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Sample records for del escurrimiento superficial

  1. Aquarius: Tour de la salinidad superficial del mar

    NASA Video Gallery

    Recorrido narrado de la información sobre la salinidad superficial de los océanos recogida por el instrumento Aquarius de la NASA durante su primer año de funcionamiento. Algunas de las caracte...

  2. Estudio del comportamiento tribologico y de las interacciones de superficie de nuevos nanofluidos ionicos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa Rodriguez, Tulia

    tribocorrosion processes. The formation of a coating layer on magnesium alloys from phosphonate imidazolium ionic liquids by immersion and by chronoamperometry has been described. The new coatings reduce the abrasive wear in the magnesium-aluminium alloy but they are not effective in the magnesium-zinc alloy, which prevent the formation of continuous coatings. Los liquidos ionicos son sales liquidas a temperatura ambiente o bajas temperaturas que presentan excelentes propiedades fisico-quimicas. En el presente trabajo se estudian como lubricantes en problemas tribologicos complejos como la lubricacion de metales contra si mismos, el desarrollo de lubricantes base agua y de nuevas superficies autolubricadas. Cuando no es posible reducir la friccion y desgaste mediante lubricacion, como en las aleaciones de magnesio, los liquidos ionicos se han estudiado como precursores de recubrimientos protectores. Se han determinado las interacciones superficiales y los procesos de corrosion sobre cobre y sobre acero con diferentes liquidos ionicos proticos y aproticos para desarrollar nuevos lubricantes y aditivos. En el contacto cobre/cobre, excepto el liquido ionico protico derivado del oleato, todos los liquidos ionicos estudiados presentan mejor comportamiento tribologico que el lubricante comercial Polialfaolefina 6. En el contacto acero/zafiro, los nuevos liquidos ionicos proticos son buenos lubricantes cuando se utilizan en estado puro, y, como aditivos en agua, generan peliculas adsorbidas sobre la superficie del metal reduciendo la friccion y el desgaste tras la evaporacion del agua. Para evitar el periodo de alta friccion inicial en presencia de agua, se han generado peliculas superficiales de liquido ionico sobre el acero en condiciones estaticas. El mejor comportamiento lubricante tanto en el contacto cobre/cobre como en el contacto acero/zafiro se obtiene para el liquido ionico protico derivado del anion adipato, con dos grupos carboxilicos. Las interacciones de los grupos

  3. Superficial thrombophlebitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... a prolonged period Use of birth control pills Varicose veins Superficial thrombophlebitis may be associated with: Abdominal cancers ( ... affected vein are occasionally needed to treat large varicose veins or to prevent further episodes of thrombophlebitis in ...

  4. Superficial thrombophlebitis

    MedlinePlus

    Brown KR, Rossi PJ. Superficial venous disease. Surg Clin N Am. 2012;93:963-982. PMID: 23885940 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23885940 . James WD, Berger TG, Elston DM. Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology . 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  5. Superficial acral fibromyxoma.

    PubMed

    Sawaya, Jennifer L; Khachemoune, Amor

    2015-01-01

    Superficial acral fibromyxoma (SAF), also known as digital fibromyxoma, is a rare soft tissue tumor with a predilection for acral surfaces. Superficial acral fibromyxoma classically presents as a pink to flesh-colored nodule located on the subungual or periungual region of the hands or feet. It is typically slow-growing and asymptomatic, which, coupled with its nonspecific clinical appearance, presents a diagnostic dilemma to the dermatologist. As these features overlap with those of a multitude of differential diagnoses, it is imperative to have a good understanding of the characteristics on which the diagnosis of SAF is based. Superficial acral fibromyxoma was initially described in 2001, since when several case reports and literature reviews have contributed to our current understanding of these tumors. In this article, we will review the history, clinical features, diagnosis, and management of SAF. It is our hope that this systematic approach will help to facilitate the recognition and management of this distinct dermatologic entity. PMID:25772615

  6. Superficial ulnar artery perforator flap.

    PubMed

    Schonauer, Fabrizio; Marlino, Sergio; Turrà, Francesco; Graziano, Pasquale; Dell'Aversana Orabona, Giovanni

    2014-09-01

    Superficial ulnar artery is a rare finding but shows significant surgical implications. Its thinness and pliability make this flap an excellent solution for soft tissue reconstruction, especially in the head and neck region. We hereby report a successful free superficial ulnar artery perforator forearm flap transfer for tongue reconstruction. A 64-year-old man presenting with a squamous cell carcinoma of the left tongue underwent a wide resection of the tumor, left radical neck dissection, and reconstruction of the tongue and the left tonsillar pillar with the mentioned flap. No complications were observed postoperatively. The flap survived completely; no recurrence at 6 months of follow-up was detected. Superficial ulnar artery perforator flap has shown to be a safe alternative to other free tissue flaps in specific forearm anatomic conditions. PMID:25102397

  7. Helical tomotherapy superficial dose measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, Chester R.; Seibert, Rebecca M.; Robison, Benjamin; Mitchell, Martha

    2007-08-15

    Helical tomotherapy is a treatment technique that is delivered from a 6 MV fan beam that traces a helical path while the couch moves linearly into the bore. In order to increase the treatment delivery dose rate, helical tomotherapy systems do not have a flattening filter. As such, the dose distributions near the surface of the patient may be considerably different from other forms of intensity-modulated delivery. The purpose of this study was to measure the dose distributions near the surface for helical tomotherapy plans with a varying separation between the target volume and the surface of an anthropomorphic phantom. A hypothetical planning target volume (PTV) was defined on an anthropomorphic head phantom to simulate a 2.0 Gy per fraction IMRT parotid-sparing head and neck treatment of the upper neck nodes. A total of six target volumes were created with 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 mm of separation between the surface of the phantom and the outer edge of the PTV. Superficial doses were measured for each of the treatment deliveries using film placed in the head phantom and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) placed on the phantom's surface underneath an immobilization mask. In the 0 mm test case where the PTV extends to the phantom surface, the mean TLD dose was 1.73{+-}0.10 Gy (or 86.6{+-}5.1% of the prescribed dose). The measured superficial dose decreases to 1.23{+-}0.10 Gy (61.5{+-}5.1% of the prescribed dose) for a PTV-surface separation of 5 mm. The doses measured by the TLDs indicated that the tomotherapy treatment planning system overestimates superficial doses by 8.9{+-}3.2%. The radiographic film dose for the 0 mm test case was 1.73{+-}0.07 Gy, as compared to the calculated dose of 1.78{+-}0.05 Gy. Given the results of the TLD and film measurements, the superficial calculated doses are overestimated between 3% and 13%. Without the use of bolus, tumor volumes that extend to the surface may be underdosed. As such, it is recommended that bolus be added for these

  8. Management of superficial vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Cosmi, B

    2015-07-01

    Superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) is less well studied than deep vein thrombosis (DVT), because it has been considered to be a minor, self-limiting disease that is easily diagnosed on clinical grounds and that requires only symptomatic relief. The most frequently involved sites of the superficial vein system are the lower limbs, especially the saphenous veins, mostly in relation to varicosities. Lower-limb SVT shares the same risk factors as DVT; it can propagate into the deep veins, and have a complicated course with pulmonary embolism. Clinical diagnosis may not be accurate, and ultrasonography is currently indicated for both confirmation and evaluation of SVT extension. Treatment aims are symptom relief and prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in relation to the thrombotic burden. SVT of the long saphenous vein within 3 cm of the saphenofemoral junction (SFJ) is considered to be equivalent to a DVT, and thus deserving of therapeutic anticoagulation. Less severe forms of lower-limb SVT not involving the SFJ have been included in randomized clinical trials of surgery, compression hosiery, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, unfractionated heparin, and low molecular weight heparins, with inconclusive results. The largest randomized clinical trial available, on 3004 patients with lower-limb SVT not involving the SFJ, showed that fondaparinux 2.5 mg once daily for 6 weeks is more effective than placebo in reducing the risk of the composite of death from any cause and symptomatic VTE (0.9% versus 5.9%). Further studies are needed to define the optimal management strategies for SVT of the lower limbs and other sites, such as the upper limbs. PMID:25903684

  9. Intraoral Superficial Angiomyxoma: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Anehosur, Venkatesh; Adirajaiah, Sahana; Ghosh, Rajarshi

    2016-07-01

    Angiomyxomas are a group of relatively uncommon myxoid mesenchymal tumors associated with a high risk of local recurrence without any metastatic potential. Till date only five cases of intraoral superficial angiomyxoma have been reported. This is a case report of a middle aged Indian male patient diagnosed with superficial angiomyxoma of lower left buccal vestibule. PMID:27408472

  10. Superficial mycoses in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, P V; Venugopal, T V

    1992-01-01

    Between June 1988 and December 1990, 1018 cases of superficial mycoses were investigated. Diagnosis was confirmed by microscopic examination in 503 cases and the causal agent was isolated in 490 cases. Tinea capitis accounted for 47.7% (92.5% in children below 10 years of age). The frequency of other clinical types in descending order was pityriasis versicolor 25.8%, tinea corporis 9%, onychomycosis 5.8%, tinea pedis 4%, intertrigo 3.9% and tinea cruris 2.8%. Erythrasma was encountered three times and mixed piedra and trichomycosis axillaris once. Microsporum canis was the commonest aetiological agent, responsible for 46.9% of ringworm infections. Malassezia furfur was the next most common agent (26.5%) followed by Candida albicans (8.6%) and Trichophyton violaceum (8.2%). Other species were found less frequently. T.simii was isolated from four cases of tinea cruris and one each of tinea capitis and tinea corporis, and Piedraia hortae and Trichosporon beigelii from a case of mixed piedra infection. PMID:1445094

  11. Scanning electron microscopy of superficial white onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Hiram Larangeira de; Boabaid, Roberta Oliveira; Timm, Vitor; Silva, Ricardo Marques E; Castro, Luis Antonio Suita de

    2015-01-01

    Superficial white onychomycosis is characterized by opaque, friable, whitish superficial spots on the nail plate. We examined an affected halux nail of a 20-year-old male patient with scanning electron microscopy. The mycological examination isolated Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Abundant hyphae with the formation of arthrospores were found on the nail's surface, forming small fungal colonies. These findings showed the great capacity for dissemination of this form of onychomycosis. PMID:26560225

  12. Scanning electron microscopy of superficial white onychomycosis*

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida Jr., Hiram Larangeira; Boabaid, Roberta Oliveira; Timm, Vitor; Silva, Ricardo Marques e; de Castro, Luis Antonio Suita

    2015-01-01

    Superficial white onychomycosis is characterized by opaque, friable, whitish superficial spots on the nail plate. We examined an affected halux nail of a 20-year-old male patient with scanning electron microscopy. The mycological examination isolated Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Abundant hyphae with the formation of arthrospores were found on the nail's surface, forming small fungal colonies. These findings showed the great capacity for dissemination of this form of onychomycosis. PMID:26560225

  13. H3+: superficies de energía potencial, estados y transiciones rovibracionales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguado, M. Paniagua Y. A.

    Hemos calculado varias superficies globales de energía potencial para el estado fundamental y excitados del sistema H3+ en más de ocho mil geometrías diferentes usando una base (9s 3p 1d)/[4s 3p 1d] en cada átomo de Hidrógeno y mediante un método de cálculo de interacción de configuraciones completa (FCI). Hemos ajustado las superficies a formas analíticas del tipo Aguado y Paniagua con un error promedio menor de 50 cm-1 y menor en el pozo de potencial del estado fundamental. Finalmente hemos calculado y analizado los niveles vibracionales para los dos estados electrónicos más bajos, siendo la desviación respecto de los mejores valores publicados, tanto experimentales como teóricos, de unos pocos números de onda.

  14. Superficial Temporal Artery Pseudoaneurysm: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Younus, Syed Muneeb; Imran, Muhammad; Qazi, Rabia

    2015-01-01

    Pseudoaneurysms of the superficial temporal artery are an uncommon vascular lesion of the external carotid system and most often the result of blunt head trauma. The frequency of pseudoaneurysms of the superficial temporal artery developing after craniotomy is exceedingly low and only a few cases have been reported. We present a case of pseudoaneurysm of this type in a 45-year-old male who underwent craniotomy for excision of meningioma. One month postoperatively, the craniotomy flap exhibited an enormous diffuse pulsate swelling. The suspected diagnosis of pseudoaneurysm arising from superficial temporal artery was confirmed on angiography. Surgical excision was done and no recurrences of the tumor or aneurysm were noted on subsequent follow up. PMID:26501064

  15. Treatment of superficial mycoses: review - part II*

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni; Bernardes-Filho, Fred; Quaresma-Santos, Maria Victória Pinto; Amorim, Adriana Gutstein da Fonseca; Schechtman, Regina Casz; Azulay, David Rubem

    2013-01-01

    Superficial fungal infections of the hair, skin and nails are a major cause of morbidity in the world. Choosing the right treatment is not always simple because of the possibility of drug interactions and side effects. The first part of the article discusses the main treatments for superficial mycoses - keratophytoses, dermatophytosis, candidiasis, with a practical approach to the most commonly-used topical and systemic drugs , referring also to their dosage and duration of use. Promising new, antifungal therapeutic alternatives are also highlighted, as well as available options on the Brazilian and world markets. PMID:24474103

  16. Etizolam-induced superficial erythema annulare centrifugum.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, K; Yabunami, H; Hisanaga, Y

    2002-01-01

    Erythema annulare centrifugum (EAC) is characterized by slowly enlarging annular erythematous lesions. Although the origin is not clear in most cases, EAC has been associated with infections, medications, and in rare cases, underlying malignancy. We describe a patient who developed annular erythematous lesions after etizolam administration. The eruptions were typical of the superficial form of EAC, both clinically and histopathologically. The lesions disappeared shortly after discontinuation of the medication. Patch testing with etizolam gave positive results. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of etizolam-induced superficial EAC. PMID:11952667

  17. The superficial white matter in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Owen R; Joshi, Shantanu H; Piras, Fabrizio; Orfei, Maria Donata; Iorio, Mariangela; Narr, Katherine L; Shattuck, David W; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Di Paola, Margherita

    2016-04-01

    White matter abnormalities have been shown in the large deep fibers of Alzheimer's disease patients. However, the late myelinating superficial white matter comprised of intracortical myelin and short-range association fibers has not received much attention. To investigate this area, we extracted a surface corresponding to the superficial white matter beneath the cortex and then applied a cortical pattern-matching approach which allowed us to register and subsequently sample diffusivity along thousands of points at the interface between the gray matter and white matter in 44 patients with Alzheimer's disease (Age: 71.02 ± 5.84, 16M/28F) and 47 healthy controls (Age 69.23 ± 4.45, 19M/28F). In patients we found an overall increase in the axial and radial diffusivity across most of the superficial white matter (P < 0.001) with increases in diffusivity of more than 20% in the bilateral parahippocampal regions and the temporal and frontal lobes. Furthermore, diffusivity correlated with the cognitive deficits measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination scores (P < 0.001). The superficial white matter has a unique microstructure and is critical for the integration of multimodal information during brain maturation and aging. Here we show that there are major abnormalities in patients and the deterioration of these fibers relates to clinical symptoms in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26801955

  18. Extensive metabolmic change precedes superficial scald development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Superficial scald development and metabolomic changes were compared in peel tissue of diphenylamine (DPA) treated, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treated, or untreated ‘Granny Smith’ apples stored for up to 6 months at 1 oC in air. Metabolomic evaluation, including 600+ metabolites, was employed to c...

  19. Metabolomic Change Precedes Apple Superficial Scald Symptoms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolic profiling of 621 metabolites was employed to characterize metabolomic changes associated with ‘Granny Smith’ apple superficial scald development following 1-MCP or DPA treatment. Partial least squares-discriminant analyses were used to link metabolites with scald, postharvest treatments, ...

  20. What factors control superficial lava dome explosivity?

    PubMed Central

    Boudon, Georges; Balcone-Boissard, Hélène; Villemant, Benoît; Morgan, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Dome-forming eruption is a frequent eruptive style and a major hazard on numerous volcanoes worldwide. Lava domes are built by slow extrusion of degassed, viscous magma and may be destroyed by gravitational collapse or explosion. The triggering of lava dome explosions is poorly understood: here we propose a new model of superficial lava-dome explosivity based upon a textural and geochemical study (vesicularity, microcrystallinity, cristobalite distribution, residual water contents, crystal transit times) of clasts produced by key eruptions. Superficial explosion of a growing lava dome may be promoted through porosity reduction caused by both vesicle flattening due to gas escape and syn-eruptive cristobalite precipitation. Both processes generate an impermeable and rigid carapace allowing overpressurisation of the inner parts of the lava dome by the rapid input of vesiculated magma batches. The relative thickness of the cristobalite-rich carapace is an inverse function of the external lava dome surface area. Explosive activity is thus more likely to occur at the onset of lava dome extrusion, in agreement with observations, as the likelihood of superficial lava dome explosions depends inversely on lava dome volume. This new result is of interest for the whole volcanological community and for risk management. PMID:26420069

  1. What factors control superficial lava dome explosivity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudon, Georges; Balcone-Boissard, Hélène; Villemant, Benoît; Morgan, Daniel J.

    2015-09-01

    Dome-forming eruption is a frequent eruptive style and a major hazard on numerous volcanoes worldwide. Lava domes are built by slow extrusion of degassed, viscous magma and may be destroyed by gravitational collapse or explosion. The triggering of lava dome explosions is poorly understood: here we propose a new model of superficial lava-dome explosivity based upon a textural and geochemical study (vesicularity, microcrystallinity, cristobalite distribution, residual water contents, crystal transit times) of clasts produced by key eruptions. Superficial explosion of a growing lava dome may be promoted through porosity reduction caused by both vesicle flattening due to gas escape and syn-eruptive cristobalite precipitation. Both processes generate an impermeable and rigid carapace allowing overpressurisation of the inner parts of the lava dome by the rapid input of vesiculated magma batches. The relative thickness of the cristobalite-rich carapace is an inverse function of the external lava dome surface area. Explosive activity is thus more likely to occur at the onset of lava dome extrusion, in agreement with observations, as the likelihood of superficial lava dome explosions depends inversely on lava dome volume. This new result is of interest for the whole volcanological community and for risk management.

  2. [Photodynamic therapy of superficial bladder tumors].

    PubMed

    Misaki, T; Hisazumi, H; Hirata, A; Kunimi, K; Yamamoto, H; Amano, T; Kumaki, O; Koshida, K; Nishino, A; Nakazima, K

    1986-12-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT), using hematoporphyrin derivative (HPD) and the red light (wavelength 630 nm) of an argon-dye laser as the source of excitation energy was performed on 46 patients with superficial bladder tumors. Two methods of laser irradiation, (1) focal PDT using a 400 micron quartz fiber through a cystourethroscope in 22 patients with superficial bladder tumors and (2) whole bladder wall total PDT using a motor-driven laser light scattering device in 24 patients with multifocal carcinoma in situ and/or dysplasia of bladder mucosa associated with multicentric concurrent superficial tumors, were used. The patients in (2) had been referred for total cystectomy, and 19 of these 24 patients had a history of several transurethral resections, hyperthermia and/or instillation therapy. HPD 2-4 mg/kg was i.v. injected 48 to 72 hours before PDT. Judging from the results of 60 protrusions treated by focal PDT, the light power should be 200 mW/cm2 for 5-10 minutes or more and the total light energy should be 100 J/cm2 or more in tumors up to 2 cm in size. With focal PDT, 4 of the 22 patients had no recurrence with the mean tumor free time of 20.8 months. In 6 of the 24 patients treated with total PDT using 10, 20 or 30 J/cm2 of light energy, there was no recurrence with a mean tumor-free time of 7.5 months and there was no significant relationship between the recurrence rate and total light energy used. PMID:3825831

  3. Corneal endothelial changes in superficial epithelial keratopathy.

    PubMed

    Brooks, A M; Grant, G; Gillies, W E

    1986-05-01

    A series of five cases is described in which superficial punctate keratopathy was associated with endothelial cell changes. The most striking change was the presence of dark areas or blebs, usually two to four cell diameters in extent. There was also distortion and crumpling of the corneal endothelium, mild pleomorphism and polymegathism of the endothelial cells, with a reduced cell count in some cases. These blebs have previously been reported in hard and soft contact lens wearers and are due to intercellular oedema with separation of endothelial cells from Descemet's membrane. Anoxia and interference with osmosis have been proposed as possible mechanisms for the production of these blebs, but our cases demonstrate that fine disruption of the corneal epithelium can affect the integrity of the corneal endothelium and may lead to significant damage over a long period of time. PMID:3801208

  4. Andreas Vesalius' 500th Anniversary: Initiation of the Superficial Facial System and Superficial Musculoaponeurotic System Concepts.

    PubMed

    Brinkman, Romy J; Hage, J Joris

    2016-02-01

    Because of their relevance for liposuction and rhytidectomies, respectively, the superficial fascial system (SFS) and superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) have been thoroughly studied over the past decennia. Although it is well known that the SMAS concept was introduced by Tessier in 1974, it remains unknown who first properly described the stratum membranosum of the SFS. In light of the 500th birthday of Andreas Vesalius (1515-1564), we searched his 1543 masterwork De Humani Corporis Fabrica Libri Septem and related work for references to these structures. We found ample reference to both structures as the membrana carnosa (or fleshy membrane) in his works and concluded that Vesalius recognized the extension, nature, and functions of the stratum membranosum of the SFS, as well as its more musculous differentiation as the SMAS in the head and neck area, and the dartos in the perineogenital area. In doing so, Vesalius recorded most details of the SFS and SMAS concepts avant la lettre. PMID:26761152

  5. Performance characteristics of new superficially porous particles☆

    PubMed Central

    DeStefano, Joseph J.; Schuster, Stephanie A.; Lawhorn, Jason M.; Kirkland, Joseph J.

    2013-01-01

    Superficially porous particles (also called Fused-Core, core shell or porous shell particles) show distinct advantages over comparable totally porous particles for separating small molecules. Columns of Fused-Core particles exhibit very high efficiency because of superior eddy dispersion properties (smaller van Deemter A term). The efficiency for columns of 2.7 μm Fused-Core particles actually rivals that for sub-2 μm totally porous particles with only about one-half the back pressure. These Fused-Core particles show special advantages with larger molecules for fast separations at high mobile phase velocities because of superior mass transfer (kinetic) properties (smaller van Deemter C term). This report describes the effect of different particle size and porous shell thicknesses on chromatographic performance for Fused-Core particles. Particle characteristics can significantly affect factors of separation importance. For example, the reduced plate height of packed columns is affected by particle diameter. Interestingly, larger Fused-Core particles show smaller reduced plate heights than smaller Fused-Core particles. Also, porous shell thickness has a strong effect on solute retention as well as separation efficiency, and particle surface area has a direct influence on sample loading characteristics. Fused-Core particles with a wide range of physical characteristics have been developed that allows the preparation of stable, efficient packed columns. PMID:22939204

  6. YSGG 2790-nm superficial ablative and fractional ablative laser treatment.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kevin C; Schachter, G Daniel

    2011-05-01

    The 2790-nm wavelength YSGG laser was introduced for aesthetic purposes under the trade name Pearl by Cutera in 2007. In clinical use, the Pearl superficial resurfacing laser has proved effective and well tolerated for the correction of superficial brown epidermal dyschromia and superficial fine lines and scars, and the Pearl Fractional laser produces excellent improvement in both dyschromia and improvement of deeper lines and moderately deep acne scarring. The two laser treatments can be combined in a single treatment session on different parts of the face or on the entire face, depending on patient needs and priorities. PMID:21763987

  7. Superficial Cancer in the Sudan. A Study of 1225 Primary Malignant Superficial Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Malik, M. O. A.; Hidaytalla, A.; Daoud, E. H.; el Hassan, A. M.

    1974-01-01

    Superficial cancer in the Sudan accounted for 17·2% of all malignant tumours examined histologically during the period 1962-72 inclusive. Of the 4 pathological types studied, squamous cell carcinoma was the commonest (63·3% of all superficial cancers) followed by malignant melanoma (18·8%) and basal cell carcinoma (14·9%) whilst Kaposi's sarcoma formed only 3% of the total. Generally, twice as many cases occurred in males as in females, with the exception of Kaposi's sarcoma where all the patients were males. Although a relatively high proportion of cases occurred in the young age groups, the age-specific incidence was noted to increase with age. Similarities and differences in the anatomical site of tumours compared with European and African series were noted. Certain differences emerged in the geographical distribution of these tumours in the Northern and Southern regions of the Sudan—regions which differ both ethnologically and geographically—thus suggesting possible roles played by racial and environmental factors in this respect. PMID:4447778

  8. Improved wound healing in blue LED treated superficial abrasions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Francesca; Tatini, Francesca; Pini, Roberto; Bacci, Stefano; De Siena, Gaetano; Cicchi, Riccardo; Pavone, Francesco; Alfieri, Domenico

    2013-06-01

    A blue-LED photocoagulator device was designed in order to induce a selective photocoagulation effect in superficial bleeding. An in vivo study in rat back skin evidenced an improved healing process in the LED treated abrasions.

  9. Superficial Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Minni, John; Herold, David

    2015-01-01

    Superficial radiation therapy has become more widely available to dermatologists. With the advent of more portable machines, it has become more convenient for dermatology practices to employ in an office-based setting. The goal of this paper is to provide a deeper insight into the role of superficial radiation therapy in dermatology practice and to review the current literature surrounding its use in the treatment of both basal and squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:26705443

  10. Altered Superficial White Matter on Tractography MRI in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Reginold, William; Luedke, Angela C.; Itorralba, Justine; Fernandez-Ruiz, Juan; Islam, Omar; Garcia, Angeles

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Superficial white matter provides extensive cortico-cortical connections. This tractography study aimed to assess the diffusion characteristics of superficial white matter tracts in Alzheimer's disease. Methods Diffusion tensor 3T magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired in 24 controls and 16 participants with Alzheimer's disease. Neuropsychological test scores were available in some participants. Tractography was performed by the Fiber Assignment by Continuous Tracking (FACT) method. The superficial white matter was manually segmented and divided into frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes. The mean diffusivity (MD), radial diffusivity (RD), axial diffusivity (AxD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) of these tracts were compared between controls and participants with Alzheimer's disease and correlated with available cognitive tests while adjusting for age and white matter hyperintensity volume. Results Alzheimer's disease was associated with increased MD (p = 0.0011), increased RD (p = 0.0019) and increased AxD (p = 0.0017) in temporal superficial white matter. In controls, superficial white matter was associated with the performance on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Stroop and Trail Making Test B tests, whereas in Alzheimer's disease patients, it was not associated with the performance on cognitive tests. Conclusion Temporal lobe superficial white matter appears to be disrupted in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:27489557

  11. Fluorescence photodetection of urothelial neoplastic foci in superficial bladder cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jichlinski, Patrice; Forrer, Martin; Mizeret, Jerome C.; Braichotte, Daniel; Wagnieres, Georges A.; Zimmer, Georges; Guillou, Louis; Schmidlin, Franz R.; Graber, Peter; van den Bergh, Hubert; Leisinger, Hans-Juerg

    1997-05-01

    The prognosis of superficial bladder cancer in terms of recurrence and disease progression is related to the bladder tumor multiplicity and the presence of concomitant 'plane' tumors such as high grade dysplasia and carcinoma in situ (CIS). This study on 33 patients tries to demonstrate the interest of fluorescence cystoscopy in transurethral resection of superficial bladder cancer The method is based on the detection of the protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) induced fluorescence in urothelial cancer cells by topical administration of 5- aminolevulinic acid (ALA). The sensitivity and the specificity of this procedure on apparently normal mucosa in superficial bladder cancer is respectively estimated at 82.9% and 81.3%. Thus, fluorescence cystoscopy is a simple and reliable method in mapping the bladder mucosa, especially in case of multifocal bladder disease and it facilitates the screening of occult dysplasia.

  12. Engineering Superficial Zone Features in Tissue Engineered Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tony; Hilton, Matthew J.; Brown, Edward B.; Zuscik, Michael J.; Awad, Hani A.

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge in cartilage tissue engineering is the need to recreate the native tissue's anisotropic extracellular matrix structure. This anisotropy has important mechanical and biological consequences and could be crucial for integrative repair. Here we report that hydrodynamic conditions that mimic the motion-induced flow fields in between the articular surfaces in the synovial joint induce the formation of a distinct superficial layer in tissue engineered cartilage hydrogels, with enhanced production of cartilage matrix proteoglycan and type II collagen. Moreover, the flow stimulation at the surface induces the production of the surface zone protein Proteoglycan 4 (aka PRG4 or lubricin). Analysis of second harmonic generation signature of collagen in this superficial layer reveals a highly aligned fibrillar matrix that resembles the alignment pattern in native tissue's surface zone, suggesting that mimicking synovial fluid flow at the cartilage surface in hydrodynamic bioreactors could be key to creating engineered cartilage with superficial zone features. PMID:23239161

  13. [Origin of the differences of superficial potentials in Rana esculenta].

    PubMed

    Fontas, B; Mambrini, J

    1977-07-18

    The spatial distributions of superficial D.C. potentials on the skin of Rana esculenta have been compared to those of the intensity of short-circuit current (S.C.C.) expressing the transcutaneous active transport of sodium ions. It has been observed that the sites of maximum D.C. potentials coincide with the localisations of maximum S.C.C. values. Moreover, superficial D.C. potentials and S.C.C. are similarly modified by the depression of metabolic activity due to lowered temperature or poisoning by dinitrophenol (DNP). It is thus proposed that the spatial distribution of the transcutaneous active transport system for sodium ions is the origin of the electric generator of superficial D.C. potentials. PMID:409557

  14. Rationale of subdermal superficial liposuction related to the anatomy of subcutaneous fat and the superficial fascial system.

    PubMed

    Gasperoni, C; Salgarello, M

    1995-01-01

    The liposuction technique has changed greatly over the years. In 1989, the authors presented subdermal superficial liposuction which treats the superficial fat layer and yields better skin retraction. With this technique the surgeon can treat thin adipose layers to obtain better results in more cases than the traditional liposuction technique. The technique can be used in cases with difficult skin adjustment and in secondary cases when "deep only" liposuction has been performed and there were residual adiposities. Subdermal superficial liposuction evolved so that one could obtain good skin retraction by performing massive liposuction of all the fat layers. The authors named this technique MALL (Massive All Layer Liposuction). The technique is applied in body areas where the fat layer is very thick and stretches the skin because of its volume and weight such as in the abdomen, posterior arms, and internal surface of the upper third of the thighs. MALL liposuction drastically reduces the indications for abdominoplasty and inner thigh and arm dermolipectomies. Knowledge of the anatomy of the subcutaneous fat and the superficial fascial system allows one to explain the subdermal superficial liposuction from an anatomical point of view, to perform a more rational and effective procedure, and to differentiate the technique depending on the area of the body. PMID:7900550

  15. Injection therapy for the management of superficial subcutaneous lipomas.

    PubMed

    Amber, Kyle T; Ovadia, Steven; Camacho, Ivan

    2014-06-01

    Superficial subcutaneous lipomas are common benign tumors of the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Removal of superficial subcutaneous lipomas is achieved with simple surgical excision for the purposes of improved cosmesis, removing painful lipomas, or for the removal of a lipoma affecting function through mass effect. As research in localized fat reduction has improved, therapies successful in this domain have been applied to the management of lipomas as a surgical alternative. In this review article, the authors review the basic science of injection therapies used in the management of lipomas as well as their potential efficacy and limitations. PMID:25013540

  16. Injection Therapy for the Management of Superficial Subcutaneous Lipomas

    PubMed Central

    Ovadia, Steven; Camacho, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Superficial subcutaneous lipomas are common benign tumors of the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Removal of superficial subcutaneous lipomas is achieved with simple surgical excision for the purposes of improved cosmesis, removing painful lipomas, or for the removal of a lipoma affecting function through mass effect. As research in localized fat reduction has improved, therapies successful in this domain have been applied to the management of lipomas as a surgical alternative. In this review article, the authors review the basic science of injection therapies used in the management of lipomas as well as their potential efficacy and limitations. PMID:25013540

  17. Update on therapy for superficial mycoses: review article part I*

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni; Quaresma-Santos, Maria Victória Pinto; Bernardes-Filho, Fred; Amorim, Adriana Gutstein da Fonseca; Schechtman, Regina Casz; Azulay, David Rubem

    2013-01-01

    Superficial fungal infections of the hair, skin and nails are a major cause of morbidity in the world. Choosing the right treatment is not always simple because of the possibility of drug interactions and side effects. The first part of the article discusses the main treatments for superficial mycoses - keratophytoses, dermatophytosis, candidiasis, with a practical approach to the most commonly-used topical and systemic drugs , referring also to their dosage and duration of use. Promising new, antifungal therapeutic alternatives are also highlighted, as well as available options on the Brazilian and world markets. PMID:24173183

  18. Major Superficial White Matter Abnormalities in Huntington's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Owen R.; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Squitieri, Ferdinando; Sanchez-Castaneda, Cristina; Narr, Katherine; Shattuck, David W.; Caltagirone, Carlo; Sabatini, Umberto; Di Paola, Margherita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The late myelinating superficial white matter at the juncture of the cortical gray and white matter comprising the intracortical myelin and short-range association fibers has not received attention in Huntington's disease. It is an area of the brain that is late myelinating and is sensitive to both normal aging and neurodegenerative disease effects. Therefore, it may be sensitive to Huntington's disease processes. Methods: Structural MRI data from 25 Pre-symptomatic subjects, 24 Huntington's disease patients and 49 healthy controls was run through a cortical pattern-matching program. The surface corresponding to the white matter directly below the cortical gray matter was then extracted. Individual subject's Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data was aligned to their structural MRI data. Diffusivity values along the white matter surface were then sampled at each vertex point. DTI measures with high spatial resolution across the superficial white matter surface were then analyzed with the General Linear Model to test for the effects of disease. Results: There was an overall increase in the axial and radial diffusivity across much of the superficial white matter (p < 0.001) in Pre-symptomatic subjects compared to controls. In Huntington's disease patients increased diffusivity covered essentially the whole brain (p < 0.001). Changes are correlated with genotype (CAG repeat number) and disease burden (p < 0.001). Conclusions: This study showed broad abnormalities in superficial white matter even before symptoms are present in Huntington's disease. Since, the superficial white matter has a unique microstructure and function these abnormalities suggest it plays an important role in the disease. PMID:27242403

  19. Common superficial fungal infections in patients with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Aly, R; Berger, T

    1996-05-01

    Superficial mycotic infections such as seborrheic dermatitis, tinea pedis, tinea corporis, and onychomycosis are common in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In communities where HIV infections are frequent, some of these clinical presentations serve as markers of the stage of HIV infection. The diagnosis of superficial fungal infection in HIV-positive patients may be difficult because of atypical clinical manifestations. Therefore, to ensure a correct diagnosis, skin scrapings should be collected for potassium hydroxide preparations and cultures. Most forms of dermatophytosis in HIV-positive patients respond well to many topical antifungal agents, such as azoles, terbinafine, and ciclopirox olamine. If the disease is chronic and extensive, then ketoconazole, fluconazole, and itraconazole are each effective. PMID:8722840

  20. A traumatic superficial temporal artery aneurysm after a bicycle accident

    PubMed Central

    Veen, Egbert J.D.; Poelmann, Floris B.; IJpma, Frank F.A.

