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  1. Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have ... Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Herpes Culture; Herpes Simplex Viral Culture; HSV DNA; HSV by ...

  2. High GC content of simple sequence repeats in Herpes simplex virus type 1 genome.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Qingjian; Zhao, Xiangyan; Feng, Haiping; Tian, You; Li, Dan; Li, Mingfu; Tan, Zhongyang

    2012-05-10

    The presence, locations and composition of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) genome were extracted and analyzed by using the software Imperfect Microsatellite Extractor (IMEx). There were 663 mon-, 502 di-, 184 tri-, 20 tetra-, 4 penta- and 4 hexanucleotide SSRs that were observed in different distribution between coding and noncoding regions in the HSV-1 genome. G/C, GC/CG, and (GGC)(n) were predominant in mononucleotide, dinucletide, trinucleotide repeats respectively. Indeed, the results showed that GC content in simple sequence repeats was notably higher than that in entire HSV-1 genome. Our data might be helpful for studying the pathogenesis, genome structure and evolution of HSV-1. PMID:22414335

  3. Herpes - oral

    MedlinePlus

    ... HSV-2 is spread to the mouth during oral sex, causing oral herpes. Herpes viruses spread most easily ... if someone has oral herpes. Do not have oral sex if you have oral herpes, especially if you ...

  4. Herpes - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... The following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/pregnancy/complications-herpes National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease -- ...

  5. Designing Novel and Simple Competitive Internal Amplification Control for Reliable PCR Diagnosis of Herpes Simplex Virus

    PubMed Central

    Akbarian, Asiye; Shahhosseiny, Mohammad Hassan; Vafaei, Somayeh; Moslemi, Elham; Ghahri, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: PCR is a molecular technique for herpes simplex virus (HSV) detection that can cause life-threatening infections such as encephalitis and keratitis. However, the main issues, false-negative results causing by PCR inhibitors, of this technique that reduce PCR efficiency. To overcome this problem, a competitive internal amplification control (IAC) was constructed for conventional PCR using the PCR-cloning technique. Objectives: The purpose of this study is the design of competitive IAC for PCR diagnosis of HSV, which in fact is the main cause of keratitis and viral encephalitis in developed countries. Materials and Methods: Composite primers for PCR amplification of Leishmania major kDNA (kinetoplast DNA) were designed and optimized to use as IAC-HSV. IAC-HSV amplified in a non-stringent condition, ligated into pTZ57R plasmid vector, and transformed into Escherichia coli JM207 and then cloned. Resulting IAC was used for 105 CSF and 78 keratitis specimens. Results: PCR amplicons for HSV and IAC-HSV were 454-bp and 662-bp, respectively. Detection limit of IAC was determined as 1000 plasmids per PCR reaction. IAC sensitivity for HSV detection was determined as 1000 plasmids per PCR reaction. IAC sensitivity for HSV detection was 500 copies/mL of HSV DNA. Among all specimens, 7 inhibited specimens were detected. Conclusions: Indeed, using other DNA as an IAC is expected to detect false-negative results and amplification of the DNA is the key tool to examine the accuracy of amplification and detection steps. This internal amplification control is applicable for early reliable diagnosis of HSV in different loads of virus in different specimens. PMID:25793095

  6. Herpes Simplex

    MedlinePlus

    ... mouth or face. Genital herpes affects the genitals, buttocks or anal area. Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD). It affects the genitals, buttocks or anal area. Other herpes infections can affect ...

  7. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a herpes simplex virus (HSV). It can cause sores on ... also infect their babies during childbirth. Symptoms of herpes are called outbreaks. You usually get sores near ...

  8. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... about one out of every six people aged 14 to 49 years have genital herpes. How is genital herpes spread? You can get herpes by having oral, vaginal, or anal sex with someone who has the disease. Fluids ...

  9. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... who have sex with women get genital herpes? Yes. It is possible to get genital herpes, or any other STI, if you are a woman who ... sex and avoid sexual activity during an outbreak. Yes. It is possible to get genital herpes, or any other STI, if you are a woman who ...

  10. Herpes Simplex (Cold Sores and Genital Herpes)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 508 Herpes Simplex (Cold Sores and Genital Herpes) WHAT IS HERPES? HSV ... virus 1 (HSV1) is the common cause of cold sores (oral herpes) around the mouth. HSV2 normally ...

  11. Sacral Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... a recurrent skin condition such as shingles, a yeast infection, or an allergic reaction. However, sacral herpes ... pills if the areas are also infected with yeast Topical anesthetic cream, such as lidocaine ointment, to ...

  12. Herpes Simplex

    MedlinePlus

    ... ve ever had a cold sore or fever blister, you picked up the herpes simplex virus. Most ... may experience: Tingling, itching, or burning : Before the blisters appear, the skin may tingle, itch, or burn ...

  13. Oral Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer ... Herpes Main Content Title: Oral ...

  14. Herpes zoster

    PubMed Central

    Schmader, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Synopsis Herpes zoster afflicts millions of older adults annually worldwide and causes significant suffering due to acute and chronic pain, or postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). Herpes zoster is caused by the reactivation of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in sensory ganglia in the setting of age, disease and drug-related decline in cellular immunity to VZV. VZV-induced neuronal destruction and inflammation causes the principal problems of pain, interference with activities of daily living and reduced quality of life in older adults. To address these problems, the optimal treatment of herpes zoster requires early antiviral therapy and careful pain management. For patients who develop PHN, evidence-based pharmacotherapy using topical lidocaine patch, gabapentin, pregabalin, tricyclic antidepressants, and/or opiates can reduce pain burden. The live attenuated zoster vaccine is effective in reducing pain burden and preventing herpes zoster and PHN in older adults. PMID:17631237

  15. Herpes Zoster Oticus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Herpes Zoster Oticus Information Page Synonym(s): Ramsay Hunt Syndrome II ... is being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Herpes Zoster Oticus? Herpes zoster oticus, also called Ramsay Hunt ...

  16. Meet the Herps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Describes some of the characteristics of "herps" (amphibians and reptiles). Contains teaching activities dealing with ancient herps, learning stations that encourage sensory experiences with herps, and games, puzzles, and a dramatic play about herps. Includes reproducible handouts designed to be used with the activities, as well as a quiz. (TW)

  17. Herpes Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, A.; St Leger, A.; Jeon, S.; Dhaliwal, D.K.; Knickelbein, J.E.; Hendricks, R.L.

    2012-01-01

    Herpes Simplex Virus-1 (HSV-1) infects the majority of the world’s population. These infections are often asymptomatic, but ocular HSV-1 infections cause multiple pathologies with perhaps the most destructive being Herpes Stromal Keratitis (HSK). HSK lesions, which are immunoinflammatory in nature, can recur throughout life and often cause progressive corneal scaring resulting in visual impairment. Current treatment involves broad local immunosuppression with topical steroids along with antiviral coverage. Unfortunately, the immunopathologic mechanisms defined in animal models of HSK have not yet translated into improved therapy. Herein, we review the clinical epidemiology and pathology of the disease and summarize the large amount of basic research regarding the immunopathology of HSK. We examine the role of the innate and adaptive immune system in the clearance of virus and the destruction of the normal corneal architecture that is typical of HSK. Our goal is to define current knowledge of the pathogenic mechanisms and recurrent nature of HSK and identify areas that require further study. PMID:22944008

  18. Pregnancy and herpes

    MedlinePlus

    Newborn infants can become infected with herpes virus during pregnancy, during labor or delivery, or after birth. ... Newborn infants can become infected with herpes virus: In the uterus (this is unusual) Passing through the birth ...

  19. Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Though more common near the lips, grouped blisters (vesicles) can occur anywhere in herpes infections. Overview ... which are also called cold sores or fever blisters. Either herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) ...

  20. Serum herpes simplex antibodies

    MedlinePlus

    ... when it detects harmful substances such as the herpes virus. This test does not detect the virus itself. ... Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2014:chap 308. Whitley RJ. Herpes simplex virus infections. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's ...

  1. Genital herpes - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    Herpes - genital -self-care; Herpes simplex - genital - self-care; Herpesvirus 2 - self-care; HSV-2 - self-care ... genital herpes can be treated. Follow your health care provider's instructions for treatment and follow-up.

  2. Shingles (Herpes Zoster)

    MedlinePlus

    ... care Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Shingles Overview Shingles: This disease often causes a painful, blistering rash. Shingles: Overview Also called herpes zoster Anyone who has ...

  3. Herpes biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... if a person has been infected with the herpes simplex virus (I or II). This test does not detect the virus itself. If antibodies to the virus are present, the person has been infected with herpes simplex at some point in his or her ...

  4. Genital herpes simplex.

    PubMed Central

    Tummon, I. S.; Dudley, D. K.; Walters, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the herpes simplex virus. Following the initial infection the virus becomes latent in the sacral ganglia. Approximately 80% of patients are then subject to milder but unpredictable recurrences and may shed the virus even when they are asymptomatic. The disorder causes concern because genital herpes in the mother can result in rare but catastrophic neonatal infection and because of a possible association between genital herpes and cancer of the cervix. No effective treatment is as yet available. Weekly monitoring for virus by cervical culture from 32 weeks' gestation is recommended for women with a history of genital herpes and for those whose sexual partner has such a history. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 PMID:7020907

  5. Shingles (Herpes Zoster)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Shingles (Herpes Zoster) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Shingles Home About Shingles Overview Signs & Symptoms Transmission Complications ...

  6. Genital Herpes (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids Up for Sports Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies ... a herpes infection altogether. Anyone having sex (oral, anal, or vaginal) should take precautions against STDs and ...

  7. Polyneuritis and herpes zoster

    PubMed Central

    Dayan, A. D.; Ogul, E.; Graveson, G. S.

    1972-01-01

    Widespread neurological disorders following herpes zoster are exceptional. They include encephalitis and myelitis, and a type of polyneuropathy. The latter is particularly rare as only 16 cases have been described since the first account by Wohlwill in 1924. We present two clinical cases of polyneuropathy following herpes zoster with neuropathological studies on one of them, and discuss its possible aetiology and pathogenesis in the light of previous reports and recent experimental studies. Images PMID:5037030

  8. Herpes Simplex Virus (Cold Sores)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Herpes Simplex Virus (Cold Sores) Page Content Article Body Herpes simplex viruses ( ... or inside the mouth, they are commonly called cold sores or fever blisters. In most cases, these ...

  9. Herpes zoster (shingles), disseminated (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Herpes zoster (shingles) normally occurs in a limited area that follows a dermatome (see the "dermatome" picture). In individuals with damaged immune systems, herpes zoster may be widespread (disseminated), causing serious illness. ...

  10. Vaccination for herpes simplex genitalis.

    PubMed Central

    Nasemann, T; Wassilew, S W

    1979-01-01

    Type-specific vaccines containing heat-inactivated herpes simplex hominis virus type 1 or 2 have been developed for the treatment of herpes simplex genitalis. When patients with recurrent herpes genitalis were treated with the type 2 vaccine the clinical course of the disease improved and the eruption-free interval was extended. In severe cases, especially in permanent genital herpes, the concurrent administration of vaccine and immunoglobulin concentrates improved the clinical course of the disease. Antibody titres and the in-vitro stimulation of lymphocytes with phytohaemagglutinin or herpes simplex hominis virus antigens remained constant during administration of the vaccine. PMID:445121

  11. Hands-on Herps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Presents a hands-on activity to help primary, intermediate, and advanced students learn about and compare the general characteristics of reptiles and amphibians. Suggests "herp stations" to provide experiences. Details materials, background and procedures necessary for using this activity. (CW)

  12. Thin-layer immunoassay for determination of antibodies to herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed Central

    Jeansson, S; Elwing, H; Nilsson, L A

    1979-01-01

    Thin-layer immunoassay (TIA) is a simple serological technique suitable for analysis of large numbers of samples. In this study, TIA was evaluated for determination of antibodies to herpes simplex virus. Herpes simplex virus antigen used in TIA was purified from material released from virus-infected cells. The results obtained by TIA were compared with those obtained by neutralization and complement fixation tests. TIA was found to be as sensitive as the neutralization test for demonstration of herpes simplex virus antibodies. No false-negative or -positive reactions were observed. In primary herpes simplex virus-1 infections, an antibody response was demonstrated by TIA, whereas antibodies could not be demonstrated in patients with primary herpes simplex virus-2 infections. Images PMID:222798

  13. [Management of herpes zoster infection].

    PubMed

    Lauhio, Anneli; Anttila, Veli-Jukka

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 10 to 30% of the population will suffer from herpes zoster (HZ) during their lifetime. Prompt treatment of acute HZ with acyclovir, valacyclovir or famciclovir is recommend, if patients are over 50 years old or have severe or moderate pain or severe or moderate rash or they are immonocompromised or suffer from herpes zoster ophtalmicus. Zoster lesions contain high concentrations of Varicella zoster virus that can spread, and cause chicken pox. There is no universal recommendations for varicella vaccination. It has been shown that zoster vaccine markedly reduced morbidity from herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia among older adults. PMID:19769176

  14. Reading Recovery Following Herpes Encephalitis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, C. D.; Peters, Phyllis

    1979-01-01

    The article presents the medical, psychological, and reading diagnoses of a 24-year-old man with herpes encephalitis, an acute neurological disease. Test results are reported and the client's response to learning disability remedial techniques are reviewed. (SBH)

  15. The Significance of Herpes Simplex for School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensor, Deirdre

    2005-01-01

    Herpes simplex is a common recurrent viral infection caused by the herpes simplex virus. The two closely related but distinct viruses that cause herpes simplex infections are herpes simplex 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex 2 (HSV-2). HSV-1 is commonly associated with infections around the oral mucosa and is the cause of herpes labialis, often referred…

  16. The Significance of Herpes Simplex for School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensor, Deirdre

    2005-01-01

    Herpes simplex is a common recurrent viral infection caused by the herpes simplex virus. The two closely related but distinct viruses that cause herpes simplex infections are herpes simplex 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex 2 (HSV-2). HSV-1 is commonly associated with infections around the oral mucosa and is the cause of herpes labialis, often referred

  17. [Neonatal herpes simplex infection].

    PubMed

    van Ham-Borawitz, V E J; Stam, E D; Welborn, K M; Sas, T C J

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal encephalitis caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a familiar disease with a high mortality and morbidity rate. Isolated skin-eye-mouth infection is less familiar among professionals. In this article we present two neonates with an isolated skin lesion caused by an HSV infection. Of the neonates infected with HSV, 40-45% show isolated skin-eye-mouth disease. With correct treatment, the risk of spread to the central nervous system will decrease from 50-60% to 5-10%. Typical HSV skin lesions may present at a late stage of the disease or may be masked by a secondary bacterial infection. When a neonate presents with atypical skin lesions starting 7-12 days after the birth, immediate testing for HSV and immediate treatment are required, to decrease the risk of further progression of the disease. PMID:27122069

  18. Psychosocial Treatment for Recurrent Genital Herpes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, David J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Assigned 21 individuals with recurrent genital herpes to psychosocial intervention, social support, or waiting-list control conditions. Those receiving psychosocial intervention (herpes simplex virus information, relaxation training, stress management instructions, and an imagery technique) reported significantly greater reductions in herpes

  19. [Herpes gestationis. A case report].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Diaz, Jorge Arturo; Paredes-Solis, Vanessa; Martínez-Chagolla, Blanca de Jesús; Sereno-Coló, José Antonio

    2014-10-01

    Case report. 21 years old woman with 30 week pregnancy, complicated by a 3 month multitreated skin condition, who was referred to General Hospital Morelia, with probable diagnosis of Kapossi sarcoma and sus- pected HIV. She presented with exulcerations involving the palate, lips, chest, abdomen, back and extremities. The lesions were, itchy and painful, with thick yellowish secretion, accompanied by dysphagia to solid foods. Laboratory results showed normochromic normocytic anemia, elevation of ESR, hypocalcaemia, increased PCR, results in alterations in various TORCH listing, HIV negative. The biopsy of a lesion of the forearm reported histological changes consistent with herpes, subsequently confirmed by direct immunofluorescence. Liquid aspiration secretion of one of the lesions reported coagulase negative staphylococcus sp and Enterobacter cloacae. The final diagnosis was 30 weeks pregnant women with gestational herpes complicated by pyogenic infection of the lesions, discarding infection with HIV and found positive for IgG to toxoplasma, rubella, cytomegalovirus and herpes virus. PMID:25510061

  20. [Use of the nested polymerase chain reaction in the differential diagnosis of human herpes simplex virus].

    PubMed

    Glukhov, A I; Gordeev, S A; Al'tshuler, M L; Severin, S E

    2003-02-01

    Herpes is one of the most widespread human viral pathologies. The article depicts a special modification of polymerized chain reaction--(PCR)--(referred to as "nested"), which has a higher sensitivity, specificity and reliability as compared to the ordinary PCR, and which is designed to detect the herpes viruses. The method was initially tested at purified preparation of viral DNA, and later--at clinical materials obtained from patients and healthy donors. Secretions from the urogenital tract (smears), scrapes from the urogenital tracts and urinal cellular samples were examined in patients. Herpes simplex was detected in all cases. As for the healthy people, the identical examinations produced in them mainly the negative findings. Therefore, the nested PCR is a simple, sensitive and effective instrument in the diagnostics and prevention of herpes; it can be recommended for a comprehensive usage in medical practice. PMID:12688217

  1. Let's Hear It for Herps!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Let's Hear It for the Herps!" Contents are organized into the following…

  2. Let's Hear It for Herps!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Let's Hear It for the Herps!" Contents are organized into the following

  3. Herpes: Removing Fact from Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Elbert D.

    1984-01-01

    Factual information dealing with the virus herpes is provided in hopes of allaying the public fears that have recently appeared because of misinformation presented by the media. Symptoms, types, and new developments in treatment are explored. Recommendations for obtaining additional information are offered. (DF)

  4. [Cycloferon and management of herpes virus infection].

    PubMed

    Alimbarova, L M

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of patients with various forms of herpes requires a complex approach with using chemo- and immunotropic drugs. The use of Cycloferon, an interferon inductor (12.5% injection solution, 150 mg tablets or 5% liniment) was shown efficient. It had antiviral and immunotropic action in the mono- and combination therapy of herpes simplex of the skin and mucosa, genital herpes, ophthalmoherpes, herpes zoster, infectious mononucleosis. Cycloferon lowered the level and period of the disease clinical signs, prolonged the remission, corrected the immunity shifts, prevented the complications. The results of the study presented a conclusive proof for recommending such a use of Cycloferon in wide medical practice. PMID:25300118

  5. Experiential Interventions for Clients with Genital Herpes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Anne L.

    1999-01-01

    Explores potential benefits of incorporating concepts and interventions from experimental therapy to help clients with psychosocial difficulties in learning to live with genital herpes. Recommends experimental counseling of two-chair dialog, empty chair, and metaphor for helping clients with emotional sequelae of genital herpes. Presents case…

  6. Herpes in Dyadic Relationships: Patterns and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drob, Sanford; Bernard, Harold S.

    1985-01-01

    Explores how dyadic relationships can be affected when one partner suffers from genital herpes. Six patterns are described: When One Partner Does Not Know, The Compromise Relationship, The Enraged Partner, The Mark of Guilt, Problems in Risk Management, and Herpes Used as Weapon. Treatment strategies for dealing with patterns are offered.…

  7. Psychosocial Treatment for Recurrent Genital Herpes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, David J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Assigned 21 individuals with recurrent genital herpes to psychosocial intervention, social support, or waiting-list control conditions. Those receiving psychosocial intervention (herpes simplex virus information, relaxation training, stress management instructions, and an imagery technique) reported significantly greater reductions in herpes…

  8. Autism and Herpes Simplex Encephalitis. Brief Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaziuddin, Mohammad; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents two case studies of children who developed herpes virus infection in the intrauterine or early postnatal period and presented with features of autism around two years of age. Other research suggesting a link between herpes and autism is reviewed. (DB)

  9. Qualitative Complementation Test for Temperature-Sensitive Mutants of Herpes Simplex Virus

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chien-Ts; Schaffer, Priscilla A.

    1975-01-01

    A simple, rapid, qualitative method for classifying temperature-sensitive mutants of herpes simplex virus into functional complementation groups has been developed. The positive reaction observed in this test reflects the ability of mutant pairs to interact by both complementation and recombination. Images PMID:171444

  10. Epidemiology of genital herpes - recent advances.

    PubMed

    Halioua, B; Malkin, J E

    1999-01-01

    Genital herpes is a common, distressing infection which, due to increasing incidence world-wide, has become a prominent public health issue over recent years, even throughout the decade of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Since the late 1970's, the prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection has increased by approximately 30 percent in the US. The number of sufferers world-wide is currently estimated at approximately 86 million people. New serological methods based on the detection of type-specific antibodies to herpes simplex virus (HSV) glycoproteins have clarified issues concerning the true incidence of genital herpes, the modifying effect of prior HSV-1 infections, the changing proportions of HSV-1 genital herpes, and the importance of asymptomatic shedding. Patients' ignorance of their diagnosis along with the occurrence of atypical symptomatology and asymptomatic viral shedding of HSV all contribute to the transmission of genital herpes. Genital ulcer disease, of which genital herpes is the most common cause in developed countries, is an important risk factor in the acquisition and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and has contributed to the spread of this disorder. Risk factors for genital herpes HSV-2 are strongly related to lifetime number of sexual partners, number of years of sexual activity, male homosexuality, black race, female gender and a history of previous sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Understanding the epidemiology of genital herpes is of great importance in limiting the spread of this STD. In this review, we summarise current knowledge related to the epidemiology of genital herpes. PMID:10210781

  11. Herpes Mastitis: Diagnosis and Management.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, Arnaud; Simonson, Colin; Valla, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Herpetic lesions most frequently occur on oral and genital areas. However, herpes simplex virus (HSV) can be a rare cause of breast infection. In few published articles, the route of transmission is predominantly from infant to mother. We report two cases about simultaneous mammary and extramammary (oral and genital) herpetic infection in nonlactating women. In both cases, HSV breast lesions were acquired by sexual contacts with partners who were asymptomatic HSV carriers. Through a review of literature, we highlight clinical signs for an early diagnosis. We also emphasize the advantage of the valacyclovir for treating this uncommon pathology. PMID:26899615

  12. Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    James, Scott H; Kimberlin, David W

    2015-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 and HSV-2 infections are highly prevalent worldwide and are characterized by establishing lifelong infection with periods of latency interspersed with periodic episodes of reactivation. Acquisition of HSV by an infant during the peripartum or postpartum period results in neonatal HSV disease, a rare but significant infection that can be associated with severe morbidity and mortality, especially if there is dissemination or central nervous system involvement. Diagnostic and therapeutic advances have led to improvements in mortality and, to a lesser extent, neurodevelopmental outcomes, but room exists for further improvement. PMID:26154662

  13. [Update on Herpes Simplex Encephalitis].

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), which is caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV), is a severe neuro-infectious disease characterized by high mortality and morbidity. We reviewed the pathomechanism, diagnosis, and treatment of HSE based on recent progress in the field. The highlighted mechanism of HSE in this review is immune-mediated tissue damage caused by host immunity. Major symptoms of HSE include psychiatric alteration, Klüver-Bucy syndrome, and amnesia, caused by frequent involvement of the limbic system. An important differential diagnosis of HSE is autoimmune limbic encephalitis, including anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis, and anti-voltage-gated K+ channel encephalitis. HSE is definitely diagnosed based on the detection of HSV-DNA by polymerase chain reaction and/or the detection of HSV-IgG antibody in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Repeated CSF examinations are required for the accurate diagnosis of HSE. Acyclovir (ACV) plays a central role in the treatment of HSE, and its early initiation is essential for good outcome in patients with HSE. Acute administration of corticosteroids for HSE is controversial; a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of add-on corticosteroids to ACV is ongoing. PMID:26160820

  14. Severe complications of herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Volpi, Antonio

    2007-09-01

    The usual presentation of herpes zoster is as a self-limiting vesicular rash, often accompanied by post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN), its most common complication. However, herpes zoster can give rise to other complications, many of which have unusual presentations and serious sequelae. The incidence and burden of many of these less common complications are poorly understood. Ocular complications of ophthalmic zoster are relatively frequent but, with early antiviral therapy, need not be sight-threatening. Delayed contralateral hemiparesis is a rare complication of ophthalmic zoster that may present as stroke, temporally remote from the zoster episode. Ramsay Hunt syndrome is caused by reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV) involving the facial nerve; facial paralysis, ear pain and vesicles in the ear are diagnostic. Facial paralysis in the absence of vesicles may indicate zoster sine herpete, which can be mistaken for Bell's palsy. Herpetic facial palsies may respond to combination therapy with an antiviral plus steroid, but further research is needed to determine the benefit of such treatments. PMID:17939894

  15. Update on herpes zoster vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Marla; Kvern, Brent; Watson, Peter; Guenther, Lyn; McElhaney, Janet; McGeer, Allison

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To answer frequently asked questions surrounding the use of the new herpes zoster (HZ) vaccine. Sources of information Published results of clinical trials and other studies, recommendations from the Canadian National Advisory Committee on Immunization, and the US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices; data were also obtained from the vaccine’s Health Canada–approved product monograph. Main message Herpes zoster results from reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus; postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is its most common and serious complication. The incidence of PHN after HZ is directly related to age, with 50% of affected individuals older than 60 years experiencing persistent and unrelieved pain. The live virus HZ vaccine reduces the incidence of HZ by about 50% and the occurrence of PHN by two-thirds, with vaccinated individuals experiencing attenuated or shortened symptoms. The vaccine is contraindicated in many immunocompromised patients and might not be effective in patients taking antiviral medications active against the HZ virus. Physicians should be aware of the different recommendations for these groups. Conclusion The HZ vaccine is a safe and effective preventive measure for reducing the overall burden and severity of HZ in older adults. The vaccine appears to be cost-effective when administered to adults aged 60 years and older. PMID:21998225

  16. Human herpes virus associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Di Crescenzo, Vincenzo; D'Antonio, Antonio; Tonacchera, Massimo; Carlomagno, Chiara; Vitale, Mario

    2013-09-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis is the most frequent autoimmune disease with genetic and environmental aetiologies. Viral infections have been postulated as one of the factors that may trigger autoimmune diseases. Many studies suggest that Herpes simplex virus infections are involved in a variety of autoimmune diseases. We report the case of three patients presenting for the first time herpes labialis a few months before the onset of hashitoxicosis. Serological and clinical exams support the possible role of human herpes viruses in the aetiology of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. PMID:24008857

  17. Vibrio vulnificus necrotizing fasciitis preceding herpes zoster

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Kelli Y.; Tyring, Stephen K.

    2013-01-01

    A 74-year-old white man presented with unilateral radicular pain extending across the left side of his chest and back. A diagnosis of postherpetic neuralgia, a sequela of herpes zoster, was made. Herpes zoster represents a reactivation of the varicella zoster virus that lies dormant in patients with past chickenpox. Risk factors for the disease include advanced age, stress, immunodeficiency, and immunosuppression. Treatment of herpes zoster entails traditional antiviral medications, while prevention may be achieved with a new prophylactic vaccine. PMID:23382617

  18. Case of herpes zoster duplex bilateralis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Bong Seok; Seo, Hyun Deok; Na, Chan Ho; Choi, Kyu Chul

    2009-02-01

    Non-contiguously simultaneous development of herpes zoster is very rare. It is named either herpes zoster duplex unilateralis or bilaterarlis, depending on whether one or both sides of the body are involved. Herein, we report a 21-year-old man, who had been treated for ulcerative colitis with prednisolone, and presented with painful grouped vesicles of the lower abdomen and back in a relatively symmetrical distribution. A Tzanck smear and punch biopsy were performed on the vesicles of the back. We report a rare case of symmetrical herpes zoster duplex bilateralis. PMID:19284453

  19. Herpes zoster (shingles) on the back (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of blisters (vesicles) and redness (erythema) caused by herpes zoster (shingles). The pattern follows a dermatome. The area may burn or sting before the appearance of these vesicles. Early treatment with an antiviral drug (within 24 hours of ...

  20. Recent advances in management of genital herpes.

    PubMed Central

    Tétrault, I.; Boivin, G.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an update on new diagnostic tests and antiviral strategies for managing genital herpes. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Treatment guidelines are based on randomized clinical trials and recommendations from the Expert Working Group on Canadian Guidelines for Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Recommendations concerning other aspects of managing genital herpes (e.g., indications for using type-specific serologic tests) are mainly based on expert opinion. MAIN MESSAGE: Genital herpes is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases, affecting about 20% of sexually active people; up to 80% of cases are undiagnosed. Because of frequent atypical presentation and the emotional burden associated with genital herpes, clinical diagnosis should be confirmed by viral culture. Type-specific serologic assays are now available, but their use is often restricted to special situations and requires adequate counseling. New antivirals (valacyclovir and famciclovir) with improved pharmacokinetic profiles have now been approved for episodic treatment of recurrences and suppressive therapy. CONCLUSION: Wise use of new diagnostic assays for herpes simplex coupled with more convenient treatment regimens should provide better management of patients with genital herpes. Images Figure 1 PMID:10955181

  1. Simple Machines Made Simple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Andre, Ralph E.

    Simple machines have become a lost point of study in elementary schools as teachers continue to have more material to cover. This manual provides hands-on, cooperative learning activities for grades three through eight concerning the six simple machines: wheel and axle, inclined plane, screw, pulley, wedge, and lever. Most activities can be

  2. Simple Machines Made Simple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Andre, Ralph E.

    Simple machines have become a lost point of study in elementary schools as teachers continue to have more material to cover. This manual provides hands-on, cooperative learning activities for grades three through eight concerning the six simple machines: wheel and axle, inclined plane, screw, pulley, wedge, and lever. Most activities can be…

  3. Latent Herpes Viral Reactivation in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, D. L.; Mehta, S. K.; Stowe, R.

    2008-01-01

    Latent viruses are ubiquitous and reactivate during stressful periods with and without symptoms. Latent herpes virus reactivation is used as a tool to predict changes in the immune status in astronauts and to evaluate associated health risks. Methods: Viral DNA was detected by real time polymerase chain reaction in saliva and urine from astronauts before, during and after short and long-duration space flights. Results and Discussion: EpsteinBarr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivated, and viral DNA was shed in saliva (EBV and VZV) or urine (CMV). EBV levels in saliva during flight were 10fold higher than baseline levels. Elevations in EBV specific CD8+ T-cells, viral antibody titers, and specific cytokines were consistent with viral reactivation. Intracellular levels of cytokines were reduced in EBVspecific Tcells. CMV, rarely present in urine of healthy individuals, was shed in urine of 27% of astronauts during all phases of spaceflight. VZV, not found in saliva of asymptomatic individuals, was found in saliva of 50% of astronauts during spaceflight and 35 days after flight. VZV recovered from astronaut saliva was found to be live, infectious virus. DNA sequencing demonstrated that the VZV recovered from astronauts was from the common European strain of VZV. Elevation of stress hormones accompanied viral reactivation indicating involvement of the hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal and sympathetic adrenal-medullary axes in the mechanism of viral reactivation in astronauts. A study of 53 shingles patients found that all shingles patients shed VZV DNA in their saliva and the VZV levels correlated with the severity of the disease. Lower VZV levels in shingles patients were similar to those observed in astronauts. We proposed a rapid, simple, and cost-effective assay to detect VZV in saliva of patients with suspected shingles. Early detection of VZV infection allows early medical intervention.

  4. Can You Get Genital Herpes from a Cold Sore?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cuts? Can You Get Genital Herpes From a Cold Sore? KidsHealth > For Teens > Can You Get Genital Herpes From a Cold Sore? Print A A A Text Size Can you get genital herpes from a cold sore? – Lucy* Yes — it is possible to get ...

  5. [Severe form of herpes gestationis].

    PubMed

    Orsini, G; Loizzi, P; Morelli, L; Chiechi, L M; Sabatini, R; Distante, G

    2003-06-01

    We report a very severe form of herpers gestationis that arose at the 26(th) week of pregnancy and reached us for observation at the 30(th) week. Herpes gestationis in an autoimmune vesicobullous dermatosis characterised by skin eruptions, intense itching and consequent increase in fetal morbility, with delayed intrauterine growth and prematurity. Owing to its particular severity (involvement of the entire body surface including the face), between the 30th and the 32(nd) weeks we had to address a severe clinical condition characterised by anaemia, marked hypoproteinaemia, hypoalbuminaemia, hupertension and hyperglycaemia which led us to resort to the maximum dose of oral corticotherapy in association with topical therapy using clobetasol propionate. In our opinion the results obtained were highly statisfactory with the result that at the end of the 37(th) week, in consideration of the patient's obstetric history, podalic presentation and parity, we performed a Caesarean delivering a newborn of 3000 g in excellent condition. The patient was discharged symptom-free on the 6(th) day and the newborn was in full healt. PMID:14581874

  6. Designing herpes viruses as oncolytics

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Cole; Rabkin, Samuel D

    2015-01-01

    Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) was one of the first genetically-engineered oncolytic viruses. Because HSV is a natural human pathogen that can cause serious disease, it is incumbent that it can be genetically-engineered or significantly attenuated for safety. Here, we present a detailed explanation of the functions of HSV-1 genes frequently mutated to endow oncolytic activity. These genes are nonessential for growth in tissue culture cells but are important for growth in postmitotic cells, interfering with intrinsic antiviral and innate immune responses or causing pathology, functions dispensable for replication in cancer cells. Understanding the function of these genes leads to informed creation of new oHSVs with better therapeutic efficacy. Virus infection and replication can also be directed to cancer cells through tumor-selective receptor binding and transcriptional- or post-transcriptional miRNA-targeting, respectively. In addition to the direct effects of oHSV on infected cancer cells and tumors, oHSV can be “armed” with transgenes that are: reporters, to track virus replication and spread; cytotoxic, to kill uninfected tumor cells; immune modulatory, to stimulate antitumor immunity; or tumor microenvironment altering, to enhance virus spread or to inhibit tumor growth. In addition to HSV-1, other alphaherpesviruses are also discussed for their oncolytic activity. PMID:26462293

  7. The psychological impact of genital herpes stigma.

    PubMed

    Merin, Abigail; Pachankis, John E

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the psychological consequences of genital herpes infection through the lens of a recently proposed framework for conceptualizing concealable stigmas. We incorporate research on identity, stigma, and the connection between psychological and physical health to outline how negative stigma-related psychological consequences perpetuate distress associated with genital herpes. Our review of the research suggests a model linking negative affect and poor coping to frequent recurrences of genital herpes outbreaks. Frequent outbreaks, in turn, increase the salience of the stigma, reinforcing a stigmatized self-schema, thereby creating negative psychological consequences, continuing the cycle. We conclude by discussing the implications of this model for future research and mental health treatment. PMID:20656766

  8. Herpes Zoster-Induced Ogilvie's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Masood, Irfan; Majid, Zain; Rind, Waqas; Zia, Aisha; Riaz, Haris; Raza, Sajjad

    2015-01-01

    Ogilvie's syndrome due to herpes zoster infection is a rare manifestation of VZV reactivation. The onset of rash of herpes zoster and the symptoms of intestinal obstruction can occur at different time intervals posing a significant diagnostic challenge resulting in avoidable surgical interventions. Herein, we describe a case of 35-year-old male who presented with 6-day history of constipation and colicky abdominal pain along with an exquisitely tender and vesicular skin eruption involving the T8–T11 dermatome. Abdominal X-ray and ultrasound revealed generalized gaseous distention of the large intestine with air up to the rectum consistent with paralytic ileus. Colonoscopy did not show any obstructing lesion. A diagnosis of Ogilvie's syndrome associated with herpes zoster was made. He was conservatively managed with nasogastric decompression, IV fluids, and acyclovir. The patient had an uneventful recovery and was later discharged. PMID:26664758

  9. The Uncommon Localization of Herpes Zoster

    PubMed Central

    Cukic, Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Herpes zoster is an acute, cutaneous viral infection caused by the reactivation of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) that is the cause of varicella. It is an acute neurological disease which can often lead to serious postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). Different nerves can be included with the skin rash in the area of its enervation especially cranial nerves (CV) and intercostal nerves. Case report: In this report we present a patient with herpes zoster which involved ulnar nerve with skin rash in the region of ulnar innervations in women with no disease previously diagnosed. The failure of her immune system may be explained by great emotional stress and overwork she had been exposed to with neglecting proper nutrition in that period. Conclusion: Herpes zoster may involve any nerve with characteristic skin rash in the area of its innervations, and failure in immune system which leads reactivation of VZV may be caused by other factors besides the underlying illness. PMID:26980938

  10. Can Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis Cause Aphasia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naude, H.; Pretorius, E.

    2003-01-01

    Aphasia implies the loss or impairment of language caused by brain damage. The key to understanding the nature of aphasic symptoms is the neuro-anatomical site of brain damage, and not the causative agent. However, because "Herpes simplex" virus (HSV) encephalitis infection usually affects the frontal and temporal lobes, subcortical structures and

  11. Can Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis Cause Aphasia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naude, H.; Pretorius, E.

    2003-01-01

    Aphasia implies the loss or impairment of language caused by brain damage. The key to understanding the nature of aphasic symptoms is the neuro-anatomical site of brain damage, and not the causative agent. However, because "Herpes simplex" virus (HSV) encephalitis infection usually affects the frontal and temporal lobes, subcortical structures and…

  12. Recurrent lumbosacral herpes simplex virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Vassantachart, Janna M.

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 54-year-old white woman with episodic lumbosacral lesions that she had been treating as psoriasis. Evaluation revealed classic herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. The discussion reviews the significance and potential complications of recurrent lumbosacral HSV infection. PMID:26722168

  13. Genetic analysis and molecular characterization of Chinese sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) cultivars using Insertion-Deletion (InDel) and Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sesame is an important and ancient oil crop in tropical and subtropical areas. China is one of the most important sesame producing countries with many germplasm accessions and excellent cultivars. Domestication and modern plant breeding have presumably narrowed the genetic basis of cultivated sesame. Several modern sesame cultivars were bred with a limited number of landrace cultivars in their pedigree. The genetic variation was subsequently reduced by genetic drift and selection. Characterization of genetic diversity of these cultivars by molecular markers is of great value to assist parental line selection and breeding strategy design. Results Three hundred and forty nine simple sequence repeat (SSR) and 79 insertion-deletion (InDel) markers were developed from cDNA library and reduced-representation sequencing of a sesame cultivar Zhongzhi 14, respectively. Combined with previously published SSR markers, 88 polymorphic markers were used to assess the genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationships, population structure, and allele distribution among 130 Chinese sesame accessions including 82 cultivars, 44 landraces and 4 wild germplasm accessions. A total of 325 alleles were detected, with the average gene diversity of 0.432. Model-based structure analysis revealed the presence of five subgroups belonging to two main groups, which were consistent with the results from principal coordinate analysis (PCA), phylogenetic clustering and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA). Several missing or unique alleles were identified from particular types, subgroups or families, even though they share one or both parental/progenitor lines. Conclusions This report presented a by far most comprehensive characterization of the molecular and genetic diversity of sesame cultivars in China. InDels are more polymorphic than SSRs, but their ability for deciphering genetic diversity compared to the later. Improved sesame cultivars have narrower genetic basis than landraces, reflecting the effect of genetic drift or selection during breeding processes. Comparative analysis of allele distribution revealed genetic divergence between improved cultivars and landraces, as well as between cultivars released in different years. These results will be useful for assessing cultivars and for marker-assisted breeding in sesame. PMID:24641723

  14. Herpes Zoster Vaccination: Controversies and Common Clinical Questions.

    PubMed

    Van Epps, Puja; Schmader, Kenneth E; Canaday, David H

    2016-01-01

    Herpes zoster, clinically referred to as shingles, is an acute, cutaneous viral infection caused by reactivation of the varicella zoster virus, the same virus that causes chickenpox. The incidence of herpes zoster and its complications increase with decline in cell-mediated immunity, including age-associated decline. The most effective management strategy for herpes zoster is prevention of the disease through vaccination in those who are most vulnerable. Despite the demonstrated efficacy in reducing the incidence and severity of herpes zoster, the uptake of vaccine remains low. Here, we will discuss the controversies that surround the live herpes zoster vaccine and address the common clinical questions that arise. We will also discuss the new adjuvanted herpes zoster vaccine currently under investigation. PMID:26184711

  15. Mucosal Herpes Immunity and Immunopathology to Ocular and Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Chentoufi, Aziz Alami; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2012-01-01

    Herpes simplex viruses type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are amongst the most common human infectious viral pathogens capable of causing serious clinical diseases at every stage of life, from fatal disseminated disease in newborns to cold sores genital ulcerations and blinding eye disease. Primary mucocutaneous infection with HSV-1 & HSV-2 is followed by a lifelong viral latency in the sensory ganglia. In the majority of cases, herpes infections are clinically asymptomatic. However, in symptomatic individuals, the latent HSV can spontaneously and frequently reactivate, reinfecting the muco-cutaneous surfaces and causing painful recurrent diseases. The innate and adaptive mucosal immunities to herpes infections and disease remain to be fully characterized. The understanding of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms operating at muco-cutaneous surfaces is fundamental to the design of next-generation herpes vaccines. In this paper, the phenotypic and functional properties of innate and adaptive mucosal immune cells, their role in antiherpes immunity, and immunopathology are reviewed. The progress and limitations in developing a safe and efficient mucosal herpes vaccine are discussed. PMID:23320014

  16. Herpes zoster duplex bilateralis in an immunocompetent host.

    PubMed

    Gahalaut, Pratik; Chauhan, Sandhya

    2012-01-01

    Varicella zoster virus causes both chicken pox and herpes zoster. The phenomenon of herpes zoster occurring concurrently in two non-contiguous dermatomes involving different halves of the body is termed herpes zoster duplex bilateralis (HZDB). Few cases, reported in the literature, were seen in either an immunosuppressed host or in the older age group. Here we present a case of HZDB in an immunocompetent host, probably the first in India. PMID:23130258

  17. Pharmacologic management of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia.

    PubMed Central

    Mamdani, F. S.

    1994-01-01

    Herpes zoster is an infection caused by reactivation of dormant varicella-zoster virus. The acute course of herpes zoster is generally benign; however, some patients will experience postherpetic neuralgia characterized by severe, relentless, and at times disabling pain that is often refractory to treatment. While herpes zoster responds to acyclovir, cost-benefit considerations limit the drug's usefulness to only a select group. Postherpetic neuralgia requires a holistic approach, including pharmacologic therapy using several different classes of drugs. PMID:7907508

  18. 2014 UK national guideline for the management of anogenital herpes.

    PubMed

    Patel, Raj; Green, John; Clarke, Emily; Seneviratne, Kanchana; Abbt, Naomi; Evans, Ceri; Bickford, Jane; Nicholson, Marian; O'Farrell, Nigel; Barton, Simon; FitzGerald, Mark; Foley, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    These guidelines concern the management of anogenital herpes simplex virus infections in adults and give advice on diagnosis, management, and counselling of patients. This guideline replaces the 2007 BASHH herpes guidelines and includes new sections on herpes proctitis, key points to cover with patients regarding transmission and removal of advice on the management of HSV in pregnancy which now has a separate joint BASHH/RCOG guideline. PMID:25861804

  19. Inactivation of Herpes Simplex Viruses by Nonionic Surfactants

    PubMed Central

    Asculai, Samuel S.; Weis, Margaret T.; Rancourt, Martha W.; Kupferberg, A. B.

    1978-01-01

    Nonionic surface-active agents possessing ether or amide linkages between the hydrophillic and hydrophobic portions of the molecule rapidly inactivated the infectivity of herpes simplex viruses. The activity stemmed from the ability of nonionic surfactants to dissolve lipid-containing membranes. This was confirmed by observing surfactant destruction of mammalian cell plasma membranes and herpes simplex virus envelopes. Proprietary vaginal contraceptive formulations containing nonionic surfactants also inactivated herpes simplex virus infectivity. This observation suggests that nonionic surfactants in appropriate formulation could effectively prevent herpes simplex virus transmission. Images PMID:208460

  20. [Cutaneous leishmaniasis and multidermatomic herpes zoster].

    PubMed

    Arboleda, Margarita; Jaramillo, Laura; Ortiz, Diana; Díaz, Alejandro

    2013-12-01

    Standard treatment of leishmaniasis consists of n-metilglucamine, meglumine antimoniate, which can trigger side effects such as general malaise, renal and hepatic impairment, and cardiac arrhythmias. Infrequently, reactivations of varicella-zoster virus infections have been reported. This paper describes a patient with cutaneous leishmaniasis in treatment with meglumine and herpes zoster multiplex. After ruling out other possible causes of immunosuppression, an acyclovir therapy was initiated. PMID:24522317

  1. Herpes simplex virus colitis in a neonate.

    PubMed

    Daley, Andrew J; Craven, Paul; Holland, Andrew J A; Jones, Cheryl A; Badawi, Nadia; Isaacs, David

    2002-09-01

    Involvement of the gastrointestinal tract in neonates with congenital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is rarely described. We report a case of a newborn with disseminated HSV infection associated with profuse hematochezia and late sigmoid colon perforation. Histologic examination showed patchy areas of ulceration with multinucleated giant cells and HSV nucleic acid was detected by polymerase chain reaction in colonic tissue. No clinically apparent episodes of recurrent colitis occurred in the first year of life. PMID:12380594

  2. Granuloma annulare in herpes zoster scars.

    PubMed

    Ohata, C; Shirabe, H; Takagi, K; Kawatsu, T

    2000-03-01

    A 54-year-old Japanese female developed granuloma annulare twice in herpes zoster scars. Soon after the second event, she developed ulcerative colitis, which was well controlled by sulfonamides and corticosteroid suppository. She had no history of diabetes mellitus. There was no recurrence of granuloma annulare by June of 1999. Granuloma annulare might have contributed to the complications of ulcerative colitis, although this had not been noticed before. PMID:10774142

  3. Herpes Viral Origin of the Parsonage-Turner Syndrome: Highlighting of Serological Immune Anti-Herpes Deficiency Cured by Anti-Herpes Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Goaster, Jacqueline Le; Bourée, Patrice; Ifergan, Charles; Tangy, Frederic; Olivier, René; Haenni, Anne-Lise

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, a 50 year-old athletic male presented with weakness, pain and unilateral phrenic paralysis, followed by bilateral phrenic paralysis with deep dyspnea. In 2013, the Parsonage-Turner syndrome was diagnosed. When the patient was seen in September 2014 for the first time, he was facing phrenic neuromuscular failure, which led to the hypothesis of neurotropic herpes viruses. A control of the global serological anti-Herpes immunity to analyze his antibody (Ab) levels confirmed herpes immune genetic deficiency. An appropriate herpes chemotherapy treatment was proposed. Immediately, a spectacular recovery of the patient was observed, and after a few weeks, the respiratory function tests showed normal values. The hypothesis of the inductive role of viruses of the herpes family in the Parsonage-Turner syndrome was thus substantiated. The patient's immune deficiency covers the HSV2, HHV3, HHV4, HHV5 and HHV6 Ab levels. This led to the control of herpes in the family lineage: indeed, his daughter presented alterations of her serological herpes Ab levels. PMID:26078744

  4. Clear & Simple

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clear Communication Science, Health, and Public Trust Health Literacy Clear & Simple Cultural Respect Language Access Talking to ... Clear & Simple: Developing Effective Print Materials for Low-Literacy Audiences” which served as a trans-NIH resource ...

  5. Herpes labialis among dental healthcare providers in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Azodo, C. C.; Umoh, A. O.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The epidemiology of herpes labialis has been relatively neglected. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of self-reported herpes labialis among Nigerian dental health providers. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study of final year dental students and dentists undergoing postgraduate training at University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria was conducted in June, 2014. The demographic information, lifetime and period (previous year) experience of the herpes labialis, perceived triggers and action taken during the last episode were obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. Results: The annual prevalence of herpes labialis was 7.4% while the lifetime prevalence was 22.1%. The lifetime prevalence was significantly associated with marital status, professional status and family history of herpes labialis. However, in binary regression, it was only marital status and family history of herpes labialis that emerged as the determinants of this lifetime prevalence. The most common trigger factors reported by the participants for the last episode of herpes labialis were fever, malaria, fatigue and stress. The actions taken by participants for the last episode of herpes labialis were using drugs without prescription (14.3%), application of lubricant (23.8%), nothing (57.1%) and could not remember (4.8%). Conclusion: Data from this study revealed that one out of fourteen and one out of five every studied dental healthcare providers had experienced herpes labialis in the last 12 months and their lifetime respectively. The reduction of fever inducing infections, stress and fatigue which were major triggers will help decrease herpes labialis among this studied group. PMID:26392726

  6. Genital Herpes Beliefs: Implications for Sexual Health

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Elizabeth C.; Heidrich, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Study objective Genital herpes (HSV) is exceedingly common in the United States and women are disproportionally affected. This study aims to describe young women’s beliefs about HSV and examine the correlates of those beliefs. Design A 40 item Herpes Representation measure (HSV- RoSTD) and a demographic questionnaire were administered to a convenience sample of young women. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, t-tests and Pearson’s correlations. Setting Four women’s health clinics and one large state university. Participants 302 women aged 18–24. Interventions None. Main outcome measures Four dimensions of HSV representations (cause, identity, future perspective and psychosocial consequences), age and STD testing history. Results Nearly all (98%) believed that HSV would result in genital sores and 68% believed they could tell if their sexual partner had HSV. Most (89%) understood the longevity of HSV, however 30% believed that they could take a pill to get rid of the infection, and 15% indicated that it was likely they would die from HSV. Negative beliefs about the psychosocial impact of HSV were common as 95% indicated they would be depressed and 90% indicated concern about sex and partner notification. Those who were younger and those who had never been tested for STDs believed a genital herpes infection is highly symptomatic. Finally, negative beliefs about the psychosocial consequences of HSV were associated with beliefs about HSV being symptomatic, having a negative impact on future health, and being associated with sexual risk behaviors. Conclusions Young women have misconceptions about HSV, particularly regarding the symptomatology and the role of HSV medication. Noteworthy concerns about the negative psychosocial consequences of an HSV diagnosis were also raised, all of which have implications for young women’s sexual health. PMID:23337309

  7. [Update on the treatment of genital herpes].

    PubMed

    Martn, J M; Villaln, G; Jord, E

    2009-01-01

    Genital herpes is a chronic infection characterized by periodic reactivation. It can produce symptomatic disease in the host although asymptomatic viral excretion can also occur. It is currently the main cause of genital ulceration and an important public health problem that has substantial clinical, psychological, and economic repercussions. This review analyzes the currently available therapeutic options and regimens, which are based mainly on systemic use of antiviral agents such as aciclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir. In addition, special emphasis is placed on the prevention and management of this infection in specific situations, such as pregnant, pediatric, and immunocompromised patients. PMID:19268108

  8. Goiter - simple

    MedlinePlus

    Simple goiter; Endemic goiter; Colloidal goiter; Nontoxic goiter; Toxic nodular goiter ... peanuts, vegetables in the broccoli and cabbage family) Toxic nodular goiter, an enlarged thyroid gland that has ...

  9. Herpes Zoster (Shingles) and Postherpetic Neuralgia

    PubMed Central

    Sampathkumar, Priya; Drage, Lisa A.; Martin, David P.

    2009-01-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ), commonly called shingles, is a distinctive syndrome caused by reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV). This reactivation occurs when immunity to VZV declines because of aging or immunosuppression. Herpes zoster can occur at any age but most commonly affects the elderly population. Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), defined as pain persisting more than 3 months after the rash has healed, is a debilitating and difficult to manage consequence of HZ. The diagnosis of HZ is usually made clinically on the basis of the characteristic appearance of the rash. Early recognition and treatment can reduce acute symptoms and may also reduce PHN. A live, attenuated vaccine aimed at boosting immunity to VZV and reducing the risk of HZ is now available and is recommended for adults older than 60 years. The vaccine has been shown to reduce significantly the incidence of both HZ and PHN. The vaccine is well tolerated, with minor local injection site reactions being the most common adverse event. This review focuses on the clinical manifestations and treatment of HZ and PHN, as well as the appropriate use of the HZ vaccine. PMID:19252116

  10. Antiviral agents for herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Vere Hodge, R Anthony; Field, Hugh J

    2013-01-01

    This review starts with a brief description of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), the clinical diseases they cause, and the continuing clinical need for antiviral chemotherapy. A historical overview describes the progress from the early, rather toxic antivirals to acyclovir (ACV) which led the way for its prodrug, valacyclovir, to penciclovir and its prodrug, famciclovir (FCV). These compounds have been the mainstay of HSV therapy for two decades and have established a remarkable safety record. This review focuses on these compounds, the preclinical studies which reveal potentially important differences, the clinical trials, and the clinical experience through two decades. Some possible areas for further investigation are suggested. The focus shifts to new approaches and novel compounds, in particular, the combination of ACV with hydrocortisone, known as ME609 or zovirax duo, an HSV helicase-primase inhibitor, pritelivir (AIC316), and CMX001, the cidofovir prodrug for treating resistant HSV infection in immunocompromised patients. Letermovir has established that the human cytomegalovirus terminase enzyme is a valid target and that similar compounds could be sought for HSV. We discuss the difficulties facing the progression of new compounds. In our concluding remarks, we summarize the present situation including a discussion on the reclassification of FCV from prescription-only to pharmacist-controlled for herpes labialis in New Zealand in 2010; should this be repeated more widely? We conclude that HSV research is emerging from a quiescent phase. PMID:23885997

  11. Hiccups, eructation, and other uncommon prodromal manifestations of herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Alexander L; Muhn, Channy Y; Billick, Robin C

    2003-12-01

    Although the most frequent presentation of herpes zoster involves sensory neurons, motor and autonomic symptomatology is also known to occur in this disease. An unusual symptom of hiccups is described here. Other infrequent manifestations of this common illness, including the Ramsay Hunt syndrome, herpes zoster ophthalmicus, urinary and fecal retention, sexual dysfunction, and zoster sine herpete, are reviewed. Greater awareness of unusual presentations of herpes zoster is necessary for proper diagnosis and timely management of complications that may otherwise lead to disability and serious long-term sequelae. PMID:14639397

  12. Vaccinia Virus Recombinant Expressing Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Glycoprotein D Prevents Latent Herpes in Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremer, Kenneth J.; Mackett, Michael; Wohlenberg, Charles; Notkins, Abner Louis; Moss, Bernard

    1985-05-01

    In humans, herpes simplex virus causes a primary infection and then often a latent ganglionic infection that persists for life. Because these latent infections can recur periodically, vaccines are needed that can protect against both primary and latent herpes simplex infections. Infectious vaccinia virus recombinants that contain the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein D gene under control of defined early or late vaccinia virus promoters were constructed. Tissue culture cells infected with these recombinant viruses synthesized a glycosylated protein that had the same mass (60,000 daltons) as the glycoprotein D produced by HSV-1. Immunization of mice with one of these recombinant viruses by intradermal, subcutaneous, or intraperitoneal routes resulted in the production of antibodies that neutralized HSV-1 and protected the mice against subsequent lethal challenge with HSV-1 or HSV-2. Immunization with the recombinant virus also protected the majority of the mice against the development of a latent HSV-1 infection of the trigeminal ganglia. This is the first demonstration that a genetically engineered vaccine can prevent the development of latency.

