bronchial epithelia adjacent to centrally located early-stage lung cancers in sequential 23 patients treated by photodynamic therapy or surgery among 206 patients who underwent autofluorescence bronchoscopy from 1997 to 2003. Among the 15 lesions in 12 patients treated by photodynamic therapy alone, 11 lesions achieved complete remission after photodynamic therapy, and none of their noncancerous bronchial epithelia was telomerase positive. On the contrary, in the remaining four lesions, either recurrence or secondary lung cancer developed adjacent to the successfully treated primary cancer within 26 months, and the telomerase protein expression in noncancerous epithelia was detected before the secondary cancer development (P < 0.001). The overall relationship of human telomerase reverse transcriptase positivity in noncancerous epithelia and subsequent lung cancer development, including patients treated by radiation or surgery, showed higher significance (P < 0.0001). Histologically "normal" bronchial epithelia in smokers may unphysiologically express telomerase as a field, and such epithelia are likely susceptible to develop lung cancer. We propose that ectopic expression of telomerase in bronchial epithelia may precede transformation in human lung cancer development and that detection of telomerase protein in noncancerous bronchial epithelia will become a useful marker detecting high-risk patients for lung cancer development. PMID:16266979

  1. Specific bronchial reactivity to toluene diisocyanate: relationship with baseline clinical findings.

    PubMed Central

    Paggiaro, P L; Innocenti, A; Bacci, E; Rossi, O; Talini, D

    1986-01-01

    One hundred and fourteen subjects with asthma induced by toluene diisocyanate were identified and the pattern of their bronchial responses to challenge with toluene diisocyanate was studied. An occupational type specific bronchial provocation test with toluene diisocyanate (10-25 parts per thousand million for 10-15 minutes) elicited an immediate response in 24, a late response in 50, and a dual response in 40 patients. Subjects with a dual response showed at diagnosis a longer duration of symptoms and a greater prevalence of airway obstruction; in these subjects FEV1 (percentage of predicted value) was lower than in subjects with immediate or late reactions to toluene diisocyanate. The percentage of current smokers and ex-smokers was significantly lower in subjects with a late response (26%) than in subjects with immediate or dual responses (56% and 57% respectively). In 27 of the 114 subjects a non-specific challenge test with methacholine was performed and subjects with dual responses showed greater non-specific bronchial hyperresponsiveness than the other groups. These results suggest that a dual response to specific challenge in bronchial asthma related to toluene diisocyanate may be associated with more severe disease than other types of response, as assessed by duration of symptoms, baseline airway obstruction, and non-specific bronchial hyperresponsiveness. The high prevalence of non-smokers and low prevalence of smokers in the group with a late response to specific challenge is so far unexplained. PMID:3016938

  2. Bronchial artery embolization for malignant hemoptysis: a single institutional experience

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Osman; Jilani, Danial; Zangan, Steve; Lorenz, Jonathan; Funaki, Brian; Van Ha, Thuong; Navuluri, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the effectiveness of bronchial artery embolization (BAE) in patients with malignant hemoptysis. Methods An IRB-approved retrospective study at our academic institution was conducted on all patients treated by BAE for hemoptysis from lung malignancy. Outcome and safety measures were documented according to Society of Interventional Radiology (SIR) practice guidelines. Results A total of 26 patients (13 male, 13 female) with lung malignancy underwent BAE for hemoptysis from 2003-2013. Histologic analysis revealed 80% (21/26) of cases were from primary lung malignancies, while the remaining 20% (4/26) represented metastatic disease. Sixty-five percent (17/26) of patients underwent bronchoscopy prior to BAE. Follow-up ranged from 2 to 1,909 days, with average of 155 days. Technical success was achieved in 77% of patients (20/26). Clinical success rate was 75% (15/20). Eighty-five percent of embolized patients (17/20) were treated with particles, 15% (3/20) with gelfoam, and 20% (4/20) with coils. Single-vessel embolization was performed in 70% (14/20), two-vessel in 20% (4/20), and multiple vessels in 10% (2/20). No complications were reported. Six-month all-cause mortality of treated cases was 55% (11/20) with an in-hospital mortality of 25% (5/20). Ten percent (2/20) had remote re-bleeding events beyond 6 months. Statistically significant predictors of mortality were intubation status, hemoglobin/hematocrit at presentation, and thrombocytopenia. Conclusions BAE is a safe and useful treatment for clinically significant hemoptysis in patients with primary or metastatic lung masses despite high overall mortality. Intubation status, low hemoglobin/hematocrit, and thrombocytopenia may represent clinical predictors of short term mortality following BAE. Advances in knowledge: Most patients undergoing BAE for malignant hemoptysis achieve high clinical success despite suffering a high mortality from underlying disease. PMID:26380767

  3. Endoscopic anatomy and map of the equine bronchial tree.

    PubMed

    Smith, B L; Aguilera-Tejero, E; Tyler, W S; Jones, J H; Hornof, W J; Pascoe, J R

    1994-07-01

    To develop a bronchoscopic map of the equine respiratory tree, the major airways of the lungs of 6 healthy Thoroughbred horses were systematically explored with a flexible fibreoptic endoscope through a tracheostomy while the horses were sedated in stocks. With the carina as the reference point, measurements were made of distances to the branches of the major airways using markers on the shaft of the endoscope. All branches were explored until the narrowing of their diameters prevented further advancement of the endoscope. Positions of origins of branches from the parent bronchus were recorded in relation to a 12 h clock. Branching patterns of the right and left lungs were similar. Seventeen branches of the principal and caudal lobar bronchi of the left lung, and 18 branches of the principal and caudal lobar bronchi of the right lung were identified. Mean explorable distances from the carina to the ends of the right and left caudal lobar bronchi were 34.0 +/- 3.5 (sd) and 34.5 +/- 3.0 cm, respectively. Generally, smaller horses had shorter explorable bronchial lengths. Branching patterns of the parent bronchi were fairly consistent among horses, particularly the branches closest to the carina. After endoscopy and euthanasia, the lungs were removed, and dried with pressurised air flowing through them for 7-10 days. Attempts to explore the airways of the dried lungs endoscopically were relatively unsuccessful, because airways were much smaller in the dried lungs, and many of the branches were distorted when compared with their antemortem appearances. However, having a dried lung specimen as a reference during the bronchoscopic procedure was useful for maintaining orientation in the lungs. Radiographs were used to estimate the location of the origin and destination of each airway branch in relation to the nearest intercostal space. This makes the airway map useful when lesions identified radiographically are to be lavaged. PMID:8575395

  4. Bronchial hyper-responsiveness in selective IgA deficiency.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Athina; Mermiri, Despina; Taousani, Sofia; Triga, Maria; Nicolaidou, Polyxeni; Priftis, Kostas N

    2005-09-01

    Secretory IgA in mucosal secretions has a broad protective function. The insufficient protection provided by the respiratory mucosa in children with selective IgA deficiency (sIgAD) might facilitate the development of bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR) and consequently asthma symptoms. This study was conducted to clarify the prevalence of BHR in sIgAD children and the relationship with atopic status. A cohort of 20 children (group A) aged 6.4-20.1 yr (median: 12.6) with sIgAD (serum IgA <6 mg/dl) were evaluated for BHR using inhaled hypertonic saline test as well as for atopy by skin prick testing (SPT) to eight common aero-allergens. Seventy other children with normal levels of serum IgA, but sensitized to aero-allergens (group B) and 102 with normal IgA and negative SPTs (group C) were also evaluated. Baseline spirometry demonstrated that forced vital capacity (FVC) values in group A were significantly lower than in C. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s values were similar in all groups, but impairment of the forced expiratory flow over the middle half of the FVC was detected in group B. The prevalence of BHR was similar among group A (30.0%) and group B (35.7%) (p = 0.79) but they differed from group C (5.9%) (p = 0.005). An association between BHR and reported current (p = 0.001) but not lifetime asthma symptoms among group A was also observed. There was no association between atopy and BHR in group A but only to mites' sensitization (p = 0.03). In conclusion, these results indicate that sIgAD constitutes a risk factor for development of BHR but it appears to be related to sensitization to mites. PMID:16176396

  5. Differential deposition of fibronectin by asthmatic bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ge, Qi; Zeng, Qingxiang; Tjin, Gavin; Lau, Edmund; Black, Judith L; Oliver, Brian G G; Burgess, Janette K

    2015-11-15

    Altered ECM protein deposition is a feature in asthmatic airways. Fibronectin (Fn), an ECM protein produced by human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs), is increased in asthmatic airways. This study investigated the regulation of Fn production in asthmatic or nonasthmatic HBECs and whether Fn modulated HBEC proliferation and inflammatory mediator secretion. The signaling pathways underlying transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-regulated Fn production were examined using specific inhibitors for ERK, JNK, p38 MAPK, phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase, and activin-like kinase 5 (ALK5). Asthmatic HBECs deposited higher levels of Fn in the ECM than nonasthmatic cells under basal conditions, whereas cells from the two groups had similar levels of Fn mRNA and soluble Fn. TGF-β1 increased mRNA levels and ECM and soluble forms of Fn but decreased cell proliferation in both cells. The rate of increase in Fn mRNA was higher in nonasthmatic cells. However, the excessive amounts of ECM Fn deposited by asthmatic cells after TGF-β1 stimulation persisted compared with nonasthmatic cells. Inhibition of ALK5 completely prevented TGF-β1-induced Fn deposition. Importantly, ECM Fn increased HBEC proliferation and IL-6 release, decreased PGE2 secretion, but had no effect on VEGF release. Soluble Fn had no effect on cell proliferation and inflammatory mediator release. Asthmatic HBECs are intrinsically primed to produce more ECM Fn, which when deposited into the ECM, is capable of driving remodeling and inflammation. The increased airway Fn may be one of the key driving factors in the persistence of asthma and represents a novel, therapeutic target. PMID:26342086

  6. Bronchial involvement in advanced stage lymphangioleiomyomatosis: histopathologic and molecular analyses.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Takuo; Kumasaka, Toshio; Mitani, Keiko; Okada, Yoshinori; Kondo, Takashi; Date, Hiroshi; Chen, Fengshi; Oto, Takahiro; Miyoshi, Shinichiro; Shiraishi, Takeshi; Iwasaki, Akinori; Hara, Kieko; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Ando, Katsutoshi; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Gunji-Niitsu, Yoko; Kunogi, Makiko; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Yao, Takashi; Seyama, Kuniaki

    2016-04-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), a rare progressive disease that almost exclusively affects women, is characterized by pulmonary cysts and neoplastic proliferation of smooth muscle-like cells (LAM cells). Airflow obstruction is a physiologic consequence that is commonly observed in LAM and has been attributed to narrowing of peripheral airways. However, histopathologic examinations of the entire airway have been precluded by the limited availability of such specimens. Here, we used explanted lung tissues from 30 LAM patients for a thorough histologic analysis with a special emphasis on the bronchi. We found bronchial involvement by LAM cells and lymphatics in all patients examined. Furthermore, a moderate to severe degree of chronic inflammation (73%), goblet cell hyperplasia (97%), squamous cell metaplasia (83%) of the epithelium, and thickening of basal lamina (93%) were identified in the bronchi. Because LAM cells are transformed by the functional loss of the TSC genes leading to a hyperactivated mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling pathway, we confirmed the expression of phospho-p70S6K, phospho-S6, phospho-4E-BP1, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-D in LAM cells from all of the patients examined. In contrast, no protein expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α, a downstream molecule indicative of mTORC1 activation and leading to VEGF production, was detected in any patient. Our study indicates that late-stage LAM patients commonly have bronchi involved by the proliferation of both LAM cells and lymphatics and that chronic inflammation complicated their disease. Furthermore, the up-regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α, a common event in mTORC1-driven tumor cells, does not occur in LAM cells and plays no role in VEGF-D expression in LAM cells. PMID:26997436

  7. Assessing dysplasia of a bronchial biopsy with FTIR spectroscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foreman, Liberty; Kimber, James A.; Oliver, Katherine V.; Brown, James M.; Janes, Samuel M.; Fearn, Tom; Kazarian, Sergei G.; Rich, Peter

    2015-03-01

    An FTIR image of an 8 µm section of de-paraffinised bronchial biopsy that shows a histological transition from normal to severe dysplasia/squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in situ was obtained in transmission by stitching together images of 256 x 256 µm recorded using a 96 x 96 element FPA detector. Each pixel spectrum was calculated from 128 co-added interferograms at 4 cm-1 resolution. In order to improve the signal to noise ratio, blocks of 4x4 adjacent pixels were subsequently averaged. Analyses of this spectral image, after conversion of the spectra to their second derivatives, show that the epithelium and the lamina propria tissue types can be distinguished using the area of troughs at either 1591, 1334, 1275 or 1215 cm-1 or, more effectively, by separation into two groups by hierarchical clustering (HCA) of the 1614-1465 region. Due to an insufficient signal to noise ratio, disease stages within the image could not be distinguished with this extent of pixel averaging. However, after separation of the cell types, disease stages within either the epithelium or the lamina propria could be distinguished if spectra were averaged from larger, manually selected areas of the tissue. Both cell types reveal spectral differences that follow a transition from normal to cancerous histology. For example, spectral changes that occurred in the epithelium over the transition from normal to carcinoma in situ could be seen in the 1200-1000 cm-1 region, particularly as a decrease in the second derivative troughs at 1074 and 1036 cm-1 , consistent with changes in some form of carbohydrate. Spectral differences that indicate a disease transition from normal to carcinoma in the lamina propria could be seen in the 1350-1175 cm-1 and 1125-1030 cm-1 regions. Thus demonstrating that a progression from healthy to severe dysplasia/squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in situ can be seen using FTIR spectroscopic imaging and multivariate analysis.

  8. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) in advanced inoperable bronchial carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghissi, Keyvan; Dixon, Kate; Stringer, Mark R.; Brown, Stanley B.

    1996-12-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy of PDT to: Palliate symptoms, control disease and extend survival in patients with advanced inoperable cancer. Subject and Method: 55 Males and 23 females aged between 45-81 years (mean 66 years) with inoperable and advanced lung cancer with > 5O. obstructive lesions of the main, lobar or segmental bronchi. Patients had pre-treatment routine clinical radiological, functional and endoscopic assessment with proven histological diagnosis. Protocol of PDT was; Intravenous injection of 2 mg/Kg bodyweight Polyhaematoporphyrin (equivalent to Photofrin) or Photofrin followed 24-72 hours later by illumination of tumour using 630 nm light (Oxford Laser) delivered via an optical fibre with end diffuser. Treatments were carried out under general anaesthesia as a day case procedure. Patients were rebronchoscoped for debridement/retreatment 4-7 days later. Results: There was no treatment related mortality. Two patients developed mild photosensitivity reaction. All patients showed symptomatic improvement with good initial functional and radiological amelioration. Every patient responded to treatment. Seven patients had complete response and negative histology for 3-12 months. After the first treatment average Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) and Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1) improvement was 0.5 litres and 0.4 litres respectively. Twenty five percent of patients (nr 19) survived more than 2 years, 10'. (nr=8) between 1-2 years and the remaining 51 patients less than a year. Conclusion: PDT should be considered as a therapeutic modality for all stages of lung cancer and is an excellent treatment modality for palliation in advanced bronchial malignancies.

  9. Bronchial bleeding caused by recurrent pneumonia after radical esophagectomy for esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kitajima, Toshihiro; Momose, Kota; Lee, Seigi; Haruta, Shusuke; Ueno, Masaki; Shinohara, Hisashi; Fujimori, Sakashi; Fujii, Takeshi; Takei, Ryoji; Kohno, Tadasu; Udagawa, Harushi

    2015-01-01

    We herein report a case of bronchial bleeding after radical esophagectomy that was treated with lobectomy. A 65-year-old male who underwent subtotal esophagectomy with three-field lymph node dissection for esophageal carcinoma was referred to our hospital because of sudden hemoptysis. After the esophagectomy, bilateral vocal cord paralysis was observed, and the patient suffered from repeated episodes of aspiration pneumonia. Bronchoscopy revealed hemosputum in the right middle lobe bronchus, and contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed tortuous arteries arising from the right inferior phrenic artery and left subclavian artery toward the right middle lobe bronchus. Although bronchial arterial embolization was performed twice to control the recurrent hemoptysis, the procedures were unsuccessful. Right middle lobectomy was therefore performed via video-assisted thoracic surgery. Engorged bronchial arterys with medial hypertrophy and overgrowth of the small branches were noted near the bronchus in the resected specimen. The patient recovered uneventfully and was discharged on postoperative day 14. PMID:25805950

  10. Invasive tracheobronchial aspergillosis progressing from bronchial to diffuse lung parenchymal lesions.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Hiromitsu; Yamazaki, Susumu; Miura, You; Kanazawa, Minoru; Sakai, Fumikazu; Nagata, Makoto

    2016-03-01

    Invasive tracheobronchial aspergillosis that is entirely limited or predominantly confined to tracheobronchial lesions is a relatively rare form of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Extended parenchymal opacities that are radiological manifestations of invasive aspergillosis sometimes occur following invasive tracheobronchial aspergillosis. However, it remains unclear whether or not invasive tracheobronchial aspergillosis is the initial stage of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. A 61-year-old woman was admitted because of severe diarrhea and dehydration. Three days after admission, she complained of dyspnea. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest showed bronchial wall thickening. She developed respiratory failure despite antibiotic therapy. A CT scan showed obstructions of bronchial lumens and bronchiectasis in the right upper lobe. A spergillus fumigatus was identified from samples obtained in bronchoscopic examination. Bronchial lesions rapidly progressed to be extended. A spergillus infection with multiple parenchymal opacities was observed on CT scan. She responded to treatment with antifungal drugs. PMID:26839700

  11. [A case of pulmonary sarcoidosis complicated with bronchial asthma that proved eosinophilic invasion].

    PubMed

    Harada, Tomoya; Kawasaki, Yuji; Touge, Hirokazu; Tokuyasu, Hirokazu; Yamasaki, Akira; Shimizu, Eiji

    2012-12-01

    A 33-year-old man complaining of cough admitted our hospital for examination of bilateral hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. He diagnosed pulmonary sarcoidosis, because of elevation of serum angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), epitheloid granuloma with noncaseating necrosis from transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) specimen, increasing of lymphocyte and elevation of the CD4/CD8 ratio in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Furthermore, eosinophil ratio in BALF was 3%, hyperplasia of goblet cell, eosinophilic invasion to bronchial epithelium, and thickened basal membrane were found in same biopsy specimen. He had mild reversible airway obstruction. He was diagnosed pulmonary sarcoidosis complicated with bronchial asthma. Sarcoidosis is characteristic of the T helper type 1 (Th1) mediated immune response, and bronchial asthma is characteristic of the Th2. This case histopathologically revealed that both Th1 mediated immune response and Th2 could be coexisted. PMID:23466616

  12. Reducing asthma attacks in patients with severe asthma: The role of bronchial thermoplasty.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Ryan; Wechsler, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Asthma remains one of the most common diseases worldwide and results in significant societal health care costs and in morbidity and mortality to those afflicted. Despite currently available medications, 5-10% of patients with asthma have severe disease with debilitating symptoms and/or life-threatening exacerbations. Bronchial thermoplasty is a device-based therapy with proven efficacy in this subgroup of patients. Thus far, bronchial thermoplasty has been shown to reduce exacerbations and to improve important measures of asthma control. The purpose of this article is to review the pathophysiology of severe asthma, including the role of airway smooth muscle cells and the procedural aspects of bronchial thermoplasty, and to review the evidence behind this important therapy. PMID:26108080

  13. Mechanical ventilation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchial asthma

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Syed Moied; Athar, Manazir

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and bronchial asthma often complicate the surgical patients, leading to post-operative morbidity and mortality. Many authors have tried to predict post-operative pulmonary complications but not specifically in COPD. The aim of this review is to provide recent evidence-based guidelines regarding predictors and ventilatory strategies for mechanical ventilation in COPD and bronchial asthma patients. Using Google search for indexing databases, a search for articles published was performed using various combinations of the following search terms: ‘Predictors’; ‘mechanical ventilation’; COPD’; ‘COPD’; ‘bronchial asthma’; ‘recent strategies’. Additional sources were also identified by exploring the primary reference list. PMID:26556918

  14. Bronchial reactivity and allergy-promoting factors in monozygotic twins discordant for allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Ericsson, C H; Svartengren, M; Mossberg, B; Pedersen, N; Camner, P

    1991-07-01

    Bronchial reactivity was studied twice in eight monozygotic twin pairs discordant for allergic rhinitis with pollen hypersensitivity, during the winter season (all eight pairs) and during the pollen season (seven pairs). On both occasions, the allergic twins showed significantly higher reactivity than their nonallergic siblings. The results indicate that moderate allergic rhinitis is associated with increased bronchial reactivity. This increased reactivity is an acquired trait; however, bronchial reactivity is not constantly increased in pollen rhinitis and may be normal even during the pollen season. The symptoms of allergic rhinitis usually started in childhood before the separation of the siblings. We could not demonstrate any major differences in exposure to allergens or airway irritants between the siblings. The allergic twins tended to have lower birth weight and insufficient weight increase just after birth. PMID:1859042

  15. [Changes of electrocardiography parameters in patients with bronchial asthma and arterial hypertention].

    PubMed

    Lyzohub, V H; Altunina, N V; Voloshyna, O O; Bondarchuk, O M

    2007-01-01

    The authors presents in the article based on observations of 89 patients questions related to the changes of intracardial hemodynamics in patients with bronchial asthma and arterial hypertention (AH) observed using echocardiography. Disorders of indices of intracardial hemodynamics in patients with bronchial asthma and arterial hypertention have more evident negative tendency than that in patients with isolated bronchial asthma (BA) or arterial hypertention. It was established that such patients (without taking into consideration the degree of severity of BA) have considerably an increased volume indices of left and right ventricule, increased pressure in the lung artery, right ventricule hypertrophy, left ventricule concentric hypertrophy as well as disorders of diastolic heart function of relaxation type. Comparing indices of intracardial hemodynamics depending on the degree of severity of BA it was found that progression of lung hypertension, disorders of diastolic and systolic heart functions correlates with the degree of severity of BA. It leads to earlier formation of biventricular heart failure. PMID:18712093

  16. Bronchial fistulae in ARDS patients: management with an extracorporeal lung assist device.

    PubMed

    Hommel, M; Deja, M; von Dossow, V; Diemel, K; Heidenhain, C; Spies, C; Weber-Carstens, S

    2008-12-01

    Patients with bronchial tree lesions feature, in particular, a high risk for developing bronchial fistulae after surgical repair when the clinical situation is complicated by acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and mechanical ventilation is needed. The current authors hypothesised that extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal would significantly decrease inspiratory airway pressures, thus promoting the protection of surgical bronchial reconstruction. Four patients were studied after surgical reconstruction of bronchial fistulae in whom ALI/ARDS developed and mechanical ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure was required. Gas exchange, tidal volumes, airway pressures, respiratory frequency, vasopressor and sedation requirements were analysed before and after initiation of a pumpless extracorporeal lung assist device (pECLA; NovaLung, Talheim, Germany). Initiation of pECLA treatment enabled a reduction of inspiratory plateau airway pressures from 32.4 to 28.6 cmH(2)O (3.2 to 2.8 kPa), effectively treated hypercapnia (from 73.6 to 53.4 mmHg (9.8 to 7.1 kPa)) and abolished respiratory acidosis (from pH 7.24 to 7.41). All patients survived and were discharged to rehabilitation clinics. In patients after surgical bronchial reconstruction that was complicated by acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome, use of pumpless extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal was safe and efficient. Initiation of a pumpless extracorporeal lung assist device enabled a less invasive ventilator management, which may have contributed to healing of surgical bronchial repair. PMID:19043011

  17. Bronchial Artery Embolization for Hemoptysis: A Retrospective Observational Study of 344 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Hongxia; Wu, Junping; Wu, Qi; Sun, Xin; Li, Li; Xing, Zhiheng; Sun, Hongfen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hemoptysis is a significant clinical entity with high morbidity and potential mortality. Both medical management (in terms of resuscitation and bronchoscopic interventions) and surgery have severe limitations in these patients population. Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) represents the first-line treatment for hemoptysis. This article discusses clinical analysis, embolization approach, outcomes and complications of BAE for the treatment of hemoptysis. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 344 cases, who underwent bronchial arteriography at Tianjin Haihe Hospital between 2006 and 2013. Several aspects of outcome were analyzed: Demographics, clinical presentation, radiographic studies, results, complications and follow-up of BAE. Results: Three hundred and forty-four consecutive patients underwent bronchial arteriography, 336 of 344 patients (97.7%) performed BAE; there were 1530 coils for 920 arteries embolized; the main responsible sources for bleeding were right bronchial artery (29.7%), left bronchial artery (21.6%), combined right and left bronchial trunk (18.4%), right intercostal arteries (13.3%); 61 patients (17.7%) had recurrent hemoptysis within 1 month after undergoing BAE, 74 patients (21.5%) had recurrent hemoptysis over 1 month after undergoing BAE; The common complications of BAE included subintimal dissection, arterial perforation by a guide wire, fever, chest pain, dyspnea, etc. The follow-up was completed in 248 patients, 28 patients had been dead, 21 patients still bleed, 92 patients had lost to follow-up. Conclusions: The technique of BAE is a relatively safe and effective method for controlling hemoptysis. The complications of BAE are rare. Although the long-term outcome in some patients is not good, BAE may be the only life-saving treatment option in patients who are poor surgical candidates. PMID:25563314

  18. Evolution of microRNA expression during human bronchial squamous carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mascaux, C; Laes, J F; Anthoine, G; Haller, A; Ninane, V; Burny, A; Sculier, J P

    2009-02-01

    MicroRNAs, negative post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, are involved in cancer. Their role in early bronchial carcinogenesis was analysed in 60 biopsies obtained by fluorescence bronchoscopy (six per stage: normal tissue of nonsmokers, normal normofluorescent and hypofluorescent bronchial tissue of smokers, hyperplasia, metaplasia, mild, moderate and severe dysplasia, in situ carcinoma and invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC)). In total, 69 microRNAs were found to be differentially expressed in the course of bronchial carcinogenesis. Among them, some microRNAs showed a linear evolution of their expression level, such as miR-32 and miR-34c, whose expression progressively decreased from normal bronchial tissues of nonsmokers to SQCC. Others behaved differently at successive stages, such as miR-142-3p or miR-9, or are only altered from a specific stage, such as miR-199a or miR-139. MicroRNAs globally followed a two-step evolution, first decreasing (a reverse of their increase during embryogenesis) during the earliest morphological modifications of bronchial epithelium, and thereafter increasing at later stages of lung carcinogenesis. Moreover, microRNA expression was very efficient for the prediction of the histological classification between low- and high-grade lesions and between in situ and invasive carcinoma. The present data show, for the first time, that microRNAs are involved in bronchial carcinogenesis from the very early steps of this process and, thus, could provide tools for early detection of lung cancer. PMID:19010987

  19. Successful treatment of bronchial anastomotic stenosis with modified Dumon Y-stent insertion in lung transplantation: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Takao; Shiraishi, Takeshi; Hiratsuka, Masafumi; Yanagisawa, Jun; Iwasaki, Akinori

    2011-09-01

    Bronchial complications owing to airway anastomosis still remain a cause of morbidity and mortality following lung transplantation, and bronchial stenosis is the most common manifestation. Current treatment strategies include endoscopic balloon dilation, laser ablation, and stent insertion. Although a variety of stent types are currently available, it is unclear as to which type of prosthesis is most suitable for post-transplant bronchial complications with regard to the primary effects and long-term outcomes. We herein discuss a case of stenosis of the right bronchial anastomosis in a patient who underwent right single lung transplantation for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. This complication was successfully treated with the placement of a modified Dumon Y-stent. The stent was removed 2 months after insertion, and the patient has subsequently maintained an adequate airway caliber. Computed tomography, especially the sagittal section through the chest, is useful for detecting bronchial stenosis and monitoring the healing of this condition. PMID:21874436

  20. Cushing's like syndrome in typical bronchial carcinoid a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Pedicelli, Ilaria; Patriciello, Giuseppina; Scala, Giovanni; Sorrentino, Antonietta; Gravino, Gennaro; Patriciello, Pasquale; Zeppa, Pio; Di Crescenzo, Vincenzo; Vatrella, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Cushing's syndrome occurred in 1-5% of cases of bronchial carcinoids. In this paper we describe a case of typical bronchial carcinoid in a nonsmoker young male with clinical manifestations mimicking a Cushing's syndrome. The patient performed chest radiograph and computed tomography. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed the presence of an endobronchial mass occluding the bronchus intermedius. A rigid bronchoscopy was necessary for the conclusive diagnosis and for partial resection of the intraluminal tumor. Despite of the presence of Cushingoid features, the normal blood levels of ACTH and cortisol excluded the coexistence of a Cushing's syndrome. PMID:26923475

  1. Retrospective Cohort Study of Bronchial Doses and Radiation-Induced Atelectasis After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy of Lung Tumors Located Close to the Bronchial Tree

    SciTech Connect

    Karlsson, Kristin; Nyman, Jan; Baumann, Pia; Wersäll, Peter; Drugge, Ninni; Gagliardi, Giovanna; Johansson, Karl-Axel; Persson, Jan-Olov; Rutkowska, Eva; Tullgren, Owe; Lax, Ingmar

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the dose–response relationship between radiation-induced atelectasis after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and bronchial dose. Methods and Materials: Seventy-four patients treated with SBRT for tumors close to main, lobar, or segmental bronchi were selected. The association between incidence of atelectasis and bronchial dose parameters (maximum point-dose and minimum dose to the high-dose bronchial volume [ranging from 0.1 cm{sup 3} up to 2.0 cm{sup 3}]) was statistically evaluated with survival analysis models. Results: Prescribed doses varied between 4 and 20 Gy per fraction in 2-5 fractions. Eighteen patients (24.3%) developed atelectasis considered to be radiation-induced. Statistical analysis showed a significant correlation between the incidence of radiation-induced atelectasis and minimum dose to the high-dose bronchial volumes, of which 0.1 cm{sup 3} (D{sub 0.1cm3}) was used for further analysis. The median value of D{sub 0.1cm3} (α/β = 3 Gy) was EQD{sub 2,LQ} = 147 Gy{sub 3} (range, 20-293 Gy{sub 3}). For patients who developed atelectasis the median value was EQD{sub 2,LQ} = 210 Gy{sub 3}, and for patients who did not develop atelectasis, EQD{sub 2,LQ} = 105 Gy{sub 3}. Median time from treatment to development of atelectasis was 8.0 months (range, 1.1-30.1 months). Conclusion: In this retrospective study a significant dose–response relationship between the incidence of atelectasis and the dose to the high-dose volume of the bronchi is shown.

  2. Human bronchial epithelial cells exposed in vitro to cigarette smoke at the air-liquid interface resemble bronchial epithelium from human smokers

    PubMed Central

    Poussin, Carine; Weisensee, Dirk; Gebel, Stephan; Hengstermann, Arnd; Sewer, Alain; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Xiang, Yang; Ansari, Sam; Wagner, Sandra; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C.

    2013-01-01

    Organotypic culture of human primary bronchial epithelial cells is a useful in vitro system to study normal biological processes and lung disease mechanisms, to develop new therapies, and to assess the biological perturbations induced by environmental pollutants. Herein, we investigate whether the perturbations induced by cigarette smoke (CS) and observed in the epithelium of smokers' airways are reproducible in this in vitro system (AIR-100 tissue), which has been shown to recapitulate most of the characteristics of the human bronchial epithelium. Human AIR-100 tissues were exposed to mainstream CS for 7, 14, 21, or 28 min at the air-liquid interface, and we investigated various biological endpoints [e.g., gene expression and microRNA profiles, matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1) release] at multiple postexposure time points (0.5, 2, 4, 24, 48 h). By performing a Gene Set Enrichment Analysis, we observed a significant enrichment of human smokers' bronchial epithelium gene signatures derived from different public transcriptomics datasets in CS-exposed AIR-100 tissue. Comparison of in vitro microRNA profiles with microRNA data from healthy smokers highlighted various highly translatable microRNAs associated with inflammation or with cell cycle processes that are known to be perturbed by CS in lung tissue. We also found a dose-dependent increase of MMP-1 release by AIR-100 tissue 48 h after CS exposure in agreement with the known effect of CS on this collagenase expression in smokers' tissues. In conclusion, a similar biological perturbation than the one observed in vivo in smokers' airway epithelium could be induced after a single CS exposure of a human organotypic bronchial epithelium-like tissue culture. PMID:23355383

  3. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING OF NORMAL HUMAN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS EXPOSED TO TRIVALENT ARSENICALS AND DIMETHYLTHIOARSINIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lung is a major target for arsenic carcinogenesis in humans. However, the carcinogenic mode of action of arsenicals is unknown. We investigated, in human bronchial epithelial (BEAS2B) cells, the effects of inorganic arsenic (iAsIII), monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII), dimethylarsi...

  4. [Circadian organization of the indices of external respiration in bronchial asthma patients].

    PubMed

    Fedoseev, G B; Degtiareva, Z Ia; Savich, A A; Alekseev, M Iu; Bolodon, S A

    1985-01-01

    Circadian rhythms of external respiration function (ERF) and body function (BF) were studied in 20 patients with mild bronchial asthma, 20 patients with bronchial asthma of medium gravity and in 14 healthy subjects. Circadian rhythms of the medium-group parameters of ERF were shown to be statistically insignificant, whereas individual circadian chronograms demonstrated circadian rhythms for all the patients with BA and healthy subjects. Essential differences were found in the organization of the temporary structure of circadian rhythms of ERF in BA patients and healthy subjects. It was discovered that in BA patients, the maximal pathological alterations develop within the period from the midnight to 8 a. m., whereas the minimal disorders of ERF are recorded within the period from the noon to 8 p. m. It is suggested that deterioration of bronchial patency which brings about the development of obstruction in BA patients is the result of hypersynchronization and increased amplitude of the circadian rhythms of those parameters of ERF which determine the bronchial patency. PMID:4002163

  5. EFFECTS OF SULFUR OXIDE POLLUTANTS ON RESPIRATORY FUNCTION, PARTICLE DEPOSITION AND BRONCHIAL CLEARANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of sulfur oxide pollutants on respiratory function, particle deposition, and bronchial clearance were explored in a series of three studies, two on donkeys and one on humans. In the first study, the effects of one-hour inhalation exposures to 0.3 - 0.6 micrograms H2SO...

  6. Role Of Hif2α Oxygen Sensing Pathway In Bronchial Epithelial Club Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Capelli, Mar; Marsboom, Glenn; Li, Qilong Oscar Yang; Tello, Daniel; Rodriguez, Florinda Melendez; Alonso, Tamara; Sanchez-Madrid, Francisco; García-Rio, Francisco; Ancochea, Julio; Aragonés, Julián

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen-sensing pathways executed by the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) induce a cellular adaptive program when oxygen supply becomes limited. However, the role of the HIF oxygen-sensing pathway in the airway response to hypoxic stress in adulthood remains poorly understood. Here we found that in vivo exposure to hypoxia led to a profound increase in bronchial epithelial cell proliferation mainly confined to Club (Clara) cells. Interestingly, this response was executed by hypoxia-inducible factor 2α (HIF2α), which controls the expression of FoxM1, a recognized proliferative factor of Club cells. Furthermore, HIF2α induced the expression of the resistin-like molecules α and β (RELMα and β), previously considered bronchial epithelial growth factors. Importantly, despite the central role of HIF2α, this proliferative response was not initiated by in vivo Vhl gene inactivation or pharmacological inhibition of prolyl hydroxylase oxygen sensors, indicating the molecular complexity of this response and the possible participation of other oxygen-sensing pathways. Club cells are principally involved in protection and maintenance of bronchial epithelium. Thus, our findings identify a novel molecular link between HIF2α and Club cell biology that can be regarded as a new HIF2α-dependent mechanism involved in bronchial epithelium adaptation to oxygen fluctuations. PMID:27150457

  7. Clearance of lead-212 ions from rabbit bronchial epithelium to blood.

    PubMed

    James, A C; Greenhalgh, J R; Smith, H

    1977-09-01

    The absorption of 212Pb ions from bronchial epithelium to blood has been investigated in anaesthetized rabbits. The 212Pb ions were introduced by intubation either into the trachea or into smaller, more distal bronchi. Removal from lung was followed by external gamma-counting. Mucociliary clearance to the GI tract was blocked by tracheostomy. Two distinct phases of clearance from bronchial epithelium to blood were observed. Approximately 20% of deposited 212Pb is rapidly absorbed with a half-time of about 4 min, the remainder with a biological half-time of about 9 h, irrespective of the site of instillation in the bronchial tree. Two hours after deposition, the 212Pb remaining in lung was found to be partitioned between mucus and the bronchial epithelium, with a substantial but minor fraction in the epithelium. Uptake of 212Pb in the skeleton was estimated to be about 20% of the 212Pb entering the blood circulation. Removal by the kidneys, at 25%, was comparable with skeletal uptake. These results are compared with previously published work using rodents, dogs and man which demonstrated either rapid or slow absorption but not both phases occuring together. PMID:909929

  8. ASBESTOS-INDUCED ACTIVATION OF SIGNALING PATHWAYS IN HUMAN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Title: Asbestos-Induced Activation of Signaling Pathways in Human
    Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    X. Wang, MD 1, J. M. Samet, PhD 2 and A. J. Ghio, MD 2. 1 Center for
    Environmental Medicine, Asthma and Lung Biology, University of North
    Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, Uni...

  9. Bronchial thermoplasty: a new therapeutic option for the treatment of severe, uncontrolled asthma in adults.

    PubMed

    Dombret, Marie-Christine; Alagha, Khuder; Boulet, Louis Philippe; Brillet, Pierre Yves; Joos, Guy; Laviolette, Michel; Louis, Renaud; Rochat, Thierry; Soccal, Paola; Aubier, Michel; Chanez, Pascal

    2014-12-01

    Bronchial thermoplasty is a young yet promising treatment for severe asthma whose benefit for long-term asthma control outweighs the short-term risk of deterioration and hospitalisation in the days following the treatment. It is an innovative treatment whose clinical efficacy and safety are beginning to be better understood. Since this is a device-based therapy, the overall evaluation of risk-benefit is unlike that of pharmaceutical products; safety aspects, regulatory requirements, study design and effect size assessment may be unfamiliar. The mechanisms of action and optimal patient selection need to be addressed in further rigorous clinical and scientific studies. Bronchial thermoplasty fits in perfectly with the movement to expand personalised medicine in the field of chronic airway disorders. This is a device-based complimentary asthma treatment that must be supported and developed in order to meet the unmet needs of modern severe asthma management. The mechanisms of action and the type of patients that benefit from bronchial thermoplasty are the most important challenges for bronchial thermoplasty in the future. PMID:25445950

  10. Dynamics of eosinophil infiltration in the bronchial mucosa before and after the late asthmatic reaction.

    PubMed

    Aalbers, R; de Monchy, J G; Kauffman, H F; Smith, M; Hoekstra, Y; Vrugt, B; Timens, W

    1993-06-01

    We wanted to determine whether changes in bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) following allergen challenge show a time relationship with inflammatory events in the airways of allergic asthmatic subjects. Lavage was performed and endobronchial biopsies were taken via the fiberoptic bronchoscope, before, and 3 and 24 h after, allergen challenge, on separate occasions, in nine dual asthmatic responders. The numbers of activated eosinophils, identified by immunohistochemistry, using the monoclonal anti-eosinophil cationic protein antibody, EG2, were significantly increased both at 3 h and at 24 h in the submucosa and bronchial lavage. A significant negative correlation was found between the number of EG2+ cells in the submucosa and in the bronchial lavage 24 h after the allergen challenge (r = -0.70). At 24 h, the amount of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) was increased in the bronchial lavage. A significant correlation was observed between the amount of ECP at 3 h and the log provocative dose of house dust mite producing a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (PD20 HDM) (r = -0.63). The results suggest a recruitment of activated eosinophils to the submucosa and, further, to the epithelial lining, followed by degranulation. This process has already started 3 h after allergen challenge, and lasts for at least 24 h, which may result in mucosal damage and subsequent allergen-induced increase in BHR, before and after the late asthmatic reaction. PMID:8339804

  11. 77 FR 26016 - Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; Alair Bronchial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ... Patents and Trademarks, Department of Commerce, for the extension of a patent which claims that medical... dated February 17, 2011, FDA advised the Patent and Trademark Office that this medical device had... Patent Extension; Alair Bronchial Thermoplasty System AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS....

  12. Lung function and bronchial reactivity in asthmatics during exposure to volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Harving, H.; Dahl, R.; Molhave, L. )

    1991-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether vapors of organic solvents at low concentrations could exert an adverse effect in the lower airways. Under controlled conditions in a climate chamber, 11 persons with bronchial hyperreactivity to histamine and bronchial asthma were exposed for 90 min to a mixture of organic solvents at levels of zero, 2.5, and 25 mg/m3. During exposure to 25 mg/m3 a decrease in FEV1 to 90.7% of baseline value was measured. This was significantly different from the initial value (p less than 0.05), but not significantly different from the value found after sham exposure (FEV1, 97.4% of initial value). The decline in FEV1 during exposure to 25 mg/m3 was most pronounced in persons with high bronchial sensitivity. No changes were found in histamine reactivity after exposure, and no late reactions were registered. Ratings of discomfort showed different individual patterns ranging from no response to reactions towards both of the concentrations. The ratings indicated development of tolerance during exposure. Volatile organic compounds in concentrations found in both the work and the home environments may influence lung function and are probably of importance as bronchial irritants.

  13. Posterior Circulation Stroke After Bronchial Artery Embolization. A Rare but Serious Complication

    SciTech Connect

    Laborda, Alicia; Tejero, Carlos; Fredes, Arturo; Cebrian, Luis; Guelbenzu, Santiago; Gregorio, Miguel Angel de

    2013-06-15

    Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) is the treatment of choice for massive hemoptysis with rare complications that generally are mild and transient. There are few references in the medical literature with acute cerebral embolization as a complication of BAE. We report a case of intracranial posterior territory infarctions as a complication BAE in a patient with hemoptysis due to bronchiectasis.

  14. Effect of local disturbance of bronchial patency on the circulation and gas exchange in the lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Putov, N.V.; Danilov, D.N.; Lebedeva, E.S.; Chermenskii, Yu.V.

    1987-06-01

    The purpose of this paper was to obtain proof that alveolar hypoxia develops in the presence of local bronchial obstruction and to establish the role of the latter in disturbances of pulmonary circulation and gas exchange. Experiments were conducted on male mongrel dogs. Albumin microspheres labelled with technetium 99m were injected intravenously to trace the distribution and loss of blood flow.

  15. Azithromycin induces anti-viral effects in cultured bronchial epithelial cells from COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Menzel, Mandy; Akbarshahi, Hamid; Bjermer, Leif; Uller, Lena

    2016-01-01

    Rhinovirus infection is a major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations and may contribute to the development into severe stages of COPD. The macrolide antibiotic azithromycin may exert anti-viral actions and has been reported to reduce exacerbations in COPD. However, little is known about its anti-viral actions on bronchial epithelial cells at clinically relevant concentrations. Primary bronchial epithelial cells from COPD donors and healthy individuals were treated continuously with azithromycin starting 24 h before infection with rhinovirus RV16. Expression of interferons, RIG-I like helicases, pro-inflammatory cytokines and viral load were analysed. Azithromycin transiently increased expression of IFNβ and IFNλ1 and RIG-I like helicases in un-infected COPD cells. Further, azithromycin augmented RV16-induced expression of interferons and RIG-I like helicases in COPD cells but not in healthy epithelial cells. Azithromycin also decreased viral load. However, it only modestly altered RV16-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Adding budesonide did not reduce interferon-inducing effects of azithromycin. Possibly by inducing expression of RIG-I like helicases, azithromycin increased rhinovirus-induced expression of interferons in COPD but not in healthy bronchial epithelium. These effects would reduce bronchial viral load, supporting azithromycin’s emerging role in prevention of exacerbations of COPD. PMID:27350308

  16. Coronary-to-Bronchial Artery Communication: Report of Two Patients Successfully Treated by Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Jarry, Genevieve; Bruaire, Jean-Pierre; Commeau, Philippe; Hermida, Jean-Sylvain; Leborgne, Laurent; Auquier, Marie-Anne; Delonca, Jean; Quiret, Jean-Claude; Remond, Alexandre

    1999-05-15

    We report two cases of coronary-to-bronchial artery communication responsible for coronary steal. In both cases the anastomosis originated from the proximal circumflex artery and developed because of bronchiectasis. In both cases closure of the anastomosis was achieved successfully by embolization. To date, the patients remained free from symptoms.

  17. Proposed Design of a Clinical Information System for the Management of Bronchial Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Huq, S; Karras, BT; Wright, J; Lober, WB; Lozano, P; Zimmerman, FJ

    2002-01-01

    This poster categorizes the various applications to aid the management of Pediatric Bronchial Asthma. An attempt is made at classifying the various informatics approaches in this domain. Later, the approach of the proposed Asthma CAMS (Computer Aided Management System) project, being developed by the Child Health Institute and Clinical Informatics Research Group www.cirg.washington.edu at the University of Washington, is discussed.

  18. Azithromycin induces anti-viral effects in cultured bronchial epithelial cells from COPD patients.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Mandy; Akbarshahi, Hamid; Bjermer, Leif; Uller, Lena

    2016-01-01

    Rhinovirus infection is a major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations and may contribute to the development into severe stages of COPD. The macrolide antibiotic azithromycin may exert anti-viral actions and has been reported to reduce exacerbations in COPD. However, little is known about its anti-viral actions on bronchial epithelial cells at clinically relevant concentrations. Primary bronchial epithelial cells from COPD donors and healthy individuals were treated continuously with azithromycin starting 24 h before infection with rhinovirus RV16. Expression of interferons, RIG-I like helicases, pro-inflammatory cytokines and viral load were analysed. Azithromycin transiently increased expression of IFNβ and IFNλ1 and RIG-I like helicases in un-infected COPD cells. Further, azithromycin augmented RV16-induced expression of interferons and RIG-I like helicases in COPD cells but not in healthy epithelial cells. Azithromycin also decreased viral load. However, it only modestly altered RV16-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Adding budesonide did not reduce interferon-inducing effects of azithromycin. Possibly by inducing expression of RIG-I like helicases, azithromycin increased rhinovirus-induced expression of interferons in COPD but not in healthy bronchial epithelium. These effects would reduce bronchial viral load, supporting azithromycin's emerging role in prevention of exacerbations of COPD. PMID:27350308

  19. CHANGES IN GENE EXPRESSION DURING DIFFERENTIATION OF CULTURED HUMAN PRIMARY BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Primary airway epithelial cell cultures are a useful tool for the in vitro study of normal bronchial cell differentiation and function, airway disease mechanisms, and pathogens and toxin response. Growth of these cells at an air-liquid interface for several days results in the f...

  20. Bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: research activity in Arab countries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic respiratory diseases, like bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are a worldwide health problem. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of asthma and COPD-related research from Arab countries has not been explored and there are few internationally published reports on such field. The main objectives of this study were to analyze research output originating from Arab countries in the field of bronchial asthma and COPD. Methods Original scientific articles or reviews published from the 22 Arab countries were screened using specific words pertaining to asthma and COPD using Scopus database and search engine. Research productivity was evaluated based on: (a) total and trends of contribution of each Arab country to asthma and COPD research and (b) journals in which researchers from Arab countries published their research. Results The total number of original research and review articles published globally about bronchial asthma and COPD was 163,964. The leading country in bronchial asthma and COPD research was United States of America (38,632; 23.56%). Worldwide, Turkey ranked 19th while Israel and Iran ranked 25th and 29th respectively. Among Arab countries, Egypt and Kingdom of Saudi Arabia came on positions 39th and 43rd, respectively. A total of 1,304 documents about bronchial asthma and COPD were published from Arab countries which represents 0.8% of the global research output. Research in bronchial asthma was almost double that in COPD. Research from Arab countries was low and showed a significant increase after 2000. Approximately 12% of research activity in asthma and COPD from Arab countries was published in Saudi Medical Journal, Annals of Saudi Medicine, Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal and Tunisie Medicale. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, with a total publication of 353 (27.07%) ranked first among the Arab countries while University of Kuwait was the most productive institution with a total of 123 (9

  1. Prevalence of bronchial asthma and its associated factors among school children in urban Puducherry, India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ganesh S.; Roy, Gautam; Subitha, L.; Sahu, Swaroop Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bronchial asthma is an important public health problem at the global level. There is paucity of studies on bronchial asthma among school children in Urban India. Objective: To assess the prevalence and associated factors of bronchial asthma among school children. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 263 children studying in the 8th, 9th, and 10th standard using the modified International Study on Allergy and Asthma in Childhood questionnaire in Urban Puducherry. Data on associated factors that include family history of asthma, type of fuel used for cooking, placement of kitchen in the house, number of windows in sleeping room, pet animals, smoking among family members, birth order, and smoke outlet were collected. Data were analyzed by univariate analysis and expressed in proportion or percentages. Results: Prevalence of ever bronchial asthma was found to be 5.3%, of which 4.2% had current episode of asthma during the last 1-year period. About 72.7% of the current asthmatics had cold or rhinitis and 54.5% each had itching or rashes and nocturnal dry cough. Prevalence is more among the 12-13 years age group (6.5%) compared to the 14-16 years age group (3.6%). Boys (5.4%) and girls (5.2%) had comparable prevalence rates. The prevalence was significantly more among those with a family history of asthma, having smoking habits in any of the family members, and the absence of smoke outlet in the house (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Bronchial asthma is an important health problem among children in urban Puducherry. Intervention on exposure to passive smoking and provision of smoke outlets may help to reduce the burden of disease at the community level. PMID:24678199

  2. Elastic properties of the bronchial mucosa: epithelial unfolding and stretch in response to airway inflation.

    PubMed

    Noble, P B; Sharma, A; McFawn, P K; Mitchell, H W

    2005-12-01

    The bronchial mucosa contributes to elastic properties of the airway wall and may influence the degree of airway expansion during lung inflation. In the deflated lung, folds in the epithelium and associated basement membrane progressively unfold on inflation. Whether the epithelium and basement membrane also distend on lung inflation at physiological pressures is uncertain. We assessed mucosal distensibility from strain-stress curves in mucosal strips and related this to epithelial length and folding. Mucosal strips were prepared from pig bronchi and cycled stepwise from a strain of 0 (their in situ length at 0 transmural pressure) to a strain of 0.5 (50% increase in length). Mucosal stress and epithelial length in situ were calculated from morphometric data in bronchial segments fixed at 5 and 25 cmH(2)O luminal pressure. Mucosal strips showed nonlinear strain-stress properties, but regions at high and low stress were close to linear. Stresses calculated in bronchial segments at 5 and 25 cmH(2)O fell in the low-stress region of the strain-stress curve. The epithelium of mucosal strips was deeply folded at low strains (0-0.15), which in bronchial segments equated to < or =10 cmH(2)O transmural pressure. Morphometric measurements in mucosal strips at greater strains (0.3-0.4) indicated that epithelial length increased by approximately 10%. Measurements in bronchial segments indicated that epithelial length increased approximately 25% between 5 and 25 cmH(2)O. Our findings suggest that, at airway pressures <10 cmH(2)O, airway expansion is due primarily to epithelial unfolding but at higher pressures the epithelium also distends. PMID:16024520

  3. Aberrant Left Inferior Bronchial Artery Originating from the Left Gastric Artery in a Patient with Acute Massive Hemoptysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Sen Sun, Xi-Wen Yu, Dong Jie, Bing

    2013-10-15

    Massive hemoptysis is a life-threatening condition, and the major source of bleeding in this condition is the bronchial circulation. Bronchial artery embolization is a safe and effective treatment for controlling hemoptysis. However, the sites of origin of the bronchial arteries (BAs) have numerous anatomical variations, which can result in a technical challenge to identify a bleeding artery. We present a rare case of a left inferior BA that originated from the left gastric artery in a patient with recurrent massive hemoptysis caused by bronchiectasis. The aberrant BA was embolized, and hemoptysis has been controlled for 8 months.

  4. Bronchial lesions of mouse model of asthma are preceded by immune complex vasculitis and induced bronchial associated lymphoid tissue (iBALT).

    PubMed

    Guest, Ian C; Sell, Stewart

    2015-08-01

    We systematically examined by immune histology the lungs of some widely used mouse models of asthma. These models include sensitization by multiple intraperitoneal injections of soluble ovalbumin (OVA) or of OVA with alum, followed by three intranasal or aerosol challenges 3 days apart. Within 24 h after a single challenge there is fibrinoid necrosis of arterial walls with deposition of immunoglobulin (Ig) and OVA and infiltration of eosinophilic polymorphonuclear cells that lasts for about 3 days followed by peribronchial B-cell infiltration and slight reversible goblet cell hypertrophy (GCHT). After two challenges, severe eosinophilic vasculitis is present at 6 h, increases by 72 h, and then declines; B-cell proliferation and significant GCHT and hyperplasia (GCHTH) and bronchial smooth muscle hypertrophy recur more prominently. After three challenges, there is significantly increased induced bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (iBALT) formation, GCHTH, and smooth muscle hypertrophy. Elevated levels of Th2 cytokines, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, are present in bronchial lavage fluids. Sensitized mice have precipitating antibody and positive Arthus skin reactions but also develop significant levels of IgE antibody to OVA but only 1 week after challenge. We conclude that the asthma like lung lesions induced in these models is preceded by immune complex-mediated eosinophilic vasculitis and iBALT formation. There are elevations of Th2 cytokines that most likely produce bronchial lesions that resemble human asthma. However, it is unlikely that mast cell-activated atopic mechanisms are responsible as we found only a few presumed mast cells by toluidine blue and metachromatic staining limited to the most proximal part of the main stem bronchus, and none in the remaining main stem bronchus or in the lung periphery. PMID:26006019

  5. Bronchial epithelial spheroids: an alternative culture model to investigate epithelium inflammation-mediated COPD

    PubMed Central

    Deslee, Gaetan; Dury, Sandra; Perotin, Jeanne M; Al Alam, Denise; Vitry, Fabien; Boxio, Rachel; Gangloff, Sophie C; Guenounou, Moncef; Lebargy, François; Belaaouaj, Abderrazzaq

    2007-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by abnormal lung inflammation that exceeds the protective response. Various culture models using epithelial cell lines or primary cells have been used to investigate the contribution of bronchial epithelium in the exaggerated inflammation of COPD. However, these models do not mimic in vivo situations for several reasons (e.g, transformed epithelial cells, protease-mediated dissociation of primary cells, etc.). To circumvent these concerns, we developed a new epithelial cell culture model. Methods Using non transformed non dissociated bronchial epithelium obtained by bronchial brushings from COPD and non-COPD smokers, we developed a 3-dimensional culture model, bronchial epithelial spheroids (BES). BES were analyzed by videomicroscopy, light microscopy, immunofluorescence, and transmission electron microscopy. We also compared the inflammatory responses of COPD and non-COPD BES. In our study, we chose to stimulate BES with lipopolycaccharide (LPS) and measured the release of the pro-inflammatory mediators interleukin-8 (IL-8) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and the anti-inflammatory mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Results BES obtained from both COPD and non-COPD patients were characterized by a polarized bronchial epithelium with tight junctions and ciliary beating, composed of basal cells, secretory cells and ciliated cells. The ciliary beat frequency of ciliated cells was not significantly different between the two groups. Of interest, BES retained their characteristic features in culture up to 8 days. BES released the inflammatory mediators IL-8, PGE2 and LTB4 constitutively and following exposure to LPS. Interestingly, LPS induced a higher release of IL-8, but not PGE2 and LTB4 in COPD BES (p < 0.001) which correlated with lung function changes. Conclusion This study provides for the first time a compelling evidence that the BES model provides an unaltered bronchial surface epithelium. More

  6. Modulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in the bronchial epithelium of smokers.

    PubMed

    Khuri, F R; Lee, J S; Lippman, S M; Lee, J J; Kalapurakal, S; Yu, R; Ro, J Y; Morice, R C; Hong, W K; Hittelman, W N

    2001-04-01

    Clinical chemoprevention trials seek to intervene in the carcinogenic process to suppress, reverse, or delay the development of invasive cancer. Dysregulated cell growth is a hallmark of epithelial carcinogenesis, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a marker of dysregulated proliferation that is highly expressed in non-small cell lung cancers. Squamous metaplasia of the bronchial epithelium is found in chronic smokers and has been considered an early premalignant change. To evaluate the effect of 13-cis-retinoic acid (13-cRA) on PCNA modulation, we evaluated PCNA expression in a total of 706 bronchial biopsy specimens from histologically normal, hyperplastic, metaplastic, and dysplastic bronchial tissues obtained from 86 healthy smokers at baseline, of whom 69 subjects had completed 6 months of treatment on a randomized placebo-controlled chemoprevention trial of 13-cRA and had repeat bronchoscopic biopsies. PCNA expression was evaluated with respect to bronchial metaplasia and as an intermediate end point for response in the trial. In the bronchial biopsies obtained from six standardized pretreatment and posttreatment sites, high PCNA expression correlated significantly with more advanced histological grade (P < 0.001). Furthermore, smoking cessation during therapy correlated well with reduced PCNA expression (P = 0.006), although multivariate analysis indicated that this reduction in PCNA expression was associated with the reversal of squamous metaplasia. The level of PCNA expression appeared to correlate with the level of epidermal growth factor receptor expression both at baseline and at 6 months. In those patients who ceased smoking during the intervention, the 13-cRA also appeared to be more effective than placebo in reducing PCNA expression (P = 0.034 in all of the layers; P = 0.026 in basal layers). The efficacy of 13-cRA in the down-regulation of PCNA in quitters was independent of baseline PCNA expression levels. Our study demonstrated that

  7. Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell Response to Heavy Particle Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Story, Michael; Ding, Liang-Hao; Minna, John; Park, Seong-mi; Peyton, Michael; Larsen, Jill

    2012-07-01

    A battery of non-oncogenically immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) are being used to examine the molecular changes that lead to lung carcinogenesis after exposure to heavy particles found in the free space environment. The goal is to ultimately identify biomarkers of radioresponse that can be used for prediction of carcinogenic risk for fatal lung cancer. Our initial studies have focused on the cell line HBEC3 KT and the isogenic variant HBEC3 KTR53, which overexpresses the RASv12 mutant and where p53 has been knocked down by shRNA, and is considered to be a more oncogenically progressed variant. We have previously described the response of HBEC3 KT at the cellular and molecular level, however, the focus here is on the rate of cellular transformation after HZE radiation exposure and the molecular changes in transformed cells. When comparing the two cell lines we find that there is a maximum rate of cellular transformation at 0.25 Gy when cells are exposed to 1 GeV Fe particles, and, for the HBEC3 KTR53 there are multiple pathways upregulated that promote anchorage independent growth including the mTOR pathway, the TGF-1 pathway, RhoA signaling and the ERK/MAPK pathway as early as 2 weeks after radiation. This does not occur in the HBEC3 KT cell line. Transformed HBEC3 KT cells do not show any morphologic or phenotypic changes when grown as cell cultures. HBEC3 KTR53 cells on the other hand show substantial changes in morphology from a cobblestone epithelial appearance to a mesenchymal appearance with a lack of contact inhibition. This epithelial to mesenchymal change in morphology is accompanied by the expression of vimentin and a reduction in the expression of E-cadherin, which are hallmarks of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Interestingly, for HBEC3 KT transformed cells there are no mutations in the p53 gene, 2 of 15 clones were found to be heterozygous for the RASV12 mutation, and 3 of 15 clones expressed high levels of BigH3, a TGFB

  8. Anti-Pseudomonas activity in bronchial secretions of patients receiving amikacin or tobramycin as a continuous infusion.