    2014-01-01

    A male cyclist presented with a swelling on the forehead. Six weeks before, he fell of his bike and smashed his head on the ground while wearing a helmet. A smooth lump of 1 cm had evolved on the temporal side of his forehead in a few weeks. Duplex ultrasonography demonstrated a dilated vessel with a minor defect in the luminal wall. Surgical exploration revealed an aneurysm of the superficial temporal artery (STA). The aneurysm was surgically removed and the patient recovered uneventfully. Owing to its superficial course, the STA is vulnerable to blunt head trauma. Traumatic aneurysms of the STA should be a differential diagnostic consideration in patients with a history of trauma and a swelling on their head. PMID:25352578

  1. Effects of superficial gas velocity on process dynamics in bioreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, T. T.; Kumar, B.

    2014-06-01

    Present work analyzes the flow hydrodynamics and mass transfer mechanisms in double Rushton and CD-6 impeller on wide range (0.0075-0.25 m/s) of superficial gas velocity ( v g) in a gas-liquid phase bioreactor by employing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique. The volume averaged velocity magnitude and dissipation rate are found higher with increasing superficial gas velocity. Higher relative power draw ( P g/ P 0) is predicted in CD-6 than the Rushton impeller but no significant difference in volume averaged mass transfer coefficient ( k L a) observed between these two types of impeller. The ratio of power draw with mass transfer coefficient has been found higher in CD-6 impeller (25-50 %) than the Rushton impeller.

  2. A traumatic superficial temporal artery aneurysm after a bicycle accident.

    PubMed

    Veen, Egbert J D; Poelmann, Floris B; IJpma, Frank F A

    2014-01-01

    A male cyclist presented with a swelling on the forehead. Six weeks before, he fell of his bike and smashed his head on the ground while wearing a helmet. A smooth lump of 1 cm had evolved on the temporal side of his forehead in a few weeks. Duplex ultrasonography demonstrated a dilated vessel with a minor defect in the luminal wall. Surgical exploration revealed an aneurysm of the superficial temporal artery (STA). The aneurysm was surgically removed and the patient recovered uneventfully. Owing to its superficial course, the STA is vulnerable to blunt head trauma. Traumatic aneurysms of the STA should be a differential diagnostic consideration in patients with a history of trauma and a swelling on their head. PMID:25352578

  3. Disseminated Superficial Porokeratosisin a Patient with Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Shin Woo; Min, Seong Uk; Won, Chong Hyun

    2008-01-01

    Disseminated superficial porokeratosis (DSP) is a rare variant of porokeratosis, which is characterized histologically by cornoid lamella and clinically by central atrophy with elevated borders. DSP is usually associated with immunosuppressive states and hematopoietic malignancies, but rarely with malignancies of visceral organs. A 65-year-old male presented with numerous brownish macules with elevated borders on the trunk and limbs that had been present for 1 year. Before the visit to our clinic, gastric cancer was diagnosed at about the same time the skin lesions suddenly increased in size and number. Clinical and histopathological examination revealed that the lesions were consistent with DSP. We herein report a rare case of disseminated superficial porokeratosis that occurred in association with gastric cancer.

  4. Measurement of the angle of superficial tension by images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanez M., Javier; Alonso R., Sergio

    2006-02-01

    When a liquid is deposited on a surface, this one form a certain angle with respect to the surface, where depending on its value, it will conclude that so hard it is his adhesion with the surface. By means of the analysis of images we looked for to measure this angle of superficial tension. In order to make this measurement, we propose a technique by means of projective transformations and one method of regression to estimation parameters to conic fitting.

  5. Cytological diagnosis of superficial acral fibromyxoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Raghupathi, Divakar Sullery; Krishnamurthy, Jayashree; Kakoti, Lopa Mudra

    2015-01-01

    Superficial acral fibromyxoma (SAF) is a rare, distinctive benign soft tissue lesion that often involves the fingers and toes, with the great toe being the most frequently affected site. We report a case of SAF diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology and confirmed by histopathology. The pre-operative cytological diagnosis will help the surgeon to plan for a wider excision that prevents recurrence. PMID:25948945

  6. Embedding of Cortical Representations by the Superficial Patch System

    PubMed Central

    Da Costa, Nuno M. A.; Girardin, Cyrille C.; Naaman, Shmuel; Omer, David B.; Ruesch, Elisha; Grinvald, Amiram; Douglas, Rodney J.

    2011-01-01

    Pyramidal cells in layers 2 and 3 of the neocortex of many species collectively form a clustered system of lateral axonal projections (the superficial patch system—Lund JS, Angelucci A, Bressloff PC. 2003. Anatomical substrates for functional columns in macaque monkey primary visual cortex. Cereb Cortex. 13:15–24. or daisy architecture—Douglas RJ, Martin KAC. 2004. Neuronal circuits of the neocortex. Annu Rev Neurosci. 27:419–451.), but the function performed by this general feature of the cortical architecture remains obscure. By comparing the spatial configuration of labeled patches with the configuration of responses to drifting grating stimuli, we found the spatial organizations both of the patch system and of the cortical response to be highly conserved between cat and monkey primary visual cortex. More importantly, the configuration of the superficial patch system is directly reflected in the arrangement of function across monkey primary visual cortex. Our results indicate a close relationship between the structure of the superficial patch system and cortical responses encoding a single value across the surface of visual cortex (self-consistent states). This relationship is consistent with the spontaneous emergence of orientation response–like activity patterns during ongoing cortical activity (Kenet T, Bibitchkov D, Tsodyks M, Grinvald A, Arieli A. 2003. Spontaneously emerging cortical representations of visual attributes. Nature. 425:954–956.). We conclude that the superficial patch system is the physical encoding of self-consistent cortical states, and that a set of concurrently labeled patches participate in a network of mutually consistent representations of cortical input. PMID:21383233

  7. Superficial lightning injuries--their "fractal" shape and origin.

    PubMed

    ten Duis, H J; Klasen, H J; Nijsten, M W; Pietronero, L

    1987-04-01

    The origin of superficial lightning burns was studied. A recently developed mathematical model was invoked to identify fern-shaped burns as 'so-called' fractals. On the basis of this model and discharge experiments, we conclude that 'fractal burns' are caused by surface discharges of a positive polarity. The recognition of such burns can help to elucidate the type and mechanism of the lightning strike. PMID:3580938

  8. Superficial venous insufficiency from the infernal to the endothermal.

    PubMed

    Carradice, D

    2014-01-01

    This review presents the common diseases associated with superficial venous insufficiency of the leg. These include varicose veins, swelling, skin damage and ulceration. The benefits and rationale behind treatment are discussed, followed by the historical advances from ancient mortality and prayer to the modern endovenous revolution. Finally, an overview of modern treatment options will discuss the evidence supporting the gold standard of endothermal ablation and the cost effectiveness of treatment at this time of challenging resource limitation. PMID:24417822

  9. Nucleic acid separations using superficially porous silica particles

    PubMed Central

    Close, Elizabeth D.; Nwokeoji, Alison O.; Milton, Dafydd; Cook, Ken; Hindocha, Darsha M.; Hook, Elliot C.; Wood, Helen; Dickman, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Ion pair reverse-phase liquid chromatography has been widely employed for nucleic acid separations. A wide range of alternative stationary phases have been utilised in conjunction with ion pair reverse-phase chromatography, including totally porous particles, non-porous particles, macroporous particles and monolithic stationary phases. In this study we have utilised superficially porous silica particles in conjunction with ion pair reverse-phase liquid chromatography for the analysis of nucleic acids. We have investigated a range of different pore-sizes and phases for the analysis of a diverse range of nucleic acids including oligonucleotides, oligoribonucleotides, phosphorothioate oligonucleotides and high molecular weight dsDNA and RNA. The pore size of the superficially porous silica particles was shown to significantly affect the resolution of the nucleic acids. Optimum separations of small oligonucleotides such as those generated in RNase mapping experiments were obtained with 80 Å pore sizes and can readily be interfaced with mass spectrometry analysis. Improved resolution of larger oligonucleotides (>19 mers) was observed with pore sizes of 150 Å. The optimum resolution for larger dsDNA/RNA molecules was achieved using superficially porous silica particles with pore sizes of 400 Å. Furthermore, we have utilised 150 Å pore size solid-core particles to separate typical impurities of a fully phosphorothioated oligonucleotide, which are often generated in the synthesis of this important class of therapeutic oligonucleotide. PMID:26948761

  10. Adjuvant photodynamic therapy (PDT) of the superficial bladder cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, V. V.; Russakov, I. G.; Teplov, A. A.; Filonenko, E. V.; Ul'yanov, R. V.; Bystrov, A. A.

    2005-08-01

    Superficial transitional cell carcinoma represents 50 to 80% of newly diagnosed bladder cancer in various countries. Transurethral resection of the urinary bladder is the standard procedure for biopsy and treatment superficial bladder cancer. However recurrence tumors after transurethral resection alone is high enough (50-90%). Intravesical chemotherapy for prophylaxis after complete transurethral resection is reducing recurrence rate about 1 5%. Adjuvant intravesical Bacillus of Calmette and Guerin (BCG) is reducing recurrence rate about 30%, but frequency side effects of this therapy is very high. Purpose of this study is appreciate efficacy adjuvant PDT with photosensitizer Photogeme (Russia) of superficial bladder cancer for prophylaxis after complete transurethral resection. The follow up was from 3 to 63 months (27 months, on average). Sixty-five patients (75.6%) showed no recurrence. For the follow up period, the recurrence was revealed in 21 (24.4%) patient, in two of them it was progressing (one case of invasive growth and one case of remote metastases). Four cases of recurrence were revealed 4 months after the surgery. In other cases, the recurrence was diagnosed from 9 to 18 months.

  11. Interdigital foot infections: Corynebacterium minutissimum and agents of superficial mycoses

    PubMed Central

    Sariguzel, Fatma Mutlu; Koc, A. Nedret; Yagmur, Gülhan; Berk, Elife

    2014-01-01

    Interdigital foot infections are mostly caused initially by dermatophytes, yeasts and less frequently by bacteria. Erythrasma caused by Corynebacterium minutissimum can be confused with superficial mycoses. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of the etiologic agents of superficial mycoses and the frequency of Corynebacterium minutissimum in interdigital foot infections. All the samples obtained from the 121 patients with interdigital foot infections were examined directly with the use of 20% potassium hydroxide mounts and Gram stain under the microscope and cultured on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar plates. In identification of superficial mycoses, the rate was found to be 14% with the cultural method and 14% with direct microscopic examination. Using a combination of direct microscopic examination and culture, a 33.8% ratio was achieved. In the culture of these samples, the most isolated factor was Trichophyton rubrum (33.7%). In 24 of the patients (19.8%) Corynebacterium minutissimum was detected by Gram staining, in 6 of these patients Trichophyton rubrum was found, Trichophyton mentagrophytes was found in 2 and Trichosporon spp. was found in 1. The examination of interdigital foot lesions in the laboratory, the coexistence of erythrasma with dermatophytes and yeast should be considered. PMID:25477907

  12. MALL liposuction: the natural evolution of subdermal superficial liposuction.

    PubMed

    Gasperoni, C; Salgarello, M

    1994-01-01

    Subdermal superficial liposuction, first presented by the authors at the ISAPS Congress at Zurich in 1989, is performed with thin three-hole Mercedes cannulas (diameter ranges from 1.8 to 2 mm) to treat small and secondary adiposities and to allow better skin retraction. Suction of the subdermal layer of fat reduces the thickness and consistency of the superficial fat and enhances the possibility of skin retraction. In cases where there is a large adiposity of the abdomen, arms, or inner thighs, there is a conspicuous volume of fat whose weight tends to overstretch and to carry the overlying skin downward. In these cases we need to reduce the large fat volume to permit effective skin retraction. Therefore, we apply the principles of traditional liposuction with those of subdermal superficial liposuction to aspirate large amounts of fat from all the adipose layers. We call this technique Massive All Layer Liposuction (MALL). The amount of skin shrinkage after this "defatting" procedure is remarkable and the clinical results are very good. The MALL technique can be applied to other areas as well. In our experience this new liposuction technique has dramatically reduced the indications of abdominoplasties and dermolipectomies of inner thighs and arms. PMID:7976757

  13. Interdigital foot infections: Corynebacterium minutissimum and agents of superficial mycoses.

    PubMed

    Sariguzel, Fatma Mutlu; Koc, A Nedret; Yagmur, Gülhan; Berk, Elife

    2014-01-01

    Interdigital foot infections are mostly caused initially by dermatophytes, yeasts and less frequently by bacteria. Erythrasma caused by Corynebacterium minutissimum can be confused with superficial mycoses. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of the etiologic agents of superficial mycoses and the frequency of Corynebacterium minutissimum in interdigital foot infections. All the samples obtained from the 121 patients with interdigital foot infections were examined directly with the use of 20% potassium hydroxide mounts and Gram stain under the microscope and cultured on Sabouraud's dextrose agar plates. In identification of superficial mycoses, the rate was found to be 14% with the cultural method and 14% with direct microscopic examination. Using a combination of direct microscopic examination and culture, a 33.8% ratio was achieved. In the culture of these samples, the most isolated factor was Trichophyton rubrum (33.7%). In 24 of the patients (19.8%) Corynebacterium minutissimum was detected by Gram staining, in 6 of these patients Trichophyton rubrum was found, Trichophyton mentagrophytes was found in 2 and Trichosporon spp. was found in 1. The examination of interdigital foot lesions in the laboratory, the coexistence of erythrasma with dermatophytes and yeast should be considered. PMID:25477907

  14. Microstrip-antenna design for hyperthermia treatment of superficial tumors.

    PubMed

    Montecchia, F

    1992-06-01

    Microstrip antennas have many different advantages over other RF/MW radiative applicators employed for superficial hyperthermia treatment. This is mainly due to their compact and body-conformable structure as well as to printed circuit board techniques, both of which allow a wide design flexibility for superficial tumor heating. Among the wide variety of radiator configurations, three microstrip antennas of increasing complexity with electromagnetic and heating characteristics potentially suitable as applicators for superficial hyperthermia have been designed, developed, and tested in different radiative conditions: a microstrip disk, a microstrip annular-slot, and a microstrip spiral. Electromagnetic design criteria are presented together with the determinations of the applicator return loss versus frequency and thermograms of the near-field heating pattern in muscle-like phantom. The results are in good agreement with theory and indicate that: i) the operating frequency is either single or multiple according to the applicator-mode, "resonant" or "traveling-wave," and can be chosen in the useful frequency range for hyperthermia (200-1000 MHz) according to the tumor cross-section and depth; ii) the heating pattern flexibility increases going from the simple geometry disk to the annular-slot and spiral applicators; iii) a distilled-water bolus is required; iv) the annular-slot applicator exhibits the highest efficiency, while the spiral applicator provides the best performance. PMID:1601439

  15. Microstrip-antenna design for hyperthermia treatment of superficial tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Montecchia, F. )

    1992-01-01

    Microstrip antennas have many different advantages over other RF/MW radiative applicators employed for superficial hyperthermia treatment. This is mainly due to their compact and body-conformable structure as well as to printed circuit board techniques, both of which allow a wide design flexibility for superficial tumor heating. Among the wide variety of radiator configurations, three microstrip antennas of increasing complexity with electromagnetic and heating characteristics potentially suitable as applicators for superficial hyperthermia have been designed, developed, and tested in different radiative condition: a microstrip disk, a microstrip annular-slot, and a microstrip spiral. Electromagnetic design criteria are presented together with the determinations of the applicator return loss versus frequency and thermograms of the near-field heating pattern in muscle-like phantom. The results are in good agreement with theory and indicated that: the operating frequency is either single or multiple according to the applicator-mode, 'resonant' or 'traveling-wave', and can be chosen in the useful frequency range for hyperthermia according to the tumor cross-section and depth; the heating pattern flexibility increases going form the simple geometry disk to the annular-slot and spiral applicators; a distilled-water bolus is required; the annular-slot applicator exhibits the highest efficiency, while the spiral applicator provides the best performance.

  16. Effect of Scanning Beam for Superficial Dose in Proton Therapy.

    PubMed

    Moskvin, Vadim P; Estabrook, Neil C; Cheng, Chee-Wai; Das, Indra J; Johnstone, Peter A S

    2015-10-01

    Proton beam delivery technology is under development to minimize the scanning spot size for uniform dose to target, but it is also known that the superficial dose could be as high as the dose at Bragg peak for narrow and small proton beams. The objective of this study is to explore the characteristics of dose distribution at shallow depths using Monte Carlo simulation with the FLUKA code for uniform scanning (US) and discrete spot scanning (DSS) proton beams. The results show that the superficial dose for DSS is relatively high compared to US. Additionally, DSS delivers a highly heterogeneous dose to the irradiated surface for comparable doses at Bragg peak. Our simulation shows that the superficial dose can become as high as the Bragg peak when the diameter of the proton beam is reduced. This may compromise the advantage of proton beam therapy for sparing normal tissue, making skin dose a limiting factor for the clinical use of DSS. Finally, the clinical advantage of DSS may not be essential for treating uniform dose across a large target, as in craniospinal irradiation (CSI). PMID:24945369

  17. Automated superficial lamellar keratectomy augmented by excimer laser masked PTK in the management of severe superficial corneal opacities

    PubMed Central

    Alio, J L; Javaloy, J; Merayo, J; Galal, A

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To assess superficial lamellar keratectomy augmented by excimer laser smoothening with sodium hyaluronate 0.25%, for the management of superficial corneal opacities. Methods: Consecutive procedure performed in 14 eyes (13 patients) with an automated microkeratome and excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) smoothening using sodium hyaluronate 0.25%. Main outcome measures: UCVA, BCVA, pachymetry, degree of haze, ray tracing analysis, and complications. Mean follow up was 12 (SD 1.6) months. Results: Mean preoperative haze from previous corneal refractive surgeries was 3.5 (SD 0.5) (11/14 cases). In one case, opacity was caused by ocular trauma and in two by infectious keratitis. The mean preoperative UCVA was 0.7 logMAR (0.2 (SD 0.13) decimal value). BCVA was 0.4 logMAR (0.4 (SD 0.17) decimal value). Mean preoperative corneal pachymetry was 508 (SD 62.5) µm and mean opacity depth measured by corneal confocal microscopy was 115.2 (SD 49.4) µm. At 6 months, 71.4% of the eyes with previous corneal refractive surgery showed grade I haze or less. Mean postoperative corneal pachymetry at 6 months was 352.36 (SD 49.05) µm. Conclusions: Automated superficial lamellar keratectomy combined with excimer laser PTK smoothening assisted by sodium hyaluronate 0.25% induces a significant improvement of corneal transparency and visual acuity in cases of corneal opacity caused by previous refractive surgery, ocular trauma, and keratitis. PMID:15377553

  18. Holmium YAG laser treatment of superficial bladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M Z; Khan, S A; Salam, M A; Hossain, S; Islam, R

    2005-01-01

    Holmium YAG laser is one of the new modalities of treatment of urinary bladder tumor. Thirty patients of superficial bladder carcinoma were selected from the Urology out patient department of Dhaka Medical College Hospital from January 2004 to July 2004. Among thirty cases, 18 were recurrent and 12 were primary superficial bladder carcinoma. Out of thirty patients, 24 were male and six were female. Patients were treated with Holmium YAG laser under spinal anesthesia. Before resection, cold cup biopsy were taken from the apex and after resection of the tumor, another cold cup biopsy were taken from the base of the tumor. Holmium YAG laser therapy was given with a 550 micron end firing quartz laser fiber through the working element of resectoscope. Small tumors (< 1 cm) were ablated and large tumors (1-4 cm) were resected. The initial laser setting was 0.5 to 0.8 J and 10 Hz. For resection of the tumor, a slightly higher energy of 1 to 1.2 J was used at 10 to 12 Hz. After resection, bleeding vessels were coagulated. The resected tumor was evacuated by Elik's evacuator. All cases were followed for 6 to 12 months by history, physical examination, urine analysis, sonogram and cystoscopy three monthly. Bleeding was minimum during the procedure and no transfusion was required. Complications like obturator jerk, clot retention or perforation were not developed. No recurrence was found during the 6 to 12 months follow up period. The procedure was found safe, effective, and acceptable. The study was conducted to evaluate the initial result of Holmium YAG laser for the treatment of superficial bladder carcinoma. We warrants further studies in this regard. PMID:15695945

  19. Functional Compartmentalization of the Human Superficial Masseter Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán-Venegas, Rodrigo A.; Biotti Picand, Jorge L.; de la Rosa, Francisco J. Berral

    2015-01-01

    Some muscles have demonstrated a differential recruitment of their motor units in relation to their location and the nature of the motor task performed; this involves functional compartmentalization. There is little evidence that demonstrates the presence of a compartmentalization of the superficial masseter muscle during biting. The aim of this study was to describe the topographic distribution of the activity of the superficial masseter (SM) muscle’s motor units using high-density surface electromyography (EMGs) at different bite force levels. Twenty healthy natural dentate participants (men: 4; women: 16; age 20±2 years; mass: 60±12 kg, height: 163±7 cm) were selected from 316 volunteers and included in this study. Using a gnathodynamometer, bites from 20 to 100% maximum voluntary bite force (MVBF) were randomly requested. Using a two-dimensional grid (four columns, six electrodes) located on the dominant SM, EMGs in the anterior, middle-anterior, middle-posterior and posterior portions were simultaneously recorded. In bite ranges from 20 to 60% MVBF, the EMG activity was higher in the anterior than in the posterior portion (p-value = 0.001).The center of mass of the EMG activity was displaced towards the posterior part when bite force increased (p-value = 0.001). The topographic distribution of EMGs was more homogeneous at high levels of MVBF (p-value = 0.001). The results of this study show that the superficial masseter is organized into three functional compartments: an anterior, a middle and a posterior compartment. However, this compartmentalization is only seen at low levels of bite force (20–60% MVBF). PMID:25692977

  20. [Superficial ulnar artery while harvesting a radial forearm flap].

    PubMed

    Moullot, P; Gay, A-M; Guidicelli, T; Rouabah, K; Legré, R

    2015-02-01

    Forearm vascular anatomical variations are common and may have complications during flaps harvesting. This article describes the presence of an ulnar superficial artery, revealed while harvesting a radial forearm flap. The prevalence of this anatomical variation is between 0.7 and 9.4%. It may have important consequences while covering loss of substance with a radial forearm flap. Unknown, there is a risk of vascular injury which may lead to distal ischemia of the upper limb. Preoperative diagnosis can anticipate this risk and harvest a fascio-cutaneous flap centered on a perforator of this artery. PMID:24095106

  1. Superficial thrombophlebitis (Mondor's Disease) after breast augmentation surgery

    PubMed Central

    Viana, Giovanni André P.; Okano, Fabrício M.

    2008-01-01

    Although the aetiology of Mondor's disease remains unclear, the most commonly cited cause is trauma of some sort. Although surgical trauma has frequently been quoted, reports that specifically implicate aesthetic breast surgery are unusual in the literature. In this article, the authors report a case of superficial thrombophlebitis of the anterolateral chest wall secondary to breast augmentation surgery in a woman, five months after the procedure. The authors performed an analysis of the disease's main etiologic components and preponderant clinical aspects, and determined all appropriate therapeutic measures. PMID:19753269

  2. On the Superficial Gas Velocity in Deep Gas-Solid Fluidized Beds

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tingwen; Grace, John; Shadle, Lawrence; Guenther, Chris

    2011-11-15

    The superficial gas velocity is one of the key parameters used to determine the flow hydrodynamics in gas–solids fluidized beds. However, the superficial velocity varies with height in practice, and there is no consistent basis for its specification. Different approaches to determine the superficial gas velocity in a deep gas–solids system are shown to cause difficulties in developing models and in comparing predictions with experimental results. In addition, the reference conditions for superficial gas velocity are important in modeling of deep gas–solids systems where there is a considerable pressure drop.

  3. What factors control the superficial lava dome explosivity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudon, Georges; Balcone-Boissard, Hélène; Villemant, Benoit; Morgan, Daniel J.

    2015-04-01

    Dome-forming eruption is a frequent eruptive style; lava domes result from intermittent, slow extrusion of viscous lava. Most dome-forming eruptions produce highly microcrystallized and highly- to almost totally-degassed magmas which have a low explosive potential. During lava dome growth, recurrent collapses of unstable parts are the main destructive process of the lava dome, generating concentrated pyroclastic density currents (C-PDC) channelized in valleys. These C-PDC have a high, but localized, damage potential that largely depends on the collapsed volume. Sometimes, a dilute ash cloud surge develops at the top of the concentrated flow with an increased destructive effect because it may overflow ridges and affect larger areas. In some cases, large lava dome collapses can induce a depressurization of the magma within the conduit, leading to vulcanian explosions. By contrast, violent, laterally directed, explosions may occur at the base of a growing lava dome: this activity generates dilute and turbulent, highly-destructive, pyroclastic density currents (D-PDC), with a high velocity and propagation poorly dependent on the topography. Numerous studies on lava dome behaviors exist, but the triggering of lava dome explosions is poorly understood. Here, seven dome-forming eruptions are investigated: in the Lesser Antilles arc: Montagne Pelée, Martinique (1902-1905, 1929-1932 and 650 y. BP eruptions), Soufrière Hills, Montserrat; in Guatemala, Santiaguito (1929 eruption); in La Chaîne des Puys, France (Puy de Dome and Puy Chopine eruptions). We propose a new model of superficial lava-dome explosivity based upon a textural and geochemical study (vesicularity, microcrystallinity, cristobalite distribution, residual water contents, crystal transit times) of clasts produced by these key eruptions. Superficial explosion of a growing lava dome may be promoted through porosity reduction caused by both vesicle flattening due to gas escape and syn-eruptive cristobalite

  4. Adhesion forces between AFM tips and superficial dentin surfaces.

    PubMed

    Pelin, I M; Piednoir, A; Machon, D; Farge, P; Pirat, C; Ramos, S M M

    2012-06-15

    In this work, we study the adhesion forces between atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips and superficial dentin etched with phosphoric acid. Initially, we quantitatively analyze the effect of acid etching on the surface heterogeneity and the surface roughness, two parameters that play a key role in the adhesion phenomenon. From a statistical study of the force-distance curves, we determine the average adhesion forces on the processed substrates. Our results show that the average adhesion forces, measured in water, increase linearly with the acid exposure time. The highest values of such forces are ascribed to the high density of collagen fibers on the etched surfaces. The individual contribution of exposed collagen fibrils to the adhesion force is highlighted. We also discuss in this paper the influence of the environmental medium (water/air) in the adhesion measurements. We show that the weak forces involved require working in the aqueous medium. PMID:22472512

  5. 3D simulation of plant and living tissue superficial lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratchenko, Ivan A.; Sindyaeva, Alexandra R.; Zakharov, Valery P.

    2008-06-01

    The analytic schemes of calculated absorbed and scattered radiation spatial distribution in multilayer plant and living tissues and diagnostic of their physical state are presented. The correct realization of these tasks was obtained with 3D Monte Carlo simulation of optical radiation propagation through multiple scattering medium in TracePro environment. Analysis of simulation data was made by differential backscattering method, which allows to investigate general backscattered radiation dependences on optical and geometrical parameters of living tissue. It was shown that obtained results formed the basis for developing an algorithm of optical superficial inhomogeneous registration and spatial localization. Such diagnosis can be executed in tissues of any arbitrary surface structure. Designed scheme is intended to utilize in contactless macro diagnostics device. The same approach was used for simulation of optical spectra of healthy and diseased virtual leaves for plant tissue pathological changes revealing.

  6. Delayed aortic rupture resulting from postoperative superficial sternal wound infection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Wan; Chang, Jee Won

    2016-01-01

    While deep sternal wound infection (DSWI) after cardiac surgery is a significant contributor to patient morbidity and mortality, superficial sternal wound infection (SSWI) mostly has a benign course. We report a mortality case of aortic rupture resulting from SSWI after cardiac surgery. A 50-year-old male underwent an aortic valve replacement (AVR). Three months after the valve operation, he presented with severe dyspnea, which had never before been observed, and chest computed tomography revealed an ascending aortic rupture with large hematoma compressing the main pulmonary artery. We performed an emergent operation for aortic rupture that possibly originated from the SSWI. Postoperatively, the patient died of hypovolemic shock due to recurrent aortic rupture despite efforts to resuscitate him. PMID:27499988

  7. Esophageal diverticulum exposed during endoscopic submucosal dissection of superficial cancer.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shinwa; Toyonaga, Takashi; Ohara, Yoshiko; Yoshizaki, Tetsuya; Kawara, Fumiaki; Ishida, Tsukasa; Hoshi, Namiko; Morita, Yoshinori; Azuma, Takeshi

    2015-03-14

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is now widely accepted as a strategy to treat superficial esophageal neoplasms. The rate of adverse events, such as perforation, has been decreasing with the improvement of devices and techniques. In this paper, we report a case of esophageal cancer that had a diverticulum under cancerous epithelium. The diverticulum was not detected during preoperative examination, and led to perforation during the ESD procedure. Our case shows that, although rare, some diverticula can exist underneath the mucosal surface without obvious depression. If there is any sign of hidden diverticula during ESD, surgeons should proceed with caution or, depending on the case, the procedure should be discontinued to avoid adverse events. PMID:25780314

  8. Transient Superficial Peroneal Nerve Palsy After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A 19-year-old male subject was diagnosed with medial meniscal, lateral meniscal and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear. The symptoms did not subside after 4 months of physical therapy, and he underwent arthroscopic partial medial and lateral meniscectomy and ACL reconstruction. Immediately after the patient woke up from general anesthesia, he started experience loss of sensation in the area of superficial peroneal nerve with inverted dorsiflexion of foot and ankle. Instantly, the bandage and knee brace was removed and a diagnosis of compartment syndrome was ruled out. After eight hours, post-operatively, the patient started receiving physiotherapy. He complained of numbness and tingling in the same area. After 24 h, post-operatively, the patient started to regain dorsiflexion and eversion gradually. Two days after the surgery, the patient exhibited complete recovery of neurological status. PMID:27478579

  9. Superficial vessel reconstruction with a multiview camera system.

    PubMed

    Marreiros, Filipe M M; Rossitti, Sandro; Karlsson, Per M; Wang, Chunliang; Gustafsson, Torbjörn; Carleberg, Per; Smedby, Örjan

    2016-01-01

    We aim at reconstructing superficial vessels of the brain. Ultimately, they will serve to guide the deformation methods to compensate for the brain shift. A pipeline for three-dimensional (3-D) vessel reconstruction using three mono-complementary metal-oxide semiconductor cameras has been developed. Vessel centerlines are manually selected in the images. Using the properties of the Hessian matrix, the centerline points are assigned direction information. For correspondence matching, a combination of methods was used. The process starts with epipolar and spatial coherence constraints (geometrical constraints), followed by relaxation labeling and an iterative filtering where the 3-D points are compared to surfaces obtained using the thin-plate spline with decreasing relaxation parameter. Finally, the points are shifted to their local centroid position. Evaluation in virtual, phantom, and experimental images, including intraoperative data from patient experiments, shows that, with appropriate camera positions, the error estimates (root-mean square error and mean error) are [Formula: see text]. PMID:26759814

  10. Excimer laser superficial keratectomy for proud nebulae in keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Moodaley, L; Liu, C; Woodward, E G; O'Brart, D; Muir, M K; Buckley, R

    1994-06-01

    Contact lens intolerance in keratoconus may be due to the formation of a proud nebula at or near the apex of the cone. Excimer laser superficial keratectomy was performed as an outpatients with proud nebulae as treatment patients with proud nebulae as treatment for their contact lens intolerance. The mean period of contact lens wear before the development of intolerance was 13.4 years (range 2 to 27 years). Following the development of intolerance, three patients abandoned contact lens wear in the affected eye while the remainder experienced a reduction in comfortable wearing time (mean = 3.75 hours; range: 0-14 hours). All patients had good potential Snellen visual acuity with a contact lens of 6/9 (nine eyes) and 6/12 (one eye). The proud nebulae were directly ablated with a 193 nm ArF excimer laser using a 1 mm diameter beam. Between 100-150 pulses were sufficient to ablate the raised area. Patients experienced no pain during the procedure and reported minimal discomfort postoperatively. In all cases flattening of the proud nebulae was achieved. Seven patients were able to resume regular contact lens wear (mean wearing time = 10.17 hours; range 8 to 16 hours). In three patients, resumption of contact lens wear was unsuccessful because of cone steepness. All patients achieved postoperative Snellen visual acuity of 6/12 or better with a contact lens. Four patients experienced a loss of one line in Snellen acuity. The mean follow up period was 8.3 months (range 2 to 17 months). Excimer laser superficial keratectomy is a useful technique for the treatment of contact lens intolerance caused by proud nebulae in patients with keratoconus. Penetrating keratoplasty is thus avoided. PMID:8060928