  13. Identification and typing of herpes simplex viruses with monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Balachandran, N; Frame, B; Chernesky, M; Kraiselburd, E; Kouri, Y; Garcia, D; Lavery, C; Rawls, W E

    1982-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies which reacted with type-specific antigens of herpes simplex virus type 2 or with antigens shared by herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 were used in an indirect immunofluorescence assay to type virus isolates and to detect viral antigens in cells obtained from herpetic lesions. Complete concordance was obtained for 42 isolates typed by endonuclease restriction analysis of viral DNA and by indirect immunofluorescence with monoclonal antibodies. Examination of a limited number of ulcerative lesions revealed that indirect immunofluorescence and virus isolation were comparable in detecting herpes simplex virus. The results indicate that monoclonal antibodies can be used to accurately identify and type isolates of herpes simplex virus. PMID:6286719

  14. Herpes zoster on the face in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Nair, Preeti; Gharote, Harshkant; Singh, Pooja; Jain-Choudhary, Palak

    2014-01-01

    Herpes zoster is a localised disease caused by reactivation of the varicella zoster virus that enters the cutaneous nerve endings during an earlier episode of chicken pox, travels to the dorsal root ganglia, and remains in latent form. The condition is characterised by occurrence of multiple, painful, unilateral vesicles and ulceration, and shows a typical single dermatome innervated by single dorsal root or cranial sensory ganglion. Involvement of three or more dermatomes is known as disseminated zoster and seen in immunocompromised individuals. Complications of herpes zoster include ocular sequelae, bacterial superinfection of the lesions, meningoencephalitis and postherpetic neuralgia. The incidence of herpes zoster increases with age and immunosuppression, therefore prompt management is necessary to avoid morbidity and mortality in these individuals. We present two case reports of herpes zoster, one involving the maxillary and mandibular branches of the trigeminal nerve while the other involves all branches of the trigeminal nerve. PMID:25331144

  15. Fatal Neonatal Herpes Simplex Infection Likely from Unrecognized Breast Lesions.

    PubMed

    Field, Scott S

    2016-02-01

    Type 1 herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) is very prevalent yet in rare circumstances can lead to fatal neonatal disease. Genital acquisition of type 2 HSV is the usual mode for neonatal herpes, but HSV-1 transmission by genital or extragenital means may result in greater mortality rates. A very rare scenario is presented in which the mode of transmission was likely through breast lesions. The lesions were seen by nurses as well as the lactation consultant and obstetrician in the hospital after delivery of the affected baby but not recognized as possibly being caused by herpes. The baby died 9 days after birth with hepatic failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Peripartum health care workers need to be aware of potential nongenital (including from the breast[s]) neonatal herpes acquisition, which can be lethal. PMID:26185119

  16. Herpes zoster vaccine for the elderly: boosting immunity

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Joel V; Chen, Wilbur H

    2010-01-01

    Herpes zoster, also known as shingles, is a disease that results from the reactivation of a latent infection of the varicella zoster virus, which is usually encountered during early childhood. Aging is associated with an increased risk for herpes zoster and its complications. Boosting immunological memory is the key strategy for keeping the latent varicella zoster virus infection under control. A live attenuated virus vaccine is safe, effective and approved for use among healthy elderly adults aged 60 years or older. However, significant problems remain in the prevention of herpes zoster with the current vaccine. Future studies for improved vaccines and studies into the epidemiology of herpes zoster are required in order to address this significant public health burden. PMID:20607105

  17. AIDS and Herpes Carry Weighty Policy Implications for Your Board.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Kathleen

    1985-01-01

    Few schools have policies to deal specifically with herpes and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Discusses some schools and states that have developed such policies and includes a source list for more information. (MD)

  18. Disseminated Herpes Zoster in an Immunocompetent Elderly Patient

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Hwa; Lee, Eun Ha; Choi, Ji Hye

    2013-01-01

    Herpes zoster is a cutaneous infection that is characterized by an acute vesicobullous rash with ipsilateral one or two dermatomal distribution and painful allodynia, while predominantly being found in the elderly. Extensive cutaneous dissemination has been reported in immune-compromised patients, such as those who suffer from HIV infections, cancer, chemotherapy, and corticosteroid therapy patients. However, we report a case of disseminated herpes zoster infection in an immuno-competent elderly individual. PMID:23614086

  19. Suppression of frequently recurring genital herpes: acyclovir v inosine pranobex.

    PubMed

    Mindel, A; Carney, O; Sonnex, C; Freris, M; Patou, G; Williams, P

    1989-04-01

    The suppressive action of acyclovir and inosine pranobex was compared in a randomised double blind controlled trial in patients with frequently recurring genital herpes. Fourteen patients received acyclovir and 17 inosine pranobex. Treatment continued for 12 weeks. The time to the first recurrence was significantly longer and the frequency of recurrences significantly less in the recipients of acyclovir. No important side effects were noted. It is concluded that acyclovir is the treatment of choice to suppress often recurring genital herpes. PMID:2473952

  20. Suppression of frequently recurring genital herpes: acyclovir v inosine pranobex.

    PubMed Central

    Mindel, A; Carney, O; Sonnex, C; Freris, M; Patou, G; Williams, P

    1989-01-01

    The suppressive action of acyclovir and inosine pranobex was compared in a randomised double blind controlled trial in patients with frequently recurring genital herpes. Fourteen patients received acyclovir and 17 inosine pranobex. Treatment continued for 12 weeks. The time to the first recurrence was significantly longer and the frequency of recurrences significantly less in the recipients of acyclovir. No important side effects were noted. It is concluded that acyclovir is the treatment of choice to suppress often recurring genital herpes. PMID:2473952

  1. Auditory agnosia in children after herpes encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Kaga, Kimitaka; Kaga, Makiko; Tamai, Fumi; Shindo, Mitsuko

    2003-01-01

    Four pediatric patients whose bilateral auditory cortices were damaged by herpes encephalitis at an early age were studied. Their brain CT and MRI scans demonstrated common bilateral lesions of the auditory cortices. Their auditory perception was investigated by means of behavioral and objective hearing tests and auditory perception tests. All four patients showed mild or moderate hearing loss in the behavioral hearing test and normal auditory brainstem responses but did not manifest total deafness. Moreover, perception tests involving speech, environmental sounds and music demonstrated that most auditory perception ability had been lost in all patients. On reaching school age, the patients were enrolled in schools for the deaf or special schools for handicapped children. PMID:12701747

  2. Herpes simplex virus and the alimentary tract.

    PubMed

    Lavery, Eric A; Coyle, Walter J

    2008-08-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is well known as a sexually transmitted disease. However, relatively little has been published concerning the presentations and treatment of HSV infection within the gastrointestinal tract, where HSV most commonly affects the esophagus in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. HSV proctitis is not uncommon and occurs primarily in males having sex with males. In patients with normal immune systems, gastrointestinal HSV infections are generally self-limited and rarely require antiviral therapy. Treatment of infection is suggested for immunocompromised patients, though no large randomized controlled trials have been performed. This article reviews the manifestations of HSV infection within the luminal gastrointestinal tract and options for diagnosis and treatment. PMID:18627656

  3. Herpes zoster: diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventive approaches.

    PubMed

    Bader, Mazen S

    2013-09-01

    Herpes zoster (Hz), which generally presents as a localized, painful cutaneous eruption, is a common clinical problem, particularly among adults ≥ 50 years of age and immunocompromised patients. The diagnosis of Hz is mainly made clinically, except in patients with atypical manifestations or certain complications, such as central nervous system involvement, in which laboratory virologic testing is required. In addition to having a higher mortality rate, immunocompromised individuals have atypical and severe clinical findings and are at greater risk for complications and recurrence of Hz. Treatment of Hz includes the use of antiviral agents, analgesics for control of acute zoster pain, good skin care for healing, and prevention of secondary bacterial infection. Antiviral agents, preferably valacyclovir or famciclovir, should be started within 72 hours of onset to reduce the severity of the infection, the duration of the eruptive phase, and the intensity of acute pain. Herpes zoster has been associated with several complications, of which post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) is the most common and debilitating. Varicella-zoster virus vaccine and early treatment with either famciclovir or valacyclovir are the only measures proven to prevent PHN. The options for treating PHN include topical agents, such as lidocaine patches, and systemic agents, such as the anticonvulsants gabapentin and pregabalin. Measures for preventing Hz include infection control through routine hand hygiene and appropriate use of isolation precautions and personal protective equipment; immunoglobulins, such as the varicella-zoster virus immunoglobulin and vaccine; and antiviral agents. The zoster vaccine has been shown to be effective in reducing the incidence of Hz and PHN. The vaccine is recommended for all individuals aged ≥ 60 years who have no contraindications, including individuals who report a previous episode of Hz. PMID:24113666

  4. IMMUNOLOGICAL STUDIES WITH HERPES VIRUS WITH A CONSIDERATION OF THE HERPES-ENCEPHALITIS PROBLEM.

    PubMed

    Zinsser, H; Tang, F F

    1926-06-30

    In the preceding experiments observations have been reported upon the nature of herpes virus which confirm the suspicion that the virus is intracellularly located in the infected nervous system. In regard to the immunological conditions existing in this disease, our experiments have reaffirmed that herpes virus can be neutralized with the serum of actively immunized animals and have offered an explanation for the irregularity of the results of others, as well as our own. It has been found that brain extracts possess some virus-neutralizing power, but considerably less than the serum of the corresponding animals. Attempts at passive immunization with neutralizing serum were uniformly negative, even when the serum was introduced into the cisterna magna 12 to 24 hours before infection with the virus. It has been shown that active immunity can be attained only when some degree of reaction to the living virus has occurred. Rabbits which survived neutralized serum-virus mixtures did not acquire immunity nor did those treated with virus phenolized to the extent of actual destruction. This point suggests a reinvestigation of the Semple method of rabies immunization. In so far as our studies touched upon the herpes-encephalitis problem we have uniformly failed in attempts to transfer herpes virus directly from man to rabbits. These results are in contradiction to those of most of the earlier workers, but in keeping with the recent reports of Flexner and Amoss. Attempts to overcome the difficulty of transfer by the recently published technique of Perdrau were unsuccessful. Furthermore, animals repeatedly treated with human encephalitis material, either fresh or glycerolated, as practised in the Perdrau method, failed to acquire the slightest degree of immunity to subsequent herpes inoculation. By the inoculation of very small doses or by infection of partially immunized rabbits, as described above, we have succeeded in modifying the characteristic herpetic syndrome in rabbits in a manner which simulates many of the clinical features of human encephalitis. Our own experience forces the conclusion that no valid proof exists upon which can be based an assertion concerning the identity of the virus of herpes with that of encephalitis lethargica. Either the two viruses are entirely unrelated, or else prolonged sojourn in the central nervous system of man attenuates the virus for rabbits to an extent analogous to that in which rabies virus is attenuated for man by passage through rabbits. The isolated successes of Levaditi and of Doerr and their assistants might thus be regarded as fortunate exceptions in which material incompletely attenuated had been at their disposal. We suggest this point of view as an alternative working hypothesis largely because the results we are reporting, as well as those of Flexner and Amoss, are in flat contradiction to the reported successes of earlier workers and the more recent experiments of Perdrau. The experiments of the latter, as described, cannot be explained by the occasional existence of spontaneous encephalitis in his rabbits, nor by the assumption that a herpes virus fortuitously coexisted with that of lethargic encephalitis in his material, inasmuch as this material alone at first injection or in the unglycerolated state failed to infect. It is also possible to conceive that human beings may, by repeated skin infections, attain a not inconsiderable partial immunity to herpes virus, which would explain the nature of the clinical course (as in our partial immunity rabbits) as well as the innocuousness of direct injections of herpetic virus into man, as reported by Bastai and Busacca, and the finding of herpes virus in human beings not suffering from lethargic encephalitis. These suggestions are discussed in order to give this important problem the broadest possible consideration. For the time being, however, such reasoning cannot be taken as more than a logical possibility impressed upon us by our partial immunization experiments. All other experimental evidence obtained by direct inoculations with the limited material at our disposal tends to render identity of the two varieties of viruses unlikely. PMID:19869171

  5. Latent Herpes Viruses Reactivation in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2008-01-01

    Space flight has many adverse effects on human physiology. Changes in multiple systems, including the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, neurovestibular, endocrine, and immune systems have occurred (12, 32, 38, 39). Alterations in drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (12), nutritional needs (31), renal stone formation (40), and microbial flora (2) have also been reported. Evidence suggests that the magnitude of some changes may increase with time in space. A variety of changes in immunity have been reported during both short (.16 days) and long (>30 days) space missions. However, it is difficult to determine the medical significance of these immunological changes in astronauts. Astronauts are in excellent health and in superb physical condition. Illnesses in astronauts during space flight are not common, are generally mild, and rarely affect mission objectives. In an attempt to clarify this issue, we identified the latent herpes viruses as medically important indicators of the effects of space flight on immunity. This chapter demonstrates that space flight leads to asymptomatic reactivation of latent herpes viruses, and proposes that this results from marked changes in neuroendocrine function and immunity caused by the inherent stressfullness of human space flight. Astronauts experience uniquely stressful environments during space flight. Potential stressors include confinement in an unfamiliar, crowded environment, isolation, separation from family, anxiety, fear, sleep deprivation, psychosocial issues, physical exertion, noise, variable acceleration forces, increased radiation, and others. Many of these are intermittent and variable in duration and intensity, but variable gravity forces (including transitions from launch acceleration to microgravity and from microgravity to planetary gravity) and variable radiation levels are part of each mission and contribute to a stressful environment that cannot be duplicated on Earth. Radiation outside the Earth's magnetosphere is particularly worrisome because it includes ionizing radiation from cosmic galactic radiation. Increased stress levels appear even before flight, presumably from the rigors of preflight training and the anticipation of the mission (12, 32, 38, 39). Space flight causes significant changes in human immune function (32), but the means by which these changes come about have been difficult to discern. Consistent indicators of stress associated with space flight include increased production of stress hormones, and changes in cells of the immune system. These changes include elevated white blood cell (WBC) and neutrophil counts at landing (15, 16, 35, 37). Activation of generalized stress responses before, during, and after space flight probably affects the function of the immune system. Space flight has been shown to decrease many aspects of immune function, including natural killer (NK) cell activity, interferon production, the blastogenic response of leukocytes to mitogens, cell-mediated immunity, neutrophil function and monocyte function (5, 16, 18, 21, 35-37).

  6. Prevalence of antibodies to herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in pregnant women, and estimated rates of infection.

    PubMed Central

    Ades, A E; Peckham, C S; Dale, G E; Best, J M; Jeansson, S

    1989-01-01

    There has been a recent increase in notifications of genital herpes but it is not known whether this has been reflected in the pregnant population. We have therefore carried out a study to determine the prevalence of herpes simplex antibodies in pregnant women and to estimate the incidence of primary infection. Sera were collected from 3533 women at antenatal clinics and tested for total antibodies to herpes simples virus (HSV), and if positive, for specific antibodies to HSV-2. Estimates of HSV-1 seroprevalence were derived from the HSV-2 seronegative population. HSV-1 seroprevalence was nearly 100% in black women born in Africa or the Caribbean and 60-80% in white, Asian and UK born black women. It was lower in women in non-manual employment. HSV-2 seroprevalence was related to age, rising from 0 at age 16 to 40% at age 35 in black women, and to about 10% in Asian and white women. The estimated incidence of primary HSV-2 infection during pregnancy, per 1000 pregnancies, was about 2.4 in Asian women, 5 in white women, and 20 in black women. Estimates of the incidence of neonatal infection were derived from these figures and compared to the nationally reported rates. PMID:2556492

  7. Herp enhances ER-associated protein degradation by recruiting ubiquilins

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Tae-Yeon; Kim, Eunmin; Yoon, Sungjoo Kim; Yoon, Jong-Bok

    2008-05-02

    ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) is a protein quality control system of ER, which eliminates misfolded proteins by proteasome-dependent degradation and ensures export of only properly folded proteins from ER. Herp, an ER membrane protein upregulated by ER stress, is implicated in regulation of ERAD. In the present study, we show that Herp interacts with members of the ubiquilin family, which function as a shuttle factor to deliver ubiquitinated substrates to the proteasome for degradation. Knockdown of ubiquilin expression by small interfering RNA stabilized the ERAD substrate CD3{delta}, whereas it did not alter or increased degradation of non-ERAD substrates tested. CD3{delta} was stabilized by overexpressed Herp mutants which were capable of binding to ubiquilins but were impaired in ER membrane targeting by deletion of the transmembrane domain. Our data suggest that Herp binding to ubiquilin proteins plays an important role in the ERAD pathway and that ubiquilins are specifically involved in degradation of only a subset of ubiquitinated targets, including Herp-dependent ERAD substrates.

  8. Herpes simplex virus duodenitis accompanying Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung Hoo; Um, Wook Hyun; Jeon, Seong Ran; Kim, Hyun Gun; Lee, Tae Hee; Kim, Wan Jung; Kim, Jin-Oh; Jin, So Young

    2013-11-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a recognized cause of gastrointestinal infection in immunodeficient patients. Although a few cases of HSV gastritis and colitis in immunocompromised patients have been reported, there are no reports of HSV duodenitis in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). A 74-year-old female was admitted with general weakness and refractory epigastric pain. She had been diagnosed with CD three years ago. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) revealed diffuse edematous and whitish mucosa with multiple erosions in the duodenum. Considering the possibility of viral co-infection, cytomegalovirus (CMV) immunohistochemical staining, PCR, and cultures of duodenal biopsies were performed, all of which were negative with the exception of the isolation of HSV in culture. After administration of intravenous acyclovir for 1 week, follow-up EGD showed almost complete resolution of the lesions and the patient's symptoms improved. In CD patients with refractory gastro-intestinal symptoms, HSV, as well as CMV, should be considered as a possible cause of infection, so that the diagnosis of viral infection is not delayed and the appropriate antiviral treatment can be initiated. PMID:24262595

  9. Experimental investigation of herpes simplex virus latency.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, E K; Bloom, D C

    1997-01-01

    The clinical manifestations of herpes simplex virus infection generally involve a mild and localized primary infection followed by asymptomatic (latent) infection interrupted sporadically by periods of recrudescence (reactivation) where virus replication and associated cytopathologic findings are manifest at the site of initial infection. During the latent phase of infection, viral genomes, but not infectious virus itself, can be detected in sensory and autonomic neurons. The process of latent infection and reactivation has been subject to continuing investigation in animal models and, more recently, in cultured cells. The initiation and maintenance of latent infection in neurons are apparently passive phenomena in that no virus gene products need be expressed or are required. Despite this, a single latency-associated transcript (LAT) encoded by DNA encompassing about 6% of the viral genome is expressed during latent infection in a minority of neurons containing viral DNA. This transcript is spliced, and the intron derived from this splicing is stably maintained in the nucleus of neurons expressing it. Reactivation, which can be induced by stress and assayed in several animal models, is facilitated by the expression of LAT. Although the mechanism of action of LAT-mediated facilitation of reactivation is not clear, all available evidence argues against its involving the expression of a protein. Rather, the most consistent models of action involve LAT expression playing a cis-acting role in a very early stage of the reactivation process. PMID:9227860

  10. Cellular proteins expressed in herpes simplex virus transformed cells also accumulate on herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Macnab, J C; Orr, A; La Thangue, N B

    1985-01-01

    The cell proteins expressed in rat embryo cells transformed by herpes simplex virus (HSV) have been analysed by immunoprecipitation assays to determine those polypeptides which can be identified by immunoprecipitation with the sera of tumour-bearing animals and also with antisera to herpes simplex infected cells. Cell polypeptides commonly recognised by both these sera have been further characterised using a monoclonal antibody directed against a cellular polypeptide which accumulates on HSV-2 lytic infection. This monoclonal antibody recognises in HSV-transformed cells polypeptides of mol. wts. 90 000, 40 000 and 32 000. Further studies show that the accumulation of these polypeptides in HSV-transformed cells is not HSV specific but is a common feature of transformation or of cells which have been immortalised. We suggest that cellular polypeptides accumulating as a result of HSV infection may be of importance in the initiation of transformation by HSV, i.e., at the level of immortalisation of cells. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:3004943

  11. Dynamic modeling of herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) transmission: issues in structural uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Foss, Anna M; Vickerman, Peter T; Chalabi, Zaid; Mayaud, Philippe; Alary, Michel; Watts, Charlotte H

    2009-04-01

    The sexually transmitted infection (STI) Herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) is of public health concern because it is a very common frequently unrecognized lifelong infection, which may facilitate HIV transmission. Within HIV/STI modeling, structural uncertainty has received less attention than parametric uncertainty. By merging the compartments of a "complex" model, a "simple" HSV-2 model is developed. Sexual interactions between female sex workers (FSWs) and clients are modeled using data from India. Latin Hypercube Sampling selects from parameter distributions and both models are run for each of the 10,000 parameter sets generated. Outputs are compared (except for 2,450 unrealistic simulations). The simple model is a good approximation to the complex model once the HSV-2 epidemic has reached 60% of the equilibrium prevalence (95% of the 7,550 runs produced <10% relative error). The simple model is a reduced version of the complex model that retains details implicitly. For late-stage epidemics, the simple model gives similar prevalence trends to the complex model. As HSV-2 epidemics in many populations are advanced, the simple model is accurate in most instances, although the complex model may be preferable for early epidemics. The analysis highlights the issue of structural uncertainty and the value of reducing complexity. PMID:19219511

  12. Common questions about herpes: analysis of chat-room transcripts.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Lisa K; Omisore, Folashade

    2009-01-01

    Patients diagnosed with genital herpes typically undergo a period of psychological adjustment. Although healthcare providers can play a key role in this adjustment, in several patient surveys patients have expressed dissatisfaction with the information and counselling offered by professionals. To address this gap, providers must first identify the common questions and myths that are not addressed, or are addressed inadequately. This article is that first step. Through a content analysis of herpes chat-room transcripts captured on their website from autumn 2001 to spring 2006, researchers from the American Social Health Association identified common herpes questions and myths. The 1968 chat passages were coded into 12 themes and 50 sub-themes. Frequently, visitors' questions concerned transmission, symptoms and diagnosis followed by natural history, psychosocial issues and treatment options. The results of this analysis will aid in the creation of tailored messages to address common factual questions and provide psychosocial support. PMID:19306604

  13. Prodromal herpes zoster mimicking odontalgia--a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Patil, Shilpa; Srinivas, K; Reddy, Bh Satheesha; Gupta, Mudit

    2013-03-01

    Herpes zoster (shingles) is caused by reactivation of the latent varicella zoster virus which is present due to an earlier varicella infection (chicken-pox). Herpes Zoster is a less common and endemic disease than varicella, although factors causing reactivation are still not well known, but it occurs in older and/or immunocompromised individuals. Involvement of C3, T5, L1, L2 and first division of trigeminal nerve are the most frequently encountered whereas the involvement of second and third division of trigeminal nerve is rarely seen. During the prodromal stage, the only presenting symptom may be odontalgia, which may prove to be a diagnostic challenge for the dentist, since many diseases can cause orofacial pain, and the diagnosis must be properly established before final treatment. Here we present a case of herpes zoster involving the second division of trigeminal nerve masquerading as odontalgia. The difficulties in diagnosis and management are discussed. PMID:23559842

  14. An unusual presentation of herpes simplex in an immunocompromised patient.

    PubMed

    Fernández González, Francisco; Betancourt, José; Malpica, Juan C; Laboy, Iván; Colón, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a host-adapted human pathogen. HSV-I usually infects non-genital sites at a variety of locations. HSV-2 primarily involves genitalia. Both types can cause genital and orofacial infections, which are clinically indistinguishable. Initial HSV infection is usually asymptomatic or mild and self-limited, but instead of disappearing from the body during convalescence, the virus establishes a latent infection that persists for life. Rarely, there is severe visceral dissemination. This is a case report of an unusual presentation of herpes simplex in an immunocompromised adult patient with generalized skin lesions on the entire body. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported in the literature of a disseminated herpes simplex in a patient with history of non-Hodgkin Lymphoma. Generalized HSV infection in immunodeficient adult patients could be fatal in spite of antiviral therapy. Early recognition of this entity is essential to expedite appropriate treatment and avoid future complications. PMID:23767386

  15. Isolated ulnar dorsal cutaneous nerve herpes zoster reactivation.

    PubMed

    Kayipmaz, Murat; Basaran, Serdar Hakan; Ercin, Ersin; Kural, Cemal

    2013-09-01

    Herpes zoster is a viral disease presenting with vesicular eruptions that are usually preceded by pain and erythema. Herpes zoster can be seen in any dermatome of the body but most commonly appears in the thoracic region. Herpes zoster virus is typically transmitted from person to person through direct contact. The virus remains dormant in the dorsal ganglion of the affected individual throughout his or her lifetime. Herpes zoster reactivation commonly occurs in elderly people due to normal age-related decline in cell-mediated immunity. Postherpetic neuralgia is the most common complication and is defined as persistent pain or dysesthesia 1 month after resolution of the herpetic rash. This article describes a healthy 51-year-old woman who experienced a burning sensation and shooting pain along the ulnar dorsal cutaneous nerve. Ten days after the onset of pain, she developed cutaneous vesicular eruption and decreased light-touch sensation. Wrist and fourth and fifth finger range of motion were painful and slightly limited. Muscle strength was normal. Nerve conduction studies indicated an ulnar dorsal cutaneous nerve lesion. She was treated with anti-inflammatory and antibiotic drugs and the use of a short-arm resting splint. At 5-month follow-up, she reported no residual pain, numbness, or weakness. Herpes zoster in the upper extremity may be mistaken for entrapment neuropathies and diseases characterized by skin eruptions; ulnar nerve zoster reactivation is rarely seen. The authors report an uncommon ulnar dorsal cutaneous nerve herpes zoster reactivation. Clinicians should be aware of this virus during patients' initial evaluation. PMID:24025017

  16. Human herpes simplex virus: life cycle and development of inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kukhanova, M K; Korovina, A N; Kochetkov, S N

    2014-12-01

    WHO reports that 90% of human population is infected by different types of herpesviruses, which develop latency or cause oral and genital herpes, conjunctivitis, eczema herpeticum, and other diseases. Herpesvirus almost always accompanies HIV-infection and complicates AIDS treatment. Herpes simplex virus type 1 is one of the most wide spread viruses from the Herpesviridae family. HSV virion, genome structure, replication mechanisms, antiherpes drug development strategies, including design of prodrugs, and mutations causing ACV-resistance in clinical HSV isolates are discussed in this review. PMID:25749169

  17. Purpuric herpes zoster in patients in therapy with clopidogrel.

    PubMed

    Veraldi, S; Vaira, F; Nazzaro, G

    2015-08-01

    Clopidogrel is an adenosine diphosphate receptor antagonist used for the prevention of vascular events in patients with atherothrombotic diseases manifested by recent myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke or peripheral arterial disease. Diarrhoea, rash and pruritus are rather common side effects of clopidogrel. Other side effects include epistaxis, nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting, gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcer. Thrombocytopenia is the most common laboratory abnormality. Leucopenia and neutropenia are rare. We report three cases of purpuric herpes zoster in patients in therapy with clopidogrel. To our knowledge, only one case of haemorrhagic herpes zoster has been published in a patient in therapy with this drug. PMID:26209393

  18. Herpes zoster-associated acute urinary retention in immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Marques, Silvio Alencar; Hortense, Juliana

    2014-01-01

    Herpes zoster-associated urinary retention is an uncommon event related to virus infection of the S2-S4 dermatome. The possible major reasons are ipsilateral hemicystitis, neuritis-induced or myelitis-associated virus infection. We report a case of a 65-year-old immunocompetent female patient who presented an acute urinary retention after four days under treatment with valacyclovir for gluteal herpes zoster. The patient had to use a vesical catheter, was treated with antibiotics and corticosteroids and fully recovered after eight weeks. PMID:25387508

  19. Neonatal herpes simplex virus infection: epidemiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    James, Scott H; Kimberlin, David W

    2015-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) are highly prevalent viruses capable of establishing lifelong infection. Genital herpes in women of childbearing age represents a major risk for mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HSV infection, with primary and first-episode genital HSV infections posing the highest risk. The advent of antiviral therapy with parenteral acyclovir has led to significant improvement in neonatal HSV disease mortality. Further studies are needed to improve the clinician's ability to identify infants at increased risk for HSV infection and prevent MTCT, and to develop novel antiviral agents with increased efficacy in infants with HSV infection. PMID:25677996

  20. Herpes zoster-associated acute urinary retention in immunocompetent patient*

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Silvio Alencar; Hortense, Juliana

    2014-01-01

    Herpes zoster-associated urinary retention is an uncommon event related to virus infection of the S2-S4 dermatome. The possible major reasons are ipsilateral hemicystitis, neuritis-induced or myelitis-associated virus infection. We report a case of a 65-year-old immunocompetent female patient who presented an acute urinary retention after four days under treatment with valacyclovir for gluteal herpes zoster. The patient had to use a vesical catheter, was treated with antibiotics and corticosteroids and fully recovered after eight weeks. PMID:25387508

  1. Herpes simplex virus infections of women and their offspring: implications for a developed society.

    PubMed Central

    Whitley, R J

    1994-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus infections of humans have been known since ancient times. Contemporary society has witnessed a series of devastating manifestations of herpes simplex virus infections--namely, genital herpes simplex virus infection and neonatal herpes simplex virus infection. With the evolution of society, particularly advances in birth control and increasing promiscuity, the seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 infections has increased worldwide, however, more so in developed societies. As a consequence, individuals of child-bearing age are at risk for either reactivation of herpes simplex virus at termination of gestation or acquisition of a new primary infection at that time. The consequences of vertical transmission of herpes simplex virus from mother to child, resulting in neonatal herpes simplex virus infection, can be devastating. Current efforts, which are directed toward the treatment of neonatal herpes, have established the value of drugs such as vidarabine and acyclovir. However, the real emphasis for future programs is the prevention of herpes simplex virus infections to avoid person-to-person transmission either horizontally or vertically. The development of vaccines directed against herpes simplex virus may be of value toward this end. PMID:8146137

  2. Herp depletion inhibits zearalenone-induced cell death in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fenglei; Lin, Pengfei; Wang, Nan; Yang, Diqi; Wen, Xin; Zhou, Dong; Wang, Aihua; Jin, Yaping

    2016-04-01

    Herp is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein and strongly induced by the ER stress that not only participates in the unfolded protein response (UPR) under the ER stress, but also in cell autophagy under glucose starvation (GS). However, we do not know whether Herp plays any roles in other responses, such as zearalenone (ZEA). In this study, we constructed recombinant lentiviral vectors for Herp shRNA expression and generated stable Herp knockdown RAW 264.7 macrophages. Flow cytometry analysis showed Herp depletion could inhibit cell death induced by ZEA. Western blot analysis revealed that Herp depletion could up-regulate autophagy-related protein LC3-I conversion into LC3-II and the expression of ER stress-related protein CHOP. These results suggest that Herp depletion inhibits cell death by up-regulating autophagy. PMID:26723276

  3. Herpes simplex virus virion host shutoff function.

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, A D; Kruper, J A; Frenkel, N

    1988-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) virions contain one or more functions which mediate the shutoff of host protein synthesis and the degradation of host mRNA. HSV type 1 (HSV-1) mutants deficient in the virion shutoff of host protein synthesis (vhs mutants) were isolated and were found to be defective in their ability to degrade host mRNA. Furthermore, it was found that viral mRNAs in cells infected with the vhs 1 mutant have a significantly longer functional half-life than viral mRNAs in wild-type virus-infected cells. In the present study we have mapped the vhs1 mutation affecting the virion shutoff of host protein synthesis to a 265-base-pair NruI-XmaIII fragment spanning map coordinates 0.604 to 0.606 of the HSV-1 genome. The mutation(s) affecting the functional half-lives of host mRNA as well as the alpha (immediate-early), beta (early), and gamma (late) viral mRNAs were also mapped within this 265-base-pair fragment. Thus, the shutoff of host protein synthesis is most likely mediated by the same function which decreases the half-life of viral mRNA. The shorter half-life of infected-cell mRNAs may allow a more rapid modulation of viral gene expression in response to changes in the transcription of viral genes. Interestingly, the vhs1 mutation of HSV-1 maps within a region which overlaps the Bg/II-N sequences of HSV-2 DNA shown previously to transform cells in culture. The possible relationship between the transformation and host shutoff functions are discussed. Images PMID:2828686

  4. Increasing Trends of Herpes Zoster in Australia

    PubMed Central

    MacIntyre, Raina; Stein, Alicia; Harrison, Christopher; Britt, Helena; Mahimbo, Abela; Cunningham, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Background Increasing trends in incidence of herpes zoster (HZ) have been reported in Australia and internationally. This may reflect the impact of childhood VZV vaccination programs introduced universally in Australia in late 2005. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in incidence of HZ and PHN in Australia over time, and associated healthcare resource utilisation. Methods Australian data on general practice (GP) encounters for HZ, specific antiviral prescribing data from the pharmaceutical benefits scheme, emergency department presentations from the states of NSW and Victoria and national hospitalisation data for HZ were analysed for time trends using regression models. Two time periods (2000-2006 and 2006-2013) were compared which correspond broadly with the pre- and post- universal VZV vaccination period. Results All data sources showed increasing rates of HZ with age and over time. The GP database showed a significant annual increase in encounters for HZ of 2.5 per 100,000 between 1998 and 2013, and the rates of prescriptions for HZ increased by 4.2% per year between 2002 and 2012. In the 60+ population HZ incidence was estimated to increase from 11.9 to 15.4 per 1,000 persons using GP data or from 12.8 to 14.2 per 1,000 persons using prescription data (p<0.05, between the two periods). Hospitalisation data did not show the same increasing trend over time, except for the age group ≥80 years. Most emergency visits for HZ were not admitted, and showed significant increases over time. Discussion The burden of HZ in Australia is substantial, and continues to increase over time. This increase is seen both pre- and post-universal VZV vaccination in 2005, and is most prominent in the older population. The substantial burden of HZ, along with ageing of the Australian population and the importance of healthy ageing, warrants consideration of HZ vaccination for the elderly. PMID:25928713

  5. Retargeting Strategies for Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Campadelli-Fiume, Gabriella; Petrovic, Biljana; Leoni, Valerio; Gianni, Tatiana; Avitabile, Elisa; Casiraghi, Costanza; Gatta, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Most of the oncolytic herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) exhibit a high safety profile achieved through attenuation. They carry defects in virulence proteins that antagonize host cell response to the virus, including innate response, apoptosis, authophagy, and depend on tumor cell proliferation. They grow robustly in cancer cells, provided that these are deficient in host cell responses, which is often the case. To overcome the attenuation limits, a strategy is to render the virus highly cancer-specific, e.g., by retargeting their tropism to cancer-specific receptors, and detargeting from natural receptors. The target we selected is HER-2, overexpressed in breast, ovarian and other cancers. Entry of wt-HSV requires the essential glycoproteins gD, gH/gL and gB. Here, we reviewed that oncolytic HSV retargeting was achieved through modifications in gD: the addition of a single-chain antibody (scFv) to HER-2 coupled with appropriate deletions to remove part of the natural receptors’ binding sites. Recently, we showed that also gH/gL can be a retargeting tool. The insertion of an scFv to HER-2 at the gH N-terminus, coupled with deletions in gD, led to a recombinant capable to use HER-2 as the sole receptor. The retargeted oncolytic HSVs can be administered systemically by means of carrier cells-forcedly-infected mesenchymal stem cells. Altogether, the retargeted oncolytic HSVs are highly cancer-specific and their replication is not dependent on intrinsic defects of the tumor cells. They might be further modified to express immunomodulatory molecules. PMID:26927159

  6. Retargeting Strategies for Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Viruses.

    PubMed

    Campadelli-Fiume, Gabriella; Petrovic, Biljana; Leoni, Valerio; Gianni, Tatiana; Avitabile, Elisa; Casiraghi, Costanza; Gatta, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Most of the oncolytic herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) exhibit a high safety profile achieved through attenuation. They carry defects in virulence proteins that antagonize host cell response to the virus, including innate response, apoptosis, authophagy, and depend on tumor cell proliferation. They grow robustly in cancer cells, provided that these are deficient in host cell responses, which is often the case. To overcome the attenuation limits, a strategy is to render the virus highly cancer-specific, e.g., by retargeting their tropism to cancer-specific receptors, and detargeting from natural receptors. The target we selected is HER-2, overexpressed in breast, ovarian and other cancers. Entry of wt-HSV requires the essential glycoproteins gD, gH/gL and gB. Here, we reviewed that oncolytic HSV retargeting was achieved through modifications in gD: the addition of a single-chain antibody (scFv) to HER-2 coupled with appropriate deletions to remove part of the natural receptors' binding sites. Recently, we showed that also gH/gL can be a retargeting tool. The insertion of an scFv to HER-2 at the gH N-terminus, coupled with deletions in gD, led to a recombinant capable to use HER-2 as the sole receptor. The retargeted oncolytic HSVs can be administered systemically by means of carrier cells-forcedly-infected mesenchymal stem cells. Altogether, the retargeted oncolytic HSVs are highly cancer-specific and their replication is not dependent on intrinsic defects of the tumor cells. They might be further modified to express immunomodulatory molecules. PMID:26927159

  7. Herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in Catalonia (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Salleras, Luis; Salleras, Montse; Salvador, Patricia; Soldevila, Núria; Prat, Andreu; Garrido, Patricio; Domínguez, Angela

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze the descriptive epidemiology and costs of herpes zoster (HZ) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) in people aged ≥50 years in Catalonia (Spain). The incidence of HZ in Catalonia was estimated by extrapolating the incidence data from Navarre (Spain) to the population of Catalonia. The incidence of PHN was estimated according to the proportion of cases of HZ in the case series of the Hospital del Sagrado Corazón de Barcelona that evolved to PHN. Drug costs were obtained directly from the prescriptions included in the medical record (according to official prices published by the General Council of the College of Pharmacists). The cost of care was obtained by applying the tariffs of the Catalan Health Institute to the number of outpatient visits and the number and duration of hospital admissions. The estimated annual incidence of HZ was 31 763, of which 21 532 (67.79%) were in patients aged ≥50 years. The respective figures for PHN were 3194 and 3085 (96.59) per annum, respectively. The mean cost per patient was markedly higher in cases of PHN (916.66 euros per patient) than in cases of HZ alone (301.52 euros per patient). The cost increased with age in both groups of patients. The estimated total annual cost of HZ and its complications in Catalonia was € 9.31 million, of which 6.54 corresponded to HZ and 2.77 to PHN. This is the first Spanish study of the disease burden of HZ in which epidemiological data and costs were collected directly from medical records. The estimated incidence of HZ is probably similar to the real incidence. In contrast, the incidence of PHN may be an underestimate, as around 25% of patients in Catalonia attend private clinics financed by insurance companies. It is also probable that the costs may be an underestimate as the costs derived from the prodromal phase were not included. In Catalonia, HZ and PHN cause an important disease burden (21 532 cases of HZ and 3085 de PHN with an annual cost of € 9.31 million) in people aged ≥50 years, in whom vaccination is indicated. PMID:25483532

  8. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305...

  10. Prevalence of cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus in human semen.

    PubMed

    McGowan, M P; Hayes, K; Kovacs, G T; Leydon, J A

    1983-08-01

    Cytomegalovirus was isolated from semen in 4 of 170 males seeking evaluation at the Reproductive Medicine Clinic at Prince Henry's Hospital, and from 1 of 40 healthy university students. All initial isolates were from specimens with abnormal semen analysis (P less than 0.01). Herpes simplex virus was not isolated from any sample. PMID:6311756

  11. Human herpes simplex virus type 1 in confiscated gorilla.

    PubMed

    Gilardi, Kirsten V K; Oxford, Kristie L; Gardner-Roberts, David; Kinani, Jean-Felix; Spelman, Lucy; Barry, Peter A; Cranfield, Michael R; Lowenstine, Linda J

    2014-11-01

    In 2007, we detected human herpes simplex virus type 1, which caused stomatitis, in a juvenile confiscated eastern lowland gorilla (Gorilla beringei graueri) that had a high degree of direct contact with human caretakers. Our findings confirm that pathogens can transfer between nonhuman primate hosts and humans. PMID:25341185

  12. Prevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Antibodies in Dental Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodu, Brad; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A study of 125 sophomore preclinical dental students found that these young professionals, because of having a low prevalence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) antibodies, are at risk for acquiring a primary HSV infection when treating HSV positive patients and should take precautions to avoid virus transmission. (MSE)

  13. Fulminant herpes colitis in a patient with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    el-Serag, H B; Zwas, F R; Cirillo, N W; Eisen, R N

    1996-04-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a well-recognized cause of gastrointestinal infection, most commonly in patients with underlying immunodeficiency. The esophagus, perianum, and rectum are the most common sites of involvement; however, extensive colitis is rare. We describe a woman with Crohn's disease who developed pathologically proven HSV colitis. We review the literature and present the possible implications of the diagnosis. PMID:8724263

  14. The "Other" Venereal Diseases: Herpes Simplex, Trichomoniasis and Candidiasis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNab, Warren L.

    1979-01-01

    Although the term venereal disease has been synonymous with gonorrhea and syphilis, the Center for Disease Control now states that the number of new cases of herpes simplex, trichomoniasis, and candidiasis is rapidly approaching the number of cases of syphilis and gonorrhea. (MM)

  15. Human Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in Confiscated Gorilla

    PubMed Central

    Oxford, Kristie L.; Gardner-Roberts, David; Kinani, Jean-Felix; Spelman, Lucy; Barry, Peter A.; Cranfield, Michael R.; Lowenstine, Linda J.

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, we detected human herpes simplex virus type 1, which caused stomatitis, in a juvenile confiscated eastern lowland gorilla (Gorilla beringei graueri) that had a high degree of direct contact with human caretakers. Our findings confirm that pathogens can transfer between nonhuman primate hosts and humans. PMID:25341185

  16. Bilateral disseminated herpes zoster in an immunocompetent host.

    PubMed

    Takaoka, Yumiko; Miyachi, Yoshiki; Yoshikawa, Yoshiaki; Tanioka, Miki; Fujisawa, Akihiro; Endo, Yuichiro

    2013-02-01

    Herein we report a rare case of disseminated herpes zoster(HZ) infection involving two widely separated bilateral dermatomes in an immunocompetent host. HZ involving two widely separated areas simultaneously is referred to as HZ duplex bilateralis. It is very rare, with an incidence of less than 0.1 percent of all HZ cases, and usually develops in immunocompromised patients. PMID:23473283

  17. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305...

  20. A Case Series: Herpes Simplex Virus as an Occupational Hazard

    PubMed Central

    Browning, William D; McCarthy, James P

    2012-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Herpes labialis infections are common and present a serious risk to the dental team. Purpose of the Study The purpose is to make dentists aware of the risks involved with treatment of patients with active herpes labialis. In addition, evidence-based risk-management strategies are presented. Methods and Materials The incidence and natural history of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) are reviewed. Four previously unreported case histories are presented to illustrate the impact common sequelae of HSV-1 can have on the dental team. The differences between HSV-1 and the blood-borne diseases which are the focus of universal precautions are discussed. In particular, the highly contagious, highly transmissible nature of HSV-1 and its transmission through aerosols are highlighted. Finally, the need to include protection against aerosols in the profession's understanding of universal precautions is noted. Results The authors suggest limiting the treatment of patients with active lesions to urgent care only, and treating active HSV-1 lesions to reduce time of healing. For four common clinical situations involving HSV-1 infections, evidence-based methods for protecting the dental team and the patient from cross-contamination are also presented. Conclusion While it is clear that the treatment of patients with active herpes labialis lesions increases risk of cross-infection, there are good protocols for controlling this risk. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE By bringing common vectors of cross-infection to light and providing evidence-based protocols for preventing them, this article provides practitioners with positive steps that can be taken for controlling the risk of spreading herpes infections to the dental team. (J Esthet Restor Dent 24:61–67, 2012) PMID:22296698

  1. [Battle with herpes for 37 years].

    PubMed

    Shimomura, Yoshikazu

    2015-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1(HSV-1) remains latent in the human trigeminal ganglion after primarily infecting the cornea and conjunctiva. Mental stress, heat stimulation, ultraviolet ray and immunosuppression are among the reactivating factors of HSV-1, which can lead to epithelial herpetic keratitis, stromal herpetic keratitis, and other complications. I have been working with HSV-1 for a long time, concentrating especially on its latency and reactivation. I would like to introduce some of the recent research results. 1. Herpetic keratitis cases at the Department of Ophthalmology, Kinki University. There were 129 eyes of 128 patients who visited the Cornea Service in our university hospitals at Osayasayama, Sakai and Nara over 13 years and were diagnosed with herpetic keratitis and followed up for at least one year. They were investigated as to the type of herpetic keratitis at the initial visit and its recurrence. Initial types of herpetic keratitis and number of eyes of each type were: Epithelial type, 65 eyes (50%); Stromal type, 30 eyes (23%); Combined epithelial and stromal types, 18 eyes (14%). Recurrence was seen in 47% of the total 129 eyes. Recurrent cases of the epithelial type were mostly epithelial type. Frequently recurrent cases of the stromal type presented with repeated epithelial, stromal, and combined types. 2. Effects of antiherpetics on mouse epithelial herpetic keratitis. Acyclovir (ACV) eye ointment is usually prescribed for several weeks to treat human epithelial herpetic keratitis. Our question is: Is this long administration really necessary? To find the answer to this question, we investigated time-dependent effects of antiherpetics on mouse epithelial herpetic keratitis. Mouse corneas were infected with HSV-1 and either ACV eye ointment, oral valaciclovir (VACV) or oral famciclovir (FCV) was administered. No virus was detected in the tear fluid examined by viral culture 4 days after start of ACV eye ointment or oral VACV and 6 days after start of oral FCV. Real-time PCR revealed significant decrease of HSV DNA copy number in the eyeball or trigeminal ganglion compared to saline instillation 4 and 6 days after start. These results suggest that antivirals for 5 days could sufficiently decrease the HSV amount in the ocular surface and eyeball. 3. Corneal latency. In order to prove latency of HSV in the human cornea, virological and molecular biological techniques were used to ensure the following 3 prerequisites. 1) Positive HSV DNA in the human cornea. 2) Negative homogenate, positive explant. 3) Only latency-associated transcript (LAT) detected and transcriptional products of other virus genes (α, β, γ) not detected in the cornea. As a result, all the 3 prerequisites have been satisfied in the 3 corneas that had a past history of herpetic keratitis. This result suggests that HSV could remain latent in the human cornea. 4. Detection of HSV-1, HHV-6, and HHV-7 DNA in the anterior segment and aqueous humor using multiplex real-time PCR. Multiplex real-time PCR was applied for the first time ever in opththalmology to human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6) and 7(HHV-7). Samples taken from tear fluid before and 3 days after phacoemulsification and aspiration (PEA) or penetrating keratoplasty (PKP), and aqueous humor aspirated during PEA were used. The results of multiplex real-time PCR showed HSV-1, HHV-6 and HHV-7 DNA present in tear fluid both before and after PEA or PKP. 5. Gene expression when reactivation is suppressed. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) has recently been reported to be involved in reactivation of HSV-1. IkappaB kinase-β (IKK2) inhibitors, which inhibit the activity of NF-κB, were used to examine gene expression during HSV reactivation in a mouse model. Significant decrease of HSV DNA copy number was observed at the trigeminal ganglion with real-time PCR in a group which was given IKK2 inhibitors intraperitoneally. Microarray method demonstrated 2-fold or more increased expression of 1812 probe. By Pathway analysis, eased immunosuppressive effects were observed in the group which was given IKK2 inhibitor intraperitoneally. 6. Immunoresponse involved in herpetic keratitis. Chemokine expression profiles in human corneal herpetic cases and mouse herpetic keratitis were analyzed. The results were similar to previously published reports: Cxcl9, Cxcl10, Ccl5, which are Th1 type chemokines, and Ccl20, a Th17 type chemokine, were observed to increase. On the other hand, Th2 type chemokine did not show an increase. Immunoresponse occurred mainly in the trigeminal ganglion. With these results, we suggest herpetic keratitis could be prevented by actively inducing Th17 type immunoresponse. PMID:25854108

  2. Herpes Virus Infections During Treatment With Etanercept in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Nicolai, R; Cortis, E; Ravà, L; Bracaglia, C; Pardeo, M; Insalaco, A; Buonuomo, P S; Tozzi, A E; De Benedetti, F

    2016-03-01

    Incidence rates for varicella and herpes zoster were similar in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis receiving etanercept/methotrexate (n = 85, 184.9 patient-years [PY]) or methotrexate alone (n = 71, 199.4 PY); no complicated varicella or herpes zoster cases were reported; herpes labialis incidence was higher in patients receiving etanercept/methotrexate versus methotrexate alone (0.38 vs 0.24 PY). PMID:26908493

  3. Isoprinosine does not influence the natural history of herpes zoster or postherpetic neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Payne, C M; Menday, A P; Rogers, T; Staughton, R C

    1989-01-01

    In a double-blind randomised trial, 38 elderly patients with acute herpes zoster received either isoprinosine (IP) or placebo. IP neither shortened the acute phase of herpes zoster nor prevented postherpetic neuralgia. Transient asymptomatic hyperuricaemia affected one third of IP treated patients. Shortcomings in study design and misleading interpretation of results are common in previously published clinical trials of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia. Guidelines for future studies are proposed. PMID:2471260

  4. Disseminated Cutaneous Herpes Zoster in a Patient with Uncontrolled Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Santosh M

    2015-01-01

    Herpes zoster is a clinical manifestation which results from reactivation of latent VZV (Varicella zoster virus) present in the sensory root ganglia. Disseminated herpes zoster has been reported in immune-compromised patients such as patient on cancer chemotherapy, HIV (Human immune deficiency virus) infection, systemic corticosteroid therapy. However, we report a case of disseminated herpes zoster infection in an uncontrolled diabetic patient. A brief review of literature on this topic has been bestowed. PMID:26393187

  5. Herpes Zoster Duplex Bilateralis in Immuno-Competent Patients: Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Dalela, Gaurav

    2015-01-01

    Herpes Zoster is a common viral disorder, occurs due to reactivation of latent Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) usually in adults or elderly patients, usually confined to a single dermatome. Herpes zoster duplex is a rare but well established entity which is simultaneous, occurring of herpes zoster at two different non contiguous dermatomes, can be unilateralis or bilateralis. Here we are reporting two cases of herpes zoster duplex bilateralis, in case-1 lesions occurs in two different distant dermatomes while in case-2 it appeared in a single dermatome but both sides were involved. Both the patients were healthy immuno-competent male. PMID:26816979

  6. Rare Occurrence of Herpes Zoster of Trigeminal Nerve following Extraction of Tooth

    PubMed Central

    Christy, A. Winnifred; Raja Deva Thanmbi, T. Jones; Leelavathy, J.; Rhema Louis, Antoinette

    2015-01-01

    Herpes Zoster also known as Shingles is an acute viral infection which is an extremely painful and incapacitating ailment. It results from the reactivation of the varicella zoster virus. The triggering factors for the onset of an attack of Herpes Zoster include some form of immunosuppression. The diagnosis of Herpes Zoster can be made on proper medical history and a thorough clinical examination. Here is the report of a male patient affected by Herpes Zoster infection which followed after extraction of a lower first molar. PMID:26819783

  7. Expression of varicella-zoster virus and herpes simplex virus in normal human trigeminal ganglia

    SciTech Connect

    Vafai, A.; Wellish, M.; Devlin, M.; Gilden, D.H. ); Murray, R.S. Veterans Administration Medical Center, Denver, CO )

    1988-04-01

    Lysates of radiolabeled explants from four human trigeminal ganglia were immunoprecipitated with antibodies to varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and to herpes simplex virus. Both herpes simplex virus- and VZV-specific proteins were detected in lysates of all four ganglia. Absence of reactivity in ganglion explants with monoclonal antibodies suggested that herpes simplex virus and VZV were not reactivated during the culture period. In situ hybridization studies demonstrated the presence of RNA transcripts from the VZV immediate early gene 63. This approach to the detection of herpes simplex virus and VZV expression in human ganglia should facilitate analysis of viral RNA and proteins in human sensory ganglia.

  8. Trigeminal herpes zoster: early recognition and treatment are crucial.

    PubMed

    Lovell, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV) is not uncommon in older patients, particularly in cases of chronic autoimmune disorders and in patients taking immunosuppressant drugs. We present a case of a 57-year-old woman presenting with severe herpes zoster infection, involving the maxillary and ophthalmic branches of the trigeminal nerve. Despite an initial delay in instigating crucial antiviral treatment, the patient achieved an excellent recovery, with only some mild scarring at 2 months postinfection. Trigeminal herpes zoster is a potentially devastating clinical occurrence, and is associated with severe long-term neurological sequelae, including encephalitis, vision loss and postherpetic neuralgia. Physicians must be aware of risk factors and treatment modalities. PMID:25795749

  9. Fifteen minute consultation: Managing neonatal and childhood herpes encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Le Doare, K; Menson, Esse; Patel, Deepak; Lim, Ming; Lyall, Hermione; Herberg, Jethro

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is the most common single cause of viral encephalitis in infants and children. Treated or untreated, it can be associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, and its presentation is usually insidious and non-specific. Prompt and careful investigation is important in order to establish the diagnosis so that treatment can be optimised. We address some common questions arising when diagnosing and treating presumed HSE throughout childhood. PMID:25112286

  10. Inhibition of Herpes Simplex Virus Replication by Phosphonoacetic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Overby, L. R.; Robishaw, E. E.; Schleicher, J. B.; Rueter, A.; Shipkowitz, N. L.; Mao, J. C.-H.

    1974-01-01

    Replication of herpes simplex virus in WI-38 cells was inhibited by phosphonoacetic acid, as measured by decreased virus cytopathogenic effect and incorporation of radiolabeled thymidine in virus-infected cells. The drug appeared to have no effect on adsorption, penetration, or release of the virus nor on the synthesis of ribonucleic acid or protein. It appeared to inhibit virus deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis. Images PMID:15830487

  11. Management and Prevention of Herpes Zoster Ocular Disease.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Elisabeth J

    2015-10-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) is caused by reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus (VZV) in people who have had chicken pox, usually resulting in a painful, unilateral, dermatomal, vesicular rash. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus occurs when the first division of cranial nerve V is involved. HZ is common, with approximately 1 million new cases per year in the United States, and occurs in 1 in 3 persons. Although the rate of HZ increases with age, over half of all cases occur under the age of 60 years. Complications of herpes zoster ophthalmicus include eye disease, postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), and strokes. VZV has also been found in temporal arteritis biopsies. There is growing evidence that HZ is followed by chronic active VZV infection contributing to these complications. In view of this, and the efficacy of suppressive antiviral treatment in reducing recurrent herpes simplex keratitis, a randomized controlled trial of suppressive valacyclovir to reduce new or worsening anterior segment disease and/or PHN is needed. The zoster vaccine (ZV) is safe and effective in reducing the burden of illness, severity of PHN, and incidence of HZ. It is Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended for persons aged 60 years and above without impaired cellular immunity, and Food and Drug Administration approved for those aged 50 and older. It is most effective in preventing HZ in recipients in their 50s. Because of underusage of the ZV, it has not impacted the epidemiology of the disease. Barriers to its use include cost, variable reimbursement, frozen storage, and lack of a strong recommendation by doctors. PMID:26114827

  12. Fifteen minute consultation: managing neonatal and childhood herpes encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Le Doare, K; Menson, Esse; Patel, Deepak; Lim, Ming; Lyall, Hermione; Herberg, Jethro

    2015-04-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is the most common single cause of viral encephalitis in infants and children. Treated or untreated, it can be associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, and its presentation is usually insidious and non-specific. Prompt and careful investigation is important in order to establish the diagnosis so that treatment can be optimised. We address some common questions arising when diagnosing and treating presumed HSE throughout childhood. PMID:25112286

  13. Possible enhancement of BP180 autoantibody production by herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Koji; Aoyama, Yumi; Suzuki, Takahiro; Niwa, Haruo; Horio, Ai; Nishio, Eiichi; Tokura, Yoshiki

    2016-02-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune blistering disease caused by autoantibodies against type XVII collagen/BP180 (BP180). Although the mechanisms of autoantibody production remain to be elucidated, herpes virus infections have been identified as a possible triggering factor for pemphigus. We report a case of herpes zoster (HZ) having anti-BP180 serum antibodies. The patient developed sudden-onset, tense blisters and edematous erythema on the right anterior chest, shoulder and upper back. Histopathology showed remarkable degeneration of keratinocytes, acantholysis and blister formation with ballooning cells, indicating herpes virus infection. A polymerase chain reaction analysis of varicella zoster virus (VZV) was positive in crusts and effusions from the skin lesions, confirming the definitive diagnosis of HZ. Notably, we found that the patient had anti-BP180 serum antibodies in association with the occurrence of HZ. After successful treatment with valacyclovir hydrochloride for 7 days, the serum levels of anti-BP180 antibodies decreased in accordance with the improvement of skin lesions. These findings suggest that the production of anti-BP180 antibodies could be triggered by the reactivation of VZV. PMID:26212492

  14. Reactivation of herpes simplex virus-1 following epilepsy surgery☆

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Sérgio Monteiro; Crippa, Ana; Cruz, Cristina; de Paola, Luciano; de Souza, Luciana Paula; Noronha, Lucia; Torres, Luis Fernando Bleggi; Koneski, Julio A.S.; Pessa, Luis Felipe Cavalli; Nogueira, Meri Bordignon; Raboni, Sonia Mara; Silvado, Carlos Eduardo; Vidal, Luine Rosele

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The present study reports a case of encephalitis due to herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), following surgical manipulation of the site of a primary infection. Methods Herpes simplex virus-1 infection was confirmed by CSF PCR and DNA sequencing. Results The patient was an 11-year-old girl who required temporal lobe surgery for epilepsy. She had meningoencephalitis due to HSV at the age of 20 months, and she was treated with acyclovir. Three years later, the patient developed uncontrolled seizures that became more frequent and changed in character at 11 years of age. On the 12th postoperative day, she developed fever and seizures, and she was diagnosed with HSV-1 by positive CSF PCR. She was treated with acyclovir (30 mg/kg/day for 21 days). In this report, we describe the patient and review the relevant literature. Conclusion The authors stress the potential risk of reactivation of HSV encephalitis after intracranial surgery. Herpes simplex virus encephalitis must be considered in neurosurgical patients who develop postoperative seizures and fever. PMID:26543809

  15. [PCR study of the human herpes virus type 6 and other viruses of the herpes group in eye diseases].