    PubMed Central

    Mombelli, G; Coppens, L; Thys, J P; Klastersky, J

    1981-01-01

    The penetration of amikacin and tobramycin into bronchial secretions and the resulting anti-Pseudomonas activity were assessed in two groups of tracheostomized or intubated patients with tracheobronchial infection and purulent bronchial secretions. The aminoglycosides were administered as continuous, high-dose intravenous infusions. The mean drug concentrations in serum and bronchial secretions were 12.8 and 2.0 microgram/ml for amikacin and 3.6 and 0.7 microgram/ml for tobramycin. The bronchial secretion/serum ratios varied over a wide range: from 9.6 to 22.8% (average, 14.9%) for amikacin and from 3 to 39.3% (average, 17.5%) for tobramycin. Sustained anti-Pseudomonas activities in bronchial secretions were achieved only in patients with very high aminoglycoside levels in serum. In most patients, however, no anti-Pseudomonas activity could be detected within bronchial secretions despite therapeutic levels of amikacin and tobramycin and adequate bactericidal activities in serum. PMID:7247362

  9. Influence of the programmed cell death of lymphocytes on the immunity of patients with atopic bronchial asthma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fairly recent data highlight the role of programmed cell death and autoimmunity, as potentially important factors in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive airway diseases. The purpose of our research was to determine the influence of apoptotic factors on the immunity of patients with atopic bronchial asthma according to the degree of severity. Method The study was performed on the peripheral blood of patients with atopic bronchial asthma with different severity. The Immunological aspects were determined with ELISA, the fluorimetric method and the method of precipitation with polyethylene glycol. And the quantification of the parameters of the programmed cell death was performed by the method of flow cytometry and electron microscopy method. Results The data obtained from morphological and biochemical parameters show the deregulation of Programmed Death of lymphocytes of patients with atopic bronchial asthma but individual for each group of patients. This dysfunction might induce the secretion of autoantibodies against DNA. This could explain the accumulation of circulating immune complex with average size considered as the most pathogenic in patients with bronchial asthma especially in the patients of serious severity. It should be noted that Patients with bronchial asthma of mild and severe severity had different way and did not have the same degree of deficiency of the immune system. Conclusion These data suggested that apoptotic factor of lymphocytes may play an important role in controlling immunity of patients with atopic bronchial asthma. PMID:24646379

  10. Bronchial arteriography and embolotherapy for hemoptysis in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Tonkin, I L; Hanissian, A S; Boulden, T F; Baum, S L; Gavant, M L; Gold, R E; George, P; Green, W J

    1991-01-01

    Bronchial arteriography and embolotherapy were performed to control hemoptysis in 11 patients with advanced stages of cystic fibrosis. Two patients suffered massive, 1 moderate, and 8 mild but recurrent hemoptysis. The embolization procedures were performed with Gelfoam, Ivalon, and coils in one to four separate procedures. Altogether, 19 of 20 procedures were successful, with follow-up periods ranging from 9 months to 8 years. No serious complications were encountered except for one femoral artery pseudoaneurysm which required surgical repair. Rapid digital subtraction angiography and "roadmapping" were considered helpful in avoiding the complication of reflux embolization and expediting the procedures. Bronchial embolization is a life-saving procedure for severe hemoptysis in patients with cystic fibrosis and is considered safe enough to include the indications of moderate and mild/recurrent hemoptysis to improve the quality of life in these patients. PMID:1913738

  11. Polypoid bronchial lesions due to Scedosporium apiospermum in a patient with Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Murayama, T; Amitani, R; Tsuyuguchi, K; Watanabe, I; Kimoto, T; Suzuki, K; Tanaka, E; Kamei, K; Nishimura, K

    1998-09-01

    A 69 yr old female was hospitalized for further examination of abnormal shadows on chest radiographs. She had a history of tuberculous pleurisy, rheumatoid arthritis and gold-induced interstitial pneumonia. On admission she still suffered from rheumatoid arthritis. A chest computed tomography scan on admission showed clusters of small nodules in subpleural regions of both lungs combined with bronchiectasis. Mycobacterium avium complex was cultured repeatedly from the sputum. Bronchoscopic examination disclosed white-yellow polypoid lesions in the orifice of the left B4 bronchus. Cultures of the brushing specimen of the polypoid lesions and bronchial aspirates from the B4 bronchus yielded smoky-grey mycelial colonies that were later identified as Scedosporium apiospermum. It was concluded that the polypoid bronchial lesions due to Scedosporium apiospermum were formed in the preexisting dilated bronchus caused by Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease. PMID:9762808

  12. Successful Endobronchial stenting for bronchial compression from a massive thoracic aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Comer, David; Bedi, Amit; Kennedy, Peter; McManus, Kieran; McIlwaine, Werner

    2010-01-01

    A case of bronchial occlusion caused by a thoracic aortic aneurysm and the relief of this obstruction by the implantation of expandable metallic stents is described. Stent deployment provided an immediate improvement in lung ventilation and chest radiograph appearances. Stent insertion was uncomplicated, but weaning from mechanical ventilation was unsuccessful and the patient died from a ventilator-associated pneumonia, unrelated to the procedure. Endobronchial stenting should be considered as a non-invasive therapy for the treatment of bronchial obstruction, with respiratory compromise, caused by a thoracic aortic aneurysm when vascular surgery is not an option. The medium to long term survival of this patient group is poor. This can be attributed to complications related to the stent and also to the poor performance status of these patients. PMID:24946305

  13. Cicatricial Fibromatosis Diagnosis after Suspected Local Recurrence at the Bronchial Stump Following Lobectomy for Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Wan Jin; Lee, Yeiwon; Jung, Soo Young; Yeh, Daewook; Park, Soon Hyo; Yoon, Yoo Sang

    2016-01-01

    A mass excision surrounding the bronchial stump was performed to exclude malignancy in a 42-year-old man who had undergone a right lower lobectomy for lung cancer. The mass was identified as a cicatricial fibroma. Cicatricial fibromatosis, which is desmoid fibromatosis that arises in a surgical scar, is a well-known clinical condition. It consists of histologically benign neoplasms. Their occurrence after thoracic surgery is extremely rare. Biopsy or excision of suspicious lesions is very important for diagnosis. R0 resection remains the principal outcome for intra-thoracic desmoid fibromatosis. We report that a cicatricial fibromatosis in the subcarinal space was removed after suspicion of local recurrence at the bronchial stump follwing lobectomy for lung cancer. PMID:27064987

  14. Why do we have a bronchial tree with 23 levels of bifurcation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Akira; Kuwahara, Fujio; Sano, Yoshihiko

    2009-01-01

    A simple one-dimensional mass transfer model has been proposed for the oxygen transport through a bronchial tree to alveolar tissues as well as the carbon dioxide removal from the tissues in the human respiratory system. The proposed model mathematically describes the mass transfer between the airway inlet and the red blood cell interior in the pulmonary capillaries. The quasi steady one-dimensional analysis based on the model reveals that the bronchial tree is constructed such that it promotes the easiest access to the external air. Naturally, there exists the optimal number of the bifurcation levels, namely, 23, that yields the minimum overall mass transfer resistance for the mass transport from the external air to the red blood cells.

  15. Cicatricial Fibromatosis Diagnosis after Suspected Local Recurrence at the Bronchial Stump Following Lobectomy for Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Wan Jin; Lee, Yeiwon; Jung, Soo Young; Yeh, Daewook; Park, Soon Hyo; Yoon, Yoo Sang

    2016-04-01

    A mass excision surrounding the bronchial stump was performed to exclude malignancy in a 42-year-old man who had undergone a right lower lobectomy for lung cancer. The mass was identified as a cicatricial fibroma. Cicatricial fibromatosis, which is desmoid fibromatosis that arises in a surgical scar, is a well-known clinical condition. It consists of histologically benign neoplasms. Their occurrence after thoracic surgery is extremely rare. Biopsy or excision of suspicious lesions is very important for diagnosis. R0 resection remains the principal outcome for intra-thoracic desmoid fibromatosis. We report that a cicatricial fibromatosis in the subcarinal space was removed after suspicion of local recurrence at the bronchial stump follwing lobectomy for lung cancer. PMID:27064987

  16. Occupational contact urticaria and late-phase bronchial asthma caused by compositae pollen in a florist.

    PubMed

    Uter, W; Nöhle, M; Randerath, B; Schwanitz, H J

    2001-09-01

    Insect-pollinated members of the plant family Compositae (Asteraceae) rarely cause immediate-type hypersensitivity disease; however, this may have quite disabling consequences, which is shown by the case of a 42-year-old female florist. She developed contact urticaria later accompanied by rhinoconjunctivitis and bronchial asthma with maximum obstruction occurring some hours after the end of occupational exposure to the causative Compositae pollens of, for example, dandelions, blazing star, golden rod, yarrow, Aster ssp, chrysanthemums, and marguerite. Skin testing revealed immediate-type hypersensitivity to several members of the above-mentioned plant family confirmed by demonstration of specific IgE antibodies. Bronchial provocation testing yielded a positive response with all 4 pollen extracts tested. The patient had to give up work in a flower shop, because sufficient avoidance of airborne inhalant exposure was not considered practical. PMID:11526527

  17. Spirometric evaluation of pulmonary function tests in clinically diagnosed patients of bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, R; Shrestha, B; Dhungel, S; Devkota, K C; Pramanik, T; Roychowdhury, P

    2010-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the difference between the normal predicted value and observed value of pulmonary function test (PFT) amongst the asthmatic patients and also to compare the aforesaid observed values between male and female asthmatic patients. Clinically diagnosed cases (male 62, female 75) of bronchial asthma attending medical out patient department of Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital were assessed. All the pulmonary parameters showed significantly less observed values than the normal predicted values except PEFR in female and FVC in male asthmatic patients. Hence, PEFR in female and FVC in male asthmatic patients might not be considered as a valid parameter to indicate bronchial asthma. Present study also revealed that all the pulmonary variables were significantly higher in males than in females. PMID:20677610

  18. Gene expression analysis uncovers novel Hedgehog interacting protein (HHIP) effects in human bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaobo; Qiu, Weiliang; Sathirapongsasuti, J. Fah.; Cho, Michael H.; Mancini, John D.; Lao, Taotao; Thibault, Derek M.; Litonjua, Gus; Bakke, Per S.; Gulsvik, Amund; Lomas, David A.; Beaty, Terri H.; Hersh, Craig P.; Anderson, Christopher; Geigenmuller, Ute; Raby, Benjamin A.; Rennard, Stephen I.; Perrella, Mark A.; Choi, Augustine M.K.; Quackenbush, John; Silverman, Edwin K.

    2013-01-01

    Hedgehog Interacting Protein (HHIP) was implicated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, it remains unclear how HHIP contributes to COPD pathogenesis. To identify genes regulated by HHIP, we performed gene expression microarray analysis in a human bronchial epithelial cell line (Beas-2B) stably infected with HHIP shRNAs. HHIP silencing led to differential expression of 296 genes; enrichment for variants nominally associated with COPD was found. Eighteen of the differentially expressed genes were validated by real-time PCR in Beas-2B cells. Seven of 11 validated genes tested in human COPD and control lung tissues demonstrated significant gene expression differences. Functional annotation indicated enrichment for extracellular matrix and cell growth genes. Network modeling demonstrated that the extracellular matrix and cell proliferation genes influenced by HHIP tended to be interconnected. Thus, we identified potential HHIP targets in human bronchial epithelial cells that may contribute to COPD pathogenesis. PMID:23459001

  19. [Quantitative determination of IgA from human bronchial mucus (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Hayem, A; Laine, A; Bailleul, V; Lebas, J

    1975-05-15

    Before quantitative analysis of bronchial mucus proteins, sputum must be transformed into a homogeneous medium: this is done by ultrasonic action and contact with cationic resin AG 50 W X 2. Then, acid mucins are fixed on Ecteola-cellulose, and proteins extracted by a phosphate/saline buffer at pH 5. IgA is estimated by electroimmunodiffusion. Reproducibility of the method is discussed: the accuracy for IgA values is 4%. PMID:238765

  20. Bronchial Artery Embolization in the Management of Pulmonary Parenchymal Endometriosis with Hemoptysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kervancioglu, Selim Andic, Cagatay; Bayram, Nazan; Telli, Cumali; Sarica, Akif; Sirikci, Akif

    2008-07-15

    Pulmonary parenchymal endometriosis is extremely rare and usually manifests itself with a recurrent hemoptysis associated with the menstrual cycle. The therapies proposed for women with endometriosis consist of medical treatments and surgery. Bronchial artery embolization has become a well-established and minimally invasive treatment modality for hemoptysis, and to the best of our knowledge, it has not been reported in pulmonary endometriosis. We report a case of pulmonary parenchymal endometriosis treated with embolotheraphy for hemoptysis.

  1. Smoking cessation and bronchial epithelial remodelling in COPD: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Lapperre, Thérèse S; Sont, Jacob K; van Schadewijk, Annemarie; Gosman, Margot ME; Postma, Dirkje S; Bajema, Ingeborg M; Timens, Wim; Mauad, Thais; Hiemstra, Pieter S

    2007-01-01

    Background Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is associated with bronchial epithelial changes, including squamous cell metaplasia and goblet cell hyperplasia. These features are partially attributed to activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Whereas smoking cessation reduces respiratory symptoms and lung function decline in COPD, inflammation persists. We determined epithelial proliferation and composition in bronchial biopsies from current and ex-smokers with COPD, and its relation to duration of smoking cessation. Methods 114 COPD patients were studied cross-sectionally: 99 males/15 females, age 62 ± 8 years, median 42 pack-years, no corticosteroids, current (n = 72) or ex-smokers (n = 42, median cessation duration 3.5 years), postbronchodilator FEV1 63 ± 9% predicted. Squamous cell metaplasia (%), goblet cell (PAS/Alcian Blue+) area (%), proliferating (Ki-67+) cell numbers (/mm basement membrane), and EGFR expression (%) were measured in intact epithelium of bronchial biopsies. Results Ex-smokers with COPD had significantly less epithelial squamous cell metaplasia, proliferating cell numbers, and a trend towards reduced goblet cell area than current smokers with COPD (p = 0.025, p = 0.001, p = 0.081, respectively), but no significant difference in EGFR expression. Epithelial features were not different between short-term quitters (<3.5 years) and current smokers. Long-term quitters (≥3.5 years) had less goblet cell area than both current smokers and short-term quitters (medians: 7.9% vs. 14.4%, p = 0.005; 7.9% vs. 13.5%, p = 0.008; respectively), and less proliferating cell numbers than current smokers (2.8% vs. 18.6%, p < 0.001). Conclusion Ex-smokers with COPD had less bronchial epithelial remodelling than current smokers, which was only observed after long-term smoking cessation (>3.5 years). Trial registration NCT00158847 PMID:18039368

  2. [Ground-based speleo-climatic wards and the experience with their use in bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Krasnoshteĭn, A E; Barannikov, V G; Shchekotov, V V; Lebedeva, T M; Bitinskaia, L N; Khasanova, R B; Surovtseva, M V; Mezentseva, E V; Isaevich, A G; Lysenko, D I

    1999-01-01

    Ambient air in ground wards made to contain natural potassium-sodium salt is close in characteristics to the atmosphere of underground wards but has a number of specificities: daily fluctuations of concentrations of light aeroions and aerosol particles, elevated concentration of light aeroions concentration, low radiation background, minimal bacterial contamination. The stay in ground wards brings great benefit for patients with bronchial asthma. Ground speleo-climatic wards are perspective in nonpharmacological treatment of patients with allergic respiratory diseases. PMID:10429568

  3. [A case report of a bronchial foreign body removal by direct laryngoscopy with fiber bronchoscope].

    PubMed

    Sun, Le; Fang, Ning; Zhang, Yan

    2015-12-01

    An 11 year old girl presented with dyspnea and a rough cough, after having mistakenly swallowed a steel ball and unable to relieve the symptoms. Chest X-ray showed an image consistent with a 10 mm diameter circular object, embedded in the right mainstem bronchi near the fifth thoracic level and the medicastinal moving to the right. A clinical diagnosis based on these findings: foreign body of the right bronchial. PMID:27101687

  4. Nonrigid registration framework for bronchial tree labeling using robust point matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Arunabha; Patil, Uday; Das, Bipul

    2009-02-01

    Automated labeling of the bronchial tree is essential for localization of airway related diseases (e.g. chronic bronchitis) and is also a useful precursor to lung-lobe labeling. We describe an automated method for registration-based labeling of a bronchial tree. The bronchial tree is segmented from a CT image using a region-growing based algorithm. The medial line of the extracted tree is then computed using a potential field based approach. The expert-labeled target (atlas) and the source bronchial trees in the form of extracted centerline point sets are brought into alignment by calculating a non-rigid thin-plate spline (TPS) mapping from the source to the target. The registration takes into account global as well as local variations in anatomy between the two images through the use of separable linear and non-linear components of the transformation; as a result it is well suited to matching structures that deviate at finer levels: namely higher order branches. The method is validated by registering together pairs of datasets for which the ground truth labels are known in advance: the labels are transferred after matching target to source and then compared with the true values. The method was tested on datasets each containing 18 branch centerpoints and 12 bifurcation locations (30 landmarks in total) annotated manually by a radiologist, where the performance was measured as the number of landmarks having the correct transfer of labels. An overall accuracy of labeling of 91.5 % was obtained in matching 23 pairs of datasets obtained from different patients.

  5. [Lung cancer with bronchial stenosis due to foreign body and Entoameba gingivalis infection].

    PubMed

    Monaco, F; Mondello, B; Barone, M; Familiari, D; Sibilio, M; La Rocca, A; Lentini, S; Monaco, M

    2011-03-01

    Oral cavity infection by protozoarian agents may lead to pathologies such as stomatitis and gengivitis. An higher incidence has been reported in immunocompromised patients and in patients with dental disorders. Entoameba gingivalis localizes into oral cavity and in particular into interstitial and interdental spaces. Infection propagation to bronchial or lung parenchyma represents a complication. In this report the Authors, starting from a recently treated case, discuss on the incidence, complications and surgical management of lung infection by Entoameba gingivalis. PMID:21453594

  6. Immunization with live influenza viruses in an experimental model of allergic bronchial asthma: infection and vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Chirkova, Tatiana; Petukhova, Galina; Korenkov, Daniil; Naikhin, Anatoliy; Rudenko, Larisa

    2008-01-01

    Background  Asthmatics in particular have a need for influenza vaccines because influenza infection is a frequent cause of hospitalization of patients with bronchial asthma. Currently, only inactivated influenza vaccines are recommended for influenza prevention in asthma sufferers. Objective  The aim of our study was to analyze and compare the effects of influenza infection and vaccination with live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) on different phases of experimental murine allergic bronchial asthma (acute asthma and remission phase) and on subsequent exposure to allergen in sensitized animals. Methods  Ovalbumin (OVA)‐specific serum IgE levels, IL‐4 production by spleen and lung lymphocytes, and histological changes in the lungs of mice infected with pathogenic virus or LAIV were studied at two phases of OVA‐induced bronchial asthma (acute asthma and remission). Results  Infection with pathogenic virus both in acute asthma and remission led to asthma exacerbation associated with the production of OVA‐specific IgE, IL‐4 and significant inflammatory infiltration in airways. Infection, even after complete virus clearance, induced the aggravation of lung inflammation and IgE production in asthmatic mice additionally exposed to OVA. Immunization with LAIV at remission did not enhance allergic inflammatory changes in the lung, OVA‐specific IgE or IL‐4 production. Then after additional OVA exposure, histological and immunological changes in these mice were the same as in the control group. Conclusions  Influenza infection provokes asthma exacerbation regardless of the disease phase. Immunization with LAIV during the remission phase of bronchial asthma is safe and does not interfere upon subsequent contact of asthma sufferers with allergen. PMID:19453421

  7. Bronchial isomerism in a Kabuki syndrome patient with a novel mutation in MLL2 gene

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Kabuki syndrome (KS) is a rare, multiple congenital anomalies/intellectual disability syndrome caused by mutations of MLL2 gene, which codifies for a histone methyltrasferase that regulates the embryogenesis and the tissue development. Left-bronchial isomerism is a rare congenital abnormality that can be defined as the absence of the normal lateralizing features which distinguish right and left-sides in the lungs. To date, this is the first report of left-bronchial isomerism in association with KS. Case presentation A one-month-old Caucasian male patient underwent our attention for microcephaly, dysmorphic features (long palpebral fissures, eyebrows with sparse lateral third, everted lower eyelids, blue sclerae, large dysplastic ears, lower lip pits), persistent fetal fingertip pads, short stature, heart defects (interventricular defect and aortic coarctation), unilateral cryptorchidism, hypotonia and delay in gross motor skills. These features suggested a diagnosis of KS and a molecular analysis confirmed a novel frame-shift mutation in the exon 11 of MLL2 gene. Subsequently, given recurrent respiratory infections with a normal immunological status, he underwent a chest CT scan that showed a left bronchial isomerism. Conclusion We report a patient affected by KS, with a novel MLL2 mutation and an atypical phenotype characterized by left-side bronchial isomerism. Interestingly, genes involved in the heterotaxia/isomerism such as ROCK2 and SHROOM3 are known to interact with MLL2 gene. In order to achieve a correct diagnosis and an appropriate therapy, the presence of pulmonary anatomical variations should be investigated in KS patients with respiratory signs not associated to immunological deficiency. Finally, our findings support the hypothesis that the mutations leading to a complete loss of function of MLL2 gene is often associated with complex visceral malformations. PMID:24472332

  8. A Case of Aorto-Bronchial Fistula After Insertion of Left Main Bronchial Self-Expanding Metallic Stent in a Patient with Recurrent Esophageal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Hiroshi Kuriyama, Kengo; Komiyama, Takafumi; Tanaka, Shiho; Marino, Kan; Tsukamoto, Tatsuaki; Araki, Tsutomu

    2004-09-15

    We report a case of aorto-bronchial fistula (ABF) caused by a self-expanding metallic stent (EMS) 51 days after insertion into the left main bronchus. The patient presented with left main bronchial stenosis caused by post-operative local recurrence of esophageal cancer. Post-operative radio therapy totaling 40 Gy and post-recurrence radiotherapy totaling 34 Gy were administered, with daily fractions of 2 Gy. Stenosis of the left main bronchus improved slightly, and was followed with insertion of EMS to prevent re-stenosis. The patient experienced massive hemoptysis for 3 days before sudden death. Autopsy revealed the EMS edge perforating the descending aortic lumen. Tumor infiltration and bacterial infection were observed on the wall of the left bronchus, and atherosclerosis was present on the aortic wall around the fistula. It should be noted that the left main bronchus was at considerable risk of ABF after insertion of EMS for malignant stenosis, and prophylactic stent insertion into the bronchus without imperative need must be avoided.

  9. Correlation between the severity of critically ill patients and clinical predictors of bronchial aspiration

    PubMed Central

    de Medeiros, Gisele Chagas; Sassi, Fernanda Chiarion; Zambom, Lucas Santos; de Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the severity of non-neurological critically ill patients correlates with clinical predictors of bronchial aspiration. Methods: We evaluated adults undergoing prolonged orotracheal intubation (> 48 h) and bedside swallowing assessment within the first 48 h after extubation. We collected data regarding the risk of bronchial aspiration performed by a speech-language pathologist, whereas data regarding the functional level of swallowing were collected with the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association National Outcome Measurement System (ASHA NOMS) scale and those regarding health status were collected with the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA). Results: The study sample comprised 150 patients. For statistical analyses, the patients were grouped by ASHA NOMS score: ASHA1 (levels 1 and 2), ASHA2 (levels 3 to 5); and ASHA3 (levels 6 and 7). In comparison with the other patients, those in the ASHA3 group were significantly younger, remained intubated for fewer days, and less severe overall clinical health status (SOFA score). The clinical predictors of bronchial aspiration that best characterized the groups were abnormal cervical auscultation findings and cough after swallowing. None of the patients in the ASHA 3 group presented with either of those signs. Conclusions: Critically ill patients 55 years of age or older who undergo prolonged orotracheal intubation (≥ 6 days), have a SOFA score ≥ 5, have a Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤ 14, and present with abnormal cervical auscultation findings or cough after swallowing should be prioritized for a full speech pathology assessment. PMID:27167432

  10. Changes in bronchial and pulmonary arterial blood flow with progressive tension pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, P; Hilderbrandt, J; Charan, N B

    1996-10-01

    We studied the effects of unilateral tension pneumothorax and its release on bronchial and pulmonary arterial blood flow and gas exchange in 10 adult anesthetized and mechanically ventilated sheep with chronically implanted ultrasonic flow probes. Right pleural pressure (Ppl) was increased in two steps from -5 to 10 and 25 cmH2O and then decreased to 10 and -5 cmH2O. Each level of Ppl was maintained for 5 min. Bronchial blood flow, right and left pulmonary arterial flows, cardiac output (QT), hemodynamic measurements, and arterial blood gases were obtained at the end of each period. Pneumothorax resulted in a 66% decrease in QT, bronchial blood flow decreased by 84%, and right pulmonary arterial flow decreased by 80% at Ppl of 25 cmH2O (P < 0.001). At peak Ppl, the majority of QT was due to blood flow through the left pulmonary artery. With resolution of pneumothorax, hemodynamic parameters normalized, although abnormalities in gas exchange persisted for 60-90 min after recovery and were associated with a decrease in total respiratory compliance. PMID:8904584

  11. Endovascular Therapy of Bronchial Artery Aneurysm: Five Cases With Six Aneurysms

    SciTech Connect

    Lue, Peng-Hua Wang Lifu; Su Yusheng; Lee, Deok-Hee; Wang Shuxiang; Sun Ling; Geng Suping; Huang Wennuo

    2011-06-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA)-Lipiodol mixture in patients with bronchial artery aneurysm (BAA). From January 2005 to January 2010, five patients presenting hemoptysis with six BAAs were treated with NBCA-Lipiodol mixture, including intra-aneurysm embolization (IAE) in one patient. Adjuvant embolization with spherical polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) embolic microparticles or NBCA was first performed to embolize the distal engorged bronchiectatic arteries. Bronchial arterial angiography showed six BAAs (four in the right lobe and two in the left lobe) and some engorged, tortuous bronchial arteries. TAE through microcatheter was successful in all cases. Postembolization angiogram demonstrated the NBCA cast and total occlusion of BAAs and bronchiectatic engorged vessels. After these procedures, hemoptysis completely disappeared in all patients. Follow-up computed tomography (CT) scan was performed at an average of 3 months (range 2 to 6), which showed no enhancement of BAAs and accumulation of NBCA. TAE is a minimally invasive, effective, and reliable approach for treatment for patients with BAA. NBCA-Lipiodol mixture provides a good choice for treatment of BAA, especially when catheterization of the efferent branches is impossible.

  12. Mechanical Strain Causes Adaptive Change in Bronchial Fibroblasts Enhancing Profibrotic and Inflammatory Responses

    PubMed Central

    Manuyakorn, Wiparat; Smart, David E.; Noto, Antonio; Bucchieri, Fabio; Haitchi, Hans Michael; Holgate, Stephen T.; Howarth, Peter H.; Davies, Donna E.

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by periodic episodes of bronchoconstriction and reversible airway obstruction; these symptoms are attributable to a number of factors including increased mass and reactivity of bronchial smooth muscle and extracellular matrix (ECM) in asthmatic airways. Literature has suggested changes in cell responses and signaling can be elicited via modulation of mechanical stress acting upon them, potentially affecting the microenvironment of the cell. In this study, we hypothesized that mechanical strain directly affects the (myo)fibroblast phenotype in asthma. Therefore, we characterized responses of bronchial fibroblasts, from 6 normal and 11 asthmatic non-smoking volunteers, exposed to cyclical mechanical strain using flexible silastic membranes. Samples were analyzed for proteoglycans, α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA), collagens I and III, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 & 9 and interleukin-8 (IL-8) by qRT-PCR, Western blot, zymography and ELISA. Mechanical strain caused a decrease in αSMA mRNA but no change in either αSMA protein or proteoglycan expression. In contrast the inflammatory mediator IL-8, MMPs and interstitial collagens were increased at both the transcriptional and protein level. The results demonstrate an adaptive response of bronchial fibroblasts to mechanical strain, irrespective of donor. The adaptation involves cytoskeletal rearrangement, matrix remodelling and inflammatory cytokine release. These results suggest that mechanical strain could contribute to disease progression in asthma by promoting inflammation and remodelling responses. PMID:27101406

  13. [Bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with acute exacerbation: preclinical differential diagnostic and emergency treatment].

    PubMed

    Friege, B; Friege, L; Pelz, J; Weber, M; von Spiegel, T; Schröder, S

    2009-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and bronchial asthma are the most common causes of obstructive pulmonary diseases and acute dyspnoea. In the preclinical emergency situation a distinction between bronchial asthma and exacerbated COPD is difficult because symptoms are similar. Although the preclinical measures differ only marginally, a differential diagnosis from other causes of respiratory obstruction and acute dyspnoea, such as cardiac decompensation, anaphylaxis, aspiration of foreign bodies, tension pneumothorax and inhalation trauma is necessary because alternative treatment options are required. In the treatment of COPD and bronchial asthma inhalative bronchodilatory beta(2)-mimetics are the first choice especially for serious obstructive emergencies because there is an unfavorable relationship between effect and side-effects for the intravenous route. Dosable aerosols, nebulization and if necessary, continuous nebulization, are appropriate application forms even for serious obstructive crises with the need of a respirator. In these cases a minimal inspiratory flow in patients is not required. Theophylline only plays a minor role to beta(2)-mimetics and anticholinergics as a bronchodilator in asthma and COPD guidelines, even in serious obstructive diseases. For severe asthma attacks the administration of magnesium is a possible additional option. Systemic intravenous administration of steroids has an anti-inflammatory effect and for this reason is the second column of treatment for both diseases. Invasive ventilation remains a last resort to ensure respiratory function and indications for this are given in patients with clinical signs of impending exhaustion of breathing. PMID:19424670

  14. Referred Pain to the Ipsilateral Forehead and Orbit: An Unusual Phenomenon During Bronchial Artery Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Ramakantan, Ravi; Ketkar, Manoj; Maddali, Krishna; Deshmukh, Hemant

    1999-07-15

    Purpose: We report an unusual pattern of referred pain to the ipsilateral forehead and orbit observed during bronchial artery embolization (BAE) for massive hemoptysis due to pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and postulate possible neural mechanisms for its occurrence. Methods: Seven men, from a series of 194 patients (171 men, 23 women) undergoing BAE (right bronchial artery 4, left 3) with gelatin sponge for control of massive hemoptysis due to pulmonary TB form the subject of this report. Results: Embolization was successful in achieving control of hemoptysis in these patients and there were no complications following the embolization. Transient, moderately severe, ipsilateral supraorbital and/or retroorbital pain occurred only during the injection of the gelatin sponge contrast mixture into the bronchial artery. The pain did not occur during the injection of heparinized saline or ionic contrast medium. Conclusions: Referred pain during BAE is an unusual phenomenon. Acute vessel distension triggering visceral sensations is probably the causative mechanism. Sympathetic afferents from the bronchi coursing through the posterior pulmonary plexus eventually pass to the trigeminal ganglion via the carotid sympathetic chain. The ophthalmic and maxillary divisions of the trigeminal nerve then mediate pain sensation to the ipsilateral forehead and orbit. Similarly, parasympathetic afferents from the pulmonary plexus crossing the nucleus of the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve may be responsible for interexchange of impulses to the neurons in this nucleus. Sensory fibers of the ophthalmic and maxillary nerves relaying in this nucleus are then involved in this pain being referred to the forehead and orbit.

  15. Treatment of bronchial asthma with low-level laser in attack-free period at children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ailioaie, C.; Ailioaie, Laura

    2000-06-01

    Bronchial asthma is a common disease in both the pediatric and adult populations, characterized by wide variations over short periods of time in resistance to airflow in intrapulmonary airways. A primary goal in the use of low- level laser therapy (LLLT) was the safe, effective and rapid palliation of symptoms owing to tracheal or bronchial obstruction. We have investigated the effects of LLLT comparatively with other modality trials in children's asthma. In the study were included 98 patients aged 10-18 years diagnosed with moderate or severe asthma, in attack- free period. The patients were divided into 3 groups. Group 1 received only laser therapy using extra meridian acupuncture points and scanning technique. Group 2 was treated only with inhaled Serevent 2 X 25 micrometers , two times daily, 3 months. Group 3 was tread with Theophylline retard in dosage of 15-mg/kg/12 h, 3 months. At the end of treatment we remarked a noticeable improvement of the clinical, functional and immunological characteristics at 83 percent of patients in group 1, comparatively with only 70 percent (group 2) and 53 percent (group 3). The LLLT had a very good action on bronchial patency , displayed an immunocorrecting action and is recommended in attack-free periods at children.

  16. Ozone-induced changes in pulmonary function and bronchial responsiveness in asthmatics

    SciTech Connect

    Kreit, J.W.; Gross, K.B.; Moore, T.B.; Lorenzen, T.J.; D'Arcy, J.; Eschenbacher, W.L.

    1989-01-01

    To compare the responses of asthmatic and normal subjects to high effective doses of ozone, nine asthmatic and nine normal subjects underwent two randomly assigned 2-h exposures to filtered, purified air and 0.4 ppm ozone with alternating 15-min periods of rest and exercise on a cycle ergometer (minute ventilation = 30 l.min-1.m-2). Before and after each exposure, pulmonary function and bronchial responsiveness to methacholine were measured and symptoms were recorded. Ozone exposure was associated with a statistically significant decrease in forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expired volume in 1 s (FEV1), percent FEV1 (FEV1%), and forced expired flow at 25-75% FVC (FEF25-75) in both normal and asthmatic subjects. However, comparing the response of asthmatic and normal subjects to ozone revealed a significantly greater percent decrease in FEV1, FEV1%, and FEF25-75 in the asthmatic subjects. The effect of ozone on FVC and symptom scores did not differ between the two groups. In both normal and asthmatic subjects, exposure to ozone was accompanied by a significant increase in bronchial responsiveness. We conclude that exposure to a high effective ozone dose produces 1) increased bronchial responsiveness in both normal and asthmatic subjects, 2) greater airways obstruction in asthmatic than in normal subjects, and 3) similar symptoms and changes in lung volumes in the two groups.

  17. Evaluation of Effect of Taxus baccata Leaves Extract on Bronchoconstriction and Bronchial Hyperreactivity in Experimental Animals

    PubMed Central

    Patel, PK; Patel, KV; Gandhi, TR

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the bronchodilating effect and bronchial hyperreactivity of alcoholic extract of Taxus baccata Linn. (AET) leaves in experimental animals. Bronchodilator activity of AET was studied on the histamine and acetylcholine aerosol induced bronchospasm in guinea pigs and bronchial hyperreactivity was studied on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in the egg albumin sensitized guinea pigs and by histopathological studies. In vitro mast cell stabilizing activity was studied using compound 48/80 as a degranulating agent. Treatment with AET (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o., for 7 days) showed significant protection against histamine and acetylcholine aerosol induced bronchospasm in guinea pigs. Significant decrease in the total leukocyte and differential leukocyte count in the BALF of the egg albumin sensitized guinea pigs was observed by administration of AET (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o., for 15 days). AET dose dependently protected the mast cell disruption induced by compound 48/80. These results suggest that AET not only has bronchodilating activity but also decreases bronchial hyperreactivity by decreasing the infiltration of inflammatory cells in the airway and inhibiting the release of histamine like mediators from the mast cell by stabilizing it. PMID:21607053

  18. Barrier responses of human bronchial epithelial cells to grass pollen exposure.

    PubMed

    Blume, Cornelia; Swindle, Emily J; Dennison, Patrick; Jayasekera, Nivenka P; Dudley, Sarah; Monk, Phillip; Behrendt, Heidrun; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten B; Holgate, Stephen T; Howarth, Peter H; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Davies, Donna E

    2013-07-01

    The airway epithelium forms a physical, chemical and immunological barrier against inhaled environmental substances. In asthma, these barrier properties are thought to be abnormal. In this study, we analysed the effect of grass pollen on the physical and immunological barrier properties of differentiated human primary bronchial epithelial cells. Following exposure to Timothy grass (Phleum pratense) pollen extract, the integrity of the physical barrier was not impaired as monitored by measuring the transepithelial resistance and immunofluorescence staining of tight junction proteins. In contrast, pollen exposure affected the immunological barrier properties by modulating vectorial mediator release. CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL)8/interleukin (IL)-8 showed the greatest increase in response to pollen exposure with preferential release to the apical compartment. Inhibition of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways selectively blocked apical CXCL8/IL-8 release via a post-transcriptional mechanism. Apical release of CC chemokine ligand (CCL)20/macrophage inflammatory protein-3α, CCL22/monocyte-derived chemokine and tumour necrosis factor-α was significantly increased only in severe asthma cultures, while CCL11/eotaxin-1 and CXCL10/interferon-γ-induced protein-10 were reduced in nonasthmatic cultures. The bronchial epithelial barrier modulates polarised release of mediators in response to pollen without direct effects on its physical barrier properties. The differential response of cells from normal and asthmatic donors suggests the potential for the bronchial epithelium to promote immune dysfunction in asthma. PMID:23143548

  19. Impact of the Tamsulosin in Alpha Adrenergic Receptor of Airways at Patients with Increased Bronchial Reactibility

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Lirim; Ilazi, Ali; Dauti, Arta; Islami, Pellumb; Kastrati, Bashkim; Islami, Hilmi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In this work, effect of tamsulosin as antagonist of alpha1A and alpha1B adrenergic receptor and effect of agonists of beta2 adrenergic receptor–salbutamol in patients with increased bronchial reactibility was studied. Methods: Parameters of the lung function are determined with Body plethysmography six (6) hours after administration of tamsulosin. Raw and ITGV were registered and specific resistance (SRaw) was calculated as well. Tamsulosin was administered in per os manner as a preparation in the shape of the capsules with a brand name of “Prolosin”, produced by Niche Generics Limited, Hitchin, Herts. Results: After six (6) hours of administration of tamsulosin, results gained indicate that blockage of alpha1A and alpha1B-adrenergic receptor (0.8 mg per os) has not changed significantly (p > 0.1) the bronchomotor tonus of tracheobronchial tree in comparison to the check-up that has inhaled salbutamol agonist of adrenergic beta2 receptor (2 inh. x 0.2 mg), (p < 0.05). Blood pressure suffered no significant decrease following administration of the 0.8 mg dose of tamsulosin. Conclusion: This suggests that even after six hours of administration of tamsulosin, and determining of lung function parameters, the activity of alpha1A and alpha1B-adrenergic receptor in the smooth bronchial musculature has not changed in patients with increased bronchial reactibility. PMID:26543414

  20. Endocytosis of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes in Bronchial Epithelial and Mesothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Kayo; Matsuda, Yoshikazu; Kobayashi, Shinsuke; Tanaka, Manabu; Aoki, Kaoru; Takanashi, Seiji; Okamoto, Masanori; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Bronchial epithelial cells and mesothelial cells are crucial targets for the safety assessment of inhalation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), which resemble asbestos particles in shape. Intrinsic properties of multiwalled CNTs (MWCNTs) are known to cause potentially hazardous effects on intracellular and extracellular pathways. These interactions alter cellular signaling and affect major cell functions, resulting in cell death, lysosome injury, reactive oxygen species production, apoptosis, and cytokine release. Furthermore, CNTs are emerging as a novel class of autophagy inducers. Thus, in this study, we focused on the mechanisms of MWCNT uptake into the human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) and human mesothelial cells (HMCs). We verified that MWCNTs are actively internalized into HBECs and HMCs and were accumulated in the lysosomes of the cells after 24-hour treatment. Next, we determined which endocytosis pathways (clathrin-mediated, caveolae-mediated, and macropinocytosis) were associated with MWCNT internalization by using corresponding endocytosis inhibitors, in two nonphagocytic cell lines derived from bronchial epithelial cells and mesothelioma cells. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis inhibitors significantly suppressed MWCNT uptake, whereas caveolae-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis were also found to be involved in MWCNT uptake. Thus, MWCNTs were positively taken up by nonphagocytic cells, and their cytotoxicity was closely related to these three endocytosis pathways. PMID:26090445

  1. Biological features of bronchial squamous dysplasia followed up by autofluorescence bronchoscopy.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Hidehisa; Shibuya, Kiyoshi; Chiyo, Masako; Iyoda, Akira; Yoshida, Shigetoshi; Sekine, Yasuo; Iizasa, Toshihiko; Saitoh, Yukio; Baba, Masayuki; Hiroshima, Kenzo; Ohwada, Hidemi; Fujisawa, Takehiko

    2004-11-01

    Some dysplasias in the bronchial epithelium are thought to be precancerous lesions that can develop into squamous cell carcinomas. In this investigation, we assessed the biological behavior of bronchial squamous dysplasia in order to define which dysplasias have the potential to progress to squamous cell carcinoma. Using autofluorescence bronchoscopy, we followed up periodically localized dysplasias and examined for correlation between histological outcome and smoking status during the follow-up period, telomerase activity, Ki-67 labeling index, and p53 immunoreactivity of initial biopsy specimens. Ninety-nine dysplasias from 50 participants mainly with sputum cytology suspicious or positive for malignancy were followed up. Of 99 dysplasias, 3 dysplasias progressed to squamous cell carcinoma, 41 dysplasias remained as dysplasia, 6 dysplasias changed to metaplasia, 14 dysplasias changed to hyperplasia, and 35 dysplasias regressed to bronchitis or normal bronchial epithelium. There were no significant associations between histological outcome and smoking status. Mean initial telomerase activity and Ki-67 labeling index values in the dysplasias increased in proportion to the severity of the histological outcome at the second biopsy. There was also a significant difference between p53-positive and p53-negative dysplasia in terms of histological outcome at the second biopsy. Our results suggested that dysplasias with high telomerase activity, increased Ki-67 labeling index, and p53-positivity tended to remain as dysplasia and might have the potential to progress to squamous cell carcinoma. Patients with dysplastic lesions with these characteristics should be carefully followed up. PMID:15474667

  2. Annexin A2 mediates secretion of collagen VI, pulmonary elasticity and apoptosis of bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Dassah, MaryAnn; Almeida, Dena; Hahn, Rebecca; Bonaldo, Paolo; Worgall, Stefan; Hajjar, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The annexins are an evolutionarily conserved family of phospholipid-binding proteins of largely unknown function. We observed that the AnxA2−/− lung basement membrane specifically lacks collagen VI (COL6), and postulated that ANXA2 directs bronchial epithelial cell secretion of COL6, an unusually large multimeric protein. COL6 serves to anchor cells to basement membranes and, unlike other collagens, undergoes multimerization prior to secretion. Here, we show that AnxA2−/− mice have reduced exercise tolerance with impaired lung tissue elasticity, which was phenocopied in Col6a1−/− mice. In vitro, AnxA2−/− fibroblasts retained COL6 within intracellular vesicles and adhered poorly to their matrix unless ANXA2 expression was restored. In vivo, AnxA2−/− bronchial epithelial cells underwent apoptosis and disadhesion. Immunoprecipitation and immunoelectron microscopy revealed that ANXA2 associates with COL6 and the SNARE proteins SNAP-23 and VAMP2 at secretory vesicle membranes of bronchial epithelial cells, and that absence of ANXA2 leads to retention of COL6 in a late-Golgi, VAMP2-positive compartment. These results define a new role for ANXA2 in the COL6 secretion pathway, and further show that this pathway establishes cell–matrix interactions that underlie normal pulmonary function and epithelial cell survival. PMID:24357721

  3. Bronchial hyperreactivity occurs in steroid-treated guinea pigs depleted of leukocytes by cyclophosphamide

    SciTech Connect

    Murlas, C.; Roum, J.H.

    1985-05-01

    The effects of cyclophosphamide and cortisone acetate treatment on O/sub 3/-induced changes in airway mucosal morphology and bronchial reactivity were assessed in guinea pigs. Animals in groups of four were studied at 2 or 6 h after O/sub 3/ (3.0 ppm, 2 h) and in one control group. Reactivity was determined by measuring specific airway resistance during intravenous acetylcholine infusion in intact, unanesthetized, spontaneously breathing animals. After testing, tracheal tissue was obtained from all animals for light microscopic examination. Another group of 10 drug-treated and 10 normal animals were tested at 2 h, 6 h, 1 day, and 4 days after O/sub 3/. Drug treatment resulted in substantial decreases in both circulating and airway mucosal granulocytes. Two hours after O/sub 3/, a marked decrease in airway mucosal goblet cells as well as ciliated cell damage occurred in both normal and treated animals. However, only in normal animals did neutrophilic infiltration develop thereafter. Nonetheless, hyperreactivity postozone occurred and progressed similarly in both groups. Our results indicate that acute O/sub 3/-induced bronchial hyperreactivity at 2 h is associated with signs of airway mucosal injury but appears independent of granulocyte changes. Airway neutrophilic infiltration and eosinophil depletion seem to be consequences of mucosal injury from O/sub 3/ and not causes of the bronchial hyperreactivity that results.

  4. Radiological Management of Hemoptysis: A Comprehensive Review of Diagnostic Imaging and Bronchial Arterial Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, Joo-Young Morgan, Robert; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2010-04-15

    Hemoptysis can be a life-threatening respiratory emergency and indicates potentially serious underlying intrathoracic disease. Large-volume hemoptysis carries significant mortality and warrants urgent investigation and intervention. Initial assessment by chest radiography, bronchoscopy, and computed tomography (CT) is useful in localizing the bleeding site and identifying the underlying cause. Multidetector CT angiography is a relatively new imaging technique that allows delineation of abnormal bronchial and nonbronchial arteries using reformatted images in multiple projections, which can be used to guide therapeutic arterial embolization procedures. Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) is now considered to be the most effective procedure for the management of massive and recurrent hemoptysis, either as a first-line therapy or as an adjunct to elective surgery. It is a safe technique in the hands of an experienced operator with knowledge of bronchial artery anatomy and the potential pitfalls of the procedure. Recurrent bleeding is not uncommon, especially if there is progression of the underlying disease process. Prompt repeat embolization is advised in patients with recurrent hemoptysis in order to identify nonbronchial systemic and pulmonary arterial sources of bleeding. This article reviews the pathophysiology and causes of hemoptysis, diagnostic imaging and therapeutic options, and technique and outcomes of BAE.

  5. Clinical efficacy of two different samples of Shirishavaleha in Tamaka Shwasa (Bronchial Asthma).

    PubMed

    Yadav, Shyamlal Singh; Galib; Patgiri, Biswajyoti; Prajapati, Pradeep Kumar

    2012-04-01

    Incidences of Bronchial Asthma have been raised in recent decades due to increased industrialization and pollution. This miserable condition can be compared with Tamaka Shwasa in Ayurveda. Modern synthetic drugs will provide instant relief in these cases, but are tend to develop a number of adverse drug reactions. Knowing this, the current suffering population is looking towards few remedies from other systems of medicines, that are comparatively safe and provide better relief. Shirisha [Albizzia lebbeck Benth] is a drug with multi-dimensional activities emphasized in Ayurveda for different disease conditions. Considering this, two types of Shirishavaleha (confection of Shirisha) were prepared by Kwatha (decoction) of Twak (bark) and Sara (heartwood) of Shirisha to evaluate its comparative efficacy in Tamaka Shwasa (bronchial asthma). The results were assessed in terms of clinical recovery, symptomatic relief and pulmonary function improvement. A significant increase in Hb and considerable decrease in total eosinophil count, AEC and ESR were observed. The study revealed that Shirishavaleha can be used as an effective drug in bronchial asthma. PMID:23559799

  6. Increased polysomy of chromosome 7 in bronchial epithelium from patients at high risk for lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Belinsky, S.A.; Neft, R.E.; Lechner, J.F.

    1995-12-01

    Current models of carcinogenesis suggest that tissues progress through multiple genetic and epigenetic changes which ultimately lead to development of invasive cancer. Epidemiologic studies of Peto, R.R. and J.A. Doll indicate that the accumulation of these genetic changes over time, rather than any single unique genetic change, is probably responsible for development of the malignant phenotype. The bronchial epithelium of cigarette smokers is diffusely exposed to a broad spectrum of carcinogens, toxicants, and tumor promoters contained in tobacco smoke. This exposure increases the risk of developing multiple, independent premalignant foci throughout the lower respiratory tract that may contain independent gene aberrations. This {open_quotes}field cancerization{close_quotes} theory is supported by studies that have demonstrated progressive histologic changes distributed throughout the lower respiratory tract of smokers. A series of autopsy studies demonstrated that cigarette smokers exhibit premalignant histologic changes ranging from hyperplasia and metaplasia to severe dysplasia and carcinoma in situ diffusely throughout the bronchial mucosa. The proximal bronchi appear to exhibit the greatest number of changes, particularly at bifurcations. The results described are the first to quantitate the frequency for a chromosome aberration in {open_quotes}normal{close_quotes} bronchial epithelial cells.

  7. Bronchial artery ligation modifies pulmonary edema after exposure to smoke with acrolein.

    PubMed

    Hales, C A; Barkin, P; Jung, W; Quinn, D; Lamborghini, D; Burke, J

    1989-09-01

    Pulmonary edema can follow smoke inhalation and is believed to be due to the multiple chemical toxins in smoke, not the heat. We have developed a synthetic smoke composed of aerosolized charcoal particles to which one toxin at a time can be added to determine whether it produces pulmonary edema. Acrolein, a common component of smoke, when added to the synthetic smoke, produced a delayed-onset pulmonary edema in dogs in which the extravascular lung water (EVLW) as detected by a double-indicator technique began to rise after 42 +/- 2 (SE) min from 148 +/- 16 to 376 +/- 60 ml at 165 min after smoke exposure. The resulting pulmonary edema was widespread macroscopically but appeared focal microscopically with fibrin deposits in alveoli adjacent to small bronchi and bronchioles. Bronchial vessels were markedly dilated and congested. Monastral blue B when injected intravenously leaked into the walls of the bronchial vessels down to the region of the small bronchioles (less than or equal to 0.5 mm ID) of acrolein-smoke-exposed dogs but not into the pulmonary vessels. Furthermore, ligation of the bronchial arteries delayed the onset of pulmonary edema (87 +/- 3 min, P less than 0.05) and lessened the magnitude (232 +/- 30 ml, P less than 0.05) at 166 +/- 3 min after acrolein-smoke exposure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2793693

  8. IL-17RA Signaling in Airway Inflammation and Bronchial Hyperreactivity in Allergic Asthma.

    PubMed

    Willis, Cynthia R; Siegel, Lori; Leith, Anh; Mohn, Deanna; Escobar, Sabine; Wannberg, Sharon; Misura, Kira; Rickel, Erika; Rottman, James B; Comeau, Michael R; Sullivan, John K; Metz, Daniela P; Tocker, Joel; Budelsky, Alison L

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease characterized by airway inflammation and hyperreactivity. IL-17 receptor A (IL-17RA) is a shared receptor subunit required for activity of IL-17 family cytokines, including IL-17A and IL-25. IL-17A and IL-25 induce different proinflammatory responses, and concentrations are elevated in subjects with asthma. However, the individual contributions of IL-17A and IL-25 to disease pathogenesis are unclear. We explored proinflammatory activities of the IL-17 pathway in models of pulmonary inflammation and assessed its effects on contractility of human bronchial airway smooth muscle. In two mouse models, IL-17RA, IL-17RB, or IL-25 blockade reduced airway inflammation and airway hyperreactivity. Individually, IL-17A and IL-25 enhanced contractility of human bronchial smooth muscle induced by methacholine or carbachol. IL-17A had more pronounced effects on methacholine-induced contractility in bronchial rings from donors with asthma compared with donors without asthma. Blocking the IL-17 pathway via IL-17RA may be a useful therapy for some patients with asthma by reducing pulmonary inflammation and airway hyperreactivity. PMID:25919006

  9. Inhaled Steroids Modulate Extracellular Matrix Composition in Bronchial Biopsies of COPD Patients: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kunz, Lisette I. Z.; Strebus, Jolanda; Budulac, Simona E.; Lapperre, Therese S.; Sterk, Peter J.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Mauad, Thais; Timens, Wim; Hiemstra, Pieter S.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Smoking and inflammation contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which involves changes in extracellular matrix. This is thought to contribute to airway remodeling and airflow obstruction. We have previously observed that long-term treatment with inhaled corticosteroids can not only reduce bronchial inflammation, but can also attenuate lung function decline in moderate-severe COPD. We hypothesized that inhaled corticosteroids and current smoking modulate bronchial extracellular matrix components in COPD. Objective To compare major extracellular matrix components (elastic fibers; proteoglycans [versican, decorin]; collagens type I and III) in bronchial biopsies 1) after 30-months inhaled steroids treatment or placebo; and 2) between current and ex-smokers with COPD. Methods We included 64 moderate-severe, steroid-naive COPD patients (24/40 (ex)-smokers, 62±7 years, 46 (31–54) packyears, post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) 62±9% predicted) at baseline in this randomized, controlled trial. 19 and 13 patients received 30-months treatment with fluticasone or placebo, respectively. Bronchial biopsies collected at baseline and after 30 months were studied using (immuno)histochemistry to evaluate extracellular matrix content. Percentage and density of stained area were calculated by digital image analysis. Results 30-Months inhaled steroids increased the percentage stained area of versican (9.6% [CI 0.9 to 18.3%]; p = 0.03) and collagen III (20.6% [CI 3.8 to 37.4%]; p = 0.02) compared to placebo. Increased collagen I staining density correlated with increased post-bronchodilator FEV1 after inhaled steroids treatment (Rs = 0.45, p = 0.04). There were no differences between smokers and ex-smokers with COPD in percentages and densities for all extracellular matrix proteins. Conclusions These data show that long-term inhaled corticosteroids treatment partially changes the

  10. Current smoking-specific gene expression signature in normal bronchial epithelium is enhanced in squamous cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Boelens, Mirjam C; van den Berg, Anke; Fehrmann, Rudolf S N; Geerlings, Marie; de Jong, Wouter K; te Meerman, Gerard J; Sietsma, Hannie; Timens, Wim; Postma, Dirkje S; Groen, Harry J M

    2009-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor for the development of squamous cell lung carcinoma (SCC). However, the smoking-related molecular changes in SCC have not been studied. Gene expression studies in both histologically normal bronchial epithelium and SCC epithelial samples identified genes differentially expressed between current and ex-smokers. Subsequently, expression levels of the smoking-related genes in normal bronchial epithelium were compared with those in SCC cells, since we hypothesized that the smoking-induced changes would be also deregulated in SCC. Gene expression profiles were generated using Agilent whole human genome microarrays on laser-microdissected normal bronchial epithelium and SCC samples. Expression levels of 246 genes, mainly related to oxidative stress response, were significantly different between normal bronchial epithelium of current and ex-smokers. Such a differential gene expression profile did not exist in SCC cells of smokers and ex-smokers. Interestingly, when comparing SCC and normal bronchial epithelium from ex-smokers, the vast majority of these 246 genes were also deregulated in SCC. When comparing SCC with normal epithelium from smokers, 22% of the up-regulated genes showed a similar high expression in SCC whereas 79% of the down-regulated genes were even further reduced in SCC as compared to current smokers. The down-regulated genes included several tumour suppressor genes, such as C9orf9, INHBB, LRIG1, SCGB3A1, SERPINI2, STEAP3 and ZMYND10. Thus, our study shows that the majority of genes up-regulated in normal bronchial epithelium of current smokers show similar high expression levels in SCC, while down-regulated genes are even further repressed in SCC. Our data indicate that smoking-related changes in normal bronchial epithelial cells persist in malignant transformed squamous cells. PMID:19334046

  11. Effect of pre-cardiac and adult stages of Dirofilaria immitis in pulmonary disease of cats: CBC, bronchial lavage cytology, serology, radiographs, CT images, bronchial reactivity, and histopathology.

    PubMed

    Ray Dillon, A; Tillson, D M; Wooldridge, A; Cattley, R; Hathcock, J; Brawner, W R; Cole, R; Welles, B; Christopherson, P W; Lee-Fowler, T; Bordelon, S; Barney, S; Sermersheim, M; Garbarino, R; Wells, S Z; Diffie, E B; Schachner, E R

    2014-11-15

    A controlled, blind study was conducted to define the initial inflammatory response and lung damage associated with the death of precardiac stages of Dirofilaria immitis in cats as compared to adult heartworm infections and normal cats. Three groups of six cats each were used: UU: uninfected untreated controls; PreS I: infected with 100 D. immitis L3 by subcutaneous injection and treated topically with selamectin 32 and 2 days pre-infection and once monthly for 8 months); IU: infected with 100 D. immitis L3 and left untreated. Peripheral blood, serum, bronchial lavage, and thoracic radiographic images were collected from all cats on Days 0, 70, 110, 168, and 240. CT images were acquired on Days 0, 110, and 240. Cats were euthanized, and necropsies were conducted on Day 240 to determine the presence of heartworms. Bronchial rings were collected for in vitro reactivity. Lung, heart, brain, kidney, and liver tissues were collected for histopathology. Results were compared for changes within each group. Pearson and Spearman correlations were performed for association between histologic, radiographic, serologic, hematologic and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) results. Infected cats treated with selamectin did not develop radiographically evident changes throughout the study, were heartworm antibody negative, and were free of adult heartworms and worm fragments at necropsy. Histologic lung scores and CT analysis were not significantly different between PreS I cats and UU controls. Subtle alveolar myofibrosis was noted in isolated areas of several PreS I cats and an eosinophilic BAL cytology was noted on Days 75 and 120. Bronchial ring reactivity was blunted in IU cats but was normal in PreS I and UU cats. The IU cats became antibody positive, and five cats developed adult heartworms. All cats with heartworms were antigen positive at one time point; but one cat was antibody positive, antigen negative, with viable adult females at necropsy. The CT revealed early involvement

  12. The chemopreventive agent myoinositol inhibits Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase in bronchial lesions from heavy smokers.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; Gills, Joell J; Memmott, Regan M; Lam, Stephen; Dennis, Phillip A

    2009-04-01

    Myoinositol is an isomer of glucose that has chemopreventive activity in animal models of cancer. In a recent phase I clinical trial, myoinositol administration correlated with a statistically significant regression of preexisting bronchial dysplastic lesions in heavy smokers. To shed light on the potential mechanisms involved, activation of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), two kinases that control cellular proliferation and survival, was assessed in 206 paired bronchial biopsies from 21 patients who participated in this clinical trial. Before myoinositol treatment, strongly positive staining for activation of Akt was detected in 27% of hyperplastic/metaplastic lesions and 58% of dysplastic lesions (P = 0.05, chi(2) test). There was also a trend toward increased activation of ERK (28% in regions of hyperplasia/metaplasia to 42% of dysplastic lesions). Following myoinositol treatment, significant decreases in Akt and ERK phosphorylation were observed in dysplastic (P < 0.01 and 0.05, respectively) but not hyperplastic/metaplastic lesions (P > 0.05). In vitro, myoinositol decreased endogenous and tobacco carcinogen-induced activation of Akt and ERK in immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells, which decreased cell proliferation and induced a G(1)-S cell cycle arrest. These results show that the phenotypic progression of premalignant bronchial lesions from smokers correlates with increased activation of Akt and ERK and that these kinases are targets of myoinositol. Moreover, they suggest that myoinositol might cause regression of bronchial dysplastic lesions through inhibition of active Akt and ERK. PMID:19336734

  13. Correction of the F508del-CFTR protein processing defect in vitro by the investigational drug VX-809.

    PubMed

    Van Goor, Fredrick; Hadida, Sabine; Grootenhuis, Peter D J; Burton, Bill; Stack, Jeffrey H; Straley, Kimberly S; Decker, Caroline J; Miller, Mark; McCartney, Jason; Olson, Eric R; Wine, Jeffrey J; Frizzell, Ray A; Ashlock, Melissa; Negulescu, Paul A

    2011-11-15

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene that impair the function of CFTR, an epithelial chloride channel required for proper function of the lung, pancreas, and other organs. Most patients with CF carry the F508del CFTR mutation, which causes defective CFTR protein folding and processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, resulting in minimal amounts of CFTR at the cell surface. One strategy to treat these patients is to correct the processing of F508del-CFTR with small molecules. Here we describe the in vitro pharmacology of VX-809, a CFTR corrector that was advanced into clinical development for the treatment of CF. In cultured human bronchial epithelial cells isolated from patients with CF homozygous for F508del, VX-809 improved F508del-CFTR processing in the endoplasmic reticulum and enhanced chloride secretion to approximately 14% of non-CF human bronchial epithelial cells (EC(50), 81 ± 19 nM), a level associated with mild CF in patients with less disruptive CFTR mutations. F508del-CFTR corrected by VX-809 exhibited biochemical and functional characteristics similar to normal CFTR, including biochemical susceptibility to proteolysis, residence time in the plasma membrane, and single-channel open probability. VX-809 was more efficacious and selective for CFTR than previously reported CFTR correctors. VX-809 represents a class of CFTR corrector that specifically addresses the underlying processing defect in F508del-CFTR. PMID:21976485

  14. Correction of the F508del-CFTR protein processing defect in vitro by the investigational drug VX-809

    PubMed Central

    Van Goor, Fredrick; Hadida, Sabine; Grootenhuis, Peter D. J.; Burton, Bill; Stack, Jeffrey H.; Straley, Kimberly S.; Decker, Caroline J.; Miller, Mark; McCartney, Jason; Olson, Eric R.; Wine, Jeffrey J.; Frizzell, Ray A.; Ashlock, Melissa; Negulescu, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene that impair the function of CFTR, an epithelial chloride channel required for proper function of the lung, pancreas, and other organs. Most patients with CF carry the F508del CFTR mutation, which causes defective CFTR protein folding and processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, resulting in minimal amounts of CFTR at the cell surface. One strategy to treat these patients is to correct the processing of F508del-CFTR with small molecules. Here we describe the in vitro pharmacology of VX-809, a CFTR corrector that was advanced into clinical development for the treatment of CF. In cultured human bronchial epithelial cells isolated from patients with CF homozygous for F508del, VX-809 improved F508del-CFTR processing in the endoplasmic reticulum and enhanced chloride secretion to approximately 14% of non-CF human bronchial epithelial cells (EC50, 81 ± 19 nM), a level associated with mild CF in patients with less disruptive CFTR mutations. F508del-CFTR corrected by VX-809 exhibited biochemical and functional characteristics similar to normal CFTR, including biochemical susceptibility to proteolysis, residence time in the plasma membrane, and single-channel open probability. VX-809 was more efficacious and selective for CFTR than previously reported CFTR correctors. VX-809 represents a class of CFTR corrector that specifically addresses the underlying processing defect in F508del-CFTR. PMID:21976485

  15. Senescent bronchial fibroblasts induced to senescence by Cr(VI) promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition when co-cultured with bronchial epithelial cells in the presence of Cr(VI).