  11. Excimer laser superficial keratectomy for proud nebulae in keratoconus.

    PubMed Central

    Moodaley, L; Liu, C; Woodward, E G; O'Brart, D; Muir, M K; Buckley, R

    1994-01-01

    Contact lens intolerance in keratoconus may be due to the formation of a proud nebula at or near the apex of the cone. Excimer laser superficial keratectomy was performed as an outpatients with proud nebulae as treatment patients with proud nebulae as treatment for their contact lens intolerance. The mean period of contact lens wear before the development of intolerance was 13.4 years (range 2 to 27 years). Following the development of intolerance, three patients abandoned contact lens wear in the affected eye while the remainder experienced a reduction in comfortable wearing time (mean = 3.75 hours; range: 0-14 hours). All patients had good potential Snellen visual acuity with a contact lens of 6/9 (nine eyes) and 6/12 (one eye). The proud nebulae were directly ablated with a 193 nm ArF excimer laser using a 1 mm diameter beam. Between 100-150 pulses were sufficient to ablate the raised area. Patients experienced no pain during the procedure and reported minimal discomfort postoperatively. In all cases flattening of the proud nebulae was achieved. Seven patients were able to resume regular contact lens wear (mean wearing time = 10.17 hours; range 8 to 16 hours). In three patients, resumption of contact lens wear was unsuccessful because of cone steepness. All patients achieved postoperative Snellen visual acuity of 6/12 or better with a contact lens. Four patients experienced a loss of one line in Snellen acuity. The mean follow up period was 8.3 months (range 2 to 17 months). Excimer laser superficial keratectomy is a useful technique for the treatment of contact lens intolerance caused by proud nebulae in patients with keratoconus. Penetrating keratoplasty is thus avoided. Images PMID:8060928

  12. Posterior auricular approach for decompression and drainage of superficial temporal space infections of odontogenic origin.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Gagan; Bhargava, Darpan; Thomas, Shaji; Arora, Punitpal Singh

    2015-03-01

    Involvement of superficial temporal space secondary to odontogenic infections of the maxillary and mandibular teeth is not uncommon. Usually, infections of the temporal space are drained via temporal approach. Authors propose a new approach for decompression and drainage of superficial temporal space which offers an advantage of dependent drainage and hidden scar. PMID:25729236

  13. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the superficial posterior compartment: Soleus syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Christopher E; Parekh, Bela J; Adams, Samuel B; Parekh, Selene G

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) represents the second most-common cause of exertional leg pain with incidence of 27-33%. CECS of the superficial posterior compartment, or soleus syndrome, is rare and has only been discussed briefly in the literature. We discuss the management of two patients with bilateral soleus syndrome or CECS of the superficial posterior compartment. PMID:26538766

  14. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the superficial posterior compartment: Soleus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gross, Christopher E; Parekh, Bela J; Adams, Samuel B; Parekh, Selene G

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) represents the second most-common cause of exertional leg pain with incidence of 27-33%. CECS of the superficial posterior compartment, or soleus syndrome, is rare and has only been discussed briefly in the literature. We discuss the management of two patients with bilateral soleus syndrome or CECS of the superficial posterior compartment. PMID:26538766

  15. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy-Assisted Minimally Invasive Surgery for Superficial Cancer of the Uvula

    PubMed Central

    Odagiri, Hiroyuki; Iizuka, Toshiro; Kikuchi, Daisuke; Kaise, Mitsuru; Takeda, Hidehiko; Ohashi, Kenichi; Yasunaga, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies reported that endoscopic resection is effective for the treatment of superficial pharyngeal cancers, as for digestive tract cancers. However, the optimal treatment for superficial cancer of the uvula has not been established because of the rarity of this condition. We present two male patients in their 70s with superficial cancer of the uvula, detected with upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Both patients underwent surgical resection of the uvula under general anesthesia. The extent of the lesions was determined by means of gastrointestinal endoscopy by using magnifying observation with narrow-band imaging, enabling the performance of minimally invasive surgery. Endoscopic submucosal dissection was performed to achieve en bloc resection of the intramucosal carcinoma that had infiltrated the area adjacent to the uvula. Gastrointestinal endoscopists should carefully examine the laryngopharynx to avoid missing superficial cancers. Our minimally invasive treatment for superficial cancer of the uvula had favorable postoperative outcomes, and prevented postoperative loss of breathing, swallowing, and articulation functions. PMID:27040382

  16. Surface and superficial dose dosimetric verification for postmastectomy radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Shiau, An-Cheng; Chiu, Min-Chi; Chen, Tung-Ho; Chiou, Jeng-Fong; Shueng, Pei-Wei; Chen, Shang-Wen; Chen, Wei-Li; Kuan, Wei-Peng

    2012-01-01

    In patients given postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT), the chest wall is a very thin layer of soft tissue with a low-density lung tissue behind. Chest wall treated in this situation with a high-energy photon beam presents a high dosimetric uncertainty region for both calculation and measurement. The purpose of this study was to measure and to evaluate the surface and superficial doses for patients requiring PMRT with different treatment techniques. An elliptic cylinder cork and superflab boluses were used to simulate the lung and the chest wall, respectively. Sets of computed tomography (CT) images with different chest wall thicknesses were acquired for the study phantom. Hypothetical clinical target volumes (CTVs) were outlined and modified to fit a margin of 1-3 mm, depending on the chest wall thickness, away from the surface for the sets of CT images. The planning target volume (PTV) was initially created by expanding an isotropic 3-mm margin from the CTV, and then a margin of 3 mm was shrunk from the phantom surface to avoid artifact-driven results in the beam-let intensity. Treatment techniques using a pair of tangential wedged fields (TWFs) and 4-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) were designed with a prescribed fraction dose (D{sub p}) of 180 cGy. Superficial dose profiles around the phantom circumference at depths of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 5 mm were obtained for each treatment technique using radiochromic external beam therapy (EBT) films. EBT film exhibits good characteristics for dose measurements in the buildup region. Underdoses at the median and lateral regions of the TWF plans were shown. The dose profiles at shallow depths for the TWF plans show a dose buildup about 3 mm at the median and lateral tangential incident regions with a surface dose of about 52% of D{sub p}. The dose was gradually increased toward the most obliquely tangential angle with a maximum dose of about 118% of D{sub p.} Dose profiles were more uniform in the PTV region for

  17. A graphene superficial layer for the advanced electroforming process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rho, Hokyun; Park, Mina; Lee, Seungmin; Bae, Sukang; Kim, Tae-Wook; Ha, Jun-Seok; Lee, Sang Hyun

    2016-06-01

    Advances in electroplating technology facilitate the progress of modern electronic devices, including computers, microprocessors and other microelectronic devices. Metal layers with high electrical and thermal conductivities are essential for high speed and high power devices. In this paper, we report an effective route to fabricate free-standing metal films using graphene as a superficial layer in the electroforming process. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene grown on a Cu foil was used as a template, which provides high electrical conductivity and low adhesive force with the template, thus enabling an effective electroforming process. The required force for delamination of the electroplated Cu layer from graphene is more than one order smaller than the force required for removing graphene from the Cu foil. We also demonstrated that the electroformed free-standing Cu thin films could be utilized for patterning microstructures and incorporated onto a flexible substrate for LEDs. This innovative process could be beneficial for the advancement of flexible electronics and optoelectronics, which require a wide range of mechanical and physical properties.Advances in electroplating technology facilitate the progress of modern electronic devices, including computers, microprocessors and other microelectronic devices. Metal layers with high electrical and thermal conductivities are essential for high speed and high power devices. In this paper, we report an effective route to fabricate free-standing metal films using graphene as a superficial layer in the electroforming process. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene grown on a Cu foil was used as a template, which provides high electrical conductivity and low adhesive force with the template, thus enabling an effective electroforming process. The required force for delamination of the electroplated Cu layer from graphene is more than one order smaller than the force required for removing graphene from the Cu foil

  18. A graphene superficial layer for the advanced electroforming process.

    PubMed

    Rho, Hokyun; Park, Mina; Lee, Seungmin; Bae, Sukang; Kim, Tae-Wook; Ha, Jun-Seok; Lee, Sang Hyun

    2016-07-01

    Advances in electroplating technology facilitate the progress of modern electronic devices, including computers, microprocessors and other microelectronic devices. Metal layers with high electrical and thermal conductivities are essential for high speed and high power devices. In this paper, we report an effective route to fabricate free-standing metal films using graphene as a superficial layer in the electroforming process. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene grown on a Cu foil was used as a template, which provides high electrical conductivity and low adhesive force with the template, thus enabling an effective electroforming process. The required force for delamination of the electroplated Cu layer from graphene is more than one order smaller than the force required for removing graphene from the Cu foil. We also demonstrated that the electroformed free-standing Cu thin films could be utilized for patterning microstructures and incorporated onto a flexible substrate for LEDs. This innovative process could be beneficial for the advancement of flexible electronics and optoelectronics, which require a wide range of mechanical and physical properties. PMID:26949072

  19. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of superficial lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Cardillo, M R

    1989-01-01

    A series of 244 enlarged superficial lymph nodes was examined by fine-needle aspiration cytology. Twenty-nine smears (11.9%) were inadequate for study. Of the remaining 215, 108 were negative, 13 suspicious for malignancy, and 94 positive. Forty-five excisional biopsies were performed correlating the cytologic and histologic findings. There were two cytologic false-negative results; both were patients who had been treated for carcinoma and whose aspirates were cytologically negative. Of the 13 samples reported as suspicious for malignancy, there were three epidermoid carcinomas, nine reactive hyperplasias, and one non-Hodgkin's lymphocytic lymphoma. Of the positive cases, 83 were metastatic tumors, and 11 were malignant lymphomas (two non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and nine Hodgkin's lymphomas). The criteria used in the interpretation of these aspirates and the problems of differential cytological diagnosis are discussed. In spite of the drawbacks of inadequate and false-negative smears, fine-needle aspiration cytology is valuable in preliminary diagnosis of diseased lymph nodes and subsequent management. PMID:2776599

  20. Study of Superficial Type Colorectal Neoplasms With Central Depression

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Yoshihiro

    2000-01-01

    Superficial lesion with central depression obtained by endoscopic resection (23 carcinomas limited in the mucosa and 40 adenomas) were studied morphologically and histologically. These lesions were calculated concerning the height from the muscularis mucosa, depth of depressed central portions and the height of circumferential mucosa. Then, using the image analyzer, followings were determined with two-dimensional analysis: (1) the size of neoplasms and also (2) the size of whole mucosal lesions which was calculated by drawing a perpendicular from the border of the neoplasms; and thus, the ratio of each area was calculated. Little difference was found between the adenomas and carcinomas. The sizes of carcinomas were found to be of 8.8 ± 4.7 mm and the adenomas of 5.1 ± 2.3 mm (p < 0.01). As for the depth of depression, it was found to be of 352 ± 147 μm in the carcinomas and 277 ± 93 μm in the adenomas (p < 0.05). Concerning the ratio of carcinomatous area in the mucosa, it was found to be 78 ± 10% in the carcinomas, while in the adenomas, it was found to be 70 ± 10% (p < 0.05). Accordingly, it was found that compared with the adenomas, carcinomas showed significantly larger in size, deeper depression in configuration and the ratio of their size in the mucosa is rather high. PMID:18493535

  1. Superficial neurofibromas in the setting of schwannomatosis: nosologic implications

    PubMed Central

    Scheithauer, Bernd W.; George, David; Midha, Rajiv; MacCollin, Mia; Stemmer-Rachamimov, Anat O.

    2015-01-01

    First described in the past decade, schwannomatosis is a syndrome distinct from neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2). It is characterized by the development of multiple schwannomas, sparing the vestibular division of cranial nerve VIII, and may also predispose to develop meningiomas. We report two female patients, a 27 and a 44 years old who developed multiple peripheral schwannomas, but without involvement of the vestibular nerves, satisfying clinical criteria for schwannomatosis. Lack of vestibular nerve involvement was confirmed with MRI using an internal auditory canal protocol with 3 mm thick slices in both patients after age 30. Both patients developed a small neurofibroma in axillary subcutaneous tissues and a diffuse cutaneous neurofibroma of the left buttock, respectively. This report highlights that superficial neurofibromas may arise in the setting of schwannomatosis, which may have implications for the diagnostic criteria of this unique syndrome. In particular, the presence of a cutaneous neurofibroma in a patient with multiple schwannomas should not lead to a diagnosis of NF2. PMID:21191601

  2. Ultrasonographic Findings of Superficial Radial Nerve and Cephalic Vein

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki Hoon; Oh, Eun Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the anatomic relationship between the superficial radial nerve (SRN) and the cephalic vein (CV) through ultrasonography due to the possibility of SRN injury during cephalic venipuncture. Methods Both forearms of 51 healthy volunteers with no history of trauma or surgery were examined in proximal to distal direction using ultrasonography. We measured the distance between the radial styloid process (RSP) and the point where the SRN begins contact with the CV, and measured the distance between the RSP and the point where the SRN is separated from the CV. The point where the SRN penetrates the brachioradialis fascia was also evaluated. Results The SRN came in contact with the CV at a mean of 9.35±1.05 cm from the RSP and separated from the CV at a mean of 6.29±1.17 cm from the RSP. The SRN pierced the brachioradialis fascia at a mean of 10.31±0.89 cm from the RSP and horizontally 1.35±0.36 cm medial to the radius margin. All parameters had no significant differences in gender or direction. Conclusion The SRN had close approximation to the CV in the distal second quarter of the forearm. We recommend for cephalic venipuncture to be avoided in this area, and, if needed, it should be carried out with care not to cause injury to the SRN. PMID:24639926

  3. Preoperative transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for localizing superficial nerve paths.

    PubMed

    Natori, Yuhei; Yoshizawa, Hidekazu; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Ayato

    2015-12-01

    During surgery, peripheral nerves are often seen to follow unpredictable paths because of previous surgeries and/or compression caused by a tumor. Iatrogenic nerve injury is a serious complication that must be avoided, and preoperative evaluation of nerve paths is important for preventing it. In this study, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) was used for an in-depth analysis of peripheral nerve paths. This study included 27 patients who underwent the TENS procedure to evaluate the peripheral nerve path (17 males and 10 females; mean age: 59.9 years, range: 18-83 years) of each patient preoperatively. An electrode pen coupled to an electrical nerve stimulator was used for superficial nerve mapping. The TENS procedure was performed on patients' major peripheral nerves that passed close to the surgical field of tumor resection or trauma surgery, and intraoperative damage to those nerves was apprehensive. The paths of the target nerve were detected in most patients preoperatively. The nerve paths of 26 patients were precisely under the markings drawn preoperatively. The nerve path of one patient substantially differed from the preoperative markings with numbness at the surgical region. During surgery, the nerve paths could be accurately mapped preoperatively using the TENS procedure as confirmed by direct visualization of the nerve. This stimulation device is easy to use and offers highly accurate mapping of nerves for surgical planning without major complications. The authors conclude that TENS is a useful tool for noninvasive nerve localization and makes tumor resection a safe and smooth procedure. PMID:26420473

  4. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin immunotherapy of superficial bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Lamm, D L; Thor, D E; Harris, S C; Reyna, J A; Stogdill, V D; Radwin, H M

    1980-07-01

    Thirty-seven patients were enrolled in a randomized prospective study to compare standard surgical therapy for superficial bladder cancer to standard therapy plus bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG). Side effects of BCG have been tolerated well and include dysuria in 95 per cent of the patients, urinary frequency in 83 per cent, hematuria in 39 per cent, fever in 22 per cent and nausea in 22 per cent. Of 19 control patients 8 (42 per cent) had recurrent tumors in the followup period, compared to 3 of 18 patients (17 per cent) treated with BCG. One patient treated wih BCG had 2 recurrences, yielding a recurrence rate of 22 per cent in the group receiving BCG compared to 42 per cent in controls. When the incidence of recurrent tumors in matched intervals before and after entry into the protocol is compared, no change in the rate of tumor recurrence (p equals 0.726 chi-square) occurred in controls, whereas tumor recurrences were reduced significantly in the group treated with BCG (p equals 0.010 chi-square). The reduction in tumor recurrence in patients treated with BCG compared to controls is statistically significant (p equals 0.029 chi-square). Of 4 patients who presented with new bladder tumors remain free of tumor after BCG therapy, while 2 of 5 comparable control patients developed recurrent tumors. Intravesical and percutaneous BCG immunotherapy appears to decrease the rate of tumor recurrence in patients followed for 1 year. PMID:6997513

  5. THE SUPERFICIAL BRANCH OF THE RADIAL NERVE: A MORPHOLOGIC STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Folberg, Celso Ricardo; Ulson, Heitor; Scheidt, Rodrigo Benedet

    2015-01-01

    Study the morphology of the superficial branch of the radial nerve (SBRN) of the forearms and wrists of fresh adult human cadavers. Methods: Twenty three dissections were performed under 3.5x loupe magnification, histological sections of the nerve were obtained in 20 dissections for fascicle identification. Results: The SBRN emerged, in average, at 8.65cm proximal to the radial styloid apophysis (RSA) between the Brachioradialis (BR) and Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus (ECRL) tendons. In 6/23 cases the SBRN emerged between an accessory BR tendon and the main BR tendon. The first branch of the SBRN arose at an average of 4.58 cm proximal to the RSA. A branch running across the RSA was found in 7/23 cases. At that level, the average number of branches crossing the wrist was 3.4. A fascicle count of the nerve and its first branch showed an average of 6.6 and 4.0 fascicles, respectively. Conclusion: Our anatomical findings are similar to those in the revised literature and contribute towards a better knowledge of the SBRN. Great caution is required in surgical procedures such as percutaneous bone fixation of the distal 1/3 of the forearm and wrist and particularly, in those susceptible to SBRN injury, as in seven of the 23 cases the SRBN ran directly accross the RSA. The authors recommend performing small longitudinal incisions down to the subcutaneous tissue, separating the nerve branches by blunt soft tissue dissection, with a delicate haemostat, before introducing the Kirschner wires (minimally invasive procedures). PMID:26998456

  6. Bilateral superficial peroneal nerve entrapment secondary to anorexia nervosa: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of severe weight loss secondary to anorexia nervosa causing bilateral superficial peroneal nerve entrapment in a young female patient who was treated successfully by bilateral surgical decompression. PMID:18439309

  7. Biomass torrefaction characteristics in inert and oxidative atmospheres at various superficial velocities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Lu, Ke-Miao; Liu, Shih-Hsien; Tsai, Chi-Ming; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Lin, Ta-Chang

    2013-10-01

    The reaction characteristics of four biomass materials (i.e. oil palm fiber, coconut fiber, eucalyptus, and Cryptomeria japonica) with non-oxidative and oxidative torrefaction at various superficial velocities are investigated where nitrogen and air are used as carrier gases. Three torrefaction temperatures of 250, 300, and 350 °C are considered. At a given temperature, the solid yield of biomass is not affected by N2 superficial velocity, revealing that the thermal degradation is controlled by heat and mass transfer in biomass. Increasing air superficial velocity decreases the solid yield, especially in oil palm fiber and coconut fiber, implying that the torrefaction reaction of biomass is dominated by surface oxidation. There exists an upper limit of air superficial velocity in the decrement of solid yield, suggesting that beyond this limit the thermal degradation of biomass is no longer governed by surface oxidation, but rather is controlled by internal mass transport. PMID:23933022

  8. Repair of a canine forelimb skin deficit by microvascular transfer of a caudal superficial epigastric flap.

    PubMed

    Lewin, G A; Smith, J H

    2010-02-01

    Extensive skin loss from the forelimb of a Border collie was repaired by a microvascular caudal superficial epigastric flap, with secondary meshing of the flap to increase coverage. The caudal superficial epigastric artery and vein were anastomosed to the brachial artery and vein. End-to-end anastomosis to the brachial artery and vein did not compromise peripheral blood flow, and no flap necrosis was observed after subsequent limited meshing of the flap. PMID:20070493

  9. [Superficial angiomyxoma of the parotid region and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Rosado Rodríguez, Pablo; de Vicente, Juan C; de Villalaín, Lucas; Blanco, Verónica

    2012-01-01

    Superficial angiomyxoma (SA) is a rare benign cutaneous neoplasm first described by Allen et al in 1988. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first case of superficial angiomyxoma located in the parotid region. We also stress the importance of distinguishing this entity from other lesions that may be involved in this location such as cutaneous neoplasms, parotid tumours or cysts. We emphasise the need to rule out the Carney complex, which has been associated with these tumours. PMID:21295761

  10. Cortical superficial siderosis: detection and clinical significance in cerebral amyloid angiopathy and related conditions.

    PubMed

    Charidimou, Andreas; Linn, Jennifer; Vernooij, Meike W; Opherk, Christian; Akoudad, Saloua; Baron, Jean-Claude; Greenberg, Steven M; Jäger, Hans Rolf; Werring, David J

    2015-08-01

    Cortical superficial siderosis describes a distinct pattern of blood-breakdown product deposition limited to cortical sulci over the convexities of the cerebral hemispheres, sparing the brainstem, cerebellum and spinal cord. Although cortical superficial siderosis has many possible causes, it is emerging as a key feature of cerebral amyloid angiopathy, a common and important age-related cerebral small vessel disorder leading to intracerebral haemorrhage and dementia. In cerebral amyloid angiopathy cohorts, cortical superficial siderosis is associated with characteristic clinical symptoms, including transient focal neurological episodes; preliminary data also suggest an association with a high risk of future intracerebral haemorrhage, with potential implications for antithrombotic treatment decisions. Thus, cortical superficial siderosis is of relevance to neurologists working in neurovascular, memory and epilepsy clinics, and neurovascular emergency services, emphasizing the need for appropriate blood-sensitive magnetic resonance sequences to be routinely acquired in these clinical settings. In this review we focus on recent developments in neuroimaging and detection, aetiology, prevalence, pathophysiology and clinical significance of cortical superficial siderosis, with a particular emphasis on cerebral amyloid angiopathy. We also highlight important areas for future investigation and propose standards for evaluating cortical superficial siderosis in research studies. PMID:26115675

  11. Rolling of 316L Stainless Steel with Rough Rolls to Potentially Obtain Superficial Nanograins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camurri, Carlos; Gallegos, Alejo; Carrasco, Claudia

    2014-06-01

    316L stainless steel plates of 5-mm thickness, normalized at 900 °C, were cold rolled with different reductions and number of passes using rolls with three different surface roughnesses: grain heights of 0.17 and 0.33 mm and rhomboid-shaped grains of 1.5-mm height. Subsequently, the rolled samples were annealed at 275 °C for 1 h in an effort to achieve superficial nanograins. The plates laminated using low-roughness rolls had continuous superficial microcrystallization when they were rolled for at least 26 passes. For samples made with rougher rolls, the recrystallized superficial grains formed on the surface (sized ~10-15 μm) were smaller than those below the surface; this behavior was caused by the major deformation induced by repeated indentations. The superficial recrystallization of the sample also tended to be more continuous for higher number of passes; micrographs of the penetration profiles of indentation in the samples rolled with high-roughness rolls revealed that a sample rolled 24 times had not yet reached the steady surface topology. As a conclusion, in order to successfully form superficial nanograins, very low-roughness rolls must be used as well as a small absolute reduction per pass, followed by annealing. These rolling conditions generate a continuous field of highly superficial deformations, which act as nucleation centers for nanograins during annealing.

  12. Interaction of mobile phones with superficial passive metallic implants.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, H; Huttunen, J; Toropainen, A; Lappalainen, R

    2005-06-01

    The dosimetry of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic (EM) fields of mobile phones is generally based on the specific absorption rate (SAR, W kg(-1)), which is the electromagnetic energy absorbed in the tissues per unit mass and time. In this study, numerical methods and modelling were used to estimate the effect of a passive, metallic (conducting) superficial implant on a mobile phone EM field and especially its absorption in tissues in the near field. Two basic implant models were studied: metallic pins and rings in the surface layers of the human body near the mobile phone. The aim was to find out 'the worst case scenario' with respect to energy absorption by varying different parameters such as implant location, orientation, size and adjacent tissues. Modelling and electromagnetic field calculations were carried out using commercial SEMCAD software based on the FDTD (finite difference time domain) method. The mobile phone was a 900 MHz or 1800 MHz generic phone with a quarter wave monopole antenna. A cylindrical tissue phantom models different curved sections of the human body such as limbs or a head. All the parameters studied (implant size, orientation, location, adjacent tissues and signal frequency) had a major effect on the SAR distribution and in certain cases high local EM fields arose near the implant. The SAR values increased most when the implant was on the skin and had a resonance length or diameter, i.e. about a third of the wavelength in tissues. The local peak SAR values increased even by a factor of 400-700 due to a pin or a ring. These highest values were reached in a limited volume close to the implant surface in almost all the studied cases. In contrast, without the implant the highest SAR values were generally reached on the skin surface. Mass averaged SAR(1 g) and SAR(10 g) values increased due to the implant even by a factor of 3 and 2, respectively. However, at typical power levels of mobile phones the enhancement is unlikely to

  13. Interaction of mobile phones with superficial passive metallic implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtanen, H.; Huttunen, J.; Toropainen, A.; Lappalainen, R.

    2005-06-01

    The dosimetry of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic (EM) fields of mobile phones is generally based on the specific absorption rate (SAR, W kg-1), which is the electromagnetic energy absorbed in the tissues per unit mass and time. In this study, numerical methods and modelling were used to estimate the effect of a passive, metallic (conducting) superficial implant on a mobile phone EM field and especially its absorption in tissues in the near field. Two basic implant models were studied: metallic pins and rings in the surface layers of the human body near the mobile phone. The aim was to find out 'the worst case scenario' with respect to energy absorption by varying different parameters such as implant location, orientation, size and adjacent tissues. Modelling and electromagnetic field calculations were carried out using commercial SEMCAD software based on the FDTD (finite difference time domain) method. The mobile phone was a 900 MHz or 1800 MHz generic phone with a quarter wave monopole antenna. A cylindrical tissue phantom models different curved sections of the human body such as limbs or a head. All the parameters studied (implant size, orientation, location, adjacent tissues and signal frequency) had a major effect on the SAR distribution and in certain cases high local EM fields arose near the implant. The SAR values increased most when the implant was on the skin and had a resonance length or diameter, i.e. about a third of the wavelength in tissues. The local peak SAR values increased even by a factor of 400-700 due to a pin or a ring. These highest values were reached in a limited volume close to the implant surface in almost all the studied cases. In contrast, without the implant the highest SAR values were generally reached on the skin surface. Mass averaged SAR1 g and SAR10 g values increased due to the implant even by a factor of 3 and 2, respectively. However, at typical power levels of mobile phones the enhancement is unlikely to be

  14. Fotometria superficial BVRI de 18 galáxias fracas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraiva, M. F. O.; Silva, P. R.

    2003-08-01

    Conhecer as propriedades de galáxias a diferentes redshifts é uma questão fundamental para entender o problema da formação e evolução das galáxias, e desde a década passada tem se intensificado fortemente o estudo de galáxias muito distantes. No entanto parece haver um interesse menor em galáxias a distâncias intermediárias, que aparecem como objetos de fundo em imagens de objetos próximos, e que são igualmente importantes. Examinando imagens BVRI de longa exposição, ótimo sinal/ruído, grande campo (46'x46'), das vizinhanças de NGC 7479, detectamos 18 galáxias fracas (18 < B < 21) nessas imagens. Neste trabalho, apresentamos a fotometria superficial desses objetos. Determinamos coordenadas equatoriais, magnitudes e cores integradas, perfis de brilho e de cor, e parâmetros isofotais calculados por ajuste de ellipses, dentro do limite permitido pela baixa resolução espacial dos dados (1,35 segarc/pixel). Nosso objetivo é procurar correlações entre as propriedades das galáxias e, tentativamente, comparar esses dados com aqueles de galáxias de redshift conhecido, disponíveis na literatura, para estimar suas distâncias (a partir da relação cor x redshift) e suas morfologias. Uma análise preliminar nesse sentido mostrou que as cores aparentes B-V, V-R e V-I dos objetos da nossa amostra, a menos de duas exceções, ocupam regiões bem definidas nos diagramas cor-cor, e não apresentam diferenças notáveis em relação às cores típicas de galáxias próximas.

  15. Roles of the Fibrous Superficial Zone in the Mechanical Behavior of TMJ Condylar Cartilage.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, Leonardo; Zimmerman, Brandon K; Park, Miri; Han, Lin; Wang, Liyun; Burris, David L; Lu, X Lucas

    2015-11-01

    In temporomandibular joints (TMJs), the cartilage on the condylar head displays a unique ultrastructure with a dense layer of type I collagen in the superficial zone, different from hyaline cartilage in other joints. This study aims to elucidate the roles of this fibrous zone in the mechanical behaviors, particularly lubrication, of TMJ under physiological loading regimes. Mechanical tests on porcine condylar cartilage demonstrated that the superficial and middle-deep zones exhibit tension-compression nonlinearity. The tensile and compressive moduli of the superficial zone are 30.73 ± 12.97 and 0.028 ± 0.016 MPa, respectively, while those for the middle-deep zone are 2.43 ± 1.75 and 0.14 ± 0.09 MPa. A nonlinear finite element model of condylar cartilage was built to simulate sliding of a spherical probe over the articular surface. The presence of the superficial zone significantly promoted interstitial fluid pressurization (IFP) inside the loaded cartilage and reduced the friction force on the surface, compared to the case without the superficial zone. Finite element simulations showed that IFP depends on sliding speed but not normal load, which matches the experimental results. This study revealed the presence of the fibrous zone can significantly reduce the deformation of condylar cartilage under compression and the friction force on its surface during sliding. PMID:25893511

  16. TLR2 and neutrophils potentiate endothelial stress, apoptosis and detachment: implications for superficial erosion

    PubMed Central

    Quillard, Thibaut; Araújo, Haniel Alves; Franck, Gregory; Shvartz, Eugenia; Sukhova, Galina; Libby, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Aims Superficial erosion of atheromata causes many acute coronary syndromes, but arises from unknown mechanisms. This study tested the hypothesis that Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2) activation contributes to endothelial apoptosis and denudation and thus contributes to the pathogenesis of superficial erosion. Methods and results Toll-like receptor-2 and neutrophils localized at sites of superficially eroded human plaques. In vitro, TLR2 ligands (including hyaluronan, a matrix macromolecule abundant in eroded lesions) induced endothelial stress, characterized by reactive oxygen species production, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and apoptosis. Co-incubation of neutrophils with endothelial cells (ECs) potentiated these effects and induced EC apoptosis and detachment. We then categorized human atherosclerotic plaques (n = 56) based on morphologic features associated with superficial erosion, ‘stable’ fibrotic, or ‘vulnerable’ lesions. Morphometric analyses of the human atheromata localized neutrophils and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) near clusters of apoptotic ECs in smooth muscle cell (SMC)-rich plaques. The number of luminal apoptotic ECs correlated with neutrophil accumulation, amount of NETs, and TLR2 staining in SMC-rich plaques, but not in ‘vulnerable’ atheromata. Conclusion These in vitro observations and analyses of human plaques indicate that TLR2 stimulation followed by neutrophil participation may render smooth muscle cell-rich plaques susceptible to superficial erosion and thrombotic complications by inducing ER stress, apoptosis, and favouring detachment of EC. PMID:25755115

  17. Superficial Mucocele of the Ventral Tongue: Presentation of a Rare Case and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Brooks, John K; Schwartz, Kevin G; Basile, John R

    2016-06-01

    The superficial mucocele is a rare variant of the common mucocele and noted microscopically by subepithelial pools of mucin. To increase the understanding of oral superficial mucoceles, a database was created from the demographics of case reports and case series from a PubMed search. At least 200 patients with superficial mucoceles have been described in the English-language literature, 82 of whom had biopsy-proven lesions; additional clinical information was available for 39 of these 82 patients. Compiled data suggest superficial mucoceles offered phenotypic distinctions from the common mucocele because they were more apt to occur in middle-aged women, often on the soft palate and buccal mucosa. Affected patients frequently had multiple lesions that were smaller than 3 mm and nearly 50% of patients developed recurrence. This report also describes the first histopathologically confirmed case of a superficial mucocele arising on the ventral tongue in a 22-year-old man. It is speculated that the glossal lesion might have developed from long-term impingement from exposed metal barbs from an orthodontic splint. Persistent lesions or atypical presentations underscore the need for histopathologic examination. PMID:26706494

  18. A Novel Technique of Supra Superficial Musculoaponeurotic System Hyaluronic Acid Injection for Lower Face Lifting

    PubMed Central

    Sahawatwong, Sinijchaya; Sirithanabadeekul, Punyaphat; Patanajareet, Vasiyapha; Wattanakrai, Penpun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Various methods attempting to correct sagging of the lower face focus mainly on manipulation of the superficial musculoaponeurotic System. Each technique has its own limitation. The authors propose a relatively simple, conservative method utilizing hyaluronic acid injection just above the superficial musculoaponeurotic System. Objective: To address a novel hyaluronic injection technique to lift the lower face. Methods: Details of the injection techniques are described. The Position of the hyaluronic acid injected and the effect of hyaluronic acid on the superficial musculoaponeurotic System were confirmed by ultrasonography in one of the cases. Results: Sonogram images demonstrated the location of the injected hyaluronic acid and pressure effect of hyaluronic acid on the superficial musculoaponeurotic System, confirming the ability to manipulate the superficial musculoaponeurotic System by this injection technique. The lifting result of this Single injection technique was immediately visible and maintained for at least 26 weeks. Conclusion: This is a less invasive, reproducible method that provides a sustained face lifting result. The authors propose the term “supraSMAS lift” for this novel injection technique. PMID:27047633

  19. Superficial and deep lymph node dissection for stage III cutaneous melanoma: clinical outcome and prognostic factors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aims of this retrospective analysis were to evaluate the effect of combined superficial and deep groin dissection on disease-free and melanoma-specific survival, and to identify the most important factors for predicting the involvement of deep nodes according to clinically or microscopically detected nodal metastases. Methods Between January 1996 and December 2005, 133 consecutive patients with groin lymph node metastases underwent superficial and deep dissection at the National Cancer Institute, Naples. Lymph node involvement was clinically evident in 84 patients and detected by sentinel node biopsy in 49 cases. Results The 5-year disease-free survival was significantly better for patients with superficial lymph node metastases than for patients with involvement of both superficial and deep lymph nodes (34.9% vs. 19.0%; P = 0.001). The 5-year melanoma-specific survival was also significantly better for patients with superficial node metastases only (55.6% vs. 33.3%; P = 0.001). Conclusions Metastasis in the deep nodes is the strongest predictor of both disease-free and melanoma-specific survival. Deep groin dissection should be considered for all patients with groin clinical nodal involvement, but might be spared in patients with a positive sentinel node. Prospective studies will clarify the issue further. PMID:23379355

  20. The Collagen Fibril Structure in the Superficial Zone of Articular Cartilage by μMRI

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, ShaoKuan; Xia, Yang

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the fibril architecture of the collage matrix in the superficial zone of articular cartilage non-destructively by microscopic MRI (μMRI) T2 anisotropy. Method Six specimens of canine humeral cartilage were rotated in such a way that the normal axis of the articular surface of the cartilage specimen remained stationary and perpendicular to the static magnetic field, over a range of 180° and at a step of 15°. At each rotation angle, a quantitative T2 image was constructed at 13μm pixel resolution. Results A set of complex and depth-dependent patterns was found in the μMRI T2 anisotropy along the depth of the tissue. In the superficial zone, the T2 anisotropy is clearly periodic, which demonstrates that the distribution of the collagen fibrils in the superficial zone is not random. In the transitional zone, the periodicity of the T2 anisotropy approximately doubles with respect to that in the superficial zone. In the initial part of the radial zone, the T2 anisotropy is also periodic but inverse to that in the superficial zone. In the deep part of the radial zone, the T2 anisotropy becomes increasingly weaker and eventually disappears. Conclusion There exists a certain degree of collagen anisotropy in all zones of articular cartilage. The anisotropic imaging data can be interpreted with the aid of a collagen architecture model. PMID:19527808

  1. Postoperative Massive Pulmonary Embolism Due to Superficial Vein Thrombosis of the Upper Limb

    PubMed Central

    Cascella, Marco; Viscardi, Daniela; Bifulco, Francesca; Cuomo, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that deep vein thrombosis of the upper extremities is linked to high morbidity/mortality, resulting in 12-20% of all documented pulmonary embolism; however, there are few data about thromboembolism originating from a vein and/or a branch of a superficial vein of the upper extremities. Pulmonary embolism secondary to upper limb superficial vein thrombosis (not combined with upper extremities deep vein thrombosis) is a very rare clinical manifestation with few cases reported in the literature. We report a rare case of thrombophlebitis in departure from a superficial branch of the cephalic vein of the right arm, complicated by cardiac arrest secondary to a massive pulmonary embolism in a patient who underwent major surgery for ovarian cancer. We discuss on the numerous thrombotic risk factors, triggering a cascade of reactions and resulting in a potential fatal clinical manifestation. PMID:26985256

  2. Development of a new superficial punch for Descemet's Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty donor tissue preparation.