    PubMed

    Slepowa, O S; Svetlova, E V; Kovaleva, L A; Makarov, P V; Kugusheva, A E; Denisova, E V; Vahova, E S; Zaharova, G Yu; Kondrat'eva, Yu A; Andryushin, A E; Demkin, V V

    2015-01-01

    To study the role of the HHV-6 type in the development of eye diseases PCR tests of blood (152), cornea biopsies (61), and intraocular fluids (11) for HHV-6 and other viruses of the herpes group (HSV type 1 and 2, CMV, EBV) were conducted. It was found that the HHV-6, along with other representatives of the Herpesviridae, can be detected in patients with different clinical forms of ophthalmopathology (174 patients were surveyed). Viral DNA was detected in blood, cornea, and in the anterior chamber fluid. The obtained data allow that the HHV-6 to be suggested as a possible cause of the ophthalmic herpes along with the other viruses of this group. It makes finding the virus DNA an essential step towards setting the etiologic diagnosis of the ophthalmological patients. PMID:27024918

  16. Herpes simplex virus 2 meningitis: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Miller, Stephanie; Mateen, Farrah J; Aksamit, Allen J

    2013-04-01

    Herpes simplex virus 2 is a leading cause of viral meningitis and the most commonly recognized infectious cause of benign, recurrent meningitis. We report a retrospective, observational cohort study of patients with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) meningitis, confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The terms "herpes simplex," "meningitis," or "encephalitis" were searched in the medical records system of the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota (1995-2008). Patients were included if they had a clinical diagnosis of meningitis and HSV-2 detected by PCR in the CSF. There were 28 patients with 33 episodes identified (83 % female; mean age at presentation of meningitis 36 years, range 17-53; mean time to HSV2 detection from symptom onset 3 days, range 0-6; history of genital herpes 23 %). No patient took oral antiviral treatment at the time of presentation. Episodes were most likely to include headache (100 %), photophobia (47 %), self-reported fever (45 %), meningismus (44 %), and nausea and/or vomiting (29 %). CSF at the time of meningitis was notable for elevated protein (mean 156 g/dL, range 60-258) and white cell count (mean 504 cells/μL, range 86-1,860) with normal glucose (mean 54 mg/dL, range 32-80). Mollaret cells were never detected. Neuroimaging was most often normal (83 %) when performed, although some cases showed nonspecific (14 %) or meningeal changes (3 %). There was no consistent relationship to genital herpes. The duration of treatment with intravenous acyclovir ranged from 3 to 14 days for the first meningitic episode (daily dose range from 500 to 1,000 mg and total dose range from 500 mg q8h for 3 days to 800 mg q8h for 14 days). For subsequent episodes, the duration of treatment of intravenous acyclovir ranged from less than 1 to 14 days (total dose range from 1,390 mg for 1 day to 900 mg q8h for 10 days). The dose of valacyclovir ranged from 500 mg once daily to 500 mg four times daily. The median duration of valacyclovir treatment following the first episode was 10 days (range 3 to 14 days, n = 13). The median duration of valacyclovir treatment following a subsequent meningitic episode was 9 days (range 7 days to indefinite period, n = 9). No patient was reported to have seizures, neurological disability, or death in extended follow-up (mean follow-up 3.4 years). Recurrence of meningitic symptoms was not universal. PMID:23494382

  17. Herpes zoster vaccine effectiveness and manifestations of herpes zoster and associated pain by vaccination status

    PubMed Central

    Marin, Mona; Yawn, Barbara P; Hales, Craig M; Wollan, Peter C; Bialek, Stephanie R; Zhang, John; Kurland, Marge J; Harpaz, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Options for managing herpes zoster (HZ)-related pain and complications have limited effectiveness, making HZ prevention through vaccination an important strategy. Limited data are available on HZ vaccine effectiveness against confirmed HZ and manifestations of HZ among vaccinated persons. We conducted a matched case-control study to assess HZ vaccine effectiveness for prevention of HZ and other HZ-related outcomes and a cohort study of persons with HZ to compare HZ-related outcomes by vaccination status. Cases were identified through active surveillance among persons age ≥60 years with HZ onset and health-care encounters during 2010-2011 in Southeastern Minnesota. Controls were age- and sex-matched to cases. Data were collected by medical record review and from participants via interviews and daily pain diaries. 266 HZ case-patients and 362 matched controls were enrolled in the vaccine effectiveness studies and 303 case-patients in the cohort study of HZ characteristics by vaccination status. Vaccination was associated with 54% (95% CI:32%-69%) reduction in HZ incidence, 58% (95% CI:31%-75%) reduction in HZ prodromal symptoms, and 70% (95% CI:33%-87%) reduction in medically-attended prodrome. HZ vaccine was statistically significant effective at preventing postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) measured at 30 d after rash onset, 61% (95% CI: 22%-80%). Among persons who developed HZ, no differences were found by vaccination status in severity or duration of HZ pain after rash onset. In this population-based study, HZ vaccination was associated with >50% reduction in HZ, HZ prodrome, and medically-attended prodrome. PMID:25806911

  18. Grover's disease secondarily infected with herpes simplex virus and Staphylococcus aureus: case report and review.

    PubMed

    Bunce, Penelope Am; Stanford, Duncan G

    2013-11-01

    The case of a 73-year old man with herpes simplex and staphylococcus aureus infection complicating established Grover's disease is presented. This was treated successfully with valaciclovir. While reports of bacterial and herpetic infections complicating other acantholytic diseases, such as Darier's disease, have been published previously, only one publication to date shows herpes simplex infection in Grover's disease. PMID:23013197

  19. Serologic Screening for Herpes Simplex Virus among University Students: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mark, Hayley; Nanda, Joy P.; Joffe, Alain; Roberts, Jessica; Rompalo, Anne; Melendez, Johan; Zenilman, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the feasibility of conducting serologic testing for the herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) among university students and assessed the psychosocial impact of an HSV-2 diagnosis. Methods: The authors recruited a convenience sample of 100 students (aged 18-39 years) without a history of genital herpes from 1 university

  20. Serologic Screening for Herpes Simplex Virus among University Students: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mark, Hayley; Nanda, Joy P.; Joffe, Alain; Roberts, Jessica; Rompalo, Anne; Melendez, Johan; Zenilman, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the feasibility of conducting serologic testing for the herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) among university students and assessed the psychosocial impact of an HSV-2 diagnosis. Methods: The authors recruited a convenience sample of 100 students (aged 18-39 years) without a history of genital herpes from 1 university…

  1. Nd:YAG laser treatment of herpes and aphthous ulcers: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkins, Frederick M.; O'Toole, Thomas J.; Yancey, John M.

    2000-06-01

    Previously herpes labialis and recurrent aphthous ulcers have not been successfully treated. A preliminary study with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser evaluated the results with a protocol of four minute non-contact exposures for both types of lesions. Most patients experienced relief of symptoms. The progress of herpes lesion was halted and aphthous lesions became desensitized.

  2. Recurrent Transcortical Motor Aphasia—Another CNS Infectious Syndrome Associated with Herpes Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Govindarajan, Raghav; Salgado, Efrain

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis is an acute/subacute illness that causes both general and focal signs of cerebral dysfunction with fever, headache, and confusion as cardinal features. Recurrent herpes simplex meningitis, also known as Mollaret’s meningitis, is another manifestation of central nervous system herpetic infection with recurrent episodes of fever, headache, and nuchal rigidity associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) evidence of active herpes simplex infection. Bell’s palsy is yet another manifestation of a herpes virus infection in at least some reported cases documented by CSF analysis. We report a case of a 70-year-old male who presented with acute transcortical motor aphasia initiating a stroke work-up that was negative. Physical examination revealed genital vesicles, and the CSF was consistent with active herpes simplex infection.

  3. Genital Herpes: Review of the Epidemic and Potential Use of Type-Specific Serology

    PubMed Central

    Ashley, Rhoda L.; Wald, Anna

    1999-01-01

    Prevention of genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections is desirable from both a public health standpoint and the patient’s perspective. A key factor in the spread of genital herpes infections is the high proportion of undiagnosed infections. Persons with subclinical or unrecognized infections are best diagnosed by accurate, type-specific antibody tests. Unfortunately, these tests are only now becoming widely available. The use of current, conventional (non-type-specific) serologic tests for diagnosis of herpes infections has resulted in confusion and misdiagnosis of patients. This review provides recent information on the epidemiology of genital herpes infections, describes the importance of subclinical herpes infection and shedding, summarizes the status of HSV type-specific serologic assays being developed, and provides indications for using such assays. PMID:9880471

  4. Evolutionary Origins of Human Herpes Simplex Viruses 1 and 2

    PubMed Central

    Wertheim, Joel O.; Smith, Martin D.; Smith, Davey M.; Scheffler, Konrad; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L.

    2014-01-01

    Herpesviruses have been infecting and codiverging with their vertebrate hosts for hundreds of millions of years. The primate simplex viruses exemplify this pattern of virus–host codivergence, at a minimum, as far back as the most recent common ancestor of New World monkeys, Old World monkeys, and apes. Humans are the only primate species known to be infected with two distinct herpes simplex viruses: HSV-1 and HSV-2. Human herpes simplex viruses are ubiquitous, with over two-thirds of the human population infected by at least one virus. Here, we investigated whether the additional human simplex virus is the result of ancient viral lineage duplication or cross-species transmission. We found that standard phylogenetic models of nucleotide substitution are inadequate for distinguishing among these competing hypotheses; the extent of synonymous substitutions causes a substantial underestimation of the lengths of some of the branches in the phylogeny, consistent with observations in other viruses (e.g., avian influenza, Ebola, and coronaviruses). To more accurately estimate ancient viral divergence times, we applied a branch-site random effects likelihood model of molecular evolution that allows the strength of natural selection to vary across both the viral phylogeny and the gene alignment. This selection-informed model favored a scenario in which HSV-1 is the result of ancient codivergence and HSV-2 arose from a cross-species transmission event from the ancestor of modern chimpanzees to an extinct Homo precursor of modern humans, around 1.6 Ma. These results provide a new framework for understanding human herpes simplex virus evolution and demonstrate the importance of using selection-informed models of sequence evolution when investigating viral origin hypotheses. PMID:24916030

  5. Evolutionary origins of human herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Wertheim, Joel O; Smith, Martin D; Smith, Davey M; Scheffler, Konrad; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L

    2014-09-01

    Herpesviruses have been infecting and codiverging with their vertebrate hosts for hundreds of millions of years. The primate simplex viruses exemplify this pattern of virus-host codivergence, at a minimum, as far back as the most recent common ancestor of New World monkeys, Old World monkeys, and apes. Humans are the only primate species known to be infected with two distinct herpes simplex viruses: HSV-1 and HSV-2. Human herpes simplex viruses are ubiquitous, with over two-thirds of the human population infected by at least one virus. Here, we investigated whether the additional human simplex virus is the result of ancient viral lineage duplication or cross-species transmission. We found that standard phylogenetic models of nucleotide substitution are inadequate for distinguishing among these competing hypotheses; the extent of synonymous substitutions causes a substantial underestimation of the lengths of some of the branches in the phylogeny, consistent with observations in other viruses (e.g., avian influenza, Ebola, and coronaviruses). To more accurately estimate ancient viral divergence times, we applied a branch-site random effects likelihood model of molecular evolution that allows the strength of natural selection to vary across both the viral phylogeny and the gene alignment. This selection-informed model favored a scenario in which HSV-1 is the result of ancient codivergence and HSV-2 arose from a cross-species transmission event from the ancestor of modern chimpanzees to an extinct Homo precursor of modern humans, around 1.6 Ma. These results provide a new framework for understanding human herpes simplex virus evolution and demonstrate the importance of using selection-informed models of sequence evolution when investigating viral origin hypotheses. PMID:24916030

  6. Early Events in Herpes Simplex Virus Infection: a Radioautographic Study

    PubMed Central

    Hummeler, Klaus; Tomassini, Natale; Zajac, Barbara

    1969-01-01

    The early events in herpes simplex virus infection were studied by means of radio-autography. The virus was rapidly taken up by the host cells and uncoated. Viral deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) reached the nuclear sites of replication in 15 to 30 min after infection. The viral DNA occasionally associated with chromosomes or condensed chromatin but was more frequently found to be randomly distributed. Viral progeny appeared 3 hr after infection. These particles did not show any particular spatial relationship to the parental DNA. The morphological latent period lasted 2.5 hr. Images PMID:4309102

  7. Orbital apex syndrome secondary to herpes zoster virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Merino-Iglesias, Alexia; Montero, Javier Antonio; Calabuig-Goena, Maria; Giraldo-Agudelo, Luisa Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    A male patient with herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) presented with left exophthalmos, external and internal ophthalmoplegia and decreased visual acuity. A CT scan revealed myositis without significant compression of the optic nerve. Intravenous acyclovir and oral steroids were started with improvement of the symptoms and eventual complete recovery.Orbital apex syndrome is a rare complication of HZO. Multiple pathogenic mechanisms are involved, including a direct cytopathic effect of the virus as in the present case. Early diagnosis and therapy may lead to complete recovery of visual function. PMID:24614776

  8. Herpes Simplex Virus Oncolytic Therapy for Pediatric Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Gregory K; Pressey, Joseph G; Reddy, Alyssa T; Markert, James M; Gillespie, G Yancey

    2009-01-01

    Despite improving survival rates for children with cancer, a subset of patients exist with disease resistant to traditional therapies such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. These patients require newer, targeted treatments used alone or in combination with more traditional approaches. Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (HSV) is one of these newer therapies that offer promise for several difficult to treat pediatric malignancies. The potential benefit of HSV therapy in pediatric solid tumors including brain tumors, neuroblastomas, and sarcomas is reviewed along with the many challenges that need to be addressed prior to moving oncolytic HSV therapy from the laboratory to the beside in the pediatric population. PMID:19367259

  9. Herpes simplex virus hepatitis 4 years after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Bissig, Karl-Dimiter; Zimmermann, Arthur; Bernasch, Dirke; Furrer, Hansjakob; Dufour, Jean-FranCois

    2003-01-01

    If not promptly recognized and treated, herpes simplex virus (HSV) hepatitis is associated with a high mortality. A patient transplanted for primary sclerosing cholangitis required, 4 years later, a colectomy for a steroid-resistant flare of ulcerative colitis. He subsequently developed fever, with genital and oral ulcerations. He was hospitalized for diabetic decompensation with massive elevation of serum aminotransferases. Examination revealed vesicles on the hands. Liver biopsy showed Cowdry type B inclusions. Therapy with acyclovir was immediately initiated and the patient recovered. This case illustrates the diagnostic importance of mucocutaneous lesions in the assessment of complications after liver transplantation. PMID:14614611

  10. A case of herpes zoster associated with colitis.

    PubMed

    Okimura, H; Muto, M; Ichimiya, M; Mogami, S; Takahata, H; Asagami, C

    1996-09-01

    A 58-year-old Japanese woman who had herpes zoster in association with colitis was successfully treated with intravenously administrated acyclovir. Vesicular lesions with red haloes ranged from the left side of her buttock to the left extremity, corresponding to the L4 to S2 dermatomes. Her colitis was considered to have been induced by varicella-zoster virus, based on the facts that the clinical courses were correlated and that the innervation of the affected site of the colon corresponded to an infected dermatome (S2). PMID:8916665

  11. Heat shock and herpes virus: enhanced reactivation without untargeted mutagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Lytle, C.D.; Carney, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    Enhanced reactivation of Ultraviolet-irradiated virus has been reported to occur in heat-shocked host cells. Since enhanced virus reactivation is often accompanied by untargeted mutagenesis, we investigated whether such mutagenesis would occur for herpes simplex virus (HSV) in CV-1 monkey kidney cells subjected to heat shock. In addition to expressing enhanced reactivation, the treated cells were transiently more susceptible to infection by unirradiated HSV. No mutagenesis of unirradiated HSV was found whether infection occurred at the time of increased susceptibility to infection or during expression of enhanced viral reactivation.

  12. Stimulation of human lymphocytes by Herpes simplex virus antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Starr, S E; Karatela, S A; Shore, S L; Duffey, A; Nahmias, A J

    1975-01-01

    Lymphocytes from individuals with laboratory evidence of prior infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 or type 2 demonstrated transformation (av antigens. Higher stimulation indexes were obtained when lymphocytes were incubated with the homologous as compared with the heterologous antigen. Higher mean lymphocyte stimulation indexes were also demonstrated in seropositive as compared with seronegative individuals. Lymphocytes from children with HSV-1 stomatitis usually became responsive to HSV-1 antigen within 2 to 6 weeks after the onset of illness. Lymphocytes from infants with neonatal HSV-2 infection were stimulated by HSV-2 antigen. PMID:163788

  13. Current management and recommendations for access to antiviral therapy of herpes labialis

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Anthony; Griffiths, Paul; Leone, Peter; Mindel, Adrian; Patel, Rajul; Stanberry, Lawrence; Whitley, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Herpes labialis is a common skin infective condition, worldwide, which is primarily caused by HSV-1. Recurrent episodes of herpes labialis, also known as cold sores, can be frequent, painful, long-lasting and disfiguring for infected patients. At present, there are two types of antivirals for the treatment of herpes labialis, topical and oral, which are available over the counter or as prescription-only. The aim of antiviral therapy is to block viral replication to enable shortening the duration of symptoms and to accelerate healing of the lesions associated with herpes labialis. This review examines the evidence for the effectiveness of current topical and oral antivirals in the management of recurrent episodes of herpes labialis. In most countries, oral antivirals for herpes labialis are available as prescription-only. However, in early 2010, the oral antiviral famciclovir was reclassified from prescription-only medicine to pharmacist-controlled status in New Zealand. The benefits and risks associated with moving an antiviral therapy for herpes labialis from prescription-only to pharmacist-controlled status are reviewed here, and the implications for patients, general physicians and pharmacists are considered. PMID:21889905

  14. Ictal asystole secondary to suspected herpes simplex encephalitis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus is a leading cause of sporadic encephalitis. While seizures are a common feature of Herpes simplex virus encephalitis, and periods of asystole have been reported in Herpes simplex virus patients, there have been no prior reports of ictal asystole secondary to such an infection. This case report describes a 33 year old, previously healthy, gentleman of Malaysian descent, with new onset seizures resulting in a twenty-one second period of ictal asystole. In hospital the patient developed focal neurological symptoms. A diagnosis of Herpes simplex virus encephalitis was made, although this diagnosis was not confirmed by lumbar puncture, magnetic resonance imaging or biopsy. Literature is reviewed regarding ictal asystole as well as clinical features and cardiac complications of Herpes simplex virus encephalitis. Given the link between ictal asystole and Herpes simplex virus encephalitis, cardiac monitoring would be recommended for Herpes simplex virus encephalitis patients having seizures. The use of anticonvulsants with cardiac side effects should be carefully considered. PMID:20069069

  15. Rapid Detection of Herpes Viruses for Clinical Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane; Mehta, Satish

    2013-01-01

    There are eight herpes viruses that infect humans, causing a wide range of diseases resulting in considerable morbidity and associated costs. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a human herpes virus that causes chickenpox in children and shingles in adults. Approximately 1,000,000 new cases of shingles occur each year; post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) follows shingles in 100,000 to 200,000 people annually. PHN is characterized by debilitating, nearly unbearable pain for weeks, months, and even years. The onset of shingles is characterized by pain, followed by the zoster rash, leading to blisters and severe pain. The problem is that in the early stages, shingles can be difficult to diagnose; chickenpox in adults can be equally difficult to diagnose. As a result, both diseases can be misdiagnosed (false positive/negative). A molecular assay has been adapted for use in diagnosing VZV diseases. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay is a non-invasive, rapid, sensitive, and highly specific method for VZV DNA detection. It provides unequivocal results and can effectively end misdiagnoses. This is an approximately two-hour assay that allows unequivocal diagnosis and rapid antiviral drug intervention. It has been demonstrated that rapid intervention can prevent full development of the disease, resulting in reduced likelihood of PHN. The technology was extended to shingles patients and demonstrated that VZV is shed in saliva and blood of all shingles patients. The amount of VZV in saliva parallels the medical outcome.

  16. Exploiting Herpes Simplex Virus Entry for Novel Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Hadigal, Satvik; Shukla, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Herpes Simplex virus (HSV) is associated with a variety of diseases such as genital herpes and numerous ocular diseases. At the global level, high prevalence of individuals who are seropositive for HSV, combined with its inconspicuous infection, remains a cause for major concern. At the molecular level, HSV entry into a host cell involves multiple steps, primarily the interaction of viral glycoproteins with various cell surface receptors, many of which have alternate substitutes. The molecular complexity of the virus to enter a cell is also enhanced by the existence of different modes of viral entry. The availability of many entry receptors, along with a variety of entry mechanisms, has resulted in a virus that is capable of infecting virtually all cell types. While HSV uses a wide repertoire of viral and host factors in establishing infection, current therapeutics aimed against the virus are not as diversified. In this particular review, we will focus on the initial entry of the virus into the cell, while highlighting potential novel therapeutics that can control this process. Virus entry is a decisive step and effective therapeutics can translate to less virus replication, reduced cell death, and detrimental symptoms. PMID:23752649

  17. Necrotizing Keratitis Caused by Acyclovir-Resistant Herpes Simplex Virus

    PubMed Central

    Toriyama, Koji; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Takashi; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Ohashi, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    Background We report a case of necrotizing keratitis caused by acyclovir (ACV)-resistant herpes simplex virus (HSV) with a clinical appearance similar to a previous fungal keratitis infection. Methods Observational case report. Results Penetrating keratoplasty was performed in the left eye with a history of herpetic keratitis that resolved with periodic treatment with ACV ointment and a topical steroid. The left eye was painful and red with an abscess and corneal erosion in the peripheral donor cornea. Examination of the scraped corneal epithelium by light microscopy and culturing identified Candida albicans; polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was negative for human herpes viruses. After antifungal treatment, the ocular pain gradually decreased and the lesions slowly improved but recurred with a similar clinical appearance. A second light microscopy examination and cultures were negative for pathogens including C. albicans. PCR was positive for HSV-1 DNA; treatment with 3% topical ACV ointment was unsuccessful. A third examination showed only HSV-1 DNA. Despite antiviral ACV ointment, no clinical improvement occurred based on the HSV DNA copy numbers, which were the same before and after treatment, indicating a possible ACV-resistant strain. When topical trifluorothymidine was substituted for ACV, clinical improvement occurred and the HSV DNA copy numbers decreased. Conclusion Necrotizing keratitis induced by ACV-resistant HSV occurred independently after fungal keratitis, with a similar clinical appearance in this case, making diagnosis and treatment difficult. Monitoring the HSV DNA load by real-time PCR could be useful for refractory cases even with atypical clinical appearances. PMID:25473399

  18. Herpes Zoster Meningitis Complicating Combined Tocilizumab and Cyclosporine Therapy for Adult-Onset Still's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tsurukawa, Shinichiro; Iwanaga, Nozomi; Izumi, Yasumori; Shirakawa, Atsunori; Kawahara, Chieko; Shukuwa, Tetsuo; Inamoto, Miwako; Kawakami, Atsushi; Migita, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    A 56-year-old female with refractory adult-onset Still's disease presented with ocular herpes zoster infection during TCZ treatment. After three days of acyclovir treatment (5 mg/kg), she developed a severe headache and high fever. Viral DNA isolation and cerebral spinal fluid abnormalities led to a herpes zoster meningitis diagnosis. Her meningitis was cured by high doses of intravenous acyclovir (10 mg/kg for 14 days). To our knowledge, this is the first report of meningeal herpes zoster infection in rheumatic diseases under TCZ treatment. PMID:27092286

  19. Erosive Pustular Dermatosis of the Scalp Following Herpes Zoster: Successful Treatment with Topical Tacrolimus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyu Ri; Lee, Ji Yeoun; Kim, Mi Kyeong

    2010-01-01

    Erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp (EPDS) is a rare disorder of the elderly characterized by multiple pustular lesions with erosions and crusting that result in scarring alopecia. EPDS typically develops in aged or sun-damaged skin with a history of trauma. Histopathologically, EPDS is nonspecific, showing atrophic epidermis and chronic inflammation. Bacteriological and mycological investigations of EPDS are generally negative. Although herpes zoster is a common disorder in elderly people, previously reported cases of EPDS were rarely associated with herpes zoster. We present a rare case of EPDS following herpes zoster treated successfully with topical tacrolimus. PMID:20548924

  20. Cutaneous neonatal herpes simplex virus infection type 2: a case report*

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, Maraya de Jesus Semblano; Freitas, Lívia Karlla Marinho; Drago, Marion Guimarães; Carvalho, Alessandra Haber; do Nascimento, Bianca Angelina Macêdo

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal herpes is a serious condition. Newborns can be contaminated in utero via transplacental hematogenic transmission, upon delivery (the most frequent route), or during the postnatal period (indirect transmission). Optimal management requires prompt and accurate recognition, particularly in newborns, in order to prevent complications. Acyclovir is the treatment of choice, but its implementation is often delayed while awaiting test results, such as PCR and serology. Cytology for diagnostic purposes is rarely used in dermatology, despite the quick and reliable results. We report a case of neonatal herpes caused by type 2 herpes simplex virus diagnosed by cytology. PMID:27192523

  1. Clinical and biological differences between recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections

    SciTech Connect

    Straus, S.E. )

    1989-12-01

    The major features that distinguish recurrent herpes simplex virus infections from zoster are illustrated in this article by two case histories. The clinical and epidemiologic features that characterize recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections are reviewed. It is noted that herpesvirus infections are more common and severe in patients with cellular immune deficiency. Each virus evokes both humoral and cellular immune response in the course of primary infection. DNA hybridization studies with RNA probes labelled with sulfur-35 indicate that herpes simplex viruses persist within neurons, and that varicella-zoster virus is found in the satellite cells that encircle the neurons.

  2. Isolation of a protein kinase induced by herpes simplex virus type 1

    SciTech Connect

    Blue, W.T.; Stobbs, D.G.

    1981-04-01

    Researchers have isolated a new cyclic AMP-independent protein kinase activity induced in HeLa cells by infection with herpes simplex virus type 1. Induction of the enzyme does not occur in cells treated with cycloheximide at the time of infection, or in cells infected with UV-inactivated herpes simplex virus type 1. The amount of enzyme induced in infected cells is dependent upon the multiplicity of infection. An enzyme with identical properties to the appearing in infected HeLa cells is also induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 in BHK cells.

  3. Shingles (Herpes Zoster) Vaccine (Zostavax(®)): A Review in the Prevention of Herpes Zoster and Postherpetic Neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Keating, Gillian M

    2016-06-01

    Zostavax(®) is a live attenuated shingles (herpes zoster) vaccine approved in the EU for the prevention of herpes zoster (HZ) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) in adults aged ≥50 years. Zoster vaccine protected against HZ in adults aged 50-59 years (ZEST trial) and ≥60 years [Shingles Prevention Study (SPS)], and also reduced the burden of illness associated with HZ and the risk of PHN in adults aged ≥60 years (SPS). A large amount of real-world data also supports the efficacy of zoster vaccine. Results of the SPS Short- and Long-Term Persistence Substudies and real-world studies indicate that zoster vaccine provided continued benefit in the longer term, albeit with a gradual decline in vaccine efficacy over time; long-term effectiveness studies are ongoing. The need for a booster dose is still unknown, but a study showed that, if necessary, a booster dose administered to adults aged ≥70 years who received their first dose of zoster vaccine ≥10 years previously was immunogenic. Zoster vaccine had a favourable safety and tolerability profile, with the most commonly reported adverse events being non-severe injection-site reactions. In conclusion, zoster vaccine reduces the incidence of HZ and PHN, thereby reducing the burden of illness associated with HZ; improved uptake of zoster vaccine is needed. PMID:27189459

  4. Efficacy Results of a Trial of a Herpes Simplex Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Belshe, Robert B.; Leone, Peter A.; Bernstein, David I.; Wald, Anna; Levin, Myron J.; Stapleton, Jack T.; Gorfinkel, Iris; Morrow, Rhoda L. Ashley; Ewell, Marian G.; Stokes-Riner, Abbie; Dubin, Gary; Heineman, Thomas C.; Schulte, Joann M.; Deal, Carolyn D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Two previous studies of a herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) subunit vaccine containing glycoprotein D in HSV-discordant couples revealed 73% and 74% efficacy against genital disease in women who were negative for both HSV type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 antibodies. Efficacy was not observed in men or HSV-1 seropositive women. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind efficacy field trial involving 8323 women 18 to 30 years of age who were negative for antibodies to HSV-1 and HSV-2. At months 0, 1, and 6, some subjects received the investigational vaccine, consisting of 20 μg of glycoprotein D from HSV-2 with alum and 3-O-deacylated monophosphoryl lipid A as an adjuvant; control subjects received the hepatitis A vaccine, at a dose of 720 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) units. The primary end point was occurrence of genital herpes disease due to either HSV-1 or HSV-2 from month 2 (1 month after dose 2) through month 20. Results The HSV vaccine was associated with an increased risk of local reactions as compared with the control vaccine, and it elicited ELISA and neutralizing antibodies to HSV-2. Overall, the vaccine was not efficacious; vaccine efficacy was 20% (95% confidence interval [CI], −29 to 50) against genital herpes disease. However, efficacy against HSV-1 genital disease was 58% (95% CI, 12 to 80). Vaccine efficacy against HSV-1 infection (with or without disease) was 35% (95% CI, 13 to 52), but efficacy against HSV-2 infection was not observed (−8%; 95% CI, −59 to 26). Conclusions In a study population that was representative of the general population of HSV-1– and HSV-2–seronegative women, the investigational vaccine was effective in preventing HSV-1 genital disease and infection but not in preventing HSV-2 disease or infection. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and GlaxoSmithKline; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00057330.) PMID:22216840

  5. Immunization against Genital Herpes with a Vaccine Virus That has Defects in Productive and Latent Infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, Xavier J.; Jones, Cheryl A.; Knipe, David M.

    1999-06-01

    An effective vaccine for genital herpes has been difficult to achieve because of the limited efficacy of subunit vaccines and the safety concerns about live viruses. As an alternative approach, mutant herpes simplex virus strains that are replication-defective can induce protective immunity. To increase the level of safety and to prove that replication was not needed for immunization, we constructed a mutant herpes simplex virus 2 strain containing two deletion mutations, each of which eliminated viral replication. The double-mutant virus induces protective immunity that can reduce acute viral shedding and latent infection in a mouse genital model, but importantly, the double-mutant virus shows a phenotypic defect in latent infection. This herpes vaccine strain, which is immunogenic but has defects in both productive and latent infection, provides a paradigm for the design of vaccines and vaccine vectors for other sexually transmitted diseases, such as AIDS.

  6. PARAMETERS DISTINGUISHING HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS TYPE 2-TRANSFORMED TUMORIGENIC AND NONTUMORIGENIC RAT CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A newly developed experimental model system was used to determine in vitro transformation-specific parameters which correlate with tumorigenicity. The data suggested that clonal herpes simplex virus type 2-transformed syngeneic rat embryo cells with intermediate, transformed rat ...

  7. Transmission of herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in rugby players.

    PubMed

    White, W B; Grant-Kels, J M

    1984-07-27

    Skin infections, both bacterial and viral, are endemic in contact sports such as wrestling and rugby football. In this report, we describe four cases of extensive cutaneous herpes simplex virus in players on a rugby team. All players had a prodrome of fever, malaise, and anorexia with a weight loss of 3.6 to 9.0 kg. Two players experienced ocular lesions associated with cutaneous vesicular lesions of the face. A third player, who had herpetic lesions on his lower extremity, experienced paresthesias, weakness, and intermittent urinary retention and constipation. All infected players on the team were forwards or members of the "scrum," which suggests a field-acquired infection analogous to the herpetic infections seen in wrestlers (herpes gladiatorum). Considering the serious sequelae of recurrent herpes simplex keratitis, the traumatic skin lesions in rugby football players should be cultured for herpes virus, and infected individuals should be restricted from playing until crusted lesions have disappeared. PMID:6737650

  8. Disseminated herpes zoster ophthalmicus in an immunocompetent 8-year old boy.

    PubMed

    Oladokun, Regina Eziuka; Olomukoro, Chikodili N; Owa, Adewale B

    2013-08-01

    Varicella results from a primary infection with the varicella virus while herpes zoster is caused by a reactivation of a latent infection. Dissemination of herpes zoster is uncommon in immunocompetent individuals. Reports of disseminated herpes zoster in children are even less common than in adults. An unusual case of disseminated herpes zoster ophthalmicus in an 8-year old immunocompetent black boy is presented. He had a previous primary Varicella zoster virus infection at three years of age. In the current report, he presented during an on-going chicken pox outbreak and survived with no significant complications. A breakthrough varicella virus re-infection or a reactivation is possible, both of which could present as zoster. This case emphasizes the need for prevention of varicella virus infection through universal childhood immunization and effective infection control strategies in health care settings. PMID:24765504

  9. Reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus infection of the autonomic nervous system by postganglionic neurectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Price, R W; Schmitz, J

    1978-01-01

    Latent herpes simplex virus infection of the superior cervical autonomic ganglion was reactivated in vivo by postganglionic neurectomy. Two methods were used to demonstrate viral reactivation: (i) recovery of infectious herpes simplex virus in ganglion homogenates and (ii) acceleration of virus expression in ganglion explants in culture. Both the percentage of mice exhibiting reactivated ganglion infection and the viral titers detected in ganglia increased when neurectomized mice were treated with cyclophosphamide. Antithymocyte serum treatment prolonged the time course over which neurectomy-induced virus could be detected, but neither antithymocyte serum nor cyclophosphamide reactivated herpes simplex virus in the absence of neurectomy. These results demonstrate that postganlionic neurectomy provides a specific stimulus for herpes simplex virus reactivation and that cell-mediated immune defense are involved in the highly efficient elimination of reactivated virus from the ganglion in vivo. PMID:204579

  10. Herpes Simplex Virus Sepsis in a Young Woman with Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    Haag, Lea-Maxie; Hofmann, Jörg; Kredel, Lea Isabell; Holzem, Christina; Kühl, Anja A; Taube, Eliane T; Schubert, Stefan; Siegmund, Britta; Epple, Hans-Jörg

    2015-12-01

    We present the case of a herpes simplex virus-1 [HSV-1] sepsis with severe herpes hepatitis in a young female treated with triple immunosuppressive therapy [adalimumab, azathioprine, prednisolone] for refractory Crohn's disease [CD]. The patient presented with high fever, generalised abdominal tenderness, strongly elevated transaminases, coagulopathy, and pancytopenia. Comprehensive diagnostics including blood HSV-1 polymerase chain reaction [PCR], liver biopsy, and immunohistochemistry revealed the diagnosis of fulminant herpes hepatitis. HSV-1 positivity of cutaneous lesions proved the disseminated nature of the infection. Early treatment with intravenous acyclovir led to a rapid improvement of the patient's condition and resulted in a full recovery of her liver function. This is the first reported case of HSV-sepsis in a patient with CD. Physicians treating inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] patients with combined immunosuppressive therapy should be aware of the possibility of herpes hepatitis, and early empirical antiviral therapy should be considered in immunosuppressed patients presenting with fever and severe anicteric hepatitis. PMID:26351382

  11. Acute Herpetic Gingivostomatitis Associated with Herpes Simplex Virus 2: Report of a Case

    PubMed Central

    George, Annie Kitty; Anil, Sukumaran

    2014-01-01

    Herpetic gingivostomatitis represents the most commonly observed clinical manifestation of primary herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. HSV-1 has been associated with oro-labial disease, with most infections occurring during childhood, and HSV-2 with genital disease. However, it is possible for HSV-2 to cause oro-labial herpes and HSV-1 to cause genital herpes. An unusual case of acute herpetic gingivostomatitis (AHGS) that presented as extremely painful multiple ulcerations of the gingiva and hard palate in a 32-year-old male patient is presented. The association of HSV-2 in the etiology of oral lesions is highlighted. The clinical presentation, course, differential diagnosis and management of AHGS are discussed. How to cite the article: George AK, Anil S. Acute herpetic gingivostomatitis associated with herpes simplex virus 2: Report of a case. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):99-102. PMID:25083042

  12. Reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus infection by ultraviolet light: a human model

    SciTech Connect

    Perna, J.J.; Mannix, M.L.; Rooney, J.F.; Notkins, A.L.; Straus, S.E.

    1987-09-01

    Infection with herpes simplex virus often results in a latent infection of local sensory ganglia and a disease characterized by periodic viral reactivation and mucocutaneous lesions. The factors that trigger reactivation in humans are still poorly defined. In our study, five patients with documented histories of recurrent herpes simplex virus infection on the buttocks or sacrum were exposed to three times their minimal erythema dose of ultraviolet light. Site-specific cutaneous herpes simplex virus infection occurred at 4.4 +/- 0.4 days after exposure to ultraviolet light in 8 of 13 attempts at reactivation. We conclude that ultraviolet light can reactivate herpes simplex virus under experimentally defined conditions. This model in humans should prove useful in evaluating the pathophysiology and prevention of viral reactivation.

  13. Legal and Moral Considerations in Educating Children with Herpes in Public School Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guess, Doug; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The article examines legal and moral implications in providing classroom education to children with herpes. Conclusions suggest the integration of the child into educationally appropriate programs during the disease's inactive stage. (CL)

  14. SIMPLE: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endres, Frank L.

    Symbolic Interactive Matrix Processing Language (SIMPLE) is a conversational matrix-oriented source language suited to a batch or a time-sharing environment. The two modes of operation of SIMPLE are conversational mode and programing mode. This program uses a TAURUS time-sharing system and cathode ray terminals or teletypes. SIMPLE performs all…

  15. Serologic screening for herpes simplex virus type 2 in persons with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Van Wagoner, Nicholas J; Morrow, Rhoda; Lee, Jeannette; Dixon, Paula; Hook, Edward W

    2013-08-01

    Screening for subclinical herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) may be a useful adjunct in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care. However, HSV-2 serological tests have been suggested to perform less well in HIV-infected populations. In this study, HerpeSelect HSV-2 ELISA was compared with the Sure-Vue Rapid HSV-2 Test for HSV-2 screening of sera from 310 HIV-infected persons receiving care at an HIV-dedicated clinic in the Southeastern United States. In the study, assay agreement and whether the performance of both tests, rather than 1 test alone, would improve screening accuracy were determined. Overall percent test agreement was 96%. Negative percent agreement was best at a HerpeSelect index value <0.90 and positive percent agreement was best at a HerpeSelect index value ≥3.0 (97% and 100%, respectively). Using the manufacturer's established cutoffs for a HerpeSelect positive test result versus negative test result, discordant results between assays occurred in 4% of the cases, and the majority of these cases occurred when the HerpeSelect index value was between 0.9 and 2.9. These data suggest a good correlation between the HerpeSelect and the Sure-Vue HSV-2 Rapid Test in a U.S. HIV-infected population and suggest that confirmatory testing may not help in HSV-2 diagnosis except in cases where HerpeSelect index values are between 0.9 and 3.0. PMID:23154653

  16. [IMMUNE SYSTEM DATA IN PATIENTS WITH PERSISTENT RECURENT HERPES VIRUS INFECTIONS IN DYNAMICS OF COMPLEX THERAPY].

    PubMed

    Rudenko, M Yu

    2015-01-01

    The positive clinical, serolgical and immunological effects of Glutamyl-Triptophan in patients on persistent herpes virus infections are shown. Treatment resulted in the increase of avidity on HSV 1, HSV 2, CMV, EBV antibody, the levels of CD3+-, ICD8+-, CD16+-, CD3+HLA-DR+- (%, abs) and.CD3+CD25t-cells (%), that indicates the optimization of the immune systemdata. The data received allow to recommend Bestim for patients with persistent herpes virus infections. PMID:27089710

  17. Basal Autophagy Is Required for Herpes simplex Virus-2 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yakoub, Abraam M.; Shukla, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a conserved catabolic process of the cell, which plays an important role in regulating plethora of infections. The role of autophagy in Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) infection is unknown. Here, we found that HSV-2 does not allow induction of an autophagic response to infection, but maintains basal autophagy levels mostly unchanged during productive infection. Thus, we investigated the importance of basal autophagy for HSV-2 infection, using pharmacological autophagy suppression or cells genetically deficient in an autophagy-essential gene (ATG5). Interference with basal autophagy flux in cells significantly reduced viral replication and diminished the infection. These results indicate that basal autophagy plays an indispensable role required for a productive infection. Importantly, this study draws a sharp distinction between induced and basal autophagy, where the former acts as a viral clearance mechanism abrogating infection, while the latter supports infection. PMID:26248741

  18. New strategies against drug resistance to herpes simplex virus

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yu-Chen; Feng, Hui; Lin, Yu-Chun; Guo, Xiu-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV), a member of the Herpesviridae family, is a significant human pathogen that results in mucocutaneous lesions in the oral cavity or genital infections. Acyclovir (ACV) and related nucleoside analogues can successfully treat HSV infections, but the emergence of drug resistance to ACV has created a barrier for the treatment of HSV infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. There is an urgent need to explore new and effective tactics to circumvent drug resistance to HSV. This review summarises the current strategies in the development of new targets (the DNA helicase/primase (H/P) complex), new types of molecules (nature products) and new antiviral mechanisms (lethal mutagenesis of Janus-type nucleosides) to fight the drug resistance of HSV. PMID:27025259

  19. Prevention and management of neonatal herpes simplex virus infections

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Upton D; Robinson, Joan L

    2014-01-01

    Human herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in neonates can result in devastating outcomes, including mortality and significant morbidity. All infants are potentially at risk for neonatal HSV infection. This position statement reviews epidemiology, transmission and risk factors, with a focus on intrapartum infection. It considers diagnosis and prognosis according to infection category, along with testing modalities and limitations. Recommendations for managing newborns known to have been exposed intrapartum to HSV are based on expert opinion because a randomized trial to compare management options is not feasible. Guidance is provided for the empirical management of infants with suspected clinical sepsis, including those who do not respond to antibacterial therapy. The present statement replaces a 2006 position statement by the Canadian Paediatric Society. PMID:24855418

  20. Disproportionate retrograde amnesia in a patient with herpes simplex encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Fujii, T; Yamadori, A; Endo, K; Suzuki, K; Fukatsu, R

    1999-12-01

    We describe a patient who developed a severe but temporally limited retrograde amnesia coupled with a relatively mild anterograde amnesia following herpes simplex encephalitis. The patient showed a profound retrograde amnesia for autobiographical events extending for about 10 years prior to the disease onset. Her knowledge about public events and famous persons was also impaired for this period. An MRI and SPECT demonstrated bilateral medial temporal pathology. This case represents a further instance of a relatively focal retrograde amnesia following brain damage. We review other reported cases with focal retrograde amnesia and consider theoretical and neuroanatomical accounts for the present case. Two factors may account for her amnesic patterns: a partial disruption of the store for premorbid binding codes (i.e., information that multimodal feature representations occurred synchronously); along with a relative preservation of the encoding process required to develop new synchronous codes. PMID:10656630

  1. Herpes simplex virus 1 induces de novo phospholipid synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Sutter, Esther; Oliveira, Anna Paula de; Tobler, Kurt; Schraner, Elisabeth M.; Sonda, Sabrina; Kaech, Andres; Lucas, Miriam S.; Ackermann, Mathias; Wild, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 capsids bud at nuclear membranes and Golgi membranes acquiring an envelope composed of phospholipids. Hence, we measured incorporation of phospholipid precursors into these membranes, and quantified changes in size of cellular compartments by morphometric analysis. Incorporation of [{sup 3}H]-choline into both nuclear and cytoplasmic membranes was significantly enhanced upon infection. [{sup 3}H]-choline was also part of isolated virions even grown in the presence of brefeldin A. Nuclei expanded early in infection. The Golgi complex and vacuoles increased substantially whereas the endoplasmic reticulum enlarged only temporarily. The data suggest that HSV-1 stimulates phospholipid synthesis, and that de novo synthesized phospholipids are inserted into nuclear and cytoplasmic membranes to i) maintain membrane integrity in the course of nuclear and cellular expansion, ii) to supply membrane constituents for envelopment of capsids by budding at nuclear membranes and Golgi membranes, and iii) to provide membranes for formation of transport vacuoles.

  2. [Cytomegalovirus and other herpes virus infections in systemic diseases].

    PubMed

    Michaux, Christian; Morlat, Philippe; Bonnet, Fabrice

    2010-01-01

    Reactivation of Herpesviridae is well known among transplant patients, but has not been sufficiently studied in patients who receive immunosuppressive treatment for systemic inflammatory diseases. CMV infection seems relatively rare; it is easily diagnosed by real-time PCR, a fast and reliable diagnostic tool. CMV disease is most often manifested in the form of lung disease, hepatitis, or colitis. The highest risks are associated with steroid or cyclophosphamide boluses and methotrexate. Prophylactic treatment cannot be recommended in clinical practice. The utility of monitoring viremia and of preemptive therapy must be evaluated. Herpes zoster is the most frequent viral infection in systemic diseases. Most immunosuppressive treatments, except methotrexate, promote its occurrence. Visceral involvement is quite rare, and outcome almost always favorable. Prophylactic treatment cannot be recommended. PMID:19446998

  3. Immunological Aspects of Acute and Recurrent Herpes Simplex Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Hus, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) belongs to the major causes of visual morbidity worldwide and available methods of treatment remain unsatisfactory. Primary infection occurs usually early in life and is often asymptomatic. Chronic visual impairment and visual loss are caused by corneal scaring, thinning, and vascularization connected with recurrent HSV infections. The pathogenesis of herpetic keratitis is complex and is still not fully understood. According to the current knowledge, corneal scarring and vascularization are the result of chronic inflammatory reaction against HSV antigens. In this review we discuss the role of innate and adaptive immunities in acute and recurrent HSV ocular infection and present the potential future targets for novel therapeutical options based on immune interventions. PMID:25276842

  4. Herpes Simplex Virus Suppresses Necroptosis in Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hongyan; Omoto, Shinya; Harris, Philip A.; Finger, Joshua N.; Bertin, John; Gough, Peter J.; Kaiser, William J.; Mocarski, Edward S.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Herpes simplex virus (HSV)1 and HSV2 are significant human pathogens causing recurrent disease. During infection, HSV modulates cell death pathways using the large subunit (R1) of ribonucleotide reductase (RR) to suppress apoptosis by binding to and blocking Caspase 8. Here, we demonstrate that HSV1 and HSV2 R1 proteins (ICP6 and ICP10, respectively) also prevent necroptosis in human cells by inhibiting the interaction between receptor interacting protein kinase (RIP)1 and RIP3, a key step in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced necroptosis. We show that suppression of this cell death pathway requires an N-terminal RIP homotypic interaction motif (RHIM) within R1, acting in concert with the caspase 8-binding domain, which unleashes necroptosis independent of RHIM function. Thus, necroptosis is a human host defense pathway against two important viral pathogens that naturally subvert multiple death pathways via a single evolutionarily conserved gene product. PMID:25674983

  5. New strategies against drug resistance to herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu-Chen; Feng, Hui; Lin, Yu-Chun; Guo, Xiu-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV), a member of the Herpesviridae family, is a significant human pathogen that results in mucocutaneous lesions in the oral cavity or genital infections. Acyclovir (ACV) and related nucleoside analogues can successfully treat HSV infections, but the emergence of drug resistance to ACV has created a barrier for the treatment of HSV infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. There is an urgent need to explore new and effective tactics to circumvent drug resistance to HSV. This review summarises the current strategies in the development of new targets (the DNA helicase/primase (H/P) complex), new types of molecules (nature products) and new antiviral mechanisms (lethal mutagenesis of Janus-type nucleosides) to fight the drug resistance of HSV. PMID:27025259

  6. Herpes Zoster as a Predictor of HIV Infection in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yuan-Ti; Nfor, Oswald Ndi; Tantoh, Disline Manli; Huang, Jing-Yang; Ku, Wen-Yuan; Hsu, Shu-Yi; Ko, Pei-Chieh; Hung, Hung-Chang; Jan, Cheng-Feng; Liaw, Yung-Po

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between herpes zoster (HZ) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Data were retrieved from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Databases (LHID 2005 and 2010), Taiwan. The International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification [ICD-9-CM] codes were used to identify Hz from 2001–2004. Identification of HIV infection was from 2005–2010. The hazard ratios of HIV among herpes zoster infected and non-herpes zoster infected patients were estimated using multiple Cox proportional hazard model. In general, 19685 participants were identified with Hz. The HIV incidence rates (per 104 person-months) in herpes zoster infected and non-infected patients were 0.191(95% CI 0.130–0.280) and 0.079 (95% CI 0.074–0.084), respectively while the hazard ratio (HR) of HIV among infected individuals was 3.518 (95% CI 2.375–5.211). This study concludes that herpes zoster could be considered as a predictor of HIV infection especially among Asian populations, hence it is vital to test herpes zoster infected individuals for HIV antibodies. PMID:26535574

  7. Isolation of a new herpes virus from human CD4 sup + T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Frenkel, N.; Schirmer, E.C.; Wyatt, L.S.; Katsafanas, G.; Roffman, E.; Danovich, R.M. ); June, C.H. )

    1990-01-01

    A new human herpes virus has been isolated from CD4{sup +} T cells purified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a healthy individual (RK), following incubation of the cells under conditions promoting T-cell activation. The virus could not be recovered from nonactivated cells. Cultures of lymphocytes infected with the RK virus exhibited a cytopathic effect, and electron microscopic analyses revealed a characteristic herpes virus structure. RK virus DNA did not hybridize with large probes derived from herpes simplex virus, Epstein-Barr virus, varicella-zoster virus, and human cytomegalovirus. The genetic relatedness of the RK virus to the recently identified T-lymphotropic human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6) was investigated by restriction enzyme analyses using 21 different enzymes and by blot hydridization analyses using 11 probes derived from two strains of HHV-6 (Z29 and U1102). Whereas the two HHV-6 strains exhibited only limited restriction enzyme polymorphism, cleavage of the RK virus DNA yielded distinct patterns. Of the 11 HHV-6 DNA probes tested, only 6 cross-hybridized with DNA fragments derived from the RK virus. Taken together, the maximal homology amounted to 31 kilobases of the 75 kilobases tested. The authors conclude that the RK virus is distinct from previously characterized human herpesviruses. The authors propose to designate it as the prototype of a new herpes virus, the seventh human herpes virus identified to date.

  8. Detection of asymptomatic herpes simplex virus infections after vaccination.

    PubMed Central

    Ashley, R; Mertz, G J; Corey, L

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-two volunteers seronegative for antibodies to herpes simplex virus (HSV) were enrolled in a trial to determine tolerance and immunogenicity of an HSV-2 glycoprotein subunit vaccine. Vaccine was administered at days 0, 28, and 140, and sera were obtained on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 49, 56, 140, 147, and 365 for determination of HSV neutralizing antibody activity and antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC). Sera were also tested by immunoprecipitation of radiolabeled HSV-2-infected cell proteins and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to identify the viral proteins which elicited antibody responses in vaccine recipients. After vaccination two male volunteers presented with atypical first-episode genital herpes: patient 1 with a culture-negative genital lesion at day 53 and patient 3 with urethritis at day 68. Seroconversion to wild-type viral proteins not present in the vaccine was detectable by radioimmunoprecipitation-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis within 10 days in both patients. Two additional volunteers, one a sex contact of patient 1, seroconverted asymptomatically to nonvaccine proteins during the trial. All four vaccine breakthrough patients were indistinguishable from the other volunteers in the time required to develop neutralizing and ADCC antibodies, in the titer of these antibodies, and the time to seroconversion to gB and gD vaccine proteins. However, only one of the four breakthrough patients had antibodies to g80 (a complex of gC-2 and gE) after vaccination as compared with 15 of the other 18 volunteers (P = 0.05). Neither neutralizing antibody nor ADCC titers consistently identified acquisition of wild-type viral infection; therefore, protein-specific serologies were required to detect wild-type antibodies in these four patients. These data underscore the importance of using serologic assays which will distinguish naturally acquired infection from the immune response to vaccination. Images PMID:3806788

  9. The burden of disease of Herpes Zoster in Tuscany

    PubMed Central

    Levi, Miriam; Bellini, Irene; Capecchi, Leonardo; Pieri, Luca; Bechini, Angela; Boccalini, Sara; Callaioli, Silvia; Gasparini, Roberto; Panatto, Donatella; Tiscione, Emilia; Bonanni, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) is a disease caused by the reactivation of the latent α-herpes virus varicella zoster virus (VZV), for which, in Italy, a specific surveillance system does not exist, but around 200 000 cases are estimated each year. In older patients, who are at increased risk of developing HZ, symptoms are more severe and the chances to develop postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), the most severe complication, are substantially higher. A vaccine against HZ with demonstrated efficacy and an acceptable safety profile is now available and is recommended in Europe for adults >50 years. In anticipation of the possible introduction of an immunization programme for the elderly in Tuscany, the burden of disease caused by HZ and its complications was assessed through a retrospective analysis of the hospital discharge records between 2002 and 2012, using the ICD-9-CM 053 code. In the period 2002–2012, 4475 hospital admissions were registered with annual means of 368 hospitalizations and 39 day-hospital admissions. Most of the hospitalizations (68%) involved subjects > 65 years; the mean length of stay was 9.5 days. Slightly more than half (51.2%) of total hospital admissions were complicated cases. The most frequent were neurological complications (24.2% of total admissions), followed by ophthalmic complications (16.5%). Cases with neurological complications were those with the higher average length of stay and higher average costs for case. This study confirmed the epidemiological impact of HZ and its complications and the positive impact on morbidity that the introduction of the HZ vaccination could have in older age groups. PMID:25483534

  10. A case of herpes zoster uveitis with severe hyphema

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Uveitis sometimes causes hyphema, but severe hyphema as a complication following herpes zoster uveitis has rarely been reported. We report a rare case of zoster sine herpete with unusually severe hyphema. Case presentation A 41-year-old Japanese female developed hyphema filling almost one-half of the depth of the anterior chamber after a two-week history of unilateral anterior uveitis. Hyphema persisted for four weeks while sectorial iris atrophy became gradually apparent. Systemic prednisolone and valaciclovir resulted in prompt resolution of uveitis and hyphema. Serum anti-varicella zoster virus (VZV) IgG measured by enzyme immunoassay was 116 at presentation and decreased to 20.3 four month later. In addition, the antibody level in aqueous humor was almost 10-fold higher than that in serum examined 9 months after presentation. Because there was no skin lesion, this case was diagnosed as zoster sine herpete. The patient underwent cataract operation due to secondary cataract. The final visual acuity in decimal notation was 1.0, but complications such as severe iris atrophy, wide anterior synechiae, corneal opacity, and decrease in corneal endothelial cell count remained. Conclusion Zoster sine herpete is an important differential diagnosis in a case of acute anterior uveitis with severe hyphema, although such cases are quite rare. Measurement of anti-VZV IgG levels by enzyme immunoassay in aqueous humor and serum would be useful in the diagnosis of VZV reactivation. Prompt diagnosis and administration of corticosteroids and anti-herpes virus medication may improve the outcome. PMID:24885484

  11. Disease burden of herpes zoster in Sweden - predominance in the elderly and in women - a register based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The herpes zoster burden of disease in Sweden is not well investigated. There is no Swedish immunization program to prevent varicella zoster virus infections. A vaccine against herpes zoster and its complications is now available. The aim of this study was to estimate the herpes zoster burden of disease and to establish a pre-vaccination baseline of the minimum incidence of herpes zoster. Methods Data were collected from the Swedish National Health Data Registers including the Patient Register, the Pharmacy Register, and the Cause of Death Register. The herpes zoster burden of disease in Sweden was estimated by analyzing the overall, and age and gender differences in the antiviral prescriptions, hospitalizations and complications during 2006-2010 and mortality during 2006-2009. Results Annually, 270 per 100,000 persons received antiviral treatment for herpes zoster, and the prescription rate increased with age. It was approximately 50% higher in females than in males in the age 50+ population (rate ratio 1.39; 95% CI, 1.22 to 1.58). The overall hospitalization rate for herpes zoster was 6.9/100,000 with an approximately three-fold increase for patients over 80 years of age compared to the age 70-79 group. A gender difference in hospitalization rates was observed: 8.1/100,000 in females and 5.6/100,000 in males. Herpes zoster, with a registered complication, was found in about one third of the hospitalized patients and the most common complications involved the peripheral and central nervous systems. Death due to herpes zoster was a rare event. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate the significant burden of herpes zoster disease in the pre-zoster vaccination era. A strong correlation with age in the herpes zoster- related incidence, hospitalization, complications, and mortality rates was found. In addition, the study provides further evidence of the female predominance in herpes zoster disease. PMID:24330510

  12. Herp depletion arrests the S phase of the cell cycle and increases estradiol synthesis in mouse granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fenglei; Wang, Nan; Yang, Diqi; Wen, Xin; Mahmoud, Tagwa Norain; Zhou, Dong; Tang, Keqiong; Lin, Pengfei; Wang, Aihua; Jin, Yaping

    2016-04-22

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response has been implicated in the development, atresia and luteinization of ovarian follicles. However, there have been few reports concerning the role of Herp, an ER stress-induced protein, in follicular development. The present study aims to detect the distribution and cyclic variations of Herp during the estrous cycle and to reveal the roles of Herp in regulating the cell cycle, apoptosis and steroid hormone biosynthesis in mouse granulosa cells. In this study, immunohistochemistry staining showed that Herp expression was primarily in the granulosa cells and oocytes. Furthermore, we constructed recombinant lentiviral vectors for Herp short hairpin interfering RNA (shRNA) expression; immunofluorescence staining, real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and western blot analysis revealed that Herp was successfully knocked down. Flow cytometry showed that knockdown of Herp arrested granulosa cells at the S phase of the cell cycle. More importantly, ELISA analysis revealed that Herp knockdown significantly upregulated the concentration of estradiol (E2) in the culture supernatants. RT-qPCR was performed to determine the regulatory mechanism of Herp knockdown in the cell cycle, and in steroid synthesis, RT-qPCR analysis revealed that Herp knockdown upregulated the mRNA expression of steroidogenic enzymes (Cyp19a1) and downregulated metabolic enzymes (Cyp1b1) and cell cycle factors (cyclin A1, cyclin B1 and cyclin D2). These results suggest that Herp may regulate the cell cycle and hormone secretions in mouse granulosa cells. The present study helps to elucidate the physiological functions of Herp as they relate to reproduction. PMID:26781490

  13. The Challenges and Opportunities for Development of a T-Cell Epitope-Based Herpes Simplex Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Tiffany; Wang, Christine; Badakhshan, Tina; Chilukuri, Sravya; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2014-01-01

    The infections with herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 & HSV-2) have been prevalent since the ancient Greek times. To this day, they still affect a staggering number of over a half billion individuals worldwide. HSV-2 infections cause painful genital herpes, encephalitis, and death in newborns. HSV-1 infections are more prevalent than HSV-2 infections and cause potentially blinding ocular herpes, oro-facial herpes and encephalitis. While genital herpes in mainly caused by HSV-2 infections, in recent years, there is an increase in the proportion of genital herpes caused by HSV-1 infections in young adults, which reach 50% in some western societies. While prophylactic and therapeutic HSV vaccines remain urgently needed for centuries their development has been notoriously difficult. During the most recent National Institute of Health (NIH) workshop titled "Next Generation Herpes Simplex Virus Vaccines: The Challenges and Opportunities", basic researchers, funding agencies, and pharmaceutical representatives gathered: (i) to assess the status of herpes vaccine research; and (ii) to identify the gaps and propose alternative approaches in developing a safe and efficient herpes vaccine. One “common denominator” among previously failed clinical herpes vaccine trials is that they either used a whole virus or whole viral proteins, which contain both pathogenic “symptomatic” and protective “asymptomatic” antigens/epitopes. In this report, we continue to advocate that using an “asymptomatic” epitope-based vaccine strategy that selectively incorporates protective epitopes which: (i) are exclusively recognized, in vitro, by effector memory CD4+ and CD8+ TEM cells from “naturally” protected seropositive asymptomatic individuals; and (ii) protect, in vivo, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) transgenic animal models from ocular and genital herpes infections and diseases, could be the answer to many of the scientific challenges facing HSV vaccine development. We review the role of animal models in herpes vaccine development and discuss its current status, challenges, and prospects. PMID:25446827

  14. Herp depletion arrests the S phase of the cell cycle and increases estradiol synthesis in mouse granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, Fenglei; WANG, Nan; YANG, Diqi; WEN, Xin; MAHMOUD, Tagwa Norain; ZHOU, Dong; TANG, Keqiong; LIN, Pengfei; WANG, Aihua; JIN, Yaping

    2016-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response has been implicated in the development, atresia and luteinization of ovarian follicles. However, there have been few reports concerning the role of Herp, an ER stress-induced protein, in follicular development. The present study aims to detect the distribution and cyclic variations of Herp during the estrous cycle and to reveal the roles of Herp in regulating the cell cycle, apoptosis and steroid hormone biosynthesis in mouse granulosa cells. In this study, immunohistochemistry staining showed that Herp expression was primarily in the granulosa cells and oocytes. Furthermore, we constructed recombinant lentiviral vectors for Herp short hairpin interfering RNA (shRNA) expression; immunofluorescence staining, real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and western blot analysis revealed that Herp was successfully knocked down. Flow cytometry showed that knockdown of Herp arrested granulosa cells at the S phase of the cell cycle. More importantly, ELISA analysis revealed that Herp knockdown significantly upregulated the concentration of estradiol (E2) in the culture supernatants. RT-qPCR was performed to determine the regulatory mechanism of Herp knockdown in the cell cycle, and in steroid synthesis, RT-qPCR analysis revealed that Herp knockdown upregulated the mRNA expression of steroidogenic enzymes (Cyp19a1) and downregulated metabolic enzymes (Cyp1b1) and cell cycle factors (cyclin A1, cyclin B1 and cyclin D2). These results suggest that Herp may regulate the cell cycle and hormone secretions in mouse granulosa cells. The present study helps to elucidate the physiological functions of Herp as they relate to reproduction. PMID:26781490

  15. Pan-HSV-2 IgG Antibody in Vaccinated Mice and Guinea Pigs Correlates with Protection against Herpes Simplex Virus 2

    PubMed Central

    Halford, William P.; Geltz, Joshua; Gershburg, Edward

    2013-01-01

    We lack a correlate of immunity to herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) that may be used to differentiate whether a HSV-2 vaccine elicits robust or anemic protection against genital herpes. This gap in knowledge is often attributed to a failure to measure the correct component of the adaptive immune response to HSV-2. However, efforts to identify a correlate of immunity have focused on subunit vaccines that contain less than 3% of HSV-2's 40,000-amino-acid proteome. We were interested to determine if a correlate of immunity might be more readily identified if 1. animals were immunized with a polyvalent immunogen such as a live virus and/or 2. the magnitude of the vaccine-induced immune response was gauged in terms of the IgG antibody response to all of HSV-2's antigens (pan-HSV-2 IgG). Pre-challenge pan-HSV-2 IgG levels and protection against HSV-2 were compared in mice and/or guinea pigs immunized with a gD-2 subunit vaccine, wild-type HSV-2, or one of several attenuated HSV-2 ICP0− viruses (0Δ254, 0Δ810, 0ΔRING, or 0ΔNLS). These six HSV-2 immunogens elicited a wide range of pan-HSV-2 IgG levels spanning an ∼500-fold range. For 5 of the 6 immunogens tested, pre-challenge levels of pan-HSV-2 IgG quantitatively correlated with reductions in HSV-2 challenge virus shedding and increased survival frequency following HSV-2 challenge. Collectively, the results suggest that pan-HSV-2 IgG levels may provide a simple and useful screening tool for evaluating the potential of a HSV-2 vaccine candidate to elicit protection against HSV-2 genital herpes. PMID:23755244

  16. Simple pulmonary eosinophilia

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary infiltrates with eosinophilia; Loffler syndrome; Eosinophilic pneumonia; Pneumonia - eosinophilic ... simple pulmonary eosinophilia is a severe type of pneumonia called acute idiopathic eosinophilic pneumonia.