    PubMed

    Val, Mariana Monteiro; Mendes, Luís André; Alarcão, Ana; Carvalho, Lina; Carreira, Isabel; Rodrigues, Carlos Fernando D; Alpoim, Maria Carmen

    2015-03-01

    Cellular senescence is a physiological process that serves as a powerful barrier for tumorigenesis. However, senescent cells can be deleterious for the tissue microenvironment. Such is the case of senescent fibroblasts that release several pro-tumorigenic factors that promote malignant transformation in the nearby epithelial cells. Occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] compounds is a cause of respiratory cancers. Although Cr(VI) is known to induce senescence in human foreskin fibroblasts, the role of senescent fibroblasts in the Cr(VI)-induced malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells was never assessed. Thus, to study the evolutionary dynamics generated by the interaction between human bronchial epithelial cells and senescent bronchial fibroblasts, the non-tumorigenic human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells were co-cultured with Cr(VI)-induced senescent human bronchial fibroblasts for 4 weeks. Under the pressure of 0.5 µM Cr(VI), senescent fibroblasts promoted the acquisition of mesenchymal features on BEAS-2B cells, e.g. the fusiform shape and increased Vimentin expression, consistent with the occurrence of an epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like process. Features of transformed cells including larger nuclei, as well as nuclei with heterogeneous size, were also observed. Altogether the results obtained demonstrate that besides acting over the epithelium, Cr(VI) also affects bronchial fibroblasts driving them senescent. As a consequence, a paracrine communication loop is established with the above-placed epithelium prompting the epithelial cells for malignant transformation and thus facilitating the initial steps of tumorigenesis. PMID:25406472

  16. Maximum Time of the Effect of Antileukotriene - Zileuton in Treatment of Patients with Bronchial Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Morina, Naim; Boçari, Gëzim; Iljazi, Ali; Hyseini, Kadir; Halac, Gunay

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Maximum time of the effect of antileukotriene substances - Zileuton in the treatment of patients with bronchial asthma and increased bronchial reactivity and of the salbutamol as agonist of the beta2 adrenergic receptor studied in this work. Methods: Parameters of the lung function are determined with Body plethysmography. Raw and ITGV were registered and specific resistance (SRaw) was calculated. Zileuton (Zyflo, tbl. 600 mg), producer Cornerstone Therapeutics, USA was used in the research. Results: Results of this research, in patients with bronchial asthma, indicate that antileukotriene substances–Zileuton administered in a dose of 600 mg first day (oral route of administration 4 × 1 tbl.) has not caused significant decrease of the specific resistance of the airways (SRaw) (p value 0.1 > Alpha 0.05), whereas Zileuton administered two days in a row, in a dose of 600 mg (4 × 1 tbl. a day), has caused significant decrease of the specific resistance of the airways (SRaw) (P value 0.03 < Alpha 0.05). Effect of the control with salbutamol (beta2-adrenergic receptor agonist) is efficient in the removal of the increased bronchomotor tone, causing significant decrease of the resistance (Raw), respectively of the specific resistance (SRaw), (p value 0.05 = Alpha 0.05). Conclusion: Formation of leukotrienes depends on the lypoxygenation of the arachidonic acid by 5-lypoxygenase. Zileuton is an active and powerful inhibitor of the activity of 5- lypoxygenase and as such inhibits generation of its products. Consequently, besides inhibition of cys-LTs’, zileuton also inhibits the formation of leukotriene B4 (LTB4), which is a powerful chemotactic of other eicosanoids too, which depend on the synthesis of lekotriene A4 (LTA4). This suggests that the effect of antileukotrienes (Zileuton) is not immediate after oral administration, but the powerful effect of the Zileuton seen only after two days of inhibition of cys-LTs’, and inhibition of leukotriene B4 (LTB4

  17. Low molecular weight components of pollen alter bronchial epithelial barrier functions

    PubMed Central

    Blume, Cornelia; Swindle, Emily J; Gilles, Stefanie; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Davies, Donna E

    2015-01-01

    The bronchial epithelium plays a key role in providing a protective barrier against many environmental substances of anthropogenic or natural origin which enter the lungs during breathing. Appropriate responses to these agents are critical for regulation of tissue homeostasis, while inappropriate responses may contribute to disease pathogenesis. Here, we compared epithelial barrier responses to different pollen species, characterized the active pollen components and the signaling pathways leading to epithelial activation. Polarized bronchial cells were exposed to extracts of timothy grass (Phleum pratense), ragweed (Ambrosia artemisifolia), mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris), birch (Betula alba) and pine (Pinus sylvestris) pollens. All pollen species caused a decrease in ionic permeability as monitored trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TER) and induced polarized release of mediators analyzed by ELISA, with grass pollen showing the highest activity. Ultrafiltration showed that the responses were due to components <3kDa. However, lipid mediators, including phytoprostane E1, had no effect on TER, and caused only modest induction of mediator release. Reverse-phase chromatography separated 2 active fractions: the most hydrophilic maximally affected cytokine release whereas the other only affected TER. Inhibitor studies revealed that JNK played a more dominant role in regulation of barrier permeability in response to grass pollen exposure, whereas ERK and p38 controlled cytokine release. Adenosine and the flavonoid isorhamnetin present in grass pollen contributed to the overall effect on airway epithelial barrier responses. In conclusion, bronchial epithelial barrier functions are differentially affected by several low molecular weight components released by pollen. Furthermore, ionic permeability and innate cytokine production are differentially regulated. PMID:26451347

  18. [Bronchial asthma: clinico-pathological study of fatalities in intensive care units].

    PubMed

    Rabell, S; Piera, O M; Abdo, A; Sotolongo, R

    1975-01-01

    Due to the great amount of asthmatic patients presenting complications which could endanger their lives, a revision of the possible threatening factors is carried out. The factors concurring with the base pathologic mechanism are analyzed and it is demonstrated, that some of these factors intervene independently from bronchial asthma. The study is carried out on the basis of age, sex, hospital stay duration, clinical picture, blood gases analysis, complications and pathology findings: 1) Most of the deceased patients presented various pathologies besides bronchial asthma which contributed to the decease. 2) The physician should be alert in order to establish good therapeutic procedure in these patients which could carry other important complications; these complications are responsible for the fatal outcome in a great number of patients. A complication should always be searched for, e.g. pneumothorax. 3) The vast majority of patients who passed away in status were relatively young. 4) A female predominance was found. 5) All patients before entering our Center, presented asthma crisis at least three days prior to admission. 6) The predominant hospital stay duration was 24 hours. 7) The most common pathologic findings were: pulmonary fibroemphysema, acute bronchopneumonia, bronchial mucoid plugging, atelectasia and cerebral edema. 8) Cerebral edema and compression of the amygdale were common brain pathologic findings. 9) Bronchopneumonia was a common necropsy finding. 10) Based on these findings, ICU treatment is extremely important. 11) The critical status of the patient in the moment of admission, is due to the delay in bringing him to the hospital for proper medical surveyance. This justifies the interest of the Public Health Department in ample distribution of proper information to the asthmatic patients. PMID:1155315

  19. Development of a Bronchial Wall Model: Triple Culture on a Decellularized Porcine Trachea.

    PubMed

    Melo, Esther; Kasper, Jennifer Y; Unger, Ronald E; Farré, Ramon; Kirkpatrick, Charles James

    2015-09-01

    In vitro coculture models mimicking the bronchial barrier are a significant step forward in investigating the behavior and function of the upper respiratory tract mucosa. To date, mostly synthetic materials have been used as substrates to culture the cells. However, decellularized tissues provide a more in vivo-like environment based on the native extracellular matrix. In this study, an in vitro, bronchial wall coculture model has been established using a decellularized, porcine luminal trachea membrane and employing three relevant human cell types. The tissue was decellularized and placed in plastic transwell supports. The human bronchial epithelial cell line, 16HBE14o-, was seeded on the apical side of the membrane with the human lung fibroblast cell line, Wi-38, and/or the microvascular endothelial cell line, ISO-HAS-1, seeded on the basolateral side. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) was measured over 10 days and tight/adherens junctions (ZO-1, occludin/β-catenin) were studied through immunofluorescence. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed to evaluate microvilli and cilia formation. All cultures grew successfully on the membrane. TER values of 555 Ω·cm(2) (±21, SEM) were achieved in the monoculture. Cocultures with fibroblasts reached 565 Ω·cm(2) (±41, SEM), with endothelial cells at 638 Ω·cm(2) (±37, SEM), and the triple culture achieved 552 Ω·cm(2) (±38, SEM). ZO-1, occludin, and β-catenin were expressed in 16HBE14o- under all culture conditions. Using SEM, a dense microvilli population was found. Prominent cell-cell contacts and clusters of emerging cilia could be identified. Fibroblasts and endothelial cells strengthened the formation of a tight barrier by the 16HBE14o-. Thus, the coculture of three relevant cell types in combination with native decellularized scaffolds as a substrate approaches more closely the in vivo situation and could be used to study mechanisms of upper respiratory damage and regeneration. PMID

  20. [Application of model 4650 type I compressor atomizer in bronchial challenge test].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Y; Wang, Y; Zeng, J; He, T

    2000-06-01

    This study was directed to the feasibility of applying a simple atomizer-model 4650 type I (abbrev. M)-to bronchial challenge test. 92 cases of asthma were divided into 3 groups randomly. All of them were subjected to the bronchial challenge test by M atomizer, and by standard Dosimeter atomizer (abbrev. D) as a comparison. In the test by M atomizer, the times for inspiring challenging medicine were 1, 1.5 and 2 minutes for the 3 groups respectively, while the time for D atomizer was 1 minute for all. The results showed no significant differences (P > 0.2-0.5) between the two atomizers in the 3 groups, their values were linear correlated. When the inspiring time was 1 minute for both M and D, the test needed a higher concentration of challenging medicine for M than for D, their coefficient of correlation (r = 0.285) was relatively low. When inspiring time postponed to 1.5 minute for M, the difference in medicine concentration between M and D was smallest (-0.075 g/L), r = 0.665. However, a further postponed inspiring time to 2 minute for M reversely broadened their difference. These results indicated that the efficiency of M atomizer was a little lower than that of D, postponing the inspiring time for M could make up this weakness. A 1.5 minute inspiring time for M atomizer was the suggestion. Some modifications on M atomizer were done by us for a better efficiency, and the cheap and popular M atomizer could be a good replacement in bronchial challenge test. PMID:12515156

  1. Treatment of Recurrent Bronchial Carcinoma: The Role of High-Dose-Rate Endoluminal Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hauswald, Henrik; Stoiber, Eva; Rochet, Nathalie; Lindel, Katja; Grehn, Christian; Becker, Heinrich D.; Debus, Juergen; Harms, Wolfgang

    2010-06-01

    Purpose: This study's aim was to assess outcome and toxicity of high-dose-rate endoluminal brachytherapy (HDREB) for recurrent bronchial carcinoma. Methods and Materials: From 1987 to 2005, 41 patients were treated with HDREB for symptomatic recurrent bronchial carcinoma. All patients had previously undergone external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) with a median dose of 56 Gy (range, 30-70 Gy). The median HDREB dose applied was 15 Gy (range, 5-29 Gy). The median time interval between primary EBRT and reirradiation was 9 months (range, 2-54 months). Results: After a median follow-up of 6.7 months, the 6-, 12-, and 24-month overall survival rates were 58%, 18%, and 7%, respectively. The median overall survival time was 6.7 months. Local remission was achieved in 73% of patients (n = 30). A total of 24% of patients (n = 10) showed no response or progressive disease within 8 weeks after treatment. In 1 patient, treatment response was not documented. The 6-, 12-, and 24-month local control rates were 38%, 17%, and 3%, respectively. The median local progression-free survival time was 4 months (range, 1-23 months). Prognostic factors were a total dose of >=15 Gy of HDREB (p = 0.029) and a Karnofsky performance score of >=80% (p = 0.0012). The cause of death was locoregional progression in 27% of patients (n = 11), distant metastases in 24% of patients (n = 10), fatal hemorrhage in 15% of patients (n = 6), and other causes in 29% of patients (n = 12). None of the patients with locally controlled disease showed grade 3 or 4 late effects. Conclusions: Palliative treatment of symptomatic, locally recurrent bronchial carcinoma with HDREB can effectively relieve symptoms in the majority of patients while causing only few complications. Still, time to progression is short.

  2. Importance of fractional exhaled nitric oxide in diagnosis of bronchiectasis accompanied with bronchial asthma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Feng-Jia; Liao, Huai; Huang, Xin-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Background Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measurement is a simple, rapid, highly reproducible, and noninvasive method of airway inflammation assessment. Therefore, FeNO is extensively used for the diagnosis and management of asthma. The feasibility of using FeNO as an alternative to conventional pulmonary function test to differentiate patients with bronchiectasis (BE) and bronchial asthma from those with BE only remains unclear. Methods From February 2013 to February 2015, 99 patients diagnosed with BE through high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) were subjected to FeNO measurement, bronchial challenge test (BCT), or bronchodilator test. Bronchial hyperreactivity and/or reversible airway obstruction was used to define asthma. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were obtained to elucidate the clinical functions of FeNO in the diagnosis of asthmatic patients with BE, and the optimal operating point was also determined. Results Of 99 patients with BE, 20 patients presented asthma, and 12 of these patients received regular treatment, which were given with budesonide (200 µg, bid) for 12 weeks to evaluate changes in the concentration and assess the role of FeNO in the treatment. The area under the ROC curve was estimated as 0.832 for FeNO. Results also revealed a cut off value of >22.5 part per billion (ppb) FeNO for differentiating asthmatic from non-asthmatic (sensitivity, 90.0%; specificity, 62.5%) patients with BE. FeNO and forced expiratory volume for 1 second significantly improved after the treatment. Conclusions Clinical FeNO measurement is a simple, noninvasive, and rapid method used to differentiate asthmatic from nonasthmatic patients with BE. This technique exhibits potential for asthma management. PMID:27162676

  3. Inhibitory effect of hydrogen sulfide on ozone-induced airway inflammation, oxidative stress, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengyu; Li, Feng; Wiegman, Coen H; Zhang, Min; Hong, Yan; Gong, Jicheng; Chang, Yan; Zhang, Junfeng Jim; Adcock, Ian; Chung, Kian Fan; Zhou, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to ozone has been associated with airway inflammation, oxidative stress, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. The goal of this study was to examine whether these adverse effects of ozone could be prevented or reversed by hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as a reducing agent. The H2S donor sodium (NaHS) (2 mg/kg) or vehicle (PBS) was intraperitoneally injected into mice 1 hour before and after 3-hour ozone (2.5 ppm) or air exposure, and the mice were studied 24 hours later. Preventive and therapeutic treatment with NaHS reduced the ozone-induced increases in the total cells, including neutrophils and macrophages; this treatment also reduced levels of cytokines, including TNF-α, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1, IL-6, and IL-1β levels in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid; inhibited bronchial hyperresponsiveness; and attenuated ozone-induced increases in total malondialdehyde in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and decreases in the ratio of reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione in the lung. Ozone exposure led to decreases in the H2S production rate and in mRNA and protein levels of cystathionine-β-synthetase and cystathionine-γ-lyase in the lung. These effects were prevented and reversed by NaHS treatment. Furthermore, NaHS prevented and reversed the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and heat shock protein 27. H2S may have preventive and therapeutic value in the treatment of airway diseases that have an oxidative stress basis. PMID:25010831

  4. Biological activity of celecoxib in the bronchial epithelium of current and former smokers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Edward S; Hong, Waun K; Lee, J Jack; Mao, Li; Morice, Rodolfo C; Liu, Diane D; Jimenez, Carlos A; Eapen, Georgie A; Lotan, Reuben; Tang, Ximing; Newman, Robert A; Wistuba, Ignacio I; Kurie, Jonathan M

    2010-02-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer is the primary cause of cancer-related death in Western countries. One important approach taken to address this problem is the development of effective chemoprevention strategies. In this study, we examined whether the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib, as evidenced by decreased cell proliferation, is biologically active in the bronchial epithelium of current and former smokers. Current or former smokers with at least a 20 pack-year (pack-year = number of packs of cigarettes per day times number of years smoked) smoking history were randomized into one of four treatment arms (3-month intervals of celecoxib then placebo, celecoxib then celecoxib, placebo then celecoxib, or placebo then placebo) and underwent bronchoscopies with biopsies at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. The 204 patients were primarily (79.4%) current smokers: 81 received either low-dose celecoxib or placebo and 123 received either high-dose celecoxib or placebo. Celecoxib was originally administered orally at 200 mg twice daily and the protocol subsequently increased the dose to 400 mg twice daily. The primary end point was change in Ki-67 labeling (from baseline to 3 months) in bronchial epithelium. No cardiac toxicities were observed in the participants. Although the effect of low-dose treatment was not significant, high-dose celecoxib decreased Ki-67 labeling by 3.85% in former smokers and by 1.10% in current smokers-a significantly greater reduction (P = 0.02) than that seen with placebo after adjusting for metaplasia and smoking status. A 3- to 6-month celecoxib regimen proved safe to administer. Celecoxib (400 mg twice daily) was biologically active in the bronchial epithelium of current and former smokers; additional studies on the efficacy of celecoxib in non-small cell lung cancer chemoprevention may be warranted. PMID:20103722

  5. Acquired symptomatic bronchial stenosis in infants: successful management using an argon laser.

    PubMed

    Azizkhan, R G; Lacey, S R; Wood, R E

    1990-01-01

    Acquired bronchial stenosis following prolonged endotracheal intubation is uncommon, but in infants it is associated with significant morbidity. A variety of endobronchial techniques including forceps or cautery resection and balloon dilatation have been used with inconsistent results. Laser therapy seems attractive, but pediatric applications have been very limited. We report the first series of infants with life-threatening acquired bronchial stenosis treated with an argon laser. Eight infants, age 3 weeks to 2 years, presented with symptomatic bronchial obstruction following prolonged intubation. Seven of these patients had at least 90% obstruction of a lobar or mainstem bronchus. Under general anesthesia a 300 or 600 micron quartz laser fiber was passed through the suction channel of a 3.5-mm flexible or 3-mm rigid bronchoscope. The laser was operated at 2.5 to 3.5 W in 0.5-second pulses, to ablate the obstructing tissue. Multiple procedures, spaced no closer than 10 days, were required in three of eight infants. Follow-up bronchoscopy after 2 to 30 months revealed normal findings in five of eight infants. All but one child, who has persistent collapse of the bronchus intermedius due to bronchomalacia at the site of the obstruction, had satisfactory results. The only complication was a pneumothorax in a 1,300 g infant, which developed eight hours after treatment. Our experience suggests that the argon laser is effective in the management of endobronchial lesions in infants and is superior to the CO2 and Neo-dymium-yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd-YAG) lasers for this purpose.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2299542

  6. Modulation of bronchial epithelial cell barrier function by in vitro jet propulsion fuel 8 exposure.

    PubMed

    Robledo, R F; Barber, D S; Witten, M L

    1999-09-01

    The loss of epithelial barrier integrity in bronchial and bronchiolar airways may be an initiating factor in the observed onset of toxicant-induced lung injuries. Acute 1-h inhalation exposures to aerosolized jet propulsion fuel 8 (JP-8) have been shown to induce cellular and morphological indications of pulmonary toxicity that was associated with increased respiratory permeability to 99mTc-DTPA. To address the hypothesis that JP-8 jet fuel-induced lung injury is initiated through a disruption in the airway epithelial barrier function, paracellular mannitol flux of BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells was measured. Incubation of confluent cell cultures with non-cytotoxic concentrations of JP-8 or n-tetradecane (C14), a primary constituent of JP-8, for a 1-h exposure period resulted in dose-dependent increases of paracellular flux. Following exposures of 0.17, 0.33, 0.50, or 0.67 mg/ml, mannitol flux increased above vehicle controls by 10, 14, 29, and 52%, respectively, during a 2-h incubation period immediately after each JP-8 exposure. C14 caused greater mannitol flux increases of 37, 42, 63, and 78%, respectively, following identical exposure conditions. The effect on transepithelial mannitol flux reached a maximum at 12 h and spontaneously reversed to control values over a 48-h recovery period, for both JP-8 and C14 exposure. These data indicate that non-cytotoxic exposures to JP-8 or C14 exert a noxious effect on bronchial epithelial barrier function that may preclude pathological lung injury. PMID:10496683

  7. Transforming Growth Factor-β2 Induces Bronchial Epithelial Mucin Expression in Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Hong Wei; Balzar, Silvana; Seedorf, Gregory J.; Westcott, Jay Y.; Trudeau, John B.; Silkoff, Phil; Wenzel, Sally E.

    2004-01-01

    The transforming growth factor (TGF)-β family is important for tissue repair in pathological conditions including asthma. However, little is known about the impact of either TGF-β1 or TGF-β2 on asthmatic airway epithelial mucin expression. We evaluated bronchial epithelial TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 expression and their effects on mucin expression, and the role of TGF-β1 or TGF-β2 in interleukin (IL)-13-induced mucin expression. Epithelial TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and mucin expression were evaluated in endobronchial biopsies from asthmatics and normal subjects. The effects of TGF-β1 or TGF-β2 on mucin MUC5AC protein and mRNA expression, and the impact of IL-13 on epithelial TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and MUC5AC were determined in cultured bronchial epithelial cells from endobronchial brushings of both subject groups. In biopsy tissue, epithelial TGF-β2 expression levels were higher than TGF-β1 in both asthmatics and normals. TGF-β2, but not TGF-β1, was increased in asthmatics compared with normals, and significantly correlated with mucin expression. TGF-β2, but not TGF-β1, increased mucin expression in cultured epithelial cells from both subject groups. IL-13 increased the release of TGF-β2, but not TGF-β1, from epithelial cells. A neutralizing TGF-β2 antibody partially inhibited IL-13-induced mucin expression. These data suggest that TGF-β2 production by asthmatic bronchial epithelial cells may increase airway mucin expression. IL-13-induced mucin expression may occur in part through TGF-β2 up-regulation. PMID:15466377

  8. Transforming growth factor-beta2 induces bronchial epithelial mucin expression in asthma.

    PubMed

    Chu, Hong Wei; Balzar, Silvana; Seedorf, Gregory J; Westcott, Jay Y; Trudeau, John B; Silkoff, Phil; Wenzel, Sally E

    2004-10-01

    The transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta family is important for tissue repair in pathological conditions including asthma. However, little is known about the impact of either TGF-beta1 or TGF-beta2 on asthmatic airway epithelial mucin expression. We evaluated bronchial epithelial TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta2 expression and their effects on mucin expression, and the role of TGF-beta1 or TGF-beta2 in interleukin (IL)-13-induced mucin expression. Epithelial TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, and mucin expression were evaluated in endobronchial biopsies from asthmatics and normal subjects. The effects of TGF-beta1 or TGF-beta2 on mucin MUC5AC protein and mRNA expression, and the impact of IL-13 on epithelial TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, and MUC5AC were determined in cultured bronchial epithelial cells from endobronchial brushings of both subject groups. In biopsy tissue, epithelial TGF-beta2 expression levels were higher than TGF-beta1 in both asthmatics and normals. TGF-beta2, but not TGF-beta1, was increased in asthmatics compared with normals, and significantly correlated with mucin expression. TGF-beta2, but not TGF-beta1, increased mucin expression in cultured epithelial cells from both subject groups. IL-13 increased the release of TGF-beta2, but not TGF-beta1, from epithelial cells. A neutralizing TGF-beta2 antibody partially inhibited IL-13-induced mucin expression. These data suggest that TGF-beta2 production by asthmatic bronchial epithelial cells may increase airway mucin expression. IL-13-induced mucin expression may occur in part through TGF-beta2 up-regulation. PMID:15466377

  9. Blood Level of Polymorphonuclear Neutrophil Leukocytes and Bronchial Hyperreactivity in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cukic, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMNL) have an important defensive role against various microorganisms and other agents, but by liberating various substances, first of all the superoxide anion (O 2¯), they can damage the bronchial mucosa and influence the development of bronchial inflammation which is the fundamental of bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR). Objective: to show the role of the PMNL for development and level of BHR in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Material and methods: We observed 160 patients with COPD treated in Clinic for Pulmonary Diseases and TB “Podhrastovi” Sarajevo during three years :from 2012 to 2014. They were divided into groups and subgroups according to the first registration of BHR in the course of illness and to the number of exacerbations of the disease in one year. The number of blood PMNL was measured in a stable state of disease at the begging and at the end of investigation. Results: The number of blood PMNL was significantly greater in patients with 3 or more exacerbations per one year (p <0.01). Patients with BHR had significantly greater number blood PMNL than patients without BHR (p< 0.05). Patients with 3 exacerbations per year had a statistically significant increase of number of PMNL between first and last examination (p<0.01). Conclusion: There is statistically significant correlation between the number of blood PMNL and the level of BHR in COPD, but future examination need to be done to determine real role and mode of action of PMNL for these processes. PMID:26543311

  10. Morphine compromises bronchial epithelial TLR2/IL17R signaling crosstalk, necessary for lung IL17 homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Santanu; Ninkovic, Jana; Meng, Jingjing; Sharma, Umakant; Ma, Jing; Charboneau, Richard; Roy, Sabita

    2015-01-01

    Opportunistic lung infection and inflammation is a hallmark of chronic recreational/clinical use of morphine. We show that early induction of IL17 from the bronchial epithelium, following pathogenic encounter is a protective response, which contributes to pathogenic clearance and currently attributed to TLR2 activation in immune cells. Concurrent activation of TLR2 and IL17R in bronchial epithelium results in the sequestration of MyD88 (TLR2 adapter) by Act1/CIKS (IL17R adapter), thereby turning off TLR2 signaling to restore homeostasis. Morphine inhibits the early IL17 release and interaction between Act1 and MyD88, leading to decreased pathogenic clearance and sustained inflammation. Hence, we propose that therapeutically targeting either TLR2 or IL17 in bronchial epithelia, in the context of morphine, can restore inflammatory homeostasis. PMID:26072707

  11. [The effect of diet therapy on the hormonal spectrum of patients with bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Chernyshova, T E; Vakhrushev, Ia M; Bydanov, V A; Petrova, R I; Morozova, L E

    1990-01-01

    Results are reported of an investigation of the levels of cortisol, pancreatic and thyroid hormones in 38 patients with the infectious-allergic form of bronchial asthma. Unloading dietotherapy was accompanied by an improvement of the clinical course of the disease, reduction of necessity in broncholytic and hormonal agents. During the unloading dietotherapy period some variants of hormonal response to hunger were revealed. Patients with a severe course of the acidotic crisis revealed a reduction of the insulin level, changes in the cortisol dynamics, T4, a tendency to an increase of T3 in the blood. PMID:2330711

  12. Y90-Radioembolization of Lung Metastases via the Bronchial Artery: A Report of 2 Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Ricke, Jens Grosser, Oliver; Amthauer, Holger

    2013-12-15

    We report successful Y90-radioembolization of the lung applying Y90-resin microspheres via the bronchial artery in two patients with diffuse colorectal and renal cancer metastases, respectively. The deposition of radioactive Y90-resin-microspheres was technically feasible and resulted in a reasonable absorbed dose in the tumors. However, open questions remain regarding dosimetry and safe dose exposure to the lung. The technique warrants thorough investigation before clinical use. A Phase I trial to evaluate safety and preliminary efficacy is under preparation.

  13. Photodynamic therapy for bronchial carcinoid tumours: complete response over a 10-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Moghissi, Keyvan; Dixon, Kate; Gibbins, Sally

    2013-06-01

    A 63-year old woman diagnosed in September 2001 with a typical bronchial carcinoid of the left upper lobe bronchus extending into the left main stem bronchus is presented. The patient was unsuitable for standard surgical treatment, and the topography was not amenable for a parenchyma-saving bronchoplastic procedure. Two cycles of bronchoscopic photodynamic therapy (PDT) were undertaken at 6 monthly intervals. The patient has now been followed up regularly for over 10 years without signs of recurrence bronchoscopically or radiologically. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a carcinoid tumour treated solely by PDT. PMID:23284100

  14. Continuity of airway goblet cells and intraluminal mucus in the airways of patients with bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Shimura, S; Andoh, Y; Haraguchi, M; Shirato, K

    1996-07-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of the formation of the widespread mucous-plugging observed in autopsied lungs from patients with bronchial asthma. We performed morphometric analysis of airways of autopsied lungs from eight patients with bronchial asthma (Group BA), and compared it with those of six chronic bronchitics (Group CB) and four control patients (Control). The following parameters were measured in paraffin sections: volume proportion of bronchial glands to bronchial wall (Gland%); goblet cell granules to total epithelial layer (Goblet %); intraluminal mucus expressed as the mucus occupying ratio (MOR); volume ratio of intraluminal mucus continuous with goblet cells to total intraluminal mucus (Vc/Vtol %); and surface ratio of the contact surface of intraluminal mucus continuous with goblet cells to the total luminal surface (Sc/Stot %). Gland%, Goblet %, and MOR or inflammatory cell numbers in the airway walls both from Group BA and CB were larger than those from the Control group. However, no significant differences were observed between Group BA and CB in Gland%, Goblet %, MOR or inflammatory cell numbers, except for the eosinophil number: i.e. 23 +/- 3, 22 +/- 3 and 6 +/- 2% in Gland%; 22 +/- 9, 5 +/- 4 and 2 +/- 2% in Goblet%; 10 +/- 3, 18 +/- 3 and 0.3 +/- 0.5% in MOR; 199 +/- 68, 10 +/- 3 and 2 +/- 2 cells. mm-2 in eosinophil number of the peripheral airways from Groups BA, CB and Control, respectively. In contrast, marked and significant increases were observed both in Vc/Vtot% and Sc/Stot% in Group BA compared to Groups CB and Control both in central and peripheral airways: i.e. Vc/Vtot% in the peripheral airways was 53 +/- 5, 4 +/- 3 and 0.8 +/- 0.8% from Groups BA, CB and Control, respectively (BA vs CB or BA vs Control, p < 0.01 each). These findings suggest that the continuity of goblet cells and intraluminal mucus or lack of full release of mucus, from goblet cells, is peculiar to asthmatic airways, and may contribute to

  15. [Pulmonary autoantibodies in bronchial asthma patients undergoing cave and climate therapy in Bystrá].

    PubMed

    Pasková, S; Kolesár, J; Siposová, E

    1976-01-01

    Pulmonary autoantibodies were determined by us in the sera of 37 patients who underwent a 6-week speleo- and climatotherapy in the cave of Bystrá. The titres found in both groups of patients showed no difference. Global evaluation revealed a high incidence of pulmonary autoantibodies. We saw a direct relationship between the titre and the degree of severity of the disease or the clinical condition. The demonstration of circulating pulmonary autoantibodies in bronchial asthma is possibly not only of diagnostic value but also of prognostic importance. PMID:135497

  16. Response of the Adrenergic System After Provoked Bronchoconstriction in Patients with Bronchial Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Islami, Hilmi; Ilazi, Ali; Gashi, Nijazi; Mustafa, Lirim; Maloku, Halit; Jashanica, Adelina

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In this paper, effect of the Tolazoline as antagonist of the alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in patients with bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive bronchitis was studied, and also the effect of stimulation with Hexoprenaline of beta-2 adrenergic receptor after bronchi-constriction caused with Propranolol, and Acetylcholine. Methods: Lung function parameters are determined with Body plethysmography. In patients with bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive bronchitis was registered resistance (Raw), was determined the amount of intrathoracic gas volume (ITGV), and specific resistance was calculated as well (SRaw). Aerosolization was done with standard aerosolizing machine-Asema. Results: The study included a total of 21 patients. Two hours after the inhalation of Propranolol, in experimental group, it was applied the blocker of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors (Tolazoline 20 mg / ml with inhalator ways), which did not cause changes in bronchomotor tonus of tracheobronchial system (p > 1.0). Meanwhile, at the same patient, stimulation of beta-2 adrenergic receptor with Hexoprenaline (2 inh x 0.2 mg) is associated with a significant decrease of the specific resistance of airways (SRaw, p < 0.01). Control group results show that after bronchi-constriction caused by Propranolol-aerosol (20 mg / ml) in patients with bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive bronchitis, an increase of specific resistance in airways was caused (SRaw, p < 0.01), which confirms the presence of hyper-reactive bronco-constrictor effects intermediated by vagal ways. Two hours after Propranolol, inhaled Hexorenaline has blocked the action of Propranolol, but not entirely. Furthermore, two hours after acetylcholine-aerosol (1 mg /ml) was applied, inhaled Ipratropium (2 inh x 1 mg) has fully blocked the action of chemical bronchoconstrictor mediators, causing a decline of specific resistance in the airways (SRaw; p < 0.01). Conclusion: This suggests that primary mechanism, which would cause

  17. Inflammatory Pattern of the Bronchial Mucosa in Patients with Asthma with Airway Hyperresponsiveness to Hypoosmotic Stimulus.

    PubMed

    Pirogov, A B; Prikhod'ko, A G; Perelman, Yu M; Zinovyev, S V; Afanasyeva, E Yu; Kolosov, V P

    2016-08-01

    Positive reaction of the bronchi to distilled water inhalation in asthmatics is associated with significant stimulation of the respiratory epithelium desquamation against the background of increased content of eosinophilic and neutrophilic leukocytes in induced sputum, predomination of eosinophil and neutrophil cytolysis, and lower activity of myeloperoxidase in leukocyte granules (in comparison with the parameter in patients with a negative response to bronchostimulation). Enhanced cytolysis and destruction of leukocytes and high myeloperoxidase concentration in the extracellular space are essential for the development of bronchial hyperresponsiveness to hypoosmotic stimulus in asthma. PMID:27591875

  18. [Allergen-free wards in the treatment of pollinoses and bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Poroshina, Iu A; Basmanov, P M; Gubankova, S G; Ivanov, Iu N; Belostotskaia, O I

    1986-01-01

    Two allergen-free wards (AFW) fitted out with Academician I. V. Petryanov's filters have been in operation in the Department of General Allergy of the Institute of Immunology, USSR Ministry of Health, since 1981. A high AFW efficacy was shown during treatment without drugs of pollinosis patients with grave manifestations in the pollination season and patients with atopic bronchial asthma outside the season of plant pollination. Since 1981 treatment in AFW has been provided to 232 patients, of them in 104 with a good effect in the season of plant pollination. PMID:3715757

  19. Interaction between gas cooking and GSTM1 null genotype in bronchial responsiveness: results from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Amaral, André F S; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Castro-Giner, Francesc; Minelli, Cosetta; Accordini, Simone; Sørheim, Inga-Cecilie; Pin, Isabelle; Kogevinas, Manolis; Jõgi, Rain; Balding, David J; Norbäck, Dan; Verlato, Giuseppe; Olivieri, Mario; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Janson, Christer; Zock, Jan-Paul; Heinrich, Joachim; Jarvis, Deborah L

    2014-01-01

    Background Increased bronchial responsiveness is characteristic of asthma. Gas cooking, which is a major indoor source of the highly oxidant nitrogen dioxide, has been associated with respiratory symptoms and reduced lung function. However, little is known about the effect of gas cooking on bronchial responsiveness and on how this relationship may be modified by variants in the genes GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1, which influence antioxidant defences. Methods The study was performed in subjects with forced expiratory volume in one second at least 70% of predicted who took part in the multicentre European Community Respiratory Health Survey, had bronchial responsiveness assessed by methacholine challenge and had been genotyped for GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1-rs1695. Information on the use of gas for cooking was obtained from interviewer-led questionnaires. Effect modification by genotype on the association between the use of gas for cooking and bronchial responsiveness was assessed within each participating country, and estimates combined using meta-analysis. Results Overall, gas cooking, as compared with cooking with electricity, was not associated with bronchial responsiveness (β=−0.08, 95% CI −0.40 to 0.25, p=0.648). However, GSTM1 significantly modified this effect (β for interaction=−0.75, 95% CI −1.16 to −0.33, p=4×10−4), with GSTM1 null subjects showing more responsiveness if they cooked with gas. No effect modification by GSTT1 or GSTP1-rs1695 genotypes was observed. Conclusions Increased bronchial responsiveness was associated with gas cooking among subjects with the GSTM1 null genotype. This may reflect the oxidant effects on the bronchi of exposure to nitrogen dioxide. PMID:24613990

  20. A general practice based survey of bronchial hyperresponsiveness and its relation to symptoms, sex, age, atopy, and smoking.

    PubMed Central

    Trigg, C J; Bennett, J B; Tooley, M; Sibbald, B; D'Souza, M F; Davies, R J

    1990-01-01

    The prevalence and associations of bronchial hyperresponsiveness were investigated in a general practice population. The sample was obtained by using every 12th patient on the practice age-sex register, replacing non-responders with corresponding age and sex matched individuals from up to two further 1 in 12 samples. The response rate was 43%; 366 patients were studied. Doubling concentrations of methacholine were given to a maximum of 32 mg/ml or until a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) occurred (provocation concentration, PC20FEV1). Bronchial hyperresponsiveness was defined arbitrarily as a PC20FEV1 of 2 mg/ml or less (or 11 mumol cumulative dose, PD20FEV1). The prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness was 23%. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness was not associated with age but was more prevalent in women than men (31%:13%). It was also more common in those who had ever wheezed (39%) and in those who had had an attack of rhinitis in the preceding month (45%, p less than 0.1), in atopic individuals (30%), and in smokers (32%), but it was not associated with cough or dyspnoea. There was a positive correlation between PC20FEV1 and resting FEV1 (r = 0.288) and a negative correlation between PC20FEV1 and mean daily peak flow variability (r = -0.356). Stepwise binary logistic regression analysis showed significant independent effects on PC20FEV1 for mean daily peak flow variability, gender, number of positive skin test responses, resting FEV1, and mean histamine skin weal area, but no relation with smoking or mean allergen weal area. The prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness was much higher than the prevalence of diagnosed asthma in the practice in 1984 (4.9%). Analysis of case notes of 169 individuals showed that those with bronchial hyperresponsiveness had not attended the practice more frequently for respiratory complaints during the previous five years. Images PMID:2256016

  1. Allergic bronchial asthma due to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus hypersensitivity can be efficiently treated by inoculation of allergen-antibody complexes.

    PubMed Central

    Machiels, J J; Somville, M A; Lebrun, P M; Lebecque, S J; Jacquemin, M G; Saint-Remy, J M

    1990-01-01

    Antigen-antibody complexes were made from allergens of the common house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt) and an excess of purified autologous specific antibodies. These complexes have been used to treat Dpt-hypersensitive patients who suffered from chronic bronchial asthma. Clinical symptoms and medication intake were followed by filling in diary cards. Peak expiratory flow, measured four times a day, was also followed. Intradermal skin tests and bronchial challenge tests were performed with allergen together with an evaluation of nonspecific bronchial reactivity. Specific IgE and IgG antibodies were assayed after separation from the bulk of serum immunoglobulins by immunoadsorption. The study was carried out over two years according to a double-blind protocol. Intradermal inoculation of antigen-antibody complexes resulted in a marked reduction of both clinical and medication scores. No systemic side-effects were observed and only mild wheal and flare reactions were noted at the injection site. The treatment showed a drastic reduction of specific skin and bronchial reactivities with only marginal effects on nonspecific bronchial reactivity. Concentrations of specific IgE antibodies decreased significantly during the first weeks of treatment and remained at these lower values throughout the study. Specific IgG antibodies actually decreased in the majority of treated patients. The total amount of allergen used in this study was less than 1% of the amount currently used for conventional hyposensitization with the same allergen. These findings show that antigen-antibody complex inoculation is an efficient and safe means of treating allergic bronchial asthma and that the mechanism of action is likely to differ from conventional hyposensitization. PMID:2318962

  2. Overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptors in bronchial dypslasia demonstrated by quantitative RT-PCR analysis.

    PubMed

    Merrick, Daniel T; Haney, Jerry; Petrunich, Sheila; Sugita, Michio; Miller, York E; Keith, Robert L; Kennedy, Tim C; Franklin, Wilbur A

    2005-04-01

    Neoangiogenesis is required for the growth of invasive lung carcinoma, however, the role of angiogenesis in the progression of premalignant changes to carcinoma of the lung is less clear. We have evaluated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and microvessel densities (MVDs) in 62 bronchoscopic biopsies from normal, reactive (basal cell hyperplasia (BCH)) and dysplastic bronchial epithelium and in tissue from twenty-seven invasive lung carcinomas in an effort to demonstrate angiogenic activity in these preneoplastic lesions and determine whether it is associated with increased bronchial epithelial VEGF expression. MVDs and VEGF RNA expression measured by quantitative RT-PCR were found to be elevated in comparison to normal bronchial tissue in bronchial dysplasias and invasive lung carcinomas but not in basal cell hyperplasias. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses revealed that expression of VEGF arose predominantly from bronchial epithelium. ELISA analysis of lung tumor tissue showed that elevated VEGF protein expression correlated with VEGF RNA levels (r=0.59, p=0.004). Increased expression of VEGF RNA was also found in histologically normal bronchial mucosa from patients with either dysplasia at other sites or a history of heavy tobacco use suggesting a possible field effect in regard to the elaboration of VEGF. Furthermore, analysis of VEGF isoforms and VEGF receptors by semi-quantitative RT-PCR in dysplastic and invasive lesions revealed characteristic altered patterns of expression in dysplasia and early cancer as compared to normal tissue. These results indicate that angiogenesis develops early in lung carcinogenesis and is associated with overexpression of VEGF. PMID:15777969

  3. Tracheal dysplasia precedes bronchial dysplasia in mouse model of N-nitroso trischloroethylurea induced squamous cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Moumita; Dwyer-Nield, Lori D; Kwon, Jennifer B; Barthel, Lea; Janssen, William J; Merrick, Daniel T; Keith, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell lung cancer (SCC) is the second leading cause of lung cancer death in the US and has a 5-year survival rate of only 16%. Histological changes in the bronchial epithelium termed dysplasia are precursors to invasive SCC. However, the cellular mechanisms that cause dysplasia are unknown. To fill this knowledge gap, we used topical application of N-nitroso-tris chloroethylurea (NTCU) for 32 weeks to induce squamous dysplasia and SCC in mice. At 32 weeks the predominant cell type in the dysplastic airways was Keratin (K) 5 and K14 expressing basal cells. Notably, basal cells are extremely rare in the normal mouse bronchial epithelium but are abundant in the trachea. We therefore evaluated time-dependent changes in tracheal and bronchial histopathology after NTCU exposure (4, 8, 12, 16, 25 and 32 weeks). We show that tracheal dysplasia occurs significantly earlier than that of the bronchial epithelium (12 weeks vs. 25 weeks). This was associated with increased numbers of K5+/K14+ tracheal basal cells and a complete loss of secretory (Club cell secretory protein expressing CCSP+) and ciliated cells. TUNEL staining of NTCU treated tissues confirmed that the loss of CCSP+ and ciliated cells was not due to apoptosis. However, mitotic index (measured by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation) showed that NTCU treatment increased proliferation of K5+ basal cells in the trachea, and altered bronchial mitotic population from CCSP+ to K5+ basal cells. Thus, we demonstrate that NTCU-induced lung epithelial dysplasia starts in the tracheal epithelium, and is followed by basal cell metaplasia of the bronchial epithelium. This analysis extends our knowledge of the NTCU-SCC model by defining the early changes in epithelial cell phenotypes in distinct airway locations, and this may assist in identifying new targets for future chemoprevention studies. PMID:25860262

  4. Transcatheter Embolization of Bronchial Artery Arising from Left Circumflex Coronary Artery in a Patient with Massive Hemoptysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Jaemin; Shin, Taebeom Jun, Kyeongneo; Ryoo, Jaeuk; Choi, Hocheol; Choi, Bongryeong; Hwang, Jinyong

    2010-02-15

    It has been reported that anastomoses between the bronchial and the coronary arteries can become dilated and functional in certain diseases, provoking angina pectoris through coronary steal syndrome. The condition can be treated with endovascular or surgical management. It is possible that this abnormality may be associated with hemoptysis in patients with parenchymal or vascular disease of the lung but this condition is very rare. We present the coronary CT angiographic findings of bronchial arteries arising from the left coronary artery and their treatment with transcatheter embolization for the control of massive hemoptysis.

  5. [Effect of high-altitude climate therapy on the adrenal cortex function in patients with bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Brimkulov, N N; Bakirova, A N; Chaltabaev, K S

    1990-06-01

    132 bronchial asthma patients living in Frunze (760 m above the sea level) and those on adaptation days 3-5 and 25-30 to the climate of North Tien Shan (3200 m above the sea level) underwent clinical and functional examination involving assessment of ACTH, cortisol and aldosterone levels. The patients showed clinical response and improvement of bronchial permeability associated with a pronounced growth of plasma cortisol levels starting on adaptation days 3-5. By adaptation days 25-30 cortisol levels were still on the increase while ACTH concentration tended to reduction. PMID:2145469

  6. Topical amphotericin B application in severe bronchial aspergillosis after lung transplantation: report of experiences in 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Boettcher, H; Bewig, B; Hirt, S W; Möller, F; Cremer, J

    2000-12-01

    Ulcerative tracheobronchial aspergillosis after lung transplantation (ltx) may lead to bronchial-pulmonary artery fistula that results in fatal bleeding. We report our early experience with combined systemic, aerolized and topical application of amphotericin B in 3 cases of bronchial aspergillosis after ltx. Two patients are still alive, but 1 died of bleeding from a fistula between the left upper lobe bronchus and the pulmonary artery. Aspergillosis in the second patient resolved with minimal stenosis of the left main and the left upper lobe bronchus, and the third patient developed an anastomotic stenosis that was successfully dilated. PMID:11124494

  7. Transfection of normal human bronchial epithelial cells with the bcl-2 oncogene

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, C.H.; Kenyon, K.D.; Tesfaigzi, J.

    1995-12-01

    In vitro, studies examining the transformation of virus-immortalized human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells after exposure to chemical and physical carcinogens have contributed to our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the development of lung cancer. Virus-immortalized HBE cells have been used because of both the limited life span of normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells in culture (approximately 30-35 population doublins) and their resistance to in vitro malignant transformation. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV)-immortalized HBE cells have been used to study the genetic changes that occur after exposure to {alpha}-particles in vitro. Although this model may prove to be useful for studying the 18% or less of bronchogenic carcinomas found to contain HPV sequences, it is not an appropriate model for studying the majority of lung epithelial malignancies in which HPV DNA is not detected. This view is supported by the fact that HPV-immortalized cell lines commonly exhibit aneuploidy. This results of this study suggest that: (1) NHBE cells can be transiently transfected with the pCMV{Beta} vector; and (2) the antibiotic hygromycin-resistant transfected cells.

  8. Steady Flow in Subject-Specific Human Airways from Mouth to Sixth Bronchial Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banko, Andrew; Coletti, Filippo; Schiavazzi, Daniele; Elkins, Christopher; Eaton, John

    2013-11-01

    Understanding the complex flow topology within the human lung is critical to assess gas exchange and particle transport as they relate to the development and treatment of respiratory diseases. While idealized airway models have been investigated extensively, only limited information is available for anatomically accurate geometries. We have measured the full three-dimensional, mean velocity field from the mouth to the sixth bronchial generation in a patient-specific geometry at steady inspiration. Magnetic resonance velocimetry is used to measure the flow of water at realistic Reynolds number in a 3D-printed model derived from the CT scan of a healthy subject. The canonical laryngeal jet is observed; however, its structure is altered by an upstream jet behind the tongue, which is not discussed in the literature. Regions of separation in the supraglottic space are found to generate streamwise vortices. The resulting swirl persists to the first bifurcation and modifies the vorticity distribution in the main bronchi relative to that of a symmetric bifurcation with uniform inlet conditions. An integral momentum distortion parameter is calculated along several complete bronchial paths to assess the impact of branching angle and generation length on the flow field.

  9. Scintigraphic monitoring of mucociliary tracheo-bronchial clearance of technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    Zwas, S.T.; Katz, I.; Belfer, B.; Baum, G.L.; Aharonson, E.

    1987-02-01

    A simple method for in vivo monitoring mucociliary tracheo-bronchial clearance is described. Eighteen healthy subjects and 13 patients with various chronic lung diseases were studied by this method. The principle of using an aerosol administration system similar to the system used for routine ventilation lung studies is stressed. Proximal large airway deposition of the radioaerosol was obtained by using relatively large particles (average diameter 2 microM) of (99mTc)MAA aerosol. Monitoring was performed by visual inspection of the tracheo-bronchial cinescintigraphic ascendence of the accumulated radioactive boli and by assessing their rate of clearance via automated computer analysis of the time-activity curves, following the movement of each bolus. The normal mean +/- s.d. clearance rate thus obtained was 4.7 +/- 1.3 mm/min. This rate appears to be more precise as compared with the range of results obtained by other radioisotopic methods. Significantly faster rates, mean 8.2 +/- 1.4 mm/min (p less than 0.001) were obtained in bronchiectatic patients while slower rates (2.8 mm/min) were seen in a patient with ciliary dyskinesia.

  10. Scheimpflug Imaging Parameters Associated with Tear Mediators and Bronchial Asthma in Keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To determine associations between mediators in tears in the whole spectrum of keratoconus (KC); to explore connections between mediators and Scheimpflug parameters; to examine correlations between Scheimpflug parameters and bronchial asthma. Methods. Tear samples were collected from 69 patients and 19 controls. Concentrations of mediators—IL-6, -10; CXCL8, CCL5; MMP-9, -13; TIMP-1; t-PA, PAI-1—were measured by Cytometric Bead Array. Measured Pentacam parameters include keratometry values (K1, K2, Kmax), corneal thickness (Pachy Pupil, Apex, Min), and elevations and indices (including Belin-Ambrósio deviation (BAD-D)). Results. A number of significant positive associations were observed between pairs of mediator concentrations. Significant positive correlations were found between BAD-D and CXCL8/MMP-9 and K2 and MMP-9. Significant negative associations were explored between Pachy Min and CXCL8/t-PA. Significant associations were found between pairs of mediators (IL-6 and CXCL8; CCL5 and CXCL8/MMP-9; TIMP-1 and MMP-9/-13/t-PA; t-PA and CXCL8/CCL5/PAI-1) and the severity of KC. Significant positive correlation between asthma and the severity of KC was explored. Conclusion. Cooperation of different mediators in tears all taking part in the complex pathomechanism of keratoconus was revealed. Our research verifies that inflammation plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of KC. Additionally this study confirms the effect of bronchial asthma on keratoconus. PMID:26881061

  11. Inhalational sevoflurane in severe bronchial obstruction unresponsive to multipharmacologic therapy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Bronchial asthma with respiratory failure is a challenge for the intensivist as mechanical ventilation is often difficult due to bronchoconstriction and air-trapping. We describe a case of severe asthma with respiratory acidosis in a 10-year-old patient unresponsive to multipharmacologic broncholytic therapy. Only the initiation of sevoflurane inhalation resolved severe bronchoconstriction and dynamic hyperinflation, leading to complete recovery. Case presentation: A 10-year-old Caucasian boy was intubated and mechanically ventilated due to an asthmatic attack. Bronchoconstriction and dynamic hyperinflation were severe while multipharmacological broncholytic therapy was unsuccessful. Inhalation with sevoflurane via an anaesthesia machine was the key intervention leading to gradual resolving of severe hypercapnia and respiratory acidosis. Furthermore bilateral pupil dilation occurred during hypercapnia, but no intracranial pathology could be detected. The patient made an uneventful recovery. To our knowledge this is the first case where hypercapnia and respiratory acidosis were so profound and long lasting yet the patient survived without any damage. Conclusions: Inhalational anaesthetics must be considered as an early treatment option in ventilated asthmatic patients with bronchial obstruction unresponsive to conventional therapy even though their administration in intensive care units may be difficult. PMID:24358829

  12. Brainstem Circuitry of Tracheal-bronchial Cough: c-fos Study in Anesthetized Cats

    PubMed Central

    Jakus, Jan; Poliacek, Ivan; Halasova, Erika; Murin, Peter; Knocikova, Juliana; Tomori, Zoltan; Bolser, Donald C

    2008-01-01

    The c-fos gene expression method was used to localize brainstem neurons functionally related to the tracheal-bronchial cough on 13 spontaneously breathing, pentobarbitone anesthetized cats. The level of Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) in 6 animals with repetitive coughs (170±12) induced by mechanical stimulation of the tracheobronchial mucosa was compared to FLI in 7 control non-stimulated cats. Thirty-four nuclei were compared for the number of labeled cells. Enhanced cough FLI was found bilaterally at following brainstem structures, as compared to controls: In the medulla, FLI was increased in the medial, interstitial and ventrolateral subnuclei of the solitary tract (p<0.02), in the retroambigual nucleus of the caudal medulla (p<0.05), in the ambigual, paraambigual and retrofacial nuclei of the rostral medulla along with the lateral reticular nuclei, the ventrolateral reticular tegmental field (p<0.05), and the raphe nuclei (p<0.05). In pons, increased FLI was detected in the lateral parabrachial and Kölliker-Fuse nuclei (p<0.01), in the posteroventral cochlear nuclei (p<0.01), and the raphe midline (p<0.05). Within the mesencephalon cough-related FLI was enhanced at the rostral midline area (p<0.05), but a decrease was found at its caudal part in the periaqueductal gray (p<0.02). Results of this study suggest a large medullary - pontine - mesencephalic neuronal circuit involved in the control of the tracheal-bronchial cough in cats. PMID:18055277

  13. Sulfur dioxide and ammonium sulfate effects on pulmonary function and bronchial reactivity in human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Kulle, T.J.; Sauder, L.R.; Shanty, F.; Kerr, H.D.; Farrell, B.P.; Miller, W.R.; Milman, J.H.

    1984-03-01

    The effect of exposures to 1 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) and 500 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ respirable ammonium sulfate ((NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/) was studied in 20 nonsmoking subjects to determine if a response can be measured at these atmospheric levels and if the response is additive or synergistic. Four-hour separate and combined exposures were employed. Each subject acted as his or her own control and performed two light-to-moderate exercise stints (612 kg-m/min) for 15 minutes on each day's confinement in the environmental chamber. Pulmonary function tests (body plethysmography and spirometry) and bronchial reactivity to methacholine were performed to assess the response of these exposures. No significant changes in pulmonary function or bronchial reactivity were observed in the individual exposures ((NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ or SO/sub 2/), the combined exposure ((NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and SO/sub 2/), or 24 hours post-exposure. This study design and the observed results did not demonstrate any readily apparent risk to healthy subjects with these exposures. Since no significant changes were measured, it was not possible to conclude if these two pollutants in combination produce an additive or synergistic response.

  14. Bronchial Artery and Systemic Artery Embolization in the Management of Primary Lung Cancer Patients with Hemoptysis

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Hong Suk Kim, Young Il; Kim, Hyae Young; Zo, Jae-Ill; Lee, Joo Hyuk; Lee, Jin Soo

    2007-07-15

    Purpose. To assess the safety and effectiveness of arterial embolization in lung cancer patients with hemoptysis. Methods. Nineteen primary lung cancer patients with hemoptysis underwent bronchial artery and systemic artery embolization from April 2002 to March 2005. There were 17 men and 2 women, with a mean age of 59 years. Histologic analysis revealed squamous cell carcinoma in 10 patients and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in 9 patients. The amount of hemoptysis was bleeding of 25-50 ml within 24 hr in 8 patients, recurrent blood-tinged sputum in 6, and bleeding of 100 ml or more per 24 hr in 5. Embolization was done with a superselective technique using a microcatheter and polyvinyl alcohol particles to occlude the affected vessels. Results. Arterial embolization was technically successful in all patients and clinically successful in 15 patients (79%). The average number of arteries embolized was 1.2. Bronchial arteriography revealed staining (all patients), dilatation of the artery or hypervascularity (10 patients), and bronchopulmonary shunt (6 patients). The recurrence rate was 33% (5/15) and 11 patients were alive with a mean follow-up time of 148 days (30-349 days). Conclusion. Arterial embolotherapy for hemoptysis in patients with primary lung cancer is an effective, safe therapeutic modality despite the fact the vascular changes are subtle on angiography.