    PubMed

    Ruzza, Alessandro; Parekh, Mohit; Salvalaio, Gianni; Ferrari, Stefano; Ponzin, Diego

    2016-04-01

    Endothelial Keratoplasty (EK) is a corneal surgical procedure that allows a selective transplantation of the posterior layer of the cornea. Descemet's Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty (DMEK) is one of the EK procedures in which the diseased Descemet's Membrane and the endothelium are replaced with a healthy donor tissue. To achieve this, the donor cornea is cut superficially from the endothelial side and the tissue can be separated using specific instruments like Pierse Notched, Acute or Fogla forceps. However, the pressure required to punch the superficial layer has always been a challenge and therefore a calibrated device to punch and excise the required superficial layer has been designed. This new model of punch will help to identify the peripheral edge of the DMEK lenticule which in turn helps to excise the tissue exclusively, further reducing the donor tissue wastage, as seen with the current tissue preparation methods. PMID:26305003

  3. Clinical Immunology Review Series: An approach to the patient with recurrent superficial abscesses

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, S L

    2008-01-01

    ARTICLES PUBLISHED IN THIS CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY REVIEW SERIES allergy in childhood, allergy diagnosis by use of the clinical immunology laboratory, anaphylaxis, angioedema, management of pulmonary disease in primary antibody deficiency, recurrent infections in childhood, recurrent infections in adulthood, recurrent oro-genital ulceration, recurrent superficial abscesses, urticaria, vasculitis/CTD Patients may be referred to the immunology clinic for investigation of recurrent superficial abscess formation. In the majority of adult patients this clinical presentation does not equate with an underlying primary immune deficiency. Nevertheless, recurrent mucocutaneous abscesses can be associated with significant morbidity and long-term complications, including scarring and fistula formation, and may be associated with underlying immune-mediated disease. This review sets out an approach to the patient with recurrent superficial abscesses, focusing on the differential diagnoses, investigation and management of both the common causes and those associated with specific immune deficiency. PMID:18422735

  4. Iatrogenic arteriovenous fistula of the superficial temporal artery after manual reduction of temporomandibular joint dislocation.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Satoru; Takasato, Yoshio

    2011-09-01

    A 33-year-old man fell from a height and was referred to our hospital. Physical examination showed a swelling in the left preauricular region without laceration. No thrill or bruit was detected at this time. A face x-ray and a computed tomographic scan showed a left temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dislocation, Le Fort I fractures, and a mandibular body fracture. Left TMJ dislocation was treated by manual reduction. Two days after admission, a swelling in the left preauricular region progressed, with thrill and bruit. Left external carotid artery angiograms showed an arteriovenous fistula with a dilated pouch near the left TMJ. The fistula was fed by the left superficial temporal artery and drained into the left superficial temporal vein. The fistula was successfully embolized using Tornado coils. This is the first case of an arteriovenous fistula of the superficial temporal artery after manual reduction of TMJ dislocation. PMID:21959481

  5. Effects of pressure drop and superficial velocity on the bubbling fluidized bed incinerator.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng-Jehng; Chen, Suming; Lei, Perng-Kwei; Wu, Chung-Hsing

    2007-12-01

    Since performance and operational conditions, such as superficial velocity, pressure drop, particles viodage, and terminal velocity, are difficult to measure on an incinerator, this study used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to determine numerical solutions. The effects of pressure drop and superficial velocity on a bubbling fluidized bed incinerator (BFBI) were evaluated. Analytical results indicated that simulation models were able to effectively predict the relationship between superficial velocity and pressure drop over bed height in the BFBI. Second, the models in BFBI were simplified to simulate scale-up beds without excessive computation time. Moreover, simulation and experimental results showed that minimum fluidization velocity of the BFBI must be controlled in at 0.188-3.684 m/s and pressure drop was mainly caused by bed particles. PMID:18074287

  6. [A Case of Holmium: YAG Laser Resection of Superficial Bladder Tumor (HoLRBT)].

    PubMed

    Sugita, Yoshiko; Shitara, Toshiya; Hirayama, Takahiro; Fujita, Tetsuo; Yoshida, Kazunari; Kubo, Seiichi; Iwamura, Masatsugu

    2015-10-01

    We present a case of holmium : YAG laser resection of superficial bladder tumor (HoLRBT). A 73-year-old male was referred to our hospital with elevated prostatic specific antigen. Due to difficulty of urination, holmium : YAG laser enucleation of the prostate was performed under the diagnosis of benign prostatic hyperplasia. During the surgery, superficial bladder tumor was incidentally identified, and HoLRBT was performed. After the operation, histopathological examination revealed urothelial carcinoma, G2 > G1, pTa. The patient has been subsequently followed up for 9 months, and there areno evidence of recurrence. Changing the holmium : YAG laser energy setting can potentially be effective and safe to approach a superficial bladder tumor. PMID:26563623

  7. Vulnerability of the superficial zone of immature articular cartilage to compressive injury

    PubMed Central

    Rolauffs, Bernd; Muehleman, Carol; Li, Jun; Kurz, Bodo; Kuettner, Klaus E.; Frank, Eliot; Grodzinsky, Alan J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The zonal composition and functioning of adult articular cartilage causes depth-dependent responses to compressive injury. In immature cartilage, shear and compressive modulus, collagen and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content also vary with depth. However, there is little understanding of depth-dependent damage caused by injury. Since injury to immature knee joints most often causes articular cartilage lesions, our objectives were to characterize the zonal dependence of biomechanical, biochemical and matrix-associated changes cause by injury. Methods Superficial and deeper zones disks from bovine calves were biomechanically characterized, injured (50% compression, 100%/sec) and re-characterized. Tissue compaction upon injury, GAG-density, GAG loss and biosynthesis were measured. Collagen-fiber-orientation and matrix damage was assessed using histology, Diffraction-Enhanced-X-Ray-Imaging, and texture analysis. Results Injured superficial disks showed surface disruption, compaction by 20.3±4.3%, and immediate biomechanical impairment: dynamic stiffness decreased to 7.1±3.3% of its initial value and equilibrium modulus was below detection. Tissue areas apparently intact by histology showed clear textural alterations. Injured deeper zones disks showed collagen crimping but remained undamaged and biomechanically intact. Superficial zone disks did not lose GAG immediately after injury but lost 17.8±1.4% by 48h; deeper zones disks lost only 2.8±0.3% GAG. Biomechanical impairment was primarily associated with structural damage. Conclusion The soft superficial zone of immature cartilage is vulnerable to compressive injury causing superficial matrix disruption, extensive compaction, and textural alteration, and resulting in immediate loss of biomechanical function. In conjunction with delayed superficial GAG loss, these changes may predispose the articular surface to further softening, damage, and increased risk of developing secondary OA. PMID:20556809

  8. Epidemiology of Superficial Fungal Infections in Guangdong, Southern China: A Retrospective Study from 2004 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wenying; Lu, Changming; Li, Xiqing; Zhang, Junmin; Zhan, Ping; Xi, Liyan; Sun, Jiufeng; Yu, Xinbing

    2016-06-01

    Superficial fungal infections are common worldwide; however, the distribution of pathogenic species varies among geographical areas and changes over time. This study aimed to determine the epidemiologic profile of superficial fungal infections during 2004-2014 in Guangzhou, Southern China. Data regarding the superficial mycoses from outpatients and inpatients in our hospital were recorded and analyzed. From the 3367 patients that were enrolled in the study, 3385 samples were collected from skin, hair and nail lesions. Of the 697 positive cultures, dermatophytes were the most prevalent isolates (84.36 %), followed by yeasts (14.92 %) and non-dermatophyte molds (0.72 %). Trichophyton rubrum (56.24 %) was the most common dermatophyte isolated from cases of tinea unguium (83.92 %), tinea pedis (71.19 %), tinea cruris (91.66 %), tinea corporis (91.81 %) and tinea manuum (65.00 %). Trichophyton mentagrophytes (13.35 %) and Microsporum canis (10.19 %) were the predominant species associated with cases of tinea faciei (54.55 %) and tinea capitis (54.13 %), respectively. Yeasts and molds were identified primarily from other cases of superficial fungal infections. In conclusion, when compared to previous studies in the same area, the epidemiology of superficial mycoses in Guangdong did not significantly change from 2004 to 2014. The prevalence of causative agents and the spectrum of superficial fungal infections, particularly tinea caused by dermatophyte infection, are similar to reports from several specific regions in China and Europe, whereas increasing incidences of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis occurred in Guangdong, China. PMID:26883512

  9. Removal Of The Superficial Zone Of Bovine Articular Cartilage Does Not Increase Its Frictional Coefficient

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, R; Caligaris, M; Mauck, RL; Hung, CT; Costa, KD; Ateshian, GA

    2010-01-01

    Summary Objective Investigate the role of the superficial zone in regulating the frictional response of articular cartilage. This zone contains the superficial protein (SZP), a proteoglycan synthesized exclusively by superficial zone chondrocytes and implicated in reducing the friction coefficient of cartilage. Design Unconfined compression creep tests with sliding of cartilage against glass in saline were carried out on fresh bovine cylindrical plugs (Ø6mm, n=35) obtained from sixteen bovine shoulder joints (ages 1-3 months). In the first two experiments, friction tests were carried out before and after removal of the superficial zone (∼100 microns), in a control and treatment group, using two different applied load magnitudes (4.4N and 22.2N). In the third experiment, friction tests were conducted on intact surfaces and the corresponding microtomed deep zone of the same specimen. Results In all tests the friction coefficient exhibited a transient response, increasing from a minimum value (μmin) to a near-equilibrium final value (μeq). No statistical change (p>0.5) was found in μmin before and after removal of the superficial zone in both experiments 1 and 2. However, μeq was observed to decrease significantly (p<0.001) after removal of the surface zone. Results from the third experiment confirm that μeq is even lower at the deep zone. Surface roughness measurements with atomic-force microscopy revealed an increase in surface roughness after microtoming. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the presence of SZP in intact specimens and its removal in microtomed specimens. Conclusions The topmost (∼100 micron) superficial zone of articular cartilage does not have special properties which enhance its frictional response. PMID:15564061

  10. Superficial composition in binary solid solutions A(B): Drastic effect of pure element surface tensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolland, A.; Aufray, B.

    1985-10-01

    This paper deals with a comparative study of surface segragation of Pb and Ni respectively from Ag(Pb)(111) and Ag(Ni)(111) solid solutions. A high level of segregation of the solute is observed for both systems characterized by very low solute solubility. However, the superficial composition strongly depends on the relative surface tensions of the pure elements: the solute atoms are strictly on superficial sites when γ solute is smaller than γ solvent; in contrast uppermost layer consists purely of solvent when γ solute is greater than γ solvent. Two schematic distributions in close proximity to the surface are proposed in the last case.

  11. Superficial Ulnar Artery Associated with Anomalous Origin of the Common Interosseous and Ulnar Recurrent Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Pamidi, Narendra; Nayak, Satheesha B; Jetti, Raghu; Thangarajan, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Occurrence of vascular variations in the upper limb is not uncommon and is well described in the medical literature. However, occurrence of superficial ulnar artery associated with unusual origin of the common interosseous and ulnar recurrent arteries is seldom reported in the literature. In the present case, we report the anomalous origin of common trunk of common interosseous, anterior and posterior ulnar recurrent arteries from the radial artery, in a male cadaver. Further, ulnar artery had presented superficial course. Knowledge of anomalous arterial pattern in the cubital fossa reported here is clinically important during the angiographic procedures and plastic surgeries. PMID:27437201

  12. Superficial Ulnar Artery Associated with Anomalous Origin of the Common Interosseous and Ulnar Recurrent Arteries.

    PubMed

    Sirasanagandla, Srinivasa Rao; Pamidi, Narendra; Nayak, Satheesha B; Jetti, Raghu; Thangarajan, Rajesh

    2016-05-01

    Occurrence of vascular variations in the upper limb is not uncommon and is well described in the medical literature. However, occurrence of superficial ulnar artery associated with unusual origin of the common interosseous and ulnar recurrent arteries is seldom reported in the literature. In the present case, we report the anomalous origin of common trunk of common interosseous, anterior and posterior ulnar recurrent arteries from the radial artery, in a male cadaver. Further, ulnar artery had presented superficial course. Knowledge of anomalous arterial pattern in the cubital fossa reported here is clinically important during the angiographic procedures and plastic surgeries. PMID:27437201

  13. Multiple recurrent vesicles in oral mucosa suggestive of superficial mucocele: An unusual presentation of allergic stomatitis

    PubMed Central

    Motallebnejad, Mina; Shirzad, Atena; Molania, Tahere; Seyedmajidi, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Background: Superficial mucocele presents as small, clear vesicle on noninflamed mucosa. In this study, we report several vesicles on the bucal mucosa of a woman diagnosed as superficial mucocele. Case Presentation: A 48-year old woman presented with multiple vesicles on her labial mucosa, ventral surface of the tongue, floor of the mouth and palate. A mucosal biopsy was taken from the vesicle. Histopathologically, intraepithelial mucocele was diagnosed. The lesion was successfully treated with mouthwash betamethasone. There has been no recurrence for 18 months. Conclusion: In the present study, several mucoceles were seen in the oral mucosa. No similar case was reported previously. PMID:24294477

  14. Investigation of Endoscopic and Pathologic Features for Safe Endoscopic Treatment of Superficial Spreading Early Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyong Joo; Pak, Kyung Ho; Hyung, Woo Jin; Noh, Sung Hoon; Kim, Choong Bai; Lee, Yong Chan; Kim, Hee Man; Lee, Sang Kil

    2016-04-01

    Superficial spreading early gastric cancer (EGC) is a rare disease that is treated mainly by surgery. There are few studies on the safety of endoscopic treatment for patients with superficial spreading EGC. The aims of this study were to (1) investigate the risk of lymph node metastasis of superficial spreading EGC and (2) investigate the potential criteria for endoscopic treatment of superficial spreading EGC using surgical specimens.Between 2000 and 2010, patients who received curative surgery of R0 resection at Severance Hospital (Seoul, Korea) for early gastric cancer were enrolled. The superficial spreading EGC was defined as cancer in which the longest tumor length was ≥6 cm. The medical records of the patients were reviewed retrospectively.Of the 3813 patients with EGC, 140 (3.7%) had lesions ≥ 6 cm, whereas 3673 (96.3%) had lesions < 6 cm. Patients with superficial spreading EGC had higher rates of submucosal cancer (59.3% vs 45.7%, P = 0.002), lymphovascular invasion (18.6% vs 9.8%, P < 0.001), and lymph node metastasis (15.7% vs 10.1%, P = 0.033) compared with patients with common EGC (< 6 cm). Multivariate analysis revealed that a tumor ≥ 6 cm was not strongly associated with lymph node metastasis in EGC, as compared with a tumor < 6 cm, but submucosal invasion and lymphovascular invasion were strongly associated with lymph node metastasis in EGC. In mucosal cancer without ulcers, tumors ≥ 6 cm had a higher rate of lymph node metastasis than tumors ≤ 2 cm; however, this trend was not significant (7.7% vs 5.3%, P = 0.455).Superficial spreading EGC was not associated with an increased risk of lymph node metastasis compared with common EGC. We suggest that differentiated intramucosal superficial spreading EGC without ulceration can be treated by endoscopic submucosal dissection. PMID:27057862

  15. Superficial Temporal Artery Pseudoaneurysm: A Conservative Approach in a Critically Ill Patient

    SciTech Connect

    Grasso, Rosario Francesco Quattrocchi, Carlo Cosimo; Crucitti, Pierfilippo; Carboni, Giampiero; Coppola, Roberto; Zobel, Bruno Beomonte

    2007-04-15

    A 71-year-old man affected by cardio- and cerebrovascular disease experienced an accidental fall and trauma to the fronto-temporal area of the head. A few weeks later a growing mass appeared on his scalp. A diagnosis of superficial temporal artery pseudoaneurysm was made following CT and color Doppler ultrasound. His clinical condition favoured a conservative approach by ultrasound-guided compression and subsequent surgical resection. A conservative approach should be considered the treatment of choice in critically ill patients affected by superficial temporal artery pseudoaneurysm.

  16. Superficial Bladder Cancer: An Update on Etiology, Molecular Development, Classification, and Natural History

    PubMed Central

    Pasin, Erik; Josephson, David Y; Mitra, Anirban P; Cote, Richard J; Stein, John P

    2008-01-01

    Superficial “non—muscle-invasive” bladder tumors represent a heterogeneous group of cancers, including those that are (1) papillary in nature and limited to the mucosa, (2) high grade and flat and confined to the epithelium, and (3) invasive into the submucosa, or lamina propria. The goal of treatment is 2-fold: (1) to reduce tumor recurrence and the subsequent need for additional therapies and the morbidity associated with these treatments and (2) to prevent tumor progression and the subsequent need for more aggressive therapy. This update reviews important contemporary concepts in the etiology, molecular mechanisms, classification, and natural history of superficial bladder cancer. PMID:18470273

  17. Total lower eyelid reconstruction with superficial temporal fascia flap and porous polyethylene implant: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Ismail; Aykan, Andac; Acikel, Cengiz; Alhan, Dogan; Isik, Selcuk

    2012-01-01

    Total reconstruction of the eyelid after serious periorbital injury is a challenging procedure for plastic and reconstructive surgery. Although several methods have been used for reconstructing the eyelids, such as advancement flap with fascia lata sling, island mucochrondrocutaneous flap, prefabricated temporal island flap, porous polyethylene and superficial temporal fascia flap, creating a supportive eyelid for housing an artificial eye without complication is still an ongoing problem. In the case presented, superficial temporal fascia flap with porous polyethylene was used for the reconstruction of total lower eyelid. PMID:21778127

  18. Bilateral Pedicled Superficial Inferior Epigastric Artery Flap in the Treatment of Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Don; Saber, Sepideh; Patel, Ketan; Carey, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Summary: The authors present a new technique in surgically treating hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), a debilitating skin condition. In HS, surgical treatment is often the best option because of the high recurrence rates despite extensive medical treatment. A commonly successful surgical method is using skin flaps after excision of the affected area. A superficial inferior epigastric artery flap is demonstrated here as a new alternative approach to treating a case of extensive HS of the groin. By using the pedicled superficial inferior epigastric artery flap for groin reconstruction, inguinal HS can be widely excised and reconstructed with minimal donor-site morbidity and a good aesthetic outcome.

  19. A Prodrug Approach to the Use of Coumarins as Potential Therapeutics for Superficial Mycoses

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Derry K.; Robertson, Jennifer; Wright, Kristine; Miller, Lorna; Smith, Shane; Stewart, Colin S.; O′Neil, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    Superficial mycoses are fungal infections of the outer layers of the skin, hair and nails that affect 20–25% of the world's population, with increasing incidence. Treatment of superficial mycoses, predominantly caused by dermatophytes, is by topical and/or oral regimens. New therapeutic options with improved efficacy and/or safety profiles are desirable. There is renewed interest in natural product-based antimicrobials as alternatives to conventional treatments, including the treatment of superficial mycoses. We investigated the potential of coumarins as dermatophyte-specific antifungal agents and describe for the first time their potential utility as topical antifungals for superficial mycoses using a prodrug approach. Here we demonstrate that an inactive coumarin glycone, esculin, is hydrolysed to the antifungal coumarin aglycone, esculetin by dermatophytes. Esculin is hydrolysed to esculetin β-glucosidases. We demonstrate that β-glucosidases are produced by dermatophytes as well as members of the dermal microbiota, and that this activity is sufficient to hydrolyse esculin to esculetin with concomitant antifungal activity. A β-glucosidase inhibitor (conduritol B epoxide), inhibited antifungal activity by preventing esculin hydrolysis. Esculin demonstrates good aqueous solubility (<6 g/l) and could be readily formulated and delivered topically as an inactive prodrug in a water-based gel or cream. This work demonstrates proof-of-principle for a therapeutic application of glycosylated coumarins as inactive prodrugs that could be converted to an active antifungal in situ. It is anticipated that this approach will be applicable to other coumarin glycones. PMID:24260474

  20. Healing process study in murine skin superficial wounds treated with the blue LED photocoagulator EMOLED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Francesca; Cicchi, Riccardo; Tatini, Francesca; Bacci, Stefano; Alfieri, Domenico; De Siena, Gaetano; Pavone, Francesco S.; Pini, Roberto

    2015-07-01

    A faster healing process was observed in superficial skin wounds after irradiation with the EMOLED photocoagulator. The instrument consists of a compact handheld photocoagulation device, useful for inducing coagulation in superficial abrasions. In this work we present the results of an in vivo study, in a murine model. Two superficial wounds were produced on the back of 12 mice: one area was left untreated, the other one was treated with EMOLED. Healthy skin was used as a control. The animals were sacrificed 3 hours, 12 hours, 1 day, 6 day after treatment. The treatment effects on back skin was monitored by visual observations, histopathological analysis, immuno-histochemical analysis, and nonlinear microscopic imaging performed at each follow up time, finding no adverse reactions and no thermal damage in both treated areas and surrounding tissues. In addition, a faster healing process, a reduced inflammatory response, a higher collagen content, and a better-recovered skin morphology was evidenced in the treated tissue with respect to the untreated tissue. These morphological features were characterized by means of immuno-histochemical analysis, aimed at imaging fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, and by SHG microscopy, aimed at characterizing collagen organization, demonstrating a fully recovered aspect of dermis as well as a faster neocollagenesis in the treated regions. This study demonstrates that the selective photothermal effect we used for inducing immediate coagulation in superficial wounds is associated to a minimal inflammatory response, which provides reduced recovery times and improved healing process.

  1. Can Young Children Distinguish Abstract Expressionist Art from Superficially Similar Works by Preschoolers and Animals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nissel, Jenny; Hawley-Dolan, Angelina; Winner, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    While it is sometimes claimed that abstract art requires little skill and is indistinguishable from the scribbles of young children, recent research has shown that even adults with no training in art can distinguish works by abstract expressionists from superficially similar works by children and even elephants, monkeys, and apes (Hawley-Dolan…

  2. Genetic and biochemical bases of superficial scald storage disorder in apple and pear fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Superficial scald is a physiological storage disorder affecting apple and pear fruits. The disorder develops during cold storage and intensifies after removal to market temperatures. Scald symptoms result from necrosis of a few hypodermal cell layers and manifest as brown or black patches on the fru...

  3. Superficial Layer-Specific Histaminergic Modulation of Medial Entorhinal Cortex Required for Spatial Learning.

    PubMed

    He, Chao; Luo, Fenlan; Chen, Xingshu; Chen, Fang; Li, Chao; Ren, Shuancheng; Qiao, Qicheng; Zhang, Jun; de Lecea, Luis; Gao, Dong; Hu, Zhian

    2016-04-01

    The medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) plays a crucial role in spatial learning and memory. Whereas the MEC receives a dense histaminergic innervation from the tuberomamillary nucleus of the hypothalamus, the functions of histamine in this brain region remain unclear. Here, we show that histamine acts via H1Rs to directly depolarize the principal neurons in the superficial, but not deep, layers of the MEC when recording at somata. Moreover, histamine decreases the spontaneous GABA, but not glutamate, release onto principal neurons in the superficial layers by acting at presynaptic H3Rs without effect on synaptic release in the deep layers. Histamine-induced depolarization is mediated via inhibition of Kir channels and requires the activation of protein kinase C, whereas the inhibition of spontaneous GABA release by histamine depends on voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels and extracellular Ca(2+). Furthermore, microinjection of the H1R or H3R, but not H2R, antagonist respectively into the superficial, but not deep, layers of MEC impairs rat spatial learning as assessed by water maze tasks but does not affect the motor function and exploratory activity in an open field. Together, our study indicates that histamine plays an essential role in spatial learning by selectively regulating neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission in the superficial layers of the MEC. PMID:25595181

  4. Neuroanatomical characteristics of deep and superficial needling using LI11 as an example

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Meiling; Cui, Jingjing; Xu, Dongsheng; Zhang, Kun; Jing, Xianghong; Bai, Wanzhu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To compare the neuroanatomical characteristics of the deep and superficial tissues at acupuncture point LI11 using a neural tracing technique, in order to examine the neural basis of potential differences between deep and superficial needling techniques. Methods In order to mimic the situations of the deep and superficial needling, the retrograde neural tracer Alexa Fluor 488 conjugate of cholera toxin subunit B (AF488-CTB) was injected into the muscle or subcutaneous tissue, respectively, at acupuncture point LI11 in eight rats (n=4 each). Three days following injection, the distribution of motor and sensory neurons labelled with AF488-CTB was examined in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) under a fluorescent microscope. Results For both types of injection, labelled motor and sensory neurons were distributed on the side ipsilateral to the injection in the spinal cord and DRG between spinal levels C5 and T1. The number of labelled motor neurons following intramuscular injection was significantly higher than subcutaneous injection. By contrast, the number of labelled sensory neurons following subcutaneous injection was significantly higher in number and extended over a greater number of spinal segments compared to intramuscular injection. Conclusions These data indicate that the motor and sensory innervation of muscle and subcutaneous tissue beneath LI11 differ, and suggest that acupuncture signals induced by deep and superficial needling stimulation may be transmitted through different neural pathways. PMID:26490338

  5. Genetic and biochemical mechanisms of superficial scald development in apple and pear fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Superficial scald is a physiological storage disorder of apple and pear fruits. It develops during prolonged cold storage and intensifies after removal to warmer temperatures. Despite many years of investigation, the biochemical mechanism of scald is still unknown. The prevailing hypothesis holds th...

  6. Distinct horizontal patterns in the spatial organization of superficial zone chondrocytes of human joints

    PubMed Central

    Rolauffs, Bernd; Williams, James M.; Grodzinsky, Alan J.; Kuettner, Klaus E.; Cole, Ada A.

    2008-01-01

    A better understanding of the unique cellular and functional properties of the superficial zone of articular cartilage may aid current strategies in tissue engineering which attempts a layered design for the repair of cartilage lesions to avert or postpone the onset of osteoarthritis. However, data pertaining to the cellular organization of non-degenerated superficial zone of articular cartilage is not available for most human joints. The present study analyzed the arrangement of chondrocytes of non-degenerated human joints (shoulder, elbow, knee, and ankle) by using fluorescence microscopy of the superficial zone in a top-down view. The resulting horizontal chondrocyte arrangements were tested for randomness, homogeneity or a significant grouping via point pattern analysis and were correlated with the joint type in which they occurred. The present study demonstrated that human superficial chondrocytes occurred in four distinct patterns of strings, clusters, pairs or single chondrocytes. Those patterns represented a significant grouping (p<0.0001) with horizontal alignment. Each articular joint surface was dominated by only one of these four patterns (p<0.001). Specific patterns correlated with specific diarthrodial joint types (p<0.001). Further studies need to establish whether these organizational patterns are a consequence of their surrounding environment or whether they are linked to a functional purpose. PMID:18325787

  7. Distinct horizontal patterns in the spatial organization of superficial zone chondrocytes of human joints.

    PubMed

    Rolauffs, Bernd; Williams, James M; Grodzinsky, Alan J; Kuettner, Klaus E; Cole, Ada A

    2008-05-01

    A better understanding of the unique cellular and functional properties of the superficial zone of articular cartilage may aid current strategies in tissue engineering which attempts a layered design for the repair of cartilage lesions to avert or postpone the onset of osteoarthritis. However, data pertaining to the cellular organization of non-degenerated superficial zone of articular cartilage is not available for most human joints. The present study analyzed the arrangement of chondrocytes of non-degenerated human joints (shoulder, elbow, knee, and ankle) by using fluorescence microscopy of the superficial zone in a top-down view. The resulting horizontal chondrocyte arrangements were tested for randomness, homogeneity or a significant grouping via point pattern analysis and were correlated with the joint type in which they occurred. The present study demonstrated that human superficial chondrocytes occurred in four distinct patterns of strings, clusters, pairs or single chondrocytes. Those patterns represented a significant grouping (p < 0.0001) with horizontal alignment. Each articular joint surface was dominated by only one of these four patterns (p < 0.001). Specific patterns correlated with specific diarthrodial joint types (p < 0.001). Further studies need to establish whether these organizational patterns are a consequence of their surrounding environment or whether they are linked to a functional purpose. PMID:18325787

  8. Superficial Scald Development and Related Metabolism is Modified by Postharvest Light Irradiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of superficial scald (scald) of susceptible apple cultivars is exacerbated by low light exposure during the growing season. Global metabolic profiling was used to evaluate diverse peel metabolites from ‘Granny Smith’ apples bagged on the tree then exposed to artificial UV-white light af...

  9. Persistent median artery in the carpal tunnel and anastomosis with superficial palmar arch.

    PubMed

    Bijannejad, Dariush; Azandeh, Saeed; Javadnia, Fatemeh; Gholami, Mohammad Reza; Gharravi, Anneh Mohammad; Zhaleh, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Persistent median artery (PMA) in present cadaver originated from the brachial artery and anastomosed with the superficial palmar arch (SPA). As the PMA may be the cause of carpal tunnel syndrome and SPA is the main source of arterial supply, knowledge of which are important for the hand surgical interventions. PMID:27583265

  10. Persistent median artery in the carpal tunnel and anastomosis with superficial palmar arch

    PubMed Central

    Bijannejad, Dariush; Azandeh, Saeed; Javadnia, Fatemeh; Gholami, Mohammad Reza; Gharravi, Anneh Mohammad; zhaleh, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Persistent median artery (PMA) in present cadaver originated from the brachial artery and anastomosed with the superficial palmar arch (SPA). As the PMA may be the cause of carpal tunnel syndrome and SPA is the main source of arterial supply, knowledge of which are important for the hand surgical interventions. PMID:27583265

  11. Effect of superficial oxides on corrosion of steel reinforcement embedded in concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Avila-Mendoza, J. . Programa de Corrosion del Golfo de Mexico); Flores, J.M. ); Castillo, U.C.