  17. A Simple "Tubeless" Telescope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straulino, S.; Bonechi, L.

    2010-01-01

    Two lenses make it possible to create a simple telescope with quite large magnification. The set-up is very simple and can be reproduced in schools, provided the laboratory has a range of lenses with different focal lengths. In this article, the authors adopt the Keplerian configuration, which is composed of two converging lenses. This instrument,…

  18. Simple Machine Junk Cars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herald, Christine

    2010-01-01

    During the month of May, the author's eighth-grade physical science students study the six simple machines through hands-on activities, reading assignments, videos, and notes. At the end of the month, they can easily identify the six types of simple machine: inclined plane, wheel and axle, pulley, screw, wedge, and lever. To conclude this unit,…

  19. Simple Machine Junk Cars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herald, Christine

    2010-01-01

    During the month of May, the author's eighth-grade physical science students study the six simple machines through hands-on activities, reading assignments, videos, and notes. At the end of the month, they can easily identify the six types of simple machine: inclined plane, wheel and axle, pulley, screw, wedge, and lever. To conclude this unit,

  20. Acute herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia: effects of acyclovir and outcome of treatment with amitriptyline.

    PubMed Central

    Bowsher, D

    1992-01-01

    This retrospective study was designed to assess the effects of acyclovir treatment of acute herpes zoster on subsequent postherpetic neuralgia, and to examine the effects of amitriptyline in the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia. Eighty seven patients with postherpetic neuralgia of three or more months' duration were studied: 24 of them had had their herpes zoster treated with oral acyclovir. At first presentation, only 25% of the 24 patients who had had their herpes zoster treated with acyclovir selected the word group containing burning on the McGill pain questionnaire compared with 76% of the 63 patients who had not received acyclovir. A higher proportion of patients who had had acyclovir than had not selected the word group which contains the word aching (63% versus 49%). Acyclovir thus appears to change the nature of postherpetic neuralgia. Postherpetic neuralgia was treated with amitriptyline, alone or in combination with distigmine and/or sodium valproate. There was a strong correlation between pain relief and the interval between the occurrence of herpes zoster and the initiation of treatment with amitriptyline--early treatment is almost twice as likely to be successful as late. Since conventional analgesics and sympatholytic drugs are of no benefit in the treatment of established postherpetic neuralgia, the sequelae of herpes zoster must, therefore, be recognized and treated with amitriptyline as soon as possible. PMID:1419247

  1. Identification and analysis of putative promoter motifs in bovine herpes virus

    PubMed Central

    Kurjogi, Mahantesh Mallikrjun; Sanakal, Rajeshwari Danappa; Kaliwal, Basappa Basaveneppa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify and analyse the putative promoter motifs in the bovine herpes virus which causes several diseases in cattle worldwide including bovine mastitis with large economic impact on dairy industry. Bovine mastitis caused due to virus is often neglected as bacterial infections are held mainly responsible for the disease. Therefore, in this in silico investigation with all the existing experimental data a total of 147 promoter were identified along with their sequences from three genome viz bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV), bovine herpes virus 4 and bovine herpes virus 5, out of which 39 promoters were from bovine herpes virus 4 (BHV 4), 95 from BHV1 and 13 from BHV5 and it was observed that BHV1 and BHV5 have a close evolutionary history. However, they belong to the same subfamily and size of the genome and GC% of BHV1 and BHV5 was almost equal and very high compare to that of BHV4. This analysis may help in designing the live attenuated vaccine against BHV causing bovine mastitis that reduces the incidence of bovine mastitis. Identification of promoters may also help in designing of expression vectors which help in better understanding of the regulation of gene expression. In the era of large genomics and proteomics prediction of promoters in the whole genome is crucial for the advancement of drug discovery and gene therapy. PMID:23275714

  2. Application and tolerability of Herpotherm® in the treatment of genital herpes

    PubMed Central

    Schlippe, Gerrit; Voss, Werner; Brenn, Lars Christian

    2013-01-01

    Genital herpes is the manifestation of a herpes simplex virus 2 infection. Standard treatment uses both local and systemic approaches. Here, we report on the results of a local therapy approach with 31 female patients at a gynecological practice. In the here-described approach, established genital herpes infection was treated with the medical device Herpotherm®, with or without virostatic drugs. Herpotherm® is a certified medical device operating on the basis of local heat application. Parameters evaluated during the approach were (i) subjective patient assessments and (ii) objective assessment of the physician. In the described therapy approach a positive effect in terms of nature and severity in the course of the disease using Herpotherm® could be demonstrated. It could be shown that Herpotherm® can also be used for genital herpes and that it is well tolerated. In relation to other therapies using topical treatment for genital herpes, an extremely rapid reduction of pain and herpetic symptoms could be observed. Intolerances or discontinued use as a result of complications were not observed. PMID:23776340

  3. The use of FTIR microscopy for evaluation of herpes viruses infection development kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erukhimovitch, Vitaly; Mukmanov, Igor; Talyshinsky, Marina; Souprun, Yelena; Huleihel, Mahmoud

    2004-08-01

    The kinetics of Herpes simplex infection development was studied using an FTIR microscopy (FTIR-M) method. The family of herpes viruses includes several members like H. simplex types I and II (HSV I, II), Varicella zoster (VZV) viruses which are involved in various human and animal infections of different parts of the body. In our previous study, we found significant spectral differences between normal uninfected cells in cultures and cells infected with herpes viruses at early stages of the infection. In the present study, cells in cultures were infected with either HSV-I or VZV and at various times post-infection they were examined either by optical microscopy or by advanced FTIR-M. Spectroscopic measurements show a consistent decrease in the intensity of the carbohydrate peak in correlation with the viral infection development, observed by optical microscopy. This decrease in cellular carbohydrate level was used as indicator for herpes viruses infection kinetics. This parameter could be used as a basis for applying a spectroscopic method for the evaluation of herpes virus infection development. Our results show also that the development kinetics of viral infection has an exponential character for these viruses.

  4. Cutaneous Co-infected Cytomegalovirus and Herpes Simplex Virus Perigenital Ulcers in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patients.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Jason; Cannon, Sarah; Cam, Kristin; Keller, Matthew

    2013-10-01

    There is uncertainty regarding the pathogenic nature of cytomegalovirus in cutaneous lesions co-infected with herpes simplex virus. It is widely believed that herpes simplex virus is the main pathogenic factor in such lesions and that cytomegalovirus plays little if any role. There are, however, isolated case reports that describe cytomegalovirus as an important driving pathogen in such lesions. The authors present two human immunodeficiency virus patients who have cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus co-infected perigenital ulcers, one of whom improved on valacyclovir, while the other, who was already on valacyclovir for chronic herpes simplex virus suppression, showed no improvement with a single dose of cidofovir. He only showed rapid improvement when treated with valganciclovir. The latter patient underscores the viewpoint that at least in some cases, cytomegalovirus may be an important driving force behind the formation of such lesions. The authors therefore recommend that clinicians be aware of the possible pathogenic role of cytomegalovirus in these ulcers, and, in nonhealing ulcers, use anti-cytomegalovirus agents to prevent the onset of systemic disease. These results warrant further study of the pathogenesis of cytomegalovirus in co-infected herpes simplex virus ulcers. PMID:24155993

  5. To Test or Not to Test? Campus Health Officials Grapple with Questions about Screening Students for Genital Herpes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Elizabeth F.

    2005-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control, 17 percent of 20- to 29-year-olds are infected with genital herpes, one of the most common sexually-transmitted diseases in the United States. Because of lack or mildness of symptoms and the tendency to not test for herpes during routine medical exams, the disease can go undiagnosed and can easily be…

  6. [Antiviral effect of Haemanthus albiflos leaves extract on herpes virus, adenovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, rotavirus and poliovirus].

    PubMed

    Husson, G P; Vilaginès, P; Sarrette, B; Vilaginès, R

    1991-01-01

    An hydro-alcoholic extract from Haemanthus albiflos leaves (Amaryllidaceae) was tested for its potential antiviral activity against two DNA viruses: herpes simplex virus type I, Adenovirus type 5 and three RNA viruses: poliovirus type I, vesicular stomatitis virus, simian Rotavirus SA 11. Positive results were obtained against herpes virus and all the RNA viruses tested. PMID:1651069

  7. Simple Bond Cleavage

    SciTech Connect

    Gary S. Groenewold

    2005-08-01

    Simple bond cleavage is a class of fragmentation reactions in which a single bond is broken, without formation of new bonds between previously unconnected atoms. Because no bond making is involved, simple bond cleavages are endothermic, and activation energies are generally higher than for rearrangement eliminations. The rate of simple bond cleavage reactions is a strong function of the internal energy of the molecular ion, which reflects a loose transition state that resembles reaction products, and has a high density of accessible states. For this reason, simple bond cleavages tend to dominate fragmentation reactions for highly energized molecular ions. Simple bond cleavages have negligible reverse activation energy, and hence they are used as valuable probes of ion thermochemistry, since the energy dependence of the reactions can be related to the bond energy. In organic mass spectrometry, simple bond cleavages of odd electron ions can be either homolytic or heterolytic, depending on whether the fragmentation is driven by the radical site or the charge site. Simple bond cleavages of even electron ions tend to be heterolytic, producing even electron product ions and neutrals.

  8. How simple are 'simple renal cysts'?

    PubMed

    Simms, Roslyn J; Ong, Albert C M

    2014-09-01

    The increasing use of medical imaging as an investigative tool is leading to the incidental and frequent finding of renal cysts in the general population. The presence of a solitary or multiple renal cysts has been generally considered benign in the absence of a family history of renal cystic disease or evidence of chronic kidney disease. Nonetheless, a number of recent studies have questioned this consensus by reported associations with the development of hypertension or malignant change. For these reasons, some clinicians consider the presence of renal cysts to be a contraindication to kidney donation. The situation is complicated by the different usage of the term 'simple' by some radiologists (to indicate non-complex lesions) or nephrologists (to indicate age-related non-hereditary lesions). We propose that the term 'simple' be replaced with the morphological description, Stage I renal cyst (Bosniak Classification). The presence of a Stage I renal cyst should not preclude kidney donation. However, occult renal disease should be excluded and appropriate donor assessment performed. PMID:25165175

  9. How simple are simple renal cysts?

    PubMed Central

    Simms, Roslyn J.; Ong, Albert C. M.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing use of medical imaging as an investigative tool is leading to the incidental and frequent finding of renal cysts in the general population. The presence of a solitary or multiple renal cysts has been generally considered benign in the absence of a family history of renal cystic disease or evidence of chronic kidney disease. Nonetheless, a number of recent studies have questioned this consensus by reported associations with the development of hypertension or malignant change. For these reasons, some clinicians consider the presence of renal cysts to be a contraindication to kidney donation. The situation is complicated by the different usage of the term simple by some radiologists (to indicate non-complex lesions) or nephrologists (to indicate age-related non-hereditary lesions). We propose that the term simple be replaced with the morphological description, Stage I renal cyst (Bosniak Classification). The presence of a Stage I renal cyst should not preclude kidney donation. However, occult renal disease should be excluded and appropriate donor assessment performed. PMID:25165175

  10. An unusual presentation of herpes simplex encephalitis with negative PCR.

    PubMed

    Buerger, Kelly J; Zerr, Kayleigh; Salazar, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A 74-year-old man presented with acute right-sided hemiparesis and epilepsia partialis continua in association with fever and confusion. Initial workup revealed possible cerebritis in the left medial frontal lobe without involvement of the temporal lobes. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealed minimal lymphocytic pleocytosis but negative real-time herpes simplex virus (HSV) PCR. Acyclovir was discontinued on day 5 due to a negative infectious workup and clinical improvement. On day 9 his condition deteriorated and he was transferred to a higher level of acuity for advanced supportive care. Worsening encephalopathy and refractory status epilepticus ensued despite medical care. Repeat CSF analysis showed mild lymphocytic pleocytosis with negative real-time HSV PCR. Brain MRI revealed progression of cortical enhancement. Immunosuppressive therapy and plasma exchange were attempted without clinical response. On day 24, another lumbar puncture showed only mild lymphocytic pleocytosis. Brain MRI showed involvement of the right medial temporal lobe. Subsequently, acyclovir was resumed. The HSV-1 PCR result was positive on day 30. Unfortunately, the patient expired. PMID:26243746

  11. Higher Throughput Quantification of Neutralizing Antibody to Herpes Simplex Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Blevins, Tamara P.; Mitchell, Michelle C.; Korom, Maria; Wang, Hong; Yu, Yinyi; Morrison, Lynda A.; Belshe, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    We report a rapid, higher throughput method for measuring neutralizing antibody to herpes simplex virus (HSV) in human sera. Clinical isolates and sera from the Herpevac Trial for Women were used in a colorimetric assay in which infection of tissue culture (lack of neutralization) was indicated by substrate metabolism by beta-galactosidase induced in the ELVIS cell line. The neutralization assay was optimized by addition of guinea pig complement, which particularly enhanced neutralizing antibody titers to HSV-2. Higher neutralizing antibody titers were also achieved using virus particles isolated from the supernatant of infected cells rather than lysate of infected cells as the source of virus. The effect of assay incubation time and incubation time with substrate were also optimized. We found that incubating with substrate until a standard optical density of 1.0 was reached permitted a better comparison among virus isolates, and achieved reliable measurement of neutralizing antibody activity. Interestingly, in contrast to results in the absence of complement, addition of complement allowed sera from HSV-2 gD-vaccinated subjects to neutralize HSV-1 and HSV-2 clinical and laboratory isolates with equal potency. PMID:26658766

  12. Association of Herpes Zoster and Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Yeh, Su-Yin; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of our study was to determine the association of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and the risk of herpes zoster (HZ). Methods In this cohort study, we selected 4736 patients with T1DM registered in the Catastrophic Illness Patient Database who received insulin therapy before 2003 and 18944 participants without DM who were selected by frequency matched based on sex and age. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to measure the hazard ratios (HRs) of HZ in the T1DM group compared with that in the non-T1DM group. Results Cox proportional hazard regression analysis showed that the adjusted HR of HZ was 2.38 times higher for patients in the T1DM group (95% CI = 1.77–3.19) than for those in the non-T1DM group. According to diabetes severity, mild and serious T1DM patients were associated with a higher risk of HZ (adjusted HR = 2.26, 95% CI = 1.67–3.05; and adjusted HR = 5.08, 95% CI = 2.66–9.71, respectively) than subjects without T1DM. Conclusion Patients with T1DM are at a higher risk of HZ than those without T1DM. PMID:27171477

  13. Evolution and Diversity in Human Herpes Simplex Virus Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Gatherer, Derek; Ochoa, Alejandro; Greenbaum, Benjamin; Dolan, Aidan; Bowden, Rory J.; Enquist, Lynn W.; Legendre, Matthieu; Davison, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) causes a chronic, lifelong infection in >60% of adults. Multiple recent vaccine trials have failed, with viral diversity likely contributing to these failures. To understand HSV-1 diversity better, we comprehensively compared 20 newly sequenced viral genomes from China, Japan, Kenya, and South Korea with six previously sequenced genomes from the United States, Europe, and Japan. In this diverse collection of passaged strains, we found that one-fifth of the newly sequenced members share a gene deletion and one-third exhibit homopolymeric frameshift mutations (HFMs). Individual strains exhibit genotypic and potential phenotypic variation via HFMs, deletions, short sequence repeats, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms, although the protein sequence identity between strains exceeds 90% on average. In the first genome-scale analysis of positive selection in HSV-1, we found signs of selection in specific proteins and residues, including the fusion protein glycoprotein H. We also confirmed previous results suggesting that recombination has occurred with high frequency throughout the HSV-1 genome. Despite this, the HSV-1 strains analyzed clustered by geographic origin during whole-genome distance analysis. These data shed light on likely routes of HSV-1 adaptation to changing environments and will aid in the selection of vaccine antigens that are invariant worldwide. PMID:24227835

  14. Oncolytic herpes simplex virus vectors for cancer virotherapy.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Susan; Rabkin, Samuel D

    2002-12-01

    Oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) vectors are emerging as an effective and powerful therapeutic approach for cancer. Replication-competent HSV-1 vectors with mutations in genes that affect viral replication, neuropathogenicity, and immune evasiveness have been developed and tested for their safety and efficacy in a variety of mouse models. Evidence to-date following administration into the brain attests to their safety, an important observation in light of the neuropathogenicity of the virus. Phase I clinical traits of three vectors, G207, 1716, and NV1020, are either ongoing or completed, with no adverse events attributed to the virus. These and other HSV-1 vectors are effective against a myriad of solid tumors in mice, including glioma, melanoma, breast, prostate, colon, ovarian, and pancreatic cancer. Enhancement of activity was observed when HSV-1 vectors were used in combination with traditional therapies such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy, providing an attractive strategy to pursue in the clinic. Oncolytic HSV-1 vectors expressing "suicide" genes (thymidine kinase, cytosine deaminase, rat cytochrome P450) or immunostimulatory genes (IL-12, GM-CSF, etc.) have been constructed to maximize tumor destruction through multimodal therapeutic mechanisms. Further advances in virus delivery and tumor specificity should improve the likelihood for successful translation to the clinic. PMID:12522436

  15. JC polyomavirus reactivation is not associated with herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Jeong, B H; Park, S J; Koo, D W; Kim, Y S

    2006-01-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) is a neurocutaneous disease caused by Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) as a consequence of declined cell-mediated immunity, immune suppression and immunodeficiency. As reactivation of JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) might be linked with immunodeficiency or immunosuppressive therapy, the relationship between HZ and JCPyV reactivation was investigated. The incidence of JCPyV in urine samples from 102 patients with HZ and 100 healthy individuals from South Korea was determined by PCR. The incidence values for HZ patients and control individuals did not differ significantly (24.5% vs. 20.0%, respectively, P = 0.5391). When different age groups were monitored, the positivity values of 21.1%, 20.0%, and 30% were found for 20-39, 40-59 and over 60 year-old patients, respectively. In order to determine the genotype of JCPyV isolates, their VP1-large T antigen (VT)-intergenic region was PCR amplified, sequenced and analyzed. Three distinct types, namely 1, 2A and 7B were found in 8%, 24%, and 68% of were found among 25 isolates from HZ patients. Using phylogenetic analysis, the type 1 isolates were assigned to the 1C subtype. These results indicate that HZ does not play an important role in JCPyV reactivation and is not associated with JCPyV. PMID:16808330

  16. Evaluation of the economic burden of Herpes Zoster (HZ) infection

    PubMed Central

    Panatto, Donatella; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Rizzitelli, Emanuela; Bonanni, Paolo; Boccalini, Sara; Icardi, Giancarlo; Gasparini, Roberto; Amicizia, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the economic burden of Herpes Zoster (HZ) infection. The review was conducted in accordance with the standards of the “Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses” guidelines. The following databases were accessed: ISI/Web of Knowledge (WoS), MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, the Cochrane Library and EconLit. Specific literature on health economics was also manually inspected. Thirty-three studies were included. The quality of the studies assessed in accordance with the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards checklist was good. All studies evaluated direct costs, apart from one which dealt only with indirect costs. Indirect costs were evaluated by 12 studies. The economic burden of HZ has increased over time. HZ management and drug prescriptions generate the highest direct costs. While increasing age, co-morbidities and drug treatment were found to predict higher direct costs, being employed was correlated with higher indirect costs, and thus with the onset age of the disease. Despite some differences among the selected studies, particularly with regard to indirect costs, all concur that HZ is a widespread disease which has a heavy social and economic burden. PMID:25483704

  17. Sunlight is an important causative factor of recurrent herpes simplex.

    PubMed

    Ichihashi, Masamitsu; Nagai, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2004-11-01

    To evaluate the role of exposure to solar UV radiation (UVR) in primary and recurrent herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infections, we investigated the self-reported cause of infection among diagnosed patients in Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. Among 4295 infected patients, 3678 had HSV-1, and 2656 of those patients (72.2%) had a recurrent flare-up. Fatigue was the most commonly reported cause of a flare-up among all patients, followed by the common cold and sun exposure. Sun-induced HSV-1 flare-up was reported by 10.4% of the total study population. However, this increased to 19.7% among patients diagnosed in July and August, to 28% among patients younger than 30 years diagnosed in July and August, and to 40% among patients younger than 30 years diagnosed in July and August with a recurrent infection. These results suggest the important role of solar UVR in the development of recurrent HSV-1, possibly due to UVR-induced immunosuppression or direct reactivation of HSV-1 in the neural ganglia. PMID:15603217

  18. Subassemblies and Asymmetry in Assembly of Herpes Simplex Virus Procapsid

    PubMed Central

    Aksyuk, Anastasia A.; Newcomb, William W.; Cheng, Naiqian; Winkler, Dennis C.; Fontana, Juan; Heymann, J. Bernard

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) capsid is a massive particle (~200 MDa; 1,250-Å diameter) with T=16 icosahedral symmetry. It initially assembles as a procapsid with ~4,000 protein subunits of 11 different kinds. The procapsid undergoes major changes in structure and composition as it matures, a process driven by proteolysis and expulsion of the internal scaffolding protein. Assembly also relies on an external scaffolding protein, the triplex, an α2β heterotrimer that coordinates neighboring capsomers in the procapsid and becomes a stabilizing clamp in the mature capsid. To investigate the mechanisms that regulate its assembly, we developed a novel isolation procedure for the metastable procapsid and collected a large set of cryo-electron microscopy data. In addition to procapsids, these preparations contain maturation intermediates, which were distinguished by classifying the images and calculating a three-dimensional reconstruction for each class. Appraisal of the procapsid structure led to a new model for assembly; in it, the protomer (assembly unit) consists of one triplex, surrounded by three major capsid protein (MCP) subunits. The model exploits the triplexes’ departure from 3-fold symmetry to explain the highly skewed MCP hexamers, the triplex orientations at each 3-fold site, and the T=16 architecture. These observations also yielded new insights into maturation. PMID:26443463

  19. Herpes zoster segmental paresis in an immunocompromised breast cancer woman

    PubMed Central

    Rastegar, Shirvan; Mahdavi, Sadegh Baradaran; Mahmoudi, Farhad; Basiri, Keivan

    2015-01-01

    Herpes zoster is an infectious disease with neurological complications caused by reactivation of varicella zoster virus in dorsal root ganglia of spinal cord which is also known as “Shingles.” Suppression of immune system is the major predisposing factor for reactivation of latent virus. Disease is mainly characterized by rash, vesicles and pain along one or more dermatomes which are innervated from one or more spinal nerve roots. Complications may be present after a while despite of patient treatment. Motor involvement is included. Some previous studies showed segmental zoster paresis as a rare complication, a few weeks after first presentation, among immunocompetent individuals. We present post herpetic motor involvement of C5 and C6 in a 59-year-old woman who underwent chemotherapy and radiotherapy due to breast cancer, manifesting left upper limb weakness and paresis, 6 months after left partial mastectomy. Segmental paresis of zoster virus should be considered as a cause of motor impairment in an immunocompromised person suffering from shingles. PMID:26436084

  20. Inhibitors of nucleotidyltransferase superfamily enzymes suppress herpes simplex virus replication.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Tavis JE; Wang H; Tollefson AE; Ying B; Korom M; Cheng X; Cao F; Davis KL; Wold WS; Morrison LA

    2014-12-01

    Herpesviruses are large double-stranded DNA viruses that cause serious human diseases. Herpesvirus DNA replication depends on multiple processes typically catalyzed by nucleotidyltransferase superfamily (NTS) enzymes. Therefore, we investigated whether inhibitors of NTS enzymes would suppress replication of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2. Eight of 42 NTS inhibitors suppressed HSV-1 and/or HSV-2 replication by >10-fold at 5 μM, with suppression at 50 μM reaching ∼1 million-fold. Five compounds in two chemical families inhibited HSV replication in Vero and human foreskin fibroblast cells as well as the approved drug acyclovir did. The compounds had 50% effective concentration values as low as 0.22 μM with negligible cytotoxicity in the assays employed. The inhibitors suppressed accumulation of viral genomes and infectious particles and blocked events in the viral replication cycle before and during viral DNA replication. Acyclovir-resistant mutants of HSV-1 and HSV-2 remained highly sensitive to the NTS inhibitors. Five of six NTS inhibitors of the HSVs also blocked replication of another herpesvirus pathogen, human cytomegalovirus. Therefore, NTS enzyme inhibitors are promising candidates for new herpesvirus treatments that may have broad efficacy against members of the herpesvirus family.

  1. Use of herpes virus amplicon vectors to study brain disorders.

    PubMed

    Neve, Rachael L; Neve, Kim A; Nestler, Eric J; Carlezon, William A

    2005-09-01

    There is an enormous initiative to establish the genetic basis for disorders of brain function. Unfortunately, genetic intervention is not accomplished easily in the nervous system. One strategy is to engineer and deliver to neurons specialized viral vectors that carry a gene (or genes) of interest, thereby exploiting the natural ability of viruses to insert genetic material into cells. When delivered to brain cells, these vectors cause infected cells to increase the expression of the genes of interest. The ability to deliver genes into neurons in vitro and in vivo with herpes simplex virus (HSV) amplicon vectors has made it possible to carry out exactly these sorts of experiments. This technology has the potential to offer new insights into the etiology of a wide variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. We describe the use of HSV amplicon vectors to study Alzheimer disease, drug addiction, and depression, and discuss the considerations that enter into the use of these vectors both in vitro and in vivo. The HSV amplicon virus is a user-friendly vector for the delivery of genes into neurons that has come of age for the study of brain function. PMID:16206910

  2. Extracts and molecules from medicinal plants against herpes simplex viruses.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mahmud Tareq Hassan; Ather, Arjumand; Thompson, Kenneth D; Gambari, Roberto

    2005-08-01

    Herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1 and -2) are important pathogens for humans, especially in the case of highly susceptible adults. Moreover, HSV-2 has been reported to be a high risk factor for HIV infection. Therefore, the discovery of novel anti-HSV drugs deserves great efforts. In this paper, we review anti-HSV substances from natural sources, including both extracts and pure compounds from herbal medicines, reported in studies from several laboratories. The role of traditional medicine for the development of anti-HSV compounds is also discussed. Interestingly, it was found that traditional medicines, like Ayurvedic, traditional Chinese (TCM), Chakma medicines, are good and potential sources for promising anti-HSV drugs. A second objective of this review is to discuss several anti-HSV compounds with respect to their structure-activity relationship (SAR). A large number of small molecules, like phenolics, polyphenols, terpenes (e.g., mono-, di-, tri-), flavonoids, sugar-containing compounds, were found to be promising anti-herpetic agents. Our major conclusion is that natural products from medicinal plant extracts are very important source of anti-HSV agents. PMID:16040137

  3. Herpes-Type Virus of the Frog Renal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Stackpole, Christopher W.

    1969-01-01

    Development of the herpes-type virus of the frog kidney tumor was investigated by electron microscopy and high-resolution autoradiography in eyechamber transplants of tumor maintained at 7.5 C for up to 27 weeks. Virus particles were first detected at 10 weeks in nuclei containing aggregates of dense granular material. The initial incorporation of a pulse of 3H-thymidine into these aggregates indicated that they contained newly synthesized viral deoxyribonucleic acid. Capsids enclosing doubleshelled cores were labeled with 3H-thymidine before capsids with dense cores, and intermediate core forms were observed, suggesting that the double-shelled core transforms into the dense core. Particles with dense cores were observed while being enveloped by budding through the inner membrane of the nuclear envelope, and subsequently while being unenveloped in passing through the outer membrane into the cytoplasm. Virus particles within the cytoplasm acquired fibrillar coats and budded into vesicles, from which they were released, in enveloped form, at the cell surface. Tubular forms and particles considerably smaller than virus particles were regularly encountered in infected nuclei, and the relationship of these forms to virus replication is discussed. Images PMID:5808113

  4. Stabilising the Herpes Simplex Virus capsid by DNA packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuite, Gijs; Radtke, Kerstin; Sodeik, Beate; Roos, Wouter

    2009-03-01

    Three different types of Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) nuclear capsids can be distinguished, A, B and C capsids. These capsids types are, respectively, empty, contain scaffold proteins, or hold DNA. We investigate the physical properties of these three capsids by combining biochemical and nanoindentation techniques. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) experiments show that A and C capsids are mechanically indistinguishable whereas B capsids already break at much lower forces. By extracting the pentamers with 2.0 M GuHCl or 6.0 M Urea we demonstrate an increased flexibility of all three capsid types. Remarkably, the breaking force of the B capsids without pentamers does not change, while the modified A and C capsids show a large drop in their breaking force to approximately the value of the B capsids. This result indicates that upon DNA packaging a structural change at or near the pentamers occurs which mechanically reinforces the capsids structure. The reported binding of proteins UL17/UL25 to the pentamers of the A and C capsids seems the most likely candidate for such capsids strengthening. Finally, the data supports the view that initiation of DNA packaging triggers the maturation of HSV-1 capsids.

  5. Cervical cancer: is herpes simplex virus type II a cofactor?

    PubMed Central

    Jones, C

    1995-01-01

    In many ways, cervical cancer behaves as a sexually transmitted disease. The major risk factors are multiple sexual partners and early onset of sexual activity. Although high-risk types of human papillomaviruses (HPV) play an important role in the development of nearly all cases of cervical cancer, other sexually transmitted infectious agents may be cofactors. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is transmitted primarily by sexual contact and therefore has been implicated as a risk factor. Several independent studies suggest that HSV-2 infections correlate with a higher than normal incidence of cervical cancer. In contrast, other epidemiological studies have concluded that infection with HSV-2 is not a major risk factor. Two separate transforming domains have been identified within the HSV-2 genome, but continued viral gene expression apparently is not necessary for neoplastic transformation. HSV infections lead to unscheduled cellular DNA synthesis, chromosomal amplifications, and mutations. These observations suggest that HSV-2 is not a typical DNA tumor virus. It is hypothesized that persistent or abortive infections induce permanent genetic alterations that interfere with differentiation of cervical epithelium and subsequently induce abnormal proliferation. Thus, HSV-2 may be a cofactor in some but not all cases of cervical cancer. PMID:8665469

  6. Herpes Simplex Virus Products in Productive and Abortive Infection

    PubMed Central

    Spring, Susan B.; Roizman, Bernard; Schwartz, Jerome

    1968-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus strain MPdk− multiplies in HEp-2 cells, but not in dog kidney (DK) cells. Strain MPdk+sp, a multistep mutant of MPdk−, multiplies in both HEp-2 and DK cells. Stabilized lysates of productively infected cells yield three macromolecular aggregates of viral deoxyribonucleic acid and protein banding in CsCl gradients at densities of 1.285 g/cm3 (α), 1.325 g/cm3 (β), and 1.37 to 1.45 g/cm3 (γ). Similar lysates from abortively infected cells yield only the β and γ bands. Electron microscopic examination revealed that (i) the α band contained enveloped nucleocapsids, whereas the β band contained naked nucleocapsids and particles tentatively identified as internal components of the nucleocapsids, and that (ii) the enveloped virions and reduplication of cellular membranes observed in thin sections of productively infected cells were absent from abortively infected cells. Studies of the surface antigens of infected cells in a cytolytic system described previously revealed that abortively infected cells contained approximately 10-fold less virus-induced surface antigen than did productively infected cells. From these and other data published previously, we concluded that infectious MPdk− virions are not made in DK cells because (i) functional viral products necessary for the envelopment of the nucleocapsid are not made, and (ii) capsid proteins and some nonstructural products specified by the virus malfunction. Images PMID:4316018

  7. Herpes simplex virus encephalitis in Peru: a multicentre prospective study.

    PubMed

    Montano, S M; Mori, N; Nelson, C A; Ton, T G N; Celis, V; Ticona, E; Sihuincha, M; Tilley, D H; Kochel, T; Zunt, J R

    2016-06-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is one of the most commonly identified infectious aetiologies of encephalitis in North America and Europe. The epidemiology of encephalitis beyond these regions, however, is poorly defined. During 2009-2012 we enrolled 313 patients in a multicentre prospective study of encephalitis in Peru, 45 (14·4%) of whom had confirmed HSV infection. Of 38 patients with known HSV type, 84% had HSV-1 and 16% had HSV-2. Patients with HSV infection were significantly more likely to present in the summer months (44·4% vs. 20·0%, P = 0·003) and have nausea (60·0% vs. 39·8%, P = 0·01) and rash (15·6% vs. 5·3%, P = 0·01) compared to patients without HSV infection. These findings highlight differences in the epidemiology and clinical presentation of HSV encephalitis outside of the Northern Hemisphere that warrant further investigation. Furthermore, there is an urgent need for improved HSV diagnostic capacity and availability of intravenous acyclovir in Peru. PMID:26733400

  8. Radioimmunoassay for herpes simplex virus (HSV) thymidine kinase

    SciTech Connect

    McGuirt, P.V.; Keller, P.M.; Elion, G.B.

    1982-01-30

    A sensitive RIA for HSV-1 thymidine kinase (TK) has been developed. This assay is based on competition for the binding site of a rabbit antibody against purified HSV-1 TK, between a purified /sup 3/H-labeled HSV-1 TK and a sample containing an unknown amount of viral TK. The assay is capable of detecting 8 ng or more of the HSV enzyme. Purified HSV-1 TK denatured to <1% of its original kinase activity is as effective in binding to the antibody as is native HSV-1 TK. Viral TK is detectable at ranges of 150-460 ng/mg protein of cell extract from infected cells or cells transformed by HSV or HSV genetic material. HSV-2 TK appears highly cross-reactive, VZV TK is slightly less so, and the vaccinia TK shows little or no cross-reactivity. This RIA may serve as a tool for monitoring the expression of the HSV TK during an active herpes virus infection, a latent ganglionic infection, or in neoplastic cells which may have arisen by viral transformation.

  9. Herpes simplex virus induces the replication of foreign DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Danovich, R.M.; Frenkel, N.

    1988-08-01

    Plasmids containing the simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA replication origin and the large T gene are replicated in Vero monkey cells but not in rabbit skin cells. Efficient replication of the plasmids was observed in rabbit cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2. The HSV-induced replication required the large T antigen and the SV40 replication origin. However, it produced concatemeric molecules resembling replicative intermediates of HSV DNA and was sensitive to phosphonoacetate at concentrations known to inhibit the HSV DNA polymerase. Therefore, it involved the HSV DNA polymerase itself or a viral gene product(s) which was expressed following the replication of HSV DNA. Analyses of test plasmids lacking SV40 or HSV DNA sequences showed that, under some conditions. HSV also induced low-level replication of test plasmids containing no known eucaryotic replication origins. Together, these results show that HSV induces a DNA replicative activity which amplifies foreign DNA. The relevance of these findings to the putative transforming potential of HSV is discussed.

  10. Epidemic of herpes zoster following HIV epidemic in Manipur, India.

    PubMed

    Panda, S; Sarkar, S; Mandal, B K; Singh, T B; Singh, K L; Mitra, D K; Sarkar, K; Tripathy, S P; Deb, B C

    1994-03-01

    Since 1989, injecting drug use (IDU) related HIV infection has affected thousands of young adults in Manipur, a north eastern state of India bordering Myanmar following a similar kind of epidemic in adjoining countries like Thailand and Myanmar. During a clinical surveillance of a group of HIV positive IDUs for a natural history study at Manipur, herpes zoster (HZ) emerged as the most specific early HIV related illness (positive predictive value of 100%) in patients belonging to the age group of 12-45 years. Data collected from the dermatology departments of the two main hospitals of the state revealed that there had been an epidemic of HZ since 1990 (rate of 1990 being 11.3/1000 compared to 6.5/1000 in 1989, P value < 0.0001) among males of 12-45 years. The epidemic of HZ has been attributed to the preceding epidemic of IDU related HIV in the same age and gender group occurring 1 year earlier. HZ should be recognised as a marker condition similar to tuberculosis indicating the necessity of screening for HIV in regions where the dual problem of IDU and HIV exist in young adults. PMID:8034996

  11. Reducing the burden of Herpes Zoster in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Gabutti, Giovanni; Franco, Elisabetta; Bonanni, Paolo; Conversano, Michele; Ferro, Antonio; Lazzari, Marzia; Maggi, Stefania; Rossi, Alessandro; Scotti, Silvestro; Vitale, Francesco; Volpi, Antonio; Greco, Donato

    2014-01-01

    Herpes Zoster (HZ) is a viral disease with painful neuro-dermatologic manifestations. Incidence increases with age. In Italy, the estimated incidence is 6.3 cases/1000 person/year; hospital admissions are less than 2%, 69% in patients aged over 65 years. The most frequent complication of HZ is Post-Herpetic Neuralgia (PHN) characterized by metameric pain, allodynia, and hyperalgesia. In Italy 20.6% and 9.2% of HZ patients experience PHN after 3 and 6 months, respectively. Available antiviral and analgesic treatments are relatively unsatisfactory in reducing pain and length of the disease. Prevention has recently become possible with the live attenuated vaccine Oka/Merck. Clinical studies show a reduction of 51% in the incidence of the disease, 61% of its burden and 67% of PHN in vaccinees. Protection seems to be long lasting and vaccine safety matches registration requirements. Available evidence suggests that the costs for QALY (less than € 20 000) and avoided cases is favorable. Due to the heavy burden of disease, it is time to offer this vaccination to elderly population. PMID:25483522

  12. Initiation of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase polypeptides.

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, A R; Bishop, J O

    1996-01-01

    When employed as a transgene reporter, the herpes simplex type 1 virus (HSV1) thymidine kinase gene (tk) is ectopically expressed in mouse testis. The principal testicular mRNA lacks the 5'-end of the tk reading frame. As a result the principal translation products, P2 and P3, are N-terminally truncated. These co-migrate in SDS-PAGE with polypeptides synthesised during HSV1 infection that were previously thought to be initiated at methionine codons ATG46 and ATG60. Prompted by these observations we generated modified tk genes each carrying only one of the first three ATG codons. Transfected cells expressed both full-length enzyme (P1) and P2 when only ATG1 was unmodified, P2 and P3 when only ATG46 was unmodified or P2 and a fourth polypeptide (P4) when only ATG60 was unmodified. Our observations indicate that P3 is initiated at ATG46 rather than ATG60, while P2 is initiated at a non-ATG codon rather than ATG46 and P4 is initiated at ATG60. When either of two putative non-ATG initiation codons was modified P2 was no longer produced. Cells mainly expressing either P1 or P3 exhibited the same sensitivity to Ganciclovir as cells transfected with the unaltered tk gene. P1 and P3 both have TK activity while P4 probably has none. PMID:8668538

  13. Acyclovir Prophylaxis Reduces the Incidence of Herpes Zoster Among HIV-Infected Individuals: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Barnabas, Ruanne V; Baeten, Jared M; Lingappa, Jairam R; Thomas, Katherine K; Hughes, James P; Mugo, Nelly R; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Gray, Glenda; Rees, Helen; Mujugira, Andrew; Ronald, Allan; Stevens, Wendy; Kapiga, Saidi; Wald, Anna; Celum, Connie

    2016-02-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons have higher rates of herpes zoster than HIV-uninfected individuals. We assessed whether twice daily treatment with 400 mg of oral acyclovir reduces the incidence of herpes zoster in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial among 3408 persons coinfected with HIV and herpes simplex virus type 2. During 5175 person-years of follow-up, 26 cases of herpes zoster occurred among those assigned acyclovir, compared with 69 cases among those assigned placebo (rates, 1.00 and 2.68/100 person-years, respectively), a relative decrease of 62% (hazard ratio, 0.38; 95% confidence interval, .24-.67; P < .001). Daily acyclovir prophylaxis significantly reduced herpes zoster incidence among HIV-infected persons. PMID:26142452

  14. Early Childhood: Simple Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Clare B.; Shafer, Kathryn E.

    1987-01-01

    Encourages teachers to take advantage of the natural curiosity of young children in enhancing their interest in science. Describes four simple activities involving water, living and non-living things, air pollution, and food. (TW)

  15. A Simple Raman Spectrometer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blond, J. P.; Boggett, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses some basic physical ideas about light scattering and describes a simple Raman spectrometer, a single prism monochromator and a multiplier detector. This discussion is intended for British undergraduate physics students. (HM)

  16. Simple Machines Simply Put.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood, James J.

    1994-01-01

    Students explore the workings of the lever, wheel and axle, and the inclined plane as they build simple toys--a bulldozer and a road grader. The project takes four weeks. Diagrams and procedures are included. (PR)

  17. A Simple Water Channel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, A. S.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a simple water channel, for use with an overhead projector. It is run from a water tap and may be used for flow visualization experiments, including the effect of streamlining and elementary building aerodynamics. (MLH)

  18. Fractional Simple Harmonic Oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narahari Achar, B. N.; Hanneken, John W.; Clarke, Ted J.; Skaggs, Jeremy M.

    2000-03-01

    Applications of fractional calculus to physics have received considerable attention recently, including generalization of the simple harmonic oscillator problem. This paper presents a survey of several approaches that have been proposed and discusses the advantages and disadvantages thereof. An approach to be preferred is based on the generalization of the integral equation of the simple harmonic oscillator that involves physically meaningful initial conditions. A complete formal solution to the equation of motion together with graphical display will be presented.

  19. Age-dependent resistance of human alveolar macrophages to herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed Central

    Mintz, L; Drew, W L; Hoo, R; Finley, T N

    1980-01-01

    Studies in mice demonstrate an age-dependent susceptibility to disseminated herpesvirus infection which is mediated. at least in part, by a defect in macrophage antiviral function. We examined the growth of herpes simplex virus within human alveolar macrophages obtained by bronchopulmonary lavage from neonates, adults with a variety of immunosuppressive disorders, and healthy adult volunteers. At 24 h postinfection, mean viral titers in neonatal macrophages increased 19-fold over adsorbed virus levels, a highly significant increase when compared to either immunosuppressed or normal adult macrophages (P less than 0.0005). These findings indicate that human macrophages, like those of mice, exhibit age-dependent permissiveness for the replication of herpes simplex virus. This permissiveness may at least partially account for the clinical observation that human newborns are highly susceptible to disseminated herpes simplex virus infections, whereas adults are not. PMID:6249741

  20. Varicella-Zoster Virus Vasculopathy: The Growing Association Between Herpes Zoster and Strokes.

    PubMed

    Powell, David R; Patel, Shiddhi; Franco-Paredes, Carlos

    2015-09-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is herpes virus that after its reactivation from nerve ganglia to cause herpes zoster may lead to a variety of neurologic complications, including encephalitis, meningitis, retinal necrosis or myelitis. In addition, VZV can spread to arteries in the central nervous system and cause hemorrhagic or ischemic complications due to an inflammatory vasculopathy. In fact, there is a growing epidemiological and clinical recognition that there is an association between VZV reactivation and subsequent strokes. Herein, we present a case of an immune compromised individual with reactivation of VZV causing dermatomal herpes zoster followed by multifocal vasculopathy. We also review the literature to highlight key aspects of VZV-associated vasculopathy. PMID:25211583

  1. Electrochemical direct immobilization of DNA sequences for label-free herpes virus detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, Phuong Dinh; Trung, Tran; Tuan, Mai Anh; Chien, Nguyen Duc

    2009-09-01

    DNA sequences/bio-macromolecules of herpes virus (5'-AT CAC CGA CCC GGA GAG GGA C-3') were directly immobilized into polypyrrole matrix by using the cyclic voltammetry method, and grafted onto arrays of interdigitated platinum microelectrodes. The morphology surface of the obtained PPy/DNA of herpes virus composite films was investigated by a FESEM Hitachi-S 4800. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to characterize the PPy/DNA film and to study the specific interactions that may exist between DNA biomacromolecules and PPy chains. Attempts are made to use these PPy/DNA composite films for label-free herpes virus detection revealed a response time of 60 s in solutions containing as low as 2 nM DNA concentration, and self life of six months when immerged in double distilled water and kept refrigerated.

  2. Latency of Herpes Simplex Virus in Absence of Neutralizing Antibody: Model for Reactivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekizawa, Tsuyoshi; Openshaw, Harry; Wohlenberg, Charles; Notkins, Abner Louis

    1980-11-01

    Mice inoculated with herpes simplex virus (type 1) by the lip or corneal route and then passively immunized with rabbit antibody to herpes simplex virus developed a latent infection in the trigeminal ganglia within 96 hours. Neutralizing antibody to herpes simplex virus was cleared from the circulation and could not be detected in most of these mice after 2 months. Examination of ganglia from the antibody-negative mice revealed latent virus in over 90 percent of the animals, indicating that serum neutralizing antibody is not necessary to maintain the latent state. When the lips or corneas of these mice were traumatized, viral reactivation occurred in up to 90 percent of the mice, as demonstrated by the appearance of neutralizing antibody. This study provides a model for identifying factors that trigger viral reactivation.

  3. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus presenting as orbital abscess along with superior orbital fissure syndrome: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Lavaju, Poonam; Badhu, Badri Prasad; Shah, Sangeeta

    2015-01-01

    Orbital abscess and superior orbital fissure syndrome (SOFS) are rare manifestations of herpes zoster ophthalmicus. Herein, we report a case of orbital abscess along with SOFS in a 2.5-year-old-male child secondary to herpes zoster infection. He presented with a 5-day history of proptosis and ptosis of the right eye that had been preceded by vesicular eruptions on the right forehead and scalp. Computed tomography scan of the head and orbit showed orbital abscess and right cavernous sinus thrombosis. A diagnosis of orbital abscess with SOFS secondary to herpes infection was made. The condition subsequently improved following antiviral therapy, intravenous vancomycin and amikacin, and oral corticosteroids. PMID:26632131

  4. Preparation and immunogenicity of vaccine Ac NFU1 (S-) MRC towards the prevention of herpes genitalis.

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, G R; Woodman, C B; Hartley, C E; Buchan, A; Fuller, A; Durham, J; Synnott, M; Clay, J C; Melling, J; Wiblin, C; Wilkins, J

    1982-01-01

    A subunit antigenoid vaccine, Ac NFU1 (S-) MRC, was used to prevent primary herpes genitalis in 60 subjects considered to be at risk of this infection. There was no evidence of serious local or general side effects. Neutralising antibody responses were detected in 59% and 90% of subjects receiving the low and high doses of vaccine respectively; immunoprecipitating antibody was detected at a lower frequency, namely in 23% and 43% of subjects receiving the low and high doses respectively. After a mean follow-up period of 18 months none of the vaccinated subjects contracted herpes genitalis after completing the vaccination course. Images PMID:6293640

  5. Herpes Genitalis in Patients Attending a Clinic for Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lawee, David; Gutman, Mory; Hrytzay, Millie; McLachlin, Jeanette

    1983-01-01

    In a prospective study of 210 patients attending a hospital-based sexually transmitted disease clinic, we documented the prevalence of genital herpes infection (GHI) and its association with gonococcal infection (GI). Herpes simplex virus type 2 was cultured from 58% of symptomatic patients and 0.5% of asymptomatic patients. The ratio of GI to GHI was 41:31 by clinical criteria. The laboratory-confirmed ratio was 41:18. These ratios are much higher than those normally used to estimate the caseload of GHI. PMID:21283317

  6. AB136. Herpes zoster associated with acute urinary retention: 2 case reports and literature review

    PubMed Central

    He, Haowei

    2016-01-01

    Objective A 67-year-old woman with a 6-day history of urinary retention incontinence during which she had been herpes zoster virus (HZV). Methods On physical exam painful vesicles involving the right vulvar and buttock were found; a 42-year-old man with a one week history of urinary retention. Results He presented with painful vesicular eruptions on his left buttock for about 11-day. The diagnosis is herpes zoster associated with acute urinary retention. Conclusions The patients were given antiviral, anti-inflammatory therapies, when the catheters were removed, and the patients were able to pass urine as normal.

  7. Fatal herpes simplex virus hepatitis following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and anterior resection for rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dhadda, AS; Sanni, LA; Cooke, JP; Hartley, JE

    2014-01-01

    We describe the case of a young patient who contracted fatal herpes simplex virus hepatitis following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and anterior resection for rectal cancer. The rarity and non-specific presentation of this treatable disease, which masqueraded as the sequelae of postoperative sepsis, resulted in a diagnosis following death. Features that should prompt inclusion of herpes simplex virus hepatitis in the differential diagnoses are suggested and the case is a reminder of how neoadjuvant therapy may subtly alter a patient’s immunocompetency. PMID:25350168

  8. Amitriptyline/Ketamine as therapy for neuropathic pruritus and pain secondary to herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Griffin, John R; Davis, Mark D P

    2015-02-01

    Frequent causes of morbidity secondary to herpes zoster include acute pain, secondary infection, and postherpetic neuralgia. A less documented complication is pruritus, which can be either acute or postinfectious when it persists more than 3 months after the rash has healed. We discuss a case of severe, acute neuropathic pruritus and pain secondary to active herpes zoster that was unresponsive to standard medical therapy, including oral antihistamines, topical lidocaine, oral gabapentin, and local wound care. Modest control of the pruritus and pain was achieved with continued multimodal therapy and the addition of topical 2% amitriptyline/0.5% ketamine gel. PMID:25689805

  9. Treatment of first-attack genital herpes--acyclovir versus inosine pranobex.

    PubMed

    Mindel, A; Kinghorn, G; Allason-Jones, E; Woolley, P; Barton, I; Faherty, A; Jeavons, M; Williams, P; Patou, G

    1987-05-23

    77 patients with a first attack of genital herpes were entered into a double-blind trial to compare the efficacy of acyclovir with that of inosine pranobex. 24 patients received acyclovir with that of inosine pranobex, and 28 both drugs. Patients treated with acyclovir or both drugs healed more quickly and had a shorter duration of viral shedding than those treated with inosine pranobex. The time to first recurrence and frequency of subsequent recurrences were similar in the three treatment groups. Acyclovir is the treatment of choice for patients with a first attack of genital herpes. PMID:2437417

  10. Herpes simplex virus colitis complicating ulcerative colitis: A case report and brief review on superinfections.

    PubMed

    Schunter, Marco Oliver; Walles, Thorsten; Fritz, Peter; Meyding-Lamadé, Uta; Thon, Klaus-Peter; Fellermann, Klaus; Stange, Eduard Friedrich; Lamadé, Wolfram

    2007-09-01

    In patients with inflammatory bowel disease herpes simplex virus infection has been described as a major cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in immunocompromised individuals. Here we present the case of a 35-year old woman with an exacerbation of ulcerative colitis caused by herlpes simplex virus infection (HSV-2). The diagnosis was confirmed histologically following subtotal colectomy. After intravenous treatment with aciclovir for 2 weeks postoperative hematochezia stopped. Herpes simplex virus colitis is a rare but potentially fatal complication of immunosuppressive treatment in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Prompt diagnosis and efficient antiviral therapy are mandatory to improve prognosis. PMID:21172183

  11. Non-healing genital herpes mimicking donovanosis in an immunocompetent man.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vishal; Khute, Prakash; Patel, Anjali; Gupta, Somesh

    2016-01-01

    Although atypical presentations of herpetic infection in immunocompetent individuals are common, they very rarely have the extensive, chronic and verrucous appearances seen in the immunocompromised host. We report a case of genital herpes manifesting as painless chronic non-healing genital ulcers with exuberant granulation tissue in an immunocompetent man. Owing to this morphology, the ulcers were initially mistaken for donovanosis. To the best of our knowledge, such a presentation of genital herpes in an immunocompetent individual has not been described previously. PMID:25614521

  12. Strategy as simple rules.

    PubMed

    Eisenhardt, K M; Sull, D N

    2001-01-01

    The success of Yahoo!, eBay, Enron, and other companies that have become adept at morphing to meet the demands of changing markets can't be explained using traditional thinking about competitive strategy. These companies have succeeded by pursuing constantly evolving strategies in market spaces that were considered unattractive according to traditional measures. In this article--the third in an HBR series by Kathleen Eisenhardt and Donald Sull on strategy in the new economy--the authors ask, what are the sources of competitive advantage in high-velocity markets? The secret, they say, is strategy as simple rules. The companies know that the greatest opportunities for competitive advantage lie in market confusion, but they recognize the need for a few crucial strategic processes and a few simple rules. In traditional strategy, advantage comes from exploiting resources or stable market positions. In strategy as simple rules, advantage comes from successfully seizing fleeting opportunities. Key strategic processes, such as product innovation, partnering, or spinout creation, place the company where the flow of opportunities is greatest. Simple rules then provide the guidelines within which managers can pursue such opportunities. Simple rules, which grow out of experience, fall into five broad categories: how- to rules, boundary conditions, priority rules, timing rules, and exit rules. Companies with simple-rules strategies must follow the rules religiously and avoid the temptation to change them too frequently. A consistent strategy helps managers sort through opportunities and gain short-term advantage by exploiting the attractive ones. In stable markets, managers rely on complicated strategies built on detailed predictions of the future. But when business is complicated, strategy should be simple. PMID:11189455

  13. Structural basis for the antibody neutralization of Herpes simplex virus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cheng-Chung; Lin, Li-Ling; Chan, Woan-Eng; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Lai, Jiann-Shiun; Wang, Andrew H.-J.

    2013-01-01

    Glycoprotein D (gD) of Herpes simplex virus (HSV) binds to a host cell surface receptor, which is required to trigger membrane fusion for virion entry into the host cell. gD has become a validated anti-HSV target for therapeutic antibody development. The highly inhibitory human monoclonal antibody E317 (mAb E317) was previously raised against HSV gD for viral neutralization. To understand the structural basis of antibody neutralization, crystals of the gD ectodomain bound to the E317 Fab domain were obtained. The structure of the complex reveals that E317 interacts with gD mainly through the heavy chain, which covers a large area for epitope recognition on gD, with a flexible N-terminal and C-terminal conformation. The epitope core structure maps to the external surface of gD, corresponding to the binding sites of two receptors, herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) and nectin-1, which mediate HSV infection. E317 directly recognizes the gD–nectin-1 interface and occludes the HVEM contact site of gD to block its binding to either receptor. The binding of E317 to gD also prohibits the formation of the N-terminal hairpin of gD for HVEM recognition. The major E317-binding site on gD overlaps with either the nectin-1-binding residues or the neutralizing antigenic sites identified thus far (Tyr38, Asp215, Arg222 and Phe223). The epitopes of gD for E317 binding are highly conserved between two types of human herpesvirus (HSV-1 and HSV-2). This study enables the virus-neutralizing epitopes to be correlated with the receptor-binding regions. The results further strengthen the previously demonstrated therapeutic and diagnostic potential of the E317 antibody. PMID:24100313

  14. Herpes simplex virus 2 infection impacts stress granule accumulation.

    PubMed

    Finnen, Renée L; Pangka, Kyle R; Banfield, Bruce W

    2012-08-01

    Interference with stress granule (SG) accumulation is gaining increased appreciation as a common strategy used by diverse viruses to facilitate their replication and to cope with translational arrest. Here, we examined the impact of infection by herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) on SG accumulation by monitoring the localization of the SG components T cell internal antigen 1 (TIA-1), Ras-GTPase-activating SH3-domain-binding protein (G3BP), and poly(A)-binding protein (PABP). Our results indicate that SGs do not accumulate in HSV-2-infected cells and that HSV-2 can interfere with arsenite-induced SG accumulation early after infection. Surprisingly, SG accumulation was inhibited despite increased phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), implying that HSV-2 encodes previously unrecognized activities designed to maintain translation initiation downstream of eIF2α. SG accumulation was not inhibited in HSV-2-infected cells treated with pateamine A, an inducer that works independently of eIF2α phosphorylation. The SGs that accumulated following pateamine A treatment of infected cells contained G3BP and PABP but were largely devoid of TIA-1. We also identified novel nuclear structures containing TIA-1 that form late in infection. These structures contain the RNA binding protein 68-kDa Src-associated in mitosis (Sam68) and were noticeably absent in infected cells treated with inhibitors of viral DNA replication, suggesting that they arise as a result of late events in the virus replicative cycle. PMID:22623775

  15. Human cytomegalovirus function inhibits replication of herpes simplex virus

    SciTech Connect

    Cockley, K.D.; Shiraki, K.; Rapp, F.