  15. Bronchial airway gene expression in smokers with lung or head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyck, Eric; Nazarov, Petr V; Muller, Arnaud; Nicot, Nathalie; Bosseler, Manon; Pierson, Sandrine; Van Moer, Kris; Palissot, Valérie; Mascaux, Céline; Knolle, Ulrich; Ninane, Vincent; Nati, Romain; Bremnes, Roy M; Vallar, Laurent; Berchem, Guy; Schlesser, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the major cause of cancers of the respiratory tract, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and head and neck cancer (HNC). In order to better understand carcinogenesis of the lung and upper airways, we have compared the gene expression profiles of tumor-distant, histologically normal bronchial biopsy specimens obtained from current smokers with NSCLC or HNC (SC, considered as a single group), as well as nonsmokers (NS) and smokers without cancer (SNC). RNA from a total of 97 biopsies was used for gene expression profiling (Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 array). Differentially expressed genes were used to compare NS, SNC, and SC, and functional analysis was carried out using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Smoking-related cancer of the respiratory tract was found to affect the expression of genes encoding xenobiotic biotransformation proteins, as well as proteins associated with crucial inflammation/immunity pathways and other processes that protect the airway from the chemicals in cigarette smoke or contribute to carcinogenesis. Finally, we used the prediction analysis for microarray (PAM) method to identify gene signatures of cigarette smoking and cancer, and uncovered a 15-gene signature that distinguished between SNC and SC with an accuracy of 83%. Thus, gene profiling of histologically normal bronchial biopsy specimens provided insight into cigarette-induced carcinogenesis of the respiratory tract and gene signatures of cancer in smokers. PMID:24497500

  16. Human Normal Bronchial Epithelial Cells: A Novel In Vitro Cell Model for Toxicity Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Haiyan; Xia, Bo; Liu, Hongya; Li, Jie; Lin, Shaolin; Li, Tiyuan; Liu, Jianjun; Li, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Human normal cell-based systems are needed for drug discovery and toxicity evaluation. hTERT or viral genes transduced human cells are currently widely used for these studies, while these cells exhibited abnormal differentiation potential or response to biological and chemical signals. In this study, we established human normal bronchial epithelial cells (HNBEC) using a defined primary epithelial cell culture medium without transduction of exogenous genes. This system may involve decreased IL-1 signaling and enhanced Wnt signaling in cells. Our data demonstrated that HNBEC exhibited a normal diploid karyotype. They formed well-defined spheres in matrigel 3D culture while cancer cells (HeLa) formed disorganized aggregates. HNBEC cells possessed a normal cellular response to DNA damage and did not induce tumor formation in vivo by xenograft assays. Importantly, we assessed the potential of these cells in toxicity evaluation of the common occupational toxicants that may affect human respiratory system. Our results demonstrated that HNBEC cells are more sensitive to exposure of 10~20 nm-sized SiO2, Cr(VI) and B(a)P compared to 16HBE cells (a SV40-immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells). This study provides a novel in vitro human cells-based model for toxicity evaluation, may also be facilitating studies in basic cell biology, cancer biology and drug discovery. PMID:25861018

  17. Development of an in vitro model of human bronchial epithelial barrier to study nanoparticle translocation.

    PubMed

    George, Isabelle; Vranic, Sandra; Boland, Sonja; Courtois, Arnaud; Baeza-Squiban, Armelle

    2015-02-01

    Inhalation is the most frequent route of unintentional exposure to nanoparticles (NPs). Our aim was to compare different in vitro models of human lung epithelial monolayers for their suitability to assess the translocation of 50 nm fluorescently labelled silica NPs (50 nm-SiO(2)-FITC-NPs). Human bronchial epithelial cell lines NCI-H292 and Calu-3 as well as human alveolar cell line A549 were seeded onto Transwell filters (TF) separating the well into an apical and a basal compartment. Measurements of the transepithelial electric resistance and monitoring the paracellular transport of a fluorescent marker (Lucifer Yellow) have shown that only Calu-3 cells formed a tight epithelium. In the absence of cells 4% of the initially applied NP concentration was found to cross the TF but the majority remained trapped inside the filter. After 24 h of treatment, 50 nm-SiO(2)-FITC-NPs were taken up by all cell types but their translocation was inversely correlated to the efficiency to prevent LY passage: translocation represented 3% of the initially apically applied NP concentration for Calu-3 cells, 9% for NCI-H292 cells and 35% for A549 cells. In conclusion, 50 nm-SiO(2)-FITC-NPs can cross different bronchial epithelial barriers, but the Calu-3 cell line appears to be the most relevant model for studying NP translocation. PMID:25197033

  18. Irreversible bronchial goblet cell metaplasia in hamsters with elastase-induced panacinar emphysema.

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, T G; Korthy, A L; Snider, G L; Hayes, J A

    1977-01-01

    A single intratracheal instillation of pancreatic elastase in hamsters induces a lesion resembling human panacinar emphysema. This paper reports the occurrence of irreversible goblet cell metaplasia in the bronchial epithelium of hamsters similarly exposed to elastase. The goblet cell change was dose related; a dose of 0.1 mg/100 g body wt or less at 16 days, produced slight or moderate goblet cell metaplasia in fewer than half the animals, whereas 84% of animals treated with a dose between 0.2 and 0.5 mg/100 g body wt developed goblet cell metaplastic lesions, more than half of which were considered to be severe. The percentage of goblet cells in the epithelium of elastase-treated hamsters (32.5) was significantly higher (P less than 0.005) than that of unexposed (12.2) and saline-exposed controls (18.7). All hamsters examined 6 and 12 mo after elastase treatment showed the lesion. The pathogenesis of the changes is unclear but the possibility is raised that the bronchial changes may be due to disturbance of an endogenous protease-antiprotease system. The findings suggest the hypothesis that, under appropriate circumstances, a single pulmonary insult in man could lead to a permanent lung injury demonstrating the anatomic lesions of both chronic bronchitis and panacinar emphysema. Images PMID:838856

  19. Identification of proteomic differences between squamous cell carcinoma of the lung and bronchial epithelium.

    PubMed

    Poschmann, Gereon; Sitek, Barbara; Sipos, Bence; Ulrich, Anna; Wiese, Sebastian; Stephan, Christian; Warscheid, Bettina; Klöppel, Günter; Vander Borght, Ann; Ramaekers, Frans C S; Meyer, Helmut E; Stühler, Kai

    2009-05-01

    Proteins that exhibit different expression levels in normal and malignant lung cells are good candidate biomarkers to improve early diagnosis and intervention. We used a quantitative approach and compared the proteome of microdissected cells from normal human bronchial epithelium and squamous cell carcinoma tumors of histopathological grades G2 and G3. DIGE analysis and subsequent MS-based protein identification revealed that 32 non-redundant proteins were differentially regulated between the respective tissue types. These proteins are mainly involved in energy pathways, cell growth or maintenance mechanisms, protein metabolism, and the regulation of DNA and RNA metabolism. The expression of some of these proteins was analyzed by immunohistochemistry using tissue microarrays containing tissue specimen of 55 patients, including normal bronchial epithelium, squamous cell carcinomas, adenocarcinomas, and large cell carcinomas. The results of the immunohistochemical studies correlated with the proteome study data and revealed that particularly HSP47 and a group of cytokeratins (i.e. cytokeratins 6a, 16, and 17) are significantly co-regulated in squamous cell carcinoma. Furthermore cytokeratin 17 showed significantly higher abundance in G2 grade compared with G3 grade squamous cell carcinomas in both the gel-based and the immunohistochemical analysis. Therefore this protein might be used as a marker for stratification between different tumor grades. PMID:19176476

  20. Molecular alterations in tumorigenic human bronchial and breast epithelial cells induced by high let radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hei, T. K.; Zhao, Y. L.; Roy, D.; Piao, C. Q.; Calaf, G.; Hall, E. J.

    Carcinogenesis is a multi-stage process with sequence of genetic events governing the phenotypic expression of a series of transformation steps leading to the development of metastatic cancer. In the present study, immortalized human bronchial (BEP2D) and breast (MCF-10F) cells were irradiated with graded doses of either 150 keV/μm alpha particles or 1 GeV/nucleon 56Fe ions. Transformed cells developed through a series of successive steps before becoming tumorigenic in nude mice. Cell fusion studies indicated that radiation-induced tumorigenic phenotype in BEP2D cells could be completely suppressed by fusion with non-tumorigenic BEP2D cells. The differential expressions of known genes between tumorigenic bronchial and breast cells induced by alpha particles and their respective control cultures were compared using cDNA expression array. Among the 11 genes identified to be differentially expressed in BEP2D cells, three ( DCC, DNA-PK and p21 CIPI) were shown to be consistently down-regulated by 2 to 4 fold in all the 5 tumor cell lines examined. In contrast, their expressions in the fusion cell lines were comparable to control BEP2D cells. Similarly, expression levels of a series of genes were found to be altered in a step-wise manner among tumorigenic MCF-10F cells. The results are highly suggestive that functional alterations of these genes may be causally related to the carcinogenic process.

  1. Bronchial deposition of free ions and submicron particles studied in excised lung.

    PubMed

    James, A C

    1975-09-01

    Direct measurements of bronchial deposition in ventilated pig lungs are reported for radon daughter ions and condensation nuclei. Comparisons are made with deposition calculated from the theory of particle diffusion in steady, laminar air-flow. In segmental bronchi, the observed deposition of condensation nuclei was within about 25% of that calculated. Deposition was greater by up to a factor 2 in main stem and lobar bronchi. Deposition in the trachea depended upon the entrance conditions set by vocal cords. For thorium-B ions, deposition in segmental bronchi was a factor 4 less than calculated, apparently due to rapid hygroscopic growth. Clearance rates by dissolution from bronchial epithelium in vivo for lead and bismuth ions are also reported. Approximately 10% of 212Pb ions diffused into blood with a half-time of about 70 min and 30% of 212Bi ions with a much shorter half-time of about 7 min. The implications of these data in the calculation of radiation dose from inhaled radon daughters are discussed. PMID:1236157

  2. Arylamine N-acetyltransferase activity in bronchial epithelial cells and its inhibition by cellular oxidants

    SciTech Connect

    Dairou, Julien; Petit, Emile; Ragunathan, Nilusha; Baeza-Squiban, Armelle; Marano, Francelyne; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando

    2009-05-01

    Bronchial epithelial cells express xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) that are involved in the biotransformation of inhaled toxic compounds. The activities of these XMEs in the lung may modulate respiratory toxicity and have been linked to several diseases of the airways. Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NAT) are conjugating XMEs that play a key role in the biotransformation of aromatic amine pollutants such as the tobacco-smoke carcinogens 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) and {beta}-naphthylamine ({beta}-NA). We show here that functional human NAT1 or its murine counterpart Nat2 are present in different lung epithelial cells i.e. Clara cells, type II alveolar cells and bronchial epithelial cells, thus indicating that inhaled aromatic amines may undergo NAT-dependent biotransformation in lung epithelium. Exposure of these cells to pathophysiologically relevant amounts of oxidants known to contribute to lung dysfunction, such as H{sub 2}O{sub 2} or peroxynitrite, was found to impair the NAT1/Nat2-dependent cellular biotransformation of aromatic amines. Genetic and non genetic impairment of intracellular NAT enzyme activities has been suggested to compromise the important detoxification pathway of aromatic amine N-acetylation and subsequently to contribute to an exacerbation of untoward effects of these pollutants on health. Our study suggests that oxidative/nitroxidative stress in lung epithelial cells, due to air pollution and/or inflammation, could contribute to local and/or systemic dysfunctions through the alteration of the functions of pulmonary NAT enzymes.

  3. Azithromycin differentially affects the IL-13-induced expression profile in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Tinne C J; Hiemstra, Pieter S; Taube, Christian

    2016-08-01

    The T helper 2 (Th2) cytokine interleukin(IL)-13 is a central regulator in goblet cell metaplasia and induces the recently described Th2 gene signature consisting of periostin (POSTN), chloride channel regulator 1 (CLCA1) and serpin B2 (SERPINB2) in airway epithelial cells. This Th2 gene signature has been proposed as a biomarker to classify asthma into Th2-high and Th2-low phenotypes. Clinical studies have shown that the macrolide antibiotic azithromycin reduced clinical symptoms in neutrophilic asthma, but not in the classical Th2-mediated asthma despite the ability of azithromycin to reduce IL-13-induced mucus production. We therefore hypothesize that azithromycin differentially affects the IL-13-induced expression profile. To investigate this, we focus on IL-13-induced mucin and Th2-signature expression in human bronchial epithelial cells and how this combined expression profile is affected by azithromycin treatment. Primary bronchial epithelial cells were differentiated at air liquid interface in presence of IL-13 with or without azithromycin. Azithromycin inhibited IL-13-induced MUC5AC, which was accompanied by inhibition of IL-13-induced CLCA1 and SERPINB2 expression. In contrast, IL-13-induced expression of POSTN was further increased in cells treated with azithromycin. This indicates that azithromycin has a differential effect on the IL-13-induced Th2 gene signature. Furthermore, the ability of azithromycin to decrease IL-13-induced MUC5AC expression may be mediated by a reduction in CLCA1. PMID:27246785

  4. Mechanisms of ozone-induced bronchial hyperreactivity to muscarinic agonists in the guinea pig

    SciTech Connect

    Roum, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Bronchial hyperreactivity, a chief characteristic of asthma, is poorly understood mechanistically. Its development in ozone-exposed guinea pigs was studied in this dissertation research. Reactivity was assessed in awake, spontaneously breathing animals by measuring specific airway resistance (SRaw) as a function of increasing muscarinic bronchoconstrictor challenge. In the first study, improvements in the reactivity measurement were seen by using (1) propranolol pretreatment (10 mg/kg IP, 1/2 hr before measurement) and (2) intravenous (rather than aerosolized) muscarinic challenge. Both (1) decreased its population wide variation and (2) increased its intra-animal reproducibility. Secondly, characteristics of ozone-induced bronchial hyperreactivity, such as (1) its airway mucosal permeability dependence, (2) its time course of development, and (3) its ozone-dose dependence were studied. The relationship between airway mucosa neutrophilic infiltration and the development of this hyperreactivity was examined in the third and fourth study. In the third, a time course study showed that development of hyperreactivity occurred before the neutrophilic infiltration phase, and correlated best with a decrease in identifiable mucosal goblet cells and increase in identifiable mucosoal mast cells. In the fourth, the development of ozone-induced hyperreactivity in animals made granulocytopenic with cyclophosphamide and cortisone acetate treatment was studied. In the final study, the effects of indomethacin on the development of this hyperreactivity was assessed.

  5. Asthma caused by diphenylmethane diisocyanate in foundry workers. Clinical, bronchial provocation, and immunologic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Zammit-Tabona, M.; Sherkin, M.; Kijek, K.; Chan, H.; Chan-Yeung, M.

    1983-08-01

    Eleven foundry workers who developed asthmatic symptoms were studied with inhalation provocation tests with formaldehyde and diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI). These latter two chemicals are components of PepSet used for making molds for casting. Six subjects showed specific asthmatic reactions to MDI challenge (more than 20% fall in FEV1), 2 had a combined immediate and late reaction, and 4 had a predominantly late reaction. Four of the 6 subjects experienced recurrent nocturnal asthmatic reactions after a single challenge with MDI that lasted as long as 7 days, and this was associated with a significant increase in bronchial reactivity to methacholine. One subject had an immediate irritant reaction to both MDI and formaldehyde, which was spontaneously reversed in a few minutes. None of the remaining 10 subjects had a positive reaction to formaldehyde challenge. The reactors to MDI showed more evidence of air-flow obstruction in their lung function measurements and had a greater bronchial sensitivity to methacholine than the nonreactors but there was no difference in age, smoking habits, or atopic status. Specific IgE antibodies to MDI-human serum albumin conjugate were detected in 2 subjects, a reactor and a nonreactor. Specific IgG anti-MDI antibodies were detected in 4 subjects, 2 who reacted and 2 who did not. No difference in the pattern of response to MDI inhalation was observed in relation to the different immunologic findings. We conclude that MDI is a cause of asthma in foundry workers.

  6. The value of the chest X-ray in making the diagnosis of bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Rubenstein, H S; Rosner, B A; LeMay, M; Neidorf, R

    1993-01-01

    Although bronchial asthma is one of the most common chronic illnesses of children and young adults, it remains underdiagnosed. To assess the value of the chest X-ray in helping to make the diagnosis of asthma at the primary care level, we studied the medical records of 58 patients aged 18-40 with the diagnosis of mild to moderate asthma and for whom both simple spirometry-forced one-second expiratory volume (FEV1) and/or peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR)--and a chest X-ray had been performed. Only 21 of 58 (36%) had spirometry indicative of asthma (SPI+) while 34 of 58 (59%) had abnormal chest X-rays (CXR+)--"increased markings" and/or "low diaphragm." Although CXR+ discriminated between asthmatic patients and a normal control group, no difference was found between asthmatic patients and a group of patients with acute bronchitis. Nonetheless, the number of asthmatic patients with CXR+ and SPI - (n = 23) was significantly larger than the number with CXR- and SPI+ (n = 10), which indicates that for mild asthma the chest X-ray may be more sensitive than spirometry even though not as specific. These results were surprising at the time of the investigation. Subsequently, however, the importance of the inflammatory response in asthma came to light, which rendered the results more interesting than surprising. We conclude that the chest X-ray has value in making the diagnosis of mild bronchial asthma. PMID:8237539

  7. Chemiluminescence of neutrophiles stimulated by opsonized Zymosan in children with bronchial asthma and pneumonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowicz-Uszynska, A.; Jankowski, A.

    2004-08-01

    Oxygen metabolism of neutrophils after stimulation with opsonized zymosan was examined using chemiluminescence test (in the presence of the patient serum or pooled serum). Into the study 37 children aged from 2 to 12 years were enrolled (20 girls and 17 boys). 10 healthy volunteers comprised the control group (group III). Two groups of patients were established: group I -- children with bronchial asthma (without infection), group II -- children with pneumonia. The examination in both groups was performed twice -- in acute phase and in remission period. The group I in acute phase comprised 16 children and in remission phase 9 children, group II - 21 children in acute phase and 9 children in remission phase, respectively. The following parameters of CL were estimated average value of so called spontaneous CL, maximal excitation of neutrophils after stimulation by zymogen (CLmax), time of zymosan opsonization. The following results were obtained: increased spontaneous CL and CLmax (at the presence of both sera) in acute phase of bronchial asthma and pneumonia in comparison to the control group. In the period of remission both these parameters were insignificantly decreased. The longest time of zymosan opsonization in acute period of disease was observed in children with pneumonia (18 min.). This time did not change during remission phase. Only slightly longer time of opsonization was observed in the patients from group I (in exacerbation) (15 min) than in the control group (13,1 min). This time was prolonged in the clinical remission (20 min).

  8. Alterations of p53 in tumorigenic human bronchial epithelial cells correlate with metastatic potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piao, C. Q.; Willey, J. C.; Hei, T. K.; Hall, E. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The cellular and molecular mechanisms of radiation-induced lung cancer are not known. In the present study, alterations of p53 in tumorigenic human papillomavirus-immortalized human bronchial epithelial (BEP2D) cells induced by a single low dose of either alpha-particles or 1 GeV/nucleon (56)Fe were analyzed by PCR-single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) coupled with sequencing analysis and immunoprecipitation assay. A total of nine primary and four secondary tumor cell lines, three of which were metastatic, together with the parental BEP2D and primary human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells were studied. The immunoprecipitation assay showed overexpression of mutant p53 proteins in all the tumor lines but not in NHBE and BEP2D cells. PCR-SSCP and sequencing analysis found band shifts and gene mutations in all four of the secondary tumors. A G-->T transversion in codon 139 in exon 5 that replaced Lys with Asn was detected in two tumor lines. One mutation each, involving a G-->T transversion in codon 215 in exon 6 (Ser-->lle) and a G-->A transition in codon 373 in exon 8 (Arg-->His), was identified in the remaining two secondary tumors. These results suggest that p53 alterations correlate with tumorigenesis in the BEP2D cell model and that mutations in the p53 gene may be indicative of metastatic potential.

  9. [Contribution to importance of asbestos in the epidemiology of bronchial cancer].

    PubMed

    Sturm, W

    1982-01-01

    Today asbestos is the most important professional carcinogenic agent of the respiratory tract. Asbestos caused bronchial cancer doesn't differ from its well-known morphology, progress and prognosis, but almost it is starting earlier. Fibrous form of asbestos represents its determinant potency. Carcinogenic fibres are about or below 1 micron in diameter and part of them can't be seen in light optical systems. Curious bodies may be missed sometimes also. A cancerogenic limit of asbestos concentration can't be quoted exactly now. Asbestos exposition during 60 contacting days or more are able to induce cancer. Cancerogenesis itself is during 20-30 years until clinical manifestation on an average. If the exposition is started in the youth, the period of latency is shortened distinctly. Tobacco smoke inhalations increase the carcinogenic effectiveness multiplicatively. In the districts of Magdeburg and Halle (GDR) more than 10% of the bronchial cancers are expected to be induced by asbestos. On the other hand only about 3% of the adults have had asbestos contacts at any former time. This is a raising of risk to at least triple rate.--It is necessary to realize all demands on technical prophylaxis of occupational asbestos exposition. PMID:7148029

  10. Comparative clinical efficacy of Ashtangavaleha and Vyaghreehareetakee Avaleha on Tamaka Shwasa (bronchial asthma) in children

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Arvind Kumar; Rajagopala, S.; Patel, Kalpana S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tamaka Shwasa is a chronic inflammatory condition of the lung airways resulting in episodic airflow obstruction. This disease is more predominant in children and aged population. Apart from being the leading cause of hospitalization for children, it is one of the most important chronic conditions causing elementary school absenteeism. The parallel disease entity in contemporary medical science to this disorder is Bronchial Asthma. Aim: This study was aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of Ashtangavaleha and Vyaghreehareetakee Avaleha on Tamaka Shwasa (Bronchial Asthma) in Children. Materials and Methods: The study was therapeutic interventional randomized clinical trial. Totally 100 patients suffering from Tamaka Shwasa were selected, and 74 patients completed the course of treatment. Patients were divided into two groups. Ashtangavaleha was administered in group AG and Vyaghreehareetakee Avaleha was administerd in group VG (5-15g in divided doses) for 8 weeks duration. Comaprative assesment of both the drugs was done on the signs and symptoms of the disease, pulmonary function test and quality of life parameters. Results: When the individualized overall effect of therapy was considered, more number of patients treated with Ashtangavaleha reached moderate improvement zone than the patients treated with Vyaghreehareetakee Avaleha. Conclusions: The trial showed a marginal better efficacy of Ashtangavaleha (66.66%) in comparison to Vyaghreehareetakee Avaleha (63.15%) on the overall condition of the patients even though the superiority was statistically insignificant (>0.05). PMID:26195900

  11. Mechanical stress triggers selective release of fibrotic mediators from bronchial epithelium.

    PubMed

    Tschumperlin, Daniel J; Shively, Jonathan D; Kikuchi, Tadashi; Drazen, Jeffrey M

    2003-02-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and endothelin (ET) are found in elevated amounts in the airways of individuals with asthma. The cellular source of these peptides and their role in mediating the airway fibrosis of chronic asthma are unknown. In response to mechanical stresses similar to those occurring in vivo during airway constriction, bronchial epithelial cells increase the steady-state level of mRNA for both ET-1 and ET-2, followed by increased release of ET protein. Mechanical stress also enhances release of TGF-beta2 from a preformed cell-associated pool. TGF-beta2 and ET act individually and, more importantly, synergistically to promote fibrotic protein synthesis in reporter fibroblasts. To confirm the role of these intermediates in stress-induced fibrosis, conditioned medium from mechanically stressed bronchial epithelial cells was shown to elicit fibrotic protein synthesis in reporter fibroblasts; this effect was significantly inhibited by combined treatment with ET receptor antagonists and a neutralizing antibody to TGF-beta2. These data are consistent with a primary pathogenic role for mechanical stress-induced release of both TGF-beta2 and ET in the subepithelial fibrosis that characterizes chronic asthma. PMID:12540481

  12. [Right tracheal bronchus with anomalous ramification of the bronchial artery disclosed during an episode of hemoptysis].

    PubMed

    Kyo, S; Maeda, H; Yahata, T; Kawashima, T; Takada, T; Ohnishi, K; Adachi, K

    2000-01-01

    A 63-year-old woman was referred to our hospital on June 18th, 1998 during an episode of hemoptysis that had lasted for 6 days. She had no hemorrhagic diathesis and no history of pulmonary disease. Chest X-ray films disclosed a ground-glass opacity in the right upper lung field. Bronchoscopic examination revealed bleeding from an anomalous ectopic orifice on the right lateral trachea, about 1 cm above the carina. Chest computed tomographic examinations by conventional and spiral methods readily disclosed an ectopic bronchus. Bronchial arteriography showed that the tracheal bronchus was fed by a branched vessel of the thyrocervical artery arising from the brachiocephalic artery. Atypical mycobacterium was detected in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from the ectopic bronchus. A shunt had formed with the pulmonary artery and peripheral parts of the bronchial artery that fed the tracheal bronchus. It was speculated that the hemoptysis in this case might be due to the combined phenomena of infection and abnormal vessel formation in the tracheal bronchus. In our patient, the system of blood supply to the tracheal bronchus may have been a manifestation of atavism because it closely resembled the circulatory structure of the tracheal bronchi normally observed in sheep and giraffes. The tracheal bronchus should be taken into consideration as a potential cause of hemoptysis, inflammatory changes, and atelectasis during intubation. PMID:10723948

  13. Squamous Metaplasia Is Increased in the Bronchial Epithelium of Smokers with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rigden, Helen M.; Alias, Ahmad; Havelock, Thomas; O'Donnell, Rory; Djukanovic, Ratko; Davies, Donna E.; Wilson, Susan J.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To quantify the extent of squamous metaplasia in bronchial biopsies and relate it to the presence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a smoking-related pathology. Methods Bronchial biopsies (n = 15 in each group) from smokers with COPD GOLD stage1 and GOLD stage2, smokers without COPD and healthy non-smokers were stained immunohistochemically with a panel of antibodies that facilitated the identification of pseudostratified epithelium and distinction of squamous metaplasia and squamous epithelium from tangentially cut epithelium. The percentage length of each of these epithelial phenotypes was measured as a percent of total epithelial length using computerised image analysis. Sections were also stained for carcinoembryonic antigen and p53, early markers of carcinogenesis, and Ki67, and the percentage epithelial expression measured. Results The extent of squamous metaplasia was significantly increased in both COPD1 and COPD2 compared to healthy smokers and healthy non-smokers. The amount of fully differentiated squamous epithelium was also increased in COPD1 and COPD2 compared to healthy non-smokers, as was the expression of carcinoembryonic antigen. These features correlated with one other. Conclusion In subjects with COPD there is a loss of pseudostratified epithelium accompanied by an increase in squamous metaplasia with transition into a fully squamous epithelium and expression of early markers of carcinogenesis. PMID:27228128

  14. Experimental investigation of the transitional bronchial velocity distribution using stereo scanning PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soodt, Thomas; Schröder, Franka; Klaas, Michael; van Overbrüggen, Timo; Schröder, Wolfgang

    2012-03-01

    An experimental analysis of the unsteady flow field in a realistic, transparent model of the human lung is presented. The model consists of the bronchial tree up to the third generation of bifurcation. The spatial focus is on the second bifurcation between the right main bronchus and the subsequent lobe bronchi, whereas the temporal focus is on the transition from inspiration to expiration. Due to the highly three-dimensional and unsteady character of the flow field, time-resolved 3D-3C measurements are performed using quasi-volumetric stereo scanning particle-image velocimetry. The measurements cover the total bronchial cross-section and are taken for two Womersley numbers of α1 = 3.4 and α2 = 4.2 at one peak Reynolds number of Re D = 1,420, representing breathing at rest. The temporal and spatial development of the flow field is presented for three temporal states in six parallel planes. The measurements show the development of vortical structures of varying size and location. An increased mass flux into the right superior bronchus for α2, a frequency-dependent phase shift of the flow structures, and a heterogeneous outflow at the beginning of the expiration phase are evidenced.

  15. Dietary antioxidants and ozone-induced bronchial hyperresponsiveness in adults with asthma.

    PubMed

    Trenga, C A; Koenig, J Q; Williams, P V

    2001-01-01

    Ozone exposure aggravates asthma, as has been demonstrated in both controlled exposures and epidemiologic studies. In the current double-blind crossover study, the authors evaluated the effects of dietary antioxidants (i.e., 400 IU vitamin E/500 mg vitamin C) on ozone-induced bronchial hyperresponsiveness in adult subjects with asthma. Seventeen subjects were exposed to 0.12 ppm of ozone or to air for 45 min during intermittent moderate exercise. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness was assessed with 10-min sulfur dioxide (i.e., 0.10 ppm and 0.25 ppm) inhalation challenges. Subjects who were given dietary antioxidants responded less severely to sulfur dioxide challenge than subjects given a placebo (i.e., forced expiratory volume in the 1st sec: -1.2% vs. 4.4%, respectively; peak flow: +2.2% vs. -3.0%, respectively; and mid-forced expiratory flow: +2.0% vs. -4.3%, respectively). Effects were more pronounced when subjects were grouped by response to sulfur dioxide at the screening visit. The results suggest that dietary supplementation with vitamins E and C benefits asthmatic adults who are exposed to air pollutants. PMID:11480500

  16. Evening chronotypes have the increased odds for bronchial asthma and nocturnal asthma.

    PubMed

    Merikanto, Ilona; Englund, Ani; Kronholm, Erkki; Laatikainen, Tiina; Peltonen, Markku; Vartiainen, Erkki; Partonen, Timo

    2014-02-01

    Earlier studies have found associations of chronotypes with a range of health-related factors. In the light of these findings, the behavioral trait of eveningness in particular associates with determinants that might have a negative impact on health. In this study, based on a random sample of population aged 25-74 years living in five large geographical areas in Finland (N = 6089), we tested whether the evening chronotypes have the increased odds for respiratory symptoms and diseases. As a result, after controlling for socio-demographic and lifestyle factors, evening-types had wheezy breathing without respiratory infection, a diagnosed or treated bronchial asthma, awoken in shortness of breath, awoken in heavy to breath, wheezy breathing with dyspnea, wheezy breathing as such and medication for asthma more often than morning-types (odds ratios (ORs) of 1.5-1.9) and intermediate-types (ORs of 1.3-1.6). In addition, evening-types had current medication for asthma, and awoken in coughing more often (OR = 1.5 and OR = 1.4, respectively) than morning-types. Evening-types did not have a diagnosed or treated chronic bronchitis more frequently than others. Our results suggest that the behavioral trait of eveningness associates with the increased odds for the bronchial asthma and nocturnal asthma in particular. PMID:24131153

  17. [Survey of clinical and experimental researches on mechanisms of acupuncture treatment of bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Tan, Cheng; Zhao, Ji-ping; Zhang, Chang

    2011-08-01

    In the present paper, the authors review the development of experimental and clinical studies on acupuncture treatment of bronchial asthma in recent 10 years. Regarding clinical studies, results showed that acupuncture could (1) regulate cardiac-pulmonary function; and (2) adjust immune state and relieve inflammatory reactions in bronchial asthma patients. Animal experiments showed that acupuncture could function in (1) improving pulmonary function; (2) reducing accumulation of the peripheral eosinophile granulocytes (EOS), relieving the infiltration of inflammatory cells in the air-passage mucosa and promoting the apoptosis of EOS in the lung and air-passages; (3) down-regulating the expression of air-passage remodeling-related protein insulin growth factor-1; (4) suppressing the secretion of tumor necrosis factor and endothelin; (5) attenuating allergic reaction; (6) regulating neuroendocrine activity; and (7) modulating intracellular second messenger activities. However, rigorous clinical study design is not enough, so that the reliability of the results is limited. In spite of many indicators of animal experiments have been selected, but their correlations are not in close association, resulting in poor complementation and mutual identification of the acquired findings. For this reason, its clinical efficacies need to be researched further according to principles of evidence-based medicine. PMID:21942186

  18. Human normal bronchial epithelial cells: a novel in vitro cell model for toxicity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wenqiang; Guo, Juanjuan; Huang, Haiyan; Xia, Bo; Liu, Hongya; Li, Jie; Lin, Shaolin; Li, Tiyuan; Liu, Jianjun; Li, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Human normal cell-based systems are needed for drug discovery and toxicity evaluation. hTERT or viral genes transduced human cells are currently widely used for these studies, while these cells exhibited abnormal differentiation potential or response to biological and chemical signals. In this study, we established human normal bronchial epithelial cells (HNBEC) using a defined primary epithelial cell culture medium without transduction of exogenous genes. This system may involve decreased IL-1 signaling and enhanced Wnt signaling in cells. Our data demonstrated that HNBEC exhibited a normal diploid karyotype. They formed well-defined spheres in matrigel 3D culture while cancer cells (HeLa) formed disorganized aggregates. HNBEC cells possessed a normal cellular response to DNA damage and did not induce tumor formation in vivo by xenograft assays. Importantly, we assessed the potential of these cells in toxicity evaluation of the common occupational toxicants that may affect human respiratory system. Our results demonstrated that HNBEC cells are more sensitive to exposure of 10~20 nm-sized SiO2, Cr(VI) and B(a)P compared to 16HBE cells (a SV40-immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells). This study provides a novel in vitro human cells-based model for toxicity evaluation, may also be facilitating studies in basic cell biology, cancer biology and drug discovery. PMID:25861018

  19. Clinical efficacy of herbal Padmapatradi yoga in bronchial asthma (Tamaka Swasa)

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Ashok Kumar; Doddanagali, S. R.

    2011-01-01

    Ayurveda refers to bronchial asthma as Tamaka Swasa and it is well explained in Charaka Samhita. It contributes several modalities of the treatment for Swasa roga(asthma). Among all modalities of treatment, polyherbal combinations are said to be well-accepted, safe and effective in asthma. A study was carried out in 40 patients of either sex in between the age of 15-65 years to assure the clinical response of Padmapatradi yoga in bronchial asthma (Tamaka Swasa) at P.G. department of Kayachikitsa, D.G.M. Ayurvedic Medical College, Gadag, Karnataka. The sum total properties of Padmapatradi yoga is tikta katu rasa, laghu and tikna guna (light and penetrating properties), ushna virya (hot potency) and vatakaphagna (decrease vata and kapha dosa) Padmapatradi yoga is effective in increased peak expiratory flow rate, breath holding time, and reduces the absolute eosinophil count of studied cases and also found statistically highly significant at p<0.001 level. The drug is quite safe and acts as a bronchodilator, antihistaminic and anti-inflammatory. PMID:21760694

  20. Evaluation of Differentiated Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell Culture Systems for Asthma Research

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Ceri E.; Torr, Elizabeth E.; Mohd Jamili, Nur H.; Bosquillon, Cynthia; Sayers, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate primary (human bronchial epithelial cells, HBEC) and non-primary (Calu-3, BEAS-2B, BEAS-2B R1) bronchial epithelial cell culture systems as air-liquid interface- (ALI-) differentiated models for asthma research. Ability to differentiate into goblet (MUC5AC+) and ciliated (β-Tubulin IV+) cells was evaluated by confocal imaging and qPCR. Expression of tight junction/adhesion proteins (ZO-1, E-Cadherin) and development of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) were assessed. Primary cells showed localised MUC5AC, β-Tubulin IV, ZO-1, and E-Cadherin and developed TEER with, however, a large degree of inter- and intradonor variation. Calu-3 cells developed a more reproducible TEER and a phenotype similar to primary cells although with diffuse β-Tubulin IV staining. BEAS-2B cells did not differentiate or develop tight junctions. These data highlight the challenges in working with primary cell models and the need for careful characterisation and selection of systems to answer specific research questions. PMID:22287976

  1. Complete bronchial obstruction by granuloma in a paediatric patient with translaryngeal endotracheal tube: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although continuous or frequent stimuli in tracheostomized patients may cause tracheal granulomas, little is known about management of patients with translaryngeal intubation. Case presentation A 1-month-old Japanese boy, weighing 3.5kg, was admitted to our hospital owing to cardiac failure caused by an atrial septal defect and intractable arrhythmia. To treat his unstable cardiovascular status, surgery was performed to close his atrial septal defect. After the operation, stenosis was detected by auscultation and flow limitation worsened. A bronchoscopy revealed granulomas completely obstructing his right bronchus and partially obstructing his left bronchus. Dexamethasone infusion partially reduced the mass, after which removal by yttrium aluminium garnet laser was tried. The airway obstruction was not resolved, however, because of granuloma reproliferation. Budesonide (aerosol liquid) inhalation was started, and tissue was reduced using an yttrium aluminium garnet laser and physically removed using forceps. After continued budesonide inhalation, he was successfully liberated from the ventilator. Conclusions Life-threatening airway obstruction by granulomas developed in a translaryngeally intubated paediatric patient. The granuloma was detected after a couple of weeks of intubation. A bronchial granuloma is rare in paediatric patients. It should be suspected with evidence of bronchial obstruction. Treatment with corticosteroids and surgery using a laser maybe indicated. PMID:25060137

  2. Detection of trisomy 7 in nonmalignant bronchial epithelium from lung cancer patients and individuals at risk for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Crowell, R E; Gilliland, F D; Temes, R T; Harms, H J; Neft, R E; Heaphy, E; Auckley, D H; Crooks, L A; Jordan, S W; Samet, J M; Lechner, J F; Belinsky, S A

    1996-08-01

    Early identification and subsequent intervention are needed to decrease the high mortality rate associated with lung cancer. The examination of bronchial epithelium for genetic changes could be a valuable approach to identify individuals at greatest risk. The purpose of this investigation was to assay cells recovered from nonmalignant bronchial epithelium by fluorescence in situ hybridization for trisomy of chromosome 7, an alteration common in non-small cell lung cancer. Bronchial epithelium was collected during bronchoscopy from 16 cigarette smokers undergoing clinical evaluation for possible lung cancer and from seven individuals with a prior history of underground uranium mining. Normal bronchial epithelium was obtained from individuals without a prior history of smoking (never smokers). Bronchial cells were collected from a segmental bronchus in up to four different lung lobes for cytology and tissue culture. Twelve of 16 smokers were diagnosed with lung cancer. Cytological changes found in bronchial epithelium included squamous metaplasia, hyperplasia, and atypical glandular cells. These changes were present in 33, 12, and 47% of sites from lung cancer patients, smokers, and former uranium miners, respectively. Less than 10% of cells recovered from the diagnostic brush had cytological changes, and in several cases, these changes were present within different lobes from the same patient. Background frequencies for trisomy 7 were 1.4 +/- 0.3% in bronchial epithelial cells from never smokers. Eighteen of 42 bronchial sites from lung cancer patients showed significantly elevated frequencies of trisomy 7 compared to never smoker controls. Six of the sites positive for trisomy 7 also contained cytological abnormalities. Trisomy 7 was found in six of seven patients diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma, one of one patient with adenosquamous cell carcinoma, but in only one of four patients with adenocarcinoma. A significant increase in trisomy 7 frequency was

  3. Autonomous sensor manager agents (ASMA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osadciw, Lisa A.

    2004-04-01

    Autonomous sensor manager agents are presented as an algorithm to perform sensor management within a multisensor fusion network. The design of the hybrid ant system/particle swarm agents is described in detail with some insight into their performance. Although the algorithm is designed for the general sensor management problem, a simulation example involving 2 radar systems is presented. Algorithmic parameters are determined by the size of the region covered by the sensor network, the number of sensors, and the number of parameters to be selected. With straight forward modifications, this algorithm can be adapted for most sensor management problems.

  4. Effect of ozone on platelet-activating factor production in phorbol-differentiated HL60 cells, a human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS S6), and primary human bronchial epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Samet, J.M.; Noah, T.L.; Devlin, R.B.; Yankaskas, J.R.; McKinnon, K.; Dailey, L.A.; Friedman, M. )

    1992-11-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a phospholipid with a wide spectrum of pro-inflammatory properties. In the lung, PAF induces airway hyperresponsiveness, neutrophil sequestration, and increased vascular permeability. The alveolar macrophage and the bronchial epithelium are tissues that are exposed to inhaled ozone (O3). We studied the effect of an in vitro O3 exposure on PAF production in a macrophage-like HL60 human cell line (dHL60), a human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS S6), and also in primary human bronchial epithelial cells. PAF was quantified by thin-layer chromatographic separation of lipid extracts from cells radiolabeled with [3H]lysoPAF and by radioimmunoassay. In vitro exposure of dHL60 cells to 0.05 to 1.0 ppm O3 for 15 to 120 min was found to significantly increase PAF levels above air control values at all exposure levels and time points (average increase of 92%). Similarly, BEAS S6 cells grown on collagen-coated filter supports and exposed to 0.05 to 1.0 ppm O3 for 60 min released an average increase in PAF of 626% above control values. Primary human bronchial epithelial cells also demonstrated significant increases in [3H]PAF release (average increase of 289% after exposure to 1.0 ppm O3 for 60 min) compared with paired air controls. These findings suggest that some of the effects of O3 inhalation may be mediated by PAF.

  5. Human bronchial epithelial cells injury and cytokine production induced by Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Rigoni, Vera Lucia Silva; Kwasniewski, Fabio H; Vieira, Rodolfo Paula; Linhares, Ingrid Sestrem; da Silva, Joelmir Lucena Veiga; Nogueira-Pedro, Amanda; Zamuner, Stella Regina

    2016-09-15

    Tityus serrulatus is the scorpion specie responsible for the majority of scorpion sting accidents in Brazil. Symptoms of envenomation by Tityus serrulatus range from local pain to severe systemic reactions such as cardiac dysfunction and pulmonary edema. Thus, this study has evaluated the participation of bronchial epithelial cells in the pulmonary effects of Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom (Tsv). Human bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B were utilized as a model target and were incubated with Tsv (10 or 50 μg/mL) for 1, 3, 6 and 24 h. Effects on cellular response of venom-induce cytotoxicity were examined including cell viability, cell integrity, cell morphology, apoptosis/necrosis as well as cell activation through the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8. Tsv caused a decrease in cell viability at 10 and 50 μg/mL, which was confirmed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) measurement. Flow cytometry analyses revealed necrosis as the main cell death pathway caused by Tsv. Furthermore, Tsv induced the release of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8. Altogether, these results demonstrate that Tsv induces cytotoxic effects on bronchial epithelial cells, involving necrosis and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, suggesting that bronchial epithelial cells may play a role in the pulmonary injury caused by Tsv. PMID:27452928

  6. [Cellular immunity state assessed in bronchial and alveolar lavage for experimental animals exposed to the rubber dust].

    PubMed

    Zhumabekova, B K; Karabalin, S K; Bakirova, R E

    2004-01-01

    Experiments on 21 rats helped to study influence of mechanical rubber dust on cellular immunity state in bronchial and alveolar lavage, efficiency of Ruvimine for prophylaxis. Findings are that mechanical rubber dust is strongly cytotoxic. Ruvimine administration during the whole experiment demonstrates therapeutic and prophylactic effect and normalizes local pulmonary phagocytosis. PMID:15318451

  7. Undifferentiated bronchial fibroblasts derived from asthmatic patients display higher elastic modulus than their non-asthmatic counterparts.

    PubMed

    Sarna, Michal; Wojcik, Katarzyna A; Hermanowicz, Pawel; Wnuk, Dawid; Burda, Kvetoslava; Sanak, Marek; Czyż, Jarosław; Michalik, Marta

    2015-01-01

    During asthma development, differentiation of epithelial cells and fibroblasts towards the contractile phenotype is associated with bronchial wall remodeling and airway constriction. Pathological fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition (FMT) can be triggered by local inflammation of bronchial walls. Recently, we have demonstrated that human bronchial fibroblasts (HBFs) derived from asthmatic patients display some inherent features which facilitate their FMT in vitro. In spite of intensive research efforts, these properties remain unknown. Importantly, the role of undifferentiated HBFs in the asthmatic process was systematically omitted. Specifically, biomechanical properties of undifferentiated HBFs have not been considered in either FMT or airway remodeling in vivo. Here, we combine atomic force spectroscopy with fluorescence microscopy to compare mechanical properties and actin cytoskeleton architecture of HBFs derived from asthmatic patients and non-asthmatic donors. Our results demonstrate that asthmatic HBFs form thick and aligned 'ventral' stress fibers accompanied by enlarged focal adhesions. The differences in cytoskeleton architecture between asthmatic and non-asthmatic cells correlate with higher elastic modulus of asthmatic HBFs and their increased predilection to TGF-β-induced FMT. Due to the obvious links between cytoskeleton architecture and mechanical equilibrium, our observations indicate that HBFs derived from asthmatic bronchi can develop considerably higher static tension than non-asthmatic HBFs. This previously unexplored property of asthmatic HBFs may be potentially important for their myofibroblastic differentiation and bronchial wall remodeling during asthma development. PMID:25679502

  8. Zinc Induced G2/M Blockage is p53 and p21 Dependent in Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The involvement of the p53 and p21 signal pathway in the G2/M cell cycle progression of zinc supplemented normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells was examined using the siRNA approach. Cells were cultured for one passage in different concentrations of zinc: <0.4 microM (ZD) as zinc-deficient;...

  9. Lipoxin A4 prevents tight junction disruption and delays the colonization of cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelial cells by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Gerard; Fustero Torre, Coral; Tyrrell, Jean; McNally, Paul; Harvey, Brian J; Urbach, Valerie

    2016-06-01

    The specialized proresolution lipid mediator lipoxin A4 (LXA4) is abnormally produced in cystic fibrosis (CF) airways. LXA4 increases the CF airway surface liquid height and stimulates airway epithelial repair and tight junction formation. We report here a protective effect of LXA4 (1 nM) against tight junction disruption caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial challenge together with a delaying action against bacterial invasion in CF airway epithelial cells from patients with CF and immortalized cell lines. Bacterial invasion and tight junction integrity were measured by gentamicin exclusion assays and confocal fluorescence microscopy in non-CF (NuLi-1) and CF (CuFi-1) bronchial epithelial cell lines and in primary CF cultures, grown under an air/liquid interface, exposed to either a clinical or laboratory strains of P. aeruginosa LXA4 delayed P. aeruginosa invasion and transepithelial migration in CF and normal bronchial epithelial cell cultures. These protective effects of LXA4 were inhibited by the ALX/FPR2 lipoxin receptor antagonist BOC-2. LXA4 prevented the reduction in mRNA biosynthesis and protein abundance of the tight junction protein ZO-1 and reduced tight junction disruption induced by P. aeruginsosa inoculation. In conclusion, LXA4 plays a protective role in bronchial epithelium by stimulating tight junction repair and by delaying and reducing the invasion of CF bronchial epithelial cells by P. aeruginsosa. PMID:27084849

  10. Control of growth and squamous differentiation in normal human bronchial epithelial cells by chemical and biological modifiers and transferred genes

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeifer, A.M.; Lechner, J.F.; Masui, T.; Reddel, R.R.; Mark, G.E.; Harris, C.C.

    1989-03-01

    The majority of human lung cancers arise from bronchial epithelial cells. The normal pseudostratified bronchial epithelium is composed of basal, mucous, and ciliated cells. This multi-differentiated epithelium usually responds to xenobiotics and physical injury by undergoing basal cell hyperplasia, mucous cell hyperplasia, and squamous metaplasia. One step of the multistage process of carcinogenesis is thought to involve aberrations in control of the squamous metaplastic processes. Decreased responsiveness to regulators of terminal squamous differentiation may confer a selective clonal expansion advantage to an initiated cell. We studied the effects of endogenous (e.g., transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) and serum) and exogenous (e.g., 12-O-tetradecanoyl-13-phorbol-acetate (TPA), tobacco smoke condensate, and aldehydes) modifiers of normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cell in a serum-free culture system. NHBE cells are growth inhibited by all of these compounds and induced to undergo squamous differentiation by TGF-beta 1 or TPA. In contrast, lung carcinoma cell lines are relatively resistant to inducers of terminal squamous differentiation which may provide them with a selective growth advantage. Chemical agents and activated protooncogenes (ras,raf,myc) altered the response to endogenous and exogenous inducers of squamous differentiation and caused extended cellular lifespan, aneuploidy, and/or tumorigenicity. The data suggest a close relationship between dysregulation of terminal differentiation pathways and neoplastic transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells.

  11. AEROSOL DEPOSITION EFFICIENCIES AND UPSTREAM RELEASE POSITIONS FOR DIFFERENT INHALATION MODES IN AN UPPER BRONCHIAL AIRWAY MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aerosol Deposition Efficiencies and Upstream Release Positions for Different Inhalation Modes in an Upper Bronchial Airway Model

    Zhe Zhang, Clement Kleinstreuer, and Chong S. Kim

    Center for Environmental Medicine and Lung Biology, University of North Carolina at Ch...

  12. INHIBITION OF RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS (RSV)-INDUCED INFLAMMATION BY 3-NITROTYROSINE IN HUMAN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhibition of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)-Induced Inflammation by 3-Nitrotyrosine in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells. J. M. Soukup, MPH 1, ZW. Li, MD 2 and YC. T. Huang, MD 1. 1 NHEERL, US Environmental Protection Agency, RTP, NC and 2 CEMALB, University of North Carolina,...

  13. PULMONARY FUNCTION AND BRONCHIAL REACTIVITY IN HUMAN SUBJECTS WITH EXPOSURE TO OZONE AND RESPIRABLE SULFURIC ACID AEROSOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A three-year research study was conducted investigating the effects of individual and sequential exposures to ozone and sulfuric acid aerosol on pulmonary function and bronchial reactivity in human subjects. PHASE I: In healthy smokers and nonsmokers exposed for 4 hours to 98 mic...

  14. Experimental Analysis of Air Flows in Bronchial Airway Models in the Cases of Natural Breathing and HFOV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Won-Je; Kawahashi, Masaaki; Hirahara, Hiroyuki

    The mechanism of gas transfer, flow pattern and diffusion in respiratory air flow at the end zone of human lung, especially in bronchial and alveoli, has not been clarified in detail. Recently, it is known that high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) is an effective treatment for respiratory distress syndrome. However, the frequency effect on ventilation in relation to the gas transfer efficiency at the end zone of lungs has not been investigated. The velocity profile of oscillatory air flow in bronchial tube is one of the fundamental factors to consider the frequency effect. In this paper, velocity profiles of oscillatory flows in micro scale models of bronchial airway with single- and multi-bifurcation have been investigated for different frequencies corresponding to resting breathing and HFOV by using micro Particle Image Velocimetry (micro PIV). The temporal changes of velocity profiles were reconstructed by phase-averaged velocity maps obtained by micro PIV measurements, and the effect of frequency on the velocity profile in bronchial models has been discussed.

  15. Horseshoe lung--a case report with unusual bronchial and pleural anomalies and a proposed new classification.

    PubMed

    Figa, F H; Yoo, S J; Burrows, P E; Turner-Gomes, S; Freedom, R M

    1993-01-01

    One case of horseshoe lung with associated scimitar syndrome is presented. Unusual bronchial and pleural anomalies as delineated by CT and plain chest radiographic imaging are described. The presence of bilateral fissures led to a newly proposed classification of horseshoe lung based on pleural anatomy. PMID:8469591

  16. COMPARISON OF PM-INDUCED GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES BETWEEN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS AND NASAL EPITHELIAL CELLS IN HUMAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiologic studies have linked exposures to particulate matter (PM) and increased pulmonary mortality and morbidity. Bronchial epithelial cells (BEC) are the primary target of PM. PM exposure induces a wide array of biological responses in BEC. Primary human BEC, however, need...

  17. The effect of platelet activating factor antagonist on ozone-induced airway inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness in guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, W.C.; Bethel, R.A. )

    1992-10-01

    We investigated the role of platelet-activating factor (PAF) in ozone-induced airway responses by examining the effects of L659,989, a potent PAF antagonist, on bronchial hyperresponsiveness and airway inflammation. Twenty-four male guinea pigs were studied in four equal groups. Total lung resistance (RL) in intubated and spontaneously breathing animals was measured in a constant-volume body plethysmograph. Dose-response curves to methacholine were determined in all animals at the start of the experiment. These were repeated on a separate day after the following types of treatments: air exposure in Group 1, intraperitoneally administered alcohol and air exposure in Group 2; intraperitoneally administered alcohol and ozone exposure in Group 3, and intraperitoneally administered L659,989 (a specific PAF antagonist), 5 mg/kg dissolved in alcohol, and ozone exposure in Group 4. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed after the second methacholine challenge, and the bronchial mucosa was also examined for inflammatory cells. Exposure to 3 ppm ozone for 2 h resulted in a three-doubling concentration increase in bronchial responsiveness, which was not significantly inhibited by prior treatment with L659,989. Ozone induced a 1.8-fold increase in BAL total cell count, increased eosinophilic influx into the airways, and increased eosinophilic infiltration in the bronchial mucosa, which were all not inhibited by L659,989 pretreatment. The results suggest that PAF may not have an essential role in ozone-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and nonallergic airway inflammation.

  18. Bronchial carcinosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Carcano, Carolina; Savage, Edward; Diacovo, Maria Julia; Kirsch, Jacobo

    2012-01-01

    Carcinosarcoma is an uncommon mixed tumor of the lung. We present the case of a 65 year-old-male with cough and a right lower lobe radio-opacity who underwent resection, showing a large endobronchial tumor with an epithelial component of non-small cell carcinoma and malignant mesenchymal elements. The radiologic and histopathologic features are reviewed with reference to relevant literature. PMID:23378874

  19. Infection by Ascaris lumbricoides and bronchial hyper reactivity: an outstanding association in Venezuelan school children from endemic areas.

    PubMed

    Hagel, I; Cabrera, M; Hurtado, M A; Sanchez, P; Puccio, F; Di Prisco, M C; Palenque, M

    2007-09-01

    Asthma and other respiratory diseases have increased in the last years among Venezuelan children from helminthic endemic areas where the infection by Ascaris lumbricoides has been associated to bronchial airway inflammation in parasitized individuals. The aim of this work was to investigate the possible associations between the development of bronchial hyper reactivity and the immune response against A. lumbricoides in urban and rural children. We evaluated 470 school children from rural and urban communities. Pulmonary function tests were performed and >or=20% PC(20) changes were considered as a positive diagnostic of bronchial hyper reactivity. The prevalence and intensity of A. lumbricoides infection was determined by faecal examination. Specific serum IgE levels using a modified ELISA and skin prick tests against A. lumbricoides and the common allergen Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were done. The number of circulating lymphocyte sub populations was determined by flow cytometry analysis. In rural children, bronchial hyper reactivity was associated with increased specific levels of anti-A. lumbricoides IgE (p<0.0001) and skin test positivity for A. lumbricoides (p<0.0001). The percentage of FEV1 predictive values correlated inversely (p<0.0001) with anti-A. lumbricoides IgE levels. Elevated numbers of circulating CD3+CD4+ and CD20+CD23+ cells were found in rural children with bronchial hyper reactivity compared to their asymptomatic counterparts. They correlated positively with anti-A. lumbricoides IgE levels (p<0.005 and <0.0001, respectively). In contrast, in urban children, bronchial hyper reactivity was associated with elevated anti-D. pteronyssinus IgE levels (p=0. 0089), skin hyper reactivity towards this aero allergen (p=0.003) and to an increase in the number of CD3+CD8+ (p<0.0001). Our results suggest that the IgE response against A. lumbricoides infection may be involved in the development of bronchial hyper reactivity among rural children from endemic

  20. A Comparative Study of Induced Sputum and Bronchial Washings in Diagnosing Sputum Smear Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Mandava, Venu; Namballa, Usha Rani; Makala, Sravani

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tuberculosis is one of the most important public health problem worldwide. Detecting patients with active pulmonary Koch’s disease is an important component of tuberculosis control programs. However, at times in patients even with a compatible clinical picture, sputum smears do not reveal acid-fast bacilli and smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis remains a common problem. Aim The present study is aimed to compare the results of induced sputum and bronchial washings smear in patients suspected to have sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis. Materials and Methods A prospective study conducted from August 2014 to July 2015, comprising 120 patients fulfilling study criteria. Patients with respiratory symptoms and chest roentgenogram suspicious of pulmonary tuberculosis with no previous history of anti-tuberculosis treatment and two spontaneous sputum smear samples negative for acid fast bacilli were included. Patients with active haemoptysis and sputum positive were excluded from the study. Sputum induction was done by using 5-10 ml of 3% hypertonic saline through ultrasonic nebulizer taking safety precautions. All the patient underwent fibreoptic bronchoscopy after six hours fasting on the same day. About 20 ml of normal saline instilled into the suspected pathology area and washings were taken with gentle suction. The sample processing and fluorescent staining for acid fast bacilli was done in a designated microscopy lab. Results Out of 120 sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis patients, induced sputum smear examination detected acid fast bacilli in 76 patients (63.3%) and acid fast bacilli detected from bronchial washings in 94 patients (78.3%). Smear positivity was higher in cavitary and infiltrative lesions as compared to consolidation and infrahilar pattern disease. Conclusion Even though both induced sputum and bronchial washings procedures were valuable for the diagnosis of sputum smear negative, sputum induction with hypertonic

  1. A MicroRNA Network Dysregulated in Asthma Controls IL-6 Production in Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Louafi, Fethi; Francisco-Garcia, Ana S.; Rupani, Hitasha; Bedke, Nicole; Holgate, Stephen; Howarth, Peter H.; Davies, Donna E.; Sanchez-Elsner, Tilman

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs are short non-coding single stranded RNAs that regulate gene expression. While much is known about the effects of individual microRNAs, there is now growing evidence that they can work in co-operative networks. MicroRNAs are known to be dysregulated in many diseases and affect pathways involved in the pathology. We investigated dysregulation of microRNA networks using asthma as the disease model. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by bronchial hyperresponsiveness and airway remodelling. The airway epithelium is a major contributor to asthma pathology and has been shown to produce an excess of inflammatory and pro-remodelling cytokines such as TGF-β, IL-6 and IL-8 as well as deficient amounts of anti-viral interferons. After performing microRNA arrays, we found that microRNAs -18a, -27a, -128 and -155 are down-regulated in asthmatic bronchial epithelial cells, compared to cells from healthy donors. Interestingly, these microRNAs are predicted in silico to target several components of the TGF-β, IL-6, IL-8 and interferons pathways. Manipulation of the levels of individual microRNAs in bronchial epithelial cells did not have an effect on any of these pathways. Importantly, knock-down of the network of microRNAs miR-18a, -27a, -128 and -155 led to a significant increase of IL-8 and IL-6 expression. Interestingly, despite strong in silico predictions, down-regulation of the pool of microRNAs did not have an effect on the TGF-β and Interferon pathways. In conclusion, using both bioinformatics and experimental tools we found a highly relevant potential role for microRNA dysregulation in the control of IL-6 and IL-8 expression in asthma. Our results suggest that microRNAs may have different roles depending on the presence of other microRNAs. Thus, interpretation of in silico analysis of microRNA function should be confirmed experimentally in the relevant cellular context taking into account interactions with other micro

  2. Serum eosinophil cationic protein and bronchial hyperresponsiveness to hypoosmolar challenge in naive atopic asthmatics.