    1994-11-01

    The effect of superficial coverage with different iron oxides on the general corrosion resistance of steel embedded in concrete was investigated. Electrochemical corrosion rate and potential measurements were made of rebars that had a bare surface (polished), an atmospherically rusted (hematite [Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3

  12. Clinical Outcomes of Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection for Superficial Esophageal Squamous Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung Soo; Youn, Young Hoon; Park, Jae Jun; Kim, Jie-Hyun; Park, Hyojin

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Endoscopic treatment has been broadly applied to superficial esophageal neoplasms. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) allows for high rates of en bloc resection, precise histological assessment, and low rates of local recurrence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of ESD for superficial esophageal neoplasms. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 36 esophageal ESDs for superficial squamous neoplasms in 32 patients between March 2009 and August 2014 at Gangnam Severance Hospital. Results: The median patient age was 64 years, and 30 men were included. The indications were early squamous cell carcinoma in 26 lesions, adenoma with high-grade dysplasia in five lesions, and low-grade dysplasia in five lesions. The en bloc resection and R0 resection rates were 97.2% (35 of 36) and 91.7% (33 of 36), respectively. Microperforation and post-ESD bleeding occurred in 5.6% (2 of 36) and 5.6% (2 of 36), respectively. Post-ESD esophageal strictures developed in five patients (13.9%). Five patients (15.6%) had an additional treatment after ESD (concurrent chemoradiation therapy in three, radiation therapy in one, and surgery in one patient). There was no disease-specific mortality during the median follow-up of 31 months. Conclusions: Favorable clinical outcomes were observed in ESD for superficial esophageal squamous neoplasms. Esophageal ESD could be a good treatment option in terms of efficacy and safety. PMID:26867548

  13. Improved superficial brain hemorrhage visualization in susceptibility weighted images by constrained minimum intensity projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Marcelo A.; Pham, Dzung L.; Butman, John

    2016-03-01

    Minimum intensity projection is a technique commonly used to display magnetic resonance susceptibility weighted images, allowing the observer to better visualize hemorrhages and vasculature. The technique displays the minimum intensity in a given projection within a thick slab, allowing different connectivity patterns to be easily revealed. Unfortunately, the low signal intensity of the skull within the thick slab can mask superficial tissues near the skull base and other regions. Because superficial microhemorrhages are a common feature of traumatic brain injury, this effect limits the ability to proper diagnose and follow up patients. In order to overcome this limitation, we developed a method to allow minimum intensity projection to properly display superficial tissues adjacent to the skull. Our approach is based on two brain masks, the largest of which includes extracerebral voxels. The analysis of the rind within both masks containing the actual brain boundary allows reclassification of those voxels initially missed in the smaller mask. Morphological operations are applied to guarantee accuracy and topological correctness, and the mean intensity within the mask is assigned to all outer voxels. This prevents bone from dominating superficial regions in the projection, enabling superior visualization of cortical hemorrhages and vessels.

  14. Compression neuropathy of the superficial branch of the radial nerve. Case reports.

    PubMed

    Yoshii, S; Ikeda, K; Murakami, H

    2000-03-01

    We present two cases of hypoaesthesia over the dorsal radial aspect of the hand with an associated painful mass in the wrist. At operation a dorsal wrist ganglion was compressing the superficial branch of the radial nerve at the anatomical snuff-box. After removal of the ganglion the hypoaesthesia was relieved. PMID:10756583

  15. Revealing Maximal Diameter of Upper Limb Superficial Vein with an Elevated Environmental Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, Guo Shen; Kyin, May M.

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography is the primary tool for preoperative analysis of vein morphology for fistula creation in patients with end-stage renal disease. This study examines the effect of environmental temperature on the superficial vein size. Superficial veins of thirteen healthy volunteers were marked at three sites: cephalic vein in left lateral arm near cubital fossa, cephalic vein in left forearm at wrist, and basilic vein in left medial arm near cubital fossa. Mean diameters were recorded using ultrasound probe at 26°C and 43°C. Body temperature was increased using a Bair Hugger blanket. Mean values from the two temperatures were analyzed using paired sample t-test. All three superficial vein sites displayed statistically significant increase in diameter when the temperature was increased from 26°C to 43°C. Paired t-test showed p values of 0.001 for cephalic vein at wrist, 0.01 for cephalic vein near cubital fossa, and 0.01 for basilic vein near cubital fossa. This study proved that environmental temperature exerts a statistically significant effect on vein size measured by ultrasound during preoperative assessment for vascular access. Not to the extent of 43°C, the authors would recommend setting the room temperature higher during ultrasound vascular assessment to avoid underestimating the superficial vein size. PMID:27597987

  16. Revealing Maximal Diameter of Upper Limb Superficial Vein with an Elevated Environmental Temperature.

    PubMed

    Irfan, Hira; Ooi, Guo Shen; Kyin, May M; Ho, Pei

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography is the primary tool for preoperative analysis of vein morphology for fistula creation in patients with end-stage renal disease. This study examines the effect of environmental temperature on the superficial vein size. Superficial veins of thirteen healthy volunteers were marked at three sites: cephalic vein in left lateral arm near cubital fossa, cephalic vein in left forearm at wrist, and basilic vein in left medial arm near cubital fossa. Mean diameters were recorded using ultrasound probe at 26°C and 43°C. Body temperature was increased using a Bair Hugger blanket. Mean values from the two temperatures were analyzed using paired sample t-test. All three superficial vein sites displayed statistically significant increase in diameter when the temperature was increased from 26°C to 43°C. Paired t-test showed p values of 0.001 for cephalic vein at wrist, 0.01 for cephalic vein near cubital fossa, and 0.01 for basilic vein near cubital fossa. This study proved that environmental temperature exerts a statistically significant effect on vein size measured by ultrasound during preoperative assessment for vascular access. Not to the extent of 43°C, the authors would recommend setting the room temperature higher during ultrasound vascular assessment to avoid underestimating the superficial vein size. PMID:27597987

  17. Spatial distributions of hemoglobin signals from superficial layers in the forehead during a verbal-fluency task

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohno, Satoru; Hoshi, Yoko

    2016-06-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) signals originate in hemoglobin changes in both the superficial layer of the head and the brain. Under the assumption that the changes in the blood flow in the scalp are spatially homogeneous in the region of interest, a variety of methods for reducing the superficial signals has been proposed. To clarify the spatial distributions of the superficial signals, the superficial signals from the forehead during a verbal-fluency task were investigated by using ten source-detector pairs separated by 5 mm, whereas fNIRS signals were also detected from two source-detector pairs separated by 30 mm. The fNIRS signals strongly correlated with the superficial signals at some channels on the forehead. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on the temporal cross-correlation coefficients for two channels of both the NIRS signals, and the analysis results demonstrate spatially heterogeneous distributions and network structures of the superficial signals from within the forehead. The results also show that the assumption stated above is invalid for homogeneous superficial signals from any region of interest of 15-mm diameter or larger on the forehead. They also suggest that the spatially heterogeneous distributions may be attributable to vascular networks, including supraorbital, supratrochlear, and superficial temporal vessels.

  18. Use of superficial peroneal nerve graft for treating peripheral nerve injuries☆

    PubMed Central

    Ribak, Samuel; da Silva Filho, Paulo Roberto Ferreira; Tietzmann, Alexandre; Hirata, Helton Hiroshi; de Mattos, Carlos Augusto; da Gama, Sérgio Augusto Machado

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical results from treating chronic peripheral nerve injuries using the superficial peroneal nerve as a graft donor source. Methods This was a study on eleven patients with peripheral nerve injuries in the upper limbs that were treated with grafts from the sensitive branch of the superficial peroneal nerve. The mean time interval between the dates of the injury and surgery was 93 days. The ulnar nerve was injured in eight cases and the median nerve in six. There were three cases of injury to both nerves. In the surgery, a longitudinal incision was made on the anterolateral face of the ankle, thus viewing the superficial peroneal nerve, which was located anteriorly to the extensor digitorum longus muscle. Proximally, the deep fascia between the extensor digitorum longus and the peroneal longus muscles was dissected. Next, the motor branch of the short peroneal muscle (one of the branches of the superficial peroneal nerve) was identified. The proximal limit of the sensitive branch was found at this point. Results The average space between the nerve stumps was 3.8 cm. The average length of the grafts was 16.44 cm. The number of segments used was two to four cables. In evaluating the recovery of sensitivity, 27.2% evolved to S2+, 54.5% to S3 and 18.1% to S3+. Regarding motor recovery, 72.7% presented grade 4 and 27.2% grade 3. There was no motor deficit in the donor area. A sensitive deficit in the lateral dorsal region of the ankle and the dorsal region of the foot was observed. None of the patients presented complaints in relation to walking. Conclusions Use of the superficial peroneal nerve as a graft source for treating peripheral nerve injuries is safe and provides good clinical results similar to those from other nerve graft sources. PMID:26962502

  19. Evaluation of Shear Bond Strength of Newer Bonding Systems on Superficial and Deep Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, R Veena; Siddaraju, Kishore; Nagaraj, Hema; Poluri, Ramya Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to compare the shear bond strength of nanocomposite resin to superficial dentin and deep dentin using two different dentin bonding systems. Materials and Methods: All teeth were sectioned at various levels (superficial dentin: Dentin within 0.5-1 mm of dentinoenamel junction; deep dentin: Dentin within 0.5 mm of the highest pulp horn) using a Carborundum Disc and embedded in acrylic block of specific size. Selected specimens (60 premolar teeth) were grouped randomly into three groups, the groups were differentiated into superficial dentin, deep dentin, and control group which were further divided into sub Group A and Subgroup B containing 10 teeth each, depending on the bonding agents used. In Subgroup A, Tetric N Bond, and in Subgroup B Single Bond Universal were used. In the control group no bonding agent was used. The specimens were thermocycled for 500 cycles between 5°C and 55°C water bath for 40 s. Finally, the specimens were subjected to shear bond strength study under INSTRON machine (Universal Testing Machine). The maximum shear bond strengths were noted at the time of fracture (de-bonding) of the restorative material. Results were analyzed using ANOVA test, Bonferroni test, and paired t-test. Results: Bond strength values of fifth generation bonding system (Tetric N Bond) showed higher mean shear bond strength compared to seventh generation bonding system (Single Bond Universal). There was a significant fall in bond strength values as one reaches deeper levels of dentin from superficial to deep dentin. Conclusion: There was a significant difference between the bond strength of fifth generation bonding system (Tetric N Bond) and seventh generation bonding system (Single Bond Universal). Decrease in the bond strength values is seen for the deeper level of dentin as compared to superficial dentin. PMID:26435613

  20. Cryopreservation Effect on Proliferative and Chondrogenic Potential of Human Chondrocytes Isolated from Superficial and Deep Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Muiños-López, Emma; Rendal-Vázquez, Mª Esther; Hermida-Gómez, Tamara; Fuentes-Boquete, Isaac; Díaz-Prado, Silvia; Blanco, Francisco J

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the proliferative and chondrogenic potential of fresh and frozen chondrocytes isolated from superficial and deep articular cartilage biopsies. Materials and Methodology: The study included 12 samples of fresh and frozen healthy human knee articular cartilage. Cell proliferation was tested at 3, 6 and 9 days. Studies of mRNA quantification, protein expression and immunofluorescence for proliferation and chondrogenic markers were performed. Results: Stimulation of fresh and frozen chondrocytes from both superficial and deep cartilage with fetal bovine serum produced an increase in the proliferative capacity compared to the non-stimulated control group. In the stimulated fresh cells group, the proliferative capacity of cells from the deep biopsy was greater than that from cells from the superficial biopsy (0.046 vs 0.028, respectively, p<0.05). There was also a significant difference between the proliferative capacity of superficial zone fresh (0.028) and frozen (0.051) chondrocytes (p<0.05). CCND1 mRNA and protein expression levels, and immunopositivity for Ki67 revealed a higher proliferative capacity for fresh articular chondrocytes from deep cartilage. Regarding the chondrogenic potential, stimulated fresh cells showed higher SOX9 and Col II expression in chondrocytes from deep than from superficial zone (p<0.05, T student test). Conclusions: The highest rate of cell proliferation and chondrogenic potential of fresh chondrocytes was found in cells obtained from deep cartilage biopsies, whereas there were no statistically significant differences in proliferative and chondrogenic capacity between biopsy origins with frozen chondrocytes. These results indicate that both origin and cryopreservation affect the proliferative and chondrogenic potential of chondrocytes. PMID:22523526

  1. Influence of a superficial field of residual stress on the propagation of surface waves—Applied to the estimation of the depth of the superficial stressed zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duquennoy, Marc; Ouaftouh, Mohammadi; Deboucq, Julien; Lefebvre, Jean-Etienne; Jenot, Frédéric; Ourak, Mohamed

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we were interested in the dispersion of surface waves caused by the presence of a micrometric field of residual stress on the surface of an amorphous medium. We have shown that in relation to surface waves, a stressed structure like this is comparable to a layer on substrate type structure. The design and implementation of SAW-IDT MEMS sensors enabled quasi-monochromatic Rayleigh-type surface waves to be generated and the dispersion phenomenon to be studied over a wide range of frequencies for different superficial fields of residual stress. The thicknesses of the stressed cortical zones were estimated with good accuracy using an inverse method.

  2. Vulnerability of the Superficial Zone of Immature Articular Cartilage to Compressive Injury

    SciTech Connect

    Rolauffs, R.; Muehleman, C; Li, J; Kurz, B; Kuettner, K; Frank, E; Grodzinsky, A

    2010-01-01

    The zonal composition and functioning of adult articular cartilage causes depth-dependent responses to compressive injury. In immature cartilage, shear and compressive moduli as well as collagen and sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) content also vary with depth. However, there is little understanding of the depth-dependent damage caused by injury. Since injury to immature knee joints most often causes articular cartilage lesions, this study was undertaken to characterize the zonal dependence of biomechanical, biochemical, and matrix-associated changes caused by compressive injury. Disks from the superficial and deeper zones of bovine calves were biomechanically characterized. Injury to the disks was achieved by applying a final strain of 50% compression at 100%/second, followed by biomechanical recharacterization. Tissue compaction upon injury as well as sGAG density, sGAG loss, and biosynthesis were measured. Collagen fiber orientation and matrix damage were assessed using histology, diffraction-enhanced x-ray imaging, and texture analysis. Injured superficial zone disks showed surface disruption, tissue compaction by 20.3 {+-} 4.3% (mean {+-} SEM), and immediate biomechanical impairment that was revealed by a mean {+-} SEM decrease in dynamic stiffness to 7.1 {+-} 3.3% of the value before injury and equilibrium moduli that were below the level of detection. Tissue areas that appeared intact on histology showed clear textural alterations. Injured deeper zone disks showed collagen crimping but remained undamaged and biomechanically intact. Superficial zone disks did not lose sGAG immediately after injury, but lost 17.8 {+-} 1.4% of sGAG after 48 hours; deeper zone disks lost only 2.8 {+-} 0.3% of sGAG content. Biomechanical impairment was associated primarily with structural damage. The soft superficial zone of immature cartilage is vulnerable to compressive injury, causing superficial matrix disruption, extensive compaction, and textural alteration, which results

  3. Laser vaporization in treatment of superficial endometriosis of the uterine cervix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wozniak, Jakub; Wilczak, Maciej; Opala, Tomasz; Pisarska-Krawczyk, Magdalena; Cwojdzinski, Marek; Pisarski, Tadeusz

    1996-03-01

    The study shows the treatment of superficial endometriosis of the uterine cervix in 79 patients. After first vaporization 74 patients were cured successfully. In two cases the laser procedure should be repeated and in 3 women the operation should be performed for the third time. All patients are still under control in our department and there is no recurrence observed. Carbon- dioxide laser vaporization under colposcopic control is an efficient method of treatment of superficial endometriosis of the uterine cervix that requires no anaesthesia. The healing process after laser procedures is fast and without complications. The number of recurrences is low. Use of carbon-dioxide laser under colposcopic control because of precise destruction of lesions, fast healing and a low number of recurrences seems to be the method of choice.

  4. Challenge and threat motivation: effects on superficial and elaborative information processing

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Ricardo; Blascovich, James; Garcia-Marques, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    This paper integrates the motivational states of challenge and threat within a dual processing perspective. Previous research has demonstrated that individuals experience a challenge state when individuals have sufficient resources to cope with the demands of a task (Blascovich et al., 1993). Because the experience of resource availability has been shown to be associated with superficial processing (Garcia-Marques and Mackie, 2007), we tested the hypothesis that challenge is associated with superficial processing in two persuasion experiments. Experiment 1 revealed that inducing attitudes of participants in a challenge state was not sensitive to the quality of arguments presented. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the effect occurs even when task engagement, manipulated by the presence (vs. the absence) of a task observer (Blascovich et al., 1993), is high. The implications of these results for the biopsychosocial model model and the cognitive and motivational literature are discussed. PMID:25352823

  5. Superficial temporal artery pseudoaneurysm: report of a rare case secondary to mandibular condylar fracture.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Long, Xing; Deng, Mohong

    2013-07-01

    A rare case of superficial temporal artery pseudoaneurysm secondary to mandibular condylar fracture is presented. A 21-year-old man referred to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery with limited mouth opening and left preauricular swelling for more than 40 days after a traffic accident injury. He had received mandibulomaxillary fixation in the emergency department. Computed tomography showed left mandibular condylar fracture, and digital subtraction angiography confirmed left superficial temporal artery pseudoaneurysm. Endovascular embolization of the left external carotid artery was performed, followed by excision of the traumatic pseudoaneurysm and open reduction internal fixation of the left condylar fracture. Six months after treatment, the patient can open his mouth to approximately 35 mm and showed no swelling in the left preauricular region. PMID:23851869

  6. Superficial mucocele of the labial mucosa: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Silva, Arley; Nikitakis, Nikolaos G; Balciunas, Birute A; Meiller, Timothy F

    2004-01-01

    Superficial mucocele is considered a relatively common, uncomplicated, and truly benign oral lesion, although a systematic review of the literature revealed only 27 well-documented cases. The general dentist frequently is confronted with questions from patients regarding these often recurrent blisters. While trauma is suspected to be the cause, the etiology of these lesions is not understood clearly due to the insufficient number of reported cases; as a result, their optimal management remains in question. Insufficient knowledge of the clinical appearance and histopathologic features of this lesion may generate diagnostic confusion, leading to improper diagnosis and inadequate management. This article presents an atypical case of superficial mucocele and summarizes the findings of all previously reported cases to emphasize the variable clinical features and increase general dentists' knowledge of the clinical spectrum regarding this condition's signs and symptoms. PMID:15544220

  7. Multiple schwannomas of the digital nerves and superficial radial nerve: two unusual cases of segmental schwannomatosis.

    PubMed

    Gosk, Jerzy; Gutkowska, Olga; Kuliński, Sebastian; Urban, Maciej; Hałoń, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Two cases of segmental sporadic schwannomatosis characterized by unusual location of multiple schwannomas in digital nerves (case 1) and the superficial radial nerve (case 2) are described in this paper. In the first of the described cases, 6 tumours located at the base of the middle finger and in its distal portion were excised from both digital nerves. In the second case, 3 tumours located in the proximal 1/3 and halfway down the forearm were removed from the superficial radial nerve. In both cases, symptoms such as palpable tumour mass, pain, paraesthesias, and positive Tinel-Hoffman sign resolved after operative treatment. Final diagnoses were made based on histopathological examination results. In the second of the described cases, the largest of the excised lesions had features enabling diagnosis of a rare tumour type - ancient schwannoma. PMID:26216119

  8. Superficial Basal Cell Carcinoma on the Face is a Diagnostic Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Singha, Joydeep; Patel, Naval

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common non-melanoma skin cancer. The incidence of BCC is rising. The nodular, superficial spreading, and infiltrating variants are the three most commonly encountered types of BCC in descending order of prevalence. Superficial spreading basal cell carcinoma (SSBCC) accounts for 15-26% of all cases of BCC. It usually occurs on the trunk and upper extremities, but may be seen on the face. Surgical excision is the most commonly used treatment for BCC. Topical chemotherapy agents such as imiquimod or 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) may be various alternatives or adjuvants in the treatment of SSBCC. characteristically shows areas of uninvolved skin between tumor nests.[7] PMID:27057051

  9. Effect of superficial velocity on vaporization pressure drop with propane in horizontal circular tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novianto, S.; Pamitran, A. S.; Nasruddin, Alhamid, M. I.

    2016-06-01

    Due to its friendly effect on the environment, natural refrigerants could be the best alternative refrigerant to replace conventional refrigerants. The present study was devoted to the effect of superficial velocity on vaporization pressure drop with propane in a horizontal circular tube with an inner diameter of 7.6 mm. The experiments were conditioned with 4 to 10 °C for saturation temperature, 9 to 20 kW/m2 for heat flux, and 250 to 380 kg/m2s for mass flux. It is shown here that increased heat flux may result in increasing vapor superficial velocity, and then increasing pressure drop. The present experimental results were evaluated with some existing correlations of pressure drop. The best prediction was evaluated by Lockhart-Martinelli (1949) with MARD 25.7%. In order to observe the experimental flow pattern, the present results were also mapped on the Wang flow pattern map.

  10. Peptidoglycolipid nature of the superficial cell wall sheath of smooth-colony-forming mycobacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Barrow, W W; Ullom, B P; Brennan, P J

    1980-01-01

    The most superficial cell wall layer present in smooth-colony-forming mycobacteria was isolated from serovar 20 of the Mycobacterium avium-Mycobacterium intracellulare-Mycobacterium scrofulaceum (MAIS) serocomplex and examined chemically and by electron microscopy. Most (70 to 80%) of the fibrillar material consisted of an array of serologically active, acetylated C-myosidic peptidoglycoplipids with the basic structure (formula, see text) but in which the location of acetyl groups and the arrangement of monosaccharides have not been defined. Apparently, all serovars within the MAIS complex are characterized by structurally related superficies in which the monoglycosyl-lipopeptide portion is invariable but the oligosaccharide attachment is peculiar to each serovar. These unique inert structures may be an important factor in shielding the pathogen within phagolysosomes from lysosomal enzymes. Images PMID:7430072

  11. Ultrasound and Doppler US in Evaluation of Superficial Soft-tissue Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Toprak, Huseyin; Kiliç, Erkan; Serter, Asli; Kocakoç, Ercan; Ozgocmen, Salih

    2014-01-01

    Improved developments in digital ultrasound technology and the use of high-frequency broadband transducers make ultrasound (US) imaging the first screening tool in investigating superficial tissue lesions. US is a safe (no ionizing radiation), portable, easily repeatable, and cheap form of imaging compared to other imaging modalities. US is an excellent imaging modality to determine the nature of a mass lesion (cystic or solid) and its anatomic relation to adjoining structures. Masses can be characterized in terms of their size, number, component, and vascularity with US and Doppler US especially with power Doppler US. US, however, is operator dependent and has a number of artifacts that can result in misinterpretation. In this review, we emphasize the role of ultrasound, particularly power Doppler, in superficial soft-tissue lesions. PMID:24744969

  12. Efficacy and safety of butenafine in superficial dermatophytoses (tinea pedis, tinea cruris, tinea corporis).

    PubMed

    Saple, D G; Amar, A K; Ravichandran, G; Korde, K M; Desai, A

    2001-05-01

    Superficial dermatophytoses of skin are very common infections seen in clinical practice. Besides topical imidazoles, triazoles and allylamines, topical butenafine (a benzylamine derivative) is a novel agent with broad antifungal activity. One hundred and eleven patients with tinea infections were enrolled in this multicentric, randomised, single-blind non-comparative study, which involved application of butenafine (1%) cream in tinea pedis (4 weeks) and tinea cruris and tinea corporis (2 weeks) cases. The results showed that butenafine causes rapid resolution of signs and symptoms (erythema itching, burning, crusting, scaling, etc), with good patient and physician acceptability of treatment. The broader spectrum fungicidal activity and better drug retention in superficial skin layers may be responsible for this beneficial effect. PMID:11676116

  13. Superficial Basal Cell Carcinoma on the Face is a Diagnostic Challenge.

    PubMed

    Singha, Joydeep; Patel, Naval

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common non-melanoma skin cancer. The incidence of BCC is rising. The nodular, superficial spreading, and infiltrating variants are the three most commonly encountered types of BCC in descending order of prevalence. Superficial spreading basal cell carcinoma (SSBCC) accounts for 15-26% of all cases of BCC. It usually occurs on the trunk and upper extremities, but may be seen on the face. Surgical excision is the most commonly used treatment for BCC. Topical chemotherapy agents such as imiquimod or 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) may be various alternatives or adjuvants in the treatment of SSBCC. characteristically shows areas of uninvolved skin between tumor nests.[7]. PMID:27057051

  14. Low-level laser therapy for the treatment of superficial thrombophlebitis after chemotherapy in breast cancer patients: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Woon Taek; Chung, Sin Ho; Kim, Hyunhee

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] We report the case of a breast cancer patient with superficial thrombophlebitis treated with low-level laser therapy. [Case] The patient was a 66-year-old women who developed superficial thrombophlebitis in the left upper limb after chemotherapy. She was administered 6 sessions of low-level laser therapy. [Result] Her pain score decreased by 8 points. Her scores on the Patient and Observer scar Assessment Scale decreased by 18 points for the observer portion and by 26 points for the patient portion. [Conclusion] Low-level laser therapy is effective for the reduction of pain and the size of scar tissue in patients with superficial thrombophlebitis. PMID:26834384

  15. Superficial dosimetry imaging of Čerenkov emission in electron beam radiotherapy of phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rongxiao; Fox, Colleen J.; Glaser, Adam K.; Gladstone, David J.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2013-08-01

    Čerenkov emission is generated from ionizing radiation in tissue above 264 keV energy. This study presents the first examination of this optical emission as a surrogate for the absorbed superficial dose. Čerenkov emission was imaged from the surface of flat tissue phantoms irradiated with electrons, using a range of field sizes from 6 cm × 6 cm to 20 cm × 20 cm, incident angles from 0° to 50°, and energies from 6 to 18 MeV. The Čerenkov images were compared with the estimated superficial dose in phantoms from direct diode measurements, as well as calculations by Monte Carlo and the treatment planning system. Intensity images showed outstanding linear agreement (R2 = 0.97) with reference data of the known dose for energies from 6 to 18 MeV. When orthogonal delivery was carried out, the in-plane and cross-plane dose distribution comparisons indicated very little difference (±2-4% differences) between the different methods of estimation as compared to Čerenkov light imaging. For an incident angle 50°, the Čerenkov images and Monte Carlo simulation show excellent agreement with the diode data, but the treatment planning system had a larger error (OPT = ±1˜2%, diode = ±2˜3%, TPS = ±6-8% differences) as would be expected. The sampling depth of superficial dosimetry based on Čerenkov radiation has been simulated in a layered skin model, showing the potential of sampling depth tuning by spectral filtering. Taken together, these measurements and simulations indicate that Čerenkov emission imaging might provide a valuable method of superficial dosimetry imaging from incident radiotherapy beams of electrons.

  16. Superficial dosimetry imaging of Čerenkov emission in electron beam radiotherapy of phantoms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rongxiao; Fox, Colleen J; Glaser, Adam K; Gladstone, David J; Pogue, Brian W

    2013-08-21

    Čerenkov emission is generated from ionizing radiation in tissue above 264 keV energy. This study presents the first examination of this optical emission as a surrogate for the absorbed superficial dose. Čerenkov emission was imaged from the surface of flat tissue phantoms irradiated with electrons, using a range of field sizes from 6 cm × 6 cm to 20 cm × 20 cm, incident angles from 0° to 50°, and energies from 6 to 18 MeV. The Čerenkov images were compared with the estimated superficial dose in phantoms from direct diode measurements, as well as calculations by Monte Carlo and the treatment planning system. Intensity images showed outstanding linear agreement (R(2) = 0.97) with reference data of the known dose for energies from 6 to 18 MeV. When orthogonal delivery was carried out, the in-plane and cross-plane dose distribution comparisons indicated very little difference (± 2-4% differences) between the different methods of estimation as compared to Čerenkov light imaging. For an incident angle 50°, the Čerenkov images and Monte Carlo simulation show excellent agreement with the diode data, but the treatment planning system had a larger error (OPT = ± 1~2%, diode = ± 2~3%, TPS = ± 6-8% differences) as would be expected. The sampling depth of superficial dosimetry based on Čerenkov radiation has been simulated in a layered skin model, showing the potential of sampling depth tuning by spectral filtering. Taken together, these measurements and simulations indicate that Čerenkov emission imaging might provide a valuable method of superficial dosimetry imaging from incident radiotherapy beams of electrons. PMID:23880473

  17. External beam radiation therapy followed by high-dose-rate brachytherapy for inoperable superficial esophageal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Pasquier, David . E-mail: d-pasquier@o-lambret.fr; Mirabel, Xavier; Adenis, Antoine; Rezvoy, Nicolas; Hecquet, Genevieve; Fournier, Charles; Coche-Dequeant, Bernard; Prevost, Bernard; Castelain, Bernard; Lartigau, Eric

    2006-08-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the feasibility, efficacy, and tolerance of external beam radiotherapy followed by high-dose-rate brachytherapy in inoperable patients with superficial esophageal cancer. Patients and Methods: From November 1992 to May 1999, 66 patients with superficial esophageal cancer were treated with exclusive radiotherapy. The median age was 60 years (range, 41-85). Fifty-three percent of them were ineligible for surgery owing to synchronous or previously treated head-and-neck cancer. Most of the patients (n = 49) were evaluated with endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) or computed tomography (CT). The mean doses of external beam radiotherapy and high-dose rate brachytherapy were 57.1 Gy ({+-}4.83) and 8.82 Gy ({+-}3.98), respectively. The most frequently used regimen was 60 Gy followed by 7 Gy at 5 mm depth in two applications. Results: Among patients evaluated with EUS or CT, the complete response rate was 98%. The 3-, 5-, and 7-year survival rates were 57.9%, 35.6%, and 26.6%, respectively. Median overall survival was 3.8 years. The 5-year relapse-free survival and cause-specific survival were 54.6% and 76.9%. The 5-year overall, relapse-free, and cause-specific survival of the whole population of 66 patients was 33%, 53%, and 77%, respectively. Local failure occurred in 15 of 66 patients; 6 were treated with brachytherapy. Severe late toxicity (mostly esophageal stenosis) rated according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer scale occurred in 6 of 66 patients (9%). Conclusion: This well tolerated regimen may be a therapeutic alternative for inoperable patients with superficial esophageal cancer. Only a randomized study could be able to check the potential benefit of brachytherapy after external beam radiation in superficial esophageal cancer.

  18. Use of Superficial Temporal Fascia Flap for Treatment of Postradiation Trismus: An Innovation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rohit; Roy, Indranil Deb; Deshmukh, Tushar S; Bhandari, Amit

    2015-10-01

    Post radiation trismus severely reduces the quality of life. Radiation causes fibrosis of muscles of mastication resulting in severe restriction of mouth opening. Treatment options are limited as most of the local flaps are in the radiation zone. The present case is the first case in existing literature where, following the release of fibrosis secondary to radiation, superficial temporal fascia (STF) was used to cover the defect with excellent results and no recurrence after a year of follow up. PMID:26468832

  19. Percutaneous Retrograde Sclerotherapy for Refractory Bleeding of Jejunal Varices: Direct Injection via Superficial Epigastric Vein

    SciTech Connect

    Nakata, Manabu Nakata, Waka; Isoda, Norio Yoshizawa, Mitsuyo; Sugimoto, Hideharu

    2012-02-15

    Small-bowel varices are rare and almost always occur in cases with portal hypertension. We encountered a patient with bleeding jejunal varices due to liver cirrhosis. Percutaneous retrograde sclerotherapy was performed via the superficial epigastric vein. Melena disappeared immediately after treatment. Disappearance of jejunal varices was confirmed by contrast-enhanced computed tomography. After 24 months of follow-up, no recurrent melena was observed.

  20. Superficial Siderosis of the Central Nervous System Originating from the Thoracic Spine: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Sung Mo; Kim, Seung-Kook; Lee, Sun-Ho; Eoh, Whan

    2016-01-01

    Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system(SSCNS) is a rare disease characterized by hemosiderin deposition on the surface of the central nervous system. We report a case of SSCNS originating from the thoracic spine, presenting with neurological deficits including, sensorineuronal hearing loss, ataxia, and corticospinal and dorsal column tract signs. The patient underwent dural repair with an artificial dural patch. Clinical findings were elicited by neurological examination, imaging studies, and intraoperative findings, and these were addressed through literature review. PMID:27437021

  1. A superficial coating to improve oxidation and decarburization resistance of bearing steel at high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaojing; Wei, Lianqi; Zhou, Xun; Zhang, Xiaomeng; Ye, Shufeng; Chen, Yunfa

    2012-03-01

    The coating material consisted of aqueous slurry of dolomite, bauxite and silicon carbide mixture. Such a coating material when applied superficially on the steel surface not only enhances oxidation resistance but also helps in inhibiting the decarburization even up to 1250 °C. Metalloscope, XRD and TG-DTA thermal analysis revealed that the formation of a newly densified coating comprised of spinels and the reducing atmosphere formed by the oxidation of SiC improved the resistance of oxidation and decarburization.

  2. Eradication of superficial fungal infections by conventional and novel approaches: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Lalit; Verma, Shivani; Bhardwaj, Ankur; Vaidya, Shubha; Vaidya, Bhuvaneshwar

    2014-02-01

    During the last two decades, the occurrence of fungal infections either superficial or systemic has been increasing. Moreover, fungal infections become more difficult to treat when they show coupling with immunogenic diseases like AIDS. Superficial fungal infections are associated with skin, nail and eye and are less prominent to systemic infection. However, it may be dangerous if not treated properly. It is usually observed that conventional formulations including cream, powder, gels etc. are used to treat skin fungal infections even for the deep seated fungal infections. However, these formulations show various side-effects on the application site like burning, redness and swelling. Further, due to the immediate release of drug from these formulations they can stimulate the immune system of body generating high impact allergic reactions. Deep seated fungal infections like invasive aspergillosis and invasive candidiasis may be more difficult to treat because the drug released from conventional topical formulation can not reach at the target site due to the low penetration capacity. Similarly, in case of fungal infection of nail and eye, conventional formulations show problem of less bioavailability. Thus, to overcome the drawbacks of conventional therapy a lot of research works have been carried out to develop novel formulations of antifungal drugs to deliver them superficially. Novel formulations explored for the skin delivery of antifungal drugs include liposomes, niosomes, ethosomes, microemulsions, nanoparticles, microspheres and micelles. These formulations show extended or sustained release of drug, minimizing the side effect on application site, enhancing bioavailability and reducing the dosing frequency. Further, these formulations also show penetration into the deep skin to treat invasive fungal infections. Novel formulations explored in treatment of fungal infections of eye are liposomes and nanoparticles and whether for nail fungal infections

  3. Superficial Dosimetry Imaging of Čerenkov Emission in Electron Beam Radiotherapy of Phantoms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rongxiao; Fox, Colleen J.; Glaser, Adam K.; Gladstone, David J.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Čerenkov emission is generated from ionizing radiation in tissue above 264keV energy. This study presents the first examination of this optical emission as a surrogate for the absorbed superficial dose. Čerenkov emission was imaged from the surface of flat tissue phantoms irradiated with electrons, using a range of field sizes from 6cm×6cm to 20cm×20cm, incident angles from 0 to 50 degrees, and energies from 6 to 18 MeV. The Čerenkov images were compared with estimated superficial dose in phantoms from direct diode measurements, as well as calculations by Monte Carlo and the treatment planning system. Intensity images showed outstanding linear agreement (R2=0.97) with reference data of the known dose for energies from 6MeV to 18MeV. When orthogonal delivery was done, the in-plane and cross-plane dose distribution comparisons indicated very little difference (±2~4% differences) between the different methods of estimation as compared to Čerenkov light imaging. For an incident angle 50 degrees, the Čerenkov images and Monte Carlo simulation show excellent agreement with the diode data, but the treatment planning system (TPS) had at a larger error (OPT=±1~2%, Diode=±2~3%, TPS=±6~8% differences) as would be expected. The sampling depth of superficial dosimetry based on Čerenkov radiation has been simulated in layered skin model, showing the potential of sampling depth tuning by spectral filtering. Taken together, these measurements and simulations indicate that Čerenkov emission imaging might provide a valuable way to superficial dosimetry imaging from incident radiotherapy beams of electrons. PMID:23880473

  4. Topical versus Systemic Antibiotics in the Treatment of Acute Superficial Skin Infections

    PubMed Central

    Belcon, Michael C.