    1988-01-01

    Human embryonic lung (HEL) cells infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) restricted the replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). A delay in HSV replication of 15 h as well as a consistent, almost 3 log inhibition of HSV replication in HCMV-infected cell cultures harvested 24 to 72 h after superinfection were observed compared with controls infected with HSV alone. Treatment of HCMV-infected HEL cells with cycloheximide (100 ..mu..g/ml) for 3 or 24 h was demonstrated effective in blocking HCMV protein synthesis, as shown by immunoprecipitation with HCMV antibody-positive polyvalent serum. Cycloheximide treatment of HCMV-infected HEL cells and removal of the cycloheximide block before superinfection inhibited HSV-1 replication more efficiently than non-drug-treated superinfected controls. HCMV DNA-negative temperature-sensitive mutants restricted HSV as efficiently as wild-type HCMV suggesting that immediate-early and/or early events which occur before viral DNA synthesis are sufficient for inhibition of HSV. Inhibition of HSV-1 in HCMV-infected HEL cells was unaffected by elevated temperature (40.5/sup 0/C). However, prior UV irradiation of HCMV removed the block to HSV replication, demonstrating the requirement for an active HCMV genome. HSV-2 replication was similarly inhibited in HCMV-infected HEL cells. Superinfection of HCMV-infected HEL cells with HSV-1 labeled with (/sup 3/H)thymidine provided evidence that the labeled virus could penetrate to the nucleus of cells after superinfection. Evidence for penetration of superinfecting HSV into HCMV-infected cells was also provided by blot hybridization of HSV DNA synthesized in cells infected with HSV alone versus superinfected cell cultures at 0 and 48 h after superinfection.

  16. [Double meningoencephalitis with herpes simplex virus and rubella virus].

    PubMed

    Hattori, S; Isogai, Y; Morimoto, Y

    1993-06-01

    A 47-year-old man suffered from a headache, fever and memory disturbance. He was admitted to Morimoto Hospital. Neurological examination revealed disturbance of memory of recent events. Cranial nerves were normal. Muscle strength of the extremities was normal, except for Barr's sign of the right upper extremity. Deep tendon reflexes were exaggerated bilaterally, and extensor plantar response of the left side was elicited. Sensory examination showed no abnormality. Cerebellar sign was not recognized. Meningeal sign was slightly but clearly showed. CT scan demonstrated brain swelling at the right insular cortex region followed by severe hydrocephalus with dilatation of the lateral and the third ventricles. Cerebrospinal fluid showed high CSF pressure (250 mmH2O), pleocytosis (C.C. 359/mm3) and elevated protein level (213 mg/dl). Virological examination revealed herpes simplex virus (HSV) (CF) 32x, HSV-1 IgG (EIA) 4,050X, rubella virus IgE (EIA) 6,060X, cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgG (EIA) 1,130X in serum and HSV (CF) 1X, HSV-1 IGg (EIA) 1,430X, rubella virus IgG (EIA) 1,480X, CMV IgG (EIA) 587X in CSF. The ratio of serum/CSF of HSV and rubella virus titers by EIA methods were 2.83 and 4.10, respectively. He was treated by acyclovir 1,000 mg/day and gamma globulin, but his condition get worse acutely and died at 15th hospital days. This case was considered as a meningoencephalitis caused by simultaneous HSV and rubella virus infection. PMID:8403685

  17. Herpes Zoster--Eye Complications: Rates and Trends

    PubMed Central

    Yawn, Barbara P.; Wollan, Peter M.; St Sauver, Jennifer L.; Butterfield, Linda C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To provide population based data on the risk, types and outcomes of eye involvement in herpes zoster (HZ). Methods A cohort study based on medical record review of patients diagnosed with HZ between January 1, 1980 and December 31, 2007. HZ was confirmed by typical rash and symptoms or laboratory testing and eye involvement was confirmed by ophthalmologists’ evaluation. Information was collected on all eye diagnoses, all HZ eye related visits, treatments, procedures and outcomes. Results Of the 2035 individuals with HZ in any dermatome, 184 patients (9.0%) had eye involvement. Mean age of the 184 was 62.6 with 5 cases in patients <21. Overall, 6.5% were immune suppressed at the time of the eye complications. The rate of increase of HZ eye involvement was 23% by decade from 1980 to 2007. Common eye complications were keratitis (76.2%), uveitis/iritis (46.6%) and conjunctivitis (35.4%). Recurrent keratitis and recurrent iritis/uveitis occurred in 6.9% and 7.4% respectively. Outcomes included six (3.3%) patients with new vision decrements to 20/200 or worse. Two individuals had successful corneal transplants. Another six (3.3%) individuals had lid ptosis that affected vision including one elderly woman with a permanent unilateral tarsorrhaphy. Severe HZ eye pain was reported to be directly responsible for one unsuccessful suicide attempt. No one developed ARN. A mean of 10.8 HZ eye visits per HZ patient with eye involvement were reported over a mean of 308 days. Conclusion Eye complications are common, result in significant health care utilization and in permanent vision decrement in about 6.6% of individuals with HZ eye involvement. Most health care utilization and long term adverse outcomes were in patients in whom administration of HZ prevention with the zoster vaccine would be possible. PMID:23664666

  18. Intact Microtubules Support Adenovirus and Herpes Simplex Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Mabit, Hélène; Nakano, Michel Y.; Prank, Ute; Saam, Bianca; Döhner, Katinka; Sodeik, Beate; Greber, Urs F.

    2002-01-01

    Capsids and the enclosed DNA of adenoviruses, including the species C viruses adenovirus type 2 (Ad2) and Ad5, and herpesviruses, such as herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), are targeted to the nuclei of epithelial, endothelial, fibroblastic, and neuronal cells. Cytoplasmic transport of fluorophore-tagged Ad2 and immunologically detected HSV-1 capsids required intact microtubules and the microtubule-dependent minus-end-directed motor complex dynein-dynactin. A recent study with epithelial cells suggested that Ad5 was transported to the nucleus and expressed its genes independently of a microtubule network. To clarify the mechanisms by which Ad2 and, as an independent control, HSV-1 were targeted to the nucleus, we treated epithelial cells with nocodazole (NOC) to depolymerize microtubules and measured viral gene expression at different times and multiplicities of infections. Our results indicate that in NOC-treated cells, viral transgene expression was significantly reduced at up to 48 h postinfection (p.i.). A quantitative analysis of subcellular capsid localization indicated that NOC blocked the nuclear targeting of Ad2 and also HSV-1 by more than 90% at up to 7 h p.i. About 10% of the incoming Texas Red-coupled Ad2 (Ad2-TR) was enriched at the nucleus in microtubule-depleted cells at 5 h p.i. This result is consistent with earlier observations that Ad2-TR capsids move randomly in NOC-treated cells at less than 0.1 μm/s and over distances of less than 5 μm, characteristic of Brownian motion. We conclude that fluorophore-tagged Ad2 and HSV-1 particles are infectious and that microtubules play a prominent role in efficient nuclear targeting during entry and gene expression of species C Ads and HSV-1. PMID:12208972

  19. Purification and structural characterization of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein C

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuchi, G.E.; Baker, S.A.; Merajver, S.D.; Coligan, J.E.; Levine, M.; Glorioso, J.C.; Nairn, R.

    1987-01-27

    Purification of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein C (gC) in microgram amounts yielded sufficient material for an analysis of its secondary structure. Purification was facilitated by using the mutant virus gC-3, which bears a point mutation that interrupts the putative hydrophobic membrane anchor sequence, causing the secretion of gC-3 protein into the cell culture medium. gC-3 protein was purified by size fractionation of concentrated culture medium from infected cells on a gel filtration column of Sephacryl S-200, followed by immunoaffinity chromatography on a column constructed of gC-specific monoclonal antibodies cross-linked to a protein A-Sepharose CL-4B matrix. Purified gC-3 had a molecular weight of 130,000 as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the size expected for gC, was reactive with gC-specific monoclonal antibodies in protein immunoblots, and contained amino acid sequences characteristic of gC as determined by radiochemical amino acid microsequence analyses. Polyclonal antisera obtained from a rabbit immunized with gC-3 reacted with wild-type gC in immunoprecipitation, enzyme immunoassay, and immunoelectroblot (western blot) assays. Deglycosylation by treatment with trifluoromethanesulfonic acid reduced the molecular weight of gC-3 by approximately 35%. Analyses of both native and deglycosylated gC-3 by Raman spectroscopy showed that the native molecule consists of about 17%..cap alpha..-helix, 24% ..beta..-sheet, and 60% disordered secondary structures, whereas deglycosylated gC-3 consists of about 8% ..cap alpha..-helix, 10% ..beta..-sheet, 81% disordered structures. These data were in good agreement with the 11% ..cap alpha..-helix, 18% ..beta..-sheet, 61% ..beta..-turn, and 9% disordered structures calculated from Chou-Fasman analysis of the primary sequence of gC-3.

  20. Herpes and polyoma family viruses in thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    STAMATIOU, DIMITRIS P.; DERDAS, STAVROS P.; ZORAS, ODYSSEAS L.; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is considered the most common malignancy that affects the endocrine system. Generally, thyroid cancer derives from follicular epithelial cells, and thyroid cancer is divided into well-differentiated papillary (80% of cases) and follicular (15% of cases) carcinoma. Follicular thyroid cancer is further divided into the conventional and oncocytic (Hürthle cell) type, poorly differentiated carcinoma and anaplastic carcinoma. Both poorly differentiated and anaplastic carcinoma can arise either de novo, or secondarily from papillary and follicular thyroid cancer. The incidence of thyroid cancer has significantly increased for both males and females of all ages, particularly for females between 55–64 years of age, from 1999 through 2008. The increased rates refer to tumors of all stages, though they were mostly noted in localized disease. Recently, viruses have been implicated in the direct regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the development of metastases. More specifically, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) proteins may potentially lead to the development of metastasis through the regulation of the metastasis suppressor, Nm23, and the control of Twist expression. The significant enhancement of the metastatic potential, through the induction of angiogenesis and changes to the tumor microenvironment, subsequent to viral infection, has been documented, while EMT also contributes to cancer cell permissiveness to viruses. A number of viruses have been identified to be associated with carcinogenesis, and these include lymphotropic herpesviruses, namely EBV and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus [KSHV, also known as human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV8)]; two hepatitis viruses, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV); human papillomaviruses (HPVs); human T cell lymphoma virus (HTLV); and a new polyomavirus, Merkel cell polyomavirus identified in 2008. In this review, we examined the association between thyroid cancer and two oncogenic virus families, the herpes and polyoma family viruses, and we discuss their potential role as causative agents in thyroid carcinogenesis. PMID:26998055

  1. Dynasore Disrupts Trafficking of Herpes Simplex Virus Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Mues, Mascha B.; Cheshenko, Natalia; Wilson, Duncan W.; Gunther-Cummins, Leslie

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dynasore, a small-molecule inhibitor of the GTPase activity of dynamin, inhibits the entry of several viruses, including herpes simplex virus (HSV), but its impact on other steps in the viral life cycle has not been delineated. The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that dynamin is required for viral protein trafficking and thus has pleiotropic inhibitory effects on HSV infection. Dynasore inhibited HSV-1 and HSV-2 infection of human epithelial and neuronal cells, including primary genital tract cells and human fetal neurons and astrocytes. Similar results were obtained when cells were transfected with a plasmid expressing dominant negative dynamin. Kinetic studies demonstrated that dynasore reduced the number of viral capsids reaching the nuclear pore if added at the time of viral entry and that, when added as late as 8 h postentry, dynasore blocked the transport of newly synthesized viral proteins from the nucleus to the cytosol. Proximity ligation assays demonstrated that treatment with dynasore prevented the colocalization of VP5 and dynamin. This resulted in a reduction in the number of viral capsids isolated from sucrose gradients. Fewer capsids were observed by electron microscopy in dynasore-treated cells than in control-treated cells. There were also reductions in infectious progeny released into culture supernatants and in cell-to-cell spread. Together, these findings suggest that targeting dynamin-HSV interactions may provide a new strategy for HSV treatment and prevention. IMPORTANCE HSV infections remain a global health problem associated with significant morbidity, particularly in neonates and immunocompromised hosts, highlighting the need for novel approaches to treatment and prevention. The current studies indicate that dynamin plays a role in multiple steps in the viral life cycle and provides a new target for antiviral therapy. Dynasore, a small-molecule inhibitor of dynamin, has pleiotropic effects on HSV-1 and HSV-2 infection and impedes viral entry, trafficking of viral proteins, and capsid formation. PMID:25878109

  2. Natural history of cutaneous innervation following herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Karin Lottrup; Rice, Frank L; Farhadi, Mahkam; Reda, Haatem; Rowbotham, Michael C

    2010-07-01

    As part of a comprehensive study of the natural history of herpes zoster (HZ), 57 of 94 subjects in a cohort at elevated risk for post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) consented to collection of 3-mm skin punch biopsies from affected, mirror-image, and distant control skin at baseline and followup visits. As cutaneous innervation is reduced in longstanding severe PHN, we tested the hypothesis that development of PHN is correlated with severity of initial neural injury and/or a failure of neural recovery. Quantitative analysis using single-label PGP9.5 immunofluorescence microscopy showed epidermal profiles were reduced in zoster skin by approximately 40% at study entry compared to control and mirror skin. The density of the subepidermal plexus was approximately 15% lower in zoster skin. Mirror skin was not denervated compared to control skin. Although not significant at all visits, correlations between epidermal nerve fiber density in HZ skin and thermal sensation, allodynia, capsaicin response, and average daily pain all associated more severe abnormalities with lower epidermal innervation. There was limited evidence that the initial neural injury was more severe in the 15 eventual PHN subjects. Overall, pain and pain-related disability resolved the fastest. Sensory abnormalities and symptom aggravation by focal capsaicin application showed partial and selective recovery over 6months. In contrast, cutaneous innervation showed no recovery at all by 6months, conclusive evidence that resolution of pain and allodynia does not require cutaneous reinnervation. A much longer period of observation is needed to determine if zoster-affected skin is ever reinnervated. PMID:20457490

  3. Concurrent chemotherapy inhibits Herpes simplex virus 1 replication and oncolysis

    PubMed Central

    Kulu, Yakup; Kawasaki, Hiroshi; Donahue, James M.; Kasuya, Hideki; Cusack, James C.; Choi, Enid W.; Kuruppu, Darshini K.; Fuchs, Bryan C.; Tanabe, Kenneth K.

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) replication in cancer cells leads to their destruction (viral oncolysis) and has been under investigation as an experimental cancer therapy in clinical trials as single agents, and as combinations with chemotherapy. Cellular responses to chemotherapy modulate viral replication, but these interactions are poorly understood. To investigate the effect of chemotherapy on HSV-1 oncolysis, viral replication in cells exposed to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), irinotecan (CPT-11), methotrexate (MTX) or a cytokine (TNF-α) was examined. Exposure of colon and pancreatic cancer cells to 5-FU, CPT-11, or MTX in vitro significantly antagonizes both HSV-1 replication and lytic oncolysis. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation is required for efficient viral replication, and experimental inhibition of this response with an IκBα dominant-negative repressor significantly antagonizes HSV-1 replication. Nonetheless cells exposed to 5-FU, CPT-11, TNF-α or HSV-1 activate NF-κB. Cells exposed to MTX do not activate NF-κB, suggesting a possible role for NF-κB inhibition in the decreased viral replication observed following exposure to MTX. The role of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF-2α) dephosphorylation was examined; HSV-1 mediated eIF-2α dephosphorylation proceeds normally in HT29 cells exposed to 5-FU-, CPT-11-, or MTX. This report demonstrates that cellular responses to chemotherapeutic agents provide an unfavorable environment for HSV-1-mediated oncolysis, and these observations are relevant to the design of both preclinical and clinical studies of HSV-1 oncolysis. PMID:23348635

  4. Phenotypic and Functional Characterization of Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoprotein B Epitope-Specific Effector and Memory CD8+ T Cells from Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Individuals with Ocular Herpes

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Arif A.; Srivastava, Ruchi; Spencer, Doran; Garg, Sumit; Fremgen, Daniel; Vahed, Hawa; Lopes, Patricia P.; Pham, Thanh T.; Hewett, Charlie; Kuang, Jasmine; Ong, Nicolas; Huang, Lei; Scarfone, Vanessa M.; Nesburn, Anthony B.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein B (gB)-specific CD8+ T cells protect mice from herpes infection and disease. However, whether and which HSV-1 gB-specific CD8+ T cells play a key role in the “natural” protection seen in HSV-1-seropositive healthy asymptomatic (ASYMP) individuals (who have never had clinical herpes disease) remain to be determined. In this study, we have dissected the phenotypes and the functions of HSV-1 gB-specific CD8+ T cells from HLA-A*02:01 positive, HSV-1 seropositive ASYMP and symptomatic (SYMP) individuals (with a history of numerous episodes of recurrent ocular herpes disease). We found the following. (i) Healthy ASYMP individuals maintained a significantly higher proportion of differentiated HSV-1 gB-specific effector memory CD8+ T cells (TEM cells) (CD45RAlow CCR7low CD44high CD62Llow). In contrast, SYMP patients had frequent less-differentiated central memory CD8+ T cells (TCM cells) (CD45RAlow CCR7high CD44low CD62Lhigh). (ii) ASYMP individuals had significantly higher proportions of multifunctional effector CD8+ T cells which responded mainly to gB342–350 and gB561–569 “ASYMP” epitopes, and simultaneously produced IFN-γ, CD107a/b, granzyme B, and perforin. In contrast, effector CD8+ T cells from SYMP individuals were mostly monofunctional and were directed mainly against nonoverlapping gB17–25 and gB183–191 “SYMP” epitopes. (iii) Immunization of an HLA-A*02:01 transgenic mouse model of ocular herpes with “ASYMP” CD8+ TEM cell epitopes, but not with “SYMP” CD8+ TCM cell epitopes, induced a strong CD8+ T cell-dependent protective immunity against ocular herpes infection and disease. Our findings provide insights into the role of HSV-specific CD8+ TEM cells in protection against herpes and should be considered in the development of an effective vaccine. IMPORTANCE A significantly higher proportion of differentiated and multifunctional HSV-1 gB-specific effector memory CD8+ T cells (TEM cells) (CD45RAlow CCR7low CD44high CD62Llow) were found in healthy ASYMP individuals who are seropositive for HSV-1 but never had any recurrent herpetic disease, while there were frequent less-differentiated and monofunctional central memory CD8+ T cells (TCM cells) (CD45RAlow CCR7high CD44low CD62Lhigh) in SYMP patients. Immunization with “ASYMP” CD8+ TEM cell epitopes, but not with “SYMP” CD8+ TCM cell epitopes, induced a strong protective HSV-specific CD8+ T cell response in HLA-A*02:01 transgenic mice. These findings are important for the development of a safe and effective T cell-based herpes vaccine. PMID:25609800

  5. Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoproteins: Participation of Individual Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Glycoprotein Antigens in Immunocytolysis and Their Correlation with Previously Identified Glycopolypeptides

    PubMed Central

    Norrild, B.; Shore, S. L.; Nahmias, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    Tissue culture cells infected with herpes simplex type 1 virus express virus-specified glycoprotein antigens on the plasma membrane. Three of these have been previously identified and have been designated as Ag-11, Ag-8, and Ag-6. In the present study, immunoglobulins to each of the antigens were shown to be capable of mediating immunocytolysis in the presence of either complement (antibody-dependent complement-mediated cytotoxicity) or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity [ADCC]). Two herpes simplex virus type 1 strains, VR-3 and F, reacted similarly in the ADCC test in the presence of immunoglobulins to Ag-11, Ag-8, and Ag-6 in both infected Chang liver cells and HEp-2 cells. Anti-Ag-6, however, produced a lower ADCC reaction in HEp-2 cells than in Chang liver cells, suggesting differences in the Ag-6 surface expression in, or release from, these cells. Chang liver and HEp-2 cells infected with the MP mutant strain of herpes simplex virus type 1 showed reduced ADCC in the presence of anti-Ag-11 and anti-Ag-8, but no reactivity at all with anti-Ag-6. Crossed immunoelectrophoretic analysis showed that MP-infected cell extracts contain Ag-11 and Ag-8, but lack Ag-6. Polypeptide analysis of herpes simplex virus type 1 strains F, VR-3, and MP showed that Ag-11 consists of the glycoproteins gA and gB, that Ag-8 consists of gD, and that Ag-6 consists of gC. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that either one of the glycoproteins (gC, gD, and a mixture of gA and gB) can function as a target for immunocytolysis and that the antibody preparation to gC (Ag-6) does not cross-react with any of the other glycoproteins. Images PMID:229263

  6. Epidermal multinucleated giant cells are not always a histopathologic clue to a herpes virus infection: multinucleated epithelial giant cells in the epidermis of lesional skin biopsies from patients with acantholytic dermatoses can histologically mimic a herpes virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Philip R.; Paravar, Taraneh; Lee, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis can either be epithelial or histiocytic. Epithelial multinucleated giant cells are most often associated with herpes virus infections. Purpose: To review the histologic differential diagnosis of conditions with epithelial and histiocytic multinucleated giant cells—since multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis are not always pathognomonic of a cutaneous herpes virus infection—and to summarize dermatoses in which herpes virus infection has been observed to coexist. Methods: Two individuals with acantholytic dermatoses whose initial lesional skin biopsies showed multinucleated epithelial giant cells suggestive of a herpes virus infection are reported. Using the PubMed database, an extensive literature search was performed on multinucleated giant cell (and epidermis, epithelial, and histiocytic) and herpes virus infection. Relevant papers were reviewed to discover the skin conditions with either multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis or coincident cutaneous herpes virus infection. Results: Initial skin biopsies from patients with either pemphigus vulgaris or transient acantholytic dermatosis mimicked herpes virus infection; however, laboratory studies and repeat biopsies established the correct diagnosis of their acantholytic dermatosis. Hence, epidermal multinucleated giant cells are not always a histopathologic clue to a herpes virus infection. Indeed, epithelial multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis can be observed not only in the presence of infection (herpes virus), but also acantholytic dermatoses and tumors (trichoepithelioma and pleomorphic basal cell carcinoma). Histiocytic multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis can be observed in patients with either giant cell lichenoid dermatitis or lichen nitidus of the palms. Conclusions: Epithelial and histiocytic multinucleated giant cell can occur in the epidermis. Keratinocyte-derived multinucleated giant cells are most commonly associated with herpes virus infection; yet, they can also be observed in patients with skin tumors or acantholytic dermatoses. Cutaneous herpes simplex virus infection can coexist in association with other conditions such as acantholytic dermatoses, benign skin tumors, bullous disorders, hematologic malignancies, inflammatory dermatoses, and physical therapies. However, when a herpes virus infection is suspected based upon the discovery of epithelial multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis, but either the clinic presentation or lack of response to viral therapy or absence of confirmatory laboratory studies does not support the diagnosis of a viral infection, the possibility of a primary acantholytic dermatosis should be considered and additional lesional skin biopsies performed. Also, because hematoxylin and eosin staining is not the golden standard for confirmation of autoimmune bullous dermatoses, skin biopsies for direct immunofluorescence should be performed when a primary bullous dermatosis is suspected since the histopathology observed on hematoxylin and eosin stained sections can be misleading. PMID:25396080

  7. Different presence of Chlamydia pneumoniae, herpes simplex virus type 1, human herpes virus 6, and Toxoplasma gondii in schizophrenia: meta-analysis and analytical study

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Fernández, José; Luna del Castillo, Juan de Dios; Mañanes-González, Sara; Carrillo-Ávila, José Antonio; Gutiérrez, Blanca; Cervilla, Jorge A; Sorlózano-Puerto, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we have performed both a meta-analysis and an analytical study exploring the presence of Chlamydia pneumoniae, herpes simplex virus type 1, human herpes virus 6, and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in a sample of 143 schizophrenic patients and 143 control subjects. The meta-analysis was performed on papers published up to April 2014. The presence of serum immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin A was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test. The detection of microbial DNA in total peripheral blood was performed by nested polymerase chain reaction. The meta-analysis showed that: 1) C. pneumoniae DNA in blood and brain are more common in schizophrenic patients; 2) there is association with parasitism by T. gondii, despite the existence of publication bias; and 3) herpes viruses were not more common in schizophrenic patients. In our sample only anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulin G was more prevalent and may be a risk factor related to schizophrenia, with potential value for prevention. PMID:25848282

  8. A Simple Wave Driver

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temiz, Burak Kagan; Yavuz, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    This study was done to develop a simple and inexpensive wave driver that can be used in experiments on string waves. The wave driver was made using a battery-operated toy car, and the apparatus can be used to produce string waves at a fixed frequency. The working principle of the apparatus is as follows: shortly after the car is turned on, the

  9. Simple Machine Science Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chessin, Debby

    2007-01-01

    Science centers can engage students; accommodate different learning styles and individual interests; help students become independent and confident learners; and encourage social skills among students. In this article, the author worked with third-grade students as they completed activities at learning centers during a week-long unit on simple

  10. Simple Kidney Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information American Kidney Fund National Kidney Foundation MedlinePlus Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... Organizations​​ . (PDF, 345 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Simple Kidney Cysts Page Content On this page: What are ...

  11. A Simple Hydrogen Electrode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggen, Per-Odd

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the construction of an inexpensive, robust, and simple hydrogen electrode, as well as the use of this electrode to measure "standard" potentials. In the experiment described here the students can measure the reduction potentials of metal-metal ion pairs directly, without using a secondary reference electrode. Measurements…

  12. Climate Change Made Simple

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shallcross, Dudley E.; Harrison, Tim G.

    2007-01-01

    The newly revised specifications for GCSE science involve greater consideration of climate change. This topic appears in either the chemistry or biology section, depending on the examination board, and is a good example of "How Science Works." It is therefore timely that students are given an opportunity to conduct some simple climate modelling.…

  13. Simple Lookup Service

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-05-01

    Simple Lookup Service (sLS) is a REST/JSON based lookup service that allows users to publish information in the form of key-value pairs and search for the published information. The lookup service supports both pull and push model. This software can be used to create a distributed architecture/cloud.

  14. A Simple Wave Driver

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temiz, Burak Kagan; Yavuz, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    This study was done to develop a simple and inexpensive wave driver that can be used in experiments on string waves. The wave driver was made using a battery-operated toy car, and the apparatus can be used to produce string waves at a fixed frequency. The working principle of the apparatus is as follows: shortly after the car is turned on, the…

  15. Simple Library Bookkeeping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Herbert H.

    A simple and cheap manual double entry continuous transaction posting system with running balances is developed for bookkeeping by small libraries. A very small library may operate without any system of fiscal control but when a library's budget approaches three figures, some kind of bookkeeping must be introduced. To maintain control over his…

  16. On Simple Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, K.C.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses San Francisco's Exploratorium, a science teaching center with 500 exhibits focusing on human perception, but extending to everything from the mechanics of voice to the art of illusion, from holograms to harmonics. The Exploratorium emphasizes "simple science" (refractions/resonances, sounds/shadows) to tune in the senses and turn on the…

  17. A Simple Hydrogen Electrode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggen, Per-Odd

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the construction of an inexpensive, robust, and simple hydrogen electrode, as well as the use of this electrode to measure "standard" potentials. In the experiment described here the students can measure the reduction potentials of metal-metal ion pairs directly, without using a secondary reference electrode. Measurements

  18. Entropy Is Simple, Qualitatively.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Frank L.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that qualitatively, entropy is simple. Entropy increase from a macro viewpoint is a measure of the dispersal of energy from localized to spread out at a temperature T. Fundamentally based on statistical and quantum mechanics, this approach is superior to the non-fundamental "disorder" as a descriptor of entropy change. (MM)

  19. Working with Simple Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, John W.

    2006-01-01

    A set of examples is provided that illustrate the use of work as applied to simple machines. The ramp, pulley, lever and hydraulic press are common experiences in the life of a student, and their theoretical analysis therefore makes the abstract concept of work more real. The mechanical advantage of each of these systems is also discussed so that…

  20. Working with Simple Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, John W.

    2006-01-01

    A set of examples is provided that illustrate the use of work as applied to simple machines. The ramp, pulley, lever and hydraulic press are common experiences in the life of a student, and their theoretical analysis therefore makes the abstract concept of work more real. The mechanical advantage of each of these systems is also discussed so that

  1. Herpes zoster-associated trigeminal trophic syndrome: a case report and review.

    PubMed

    Litschel, R; Winkler, H; Dazert, S; Sudhoff, H

    2003-02-01

    The case of a 75-year-old Caucasian woman with a trigeminal trophic syndrome (TTS) is presented and discussed. TTS of the ala nasi subsequent to a herpes zoster infection has not been described previously. We provide a review of the literature with insights into the pathogenesis and current therapeutic strategies. PMID:12582785

  2. Disseminated herpes zoster with increased CD4 counts in 3 HIV-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Lidhoo, Pooja; Unemori, Patrick; Leslie, Kieron S.; Maurer, Toby

    2014-01-01

    It has been reported that the diagnosis of multidermatomal herpes zoster in HIV-infected patients occurs at a lower CD4 level than zoster involving a single dermatome. Herein, we describe 3 cases of HIV-infected patients presenting with disseminated zoster at high CD4 counts and low HIV viral loads. PMID:19615545

  3. Disseminated Primary Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Infection in a 22-Year-Old male

    PubMed Central

    Erdmann, Nathan; Hewitt, Benjamin A.; Atkinson, Thomas Prescott; Van Wagoner, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of primary disseminated herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) cutaneous disease in a 22-year-old male. We discuss the immune response to HSV-2 infection as well as the extragenital manifestations of HSV-2 observed in immune-competent and immune-suppressed persons. PMID:26180838

  4. Collaborative complementation study of temperature-sensitive mutants of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2.

    PubMed Central

    Schaffer, P A; Carter, V C; Timbury, M C

    1978-01-01

    Twenty-three complementation groups of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and 20 of HSV-2 were identified by qualitative and quantitative complementation analysis from among 43 temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of HSV-1 and 29 ts mutants of HSV-2 which had been isolated independently in 10 laboratories. PMID:212578

  5. 75 FR 59670 - Immunology and Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of the Herpes Simplex Virus Serological...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 866 Immunology and Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of the Herpes Simplex Virus Serological Assay Device AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... Background of the Device In the Federal Register of April 3, 2007 (72 FR 15830), FDA published a final...

  6. Molecular requirement for sterols in herpes simplex virus entry and infectivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) required cholesterol for virion-induced membrane fusion. HSV successfully entered DHCR24-/-cells, which lack a desmosterol-to-cholesterol conversion enzyme, indicating entry can occur independently of cholesterol. Depletion of desmosterol from these cells resulted in d...

  7. Immunological Signaling During Herpes Simplex Virus-2 and Cytomegalovirus Vaginal Shedding After Initiation of Antiretroviral Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Nason, Martha C.; Patel, Eshan U.; Kirkpatrick, Allison R.; Prodger, Jessica L.; Shahabi, Kamnoosh; Tobian, Aaron A. R.; Gianella, Sara; Kalibbala, Sarah; Ssebbowa, Paschal; Kaul, Rupert; Gray, Ronald H.; Quinn, Thomas C.; Serwadda, David; Reynolds, Steven J.; Redd, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal proinflammatory cytokine expression during herpes virus reactivation was examined in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women before and after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Vaginal swabs were screened for levels of cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interferon-γ. The relative risk (RR) of herpes simplex virus-2 or cytomegalovirus (CMV) shedding being associated with cytokine levels above the median were estimated. Herpes simplex virus-2 shedding was significantly associated with higher levels of IL-6 (RR = 1.4, P = .003) and TNF-α (RR = 1.3, P = .010), whereas CMV shedding was associated with higher IL-6 (RR = 1.3, P = .006) and IL-2 (RR = 1.4, P = .01). The association of viral shedding with higher IL-6 levels suggests that herpes virus reactivation may be playing a role in immune activation after ART initiation. PMID:27191006

  8. Molluscum contagiosum and herpes simplex in Maasai pastoralists; refeeding activation of virus infection following famine?

    PubMed

    Murray, M J; Murray, A B; Murray, N J; Murray, M B; Murray, C J

    1980-01-01

    An epidemic of molluscum contagiosum and oro-genital herpes simplex was observed in Maasai pastoralists of the Rift Valley. It coincided with a period of refeeding following famine, when the relief diet was different from normal milk fare. We propose that refeeding may be an important mechanism for activation of certain viral infections previously suppressed by famine. PMID:7434431

  9. Imbalanced Oxidative Stress Causes Chlamydial Persistence during Non-Productive Human Herpes Virus Co-Infection

    PubMed Central

    Prusty, Bhupesh K.; Böhme, Linda; Bergmann, Birgit; Siegl, Christine; Krause, Eva; Mehlitz, Adrian; Rudel, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Both human herpes viruses and Chlamydia are highly prevalent in the human population and are detected together in different human disorders. Here, we demonstrate that co-infection with human herpes virus 6 (HHV6) interferes with the developmental cycle of C. trachomatis and induces persistence. Induction of chlamydial persistence by HHV6 is independent of productive virus infection, but requires the interaction and uptake of the virus by the host cell. On the other hand, viral uptake is strongly promoted under co-infection conditions. Host cell glutathione reductase activity was suppressed by HHV6 causing NADPH accumulation, decreased formation of reduced glutathione and increased oxidative stress. Prevention of oxidative stress restored infectivity of Chlamydia after HHV6-induced persistence. We show that co-infection with Herpes simplex virus 1 or human Cytomegalovirus also induces chlamydial persistence by a similar mechanism suggesting that Chlamydia -human herpes virus co-infections are evolutionary shaped interactions with a thus far unrecognized broad significance. PMID:23077614

  10. Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in a University Health Population: Clinical Manifestations, Epidemiology, and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Robert; Aierstuck, Sara; Williams, Elizabeth A.; Melby, Bernette

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors described clinical presentations of oral and genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in a university health population and implications of these findings. Participants and Methods: Using a standardized data collection tool, 215 records of patients with symptomatic culture-positive HSV infections were reviewed. Results:…

  11. THE PERSISTENCE OF CHICKEN HERPES AND RETRO VIRAL CHIMERIC MOLECULES UPON IN VIVO PASSAGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek's disease virus, a herpes virus, and avian leucosis virus subgroup J, a retrovirus were used for experimental co-infection of chicks. Two consecutive trials were performed in attempt to evaluate the formation and persistence of chimeric molecules that would indicate retro-viral integration int...

  12. Characteristics Associated with Genital Herpes Testing among Young Adults: Assessing Factors from Two National Data Sets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Lisa K.; Levandowski, Brooke A.; Roberts, Craig M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives and Participants: In the United States, genital herpes (GH) prevalence is 10.6% among 20- to 29-year-olds and about 90% of seropositive persons do not know their status. This study investigated individual characteristics associated with GH screening and diagnosis in sexually active young adults aged 18 to 24. Methods: Two data sets were

  13. Tromantadine: inhibitor of early and late events in herpes simplex virus replication.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, K S; Sokol, M S; Ingram, R L; Subramanian, R; Fort, R C

    1982-01-01

    Unlike amantadine (1-adamantanamine), tromantadine (N-1-adamantyl-N-[2-(dimethyl amino)ethoxy]acetamide hydrochloride) inhibits herpes simplex virus type 1 (KOS strain)-induced cytopathic effect and virus replication with limited toxicity to the cells. Vero and HEp-2 cells tolerated up to 2 mg of tromantadine per 2 X 10(6) cells for 24-, 48-, or 96-h incubation periods with little change in cell morphology. Treatment of the cells with 10 to 50 micrograms of tromantadine reduced herpes simplex virus-induced cytopathic effect. Treatment with 100 to 500 micrograms of tromantadine inhibited herpes simplex virus-induced cytopathic effect and reduced virus production. Complete inhibition of virus production was observed with treatments of 500 micrograms to 1 mg. The antiherpetic activity of tromantadine was dependent upon the viral inoculum size and the time of addition of the compound with respect to infection. Virion synthesis and viral polypeptide synthesis were inhibited by addition of tromantadine at the time of infection or 4 h postinfection. The results are consistent with tromantadine inhibition of an early event in herpes simplex virus infection, before macromolecular synthesis, and a late event, such as assembly or release of virus. Images PMID:6297383

  14. Herpes simplex virus 2 infection: molecular association with HIV and novel microbicides to prevent disease.

    PubMed

    Suazo, Paula A; Tognarelli, Eduardo I; Kalergis, Alexis M; González, Pablo A

    2015-04-01

    Infection with herpes simplex viruses is one of the most ancient diseases described to affect humans. Infection with these viruses produces vexing effects to the host, which frequently recur. Infection with herpes simplex viruses is lifelong, and currently there is no vaccine or drug to prevent or cure infection. Prevalence of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infection varies significantly depending on the geographical region and nears 20% worldwide. Importantly, HSV-2 is the first cause of genital ulcers in the planet. HSV-2 affects approximately 500 million people around the globe and significantly increases the likelihood of acquiring the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), as well as its shedding. Thus, controlling HSV-2 infection and spread is of public health concern. Here, we review the diseases produced by herpes simplex viruses, the factors that modulate HSV-2 infection, the relationship between HSV-2 and HIV and novel therapeutic and prophylactic microbicides/antivirals under development to prevent infection and pathological outcomes produced by this virus. We also review mutations associated with HSV-2 resistance to common antivirals. PMID:25209142

  15. Computational Studies of Benzoxazinone Derivatives as Antiviral Agents against Herpes Virus Type 1 Protease.

    PubMed

    Mello, Juliana F R; Botelho, Nathália C; Souza, Alessandra M T; Oliveira, Riethe; Brito, Monique A; Abrahim-Vieira, Bárbara de A; Sodero, Ana Carolina R; Castro, Helena C; Cabral, Lucio M; Miceli, Leonardo A; Rodrigues, Carlos R

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus infections have been described in the medical literature for centuries, yet the the drugs available nowadays for therapy are largely ineffective and low oral bioavailability plays an important role on the inefficacy of the treatments. Additionally, the details of the inhibition of Herpes Virus type 1 are still not fully understood. Studies have shown that several viruses encode one or more proteases required for the production new infectious virions. This study presents an analysis of the interactions between HSV-1 protease and benzoxazinone derivatives through a combination of structure-activity relationships, comparative modeling and molecular docking studies. The structure activity relationship results showed an important contribution of hydrophobic and polarizable groups and limitations for bulky groups in specific positions. Two Herpes Virus type 1 protease models were constructed and compared to achieve the best model which was obtained by MODELLER. Molecular docking results pointed to an important interaction between the most potent benzoxazinone derivative and Ser129, consistent with previous mechanistic data. Moreover, we also observed hydrophobic interactions that may play an important role in the stabilization of inhibitors in the active site. Finally, we performed druglikeness and drugscore studies of the most potent derivatives and the drugs currently used against Herpes virus. PMID:26065834

  16. Herpes simplex colitis in a child with combined liver and small bowel transplant.

    PubMed

    Delis, S; Kato, T; Ruiz, P; Mittal, N; Babinski, L; Tzakis, A

    2001-10-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) has been a rare cause of gastrointestinal (GI) infection, especially in immunocompromised patients. A variety of GI sites may be involved; however, only three reported cases of HSV colitis have been documented in the literature. To our knowledge, this is the first report of HSV colitis in a small bowel transplant recipient. PMID:11560759

  17. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) colitis in a bone marrow transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Naik, H R; Chandrasekar, P H

    1996-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are common in bone marrow transplantation patients. Unusual sites may be involved, however colonic disease with HSV is rare. We report a successfully treated case of colitis due to HSV, cytomegalovirus, Clostridium difficile and graft-versus-host disease in an allogeneic marrow recipient. PMID:8640181

  18. An outbreak of herpes simplex virus type 1 in an intensive care nursery.

    PubMed

    Hammerberg, O; Watts, J; Chernesky, M; Luchsinger, I; Rawls, W

    1983-01-01

    Neonatal herpes simplex infection is not a common occurrence but one which warrants particular concern. An 1800-g premature infant who developed respiratory distress and died at 12 days unexpectedly yielded HSV from a culture of cerebrospinal fluid. There were no mucocutaneous lesions. Ten days later three other infants (ages 40, 69 and 11 days) developed vesicles which yielded herpes simplex. Health care staff cohorts were assigned to "clean" or "exposed" nursery areas. The three secondarily infected cases were treated with vidarabine and did not develop systemic symptoms. Typing of the isolates using immunofluorescence and monoclonal antibodies revealed all to be herpes simplex type 1. Restriction endonuclease cleavage of viral DNA determined that the isolates from the four infants were identical. The mothers of the infants denied any history of recent or recurrent herpes, and their cervical cultures were negative. The source of the outbreak has remained unknown. The possibility of manual transmission to the secondary cases remains likely despite standard infection control practices. Cohort isolation of all exposed patients prevented further spread. PMID:6310534

  19. Amino-terminal sequence of glycoprotein D of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, R.J.; Long, D.; Hogue-Angeletti, R.; Cohen, G.H.

    1984-01-01

    Glycoprotein D (gD) of herpes simplex virus is a structural component of the virion envelope which stimulates production of high titers of herpes simplex virus type-common neutralizing antibody. The authors caried out automated N-terminal amino acid sequencing studies on radiolabeled preparations of gD-1 (gD of herpes simplex virus type 1) and gD-2 (gD of herpes simplex virus type 2). Although some differences were noted, particularly in the methionine and alanine profiles for gD-1 and gD-2, the amino acid sequence of a number of the first 30 residues of the amino terminus of gD-1 and gD-2 appears to be quite similar. For both proteins, the first residue is a lysine. When we compared out sequence data for gD-1 with those predicted by nucleic acid sequencing, the two sequences could be aligned (with one exception) starting at residue 26 (lysine) of the predicted sequence. Thus, the first 25 amino acids of the predicted sequence are absent from the polypeptides isolated from infected cells.

  20. Influence of herpes simplex virus infection on benzo(a)pyrene metabolism in monkey kidney cells

    SciTech Connect

    Degenhardt, J.H.; Whitcomb, B.; Hall, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    Current research in our laboratory is designed to investigate the intracellular interactions of BP with oncogenic DNA viruses of animals and humans. In this study, our purpose was to determine whether BP is metabolized in herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infected cells and whether HSV-2 infection affects intracellular levels of the aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase system necessary for BP metabolism.

  1. Quantitative autoradiographic mapping of focal herpes simplex virus encephalitis using a radiolabeled antiviral drug

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R.

    1984-12-18

    A method of mapping herpes simplex viral infection comprising administering a radiolabeled antiviral active 5-substituted 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-substituted-D-arabinofuranosyl) pyrimidine nucleoside to the infected subject, and scanning the area in which the infection is to be mapped for the radiolabel.

  2. Guidance on management of asymptomatic neonates born to women with active genital herpes lesions.

    PubMed

    Kimberlin, David W; Baley, Jill

    2013-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection of the neonate is uncommon, but genital herpes infections in adults are very common. Thus, although treating an infant with neonatal herpes is a relatively rare occurrence, managing infants potentially exposed to HSV at the time of delivery occurs more frequently. The risk of transmitting HSV to an infant during delivery is determined in part by the mother's previous immunity to HSV. Women with primary genital HSV infections who are shedding HSV at delivery are 10 to 30 times more likely to transmit the virus to their newborn infants than are women with recurrent HSV infection who are shedding virus at delivery. With the availability of commercial serological tests that reliably can distinguish type-specific HSV antibodies, it is now possible to determine the type of maternal infection and, thus, further refine management of infants delivered to women who have active genital HSV lesions. The management algorithm presented herein uses both serological and virological studies to determine the risk of HSV transmission to the neonate who is delivered to a mother with active herpetic genital lesions and tailors management accordingly. The algorithm does not address the approach to asymptomatic neonates delivered to women with a history of genital herpes but no active lesions at delivery. PMID:23359576

  3. Intraoral herpes simplex virus infection in a patient with common variable immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Villa, Alessandro; Treister, Nathaniel S

    2013-10-01

    We report a challenging case of an atypical presentation of recrudescent herpes simplex virus infection in a patient with common variable immunodeficiency. Oral infections in immunosuppressed patients may present with unusual clinical features that can mimic non-infectious diseases. This report discusses the diagnostic steps necessary for definitive diagnosis and to guide appropriate and effective management. PMID:23933299

  4. Characteristics Associated with Genital Herpes Testing among Young Adults: Assessing Factors from Two National Data Sets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Lisa K.; Levandowski, Brooke A.; Roberts, Craig M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives and Participants: In the United States, genital herpes (GH) prevalence is 10.6% among 20- to 29-year-olds and about 90% of seropositive persons do not know their status. This study investigated individual characteristics associated with GH screening and diagnosis in sexually active young adults aged 18 to 24. Methods: Two data sets were…

  5. Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in a University Health Population: Clinical Manifestations, Epidemiology, and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Robert; Aierstuck, Sara; Williams, Elizabeth A.; Melby, Bernette

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors described clinical presentations of oral and genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in a university health population and implications of these findings. Participants and Methods: Using a standardized data collection tool, 215 records of patients with symptomatic culture-positive HSV infections were reviewed. Results:

  6. Disease burden and epidemiology of herpes zoster in pre-vaccine Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yung-Hsiu; Huang, Li-Min; Chang, I-Shou; Tsai, Fang-Yu; Lu, Chun-Yi; Shao, Pei-Lan; Chang, Luan-Yin

    2010-02-01

    Herpes zoster, a common disease, has an important impact on the health of adults, particularly the elderly, and the health system. This study evaluated the disease burden and epidemiological characteristics of herpes zoster in Taiwan. Using herpes zoster-related ICD-9-CM codes used on Taiwan's National Health Insurance claims, we analyzed overall and age group differences in incidence, complications, utilization of healthcare facilities, lengths of stay, and cost of their medical care in Taiwan's population from 2000 to 2005. The overall annual incidence of zoster was 4.97 cases per 1000 people, with women having a significantly higher incidence than men (5.20 per 1000 vs. 4.72 per 1000, p<0.001). The incidence increased stepwise with age, with 5.18 cases per 1000 in people 40-50 years old, 8.36 in those 50-60, 11.09 in those 60-70, and 11.77 in those above 70 years old. The estimated lifetime risk of developing herpes zoster was 32.2%. Zoster-related hospitalizations and medical cost per patient increased with age. In conclusion, about two-thirds of Taiwan's zoster cases occur in adults older than 40 years old and about one-third of the population would develop zoster within their lifetime. PMID:19944790

  7. Double encephalitis with herpes simplex virus type II and cytomegalovirus in an elder Chinese: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Chaobiao; Chen, Shaoxian; Lin, Qi; Zhou, Houshi; Huang, Chuming; Lin, Jiyuan; Xie, Weihang; Chen, Kai; Zhou, Dongming; Ma, Wan; Ma, Feiyu; Xu, Haiyun

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis is a rare disease. In adults, most of the reported cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections are seen in immunocompromised patients. We present a case of 67-year-old Chinese male with the coinfection of CMV and herpes simplex virus type II (HSV-II). He had no history of being treated with immunosuppressants, showed symptoms of psychosis and was scored 109 on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. This patient presented with a rare case of coinfection of CMV and herpes simplex virus type II with psychotic symptoms. PMID:26586947

  8. A Primary Neuron Culture System for the Study of Herpes Simplex Virus Latency and Reactivation

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Mariko; Kim, Ju-Youn; Camarena, Vladimir; Roehm, Pamela C.; Chao, Moses V.; Wilson, Angus C.; Mohr, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) establishes a life-long latent infection in peripheral neurons. This latent reservoir is the source of recurrent reactivation events that ensure transmission and contribute to clinical disease. Current antivirals do not impact the latent reservoir and there are no vaccines. While the molecular details of lytic replication are well-characterized, mechanisms controlling latency in neurons remain elusive. Our present understanding of latency is derived from in vivo studies using small animal models, which have been indispensable for defining viral gene requirements and the role of immune responses. However, it is impossible to distinguish specific effects on the virus-neuron relationship from more general consequences of infection mediated by immune or non-neuronal support cells in live animals. In addition, animal experimentation is costly, time-consuming, and limited in terms of available options for manipulating host processes. To overcome these limitations, a neuron-only system is desperately needed that reproduces the in vivo characteristics of latency and reactivation but offers the benefits of tissue culture in terms of homogeneity and accessibility. Here we present an in vitro model utilizing cultured primary sympathetic neurons from rat superior cervical ganglia (SCG) (Figure 1) to study HSV-1 latency and reactivation that fits most if not all of the desired criteria. After eliminating non-neuronal cells, near-homogeneous TrkA+ neuron cultures are infected with HSV-1 in the presence of acyclovir (ACV) to suppress lytic replication. Following ACV removal, non-productive HSV-1 infections that faithfully exhibit accepted hallmarks of latency are efficiently established. Notably, lytic mRNAs, proteins, and infectious virus become undetectable, even in the absence of selection, but latency-associated transcript (LAT) expression persists in neuronal nuclei. Viral genomes are maintained at an average copy number of 25 per neuron and can be induced to productively replicate by interfering with PI3-Kinase / Akt signaling or the simple withdrawal of nerve growth factor1. A recombinant HSV-1 encoding EGFP fused to the viral lytic protein Us11 provides a functional, real-time marker for replication resulting from reactivation that is readily quantified. In addition to chemical treatments, genetic methodologies such as RNA-interference or gene delivery via lentiviral vectors can be successfully applied to the system permitting mechanistic studies that are very difficult, if not impossible, in animals. In summary, the SCG-based HSV-1 latency / reactivation system provides a powerful, necessary tool to unravel the molecular mechanisms controlling HSV1 latency and reactivation in neurons, a long standing puzzle in virology whose solution may offer fresh insights into developing new therapies that target the latent herpesvirus reservoir. PMID:22491318

  9. Oligomeric structure of glycoproteins in herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Handler, C G; Eisenberg, R J; Cohen, G H

    1996-01-01

    A number of herpes simplex virus (HSV) glycoproteins are found in oligomeric states: glycoprotein E (gE)-gI and gH-gL form heterodimers, and both gB and gC have been detected as homodimers. We have further explored the organization of glycoproteins in the virion envelope by using both purified virions to quantitate glycoprotein amounts and proportions and chemical cross-linkers to detect oligomers. We purified gB, gC, gD, and gH from cells infected with HSV type 1 and used these as immunological standards. Glycoproteins present in sucrose gradient-purified preparations of two strains of HSV type 1, KOS and NS, were detected with antibodies to each of the purified proteins. From these data, glycoprotein molar ratios of 1:2:11:16 and 1:1:14:9 were calculated for gB/gC/gD/gH in KOS and NS, respectively. gL was also detected in virions, although we lacked a purified gL standard for quantitation. We then asked whether complexes of these glycoproteins could be identified, and if they existed as homo- or hetero-oligomers. Purified KOS was incubated at 4 degrees C with bis (sulfosuccinimidyl) suberate (BS3), an 11.4 A (1A = 0.1 mm) noncleavable, water-soluble cross-linker. Virus extracts were examined by Western blotting (immunoblotting), or immunoprecipitation followed by Western blotting, to assay for homo- and hetero-oligomers. Homodimers of gB, gC, and gD were detected, and hetero-oligomers containing gB cross-linked to gC, gC to gD, and gD to gB were also identified. gH and gL were detected as a hetero-oligomeric pair and could be cross-linked to gD or gC but not to gB. We conclude that these glycoproteins are capable of forming associations with one another. These studies suggest that glycoproteins are closely associated in virions and have the potential to function as oligomeric complexes. PMID:8709230

  10. Risk of herpes zoster in children with asthma

    PubMed Central

    Wi, Chung-Il; Kim, Bong-Seong; Mehra, Sonia; Yawn, Barbara P.; Park, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is literature that indicates the association of asthma with an increased risk of common and serious microbial infections. We recently reported an increased risk of vaccine-preventable diseases, e.g., herpes zoster (HZ) among children with asthma, defined by predetermined asthma criteria. Little is known about whether this association is persistent if the asthma status is defined by different asthma criteria, e.g., the Asthma Predictive Index, given the heterogeneity of asthma. Objective: To assess the consistency of the association between asthma and the risk of HZ in children. Methods: This is a population-based case-control study based on all pediatric patients with HZ between 1996 and 2001 in Olmsted County, Minnesota, and 1:1 age- and sex-matched controls without a history of HZ who were enrolled in our previous study. The original Asthma Predictive Index criteria was operationalized by two or more wheezing episodes in a year for the first 3 years of life plus one of the major (physician-diagnosed asthma for a parent or physician-diagnosed eczema for a patient) or two of the minor criteria (physician-diagnosed allergic rhinitis for a patient, wheezing apart from cold, or eosinophilia [≥4%]). Data were fit to traditional logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios and 95% confident intervals. Results: Of the original cohort (n = 554), 95 (17%) did not meet the enrollment criteria for this study, which left 459. Of the 221 patients, 53% were female, with a mean (standard deviation) age of 9.7 ± 4.2 years. The risk of HZ was increased in children with asthma defined by the API controlling for a varicella vaccine history and atopic status (adjusted odds ratio 2.56 [95% confidence interval, 1.08–6.56]). Conclusions: The association between asthma and increased risk of HZ in children and adolescents is consistent, independent of asthma definitions. Asthma might be an important clinical condition to be considered in HZ vaccine studies. PMID:26314818

  11. [Herpes simplex virus vaccine studies: from past to present].

    PubMed

    Us, Dürdal

    2006-10-01

    The dramatical increase in the prevalence of Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections and the significant physical and psychosocial morbidity of HSV type 2 infections, generate the need for an efficacious HSV vaccine. The most important properties of HSVs that should be targeted for a successful vaccine are neuronal invasion, latency and reactivation in spite of specific host immune responses. The major expectation for an ideal HSV vaccine candidate is to induce sterilizing immunity, which must be effective at all portals of HSV entry; to prevent or reduce the symptomatic disease and to eliminate or at least to limit the asymptomatic viral shedding. The first vaccine studies have began in the 1920s and in the intervening eight decades there have been many attempts to develop an effective one. Although encouraging findings came from experiments in various animal models, human studies have been disappointing, unfortunately. The vaccine strategies that have undergone clinical evaluation until today included autoinoculation of live HSV, whole inactivated vaccines, attenuated live virus vaccines, modified live virus subunit vaccines, cell culture-derived subunit vaccines, recombinant subunit (glycoprotein) vaccines, DISC (Disabled Infectious Single Cycle) virus vaccines, viral vectors and naked DNA vaccines. In most of the clinical studies the failure of HSV vaccines in spite of inducing very high levels of specific neutralizing antibodies have emphasized that cell-mediated immune response, especially Thl type immunity is important in preventing both primary disease and recurrences with HSV, rather than humoral response. The most hopeful result was obtained with HSV-2 gD and alum/MPL vaccine in clinical studies. This vaccine was found 74% effective in preventing genital disease in HSV seronegative women but was not effective in men or seropositive women. In recent years it is possible to genetically engineer HSV to produce a vaccine strain that is protective without causing human disease. An example for this strategy was the development of a live attenuated vaccine from which neurovirulence gene (gamma1 34.5) has been removed. Another promising one was the replication-defective DISC virus HSV vaccine which is derived from a virus with an essential gene (e.g. gH gene) deleted, so the replication has been limited only to a single cycle. As a result, intensive HSV vaccine trials are currently underway, although all the previous attempts to produce an effective vaccine for the prophylaxis and immunotherapy against HSV have been largely unsuccessful. In this review the history of HSV vaccine development together with the preclinical and clinical studies from past to present has been summarized and recent progress for an effective HSV vaccine together with the further improvements required for an immunogenic vaccine have been discussed. PMID:17205702

  12. Herpes Zoster and Tofacitinib Therapy in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Winthrop, Kevin L; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Valdez, Hernan; Mortensen, Eric; Chew, Robert; Krishnaswami, Sriram; Kawabata, Thomas; Riese, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Objective Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at increased risk for herpes zoster (HZ) (i.e., shingles). The aim of this study was to determine whether treatment with tofacitinib increases the risk of HZ in patients with RA. Methods HZ cases were identified as those reported by trial investigators from the databases of the phase II, phase III, and long-term extension (LTE) clinical trials in the Tofacitinib RA Development Program. Crude incidence rates (IRs) of HZ per 100 patient-years (with 95% confidence intervals [95% CIs]) were calculated by exposure group. Logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate potential risk factors for HZ (e.g., age, prednisone use). Results Among 4,789 participants, 239 were identified as having tofacitinib-associated HZ during the phase II, phase III, and LTE trials, of whom 208 (87%) were female and whose median age was 57 years (range 21–75 years). One HZ case (0.4%) was multidermatomal; none of the cases involved visceral dissemination or death. Twenty-four patients with HZ (10%) permanently discontinued treatment with tofacitinib, and 16 (7%) were either hospitalized or received intravenous antiviral drugs. The crude HZ IR across the development program was 4.4 per 100 patient-years (95% CI 3.8–4.9), but the IR was substantially higher within Asia (7.7 per 100 patient-years, 95% CI 6.4–9.3). Older age was associated with HZ (odds ratio 1.9, 95% CI 1.5–2.6), and IRs for HZ were similar between patients receiving 5 mg tofacitinib twice daily (4.4 per 100 patient-years, 95% CI 3.2–6.0) and those receiving 10 mg twice daily (4.2 per 100 patient-years, 95% CI 3.1–5.8). In the phase III trials among placebo recipients, the incidence of HZ was 1.5 per 100 patient-years (95% CI 0.5–4.6). Conclusion In the Tofacitinib RA Development Program, increased rates of HZ were observed in patients treated with tofacitinib compared with those receiving placebo, particularly among patients within Asia. Complicated HZ among tofacitinib-treated patients was rare. PMID:24943354

  13. Structural basis for the antibody neutralization of Herpes simplex virus

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Cheng-Chung; Lin, Li-Ling; Chan, Woan-Eng; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Lai, Jiann-Shiun; Wang, Andrew H.-J.