    PubMed

    Dal Negro, R; Tognella, S; Micheletto, C; Pomari, C; Burti, E; Mauroner, L; Turco, P

    1998-01-01

    Inhaled nonisotonic solutions (e.g., ultrasonically nebulized distilled water, UNDW) are sensitive bronchoconstrictive agents in asthmatics, their suggested mechanism of action being the release of mediators from some inflammatory cells. Studies assessing the relationship between degree of bronchial hyperresponsiveness to UNDW and plasma levels of eosinophilic markers are not available to date. Fourteen asymptomatic, nonsmoking, naive asthmatics (8 males, aged 18 to 45; mean basal FEV1 = 93.8% predicted +/- 1.7 SE), monosensitized to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, and twelve normal subjects (9 males, aged 19 to 40, mean basal FEV1 = 93.3% predicted +/- 1.4 SE) entered the study after informed consent. Each subject performed the UNDW challenge while the transcutaneous pO2 (PtcO2) was monitored. Serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) was measured together with blood eosinophils 60 min before UNDW. The bronchial response was expressed as FEV1 and PtcO2% drop from baseline, as assessed 10 min following UNDW. Mean blood eosinophils were 3.4% total leukocytes +/- 0.3 SE in normal subjects and 7.9% total leukocytes +/- 0.4 SE in asthmatics (p < 0.001). Mean serum ECP was 4.6 micrograms/l +/- 0.6 SE in normal subjects and 22.4 micrograms/l +/- 1.3 SE in asthmatics (p < 0.001). Mean FEV1 drop was 2.1% +/- 1.1 SE in normal subjects and 24.2% +/- 1.1 SE in asthmatics; the corresponding mean PtcO2% drop was 3.6 +/- 0.7 SE in normal subjects and 28.6 +/- 1.4 SE in asthmatics. Serum ECP was found to be related to blood eosinophils (r = 0.7, p = 0.003); despite the eosinophils, serum ECP proved to be related to a drop in both FEV1 and PtcO2, atr = 0.6 (p = 0.024) and r = 0.7 (p = 0.006), respectively. In conclusion, serum ECP, but not eosinophils per se, can differentiate normal subjects from naive asthmatics hyperresponsive to UNDW. Serum ECP was also proven to be directly related to both the UNDW-induced bronchoconstriction and hypoxemia, thus confirming that proximal, but

  3. Expression of aquaporins in bronchial tissue and lung parenchyma of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Aquaporins AQP1 and AQP5 are highly expressed in the lung. Recent studies have shown that the expression of these proteins may be mechanistically involved in the airway inflammation and in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of AQP1 and AQP5 in the bronchial tissue and the lung parenchyma of patients with COPD and COPD-resistant smokers. Methods Using a case–control design, we selected a group of 15 subjects with COPD and 15 resistant smokers (smokers without COPD) as a control, all of whom were undergoing lung resection surgery due to a lung neoplasm. We studied the expression of AQP1 and AQP5 in the bronchial tissue and the lung parenchyma by means of immunohistochemistry and reverse-transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction. Tissue expression of AQP1 and AQP5 was semi-quantitatively assessed in terms of intensity and expression by immunohistochemistry using a 4-point scale ranging from 0 (none) to 3 (maximum). Results There were no significant differences in gene expression between COPD patients and resistant smokers both in the bronchial tissue and in the lung parenchyma. However, AQP1 gene expression was 2.41-fold higher in the parenchyma of smokers with COPD compared to controls, whereas the AQP5 gene showed the opposite pattern, with a 7.75-fold higher expression in the bronchus of smokers with COPD compared with controls. AQP1 and AQP5 proteins were preferentially expressed in endothelial cells, showing a higher intensity for AQP1 (66.7% of cases with an intensity of 3, and 93.3% of subjects with an extension of 3 among patients with COPD). Subtle interstitial disease was associated with type II pneumocyte hyperplasia and an increased expression of AQP1. Conclusions This study provides pilot observations on the differences in AQP1 and AQP5 expression between COPD patients and COPD-resistant smokers. Our findings suggest a potential role for AQP1 in the

  4. Cigarette Smoke and the Induction of Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor In Vivo: Selective Contribution of Isoforms to Bronchial Epithelial Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Portelli, Michael A; Stewart, Ceri E; Hall, Ian P; Brightling, Christopher E; Sayers, Ian

    2015-08-01

    The urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) gene (PLAUR) has been identified as an asthma susceptibility gene, with polymorphisms within that gene being associated with baseline lung function, lung function decline, and lung function in a smoking population. Soluble cleaved uPAR (scuPAR), a molecule identified as a marker of increased morbidity and mortality in a number of diseases, has been shown to be elevated in the airways of patients with asthma and in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, the functionality of soluble receptor isoforms and their relationship with an important initiator for obstructive lung disease, cigarette smoke, remains undefined. In this study, we set out to determine the effect of cigarette smoke on soluble uPAR isoforms, its regulatory pathway and the resultant effect on bronchial epithelial cell function. We identified a positive association between cigarette pack-years and uPAR expression in the airway bronchial epithelium of biopsies from patients with asthma (n = 27; P = 0.0485). In vitro, cigarette smoke promoted cleavage of uPAR from the surface of bronchial epithelial cells (1.5× induction; P < 0.0001) and induced the soluble spliced isoform through changes in messenger RNA expression (∼2× change; P < 0.001), driven by loss of endogenous 3' untranslated region suppression. Elevated expression of the soluble isoforms resulted in a proremodeling cell phenotype, characterized by increased proliferation and matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in primary bronchial epithelial cells. This suggests that cigarette smoke elevates soluble receptor isoforms in bronchial epithelial cells through direct (cleavage) and indirect (messenger RNA expression) means. These findings provide further insight into how cigarette smoke may influence changes in the airways of importance to airway remodeling and obstructive lung disease progression. PMID:25490122

  5. Comparative Analysis of Clinicopathologic Features of, Treatment in, and Survival of Americans with Lung or Bronchial Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dan; Du, Xianglin L.; Ren, Yinghong; Liu, Peijun; Li, Shuting; Yang, Jiao; Lv, Meng; Chen, Ling; Wang, Xin; Li, Enxiao; Yang, Jin; Yi, Min

    2016-01-01

    Ethnic disparities in lung and bronchial cancer diagnoses and disease-specific survival (DSS) rates in the United States are well known. However, few studies have specifically assessed these differences in Asian subgroups. The primary objectives of the retrospective analysis described herein were to identify any significant differences in clinicopathologic features, treatment, and survival rate between Asian lung cancer patients and lung cancer patients in other broad ethnic groups in the United States and to determine the reasons for these differences among subgroups of Asian patients with lung or bronchial cancer. We searched the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program database to identify patients diagnosed with lung or bronchial cancer from 1990 to 2012. Differences in clinicopathologic features, treatment, and DSS rate in four broad ethnic groups and eight Asian subgroups were compared. The study population consisted of 849,088 patients, 5.2% of whom were of Asian descent. Female Asian patients had the lowest lung and bronchial cancer incidence rates, whereas male black patients had the highest rates. Asian patients had the best 5-year DSS rate. In our Asian subgroup analysis, Indian/Pakistani patients had the best 5-year DSS rate, whereas Hawaiian/Pacific Islander patients had the worst 5-year DSS rates. We found the differences in DSS rate among the four broad ethnic groups and eight Asian subgroups when we grouped patients by age and disease stage, as well. Asian patients had better DSS rates than those in the other three broad ethnic groups in almost every age and disease-stage group, especially in older patients and those with advanced-stage disease. In conclusion, we found that clinicopathologic features and treatment of lung and bronchial cancer differ by ethnicity in the United States, and the differences impact survival in each ethnic group. PMID:27244238

  6. Comparative Analysis of Clinicopathologic Features of, Treatment in, and Survival of Americans with Lung or Bronchial Cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Du, Xianglin L; Ren, Yinghong; Liu, Peijun; Li, Shuting; Yang, Jiao; Lv, Meng; Chen, Ling; Wang, Xin; Li, Enxiao; Yang, Jin; Yi, Min

    2016-01-01

    Ethnic disparities in lung and bronchial cancer diagnoses and disease-specific survival (DSS) rates in the United States are well known. However, few studies have specifically assessed these differences in Asian subgroups. The primary objectives of the retrospective analysis described herein were to identify any significant differences in clinicopathologic features, treatment, and survival rate between Asian lung cancer patients and lung cancer patients in other broad ethnic groups in the United States and to determine the reasons for these differences among subgroups of Asian patients with lung or bronchial cancer. We searched the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program database to identify patients diagnosed with lung or bronchial cancer from 1990 to 2012. Differences in clinicopathologic features, treatment, and DSS rate in four broad ethnic groups and eight Asian subgroups were compared. The study population consisted of 849,088 patients, 5.2% of whom were of Asian descent. Female Asian patients had the lowest lung and bronchial cancer incidence rates, whereas male black patients had the highest rates. Asian patients had the best 5-year DSS rate. In our Asian subgroup analysis, Indian/Pakistani patients had the best 5-year DSS rate, whereas Hawaiian/Pacific Islander patients had the worst 5-year DSS rates. We found the differences in DSS rate among the four broad ethnic groups and eight Asian subgroups when we grouped patients by age and disease stage, as well. Asian patients had better DSS rates than those in the other three broad ethnic groups in almost every age and disease-stage group, especially in older patients and those with advanced-stage disease. In conclusion, we found that clinicopathologic features and treatment of lung and bronchial cancer differ by ethnicity in the United States, and the differences impact survival in each ethnic group. PMID:27244238

  7. Induction of Bronchial Tolerance After 1 Cycle of Monophosphoryl-A-Adjuvanted Specific Immunotherapy in Children With Grass Pollen Allergies

    PubMed Central

    Girod, Katharina; Zielen, Stefan; Schubert, Ralf; Schulze, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Subcutaneous allergen-specific immunotherapy (SCIT) is a well-established and clinically effective method to treat allergic diseases, such as rhinitis and asthma. It remains unclear how soon after initiation of an ultra-short course of grass pollen immunotherapy adjuvanted with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL)-specific bronchial tolerance can be induced. Methods In a prospective study of 69 children double-sensitized to birch and grass pollens (51 males, average age 11.1 years), development of bronchial tolerance after 1 cycle of SCIT for grass was evaluated. In all the patients, the bronchial allergen provocation test (BAP) was performed before and after treatment. According to the results of the first BAP, the patients were divided into 2 groups: those showing a negative BAP with a decrease in FEV1 of <20% (seasonal allergic rhinitis [SAR] group, n=47); and those showing a positive BAP with a decrease in FEV1 of ≥20% (SAR with allergic asthma [SAR and Asthma] group, n=22). All the patients received MPL-adjuvanted, ultra-short course immunotherapy for birch, but only those with a positive BAP to grass received MPL-SCIT for grass. Results After the pollen season, the BAP in the SAR group remained unchanged, while it was improved in the SAR and Asthma group (decrease in FEV1 of 28.8% vs 12.5%, P<0.01). The IgG4 levels increased after SCIT (median before SCIT 0.34 to 11.4 after SCIT), whereas the total and specific IgE levels remained unchanged. Conclusions After 1 cycle of MPL-SCIT, specific bronchial tolerance may be significantly induced, whereas in patients without SCIT, bronchial hyperactivity may remain unchanged. PMID:26922936

  8. Emergency escape surgery for a gastro-bronchial fistula with respiratory failure that developed after esophagectomy.

    PubMed

    Ibuki, Yuta; Hamai, Yoichi; Hihara, Jun; Taomoto, Junya; Kishimoto, Ichiko; Miyata, Yoshihiro; Okada, Morihito

    2015-03-01

    A gastro-bronchial fistula (GBF) is a rare complication after esophageal reconstruction using a gastric tube, but it can cause severe pneumonia, and the surgical procedure is challenging. We herein describe a patient who was successfully managed using a two-stage operation for a GBF. Because the patient had life-threatening pneumonia and respiratory failure caused by the GBF, we first transected the duodenum, established a cervical esophagostomy and gastrostomy and placed a decompression catheter in the gastric tube without a thoracotomy. The patient recovered from pneumonia after the resolution of the salivary inflow and digestive juice reflux into the lungs through the GBF. Two months later, an esophageal bypass was achieved by reconstructing the esophagus using a long segment of pedicled jejunum. The patient was discharged 38 days thereafter. Appropriate treatment for GBF should be tailored to individual patients based on their current status and disease severity. PMID:24449022

  9. Proteomic study of human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to SiC nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokarski, Caroline; Hirano, Seishiro; Rolando, Christian

    2011-07-01

    The presented work proposes an optimized methodology for the study of cell exposure to nanomaterials at protein level. The study was investigated on proteins extracted from human bronchial epithelial cells exposed and non-exposed to silicon carbide nanoparticles (SiC). The analytical strategy was based on high resolution measurement using Fourier transform mass spectrometer 9.4 T. The methodology proposed succeeds in identifying over 300 proteins; most of the identified proteins are present in both exposed and non exposed cells to SiC nanoparticles. More interestingly, cytokines as Macrophage migration inhibitory factor protein could be identified only in the cells exposed to SiC nanoparticles indicating cell inflammatory response.

  10. Bronchial anthracofibrosis with interstitial lung disease: an association yet to be highlighted.

    PubMed

    Kunal, Shekhar; Pilaniya, Vikas; Shah, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Bronchial anthracofibrosis (BAF), an emerging pulmonary disease due to long-standing exposure to biomass fuel smoke, is predominantly seen in females from developing nations. BAF is known to be associated with tuberculosis, pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer, but the association of BAF with interstitial lung disease (ILD) is rare and yet to be highlighted. A 72-year-old woman with a 30-year history of exposure to biomass fuel smoke presented with dry cough and exertional dyspnoea. Imaging demonstrated interlobular, intralobular and peribronchovascular interstitial thickening and honeycombing adjoining the subpleural regions, suggestive of the usual interstitial pneumonia pattern. A restrictive pattern with diffusion defect was noted. Fibrebronchoscopy revealed a bluish-black anthracotic pigmentation with a narrowed and distorted left upper lobe, and apical segment of left lower lobe bronchus, confirming BAF. A diagnosis of BAF with ILD was made. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first detailed description of this association. PMID:26759407

  11. Photodynamic therapy for synchronous occult bronchial cancer 17 years after pneumonectomy.

    PubMed

    Moghissi, Keyvan; Dixon, Kate

    2005-08-01

    We present a patient with radiologically occult double synchronous bronchial neoplastic lesions 17 years after right pneumonectomy. Chest radiograph and CT scan of the thorax showed no abnormalities of the residual lung fields nor mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Standard white light bronchoscopy (WLB) revealed a tumour in the left lower lobe bronchus. Autofluorescence bronchoscopy (AFB) indicated two abnormal fluorescing areas; one in the left lower lobe (as per WLB) and the other in the right lower lateral wall of the trachea. Both of these proved to be neoplastic. The two lesions were treated by bronchoscopic photodynamic therapy (PDT) with complete response so far for 10 months. AFB played a crucial role in diagnosis and ensuring completeness of treatment by PDT in this case with encouraging early results illustrating the respective value of AFB and PDT in such cases. PMID:17670423

  12. Unilateral optic nerve head and choroidal metastases from a bronchial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hayreh, S S; Blodi, F C; Silbermann, N N; Summers, T B; Potter, P H

    1982-01-01

    A 61-year-old man presented with uniocular gradually progressive visual loss, pain in the eye, visual activity of 6/60, markedly constricted visual fields, optic disc edema, retinal pigment epithelial disturbance at the posterior pole, and markedly delayed filling of the choroid on angiography, with a normal fellow eye. He had suffered from recurrent seizures for 15 years, with some evidence of cortical demyelination. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was elevated. About 5 months after the onset of visual disturbance, evidence of bronchial carcinoma became apparent and he died 6 weeks later. The etiology of his ocular lesions was established only by histopathological evidence of metastases into the optic nerve head and the choroid. Diagnostic problems presented by the ocular findings are discussed. PMID:7145334

  13. Endobronchial Hamartoma Subtotally Occluding the Right Main Bronchus and Mimicking Bronchial Carcinoid Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Lococo, Filippo; Galeone, Carla; Lasagni, Luciano; Carbonelli, Cristiano; Tagliavini, Elena; Piro, Roberto; Zucchi, Luigi; Sgarbi, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hamartomas are very rarely identified as an endobronchial lesion. Herein, we describe a peculiar case of a 55-year-old woman with persistent cough and increasing dyspnea and radiological detection of a solid lesion subtotally occluding the main right bronchus. Despite the radiological and radiometabolic (18-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography/computer tomography scan) features were highly suspected for bronchial carcinoid, the definitive diagnosis after endoscopic removal was indicative of an endobronchial hamartoma. When considering differential diagnosis of an endobronchial lesion, the physicians should take firmly in mind such rare entity and, accordingly, bronchoscopy and bronchoscopic biopsy should be done as first step in management of all cases presenting with endobronchial lesions. PMID:27082600

  14. Complete right lung agenesis presenting with bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, Ram Avadh Singh; Ranganath, T G; Garg, Rajiv; Anand, Shipra

    2012-01-01

    A 26 year-old lady presented with episodic breathlessness, chest tightness, recurrent nasal obstruction and excessive sneezing, mainly during change of season along with opacity of the right hemithorax on chest x-ray. Further detailed work-up including spirometry, high-resolution CT scan of the thorax and fibre-optic bronchoscopy confirmed complete right lung agenesis in patients with bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis. Complete control of symptoms was achieved with formeterol 6 μg and mometasone 200 μg (via dry powder inhaler) and intranasal fluticasone 50 μg (nasal spray) 2 puffs twice daily and oral montelukast 10 mg with levocetirizine 5 mg once daily. PMID:23001088

  15. Mechanisms involved in the chemoprotective effects of rosemary extract studied in human liver and bronchial cells.

    PubMed

    Offord, E A; Macé, K; Avanti, O; Pfeifer, A M

    1997-03-19

    Natural polyphenols found in rosemary have not only potent antioxidant activities but also anticarcinogenic properties. We have studied some of the molecular mechanisms involved in their chemopreventive action using in vitro human liver and bronchial cell models. Rosemary extract, or its active components, carnosol or carnosic acid are potent inhibitors of DNA adduct formation induced by benzo(a)pyrene or aflatoxin B1. At least two mechanisms are involved in the anticarcinogenic action of rosemary extract: (i) inhibition of the metabolic activation of procarcinogens catalysed by the phase I cytochrome P450 enzymes; (ii) induction of the detoxification pathway catalysed by the phase II enzymes such as glutathione S-transferase. PMID:9103309

  16. [Case of repeated hemoptysis successfully treated with bronchial artery embolization with N-butyl cyanoacrylate].

    PubMed

    Tamiya, Hiroyuki; Hirano, Satoshi; Morii, Sakae; Hanada, Shigeo; Beika, Yuka; Ishii, Satoru; Miyano, Shinsuke; Naka, Go; Izumi, Shinyu; Takeda, Yuichiro; Yoshizawa, Atsuto; Hojo, Masayuki; Sugiyama, Haruhito; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Kudo, Koichiro

    2009-05-01

    We report a case of repeated hemoptysis successfully treated with bronchial artery embolization (BAE) with N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA). A 75-year-old woman with non-tuberculous mycobacteriosis and pulmonary aspergillosis was admitted with recurrent hemoptysis despite repeated BAE. Considering the ineffectiveness of BAE with Spongel or polyvinyl alcohol, BAE with NBCA was selected. Immediate cessation of hemoptysis was obtained and it has not been seen for 2 years. Although NBCA is the most widely used liquid embolic material to treat brain aneurysm, arteriovenous malformations or gastric varices, there are only a few cases are reported in the treatment of hemoptysis. It seems to be a possible useful treatment for patients with repeated hemoptysis. PMID:19514507

  17. Interferon response of the cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelium to major and minor group rhinovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Schögler, Aline; Stokes, Andrea B; Casaulta, Carmen; Regamey, Nicolas; Edwards, Michael R; Johnston, Sebastian L; Jung, Andreas; Moeller, Alexander; Geiser, Thomas; Alves, Marco P

    2016-05-01

    Rhinoviruses (RVs) are associated with exacerbations of cystic fibrosis (CF), asthma and COPD. There is growing evidence suggesting the involvement of the interferon (IFN) pathway in RV-associated morbidity in asthma and COPD. The mechanisms of RV-triggered exacerbations in CF are poorly understood. In a pilot study, we assessed the antiviral response of CF and healthy bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) to RV infection, we measured the levels of IFNs, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) upon infection with major and minor group RVs and poly(IC) stimulation. Major group RV infection of CF BECs resulted in a trend towards a diminished IFN response at the level of IFNs, PRRs and ISGs in comparison to healthy BECs. Contrary to major group RV, the IFN pathway induction upon minor group RV infection was significantly increased at the level of IFNs and PRRs in CF BECs compared to healthy BECs. PMID:26613982

  18. Study of fingerprint patterns to evaluate the role of dermatoglyphics in early detection of bronchial asthma

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shiva; Khurana, Alkesh Kumar; Harode, Hemant Ashish; Tripathi, Apoorva; Pakhare, Abhijit; Chaware, Prashant

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dermatoglyphics and bronchial asthma (BA) are both influenced by genetic factors. Hence, we assessed the diagnostic potential of correlation between fingerprint pattern and BA. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in out-patient Department of Pulmonary Medicine of All India Institute of Medical Sciences Bhopal. It included 36 patients of BA and 50 nonasthmatic individuals as controls. The following parameters were studied and analyzed: (a) Whorls, (b) arches, (c) radial loops, (d) ulnar loops, (e) the absolute finger ridge count (AFRC), (f) total finger ridge count (TFRC). Results: A significant decrease in the mean value of the arches and increase in the mean value of the ulnar loops were observed in BA patients compared to the control group. The mean values of TFRC, AFRC, and whorls were similar in both groups. Conclusion: Evaluation of dermatoglyphic patterns may be useful in identifying patients prone to developing BA. PMID:27003968

  19. Bronchial dysplasia induced by radiation in miners exposed to 222Rn progeny.

    PubMed Central

    Michaylov, M A; Pressyanov, D S; Kalinov, K B

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To investigate whether sputum cytology can be used to monitor epithelial cell changes in groups at high risk of lung cancer from exposure to radiation. METHODS--Dysplasia of bronchial cells was investigated by means of sputum cytology in a group of 434 underground miners. 100 of them were not exposed, and 334 were exposed to 222Rn progeny at cumulative exposures < 450 working level months. RESULTS--The frequency of dysplasia in the exposed group was significantly higher than that in the not exposed group (P < 0.0001), and an exposure-response relation was found. This relation was different for smokers and non-smokers. CONCLUSIONS--Possibly the frequencies of dysplasia could be used to assess past exposures of groups of miners. This approach could be applied to cases where data on radiation monitoring are not available or are very scarce. Images p82-a PMID:7757171

  20. Tracheo-bronchial soft tissue and cartilage resonances in the subglottal acoustic input impedance.

    PubMed

    Lulich, Steven M; Arsikere, Harish

    2015-06-01

    This paper offers a re-evaluation of the mechanical properties of the tracheo-bronchial soft tissues and cartilage and uses a model to examine their effects on the subglottal acoustic input impedance. It is shown that the values for soft tissue elastance and cartilage viscosity typically used in models of subglottal acoustics during phonation are not accurate, and corrected values are proposed. The calculated subglottal acoustic input impedance using these corrected values reveals clusters of weak resonances due to soft tissues (SgT) and cartilage (SgC) lining the walls of the trachea and large bronchi, which can be observed empirically in subglottal acoustic spectra. The model predicts that individuals may exhibit SgT and SgC resonances to variable degrees, depending on a number of factors including tissue mechanical properties and the dimensions of the trachea and large bronchi. Potential implications for voice production and large pulmonary airway tissue diseases are also discussed. PMID:26093432

  1. [Explanation of Evidence-based Guidelines of Clinical Practice with Acupuncture and Moxibustion: Adult Bronchial Asthma].

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yue; Wu, Zhongchao; Zhou, Wenna; Si, Xiaohua; Wang, Jingjing; Zhou, Jincao; Chen, Zhongjie; Li, Rongjun; Zhao, Xiaoguang; Xiao, Liwei

    2016-05-01

    The development and compilation of Evidence-based Guidelines of Clinical Practice with Acupuncture and Moxibustion: Adult Bronchial Asthma are introduced from three aspects, named the guideline methodology, the guideline structure and the guideline content. Based on the acupuncture-moxibustion practice and clinical research, the evidence-based medicine method is adopted. During the development and compilation of the guideline, the characteristics and advantages of acupuncture and moxibustion are specially considered in the treatment of this disease; the latest optimum evidences at home and abroad, experts' experience and patients' value are closely integrated with each other. Additionally, the worldwide accepted assessments of evidence quality and the recommendation (GRADE system) are combined with the clinical evidences of the ancient and modern famous acupuncture-moxibustion experts, and the clinical research evidences are with the experts' consensus to the large extent. The purpose of the guideline is to provide the maximal guidance to the clinical physicians. PMID:27509620

  2. Treatment of bronchial airway obstruction using a rotating tip microdebrider: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Marcus P; Morice, Rodolfo C; Jimenez, Carlos A; Eapen, George A

    2007-01-01

    Background Central airway obstruction is a common complication of lung cancer. The microdebrider is a new device available for treatment of central airway obstruction. Case Description We report a case a 59-yr-old male with T3N2M1 non-small cell lung cancer with malignant distal left mainstem obstruction treated successfully with a novel elongated rotating tip microdebrider via rigid bronchoscopy with sufficient length to reach distal bronchial lesions. Discussion and Conclusion The microdebrider is an excellent addition to the spectrum of interventions available for the management of central airway obstruction with advantages including accuracy and immediate removal of debris without a need for separate suctioning or limitation in oxygenation. PMID:17386099

  3. [The physiological characteristics of the antioxidant properties of Lipin in bronchial asthma in children].

    PubMed

    Tymchenko, O H; Seredenko, M M; Portnychenko, V I; Babko, S O; Velychko, M I; Tsvietkova, K V

    1996-01-01

    In children of 4-7 years old with bronchial asthma (BA) has been studied the values of lipid peroxidation, antioxidant status and some others in blood plasma and erythrocytes without and with the use of new drug Lipin. It was shown that in children with BA the malondialdehyde concentration increased, the superoxydedismutase activity decreased, the NAD concentration increased, and the ratio of superoxidedismutase/malondialdehyde greatly decreased in comparison with normal children. The use of Lipin led to diminuation of lipid peroxidation, to marked increase of superoxidedismutase activity, to decrease of NAD concentration, and to significant increase of superoxidedismutase/malondialdehyde ratio. These results were indicated on the expressed antioxidant properties of Lipin in children's with BA. PMID:8991715

  4. NLRP3 inflammasome activation by mitochondrial ROS in bronchial epithelial cells is required for allergic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, S R; Kim, D I; Kim, S H; Lee, H; Lee, K S; Cho, S H; Lee, Y C

    2014-01-01

    Abnormality in mitochondria has been suggested to be associated with development of allergic airway disorders. In this study, to evaluate the relationship between mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in allergic asthma, we used a newly developed mitochondrial ROS inhibitor, NecroX-5. NecroX-5 reduced the increase of mitochondrial ROS generation in airway inflammatory cells, as well as bronchial epithelial cells, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB, increased expression of various inflammatory mediators and pathophysiological features of allergic asthma in mice. Finally, blockade of IL-1β substantially reduced airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in the asthmatic mice. These findings suggest that mitochondrial ROS have a critical role in the pathogenesis of allergic airway inflammation through the modulation of NLRP3 inflammasome activation, providing a novel role of airway epithelial cells expressing NLRP3 inflammasome as an immune responder. PMID:25356867

  5. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids attenuate cigarette smoke extract-induced interleukin-8 production in bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wen-Jiang; Sun, Yan-Hong; Jiang, Jun-Xia; Dong, Xin-Wei; Zhou, Jian-Ying; Xie, Qiang-Min

    2015-03-01

    In response to endothelial cell activation, arachidonic acid can be converted by cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenases to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), which have potent vasodilator and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated the effects of exogenous EETs on cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced inflammation in human bronchial epithelial cells (NCI-H292). We found that CSE inhibited the expression of CYP2C8 and mildly stimulated the expression of epoxide hydrolase 2 (EPHX2) but did not change the expression of CYP2J2. Treatment with 11,12-EET or 14,15-EET attenuated the CSE-induced release of interleukin (IL)-8 by inhibiting the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Our results demonstrated that CSE may reduce the anti-inflammatory ability of epithelial cells themselves by lowering the EET level. EETs from pulmonary epithelial cells may play a critical protective role on epithelial cell injury. PMID:25467970

  6. Automated detection of mucus plugs within bronchial tree in MSCT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odry, Benjamin L.; Guiliguian, Diran; Kiraly, Atilla P.; Novak, Carol L.; Naidich, David P.; Lerallut, Jean-Francois

    2007-03-01

    Pulmonary diseases characterized by chronic airway inflammation, such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary (COPD), result in abnormal bronchial wall thickening, lumen dilatation and mucus plugs. Multi-Slice Computed Tomography (MSCT) allows for assessment of these abnormalities, even in airways that are obliquely oriented to the scan plane. Chronic airway inflammation typically results in limitations of airflow, allowing for the accumulation of mucus, especially in the distal airways. In addition to obstructing airways, retained secretions make the airways prone to infection. Patients with chronic airway disease are clinically followed over time to assess disease progression and response to treatment. In this regard, the ability to obtain an automatic standardized method to rapidly and objectively assess the entire airway tree morphologically, including the extent of mucus plugging, would be of particular clinical value. We have developed a method to automatically detect the presence and location of mucus plugs within the peripheral airways. We first start with segmentation of the bronchial tree using a previously developed method. The skeleton-based tree structure is then computed and each terminal branch is individually extended using an adaptive threshold algorithm. We compute a local 2-dimensional model, based on airway luminal diameter and wall thickness. We then select a few points along the principal axis beyond the terminal branches, to extract 2D cross sections for correlation with a model of mucus plugging. Airway shape is validated with a correlation value, and the lumen distribution is analyzed and compared to the model. A high correlation indicates the presence of a mucus plug. We tested our method on 5 datasets containing a total of 40 foci of mucoid impaction. Preliminary results show sensitivity of 77.5% with a specificity of 98.2% and positive predictive value of 66%.

  7. Expression of polycomb protein BMI-1 maintains the plasticity of basal bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Torr, Elizabeth; Heath, Meg; Mee, Maureen; Shaw, Dominick; Sharp, Tyson V; Sayers, Ian

    2016-08-01

    The airway epithelium is altered in respiratory disease and is thought to contribute to disease etiology. A caveat to disease research is that the technique of isolation of bronchial epithelial cells from patients is invasive and cells have a limited lifespan. The aim of this study was to extensively characterize the plasticity of primary human bronchial epithelial cells that have been engineered to delay cell senescence including the ability of these cells to differentiate. Cells were engineered to express BMI-1 or hTERT using viral vector systems. Cells were characterized at passage (p) early (p5), mid (p10), and late (p15) stage for: BMI-1, p16, and CK14 protein expression, viability and the ability to differentiate at air-liquid interface (ALI), using a range of techniques including immunohistochemistry (IHC), immunofluorescence (IF), transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), MUC5AC and beta tubulin (BTUB) staining. BMI-1-expressing cells maintained elevated levels of the BMI-1 protein and the epithelial marker CK14 and showed a suppression of p16. BMI-1-expressing cells had a viability advantage, differentiated at ALI, and had a normal karyotype. In contrast, hTERT-expressing cells had a reduced viability, showed limited differentiation, and had an abnormal karyotype. We therefore provide extensive characterization of the plasticity of BMI-1 expressing cells in the context of the ALI model. These cells retain properties of wild-type cells and may be useful to characterize respiratory disease mechanisms in vitro over sustained periods. PMID:27558999

  8. E-Cigarette Affects the Metabolome of Primary Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Aug, Argo; Altraja, Siiri; Kilk, Kalle; Porosk, Rando; Soomets, Ursel; Altraja, Alan

    2015-01-01

    E-cigarettes are widely believed to be safer than conventional cigarettes and have been even suggested as aids for smoking cessation. However, while reasonable with some regards, this judgment is not yet supported by adequate biomedical research data. Since bronchial epithelial cells are the immediate target of inhaled toxicants, we hypothesized that exposure to e-cigarettes may affect the metabolome of human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) and that the changes are, at least in part, induced by oxidant-driven mechanisms. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of e-cigarette liquid (ECL) on the metabolome of HBEC and examined the potency of antioxidants to protect the cells. We assessed the changes of the intracellular metabolome upon treatment with ECL in comparison of the effect of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) with mass spectrometry and principal component analysis on air-liquid interface model of normal HBEC. Thereafter, we evaluated the capability of the novel antioxidant tetrapeptide O-methyl-l-tyrosinyl-γ-l-glutamyl-l-cysteinylglycine (UPF1) to attenuate the effect of ECL. ECL caused a significant shift in the metabolome that gradually gained its maximum by the 5th hour and receded by the 7th hour. A second alteration followed at the 13th hour. Treatment with CSC caused a significant initial shift already by the 1st hour. ECL, but not CSC, significantly increased the concentrations of arginine, histidine, and xanthine. ECL, in parallel with CSC, increased the content of adenosine diphosphate and decreased that of three lipid species from the phosphatidylcholine family. UPF1 partially counteracted the ECL-induced deviations, UPF1’s maximum effect occurred at the 5th hour. The data support our hypothesis that ECL profoundly alters the metabolome of HBEC in a manner, which is comparable and partially overlapping with the effect of CSC. Hence, our results do not support the concept of harmlessness of e-cigarettes. PMID:26536230

  9. Effects of sex hormones on bronchial reactivity during the menstrual cycle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many asthmatic women complain of symptom exacerbations in particular periods, i.e. during pregnancy and menstrual cycles (perimenstrual asthma: PMA)". The goal of this study was to study the effect of the luteal and follicular phases of the menstrual cycle on bronchial reactivity (BR) in a group of asthmatic women. Methods For this purpose, 36 pre-menopausal women were enrolled and underwent testing for resting pulmonary function, measurement of the diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO), and airway responsiveness to methacholine in the follicular and luteal phases of their menstrual cycles. We also measured plasma hormone levels and levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP; a mediator of bronchial smooth muscle contraction) and testosterone in induced sputum samples. Results Our study showed that about 30% of the asthmatic women had decreased PC20FEV1.0 in the follicular phase of menstrual cycle with a significant correlation between PC20FEV1.0 and serum testosterone levels. Moreover, marked increases in sputum testosterone levels (mean = 2.6-fold increase) together with significant increases in sputum cAMP concentrations (mean = 3.6-fold increases) were observed during the luteal phase of asthmatic patients, suggesting that testosterone contributes to the pathophysiology of PMA. We excluded the possibility that testosterone directly inhibits phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity as incubating PDE with testosterone in vitro did not reduce PDE catalytic activity. Conclusions In conclusion, our data show that PC20FEV1.0 was decreased in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle in about 30% of women and was associated with lower cAMP levels in sputum samples, which may contribute to bronchoconstriction. Our results also suggest a link between PMA and testosterone levels. However, whether these findings are of clinical significance in terms of the management of asthma or asthma worsening during the menstrual cycle needs

  10. Methacoline Challenge test as an Evaluator of Response to Statins in Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Malek Mohammad, Majid; Fahimi, Fanak; Fakharian, Atefeh; Karimi Gamishan, Masoumeh; Sistanizad, Mohammad; Fayazi, Nader; Khalilzadeh, Soheila

    2012-01-01

    3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins), are effective serum cholesterol-lowering agents which also have anti-inflammatory properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of atorvastatin on bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Adult patients (age 14 to 65 years) with bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) diagnosis based on the spirometry with methacholine challenge test were entered into the study. The study was conducted in the National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. Patients were randomized to receive either atorvastatin 20 mg/day or placebo for 4 weeks. Spirometric parameters were determined at baseline and at completion of the study. Twenty two patients with the age of 32.95±10.30 years completed the trial. Changes in airway responsiveness categories (moderate to severe, mild, borderline, normal) after the intervention were not significant in atorvastatin group as in placebo group (p-value= 0.131 for atorvastatin group and p-value = 0.305 for placebo group). Also, changes in methacholine solution number (different concentrations of methacholine) which caused at least 20% decrease in FEV1 were not significant between groups (p-value = 0.089). Although we could not find a significant difference, the patients’ fall in FEV1 in atorvastatin group was observed in higher concentrations of methacholine. Median before treatment versus after treatment in atorvastatin group was 1 versus 4 mg/mL, while those were 2 versus 1 mg/mL in placebo group. This study showed a better but not significant hyperresponsiveness control in the treatment group. The result might be presented more pronounced, if we could increase the sample size. PMID:24250526

  11. A New Method for Discriminating between Bronchial and Pulmonary Arterial Phases using Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Hong-Xia, Zhang; Wen, He; Ling-Gang, Cheng; Wen-Jia, Cai; Shuo, Li; Li-Juan, Du; Hai-Man, Song; Yang, Zhao

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to explore the value of a real-time comparative observation method using contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) for discriminating between bronchial and pulmonary arterial phases in diagnosing lung diseases. Forty-nine patients with 50 pulmonary lesions (45 peripheral lesions and five central lesions with obstructive atelectasis, including 36 malignant tumors, five tuberculomas, four inflammatory pseudotumors and five pneumonia lesions) detected via computed tomography and visible on ultrasonography were enrolled in this study. The arterial phases were determined by comparing contrast agent arrival time (AT) in the peripheral lung lesion with that in adjacent lung tissue, referred to as a real-time comparative observation method. Detection rates of this observation method were 100% (50/50) for pulmonary arterial phase and 88% (44/50) for bronchial arterial phase. Using the instrument's built-in graphing and analysis software, a time-intensity curve was constructed based on a chosen region of interest within the lesion where enhancement was the most obvious. Commonly used perfusion indicators in CEUS, such as AT, time-to-peak and peak intensity, were obtained from the time-intensity curve. Percutaneous puncture biopsies were performed under ultrasound guidance, and specimens of all 50 lesions were examined pathologically. AT was significantly shorter in patients with pneumonia than in those with malignant tumors or chronic inflammation (p < 0.05), whereas no difference was seen between those with malignant tumors and those with chronic inflammation. No significant differences in time-to-peak or peak intensity were seen among those with various lung diseases (p > 0.05). This is the first description of a real-time comparative observation method using CEUS for determining the arterial phases in the lungs. This method is accurate, simple to perform and provides a direct display. It is expected to become a practical and feasible tool for diagnosing

  12. Oscillatory pressure transients after flow interruption during bronchial challenge test in children.

    PubMed

    Frey, U; Kraemer, R

    1997-01-01

    The measurement of the conventional interrupter resistance (Rint) is dependent on pressure equilibration between alveolar and airway opening pressure, which is often not achieved in the presence of severe airways obstruction or in small children. The damping properties (d) of postocclusional oscillatory pressure transients after rapid flow interrruption can be assessed independent of complete pressure equilibration, and we have previously shown them to be correlated to resistive properties of the respiratory system. We wanted to determine whether these transients were an expression of acoustic properties of the air in the airways, or whether they were caused by an interaction of gas and lung tissue, and whether d was more sensitive than Rint to changes in airway mechanics. Bronchial challenge tests were carried out with cumulative doses of inhaled carbachol in 10 healthy children (aged 7-14 yrs) and 50 asthmatic children (aged 5-15 yrs). The airflow interruptions were performed with a combined nebulizer-shutter head, allowing resistance measurements with each breath. The frequency, and the damping factor of the postocclusional pressure transients changed significantly during carbachol challenge in both groups of children. The provocation dose (PD) at which the damping factor (d) of the oscillatory pressure transients increased more than 2 SD above the baseline mean ("variance-based", PDvb) was lower than the PDvb of the end-interruption resistance (Rint, EI). These changes in frequency and damping factor were reversible after inhaling salbutamol. These findings suggest that the damping properties of the postocclusional pressure transients after flow interruption can be used as a sensitive parameter to assess changes in airway mechanics during bronchial challenge test in children in whom pressure equilibration is frequently not achieved during airflow interruption due to airways obstruction. PMID:9032496

  13. Pro-Inflammatory Effects of Cook Stove Emissions on Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hawley, Brie; Volckens, John

    2012-01-01

    Approximately half the world’s population uses biomass fuel for indoor cooking and heating. This form of combustion typically occurs in open fires or primitive stoves. Human exposure to emissions from indoor biomass combustion is a global health concern, causing an estimated 1.5 million premature deaths each year. Many ‘improved’ stoves have been developed to address this concern; however, studies that examine exposure-response with cleaner-burning, more efficient stoves are few. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of traditional and cleaner burning stove emissions on an established model of the bronchial epithelium. We exposed well-differentiated, normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells to emissions from a single biomass combustion event using either a traditional three-stone fire or one of two energy-efficient stoves. Air-liquid interface cultures were exposed using a novel, aerosol-to-cell deposition system. Cellular expression of a panel of three pro-inflammatory markers was evaluated at 1 and 24 hours following exposure. Cells exposed to emissions from the cleaner burning stoves generated significantly fewer amounts of pro-inflammatory markers than cells exposed to emissions from a traditional, three stone fire. Particulate matter emissions from each cookstove were substantially different, with the three-stone fire producing the largest concentrations of particles (by both number and mass). This study supports emerging evidence that more efficient cookstoves have the potential to reduce respiratory inflammation in settings where solid fuel combustion is used to meet basic domestic needs. PMID:22672519

  14. Calcium dependent and independent cytokine synthesis by air pollution particle-exposed human bronchial epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, Noriho; Hayashi, Shizu; Gosselink, John; Ishii, Hiroshi; Ishimatsu, Yuji; Mukae, Hiroshi; Hogg, James C.; Eeden, Stephan F. van

    2007-12-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution particles with a diameter of < 10 {mu}m (PM{sub 10}) has been associated with increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. We have shown that human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) exposed to PM{sub 10} produce pro-inflammatory mediators that contribute to a local and systemic inflammatory response. Changes in intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) have been demonstrated to regulate several functions of the airway epithelium including the production of pro-inflammatory mediators. The aim of the present study was to determine the nature and mechanism of calcium responses induced by PM{sub 10} in HBECs and its relationship to cytokine synthesis. Methods: Primary HBECs were exposed to urban air pollution particles (EHC-93) and [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} responses were measured using the fluoroprobe (Fura-2). Cytokine levels were measured at mRNA and protein levels using real-time PCR and ELISA. Results: PM{sub 10} increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in a dose-dependent manner. This calcium response was reduced by blocking the influx of calcium into cells (i.e. calcium-free medium, NiCl{sub 2}, LaCl{sub 3}). PM{sub 10} also decreased the activity of calcium pumps. PM{sub 10} increased the production of IL-1{beta}, IL-8, GM-CSF and LIF. Preincubation with intracellular calcium chelator (BAPTA-AM) attenuated IL-1{beta} and IL-8 production, but not GM-CSF and LIF production. Conclusion: We conclude that exposure to PM{sub 10} induces an increase in cytosolic calcium and cytokine production in bronchial epithelial cells. Our results also suggest that PM{sub 10} induces the production of pro-inflammatory mediators via either intracellular calcium-dependent (IL-1{beta}, IL-8) or -independent (GM-CSF, LIF) pathways.

  15. Long-term outcomes of the bronchial artery embolization are diagnosis dependent

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Vikas; Stavas, Joseph M; Ford, Hubert J; Austin, Charles A; Aris, Robert M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) is an established, safe, and effective procedure for the treatment of hemoptysis but long-term outcomes of the BAE have never been investigated before. Objectives: To retrospectively analyze long-term outcomes of the BAE. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart analysis was done from the hospital central database for all patients undergoing the BAE over a consecutive 14-year period (January 2000-February 2014). A total of 58 patients were identified from the database. Eight patients were excluded due to the lack of follow-up. Data such as patient demographics, reason for hemoptysis, medical imaging results, bronchoscopy findings, recurrence rates, and morbidity/mortality rates after the BAE were collected. Results: Eighty three embolizations were performed in 50 patients. The median follow-up was of 2.2 years. Cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis was the most common etiology (21/50), followed by non-CF bronchiectasis (9/50). Cavitary lung disease occurred in 12/50 patients, an additional 4/50 had cancer (primary lung and metastatic), and one patient had antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) vasculitis. In three patients the etiology was unknown. Postprocedural complications occurred in 5/83 (6%) patients, two patients with two major complications - stroke (one) and paraplegia (one) - and three patients with minor complications - chest pain (two) and bronchial artery dissection (one). A total of 15/50 patients died during the follow-up. Three patients died of hemoptysis, and the remaining deaths were unrelated to the procedure or hemoptysis. Twenty four patients had recurrent hemoptysis. A Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed an excellent long-term survival that was 85% at 10 years. Conclusions: The BAE is a safe and effective procedure with excellent overall long-term survival. PMID:26933299

  16. Bronchial Artery Embolization for Hemoptysis Due to Benign Diseases: Immediate and Long-Term Results

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Akira; Kudo, Sho; Matsumoto, Koichi; Fukahori, Tetsuhiro; Shimizu, Toshihisa; Uchino, Akira; Hayashi, Shinichiro

    2000-09-15

    Purpose: To clarify the immediate effect and long-term results of bronchial artery embolization (BAE) for hemoptysis due to benign diseases and the factors influencing the outcomes.Methods: One hundred and one patients (aged 34-89 years) received bronchial artery embolization with polyvinyl alcohol particles and gelatin sponge for massive or continuing moderate hemoptysis caused by benign pulmonary diseases and resistant to medical treatment.Results: After BAE, bleeding stopped in 94 patients (94%). The immediate effect was unfavorable in cases where feeder vessels were overlooked or the embolization of the intercostal arteries was insufficient. Long-term cumulative hemoptysis non recurrence rates after the initial embolization were 77.7% for 1 year and 62.5% for 5 years. In bronchitis (n 9) and active tuberculosis (n = 4) groups, an excellent (100%) 5-year cumulative non recurrence rate was obtained. The rate was lower in groups with pneumonia/abscess/pyothorax (n = 8) or with pulmonary aspergillosis (n = 9) (53.3%, 1-year cumulative non recurrence). There were higher incidences of early recurrence among patients with massive hemorrhage or more marked vascularity and systemic artery-pulmonary artery shunt in angiography: however, these trends were not statistically significant. Conclusions: BAE can yield long-term benefit in patients with hemoptysis due to benign diseases. Technical problems in the procedure had an impact on the short-term effect. The degree of hemorrhage or the severity of angiographical findings were not significant factors affecting the outcome. The most significant factor affecting long-term results was whether the inflammation caused by the underlying disease was medically well controlled.

  17. Role of mesothelin in carbon nanotube-induced carcinogenic transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoqing; Despeaux, Emily; Stueckle, Todd A; Chi, Alexander; Castranova, Vincent; Dinu, Cerasela Zoica; Wang, Liying; Rojanasakul, Yon

    2016-09-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been likened to asbestos in terms of morphology and toxicity. CNT exposure can lead to pulmonary fibrosis and promotion of tumorigenesis. However, the mechanisms underlying CNT-induced carcinogenesis are not well defined. Mesothelin (MSLN) is overexpressed in many human tumors, including mesotheliomas and pancreatic and ovarian carcinomas. In this study, the role of MSLN in the carcinogenic transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells chronically exposed to single-walled CNT (BSW) was investigated. MSLN overexpression was found in human lung tumors, lung cancer cell lines, and BSW cells. The functional role of MSLN in the BSW cells was then investigated by using stably transfected MSLN knockdown (BSW shMSLN) cells. MSLN knockdown resulted in significantly decreased invasion, migration, colonies on soft agar, and tumor sphere formation. In vivo, BSW shMSLN cells formed smaller primary tumors and less metastases. The mechanism by which MSLN contributes to these more aggressive behaviors was investigated by using ingenuity pathway analysis, which predicted that increased MSLN could induce cyclin E expression. We found that BSW shMSLN cells had decreased cyclin E, and their proliferation rate was reverted to nearly that of untransformed cells. Cell cycle analysis showed that the BSW shMSLN cells had an increased G2 population and a decreased S phase population, which is consistent with the decreased rate of proliferation. Together, our results indicate a novel role of MSLN in the malignant transformation of bronchial epithelial cells following CNT exposure, suggesting its utility as a potential biomarker and drug target for CNT-induced malignancies. PMID:27422997

  18. Prostanoid-induced contraction of human bronchial smooth muscle is mediated by TP-receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, R. A.; Sheldrick, R. L.

    1989-01-01

    1. A range of naturally-occurring prostaglandins sulprostone, 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2 (DME2) and the thromboxane A2 (TXA2)-mimetic, 11 alpha,9 alpha-epoxymethano prostaglandin H2 (U-46619) have been tested for contractile agonist activity on human isolated bronchial smooth muscle. 2. Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), PGF2 alpha, 9 alpha,11 beta-PGF2 (11 beta-PGF2) and U-46619 all caused concentration-related contractions. U46619 was at least 300 fold more potent than the other prostanoids with a mean EC50 of 12 nM. Sulprostone caused contraction only at the highest concentration tested (30 microM). PGE2 and PGI2 caused relaxations at low concentrations, and only caused contractile responses at high concentrations (greater than or equal to 10 microM). In contrast, DME2 caused small contractions at low concentrations but relaxation at the highest concentration tested (30 microM). 3. The rank order of contractile agonist potency was: U-46619 much greater than 11 beta-PGF2 congruent to PGF2 alpha greater than PGD2 greater than PGE2 greater than PGI2 congruent to sulprostone congruent to DME2. 4. The TP-receptor blocking drug, AH23848 (1 microM) antagonized the contractile effects of U-46619, PGD2, PGF2 alpha and 11 beta-PGF2, but had no effect against contractions to carbachol. In a single experiment, a pA2 of 8.3 (slope = 1.2) was obtained for AH23848 against U-46619. 5. In most preparations, administration of AH23848 (1 microM) to human bronchus resulted in small, transient contractile responses. 6. The results obtained with both the agonists and the antagonist, AH23848 are therefore consistent with prostanoid-induced contractions of human bronchial smooth muscle being mediated by TP-receptors. PMID:2720298

  19. Persistence of Bronchial Dysplasia Is Associated with Development of Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Merrick, Daniel T; Gao, Dexiang; Miller, York E; Keith, Robert L; Baron, Anna E; Feser, William; Kennedy, Timothy C; Blatchford, Patrick J; Braudrick, Sarah; Hirsch, Fred R; Heasley, Lynn; Bunn, Paul A; Franklin, Wilbur A

    2016-01-01

    Bronchial dysplasia (BD), a presumed precursor of pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), rarely progresses to invasive cancer. A high-risk cohort at the University of Colorado provided an opportunity to directly sample airway epithelium at mapped sites on successive bronchoscopies. We have hypothesized that persistent dysplastic lesions showing a similar or higher level of dysplasia on follow-up biopsy, are associated with increased risk for the development of SCC. Endoscopic biopsies from 188 high-risk subjects were histologically classified according to the current WHO classification for BD using a numeric histology score ranging from 1 to 8 representing normal bronchial mucosa through invasive lung cancer. Differences in follow-up histology scores were compared between sites classified by clinical, histologic, and immunohistochemical variables. Subjects with a higher frequency of sites that persist or progress to high-grade dysplasia (≥37.5% persist/progress, N = 35 versus <37.5% persist/progress, N = 114) show a significant association with development of incident invasive SCC (adjusted HR, 7.84; 95% confidence interval, 1.56-39.39), and those with incident lung SCC have adjusted mean follow-up histology scores 1.55 U higher than in subjects without lung cancer. Current smoking, elevated Ki67 growth fraction, histologic features of angiogenic squamous dysplasia (ASD) and higher histology score in baseline biopsies are significantly associated with increased follow-up histology scores. These results show that persistent BD is associated with the development of invasive SCC. Furthermore, increased expression of Ki67, the presence of angiogenic change and degree of baseline atypia are associated with persistence of BD. PMID:26542061

  20. Expression of p53 in preneoplastic and early neoplastic bronchial lesions.

    PubMed

    Martin, B; Verdebout, J-M; Mascaux, C; Paesmans, M; Rouas, G; Verhest, A; Ninane, V; Sculier, J-P

    2002-01-01

    p53 alteration has been reported to be an early event in bronchial carcinogenesis. Our study purpose was to determine the rate of p53 expression in the various preneoplastic and early neoplastic bronchial lesions obtained by biopsy during fluorescence bronchoscopy and to analyse its association with patients characteristics. Various stages of preneoplastic lesions as well as radio-occult lung cancer were studied in biopsies obtained by fluorescence bronchoscopy. We assessed the expression of p53 by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibody clone DO7. The p53 expression was considered as positive if > or = 1% of cells were positive and the level of positivity was expressed in percentage of positive cells. Fourteen patients were included in each category of preneoplastic lesions. At the threshold of 1% of positive cells p53 expression was observed in 28.5% of the patients with a histologically normal epithelium. This number of positive patients increased with the severity of preneoplastic lesions and reached 100% in the mild dysplasia. The mean rates of p53 positive cells for normal epithelium, hyperplasia, metaplasia, mild and severe dysplasia, carcinoma in situ and invasive radio-occult carcinoma were respectively 0.9, 3.4, 9.1, 20.5, 50.2, 34.7 and 42.5%. There was no statistically significant correlation between p53 expression and patient characteristics such as sex, age, smoking habits and indication for fluorescence bronchoscopy. The alteration of p53 expression in patients with high risk of lung cancer was an early event: this abnormality increased with the severity of the lesions, without significant correlation with patient characteristics. PMID:11836584

  1. Symptoms, atopy, and bronchial response to methacholine in parents with asthma and their children.

    PubMed Central

    Clifford, R D; Pugsley, A; Radford, M; Holgate, S T

    1987-01-01

    We have studied 50 children with one parent with asthma at a mean age of 6.4 years by symptom questionnaire and performed allergy skin testing and measurement of bronchial responsiveness to methacholine in both parent and child in 29-32 cases. Ninety eight per cent of the parents were receiving medication for asthma. Fifty one per cent had visited their doctor and 20% had taken more than five days off work in the previous 12 months; 12% had been admitted to hospital during the preceding 10 years. In the children the prevalences of wheeze, shortness of breath, and cough were all about double that found in a general population survey of children of similar age. Atopy was present in 90% of parents, but the prevalence of atopy among the children was not significantly different from the children in the general population. Eczema and hay fever, however, had high prevalences of 40% and 24%, respectively. Responsiveness to methacholine (provocation dose achieving 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second less than 6.4 mumol) was found in 93% of parents and 45% of children, which is compatible with a large increase compared with the general population. All atopic but only 50% of non-atopic children with symptoms of asthma responded to methacholine. These findings indicate that children who have one parent with asthma have roughly double the chance of developing clinical features of asthma compared with the general population and suggests that, in these children, a causal interaction occurs between atopy and bronchial hyper-responsiveness. PMID:3545100

  2. Does eosinophil cationic protein in sputum and blood reflect bronchial inflammation and obstruction in allergic asthmatics?

    PubMed

    Grebski, E; Wu, J; Wüthrich, B; Medici, T C

    1999-01-01

    In the assessment of asthma severity and monitoring of asthma drug therapy, eosinophils and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) have been identified in blood but rarely in sputum. The aim of our study was to determine if ECP concentrations in blood and sputum reflect bronchial inflammation and obstruction in allergic asthmatics and if inhaled steroids influence this relationship. We carried out a descriptive, cross-sectional study of 42 allergic asthmatic outpatients from a respiratory medicine department, of whom 22 were on beta 2-adrenergic agonists only and 20 were treated with low doses of inhaled steroids. Spirometry and methacholine challenge were performed and eosinophils and ECP values in induced sputum and blood were determined. The age and FEV1 were similar in both groups. It was found that in patients receiving inhaled steroids, the methacholine PD20 was higher than in patients on beta 2-adrenergic agonists only. However, there were no significant differences in serum and sputum ECP between the groups (median 14.5 micrograms/l vs. 17.2 micrograms/l and 235 micrograms/l vs. 301 micrograms/l, respectively). In patients not receiving steroids, sputum ECP correlated positively with eosinophils in sputum (r = 0.61, p < 0.01) and inversely with FEV1 (r = -0.43, p < 0.05). Serum ECP correlated with blood eosinophils and methacholine PD20. In patients treated with inhaled steroids most correlations were no longer significant. We concluded that ECP in sputum, rather than in blood, seems to reflect both eosinophilic inflammation and bronchial obstruction in asthmatics not receiving inhaled steroids. Asthmatics on low doses of inhaled steroids had increased ECP levels in sputum and serum, indicating persistent eosinophilic inflammation of the airways. PMID:10353094

  3. Indomethacin does not inhibit the ozone-induced increase in bronchial responsiveness in human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Ying, R.L.; Gross, K.B.; Terzo, T.S.; Eschenbacher, W.L. )

    1990-10-01

    Exposure of human subjects to sufficiently high levels of ozone can result in reversible changes in lung function (restrictive in nature) and increases in nonspecific airway responsiveness. Several studies have implicated products of cyclooxygenase metabolism in the mediation of these changes. The purpose of this study was to determine if indomethacin (a cyclooxygenase inhibitor) would alter the changes in the ozone-induced increase in responsiveness to methacholine or the ozone-induced decrease in lung function. Thirteen male subjects underwent three randomly assigned 2-h exposure to 0.4 ppm ozone with alternating 15-min periods of rest and exercise on a cycle ergometer (30 L/min/m2, body surface area). For the 4 days before each of the exposures, the subjects received either indomethacin (150 mg/day) or placebo, or no modification. Of the 13 subjects, only seven had both detectable indomethacin serum levels on the indomethacin Study Day and a significant increase in bronchial responsiveness to methacholine on the No Medication Day. For this group of seven subjects, we found that indomethacin did not alter the ozone-induced increase in bronchial responsiveness to methacholine (decrease in PC100SRaw for the different study days: no medication, -78.4 +/- 5.3% (mean +/- SEM); placebo, -48.9 +/- 12.2%; indomethacin, -64.5 +/- 6.3%; p greater than 0.2), although indomethacin did attenuate the ozone-induced decrease in lung function. The decrease in the FEV1 for the different study days was as follows: no medication, -20.7 +/- 5.0% (mean +/- SEM); placebo, -19.2 +/- 6.3%; indomethacin, -4.8 +/- 3.7% (p less than 0.001).

  4. Uptake and cytotoxic effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in human bronchial epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Seishiro; Fujitani, Yuji; Furuyama, Akiko; Kanno, Sanae

    2010-11-15

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are cytotoxic to several cell types. However, the mechanism of CNT toxicity has not been fully studied, and dosimetric analyses of CNT in the cell culture system are lacking. Here, we describe a novel, high throughput method to measure cellular uptake of CNT using turbimetry. BEAS-2B, a human bronchial epithelial cell line, was used to investigate cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, and inflammatory effects of multi-walled CNT (MWCNT). The cytotoxicity of MWCNT was higher than that of crocidolite asbestos in BEAS-2B cells. The IC{sub 50} of MWCNT was 12 {mu}g/ml, whereas that of asbestos (crocidolite) was 678 {mu}g/ml. Over the course of 5 to 8 h, BEAS-2B cells took up 17-18% of the MWCNT when they were added to the culture medium at a concentration of 10 {mu}g/ml. BEAS-2B cells were exposed to 2, 5, or 10 {mu}g/ml of MWCNT, and total RNA was extracted for cytokine cDNA primer array assays. The culture supernatant was collected for cytokine antibody array assays. Cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 increased in a dose dependent manner at both the mRNA and protein levels. Migration inhibitory factor (MIF) also increased in the culture supernatant in response to MWCNT. A phosphokinase array study using lysates from BEAS-2B cells exposed to MWCNT indicated that phosphorylation of p38, ERK1, and HSP27 increased significantly in response to MWCNT. Results from a reporter gene assays using the NF-{kappa}B or AP-1 promoter linked to the luciferase gene in transiently transfected CHO-KI cells revealed that NF-{kappa}B was activated following MWCNT exposure, while AP-1 was not changed. Collectively, MWCNT activated NF-{kappa}B, enhanced phosphorylation of MAP kinase pathway components, and increased production of proinflammatory cytokines in human bronchial epithelial cells.

  5. Chronic respiratory symptoms, bronchial responsiveness and dietary sodium and potassium: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Zoia, M C; Fanfulla, F; Bruschi, C; Basso, O; De Marco, R; Casali, L; Cerveri, I

    1995-04-01

    A possible relationship between Na+ intake and increased prevalence and mortality from asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been suggested but not clearly proven for several reasons (difficulty in assessing Na+ and K+ both by 24 h excretion and dietary recall, too small an effect of these ions on the pathology, and the role of potential confounders). We wanted to determine the relationship of Na+ and K+ intake, assessed by means of a 7 day recall, with chronic respiratory symptoms and bronchial responsiveness in a sample of the general population. Two hundred and five subjects were studied, with complete dietary and respiratory questionnaires, and baseline respiratory function tests, together with a subsample of 146 subjects who underwent histamine challenge. The 7 day recall consisted of two parts: the first assessed discretionary Na+; and the second assessed Na+ and K+ contained in food. The whole sample was split into two groups based on the levels of consumption, and the statistical analysis was performed contrasting the three lower quartiles vs the highest. Smoking habit, social economic status, age and body mass index (BMI) were not confounders for Na+ and K+ intake. The prevalence of symptomatic subjects and baseline respiratory function values were not significantly different in the two groups of quartiles for Na+ and K+. Baseline respiratory values and dose-response slope of the subsample were also not significantly different. We did not prove a relationship between these dietary factors and either bronchial responsiveness or chronic respiratory symptoms. Although we consider that our questionnaire is more reliable than other methods for Na+ and K+ assessment, several potential biases still remain.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7613539

  6. Temporal-spatial analysis of U.S.-Mexico border environmental fine and coarse PM air sample extract activity in human bronchial epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lauer, Fredine T.; Mitchell, Leah A.; Bedrick, Edward; McDonald, Jacob D.; Lee, Wen-Yee; Li, Wen-Whai; Olvera, Hector; Amaya, Maria A.; Berwick, Marianne; Gonzales, Melissa; Currey, Robert; Pingitore, Nicholas E.

    2009-07-01

    Particulate matter less than 10 {mu}m (PM10) has been shown to be associated with aggravation of asthma and respiratory and cardiopulmonary morbidity. There is also great interest in the potential health effects of PM2.5. Particulate matter (PM) varies in composition both spatially and temporally depending on the source, location and seasonal condition. El Paso County which lies in the Paso del Norte airshed is a unique location to study ambient air pollution due to three major points: the geological land formation, the relatively large population and the various sources of PM. In this study, dichotomous filters were collected from various sites in El Paso County every 7 days for a period of 1 year. The sampling sites were both distant and near border crossings, which are near heavily populated areas with high traffic volume. Fine (PM2.5) and Coarse (PM10-2.5) PM filter samples were extracted using dichloromethane and were assessed for biologic activity and polycyclic aromatic (PAH) content. Three sets of marker genes human BEAS2B bronchial epithelial cells were utilized to assess the effects of airborne PAHs on biologic activities associated with specific biological pathways associated with airway diseases. These pathways included in inflammatory cytokine production (IL-6, IL-8), oxidative stress (HMOX-1, NQO-1, ALDH3A1, AKR1C1), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-dependent signaling (CYP1A1). Results demonstrated interesting temporal and spatial patterns of gene induction for all pathways, particularly those associated with oxidative stress, and significant differences in the PAHs detected in the PM10-2.5 and PM2.5 fractions. Temporally, the greatest effects on gene induction were observed in winter months, which appeared to correlate with inversions that are common in the air basin. Spatially, the greatest gene expression increases were seen in extracts collected from the central most areas of El Paso which are also closest to highways and border crossings.

  7. Automated display of the anatomical name of bronchial branches in a virtual bronchoscopy system and its application as a training tool for medical students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Kensaku; Suenaga, Yasuhito; Toriwaki, Jun-ichiro; Hasegawa, Jun-ichi; Anno, Hirofumi; Katada, Kazuhiro; Natori, Hiroshi

    1999-05-01

    This paper proposes a method for automated labeling of the bronchial branches in the virtual bronchoscopy system and its application as a training tool. Virtual Bronchoscopy System (VBS) is a new observation method of 3-D medical images. This system is useful for a variety of purposes such as diagnosis, planning of surgery, informed consent, education and training. By the proposed method the VBS can automatically labels bronchial branches which are extracted from 3-D chest X-ray CT images by the knowledge based processing in the VBS. The knowledge base of the bronchial branch name is constructed. Automated labeling is performed by comparing the tree structure of the extracted bronchus with the knowledge base. The bronchial branch name is displayed in the navigation inside the bronchus. We extended the VBS to a teaching tool by using this function. The system generates questions about bronchial branch name. When the user navigate inside the bronchus by using the VBS, the system presents a question on the virtual endoscopic view and the user answers a question. The proposed method was implemented in our VBS. We confirmed that the method can assign anatomical names to about 90% of bronchial branches extracted from 3-D X-ray CT image automatically. In an extended module for educational use of the VBS, the system could generate questions about branch names and could display them on the virtual endoscopic view automatically.

  8. Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's granulomatosis) with hard palate and bronchial perforations treated with rituximab - a case report.