    1979-01-01

    Use of antibiotics in some superficial skin infections is examined. The choice of a route of administration is dependent on a number of factors, including the site and extent of skin lesions, frequency of recurrence, and clinical and immunological state of the host. However, the consensus of various studies on the subject seem to indicate a preference for the systemic route in acute infectious dermatoses. PMID:423278

  5. Combination of 1-Methylcyclopropene and ethoxyquin to control superficial scald of 'Anjou' pears

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 25 nL L-1 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) application at 20 °C for 24 hours on the day of harvest plus an ethoxyquin drench at 1000 µL L-1 after 1, 7, 30 and 60 days (d) of cold storage controlled superficial scald of ‘d’Anjou’ pears stored in air at -1 °C for 5 months. 1-MCP alone, or ethoxyquin alo...

  6. [Mercury pollution of the superficial sediments of the Gulf of Lion].

    PubMed

    Arnoux, A; Gilles, G; Ramonda, G

    1975-09-15

    Mercury pollution in the superficial sediments of the continental shelf of the golfe du Lion, is characterized by an important extension in its eastern part, which is under the direct influence of the Rhône river, and more limited and fragmented in itw western part. Between both these zones, territories with low contamination persist, of which the hydrodynamism prevents the advance of dense particles containing mercury. PMID:813846

  7. Reconstruction of applicator positions from multiple-view images for accurate superficial hyperthermia treatment planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drizdal, T.; Paulides, M. M.; Linthorst, M.; van Rhoon, G. C.

    2012-05-01

    In the current clinical practice, prior to superficial hyperthermia treatments (HT), temperature probes are placed in tissue to document a thermal dose. To investigate whether the painful procedure of catheter placement can be replaced by superficial HT planning, we study if the specific absorption rate (SAR) coverage is predictive for treatment outcome. An absolute requirement for such a study is the accurate reconstruction of the applicator setup. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of the applicator setup reconstruction from multiple-view images. The accuracy of the multiple-view reconstruction method has been assessed for two experimental setups using six lucite cone applicators (LCAs) representing the largest array applied at our clinic and also the most difficult scenario for the reconstruction. For the two experimental setups and 112 distances, the mean difference between photogrametry reconstructed and manually measured distances was 0.25 ± 0.79 mm (mean±1 standard deviation). By a parameter study of translation T (mm) and rotation R (°) of LCAs, we showed that these inaccuracies are clinically acceptable, i.e. they are either from ±1.02 mm error in translation or ±0.48° in rotation, or combinations expressed by 4.35R2 + 0.97T2 = 1. We anticipate that such small errors will not have a relevant influence on the SAR distribution in the treated region. The clinical applicability of the procedure is shown on a patient with a breast cancer recurrence treated with reirradiation plus superficial hyperthermia using the six-LCA array. The total reconstruction procedure of six LCAs from a set of ten photos currently takes around 1.5 h. We conclude that the reconstruction of superficial HT setup from multiple-view images is feasible and only minor errors are found that will have a negligible influence on treatment planning quality.

  8. Polypoid melanoma and superficial spreading melanoma different subtypes in the same lesion.

    PubMed

    Hikawa, Renato Shintani; Kanehisa, Eliza Sayuri; Enokihara, Mílvia Maria Simões e Silva; Enokihara, Mauro Yoshiaki; Hirata, Sérgio Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma is a malignant melanocytic neoplasm with high mortality rate, and steadily and universally increasing incidence rates. Polypoid melanoma is considered an exophytic variant of the nodular subtype. The incidence of polypoid melanoma is extremely variable, most likely because of the different criteria used for its characterization. We presented a rare case of polypoid melanoma and superficial spreading melanoma in the same lesion. PMID:25054761

  9. Dye penetrant indications caused by superficial surface defects in 2014 aluminum alloy welds.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hocker, R. G.; Wilson, K. R.

    1971-01-01

    Demonstration that dye penetrant indications on the heat-affected zone of 2014-T6 aluminum GMA weldments are frequently caused by superficial surface conditions and are less than 0.007 in. deep. The following methods are suggested for minimization of these surface defects: stabilization of the arc, application of dc ?GTA' welding procedures, reduction of the caustic etch time, and use of fine grain materials.

  10. Superficial Siderosis of the Central Nervous System Originating from the Thoracic Spine: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Sung Mo; Kim, Eun-Sang; Kim, Seung-Kook; Lee, Sun-Ho; Eoh, Whan

    2016-06-01

    Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system(SSCNS) is a rare disease characterized by hemosiderin deposition on the surface of the central nervous system. We report a case of SSCNS originating from the thoracic spine, presenting with neurological deficits including, sensorineuronal hearing loss, ataxia, and corticospinal and dorsal column tract signs. The patient underwent dural repair with an artificial dural patch. Clinical findings were elicited by neurological examination, imaging studies, and intraoperative findings, and these were addressed through literature review. PMID:27437021

  11. Duplication of the superficial femoral artery: comprehensive review of imaging literature and insight into embryology

    PubMed Central

    Hapugoda, Sachintha; Kwan, Gigi Nga Chi; Watkins, Trevor William; Rophael, John A

    2016-01-01

    An extremely rare case of duplicated superficial femoral artery (SFA) was incidentally observed on computed tomography angiogram (CTA) of the lower limbs for presurgical planning for an osteomyocutaneous fibula flap in a patient with T4a oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). To our knowledge, this is the sixth reported case in the imaging literature. We performed a comprehensive review of the English literature and discuss the underlying embryological origin underpinning this rare anatomical variant. PMID:27504194

  12. Acidophilic actinobacteria synthesised silver nanoparticles showed remarkable activity against fungi-causing superficial mycoses in humans.

    PubMed

    Anasane, N; Golińska, P; Wypij, M; Rathod, D; Dahm, H; Rai, M

    2016-03-01

    Superficial mycoses are limited to the most external part of the skin and hair and caused by Malassezia sp., Trichophyton sp. and Candida sp. We report extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by acidophilic actinobacteria (SF23, C9) and its in vitro antifungal activity against fungi-causing superficial mycoses. The phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strains SF23 and C9 showed that they are most closely related to Pilimelia columellifera subsp. pallida GU269552(T) . The detection of AgNPs was confirmed by visual observation of colour changes from colourless to brown, and UV-vis spectrophotometer analysis, which showed peaks at 432 and 427 nm, respectively. These AgNPs were further characterised by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), Zeta potential, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The FTIR analysis exhibited the presence of proteins as capping agents. The TEM analysis revealed the formation of spherical and polydispersed nanoparticles in the size range of 4-36 nm and 8-60 nm, respectively. The biosynthesised AgNPs were screened against fungi-causing superficial mycoses viz., Malassezia furfur, Trichophyton rubrum, Candida albicans and C. tropicalis. The highest antifungal activity of AgNPs from SF23 and C9 against T. rubrum and the least against M. furfur and C. albicans was observed as compared to other tested fungi. The biosynthesised AgNPs were found to be potential anti-antifungal agent against fungi-causing superficial mycoses. PMID:26671603

  13. Irradiation with EMOLED improves the healing process in superficial skin wounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicchi, Riccardo; Rossi, Francesca; Tatini, Francesca; Bacci, Stefano; De Siena, Gaetano; Alfieri, Domenico; Pini, Roberto; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2014-03-01

    A faster healing process was observed in superficial skin wounds after irradiation with the EMOLED photocoagulator. The instrument consists of a compact handheld photocoagulation device, useful for inducing coagulation in superficial abrasions. The illumination is provided by a high power blue LED. Blue light is selectively absorbed by haemoglobin and converted into heat through a photothermal effect. In this study, 10 Sprague Dawley rats were mechanically abraded in four regions of their back: two regions were used as a control and the other two were treated with EMOLED. The photothermal effect was monitored by an infrared thermocamera in order to avoid accidental thermal damage. Visual observations, histopathological analysis and non-linear microscopic imaging performed after 8 days from the treatment showed no adverse reactions and no thermal damage in both treated areas and surrounding tissues. Moreover, a faster healing process and a better-recovered morphology was evidenced in the treated tissue with respect to the untreated tissue. Compared to the control regions, a reduced inflammatory response, a higher collagen content, and a skin morphology more similar to normal skin were observed in the treated regions. Collagen organization in the two regions was characterized using image pattern analysis algorithms on SHG images, demonstrating a fully recovered aspect of dermis as well as a faster neocollagenesis in the treated regions. This study demonstrates that the selective photothermal effect we used for inducing immediate coagulation in superficial wounds is associated to a minimal inflammatory response, which provides reduced recovery times and improved healing process.

  14. Improvement of the healing process in superficial skin wounds after treatment with EMOLED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicchi, Riccardo; Rossi, Francesca; Tatini, Francesca; Bacci, Stefano; De Siena, Gaetano; Alfieri, Domenico; Pini, Roberto; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2014-05-01

    A faster healing process was observed in superficial skin wounds after irradiation with the EMOLED photocoagulator. The instrument consists of a compact handheld photocoagulation device, useful for inducing coagulation in superficial abrasions. The illumination is provided by a high power blue LED. Blue light is selectively absorbed by haemoglobin and converted into heat through a photothermal effect. In this study, 10 Sprague Dawley rats were mechanically abraded in four regions of their back: two regions were used as a control and the other two were treated with EMOLED. The photothermal effect was monitored by an infrared thermocamera in order to avoid accidental thermal damage. Visual observations, histopathological analysis and non-linear microscopic imaging performed after 8 days from the treatment showed no adverse reactions and no thermal damage in both treated areas and surrounding tissues. Moreover, a faster healing process and a better-recovered morphology was evidenced in the treated tissue with respect to the untreated tissue. Compared to the control regions, a reduced inflammatory response, a higher collagen content, and a skin morphology more similar to normal skin were observed in the treated regions. Collagen organization in the two regions was characterized using image pattern analysis algorithms on SHG images, demonstrating a fully recovered aspect of dermis as well as a faster neocollagenesis in the treated regions. This study demonstrates that the selective photothermal effect we used for inducing immediate coagulation in superficial wounds is associated to a minimal inflammatory response, which provides reduced recovery times and improved healing process.

  15. Improvement of the healing process in superficial skin wounds after treatment with EMOLED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicchi, Riccardo; Rossi, Francesca; Tatini, Francesca; Bacci, Stefano; De Siena, Gaetano; Alfieri, Domenico; Pini, Roberto; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2015-02-01

    A faster healing process was observed in superficial skin wounds after irradiation with the EMOLED photocoagulator. The instrument consists of a compact handheld photocoagulation device, useful for inducing coagulation in superficial abrasions. In this study, living animals were mechanically abraded in four regions of their back: two regions were left untreated, the other two were treated with EMOLED, healthy skin surrounding the wounds was used as a control. The treatment effect on skin was monitored by visual observations, histopathological analysis, immuno-histochemical analysis, and non-linear microscopic imaging performed 8 days after the treatment, finding no adverse reactions and no thermal damage in both treated areas and surrounding tissues. In addition, a faster healing process, a reduced inflammatory response, a higher collagen content, and a better-recovered skin morphology was evidenced in the treated tissue with respect to the untreated tissue. These morphological features were characterized by means of immuno-histochemical analysis, aimed at imaging fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, and by SHG microscopy, aimed at characterizing collagen organization, demonstrating a fully recovered aspect of dermis as well as a faster neocollagenesis in the treated regions. This study demonstrates that the selective photothermal effect we used for inducing immediate coagulation in superficial wounds is associated to a minimal inflammatory response, which provides reduced recovery times and improved healing process.

  16. Thermographic imaging of the superficial temperature in racing greyhounds before and after the race.

    PubMed

    Vainionpää, Mari; Tienhaara, Esa-Pekka; Raekallio, Marja; Junnila, Jouni; Snellman, Marjatta; Vainio, Outi

    2012-01-01

    A total of 47 racing greyhounds were enrolled in this study on two race days (in July and September, resp.) at a racetrack. Twelve of the dogs participated in the study on both days. Thermographic images were taken before and after each race. From the images, superficial temperature points of selected sites (tendo calcaneus, musculus gastrocnemius, musculus gracilis, and musculus biceps femoris portio caudalis) were taken and used to investigate the differences in superficial temperatures before and after the race. The thermographic images were compared between the right and left legs of a dog, between the raced distances, and between the two race days. The theoretical heat capacity of a racing greyhound was calculated. With regard to all distances raced, the superficial temperatures measured from the musculus gastrocnemius were significantly higher after the race than at baseline. No significant differences were found between the left and right legs of a dog after completing any of the distances. Significant difference was found between the two race days. The heat loss mechanisms of racing greyhounds during the race through forced conduction, radiation, evaporation, and panting can be considered adequate when observing the calculated heat capacity of the dogs. PMID:23097633

  17. Transdermal drug delivery: feasibility for treatment of superficial bone stress fractures.

    PubMed

    Aghazadeh-Habashi, Ali; Yang, Yang; Tang, Kathy; Lőbenberg, Raimar; Doschak, Michael R

    2015-12-01

    Transdermal drug delivery offers the promise of effective drug therapy at selective sites of pathology whilst reducing systemic exposure to the pharmaceutical agents in off-target organs and tissues. However, that strategy is often limited to cells comprising superficial tissues of the body (rarely to deeper bony structures) and mostly indicated with small hydrophobic pharmacological agents, such as steroid hormones and anti-inflammatory gels to skin, muscle, and joints. Nonetheless, advances in transdermal liposomal formulation have rendered the ability to readily incorporate pharmacologically active hydrophilic drug molecules and small peptide biologics into transdermal dosage forms to impart the effective delivery of those bioactive agents across the skin barrier to underlying superficial tissue structures including bone, often enhanced by some form of electrical, chemical, and mechanical facilitation. In the following review, we evaluate transdermal drug delivery systems, with a particular focus on delivering therapeutic agents to treat superficial bone pain, notably stress fractures. We further introduce and discuss several small peptide hormones active in bone (such as calcitonins and parathyroid hormone) that have shown potential for transdermal delivery, often under the added augmentation of transdermal drug delivery systems that employ lipo/hydrophilicity, electric charge, and/or microprojection facilitation across the skin barrier. PMID:26350235

  18. Superficial Dorsal Vein Injury/Thrombosis Presenting as False Penile Fracture Requiring Dorsal Venous Ligation

    PubMed Central

    Rafiei, Arash; Hakky, Tariq S; Martinez, Daniel; Parker, Justin; Carrion, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Conditions mimicking penile fracture are extremely rare and have been seldom described. Aim To describe a patient with false penile fracture who presented with superficial dorsal vein injury/thrombosis managed with ligation. Methods A 33-year-old male presented with penile swelling and ecchymosis after intercourse. A penile ultrasound demonstrated a thrombosed superficial dorsal vein but also questionable fracture of the tunica albuginea. As the thrombus was expanding, he was emergently taken to the operating room for exploration and required only dorsal venous ligation. Results Postoperatively, patient's Sexual Health Inventory for Men score was 23, and he had no issues with erections or sexual intercourse. Conclusion Early exploration of patients with suspected penile fracture provides excellent results with maintenance of erectile function. Also, in the setting of dorsal vein thrombosis, ligation preserves the integrity of the penile tissues and avoids unnecessary complications from conservative management. Rafiei A, Hakky TS, Martinez D, Parker J, and Carrion R. Superficial dorsal vein injury/thrombosis presenting as false penile fracture requiring dorsal venous ligation. PMID:25548650

  19. Ancient Schwannoma of superficial peroneal nerve presenting as intermittent leg pain: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Germano; Nomi, Thaís; Marques, Raquel; Leiria, João; Silva, Carmen; Periquito, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Schwannomas are benign, encapsulated, slow-growing and usually solitary tumors originating from Schwann cells of the peripheral nerve sheath. Schwannomas of the superficial peroneal nerves are very rare, and therefore scarcely documented in the literature. The authors report a case of a diagnosed superficial fibular nerve sheath tumor with an unreported clinical presentation. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 52-year-old Caucasian female arrived to our Orthopedics Department complaining of pain and numbness of the lateral aspect of her left leg. These symptoms were present for a year and were more evident at the end of the day, or after a long time in the orthostatic position. No evidence of other medical illnesses was found. There was no record of prior traumatic events related to that limb. Diagnosis of a benign peripheral nerve tumor was achieved and the patient was treated by surgical excision of the lesion. DISCUSSION The intermittent symptomatology presentation on this case suggest a mechanical compression etiology, allied to classical pain and paresthesia often exhibited by this kind of the tumor. An intracompartimental pressure elevation could explain why the symptoms disclosed an episodic pattern, due to a constricted, inclosed nerve. CONCLUSION We describe a rare case of a patient with an unusual superficial peroneal nerve Schwannoma clinical presentation. Literature on this topic is scarce and, therefore, this case report intends to add further data about this kind of lesion. PMID:25506844

  20. Efficacy of Pattern Scan Laser photocoagulation for superficial conjunctival nevi ablation.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Min; Lee, Ji-Eun; Lee, Jong Soo

    2016-07-01

    This study reports the efficacy and safety of Pattern Scan Laser (PASCAL) photocoagulation in the removal of superficial conjunctival nevi. Superficial conjunctival nevi were removed from 10 eyes of 10 patients using PASCAL. The laser spots were 200 μm in size, and the power delivered ranged from 250 to 300 mW. The duration of the laser pulse was kept at the minimum needed for adequate lesion removal. The duration of the laser pulse administered to the patients varied from 100 to 200 ms. Complete removal of the conjunctival nevus was observed in all the patients after PASCAL photocoagulation. Six months after treatment, complete re-epithelialization of the overlying conjunctiva was noted. No signs of recurrence or scarring were found in any of the patients during the follow-up period. Pure thermal denaturation is the main mechanism of PASCAL photocoagulation for removal of superficial conjunctival nevi. PASCAL can be considered as an alternative to conventional argon laser treatment or surgery. PMID:26914686

  1. Iatrogenic arteriovenous fistula of the superficial temporal artery after reduction malarplasty.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun Hyuk; Yoon, Seok Mann; Choi, Hwan Jun

    2015-01-01

    A 34-year-old woman who had a history of undergoing reduction malarplasty at a local clinic about 1 year ago developed gradually increasing pulsatile tinnitus in the right preauricular area since the last 6 months. On physical examination, there were an approximately 1 × 0.5-cm nontender, soft, pulsatile mass with a palpable thrill and a continuous machinery-like buzzing sound in synchrony with the heartbeat. She had a fine scar near the mass, which was supposed to be a postoperative scar of reduction malarplasty. A three-dimensional computed tomographic angiogram revealed a direct arteriovenous fistula between the superficial temporal artery and superficial temporal vein in the right preauricular area. The arteriovenous fistula was embolized using Tornado coils. After coiling, the thrill and disturbing tinnitus disappeared immediately, and postembolization angiography confirmed obliteration of the arteriovenous shunt. This is the first case of an arteriovenous fistula of the superficial temporal artery after reduction malarplasty, and it indicates that arteriovenous fistula can occur as a delayed complication of reduction malarplasty. PMID:25569414

  2. Chimeric Superficial Circumflex Iliac Perforator Flap Including External Oblique Fascia: A Refinement of Conventional Harvesting

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez Garrido, Manuel; Vega Garcia, Carmen; Pons Playa, Gemma; Masiá Ayala, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    Summary: The superficial circumflex iliac perforator (SCIP) flap is one of the most suitable flaps to cover distal extremity defects due to its lack of bulkiness and donor site concealment. However, it is less popular than other perforator flaps due to its anatomical variations, short pedicle length, and small caliber vessels. We describe a novel design for the SCIP flap, consisting of a chimeric flap with a piece of the external oblique muscle fascia. The purpose of this design is to cover and protect the vascular anastomosis in distal lower limb defects where recipient vessels are superficial and skin coverage is poor. In addition, lengthening the pedicle with this design makes the flap more versatile. The addition of a cuff of fascia in harvesting of the SCIP flap lengthens the pedicle, allowing easier insetting of the skin paddle and providing complete protection and coverage of the vessels. This procedure allows greater versatility in inset of the skin paddle and is particularly suitable in cases where recipient vessels are superficial or when skin coverage is poor. PMID:27482505

  3. Diagnostic Accuracy of Mucosal Biopsy versus Endoscopic Mucosal Resection in Barrett's Esophagus and Related Superficial Lesions.

    PubMed

    Elsadek, Hany M; Radwan, Mamdouh M

    2015-01-01

    Background. Endoscopic surveillance for early detection of dysplastic or neoplastic changes in patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE) depends usually on biopsy. The diagnostic and therapeutic role of endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) in BE is rapidly growing. Objective. The aim of this study was to check the accuracy of biopsy for precise histopathologic diagnosis of dysplasia and neoplasia, compared to EMR in patients having BE and related superficial esophageal lesions. Methods. A total of 48 patients with previously diagnosed BE (36 men, 12 women, mean age 49.75 ± 13.3 years) underwent routine surveillance endoscopic examination. Biopsies were taken from superficial lesions, if present, and otherwise from BE segments. Then, EMR was performed within three weeks. Results. Biopsy based histopathologic diagnoses were nondysplastic BE (NDBE), 22 cases; low-grade dysplasia (LGD), 14 cases; high-grade dysplasia (HGD), 8 cases; intramucosal carcinoma (IMC), two cases; and invasive adenocarcinoma (IAC), two cases. EMR based diagnosis differed from biopsy based diagnosis (either upgrading or downgrading) in 20 cases (41.67%), (Kappa = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.170-0.69). Conclusions. Biopsy is not a satisfactory method for accurate diagnosis of dysplastic or neoplastic changes in BE patients with or without suspicious superficial lesions. EMR should therefore be the preferred diagnostic method in such patients. PMID:27347544

  4. Superficial circumflex iliac artery pure skin perforator-based superthin flap for hand and finger reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Narushima, Mitsunaga; Iida, Takuya; Kaji, Nobuyuki; Yamamoto, Takumi; Yoshimatsu, Hidehiko; Hara, Hisako; Kikuchi, Kazuki; Araki, Jun; Yamashita, Shuji; Koshima, Isao

    2016-06-01

    For hand and finger reconstruction, thin and flexible skin coverage is ideally required. A free flap is one of the surgical options used for large defects. However, a flap containing the fat layer is bulky. Several debulking surgeries are often needed for aesthetic and functional purposes. To overcome this disadvantage, we herein report our experience of six cases of hand and finger reconstruction using a pure skin perforator (PSP) flap concept. A PSP flap is a thin skin flap that is vascularized by a perforator branch penetrating the dermis. The thickness of the PSP flap could be approximately ≤2 mm as needed. The superficial circumflex iliac artery and superficial inferior epigastric artery were used as a flap pedicle. Secondary defatting operations were not required. For the success of PSP flap elevation, we applied three techniques: the microdissection technique for vessel separation, thin flap elevation at the superficial fascial layer, and the temporary clamping method. Temporary clamping was applied for the main trunk of pedicle vessels during debulking to prevent unwanted bleeding, which allowed us to freely perform three-dimensional defatting. Using these three techniques, the PSP flap can be elevated and adjusted for complex contouring of the hand and finger. Although the use of the PSP flap requires further study, the PSP flap is an effective, superthin flap with the advantages of both skin graft and perforator flaps. PMID:27085610

  5. Ultrasound-Guided Continuous Superficial Radial Nerve Block for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Henshaw, Daryl S; Kittner, Sarah L; Jaffe, Jonathan D

    2016-06-01

    Although there are many potentially effective therapeutic options for complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), no definitive treatment exists. Therefore, patients often exhaust both medical and surgical treatment options attempting to find relief for their symptoms. As pain control and restoration of physical movement are primary treatment goals, strategies that include regional anesthesia techniques are commonly employed, but potentially underutilized, treatment modalities. The authors present a patient with refractory CRPS that had significant improvement in both pain control and the ability to tolerate intensive physical therapy following the placement of a superficial radial nerve catheter and an infusion of local anesthetic for 6 days as part of a multimodal analgesic regimen. This treatment approach also assisted in the decision-making process related to future treatment options. Although the use of regional anesthesia and perineural infusions of local anesthetic have previously been described as viable treatment options for CRPS, this case report represents the first known use of a superficial radial nerve catheter for treating CRPS as well as the first description of a technique for placing a superficial radial nerve (SRN) catheter using ultrasound guidance. PMID:27159548

  6. Comparison of superficial mycosis treatment using Butenafine and Bifonazole nitrate clinical efficacy.

    PubMed

    Abdul Bari, Mohammed A

    2013-01-01

    Superficial fungal infections are commonly encountered by the physician. And the continuously changing epidemiology of invasive fungal infections results in the need for an expanded armamentarium of antifungal therapies. This study was designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Butenafine (BTF) versus Bifonazole (BFZ) in the treatment of superficial mycosis in a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group trial. Of 96 patients, 48 applied (BTF) cream and 48 applied (BFZ) cream for 2 weeks to tinea versicolor, corporis and cruris treat, while tinea of feet & hands was treated for 4 weeks duration. Efficacy was assessed after the end of treatment and 2 weeks later. At the end of therapy, we find somewhat more patients using (BTF) than using (BFZ) had a mycologic cure ((BTF), 87.5%; (BFZ) 83.3%) and effective clinical response ((BTF), 91.7%; (BFZ), 83.3%). (BTF) provides rapid and persistent antifungal activity and symptom relief in patients with superficial mycosis during treatment. And patients continued to improve for at least 2 weeks after treatment. The Rates of mycologic cure and effective treatment with (BTF) were higher than with (BFZ) at cessation of treatment and 2 weeks later. However, no significant difference found between the two drugs (p> 0.05). PMID:23283047

  7. Comparison of Superficial Mycosis Treatment using Butenafine and Bifonazole nitrate Clinical Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Bari, Mohammed A. Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Superficial fungal infections are commonly encountered by the physician. And the continuously changing epidemiology of invasive fungal infections results in the need for an expanded armamentarium of antifungal therapies. This study was designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Butenafine (BTF) versus Bifonazole (BFZ) in the treatment of superficial mycosis in a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group trial. Of 96 patients, 48 applied (BTF) cream and 48 applied (BFZ) cream for 2 weeks to tinea versicolor, corporis and cruris treat, while tinea of feet & hands was treated for 4 weeks duration. Efficacy was assessed after the end of treatment and 2 weeks later. At the end of therapy, we find somewhat more patients using (BTF) than using (BFZ) had a mycologic cure ((BTF), 87.5%; (BFZ) 83.3%) and effective clinical response ((BTF), 91.7%; (BFZ), 83.3%). (BTF) provides rapid and persistent antifungal activity and symptom relief in patients with superficial mycosis during treatment. And patients continued to improve for at least 2 weeks after treatment. The Rates of mycologic cure and effective treatment with (BTF) were higher than with (BFZ) at cessation of treatment and 2 weeks later. However, no significant difference found between the two drugs (p> 0.05). PMID:23283047

  8. Evaluation of 5 µm Superficially Porous Particles for Capillary and Microfluidic LC Columns

    PubMed Central

    Grinias, James P.; Kennedy, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    Large-size (4–5 µm) superficially porous particles yield lower plate heights (e.g., the minimal reduced plate height or hmin ≈ 1.5) than fully porous particles of a similar size when packed into large-bore columns. This property allows for better chromatographic performance without the higher pressures required for smaller particles. This study explores the use of such particles in microfluidic LC columns where materials and fitting pressure limits can constrain the size of particle used. The theoretically predicted performance improvements compared to fully porous particles were not demonstrated in capillary columns (with hmin ≈ 2 for both particle types), in agreement with previous studies that examined smaller superficially porous particles. Microfluidic columns were then compared to capillary columns. Capillary columns significantly outperformed microfluidic columns due to imperfections imposed by microfluidic channel asymmetry and world-to-chip connection at the optimal flow rate; however, superficially porous particles packed in microfluidic LC columns had flatter plate height versus flow rate curves indicating potential for better performance at high reduced velocities. PMID:26714261

  9. Immunohistochemical demonstration of fibronectin in the most superficial layer of normal rabbit articular cartilage.

    PubMed Central

    Nishida, K; Inoue, H; Murakami, T

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To locate fibronectin ultrastructurally in the most superficial layer of normal articular cartilage of rabbits, in order to clarify its role in joint physiology. METHODS--Articular cartilage was obtained from the femoral condyle of seven normal adult rabbits and prepared by a method that included tannic acid fixation. Polyclonal antibodies against rabbit fibronectin were used in an immunohistochemical electron microscopic study, without any enzymic digestion but with a pre-embedding method for the transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS--The cartilage surface was successfully preserved by tannic acid fixation. The most superficial layer in electron photomicrographs was approximately 200-300 nm thick, cell free, and appeared to have two parallel components: the more superficial lamina and the deeper lamina. Gold labelled fibronectin lined this layer in immunohistochemical electron photomicrographs. CONCLUSIONS--Fibronectin covering the surface of the articular cartilage may have a role in joint lubrication and protection of the cartilage by binding with the collagenous matrix and hyaluronic acid in synovial fluid. Chondroitin sulphates may act as a charge barrier in close relationship with the collagen fibrils in the deeper lamina. Significant alteration in these functions may be one of the first causal steps leading to destruction of the articular cartilage. Images PMID:8546534

  10. Role of uppermost superficial surface layer of articular cartilage in the lubrication mechanism of joints

    PubMed Central

    KUMAR, P.; OKA, M.; TOGUCHIDA, J.; KOBAYASHI, M.; UCHIDA, E.; NAKAMURA, T.; TANAKA, K.

    2001-01-01

    The uppermost superficial surface layer of articular cartilage, the ‘lamina splendens’ which provides a very low friction lubrication surface in articular joints, was investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Complementary specimens were also observed under SEM at −10 °C without dehydration or sputter ion coating. Fresh adult pig osteochondral specimens were prepared from the patellas of pig knee joints and digested with the enzymes, hyaluronidase, chondroitinase ABC and alkaline protease. Friction coefficients between a pyrex glass plate and the osteochondral specimens digested by enzymes as well as natural (undigested) specimens were measured, using a thrust collar apparatus. Normal saline, hyaluronic acid (HA) and a mixture of albumin, globulin, HA (AGH) were used as lubrication media. The surface irregularities usually observed in SEM studies were not apparent under AFM. The articular cartilage surface was resistant to hyaluronidase and also to chondroitinase ABC, but a fibrous structure was exhibited in alkaline protease enzymes-digested specimens. AFM analysis revealed that the thickness of the uppermost superficial surface layer of articular cartilage was between 800 nm and 2 μm in adult pig articular cartilage. The coefficient of friction (c.f.) was significantly higher in chondroitinase ABC and alkaline protease enzymes digested specimens. Generally, in normal saline lubrication medium, c.f. was higher in comparison to HA and AGH lubrication media. The role of the uppermost, superficial surface layer of articular cartilage in the lubrication mechanism of joints is discussed. PMID:11554503

  11. Role of uppermost superficial surface layer of articular cartilage in the lubrication mechanism of joints.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P; Oka, M; Toguchida, J; Kobayashi, M; Uchida, E; Nakamura, T; Tanaka, K

    2001-09-01

    The uppermost superficial surface layer of articular cartilage, the 'lamina splendens' which provides a very low friction lubrication surface in articular joints, was investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Complementary specimens were also observed under SEM at -10 degrees C without dehydration or sputter ion coating. Fresh adult pig osteochondral specimens were prepared from the patellas of pig knee joints and digested with the enzymes, hyaluronidase, chondroitinase ABC and alkaline protease. Friction coefficients between a pyrex glass plate and the osteochondral specimens digested by enzymes as well as natural (undigested) specimens were measured, using a thrust collar apparatus. Normal saline, hyaluronic acid (HA) and a mixture of albumin, globulin, HA (AGH) were used as lubrication media. The surface irregularities usually observed in SEM studies were not apparent under AFM. The articular cartilage surface was resistant to hyaluronidase and also to chondroitinase ABC, but a fibrous structure was exhibited in alkaline protease enzymes-digested specimens. AFM analysis revealed that the thickness of the uppermost superficial surface layer of articular cartilage was between 800 nm and 2 microm in adult pig articular cartilage. The coefficient of friction (c.f.) was significantly higher in chondroitinase ABC and alkaline protease enzymes digested specimens. Generally, in normal saline lubrication medium, c.f. was higher in comparison to HA and AGH lubrication media. The role of the uppermost, superficial surface layer of articular cartilage in the lubrication mechanism of joints is discussed. PMID:11554503

  12. In vivo high-resolution 3D photoacoustic imaging of superficial vascular anatomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, E. Z.; Laufer, J. G.; Pedley, R. B.; Beard, P. C.