    2013-10-01

    The gD–E317-Fab complex crystal revealed the conformational epitope of human mAb E317 on HSV gD, providing a molecular basis for understanding the viral neutralization mechanism. Glycoprotein D (gD) of Herpes simplex virus (HSV) binds to a host cell surface receptor, which is required to trigger membrane fusion for virion entry into the host cell. gD has become a validated anti-HSV target for therapeutic antibody development. The highly inhibitory human monoclonal antibody E317 (mAb E317) was previously raised against HSV gD for viral neutralization. To understand the structural basis of antibody neutralization, crystals of the gD ectodomain bound to the E317 Fab domain were obtained. The structure of the complex reveals that E317 interacts with gD mainly through the heavy chain, which covers a large area for epitope recognition on gD, with a flexible N-terminal and C-terminal conformation. The epitope core structure maps to the external surface of gD, corresponding to the binding sites of two receptors, herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) and nectin-1, which mediate HSV infection. E317 directly recognizes the gD–nectin-1 interface and occludes the HVEM contact site of gD to block its binding to either receptor. The binding of E317 to gD also prohibits the formation of the N-terminal hairpin of gD for HVEM recognition. The major E317-binding site on gD overlaps with either the nectin-1-binding residues or the neutralizing antigenic sites identified thus far (Tyr38, Asp215, Arg222 and Phe223). The epitopes of gD for E317 binding are highly conserved between two types of human herpesvirus (HSV-1 and HSV-2). This study enables the virus-neutralizing epitopes to be correlated with the receptor-binding regions. The results further strengthen the previously demonstrated therapeutic and diagnostic potential of the E317 antibody.

  14. Genome Sequencing and Analysis of Geographically Diverse Clinical Isolates of Herpes Simplex Virus 2

    PubMed Central

    Lamers, Susanna L.; Weiner, Brian; Ray, Stuart C.; Colgrove, Robert C.; Diaz, Fernando; Jing, Lichen; Wang, Kening; Saif, Sakina; Young, Sarah; Henn, Matthew; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Tobian, Aaron A. R.; Cohen, Jeffrey I.; Koelle, David M.; Quinn, Thomas C.; Knipe, David M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), the principal causative agent of recurrent genital herpes, is a highly prevalent viral infection worldwide. Limited information is available on the amount of genomic DNA variation between HSV-2 strains because only two genomes have been determined, the HG52 laboratory strain and the newly sequenced SD90e low-passage-number clinical isolate strain, each from a different geographical area. In this study, we report the nearly complete genome sequences of 34 HSV-2 low-passage-number and laboratory strains, 14 of which were collected in Uganda, 1 in South Africa, 11 in the United States, and 8 in Japan. Our analyses of these genomes demonstrated remarkable sequence conservation, regardless of geographic origin, with the maximum nucleotide divergence between strains being 0.4% across the genome. In contrast, prior studies indicated that HSV-1 genomes exhibit more sequence diversity, as well as geographical clustering. Additionally, unlike HSV-1, little viral recombination between HSV-2 strains could be substantiated. These results are interpreted in light of HSV-2 evolution, epidemiology, and pathogenesis. Finally, the newly generated sequences more closely resemble the low-passage-number SD90e than HG52, supporting the use of the former as the new reference genome of HSV-2. IMPORTANCE Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a causative agent of genital and neonatal herpes. Therefore, knowledge of its DNA genome and genetic variability is central to preventing and treating genital herpes. However, only two full-length HSV-2 genomes have been reported. In this study, we sequenced 34 additional HSV-2 low-passage-number and laboratory viral genomes and initiated analysis of the genetic diversity of HSV-2 strains from around the world. The analysis of these genomes will facilitate research aimed at vaccine development, diagnosis, and the evaluation of clinical manifestations and transmission of HSV-2. This information will also contribute to our understanding of HSV evolution. PMID:26018166

  15. Evaluation of Chosen Cytokine Levels among Patients with Herpes Zoster as Ability to Provide Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Zajkowska, Agata; Garkowski, Adam; Świerzbińska, Renata; Kułakowska, Alina; Król, Monika Emilia; Ptaszyńska-Sarosiek, Iwona; Nowicka-Ciełuszecka, Anna; Pancewicz, Sławomir; Czupryna, Piotr; Moniuszko, Anna; Zajkowska, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Aim and Background Herpes zoster is a viral disease caused by the reactivation of varicella–zoster virus (VZV) which remained latent in the cranial nerve or dorsal root ganglia. Cell-mediated immunity is known to decline with age as part of immunosenescence and can lead to the reactivation of VZV. Whereas herpes zoster is usually mild in healthy young persons, older patients are at increased risk for complications. In the present study we investigated the serum cytokine profile (IL-17, IL-23, IL-21, IL-4, IL-12), representing cellular and humoral immunity and assessed the level of VZV IgG antibodies in patients with herpes zoster. Methods We investigated the serum concentrations of IL-17, IL-23, IL-21, IL-4, IL-12 and the level of VZV IgG antibodies in 23 patients with herpes zoster who did not develop superinfection. The control group was represented by 21 individuals in similar age with no inflammatory and infectious diseases. Cytokine and antibodies levels were measured by ELISA method. Statistical analysis was performed using the ROC curve (receiver operating characteristic), t-test, Welch’s t-test, and nonparametric tests with STATISTICA 10 software. Results In patients with herpes zoster, the serum level of IL-17, IL-23, IL-21, IL-4 and IL-12 as well as VZV IgG antibodies titer were statistically significantly increased compared to control group. Conclusion Our results confirm the broad activation of the immune system involving humoral and cell-mediated immunity. PMID:26934574

  16. Association of Herpes Viruses with Mild, Moderate and Severe Chronic Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Bharadwaj, Renu; Bhat, Kishore; Happy, Daisy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Periodontal disease is an inflammatory condition of the supporting tissues of the teeth. It is a multi-factorial and multi-etiological infectious disease process. Recent evidences shows that human herpes viruses could be putative pathogens. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of Herpes viruses especially Herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1 and 2), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods A total of 75 patients with periodontitis were included in the study (25 each with mild, moderate and severe periodontitis) with ethical approval and informed consent. Sub gingival plaque sample was collected and subjected to extraction of DNA and further analysis with multiplex Polymerase chain reaction for the presence of herpes viral DNA. The collected data was entered in the excel sheet format. It was subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS software. The Chi-Square statistical tests was applied and p-value<0.05 was taken as significant. Results The overall association of HSV-1, HSV-2, EBV and CMV was 28%, 32%, 30.66% and 37.33% respectively in the present study from the cases of chronic periodontitis. Conclusion Epstein Barr viruses were detected from all types of cases of chronic periodontitis in the present study. Though, EBV was not significantly associated with periodontitis; they were significantly increased in severe periodontitis. Herpes viruses were significantly associated with periodontal disease, more so with severe periodontal disease. They could thus be playing a role in increasing the severity of the disease. Therapeutic and prophylactic intervention planned against these viruses could decrease the tooth loss associated with this disease. PMID:26393126

  17. An update on short-course intermittent and prevention therapies for herpes labialis.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Stanley; Corey, Lawrence; Cunningham, Anthony; Malkin, Jean-Elie; Stanberry, Lawrence; Whitley, Richard; Spruance, Spotswood

    2007-06-01

    Infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV) has increased in prevalence worldwide over the past two decades, making it a major public health concern. Approximately 90% of recurrent HSV type 1 (HSV-1) infections manifest as non-genital disease, primarily as orofacial lesions known as herpes labialis. Improvements in our understanding of the natural history of herpes labialis support the rationale for early treatment (during the prodrome or erythema stages) with high doses of antiviral agents in order to maximize drug benefit. When evaluating the efficacy of different antiviral and anti-inflammatory agents in clinical trials, episode duration, lesion healing time, reduction in maximum lesion size and the proportion of aborted lesions should be used as the most reliable measures of therapeutic efficacy. There has also been considerable research into the most beneficial treatment for recurrent episodes of herpes labialis in immunocompetent individuals. Data from clinical studies confirm that short-course, high-dose oral antiviral therapy should be offered to patients with recurrent herpes labialis to accelerate healing, reduce pain and most likely increase treatment adherence. Optimal benefits may be obtained when these oral antiviral agents are combined with topical corticosteroids, but more research is needed with this combination. Patients undergoing facial cosmetic procedures (i.e.facial resurfacing) are at risk of HSV reactivation, but further data are required on the actual risk according to the specific procedure. Aciclovir, valaciclovir and famciclovir all provide effective prophylaxis against HSV-1 reactivation following ablative facial resurfacing. However, no definitive recommendations can be made regarding prophylactic therapy for minimally invasive procedures at present. PMID:17877887

  18. Simple kinematic gait measurements.

    PubMed

    Bajd, T; Kralj, A

    1980-04-01

    Simple kinematic gait measurement equipment was developed providing fast and inexpensive clinical gait analysis. Such a simple system can be used as a stand-alone clinical gait analyser, or as an accessory for measurements whose results are not sufficiently weighted statistically, such as TV, Selspot, force plate. Time, distance and velocity parameters are included in the clinical gait analysis. Time parameters (step and stride time, swing and stance phase) are measured via easily attachable foot-switches. Analog and digital versions were developed to analyse distance (stride and step length) and velocity (instantaneous velocity of centre of gravity) parameters. With the analog device the velocity is measured by tachometer and distance by potentiometer, while using digital methods, both parameters can be obtained from an optical transducer. PMID:7374117

  19. Simple Finite Jordan Pseudoalgebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnikov, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    We consider the structure of Jordan H-pseudoalgebras which are linearly finitely generated over a Hopf algebra H. There are two cases under consideration: H = U(h) and H = U(h) # C[Γ], where h is a finite-dimensional Lie algebra over C, Γ is an arbitrary group acting on U(h) by automorphisms. We construct an analogue of the Tits-Kantor-Koecher construction for finite Jordan pseudoalgebras and describe all simple ones.

  20. A herpes-like virus infects a non-ostreid bivalve species: virus replication in Ruditapes philippinarum larvae.

    PubMed

    Renault, T; Lipart, C; Arzul, I

    2001-05-01

    Sporadic high mortalities were reported in June 1997 among hatchery-reared larval Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum in a French commercial hatchery. Cellular abnormalities were observed in semi-thin sections in affected animals. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of herpes-like virus particles in larvae. This is the first description of a herpes-like virus infection in larval R. philippinarum, a non-ostreid bivalve species. Virus particles were similar to other herpes-like viruses described from different oyster species with respect to ultrastructure and morphogenesis. Electron microscopic examination also demonstrated cells with condensed chromatin and extensive perinuclear fragmentation of chromatin. Like viruses infecting oysters, the herpes-like virus detected in clams may induce apoptosis in infected animals. PMID:11411639

  1. Regulation of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase in cells treated with a synergistic antiviral combination of alpha interferon and acyclovir.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, J L; Tom, P; Guy, J; Selvarajan, R M; O'Brien, W J

    1994-01-01

    Alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) and acyclovir (ACV) are synergistic in their anti-herpes simplex virus activities. IFN-alpha treatment reduced the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (TK) activity present in cells 6 h postinfection, while steady-state levels of TK mRNA remained at or above the amount in infected, untreated cells. The inhibition of TK production by IFN-alpha treatment appeared to be transient and translational, not transcriptional. Images PMID:8031058

  2. Results From a Hypothesis Generating Case-Control Study: Herpes Family Viruses and Schizophrenia Among Military Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Niebuhr, David W.; Millikan, Amy M.; Yolken, Robert; Li, Yuanzhang; Weber, Natalya S.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Herpes family viruses can cause central nervous system inflammatory changes that can present with symptoms indistinguishable from schizophrenia and therefore are of interest in schizophrenia research. Most existing studies of herpes viruses have used small populations and postdiagnosis specimens. As part of a larger research program, we conducted a hypothesis-generating case-control study of selected herpes virus antibodies among individuals discharged from the US military with schizophrenia and pre- and postdiagnosis sera. Methods: Cases (n = 180) were servicemembers hospitalized and discharged from military service with schizophrenia. Controls, 3:1 matched on several factors, were members not discharged. The military routinely collects and stores members' serum specimens. We used microplate enzyme immunoassay to measure immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels to 6 herpes viruses in pre- and postdiagnosis specimens. Conditional logistic regression was used, and the measure of association was the hazard ratio (HR). Results: Overall, we found a significant association between human herpes virus type 6 and schizophrenia, with an HR of 1.17 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04, 1.32). Women and blacks had significant negative associations with herpes simplex virus type 2 and cytomegalovirus; among blacks, there was a significant positive association with herpes simplex virus type 1. Among men, there was a HHV-6 temporal effect with an HR of 1.41 (95% CI = 1.02, 1.96) for sera drawn 6–12 months before diagnosis. Discussion: Findings from previous studies of herpes family viruses and schizophrenia have been inconsistent. Our study is based on a larger population than most previous studies and used serum specimens collected before onset of illness. This study adds to the body of knowledge and provides testable hypotheses for follow-on studies. PMID:18156638

  3. Effect of Prior Immunization on Induction of Cervical Cancer in Mice by Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budd Wentz, W.; Heggie, Alfred D.; Anthony, Donald D.; Reagan, James W.

    1983-12-01

    Previous studies at this laboratory showed that repeated application of inactivated herpes simplex virus type 2 to the mouse cervix produces premalignant and malignant lesions. In the present study mice were inoculated with inactivated herpes simplex virus type 2 or control solution and Freund's adjuvant by intraperitoneal and subcutaneous routes before exposure of the cervix to inactivated virus. It appears that immunization with inactivated virus conferred a protection against the induction of cervical carcinoma.

  4. Simple Linear Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grégoire, G.

    2014-12-01

    This chapter deals with the very simple situation where the mean of a variable, the response variable, usually denoted Y, is linearly depending on another variable, the regressor, here denoted x1. The least squared method is used to get the parameter estimators and estimates of their precisions. This leads to design confidence and prediction intervals, significance tests, anova table. Residuals, diagnostics to identify influent observations and outliers are presented. Methods to detect departures from the model's assumptions and ways of dealing with these departures are addressed. Along the chapter a data set is used to illustrate the methods with the sofware R.

  5. Dimensional analysis made simple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lira, Ignacio

    2013-11-01

    An inductive strategy is proposed for teaching dimensional analysis to second- or third-year students of physics, chemistry, or engineering. In this strategy, Buckingham's theorem is seen as a consequence and not as the starting point. In order to concentrate on the basics, the mathematics is kept as elementary as possible. Simple examples are suggested for classroom demonstrations of the power of the technique and others are put forward for homework or experimentation, but instructors are encouraged to produce examples of their own.

  6. Autosomal dominant simple microphthalmos.

    PubMed Central

    Vingolo, E M; Steindl, K; Forte, R; Zompatori, L; Iannaccone, A; Sciarra, A; Del Porto, G; Pannarale, M R

    1994-01-01

    Congenital bilateral microphthalmos is a rare malformation of the eye, which ranges from extreme to mild reduction of total axial length. Microphthalmos may occur as an isolated ocular abnormality or as part of a systemic disorder, and different classifications of the condition have been attempted. We describe a large pedigree with 14 persons in four generations affected with bilateral microphthalmos without other ocular or systemic signs. An autosomal dominant trait with complete penetrance is proposed. Five subjects underwent a complete ophthalmological evaluation. The total axial length was measured by A scan ultrasonography in all persons. Ultrasonography showed a reduction of the total axial length (range 18.4-19.7 mm) and a reduced vitreous cavity length (range 11.4-13.5 mm) in all investigated patients. All the patients had microcornea (range 8-9.7 mm). No other ocular anomalies or associated systemic malformations were found. A review of published reports also suggests that simple, partial, posterior, pure microphthalmos and nanophthalmos are similar clinical entities sharing total axial length and vitreous cavity length reduction. Therefore, the term simple microphthalmos is proposed to identify these clinical conditions. Images PMID:7815444

  7. Program For Simple Algebra

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, D.

    1985-03-01

    PFSA (Program For Simple Algebra) is designed to be helpful to people doing algebra and calculus with polynomial expressions. It is written entirely in Fortran and hence is portable and easily modified. It is much (approximately 90 times) faster than Macsyma. PFSA uses Fortran integer arithmetic to compute coefficients, and so the occurrence of an excessively large number in a numerator or denominator during a computation bombs the computation. The program was developed to enable a computation (of a canonical transformation for a Hamiltonian system) which was too big to be run in other systems available at the time. The intent in creating PFSA was to make a program which would do the Hamiltonian computation and similar computations easily and fast. The only language available (on the Cray) was Fortran. Example C in Section III is a very simple canonical transformation. In running the problem for which PFSA was written some intermediate expressions have more than 20,000 terms and some answers have more than 1000 terms.

  8. Mechanisms of expression of herpes simplex virus-common surface antigens in clonal cells of a herpes simplex virus type 2-transformed line.

    PubMed Central

    Okazaki, K; Ohnishi, Y; Yoshida, N; Kimura, S

    1981-01-01

    Rabbit antiserum hyperimmune to herpes simplex virus type 1 was used to study the expression of herpes simplex virus type-common surface antigens (CSA) by indirect immunofluorescence tests in three representative cell clones isolated from a herpes simplex virus type 2-transformed hamster line, 155-4. These three clones showed different phenotypes with respect to CSA expression: (i) a CSA-positive type (clone (155-4-213), in which the antigens increased soon (5 h) after seeding at 37 degrees C, but not after treatment with actinomycin D; (ii) a CSA-inducible type (clone 155-4-03), in which the antigens increased after treatment with actinomycin D (2 micrograms/ml) for 20 h, but not after seeding only; and (iii) a CSA-negative type (clone 155-4-16), in which the antigens did not increase after seeding or after actinomycin D treatment. CSA expression in the CSA-positive type was inhibited by 2-deoxy-D-glucose, but not by puromycin, suggesting that the expression required glycosylation, but not active protein synthesis. CSA expression in this type was insensitive to the protease inhibitors antipain and p-nitrophenyl-p'-guanidinobenzoate. On the other hand, actinomycin D-induced CSA expression in the CSA-inducible type was inhibited by both 2-deoxy-D-glucose and puromycin, suggesting that the induced expression required both glycosylation and protein synthesis. CSA expression induced in this type was sensitive to the two protease inhibitors at concentrations having little effect on overall cellular metabolism or cell viability. These results indicate that CSA expressions in the CSA-positive type and the CSA-inducible type are enhanced by different mechanisms. PMID:6264119

  9. Multicenter randomized study of inosine pranobex versus acyclovir in the treatment of recurrent herpes labialis and recurrent herpes genitalis in Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    You, Yi; Wang, Li; Li, Yafei; Wang, Qianqiu; Cao, Shuanglin; Tu, Yating; Li, Shenqiu; Bai, Li; Lu, Jianyun; Wei, Zhiping; Chen, Wenchieh; Hao, Fei

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral inosine pranobex as compared with acyclovir in the treatment of recurrent herpes labialis (RHL) and recurrent herpes genitalis (RHG). A multicenter double-blind, double-dummy, randomized, controlled, parallel group trial was conducted in 144 patients with RHL and 144 RHG. Patients were assigned to treatment in one of two groups: (i) inosine pranobex group (active inosine pranobex, 1 g four times daily, and acyclovir placebo); or (ii) acyclovir group (active acyclovir, 200 mg five times daily, and inosine pranobex placebo). The total symptom score (TSS) of patients with RHL did not differ in the inosine pranobex and acyclovir group on the 3rd or 7th day of treatment. There was also no difference in the efficacy rates between the two groups. No difference of TSS was observed between patients with RHG taking inosine pranobex and acyclovir on days 3 or 5 of the treatment, respectively. The short-term clinical recurrence rate of RHG at 3-month follow-up was much lower in the inosine pranobex group than acyclovir group. The incidence of hyperuricemia was higher in the inosine pranobex group than acyclovir group. In conclusion, inosine pranobex was as effective as acyclovir in treating RHL and RHG with significantly greater reduction of the short-term recurrence rate of herpes genitalis at 3-month follow up. Long-term recurrence rates at 6 months or longer remain to be determined. Hyperuricemia should be monitored during the treatment. PMID:25819042

  10. Herpes simplex virus-specific serum immunoglobulin a: detection in patients with primary or recurrent herpes infections and in healthy adults.

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, M G; Kimmel, N

    1982-01-01

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay was used to determine levels of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) in serial serum samples drawn from patients with primary HSV infections and from persons with recurrent HSV infections, and in single samples from 90 healthy adults. Significantly rising HSV IgA titers were detected in patients with primary infections, whereas those with recurrent infections had nonfluctuating titers. Sera of IgG-seropositive healthy adults were all positive for HSV-specific IgA without special pretreatment. PMID:6286496

  11. Expression of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Glycoprotein B by a Recombinant Vaccinia Virus and Protection of Mice against Lethal Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantin, Edouard M.; Eberle, Richard; Baldick, Joseph L.; Moss, Bernard; Willey, Dru E.; Notkins, Abner L.; Openshaw, Harry

    1987-08-01

    The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) strain F gene encoding glycoprotein gB was isolated and modified at the 5' end by in vitro oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis. The modified gB gene was inserted into the vaccinia virus genome and expressed under the control of a vaccinia virus promoter. The mature gB glycoprotein produced by the vaccinia virus recombinant was glycosylated, was expressed at the cell surface, and was indistinguishable from authentic HSV-1 gB in terms of electrophoretic mobility. Mice immunized intradermally with the recombinant vaccinia virus produced gB-specific neutralizing antibodies and were resistant to a lethal HSV-1 challenge.

  12. A Simple Harmonic Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Peter W.; Horn, Bart; Kachru, Shamit; Rajendran, Surjeet; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC

    2011-12-14

    We explore simple but novel bouncing solutions of general relativity that avoid singularities. These solutions require curvature k = +1, and are supported by a negative cosmological term and matter with -1 < w < -1 = 3. In the case of moderate bounces (where the ratio of the maximal scale factor a{sub +} to the minimal scale factor a{sub -} is {Omicron}(1)), the solutions are shown to be classically stable and cycle through an infinite set of bounces. For more extreme cases with large a{sub +} = a{sub -}, the solutions can still oscillate many times before classical instabilities take them out of the regime of validity of our approximations. In this regime, quantum particle production also leads eventually to a departure from the realm of validity of semiclassical general relativity, likely yielding a singular crunch. We briefly discuss possible applications of these models to realistic cosmology.

  13. Herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in two pet marmosets in Japan.

    PubMed

    Imura, Kei; Chambers, James Kenn; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Nomura, Shunsuke; Suzuki, Satoshi; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Miwa, Yasutsugu

    2014-12-01

    An 8-month-old common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) was presented with tic-like symptoms, and a 2-year-old pigmy marmoset (Callithrix pygmaea) was presented with dyspnea and hypersalivation. Both monkeys died within a few days, and necropsies were performed. Histopathological examinations revealed ulcerative stomatitis with epithelial cell swelling and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in the oral epithelium of both cases. In the central and peripheral nervous systems, neuronal cell degeneration with intranuclear inclusion bodies was observed. Immunohistochemical examination using anti-herpes simplex virus type 1 antibody revealed virus antigens in both cases. Both animals had been kept as pets with limited exposure to the ambient environment except via their owners. Therefore, herpes simplex virus type-1 was probably acquired from close contact with their owners. PMID:25649955

  14. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection in Two Pet Marmosets in Japan

    PubMed Central

    IMURA, Kei; CHAMBERS, James Kenn; UCHIDA, Kazuyuki; NOMURA, Shunsuke; SUZUKI, Satoshi; NAKAYAMA, Hiroyuki; MIWA, Yasutsugu

    2014-01-01

    An 8-month-old common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) was presented with tic-like symptoms, and a 2-year-old pigmy marmoset (Callithrix pygmaea) was presented with dyspnea and hypersalivation. Both monkeys died within a few days, and necropsies were performed. Histopathological examinations revealed ulcerative stomatitis with epithelial cell swelling and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in the oral epithelium of both cases. In the central and peripheral nervous systems, neuronal cell degeneration with intranuclear inclusion bodies was observed. Immunohistochemical examination using anti-herpes simplex virus type 1 antibody revealed virus antigens in both cases. Both animals had been kept as pets with limited exposure to the ambient environment except via their owners. Therefore, herpes simplex virus type-1 was probably acquired from close contact with their owners. PMID:25649955

  15. Genetics of resistance to phosphonoacetic acid in strain KOS of herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Jofre, J T; Schaffer, P A; Parris, D S

    1977-01-01

    A DNA- temperature-sensitive mutant of herpes simplex virus type 1 exhibiting thermolabile DNA polymerase activity, tsD9, was shown to be resistant to phosphonoacetic acid (PAA) when plated at the permissive temperature. ts+ revertants of tsD9 were PAA sensitive and exhibited DNA polymerase activity intermediate between that of the wild-type virus and tsD9, indicating that both temperature sensitivity and sensitivity to PAA are controlled by the same gene. Since the position of tsD9 on the existing herpes simplex virus type 1 linkage map is known, the locus for PAA resistance--and therefore for the structural gene for viral DNA polymerase--has been identified. PMID:197275

  16. An outbreak of herpes rugbiorum managed by vaccination of players and sociosexual contacts.

    PubMed

    Skinner, G R; Davies, J; Ahmad, A; McLeish, P; Buchan, A

    1996-11-01

    An outbreak of herpes rugbiorum involved nine players including the scrum half and the full back. The infection was characterized by significant constitutional upset with decreased levels of general fitness and match performance for 1-4 months following the outbreak; one player had herpetic lesions on his right eyelid and corneum. Every infected player, 15 non-infected players and five sociosexual contacts received two vaccinations with intracellular subunit vaccine NFU. Ac. HSV-1 (S-MRC5). None of the players or contacts developed cutaneous herpetic recurrence during a follow-up period of 3 years; the player with ocular disease had one recurrence at 30 months following the original episode. These findings encourage consideration of prophylactic or post-exposure vaccination of participants in rugby or other contact sports with this or other appropriate herpes simplex vaccine. PMID:8945704

  17. [Clinical aspects of treatment of genital herpes with plaferon LB and phenowine].

    PubMed

    Nozadze, T G; Korsantiia, N B; Kupradze, S A

    2005-01-01

    Exacerbation of genital herpes simplex is followed by suppression of immunocompetence of patients. This proves necessity of adjuvant immunocorrective therapy. In our previous investigations it was shown that plaferon LB possessed immunotropic effect, and phenowine (as an antioxidant remedy) was intensifying the action of plaferon. These data allow us to examine protective action of plaferon and phenowine in complex treatment of genital herpes. High-performance scheme of herpetic relapse was suggested, which was established on aetiotropic effect of acyclovir and immunomodulating action of plaferon and phenowine: satisfactory outcome in 92,1 percent (monotherapy with acyclovir--70,7%). Results of complex therapy appeared in reduction of period of acute infection (on average 2,3 days) and in prolongation of remission (on average 157,3 days, vs 88,5 days in control group). Therapeutic action was achieved by antiviral properties of acyclovir and plaferon, immunostimulating action of plaferon and antioxidant effect of phenowine. PMID:15821333

  18. Gene expression of herpes simplex virus. II. Uv radiological analysis of viral transcription units

    SciTech Connect

    Millette, R. L.; Klaiber, R.

    1980-06-01

    The transcriptional organization of the genome of herpes simplex virus type 1 was analyzed by measuring the sensitivity of viral polypeptide synthesis to uv irradiation of the infecting virus. Herpes simplex virus type 1 was irradiated with various doses of uv light and used to infect xeroderma pigmentosum fibroblasts. Immediate early transcription units were analyzed by having cycloheximide present throughout the period of infection, removing the drug at 8 h postinfection, and pulse-labeling proteins with (355)methionine. Delayed early transcription units were analyzed in similar studies by having 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosyladenine present during the experiment to block replication of the input irradiated genome. The results indicate that none of the immediate early genes analyzed can be cotranscribed, whereas some of the delayed early genes might be cotranscribed. No evidence was found for the existence of large, multigene transcription units.

  19. [Effect of isoprinosine and acyclovir on the clinical course of chickenpox and herpes zoster].

    PubMed

    Janeczko, J; Baranowska, M; Romanowska, B

    1991-01-01

    The therapeutic effect of isoprinosine and acyclovir have been studied in 352 and 284 patients with chicken-pox and herpes zoster respectively. The patients were divided into 4 groups: the first one was given palliative treatment only, the second--both palliative and isoprinosine ones, the third--palliative and acyclovir treatment, and the fourth group was given all these. The best therapeutic effect was achieved when acyclovir and isoprinosine was applied jointly, the one of acyclovir alone was less pronounced and that of isoprinosine only was the smallest. According to the authors acyclovir should be the treatment of choice in the very severe and severe cases of chicken-pox and herpes zoster; in the early stage of disease it should be supplemented with isoprinosine and passive immunotherapy. PMID:1726758

  20. Spectroscopic investigation of herpes simplex viruses infected cells and their response to antiviral therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erukhimovitch, Vitaly; Talyshinsky, Marina; Souprun, Yelena; Huleihel, Mahmoud

    2006-07-01

    In the present study, we used microscopic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to evaluate the antiviral activity of known antiviral agents against herpes viruses. The antiviral activity of Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) (which is an active compound of propolis) against herpes simplex type 1 and 2 was examined in cell culture. The advantage of microscopic FTIR spectroscopy over conventional FTIR spectroscopy is that it facilitates inspection of restricted regions of cell culture or tissue. Our results showed significant spectral differences at early stages of infection between infected and non-infected cells, and between infected cells treated with the used antiviral agent and those not treated. In infected cells, there was a considerable increase in phosphate levels. Our results show that treatment with used antiviral agent considerably abolish the spectral changes induced by the viral infection. In addition, it is possible to track by FTIR microscopy method the deferential effect of various doses of the drug.

  1. Social Stress and the Reactivation of Latent Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padgett, David A.; Sheridan, John F.; Dorne, Julianne; Berntson, Gary G.; Candelora, Jessica; Glaser, Ronald

    1998-06-01

    Psychological stress is thought to contribute to reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus (HSV). Although several animal models have been developed in an effort to reproduce different pathogenic aspects of HSV keratitis or labialis, until now, no good animal model existed in which application of a psychological laboratory stressor results in reliable reactivation of the virus. Reported herein, disruption of the social hierarchy within colonies of mice increased aggression among cohorts, activated the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and caused reactivation of latent HSV type 1 in greater than 40% of latently infected animals. However, activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis using restraint stress did not activate the latent virus. Thus, the use of social stress in mice provides a good model in which to investigate the neuroendocrine mechanisms that underlie behaviorally mediated reactivation of latent herpes-viruses.

  2. Targeted Entry of Enveloped Viruses: Measles and Herpes Simplex Virus I

    PubMed Central

    Navaratnarajah, Chanakha K.; Miest, Tanner S.; Carfi, Andrea; Cattaneo, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    We compare the receptor-based mechanisms that a small RNA virus and a larger DNA virus have evolved to drive the fusion of viral and cellular membranes. Both systems rely on tight control over triggering the concerted refolding of a trimeric fusion protein. While measles virus entry depends on a receptor-binding protein and a fusion protein only, the herpes simplex virus is more complex and requires four viral proteins. Nevertheless, in both viruses a receptor-binding protein is required for triggering the membrane fusion process. Moreover, specificity domains can be appended to these receptor-binding proteins to target virus entry to cells expressing a designated receptor. We discuss how principles established with measles and herpes simplex virus can be applied to targeting other enveloped viruses, and alternatively how retargeted envelopes can be fitted on foreign capsids. PMID:22440965

  3. Herpes simplex virus type 1 entry into epithelial MDCKII cells: role of VASP activities.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Verena; Hoppe, Sven; Petermann, Philipp; Liebig, Timo; Jansen, Matthias K; Renné, Thomas; Knebel-Mörsdorf, Dagmar

    2010-09-01

    VASP is an actin-regulatory protein that links signalling to remodelling of the cytoskeleton. We investigated the role of VASP during entry of herpes simplex viruses into epithelial MDCKII cells. As VASP functions are regulated by phosphorylations, the phosphorylation pattern was determined upon infection. Phosphorylated VASP decreased temporarily at 15 and 30 min after infection. The impact of phosphorylated VASP was addressed by overexpression of phosphomimetic VASP mutants. Our results revealed that phosphorylated VASP slightly reduced the number of infected cells. Expression studies with deletion mutants further indicated minor effects of VASP on infection efficiency, whereas RNA interference studies demonstrated that reduced VASP expression did not suppress infection. We conclude that VASP activities alone may contribute to herpes simplex virus infection to only a minor extent. PMID:20463151

  4. Herpes simplex virus-mediated human hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase gene transfer into neuronal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Palella, T.D.; Silverman, L.J.; Schroll, C.T.; Homa, F.L.; Levine, M.; Kelley, W.N.

    1988-01-01

    The virtually complete deficiency of the purine salvage enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) results in a devastating neurological disease, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. Transfer of the HPRT gene into fibroblasts and lymphoblasts in vitro and into hematopoietic cells in vivo has been accomplished by other groups with retroviral-derived vectors. It appears to be necessary, however, to transfer the HPRT gene into neuronal cells to correct the neurological dysfunction of this disorder. The neurotropic virus herpes simplex virus type 1 has features that make it suitable for use as a vector to transfer the HPRT gene into neuronal tissue. This report describes the isolation of an HPRT-deficient rat neuroma cell line, designated B103-4C, and the construction of a recombinant herpes simplex virus type 1 that contained human HPRT cDNA. These recombinant viruses were used to infect B103-4C cells. Infected cells expressed HPRT activity which was human in origin.

  5. Early events in herpes simplex virus type 1 infection: photosensitivity of fluorescein isothiocyanate-treated virions

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuca, N.; Bzik, D.; Person, S.; Snipes, W.

    1981-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 is photosensitized by treatment with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). The inactivation of FITC-treated virions upon subsequent exposure to light is inhibited by the presence of sodium azide, suggesting the involvement of singlet oxygen in the process. Sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that treatment with FITC plus light induces crosslinks in viral envelope glycoproteins. Treatment of virions with high concentrations of FITC (50 ..mu..g/ml) plus light causes a reduction in the adsorption of the virus to monolayers of human embryonic lung cells. For lower concentrations of FITC (10 ..mu..g/ml) plus light, treated virions adsorb to the host cells, but remain sensitive to light until entry occurs. The loss of light sensitivity coincides with the development of resistance to antibodies. These results are most consistent with a mechanism of entry for herpes simplex virus involving fusion of the viral membrane with the plasma membrane of the host cell.

  6. Intravenous Foscarnet With Topical Cidofovir for Chronic Refractory Genital Herpes in a Patient With AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Usoro, Agnes; Batts, Alfreda; Sarria, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    Few case reports have documented the use of topical cidofovir for refractory genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) ulcers in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients. This drug formulation lacks a standardized concentration or even a procedural outline as to how it should be compounded. We aim to discuss the utilization of topical cidofovir in addition to presenting a procedural means of compounding it for treatment of refractory genital HSV ulcers. Our patient completed 21 days of intravenous foscarnet and 13 days of topical cidofovir with clinical improvement in the penile and scrotal ulcers. Genital herpes is a concern in patients with HIV because it generally manifests as a persistent infection. Physicians should be aware that when patients fail to respond to the conventional treatment regimens for genital HSV in a timely manner, other options are available, such as topical cidofovir as an adjuvant to systemic antivirals. PMID:26788527

  7. Midtrimester fetal herpes simplex-2 diagnosis by serology, culture and quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Curtin, William M; Menegus, Marilyn A; Patru, Maria-Magdalena; Peterson, C Jeanne; Metlay, Leon A; Mooney, Robert A; Stanwood, Nancy L; Scheible, Amy L; Dorgan, Angela

    2013-01-01

    The acquisition of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in utero comprises a minority of neonatal herpes infections. Prenatal diagnosis is rare. We describe a midtrimester diagnosis of fetal HSV-2 infection. Ultrasound at 20 weeks for elevated maternal serum α-fetoprotein (MSAFP) showed lagging fetal growth, echogenic bowel, echogenic myocardium, and liver with a mottled pattern of echogenicity. Amniocentesis demonstrated normal karyotype, elevated AFP and positive acetylcholinesterase. Culture isolated HSV-2 with an aberrant growth pattern. Maternal serology was positive for HSV-2. Quantitative DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed 59 million copies/ml. Fetal autopsy demonstrated widespread tissue necrosis but only sparse HSV-2 inclusions. Fetal HSV-2 infection can be suspected when an elevated MSAFP accompanies ultrasound findings suggesting perinatal infection. Maternal HSV serology, amniotic fluid culture and quantitative PCR are recommended for diagnostic certainty and counseling. PMID:23075531

  8. Application of low-intensity laser in the treatment of Herpes simplex recidivans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzunov, Tzonko T.; Uzunov, T.; Grozdanova, R.

    2004-06-01

    We made our aim to investigate the effect of the low intensive laser with λ=630 nm in the visible red spectrum of light at Herpes simplex treatment. For this purpose we carried out a clinical research upon 62 persons with Herpes simplex lesions which have been divided into two groups of 31 persons. At the first group the effect of laser with power density 100 mW/cm2 +/- 5 mW/cm2 and time of exposure 3 min. on field was traced out. At the second group the low intensive laser with the same characteristics has been used but in combination with the patent medicine Granofurin H as a photosensibilizer. The clinical approbations of this method showed high therapeutical effectiveness. The obtained results showed that at both groups there is an expressed anaesthetic, anti-inflammatory and regeneration stimulating effect and at the second group with the use of Granofurin H the reconvalescent period is shorter.

  9. Primary herpes virus infection and ischemic stroke in childhood: a new association?

    PubMed

    Terlizzi, Vito; Improta, Federica; Di Fraia, Teresa; Sanguigno, Eduardo; D'Amico, Alessandra; Buono, Salvatore; Raia, Valeria; Boccia, Gabriella

    2014-09-01

    We describe, to our knowledge, the first case of arterial ischemic stroke after primary herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) infection in a previously healthy child, without signs of encephalitis. A 10-year-old previously healthy girl was admitted to our hospital with acute left-sided hemiparesis which involved the lower half of her face. Submandibular lymphadenitis and oral vesicular lesions were present. MRI confirmed the suspicion of an acute ischemic stroke. Immunoglobulin M antibodies to HSV1 were detected. Cerebrospinal fluid polymerase chain reaction for herpes virus was negative. She was treated with aspirin (3mg/kg) and intravenous acyclovir (10mg/kg every 8 hours) for 21 days. Immunoglobulin G antibodies to HSV1 appeared 16 days after admission. Twelve months after her hospitalization the patient's examination was normal. Stroke should be considered a possible complication of HSV1 primary infection. Guidelines for the management of acute stroke in children are needed. PMID:24736195

  10. Psoralen inactivation of influenza and herpes simplex viruses and of virus-infected cells

    SciTech Connect

    Redfield, D.C.; Richman, D.D.; Oxman, M.N.; Kronenberg, L.H.

    1981-06-01

    Psoralen compounds covalently bind to nucleic acids when irradiated with long-wavelength ultraviolet light. This treatment can destroy the infectivity of deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid viruses. Two psoralen compounds, 4'-hydroxymethyltrioxsalen and 4'-aminomethyltrioxsalen, were used with long-wavelength ultraviolet light to inactivate cell-free herpes simplex and influenza viruses and to render virus-infected cells noninfectious. This method of inactivation was compared with germicidal (short-wavelength) ultraviolet light irradiation. The antigenicity of the treated, virus-infected, antigen-bearing cells was examined by immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassay and by measuring the capacity of the herpes simplex virus-infected cells to stimulate virus-specific lymphocyte proliferation. The infectivity of the virus-infected cells could be totally eliminated without altering their viral antigenicity. The use of psoralen plus long-wavelength ultraviolet light is well suited to the preparation of noninfectious virus antigens and virus antigen-bearing cells for immunological assays.

  11. Nuclear Sensing of Viral DNA, Epigenetic Regulation of Herpes Simplex Virus Infection, and Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Knipe, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) undergoes a lytic infection in epithelial cells and a latent infection in neuronal cells, and epigenetic mechanisms play a major role in the differential gene expression under the two conditions. Herpes viron DNA is not associated with histones but is rapidly loaded with heterochromatin upon entry into the cell. Viral proteins promote reversal of the epigenetic silencing in epithelial cells while the viral latency-associated transcript promotes additional heterochromatin in neuronal cells. The cellular sensors that initiate the chromatinization of foreign DNA have not been fully defined. IFI16 and cGAS are both essential for innate sensing of HSV DNA, and new evidence shows how they work together to initiate innate signaling. IFI16 also plays a role in the heterochromatinization of HSV DNA, and this review will examine how IFI16 integrates epigenetic regulation and innate sensing of foreign viral DNA to show how these two responses are related. PMID:25742715

  12. Perinatal Herpes Virus Infection: Report of a Case Indicating the Paternal Role

    PubMed Central

    Dini, Morteza; Alrenga, Dharam P.; Freese, Uwe

    1980-01-01

    A case of perinatal Herpes simplex hominis infection with fatal neonatal outcome is reported. The significance of the paternal role is emphasized. It is important to educate sexual partners and stress the serious nature of herpetic infections, especially during the perinatal period. In the presence of active infection, sexual contact should either be totally avoided or a condom should be used. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:6273598

  13. Rapid typing of herpes simplex virus isolates by deoxyribonucleic acid:deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization.

    PubMed Central

    Brautigam, A R; Richman, D D; Oxman, M N

    1980-01-01

    A method for typing clinical isolates of herpes simplex virus was developed. It utilizes hybridization between unlabeled deoxyribonucleic acid from infected cultures and tritium-labeled virus deoxyribonucleic acid, and it can be completed within a day using a single roller-tube culture of the clinical isolated. The data obtained are inherently quantitative, and the method yields unequivocal identification and typing. Thirty-nine coded clinical isolates were all correctly typed by this method. PMID:6262368

  14. Case report: epithelial intracytoplasmic herpes viral inclusions associated with an outbreak of duck virus enteritis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, B.C.; Jessup, David A.; Docherty, Douglas E.; Lownestine, L.J.

    1992-01-01

    Several muscovy ducks from a free-roaming flock of 65 muscovy and mallard ducks died over a 3-week period. Three muscovy ducks were necropsied. Gross and microscopic changes were compatible with duck virus enteritis, and the virus was isolated. In addition to intranuclear viral inclusion bodies in several tissues, intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were present in esophageal and cloacal epithelium, By electron microscopy, the membrane-bound intracytoplasmic inclusions were found to contain enveloped herpesvirus, and nuclei contained herpes viral nucleocapsids.

  15. Exposure to Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Cognitive Impairments in Individuals With Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Konasale M.; Watson, Annie M. M.; Dickerson, Faith B.; Yolken, Robert H.; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L.

    2012-01-01

    Latent infection with neurotropic herpes viruses, such as herpes simplex virus, type 1 (HSV1), has been generally considered benign in most immunocompetent individuals except for rare cases of encephalitis. However, several recent studies have shown impaired cognitive functions among individuals with schizophrenia exposed to HSV1 compared with schizophrenia patients not exposed to HSV1. Such impairments are robust and are prominently observed in working memory, verbal memory, and executive functions. Brain regions that play a key role in the regulation of these domains have shown smaller volumes, along with correlation between these morphometric changes and cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. One study noted temporal decline in executive function and gray matter loss among HSV1-exposed first-episode antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients. Furthermore, a proof-of-concept double-blind placebo-controlled trial indicated improvement in cognitive performance following supplemental anti-herpes–specific medication among HSV1 seropositive schizophrenia patients. Cross-sectional studies have also identified an association between HSV1 exposure and lesser degrees of cognitive impairment among healthy control individuals and patients with bipolar disorder. These studies fulfill several Bradford-Hill criteria, suggesting etiological links between HSV1 exposure and cognitive impairment. Exposure to other human herpes viruses such as cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2) may also be associated with cognitive impairment, but the data are less consistent. These studies are reviewed critically and further lines of enquiry recommended. The results are important from a public health perspective, as HSV1 exposure is highly prevalent in many populations. PMID:22490995

  16. Characterization of the Growth of Herpes Simplex Virus in Human Lymphoid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mizrahi, A.; Mitchen, J. R.; Von Heyden, H. W.; Minowada, J.; Moore, G. E.

    1972-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus was grown in a 6-liter suspended culture of an atypical permanent human lymphoid cell line, Roswell Park Memorial Institute no. 8226. The kinetics of virus replication were determined by counting viruses by electron microscopy, plaque formation, and tissue culture infectivity. Deoxyribonucleic acid-dependent deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase activity was determined during the course of infection. Electron microscopy studies substantiated the kinetics of the virus infection in lymphoid cells. Images PMID:4110423

  17. Contributions of herpes simplex virus type 1 envelope proteins to entry by endocytosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) proteins specifically required for endocytic entry but not direct penetration have not been identified. HSVs deleted of gE, gG, gI, gJ, gM, UL45, or Us9 entered cells via either pH-dependent or pH-independent endocytosis and were inactivated by mildly acidic pH. Thus, the ...

  18. Multiple strokes associated with herpes simplex virus type-2 infection: case report.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Prajwol

    2016-04-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type-2 is known to cause meningitis and usually runs a benign course. Association of such infection with vasculitis of the central nervous system is not well known. Presented here is a case initially diagnosed as aseptic meningitis that subsequently evolved as stroke and exhibited angiographic evidence of widespread vasculitis of the intracranial vessels in association with a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for HSV-2 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). PMID:26443565

  19. Proton MR spectroscopy in herpes simplex encephalitis: Assessment of neuronal loss

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, D.K.; Sargentoni, J.; Peden, C.J.; Bell, J.D.; Cox, I.J.; Coutts, G.A.; Baudouin, C.; Newman, C.G. )

    1990-05-01

    We present here the case of an 11-year-old boy with herpes simplex encephalitis diagnosed on the basis of clinical features, serology, and response to acyclovir, who relapsed after 3 weeks of therapy. In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) of the brain, at 8 and 16 weeks after the onset of symptoms, showed abnormalities, most prominently a reduction in the N-acetylaspartate/choline ratio. The role of 1H MRS in assessing disease activity is discussed.

  20. Topical and systemic therapies for oral and perioral herpes simplex virus infections.

    PubMed

    Stoopler, Eric T; Balasubramaniam, Ramesh

    2013-04-01

    Oral and perioral herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in healthy individuals often present with signs and symptoms that are clearly recognized by oral health care providers (OHCPs). Management of these infections is dependent upon a variety of factors and several agents may be used for treatment to accelerate healing and decrease symptoms associated with lesions. This article will review the pertinent aspects of topical and systemic therapies of HSV infections for the OHCP. PMID:23705241

  1. Predictors of the Sexual Well-being of Individuals Diagnosed with Herpes and Human Papillomavirus.

    PubMed

    Foster, Lyndsay R; Byers, E Sandra

    2016-02-01

    Research suggests that having a sexually transmitted infection (STI) such as genital herpes and human papillomavirus (HPV) can negatively affect sexual well-being. However, there is little research examining factors associated with poorer sexual well-being among individuals with a STI. This study investigated the extent to which stigma experiences, individual characteristics, and STI characteristics were associated with multiple aspects of sexual well-being among individuals diagnosed with herpes and/or HPV. Participants were an average of 36 years old (SD = 11.58) and included 188 individuals with herpes and/or HPV who completed measures of sexual activity, sexual problems, and sexual cognitive-affective factors. The results showed that experiences of stigmatization were the most important predictors of sexual well-being. Participants who perceived were stigmatized by others as well as those who internalized negative social attitudes to a greater extent reported poorer sexual well-being across all dimensions, over and above individual and STI characteristics. The implications of these findings for sexual health professionals are discussed. PMID:25408498

  2. [Case of herpes simplex encephalitis with hypersomnia and low orexin level in the cerebrospinal fluid].

    PubMed

    Mukaino, Akihiro; Kinoshita, Ikuo; Fukushima, Naomi; Otsubo, Mayumi; Kanbayashi, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    A 60-year-old woman suffered from high fever (38°C) and abnormal behavior, was admitted to our hospital on the seventh day of the fever. At admission, she was stuporous, and a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealed pleocytosis (55/μl, monocytes). Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance (MR) images showed high-intensity signals in the medial temporal lobe, inferior surface of the frontal cortex, right cerebellar vermis, and left thalamus. We diagnosed herpes simplex encephalitis, based on the finding of an elevated titer of herpes simplex virus antibody in the CSF (2.90). She was started on treatment with acyclovir and steroid pulse therapy, which was followed by rapid clinical improvement. After recovering from the stupor, the patient exhibited the symptoms of hypersomnia with low orexin level in the CSF. Thus, we should bear in mind that other than consciousness disturbance, patients with herpes simplex encephalitis can also present with rare complications due to the extent of the lesions. PMID:24705834

  3. Attachment and penetration of acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus are inhibited by Melissa officinalis extract.

    PubMed

    Astani, Akram; Navid, Mojdeh Heidary; Schnitzler, Paul

    2014-10-01

    Medicinal plants are increasingly of interest as novel source of drugs for antiherpetic agents, because herpes simplex virus (HSV) might develop resistance to commonly used antiviral drugs. An aqueous extract of Melissa officinalis and the phenolic compounds caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and rosmarinic acid were examined for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) acyclovir-sensitive and clinical isolates of acyclovir-resistant strains in vitro. When drugs were added during the intracellular replication of HSV-1 infected cells, no antiviral effect was observed by plaque reduction assay. However, Melissa extract interacted directly with free viral particles of two acyclovir-resistant HSV strains at low IC50 values of 0.13 and 0.23 µg/mL and high selectivity indices of 2692 and 1522, respectively. The Melissa extract and rosmarinic acid inhibited HSV-1 attachment to host cells in a dose-dependent manner for acyclovir-sensitive and acyclovir-resistant strains. These results indicate that mainly rosmarinic acid contributed to the antiviral activity of Melissa extract. Penetration of herpes viruses into cells was inhibited by Melissa extract at 80% and 96% for drug-sensitive and drug-resistant viruses, respectively. Melissa extract exhibits low toxicity and affects attachment and penetration of acyclovir-sensitive and acyclovir-resistant HSVs in vitro. PMID:24817544

  4. Fatal Multiorgan Failure Associated with Disseminated Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Infection: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Glas, Michael; Smola, Sigrun; Pfuhl, Thorsten; Pokorny, Juliane; Bohle, Rainer M.; Bücker, Arno; Kamradt, Jörn; Volk, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infections cause typical dermal and mucosal lesions in children and adults. Also complications to the peripheral and central nervous system, pneumonia or hepatitis are well known. However, dissemination to viscera in adults is rare and predominantly observed in immunocompromised patients. Here we describe the case of a 70-year-old male admitted with macrohematuria and signs of acute infection and finally deceasing in a septic shock with multi organ failure 17 days after admission to intensive care unit. No bacterial or fungal infection could be detected during his stay, but only two days before death the patient showed signs of rectal, orolabial and genital herpes infection. The presence of HSV-1 was detected in swabs taken from the lesions, oropharyngeal fluid as well as in plasma. Post-mortem polymerase chain reaction analyses confirmed a disseminated infection with HSV-1 involving various organs and tissues but excluding the central nervous system. Autopsy revealed a predominantly retroperitoneal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma as the suspected origin of immunosuppression underlying herpes simplex dissemination. PMID:24826337

  5. Correlation of herpes simplex virus antibody titers and specific lymphocyte stimulation in adult blood donors.

    PubMed Central

    Moser, H; Behrens, F; Ziegelmaier, R; Hilfenhaus, J; Mauler, R

    1981-01-01

    Antibody titers to herpes simplex virus type 1 in sera from healthy adult donors were assayed by complement fixation, microneutralization, and an enzyme immunoassay (ELISA). This last test proved to be the most sensitive method for antibody detection. It was estimated that ELISA antibody titers were up to 40-fold higher than neutralizing antibody titers and up to 100-fold higher than complement fixation antibody titers. Due to the higher sensitivity of ELISA, only 3 of 36 blood donors tested in this assay were shown to be seronegative, whereas 6 additional persons of the same group were termed seronegative by the microneutralization assay. Furthermore, four of the latter also did not respond in the complement fixation test. In vitro stimulation of peripheral lymphocytes by using a partially purified herpes simplex virus type 1 particle antigen was achieved for all seropositive blood donors. Only those three donors who were ELISA negative reacted negatively in this stimulation assay. From these results it may be concluded that ELISA is an appropriate method not only for rapid and sensitive antibody determination but also for selecting herpes simplex virus-negative patients. PMID:6257756

  6. Age-specific incidence of neutralization antibodies of Herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed Central

    Terzin, A. L.; Masic, M. G.