    PubMed

    Kosałka, Joanna; Bazan-Socha, Stanisława; Zugaj, Anna; Ignacak, Maria; Zuk, Joanna; Sokołowska, Barbara; Musiał, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of a 57-year-old woman suffering from granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), who in the seventh months of immunosuppressive treatment (cyclophosphamide) progressed with new pulmonary changes and perforations of the hard palate and bronchi. Rituximab was introduced resulting in B-cell depletion and disappearance of anti-PR3 antibody. Palatal holes have substantially diminished and all bronchial perforations disappeared, covered by fibrous tissue. In the fourth month after rituximab administration, large scarring obstruction of the right main bronchus with upper and middle lobes atelectasis emerged. Because of increasing dyspnoea, stenotic bronchus was re-opened by bronchoscopy. Intervention was complicated by bilateral pneumothorax and later, on the seventh day, by fatal pulmonary bleeding. To our knowledge, this is the first report of GPA refractory to cyclophosphamide complicated by palatal and bronchial perforations. PMID:25133814

  9. Carcinogenic risk of non-uniform alpha-particle irradiation in the lungs: Radon progeny effects at bronchial bifurcations

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, W.; Crawford-Brown, D.J.; Menache, M.G.; Martonen, T.B.

    1992-01-01

    The combined effect of enhanced deposition and reduced clearance at bronchial bifurcations leads to increased radon progeny doses within branching sites compared to uniformly distributed activity within a given airway generation. A multi-stage carcinogenesis model was used to predict the probability of lung cancer induction at different sites of the bronchial region. For relatively low radon progeny exposures, lung cancer risk is significantly higher in bifurcation zones, particularly at carinal ridges, than along tubular segments. At sufficiently high exposures, however, lung cancer risk is highest in the tubular portions of a generation. This suggests that the common assumption of a uniform dose distribution provides realistic risk estimates for high uranium miner exposures, but may underestimate lung cancer risk at low, environmental exposures. If concomitant exposure to cigarette smoke is factored into the risk analysis in a multiplicative fashion, then the effect related to risk inhomogeneity becomes even more pronounced.

  10. Control and minimization of allergenic plants impact on bronchial asthma morbidity, based on spatial-temporal data model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuzh, Tatyana Y.; Mokin, Vitaliy B.; Wójcik, Waldemar; Imanbek, Baglan

    2015-12-01

    Control and development of priority measures to minimize the impact of allergenic plants on the state of morbidity, caused by asthma are one of the most common and complex problems for public health in modern cities. Bronchial asthma in humans occurs because of aggregation of various factors, the nature of which varies in time and space. So, we should use spatial-temporal data model for formalization of this problem, but typical data formalization methods and data processing methods need to be improved, taking into consideration the peculiarities of impact, especially of allergenic plants and weather conditions on people in a city. The paper shows a new approach to unified in time and optimal by discretization in space data formalization, concerning the main factors that form the conditions for the emergence of bronchial asthma. The example of such analysis was given, which illustrated the efficiency of the proposed information model and the method of its processing.

  11. Endovascular Embolization of an Aberrant Bronchial Artery Originating from the Internal Mammary Artery in a Patient with Hemoptysis

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Akifumi; Nakamura, Hiroyasu; Sasaki, Takahiro; Sugimoto, Hideharu

    2016-01-01

    Massive hemoptysis is a life threatening respiratory emergency with high mortality and the bronchial artery (BA) is its most frequent source. Herein, we report a case of a 76-year-old man with recurrent hemoptysis due to an aberrant right BA arising from the right internal mammary artery (IMA), an extremely rare origin, that was clearly depicted on pretreatment computed tomography angiography (CTA). The patient was treated successfully by transcatheter bronchial artery embolization (BAE) of the aberrant BA and the hemoptysis has since been controlled for 9 months. Knowledge of the detailed BA anatomy is essential for performing BAE, especially in cases of aberrant BA. CTA is a promising tool for pretreatment planning of emergency BAE in patients with hemoptysis. PMID:27375915

  12. Diesel Exhaust Particle-Exposed Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Induce Dendritic Cell Maturation and Polarization via Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin

    PubMed Central

    Bleck, Bertram; Tse, Doris B.; Curotto de Lafaille, Maria A.; Zhang, Feijie

    2009-01-01

    Human exposure to air pollutants, including ambient particulate matter, has been proposed as a mechanism for the rise in allergic disorders. Diesel exhaust particles, a major component of ambient particulate matter, induce sensitization to neoallergens, but the mechanisms by which sensitization occur remain unclear. We show that diesel exhaust particles upregulate thymic stromal lymphopoietin in human bronchial epithelial cells in an oxidant-dependent manner. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin induced by diesel exhaust particles was associated with maturation of myeloid dendritic cells, which was blocked by anti-thymic stromal lymphopoietin antibodies or silencing epithelial cell-derived thymic stromal lymphopoietin. Dendritic cells exposed to diesel exhaust particle-treated human bronchial epithelial cells induced Th2 polarization in a thymic stromal lymphopoietin-dependent manner. These findings provide new insight into the mechanisms by which diesel exhaust particles modify human lung mucosal immunity. PMID:18049884

  13. Increased nuclear suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 in asthmatic bronchial epithelium suppresses rhinovirus induction of innate interferons

    PubMed Central

    Gielen, Vera; Sykes, Annemarie; Zhu, Jie; Chan, Brian; Macintyre, Jonathan; Regamey, Nicolas; Kieninger, Elisabeth; Gupta, Atul; Shoemark, Amelia; Bossley, Cara; Davies, Jane; Saglani, Sejal; Walker, Patrick; Nicholson, Sandra E.; Dalpke, Alexander H.; Kon, Onn-Min; Bush, Andrew; Johnston, Sebastian L.; Edwards, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rhinovirus infections are the dominant cause of asthma exacerbations, and deficient virus induction of IFN-α/β/λ in asthmatic patients is important in asthma exacerbation pathogenesis. Mechanisms causing this interferon deficiency in asthmatic patients are unknown. Objective We sought to investigate the expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) 1 in tissues from asthmatic patients and its possible role in impaired virus-induced interferon induction in these patients. Methods We assessed SOCS1 mRNA and protein levels in vitro, bronchial biopsy specimens, and mice. The role of SOCS1 was inferred by proof-of-concept studies using overexpression with reporter genes and SOCS1-deficient mice. A nuclear role of SOCS1 was shown by using bronchial biopsy staining, overexpression of mutant SOCS1 constructs, and confocal microscopy. SOCS1 levels were also correlated with asthma-related clinical outcomes. Results We report induction of SOCS1 in bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) by asthma exacerbation–related cytokines and by rhinovirus infection in vitro. We found that SOCS1 was increased in vivo in bronchial epithelium and related to asthma severity. SOCS1 expression was also increased in primary BECs from asthmatic patients ex vivo and was related to interferon deficiency and increased viral replication. In primary human epithelium, mouse lung macrophages, and SOCS1-deficient mice, SOCS1 suppressed rhinovirus induction of interferons. Suppression of virus-induced interferon levels was dependent on SOCS1 nuclear translocation but independent of proteasomal degradation of transcription factors. Nuclear SOCS1 levels were also increased in BECs from asthmatic patients. Conclusion We describe a novel mechanism explaining interferon deficiency in asthmatic patients through a novel nuclear function of SOCS1 and identify SOCS1 as an important therapeutic target for asthma exacerbations. PMID:25630941

  14. Effect of inhaled furosemide and torasemide on bronchial response to ultrasonically nebulized distilled water in asthmatic subjects.

    PubMed

    Foresi, A; Pelucchi, A; Mastropasqua, B; Cavigioli, G; Carlesi, R M; Marazzini, L

    1992-08-01

    Inhaled furosemide has been shown to reduce the bronchoconstriction induced by several indirect stimuli, including ultrasonically nebulized distilled water (UNDW). Because the protective effect could be due to the inhibition of the Na(+)-2Cl(-)-K+ cotransport system of bronchial epithelium, we have compared the protective effect of inhaled furosemide with that of inhaled torasemide, a new and more potent loop diuretic, on UNDW-induced bronchoconstriction in a group of 12 asthmatic subjects. UNDW challenge was performed by constructing a stimulus-response curve with five increasing volume outputs of distilled water (from 0.5 to 5.2 ml/min) and the bronchial response expressed as the provocative output causing a 20% fall in FEV1 (PO20UNDW). On different days, each subject inhaled an equal dose (28 mg) of furosemide and torasemide in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study 5 min prior to an UNDW challenge. Furosemide and torasemide had no significant effect on resting lung function. The geometric mean value of PO20UNDW measured after placebo was 1.73 ml/min. This was significantly lower than that recorded after furosemide (4.25 ml/min; p < 0.025), but not after torasemide (3.05 ml/min; p = 0.07). Inhaled furosemide totally blocked bronchial response to UNDW in five subjects. In two of five subjects the response was also blocked by inhaled torasemide. A remarkable increase in diuresis was noted only after torasemide in most subjects. We conclude that inhaled furosemide has a better protective effect than does inhaled torasemide against UNDW-induced bronchoconstriction. However, the protective effect of furosemide is variable, with some asthmatic patients showing no change in bronchial response to UNDW.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1489126

  15. Differentiation of human bronchial epithelial cells: role of hydrocortisone in development of ion transport pathways involved in mucociliary clearance.

    PubMed

    Zaidman, Nathan A; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; O'Grady, Scott M

    2016-08-01

    Glucocorticoids strongly influence the mucosal-defense functions performed by the bronchial epithelium, and inhaled corticosteroids are critical in the treatment of patients with inflammatory airway diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cystic fibrosis. A common pathology associated with these diseases is reduced mucociliary clearance, a defense mechanism involving the coordinated transport of salt, water, and mucus by the bronchial epithelium, ultimately leading to retention of pathogens and particles in the airways and to further disease progression. In the present study we investigated the role of hydrocortisone (HC) in differentiation and development of the ion transport phenotype of normal human bronchial epithelial cells under air-liquid interface conditions. Normal human bronchial epithelial cells differentiated in the absence of HC (HC0) showed significantly less benzamil-sensitive short-circuit current than controls, as well as a reduced response after stimulation with the selective β2-adrenergic receptor agonist salbutamol. Apical membrane localization of epithelial Na(+) channel α-subunits was similarly reduced in HC0 cells compared with controls, supporting a role of HC in the trafficking and density of Na(+) channels in the plasma membrane. Additionally, glucocorticoid exposure during differentiation regulated the transcription of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator and β2-adrenergic receptor mRNAs and appeared to be necessary for the expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator-dependent anion secretion in response to β2-agonists. HC had no significant effect on surface cell differentiation but did modulate the expression of mucin mRNAs. These findings indicate that glucocorticoids support mucosal defense by regulating critical transport pathways essential for effective mucociliary clearance. PMID:27306366

  16. [Rheological properties of human bronchial secretions: demonstration of proline-rich polypeptides and their role (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Bailleul, V; Richet, C; Hayem, A; Degand, P

    1977-01-17

    Human bronchial secretions were examined for chemical components and rheological properties. Proline-rich polypeptides (PRP) obtained by ultrasonic treatment and by contact with a cationic resin (AG 50WX2) were purified by gel-filtration chromatography and high-voltage electrophoresis. The chemical composition of these components allowed a classification according to their proline, glycine, glutamic acid and lysine contents. Rheological experiments suggest a biological role for the PRP in the fibrillar structure of sputum. PMID:12892

  17. Effect of ozone exposure in vivo on response of bronchial rings in vitro: Role of intracellular Ca2+

    SciTech Connect

    Montano, L.M.; Jones, G.L.; O'Byrne, P.M.; Daniel, E.E. )

    1993-09-01

    In this study we investigated the role of intracellular Ca2+ in ozone- (O3) induced airway hyperresponsiveness. Acetylcholine-induced airway responses were measured before and after inhalation of O3 (3 ppm, 30 min) or dry air. In vitro experiments were performed with intact ring segments of third- to fifth-order bronchi. Bronchial responses to carbachol (CCh) were evaluated in Krebs solution (2.5 mM Ca2+) and in Ca(2+)-free [0.1 mM ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA)] Krebs solution with or without indomethacin (IDM, 10(-5) M) and were expressed as percentage of the maximal KCl response (60 mM). Inhalation of O3, but not dry air, caused airway hyperresponsiveness to acetylcholine in vivo. Responses to 50% effective concentrations of CCh were similar in bronchial preparations from O3 and control animals (with or without IDM) in normal Krebs solution. In Ca(2+)-free solution, CCh induced a sustained (20-min) bronchial contraction. These contractions relaxed immediately when nifedipine or a high EGTA concentration was added to the organ bath. The sustained contraction was abolished when the tissues had been incubated with cyclopiazonic acid (10(-5) M), a novel inhibitor of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump. After O3 exposure, responses of the bronchial smooth muscle (in Ca(2+)-free medium without IDM) were increased (P < 0.05) compared with controls during the first and second CCh stimulations. This O3-induced increase in response to CCh in Ca(2+)-free solution was abolished when the tissues were incubated with IDM.

  18. Respiratory function and bronchial responsiveness among industrial workers exposed to different classes of occupational agents: a study from Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Ould-Kadi, Farid; Nawrot, Tim S; Hoet, Peter H; Nemery, Benoit

    2007-01-01

    Occupational exposures play a role in the onset of several chronic airway diseases. We investigated, in a cross-sectional study, lung function parameters and bronchial hyper-responsiveness to histamine in workers exposed to different airborne compounds. The study group totalled 546 male subjects of whom 114 were exposed to welding fumes, 106 to solvents, 107 to mineral dust, 97 to organic dust and 123 without known exposure to airway irritants. A questionnaire was administered and spirometry and bronchial responsiveness to histamine were assessed by one observer, in the morning before work to prevent effects of acute exposure. The mean (SD) age of the participants was 39.3 (7.8) years, with a mean duration of employment of 13.8 (6.6) years. Both before and after adjustment for smoking status, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, expressed as % predicted) was lower in welders -4.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], -6.3 to -1.8; p = 0.01) and workers exposed to solvents -5.6% (CI: -7.9 to -3.3; p = 0.0009) than in control subjects. Furthermore, solvent workers had an odds ratio of 3.43 (95% CI: 1.09–11.6; p = 0.037) for bronchial hyperresponsiveness compared with the reference group. The higher prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in solvent workers adds to the growing body of evidence of adverse respiratory effects of occupational solvent exposure. These results point to the necessity of preventive measures in solvent workers to avoid these adverse respiratory effects. PMID:17922914

  19. The inhibitory mechanism of Cordyceps sinensis on cigarette smoke extract-induced senescence in human bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ailing; Wu, Jinxiang; Li, Aijun; Bi, Wenxiang; Liu, Tian; Cao, Liuzhao; Liu, Yahui; Dong, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Cellular senescence is a state of irreversible growth arrest induced either by telomere shortening (replicative senescence) or stress. The bronchial epithelial cell is often injured by inhaled toxic substances, such as cigarette smoke. In the present study, we investigated whether exposure to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) induces senescence of bronchial epithelial cells; and Cordyceps sinensis mechanism of inhibition of CSE-induced cellular senescence. Methods Human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE cells) cultured in vitro were treated with CSE and/or C. sinensis. p16, p21, and senescence-associated-galactosidase activity were used to detect cellular senescence with immunofluorescence, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), PI3K/AKT/mTOR and their phosphorylated proteins were examined to testify the activation of signaling pathway by ROS fluorescent staining and Western blotting. Then, inhibitors of ROS and PI3K were used to further confirm the function of this pathway. Results Cellular senescence was upregulated by CSE treatment, and C. sinensis can decrease CSE-induced cellular senescence. Activation of ROS/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway was enhanced by CSE treatment, and decreased when C. sinensis was added. Blocking ROS/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway can attenuate CSE-induced cellular senescence. Conclusion CSE can induce cellular senescence in human bronchial epithelial cells, and ROS/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway may play an important role in this process. C. sinensis can inhibit the CSE-induced senescence. PMID:27555762

  20. [Components of hair bleaches as triggers of bronchial hypersensitivity--studies using a model for occupationally-induced lung damage].

    PubMed

    Mensing, T; Marek, W; Raulf-Heimsoth, M; Baur, X

    1995-07-01

    Ammonium persulfate (APS) is used as an oxidant in many industrial branches and is contained in bleaching substances used in hair cosmetic industry. In addition to skin diseases, respiratory disorders have been frequently reported. We examined whether APS can induce bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) which has to be regarded as a first step in the development of obstructive respiratory disorders. In a rabbit model we tested the influence of aerosolized APS-solutions in concentrations of 0.1, 0.01 and 0.001 M (50, 5, 0,5 ppm in air) for about four hours on the contractile bronchial reaction. Exposure to APS-aerosols does not alter basal airway Resistance (RI), dynamic Elastance (Edyn), slope of inspiratory pressure generation (delta Poes/tI), arterial blood pressure and blood gases (PaO2, PaCO2). Before, after two and after four hours the influence of APS application on the bronchial reactivity to 0.2%- and 2% acetylcholine-aerosols (ACH) was tested. Exposure to an aerosol from 0.1 M APS solution, which is equivalent to a concentration of 50 ppm APS in air for two hours induces a significant increase in bronchoconstrictory responses to ACH. A nebulized 0.01 M APS solution causes an increased ACH response after four hours of exposure. However, inhalation of 0.001 M APS (0.5 ppm in air) does not alter sensitivity to ACH within four hours of exposure. In bronchoalveolar lavage an increased number of inflammatory cells was found. Our results demonstrate, aerolized APS-solutions to cause bronchial hyper-responsiveness after few hours of exposure presumably under the participation of inflammatory cells. PMID:7675757

  1. Comparison of Glucocorticoid (Budesonide) and Antileukotriene (Montelukast) Effect in Patients with Bronchial Asthma Determined with Body Plethysmography

    PubMed Central

    Lajqi, Njomza; Ilazi, Ali; Kastrati, Bashkim; Islami, Hilmi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Effect of glucocorticoids-budesonide and antileukotriene–montelukast in patients with bronchial asthma and bronchial increased reactivity was studied in this work. Methods: Parameters of the lung function are determined with Body plethysmography. Raw and ITGV were registered and specific resistance (SRaw) was also calculated. Results: Results of this research, in patients with bronchial asthma, indicate that glucocorticoids – budesonide (Pulmicort; 2 × 2 mg inh) has significant action (p< 0.01) on reduction of the specific resistance (SRaw) of airways, applied to the same patients 3 days after administration of montelukast, at home (2 × 10 mg). Three days after administration of the montelukast, antileukotriene medicine, at home, on the fourth day same patients administered a capsule of montelukast, 10 mg dose per os, and significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the increased bronchomotor tonus; and the effect of the control with salbutamol (beta2-adrenergic agonist) is effective in removal of the increased bronchomotor tonus, causing significant decrease of the resistance (Raw), respectively of the specific resistance (SRaw), (p < 0, 01). Conclusion: This suggests that the bronchodilator effect of glucocorticoids is more powerful than of the leukotriene, because glucocorticoids terminate the early stage of chemical mediator release (prostaglandins PgD2, SRS, and leukotriene LTC4, LTD4, LTE4 and Cytokinins also etc.) as powerful bronchoconstriction substances, whilst antileukotriene substances does not have this feature. PMID:26862243

  2. SHOX2 DNA Methylation is a Biomarker for the diagnosis of lung cancer based on bronchial aspirates

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This study aimed to show that SHOX2 DNA methylation is a tumor marker in patients with suspected lung cancer by using bronchial fluid aspirated during bronchoscopy. Such a biomarker would be clinically valuable, especially when, following the first bronchoscopy, a final diagnosis cannot be established by histology or cytology. A test with a low false positive rate can reduce the need for further invasive and costly procedures and ensure early treatment. Methods Marker discovery was carried out by differential methylation hybridization (DMH) and real-time PCR. The real-time PCR based HeavyMethyl technology was used for quantitative analysis of DNA methylation of SHOX2 using bronchial aspirates from two clinical centres in a case-control study. Fresh-frozen and Saccomanno-fixed samples were used to show the tumor marker performance in different sample types of clinical relevance. Results Valid measurements were obtained from a total of 523 patient samples (242 controls, 281 cases). DNA methylation of SHOX2 allowed to distinguish between malignant and benign lung disease, i.e. abscesses, infections, obstructive lung diseases, sarcoidosis, scleroderma, stenoses, at high specificity (68% sensitivity [95% CI 62-73%], 95% specificity [95% CI 91-97%]). Conclusions Hypermethylation of SHOX2 in bronchial aspirates appears to be a clinically useful tumor marker for identifying subjects with lung carcinoma, especially if histological and cytological findings after bronchoscopy are ambiguous. PMID:21047392

  3. [Characteristics of temporary organization of the bronchopulmonary pattern in healthy persons and in patients with bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Alekseev, M Iu; Gorbenko, P P; Dubinskaia, A V; Savich, A A; Sysuev, V M

    1989-01-01

    It has been shown by periodographic computer analysis that ultradian rhythms of all examined parameters (bronchial resistance, inhalation, exhalation and breathing cycle duration, inspiration activity index, pneumographic amplitude, inhalation rate) of bronchopulmonary pattern in asthmatics and normal subjects exhibit latent periodicity, with prevailing oscillations of about 60 sec. during spontaneous breathing or under exposures. changing bronchial potency. Slow-wave components form very complex poly-harmonical temporal structure with specific organization during air breathing and response to challenge tests. Bronchospasm provoked by inhalation of acetylcholine produced an abrupt decrease of the number of periodical ultradian components (or even total disappearance of oscillations) and the development of a rigid hypersynchronic temporal structure on the basis of the hypersynchronized ultradien fluctiations. The principal factors of this new system may be changes of airway resistance. Analysis of our data suggests that the phenomenon of bronchial hyper-reactivity may be associated with a disturbance in temporal organization of the cardiobronchopulmonary pattern. Development of temporal disorganization may have some pathogenetic stages such as hypersynchronization, disrhythmy, appearance of a rigid temporal structure and bronchospasm as a clinical result. PMID:2711745

  4. Drug Signature-based Finding of Additional Clinical Use of LC28-0126 for Neutrophilic Bronchial Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Eunji; Lee, Yong Chul; Kim, So Ri; Kim, Soon Ha; Park, Joonghoon

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, global pharmaceutical companies have suffered from an R&D innovation gap between the increased cost of a new drug’s development and the decreased number of approvals. Drug repositioning offers another opportunity to fill the gap because the approved drugs have a known safety profile for human use, allowing for a reduction of the overall cost of drug development by eliminating rigorous safety assessment. In this study, we compared the transcriptional profile of LC28-0126, an investigational drug for acute myocardial infarction (MI) at clinical trial, obtained from healthy male subjects with molecular activity profiles in the Connectivity Map. We identified dyphilline, an FDA-approved drug for bronchial asthma, as a top ranked connection with LC28-0126. Subsequently, we demonstrated that LC28-0126 effectively ameliorates the pathophysiology of neutrophilic bronchial asthma in OVALPS-OVA mice accompanied with a reduction of inflammatory cell counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), inhibition of the release of proinflammatory cytokines, relief of airway hyperactivity, and improvement of histopathological changes in the lung. Taken together, we suggest that LC28-0126 could be a potential therapeutic for bronchial asthma. In addition, this study demonstrated the potential general utility of computational drug repositioning using clinical profiles of the investigational drug. PMID:26626943

  5. Exhaled Eicosanoids following Bronchial Aspirin Challenge in Asthma Patients with and without Aspirin Hypersensitivity: The Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Mastalerz, L.; Sanak, M.; Kumik, J.; Gawlewicz-Mroczka, A.; Celejewska-Wójcik, N.; Ćmiel, A.; Szczeklik, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Special regulatory role of eicosanoids has been postulated in aspirin-induced asthma. Objective. To investigate effects of aspirin on exhaled breath condensate (EBC) levels of eicosanoids in patients with asthma. Methods. We determined EBC eicosanoid concentrations using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS2) or both. Determinations were performed at baseline and following bronchial aspirin challenge, in two well-defined phenotypes of asthma: aspirin-sensitive and aspirin-tolerant patients. Results. Aspirin precipitated bronchial reactions in all aspirin-sensitive, but in none of aspirin-tolerant patients (ATAs). At baseline, eicosanoids profile did not differ between both asthma groups except for lipoxygenation products: 5- and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-, 15-HETE) which were higher in aspirin-induced asthma (AIA) than inaspirin-tolerant subjects. Following aspirin challenge the total levels of cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cys-LTs) remained unchanged in both groups. The dose of aspirin had an effect on magnitude of the response of the exhaled cys-LTs and prostanoids levels only in AIA subjects. Conclusion. The high baseline eicosanoid profiling of lipoxygenation products 5- and 15-HETE in EBC makes it possible to detect alterations in aspirin-sensitive asthma. Cysteinyl-leukotrienes, and eoxins levels in EBC after bronchial aspirin administration in stable asthma patients cannot be used as a reliable diagnostic index for aspirin hypersensitivity. PMID:22291720

  6. Do Panic Symptoms Affect the Quality of Life and Add to the Disability in Patients with Bronchial Asthma?

    PubMed

    Faye, A D; Gawande, S; Tadke, R; Kirpekar, V C; Bhave, S H; Pakhare, A P; Tayade, B

    2015-01-01

    Background. Anxiety and panic are known to be associated with bronchial asthma with variety of impact on clinical presentation, treatment outcome, comorbidities, quality of life, and functional disability in patients with asthma. This study aims to explore the pattern of panic symptoms, prevalence and severity of panic disorder (PD), quality of life, and disability in them. Methods. Sixty consecutive patients of bronchial asthma were interviewed using semistructured proforma, Panic and Agoraphobia scale, WHO Quality of life (QOL) BREF scale, and WHO disability schedule II (WHODAS II). Results. Though 60% of the participants had panic symptoms, only 46.7% had diagnosable panic attacks according to DSM IV TR diagnostic criteria and 33.3% had PD. Most common symptoms were "sensations of shortness of breath or smothering," "feeling of choking," and "fear of dying" found in 83.3% of the participants. 73.3% of the participants had poor quality of life which was most impaired in physical and environmental domains. 55% of the participants had disability score more than a mean (18.1). Conclusion. One-third of the participants had panic disorder with significant effect on physical and environmental domains of quality of life. Patients with more severe PD and bronchial asthma had more disability. PMID:26425540

  7. Modulation by the epithelium of the extent of bronchial narrowing produced by substances perfused through the lumen.

    PubMed Central

    Sparrow, M. P.; Mitchell, H. W.

    1991-01-01

    1 Airway narrowing was determined in vitro as a measure of bronchial reactivity. A bronchial segment from pig lung was perfused with a Krebs solution and the change in flow rate to drugs and small ions perfused intraluminally was compared with that obtained by application to the serosal surface. 2 The sensitivity (EC50) to acetylchloline was 30 times greater on the serosal surface than on the luminal surface. Concentrations of histamine and carbachol which had threshold responses on flow rate when perfused intraluminally virtually stopped flow on the serosal surface. Potassium depolarizing solutions (containing either KCl or K2SO4) and vanadate (VO3-) had little or no effect intraluminally but completely stopped flow through the bronchial segment when applied to the serosal surface, i.e. they closed off the airway. 3 After removal of the epithelium the sensitivity to drugs and K+ perfused intraluminally was increased to equal that on the serosal surface. 4 No evidence for suppression of smooth muscle contraction by a putative epithelium-derived inhibitory factor (EpDIF) could be obtained: no inhibition of smooth muscle contractility was seen when the agents listed above were perfused intraluminally and their perfusion continued while they were applied to outside. 5 It was concluded that the epithelium plays a crucial role as an impermeant barrier in modulating the responsiveness of the airways smooth muscle. PMID:1878753

  8. The effect of various breathing exercises (pranayama) in patients with bronchial asthma of mild to moderate severity

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Tarun; Saxena, Manjari

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aim: The incidence of bronchial asthma is on increase. Chemotherapy is helpful during early course of the disease, but later on morbidity and mortality increases. The efficacy of yoga therapy though appreciated is yet to be defined and modified. Aim: To study the effect of breathing exercises (pranayama) in patients with bronchial asthma of mild to moderate severity. Materials and Methods: Fifty cases of bronchial asthma (Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1) > 70%) were studied for 12 weeks. Patients were allocated to two groups: group A and group B (control group). Patients in group A were treated with breathing exercises (deep breathing,Brahmari, and Omkara, etc.) for 20 minutes twice daily for a period of 12 weeks. Patients were trained to perform Omkara at high pitch (forceful) with prolonged exhalation as compared to normal Omkara. Group B was treated with meditation for 20 minutes twice daily for a period of 12 weeks. Subjective assessment, FEV1%, and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) were done in each case initially and after 12 weeks. Results: After 12 weeks, group A subjects had significant improvement in symptoms, FEV1, and PEFR as compared to group B subjects. Conclusion: Breathing exercises (pranayama), mainly expiratory exercises, improved lung function subjectively and objectively and should be regular part of therapy. PMID:21234211

  9. [Tumor-bronchial actinomycosis simulating a recurrence of lung cancer 14 years after initial treatment: A case report].

    PubMed

    Folliet, L; Perpoint, T; Pignat, J-C; Laurent, F; Devouassoux, M; Perol, M; Nesme, P; Guerin, J-C; Ernesto, S; Odier, L; Arpin, D

    2015-05-01

    A patient with a history of squamous cell carcinoma of the right upper lung lobe treated 14 years before by concomitant chemo-radiotherapy was referred on account of dyspnea. Bronchial endoscopy revealed complete obstruction of the right main bronchus highly suggestive of a tumor recurrence. However, biopsy samples only showed inflammatory and necrotic tissue with no evidence of malignancy. Despite complete tissue resection by rigid bronchoscopy, a rapid and complete recurrence occurred requiring the placement of a Y-shaped bronchial prosthesis. Repeat histological, bacteriological and mycological analyses were negative. The patient was soon readmitted to hospital for a lung infection due to recurrence of obstruction inside and around the prosthesis. Bacterial examination of biopsy samples identified Actinomyces meyeri. Appropriate antibiotic therapy led to a complete regression of the bronchial obstruction. Unfortunately, the patient died a few months later due to massive hemoptysis after the removal of the prosthesis. Autopsy examination showed a fistula between the right main bronchus and pulmonary artery, with no evidence of neoplastic recurrence nor the persistence of lesions associated with actinomycosis. PMID:26024827

  10. Elastic Deformation Properties of Implanted Endobronchial Wire Stents in Benign and Malignant Bronchial Disease: A Radiographic In Vivo Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Hautmann, Hubert; Rieger, Johannes; Huber, Rudolf M.; Pfeifer, Klaus J.

    1999-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term mechanical behavior in vivo of expandable endobronchial wire stents, we imaged three different prostheses in the treatment of tracheobronchial disease. Methods: Six patients with bronchial stenoses (three benign, three malignant) underwent insertion of metallic stents. Two self-expandable Wallstents, two balloon-expandable tantalum Strecker stents and two self-expandable nitinol Accuflex stents were used. Measurements of deformation properties were performed during voluntary cough by means of fluoroscopy, at 1 month and 7-10 months after implantation. The procedures were videotaped, their images digitized and the narrowing of stent diameters calculated at intervals of 20 msec. Results: After stent implantation all patients improved with respect to ventilatory function. Radial stent narrowing during cough reached 53% (Wallstent), 59% (tantalum Strecker stent), and 52% (nitinol Accuflex stent) of the relaxed post-implantation diameter. Stent compression was more marked in benign compared with malignant stenoses. In the long term permanent deformation occurred with the tantalum Strecker stents; the other stents were unchanged. Conclusion: Endobronchial wire stents can be helpful in the treatment of major airway collapse and obstructing bronchial lesions. However, evidence of material fatigue as a possible effect of exposure to recurrent mechanical stress on the flexible mesh tube may limit their long-term use. This seems to be predominantly important in benign bronchial collapse.

  11. Drug Signature-based Finding of Additional Clinical Use of LC28-0126 for Neutrophilic Bronchial Asthma.

    PubMed

    Shin, Eunji; Lee, Yong Chul; Kim, So Ri; Kim, Soon Ha; Park, Joonghoon

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, global pharmaceutical companies have suffered from an R&D innovation gap between the increased cost of a new drug's development and the decreased number of approvals. Drug repositioning offers another opportunity to fill the gap because the approved drugs have a known safety profile for human use, allowing for a reduction of the overall cost of drug development by eliminating rigorous safety assessment. In this study, we compared the transcriptional profile of LC28-0126, an investigational drug for acute myocardial infarction (MI) at clinical trial, obtained from healthy male subjects with molecular activity profiles in the Connectivity Map. We identified dyphilline, an FDA-approved drug for bronchial asthma, as a top ranked connection with LC28-0126. Subsequently, we demonstrated that LC28-0126 effectively ameliorates the pathophysiology of neutrophilic bronchial asthma in OVALPS-OVA mice accompanied with a reduction of inflammatory cell counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), inhibition of the release of proinflammatory cytokines, relief of airway hyperactivity, and improvement of histopathological changes in the lung. Taken together, we suggest that LC28-0126 could be a potential therapeutic for bronchial asthma. In addition, this study demonstrated the potential general utility of computational drug repositioning using clinical profiles of the investigational drug. PMID:26626943

  12. Oxygen-driving and atomized mucosolvan inhalation combined with holistic nursing in the treatment of children severe bronchial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fang

    2015-07-01

    This paper aimed to discuss the method, effect and safety of oxygen-driving and atomized Mucosolvan inhalation combined with holistic nursing in the treatment of children severe bronchial pneumonia. Totally 90 children with severe bronchial pneumonia who were treated in our hospital from March 2013 to November 2013 were selected as the research objects. Based on randomized controlled principle, those children were divided into control group, test group I and test group II according to the time to enter the hospital, 30 in each group. Patients in control group was given conventional therapy; test group I was given holistic nursing combined with conventional therapy; test group II was given oxygen-driving and atomized Mucosolvan inhalation combined with holistic nursing on the basis of conventional therapy. After test, the difference of main symptoms in control group, test group I and II was of no statistical significance (P>0.05). Test group II was found with the best curative effect, secondary was test group I and control group was the last. It can be concluded that, oxygen-driving and atomized Mucosolvan inhalation combined with holistic nursing has certain effect in the treatment of children severe bronchial pneumonia and is better than holistic nursing only. PMID:26431648

  13. Growth and differentiation of primary and passaged equine bronchial epithelial cells under conventional and air-liquid-interface culture conditions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Horses develop recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) that resembles human bronchial asthma. Differentiated primary equine bronchial epithelial cells (EBEC) in culture that closely mimic the airway cells in vivo would be useful to investigate the contribution of bronchial epithelium in inflammation of airway diseases. However, because isolation and characterization of EBEC cultures has been limited, we modified and optimized techniques of generating and culturing EBECs from healthy horses to mimic in vivo conditions. Results Large numbers of EBEC were obtained by trypsin digestion and successfully grown for up to 2 passages with or without serum. However, serum or ultroser G proved to be essential for EBEC differentiation on membrane inserts at ALI. A pseudo-stratified muco-ciliary epithelium with basal cells was observed at differentiation. Further, transepithelial resistance (TEER) was more consistent and higher in P1 cultures compared to P0 cultures while ciliation was delayed in P1 cultures. Conclusions This study provides an efficient method for obtaining a high-yield of EBECs and for generating highly differentiated cultures. These EBEC cultures can be used to study the formation of tight junction or to identify epithelial-derived inflammatory factors that contribute to lung diseases such as asthma. PMID:21649893

  14. Penta- and octa-bromodiphenyl ethers promote proinflammatory protein expression in human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Koike, Eiko; Yanagisawa, Rie; Takigami, Hidetaka; Takano, Hirohisa

    2014-03-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used as flame retardants in consumer products. Humans can be exposed to PBDEs mainly through the inhalation of air or dust. Thus, PBDEs can affect respiratory and immune systems. In the present study, we investigated whether PBDEs stimulate bronchial epithelial cells. We examined commercial penta-BDE (DE-71), octa-BDE (DE-79), and deca-BDE (DE-83R). Human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) were exposed to each PBDE for 24h. Subsequently, the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and proinflammatory cytokines were investigated. DE-71 and DE-79, but not DE-83R, significantly increased the expression of ICAM-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-8 in BEAS-2B. Because these remarkable effects were observed with DE-71, we further investigated the underlying intracellular mechanisms. DE-71 promoted epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) phosphorylation. Inhibitors of EGFR-selective tyrosine kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase effectively blocked the increase of IL-6 and IL-8. Furthermore, antagonists of thyroid hormone receptor and aryl hydrocarbon receptor significantly suppressed the increase in IL-6 and/or IL-8 production. In conclusion, penta- and octa-BDE, but not deca-BDE, might promote the expression of proinflammatory proteins in bronchial epithelial cells possibly by activating protein kinases and/or stimulating nuclear receptors related to subsequent activation of transcriptional factors. PMID:24184330

  15. Enrichment of Oct3/4-positive cells from a human bronchial epithelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Jia, Lanling; Jia, Xinshan; Shi, Mumu; Li, Xiaolei; Ye, Xulv; Wang, Ruiyue; Xiong, Yanlei; Wang, Enhua; Li, Fang

    2013-07-01

    Most adult stem cells are in the G0 phase of the cell cycle, accounting for only a small percentage of the cells in the tissue. Thus, isolation of stem cells from tissues for further study represents a major challenge. The anti-tumor drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) selectively kills proliferating cells, sparing cells in the G0 phase. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine whether 5-FU can be used to enrich stem cells in a human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cell population in vitro. Side population (SP) cells were isolated from untreated HBE cells or HBE cells treated with 5-FU, and the resulting cells were subjected to colony formation assays, culturing of cell spheres, and tumorigenicity assays. Expression of Oct3/4, Sox2, PCK, and β-catenin were examined by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence. Treatment with 5-FU increased the percentage of SP cells from 0.3% to 1.5%, and the clonogenic ability of 5-FU-treated cells was more than twofold higher than that of HBE cells. Cells that survived after 5-FU treatment exhibited a higher capacity for sphere formation. Furthermore, spheres formed from 5-FU-treated cells possessed the capacity to generate differentiated progenies. Cells treated with 5-FU also exhibited tumorigenic potential, based on tumor formation assays in nude mice, and Oct3/4-positive cell aggregates were identified in the resulting tumors. In this study, we have shown that 5-FU treatment enriched the population of cells expressing the putative embryonic markers Oct3/4 and Sox2 and exhibiting nuclear accumulation of β-catenin. Furthermore, 5-FU-treated cells expressed low levels of the epithelial differentiation marker PCK. Analysis of epigenetic modifications suggested that Oct3/4-positive cells possessed characteristics of stem cells. These results demonstrate that treatment with 5-FU can enrich the stem cell population present in a human bronchial epithelial cell line, and implicate combined treatment with 5-FU and serum-free medium as

  16. Nicotine exposure induces bronchial epithelial cell apoptosis and senescence via ROS mediated autophagy-impairment.

    PubMed

    Bodas, Manish; Van Westphal, Colin; Carpenter-Thompson, Rhett; K Mohanty, Dillip; Vij, Neeraj

    2016-08-01

    Waterpipe smoking and e-cigarette vaping, the non-combustible sources of inhaled nicotine exposure are increasingly becoming popular and marketed as safer alternative to cigarette smoking. Hence, this study was designed to investigate the impact of inhaled nicotine exposure on disease causing COPD-emphysema mechanisms. For in vitro studies, human bronchial epithelial cells (Beas2b) were treated with waterpipe smoke extract (WPSE, 5%), nicotine (5mM), and/or cysteamine (250μM, an autophagy inducer and anti-oxidant drug), for 6hrs. We observed significantly (p<0.05) increased ubiquitinated protein-accumulation in the insoluble protein fractions of Beas2b cells treated with WPSE or nicotine that could be rescued by cysteamine treatment, suggesting aggresome-formation and autophagy-impairment. Moreover, our data also demonstrate that both WPSE and nicotine exposure significantly (p<0.05) elevates Ub-LC3β co-localization to aggresome-bodies while inducing Ub-p62 co-expression/accumulation, verifying autophagy-impairment. We also found that WPSE and nicotine exposure impacts Beas2b cell viability by significantly (p<0.05) inducing cellular apoptosis/senescence via ROS-activation, as it could be controlled by cysteamine, which is known to have an anti-oxidant property. For murine studies, C57BL/6 mice were administered with inhaled nicotine (intranasal, 500μg/mouse/day for 5 days), as an experimental model of non-combustible nicotine exposure. The inhaled nicotine exposure mediated oxidative-stress induces autophagy-impairment in the murine lungs as seen by significant (p<0.05, n=4) increase in the expression levels of nitrotyrosine protein-adduct (oxidative-stress marker, soluble-fraction) and Ub/p62/VCP (impaired-autophagy marker, insoluble-fraction). Overall, our data shows that nicotine, a common component of WPS, e-cigarette vapor and cigarette smoke, induces bronchial epithelial cell apoptosis and senescence via ROS mediated autophagy-impairment as a potential

  17. Improving Image Quality of Bronchial Arteries with Virtual Monochromatic Spectral CT Images

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Guangming; He, Taiping; Yu, Yong; Duan, Haifeng; Yang, Chuangbo

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical value of using monochromatic images in spectral CT pulmonary angiography to improve image quality of bronchial arteries. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the chest CT images of 38 patients who underwent contrast-enhanced spectral CT. These images included a set of 140kVp polychromatic images and the default 70keV monochromatic images. Using the standard Gemstone Spectral Imaging (GSI) viewer on an advanced workstation (AW4.6,GE Healthcare), an optimal energy level (in keV) for obtaining the best contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for the artery could be automatically obtained. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), CNR and objective image quality score (1–5) for these 3 image sets (140kVp, 70keV and optimal energy level) were obtained and, statistically compared. The image quality score consistency between the two observers was also evaluated using Kappa test. Results The optimal energy levels for obtaining the best CNR were 62.58±2.74keV.SNR and CNR from the 140kVp polychromatic, 70keV and optimal keV monochromatic images were (16.44±5.85, 13.24±5.52), (20.79±7.45, 16.69±6.27) and (24.9±9.91, 20.53±8.46), respectively. The corresponding subjective image quality scores were 1.97±0.82, 3.24±0.75, and 4.47±0.60. SNR, CNR and subjective scores had significant difference among groups (all p<0.001). The optimal keV monochromatic images were superior to the 70keV monochromatic and 140kVp polychromatic images, and there was high agreement between the two observers on image quality score (kappa>0.80). Conclusions Virtual monochromatic images at approximately 63keV in dual-energy spectral CT pulmonary angiography yielded the best CNR and highest diagnostic confidence for imaging bronchial arteries. PMID:26967737

  18. Regional Ventilation Changes in Severe Asthma after Bronchial Thermoplasty with 3He MR Imaging and CT

    PubMed Central

    Thomen, Robert P.; Sheshadri, Ajay; Quirk, James D.; Kozlowski, Jim; Ellison, Henry D.; Szczesniak, Rhonda D.; Castro, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To quantify regional lung ventilation in healthy volunteers and patients with severe asthma (both before and after thermoplasty) by using a combination of helium 3 (3He) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and computed tomography (CT), with the intention of developing more effective image-guided treatments for obstructive lung diseases. Materials and Methods With approval of the local institutional review board, informed consent, and an Investigational New Drug Exemption, six healthy volunteers and 10 patients with severe asthma were imaged in compliance with HIPAA regulations by using both multidetector CT and 3He MR imaging. Individual bronchopulmonary segments were labeled voxel by voxel from the CT images and then registered to the 3He MR images by using custom software. The 3He signal intensity was then analyzed by evaluating the volume-weighted fraction of total-lung signal intensity present in each segment (segmental ventilation percentage [SVPsegmental ventilation percentage]) and by identifying the whole-lung defect percentage and the segmental defect percentage. Of the 10 patients with asthma, seven received treatment with bronchial thermoplasty and were imaged with 3He MR a second time. Changes in segmental defect percentages and whole-lung defect percentages are presented. Results Ventilation measures for healthy volunteers yielded smaller segment-to-segment variation (mean SVPsegmental ventilation percentage, 100% ± 18 [standard deviation]) than did the measures for patients with severe asthma (mean SVPsegmental ventilation percentage, 97% ± 23). Patients with asthma also demonstrated larger segmental defect percentages (median, 13.5%; interquartile range, 8.9%–17.8%) than healthy volunteers (median, 6%; interquartile range, 5.6%–6.3%). These quantitative results confirm what is visually observed on the 3He images. A Spearman correlation of r = −0.82 was found between the change in whole-lung defect percentage and the number of days between

  19. Respiratory symptoms, ventilatory impairment, and bronchial reactivity in oil mist-exposed automobile workers.

    PubMed

    Ameille, J; Wild, P; Choudat, D; Ohl, G; Vaucouleur, J F; Chanut, J C; Brochard, P

    1995-02-01

    Studies concerning the respiratory effects of oil mists are sparse and contradictory. The aim of this study was to determine the respective effects of occupational exposure to straight cutting oils and soluble mineral oils on the prevalence of respiratory symptoms, ventilatory impairment, and bronchial reactivity. The population study consisted of 308 male workers of a large French car-making plant, including 40 subjects chronically exposed to straight cutting oils (group S), 51 subjects chronically exposed to soluble mineral oils (group E), 139 subjects with chronic dual exposure to straight cutting oils and soluble mineral oils (group D), and 78 unexposed assembly workers used as a control group (group C). Worker evaluation included a standardized questionnaire, measurement of pulmonary function, and a methacholine challenge. Oil mist concentration at the work place was determined by gravimetric analysis. The arithmetic mean concentration was 2.6 +/- 1.8 mg/m3. The geometric mean concentration was 2.2 +/- 1.9 mg/m3. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms did not differ significantly among the four groups. However, the subjects exposed to straight cutting oils (group S + group D) had a significantly higher prevalence of chronic cough and/or phlegm than the others (group E + group O): 25.7% vs. 16.3% (p = 0.048). Furthermore, the prevalence of cough and/or phlegm increased significantly (p = 0.03) with increasing duration of exposure to straight cutting oils after adjustment on smoking categories. Lung function tests did not differ significantly among the four groups but we observed a significant decrease of forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), forced expiratory flow during the middle half of forced vital capacity (FEF25-75), and maximal flow rate at 50% and 25% of exhaled forced vital capacity (V50 and V25) according to duration of exposure among smokers exposed to straight cutting oils, suggesting a synergistic effect of tobacco and insoluble oils. No effect

  20. Epidemiology of bronchial asthma in school children (10–16 years) in Srinagar

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Uruj Altaf; Bilques, Sufoora; ul Haq, Inaam; Khan, Muhammad Saleem; Qurieshi, Mariya Amin; Qureshi, Umar Amin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the epidemiological profile of asthma in school going children in Srinagar, Kashmir. Study design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Thirty-one schools with proportionate representation from both government and private schools as well as from primary, middle, and high schools. Participants: School children aged 10–16 years with equal representation of sex and all ages. Main Outcome Measure: Prevalence of current and past asthma. Methods and Results: After administering a modified pretested questionnaire, peak expiratory flow measurement was carried. Children who had asthma-like symptoms or positive family history of asthma or physician-labeled asthma were subjected to spirometry and bronchodilator reversibility. Out of 806 children, bronchial asthma was seen in 60 (prevalence of 7.4%) which included 34 boys and 26 girls. Majority of asthmatic children (78.3% [n = 47]) had probable asthma; 6.7% (n = 4) had definite asthma; and 15% (n = 9) had physician-diagnosed asthma. Majority of children had intermittent asthma (78.3% [n = 47]). Mild persistent asthma was seen in 12.7% (n = 7) and 10% (n = 6) had moderate persistent asthma. None of the children had severe persistent asthma. The prevalence of current asthma was 3.2% (n = 26). On univariate analysis, the factors found to be statistically significant were family history of asthma (odds ratio [OR] =8.174; confidence interval [CI] =4.403–15.178), seasonal cough (OR = 4.266; CI = 2.336–7.791), allergic rhinitis (OR = 2.877; CI = 1.414–5.852), atopic dermatitis (OR = 6.597; CI = 2.72–16.004), and obesity (OR = 6.074; CI = 2.308–18.034). On multivariate analysis, family history, seasonal cough, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and obesity were found to be significant independent risk factors. Conclusions: Srinagar qualifies as a low prevalence area for bronchial asthma in the age group of 10–16 years. Majority of children had mild intermittent asthma resulting in under diagnosis and

  1. Recurrent exposure to nicotine differentiates human bronchial epithelial cells via epidermal growth factor receptor activation

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Garcia, Eva; Irigoyen, Marta; Anso, Elena; Martinez-Irujo, Juan Jose; Rouzaut, Ana

    2008-05-01

    Cigarette smoking is the major preventable cause of lung cancer in developed countries. Nicotine (3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-pyridine) is one of the major alkaloids present in tobacco. Besides its addictive properties, its effects have been described in panoply of cell types. In fact, recent studies have shown that nicotine behaves as a tumor promoter in transformed epithelial cells. This research focuses on the effects of acute repetitive nicotine exposure on normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE cells). Here we show that treatment of NHBE cells with recurrent doses of nicotine up to 500 {mu}M triggered cell differentiation towards a neuronal-like phenotype: cells emitted filopodia and expressed neuronal markers such as neuronal cell adhesion molecule, neurofilament-M and the transcription factors neuronal N and Pax-3. We also demonstrate that nicotine treatment induced NF-kB translocation to the nucleus, phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and accumulation of heparin binding-EGF in the extracellular medium. Moreover, addition of AG1478, an inhibitor of EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation, or cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody that precludes ligand binding to the same receptor, prevented cell differentiation by nicotine. Lastly, we show that differentiated cells increased their adhesion to the extracellular matrix and their protease activity. Given that several lung pathologies are strongly related to tobacco consumption, these results may help to better understand the damaging consequences of nicotine exposure.

  2. Inactivation of bronchial mucous proteinase inhibitor by cigarette smoke and phagocyte-derived oxidants

    SciTech Connect

    Carp, H.; Janoff, A.

    1980-08-01

    Freshly prepared aqueous solutions of cigarette smoke suppressed the elastase inhibitory capacity (EIC) of the acid-stable proteinase inhibitor present in bronchial mucus (BMPi) and human seminal plasma (HUSI-I). Thin-layer gel-immunofiltration analysis of mixtures of smoke-treated BMPi and human leukocyte elastase showed decreased elastase: BMPi complexes, increased uncomplexed BMPi and increased free elastase. Phenolic antioxidants prevented the suppression of the EIC of BMPi or HUSI-I by cigarette smoke. In addition, treatment of BMPi or HUSI-I with chemical oxidants caused a similar suppression of EIC. Furthermore, treatment of BMPi or HUSI-I with the phagocyte-derived oxidizing system, myeloperoxidase + H2O2 + Cl-, suppressed EIC. Finally, the functional activity of BMPi was significantly reduced in tracheal aspirates of human smokers compared to that of nonsmokers. These results support the hypothesis that local inactivation of BMPi in the conducting airways of the lung by inhaled cigarette smoke or by phagocyte-derived oxidants may play a role in the pathogenesis of obstructive lung disease in smokers.

  3. Pre-operative mediastinal evaluation in primary bronchial carcinoma--a review of staging investigations.

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    A review of staging investigations in the preoperative evaluation of mediastinal involvement in primary bronchial carcinoma is presented. The following conclusions are offered as guidelines for the use of mediastinal staging procedures in clinical practice: Surgical staging methods have the over-riding advantage of superior specificity over indirect imaging techniques. Where 67Ga-imaging or CT scanning are not available, routine pre-operative mediastinoscopy or, when appropriate, mediastinotomy will identify most patients with non-resectable disease but this approach entails a high proportion of true negative examinations. Radioisotope ventilation and perfusion lung imaging has no place in the pre-operative staging of lung cancer. Where the techniques are available, 67Ga-imaging and CT scanning have a use in selecting patients for mediastinal exploration. A negative mediastinal 67Ga scan or a negative CT examination suggest that mediastinal exploration will be unrewarding in the vast majority of cases and may be omitted prior to thoracotomy. A positive mediastinal 67Ga scan or the demonstration of abnormal mediastinal nodes by CT is an indication for mediastinal exploration which, if negative should be followed by thoracotomy. PMID:6369288

  4. A Cross-Study Biomarker Signature of Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Infected with Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    PubMed Central

    Gardinassi, Luiz Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of lower respiratory tract infections in children, elderly, and immunocompromised individuals. Despite of advances in diagnosis and treatment, biomarkers of RSV infection are still unclear. To understand the host response and propose signatures of RSV infection, previous studies evaluated the transcriptional profile of the human bronchial epithelial cell line—BEAS-2B—infected with different strains of this virus. However, the evolution of statistical methods and functional analysis together with the large amount of expression data provide opportunities to uncover novel biomarkers of inflammation and infections. In view of those facts publicly available microarray datasets from RSV-infected BEAS-2B cells were analyzed with linear model-based statistics and the platform for functional analysis InnateDB. The results from those analyses argue for the reevaluation of previously reported transcription patterns and biological pathways in BEAS-2B cell lines infected with RSV. Importantly, this study revealed a biosignature constituted by genes such as ABCC4, ARMC8, BCLAF1, EZH1, FAM118A, FAM208B, FUS, HSPH1, KAZN, MAP3K2, N6AMT1, PRMT2, S100PBP, SERPINA1, TLK2, ZNF322, and ZNF337 which should be considered in the development of new molecular diagnosis tools. PMID:27274726

  5. [Characteristics of bronchial inflammation in children with chronic non-productive cough].

    PubMed

    Bunu, Carmen; Vancea, Dorin; Păunescu, Virgil

    2003-01-01

    The aim of study was to correlate the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell subpopulations in light microscopy and clinical-functional parameters in 20 children with chronic nonproductive cough (potentially evolving to asthma) in comparison with 20 children with mild and moderate stable asthma. The results revealed a different BAL cell profile of chronic coughing children, characterized by a lower percent of total cells (0.279 +/- 0.055 x 10(6)/ml), eosinophils (0.97 +/- 0.80%), lymphocytes (6.02 +/- 0.85%) and epithelial cells (28.52 +/- 5.15%) and higher percent of macrophages (46.05 +/- 7.94%) and neutrophils (18.27 +/- 4.93%). Eosinophilic inflammation in BAL and bronchial hyper-responsiveness (PC20 methacholine = 1.73 +/- 0.15 mg/ml) were revealed in three cases with chronic cough. Based on these reasons, they were included in "cough variant asthma". In conclusion, children with nonproductive chronic cough represent a heterogenous group, with different underlying causes. Only a minority of these patients has "cough variant asthma", with a favorable response to inhaled corticotherapy. PMID:14702696

  6. [Clinical and morphological peculiarities of the clinical course of duodenal ulcer in patients with bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Cherniaevskaia, G M; Maksimenko, G V; Beloborodova, É I; Ustiuzhanina, E A; Denisova, O A

    2014-01-01

    This work was aimed to study clinical features of H. pylori-associated duodenal ulcer (DU) and elucidate morphological features of gastric mucosa (GM) in patients with bronchial asthma (BA). Simultaneous prospective examination of 118 patients aged 18-64 yr included clinical and endoscopic study of the gastroduodenal region with the assessment of gastroenterological symptoms and morphological analysis of GM and duodenal biopsies by histological, histochemical, and morphometric methods. It was shown that GM inflammation in patients with DU and BA is associated not only with H. pylori infection but also with the phase of BA. Structural changes of GM in the patients with DU and BA, unlike those with DU without BA, were apparent not only in the antrum but also in the fundus. Growing density of eosinophil, neutrophil and mast cell infiltration of fundal and antral GM as well as increased total number of cells in the antrum reflects active immune-mediated inflammation in GM lamina propria. It is concluded that negative effect of uncontrolled BA on the clinical course of DU is not restricted to the association of DU exacerbation with the absence of BA control; it is also responsible for enhanced activity of gastritis. One of the possible factors determining combination of H. pylori-associated duodenal ulcer with BA is chronic hyperergic inflammation and marked structural changes in GM. PMID:25269182

  7. [Systematic literature review on interventions in rehabilitation for children and adolescents with asthma bronchiale].

    PubMed

    Ahnert, J; Löffler, S; Müller, J; Vogel, H

    2010-06-01

    Relevant data bases were used to collect and evaluate guidelines, meta-analyses, and reviews as well as primary studies dealing with asthma therapy for children and adolescents. Treatment approaches whose effectiveness with regard to bronchial asthma was empirically verified (i. e., evidence-based) were identified (medical and diagnostic procedures as well as drug trials were excluded from the analysis). 152 methodically sound studies referring to asthma treatment of children and adolescents were selected. Strong evidence was found for patient education, parent education, exercise therapy, inhalation, and tobacco withdrawal. Nutritional counseling and avoidance of allergens showed limited evidence. Psychotherapy, relaxation techniques, breathing exercises, climate therapy, clinical social work (social and legal counseling services, vocational reintegration counseling, aftercare) and integration counseling showed inconsistent evidence. No evidence was found for alternative medicine. Challenges regarding the development of treatment standards for children and adolescent rehabilitation are highlighted; these refer to limitations in report quality in some of the studies, the validity of treatments for comorbid conditions, a lack of differentiation for different age groups, and transferability of outpatient or international study results to inpatient rehabilitation. PMID:20533145

  8. [Functional activity of alveolar macrophages in patients with bronchial asthma and gastroesophageal reflux disease].

    PubMed

    Maev, I V; Liamina, S V; Kalish, S V; Malysheva, E V; Iurenev, G L; Malyshev, I Iu

    2013-01-01

    Combination of bronchial asthma (BA) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a widespread clinical situation. The two pathologies are known to influence each other leading to disturbances in immune responsiveness. We studied phenotypes and phenotypic plasticity of immune cells (alveolar macrophages) in patients with BA and GERD. It was shown that BA and GERD are largely associated with AM of proinflammatory M2 and anti-inflammatory M1 phenotypes respectively. Population of AM with MI phenotype increases in patients having both BA and GERD compared with that in BA alone. In vitro experiments showed that acidic milieu promotes shifting the phenotype toward the predominance of M1, i.e. simulates the situation characteristic of GERD. Combination of BA and GERD narrows the interval within which AM can change MI phenotype (i.e. makes them more "rigid") but broadens the range in which they can change M2 phenotype. Also, GERD promotes the development of morphological rigidity of AM. Patients with BA given steroid therapy undergo inversion of phenotypic plasticity of AM. These data characterize the immunological component of BA and/or GERD pathogenesis. They help to better understand mechanisms of development of broncho-pulmonary pathology in GERD patients and can be used to work out new methods for the treatment of these diseases. PMID:24417067

  9. Endovascular treatment of ectopic bronchial artery aneurysm with brachiocephalic artery stent placement and coil embolization

    PubMed Central

    Di, Xiao; Ji, Dong-Hua; Chen, Yu; Liu, Chang-Wei; Liu, Bao; Yang, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Bronchial artery aneurysm (BAA) is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening disease, and multiple BAAs are even rarer. Clinically, the tortuous and short neck of a BAA may present significant challenges for invasive intervention. Methods: This report describes the detailed process of diagnosis and treatment and includes a literature review of the etiology, clinical presentation, and therapeutic management of BAA. Results: A rare case of multiple BAAs, with one having an inflow artery arising from the brachiocephalic trunk, was referred to our hospital. The patient was successfully treated with coil embolization and brachiocephalic artery stent placement. In addition, we conducted a literature review involving 63 cases of BAA. BAA was most commonly associated with bronchiectasis and was located predominantly in the mediastinum. There was no significant difference between the diameters of the ruptured aneurysms and those of the nonruptured aneurysms (P = 0.115). Transcatheter arterial embolization was the most commonly adopted technique to treat BAA, while thoracic aortic endovascular repair was selected if the neck between the aneurysm and the aorta was short. Subgroup analysis suggested that patients with > 1 BAA were significantly more likely to be female than male (χ2 test, P = 0.034). Conclusion: Transcatheter coil embolization combined with stent placement could be a reasonable treatment option for BAAs with a tortuous and short neck. According to our literature review, patients with multiple BAAs display distinctive clinical characteristics compared with patients with a single BAA. PMID:27583854

  10. Karyotyping of Chromosomes in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Transformed by High Energy Fe Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeshitla, Samrawit; Zhang, Ye; Park, Seongmi; Story, Michael D.; Wilson, Bobby; Wu, Honglu

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer induced from exposures to space radiation is one of the most significant health risks for long-term space travels. Evidences show that low- and high- Linear energy transfer (LET)-induced transformation of normal human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) that are immortalized through the expression of Cdk4 and hTERT. The cells were exposed to gamma rays and high-energy Fe ions for the selection of transformed clones. Transformed HBEC are identified and analyzed chromosome aberrations (i.e. genomic instability) using the multi-color fluorescent in situ hybridization (mFISH), as well as the multi-banding in situ hybridization (mBAND) techniques. Our results show chromosomal translocations between different chromosomes and several of the breaks occurred in the q-arm of chromosome 3. We also identified copy number variations between the transformed and the parental HBEC regardless of the exposure conditions. We observed chromosomal aberrations in the lowand high-LET radiation-induced transformed clones and they are imperfectly different from clones obtain in spontaneous soft agar growth.