    2009-02-01

    The application of a photoacoustic imaging instrument based upon a Fabry-Perot polymer film ultrasound sensor to imaging the superficial vasculature is described. This approach provides a backward mode-sensing configuration that has the potential to overcome the limitations of current piezoelectric based detection systems used in superficial photoacoustic imaging. The system has been evaluated by obtaining non-invasive images of the vasculature in human and mouse skin as well as mouse models of human colorectal tumours. These studies showed that the system can provide high-resolution 3D images of vascular structures to depths of up to 5 mm. It is considered that this type of instrument may find a role in the clinical assessment of conditions characterized by changes in the vasculature such as skin tumours and superficial soft tissue damage due to burns, wounds or ulceration. It may also find application in the characterization of small animal cancer models where it is important to follow the tumour vasculature over time in order to study its development and/or response to therapy.

  13. Superficial leiomyomas of the gastrointestinal tract with interstitial cells of Cajal

    PubMed Central

    Janevska, Vesna; Qerimi, Adelina; Basheska, Neli; Stojkova, Elena; Janevski, Vlado; Jovanovic, Rubens; Zhivadinovik, Julija; Spasevska, Liljana

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Some authors suggest common origin of gastrointestinal stromal tumors from stem cells, which may show diverse differentiation. There are reports in which cells morphologically identical to the interstitial cells of Cajal are found in deep leiomyomas. The aim of this study was to demonstrate CD117 positive cells in superficial gastrointestinal (GI) leiomyomas and to find other cells that would suggest diverse differentiation in histologically typical leiomyoma. Materials and methods: We analyzed 8 cases of superficial leiomyomas and one deep leiomyoma, received in our institutions as endoscopically or surgically obtained material. The tumor sections were immunohistochemicaly stained with CD117, CD34, NF, S100, αSMA, desmin, caldesmon and mast cell antigen. Results: All leiomyomas showed diffuse positivity for αSMA, caldesmon and desmin. All of them had CD117 and CD34 positive cells morphologically identical to the interstitial cells of Cajal between smooth muscle fibers, 5 had S-100 and NF positive cells and 2 showed positivity for GFAP. The cells were found in different quantity; they were usually diffusely scattered through the tumors without predilection site, forming small groups in some areas. Conclusion: CD177, CD34, S-100 and NF positive cells are present in superficial leiomyomas and they may suggest common origin of GI stromal tumors. PMID:26884872

  14. Automated detection of malignant features in confocal microscopy on superficial spreading melanoma versus nevi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gareau, Dan; Hennessy, Ricky; Wan, Eric; Pellacani, Giovanni; Jacques, Steven L.

    2010-11-01

    In-vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) shows promise for the early detection of superficial spreading melanoma (SSM). RCM of SSM shows pagetoid melanocytes (PMs) in the epidermis and disarray at the dermal-epidermal junction (DEJ), which are automatically quantified with a computer algorithm that locates depth of the most superficial pigmented surface [DSPS(x,y)] containing PMs in the epidermis and pigmented basal cells near the DEJ. The algorithm uses 200 noninvasive confocal optical sections that image the superficial 200 μm of ten skin sites: five unequivocal SSMs and five nevi. The pattern recognition algorithm automatically identifies PMs in all five SSMs and finds none in the nevi. A large mean gradient ψ (roughness) between laterally adjacent points on DSPS(x,y) identifies DEJ disruption in SSM ψ = 11.7 +/- 3.7 [-] for n = 5 SSMs versus a small ψ = 5.5 +/- 1.0 [-] for n = 5 nevi (significance, p = 0.0035). Quantitative endpoint metrics for malignant characteristics make digital RCM data an attractive diagnostic asset for pathologists, augmenting studies thus far, which have relied largely on visual assessment.

  15. Determinants of different deep and superficial CA1 pyramidal cell dynamics during sharp-wave ripples

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, Juan; Sanchez-Aguilera, Alberto; Viney, Tim J; Gomez-Dominguez, Daniel; Bellistri, Elisa; de la Prida, Liset Menendez

    2016-01-01

    Sharp-wave ripples represent a prominent synchronous activity pattern in the mammalian hippocampus during sleep and immobility. GABAergic interneuronal types are silenced or fire during these events, but the mechanism of pyramidal cell (PC) participation remains elusive. We found opposite membrane polarization of deep (closer to stratum oriens) and superficial (closer to stratum radiatum) rat CA1 PCs during sharp-wave ripples. Using sharp and multi-site recordings in combination with neurochemical profiling, we observed a predominant inhibitory drive of deep calbindin (CB)-immunonegative PCs that contrasts with a prominent depolarization of superficial CB-immunopositive PCs. Biased contribution of perisomatic GABAergic inputs, together with suppression of CA2 PCs, may explain the selection of CA1 PCs during sharp-wave ripples. A deep-superficial gradient interacted with behavioral and spatial effects to determine cell participation during sleep and awake sharp-wave ripples in freely moving rats. Thus, the firing dynamics of hippocampal PCs are exquisitely controlled at subcellular and microcircuit levels in a cell type–selective manner. PMID:26214372

  16. Thermographic Imaging of the Superficial Temperature in Racing Greyhounds before and after the Race

    PubMed Central

    Vainionpää, Mari; Tienhaara, Esa-Pekka; Raekallio, Marja; Junnila, Jouni; Snellman, Marjatta; Vainio, Outi

    2012-01-01

    A total of 47 racing greyhounds were enrolled in this study on two race days (in July and September, resp.) at a racetrack. Twelve of the dogs participated in the study on both days. Thermographic images were taken before and after each race. From the images, superficial temperature points of selected sites (tendo calcaneus, musculus gastrocnemius, musculus gracilis, and musculus biceps femoris portio caudalis) were taken and used to investigate the differences in superficial temperatures before and after the race. The thermographic images were compared between the right and left legs of a dog, between the raced distances, and between the two race days. The theoretical heat capacity of a racing greyhound was calculated. With regard to all distances raced, the superficial temperatures measured from the musculus gastrocnemius were significantly higher after the race than at baseline. No significant differences were found between the left and right legs of a dog after completing any of the distances. Significant difference was found between the two race days. The heat loss mechanisms of racing greyhounds during the race through forced conduction, radiation, evaporation, and panting can be considered adequate when observing the calculated heat capacity of the dogs. PMID:23097633

  17. Voice Outcome in Patients Treated With Endoscopic Laryngopharyngeal Surgery for Superficial Hypopharyngeal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tateya, Ichiro; Morita, Shuko; Ishikawa, Seiji; Muto, Manabu; Hirano, Shigeru; Kishimoto, Yo; Hiwatashi, Nao; Ito, Juichi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Endoscopic laryngopharyngeal surgery (ELPS) is a minimally invasive transoral surgery that was developed to treat superficial larygo-pharyngeal cancer, in which a mucosal lesion is resected transorally while preserving deeper structures by subepithelial injection. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate voice outcome in patients who underwent ELPS for superficial hypopharyngeal cancer. As important structures in producing voice, such as intrinsic laryngeal muscles, their fascia, and recurrent laryngeal nerve, are located in the medial side of the piriform sinus and the postcricoid region of the hypopharynx, we focused on patients with cancer lesions involving these regions. Methods From April 2010 to March 2011, 25 consecutive patients with superficial laryngopharyngeal cancer were treated with ELPS at Kyoto University Hospital. Among the 25 patients, 11 patients with cancer lesions on the medial side of the piriform sinus or the postcricoid area were studied. Preoperative and postoperative voice functions including maximum phonation time (MPT), mean flow rate (MFR), jitter, shimmer, soft phonation index (SPI), and noise-to-harmonic ratio (NHR), were compared retrospectively. Results Five of 11 cancer lesions had submucosal invasion and no lesion had invaded the muscular layer pathologically. T stage was classified as Tis in 5 cases, T1 in 4 cases, and T2 in 2 cases. All lesions involved the medial side of the piriform sinus and 2 also involved the postcricoid area. Vocal fold movement was normal in all cases after the surgery. Average preoperative and postoperative values for MPT, MFR, jitter, shimmer, SPI, and NHR, were 22.7 seconds and 23.4 seconds, 165 mL/sec and 150 mL/sec, 1.53% and 1.77%, 3.82% and 5.17%, 35.5 and 36.6, and 0.13% and 0.14%, respectively. There was no statistical difference between preoperative and postoperative data for all values examined. Conclusion ELPS is useful in preserving voice function in the treatment of

  18. Antifungal agents commonly used in the superficial and mucosal candidiasis treatment: mode of action and resistance development

    PubMed Central

    Bondaryk, Małgorzata; Kurzątkowski, Wiesław

    2013-01-01

    Recent progress in medical sciences and therapy resulted in an increased number of immunocompromised individuals. Candida albicans is the leading opportunistic fungal pathogen causing infections in humans, ranging from superficial mucosal lesions to disseminated or bloodstream candidiasis. Superficial candidiasis not always presents a risk to the life of the infected host, however it significantly lowers the quality of life. Superficial Candida infections are difficult to treat and their frequency of occurrence is currently rising. To implement successful treatment doctors should be up to date with better understanding of C. albicans resistance mechanisms. Despite high frequency of Candida infections there is a limited number of antimycotics available for therapy. This review focuses on current understanding of the mode of action and resistance mechanisms to conventional and emerging antifungal agents for treatment of superficial and mucosal candidiasis. PMID:24353489

  19. Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system associated with incomplete dural closure following posterior fossa surgery: report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ravi; Jacob, Jeffrey T; Welker, Kirk M; Cutrer, Fred M; Link, Michael J; Atkinson, John L D; Wetjen, Nicholas M

    2015-11-01

    This report reviews a series of 3 patients who developed superficial siderosis following posterior fossa operations in which dural closure was incomplete. In all 3 patients, revision surgery and complete duraplasty was performed to halt the progression of superficial siderosis. Following surgery, 2 patients experienced resolution of their CSF xanthochromia while 1 patient had reduced CSF xanthochromia. In this paper the authors also review the etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of this condition. The authors suggest that posterior fossa dural patency and pseudomeningocele are risk factors for the latent development of superficial siderosis and recommend that revision duraplasty be performed in patients with posterior fossa pseudomeningoceles and superficial siderosis to prevent progression of the disease. PMID:26067619

  20. Efficiency in supercritical fluid chromatography with different superficially porous and fully porous particles ODS bonded phases.

    PubMed

    Lesellier, E

    2012-03-01

    The chromatographic efficiency, in terms of plate number per second, was dramatically improved by the introduction of sub-two microns particles with ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC). On the other hand, the recent development of superficially porous particles, called core-shell or fused-core particles, appears to allow the achievement of the same efficiency performances at higher speed without high pressure drops. CO₂-based mobile phases exhibiting much lower viscosities than aqueous based mobile phases allow better theoretical efficiencies, even with 3-5 μm particles, but with relative low pressure drops. They also allow much higher flow rates or much longer columns while using conventional instruments capable to operate below 400 bar. Moreover, the use of superficially porous particles in SFC could enhance the chromatographic performances even more. The kinetic behavior of ODS phases bonded on these particles was studied, with varied flow rates, outlet (and obviously inlet) pressures, temperatures, by using a homologous series (alkylbenzenes) with 10% modifier (methanol or acetonitrile) in the carbon dioxide mobile phase. Results were also compared with classical fully porous particles, having different sizes, from 2.5 to 5 μm. Superior efficiency (N) and reduced h were obtained with these new ODS-bonded particles in regards to classical ones, showing their great interest for use in SFC. However, surprising behavior were noticed, i.e. the increase of the theoretical plate number vs. the increase of the chain length of the compounds. This behavior, opposite to the one classically reported vs. the retention factor, was not depending on the outlet pressure, but on the flow rate and the temperature changes. The lower radial trans-column diffusion on this particle types could explain these results. This diffusion reduction with these ODS-bonded superficially porous particles seems to decrease with the increase of the residence time of compounds

  1. A prototype of a flexible grid electrode to treat widespread superficial tumors by means of Electrochemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Campana, Luca G.; Dughiero, Fabrizio; Forzan, Michele; Rossi, Carlo R.; Sieni, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    Background In recent years, superficial chest wall recurrence from breast cancer can be effectively treated by means of electrochemotherapy, with the majority of patients achieving response to treatment. Nevertheless, tumor spread along superficial lymphatic vessels makes this peculiar type of tumor recurrence prone to involve large skin areas and difficult to treat. In these cases, electroporation with standard, small size needle electrodes can be time-consuming and produce an inhomogeneous coverage of the target area, ultimately resulting in patient under treatment. Materials and methods Authors designed and developed a prototype of a flexible grid electrode aimed at the treatment of large skin surfaces and manufactured a connection box to link the pulse applicator to a voltage pulse generator. Laboratory tests on potato tissue were performed in order to evaluate the electroporation effect, which was evaluated by observing color change of treated tissue. Results A device has been designed in order to treat chest wall recurrences from breast cancer. According to preliminary tests, the new flexible support of the electrode allows the adaptability to the surface to be treated. Moreover, the designed devices can be useful to treat a larger surface in 2–5 minutes. Conclusions Authors developed the prototype of a new pulse applicator aimed at the treatment of widespread superficial tumors. This flexible grid needle electrode was successfully tested on potato tissue and produced an electroporation effect. From a clinical point of view, the development of this device may shorten electrochemotherapy procedure thus allowing clinicians to administer electric pulses at the time of maximum tumor exposure to drugs. Moreover, since the treatment time is 2–5 min long, it could also reduce the time of anesthesia, thus improving patient recovery. PMID:27069449

  2. Efficacy and safety of electronic brachytherapy for superficial and nodular basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pons-Llanas, Olga; Candela-Juan, Cristian; Celada-Alvarez, Francisco Javier; de Unamuno-Bustos, Blanca; Llavador-Ros, Margarita; Ballesta-Cuñat, Antonio; Barker, Christopher A.; Tormo-Mico, Alejandro; Botella-Estrada, Rafael; Perez-Calatayud, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Surface electronic brachytherapy (EBT) is an alternative radiotherapy solution to external beam electron radiotherapy and high-dose-rate radionuclide-based brachytherapy. In fact, it is also an alternative solution to surgery for a subgroup of patients. The objective of this work is to confirm the clinical efficacy, toxicity and cosmesis of a new EBT system, namely Esteya® in the treatment of nodular and superficial basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Material and methods This is a prospective single-center, non-randomized pilot study to assess the efficacy and safety of EBT in nodular and superficial BCC using the Esteya® system. The study was conducted from June 2014 to February 2015. The follow up time was 6 months for all cases. Results Twenty patients with 23 lesions were included. A complete response was documented in all lesions (100%). A low level of toxicity was observed after the 4th fraction in all cases. Erythema was the most frequent adverse event. Cosmesis was excellent, with more than 60% of cases without skin alteration and with subtle changes in the rest. Conclusions Electronic brachytherapy with Esteya® appears to be an effective, simple, safe, and comfortable treatment for nodular and superficial BCC associated with excellent cosmesis. It could be a good choice for elderly patients, patients with contraindications for surgery (due to comorbidities or anticoagulant drugs) or patients where surgery would result in a more disfiguring outcome. A longer follow-up and more studies are needed to confirm these preliminary results. PMID:26207112

  3. Comparative histopathology of pemphigus foliaceus and superficial folliculitis in the dog.

    PubMed

    Kuhl, K A; Shofer, F S; Goldschmidt, M H

    1994-01-01

    A comparative histopathologic study of 50 cases of pemphigus foliaceus and 47 cases of superficial folliculitis in the dog was undertaken to identify those histopathologic features important in differentiating these diseases. All cases were diagnosed by the Surgical Pathology Service of the Laboratory of Pathology of the University of Pennsylvania, School of Veterinary Medicine, between January 1986 and March 1991. These cases were followed clinically to determine the accuracy of the initial histopathologic diagnosis. Data were analyzed by Fisher's exact test for discrete data and the Mann-Whitney U-test for continuous data. A probability of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The following breeds were affected with pemphigus foliaceus: Akita, Brittany Spaniel, Chow Chow, Collie, Dachshund, Doberman Pinscher, English Cocker Spaniel, English Setter, Golden Retriever, Siberian Husky, Laborador Retriever, Miniature Schnauzer, Old English Sheepdog, Scottish Terrier, Chinese Shar Pei, Spitz, Shetland Sheep Dog, Weimeraner, and West Highland White Terrier. An increased risk of developing pemphigus foliaceus was noted in the Akita (OR = 37.8), English Springer Spaniel (OR = 20.7), Chow Chow (OR = 12.3), Chinese Shar Pei (OR = 7.9), and Collie (OR = 3.9). Pemphigus foliaceus had a higher average density of acantholytic cells (226 +/- 22.9) than superficial folliculitis (11.8 +/- 4.6), and acantholytic cells were 183 times more likely to be present in pemphigus foliaceus. The presence of rafts of acantholytic cells occurred in pemphigus foliaceus (23/50) more often than superficial folliculitis (1/47). Recornification and reformation of pustules were, respectively, 13.4 and 3.6 times more likely to occur in pemphigus foliaceus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8140722

  4. Dissociation of μ- and δ-opioid inhibition of glutamatergic synaptic transmission in superficial dorsal horn

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is anatomical and behavioural evidence that μ- and δ-opioid receptors modulate distinct nociceptive modalities within the superficial dorsal horn. The aim of the present study was to examine whether μ- and δ-opioid receptor activation differentially modulates TRP sensitive inputs to neurons within the superficial dorsal horn. To do this, whole cell patch clamp recordings were made from lamina I - II neurons in rat spinal cord slices in vitro to examine the effect of opioids on TRP agonist-enhanced glutamatergic spontaneous miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). Results Under basal conditions the μ-opioid agonist DAMGO (3 μM) reduced the rate of miniature EPSCs in 68% of neurons, while the δ- and κ-opioid agonists deltorphin-II (300 nM) and U69593 (300 nM) did so in 13 - 17% of neurons tested. The TRP agonists menthol (400 μM) and icilin (100 μM) both produced a Ca2+-dependent increase in miniature EPSC rate which was unaffected by the voltage dependent calcium channel (VDCC) blocker Cd2+. The proportion of neurons in which deltorphin-II reduced the miniature EPSC rate was enhanced in the presence of icilin (83%), but not menthol (0%). By contrast, the proportion of DAMGO and U69593 responders was unaltered in the presence of menthol (57%, 0%), or icilin (57%, 17%). Conclusions These findings demonstrate that δ-opioid receptor activation selectively inhibits inputs activated by icilin, whereas μ-opioid receptor activation has a more widespread effect on synaptic inputs to neurons in the superficial dorsal horn. These findings suggest that δ-opioids may provide a novel analgesic approach for specific, TRPA1-like mediated pain modalities. PMID:20977770

  5. X-ray photoemission studies of superficially oxidized cesium antimonide photoemitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, C. W., Jr.; Wertheim, G. K.; Buchanan, D. N. E.; Clements, K. E.; Van Atekum, T. M.

    1981-01-01

    Superficially oxidized cesium antimonide photoemitting surfaces prepared in ultrahigh vacuum were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Oxidation of Cs3Sb to produce a surface with enhanced photosensitivity converts part of the antimony to elemental antimony and part of the cesium to cesium suboxide. The latter is identified on the basis of an O1 s peak at 531.3 eV, characteristic of Cs11O3. The production of Cs2O is not ruled out in this process since its signature at 527.5 eV is masked by an antimony shake-up peak at 527 eV.

  6. [A comparison of the superficial argentophilic structures of miracidia from 12 species of the genus Schistosoma].

    PubMed

    Albaret, J L

    1984-01-01

    Observation of miracidia of twelve species of Schistosoma shows the fundamental epidermal cell pattern is: 6, 9, 4, 3. Comparison of superficial argentophilic organites permits us: --to divide these species into three inequal groups: mansoni group: Schistosoma mansoni, S. rodhaini. haematobium group: S. haematobium, S. bovis, S. indicum , S. intercalatum, S. margrebowiei , S. mattheei, S. nasale and S. spindale . japonicum group: S. japonicum, S. incognitum . --to emphasize the relatively narrow specificity between members of each group and the snail-hosts. --to position the above species of Schistosoma within the Schistosomatoidea . Furthermore this character gives us some idea of the degree of evolution of species of Schistosoma. PMID:6721370

  7. Treatment of superficial cutaneous vascular lesions: experience with the KTP 532 nm laser.

    PubMed

    Clark, C; Cameron, H; Moseley, H; Ferguson, J; Ibbotson, S H

    2004-01-01

    Whilst most facial telangiectasias respond well to short-pulse-duration pulsed dye laser therapy, studies have shown that for the treatment of larger vessels these short-duration pulses are sub-optimal. Long-pulse frequency-doubled neodymium:YAG lasers have been introduced with pulse durations ranging from 1-50 ms and treatment beam diameters of up to 4 mm. We report the results of KTP/532 nm laser treatment for superficial vascular skin lesions. The aim was to determine the efficacy of the KTP/532 nm laser in the treatment of superficial cutaneous vascular lesions at a regional dermatology centre in a 2 year retrospective analysis. Patients were referred from general dermatology clinics to a purpose-built laser facility. A test dose was performed at the initial consultation and thereafter patients were reviewed and treated at 6 week intervals. Outcome was graded into five classifications by the patient and operator independently based on photographic records: clear, marked improvement, partial response, poor response, and no change or worsening. Over the 2 year period, 204 patients with 246 diagnoses were treated [156 female; median age 41 (range 1-74) years; Fitzpatrick skin types I-III]. Equal numbers of spider angioma (102) and facial telangiectasia (102) were treated. Of those patients who completed treatment and follow up, 57/58 (98%) of spider angiomas and 44/49 (90%) of facial telangiectasia markedly improved or cleared. Satisfactory treatment outcomes, with one clearance and two partial responses, occurred in three of five patients with port-wine stain. Few patients experienced adverse effects: two declined further treatment due to pain, and a small area of minimal superficial scarring developed in one case. Two patients developed mild persistent post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, and one subject experienced an episode of acute facial erythema, swelling and blistering after one treatment. The KTP/532 nm frequency-doubled neodymium:YAG laser is a safe and

  8. A Technique of Superficial Medial Collateral Ligament Reconstruction Using an Adjustable-Loop Suspensory Fixation Device.

    PubMed

    Deo, Shaneel; Getgood, Alan

    2015-06-01

    This report describes superficial medial collateral ligament reconstruction of the knee using a novel method of graft fixation with the ACL Tightrope RT (Arthrex, Naples, FL). After tibial fixation with either a standard interference screw or staple, femoral fixation of the semitendinosus tendon is performed with the adjustable-loop suspensory fixation device, which allows for both initial graft tensioning and re-tensioning after cyclical knee range of motion. This provides the ability for the graft to accommodate for resultant soft-tissue creep and stress relaxation, thereby allowing for optimal soft-tissue tension and reduction in laxity at the end of the procedure. PMID:26258041

  9. A case of disseminated superficial porokeratosis associated with giant porokeratosis in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Biju; Chatterjee, Manas; Grewal, Rajan; Rana, Vandana; Lodha, Nikita

    2014-09-01

    A 23-year-old pregnant lady presented with dark raised lesions over face, axillae, and upper limbs of 15-day duration. She was 35 weeks pregnant at the time of onset of the lesions. Dermatological examination revealed hyperpigmented plaques on the face and papules with raised borders in the axillae and proximal arms. Skin biopsy from both the lesions revealed a diagnosis of porokeratosis. She was treated with emollients alone and the lesions regressed four weeks following delivery. This case is being reported for the rare occurrence of the combination of disseminated superficial porokeratosis with giant porokeratosis in pregnancy. PMID:25284858

  10. Three-dimensional aspects of superficial disseminated porokeratosis with scanning electron microscopy*

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida Jr., Hiram Larangeira; de Abreu, Luciana Boff; Rampon, Greice; Silva, Ricardo Marques e; Rocha, Nara Moreira

    2014-01-01

    The three-dimensional findings of the surface and from a cross section from a case of disseminated superficial porokeratois using scanning electron microscopy are reported. On the surface of the skin, irregular keratin with a serpiginous distribution was seen. A gross aspect of keratin in the hyperkeratotic wall was also observed and compared to the normal area, in which the release of corneocytes seemed normal. The cross-sectional imaging easily identified the cornoid lamella, with compact keratin surrounded by normal stratum corneum. PMID:25387509

  11. Disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis improved with fractional 1927-nm laser treatments.

    PubMed

    Ross, Nicholas A; Rosenbaum, Lara E; Saedi, Nazanin; Arndt, Kenneth A; Dover, Jeffrey S

    2016-01-01

    Disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis (DSAP) is an inherited disorder of keratinization readily diagnosed through clinical and histologic examination. While generally benign in nature, the lesions can have profound psychosocial implications for patients. Although no cure exists, a number of treatment modalities, from topical medications to laser and light devices, have been reported with variable success. The authors report two cases of DSAP treated with the 1927-nm thulium fiber fractional laser along with a review of the treatment literature for DSAP. This therapy is convenient and safe with nearly no downtime or morbidity associated with pigment or textural changes. PMID:26820042

  12. A Case of Disseminated Superficial Porokeratosis Associated with Giant Porokeratosis in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Vasudevan, Biju; Chatterjee, Manas; Grewal, Rajan; Rana, Vandana; Lodha, Nikita

    2014-01-01

    A 23-year-old pregnant lady presented with dark raised lesions over face, axillae, and upper limbs of 15-day duration. She was 35 weeks pregnant at the time of onset of the lesions. Dermatological examination revealed hyperpigmented plaques on the face and papules with raised borders in the axillae and proximal arms. Skin biopsy from both the lesions revealed a diagnosis of porokeratosis. She was treated with emollients alone and the lesions regressed four weeks following delivery. This case is being reported for the rare occurrence of the combination of disseminated superficial porokeratosis with giant porokeratosis in pregnancy. PMID:25284858

  13. Three-dimensional aspects of superficial disseminated porokeratosis with scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Hiram Larangeira de; Abreu, Luciana Boff de; Rampon, Greice; Silva, Ricardo Marques e; Rocha, Nara Moreira

    2014-01-01

    The three-dimensional findings of the surface and from a cross section from a case of disseminated superficial porokeratois using scanning electron microscopy are reported. On the surface of the skin, irregular keratin with a serpiginous distribution was seen. A gross aspect of keratin in the hyperkeratotic wall was also observed and compared to the normal area, in which the release of corneocytes seemed normal. The cross-sectional imaging easily identified the cornoid lamella, with compact keratin surrounded by normal stratum corneum. PMID:25387509

  14. Aortoiliac Artery Reconstruction Using Bilateral Reversed Superficial Femoral Veins for an Infected Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, Hanako; Yasuhara, Kiyomitsu; Hatori, Kyohei; Miki, Takao; Obayashi, Tamiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Surgical treatment of an infected abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) is difficult and the ideal graft material is a subject of debate. A 60-year-old man with untreated diabetes mellitus was referred to our hospital presenting with fever and left lower abdominal pain. The patient was diagnosed with an IAAA by blood culture and computed tomography. We treated the patient surgically for the IAAA using bilateral reversed superficial femoral veins which were shaped into a bifurcated graft. No signs of recurrent infection or aneurysmal dilation were observed for 3 years after the procedure. PMID:27087879

  15. Pseudoaneurysm of the Superficial Femoral Artery in Behcet's Disease with Spontaneous Thrombosis Followed by CT Angiography

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Satoru; Akiba, Hidenari; Tamakawa, Mituharu; Takeda, Miki; Yama, Naoya; Hareyama, Masato; Morita, Kazuo; Masuda, Atsushi; Shimamoto, Kazuaki

    1998-07-15

    A 25-year-old man developed sudden pain and a pulsating mass in the left thigh. A diagnosis of Behcet's disease was made because of four major symptoms. Laboratory data indicated active inflammation. Emergency spiral computed tomographic angiography (CTA) showed an aneurysm of the left superficial femoral artery (SFA). Under steroid therapy, follow-up spiral CTA showed spontaneous occlusion of the aneurysm. In the active phase of arteritis, spiral CTA is useful for the diagnosis of arterial lesions to avoid the arterial puncture of conventional arteriography.

  16. Analysis of superficial fluorescence patterns in nonmelanoma skin cancer during photodynamic therapy by a dosimetric model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas-García, I.; Fanjul-Vélez, F.; Arce-Diego, J. L.

    2016-03-01

    In this work the superficial fluorescence patterns in different nonmelanoma skin cancers and their photodynamic treatment response are analysed by a fluorescence based dosimetric model. Results show differences of even more than 50% in the fluorescence patterns as photodynamic therapy progresses depending on the malignant tissue type. They demonstrate the great relevance of the biological media as an additional dosimetric factor and contribute to the development of a future customized therapy with the assistance of dosimetric tools to interpret the fluorescence images obtained during the treatment monitoring and the differential photodiagnosis.

  17. Thumb Replantation Using the Superficial Palmar Branch of the Radial Artery.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sang Hyun; Bahar-Moni, Ahmed Suparno; Park, Hyun Chul

    2016-08-01

    The thumb is the most important part of the hand. If thumb is amputated, all efforts should be made to replant it to preserve hand functions. Good functional outcome can be obtained with successful thumb replantation than with other reconstructive surgery. We present a case of thumb amputation of a 44 -year-old male with severe damage to the soft tissues and bony structures of the radial part of the hand. We performed the replantation anastomosing the superficial palmar branch of the radial artery as donor artery as the proximal part of thumb digital arteries were severely damaged due to crush injury and got favorable result. PMID:27625540

  18. Superficial and Shroud-like coloration of linen by short laser pulses in the vacuum ultraviolet.

    PubMed

    Di Lazzaro, Paolo; Murra, Daniele; Nichelatti, Enrico; Santoni, Antonino; Baldacchini, Giuseppe

    2012-12-20

    We present a survey on five years of experiments of excimer laser irradiation of linen fabrics, seeking a coloration mechanism able to reproduce the microscopic complexity of the body image embedded onto the Shroud of Turin. We achieved a superficial, Shroud-like coloration in a narrow range of irradiation parameters. We also obtained latent coloration that appears after artificial or natural aging of linen following laser irradiations that, at first, did not generate any visible effect. Most importantly, we have recognized photochemical processes that account for both coloration and latent coloration. PMID:23262596

  19. Vasculitis resulting from a superficial femoral artery angioplasty with a paclitaxel-eluting balloon.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Shannon D; McDonald, Robert R A; Varcoe, Ramon L

    2014-02-01

    Drug-eluting balloons (DEBs) coated with the antiproliferative agent paclitaxel may improve primary patency by reducing recurrent luminal stenosis. A proportion of the active drug and excipient coating are known to embolize distally, but until now, there have been no reports of adverse events resulting from their use. We report an unusual case of a painful nodular, biopsy specimen-proven vasculitic rash that afflicted the ipsilateral lower limb of a patient after superficial femoral artery treatment with a DEB. This adverse event may have implications for the use of DEB in this and other vascular territories. PMID:23642919

  20. Colloidal silver-based nanogel as nonocclusive dressing for multiple superficial pellet wounds.

    PubMed

    Dharmshaktu, Ganesh Singh; Singhal, Aanshu; Pangtey, Tanuja

    2016-01-01

    A good dressing is mandatory to an uncomplicated wound healing, especially when foreign particles contaminate the wound. Various forms of dressing preparations are available for use and differ in chemical composition and efficacy. Silver has been a known agent with good antimicrobial and healing properties and recent times has seen an upsurge in various silver-based dressing supplements. We describe our report of use and efficacy of a silver nanoparticle- based gel dressing in the healing of multiple superficial firearm pellet wounds. PMID:27453869

  1. Superficial peroneal nerve paresis in a dancer caused by a midfoot ganglion: case report.

    PubMed

    Martin, Darrell; Dowling, Jamie; Rowan, Fiachra; Casey, Mary; O'Grady, Paul

    2015-06-01

    Ganglion cysts are common benign masses, usually occurring in the hands and feet. This report describes the case of a young female Irish dancer who presented with paresthesia of her foot due to a ganglion in near proximity to the superficial peroneal nerve. Midfoot ganglia in young girls engaged in Irish dance can limit their ability to participate. This pathology requires further epidemiological studies to investigate its prevalence. In the event of failed conservative management, surgical intervention to excise the cyst and decompress the nerve is an effective treatment to facilitate return to dancing. PMID:26045399

  2. Subintimal Double-Barrel Restenting of an Occluded Primary Stented Superficial Femoral Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Duterloo, Dirk Lohle, Paul N.M.; Lampmann, Leo E.H.

    2007-06-15

    In-stent re-stenosis is a frequent complication of endovascular stents, especially in the superficial femoral artery (SFA). Endovascular re-intervention of in- or peri-stent occlusive disease consists of recanilization through the occluded stent. In our case report, we describe the endovascular treatment of a previously placed stent in the SFA. We unintentionally passed the affected stent subintimally, in a double barrel fashion next to the first stent. The procedure was without any complications and with a successful angiographic result. At one year follow-up the patient still has no complaints and the stent is still patent.

  3. A Technique of Superficial Medial Collateral Ligament Reconstruction Using an Adjustable-Loop Suspensory Fixation Device

    PubMed Central

    Deo, Shaneel; Getgood, Alan

    2015-01-01

    This report describes superficial medial collateral ligament reconstruction of the knee using a novel method of graft fixation with the ACL Tightrope RT (Arthrex, Naples, FL). After tibial fixation with either a standard interference screw or staple, femoral fixation of the semitendinosus tendon is performed with the adjustable-loop suspensory fixation device, which allows for both initial graft tensioning and re-tensioning after cyclical knee range of motion. This provides the ability for the graft to accommodate for resultant soft-tissue creep and stress relaxation, thereby allowing for optimal soft-tissue tension and reduction in laxity at the end of the procedure. PMID:26258041

  4. Scrotal reconstruction using a superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator flap following Fournier's gangrene.