    1976-01-01

    Sera of 1255 individuals from Novi Sad, varying in age from less than 1 month to 69 years, have been tested for neutralization antibodies to Herpes implex virus type 1. The eight newborns tested and 97% of the 507 adults were positive, with titres ranging from 1/4 to 1/256. The titres in newborns were significantly lower than the titres in adults. After birth the maternal antibodies declined rapidly and 94% of infants at the age of greater than 6 months and less than 2 years were negative. After the first year infants in Novi Sad start to acquire herpes-neutralizing antibodies actively, reaching a 50% incidence of positives between the 2nd and 3rd year of age. Age-specific incidence rates of herpes positives found in Novi Sad have been compared with those reported from Edinburgh, Freiburg i. Br. and Louisiana. Possible influences of several circumstances upon the incidence rate of positives detected by the neutralization test are discussed. PMID:185287

  7. Lymphotropic herpes virus (EBV, HHV-6, HHV-8) DNA sequences in HIV negative Castleman's disease

    PubMed Central

    Barozzi, P; Luppi, M; Masini, L; Marasca, R; Savarino, M; Morselli, M; Ferrari, M G; Bevini, M; Bonacorsi, G; Torelli, G

    1996-01-01

    Aim—To evaluate the possible involvement of lymphotropic herpes viruses in Castleman's disease. Methods—Archival formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded biopsy specimens from 16 HIV negative patients (11 with localised and five of multicentric disease) were studied. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6) and human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8) DNA was detected using PCR. PCR was also used to characterise the EBV genomes and the clonal status of the lesions. Results—EBV sequences were identified in nine (56%) cases. The main EBV genotype detected was type 1. Two (12%) cases were positive for both HHV-6 and EBV sequences. HHV-8 sequences were detected in one case of localised Castleman's disease, the sequence of which differed from that of the HHV-8 prototype. No clonal immunoglobulin gene rearrangements were found. Conclusions—EBV DNA was detected in a substantial proportion of cases, suggesting that it may have a role in the pathogenesis of Castleman's disease, unlike HHV-6 which was detected rarely. This is the first report of HHV-8 specific sequences in the localised from of the disease. Images PMID:16696081

  8. Update on emerging antivirals for the management of herpes simplex virus infections: a patenting perspective.

    PubMed

    Vadlapudi, Aswani D; Vadlapatla, Ramya K; Mitra, Ashim K

    2013-04-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections can be treated efficiently by the application of antiviral drugs. The herpes family of viruses is responsible for causing a wide variety of diseases in humans. The standard therapy for the management of such infections includes acyclovir (ACV) and penciclovir (PCV) with their respective prodrugs valaciclovir and famciclovir. Though effective, long term prophylaxis with the current drugs leads to development of drug-resistant viral isolates, particularly in immunocompromised patients. Moreover, some drugs are associated with dose-limiting toxicities which limit their further utility. Therefore, there is a need to develop new antiherpetic compounds with different mechanisms of action which will be safe and effective against emerging drug resistant viral isolates. Significant advances have been made towards the design and development of novel antiviral therapeutics during the last decade. As evident by their excellent antiviral activities, pharmaceutical companies are moving forward with several new compounds into various phases of clinical trials. This review provides an overview of structure and life cycle of HSV, progress in the development of new therapies, update on the advances in emerging therapeutics under clinical development and related recent patents for the treatment of Herpes simplex virus infections. PMID:23331181

  9. Valaciclovir versus aciclovir for the treatment of primary genital herpes simplex: a cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Pinder, Melissa; Wright, Alison

    2015-11-01

    The current guidelines for the treatment of primary herpes simplex in the Genito-urinary department in Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, recommend valaciclovir as a first-line medication. This is a prodrug of aciclovir, which has been used for many years as a treatment for primary herpes simplex virus. The basis of the recommendation largely relates to valaciclovir being more bioavailable than aciclovir. However, there is no evidence to suggest this has an effect on overall outcome with regard to symptom control and viral shedding. The purpose of the service evaluation was to discover if significant cost savings could be made by changing the prescribing policy to make aciclovir the drug of choice for primary herpes simplex virus. Based on 160 patients receiving valaciclovir (500 mg BD) during April 2013 and March 2014, if they had been treated with aciclovir (400 mg TDS) instead, a saving of £828.80 (66% reduction) could have been made. PMID:25505043

  10. Increased density of cutaneous nerve fibres in the affected dermatomes after herpes zoster therapy.

    PubMed

    Zografakis, Charalampos; Tiniakos, Dina G; Palaiologou, Marina; Kouloukoussa, Mirsini; Kittas, Christos; Staurianeas, Nikos

    2014-03-01

    Herpes zoster neural injury was assessed by determining cutaneous nerve density in skin biopsies from the affected dermatomes of 35 adult patients with herpes zoster in the acute phase and 3 months post-treatment, using protein gene product 9.5 immunohistochemistry. In contrast to the significant increase in subepidermal nerve fibre density (11.77 ± 4.88/mm vs. 13.29 ± 5.74/mm, p = 0.045) after 3 months, no differences were found in epidermal free nerve endings (2.43 ± 2.35/mm and 2.8 ± 2.86/mm, p = 0.168). Patients with post-herpetic neuralgia had significantly lower subepidermal nerve fibre densities (9.7 ± 2.05/mm vs. 14.72 ± 6.13/mm, p = 0.011) compared with non-post-herpetic neuralgia patients. No differences in cutaneous nerve density were found in relation to antiviral therapy. In conclusion, 3 months after acute infection, no sign of epidermal innervation recovery is observed, while the increased subepidermal nerve fibre density in the affected dermatomes probably reflects nerve regeneration that is not affected by antiviral agent type. Subepidermal nerve fibre density is decreased in patients with post-herpetic neuralgia 3-months post-acute herpes zoster infection. PMID:23995395

  11. A placebo-controlled trial of topical 8% arildone cream early in recurrent genital herpes.

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, J M; Judson, F N; Levin, M J; Bosso, J A; Spruance, S L; Johnston, J M; Corey, L; McMillan, J A; Weiner, L B; Frank, J A

    1986-01-01

    Arildone is an aryl diketone which is inhibitory in vitro against herpes simplex virus type 2 at a concentration of 2 micrograms/ml or less. One hundred forty-five patients with recurrent genital herpes were enrolled in a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of an 8% arildone cream. Patients initiated therapy a mean of 9.9 h and a maximum of 24 h after the reported onset of lesions and applied medication 6 times daily for 7 days. The duration of viral shedding was shorter among women (P less than 0.05) and the duration of local itching was shorter among men (P less than 0.05) in patients that received arildone than in those that received placebo, but there were no significant differences between treatment groups in duration of pain, time to crusting or healing of lesions, or percentage of patients developing new lesions. Mild local irritation after application of ointment was common and occurred equally in both treatment groups. Despite early application, topical arildone cream was ineffective in the therapy of acute recurrences of genital herpes. PMID:3521487

  12. Varicella and herpes zoster vaccines: WHO position paper, June 2014--Recommendations.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommendations for the use of varicella and herpes zoster vaccination from the WHO position paper on varicella and herpes zoster vaccines - June 2014, published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record [1]. This position paper summarizes the WHO position on the use of varicella and herpes zoster vaccines. The current document replaces the position paper on the use of varicella vaccines published in 1998 [2]. Footnotes to this paper provide a number of core references. In accordance with its mandate to provide guidance to Member States on health policy matters, WHO issues a series of regularly updated position papers on vaccines and combinations of vaccines against diseases that have an international public health impact. These papers are concerned primarily with the use of vaccines in large-scale immunization programmes; they summarize essential background information on diseases and vaccines, and conclude with WHO's current position on the use of vaccines in the global context. This paper reflects the recommendations of WHO's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on immunization. These recommendations were discussed by SAGE at its April 2014 meeting. Evidence presented at the meeting can be accessed at http://www.who.int/immunization/sage/previous/en/index.html. PMID:26723191

  13. The treatment of herpes simplex virus epithelial keratitis.

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelmus, K R

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: Epithelial keratitis is the most common presentation of ocular infection by herpes simplex virus (HSV). Quantitative assessment of available therapy is needed to guide evidence-based ophthalmology. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of various treatments for dendritic or geographic HSV epithelial keratitis and to evaluate the role of various clinical characteristics on epithelial healing. METHODS: Following a systematic review of the literature, information from clinical trials of HSV dendritic or geographic epithelial keratitis was extracted, and the methodological quality of each study was scored. Methods of epithelial cauterization and curettage were grouped as relatively equivalent physicochemical therapy, and solution and ointment formulations of a given topical antiviral agent were combined. The proportion healed with 1 week of therapy, a scheduled follow-up day that approximated the average time of resolution with antiviral therapy, was selected as the primary outcome based on a masked evaluation of maximum treatment differences in published healing curves. The proportion healed at 14 days was recorded as supplemental information. Fixed-effects and random-effects meta-analysis models were used to obtain summary estimates by pooling results from comparative treatment trials. Hypotheses about which prognostic factors might affect epithelial healing during antiviral therapy were developed by multivariate analysis of the Herpetic Eye Disease Study dataset. RESULTS: After excluding 48 duplicate reports, 14 nonrandomized studies, 15 studies with outdated or similar treatments, and 29 trials lacking sufficient data on healing or accessibility, 76 primary reports were identified. These reports involved 4,251 patients allocated to 93 treatment comparisons of dendritic epithelial keratitis in 28 categories and 9 comparisons of geographic epithelial keratitis in 6 categories. For dendritic keratitis, idoxuridine was better than placebo at 7 days (combined odds ratio [OR], 3.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.92-6.70), and at 14 days (OR, 4.17; 95% CI, 1.33-13.04), but pooling was limited by lack of homogeneity and low study quality. Direct comparisons at 1 week of treatment showed that trifluridine or acyclovir was significantly better than idoxuridine (OR, 3.12 and 4.56; 95% CI, 1.55-6.29 and 2.76-7.52, respectively), and indirect comparisons were also consistent with a clinically significant benefit. Vidarabine was not significantly better than idoxuridine in pooled treatment comparisons at 1 week (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 0.72-2.00) but was better in 2 indirect comparisons (OR, 4.22 and 4.78; 95% CI, 1.69-10.54 and 2.15-10.65, respectively). At 14 days, trifluridine (OR, 6.05; 95% CI, 2.50-14.66), acyclovir (OR, 2.88; 95% CI, 1.39-4.78), and vidarabine (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.65-2.37) were each better than idoxuridine. Trials of geographic epithelial keratitis also suggested that trifluridine, acyclovir, and vidarabine were more effective that idoxuridine. Other topical antiviral agents, such as bromovinyldeoxuridine, ganciclovir, and foscarnet, appeared equivalent to trifluridine or acyclovir. Oral acyclovir was equivalent to topical antiviral therapy and did not hasten healing when used in combination with topical treatment. Antiviral agents did not increase the speed of healing when compared to debridement but reduced the risk of recrudescent epithelial keratitis. The combination of physicochemical treatment with an antiviral agent seemed to be better than either physicochemical or antiviral treatment alone, but the heterogeneous cauterization and curettage techniques and the various treatment combinations limited valid quantitative summary effect measures. The combination of topical interferon with an antiviral agent was significantly better than antiviral therapy at 7 days (OR, 13.49; 95% CI, 7.39-24.61) but not at 14 days (OR, 2.36; 95% CI, 0.82-6.79). Finding apparent heterogeneity for some pooled estimates suggested that dissimilarities in patients, interventions, outcomes, or other logistical aspects of clinical trials occur across studies. CONCLUSIONS: The available evidence on the acute treatment of presumed HSV epithelial keratitis demonstrates the effectiveness of antiviral treatment and shows the log-logistic healing curve of treated dendritic epithelial keratitis. Topical trifluridine, acyclovir, and vidarabine were significantly more effective than idoxuridine but similar in relative effectiveness for dendritic epithelial keratitis. Physicochemical methods of removing infected corneal epithelium are effective, but adjunctive virucidal agents are needed to avert recrudescent epithelial keratitis. Whether debridement in combination with antiviral therapy is more beneficial than antiviral chemotherapy alone appears likely but remains inconclusive. The combination of topical interferon with an antiviral agent significantly speeds epithelial healing. Future trials of the acute treatment of HSV epithelial keratitis must aim to achieve adequate statistical power for assessing the primary outcome and should consider the effect of lesion size and other characteristics on treatment response. PMID:11190039

  14. Burden of herpes zoster requiring hospitalization in Spain during a seven-year period (1998–2004)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background A thorough epidemiological surveillance and a good understanding of the burden of diseases associated to VZV are crucial to asses any potential impact of a prevention strategy. A population-based retrospective epidemiological study to estimate the burden of herpes zoster requiring hospitalization in Spain was conducted. Methods This study was conducted by using data from the national surveillance system for hospital data, Conjunto Mínimo Básico de Datos (CMBD). Records of all patients admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of herpes zoster (ICD-9-MC codes 053.0–053.9) during a 7-year period (1998–2004) were selected. Results A total of 23,584 hospitalizations with a primary or secondary diagnosis of herpes zoster in patients ≥ 30 years of age were identified during the study period. Annually there were 13.4 hospitalizations for herpes zoster per 100,000 population in patients ≥ 30 years of age. The rate increases with age reaching a maximum in persons ≥ 80 years of age (54.3 admissions per 100,000 population >80 years of age). The mean cost of a hospitalization for herpes zoster in adult patients was 3,720 €. The estimated annual cost of hospitalizations for herpes zoster in patients ≥ 30 years of age in Spain was 12,731,954 €. Conclusion Herpes zoster imposes an important burden of hospitalizations and result in large cost expenses to the Spanish National Health System, especially in population older than 50 years of age PMID:19422687

  15. The Short- and Long-Term Risk of Stroke after Herpes Zoster - A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Sreenivasan, Nandini; Basit, Saima; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Pasternak, Björn; Munch, Tina N.; Nielsen, Lars P.; Melbye, Mads

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is known to cause VZV vasculopathy, which may be associated with stroke. A recent study found an increased risk of stroke within one year of herpes zoster. We aimed to investigate the short and long-term effects of herpes zoster on the risk of stroke. Methods Using Danish national registers, we constructed a cohort consisting of all Danish adults ≥18 years old between 1995 and 2008 (n = 4.6 million; person-years of follow-up = 52.9 million). Individual-level information on prescriptions for herpes zoster antiviral treatment and diagnoses of stroke was obtained from national registers. We compared the risk of stroke in persons who had received the specific dosage of acyclovir for herpes zoster with persons who had never received antiviral treatment by Poisson regression. Results During follow-up, 2.5% received treatment for herpes zoster and 5.0% were diagnosed with stroke. Individuals who had received medication had a 127% (95% CI 83–182%) increased risk the first two weeks, 17% (CI 9–24%) between two weeks and one year, and 5% (2–9%) after the first year. The increased risk was greatest in the youngest age group (<40). To control for healthcare-seeking behaviour, we conducted parallel analyses investigating the risk of selected fractures after herpes zoster and found no similar increased risks. Conclusions This large nationwide cohort study found an increased risk of stroke after treatment for herpes zoster. Although the short-term risk was particularly high, we cannot rule out the possibility of a small but important long-term risk. PMID:23874897

  16. A simple wave driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kağan Temiz, Burak; Yavuz, Ahmet

    2015-08-01

    This study was done to develop a simple and inexpensive wave driver that can be used in experiments on string waves. The wave driver was made using a battery-operated toy car, and the apparatus can be used to produce string waves at a fixed frequency. The working principle of the apparatus is as follows: shortly after the car is turned on, the wheel starts to turn at a constant angular speed. A rod that is fixed on the wheel turns at the same constant angular speed, too. A tight string that the wave will be created on is placed at a distance where the rod can touch the string. During each rotation of the wheel, the rod vibrates the string up and down. The vibration frequency of this rod equals the wheel’s rotation frequency, and this frequency value can be measured easily with a small magnet and a bicycle speedometer. In this way, the frequency of the waves formed in the rope can also be measured.

  17. Simple wavelength assignment protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryaputra, Stephen; Touch, Joseph D.; Bannister, Joseph A.

    2000-10-01

    IP routers can be coupled with wavelength-selective optical cross- connects to support existing Internet infrastructure in a wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) optical network. Because optical wavelength routing is transparent to IP, packets can bypass traditional forwarding and pass directly through the optical cross-connect, resulting in very high throughput and low delay routing. This approach shares features with label switching, but wavelengths are much more scarce resource than labels. Because optical switches have larger switching times than electronic switches, and wavelength conversions are expensive, wavelength label swapping is not easily done. Wavelength label assignments must consider these limitations to be practical in an optical environment. The performance of an instance of this approach, called Packet over Wavelengths (POW) has been simulated and studied. A new signaling protocol, Simple Wavelength Assignment Protocol (SWAP) is devised to be POW signaling protocol. SWAP takes into account the optical device limitations, and is designed to minimize wavelength conversion, utilize wavelengths with the merging of flows, and reduce the reconfiguration of optical switches. SWAP, to our knowledge, is the first approach to combine signaling and wavelength assignment in an on- line protocol. This paper describes high level SWAP design challenges, decision, and overhead.

  18. Diagnosis of Herpes Simplex Encephalitis by ELISA Using Antipeptide Antibodies Against Type-Common Epitopes of Glycoprotein B of Herpes Simplex Viruses.

    PubMed

    Bhullar, Shradha S; Chandak, Nitin H; Baheti, Neeraj N; Purohit, Hemant J; Taori, Girdhar M; Daginawala, Hatim F; Kashyap, Rajpal S

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) represents one of the most severe infectious diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). As effective antiviral drugs are available, an early, rapid, and reliable diagnosis has become important. The objective of this article was to develop a sensitive ELISA protocol for herpes simplex viruses (HSV) antigen detection and quantitation by assessing the usefulness of antipeptide antibodies against potential peptides of HSV glycoprotein B (gB). A total of 180 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of HSE and non-HSE patients were analyzed using a panel of antipeptide antibodies against synthetic peptides of HSV glycoprotein gB. The cases of confirmed and suspected HSE showed 80% and 51% positivity for antipeptide against synthetic peptide QLHDLRF and 77% and 53% positivity for antipeptide against synthetic peptide MKALYPLTT, respectively for the detection of HSV antigen in CSF. The concentration of HSV antigen was found to be higher in confirmed HSE as compared to suspected HSE group and the viral load correlated well with antigen concentration obtained using the two antipeptides in CSF of confirmed HSE group. This is the first article describing the use of antibodies obtained against synthetic peptides derived from HSV in diagnostics of HSE using patients' CSF samples. PMID:26599512

  19. Simple inflationary quintessential model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Haro, Jaume; Amorós, Jaume; Pan, Supriya

    2016-04-01

    In the framework of a flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker geometry, we present a non-geodesically past complete model of our Universe without the big bang singularity at finite cosmic time, describing its evolution starting from its early inflationary era up to the present accelerating phase. We found that a hydrodynamical fluid with nonlinear equation of state could result in such scenario, which after the end of this inflationary stage, suffers a sudden phase transition and enters into the stiff matter dominated era, and the Universe becomes reheated due to a huge amount of particle production. Finally, it asymptotically enters into the de Sitter phase concluding the present accelerated expansion. Using the reconstruction technique, we also show that this background provides an extremely simple inflationary quintessential potential whose inflationary part is given by the well-known 1-dimensional Higgs potential, i.e., a double well inflationary potential, and the quintessential one by an exponential potential that leads to a deflationary regime after this inflation, and it can depict the current cosmic acceleration at late times. Moreover the Higgs potential leads to a power spectrum of the cosmological perturbations which fit well with the latest Planck estimations. Further, we compared our viable potential with some known inflationary quintessential potential, which shows that our quintessential model, that is, the Higgs potential combined with the exponential one, is an improved version of them because it contains an analytic solution that allows us to perform all analytic calculations. Finally, we have shown that the introduction of a nonzero cosmological constant simplifies the potential considerably with an analytic behavior of the background which again permits us to evaluate all the quantities analytically.

  20. High Risk of Herpes Zoster among Patients with Advance Acute Kidney Injury – A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei-Shun; Hu, Fu-Chang; Chen, Meng-Kan; Ko, Wen-Je; Chen, Likwang; Wu, Kwan-Dun; Wu, Vin-Cent

    2015-01-01

    The risk for herpes zoster (HZ) in acute kidney injury (AKI) survivors was never explored. We identified 2,387 adults in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database who recovered from dialysis-requiring AKI and matched them with non-recovery and non-AKI patients by propensity score. During a mean follow-up of 2.7 years, the incidences of HZ were 6.9, 8.2 and 4.8 episodes per 1,000 person-years in AKI-non-recovery, AKI-recovery and non-AKI group, respectively. The recovery group was more likely to develop herpes zoster than those without acute kidney injury [incidence-rate ratios 1.71, 95% confidence interval 1.16–2.52; p = 0.007]. Patients without acute kidney injury were less likely to develop herpes zoster than those AKI, recovered from dialysis or not (hazard ratio HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.46–0.95). Dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury poses a long-term risk of herpes zoster after hospital discharge. Even patients who have recovered from dialysis still carry a significantly higher risk of developing herpes zoster. PMID:26333822

  1. Human herpes virus-8-associated multicentric Castleman's disease in an HIV-positive patient presenting with relapsing and remitting hyponatraemia.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hiroaki; Maeda, Takuya; Hara, Yu; Osa, Morichika; Imai, Kazuo; Moriguchi, Kota; Mikita, Kei; Fujikura, Yuji; Kaida, Kenichi; Kawana, Akihiko

    2015-10-01

    We report a case of human herpes virus-8-associated multicentric Castleman's disease in an HIV-positive patient with hyponatraemia. A 65-year-old man was admitted with relapsing and remitting fever, scattered skin eruptions and hepatosplenomegaly following combination antiretroviral therapy for his HIV infection. Based on histopathological findings, he was diagnosed as having human herpes virus-8-associated multicentric Castleman's disease and was treated with four-weekly infusions of rituximab. Prior to receiving chemotherapy, we observed several suspected biomarkers of disease activity, positive correlations between plasma human herpes virus-8 viral load and the levels of plasma interleukin-6, C-reactive protein and soluble interleukin-2 receptor, and negative correlations between platelet count, albumin levels and especially serum sodium levels. We hypothesize that non-osmotic release of plasma antidiuretic hormone is a cause of hyponatraemia in human herpes virus-8-associated multicentric Castleman's disease and that relapsing and remitting hyponatraemia could be correlated with plasma human herpes virus-8 viral load. PMID:25504830

  2. Effect of a Zoster Vaccine on Herpes Zoster-Related Interference with Functional Status and Health-Related Quality of Life Measures in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Schmader, Kenneth E.; Johnson, Gary R.; Saddier, Patricia; Ciarleglio, Maria; Wang, William W.B.; Zhang, Jane H.; Chan, Ivan S.F.; Yeh, Shing-Shing; Levin, Myron J.; Harbecke, Ruth M.; Oxman, Michael N.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the efficacy of a zoster vaccine on herpes zoster related interference with activities of daily living (ADL) and health-related quality of life (HRQL). Design Randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial. Setting 22 US sites. Patients 38,546 women and men ≥60 years of age. Intervention Zoster vaccine or placebo. Measurements Herpes zoster Burden of Interference with ADL and HRQL using ratings from the Zoster Brief Pain Inventory and SF-12 Mental and Physical Component Scores. Vaccine efficacy was calculated for the modified-intention-to-treat trial population and solely among those subjects who developed herpes zoster. Results For the modified-intention-to-treat population, the overall zoster vaccine efficacy was 66% (95% CI: 55, 74) for Zoster Brief Pain Inventory ADL Burden of Interference Score and 55% (95% CI: 48, 61) for both the SF-12 Mental and Physical Component Scores. Among subjects who developed herpes zoster, zoster vaccine reduced the Zoster Brief Pain Inventory ADL Burden of Interference Score by 31% (95% CI: 12, 51) respectively, and did not significantly reduce the impact on HRQL. Conclusions Zoster vaccine reduced the burden of herpes zoster related interference with ADL in the population of vaccinees and among vaccinees who developed herpes zoster. Zoster vaccine reduced the impact of herpes zoster on HRQL in the population of vaccinees but not among vaccinees who developed herpes zoster. PMID:20863322

  3. Development and evaluation of the quantitative real-time PCR assay in detection and typing of herpes simplex virus in swab specimens from patients with genital herpes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Junlian; Yi, Yong; Chen, Wei; Si, Shaoyan; Yin, Mengmeng; Jin, Hua; Liu, Jianjun; Zhou, Jinlian; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2015-01-01

    Genital herpes (GH), which is caused mainly by herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 and HSV-1, remains a worldwide problem. Laboratory confirmation of GH is important, particularly as there are other conditions which present similarly to GH, while atypical presentations of GH also occur. Currently, virus culture is the classical method for diagnosis of GH, but it is time consuming and with low sensitivity. A major advance for diagnosis of GH is to use Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In this study, to evaluate the significance of the real-time PCR method in diagnosis and typing of genital HSV, the primers and probes targeted at HSV-1 DNA polymerase gene and HSV-2 glycoprotein D gene fraction were designed and applied to amplify DNA from HSV-1 or HSV-2 by employing the real-time PCR technique. Then the PCR reaction system was optimized and evaluated. HSV in swab specimens from patients with genital herpes was detected by real-time PCR. The real-time PCR assay showed good specificity for detection and typing of HSV, with good linear range (5×102~5×108 copies/ml, r=0.997), a sensitivity of 5×102 copies/ml, and good reproducibility (intra-assay coefficients of variation 2.29% and inter-assay coefficients of variation 4.76%). 186 swab specimens were tested for HSV by real-time PCR, and the positive rate was 23.7% (44/186). Among the 44 positive specimens, 8 (18.2%) were positive for HSV-1 with a viral load of 8.5546×106 copies/ml and 36 (81.2%) were positive for HSV-2 with a viral load of 1.9861×106 copies/ml. It is concluded that the real-time PCR is a specific, sensitive and rapid method for the detection and typing of HSV, which can be widely used in clinical diagnosis of GH. PMID:26770492

  4. A Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Human Asymptomatic CD8+ T-Cell Epitopes-Based Vaccine Protects Against Ocular Herpes in a “Humanized” HLA Transgenic Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Ruchi; Khan, Arif A.; Huang, Jiawei; Nesburn, Anthony B.; Wechsler, Steven L.; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. A clinical vaccine that protects from ocular herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection and disease still is lacking. In the present study, preclinical vaccine trials of nine asymptomatic (ASYMP) peptides, selected from HSV-1 glycoproteins B (gB), and tegument proteins VP11/12 and VP13/14, were performed in the “humanized” HLA–transgenic rabbit (HLA-Tg rabbit) model of ocular herpes. We recently reported that these peptides are highly recognized by CD8+ T cells from “naturally” protected HSV-1–seropositive healthy ASYMP individuals (who have never had clinical herpes disease). Methods. Mixtures of three ASYMP CD8+ T-cell peptides derived from either HSV-1 gB, VP11/12, or VP13/14 were delivered subcutaneously to different groups of HLA-Tg rabbits (n = 10) in incomplete Freund's adjuvant, twice at 15-day intervals. The frequency and function of HSV-1 epitope-specific CD8+ T cells induced by these peptides and their protective efficacy, in terms of survival, virus replication in the eye, and ocular herpetic disease were assessed after an ocular challenge with HSV-1 (strain McKrae). Results. All mixtures elicited strong and polyfunctional IFN-γ– and TNF-α–producing CD107+CD8+ cytotoxic T cells, associated with a significant reduction in death, ocular herpes infection, and disease (P < 0.015). Conclusions. The results of this preclinical trial support the screening strategy used to select the HSV-1 ASYMP CD8+ T-cell epitopes, emphasize their valuable immunogenic and protective efficacy against ocular herpes, and provide a prototype vaccine formulation that may be highly efficacious for preventing ocular herpes in humans. PMID:26098469

  5. Sensitive chemiluminescent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for quantification of human immunoglobulin G and detection of herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed Central

    Pronovost, A D; Baumgarten, A; Hsiung, G D

    1981-01-01

    A chemiluminescent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CELISA) was developed for detecting human immunoglobulin G and herpes simplex viral antigen. A comparison of CELISA with a conventional absorptiometric detection system showed that CELISA was 100 times more sensitive than absorptiometry for the measurement of human immunglobulin G. Similarly, CELISA detected as few as 40 plaque-forming units of herpes simplex virus in contrast to 2,500 plaque-forming units detected by absorptiometry. Of 18 specimens which were positive for herpes simplex virus type 1 by isolation in tissue culture, 15 (83%) were detected by CELISA within a few hours; in certain cases, several days were necessary for detection of virus by isolation techniques. PMID:6257758

  6. Herpes zoster motor neuropathy in a patient with previous motor paresis secondary to Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease.

    PubMed

    Sifuentes Giraldo, Walter Alberto; de la Puente Bujidos, Carlos; de Blas Beorlegui, Gema; López San Román, Antonio; Peña Arrebola, Andrés

    2013-04-01

    Motor involvement in herpes zoster is very infrequent, occurring in 3%-5% of cases, and it is caused by extension of the inflammatory process to the anterior horn motor neurons, with the subsequent development of segmental motor paralysis. The authors report a 37-yr-old woman with history of paresis in both lower limbs secondary to spinal cord atrophy associated with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease and immunosuppression caused by chronic corticosteroid and azathioprine treatment of ulcerative colitis, who developed worsening of her baseline residual muscle strength in the right lower limb shortly after herpes zoster eruption. Electromyography revealed acute denervation in territories corresponding to L3-L4 and moderate widespread axonal polyneuropathy affecting both lower limbs. The patient recovered her baseline muscle strength after this event. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of herpes zoster motor neuropathy in a patient with a previous motor sequel. PMID:23221673

  7. Immunity to herpes simplex virus type 2. Suppression of virus-induced immune responses in ultraviolet B-irradiated mice

    SciTech Connect

    Yasumoto, S.; Hayashi, Y.; Aurelian, L.

    1987-10-15

    Ultraviolet B irradiation (280 to 320 nm) of mice at the site of intradermal infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 increased the severity of the herpes simplex virus type 2 disease and decreased delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses to viral antigen. Decrease in DTH resulted from the induction of suppressor T cells, as evidenced by the ability of spleen cells from UV-irradiated mice to inhibit DTH and proliferative responses after adoptive transfer. Lymph node cells from UV-irradiated animals did not transfer suppression. DTH was suppressed at the induction but not the expression phase. Suppressor T cells were Lyt-1+, L3T4+, and their activity was antigen-specific. However, after in vitro culture of spleen cells from UV-irradiated mice with herpes simplex virus type 2 antigen, suppressor activity was mediated by Lyt-2+ cells. Culture supernatants contained soluble nonantigen-specific suppressive factors.

  8. Control of expression of the herpes simplex virus-induced deoxypyrimidine triphosphatase in cells infected with mutants of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 and intertypic recombinants.

    PubMed Central

    Wohlrab, F; Garrett, B K; Francke, B

    1982-01-01

    Infection of cells with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) induces high levels of deoxypyrimidine triphosphatase. The majority of the enzyme activity is found in infected cell nuclei. A similar activity is induced by HSV type 2 (HSV-2) which, in contrast to the HSV-1 enzyme, fractionates to more than 99% in the soluble cytoplasmic extract. Of a series of temperature-sensitive mutants of HSV-1 studied, only the immediate-early mutants in complementation group 1-2 (strain 17 mutants tsD and tsK and strain KOS mutant tsB2) induced reduced levels of triphosphatase at nonpermissive temperature. Of a series of temperature-sensitive mutants of HSV-2 strain HG52, ts9 and ts13 failed to induce wild-type levels of the enzyme at nonpermissive temperature; ts9 was the most defective mutant with regard to triphosphatase expression of both herpes simplex virus serotypes. After shift-up from permissive to nonpermissive temperature, triphosphatase activity in cells infected with ts9 decreased rapidly, whereas all other mutants continued to exhibit enzyme levels comparable with controls kept at the permissive temperature. The type 1-specific nuclear expression of the triphosphatase was mapped physically by the use of HSV-1 x HSV-2 intertypic recombinants, based on enzyme levels different by more than two orders of magnitude found in nuclei of HSV-1- and HSV-2-infected cells. The locus for the type-specific expression maps between 0.67 and 0.68 fractional length on the HSV genome. PMID:6128430

  9. Analysis of Antiviral Properties of Hexoral In Vitro against Some Viruses that Cause Acute Respiratory Infections and Herpes.

    PubMed

    Deryabin, P G; Galegov, G A; Andronova, V A; Botikov, A G

    2016-01-01

    Antiviral properties of Hexoral (0.1% solution and 0.2% aerosol for local application) and its constituent hexetidine against viruses causing human respiratory tract infections and herpes virus were studied in vitro. It was found that non-cytotoxic concentrations of hexetidine (alone and as a component of Hexoral) attenuated infectious properties of highly virulent influenza virus A/H5N1, pandemic influenza virus A/H1N1pdm, respiratory syncytial virus, and herpes simplex virus type 1 after a short-term exposure (30 sec) by 100 or more times. It was found that hexidine mostly contributes to the virucidal effect of Hexoral. PMID:26750930

  10. Mandibular osteonecrosis following herpes zoster infection in the mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Song, Jae-Min; Seo, Jeong-Seok; Lee, Jae-Yeol

    2015-12-01

    Herpes zoster virus (HZV) infections are caused by reactivation of the varicella zoster virus. Reactivation symptoms commonly affect the thoracolumbar trunk, and rarely affect the mandibular branches of the trigeminal nerve. When the mandibular branches are involved, lesions appear proximal to the innervation area. This condition may be associated with exfoliation of the teeth and osteonecrosis of the jawbone. We report a case of mandibular osteomyelitis after herpes zoster infection and we present a review of the literature on mandibular-branch involvement of HZV-related osteonecrosis. PMID:26733193

  11. Use of Adeno-Associated and Herpes Simplex Viral Vectors for In Vivo Neuronal Expression in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Penrod, Rachel D.; Wells, Audrey M.; Carlezon, William A.; Cowan, Christopher W.

    2015-01-01

    Adeno-associated viruses and the herpes simplex virus are the two most widely used vectors for the in vivo expression of exogenous genes. Advances in the development of these vectors have enabled remarkable temporal and spatial control of gene expression. This unit provides methods for storing, delivering, and verifying expression of adeno-associated and herpes simplex viruses in the adult mouse brain. It also describes important considerations for experiments using in vivo expression of these viral vectors, including serotype and promoter selection, as well as timing of expression. Additional protocols are provided that describe methods for preliminary experiments to determine the appropriate conditions for in vivo delivery. PMID:26426386

  12. Mandibular osteonecrosis following herpes zoster infection in the mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Herpes zoster virus (HZV) infections are caused by reactivation of the varicella zoster virus. Reactivation symptoms commonly affect the thoracolumbar trunk, and rarely affect the mandibular branches of the trigeminal nerve. When the mandibular branches are involved, lesions appear proximal to the innervation area. This condition may be associated with exfoliation of the teeth and osteonecrosis of the jawbone. We report a case of mandibular osteomyelitis after herpes zoster infection and we present a review of the literature on mandibular-branch involvement of HZV-related osteonecrosis. PMID:26733193

  13. Apolipoprotein E genotype and hepatitis C, HIV and herpes simplex disease risk: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E is a polymorphic and multifunctional protein with numerous roles in lipoprotein metabolism. The three common isoforms apoE2, apoE3 and apoE4 show isoform-specific functional properties including different susceptibilities to diseases. ApoE4 is an accepted risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and cardiovascular disorders. Recently, associations between apoE4 and infectious diseases have been demonstrated. This review summarises how apoE4 may be involved in the infection incidence and associated pathologies of specific infectious diseases, namely hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency virus disease and herpes simplex. ApoE4 seems to be protective against chronic hepatitis C virus infection and retards fibrosis progression. In contrast apoE4 enhances the fusion rate of human immunodeficiency virus with target cell membranes, resulting in accelerated cell entry and faster disease progression. Its association with human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia remains controversial. Regarding herpes simplex virus infection, apoE4 intensifies virus latency and is associated with increased oxidative damage of the central nervous system, and there is some evidence that herpes simplex virus infection in combination with the apoE4 genotype may be associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease. In addition to reviewing available data from human trials, evidence derived from a variety of cell culture and animal models are considered in this review in order to provide mechanistic insights into observed association between apoE4 genotype and viral disease infection and pathology. PMID:20109174

  14. [Isolation of an avirulent strain of the chicken herpes virus type B].

    PubMed

    Kasabov, R; Nam, L V

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to isolate type 'B' of the chicken Herpes virus on a farm for stock layers with a low level of losses due to Marek's disease. Seven virus isolates were obtained from 3-4-month-old White Leghorn poults via direct kidney cell cultures. One of them, named strain C-80, was studied in chick embryo fibroblast cultures, and egg cultures (Bllow's test) as well as biochemically, serologically, and through the electron microscope. Results made it reasonable to identify it as a chicken Herpes virus type 'B'. In vivo experiments with strain C-80 inoculated in day-old chicks at the rate of 15 x 10(3) PFU showed that it did not cause gross and microlesions in the nervous system and the parenchymal organs in the course of 18 weeks of observation. The immunogenic properties of strain C-80 were studied in 2250 day-old White Plymouth Rock chicks inoculated at the rate of 1360 PFU, kept in an infected environment together with as many as 4500 control birds immunized three times with a vaccine (obtained from a turkey Herpes virus) at 1500 PFU. Twenty-four weeks later the losses due to Marek's disease were 3.4 per cent in the test group, and 7.2 per cent in the control one. It is believed that strain C-80 is appropriate for the production of a vaccine against Marek's diseases--Rispens type. Further studies are being performed on the antigenic composition and the immunogenic properties as well as series of in vivo passages with regard to reversibility. PMID:7157664

  15. Remote semantic memory in patients with Korsakoff's syndrome and herpes encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Kopelman, Michael D; Bright, Peter; Fulker, Helena; Hinton, Nicola; Morrison, Amy; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2009-03-01

    Performance of patients with Korsakoff's syndrome and herpes encephalitis was compared on a retrograde amnesia (RA) test, asking subjects to recall and recognize the definitions of words that had come into the language at different time periods. Performance was also compared on a related test in which participants were asked to produce the words to definitions they were given in free recall and cued recall versions. It was hypothesized that, if the temporal gradient in remote memory results from a shift of information from episodic to semantic memory, then there should be a temporal gradient on these tasks, possibly steeper (i.e., greater relative sparing of early memories) in the patients in the Korsakoff group than in the herpes encephalitis group, who have widespread temporal lobe damage. Furthermore, in comparing semantic and episodic remote memory tests, consolidation theory would predict uniform temporal gradients across such tasks, whereas multiple trace theory would predict a differential pattern. The results showed that patients with Korsakoff's syndrome and patients with herpes encephalitis were significantly impaired across all time periods on the vocabulary tests, with only minimal evidence of temporal gradients, relative to healthy participants, and there was no evidence of a differential pattern of impairment between the two patient groups. Comparison with performance on measures of episodic retrograde amnesia, in which there was a differential pattern of temporal gradient, suggests that the relative preservation of early episodic remote memories in patients with Korsakoff's syndrome does not result from an episodic-to-semantic shift in the quality with which memories are stored. These findings are discussed in relation to existing theories of RA and to the patients' underlying patterns of neuropathology. PMID:19254087

  16. Clinical Characteristics and Manifestation of Herpes Esophagitis: One Single-center Experience in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hung-Wei; Kuo, Chia-Jung; Lin, Wey-Ran; Hsu, Chen-Ming; Ho, Yu-Pin; Lin, Chun-Jung; Su, Ming-Yao; Chiu, Cheng-Tang; Chen, Kuang-Hua

    2016-04-01

    We aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of patients with herpes esophagitis (HE) based on endoscopic typing.Herpes simplex virus infection in the gastrointestinal tract primarily affects the esophagus. However, little is known about the presentation, endoscopic findings, and outcomes of HE.From 2003 to 2013, 47 patients with HE were identified histologically from among 1843 patients with esophageal ulcers. Personal data, underlying disease, esophagogastroduodenoscopy indication, endoscopic characteristics, pathological findings, laboratory data, and outcomes were collected. Endoscopic findings were classified into 3 types based on gross appearance and were correlated with clinical presentation.The mean age of patients was 62.04 ± 14.76 years, and most patients were men (39/47, 83%). The most common symptoms were odynophagia/dysphagia (20/47, 42.6%). Whereas 25 patients (53.2%) were diagnosed with malignancy, it was related to human immunodeficiency virus in only 1 patient (2.1%). HE was classified into 3 types based on endoscopic images: type I (n = 19), type II (n = 10), and type III (n = 18). The majority of patients with HE type III had sepsis (72%) and obvious leukocytosis than the other 2 types (P = 0.03). The overall mortality rate was 6.4% (3/47), and most of the patients who died (66.7% [2/3]) belonged to the endoscopic classification type III group. Clinical parameters were analyzed for the risk of poor outcome. Postchemotherapy and/or radiotherapy were associated with 30-day mortality after appearance of HE (P < 0.05).Herpes esophagitis primarily affects men and patients with malignancy or sepsis. However, the disease is usually self-limiting, and HE-related mortality is low. Relationship between severity of endoscopic findings and patients' outcome remains questionable. Further prospective study is needed. PMID:27057845

  17. National Lupus Hospitalization Trends Reveal Rising Rates of Herpes Zoster and Declines in Pneumocystis Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Sara G.; Schmajuk, Gabriela; Trupin, Laura; Gensler, Lianne; Katz, Patricia P.; Yelin, Edward H.; Gansky, Stuart A.; Yazdany, Jinoos

    2016-01-01

    Objective Infection is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Therapeutic practices have evolved over the past 15 years, but effects on infectious complications of SLE are unknown. We evaluated trends in hospitalizations for severe and opportunistic infections in a population-based SLE study. Methods Data derive from the 2000 to 2011 United States National Inpatient Sample, including individuals who met a validated administrative definition of SLE. Primary outcomes were diagnoses of bacteremia, pneumonia, opportunistic fungal infection, herpes zoster, cytomegalovirus, or pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). We used Poisson regression to determine whether infection rates were changing in SLE hospitalizations and used predictive marginals to generate annual adjusted rates of specific infections. Results We identified 361,337 SLE hospitalizations from 2000 to 2011 meeting study inclusion criteria. Compared to non-SLE hospitalizations, SLE patients were younger (51 vs. 62 years), predominantly female (89% vs. 54%), and more likely to be racial/ethnic minorities. SLE diagnosis was significantly associated with all measured severe and opportunistic infections. From 2000 to 2011, adjusted SLE hospitalization rates for herpes zoster increased more than non-SLE rates: 54 to 79 per 10,000 SLE hospitalizations compared with 24 to 29 per 10,000 non-SLE hospitalizations. Conversely, SLE hospitalizations for PCP disproportionately decreased: 5.1 to 2.5 per 10,000 SLE hospitalizations compared with 0.9 to 1.3 per 10,000 non-SLE hospitalizations. Conclusions Among patients with SLE, herpes zoster hospitalizations are rising while PCP hospitalizations are declining. These trends likely reflect evolving SLE treatment strategies. Further research is needed to identify patients at greatest risk for infectious complications. PMID:26731012

  18. Acyclovir vs isoprinosine (immunovir) for suppression of recurrent genital herpes simplex infection.

    PubMed Central

    Kinghorn, G R; Woolley, P D; Thin, R N; De Maubeuge, J; Foidart, J M; Engst, R

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare the efficacy and safety of oral acyclovir (400 mg twice daily) with oral isoprinosine (500 mg twice daily) in the suppression of recurrent genital herpes. DESIGN--Double-blind, double-dummy, randomised, controlled, parallel group trial. SETTING--13 centres in UK, Belgium and Germany. SUBJECTS--127 immunocompetent patients with frequently recurring genital herpes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Proportions of patients reporting recurrences, recurrence frequency, and mean duration of lesions during breakthrough recurrences in each treatment group during a 6 month treatment period; time to first recurrence during treatment and follow-up after treatment cessation. RESULTS--During treatment, acyclovir recipients showed significant differences (p < 0.05) when compared with isoprinosine recipients in terms of a lower proportion reporting recurrences (31% vs 96%), a reduced mean number of reported recurrences per patient (0.6 vs 3.6), a shorter mean duration of breakthrough lesions (6.4 days vs 8.2 days), and a longer mean time (standard error) to first recurrence (143.7 (9.1) days vs 40.5 (5.4) days. The mean time to first recurrence after treatment cessation did not differ between the two groups. As compared with placebo recipients, isoprinosine treated patients had an increased recurrence frequency (3.6 vs 2.5) during treatment, and a shorter time to first recurrence after treatment cessation. All treatments were well tolerated without serious adverse events or toxicity. CONCLUSIONS--Acyclovir is very effective in suppressing recurrent genital herpes and is clearly superior to isoprinosine which is not clinically useful in the dosage studied. PMID:1385295

  19. Epidemiological impact of a genital herpes type 2 vaccine for young females.

    PubMed

    Lou, Yijun; Qesmi, Redouane; Wang, Qian; Steben, Marc; Wu, Jianhong; Heffernan, Jane M

    2012-01-01

    Genital Herpes, which is caused by Herpes Simplex Virus-1 or -2 (HSV-1, -2, predominantly HSV-2) is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) that causes a chronic latent infection with outbreak episodes linked to transmission. Antiviral therapies are effective in reducing viral shedding during these episodes, but are ineffective as a whole since many outbreaks are asymptomatic or have mild symptoms. Thus, the development of a vaccine for genital herpes is needed to control this disease. The question of how to implement such a vaccine program is an important one, and may be similar to the vaccination program for Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) for young females. We have developed a mathematical model to describe the epidemiology of vaccination targeting young females against HSV-2. The model population is delineated with respect to age group, sexual activity and infection status including oral infection of HSV-1, which may affect vaccine efficacy. A threshold parameter R(C), which determines the level of vaccine uptake needed to eradicate HSV-2, is found. Computer simulation shows that an adolescent-only vaccination program may be effective in eliminating HSV-2 disease, however, the success of extinction greatly depends on the level of vaccine uptake, the vaccine efficacy, the age of sexual maturity and safe sex practices. However, the time course of eradication would take many years. We also investigate the prevalence of infection in the total population and in women between 16-30 years of age before and after vaccination has been introduced, and show that the adolescent-only vaccination program can be effective in reducing disease prevalence in these populations depending on the level of vaccine uptake and vaccine efficacy. This will also result in a decrease of maternal-fetal transmission of HSV-2 infection. Another important, if commonsense, conclusion is that vaccination of some females reduces infection in men, which then reduces infection in women. PMID:23071536

  20. Prospects and Perspectives for Development of a Vaccine Against Herpes Simplex Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    McAllister, Shane C.; Schleiss, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex viruses 1 and -2 are human pathogens that lead to significant morbidity and mortality in certain clinical settings. The development of effective antiviral medications, however, has had little discernible impact on the epidemiology of these pathogens, largely because the majority of infections are clinically silent. Decades of work have gone into various candidate HSV vaccines, but to date none has demonstrated sufficient efficacy to warrant licensure. This review examines developments in HSV immunology and vaccine development published since 2010, and assesses the prospects for improved immunization strategies that may result in an effective, licensed vaccine in the near future. PMID:25077372

  1. Recurrent herpes labialis: efficacy of topical therapy with penciclovir compared with acyclovir (aciclovir).

    PubMed

    Femiano, F; Gombos, F; Scully, C

    2001-01-01

    This study compares the effects of topical acyclovir and penciclovir in the treatment of recurrent herpes labialis. The study patients were a population of 40 patients with in excess of five recurrences annually, and were separated into four homogeneous groups each of 10 subjects. The antiviral creams were used to achieve total lesional cover, every 2 h during waking hours. The effects on the time to lesion crusting and to resolution of pain, were assessed. The results not only confirmed that aciclovir is ineffective, but confirmed that penciclovir is effective, and that penciclovir is superior to aciclovir. PMID:11354919

  2. Human herpes virus-6 seroprevalence and leukaemias: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Gentile, G; Mele, A; Ragona, G; Faggioni, A; Zompetta, C; Tosti, M E; Visani, G; Castelli, G; Pulsoni, A; Monarca, B; Martino, P; Mandelli, F

    1999-01-01

    The relationships between acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL), chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) and refractory anaemia with excess of blasts (RAEB) and human herpes virus (HHV)-6 antibody level were investigated in a multicentre case-control study. An association between increased HHV-6 seropositivity and geometric mean titre ratio with AML was shown: P for trend = 0.022, adjusted odds ratio 1.20, 95% confidence interval 1.07–1.33 respectively. No association was found between HHV-6 and ALL, CML or RAEB. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10362124

  3. Herpes Gestationis after Ovodonation: Is Placenta the only Target of the Immune Reaction?

    PubMed

    Piva, Isabella; Lo Monte, Giuseppe; Graziano, Angela; Marci, Roberto

    2014-11-01

    Herpes Gestationis (HG) is an autoimmune disorder that rarely complicates pregnancy. Its pathogenesis has not been clarified yet, as it derives from a complex interplay between immunologic, genetic, and hormonal factors. We present a case of HG occurring in a surrogate mother whose pregnancy was achieved via egg donation and in vitro fertilisation (IVF). The disease appeared at 26 weeks and 6 days of gestation and subsequently worsened despite the administration of oral and topic corticosteroids. A healthy baby was delivered at 35 weeks and 2 days of gestation by elective cesarean section and the clinical manifestations resolved in the postpartum period. PMID:25584273

  4. Latent Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection Does Not Induce Apoptosis in Human Trigeminal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Lindemann, Anja; Sinicina, Inga; Strupp, Michael; Brandt, Thomas; Hfner, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) can establish lifelong latency in human trigeminal ganglia. Latently infected ganglia contain CD8+ T cells, which secrete granzyme B and are thus capable of inducing neuronal apoptosis. Using immunohistochemistry and single-cell reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), higher frequency and transcript levels of caspase-3 were found in HSV-1-negative compared to HSV-1-positive ganglia and neurons, respectively. No terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay-positive neurons were detected. The infiltrating T cells do not induce apoptosis in latently infected neurons. PMID:25762734

  5. Cutaneous cytomegalovirus infection on multi dermatomal herpes zoster scars: an isotopic immune response.

    PubMed

    Katibi, O S; Dlova, N C; Mosam, A

    2015-01-01

    As more patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are surviving, despite severe immune suppression, clinicians are faced with atypical manifestations of both common and uncommon dermatoses. A 30-year-old black South African woman presented with a 10-month history of multiple chronic ulcers appearing on a multidermatomal herpes zoster (HZ) scar. The woman was infected with HIV, and her CD4 count was 45cells/?L. Histology and PCR revealed cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. This case highlights an unusual presentation of cutaneous CMV occurring as an isotopic immune response on a pre-existing multidermatomal HZ scar. PMID:25266481

  6. Therapeutic Approaches Using Host Defence Peptides to Tackle Herpes Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Jenssen, Håvard

    2009-01-01

    One of the most common viral infections in humans is caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV). It can easily be treated with nucleoside analogues (e.g., acyclovir), but resistant strains are on the rise. Naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides have been demonstrated to possess antiviral activity against HSV. New evidence has also indicated that these host defence peptides are able to selectively stimulate the innate immune system to fight of infections. This review will focus on the anti-HSV activity of such peptides (both natural and synthetic), describe their mode of action and their clinical potential. PMID:21994576

  7. Replication at body temperature selects a neurovirulent herpes simplex virus type 2.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, R L; Stevens, J G

    1983-01-01

    A prototype strain of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HG-52) replicated at 31 degrees C was avirulent when inoculated intracranially into mice. This property was not altered after serial passage of the agent at 31 degrees C, but the virus became virulent after passage at 37.5 degrees C. The selection was not merely for an agent which replicated more efficiently at the higher temperature, but for viruses with enhanced capacity to replicate in the brains of mice. Virulent descendants of plaque-purified avirulent stocks were obtained in each instance attempted. PMID:6307887

  8. Conjunctival geographic ulcer: an overlooked sign of herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed

    Hung, Jia-Horung; Chu, Chang-Yao; Lee, Chaw-Ning; Hsu, Chao-Kai; Lee, Julia Yu-Yun; Wang, Jen-Ren; Chang, Kung-Chao; Huang, Fu-Chin

    2015-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) ocular infection causes significant visual burden worldwide. Despite the fact that dendritic or geographic corneal ulcers are typical findings in HSV epithelial keratitis, conjunctival ulcer as a sign of HSV infection has rarely been reported. Although easily overlooked, this important sign could be enhanced by fluorescein staining. We report two cases of conjunctival geographic ulcers proven to be HSV infection by viral isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). One patient had bilateral disease and blepharitis, and the other had unilateral involvement without skin lesions. With timely diagnosis and proper management, excellent visual outcome can be expected. PMID:25728077

  9. Preclinical Mouse Models for Analysis of the Therapeutic Potential of Engineered Oncolytic Herpes Viruses.

    PubMed

    Speranza, Maria-Carmela; Kasai, Kazue; Lawler, Sean E

    2016-03-31

    After more than two decades of research and development, oncolytic herpes viruses (oHSVs) are moving into the spotlight due to recent encouraging clinical trial data. oHSV and other oncolytic viruses function through direct oncolytic cancer cell-killing mechanisms and by stimulating antitumor immunity. As further viruses are developed and optimized for the treatment of various types of cancer, appropriate predictive preclinical models will be of great utility. This review will discuss existing data in this area, focusing on the mouse tumor models that are commonly used. PMID:27034396

  10. Incident herpes simplex virus type 2 infection increases the risk of subsequent episodes of bacterial vaginosis.

    PubMed

    Masese, Linnet; Baeten, Jared M; Richardson, Barbra A; Bukusi, Elizabeth; John-Stewart, Grace; Jaoko, Walter; Shafi, Juma; Kiarie, James; McClelland, R Scott

    2014-04-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infected women have a higher prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) compared to HSV-2-seronegative women. To explore the temporal association between these conditions, we evaluated the frequency of BV episodes before and after HSV-2 acquisition in a prospective study of 406 HSV-2/HIV-1-seronegative Kenyan women, of whom 164 acquired HSV-2. Incident HSV-2 was associated with increased likelihood of BV (adjusted OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.05-1.56; P = .01). Our findings strengthen the evidence for a causal link between genital HSV-2 infection and disruption of the vaginal microbiota. PMID:24273042

  11. Acute retinal necrosis secondary to herpes simplex virus type 2 in neonates.

    PubMed

    Venincasa, Vincent D; Emanuelli, Andres; Leng, Theodore; Perlini, Erin; Villegas, Victor; Diaz-Barbosa, Magaly; Gutierrez, Maria; Miller, Darlene; Berrocal, Audina M

    2015-04-01

    Acute retinal necrosis (ARN) should be in the differential diagnosis of a neonate who presents with vitritis. This report includes three cases of neonatal ARN at the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute from 2004 to 2009. Medical treatment with acyclovir helped reduce sequelae of herpes simplex virus (HSV) 2 infection. Patients with ARN are at risk for retinal detachment and blindness. Although mothers are screened during pregnancy, they are at risk of reactivation or primary contraction of HSV. A neonate presenting with vitritis should raise suspicion of ARN. PMID:25932732

  12. Vaccine-associated herpes zoster ophthalmicus [correction of opthalmicus] and encephalitis in an immunocompetent child.

    PubMed

    Chouliaras, Giorgos; Spoulou, Vana; Quinlivan, Mark; Breuer, Judith; Theodoridou, Maria

    2010-04-01

    Varicella-zoster virus vaccine has diminished the consequences of chicken pox in terms of health and economical burden. The increasing number of doses administered worldwide has revealed rare but important adverse effects that had not occurred during clinical trials. We report here the case of an immunocompetent 3(1/2)-year-old girl who developed encephalitis and herpes zoster opthalmicus 20 months after her immunization with varicella-zoster virus vaccine. Molecular analysis confirmed the vaccine strain as the causative agent. After an intravenous course with acyclovir, the child made a full recovery with no neurologic sequelae. PMID:20194287

  13. Study Guide: Seven Simple Secrets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satterfield, Nancy; Breaux, Annette; Whitaker, Todd

    2007-01-01

    This study guide has been developed to accompany the "Seven Simple Secrets" book written by Dr. Todd Whitaker and Annette Breaux. "Seven Simple Secrets" focuses on those attributes that have been found to help teachers be their absolute best in their daily challenges of teaching and improving student learning. The study guide is divided into the…

  14. Simple current symmetries in RCFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bantay, P.

    2005-01-01

    The question ``Which abelian permutation groups arise as group of simple currents in Rational Conformal Field Theory?'' is investigated using the formalism of weighted permutation actions. After a review of the relevant properties of simple current symmetries, the general theory of WPA-s and admissibility conditions are described, and classification results are illustrated by a couple of examples.

  15. Disparities in herpes simplex virus type 2 infection between black and white men who have sex with men in Atlanta, GA

    PubMed Central

    Okafor, Netochukwu; Rosenberg, Eli S; Luisi, Nicole; Sanchez, Travis; del Rio, Carlos; Sullivan, Patrick S; Kelley, Colleen F

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background HIV disproportionately affects black men who have sex with men, and herpes simplex virus type 2 is known to increase acquisition of HIV. However, data on racial disparities in herpes simplex virus type 2 prevalence and risk factors are limited among men who have sex with men in the United States. Methods InvolveMENt was a cohort study of black and white HIV-negative men who have sex with men in Atlanta, GA. Univariate and multivariate cross-sectional associations with herpes simplex virus type 2 seroprevalence were assessed among 455 HIV-negative men who have sex with men for demographic, behavioral, and social determinant risk factors using logistic regression. Results Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 was 23% (48/211) for black and 16% (38/244) for white men who have sex with men (p = 0.05). Education, poverty, drug/alcohol use, incarceration, circumcision, unprotected anal intercourse, and condom use were not associated with herpes simplex virus type 2. In multivariate analyses, black race for those ≤25 years, but not >25 years, and number of sexual partners were significantly associated. Conclusions Young black men who have sex with men are disproportionately affected by herpes simplex virus type 2, which may contribute to disparities in HIV acquisition. An extensive assessment of risk factors did not explain this disparity in herpes simplex virus type 2 infection suggesting differences in susceptibility or partner characteristics. PMID:25246424

  16. Variation in the WBC differential count and other factors associated with reporting of herpes labialis: a population-based study of adults.

    PubMed

    Parks, Christine G; Andrew, Michael E; Blanciforti, Laura A; Luster, Michael I

    2007-11-01

    Reactivation of latent herpes virus has been linked to triggers of mild immunosupression, such as stress or UV-exposure. Despite having predictive value in severe immunodeficiency, the white blood cell (WBC) differential count has not been examined in relation to risk of herpes reactivation in population studies. The WBC differential count and other risk factors for herpes labialis were examined in 5687 adults (ages 18-64) from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, who had WBC 3.5-11 x 10(6) cells mL(-1) and reported no acute infections in the past month. The association between self-reported herpes labialis in the past year and the WBC differential count was modeled, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, smoking, upper respiratory infections (URI), and HSV-1 antibodies. Herpes labialis was significantly associated with white race/ethnicity, being a nonsmoker, and frequent URI. Compared with the highest quartile, being in the lowest quartile of granulocytes was associated with herpes labialis, adjusted odds ratio=1.82 (95% confidence interval 1.20, 2.28). At the same time, there was a trend towards an inverse association of lower lymphocyte count and herpes labialis. These findings suggest that moderate differences in the WBC differential count are related to reactivation of HSV-1. Prospective studies may help to show whether such differences indicate susceptibility to loss of latency or represent a consequence of reactivated infection. PMID:17727654

  17. Disparities in herpes simplex virus type 2 infection between black and white men who have sex with men in Atlanta, GA.

    PubMed

    Okafor, Netochukwu; Rosenberg, Eli S; Luisi, Nicole; Sanchez, Travis; del Rio, Carlos; Sullivan, Patrick S; Kelley, Colleen F

    2015-09-01

    HIV disproportionately affects black men who have sex with men, and herpes simplex virus type 2 is known to increase acquisition of HIV. However, data on racial disparities in herpes simplex virus type 2 prevalence and risk factors are limited among men who have sex with men in the United States. InvolveMENt was a cohort study of black and white HIV-negative men who have sex with men in Atlanta, GA. Univariate and multivariate cross-sectional associations with herpes simplex virus type 2 seroprevalence were assessed among 455 HIV-negative men who have sex with men for demographic, behavioural and social determinant risk factors using logistic regression. Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 was 23% (48/211) for black and 16% (38/244) for white men who have sex with men (p = 0.05). Education, poverty, drug/alcohol use, incarceration, circumcision, unprotected anal intercourse, and condom use were not associated with herpes simplex virus type 2. In multivariate analyses, black race for those ≤25 years, but not >25 years, and number of sexual partners were significantly associated. Young black men who have sex with men are disproportionately affected by herpes simplex virus type 2, which may contribute to disparities in HIV acquisition. An extensive assessment of risk factors did not explain this disparity in herpes simplex virus type 2 infection suggesting differences in susceptibility or partner characteristics. PMID:25246424

  18. Simple ocean carbon cycle models

    SciTech Connect

    Caldeira, K.; Hoffert, M.I.; Siegenthaler, U.

    1994-02-01

    Simple ocean carbon cycle models can be used to calculate the rate at which the oceans are likely to absorb CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere. For problems involving steady-state ocean circulation, well calibrated ocean models produce results that are very similar to results obtained using general circulation models. Hence, simple ocean carbon cycle models may be appropriate for use in studies in which the time or expense of running large scale general circulation models would be prohibitive. Simple ocean models have the advantage of being based on a small number of explicit assumptions. The simplicity of these ocean models facilitates the understanding of model results.

  19. D-(+)-iso-Methanocarbathymidine: a high affinity substrate for herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase

    PubMed Central

    Comin, Maria J.; Vu, B. Christie; Boyer, Paul L.; Liao, Chenzhong; Hughes, Stephen H.; Marquez, Victor E.