  11. Karyotyping of Chromosomes in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Transformed by High Energy Fe Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeshitla, Samrawit; Zhang, Ye; Park, Seongmi; Story, Michael T.; Wilson, Bobby; Wu, Honglu

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer induced from exposure to space radiation is believed to be one of the most significant health risks for long-term space travels. In a previous study, normal human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs), immortalized through the expression of Cdk4 and hTERT, were exposed to gamma rays and high energy Fe ions for the selection of transformed clones induced by low- and high-LET radiation. In this research, we analyzed chromosome aberrations in these selected clones for genomic instability using the multi-color fluorescent in situ hybridization (mFISH), as well as the multi-banding in situ hybridization (mBAND) techniques. In most of the clones, we found chromosomal aberrations involving translocations between different chromosomes, with several of the breaks occurred in the q-arm of chromosome 3. We also identified copy number variations between the transformed clones and the parental HBEC cells regardless of the exposure condition. Our results indicated that the chromosomal aberrations in low- and high radiation-induced transformed clones are inadequately different from spontaneous soft agar growth. Further analysis is underway to reveal the genomic instability in more transformed clones

  12. A study of granulocyte respiratory burst in patients with allergic bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Vargas, L; Patiño, P J; Montoya, F; Vanegas, A C; Echavarría, A; García de Olarte, D

    1998-02-01

    The respiratory burst of phagocytes plays an important role in the tissue damage that accompanies the inflammatory response. One of these conditions is allergic bronchial asthma, therefore, to evaluate the activation state of peripheral granulocytes the generation of reactive oxygen metabolites was evaluated using Luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (LCL) and reduction of cytochrome C by superoxide. The resting granulocytes of the asthmatic patients under crisis showed a higher LCL compared to the noncrisis patients and control subjects. The granulocytes stimulated with PMA presented a significant increase in the respiratory burst in both groups of asthmatics. The granulocytes of noncrisis asthmatics challenged with Ops-Zym and with fMLP + Ops-Zym showed a higher metabolic activity, whereas the asthmatics under crisis presented no difference between reactive oxygen generation and that of the control group. The quantitative analysis of superoxide generation by granulocytes of the same patients did not show differences among the groups. Our findings suggest that the granulocytes of crisis and noncrisis asthmatics seem to be in a hyperreactive state and with a higher metabolic response when compared to the control group. However, the patients present a different behavior depending on stimulus used to activate cells. This could indicate that in peripheral blood exist different granulocyte populations depending on the inflammatory response taking place in the respiratory tract. PMID:9484649

  13. One-dimensional computational model of pulse wave propagation in the human bronchial tree.

    PubMed

    Clavica, Francesco; Alastruey, Jordi; Borlotti, Alessandra; Sherwin, Spencer J; Khir, Ashraf W

    2010-01-01

    Airflow in the respiratory system has been predominantly studied in rigid ducts. Three-dimensional simulations are computationally expensive. One-dimensional (1-D) modelling offers a good compromise between accuracy and computational cost. In this work we described the propagation of air pulse in a model of human airways using the 1-D equations of flow in compliant vessels. Seven generations of bifurcations, starting from the trachea, were studied. Peripheral airways (from the 8(th) to 23(rd) generation) were modelled using lumped parameter models. Peripheral resistance values for normal and emphysematous lungs were taken from the literature. An acceleration pulse, very short in time, was enforced at the inlet of trachea. The results suggest that compression (positive pressure peaks) and expansion (negative pressure peaks) waves are generated according to the reflection coefficients of the corresponding reflection sites (bifurcations and terminal reflections). Different values for peripheral bronchial resistance generate three different terminal reflections, all negative with different wave amplitudes. The sensitivity of the code to different peripheral resistances suggests that the 1-D formulation is a promising tool for a better understanding of the impact of disease on the velocity and pressure waveforms in the first generations of airway vessels. PMID:21096163

  14. Acute inhalation of ozone stimulates bronchial C-fibers and rapidly adapting receptors in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Coleridge, J.C.G.; Coleridge, H.M.; Schelegle, E.S.; Green, J.F. Univ. of California, San Francisco )

    1993-05-01

    To identify the afferents responsible for initiating the vagally mediated respiratory changes evoked by acute exposure to ozone, the authors recorded vagal impulses in anesthetized, open-chest, artificially ventilated dogs and examined the pulmonary afferent response to ozone (2--3 ppM in air) delivered to the lower trachea for 20--60 min. Bronchial C-fibers (BrCs) were the lung afferents most susceptible to ozone, the activity of 10 of 11 BrCs increasing from 0.2 [+-] 0.2 to 4.6 [+-] 1.3 impulses/s within 1--7 min of ozone exposure. Ten of 15 rapidly adapting receptors (RARs) were stimulated by ozone, their activity increasing from 1.5 [+-] 0.4 to 4.7 [+-] 0.7 impulses/s. Stimulation of RARs (but not of BrCs) appeared secondary to the ozone-induced reduction of lung compliance because it was abolished by hyperinflation of the lungs. Ozone had little effect on pulmonary C-fibers or slowly adapting pulmonary stretch receptors. The authors' results suggest that both BrCs and RARs contribute to the tachypnea and bronchoconstriction evoked by acute exposure to ozone when vagal conduction is intact and that BrCs alone are responsible for the vagally mediated tachypnea that survives vagal cooling to 7[degrees]C. 23 refs., 5 figs.

  15. [Comparison of respiratory control responses in bronchial and external airway stenosis].

    PubMed

    Marek, W; Rasche, K; Mailänder, A; Hoffarth, H P; Ulmer, W T

    1989-11-01

    Respiratory responses during allergen-induced airway obstruction and external airway stenosis were investigated in anaesthetised sheep. The results were compared to those obtained from healthy subjects during external airway stenosis. Allergen-induced increase in airway resistance results in an increased respiratory frequency, mainly due to a shortening of expiration (TE) and only partially due to a shortening of inspiration (TI). Tidal volume is diminished while respiratory changes in oesophageal pressure (delta Poes) are increased. Both results in an increase of dynamic elastance (Edyn) representing airway resistance. Based on the increase in the slope and amplitude of inspiratory pressure (delta Poes/TI), the mean inspiratory airflow (VT/TI) remains almost unchanged. In spite of an increased ventilation PaO2 decreases, whereas PaCO2 increases only slightly. External airway stenosis, however, results in a decrease of respiratory frequency, mainly depending on a prolongation of inspiration. Changes in Poes and VT are similar to those of allergen-induced airway obstruction. delta Poes/TI, however, increases less than during allergen application and results in a decrease of mean inspiratory airflow, tidal volume and ventilation. Respiratory responses of healthy subjects during external airway stenosis were similar to those described in experimental animals. The results of our investigation show a different pattern in the control of breathing during bronchial and external stenosis-induced airway obstruction and thus indicate different vagal reflex mechanisms. PMID:2608647

  16. Characteristics of chromate workers' cancers, chromium lung deposition and precancerous bronchial lesions: an autopsy study.

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Y.; Nakagawa, K.; Satoh, Y.; Kitagawa, T.; Sugano, H.; Hirano, T.; Tsuchiya, E.

    1994-01-01

    The characteristics of lung cancers induced by inhaled chromate were studied in 13 consecutive autopsies on male ex-chromate workers. In addition to histopathology, we examined: (1) the relationship between the occurrence of lung cancer and the amount of chromium (Cr) deposited in the lung as determined by atomic absorptiometry and (2) the chronological changes in five precancerous lung lesions followed by bronchoscopy till death. Twenty-one cancers were identified, including 16 lung tumours observed either during follow-up or at autopsy. Of these 16 tumours, 13 were found in six subjects, implying a high frequency of multiple cancers. Eleven (69%) out of the 16 tumours were of squamous cell type (including carcinoma in situ), this being twice as frequent as in age-matched controls. A further characteristic was predominance in the central part of lung (69%). The lung Cr burden was very much higher [40-15,800 micrograms g-1 (dry)] in patients with lung tumours than in those without (8-28 micrograms g-1). Five of the precancerous lesions followed by bronchoscopy originated at bronchial bifurcations. Four of these cases showed a return to normal histology at autopsy even without therapy, and the other did not progress. Images Figure 2 PMID:8018529

  17. Genomic instability and tumorigenic induction in immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells by heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hei, T. K.; Piao, C. Q.; Wu, L. J.; Willey, J. C.; Hall, E. J.

    1998-11-01

    Carcinogenesis is postulated to be a progressive multistage process characterized by an increase in genomic instability and clonal selection with each mutational event endowing a selective growth advantage. Genomic instability as manifested by the amplification of specific gene fragments is common among tumor and transformed cells. In the present study, immortalized human bronchial (BEP2D) cells were irradiated with graded doses of either 1GeV/nucleon 56Fe ions or 150 keV/μm alpha particles. Transformed cells developed through a series of successive steps before becoming tumorigenic in nude mice. Tumorigenic cells showed neither ras mutations nor deletion in the p16 tumor suppressor gene. In contrast, they harbored mutations in the p53 gene and over-expressed cyclin D1. Genomic instability among transformed cells at various stage of the carcinogenic process was examined based on frequencies of PALA resistance. Incidence of genomic instability was highest among established tumor cell lines relative to transformed, non-tumorigenic and control cell lines. Treatment of BEP2D cells with a 4 mM dose of the aminothiol WR-1065 significantly reduced their neoplastic transforming response to 56Fe particles. This model provides an opportunity to study the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in malignant transformation of human epithelial cells by heavy ions.

  18. The Fate of ZnO Nanoparticles Administered to Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Benjamin; Fakra, Sirine C.; Xia, Tian; Pokhrel, Suman; Mädler, Lutz; Nel, André E.

    2014-01-01

    A particular challenge for nanotoxicology is the evaluation of the biological fate and toxicity of nanomaterials that dissolve in aqueous fluids. Zinc oxide nanomaterials are of particular concern because dissolution leads to release of the toxic divalent zinc ion. Although dissolved zinc ions have been implicated in ZnO cytotoxicity, direct identification of the chemical form of zinc taken up by cells exposed to ZnO nanoparticles, and its intracellular fate, has not yet been achieved. We combined high resolution X-ray spectromicroscopy and high elemental sensitivity X-ray microprobe analyses to determine the fate of ZnO and less soluble iron-doped ZnO nanoparticles following exposure to cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells, BEAS-2B. We complemented two-dimensional X-ray imaging methods with atomic force microscopy of cell surfaces to distinguish between nanoparticles that were transported inside the cells from those that adhered to the cell exterior. The data suggest cellular uptake of ZnO nanoparticles is a mechanism of zinc accumulation in cells. Following uptake, ZnO nanoparticles dissolved completely generating intracellular Zn2+ complexed by molecular ligands. These results corroborate a model for ZnO nanoparticle toxicity that is based on nanoparticle uptake followed by intracellular dissolution. PMID:22646753

  19. A renormalization approach to a class of exponential random processes with application to the bronchial tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovidiu Vlad, Marcel

    1992-07-01

    A new stochastic renormalization approach for multi-step decay phenomena is developed. A simple physical interpretation of the renormalization method is suggested. It consists in grouping successions of variable numbers of decay events into blocks. The law of probability multiplication leads to an exponential random process Y = YX1 + X2 + …0 where both the exponents X1, X2,… and the basis Y0 are random variables. The physically consistent solution of the model corresponds to a “super-strong” renormalization regime. The dependence of the moments of the decay parameter on the number of decay steps q can be exactly determined. It consists in a linear superposition of inverse power laws in q modulated by periodic functions in In q, having different periods. The theory is applied to the renormalization of the bronchial tree. Our computation shows that the lung structure is very tolerant to fluctuations. This result supports the mechanism of morphogenesis of fractal biological organs suggested by West (Ann. Biomed. Eng. 18 (1990) 135). The possibilities of application to the scattering phenomena in one-dimensional disordered media are also investigated.

  20. Cigarette smoke alters primary human bronchial epithelial cell differentiation at the air-liquid interface

    PubMed Central

    Schamberger, Andrea C.; Staab-Weijnitz, Claudia A.; Mise-Racek, Nikica; Eickelberg, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The differentiated human airway epithelium consists of different cell types forming a polarized and pseudostratified epithelium. This is dramatically altered in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), characterized by basal and goblet cell hyperplasia, and squamous cell metaplasia. The effect of cigarette smoke on human bronchial epithelial cell (HBEC) differentiation remains to be elucidated. We analysed whether cigarette smoke extract (CSE) affected primary (p)HBEC differentiation and function. pHBEC were differentiated at the air-liquid interface (ALI) and differentiation was quantified after 7, 14, 21, or 28 days by assessing acetylated tubulin, CC10, or MUC5AC for ciliated, Clara, or goblet cells, respectively. Exposure of differentiating pHBEC to CSE impaired epithelial barrier formation, as assessed by resistance measurements (TEER). Importantly, CSE exposure significantly reduced the number of ciliated cells, while it increased the number of Clara and goblet cells. CSE-dependent cell number changes were reflected by a reduction of acetylated tubulin levels, an increased expression of the basal cell marker KRT14, and increased secretion of CC10, but not by changes in transcript levels of CC10, MUC5AC, or FOXJ1. Our data demonstrate that cigarette smoke specifically alters the cellular composition of the airway epithelium by affecting basal cell differentiation in a post-transcriptional manner. PMID:25641363

  1. [Tracheo-bronchial intubation for surgery of the esophagus via a thoracic approach].

    PubMed

    Bornet, J L; Desprats, R

    1977-01-01

    Tracheo-bronchial intubation using a double-lumen Carlens tube provides the surgeon with a mediastinal operating field free of any obstruction by the lung and provides greater surgical ease than that of an assistant retracting a constantly invasive lung with tracheal intubation. This anaesthetic technique involving the ventilation of only one lung during the endothoracic period of the surgical procedure has not been used routinely for extra-pulmonary surgery since the shunt which is created leads to a fear of dangerous hypoxia. The aim of this study involving 30 patients is to demonstrate that the blood oxygen saturation obtained by the careful ventilation of a single lung, that of the side on which the patient is lying, is perfectly acceptable and comparable with the preoperative oxygen saturation of the subject at rest. This is obtained at the price of an increase in insufflation pressures of the order of 100 percent. Re-expansion of the collapsed lung without visual confirmation after careful endobronchial aspiration makes it possible to prevent the development of areas of micro-atelectasia and to ensure the absence of any pulmonary postoperative complications. PMID:22287

  2. Primary Paediatric Bronchial Airway Epithelial Cell in Vitro Responses to Environmental Exposures

    PubMed Central

    McInnes, Neil; Davidson, Matthew; Scaife, Alison; Miller, David; Spiteri, Daniella; Engelhardt, Tom; Semple, Sean; Devereux, Graham; Walsh, Garry; Turner, Steve

    2016-01-01

    The bronchial airway epithelial cell (BAEC) is the site for initial encounters between inhaled environmental factors and the lower respiratory system. Our hypothesis was that release of pro inflammatory interleukins (IL)-6 and IL-8 from primary BAEC cultured from children will be increased after in vitro exposure to common environmental factors. Primary BAEC were obtained from children undergoing clinically indicated routine general anaesthetic procedures. Cells were exposed to three different concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or house dust mite allergen (HDM) or particulates extracted from side stream cigarette smoke (SSCS). BAEC were obtained from 24 children (mean age 7.0 years) and exposed to stimuli. Compared with the negative control, there was an increase in IL-6 and IL-8 release after exposure to HDM (p ≤ 0.001 for both comparisons). There was reduced IL-6 after higher compared to lower SSCS exposure (p = 0.023). There was no change in BAEC release of IL-6 or IL-8 after LPS exposure. BAEC from children are able to recognise and respond in vitro with enhanced pro inflammatory mediator secretion to some inhaled exposures. PMID:27023576

  3. Genomic instability and tumorigenic induction in immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells by heavy ions.

    PubMed

    Hei, T K; Piao, C Q; Wu, L J; Willey, J C; Hall, E J

    1998-01-01

    Carcinogenesis is postulated to be a progressive multistage process characterized by an increase in genomic instability and clonal selection with each mutational event endowing a selective growth advantage. Genomic instability as manifested by the amplification of specific gene fragments is common among tumor and transformed cells. In the present study, immortalized human bronchial (BEP2D) cells were irradiated with graded doses of either 1GeV/nucleon 56Fe ions or 150 keV/micrometer alpha particles. Transformed cells developed through a series of successive steps before becoming tumorigenic in nude mice. Tumorigenic cells showed neither ras mutations nor deletion in the p16 tumor suppressor gene. In contrast, they harbored mutations in the p53 gene and over-expressed cyclin D1. Genomic instability among transformed cells at various stage of the carcinogenic process was examined based on frequencies of PALA resistance. Incidence of genomic instability was highest among established tumor cell lines relative to transformed, non-tumorigenic and control cell lines. Treatment of BEP2D cells with a 4 mM dose of the aminothiol WR-1065 significantly reduced their neoplastic transforming response to 56Fe particles. This model provides an opportunity to study the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in malignant transformation of human epithelial cells by heavy ions. PMID:11542414

  4. Optimality in the variation of average branching angle with generation in the human bronchial tree.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eugene; Kang, Min Y; Yang, Hoe J; Lee, Jin W

    2008-06-01

    In the human bronchial tree the branching angle becomes larger with generation or for the smaller branches. Previous theories based on single parameter optimization have not been successful at all in predicting the consistent increasing trend of branching angle with continued bifurcation. In this study a new theory for the optimality of the branching angle is proposed, which is based on the optimization between dual competing performances, the maximum space-filling capability at the expense of minimum energy loss. A large-angle branching gives an effect of delivering air into a new direction away from the preceding airways. It then has an effect of utilizing the lung volume with better uniformity, but at the same time inevitably requires a high pressure loss. It is shown in this paper that the ever increasing branching angle with generation can be well explained as the optimum branching structure where the dual opposing performance of space filling and pressure loss is optimized. In estimating the pressure loss, branching loss is considered in addition to the Poiseuille loss. Change of predicted optimum branching angle with generation shows an excellent agreement with the observed data found in the human conducting airways. PMID:18317928

  5. Azithromycin increases phagocytosis of apoptotic bronchial epithelial cells by alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Hodge, S; Hodge, G; Brozyna, S; Jersmann, H; Holmes, M; Reynolds, P N

    2006-09-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with increased apoptosis and defective phagocytosis in the airway. As uncleared cells can undergo secondary necrosis and perpetuate inflammation, strategies to improve clearance would have therapeutic significance. There is evidence that the 15-member macrolide antibiotic azithromycin has anti-inflammatory properties. Its effects may be increased in the lung due to its ability to reach high concentrations in alveolar macrophages (AMs). The present study investigated the effects of low-dose (500 ng x mL(-1)) azithromycin on the phagocytosis of apoptotic bronchial epithelial cells and neutrophils by AMs. Flow cytometry was applied to measure phagocytosis and receptors involved in AM recognition of apoptotic cells. Cytokines were investigated using cytometric bead array. Baseline phagocytosis was reduced in COPD subjects compared with controls. Azithromycin significantly improved the phagocytosis of epithelial cells or neutrophils by AMs from COPD subjects by 68 and 38%, respectively, often up to levels comparable with controls. The increase in phagocytosis was partially inhibited by phosphatidylserine, implicating the phosphatidylserine pathway in the pro-phagocytic effects of azithromycin. Azithromycin had no effect on other recognition molecules (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, CD44, CD31, CD36, CD91, alphavbeta3 integrin). At higher doses, azithromycin decreased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Thus, low-dose azithromycin therapy could provide an adjunct therapeutic option in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID:16737992

  6. Bronchial Epithelial Cells Produce IL-5: Implications for Local Immune Responses in the Airways

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Carol A.; Peluso, John J.; Zhu, Li; Lingenheld, Elizabeth G.; Walker, Sharale T.; Puddington, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    IL-5 is a pleiotropic cytokine that promotes eosinophil differentiation and survival. While naïve bronchial epithelial cells (BEC) produce low levels of IL-5, the role of BEC-derived IL-5 in allergic airway inflammation is unknown. We now show that BEC, isolated from mice with OVA-induced allergic airway disease (AAD), produced elevated levels of IL-5 mRNA and protein as compared to BEC from naïve mice. To determine the contribution of BEC-derived IL-5 to effector responses in the airways, IL-5 deficient bone marrow chimeric mice were generated in which IL-5 expression was restricted to stromal (e.g. BEC) or hematopoietic cells. When subjected to AAD, IL-5 produced by BECs contributed to mucous metaplasia, airway eosinophilia, and OVA-specific IgA levels. Thus, IL-5 production by BEC can impact the microenvironment of the lung, modifying pathologic and protective immune responses in the airways. PMID:20494340

  7. Activity and intracellular location of estrogen receptors α and β in human bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Margarita M.; Mazhawidza, Williard; Dougherty, Susan M.; Minna, John D.; Klinge, Carolyn M.

    2009-01-01

    Gender differences in lung disease and cancer are well-established. We reported estrogenic transcriptional responses in lung adenocarcinoma cells from females but not males despite similar estrogen receptor (ER) expression. Here we tested the hypothesis that normal human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) show gender-independent estrogenic responses. We report that a small sample of HBECs express ~twice as much ERβ as ERα.ERα and ERβ were located in the cytoplasm, nucleus, and mitochondria. In contrast to lung adenocarcinoma cells, estradiol (E2) induced estrogen response element (ERE)-mediated luciferase reporter activity in transiently transfected HBECs regardless of donor gender. Overexpression of ERα-VP16 increased ERE-mediated transcriptional activity in all HBECs. E2 increased and 4-hydroxytamoxifen and ICI 182,780 inhibited HBEC proliferation and cyclin D1 expression in a cell line-specific manner. In conclusion, the response of HBECs to ER ligands is gender-independent suggesting that estrogenic sensitivity may be acquired during lung carcinogenesis. PMID:19433257

  8. Bronchial thermoplasty and biological therapy as targeted treatments for severe uncontrolled asthma.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Abhaya; Pavord, Ian D; Castro, Mario

    2016-07-01

    Although a small proportion of patients with asthma have severe disease, it accounts for the majority of morbidity related to the illness. Severe asthma comprises a heterogeneous group of phenotypes. Targeted treatments for these phenotypes represent a major advancement in the management of severe asthma. Omalizumab, a monoclonal antibody to IgE, improves asthma control in patients with a predominant allergic phenotype. Monoclonal antibodies targeted to interleukin 4α and interleukin 5 have shown substantial benefit in patients with the eosinophilic asthma phenotype; so too have monoclonal antibodies targeted to interleukin 13 in patients with a type 2 allergic phenotype. Bronchial thermoplasty, a new technique to reduce airway smooth muscle mass, improves symptoms and reduces exacerbations in patients with severe uncontrolled asthma and the chronic airflow obstruction phenotype. While awaiting comparative trials, we can now use a targeted approach with these phenotypes, guiding our treatment selection with the best evidence. This Review will focus on the latest developments in these new treatments and inform the clinician on how to select the appropriate patient for these treatments. PMID:27230825

  9. Development of receptor bronchial system in isolated preparation of piglet trachea in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bexheti, Sadi; Haliti, Naim; Islami, Hilmi; Sukalo, Aziz; Nuraj, Bajram; Krasniqi, Valon; Kutllovci, Skender; Beqiraj, Rruke; Disha, Mentor

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present the flow research of the development of receptor bronchial system in the first month of extra-uterine life up to the sixth month of development, performed by tracking the reactions of isolated tracheal rings in acetylcholine (Ach), propranolol (P), histamine (Hist), and prostaglandin (PGF2-alfa) in concentrations of: 10-4, 10-3, 10-2 and 10-1 mol/dm3; in piglets of ages: 1 month, 2 months, 4 months and 6 months. Results shows that Ach causes reaction of smooth muscles from the first month of extra-uterine life (p < 0.01) and that Propranolol (P) significantly emphasizes the effect of Ach (p > 0.1), while histamine and PGF2-alpha do not cause constriction (histamine up to 4 months of age, PGF2-alfa up to 6 months of extra-uterine life). This shows that cholinergic and adrenergic system in piglet airways is developed during intrauterine life and reaction can be registered in the first month of extra-uterine life, while other receptor systems are developed in later periods of extra-uterine life. This suggests that lack of reaction of tracheal smooth musculature (TSM) comes as a result of sufficient non-maturity of mast cells from which chemical mediators, with local functioning, are released. PMID:20514768

  10. Stent Implantation for Malignant Pulmonary Artery Stenosis in a Metastasizing Non-Small Cell Bronchial Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Gutzeit, A.; Koch, S.; Meier, U. R.; Zollikofer, Ch.

    2008-07-15

    A 58-year-old patient with recently diagnosed non-small cell bronchial carcinoma was referred to us with increasing shortness of breath and orthopnea by her family practitioner. To exclude the possibility of a pulmonary embolism, contrast medium-enhanced angio-CT of the thorax was performed. This showed a large mediastinal tumor, which, on the one hand, infiltrated and occluded the left upper lobe bronchus and, on the other, constricted the left pulmonary artery over a considerable part of its length. In view of the palliative situation and massively increasing dyspnea, balloon dilatation of the obstructed left pulmonary artery followed by stent placement was performed. This resulted in an immediate improvement of the symptoms. The originally strongly oxygen-dependent and heavily dyspneic patient could be relieved of the external supply of oxygen and was able to sleep normally without additional medication within 24 h. The patient was able ambulate freely within 2 days, with a markedly improved quality of life.

  11. Neutrophilic Bronchial Inflammation Correlates with Clinical and Functional Findings in Patients with Noncystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Dente, Federico L; Bilotta, Marta; Bartoli, Maria Laura; Bacci, Elena; Cianchetti, Silvana; Latorre, Manuela; Malagrinò, Laura; Nieri, Dario; Roggi, Maria Adelaide; Vagaggini, Barbara; Paggiaro, Pierluigi

    2015-01-01

    Background. Neutrophilic bronchial inflammation is a main feature of bronchiectasis, but not much is known about its relationship with other disease features. Aim. To compare airway inflammatory markers with clinical and functional findings in subjects with stable noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFB). Methods. 152 NFCB patients (62.6 years; females: 57.2%) underwent clinical and functional cross-sectional evaluation, including microbiologic and inflammatory cell profile in sputum, and exhaled breath condensate malondialdehyde (EBC-MDA). NFCB severity was assessed using BSI and FACED criteria. Results. Sputum neutrophil percentages inversely correlated with FEV1 (P < 0.0001; rho = -0.428), weakly with Leicester Cough Questionnaire score (P = 0.068; rho = -0.58), and directly with duration of the disease (P = 0.004; rho = 0.3) and BSI severity score (P = 0.005; rho = 0.37), but not with FACED. Sputum neutrophilia was higher in colonized subjects, P. aeruginosa colonized subjects showing greater sputum neutrophilia and lower FEV1. Patients with ≥3 exacerbations in the last year showed a significantly greater EBC-MDA than the remaining patients. Conclusions. Sputum neutrophilic inflammation and biomarkers of oxidative stress in EBC can be considered good biomarkers of disease severity in NCFB patients, as confirmed by pulmonary function, disease duration, bacterial colonization, BSI score, and exacerbation rate. PMID:26819500

  12. Neutrophilic Bronchial Inflammation Correlates with Clinical and Functional Findings in Patients with Noncystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis

    PubMed Central

    Dente, Federico L.; Bilotta, Marta; Bartoli, Maria Laura; Bacci, Elena; Cianchetti, Silvana; Latorre, Manuela; Malagrinò, Laura; Nieri, Dario; Roggi, Maria Adelaide; Vagaggini, Barbara; Paggiaro, Pierluigi

    2015-01-01

    Background. Neutrophilic bronchial inflammation is a main feature of bronchiectasis, but not much is known about its relationship with other disease features. Aim. To compare airway inflammatory markers with clinical and functional findings in subjects with stable noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFB). Methods. 152 NFCB patients (62.6 years; females: 57.2%) underwent clinical and functional cross-sectional evaluation, including microbiologic and inflammatory cell profile in sputum, and exhaled breath condensate malondialdehyde (EBC-MDA). NFCB severity was assessed using BSI and FACED criteria. Results. Sputum neutrophil percentages inversely correlated with FEV1 (P < 0.0001; rho = −0.428), weakly with Leicester Cough Questionnaire score (P = 0.068; rho = −0.58), and directly with duration of the disease (P = 0.004; rho = 0.3) and BSI severity score (P = 0.005; rho = 0.37), but not with FACED. Sputum neutrophilia was higher in colonized subjects, P. aeruginosa colonized subjects showing greater sputum neutrophilia and lower FEV1. Patients with ≥3 exacerbations in the last year showed a significantly greater EBC-MDA than the remaining patients. Conclusions. Sputum neutrophilic inflammation and biomarkers of oxidative stress in EBC can be considered good biomarkers of disease severity in NCFB patients, as confirmed by pulmonary function, disease duration, bacterial colonization, BSI score, and exacerbation rate. PMID:26819500

  13. Investigation of possible mechanism of laser welding between artificial film and bronchial tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sensaki, Koji; Arai, Tsunenori; Tanaka, Susumu

    1994-09-01

    The mechanism of laser welding between artificial film and airway epithelium was investigated. An expanded-polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE) patch (200 micrometers in thickness) was welded to exised canine trachea using carbon monoxide laser (wavelength 5.4 micrometers ) with contact irradiation method. The power density at the tip of the laser fiber cable was 300 W/cm2 and irradiation time was five seconds. This method was designed for closure of a postoperative bronchopleural fistula via a bronchoscope using laser tissue welding. The welded contact surfaces of the patch and the tissue were examined with scanning electron microscope. The surface of e-PTFE showed porous structure. And welded surface of the tissue revealed multiple process. The porous structure of the e-PTFE patch and process of the tracheal epithelium coincided with size. The evidence of its remodeling as cast of the patch surface proved. Strings of e-PTFE fibrils were also recognized among the process. The mechanical anchoring effect was considered as a possible mechanism of laser patch welding of e-PTFE and bronchial epithelium.

  14. Bronchodilatory response to deep inspiration in bronchial segments: the effects of stress vs. strain.

    PubMed

    Ansell, Thomas K; McFawn, Peter K; Mitchell, Howard W; Noble, Peter B

    2013-08-15

    During deep inspirations (DI), a distending force is applied to airway smooth muscle (ASM; i.e., stress) and the muscle is lengthened (i.e., strain), which produces a transient reversal of bronchoconstriction (i.e., bronchodilation). The aim of the present study was to determine whether an increase in ASM stress or the accompanying increase in strain mediates the bronchodilatory response to DI. We used whole porcine bronchial segments in vitro and a servo-controlled syringe pump that applied fixed-transmural pressure (Ptm) or fixed-volume oscillations, simulating tidal breathing and DI. The relationship between ASM stress and strain during oscillation was altered by increasing doses of acetylcholine, which stiffened the airway wall, or by changing the rate of inflation during DI, which utilized the viscous properties of the intact airway. Bronchodilation to DI was positively correlated with ASM strain (range of r values from 0.81 to 0.95) and negatively correlated with stress (range of r values from -0.42 to -0.98). Fast fixed-Ptm DI produced greater bronchodilation than slow DI, despite less ASM strain. Fast fixed-volume DI produced greater bronchodilation than slow DI, despite identical ASM strain. We show that ASM strain, rather than stress, is the critical determinant of bronchodilation and, unexpectedly, that the rate of inflation during DI also impacts on bronchodilation, independent of the magnitudes of either stress or strain. PMID:23722712

  15. [Acetylsalicylic acid and food additive intolerance in urticaria, bronchial asthma and rhinopathy].

    PubMed

    Wüthrich, B; Fabro, L

    1981-09-26

    Adverse reactions (urticaria, angio-edema, bronchoconstriction, purpura) to Aspirin (ASS) and food-and-drug additives such as the yellow dye tartrazine and the preservative benzoate are observed all over the world. Since the exact pathogenetic mechanisms of this condition is unknown, it is described as intolerance or pseudo-allergy and has been related to an imbalance of prostaglandin synthesis. Among 620 patients with urticaria, bronchial asthma or chronic rhinitis, oral provocation tests with ASS, tartrazine or benzoic acid revealed in 165 (26.6%) intolerance to ASS or additives. Frequency of intolerance to tartrazine varied between 6.1% in urticaria (n=308), 7.3% in asthma (n=96) and 14.5% in urticaria and asthma patients, while intolerance to benzoate varied from 2.5% in rhinitis (n=40) to 11.5% in asthma. More than two thirds of the intolerant patients were improved by an elimination diet and by the avoidance of "aspirin-like" drugs. More than one third of chronic urticaria patients became symptomfree. In Switzerland exact declaration of all food additives is urgently needed. Moreover, azo-dyes must no longer be used for colouring of drugs. PMID:7291963

  16. A Comprehensive Candidate Gene Study on Bronchial Asthma and Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, K.; von Bonnsdorf, H.; Burke, M.; Ahlert, I.; Braun, S.; Berner, R.; Deichmann, K. A.; Heinzmann, A.

    2006-01-01

    Bronchial asthma and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) are complex genetic diseases. As both represent chronic inflammatory diseases it is likely that they are at least partially influenced by the same genetic variants. One goal in dissecting the genetics of complex diseases is to identify a genetic risk profile. Therefore it is necessary to genotype polymorphisms in many different pathways. Thus we investigated 48 polymorphisms in 24 genes for association with asthma and/or JIA. Genotpying was performed on 231 asthmatic children, 86 children with JIA and 270 controls. Association analysis was performed by the Armitage’s trend test. Furthermore haplotypes were calculated by FAMHAP. We found association of polymorphisms within IL-4, CTLA4 and TNFalpha with asthma and/or JIA. Furthermore, the polymorphisms showed an inverse distribution between children with asthma and JIA. However, we were not able to confirm association of most of the previously described candidate genes. We conclude from our data that it might be very difficult to identify genetic risk profiles for the development of asthma and/or JIA that would be valid across different populations. However, this study adds further evidence that the common genetic background of asthma and JIA is mainly based on polymorphisms in important TH1 and TH2 cytokines. PMID:16788246

  17. A comprehensive candidate gene study on bronchial asthma and juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Schubert, K; von Bonnsdorf, H; Burke, M; Ahlert, I; Braun, S; Berner, R; Deichmann, K A; Heinzmann, A

    2006-01-01

    Bronchial asthma and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) are complex genetic diseases. As both represent chronic inflammatory diseases it is likely that they are at least partially influenced by the same genetic variants. One goal in dissecting the genetics of complex diseases is to identify a genetic risk profile. Therefore it is necessary to genotype polymorphisms in many different pathways. Thus we investigated 48 polymorphisms in 24 genes for association with asthma and/or JIA. Genotpying was performed on 231 asthmatic children, 86 children with JIA and 270 controls. Association analysis was performed by the Armitage's trend test. Furthermore haplotypes were calculated by FAMHAP. We found association of polymorphisms within IL-4, CTLA4 and TNFalpha with asthma and/or JIA. Furthermore, the polymorphisms showed an inverse distribution between children with asthma and JIA. However, we were not able to confirm association of most of the previously described candidate genes. We conclude from our data that it might be very difficult to identify genetic risk profiles for the development of asthma and/or JIA that would be valid across different populations. However, this study adds further evidence that the common genetic background of asthma and JIA is mainly based on polymorphisms in important TH1 and TH2 cytokines. PMID:16788246

  18. Cellular response of mucociliary differentiated primary bronchial epithelial cells to diesel exhaust.

    PubMed

    Zarcone, Maria C; Duistermaat, Evert; van Schadewijk, Annemarie; Jedynska, Aleksandra; Hiemstra, Pieter S; Kooter, Ingeborg M

    2016-07-01

    Diesel emissions are the main source of air pollution in urban areas, and diesel exposure is linked with substantial adverse health effects. In vitro diesel exposure models are considered a suitable tool for understanding these effects. Here we aimed to use a controlled in vitro exposure system to whole diesel exhaust to study the effect of whole diesel exhaust concentration and exposure duration on mucociliary differentiated human primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBEC). PBEC cultured at the air-liquid interface were exposed for 60 to 375 min to three different dilutions of diesel exhaust (DE). The DE mixture was generated by an engine at 47% load, and characterized for particulate matter size and distribution and chemical and gas composition. Cytotoxicity and epithelial barrier function was assessed, as well as mRNA expression and protein release analysis. DE caused a significant dose-dependent increase in expression of oxidative stress markers (HMOX1 and NQO1; n = 4) at 6 h after 150 min exposure. Furthermore, DE significantly increased the expression of the markers of the integrated stress response CHOP and GADD34 and of the proinflammatory chemokine CXCL8, as well as release of CXCL8 protein. Cytotoxic effects or effects on epithelial barrier function were observed only after prolonged exposures to the highest DE dose. These results demonstrate the suitability of our model and that exposure dose and duration and time of analysis postexposure are main determinants for the effects of DE on differentiated primary human airway epithelial cells. PMID:27190060

  19. 5-aminolaevulinic acid for fluorescence diagnosis and photodynamic therapy of bronchial cancer: a case report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamarra, Fernando; Baumgartner, Reinhold; Stepp, Herbert G.; Rick, Kai; Leberig, A.; Huber, Rudolf M.

    1995-03-01

    Five-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) was applied orally and by aerosol inhalation to one patient in order to check the feasibility of photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photodynamic fluorescence diagnosis (PDD) of lung cancer. For PDD, ALA was given by inhalation using a conventional jet nebulizer. Protoporphyrin IX (PP IX)-fluorescence in the bronchial mucosa and the tumor was assessed visually and by spectroscopy using an optical multichannel analyzer. At a second session ALA was given orally and PDD as well as PDT were performed. The therapeutic effect on the tumor was controlled by bronchoscopy 5 and 12 weeks after PDT. Inhalative and oral application of ALA were both well tolerated. No adverse effects were observed. PP IX- fluorescence could be easily detected 3 h after ALA administered by inhalation or 5 h after ALA orally. Fluorescence ratio between tumor and normal tissues was better after the oral administration of ALA. Five and twelve weeks after PDT, marked reduction of tumor volume and recanalization of the left upper lobe were found.

  20. The effect of house design and environment on fungal movement in homes of bronchial asthma patients.

    PubMed

    Takatori, K; Saito, A; Yasueda, H; Akiyama, K

    2001-01-01

    The effect of house building design and environment on the fungal movement in the houses of 41 bronchial asthma (BA) patients has been investigated by examining house dust. The presence and composition of fungi were determined and compared in relation to building structure, house age, size of living room, main flooring material, presence of a living-room rug or air purifier, and frequency of vacuum cleaning. Among these elements, fungal CFU apparently varied only between building structure: wooden-board houses had significantly higher numbers of fungi than reinforced concrete houses (p < 0.01), and wooden mortar or iron-framed prefabricated houses had significantly higher numbers of fungi than reinforced concrete houses (p < 0.05). Classification of the types of fungi present in the house dust of BA patients showed that, regardless of the building designs, there were high levels of osmophilic fungi (group A) and fungi that survive at relatively dry conditions (group B), whereas fungi that survive in very wet conditions (group D) were present at low frequency. PMID:11694095

  1. Insufficient autophagy promotes bronchial epithelial cell senescence in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Satoko; Hara, Hiromichi; Araya, Jun; Takasaka, Naoki; Kojima, Jun; Ito, Saburo; Minagawa, Shunsuke; Yumino, Yoko; Ishikawa, Takeo; Numata, Takanori; Kawaishi, Makoto; Hirano, Jun; Odaka, Makoto; Morikawa, Toshiaki; Nishimura, Stephen; Nakayama, Katsutoshi; Kuwano, Kazuyoshi

    2012-08-01

    Tobacco smoke-induced accelerated cell senescence has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Cell senescence is accompanied by the accumulation of damaged cellular components suggesting that in COPD, inhibition of autophagy may contribute to cell senescence. Here we look at whether autophagy contributes to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) - induced cell senescence of primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC), and further evaluate p62 and ubiquitinated protein levels in lung homogenates from COPD patients. We demonstrate that CSE transiently induces activation of autophagy in HBEC, followed by accelerated cell senescence and concomitant accumulation of p62 and ubiquitinated proteins. Autophagy inhibition further enhanced accumulations of p62 and ubiquitinated proteins, resulting in increased senescence and senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) with interleukin (IL)-8 secretion. Conversely, autophagy activation by Torin1, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor), suppressed accumulations of p62 and ubiquitinated proteins and inhibits cell senescence. Despite increased baseline activity, autophagy induction in response to CSE was significantly decreased in HBEC from COPD patients. Increased accumulations of p62 and ubiquitinated proteins were detected in lung homogenates from COPD patients. Insufficient autophagic clearance of damaged proteins, including ubiquitinated proteins, is involved in accelerated cell senescence in COPD, suggesting a novel protective role for autophagy in the tobacco smoke-induced senescence-associated lung disease, COPD. PMID:22934255

  2. Bronchial responsiveness in an elastase-induced mouse model of emphysema.

    PubMed

    Santos, Luiz Marcelo Oliveira; de Brito Cervilha, Daniela Aparecida; Cabral, Layla Dutra Marinho; Garcia, Érika Kristina Incerpi; Teixeira, Vanessa Pereira; Brito, Jôse Mára; Moriya, Henrique Takachi; Soncini, Roseli

    2014-04-01

    Bronchial responsiveness during methacholine (MCh) challenge was analysed in an elastase-induced mouse model of emphysema to explore the magnitude of the response in this model. Swiss mice were intratracheally instilled with saline or elastase (0.3 or 0.6 U). Twenty days afterward, mechanical ventilation data were collected from the closed and opened thorax of baseline and MCh (vehicle, 50 and 100 mg/mL) challenged mice. The lungs were prepared for morphometric analysis. In the 0.6 U group, airway resistance (Raw) and tissue elastance (H) were decreased, and hysteresivity (η) was increased (closed thorax). MCh increased Raw, G and H in all groups, but this increase was attenuated in the elastase-induced emphysema groups, the largest attenuation was observed in the 0.6 U (closed thorax condition). Elastase increased hyperinflation of the alveoli, alveolar collapse and the Lm and reduced the normal area. MCh reduced respiratory mechanics in elastase-induced emphysema, and this reduction was modulated by the collapsed and/or hyperinflated areas, which increased the heterogeneity of the lungs. PMID:24463010

  3. Continuous measurements of bronchial exposure induced by radon decay products during inhalation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwaoka, Kazuki; Tokonami, Shinji; Yonehara, Hidenori; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Doi, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Yosuke; Yatabe, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Yuji

    2007-09-01

    The deposition of radon decay products is not equal in each of the respiratory regions and as the presence of radon has been linked with an increase in lung cancer risk, it is important to calculate the deposition of radon decay products in each of the respiratory regions. Recently, many studies on the deposition of radon in respiratory regions have been simulated using wire screens. The systems and equipment used in those studies are not suitable for field measurements as their dimensions are relatively massive, nor can they measure continuously. We developed a continuous bronchial dosimeter (CBD) which is suitable for field measurements. It was designed with specifications that allow it to be remain compact. The CBD simulates the deposition of radon decay products in the different respiratory regions by the use of a combination of wire screens. Deposition in the simulated regions of the lung can be continuously estimated in various environments. The ratio of activities deposited in a simulated nasal cavity (N) and tracheobronchial (TB) regions was calculated from the results of simultaneous measurements using CBD-R (reference), CBD-N (nasal), and CBD-TB (tracheobronchial) measurement units. After aerosols were injected into the radon chamber, the ratio of N and TB depositions decreased. This results indicate that the CBD gave a good response to changes in the environment. It was found that the ratio of N and TB deposition also varied with time in each actual environment.

  4. To Study the Efficacy and Safety of Doxophylline and Theophylline in Bronchial Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Farhat, Samina; Kaur, Sharanjit; Teli, Hilal Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background Asthma is a non communicable chronic disease prevalent all over the world. Two commonly used methylxanthines, theophylline and doxofylline were compared in the study in stable asthmatic patients at recommended doses by various spirometric lung function tests with forced expiratory volume at second one (FEVI) between 50 to 80% of predicted FEVI. Materials and Methods A total of 100 patients were divided in two groups. Group I was administered 300 mg theophylline twice a day and Group II was administered doxofylline 400 mg twice a day orally for six weeks. Spirometric variables symptom score, and adverse effects were recorded at the baseline level and after six weeks of therapy. Data was compared and analysed statistically. Results The spirometric values of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEVI), forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV1/FVC showed a statistically significant improvement over base line with the use of both theophylline as well as doxophylline, but were not statistically different from each other. There was a statistically significant improvement in peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) after six weeks of treatment with doxophylline compared to theophylline. It was found that the doxophylline has a better safety profile as compared to theophylline. Adverse events occurred in a greater proportion of patients in the theophylline group. Conclusion In the study it was concluded that both theophylline and doxofylline improved the lung function tests and symptoms in patients of mild Bronchial Asthma, but doxofylline has a better profile in terms of safety. PMID:26023566

  5. The Influence of Insulin Therapy on the Course of Acute Exacerbation of Bronchial Asthma.

    PubMed

    Wytrychowski, K; Obojski, A; Hans-Wytrychowska, A

    2016-01-01

    Large doses of systemic corticosteroids are the basis of treatment of acute exacerbation of bronchial asthma. The hyperglycemic activity of systemic corticosteroids often leads to the loss of control of diabetes diagnosed earlier or to its first diagnosis during treatment of the exacerbation of asthma. We conducted a prospective, randomized study in a group of 24 adult patients treated for asthma exacerbation, with the blood glucose level at admission above 8.4 mmol/l. The patients were randomly divided into a group treated with intravenous insulin infusion by an electric syringe pump in doses controlling glycemia at 4.5-7.2 mmol/l (Group A) and a group of patients treated with insulin administered subcutaneously in three doses controlling glycemia at 7.2-10.0 mmol/l (Group B). A control group (Group C) consisted of patients without any disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism, treated for exacerbation of asthma. Asthma exacerbation was treated in all groups in a uniform way. We found that the average hospitalization time was 8.2 ± 2.4 days in Group A, 10.2 ± 5.2 days in Group B, and 5.8 ± 1.9 days in Group C; the last being significantly shorter than those in Groups A and B. We conclude that hyperglycemia is a significant factor increasing the risk of extending hospitalization time due to asthma exacerbation, regardless of the way of insulin therapy. PMID:26453066

  6. Continuous measurements of bronchial exposure induced by radon decay products during inhalation

    SciTech Connect

    Iwaoka, Kazuki; Tokonami, Shinji; Yonehara, Hidenori; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Doi, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Yosuke; Yatabe, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Yuji

    2007-09-15

    The deposition of radon decay products is not equal in each of the respiratory regions and as the presence of radon has been linked with an increase in lung cancer risk, it is important to calculate the deposition of radon decay products in each of the respiratory regions. Recently, many studies on the deposition of radon in respiratory regions have been simulated using wire screens. The systems and equipment used in those studies are not suitable for field measurements as their dimensions are relatively massive, nor can they measure continuously. We developed a continuous bronchial dosimeter (CBD) which is suitable for field measurements. It was designed with specifications that allow it to be remain compact. The CBD simulates the deposition of radon decay products in the different respiratory regions by the use of a combination of wire screens. Deposition in the simulated regions of the lung can be continuously estimated in various environments. The ratio of activities deposited in a simulated nasal cavity (N) and tracheobronchial (TB) regions was calculated from the results of simultaneous measurements using CBD-R (reference), CBD-N (nasal), and CBD-TB (tracheobronchial) measurement units. After aerosols were injected into the radon chamber, the ratio of N and TB depositions decreased. This results indicate that the CBD gave a good response to changes in the environment. It was found that the ratio of N and TB deposition also varied with time in each actual environment.

  7. Upregulation of TMEM16A Protein in Bronchial Epithelial Cells by Bacterial Pyocyanin

    PubMed Central

    Caci, Emanuela; Scudieri, Paolo; Di Carlo, Emma; Morelli, Patrizia; Bruno, Silvia; De Fino, Ida; Bragonzi, Alessandra; Gianotti, Ambra; Sondo, Elvira; Ferrera, Loretta; Palleschi, Alessandro; Santambrogio, Luigi; Ravazzolo, Roberto; Galietta, Luis J. V.

    2015-01-01

    Induction of mucus hypersecretion in the airway epithelium by Th2 cytokines is associated with the expression of TMEM16A, a Ca2+-activated Cl- channel. We asked whether exposure of airway epithelial cells to bacterial components, a condition that mimics the highly infected environment occurring in cystic fibrosis (CF), also results in a similar response. In cultured human bronchial epithelial cells, treatment with pyocyanin or with a P. aeruginosa culture supernatant caused a significant increase in TMEM16A function. The Ca2+-dependent Cl- secretion, triggered by stimulation with UTP, was particularly enhanced by pyocyanin in cells from CF patients. Increased expression of TMEM16A protein and of MUC5AC mucin by bacterial components was demonstrated by immunofluorescence in CF and non-CF cells. We also investigated TMEM16A expression in human bronchi by immunocytochemistry. We found increased TMEM16A staining in the airways of CF patients. The strongest signal was observed in CF submucosal glands. Our results suggest that TMEM16A expression/function is upregulated in CF lung disease, possibly as a response towards the presence of bacteria in the airways. PMID:26121472

  8. Common variable immunodeficiency diagnosed during the treatment of bronchial asthma: Unusual cause of wheezing

    PubMed Central

    Akaba, Tomohiro; Kondo, Mitsuko; Toriyama, Midori; Kubo, Ayako; Hara, Kaori; Yamada, Takeshi; Yoshinaga, Kentaro; Tamaoki, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most frequent primary immunodeficiency in adults and children. We herein report a case of CVID, who was misdiagnosed with asthma due to wheezing episodes and relatively late onset. A 51-year-old woman had suffered from recurrent upper and lower airway infection for recent 2 years. She repeated wheezing attacks and was treated as asthma exacerbation triggered by infection. She was referred to our hospital for investigation and treatment. Lung function tests showed no reversibility of FEV1 by β-adrenergic agonist, but the increase of V50/V25. Chest CT showed slight to moderate bronchial wall thickening and bronchiectasis. After that, she suffered from pneumonia with wheezing attacks twice a month, and immunodeficiency was strongly suspected. Her blood tests showed marked decreases of all classes of immunoglobulin and nearly lack of memory B cells, NKT cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells. She was diagnosed with CVID, and was treated with replacement of gammaglobulin. Thereafter, her wheezing episodes with infection were remarkably improved. Because the delay of diagnosis with CVID likely causes poor mortality and morbidity, a possibility of CVID should be considered in patients with frequent asthma-like symptoms due to recurrent airway infection. PMID:26744651

  9. Deficiency of vitamin D and vitamin C in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Ginter, E; Simko, V

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiology of bronchial asthma (BA) indicates a marked paradox: rapid rise in the prevalence.Simultaneous decline in mortality is mostly related to improvement in the diagnosis and therapy. In many economically developed countries the BA affects more than 10 per cent of the population, while mortality related to this respiratory disorder is below 1/100,000. Factors favorably influencing mortality of BA include new more effective medications, decline in smoking and also improved nutrition, based on awareness of protective role of vitamins. Vitamin D deficiency has a number of biological effects that are potentially instrumental in the pathogenesis and severity of BA. Increased number of randomized, controlled, interventional studies is showing positive effects of vitamin D supplementation in pediatric and in adult BA. Oxidative stress is potentially an important pathogenic factor in the progression of BA. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) belongs to the most effective nutritional antioxidants. By counteracting oxidants, reducing generation of reactive oxygen species, vitamin C may inhibit external attacks in the respiratory tract, thus modulating the development of BA (Fig. 2, Ref. 15). PMID:27546360

  10. Molecular Mechanisms of Malignant Transformation by Low Dose Cadmium in Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kluz, Thomas; Cohen, Lisa; Shen, Steven S.; Costa, Max

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium is a carcinogenic metal, the mechanisms of which are not fully understood. In this study, human bronchial epithelial cells were transformed with sub-toxic doses of cadmium (0.01, 0.05, and 0.1 μM) and transformed clones were characterized for gene expression changes using RNA-seq, as well as other molecular measurements. 440 genes were upregulated and 47 genes were downregulated in cadmium clones relative to control clones over 1.25-fold. Upregulated genes were associated mostly with gene ontology terms related to embryonic development, immune response, and cell movement, while downregulated genes were associated with RNA metabolism and regulation of transcription. Several embryonic genes were upregulated, including the transcription regulator SATB2. SATB2 is critical for normal skeletal development and has roles in gene expression regulation and chromatin remodeling. Small hairpin RNA knockdown of SATB2 significantly inhibited growth in soft agar, indicating its potential as a driver of metal-induced carcinogenesis. An increase in oxidative stress and autophagy was observed in cadmium clones. In addition, the DNA repair protein O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase was depleted by transformation with cadmium. MGMT loss caused significant decrease in cell viability after treatment with the alkylating agent temozolomide, demonstrating diminished capacity to repair such damage. Results reveal various mechanisms of cadmium-induced malignant transformation in BEAS-2B cells including upregulation of SATB2, downregulation of MGMT, and increased oxidative stress. PMID:27186882

  11. U-60,257 inhibits O3-induced bronchial hyperreactivity in the guinea pig

    SciTech Connect

    Murlas, C.; Lee, H.K.

    1985-10-01

    We studied the effects on ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity of U-60,257, a pyrroloprostacyclin shown to inhibit leukotriene C/D biosynthesis in vitro. A group of 5 guinea pigs were pretreated with U-60,257 (5 mg/kg IV), and studied before and 30 min after a 15 min exposure to 3.0 ppm ozone. These animals were compared to a similarly exposed group that was untreated (n = 10). Reactivity was determined by measuring specific airway resistance (SRaw) upon intravenous acetylcholine infusion in unanesthetized, spontaneously breathing animals. Prior to ozone exposure, we found that U-60,257 treatment did not affect either SRaw or muscarinic reactivity. After exposure to 3.0 ppm, all untreated guinea pigs showed substantial muscarinic hyperreactivity. In contrast, no significant change in SRaw or muscarinic reactivity occurred after ozone in any animal pretreated with U-60,257. We conclude that ozone-induced bronchial hyperreactivity in the guinea pig rapidly develops after a brief, high level exposure. This effect may be mediated, in part, by leukotrienes generated upon ozone exposure.

  12. Primary Paediatric Bronchial Airway Epithelial Cell in Vitro Responses to Environmental Exposures.

    PubMed

    McInnes, Neil; Davidson, Matthew; Scaife, Alison; Miller, David; Spiteri, Daniella; Engelhardt, Tom; Semple, Sean; Devereux, Graham; Walsh, Garry; Turner, Steve

    2016-01-01

    The bronchial airway epithelial cell (BAEC) is the site for initial encounters between inhaled environmental factors and the lower respiratory system. Our hypothesis was that release of pro inflammatory interleukins (IL)-6 and IL-8 from primary BAEC cultured from children will be increased after in vitro exposure to common environmental factors. Primary BAEC were obtained from children undergoing clinically indicated routine general anaesthetic procedures. Cells were exposed to three different concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or house dust mite allergen (HDM) or particulates extracted from side stream cigarette smoke (SSCS). BAEC were obtained from 24 children (mean age 7.0 years) and exposed to stimuli. Compared with the negative control, there was an increase in IL-6 and IL-8 release after exposure to HDM (p ≤ 0.001 for both comparisons). There was reduced IL-6 after higher compared to lower SSCS exposure (p = 0.023). There was no change in BAEC release of IL-6 or IL-8 after LPS exposure. BAEC from children are able to recognise and respond in vitro with enhanced pro inflammatory mediator secretion to some inhaled exposures. PMID:27023576

  13. Effects of sulfur oxide pollutants on respiratory function, particle deposition and bronchial clearance. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.

    1980-11-01

    The effects of sulfur oxide pollutants on respiratory function, particle deposition, and bronchial clearance were explored in a series of three studies, two on donkeys and one on humans. In the first study, the effects of one-hour inhalation exposures to 0.3 - 0.6 micrograms H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ aerosols in the donkey were studied in terms of alterations in pulmonary flow resistance and dynamic compliance, and changes in the regional deposition and tracheobronchial mucociliary clearance of an inert test aerosol. In the second study, the effect of chronic inhalation exposures to sulfuric acid mist upon mucociliary clearance from the lungs was studied, using the donkey as an analogue for man. Four animals were exposed one hour per day, five days per week, for six months; two to a concentration of 102 micrograms/cu m, the other to 106 micrograms/cu m. In the final study, the mucociliary particle clearance and respiratory mechanics of twelve healty nonsmokers exposed to 1/2 micrometer H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ at 0 (control), 100, 300, and 1,000 micrograms/cu m for one hour per day for four days were examined.