    PubMed

    Han, Hyun H; Lee, Jung H; Kim, Sue M; Jun, Young J; Kim, Young J

    2014-08-01

    Fournier's gangrene is a type of necrotising fasciitis around the scrotum and perineum. Because of its aggressive nature, patients should be treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics and emergency, radical debridement during the acute phase. After recovering from the acute phase, reconstruction of the scrotal and perineal soft tissue defects is needed and is often challenging. Traditionally, various reconstruction methods have been used, including skin grafts, fasciocutaneous flaps and musculocutaneous flaps, each with its pros and cons. We successfully covered a wide scrotal defect using a superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator flap, which has not been previously reported for this indication. The design and operative technique are introduced in this study. PMID:25091799

  5. Superficial femoral artery stent fracture that led to perforation, hematoma and deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Lewitton, Steve; Babaev, Anvar

    2008-09-01

    We describe the case of a 70-year old male with total occlusion of the left superficial femoral artery (SFA) treated with percutaneous implantation of a self-expanding nitinol stent. The patient's course post-stent implantation was complicated by the development of stent fracture with SFA perforation and a large, compressive intramuscular hematoma with deep venous thrombosis (DVT). The patient returned to the catheterization laboratory where the fracture and perforation were successfully treated by the deployment of another stent across the fracture site. The DVT was initially treated with an inferior vena cava filter until anticoagulation could safely be instituted. PMID:18762680

  6. Low threshold primary afferent drive onto GABAergic interneurons in the superficial dorsal horn of the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Daniele, Claire A.; MacDermott, Amy B.

    2010-01-01

    Inhibition in the spinal cord dorsal horn is crucial for maintaining separation of touch and pain modalities. Disruption of this inhibition results in allodynia, allowing low threshold drive onto pain and temperature sensitive projection neurons. This low threshold excitatory pathway is normally under strong inhibition. We hypothesized that superficial dorsal horn inhibitory neurons, which would be ideally located to suppress low threshold drive onto projection neurons in a feedforward manner, are driven by low threshold input. In addition, because disinhibition-induced allodynia shares some features with the immature dorsal horn such as elevated sensitivity to low threshold input, we also questioned whether low threshold drive onto inhibitory neurons changes during postnatal maturation. To investigate these questions, slices were made at different ages from transgenic mice with EGFP expression in GABAergic neurons and whole cell recordings were made from these fluorescent neurons. Evoked synaptic activity was measured in response to electrical stimulation of the dorsal root. We demonstrate that Aβ fibers activate a significant proportion of superficial dorsal horn GABAergic neurons. This occurs with similar excitatory synaptic drive throughout postnatal maturation, but with a greater prevalence at younger ages. These GABAergic neurons are well situated to contribute to suppressing low threshold activation of output projection neurons. In addition, the majority of these GABAergic neurons also had convergent input from high threshold fibers, suggesting that this novel subclass of GABAergic neurons is important for gating innocuous as well as noxious information. PMID:19158295

  7. Intraspinal hemorrhage in spontaneous intracranial hypotension: link to superficial siderosis? Report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Schievink, Wouter I; Wasserstein, Philip; Maya, M Marcel

    2016-03-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension due to a spinal CSF leak has become a well-recognized cause of headaches, but such spinal CSF leaks also are found in approximately half of patients with superficial siderosis of the CNS. It has been hypothesized that friable vessels at the site of the spinal CSF leak are the likely source of chronic bleeding in these patients, but such an intraspinal hemorrhage has never been visualized. The authors report on 2 patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension and intraspinal hemorrhage, offering support for this hypothesis. A 33-year-old man and a 62-year-old woman with spontaneous intracranial hypotension were found to have a hemorrhage within the ventral spinal CSF collection and within the thecal sac, respectively. Treatment consisted of microsurgical repair of a ventral dural tear in the first patient and epidural blood patching in the second patient. The authors suggest that spontaneous intracranial hypotension should be included in the differential diagnosis of spontaneous intraspinal hemorrhage, and that the intraspinal hemorrhage can account for the finding of superficial siderosis when the CSF leak remains untreated. PMID:26588500

  8. Distinct Superficial and Deep Laminar Domains of Activity in the Visual Cortex during Rest and Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Alexander; Adams, Geoffrey K.; Aura, Christopher; Leopold, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Spatial patterns of spontaneous neural activity at rest have previously been associated with specific networks in the brain, including those pertaining to the functional architecture of the primary visual cortex (V1). However, despite the prominent anatomical differences between cortical layers, little is known about the laminar pattern of spontaneous activity in V1. We address this topic by investigating the amplitude and coherence of ongoing local field potential (LFP) signals measured from different layers in V1 of macaque monkeys during rest and upon presentation of a visual stimulus. We used a linear microelectrode array to measure LFP signals at multiple, evenly spaced positions throughout the cortical thickness. Analyzing both the mean LFP amplitudes and between-contact LFP coherences, we identified two distinct zones of activity, roughly corresponding to superficial and deep layers, divided by a sharp transition near the bottom of layer 4. The LFP signals within each laminar zone were highly coherent, whereas those between zones were not. This functional compartmentalization was found not only during rest, but also when the receptive field was stimulated during a visual task. These results demonstrate the existence of distinct superficial and deep functional domains of coherent LFP activity in V1 that may reflect the intrinsic interplay of V1 microcircuitry with cortical and subcortical targets, respectively. PMID:20802856

  9. A novel transurethral resection technique for superficial flat bladder tumor: Grasp and bite technique

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Kyung Jin; Choi, Yoo-Duk; Chung, Ho Suck; Hwang, Eu Chang; Jung, Seung Il; Kwon, Dong Deuk

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) can be a challenging procedure for an inexperienced surgeon. We suggest an easy technique for TURBT, which we have named the "grasp and bite" technique. We describe this technique and compare its effectiveness and safety with that of conventional TURBT. Materials and Methods Monopolar TURBT (24-Fr Karl Storz) was performed in 35 patients who had superficial bladder tumors. After defining the tumor margin, the tumor and surrounding mucosa were grasped by use of a loop electrode and resectoscope sheath. With tight grasping, linear moving resection was performed. The patients' demographic, intraoperative, and postoperative data were analyzed between the conventional and grasp and bite TURBT groups. Results Of 35 patients, 16 patients underwent conventional TURBT (group 1), and the other 19 patients underwent grasp and bite TURBT (group 2). Both groups were similar in age, tumor multiplicity, size, anesthesia method, and location. Grasp and bite TURBT could be performed as safely and effectively as conventional TURBT. There were no significant differences in irrigation duration, urethral catheterization, postoperative hemoglobin drop, or length of hospital stay. No significant side effects such as bladder perforation, severe obturator reflex, or persistent bleeding occurred. There were no significant pathological differences between specimens according to the type of resection technique. Conclusions The grasp and bite TURBT technique was feasible for superficial bladder tumors. It may be a good tool for inexperienced surgeons owing to its convenient and easy manner. PMID:25763127

  10. Imaging Features of Superficial and Deep Fibromatoses in the Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Eric A.; Petscavage, Jonelle M.; Brian, Pamela L.; Logie, Chika Iloanusi; Montini, Kenneth M.; Murphey, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    The fibromatoses are a group of benign fibroblastic proliferations that vary from benign to intermediate in biological behavior. This article will discuss imaging characteristics and patient demographics of the adult type superficial (fascial) and deep (musculoaponeurotic) fibromatoses. The imaging appearance of these lesions can be characteristic (particularly when using magnetic resonance imaging). Palmar fibromatosis demonstrates multiple nodular or band-like soft tissue masses arising from the proximal palmar aponeurosis and extending along the subcutaneous tissues of the finger in parallel to the flexor tendons. T1 and T2-weighted signal intensity can vary from low (higher collagen) to intermediate (higher cellularity), similar to the other fibromatoses. Plantar fibromatosis manifests as superficial lesions along the deep plantar aponeurosis, which typically blend with the adjacent plantar musculature. Linear tails of extension (“fascial tail sign”) along the aponeurosis are frequent. Extraabdominal and abdominal wall fibromatosis often appear as a heterogeneous lesion with low signal intensity bands on all pulse sequences and linear fascial extensions (“fascial tail” sign) with MR imaging. Mesenteric fibromatosis usually demonstrates a soft tissue density on CT with radiating strands projecting into the adjacent mesenteric fat. When imaging is combined with patient demographics, a diagnosis can frequently be obtained. PMID:22966216

  11. Restricted differentiation potential of progenitor cell populations obtained from the equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT)

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, William James Edward; Comerford, Eithne Josephine Veronica; Clegg, Peter David; Canty‐Laird, Elizabeth Gail

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to characterize stem and progenitor cell populations from the equine superficial digital flexor tendon, an energy‐storing tendon with similarities to the human Achilles tendon, which is frequently injured. Using published methods for the isolation of tendon‐derived stem/progenitor cells by low‐density plating we found that isolated cells possessed clonogenicity but were unable to fully differentiate towards mesenchymal lineages using trilineage differentiation assays. In particular, adipogenic differentiation appeared to be restricted, as assessed by Oil Red O staining of stem/progenitor cells cultured in adipogenic medium. We then assessed whether differential adhesion to fibronectin substrates could be used to isolate a population of cells with broader differentiation potential. However we found little difference in the stem and tenogenic gene expression profile of these cells as compared to tenocytes, although the expression of thrombospondin‐4 was significantly reduced in hypoxic conditions. Tendon‐derived stem/progenitor cells isolated by differential adhesion to fibronectin had a similar differentiation potential to cells isolated by low density plating, and when grown in either normoxic or hypoxic conditions. In summary, we have found a restricted differentiation potential of cells isolated from the equine superficial digital flexor tendon despite evidence for stem/progenitor‐like characteristics. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Orthopaedic Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Orthopaedic Research Society. J Orthop Res 33:849–858, 2015. PMID:25877997

  12. Damage and Recovery of Hair Cells in Fish Canal (But Not Superficial) Neuromasts after Gentamicin Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Jiakun; Yan, Hong Young; Popper, Arthur N.

    1995-01-01

    Recent evidence demonstrating the presence of two types of sensory hair cells in the ear of a telcost fish (Astronotus ocellatus, the oscar) indicates that hair cell heterogeneity may exist not only in amniotic vertebrates but also in anamniotes. Here we report that a similar heterogeneity between hair cell types may also occur in the other mechanosensory organ of the oscar, the lateral line. We exposed oscars to the aminoglycoside (ototoxic) antibiotic gentamicin sulfate and found damaged sensory hair cells in one class of the lateral line receptors, the canal neuromasts, but not in the other class, the superficial neuromasts. This effect was not due to the canal environment. Moreover, new ciliary bundles on hair cells of the canal neuromasts were found after, and during, gentamicin exposure. The pattern of hair cell destruction and recovery in canal neuromasts is similar to that of type 1-like hair cells found in the striolar region of the utricle and lagena of the oscar after gentamicin treatment. These results suggest that the hair cells in the canal and superficial neuromasts may be similar to type 1-like and type 2 hair cells, respectively, in the fish ear.

  13. Recognition Accuracy Using 3D Endoscopic Images for Superficial Gastrointestinal Cancer: A Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Kaise, Mitsuru; Kikuchi, Daisuke; Iizuka, Toshiro; Fukuma, Yumiko; Kuribayashi, Yasutaka; Tanaka, Masami; Toba, Takahito; Furuhata, Tsukasa; Yamashita, Satoshi; Matsui, Akira; Mitani, Toshifumi; Hoteya, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To determine whether 3D endoscopic images improved recognition accuracy for superficial gastrointestinal cancer compared with 2D images. Methods. We created an image catalog using 2D and 3D images of 20 specimens resected by endoscopic submucosal dissection. The twelve participants were allocated into two groups. Group 1 evaluated only 2D images at first, group 2 evaluated 3D images, and, after an interval of 2 weeks, group 1 next evaluated 3D and group 2 evaluated 2D images. The evaluation items were as follows: (1) diagnostic accuracy of the tumor extent and (2) confidence levels in assessing (a) tumor extent, (b) morphology, (c) microsurface structure, and (d) comprehensive recognition. Results. The use of 3D images resulted in an improvement in diagnostic accuracy in both group 1 (2D: 76.9%, 3D: 78.6%) and group 2 (2D: 79.9%, 3D: 83.6%), with no statistically significant difference. The confidence levels were higher for all items ((a) to (d)) when 3D images were used. With respect to experience, the degree of the improvement showed the following trend: novices > trainees > experts. Conclusions. By conversion into 3D images, there was a significant improvement in the diagnostic confidence level for superficial tumors, and the improvement was greater in individuals with lower endoscopic expertise. PMID:27597863

  14. Epithelial response of the rat gastric mucosa to chronic superficial injury.

    PubMed Central

    Lacy, E. R.; Cowart, K. S.; King, J. S.; DelValle, J.; Smolka, A. J.

    1996-01-01

    Chronic injury to the healthy gastric mucosa with noxious agents such as aspirin or alcohol induces a progressive strengthening of the stomach wall against these insults. The present study examined the histologic response of the rat gastric mucosa to chronic destruction of the superficial mucosa for one month with hypertonic saline. The number, position and morphology of proliferating, parietal, G and D cells were followed during mucosal injury and one month of recovery. The results showed that chronic injury reduced parietal cell numbers by about 30 percent, particularly in the middle of the mucosal thickness where a clear zone was formed by hypertrophy of mucous neck-like cells. G cells were also reduced by about 50 percent, but there were no changes in D cells. Chronic injury induced a marked increase in the number of antral (+112 percent) and fundic (+250 percent) proliferating cells. CONCLUSION: The rat gastric mucosa responds to chronic superficial injury by down-regulation of acid secretory cells and gastrin secreting cells and an up-regulation of proliferating cells. The appearance of a prominent layer of mucous neck-like cells may indicate a new secretory function for these cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:9112742

  15. Emotional words can be embodied or disembodied: the role of superficial vs. deep types of processing

    PubMed Central

    Abbassi, Ensie; Blanchette, Isabelle; Ansaldo, Ana I.; Ghassemzadeh, Habib; Joanette, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Emotional words are processed rapidly and automatically in the left hemisphere (LH) and slowly, with the involvement of attention, in the right hemisphere (RH). This review aims to find the reason for this difference and suggests that emotional words can be processed superficially or deeply due to the involvement of the linguistic and imagery systems, respectively. During superficial processing, emotional words likely make connections only with semantically associated words in the LH. This part of the process is automatic and may be sufficient for the purpose of language processing. Deep processing, in contrast, seems to involve conceptual information and imagery of a word’s perceptual and emotional properties using autobiographical memory contents. Imagery and the involvement of autobiographical memory likely differentiate between emotional and neutral word processing and explain the salient role of the RH in emotional word processing. It is concluded that the level of emotional word processing in the RH should be deeper than in the LH and, thus, it is conceivable that the slow mode of processing adds certain qualities to the output. PMID:26217288

  16. Recognition Accuracy Using 3D Endoscopic Images for Superficial Gastrointestinal Cancer: A Crossover Study.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Kosuke; Kaise, Mitsuru; Kikuchi, Daisuke; Iizuka, Toshiro; Fukuma, Yumiko; Kuribayashi, Yasutaka; Tanaka, Masami; Toba, Takahito; Furuhata, Tsukasa; Yamashita, Satoshi; Matsui, Akira; Mitani, Toshifumi; Hoteya, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To determine whether 3D endoscopic images improved recognition accuracy for superficial gastrointestinal cancer compared with 2D images. Methods. We created an image catalog using 2D and 3D images of 20 specimens resected by endoscopic submucosal dissection. The twelve participants were allocated into two groups. Group 1 evaluated only 2D images at first, group 2 evaluated 3D images, and, after an interval of 2 weeks, group 1 next evaluated 3D and group 2 evaluated 2D images. The evaluation items were as follows: (1) diagnostic accuracy of the tumor extent and (2) confidence levels in assessing (a) tumor extent, (b) morphology, (c) microsurface structure, and (d) comprehensive recognition. Results. The use of 3D images resulted in an improvement in diagnostic accuracy in both group 1 (2D: 76.9%, 3D: 78.6%) and group 2 (2D: 79.9%, 3D: 83.6%), with no statistically significant difference. The confidence levels were higher for all items ((a) to (d)) when 3D images were used. With respect to experience, the degree of the improvement showed the following trend: novices > trainees > experts. Conclusions. By conversion into 3D images, there was a significant improvement in the diagnostic confidence level for superficial tumors, and the improvement was greater in individuals with lower endoscopic expertise. PMID:27597863

  17. Superficially, longer, intermittent ozone theraphy in the treatment of the chronic, infected wounds.

    PubMed

    Białoszewski, Dariusz; Kowalewski, Michał

    2003-10-30

    Background. Ozone therapy - i.e. the treatment of patients by a mixture of oxygen and ozone - has been used for many years as a method ancillary to basic treatment, especially in those cases in which traditional treatment methods do not give satisfactory results, e.g. skin loss in non-healing wounds, ulcers, pressure sores, fistulae, etc. Material and methods. In the Department of Phisiotherapy of the Medical Faculty and the Department of the Orthopedics and Traumatology of the Locomotor System at the Medical University of Warsaw in the period from January 2001 until November 2002, 23 patients with heavy,chronic, antibiotic resistants septic complications after trauma, surgical procedures and secundary skin infetions were treated with ozone. The ozone therapy was administered using an authorial technique of superficially, longer, intermittent ozone application. Results. In the wounds of the all experienced patients the inhibition of septic processes and wound healing was much faster than normal. Conclusions. Our data confirm the advantages wich result from the technique of superficially, longer, intermittent ozone theraphy in combined treatment for septic complications in the soft tissue, especially in the locomotor system. These technique makes posttraumatic infections and promotes quicker healing of post-surgical and post-traumal complications - chronic septic infections. This method also lowers the cost of antibiotic therapy and is sometimes the only available auxiliary technique to support surgical procedures. PMID:17679848

  18. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability by combining drastic and susceptibility index: Application to Annaba superficial aquifer (Algeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedrati, Nassima; Djabri, Larbi; Chaffai, Hicham; Bougherira, Nabil

    2016-07-01

    Groundwater pollution due to anthropogenic activities is one of the major environmental problems in urban and industrial areas. The aim of this work is to propose a new integrated methodology to assess actual and forecasted groundwater vulnerability by combining Drastic and susceptibility index. The contamination susceptibility index (SI) at a given location was calculated by taking the product of the vulnerability DRASTIC index (VI) and the quality index (QI): SI=VI x QI. The superficial aquifer of Annaba plain was the study case proposed for the application of this methodology. The study revealed that the area with Very High vulnerability would increase 73 % in this superficial layer. This result can be explained by the susceptibility index map shows both hydrogeological and hydrochemical data related to the contamination problem including areas that should be taken into consideration during water management planning. The index map indicates that the most susceptible groundwater is occupies the majority of the study area. The validity of the DRASTIC and the susceptibility index methods, verified by comparing the distribution of some pollutants (Daouad, 2013) in the groundwater and the different vulnerability classes, shows a high contamination that affect the water quality in study areas.

  19. A biphasic finite element study on the role of the articular cartilage superficial zone in confined compression.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hongqiang; Maher, Suzanne A; Torzilli, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the superficial zone on the mechanical behavior of articular cartilage. Confined compression of articular cartilage was modeled using a biphasic finite element analysis to calculate the one-dimensional deformation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and movement of the interstitial fluid through the ECM and articular surface. The articular cartilage was modeled as an inhomogeneous, nonlinear hyperelastic biphasic material with depth and strain-dependent material properties. Two loading conditions were simulated, one where the superficial zone was loaded with a porous platen (normal test) and the other where the deep zone was loaded with the porous platen (upside down test). Compressing the intact articular cartilage with 0.2 MPa stress reduced the surface permeability by 88%. Removing the superficial zone increased the rate of change for all mechanical parameters and decreased the fluid support ratio of the tissue, resulting in increased tissue deformation. Apparent permeability linearly increased after superficial removal in the normal test, yet it did not change in the upside down test. Orientation of the specimen affected the time-dependent biomechanical behavior of the articular cartilage, but not equilibrium behavior. The two tests with different specimen orientations resulted in very different apparent permeabilities, suggesting that in an experimental study which quantifies material properties of an inhomogeneous material, the specimen orientation should be stated along with the permeability result. The current study provides new insights into the role of the superficial zone on mechanical behavior of the articular cartilage. PMID:25465194

  20. Diamond burr superficial keratectomy with mitomycin C for corneal scarring and high corneal astigmatism after pterygium excision

    PubMed Central

    Ozgurhan, Engin Bilge; Kara, Necip; Yildirim, Aydin; Alkin, Zeynep; Bozkurt, Ercument; Demirok, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this paper is to report the successful treatment of corneal scarring and high corneal astigmatism secondary to previous pterygium surgery with diamond burr superficial keratectomy using mitomycin C. Methods Four patients with corneal scarring and high corneal astigmatism related to previous pterygium surgery underwent diamond burr superficial keratectomy with application of mitomycin C. Anterior segment photography and corneal topographic analysis were obtained preoperatively and postoperatively in all patients. Results Six months after surgery, corneal astigmatism and corneal aberrations were reduced in all patients. A clear cornea was achieved in all cases. No complications were noted during the follow-up period. Conclusion Diamond burr superficial keratectomy with application of mitomycin C is a potentially effective and simple procedure for treating patients with corneal scarring and high corneal astigmatism secondary to previous pterygium surgery. PMID:23737657

  1. Multiregional functional near-infrared spectroscopy reveals globally symmetrical and frequency-specific patterns of superficial interference

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yujin; Tan, Fulun; Xu, Xu; Duan, Lian; Liu, Hanli; Tian, Fenghua; Zhu, Chao-Zhe

    2015-01-01

    Linear regression with short source-detector separation channels (S-channels) as references is an efficient way to overcome significant physiological interference from the superficial layer for functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). However, the co-located configuration of S-channels and long source-detector separation channels (L-channels) is difficult to achieve in practice. In this study, we recorded superficial interference with S-channels in multiple scalp regions. We found that superficial interference has overall frequency-specific and globally symmetrical patterns. The performance of linear regression is also dependent on these patterns, indicating the possibility of simplifying the S-channel configurations for multiregional fNIRS imaging. PMID:26309744

  2. Acute discrimination between superficial-partial and deep-partial thickness burns in a preclinical model with laser speckle imaging.

    PubMed

    Crouzet, Christian; Nguyen, John Quan; Ponticorvo, Adrien; Bernal, Nicole P; Durkin, Anthony J; Choi, Bernard

    2015-08-01

    A critical need exists for a robust method that enables early discrimination between superficial-partial and deep-partial thickness burn wounds. In this study, we report on the use of laser speckle imaging (LSI), a simple, non-invasive, optical imaging modality, to measure acute blood flow dynamics in a preclinical burn model. We used a heated brass comb to induce burns of varying severity to nine rats and collected raw speckle reflectance images over the course of three hours after burn. We induced a total of 12 superficial-partial and 18 deep-partial thickness burn wounds. At 3h after burn we observed a 28% and 44% decrease in measured blood flow for superficial-partial and deep-partial thickness burns, respectively, and that these reductions were significantly different (p=0.00007). This preliminary data suggests the potential role of LSI in the clinical management of burn wounds. PMID:25814299

  3. Investigation of the Differential Contributions of Superficial and Deep Muscles on Cervical Spinal Loads with Changing Head Postures

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chih-Hsiu; Chien, Andy; Hsu, Wei-Li; Chen, Carl Pai-Chu; Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy

    2016-01-01

    Cervical spinal loads are predominately influenced by activities of cervical muscles. However, the coordination between deep and superficial muscles and their influence on the spinal loads is not well understood. This study aims to document the changes of cervical spinal loads and the differential contributions of superficial and deep muscles with varying head postures. Electromyography (EMG) of cervical muscles from seventeen healthy adults were measured during maximal isometric exertions for lateral flexion (at 10°, 20° and terminal position) as well as flexion/extension (at 10°, 20°, 30°, and terminal position) neck postures. An EMG-assisted optimization approach was used to estimate the muscle forces and subsequent spinal loads. The results showed that compressive and anterior-posterior shear loads increased significantly with neck flexion. In particular, deep muscle forces increased significantly with increasing flexion. It was also determined that in all different static head postures, the deep muscle forces were greater than those of the superficial muscle forces, however, such pattern was reversed during peak efforts where greater superficial muscle forces were identified with increasing angle of inclination. In summary, the identification of significantly increased spinal loads associated with increased deep muscle activation during flexion postures, implies higher risks in predisposing the neck to occupationally related disorders. The results also explicitly supported that deep muscles play a greater role in maintaining stable head postures where superficial muscles are responsible for peak exertions and reinforcing the spinal stability at terminal head postures. This study provided quantitative data of normal cervical spinal loads and revealed motor control strategies in coordinating the superficial and deep muscles during physical tasks. PMID:26938773

  4. Investigation of the Differential Contributions of Superficial and Deep Muscles on Cervical Spinal Loads with Changing Head Postures.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chih-Hsiu; Chien, Andy; Hsu, Wei-Li; Chen, Carl Pai-Chu; Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy

    2016-01-01

    Cervical spinal loads are predominately influenced by activities of cervical muscles. However, the coordination between deep and superficial muscles and their influence on the spinal loads is not well understood. This study aims to document the changes of cervical spinal loads and the differential contributions of superficial and deep muscles with varying head postures. Electromyography (EMG) of cervical muscles from seventeen healthy adults were measured during maximal isometric exertions for lateral flexion (at 10°, 20° and terminal position) as well as flexion/extension (at 10°, 20°, 30°, and terminal position) neck postures. An EMG-assisted optimization approach was used to estimate the muscle forces and subsequent spinal loads. The results showed that compressive and anterior-posterior shear loads increased significantly with neck flexion. In particular, deep muscle forces increased significantly with increasing flexion. It was also determined that in all different static head postures, the deep muscle forces were greater than those of the superficial muscle forces, however, such pattern was reversed during peak efforts where greater superficial muscle forces were identified with increasing angle of inclination. In summary, the identification of significantly increased spinal loads associated with increased deep muscle activation during flexion postures, implies higher risks in predisposing the neck to occupationally related disorders. The results also explicitly supported that deep muscles play a greater role in maintaining stable head postures where superficial muscles are responsible for peak exertions and reinforcing the spinal stability at terminal head postures. This study provided quantitative data of normal cervical spinal loads and revealed motor control strategies in coordinating the superficial and deep muscles during physical tasks. PMID:26938773

  5. Experimental investigation of bubble column hydrodynamics: Effect of elevated pressure and superficial gas velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Booncheng

    Bubble column reactors are widely used in the chemical and biochemical industries. They were reactors of choice in syngas conversion to clean fuels and chemicals. Most of the current applications of bubble column reactors in the chemical process industry require operation at high-pressure conditions. Further, to enhance the volumetric productivity, high gas flow rates are employed. The fundamental description of bubble column hydrodynamics under these conditions is very complex and complete understanding has not yet been established in spite of concerted research efforts. In order to improve our ability to quantify phenomena in bubble columns, it is essential that precise and quality experimental information is available to advance the state of the art in bubble column design and operation. In this study, measurements of gas holdup from Computed Tomography, and of time-averaged liquid velocity and turbulence from Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking are obtained in a 6.4″ diameter stainless steel bubble column at elevated pressure and at high superficial gas velocity with different gas spargers. It is shown quantitatively that deep in the churn-turbulent regime, gas holdup and liquid recirculation increase with pressure and superficial gas velocity while sparger effects are predominantly confined to the distributor zone. Additionally, an increase in pressure results in the reduction of turbulent normal stresses and eddy diffusivities most likely due to a reduction in bubble size. Based on the experimental data obtained from this study, a correction factor to the correlation of Zehner (1986) for predicting the centerline liquid velocity is developed to account for pressure effect on liquid recirculation. The correction factor indicates an one-eighth power dependency on gas density. Comparison of the experimentally estimated eddy viscosity with the model of Ohnuki and Akimoto (2001) suggests that the contribution of bubble-induced turbulence to the

  6. SU-E-T-297: Small Field Dosimetry for Superficial Lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Ying, J; Casto, B; Wang, S; Talyor, T; Wichman, A; Ku, L; Taylor, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Kilo-voltage (kV) photons and low megavoltage (MeV) electrons are the most common options for treating small superficial lesions, but they present complex dosimetry. Using a tertiary lead shield may protect the surrounding critical structures. Our goal was to quantitatively evaluate the dosimetric impact resulting from applying tertiary shields on superficial lesions. Method: We directly compared the beam characteristics of 80 kV (0.8 mm Al) photon setup abutting the water phantom surface and 6 MeV electron setup at 100 cm SSD. Profiles and depth doses were acquired using a 3D scanning water tank and an ion chamber (active volume 0.01 cm{sup 3}). Beam profiles were scanned at Dmax. Three lead sheets (2 mm thickness) with 2.7, 2.2, and 1.6, cm diameter circular cutouts were fabricated and placed at the water surface for both photon and electron fields. Results: The penumbra (80% – 20%) of the open 4×4 cm{sup 2} electron insert was 10.7 mm, compared to an average of 7.2 mm with the tertiary cutouts. The penumbra of the open kV photon beam was 2.8 mm compared to an average of 1.8 mm with the tertiary cutouts. For field widths 2.7, 2.2, and 1.6 cm, the flatness of the electron beams was 16%, 17.3%, and 21%, respectively, and for the kV photon beams was 1.4%, 2.3%, 3.3%, respectively. The electron depth dose (PDD) shifted shallower and the photon PDD shifted deeper as the field size became smaller. Conclusion: The penumbra of small electron fields can be improved by adding tertiary lead shields. Both modalities are clinically feasible; however, kV photons still offer sharper penumbra and better flatness than that of 6 MeV electrons with tertiary shielding. Thus, kV photons may still be a superior option for small superficial lesions.

  7. Clinical Outcomes and Complications of Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection for Superficial Gastric Neoplasms in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tsung-Chieh; Hou, Ming-Chih; Chen, Ping-Hsien; Hsin, I-Fang; Chen, Liang-Kung; Tsou, Mei-Yung; Lin, Han-Chieh; Lee, Fa-Yauh

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The number of elderly people with superficial gastric neoplasms is increasing, but the clinical outcome of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for treating elderly people with superficial gastric neoplasms remains unclear. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of ESD for patients with early gastric cancer (EGC) and precancerous lesions in elderly (≥75 years of age) and nonelderly (<75 years of age) patients. From October 2005 to December 2014, 83 consecutive patients with EGC and precancerous lesions (86 lesions) who were treated using ESD in our hospital were retrospectively reviewed. There were 44 lesions in 42 elderly patients who were at least 75-years old. The following parameters were compared between the 2 groups: preexisting comorbidities, performance status (PS), lesion inclusion criteria, lesion characteristics, treatment outcomes, surgery time, duration of hospitalization, complications, and intraoperative hemodynamic changes. Elderly patients had significantly higher preexisting comorbidity rates (90.9% vs 59.5%, P = 0.001), expanded lesion criteria rates (43.2% vs 19.0%, P = 0.016), and lower best PS rates (38.6% vs 81.0%, P < 0.001) than nonelderly patients. Lesion characteristics were similar in the 2 groups. The elderly had higher intraoperative hypotension rates (47.7% vs 21.4%, P = 0.011) and oxygen desaturation rates (9.1% vs 0.0%, P = 0.045) than nonelderly patients. In addition, the elderly also had a longer surgery time (107.0 ± 51.4 vs 91.5 ± 66.2 minutes, P = 0.049) and duration of hospitalization (7.5 ± 3.8 vs 5.9 ± 2.0 days, P = 0.016) than nonelderly patients. There were no differences in the prevalence rates of en-bloc resection, complete resection, bleeding, perforation, pneumonia, or intraabdominal free air between the 2 groups. Although elderly patients who underwent ESD for superficial gastric neoplasms had an increasing risk of intraoperative hypotension and

  8. Hematoporphyrin derivatives high-power interstitial irradiation of argon laser photodynamic therapy for superficial transitional cell bladder tumor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xi-hua; Guo, You-chi; Hua, Lian-sheng; Li, Zhi-bing; Shao, Guo-xing; Xin, Jian-guo

    1993-03-01

    Hematoporphyrin derivatives (HPD) argon laser phototherapy has been carried out since 1986 for 37 cases of superficial transitional cell bladder tumor. A modified high power interstitial (contact) irradiation of argon ion laser was employed to destroy the visible tumor and a cylindrical optical fiber was used for whole bladder mucosal irradiation to lessen recurrence. Follow up cystoscopic examination 1 - 3 years after treatment revealed complete remission of the growth in all the patients. Recurrence was found by cystoscopy in 9 cases (24.4%). The procedure was claimed to be a simple, safe, and effective new means for the management of superficial transitional cell tumors of the bladder. Satisfactory results have been achieved.

  9. Repair and Strengthening by Use of Superficial Fixed Laminates of Cracked Masonry Walls Sheared Horizontally-Laboratory Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Kubica, Jan; Kwiecien, Arkadiusz; Zajac, Boguslaw

    2008-07-08

    There are many methods of crack repairing in masonry structures. One of them is repair and strengthening by using of superficial fixed laminates, especially in case of masonry walls with plastering on their both sides. The initial laboratory tests of three different types of strengthening of diagonal cracked masonry wallettes are presented. Tests concerned three clay brick masonry walls subjected to horizontal shearing with two levels of precompression and strengthened by flexible polymer injection, superficial glass fixed by polymer fibre laminate plates and using of CRFP strips stiff fixed to the wall surface by polymer and stiff resin epoxy fixing are presented and discussed.

  10. Endovascular revascularization of a surgically ligated superficial femoral artery: A case report.

    PubMed

    Bishu, Kalkidan; Armstrong, Ehrin J

    2015-12-01

    We present a case of a patient with left lower extremity ischemic rest pain who initially underwent surgical profundaplasty requiring ligation of his superficial femoral artery (SFA). The patient developed continued rest pain due to diffuse disease of his profunda and inadequate collaterals. Endovascular intervention was therefore performed to the oversewn SFA. Retrograde left SFA access was obtained and the origin of the SFA was recanalized with true lumen re-entry using an ultrasound guided re-entry catheter. Angioplasty was performed at the origin of the SFA and self-expanding stents were deployed in the proximal and mid left SFA. Hemostasis at the distal left SFA access site was obtained by balloon inflation at the access site and manual compression. This case illustrates the feasibility of endovascular repair of a ligated SFA. PMID:26108345