  14. Neutrophil elastase in respiratory epithelial lining fluid of individuals with cystic fibrosis induces interleukin-8 gene expression in a human bronchial epithelial cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, H; Yoshimura, K; McElvaney, N G; Crystal, R G

    1992-01-01

    The respiratory manifestations of cystic fibrosis (CF) are characterized by neutrophil-dominated airway inflammation. Since a variety of inflammatory stimuli are capable of inducing bronchial epithelial cells to express the gene for IL-8, a cytokine that attracts and activates neutrophils, mediators in respiratory epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of CF individuals might induce IL-8 production by epithelial cells, thus recruiting neutrophils to the airways. BET-1A human bronchial epithelial cells at rest or incubated with normal ELF showed little IL-8 gene expression, but after incubation with CF ELF, a marked increase in IL-8 transcript levels was observed. CF ELF contained high levels of neutrophil elastase (NE) and various serine protease inhibitors prevented CF ELF from inducing IL-8 gene expression in BET-1A cells, suggesting that NE was the dominant inducer for IL-8 production in CF ELF. The addition of purified NE caused BET-1A cells to increase IL-8 gene transcription with accumulation of mRNA transcripts and to release IL-8-like neutrophil chemotactic activity. These observations suggest a self-perpetuating inflammatory process on the CF bronchial surface where NE released by neutrophils induced the bronchial epithelium to secrete IL-8, which in turn recruits additional neutrophils to the bronchial surface. Images PMID:1569186

  15. Stent-in-Stent Technique for the Treatment of Proximal Bronchial Restenosis after Insertion of Metallic Stents: A Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Bondue, Benjamin; Schlossmacher, Pascal; Knoop, Christiane; Etienne, Isabelle; Luce, Sylvie; Sokolow, Youri; Leduc, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic treatment of a bronchial restenosis previously treated by insertion of a partially covered self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) can be difficult. Classically, after recanalization of the bronchus, the stent is removed and replaced by a more adapted one. We report on two cases of proximal bronchial restenosis treated by insertion of an additional stent inside the lumen of the previously inserted stent using the stent-in-stent (SIS) technique. The indications for the initial stent were malignancy in Patient 1 and posttransplant bronchial stenosis in Patient 2. Restenosis occurred at the proximal end of the stent within months in both cases. Stent removal and insertion of a new stent were considered, but this option was discarded because of an excessive risk of bronchial perforation and preference towards an alternative approach. In both cases, a second customized SEMS was placed using the SIS technique after ablation of the proximal end stenosis of the stent by argon plasma coagulation and/or dilation with a balloon. Recanalization of the bronchus was achieved in both cases without complications. The SIS technique is a valuable alternative to removal of SEMS in case of proximal bronchial restenosis. PMID:27110422

  16. Bronchial ligation enhances murine fetal lung development in whole-organ culture.

    PubMed

    Blewett, C J; Zgleszewski, S E; Chinoy, M R; Krummel, T M; Cilley, R E

    1996-07-01

    Evidence exists from both congenital anomalies and animal models that normal fetal lung development is dependent on maintenance of fluid pressure within the developing "airways." Fetal tracheostomy, allowing free egress of airway fluids, results in lung hypoplasia, indicating that some airway distending pressure is required for normal lung development to occur. In contrast, fetal tracheal ligation, which increases fetal airway pressure, reverses lung hypoplasia in animal models. The authors' experiments test the hypothesis that large airway obstruction accelerates the development of murine lungs in vitro in whole-organ culture. Fetuses from time-dated pregnant CD-1 mice at day 14 of gestation were removed (term, 20 days), and the lungs were excised. The left bronchus of each lung was ligated (n = 26), after which the left lung was isolated and cultured at 37 degrees C (95% air, 5% CO2) in BGJb media supplemented with vitamin C and antibiotics. Some fetal lungs were cultured under similar conditions without bronchial ligation (n = 11). After 7 days in culture, the lungs were taken for various analyses. The lungs were fixed in either formaldehyde and processed for paraffin embedding for light microscopic evaluation and morphometric data collection, or were freshly minced and aliquots taken for total protein and DNA content. Several more ligated and unligated lungs were processed for ultrastructural analysis. Morphometric analysis on transverse sections of lungs showed significant differences in the lung tissue size, thickness, epithelial cell height, luminal areas, perimeters, and total number of airspaces (airway + primordial alveolar airspaces). It was evident that bronchial ligation promoted lung development. The ligated lungs displayed thinning of the primordial alveolar walls with cuboidal epithelial cells. The total number of airspaces per field was lower for better developed ligated lungs because of the increased area of airspaces compared with that of the

  17. Effect of physical training on airway inflammation in bronchial asthma: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The majority of the global population cannot afford existing asthma pharmacotherapy. Physical training as an airway anti-inflammatory therapy for asthma could potentially be a non-invasive, easily available, affordable, and healthy treatment modality. However, effects of physical training on airway inflammation in asthma are currently inconclusive. The main objective of this review is to summarize the effects of physical training on airway inflammation in asthmatics. Methods A peer reviewed search was applied to Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane, and DARE databases. We included all observational epidemiological research studies and RCTs. Studies evaluating at least one marker of airway inflammation in asthmatics after a period of physical training were selected. Data extraction was performed in a blinded fashion. We decided a priori to avoid pooling of the data in anticipation of heterogeneity of the studies, specifically heterogeneity of airway inflammatory markers studied as outcome measures. Results From the initial 2635 studies; 23 studies (16 RCTs and 7 prospective cohort studies) were included. Study sizes were generally small (median sample size = 30). There was a reduction in C-reactive protein, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, sputum cell counts and IgE in asthmatics with physical training. Mixed results were observed after training for fractional excretion of nitric oxide and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. The data was not pooled owing to significant heterogeneity between studies, and a funnel plot tests for publication bias were not performed because there were less than 10 studies for almost all outcome measures. Physical training intervention type, duration, intensity, frequency, primary outcome measures, methods of assessing outcome measures, and study designs were heterogeneous. Conclusion Due to reporting issues, lack of information and heterogeneity there was no definite conclusion; however, some findings suggest physical

  18. A hybrid method for airway segmentation and automated measurement of bronchial wall thickness on CT.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ziyue; Bagci, Ulas; Foster, Brent; Mansoor, Awais; Udupa, Jayaram K; Mollura, Daniel J

    2015-08-01

    Inflammatory and infectious lung diseases commonly involve bronchial airway structures and morphology, and these abnormalities are often analyzed non-invasively through high resolution computed tomography (CT) scans. Assessing airway wall surfaces and the lumen are of great importance for diagnosing pulmonary diseases. However, obtaining high accuracy from a complete 3-D airway tree structure can be quite challenging. The airway tree structure has spiculated shapes with multiple branches and bifurcation points as opposed to solid single organ or tumor segmentation tasks in other applications, hence, it is complex for manual segmentation as compared with other tasks. For computerized methods, a fundamental challenge in airway tree segmentation is the highly variable intensity levels in the lumen area, which often causes a segmentation method to leak into adjacent lung parenchyma through blurred airway walls or soft boundaries. Moreover, outer wall definition can be difficult due to similar intensities of the airway walls and nearby structures such as vessels. In this paper, we propose a computational framework to accurately quantify airways through (i) a novel hybrid approach for precise segmentation of the lumen, and (ii) two novel methods (a spatially constrained Markov random walk method (pseudo 3-D) and a relative fuzzy connectedness method (3-D)) to estimate the airway wall thickness. We evaluate the performance of our proposed methods in comparison with mostly used algorithms using human chest CT images. Our results demonstrate that, on publicly available data sets and using standard evaluation criteria, the proposed airway segmentation method is accurate and efficient as compared with the state-of-the-art methods, and the airway wall estimation algorithms identified the inner and outer airway surfaces more accurately than the most widely applied methods, namely full width at half maximum and phase congruency. PMID:26026778

  19. Recommendations for the use of bronchial thermoplasty in the management of severe asthma.

    PubMed

    Dheda, Keertan; Koegelenberg, Coenraad F N; Esmail, Aliasgar; Irusen, Elvis; Wechsler, Michael E; Niven, Rob M; Bateman, Eric D; Chung, Kian Fan

    2015-09-01

    There are approximately 3 million asthma suffers in South Africa, and the national death rate is ranked as one of the highest in the world. Approximately 5% have severe asthma (uncontrolled despite being adherent on maximal and optimised therapy). Such uncontrolled asthma is associated with high healthcare expenditure and may require treatment with anti-IgE and/or systemic corticosteroids, in addition to inhaler therapy and oral agents. These treatments may be costly, and those such as oral corticosteroids may have potential serious adverse events. There is therefore a need for more effective, affordable and safe therapies for asthma. A new modality of treatment, bronchial thermoplasty (BT), has recently been developed and approved for the treatment of severe asthma. BT involves delivering radio frequency-generated thermal energy to the airways, with the goal of reducing airway-specific smooth-muscle mass. Several clinical studies have confirmed that BT is effective and safe, that it improves control and quality of life in patients whose asthma remains severe despite optimal medical therapy, and that the beneficial effects are sustained for at least 5 years. We provide recommendations for the management of severe asthma, with an emphasis on the role of BT, and endorse the use of BT in patients with severe persistent asthma who remain uncontrolled despite optimal medical therapy as outlined in steps 4 and 5 of the British Thoracic Society (BTS)/Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN), UK National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) and Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines. We outline the context in which BT should be used, how it works and associated potential adverse events and contraindications, and also review unanswered questions and controversies. PMID:26428967

  20. Roflumilast Inhibits Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Human Differentiated Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Manuel; Martinez, Isidoro; Melero, Jose A.; Tenor, Herman; Cortijo, Julio

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes acute exacerbations in COPD and asthma. RSV infects bronchial epithelial cells (HBE) that trigger RSV associated lung pathology. This study explores whether the phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitor Roflumilast N-oxide (RNO), alters RSV infection of well-differentiated HBE (WD-HBE) in vitro. WD-HBE were RSV infected in the presence or absence of RNO (0.1-100 nM). Viral infection (staining of F and G proteins, nucleoprotein RNA level), mRNA of ICAM-1, ciliated cell markers (digital high speed videomicroscopy, β-tubulin immunofluorescence, Foxj1 and Dnai2 mRNA), Goblet cells (PAS), mRNA of MUC5AC and CLCA1, mRNA and protein level of IL-13, IL-6, IL-8, TNFα, formation of H2O2 and the anti-oxidative armamentarium (mRNA of Nrf2, HO-1, GPx; total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured at day 10 or 15 post infection. RNO inhibited RSV infection of WD-HBE, prevented the loss of ciliated cells and markers, reduced the increase of MUC5AC and CLCA1 and inhibited the increase of IL-13, IL-6, IL-8, TNFα and ICAM-1. Additionally RNO reversed the reduction of Nrf2, HO-1 and GPx mRNA levels and consequently restored the TAC and reduced the H2O2 formation. RNO inhibits RSV infection of WD-HBE cultures and mitigates the cytopathological changes associated to this virus. PMID:23936072

  1. [Integrin-ligands binding reaction upregulates the antioxidant activity of rabbit bronchial epithelial cells].

    PubMed

    Qin, X Q; Xiang, Y; Guan, C X; Zhang, C Q; Sun, X H

    2001-02-01

    Antioxidant activity of bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) plays an essential role in preventing the airway epithelium integrity from damage in structure and function. Integrin expressed by BECs is the receptor of extracellular matrix such as fibronectin (Fn), and it is involved in modulation of proliferation, differentiation and metabolism of the cells. In order to test the hypothesis that integrin-ligand binding reaction supports the ability of cells to withstand oxidant attack, the present study evaluated the antioxidant activity of primary cultured rabbit BECs treated with fibronectin or its sequence Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD peptide), by determining changes in the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and in the level of glutathione (GSH). The results are as follows: (1) Fn (10 micrograms/ml) increased significantly the activity unit of GSH-Px (P < 0.05, n = 5), which was inhibited by calmodulin-inhibitor W7 (10(-5) mol/L) (P < 0.05). Both Fn (5-20 micrograms/ml) and RGD (15-60 micrograms/ml) showed a dose-dependent upregulatory effect (respectively r = 0.93 and r = 0.73). (2) Treatment with Fn increased SOD activity (P < 0.01, n = 7), which was abolished by W7 (P < 0.01). (3) Catalase activity was also stimulated by Fn (P < 0.05, n = 6) and reversed by W7 (P < 0.01). (4) A dose-dependent increase of GSH level was observed in both Fn (r = 0.82) and RGD treatment (r = 0.84). The data suggest that the binding of integrin with extracellular matrix can upregulate activity of antioxidant enzymes, and increase the content of GSH and improve the ability of BECs to resist oxidant injury. PMID:11354796

  2. Microcystin-LR induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Li, Jinhui; Huang, Hui; Yang, Mingfeng; Zhuang, Donggang; Cheng, Xuemin; Zhang, Huizhen; Fu, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the toxicity of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and to explore the mechanism of MC-LR-induced apoptosis in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells. HBE cells were treated with MC-LR (1, 10, 20, 30 and 40 µg/ml) alone or with MC-LR (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 µg/ml) and Z-VAD-FMK (0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120 and 140 µM), which is a caspase inhibitor, for 24 and 48 h. Cell viability was assessed via an MTT assay and the half maximal effective concentration of MC-LR was determined. The optimal concentration of Z-VAD-FMK was established as 50 µm, which was then used in the subsequent experiments. MC-LR significantly inhibited cell viability and induced apoptosis of HBE cells in a dose-dependent manner, as detected by an Annexin V/propidium iodide assay. MC-LR induced cell apoptosis, excess reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, upregulated Bax expression and downregulated B-cell lymphoma-2 expression in HBE cells. Moreover, western blot analysis demonstrated that MC-LR increased the activity levels of caspase-3 and caspase-9 and induced cytochrome c release into the cytoplasm, suggesting that MC-LR-induced apoptosis is associated with the mitochondrial pathway. Furthermore, pretreatment with Z-VAD-FMK reduced MC-LR-induced apoptosis by blocking caspase activation in HBE cells. Therefore, the results of the present study suggested that MC-LR is capable of significantly inhibiting the viability of HBE cells by inducing apoptosis in a mitochondria-dependent manner. The present study provides a foundation for further understanding the mechanism underlying the toxicity of MC-LR in the respiratory system. PMID:27446254

  3. [A case of obstructive ventilatory disturbance caused by bronchial wall granulation due to a fish bone].

    PubMed

    Kimura, M; Hara, H; Matsushima, T; Kobori, M

    1992-11-01

    A 62-year-old man was admitted to Kawasaki Medical School Kawasaki Hospital after suffering from wheezing for one year. His chest X-ray film showed no significant findings in the lung fields and mediastinum. A chest CT film showed a small protrusion at the posterior wall of the right main bronchus. Bronchofiberscopy disclosed a polypoid tumor with a smooth surface in the right main bronchus, confirming the finding of the chest CT, and a restiform eminence at the truncus intermedius. The restiform eminence was revealed to be a fish bone after removal from the bronchus using the forceps of a bronchofiberscope. Histological examination of a bronchoscopic biopsy specimen from the tumor of the right main bronchus showed inflammatory granulation tissue. We confirm subsequently questioned the patient who revealed that he had aspirated another fish bone two months earlier, and we presumed that the tumor of the right main bronchus might be granulation tissue secondary to the impaction of a fish bone. The patient was not aware that he had aspirated a foreign body, but it was presumed that he had aspirated the fish bone one year earlier, coinciding with the onset of wheezing. Immediately after removal, his wheezing disappeared. Comparison of the results of pulmonary function tests after removal with those before showed improvement of V25/predicted V25 ratio from 24% to 72%, and improvement of V50/V25 ratio from 3.7 to 2.4. This is considered to be a rare case of bronchial granulation due to a foreign body, which was recognized as a small polypoid tumor by chest CT. PMID:1484442

  4. Rosemary components inhibit benzo[a]pyrene-induced genotoxicity in human bronchial cells.

    PubMed

    Offord, E A; Macé, K; Ruffieux, C; Malnoë, A; Pfeifer, A M

    1995-09-01

    The commonly used spice and flavouring agent, rosemary, derived from the leaves of the plant Rosmarinus officinalis L., displays antioxidant properties in foods and in biological systems. Moreover, in animal models rosemary components were found to inhibit the initiation and tumour promotion phases of carcinogenesis. In this work, we studied the mechanisms by which rosemary components block initiation of carcinogenesis by the procarcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). Whole rosemary extract (6 micrograms/ml) or an equivalent concentration of its most potent antioxidant constituents, carnosol or carnosic acid, inhibited DNA adduct formation by 80% after 6 h co-incubation with 1.5 muM B[a]P. Under similar conditions, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 mRNA expression was 50% lower in the presence of rosemary components, and CYP1A1 activity was inhibited 70-90%. The observed reduction of DNA adduct formation by rosemary components may mostly result from the inhibition of the activation of benzo[a]pyrene to its ultimate metabolites. Carnosol also affected expression of the phase II enzyme glutathione-S-transferase which is known to detoxify the proximate carcinogenic metabolite of B[a]P. Treatment of BEAS-2B cells with carnosol (1 microgram/ml) for 24 h resulted in a 3- to 4-fold induction of GST pi mRNA. Moreover, expression of a second important phase II enzyme, NAD(P)H: quinone reductase, was induced by carnosol in parallel with GST pi. Therefore, rosemary components have the potential to decrease activation and increase detoxification of an important human carcinogen, identifying them as promising candidates for chemopreventive programs. PMID:7554054

  5. Transcriptomic Analysis of Human Primary Bronchial Epithelial Cells after Chloropicrin Treatment.

    PubMed

    Pesonen, Maija; Storvik, Markus; Kokkola, Tarja; Rysä, Jaana; Vähäkangas, Kirsi; Pasanen, Markku

    2015-10-19

    Chloropicrin is a vaporizing toxic irritant that poses a risk to human health if inhaled, but the mechanism of its toxicity in the respiratory tract is poorly understood. Here, we exposed human primary bronchial epithelial cells (HBEpC) to two concentrations of chloropicrin (10-50 μM) for 6 or 48 h and used genomic microarray, flow cytometry, and TEM-analysis to monitor cellular responses to the exposures. The overall number of differentially expressed transcripts with a fold-change > ± 2 compared to controls increased with longer exposure times. The initial response was activation of genes with a higher number of up- (512 by 10 μM and 408 by 40 μM chloropicrin) rather than down-regulated transcripts (40 by 10 μM and 215 by 40 μM chloropicrin) at 6 h seen with both exposure concentrations. The number of down-regulated transcripts, however, increased with the exposure time. The differentially regulated transcripts were further examined for enriched Gene Ontology Terms (GO) and KEGG-pathways. According to this analysis, the "ribosome" and "oxidative phosphorylation" were the KEGG-pathways predominantly affected by the exposure. The predominantly affected (GO) biological processes were "protein metabolic process" including "translation," "cellular protein complex assembly," and "response to unfolded protein." Furthermore, the top pathways, "NRF2-activated oxidative stress" and "Ah-receptor signaling," were enriched in our data sets by IPA-analysis. Real time qPCR assay of six selected genes agreed with the microarray analysis. In addition, chloropicrin exposure increased the numbers of late S and/or G2/M-phase cells as analyzed by flow cytometry and induced autophagy as revealed by electron microscopy. The targets identified are critical for vital cellular functions reflecting acute toxic responses and are potential causes for the reduced viability of epithelial cells after chloropicrin exposure. PMID:26352163

  6. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness in women with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease related to wood smoke

    PubMed Central

    González-García, Mauricio; Torres-Duque, Carlos A; Bustos, Adriana; Jaramillo, Claudia; Maldonado, Darío

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) related to wood smoke exposure is characterized by important inflammation of the central and peripheral airways without significant emphysema. The objective of this study is to describe the bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) level in women with COPD related to wood smoke exposure and to compare it with the BHR in women with COPD related to tobacco smoking. Materials and methods Two groups of women with stable COPD were studied: (1) wood smoke exposed (WS-COPD); and (2) tobacco smoke exposed (TS-COPD). A methacholine challenge test (MCT) was performed in all patients according to American Thoracic Society criteria. BHR levels were compared using the methacholine concentration, which caused a 20% fall in the FEV1 (PC20). Results Thirty-one patients, 19 with WS-COPD and 12 with TS-COPD, were included. There were no significant differences between the groups in baseline FVC, FEV1, IC, FEF25–75, and FEF25–75/FVC. All 31 patients had a positive MCT (PC20 < 16 mg/mL) and the fall in the FEV1 and IC was similar in both groups. The severity of BHR was significantly higher in the WS-COPD patients (PC20: 0.39 mg/mL) than in the TS-COPD patients (PC20: 1.24 mg/mL) (P = 0.028). The presence of cough, phlegm, and dyspnea during the test were similar in both groups. Conclusion We found moderate to severe BHR in women with WS-COPD, which was more severe than in the TS-COPD women with similar age and airflow obstruction. This paper suggests that the structural and inflammatory changes induced by the chronic exposure to wood smoke, described in other studies, can explain the differences with TS-COPD patients. Future studies may clarify our understanding of the impact of BHR on COPD physiopathology, phenotypes, and treatment strategies. PMID:22791990

  7. Untargeted Proteomics and Systems-Based Mechanistic Investigation of Artesunate in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Ravindra, Kodihalli C; Ho, Wanxing Eugene; Cheng, Chang; Godoy, Luiz C; Wishnok, John S; Ong, Choon Nam; Wong, W S Fred; Wogan, Gerald N; Tannenbaum, Steven R

    2015-10-19

    The antimalarial drug artesunate is a semisynthetic derivative of artemisinin, the principal active component of a medicinal plant Artemisia annua. It is hypothesized to attenuate allergic asthma via inhibition of multiple signaling pathways. We used a comprehensive approach to elucidate the mechanism of action of artesunate by designing a novel biotinylated dihydroartemisinin (BDHA) to identify cellular protein targets of this anti-inflammatory drug. By adopting an untargeted proteomics approach, we demonstrated that artesunate may exert its protective anti-inflammatory effects via direct interaction with multiple proteins, most importantly with a number of mitochondrial enzymes related to glucose and energy metabolism, along with mRNA and gene expression, ribosomal regulation, stress responses, and structural proteins. In addition, the modulatory effects of artesunate on various cellular transcription factors were investigated using a transcription factor array, which revealed that artesunate can simultaneously modulate multiple nuclear transcription factors related to several major pro- and anti-inflammatory signaling cascades in human bronchial epithelial cells. Artesunate significantly enhanced nuclear levels of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a key promoter of antioxidant mechanisms, which is inhibited by the Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1). Our results demonstrate that, like other electrophilic Nrf2 regulators, artesunate activates this system via direct molecular interaction/modification of Keap1, freeing Nrf2 for transcriptional activity. Altogether, the molecular interactions and modulation of nuclear transcription factors provide invaluable insights into the broad pharmacological actions of artesunate in inflammatory lung diseases and related inflammatory disorders. PMID:26340163

  8. Airway mucosal permeability in chronic bronchitics and bronchial asthmatics with hypersecretion

    SciTech Connect

    Honda, I.; Shimura, S.; Sasaki, T.; Sasaki, H.; Takishima, T.; Nakamura, M.

    1988-04-01

    To determine airway mucosal permeability, radiolabeled albumin in sputum was examined on the basis of a 2-h period of sputum collection for as long as 8h after intravenous administration of /sup 131/I-labeled human serum albumin. This technique was applied to 12 patients with bronchial asthma associated with hypersecretion or chronic bronchitis. Group A consisted of 6 asthmatics (2 females and 4 males, 56.0 +/- 6.4 yr of age, mean +/- SEM); Group B consisted of 6 bronchitics (3 females and 3 males, 53.8 +/- 6.5 yr of age). Between Groups A and B, there was no significant difference in sputum volume per day or in obstructive impairment. Radiolabeled albumin concentration (cpm/ml) was obtained from radiocount of each sputum sample and then divided by serum concentration at the time of each sampling (2, 4, 6, and 8 h after administration). Group B showed large values compared with those in Group A. In Group A, the ratios were 2.0 +/- 0.8, 2.5 +/- 0.5, 2.2 +/- 0.2, and 1.5 +/- 0.4% (mean +/- SEM) at 2, 4, 6, and 8 h after the administration, respectively, whereas in Group B, the ratios were 3.0 +/- 0.6, 7.0 +/- 1.8, 7.2 +/- 1.8, and 7.4 +/- 2.4%, respectively. The differences between Groups A and B were statistically significant (two-way analysis of variance). These findings suggest that an increase in airway mucosal permeability is due to mucosal epithelial damage by chronic inflammation in bronchitics and not to the underlying abnormality of asthma.

  9. Permeability of the bronchial mucosa to /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA in asthma

    SciTech Connect

    Ilowite, J.S.; Bennett, W.D.; Sheetz, M.S.; Groth, M.L.; Nierman, D.M.

    1989-05-01

    Previous investigators, using 99mTc-DTPA aerosol as a marker to assess epithelial permeability in asthma, did not find an increased permeability in this group. However, they either failed to deliver the aerosol to the optimal site (bronchial mucosa, not alveoli) or failed to account for mucociliary clearance in analyzing their results. We studied 10 asthmatics and eight age-matched control subjects using a dosimeter (Spira-Elektra 2) and a carefully controlled breathing pattern to deliver aerosol to the subjects' airways. Two aerosols were delivered on separate days in each patient; 99mTc-DTPA aerosol, and 99mTc-HSA (human serum albumin), using similar breathing patterns to ensure reproducibility of the deposition pattern with the two aerosols. From measurements of retention versus time over a 1-h period, rate constants Ktot and Km were determined for the clearance of 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-HSA, respectively. By modelling the airways as a single compartment with two possible routes of clearance, we determined the permeability rate constant, Kp, as Ktot minus Km. There was no significant difference between Ktot in normal subjects and asthmatics; however, because of the slower mucociliary clearance in the asthmatic group, and the relative importance of mucociliary clearance in determining the washout of 99mTc-DTPA aerosol, there was a significant difference in airway permeability between the normal subjects and the asthmatics (t1/2 = 296 min +/- 141 SD and 126 min +/- 58, p less than 0.01, in normal subjects and asthmatics, respectively).

  10. Why do only some of the young adults with bronchial hyperreactivity wheeze?

    PubMed

    Dharmage, S C; Abramson, M; Raven, J; Thien, F C; Walters, E H

    1998-01-01

    The significance of nonspecific bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) is a controversial issue in asthma. The natural history of BHR has not been investigated adequately although its importance as a cross-sectional risk factor for asthma is widely accepted. This paper investigates the risk factors for wheeze among people with BHR. Subjects were young adults who had participated in the second phase of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey in Melbourne, Australia. We compared the participants with wheeze and BHR (n=186) to those with asymptomatic BHR (n=66). Information was collected on sociodemographic factors, family history of asthma, and relevant environmental factors using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Atopy to a range of aeroallergens was examined by skin prick tests. Risk factors were examined by adjusting the odds ratios (OR) by a logistic regression to control for confounding effects. Parental asthma (OR=4.2), keeping pets during childhood (OR=3.3), allergy to house dust mite (OR=2.7), allergic rhinitis (OR=2.6), and having ever smoked (OR=2.4) were associated with an increased risk of wheeze, independent of the other factors examined. When allergic rhinitis was not included as an explanatory variable, being atopic to any of the allergens assessed was found to increase the risk of current wheeze (OR=4.8). Allergic rhinitis may represent an intermediate stage in the natural history of BHR. Avoidance of pets during childhood, not smoking, and taking steps to minimize dust exposure are likely to prevent the progression from asymptomatic BHR to asthma. PMID:9734346

  11. Quantitative Proteomics Reveals an Altered Cystic Fibrosis In Vitro Bronchial Epithelial Secretome

    PubMed Central

    Peters-Hall, Jennifer R.; Brown, Kristy J.; Pillai, Dinesh K.; Tomney, Amarel; Garvin, Lindsay M.; Wu, Xiaofang

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in epithelial secretions and mucociliary clearance contribute to chronic bacterial infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease, but whether CF lungs are unchanged in the absence of infection remains controversial. A proteomic comparison of airway secretions from subjects with CF and control subjects shows alterations in key biological processes, including immune response and proteolytic activity, but it is unclear if these are due to mutant CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and/or chronic infection. We hypothesized that the CF lung apical secretome is altered under constitutive conditions in the absence of inflammatory cells and pathogens. To test this, we performed quantitative proteomics of in vitro apical secretions from air–liquid interface cultures of three life-extended CF (ΔF508/ΔF508) and three non-CF human bronchial epithelial cells after labeling of CF cells by stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture. Mass spectrometry analysis identified and quantitated 666 proteins across samples, of which 70 exhibited differential enrichment or depletion in CF secretions (±1.5-fold change; P < 0.05). The key molecular functions were innate immunity (24%), cytoskeleton/extracellular matrix organization (24%), and protease/antiprotease activity (17%). Oxidative proteins and classical complement pathway proteins that are altered in CF secretions in vivo were not altered in vitro. Specific differentially increased proteins—MUC5AC and MUC5B mucins, fibronectin, and matrix metalloproteinase-9—were validated by antibody-based assays. Overall, the in vitro CF secretome data are indicative of a constitutive airway epithelium with altered innate immunity, suggesting that downstream consequences of mutant CFTR set the stage for chronic inflammation and infection in CF airways. PMID:25692303

  12. Sirtuin 3 Protects against Urban Particulate Matter-Induced Autophagy in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, I-Chieh; Huang, Hsin-Hsiu; Chen, Pei-Fen; Chiang, Hung-Che

    2016-07-01

    Urban particulate matter (urban PM) is a heterogeneous mixture of various types of particles originating from different sources. Exposure to high concentrations of urban PM leading to adverse health effects is evaluated by using in vitro cultures of human lung epithelial cells. However, the mechanism underlying the correlation between high concentrations of urban PM exposure and adverse health effects has not been fully elucidated; urban PM-induced oxidative stress is considered as an important mechanism of urban PM-mediated cytotoxicity. Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), a primary mitrochondrial deacetylase, controls cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and expression of antioxidant enzymes. In this study, we examined the role of SIRT3 in the regulation of urban PM-induced oxidative stress in normal primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEpiCs). Cell viability showed a time- and concentration-dependent decrease when exposed to urban PM, which could indicate that the amount of lactate dehydrogenase released from the cell in response to urban PM is related to cell viability in HBEpiC. The effects of urban PM on morphological and biochemical markers of autophagy in HBEpiC were analyzed by electron microscopy and Western blotting. Overexpression of SIRT3 inhibited urban PM-induced ROS generation, while concomitantly increasing the expression of antioxidant enzymes, and decreasing NF-κB activation and release of inflammation factors. Up-regulation of SIRT3 significantly inhibited the expression of autophagy markers and autophagic vacuole formation. Our findings provide a valuable insight into the potential role of the SIRT3 enzyme in regulating urban PM-induced autophagy by mediating urban PM-induced oxidative stress, which may contribute to urban PM-induced impairment of airway epithelial cell function. PMID:27125970

  13. Ethnic differences in prevalence of asthma symptoms and bronchial hyperresponsiveness in New Zealand schoolchildren.

    PubMed Central

    Pattemore, P K; Asher, M I; Harrison, A C; Mitchell, E A; Rea, H H; Stewart, A W

    1989-01-01

    Maoris and Pacific Islanders in New Zealand have a higher asthma mortality and hospital admission rates than Europeans. To determine whether difference in asthma prevalence is the major factor underlying these differences in mortality, 2053 Auckland children aged 7-10 years (European 1084, Maori 509, Pacific Islander 460) were randomly sampled from school classes in the Auckland Urban Area, and studied by questionnaire (completed by parents) and histamine inhalation challenge to assess the provocative dose of histamine causing a 20% fall in FEV1 (PD20). Maoris had the highest prevalence rates of respiratory symptoms, and Europeans had rates similar to Pacific Islanders. For "any current wheeze" for example, the prevalence in Maoris was 22.2% compared with 16.1% and 16.3% in the Europeans and Pacific Islanders. The prevalence of diagnosed asthma was similar in the three groups. When bronchial hyperresponsiveness (defined as a PD20 less than or equal to 7.8 mumol histamine) was considered, Europeans had the highest rates (20%), followed by Maoris (13%), and then Pacific Islanders (8.7%). These differences were not accounted for by differences in socioeconomic status, rates of smoking in the home, age, gender, or height. It is concluded that differences in asthma prevalence do not satisfactorily explain the mortality and admission rate differences, although the higher symptom prevalence in the Maoris could be relevant to the higher mortality rate. Maori and Pacific Island children with symptoms of asthma were less likely to be taking prophylactic medication than European children. It is proposed that differences in management are important factors relevant to the increased mortality and morbidity from asthma in Polynesians. PMID:2705146

  14. Modulation of bronchial epithelial cell barrier function by in vitro ozone exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, X Y; Takahashi, N; Croxton, T L; Spannhake, E W

    1994-01-01

    The epithelial cells lining the small, peripheral airways function as important targets for the action of inspired ozone. Loss of epithelial barrier integrity in these regions is a common element in ozone-induced airway inflammation. To investigate the direct effect of ozone on epithelial barrier function, canine bronchial epithelial (CBE) cells grown with an air interface were exposed for 3 hr to 0.2, 0.5, or 0.8 ppm ozone or to air. Mannitol flux, used as an index of paracellular permeability, increased above air controls by 461%, 774%, and 1172% at the three ozone concentrations, respectively. Transcellular electrical resistance exhibited a dose-related decrease. The immediate effect of 0.8 ppm ozone on permeability was significantly inhibited by preincubation for 48 hr in the presence of 1 ng/ml vitamin E (33%) or 1 microM vitamin A (34%). Responses to 0.5 ppm or 0.8 ppm were inhibited by pretreatment of the cells with 0.1 microM of the actin polymerizing agent phalloidin (34% and 25% inhibition, respectively). The increases in permeability induced by 0.2 and 0.5 ppm ozone were attenuated by 54% and 22%, respectively, at 18 hr after exposure, whereas that to 0.8 ppm was further enhanced by 42% at this time. The effects of ozone are modulated by the availability of antioxidants to the cells and appear to be associated with cytoskeletal dysfunction in CBE cells. The data are consistent with a loss of barrier function linked to a direct oxidative effect of ozone on individual CBE cells and indicate that the reversible or progressive nature of this effect is dose dependent. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:7713019

  15. Sodium metavanadate exhibits carcinogenic tendencies in vitro in immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells†

    PubMed Central

    Passantino, Lisa; Muñoz, Alexandra B.

    2014-01-01

    Pentavalent vanadium compounds induce intracellular changes in vitro that are consistent with those of other carcinogenic substances. While there is no clear evidence that vanadium compounds cause cancer in humans, vanadium pentoxide causes lung cancer in rodents after long-term inhalation exposures and in turn IARC has categorized it as a group 2B possible human carcinogen. The goal of this study was to investigate the carcinogenicity of NaVO3 in the human immortalized bronchial epithelial cell line, Beas-2B. Cells were treated with 10 μM NaVO3 for 5 weeks, with or without recovery time, followed by gene expression microarray analysis. In a separate experiment, cells were exposed to 1–10 μM NaVO3 for 4 weeks and then grown in soft agar to test for anchorage-independent growth. A dose-dependent increase in the number of colonies was observed. In scratch tests, NaVO3-transformed clones could repair a wound faster than controls. In a gene expression microarray analysis of soft agar clones there were 2010 differentially expressed genes (DEG) (adjusted p-value ≤ 0.05) in NaVO3-transformed clones relative to control clones. DEG from this experiment were compared with the DEG of 5 week NaVO3 exposure with or without recovery, all with adjusted p-values < 0.05, and 469 genes were altered in the same direction for transformed clones, 5 week NaVO3-treated cells, and the recovered cells. The data from this study imply that chronic exposure to NaVO3 causes changes that are consistent with cellular transformation including anchorage-independent growth, enhanced migration ability, and gene expression changes that were likely epigenetically inherited. PMID:23963610

  16. Proteome profiling of cadmium-induced apoptosis by antibody array analyses in human bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan-Ming; Yu, Fei-Yuan; Yang, Feng; Yao, Yue; Zhou, Yuan; Ching, Yick-Pang; Lau, Andy T. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Protein array technology is a powerful platform for the simultaneous determination of the expression levels of a number of proteins as well as post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation. Here, we screen and report for the first time, the dominant signaling cascades and apoptotic mediators during the course of cadmium (Cd)-induced cytotoxicity in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) by antibody array analyses. Proteins from control and Cd-treated cells were captured on Proteome Profiler™ Arrays for the parallel determination of the relative levels of protein phosphorylation and proteins associated with apoptosis. Our results indicated that the p38 MAPK- and JNK-related signal transduction pathways were dramatically activated by Cd treatment. Cd potently stimulates the phosphorylations of p38α (MAPK14), JNK1/2 (MAPK8/9), and JUN; while the phosphorylations of Akt1, ERK1/2 (MAPK3/1), GSK3β, and mTOR were suppressed. Moreover, there was an induction of proapoptotic protein BAX, release of cytochrome c (CYCS) from mitochondria, activation of caspase-3/9 (CASP3/9); as well as decreased expression of cell cycle checkpoint proteins (TP53, p21, and p27) and several inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) [including cIAP-1/2 (BIRC2/3), XIAP (BIRC4), and survivin (BIRC5)]. Pretreatment of cells with the thiol antioxidant glutathione or p38 MAPK/JNK inhibitors before Cd treatment effectively abrogated ROS activation of p38 MAPK/JNK pathways and apoptosis-related proteins. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Cd causes oxidative stress-induced apoptosis; and the p38 MAPK/JNK and mitochondrial pathways are more importantly participated for signal transduction and the induction of apoptosis in Cd-exposed human lung cells. PMID:26716417

  17. Genetic damage induced by organic extract of coke oven emissions on human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Qingfeng; Duan, Huawei; Wang, Yadong; Huang, Chuanfeng; Niu, Yong; Dai, Yufei; Bin, Ping; Liu, Qingjun; Chen, Wen; Ma, Junxiang; Zheng, Yuxin

    2012-08-01

    Coke oven emissions are known as human carcinogen, which is a complex mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. In this study, we aimed to clarify the mechanism of action of coke oven emissions induced carcinogenesis and to identify biomarkers of early biological effects in a human bronchial epithelial cell line with CYP1A1 activity (HBE-CYP1A1). Particulate matter was collected in the oven area on glass filter, extracted and analyzed by GC/MS. DNA breaks and oxidative damage were evaluated by alkaline and endonucleases (FPG, hOGG1 and ENDO III)-modified comet assays. Cytotoxicity and chromosomal damage were assessed by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMN-Cyt) assay. The cells were treated with organic extract of coke oven emissions (OE-COE) representing 5, 10, 20, 40μg/mL extract for 24h. We found that there was a dose-effect relationship between the OE-COE and the direct DNA damage presented by tail length, tail intensity and Olive tail moment in the comet assay. The presence of lesion-specific endonucleases in the assays increased DNA migration after OE-COE treatment when compared to those without enzymes, which indicated that OE-COE produced oxidative damage at the level of pyrimidine and purine bases. The dose-dependent increase of micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds in exposed cells was significant, indicating chromosomal and genomic damage induced by OE-COE. Based on the cytotoxic biomarkers in CBMN-Cyt assay, OE-COE may inhibit nuclear division, interfere with apoptosis, or induce cell necrosis. This study indicates that OE-COE exposure can induce DNA breaks/oxidative damage and genomic instability in HBE-CYP1A1 cells. The FPG-comet assay appears more specific for detecting oxidative DNA damage induced by complex mixtures of genotoxic substances. PMID:22522113

  18. Combustion products of 1,3-butadiene are cytotoxic and genotoxic to human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Catallo, W J; Kennedy, C H; Henk, W; Barker, S A; Grace, S C; Penn, A

    2001-01-01

    Adverse health effects of airborne toxicants, especially small respirable particles and their associated adsorbed chemicals, are of growing concern to health professionals, governmental agencies, and the general public. Areas rich in petrochemical processing facilities (e.g., eastern Texas and southern California) chronically have poor air quality. Atmospheric releases of products of incomplete combustion (e.g., soot) from these facilities are not subject to rigorous regulatory enforcement. Although soot can include respirable particles and carcinogens, the toxicologic and epidemiologic consequences of exposure to environmentally relevant complex soots have not been well investigated. Here we continue our physico-chemical analysis of butadiene soot and report effects of exposure to this soot on putative targets, normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells. We examined organic extracts of butadiene soot by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), probe distillation MS, and liquid chromatography (LC)-MS-MS. Hundreds of aromatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with molecular mass as high as 1,000 atomic mass units were detected, including known and suspected human carcinogens (e.g., benzo(a)pyrene). Butadiene soot particles also had strong, solid-state free-radical character in electron spin resonance analysis. Spin-trapping studies indicated that fresh butadiene soot in a buffered aqueous solution containing dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) oxidized the DMSO, leading to CH(3)* radical formation. Butadiene soot DMSO extract (BSDE)-exposed NHBE cells displayed extranuclear fluorescence within 4 hr of exposure. BSDE was cytotoxic to > 20% of the cells at 72 hr. Morphologic alterations, including cell swelling and membrane blebbing, were apparent within 24 hr of exposure. These alterations are characteristic of oncosis, an ischemia-induced form of cell death. BSDE treatment also produced significant genotoxicity, as indicated by binucleated cell

  19. IL-17A induces Pendrin expression and chloride-bicarbonate exchange in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Adams, Kelly M; Abraham, Valsamma; Spielman, Daniel; Kolls, Jay K; Rubenstein, Ronald C; Conner, Gregory E; Cohen, Noam A; Kreindler, James L

    2014-01-01

    The epithelium plays an active role in the response to inhaled pathogens in part by responding to signals from the immune system. Epithelial responses may include changes in chemokine expression, increased mucin production and antimicrobial peptide secretion, and changes in ion transport. We previously demonstrated that interleukin-17A (IL-17A), which is critical for lung host defense against extracellular bacteria, significantly raised airway surface pH in vitro, a finding that is common to a number of inflammatory diseases. Using microarray analysis of normal human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells treated with IL-17A, we identified the electroneutral chloride-bicarbonate exchanger Pendrin (SLC26A4) as a potential mediator of this effect. These data were verified by real-time, quantitative PCR that demonstrated a time-dependent increase in Pendrin mRNA expression in HBE cells treated with IL-17A up to 48 h. Using immunoblotting and immunofluorescence, we confirmed that Pendrin protein expression is increased in IL-17 treated HBE cells and that it is primarily localized to the mucosal surface of the cells. Functional studies using live-cell fluorescence to measure intracellular pH demonstrated that IL-17A induced chloride-bicarbonate exchange in HBE cells that was not present in the absence of IL-17A. Furthermore, HBE cells treated with short interfering RNA against Pendrin showed substantially reduced chloride-bicarbonate exchange. These data suggest that Pendrin is part of IL-17A-dependent epithelial changes and that Pendrin may therefore be a therapeutic target in IL-17A-dependent lung disease. PMID:25141009

  20. Bronchial Thermoplasty – Long Term Safety and Effectiveness in Severe Persistent Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Wechsler, Michael E.; Laviolette, Michel; Rubin, Adalberto S.; Fiterman, Jussara; Lapa e Silva, Jose R.; Shah, Pallav L.; Fiss, Elie; Olivenstein, Ronald; Thomson, Neil C.; Niven, Robert M.; Pavord, Ian D.; Simoff, Michael; Hales, Jeff B.; McEvoy, Charlene; Slebos, Dirk-Jan; Holmes, Mark; Phillips, Martin J.; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Hanania, Nicola A.; Sumino, Kaharu; Kraft, Monica; Cox, Gerard; Sterman, Daniel H.; Hogarth, Kyle; Kline, Joel N.; Mansur, Adel H.; Louie, Brian E.; Leeds, William M.; Barbers, Richard G.; Austin, John H.M.; Shargill, Narinder S.; Quiring, John; Armstrong, Brian; Castro, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Background Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) has previously been shown to improve asthma control out to 2 years in patients with severe persistent asthma. Objective To assess effectiveness and safety of BT in asthma patients 5 years post therapy. Methods BT-treated subjects from the Asthma Intervention Research 2 (AIR2) Trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01350414) were evaluated annually for 5 years to assess long-term safety of BT and durability of treatment effect. Outcomes assessed post-BT included severe exacerbations, adverse events, healthcare utilization, spirometry data, and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans. Results 162/190 BT-treated subjects (85.3%) from the AIR2 Trial completed 5 years of follow-up. The proportion of subjects experiencing severe exacerbations and Emergency Room visits, and the rates of events in each of years 1 to 5 remained low and were less than those observed in the 12 months prior to BT treatment (average 5 year reduction in proportions: 44% for exacerbations and 78% for ER visits). Respiratory adverse events and respiratory-related hospitalizations remained unchanged in Years 2 through 5 as compared to the first year after BT. Pre-BD FEV1 values remained stable between years 1 and 5 after BT, despite a 17% reduction in average daily inhaled corticosteroid dose. HRCT scans from baseline to 5 years after BT showed no structural abnormalities that could be attributed to BT. Conclusions These data demonstrate the 5-year durability of the benefits of BT with regard to both asthma control (based on maintained reduction in severe exacerbations and ER visits for respiratory symptoms) and safety. BT has become an important addition to our treatment armamentarium and should be considered for patients with severe persistent asthma who remain symptomatic despite taking ICS (inhaled corticosteroids) and LABA (long-acting-β2-agonists). PMID:23998657

  1. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness to mannitol, airway inflammation and Asthma Control Test in atopic asthmatic children

    PubMed Central

    Consilvio, Nicola P.; Rapino, Daniele; Nicola, Marta Di; Scaparrotta, Alessandra; Cingolani, Anna; Petrosino, Marianna I.; Filippo, Paola Di; Pillo, Sabrina Di; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to mannitol and bronchial inflammation measured as exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and to assess whether asthma control correlates with AHR to mannitol and FeNO in atopic asthmatic children. Material and methods Allergy evaluation, the mannitol challenge test, FeNO levels and the Asthma Control Test (ACT) questionnaire were assessed in 40 children with intermittent and mild persistent allergic asthma. Results All the subjects showed positive AHR to mannitol. Pearson's correlation test revealed a significant inverse correlation between AHR (mannitol PD15) and FeNO (p = 0.020). There was also a significant positive correlation between ACT and PD15 (p = 0.020) and a significant negative correlation between ACT and FeNO levels (p = 0.003). The study population was divided into two groups according to FeNO levels (group A ≥ 16 ppb vs. group B < 16 ppb). In group A mannitol PD15 was significantly lower (p = 0.040) and ACT score values were significantly lower (p = 0.001) compared to group B. In group A, the ACT showed that 13.3% of subjects had well-controlled asthma, 80% had partially controlled asthma and 6.7% had uncontrolled asthma. In group B, the ACT showed that 72% of subjects had well-controlled asthma and 28% had partially controlled asthma. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the degree of AHR to mannitol correlates with the degree of airway inflammation in asthmatic atopic children; moreover, better control of asthma correlates with a lower degree of AHR to both mannitol and FeNO. PMID:26925129

  2. Effects of ceftaroline on the innate immune and on the inflammatory responses of bronchial epithelial cells exposed to cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Pace, E; Ferraro, M; Di Vincenzo, S; Siena, L; Gjomarkaj, M

    2016-09-01

    The tobacco smoking habit interferes with the innate host defence system against infections. Recurrent infections accelerated the functional respiratory decline. The present study assessed the effects of ceftaroline on TLR2 and TLR4 and on pro-inflammatory responses in airway epithelial cells (16HBE cell line and primary bronchial epithelial cells) with or without cigarette smoke extracts (CSE 10%). TLR2, TLR4, LPS binding and human beta defensin 2 (HBD2) were assessed by flow cytometry, NFkB nuclear translocation by western blot analysis, IL-8 and HBD2 mRNA by Real Time PCR; the localization of NFkB on the HBD2 and IL-8 promoters by ChiP Assay. CSE increased TLR4, TLR2 expression, LPS binding and IL-8 mRNA; CSE decreased HBD2 (protein and mRNA), activated NFkB and promoted the localization of NFkB on IL-8 promoter and not on HBD2 promoter. Ceftaroline counteracted the CSE effect on TLR2 expression, on LPS binding, on IL-8 mRNA, HBD2 and NFkB in 16HBE. The effects of ceftaroline on HBD2 protein and on IL-8 mRNA were confirmed in primary bronchial epithelial cells. In conclusion, ceftaroline is able to counteract the effects of CSE on the innate immunity and pro-inflammatory responses modulating TLR2, LPS binding, NFkB activation and activity, HBD2 and IL-8 expression in bronchial epithelial cells. PMID:27397760

  3. Impact assessment of repeated exposure of organotypic 3D bronchial and nasal tissue culture models to whole cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, Diana; Majeed, Shoaib; Guedj, Emmanuel; Dulize, Remi; Baumer, Karine; Iskandar, Anita; Boue, Stephanie; Martin, Florian; Kostadinova, Radina; Mathis, Carole; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Frentzel, Stefan; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) has a major impact on lung biology and may result in the development of lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or lung cancer. To understand the underlying mechanisms of disease development, it would be important to examine the impact of CS exposure directly on lung tissues. However, this approach is difficult to implement in epidemiological studies because lung tissue sampling is complex and invasive. Alternatively, tissue culture models can facilitate the assessment of exposure impacts on the lung tissue. Submerged 2D cell cultures, such as normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cell cultures, have traditionally been used for this purpose. However, they cannot be exposed directly to smoke in a similar manner to the in vivo exposure situation. Recently developed 3D tissue culture models better reflect the in vivo situation because they can be cultured at the air-liquid interface (ALI). Their basal sides are immersed in the culture medium; whereas, their apical sides are exposed to air. Moreover, organotypic tissue cultures that contain different type of cells, better represent the physiology of the tissue in vivo. In this work, the utilization of an in vitro exposure system to expose human organotypic bronchial and nasal tissue models to mainstream CS is demonstrated. Ciliary beating frequency and the activity of cytochrome P450s (CYP) 1A1/1B1 were measured to assess functional impacts of CS on the tissues. Furthermore, to examine CS-induced alterations at the molecular level, gene expression profiles were generated from the tissues following exposure. A slight increase in CYP1A1/1B1 activity was observed in CS-exposed tissues compared with air-exposed tissues. A network-and transcriptomics-based systems biology approach was sufficiently robust to demonstrate CS-induced alterations of xenobiotic metabolism that were similar to those observed in the bronchial and nasal epithelial cells obtained from smokers. PMID:25741927

  4. Adhesion to and biofilm formation on IB3-1 bronchial cells by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates from cystic fibrosis patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Stenotrophomonas maltophilia has recently gained considerable attention as an important emerging pathogen in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. However, the role of this microorganism in the pathophysiology of CF lung disease remains largely unexplored. In the present study for the first time we assessed the ability of S. maltophilia CF isolates to adhere to and form biofilm in experimental infection experiments using the CF-derived bronchial epithelial IB3-1cell line. The role of flagella on the adhesiveness of S. maltophilia to IB3-1 cell monolayers was also assessed by using fliI mutant derivative strains. Results All S. maltophilia CF isolates tested in the present study were able, although at different levels, to adhere to and form biofilm on IB3-1 cell monolayers. Scanning electron and confocal microscopy revealed S. maltophilia structures typical of biofilm formation on bronchial IB3-1 cells. The loss of flagella significantly (P < 0.001) decreased bacterial adhesiveness, if compared to that of their parental flagellated strains. S. maltophilia CF isolates were also able to invade IB3-1 cells, albeit at a very low level (internalization rate ranged from 0.01 to 4.94%). Pre-exposure of IB3-1 cells to P. aeruginosa PAO1 significantly increased S. maltophilia adhesiveness. Further, the presence of S. maltophilia negatively influenced P. aeruginosa PAO1 adhesiveness. Conclusions The main contribution of the present study is the finding that S. maltophilia is able to form biofilm on and invade CF-derived IB3-1 bronchial epithelial cells, thus posing a rationale for the persistence and the systemic spread of this opportunistic pathogen in CF patients. Experiments using in vivo models which more closely mimic CF pulmonary tissues will certainly be needed to validate the relevance of our results. PMID:20374629

  5. Impact Assessment of Repeated Exposure of Organotypic 3D Bronchial and Nasal Tissue Culture Models to Whole Cigarette Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Kuehn, Diana; Majeed, Shoaib; Guedj, Emmanuel; Dulize, Remi; Baumer, Karine; Iskandar, Anita; Boue, Stephanie; Martin, Florian; Kostadinova, Radina; Mathis, Carole; Ivanov, Nikolai V.; Frentzel, Stefan; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C.

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) has a major impact on lung biology and may result in the development of lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or lung cancer. To understand the underlying mechanisms of disease development, it would be important to examine the impact of CS exposure directly on lung tissues. However, this approach is difficult to implement in epidemiological studies because lung tissue sampling is complex and invasive. Alternatively, tissue culture models can facilitate the assessment of exposure impacts on the lung tissue. Submerged 2D cell cultures, such as normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cell cultures, have traditionally been used for this purpose. However, they cannot be exposed directly to smoke in a similar manner to the in vivo exposure situation. Recently developed 3D tissue culture models better reflect the in vivo situation because they can be cultured at the air-liquid interface (ALI). Their basal sides are immersed in the culture medium; whereas, their apical sides are exposed to air. Moreover, organotypic tissue cultures that contain different type of cells, better represent the physiology of the tissue in vivo. In this work, the utilization of an in vitro exposure system to expose human organotypic bronchial and nasal tissue models to mainstream CS is demonstrated. Ciliary beating frequency and the activity of cytochrome P450s (CYP) 1A1/1B1 were measured to assess functional impacts of CS on the tissues. Furthermore, to examine CS-induced alterations at the molecular level, gene expression profiles were generated from the tissues following exposure. A slight increase in CYP1A1/1B1 activity was observed in CS-exposed tissues compared with air-exposed tissues. A network-and transcriptomics-based systems biology approach was sufficiently robust to demonstrate CS-induced alterations of xenobiotic metabolism that were similar to those observed in the bronchial and nasal epithelial cells obtained from smokers. PMID:25741927

  6. Differential Response of Human Nasal and Bronchial Epithelial Cells upon Exposure to Size-fractionated Dairy Dust

    PubMed Central

    Hawley, Brie; Schaeffer, Joshua; Poole, Jill A.; Dooley, Gregory P.; Reynolds, Stephen; Volckens, John

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to organic dusts is associated with increased respiratory morbidity and mortality in agricultural workers. Organic dusts in dairy farm environments are complex, polydisperse mixtures of toxic and immunogenic compounds. Previous toxicological studies focused primarily on exposures to the respirable size fraction, however, organic dusts in dairy farm environments are known to contain larger particles. Given the size distribution of dusts from dairy farm environments, the nasal and bronchial epithelia represent targets of agricultural dust exposures. In this study, well-differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial cells and human nasal epithelial cells were exposed to two different size fractions (PM10 and PM>10) of dairy parlor dust using a novel aerosol-to-cell exposure system. Levels of pro-inflammatory transcripts (IL-8, IL-6, and TNF-α) were measured two hr after exposure. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release was also measured as an indicator of cytotoxicity. Cell exposure to dust was measured in each size fraction as a function of mass, endotoxin, and muramic acid levels. To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the effects of distinct size fractions of agricultural dust on human airway epithelial cells. Our results suggest that both PM10 and PM>10 size fractions elicit a pro-inflammatory response in airway epithelial cells and that the entire inhalable size fraction needs to be considered when assessing potential risks from exposure to agricultural dusts. Further, data suggest that human bronchial cells respond differently to these dusts than human nasal cells and, therefore, the two cell types need to be considered separately in airway cell models of agricultural dust toxicity. PMID:25965193

  7. Lung function decline in asthma patients with elevated bronchial CD8, CD4 and CD3 cells.

    PubMed

    den Otter, Irene; Willems, Luuk N A; van Schadewijk, Annemarie; van Wijngaarden, Simone; Janssen, Kirsten; de Jeu, Ronald C; Sont, Jacob K; Sterk, Peter J; Hiemstra, Pieter S

    2016-08-01

    Which inflammatory markers in the bronchial mucosa of asthma patients are associated with decline of lung function during 14 years of prospective follow-up?To address this question, 19 mild-to-moderate, atopic asthmatic patients underwent spirometry and bronchoscopy at baseline and after 14 years of follow-up (t=14). Baseline bronchial biopsies were analysed for reticular layer thickness, eosinophil cationic protein (EG2), mast cell tryptase (AA1), CD3, CD4 and CD8. Follow-up biopsies were stained for EG2, AA1, neutrophil elastase, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, granzyme B, CD68, DC-SIGN, Ki67 and mucins.Decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) % predicted was highest in patients with high CD8 (p=0.01, both pre- and post-bronchodilator) or high CD4 counts at baseline (p=0.04 pre-bronchodilator, p=0.03 post-bronchodilator). Patients with high CD8, CD3 or granzyme B counts at t=14 also exhibited faster decline in FEV1 (p=0.00 CD8 pre-bronchodilator, p=0.04 CD8 post-bronchodilator, p=0.01 granzyme B pre-bronchodilator, and p<0.01 CD3 pre-bronchodilator).Long-term lung function decline in asthma is associated with elevation of bronchial CD8 and CD4 at baseline, and CD8, CD3 and granzyme B at follow-up. This suggests that high-risk groups can be identified on the basis of inflammatory phenotypes. PMID:27230446

  8. Elevated Levels of the Complement Activation Product C4d in Bronchial Fluids for the Diagnosis of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ajona, Daniel; Razquin, Cristina; Pastor, Maria Dolores; Pajares, Maria Jose; Garcia, Javier; Cardenal, Felipe; Fleischhacker, Michael; Lozano, Maria Dolores; Zulueta, Javier J.; Schmidt, Bernd; Nadal, Ernest; Paz-Ares, Luis; Montuenga, Luis M.; Pio, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Molecular markers in bronchial fluids may contribute to the diagnosis of lung cancer. We previously observed a significant increase of C4d-containing complement degradation fragments in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) supernatants from lung cancer patients in a cohort of 50 cases and 22 controls (CUN cohort). The present study was designed to determine the diagnostic performance of these complement fragments (hereinafter jointly referred as C4d) in bronchial fluids. C4d levels were determined in BAL supernatants from two independent cohorts: the CU cohort (25 cases and 26 controls) and the HUVR cohort (60 cases and 98 controls). A series of spontaneous sputum samples from 68 patients with lung cancer and 10 controls was also used (LCCCIO cohort). Total protein content, complement C4, complement C5a, and CYFRA 21-1 were also measured in all cohorts. C4d levels were significantly increased in BAL samples from lung cancer patients. The area under the ROC curve was 0.82 (95%CI = 0.71–0.94) and 0.67 (95%CI = 0.58–0.76) for the CU and HUVR cohorts, respectively. In addition, unlike the other markers, C4d levels in BAL samples were highly consistent across the CUN, CU and HUVR cohorts. Interestingly, C4d test markedly increased the sensitivity of bronchoscopy in the two cohorts in which cytological data were available (CUN and HUVR cohorts). Finally, in the LCCCIO cohort, C4d levels were higher in sputum supernatants from patients with lung cancer (area under the ROC curve: 0.7; 95%CI = 0.56–0.83). In conclusion, C4d is consistently elevated in bronchial fluids from lung cancer patients and may be used to improve the diagnosis of the disease. PMID:25799154

  9. Efficacy of Vasa Avaleha and its granules on Tamaka Shwasa (bronchial asthma): Open-label randomized clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Paneliya, Ankit M.; Patgiri, Biswajyoti; Galib, R.; Prajapati, Pradeep Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Bronchial asthma is one of the chronic inflammatory disorders of the respiratory tract causing a huge number of deaths annually. Increased industrialization and pollution are the exacerbating factors for this situation. In Ayurveda, this miserable condition is comparable with Tamaka Shwasa. Synthetic drugs provide instant symptomatic relief in cases of bronchial asthma but are known to develop certain adverse drug reactions. Considering this, the current suffering population is looking hopefully towards other systems of medicine such as Ayurveda for better relief. Ayurveda has a number of formulations to treat Tamaka Shwasa and is in practice with proven efficacy. Aims: To evaluate comparative clinical efficacy of Vasa Avaleha (VA) and its granules (GVA) in cases of Tamaka Shwasa. Materials and Methods: A total of 66 patients were registered and randomly grouped into A and B. Patients of Group A were treated with VA, while Group B with GVA at dose of 6 g twice a day with lukewarm water for the duration of 28 days. Follow-up was done after 14 days. The results were assessed in terms of clinical recovery, symptomatic relief, and pulmonary function improvement. Effect of the treatment was assessed based on subjective and objective parameters. Results: Significant improvement was observed in most of the cardinal and associated symptoms. Significant increase in peak expiratory flow rate, considerable decrease in absolute eosinophil count, and increased breath holding time were noticed. Withdrawal of modern emergency drugs, decreased frequency of attacks, improved quality of life were the major observations noticed in both groups. Conclusions: This study highlights the significance of traditional herbal formulations in noncommunicable diseases such as bronchial asthma, which can be used as an effective drug in place or along with modern drugs. PMID:27313413

  10. Elevated levels of the complement activation product C4d in bronchial fluids for the diagnosis of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ajona, Daniel; Razquin, Cristina; Pastor, Maria Dolores; Pajares, Maria Jose; Garcia, Javier; Cardenal, Felipe; Fleischhacker, Michael; Lozano, Maria Dolores; Zulueta, Javier J; Schmidt, Bernd; Nadal, Ernest; Paz-Ares, Luis; Montuenga, Luis M; Pio, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Molecular markers in bronchial fluids may contribute to the diagnosis of lung cancer. We previously observed a significant increase of C4d-containing complement degradation fragments in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) supernatants from lung cancer patients in a cohort of 50 cases and 22 controls (CUN cohort). The present study was designed to determine the diagnostic performance of these complement fragments (hereinafter jointly referred as C4d) in bronchial fluids. C4d levels were determined in BAL supernatants from two independent cohorts: the CU cohort (25 cases and 26 controls) and the HUVR cohort (60 cases and 98 controls). A series of spontaneous sputum samples from 68 patients with lung cancer and 10 controls was also used (LCCCIO cohort). Total protein content, complement C4, complement C5a, and CYFRA 21-1 were also measured in all cohorts. C4d levels were significantly increased in BAL samples from lung cancer patients. The area under the ROC curve was 0.82 (95%CI = 0.71-0.94) and 0.67 (95%CI = 0.58-0.76) for the CU and HUVR cohorts, respectively. In addition, unlike the other markers, C4d levels in BAL samples were highly consistent across the CUN, CU and HUVR cohorts. Interestingly, C4d test markedly increased the sensitivity of bronchoscopy in the two cohorts in which cytological data were available (CUN and HUVR cohorts). Finally, in the LCCCIO cohort, C4d levels were higher in sputum supernatants from patients with lung cancer (area under the ROC curve: 0.7; 95%CI = 0.56-0.83). In conclusion, C4d is consistently elevated in bronchial fluids from lung cancer patients and may be used to improve the diagnosis of the disease. PMID:25799154

  11. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Reduces VX-809 Stimulated F508del-CFTR Chloride Secretion by Airway Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Bruce A.; Coutermarsh, Bonita; Barnaby, Roxanna; Hogan, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Background P. aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that chronically infects the lungs of 85% of adult patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF). Previously, we demonstrated that P. aeruginosa reduced wt-CFTR Cl secretion by airway epithelial cells. Recently, a new investigational drug VX-809 has been shown to increase F508del-CFTR Cl secretion in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells, and, in combination with VX-770, to increase FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 second) by an average of 3-5% in CF patients homozygous for the F508del-CFTR mutation. We propose that P. aeruginosa infection of CF lungs reduces VX-809 + VX-770- stimulated F508del-CFTR Cl secretion, and thereby reduces the clinical efficacy of VX-809 + VX-770. Methods and Results F508del-CFBE cells and primary cultures of CF-HBE cells (F508del/F508del) were exposed to VX-809 alone or a combination of VX-809 + VX-770 for 48 hours and the effect of P. aeruginosa on F508del-CFTR Cl secretion was measured in Ussing chambers. The effect of VX-809 on F508del-CFTR abundance was measured by cell surface biotinylation and western blot analysis. PAO1, PA14, PAK and 6 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa (3 mucoid and 3 non-mucoid) significantly reduced drug stimulated F508del-CFTR Cl secretion, and plasma membrane F508del-CFTR. Conclusion The observation that P. aeruginosa reduces VX-809 and VX-809 + VX-770 stimulated F508del CFTR Cl sec