    2009-01-01

    The stereoselective syntheses of the (+)-D and (−)-L enantiomers of racemic iso-methanocarbathymidine (iso-MCT) was achieved through two independent linear approaches that converged on two antipodal enantiomers, common to a key precursor utilized in the synthesis of racemic iso-MCT. In this study we identified (+)-3 [D-iso-(+)-MCT] as the active enantiomer that was exclusively recognized by the herpes 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) as was predicted by molecular modeling. For this purpose, a human osteosarcoma (HOS) cell line modified to contain, and express, HSV1-tk from herpes simplex virus (HSV1) was utilized to determine the cytotoxicity of the compounds via an assay that measures the level of ATP in the cells. The work demonstrates that changes in the substitution pattern of rigid bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane nucleosides, which relative to normal nucleosides appear unconventional, can lead to the spatial optimization of pharmacophores and a vastly improved substrate recognition. PMID:18399509

  20. Herpes Simplex Virus: The Interplay Between HSV, Host, and HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Desai, Dipen Vijay; Kulkarni, Smita Shrikant

    2015-12-01

    Herpes simplex virus proteins interact with host (human) proteins and create an environment conducive for its replication. Genital ulceration due to herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections is an important clinical manifestation reported to increase the risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) acquisition and replication in HIV-1/HSV-2 coinfection. Dampening the innate and adaptive immune responses of the skin-resident dendritic cells, HSV-2 not only helps itself, but creates a "yellow brick road" for one of the most dreaded viruses HIV, which is transmitted mainly through the sexual route. Although, data from clinical trials show that HSV-2 suppression reduces HIV-1 viral load, there are hardly any reports presenting conclusive evidence on the impact of HSV-2 coinfection on HIV-1 disease progression. Be that as it may, understanding the interplay between these three characters (HSV, host, and HIV-1) is imperative. This review endeavors to collate studies on the influence of HSV-derived proteins on the host response and HIV-1 replication. Studying such complex interactions may help in designing and developing common strategies for the two viruses to keep these "partners in crime" at bay. PMID:26331265

  1. Virus-specific antibodies in sera from patients with genital herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Zweerink, H J; Corey, L

    1982-01-01

    Virus-specific antibodies against a number of herpes simplex virus type 2 antigens were determined by radioimmunoprecipitation assays in sequential serum samples obtained from 12 patients with initial genital herpes simplex virus infection. The progressive appearance of antibodies to virus-specific antigens was observed; antibodies against a 130,000-molecular-weight glycoprotein complex appeared first, followed by antibodies against the major nucleocapsid polypeptide and then antibodies against a number of other viral antigens, including a polypeptide with a molecular weight of 62,000. Patients who developed a wide variety of antibodies to viral polypeptides shortly after resolution of their initial episode seemed to experience more severe initial infections and more recurrences than did those who reacted poorly with these virus-specific antigens. This was most apparent with respect to antibodies to virus-specific polypeptides with molecular weights between 30,000 and 43,000. Antibody specificity did not change during the course of follow-up regardless of whether serum samples were taken shortly before, during, or after recurrent episodes. Glycoprotein-specific antibodies were quantitated with the purified 130,000-molecular-weight glycoprotein material. No significant fluctuations in these antibody titers were observed before or after recurrences of the disease. Images PMID:7118244

  2. Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid-1 in Epidermal Keratinocytes May Contribute to Acute Pain in Herpes Zoster.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang Bum; Kim, Hyeree; Cho, Sang Hyun; Lee, Jeong Deuk; Chung, Jin Ho; Kim, Hei Sung

    2016-03-01

    The role of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) in the initiation of neurogenic inflammation and transduction of pain is well established. In this study 33 patients with herpes zoster (HZ) were recruited from a single centre and underwent a questionnaire interview at their first visit. Punch biopsies from the HZ lesions and the contralateral unaffected skin were performed to localize and quantify the expression of TRPV1. Immunofluorescent staining for TRPV1 was most prominent in the epidermal keratinocytes. Both TRPV1 mRNA and protein levels were significantly higher in the HZ epidermis than in control epidermis (relative ratio 1.62 ± 0.27, p = 0.033 and 2.55 ± 0.51, p = 0.005, respectively). Protein TRPV1 ratio (HZ lesion/control) correlated with the degree of pain (measured on a visual analogue scale; VAS) (p = 0.017) and was significantly lower in patients who had taken either HZ medication or painkillers prior to their visit. These results suggest that non-neuronal TRPV1 may contribute to acute pain in herpes zoster. PMID:26390894

  3. Relay of Herpes Simplex Virus between Langerhans Cells and Dermal Dendritic Cells in Human Skin

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min; Truong, Naomi R.; James, Virginia; Bosnjak, Lidija; Sandgren, Kerrie J.; Harman, Andrew N.; Nasr, Najla; Bertram, Kirstie M.; Olbourne, Norman; Sawleshwarkar, Shailandra; McKinnon, Kaylene; Cohen, Ralph C.; Cunningham, Anthony L.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism by which immunity to Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is initiated is not completely defined. HSV initially infects mucosal epidermis prior to entering nerve endings. In mice, epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) are the first dendritic cells (DCs) to encounter HSV, but it is CD103+ dermal DCs that carry viral antigen to lymph nodes for antigen presentation, suggesting DC cross-talk in skin. In this study, we compared topically HSV-1 infected human foreskin explants with biopsies of initial human genital herpes lesions to show LCs are initially infected then emigrate into the dermis. Here, LCs bearing markers of maturation and apoptosis formed large cell clusters with BDCA3+ dermal DCs (thought to be equivalent to murine CD103+ dermal DCs) and DC-SIGN+ DCs/macrophages. HSV-expressing LC fragments were observed inside the dermal DCs/macrophages and the BDCA3+ dermal DCs had up-regulated a damaged cell uptake receptor CLEC9A. No other infected epidermal cells interacted with dermal DCs. Correspondingly, LCs isolated from human skin and infected with HSV-1 in vitro also underwent apoptosis and were taken up by similarly isolated BDCA3+ dermal DCs and DC-SIGN+ cells. Thus, we conclude a viral antigen relay takes place where HSV infected LCs undergo apoptosis and are taken up by dermal DCs for subsequent antigen presentation. This provides a rationale for targeting these cells with mucosal or perhaps intradermal HSV immunization. PMID:25875649

  4. Relay of herpes simplex virus between Langerhans cells and dermal dendritic cells in human skin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min; Truong, Naomi R; James, Virginia; Bosnjak, Lidija; Sandgren, Kerrie J; Harman, Andrew N; Nasr, Najla; Bertram, Kirstie M; Olbourne, Norman; Sawleshwarkar, Shailandra; McKinnon, Kaylene; Cohen, Ralph C; Cunningham, Anthony L

    2015-04-01

    The mechanism by which immunity to Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is initiated is not completely defined. HSV initially infects mucosal epidermis prior to entering nerve endings. In mice, epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) are the first dendritic cells (DCs) to encounter HSV, but it is CD103(+) dermal DCs that carry viral antigen to lymph nodes for antigen presentation, suggesting DC cross-talk in skin. In this study, we compared topically HSV-1 infected human foreskin explants with biopsies of initial human genital herpes lesions to show LCs are initially infected then emigrate into the dermis. Here, LCs bearing markers of maturation and apoptosis formed large cell clusters with BDCA3(+) dermal DCs (thought to be equivalent to murine CD103(+) dermal DCs) and DC-SIGN(+) DCs/macrophages. HSV-expressing LC fragments were observed inside the dermal DCs/macrophages and the BDCA3(+) dermal DCs had up-regulated a damaged cell uptake receptor CLEC9A. No other infected epidermal cells interacted with dermal DCs. Correspondingly, LCs isolated from human skin and infected with HSV-1 in vitro also underwent apoptosis and were taken up by similarly isolated BDCA3(+) dermal DCs and DC-SIGN(+) cells. Thus, we conclude a viral antigen relay takes place where HSV infected LCs undergo apoptosis and are taken up by dermal DCs for subsequent antigen presentation. This provides a rationale for targeting these cells with mucosal or perhaps intradermal HSV immunization. PMID:25875649

  5. Oligonucleotides Designed to Inhibit TLR9 Block Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 Infection at Multiple Steps

    PubMed Central

    Sauter, Monica M.; Gauger, Joshua J. L.; Brandt, Curtis R.

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is an important human pathogen which requires activation of nuclear factor–kappa B (NFκB) during its replication cycle. The persistent nature of HSV-1 infection, and the emergence of drug-resistant strains, highlights the importance of research to develop new antiviral agents. Toll-like receptors (TLR) play a prominent role during the early antiviral response by recognizing viral nucleic acid and gene products, activating NFκB, and stimulating the production of inflammatory cytokines. We demonstrate a significant effect on HSV-1 replication in ARPE-19 and Vero cells when oligonucleotides designed to inhibit TLR9 are added 2 hours prior to infection. A greater than 90% reduction in the yield of infectious virus was achieved at oligonucleotide concentrations of 10 to 20 micromolar. TLR9 inhibitory oligonucleotides prevented expression of essential immediate early herpes gene products as determined by immunofluorescence microscopy and Western blotting. TLR9 oligonucleotides also interfered with viral attachment and entry. A TLR9 inhibitory oligonucleotide containing five adjacent guanosine residues (G-ODN) exhibited virucidal activity and inhibited HSV-1 replication when added post-infection. The antiviral effect of the TLR9 inhibitory oligonucleotides did not depend on the presence of TLR9 protein, suggesting a mechanism of inhibition that is not TLR9 specific. TLR9 inhibitory oligonucleotides also reduced NFκB activity in nuclear extracts. Studies using these TLR inhibitors in the context of viral infection should be interpreted with caution. PMID:24995383

  6. Nucleolin is required for an efficient herpes simplex virus type 1 infection.

    PubMed

    Callé, Aleth; Ugrinova, Iva; Epstein, Alberto L; Bouvet, Philippe; Diaz, Jean-Jacques; Greco, Anna

    2008-05-01

    Productive infection by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), which occurs in the host cell nucleus, is accompanied by dramatic modifications of the nuclear architecture, including profound alterations of nucleolar morphology. Here, we show that the three most abundant nucleolar proteins--nucleolin, B23, and fibrillarin--are redistributed out of the nucleoli as a consequence of HSV-1 infection. We show that the amount of nucleolin increases progressively during the course of infection. We demonstrate for the first time that a nucleolar protein, i.e., nucleolin, colocalizes with ICP8 in the viral replication compartments, at the time when viral replication is effective, suggesting an involvement of nucleolin in the HSV-1 DNA replication process. At later times of infection, a granular form of nucleolin localizes to the cytoplasm, in structures that display the characteristic features of aggresomes, indicating that this form of nucleolin is very probably destined for degradation. The delocalization of nucleolin from the nucleoli requires the viral ICP4 protein or a factor(s) whose expression involves ICP4. Using small interfering RNA technology, we show that viral replication requires a high level of nucleolin expression, demonstrating for the first time a direct role for a nucleolar protein in herpes simplex virus biology. PMID:18321972

  7. Rapid diagnosis of herpes simplex virus infections by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed Central

    Land, S A; Skurrie, I J; Gilbert, G L

    1984-01-01

    A total of 457 clinical specimens were tested for the presence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) by isolation in cell culture and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HSV antigen was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 94% of the clinical specimens from which the virus was isolated. The detection rate was improved to 100% when specimens were either assayed within 24 h or stored frozen at a constant temperature (-20 degrees C) for up to 14 days. Type-specific HSV antigen was also detected in 6% of culture-negative specimens. The assay can be completed in 5 h or less, and commercially available immunoglobulins are used. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is a rapid and sensitive method for the diagnosis of HSV infection and can be used to improve the management of pregnant women with a history of genital herpes and of neonates and others with serious HSV infection which may require specific antiviral therapy. It also offers an alternative to cell culture for routine diagnosis of HSV infections. PMID:6088571

  8. Effect of cloned human interferons on protein synthesis and morphogenesis of herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, S; Hunter, E; Whitley, R

    1985-01-01

    Pretreatment of human fibroblast cells with 100 U of either cloned human alpha-2 or beta interferon per ml for 24 h reduced the release of infectious herpes simplex virus type 1 by more than 99%. This inhibition in infectivity correlated well with the total number of extracellular virus particles released from treated cells as determined by DNA dot blot hybridization analysis. Electron microscopic observations of interferon-treated human fibroblast cells clearly demonstrated typical assembly of nucleocapsids inside the nucleus, even though very few mature extracellular particles were seen. Analysis of virus-specific proteins by the immunoblot technique showed that neither species of interferon had a significant inhibitory effect on the synthesis of major nucleocapsid proteins. However, the synthesis of specific glycoproteins (D and B) was drastically reduced or delayed in beta-interferon-treated cells. The results presented in this communication suggest that cloned human interferons block herpes simplex virus morphogenesis at a late stage and inhibit the release of particles from the treated cells. Images PMID:2997465

  9. Mandibular osteonecrosis and Ramsay Hunt syndrome following a case of herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Rudd, Travis; Chai, Bryan Y; Gurunluoglu, Raffi; Glasgow, Mark

    2014-10-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is the agent that causes chicken pox, a common childhood infection that characteristically presents as vesicular rashes affecting the trunk and head. After the primary infection has resolved, VZV lies dormant in the spinal dorsal root ganglia or extramedullary cranial nerve ganglia until reactivation results in herpes zoster (shingles). The sensory nerves of the trunk, as in classic shingles, and the fifth cranial nerve, as in trigeminal zoster, are the most frequently affected. Shingles is an acute viral infection characterized by the appearance of painful unilateral vesicular rash usually restricted to a dermatomal distribution of a sensory nerve. The rash of shingles is usually preceded by pain and paresthesia. A rare, severe complication of the reactivation of VZV in the geniculate ganglion of the facial nerve is Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS). RHS is characterized by otalgia, vesicles in the auditory canal, and ipsilateral facial paralysis. An even rarer complication of VZV infection includes post-zoster osteonecrosis. This report documents a case of severe mandibular osteonecrosis and RHS after an outbreak of herpes zoster and treatment strategies. PMID:25234535

  10. Phenotypic switching in cells transformed with the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrander, M.; Vogel, S.; Silverstein, S.

    1982-06-01

    Biochemical transformation of Ltk/sup -/ cells with the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (tk) gene resulted in numerous TK/sup +/ colonies that survived selection in hypoxanthine-aminopterin-thymidine medium. Many of these TK/sup +/ cell lines switched phenotypes and reverted to the TK/sup -/ state. In this report, the authors describe the biological and biochemical characteristics of three TK/sup -/ revertant lines. One (K/sub 1/B/sub 5/) transiently expressed TK in the presence of bromodeoxyuridine, which selects for the TK/sup -/ phenotype. Another TK/sup -/ sibling (K/sub 1/B/sub 6//sup n/) expressed TK only after removal from bromodeoxyuridine-containing medium. The last variant (K/sub 1/B/sub 6//sup me/) lost the ability to switch to the TK/sup +/ phenotype, although it maintained the herpes simplex virus sequences coding for TK. Loss of the ability of K/sub 1/B/sub 6//sup me/ cells to express TK was correlated with extensive methylation of the sequence recognized by the restriction endonuclease HpaII (pCpCpGpG). After these cells were treated with 5-azacytidine, they regained the ability to clone in hypoxanthine-aminopterin-thymidine medium and reexpressed virus tk mRNA and enzyme. In addition, the HpaII sites that were previously shown to be refractile to enzyme digestion were converted to a sensitive state, demonstrating that they were no longer methylated.

  11. The Link between Hypersensitivity Syndrome Reaction Development and Human Herpes Virus-6 Reactivation.

    PubMed

    Pritchett, Joshua C; Nanau, Radu M; Neuman, Manuela G

    2012-01-01

    Background. There are challenges in the clinical diagnosis of drug-induced injury and in obtaining information on the reactivation of human herpes viruses (HHV) during idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions. Objectives. (i) To develop a unified list of drugs incriminated in drug-induced hepatotoxicity and severe cutaneous reactions, in which drug hypersensitivity leads to HHV-6 reactivation and further complication of therapy and recovery and (ii) to supplement the already available data on reporting frequencies of liver- or skin-induced cases with knowledge of individual case reports, including HHV-6 reactivation and briefly introducing chromosomally integrated HHV-6. Data Sources and Extraction. Drugs identified as causes of (i) idiosyncratic reactions, (ii) drug-induced hypersensitivity, drug-induced hepatotoxicity, acute liver failure, and Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and (iii) human herpes virus reactivation in PubMed since 1997 have been collected and discussed. Results. Data presented in this paper show that HHV-6 reactivation is associated with more severe organ involvement and a prolonged course of disease. Conclusion. This analysis of HHV-6 reactivation associated with drug-induced severe cutaneous reactions and hepatotoxicity will aid in causality assessment and clinical diagnosis of possible life-threatening events and will provide a basis for further patient characterization and therapy. PMID:22666603

  12. Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in Neonates and Young Infants with Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Amel Jamehdar, Saeid; Mammouri, Gholamali; Sharifi Hoseini, Mohammad Reza; Nomani, Hosein; Afzalaghaee, Monavvar; Boskabadi, Hassan; Aelami, Mohammad Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Neonatal herpes infection is the most serious complication of Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) infection during pregnancy and perinatal period. Few studies have reported neonatal HSV infection in developing countries. Objectives: The aim of this study was to detect the HSV infection among neonates and infants with sepsis. Materials and Methods: In a cross sectional study all infants aged less than 3 months, admitted to neonatal intensive care unit and pediatric emergency ward of Ghaem Hospital (a university hospital with 900 beds) in Mashhad (Northeast of Iran) with clinical diagnosis of sepsis and at least one inclusion criteria during one year from November 2009 to October 2010, were enrolled in the study. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was done on clinical samples obtained from patients. Results: Among 150 neonates and infants younger than 3 months old with sepsis, the PCR results for detecting the HSV DNA, were positive in 6 samples of 5 patients (3.3 %). None of the mothers had symptomatic HSV infection during delivery. The mean age of the patients was 18 days. Two of them died due to shock and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Conclusions: In neonates and infants with primary diagnosis of sepsis, HSV infection should be considered especially if the clinical condition does not improve after 48 hours of antibiotic therapy, and sepsis still exists with elevated liver enzymes. PMID:24719742

  13. Salivary Varicella Zoster Virus in Astronauts and in Patients of Herpes Zoster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Satish; Pierson, Duane L.

    2010-01-01

    Spaceflight is a uniquely stressful environment with astronauts experiencing a variety of stressors including: isolation and confinement, psychosocial, noise, sleep deprivation, anxiety, variable gravitational forces, and increased radiation. These stressors are manifested through the HPA and SAM axes resulting in increased stress hormones. Diminished T-lymphocyte functions lead to reactivation of latent herpes viruses in astronauts during spaceflight. Herpes simplex virus reactivated with symptoms during spaceflight whereas Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivate and are shed without symptoms. EBV and VZV are shed in saliva and CMV in the urine. The levels of EBV shed in astronauts increased 10-fold during the flight; CMV and VZV are not typically shed in low stressed individuals, but both were shed in astronauts during spaceflight. All herpesviruses were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Culturing revealed that VZV shed in saliva was infectious virus. The PCR technology was extended to test saliva of 54 shingles patients. All shingles patients shed VZV in their saliva, and the levels followed the course of the disease. Viremia was also found to be common during shingles. The technology may be used before zoster lesions appear allowing for prevention of disease. The technology may be used for rapid detection of VZV in doctors? offices. These studies demonstrated the value of applying technologies designed for astronauts to people on Earth.

  14. Specific Inhibition of Herpes Simplex Virus DNA Polymerase by Helical Peptides Corresponding to the Subunit Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digard, Paul; Williams, Kevin P.; Hensley, Preston; Brooks, Ian S.; Dahl, Charles E.; Coen, Donald M.

    1995-02-01

    The herpes simplex virus DNA polymerase consists of two subunits-a catalytic subunit and an accessory subunit, UL42, that increases processivity. Mutations affecting the extreme C terminus of the catalytic subunit specifically disrupt subunit interactions and ablate virus replication, suggesting that new antiviral drugs could be rationally designed to interfere with polymerase heterodimerization. To aid design, we performed circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and analytical ultracentrifugation studies, which revealed that a 36-residue peptide corresponding to the C terminus of the catalytic subunit folds into a monomeric structure with partial ?-helical character. CD studies of shorter peptides were consistent with a model where two separate regions of ?-helix interact to form a hairpin-like structure. The 36-residue peptide and a shorter peptide corresponding to the C-terminal 18 residues blocked UL42-dependent long-chain DNA synthesis at concentrations that had no effect on synthesis by the catalytic subunit alone or by calf thymus DNA polymerase ? and its processivity factor. These peptides, therefore, represent a class of specific inhibitors of herpes simplex virus DNA polymerase that act by blocking accessory-subunit-dependent synthesis. These peptides or their structures may form the basis for the synthesis of clinically effective drugs.

  15. Herpes Simplex Virus-1 DNA Primase: A Remarkably Inaccurate Yet Selective Polymerase†

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Milan; Joubert, Nicolas; Hocek, Michal; Alexander, Richard E.; Kuchta, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus-1 primase misincorporates the natural NTPs at frequencies around 1 error per 30 NTPs polymerized, making it one of the least accurate polymerases known. We used a series of nucleotide analogues to further test the hypothesis that primase requires Watson-Crick hydrogen bond formation in order to efficiently polymerize a NTP. Primase could not generate base pairs containing a complete set hydrogen bonds in an altered arrangement (iso-guanine:iso-cytosine), and did not efficiently polymerize dNTPs completely incapable of forming Watson-Crick hydrogen bonds opposite templating bases incapable of forming Watson-Crick hydrogen bonds. Similarly, primase did not incorporate most NTPs containing hydrophobic bases incapable of Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding opposite natural template bases. However, 2-pyridone NTP and 4-methyl-2-pyridone NTP provided striking exceptions to this rule. The effects of removing single Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding groups from either the NTP or templating bases varied from almost no effect to completely blocking polymerization depending both on the parental base pair (G:C vs. A:T/U) and which base pair of the growing primer (second, third or fourth) was examined. Thus, primase does not absolutely need to form Watson-Crick hydrogen bonds in order to efficiently polymerize a NTP. Additionally, we found that herpes primase can misincorporate nucleotides both by misreading the template and by a primer-template slippage mechanism. The mechanistic and biological implications of these results are discussed. PMID:19835416

  16. Treatment of colon cancer with oncolytic herpes simplex virus in preclinical models.

    PubMed

    Yang, H; Peng, T; Li, J; Wang, Y; Zhang, W; Zhang, P; Peng, S; Du, T; Li, Y; Yan, Q; Liu, B

    2016-05-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are a rare population in any type of cancer, including colon cancer, are tumorigenic and responsible for cancer recurrence and metastasis. CSCs have been isolated from a number of different solid tumors recently, although the isolation of CSCs in colon cancer is still challenging. We cultured colon cancer cells in stem cell medium to obtain colonosphere cells. These cells possessed the characteristics of CSCs, with a high capacity of tumorigenicity, migration and invasion in vitro and in vivo. The isolation and identification of CSCs have provided new targets for the therapeutics. Oncolytic herpes simplex viruses (oHSV) are an effective strategy for killing colon cancer cells in preclinical models. Here, we examined the efficacy of an oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 2 (oHSV2) in killing colon cancer cells and colon cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs). oHSV2 was found to be highly cytotoxic to the adherent and sphere cells in vitro, and oHSV2 treatment in vivo significantly inhibited tumor growth. This study demonstrates that oHSV2 is effective against colon cancer cells and colon CSLCs and could be a promising strategy for treating colon cancer patients. PMID:26871935

  17. Human cytomegalovirus renders cells non-permissive for replication of herpes simplex viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Cockley, K.D.

    1988-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus (HSV) genome during production infection in vitro may be subject to negative regulation which results in modification of the cascade of expression of herpes virus macromolecular synthesis leading to establishment of HSV latency. In the present study, human embryonic lung (HEL) cells infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) restricted the replication of HSV type-1 (HSV-1). A delay in HSV replication of 15 hr as well as a consistent, almost 1000-fold inhibition of HSV replication in HCMV-infected cell cultures harvested 24 to 72 hr after superinfection were observed compared with controls infected with HSV alone. HSV type-2 (HSV-2) replication was similarly inhibited in HCMV-infected HEL cells. Prior ultraviolet-irradiation (UV) of HCMV removed the block to HSV replication, demonstrating the requirement for an active HCMV genome. HCMV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) negative temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants inhibited HSV replications as efficiently as wild-type (wt) HCMV at the non-permissive temperature. Evidence for penetration and replication of superinfecting HSV into HCMV-infected cells was provided by blot hybridization of HSV DNA synthesized in HSV-superinfected cell cultures and by cesium chloride density gradient analysis of ({sup 3}H)-labeled HSV-1-superinfected cells.

  18. Quantitative autoradiographic mapping of herpes simplex virus encephalitis with a radiolabeled antiviral drug

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Y.; Price, R.W.; Rottenberg, D.A.; Fox, J.J.; Su, T.L.; Watanabe, K.A.; Philips, F.S.

    1982-09-17

    2'-Fluoro-5-methyl-1-..beta..-D-arabinosyluracil (FMAU) labeled with carbon-14 was used to image herpes simplex virus type 1-infected regions of rat brain by quantitative autoradiography. FMAU is a potent antiviral pyrimidine nucleoside which is selectively phosphorylated by virus-coded thymidine kinase. When the labeled FMAU was administered 6 hours before the rats were killed, the selective uptake and concentration of the drug and its metabolites by infected cells (defined by immunoperoxidase staining of viral antigens) allowed quantitative definition and mapping of HSV-1-infected structures in autoradiograms of brain sections. These results shown that quantitative autoradiography can be used to characterize the local metabolism of antiviral drugs by infected cells in vivo. They also suggest that the selective uptake of drugs that exploit viral thymidine kinase for their antiviral effect can, by appropriate labeling, be used in conjunction with clinical neuroimaging techniques to define infected regions of human brain, thereby providing a new approach to the diagnosis of herpes encephalitis in man.

  19. Long-term valacyclovir treatment and immune modulation for Herpes-associated erythema multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Staikuniene, Jurate

    2015-01-01

    Objective Erythema multiforme (EM) is an immune-mediated condition characterized by the appearance of target-like lesions on the skin and often accompanied by erosions or bullae involving the oral, genital, and/or ocular mucosae. 70% of recurrent EM cases are associated with HSV reactivation and it is labelled as herpes-associated erythema multiforme (HAE M). Recurrences are seen in approximately 20-25% of EM cases and managing these conditions are challenging for both the patient and the doctor. The effectiveness of antiviral drugs is proven for Herpes simplex infection, however most patients use a multiplicity of alternative and complementary therapies. Clinical presentation We present clinical data of 3 patients with recurrent HAE M managed by long-term valacyclovir therapy and immunostimulation with Echinacea or replacement immunoglobulin therapy in the case of IgG1 subclass deficiency. The presented cases have demonstrated that immune mechanisms are relevant for HAEM recurrences. Conclusions The immune abnormalities, such as antibody deficiency, in the patients with HSV-associated EM can lead to frequent relapses of disease and should be evaluated. Long-term antiviral therapy with immunomodulation can control the relapses of HAEM. PMID:26648786

  20. Chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, granuloma inguinale, genital herpes simplex infection, and molluscum contagiosum.

    PubMed

    Basta-Juzbašić, Aleksandra; Čeović, Romana

    2014-01-01

    Chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, and granuloma inguinale may be considered as tropical venereal diseases. These diseases were a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in past centuries. Currently, patients with these bacterial infections that are endemic to the tropics occasionally consult with dermatologists in temperate climates. Due to the increasing frequency of travel to the tropics for tourism and work, as well as the increasing number of immigrants from these areas, it is important for dermatologists practicing in temperate climates to be familiar with the dermatologic manifestations of such infections, to be prepared to diagnose these diseases, and to treat these patients. All three "tropical" infections respond well to prompt and appropriate antimicrobial treatment, although herpes progenitalis still cannot be cured, and the number of people infected keeps growing; moreover, genital herpes can be transmitted by viral shedding before and after the visual signs or symptoms. Acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir can shorten outbreaks and make them less severe or even stop them from happening. There is currently no etiologic treatment for molluscum contagiosum, and the majority of treatment options are mechanical, causing a certain degree of discomfort. The molluscum contagiosum virus, unlike the other infectious agents mentioned, does not invade the skin. PMID:24559566

  1. Herpes simplex encephalitis initially presented with parietal cortex lesions mimicking acute ischemic stroke: A case report.

    PubMed

    Hara, Yoshine; Ishii, Nobuyuki; Sakai, Katsuya; Mochizuki, Hitoshi; Shiomi, Kazutaka; Nakazato, Masamitsu

    2016-03-01

    A 73-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital due to a decreased conscious level and a high fever. Six days before her admission, she felt transient numbness in her right lower limb. Brain MRI taken by her local doctor revealed only right parietal cortex lesions. She was diagnosed with transient ischemic attack and started on anti-platelet therapy. One day before her admission, she became drowsy, and left-side weakness developed. She was admitted to a community hospital for treating stroke. On the next day, she was referred to our hospital because of a high fever. Our brain MRI showed new lesions in her right temporal lobe. She had no stroke risk factors, and embolic sources were not detected. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis detected herpes simplex virus DNA. She was diagnosed with herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). HSE is common encephalitis which develops fever, headache and alteration in mental status. It often involves temporal lobe, but extratemporal lesions alone are not uncommon. Diffusion-weighted images (DWI) of brain are of importance to differentiate HSE from stroke. When it is questionable to diagnose with stroke for patients with cerebral cortex lesions, they must be monitored with close observation. There is the possibility of initial presentation of HSE in that situation even if patients have no typical symptoms. PMID:26797480

  2. Sampling of herpes zoster skin lesion types and the impact on viral DNA detection.

    PubMed

    Mols, Johann F; Ledent, Edouard; Heineman, Thomas C

    2013-03-01

    This was a multicenter, non-therapeutic study to determine the optimal type of lesion sample for quantitative PCR detection of varicella zoster virus (VZV) DNA in herpes zoster patients. Up to three crusts, three crust swabs, three vesicle swabs, and three papule swabs were collected from 41 adults with clinically diagnosed herpes zoster. 83% of subjects had at least one valid crust swab (detectable VZV or β-actin DNA), 78% had at least one valid crust, 78% had at least one valid vesicle swab, and 32% had at least one valid papule swab. Of valid samples, 97% of crusts, 94% of vesicle swabs, 90% of crust swabs, and 84% of papule swabs were VZV-DNA-positive (≥10 DNA copies/sample). 37 (90%) subjects had at least one VZV DNA-positive sample. VZV DNA copy numbers were highest for vesicle swabs and crusts. The probability of a false-negative result was 5% for crusts, 6% for vesicle swabs, 14% for papule swabs, and 24% for crust swabs. Overall, vesicle swabs and crusts were the most specific and sensitive samples for detecting VZV. PMID:23275023

  3. Intracerebral propagation of Alzheimer's disease: strengthening evidence of a herpes simplex virus etiology

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Melvyn J.; Lukiw, Walter J.; Kammerman, Eli M.; Hill, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Background A faulty human protein, abnormally phosphorylated tau, was recently publicized to spread “like a virus” from neuron to neuron in Alzheimer patients' brains. For several decades, we have been amassing arguments showing that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), not p-tau, propagates this inter-neuronal, trans-synaptic pathological cascade. Methods We reiterate convincing data from our own (and other) laboratories, reviewing the first anatomic foothold neurofibrillary tangles gain in brainstem and/or entorhinal cortex; the chronic immunosurveillance cellularity of the trigeminal ganglia wherein HSV-1 awakens from latency to reactivate; the inabilities of p-tau protein's physical properties to promote it to jump synapses; the amino-acid homology between human p-tau and VP22, a key target for phosphorylation by HSV serine/threonine-protein kinase UL13; and the exosomic secretion of HSV-1-infected cells' L-particles, attesting to the cell-to-cell passage of microRNAs of herpes viruses. Results The now-maturing construct that reactivated HSV-1 best accounts for the intracerebral propagation of AD changes in the human brain should at last seem highly attractive. This hypothesis might even explain statins' apparent mechanism in some studies for lowering AD incidence. Conclusion Provided that funding agencies will quickly ignite a new realm of investigation, the rejuvenated enthusiasm for testing this optimistic construct holds incalculable potential for rapid, efficacious clinical application, through already available and relatively safe anti-viral therapeutics. PMID:23159044

  4. Rad51 and Rad52 Are Involved in Homologous Recombination of Replicating Herpes Simplex Virus DNA

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ka-Wei; Norberg, Peter; Holmudden, Martin; Elias, Per; Liljeqvist, Jan-Åke

    2014-01-01

    Replication of herpes simplex virus 1 is coupled to recombination, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this process are poorly characterized. The role of Rad51 and Rad52 recombinases in viral recombination was examined in human fibroblast cells 1BR.3.N (wild type) and in GM16097 with replication defects caused by mutations in DNA ligase I. Intermolecular recombination between viruses, tsS and tsK, harboring genetic markers gave rise to ∼17% recombinants in both cell lines. Knock-down of Rad51 and Rad52 by siRNA reduced production of recombinants to 11% and 5%, respectively, in wild type cells and to 3% and 5%, respectively, in GM16097 cells. The results indicate a specific role for Rad51 and Rad52 in recombination of replicating herpes simplex virus 1 DNA. Mixed infections using clinical isolates with restriction enzyme polymorphisms in the US4 and US7 genes revealed recombination frequencies of 0.7%/kbp in wild type cells and 4%/kbp in GM16097 cells. Finally, tandem repeats in the US7 gene remained stable upon serial passage, indicating a high fidelity of recombination in infected cells. PMID:25365323

  5. Relationship of herpes simplex encephalitis and transcranial direct current stimulation--a case report.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuanbin; Xiao, Juan; Song, Haiqing; Wang, Ralph; Hussain, Mohammed; Song, Weiqun

    2015-04-01

    We report a rare case of relapsing herpes simplex encephalitis in a-37-year-old patient which was previously confirmed by positive polymerase chain reaction, herpes simplex virus (HSV) type1 IgG antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid and characterized on MRI. During the first admission, he was treated with continuous acyclovir treatment for one month with clinical improvement except for residual aphasia, for which he received a course of outpatient transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). A constant current of 1.2 mA was applied for 20 min twice daily. After the 4th day the patient was found to be irritable and uncooperative by staff and family members. A subsequent MRI showed significant deterioration of the lesion on comparison to the first MRI which led to discontinuation of tDCS.The relatively rapid exacerbation of HSV in only a few days is unusual. Our aim is to discuss if tDCS is related to HSV relapse and in doing so highlight possible mechanisms. PMID:25766987

  6. Rapid strip assay for detection of anti-herpes simplex virus antibodies: application to prediction of varicella-zoster virus reactivation in patients with acute peripheral facial palsy.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, F; Furuta, Y; Horal, P; Bergström, T

    2000-09-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) reactivation causes acute peripheral facial palsy in the majority (88%) of patients who lack anti-herpes simplex virus (HSV) antibodies, suggesting that an absence of anti-HSV antibodies is a reliable serological marker for the diagnosis of VZV reactivation in patients who are diagnosed initially as idiopathic peripheral facial palsy (Bell's palsy) [Furuta et al., 2000] Clinical Infectious Diseases]. A simple and rapid immunoassay for detection of anti-HSV antibodies based on HSV type 1 glycoprotein D was developed by modifying the conventional Western blot technique. The assay was evaluated by comparing the results with those of conventional Western blot. In total, 100 sera obtained from patients with acute peripheral facial palsy were tested and judged blindly by two investigators. Twenty-four of 26 HSV-seronegative sera were obtained from patients with VZV reactivation (Ramsay Hunt syndrome or zoster sine herpete). The sensitivity of the assay was over 95% and the specificity was 100%. The two investigators agreed on the diagnosis in 99 of the 100 sera. These results indicate that the rapid strip assay is applicable to prediction of VZV reactivation in patients diagnosed clinically with Bell's palsy before zoster lesions appear or PCR using saliva samples indicates VZV reactivation. PMID:10935986

  7. Student Conceptions of Simple Circuits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredette, Norman; Lochhead, John

    1980-01-01

    Investigates some conceptual difficulties which college students have with regard to simple direct current circuits. The clinical interview technique was used with 57 students in a freshman level engineering course. (HM)

  8. Simple formulation of magnetoplasmadynamic acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Sasoh, A. )

    1994-03-01

    A simple formulation of magnetoplasmadynamic acceleration has been made based on energy conservation relations and a generalized Ohm's law. An exhaust velocity is expressed using three characteristic parameters: (1) a dimensionless characteristic velocity [ital [tilde U

  9. A Safe Simple Halogenation Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Hilton M.; Ganz, Lara

    1999-01-01

    Describes a simple halogenation experiment that can be performed quickly in an open vessel at room temperature with visible light that is appropriate for the beginning weeks of an introductory organic chemistry course. (WRM)

  10. Simple device measures solar radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    Simple inexpensive thermometer, insolated from surroundings by transparent glass or plastic encasement, measures intensities of solar radiation, or radiation from other sources such as furnaces or ovens. Unit can be further modified to accomplish readings from remote locations.

  11. Simple Interval Timers for Microcomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, M.; Burgess, G.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses simple interval timers for microcomputers, including (1) the Jiffy clock; (2) CPU count timers; (3) screen count timers; (4) light pen timers; and (5) chip timers. Also examines some of the general characteristics of all types of timers. (JN)

  12. College Students' Perceptions of and Experiences with Human Papillomavirus and Herpes: Implications for College Sexual Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschler, Christopher; Hope, Andrea; Myers, Jaime L.

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections spread through skin-to-skin contact represent unique prevention challenges. This study examines how college students perceive safer sex practices with respect to human papillomavirus (HPV) and herpes. Qualitative and quantitative data (n = 275) were collected using an online questionnaire. College students'…

  13. Lack of efficacy of 2-deoxy-D-glucose in the treatment of experimental herpes genitalis in guinea pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Shannon, W M; Arnett, G; Drennen, D J

    1982-01-01

    Topical treatment of herpes genitalis in female guinea pigs with 2-deoxy-D-glucose in either agarose gels or miconazole nitrate ointments failed to prevent the development of genital lesions or to reduce the mean titers of recoverable virus in vaginal swabs from infected animals. In contrast, phosphonoacetic acid was therapeutically effective. PMID:7201777

  14. A herpes simplex virus type 1 latency-associated transcript mutant with increased virulence and reduced spontaneous reactivation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) latency-associated transcript (LAT) gene is essential for efficient spontaneous reactivation of HSV-1 from latency. We previously reported that insertion of the LAT promoter and just the first 1.5 kb of the 8.3 LAT gene into an ectopic location in the virus re...

  15. Lymphocyte transformation and interferon production in human mononuclear cell microcultures for assay of cellular immunity to herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Haahr, S; Rasmussen, L; Merigan, T C

    1976-07-01

    Interferon production and transformation in response to herpes simplex virus antigen were studied in microcultures of human mononuclear cells. Mononuclear cells consisting of monocytes and both T and B lymphocytes were purified by Ficoll-Hypaque gradients. Lymphocytes, predominantly T with 5% B, were obtained by passage of buffy-coat cells through nylon fiber columns. For some experiments, autochthonous macrophages and column-purified lymphocytes were stimulated with herpesvirus antigen. The effect of specific antibody and cell concentration on reactivity is described. Crude and purified antigens were compared as cell culture stimulants. Significant differences in transformation and interferon were observed between donors with a history of herpes labialis and donors with no detectable antibody, both in cultures prepared by Ficoll-Hypaque gradients and by column purification of lymphocytes. Cultures from seronegative donors prepared by Ficoll-Hypaque gradients produced interferon but did not transform when stimulated by herpes simplex antigen. "Immune" interferon production, that is, type II as opposed to type I, occurred only with autochthonous macrophage and column-purified lymphocyte cultures. Interferon produced by Ficoll-Hypaque-purified mononuclear cultures was type I, and its production was unrelated to immune status. Similarly, column-purified lymphocytes responded to herpes simplex virus antigen with type I interferon if obtained from a seropositive donor. PMID:181328

  16. 9-([2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxy]methyl)guanine: a selective inhibitor of herpes group virus replication.

    PubMed Central

    Field, A K; Davies, M E; DeWitt, C; Perry, H C; Liou, R; Germershausen, J; Karkas, J D; Ashton, W T; Johnston, D B; Tolman, R L

    1983-01-01

    9-([2-Hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxy]methyl)guanine (2'-nor-2'-deoxyguanosine; 2'NDG) selectively inhibits the replication of herpes group viruses. In cell culture studies 2'NDG was at least 10-fold more potent than acyclovir (ACV) in inhibition of human cytomegalovirus replication and Epstein-Barr virus-induced lymphocyte transformation and was about as effective as ACV in inhibition of herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 and varicella zoster virus. Orally administered 2'NDG was 6- to 50-fold more efficacious than ACV in treating systemic or local HSV-1 infection or HSV-2 intravaginal infection in mice. The mode of action of 2'NDG appears to involve phosphorylation by herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase and subsequent phosphorylations by cellular kinases to produce 2'NDG triphosphate, which is a potent inhibitor of herpes virus DNA polymerase. Compared to ACV, 2'NDG was a more efficient substrate for HSV-1 thymidine kinase (Vmax/Km for 2'NDG 30-fold higher than that of ACV), whereas 2'NDG monophosphate is a more efficient substrate for GMP kinase (Vmax/Km for 2'NDG monophosphate 492-fold higher than that for ACV monophosphate). The combined effect is more rapid production of the inhibitory triphosphate from 2'NDG than from ACV. PMID:6306664

  17. Type-Specific Identification of Anogenital Herpes Simplex Virus Infections by Use of a Commercially Available Nucleic Acid Amplification Test

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Terri; Taylor, Stephanie N.; Martens, Mark; Jerome, Keith R.; Mena, Leandro; Lebed, Joel; Ginde, Savita; Fine, Paul; Hook, Edward W.

    2012-01-01

    Herpes infections are among the most common sexually transmitted infections (STI), but diagnostic methods for genital herpes have not kept pace with the movement toward molecular testing. Here, we describe an FDA-approved molecular assay that identifies and types herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections for use in routine clinical settings. Paired samples from anogenital lesions were tested using the BD ProbeTec HSV Qx (HSVQx) system, HSV culture and, a laboratory-developed PCR assay. Family planning, obstetrics/gynecology (OB/GYN), or sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in the United States served as recruitment sites. Sensitivity and specificity estimates, head-to-head comparisons, measures of agreement, and latent-class analyses were performed to provide robust estimates of performance. A total of 508 participants (174 men and 334 women) with anogenital lesions were included; 260 HSV-2 and 73 HSV-1 infections were identified. No differences in test performance based on gender, clinic type, location of the lesion, or type of lesion were observed. The sensitivity of HSV-2 detection ranged from 98.4 to 100% depending on the analytical approach, while the specificity ranged from 80.6%, compared to the less sensitive culture method, to 97.0%, compared to PCR. For HSV-1, the sensitivity and specificity ranges were 96.7 to 100% and 95.1 to 99.4%, respectively. This assay may improve our ability to accurately diagnose anogenital lesions due to herpes infection. PMID:22875892

  18. AMINOACYL FUCOSIDES AS POSSIBLE BIOCHEMICAL MARKERS OF TUMORIGENIC AND METASTATIC POTENTIAL IN HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS TYPE 2-TRANSFORMED RAT CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two classes of aminoacyl fucosides termed F13 and F14 were studied as possible markers of tumorigenic and metastatic potential in herpes simplex virus type 2 transformed rat cells. In the present study, clonal cell lines of transformed highly tumorigenic and metastatic (t-REF-G-2...

  19. Aphidicolin resistance in herpes simplex virus type 1 appears to alter substrate specificity in the DNA polymerase

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, J.D.; Woodward, S.

    1989-06-01

    The authors describe novel mutants of herpes simplex virus which are resistant to aphidicolin. Their mutant phenotypes suggest that they encode DNA polymerases with altered substrate recognition. This conclusion is based on their abnormal sensitivity to polymerase inhibitors and to the abnormal mutation rates exhibited by two of the mutants.

  20. Knowledge and Attitudes of University Health Service Clients about Genital Herpes: Implications for Patient Education and Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillard, James R.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Genital herpes virus infection can cause both psychological and medical consequences. A study surveyed knowledge and attitudes of college students to assess degree of familiarity with this disease. Findings suggest misconceptions that could be dealt with in health education programs. (Author/DF)

  1. A Case Study of the Cognitive and Behavioral Deficits of Temporal Lobe Damage in Herpes Simplex Encephalitis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Margaret K.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This case study illustrates the highly significant language difficulties, marked memory deficits, and propensity for physical aggression following temporal lobe damage brought about by herpes encephalitis, and presents the usefulness of a new diagnostic measure in delineating such a variable cognitive pattern. (Author)

  2. College Students' Perceptions of and Experiences with Human Papillomavirus and Herpes: Implications for College Sexual Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschler, Christopher; Hope, Andrea; Myers, Jaime L.

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections spread through skin-to-skin contact represent unique prevention challenges. This study examines how college students perceive safer sex practices with respect to human papillomavirus (HPV) and herpes. Qualitative and quantitative data (n = 275) were collected using an online questionnaire. College students'

  3. The Effects of 830 nm Light-Emitting Diode Therapy on Acute Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kui Young; Han, Tae Young; Kim, In Su; Yeo, In Kwon; Kim, Myeung Nam

    2013-01-01

    Background Skin lesions and pain are the most distinctive features of herpes zoster. Light-emitting diode (LED) therapy is an effective treatment known for its wound-healing effects. Objective To determine whether the LED treatment affects wound healing and acute pain in acute herpes zoster ophthalmicus. Methods We recruited 28 consecutive Korean patients with acute herpes zoster ophthalmicus for the study. In the control group (group A), 14 subjects received oral famcyclovir. In the experimental group (group B), 14 subjects received oral famcyclovir and 830 nm LED phototherapy on days 0, 4, 7, and 10. In order to estimate the time for wound healing, we measured the duration from the vesicle formation to when the lesion crust fell off. The visual analogue scale (VAS) was used for the estimation of pain on days 4, 7, 10, and 14. Results The mean time required for wound healing was 13.14±2.34 days in group B and 15.92±2.55 days in group A (p=0.006). From day 4, the mean VAS score showed a greater improvement in group B, compared with group A. A marginal but not statistically significant difference in the VAS scores was observed between the two groups (p=0.095). Conclusion LED treatment for acute herpes zoster ophthalmicus leads to faster wound healing and a lower pain score. PMID:23717006

  4. Simple Motor Gestures for Birdsongs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Tim; Cecchi, G.; Magnasco, M.; Laje, R.; Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2001-11-01

    We present a model of sound production in a songbird's vocal organ and find that much of the complexity of the song of the canary (Serinus canaria) can be produced from simple time variations in forcing functions. The starts, stops, and pauses between syllables, as well as variation in pitch and timbre are inherent in the mechanics and can often be expressed through smooth and simple variations in the frequency and relative phase of two driving parameters

  5. Simple motor gestures for birdsongs.

    PubMed

    Gardner, T; Cecchi, G; Magnasco, M; Laje, R; Mindlin, G B

    2001-11-12

    We present a model of sound production in a songbird's vocal organ and find that much of the complexity of the song of the canary (Serinus canaria) can be produced from simple time variations in forcing functions. The starts, stops, and pauses between syllables, as well as variation in pitch and timbre are inherent in the mechanics and can often be expressed through smooth and simple variations in the frequency and relative phase of two driving parameters PMID:11690514

  6. Coping strategies and behavioural changes following a genital herpes diagnosis among an urban sample of underserved Midwestern women.

    PubMed

    Davis, Alissa; Roth, Alexis; Brand, Juanita Ebert; Zimet, Gregory D; Van Der Pol, Barbara

    2016-03-01

    This study focused on understanding the coping strategies and related behavioural changes of women who were recently diagnosed with herpes simplex virus type 2. In particular, we were interested in how coping strategies, condom use, and acyclovir uptake evolve over time. Twenty-eight women screening positive for herpes simplex virus type 2 were recruited through a public health STD clinic and the Indianapolis Community Court. Participants completed three semi-structured interviews with a woman researcher over a six-month period. The interviews focused on coping strategies for dealing with a diagnosis, frequency of condom use, suppressive and episodic acyclovir use, and the utilisation of herpes simplex virus type 2 support groups. Interview data were analysed using content analysis to identify and interpret concepts and themes that emerged from the interviews. Women employed a variety of coping strategies following an herpes simplex virus type 2 diagnosis. Of the women, 32% reported an increase in religious activities, 20% of women reported an increase in substance use, and 56% of women reported engaging in other coping activities. A total of 80% of women reported abstaining from sex immediately following the diagnosis, but 76% of women reported engaging in sex again by the six-month interview. Condom and medication use did not increase and herpes simplex virus type 2 support groups were not utilised by participants. All participants reported engaging in at least one coping mechanism after receiving their diagnosis. A positive diagnosis did not seem to result in increased use of condoms for the majority of participants and the use of acyclovir was low overall. PMID:25792549

  7. Dense simple plasmas as high-temperature liquid simple metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perrot, F.

    1990-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of dense plasmas considered as high-temperature liquid metals are studied. An attempt is made to show that the neutral pseudoatom picture of liquid simple metals may be extended for describing plasmas in ranges of densities and temperatures where their electronic structure remains 'simple'. The primary features of the model when applied to plasmas include the temperature-dependent self-consistent calculation of the electron charge density and the determination of a density and temperature-dependent ionization state.

  8. A comparison of herpes simplex virus type 1 and varicella-zoster virus latency and reactivation.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Peter G E; Rovnak, Joel; Badani, Hussain; Cohrs, Randall J

    2015-07-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1; human herpesvirus 1) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV; human herpesvirus 3) are human neurotropic alphaherpesviruses that cause lifelong infections in ganglia. Following primary infection and establishment of latency, HSV-1 reactivation typically results in herpes labialis (cold sores), but can occur frequently elsewhere on the body at the site of primary infection (e.g. whitlow), particularly at the genitals. Rarely, HSV-1 reactivation can cause encephalitis; however, a third of the cases of HSV-1 encephalitis are associated with HSV-1 primary infection. Primary VZV infection causes varicella (chickenpox) following which latent virus may reactivate decades later to produce herpes zoster (shingles), as well as an increasingly recognized number of subacute, acute and chronic neurological conditions. Following primary infection, both viruses establish a latent infection in neuronal cells in human peripheral ganglia. However, the detailed mechanisms of viral latency and reactivation have yet to be unravelled. In both cases latent viral DNA exists in an 'end-less' state where the ends of the virus genome are joined to form structures consistent with unit length episomes and concatemers, from which viral gene transcription is restricted. In latently infected ganglia, the most abundantly detected HSV-1 RNAs are the spliced products originating from the primary latency associated transcript (LAT). This primary LAT is an 8.3 kb unstable transcript from which two stable (1.5 and 2.0 kb) introns are spliced. Transcripts mapping to 12 VZV genes have been detected in human ganglia removed at autopsy; however, it is difficult to ascribe these as transcripts present during latent infection as early-stage virus reactivation may have transpired in the post-mortem time period in the ganglia. Nonetheless, low-level transcription of VZV ORF63 has been repeatedly detected in multiple ganglia removed as close to death as possible. There is increasing evidence that HSV-1 and VZV latency is epigenetically regulated. In vitro models that permit pathway analysis and identification of both epigenetic modulations and global transcriptional mechanisms of HSV-1 and VZV latency hold much promise for our future understanding in this complex area. This review summarizes the molecular biology of HSV-1 and VZV latency and reactivation, and also presents future directions for study. PMID:25794504

  9. A comparison of herpes simplex virus type 1 and varicella-zoster virus latency and reactivation

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Peter G. E.; Rovnak, Joel; Badani, Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1; human herpesvirus 1) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV; human herpesvirus 3) are human neurotropic alphaherpesviruses that cause lifelong infections in ganglia. Following primary infection and establishment of latency, HSV-1 reactivation typically results in herpes labialis (cold sores), but can occur frequently elsewhere on the body at the site of primary infection (e.g. whitlow), particularly at the genitals. Rarely, HSV-1 reactivation can cause encephalitis; however, a third of the cases of HSV-1 encephalitis are associated with HSV-1 primary infection. Primary VZV infection causes varicella (chickenpox) following which latent virus may reactivate decades later to produce herpes zoster (shingles), as well as an increasingly recognized number of subacute, acute and chronic neurological conditions. Following primary infection, both viruses establish a latent infection in neuronal cells in human peripheral ganglia. However, the detailed mechanisms of viral latency and reactivation have yet to be unravelled. In both cases latent viral DNA exists in an ‘end-less’ state where the ends of the virus genome are joined to form structures consistent with unit length episomes and concatemers, from which viral gene transcription is restricted. In latently infected ganglia, the most abundantly detected HSV-1 RNAs are the spliced products originating from the primary latency associated transcript (LAT). This primary LAT is an 8.3 kb unstable transcript from which two stable (1.5 and 2.0 kb) introns are spliced. Transcripts mapping to 12 VZV genes have been detected in human ganglia removed at autopsy; however, it is difficult to ascribe these as transcripts present during latent infection as early-stage virus reactivation may have transpired in the post-mortem time period in the ganglia. Nonetheless, low-level transcription of VZV ORF63 has been repeatedly detected in multiple ganglia removed as close to death as possible. There is increasing evidence that HSV-1 and VZV latency is epigenetically regulated. In vitro models that permit pathway analysis and identification of both epigenetic modulations and global transcriptional mechanisms of HSV-1 and VZV latency hold much promise for our future understanding in this complex area. This review summarizes the molecular biology of HSV-1 and VZV latency and reactivation, and also presents future directions for study. PMID:25794504

  10. How Simple is the Simple View of Reading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Stefan; Samuelsson, Christina; Johansson, Ellinor; Wallmann, Julia

    2013-01-01

    According to the Simple View of Reading, reading ability can be divided into decoding and language comprehension. In the present study, decoding and comprehension's contribution to reading ability was studied both in children with reading difficulties and in children with typical reading ability. Decoding and comprehension was further divided…

  11. Is the Simple View of Reading Too Simple?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoien-Tengesdal, Ingjerd

    2010-01-01

    According to the Simple View of Reading (SVR), reading comprehension is the product of word decoding ability and linguistic comprehension (R = D x C). However, there is also evidence showing that an additive model (R = D + C) explains just as much or even more of the variance in reading comprehension than the product model. To further evaluate…

  12. Effect of actinomycin D on the expression of herpes simplex virus-common surface antigen in cells transformed by herpes simplex virus type 2.

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, S; Okazaki, K; Yoshida, N; Ohnishi, Y

    1979-01-01

    Using rabbit antiserum hyperimmune to herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1, the expression of HSV-common surface antigen(s) was studied by indirect immunofluorescence tests in cells transformed by HSV type 2 and in derived tumor cells. The following results were obtained. (i) Antiserum to HSV type 1 reacted specifically with surface antigen present on the plasma membrane of both HSV type 2-infected and HSV type 2-transformed hamster cells. (ii) The expression of this antigen was enhanced in the absence of active protein synthesis in transformed cells, but not in tumor cells, after culture for 3 to 5 h at 37 degrees C. (iii) This enhancement of expression was maintained for 20 h in the presence of actinomycin D, but this prolonged expression required active protein synthesis. (iv) The enhancing effect observed in the presence of actinomycin D continued for some time after removal of the drug, for example, for 20 h after 5 h of treatment with 2 microgram/ml of actinomycin D per ml. Actinomycin D had no detectable effect on antigen expression in tumor cells. (v) The protease inhibitor antipain inhibited the actinomycin D-enhanced expression without causing significant cell damage but did not modify the transient enhanced expression of antigen when cells were seeded in the absence of actinomycin D. These results indicate that in transformed cells antigen expression can be enhanced in at least two ways. Images PMID:219215

  13. Phenomenology of simple partial seizures.

    PubMed

    Erkwoh, R; Steinmeyer, E M

    1996-12-01

    Based on a sample of 325 inpatients we present the subjective experiences during simple partial seizures. In a majority of cases, auras comprised composed forms of different symptomatic qualities. We describe rules which seem to govern sequences of aura phenomena. Autonomous and vestibular sensations were shown to have preceding positions related to others, olfactory and gustatory sensations preferred a following position. The tentative explanation of the findings favours the idea of heterogeneity rather than the concept of a focal discharge in a simple partial seizures. PMID:8952014

  14. Practical Session: Simple Linear Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausel, M.; Grégoire, G.

    2014-12-01

    Two exercises are proposed to illustrate the simple linear regression. The first one is based on the famous Galton's data set on heredity. We use the lm R command and get coefficients estimates, standard error of the error, R2, residuals …In the second example, devoted to data related to the vapor tension of mercury, we fit a simple linear regression, predict values, and anticipate on multiple linear regression. This pratical session is an excerpt from practical exercises proposed by A. Dalalyan at EPNC (see Exercises 1 and 2 of http://certis.enpc.fr/~dalalyan/Download/TP_ENPC_4.pdf).

  15. Generalized Gradient Approximation Made Simple

    SciTech Connect

    Perdew, J.P.; Burke, K.; Ernzerhof, M.

    1996-10-01

    Generalized gradient approximations (GGA{close_quote}s) for the exchange-correlation energy improve upon the local spin density (LSD) description of atoms, molecules, and solids. We present a simple derivation of a simple GGA, in which all parameters (other than those in LSD) are fundamental constants. Only general features of the detailed construction underlying the Perdew-Wang 1991 (PW91) GGA are invoked. Improvements over PW91 include an accurate description of the linear response of the uniform electron gas, correct behavior under uniform scaling, and a smoother potential. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  16. Effects of ribonucleotide reductase inhibition on pyrimidine deoxynucleotide metabolism in acyclovir-treated cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, A; Harmenberg, J

    1988-01-01

    The pyrimidine metabolism of fibroblasts infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 was studied. Herpes simplex virus type 1 infection increased the dTTP pool and thymidylate synthetase activity but reduced thymidine excretion. Addition of acyclovir to infected cells increased thymidine excretion, the dTTP pool, and thymidylate synthetase activity. Addition of a virus-specific ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor (A723U) decreased all three. The synergy between the two compounds is discussed. PMID:2847642

  17. Chronic herpes simplex virus type 2 encephalitis associated with posterior uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Hideto; Tani, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Takatoshi; Kimura, Fumiharu

    2014-01-01

    We report on a patient with chronic herpes simplex virus-2 encephalitis who was characteristic for concomitantly having chronic or recurrent posterior uveitis. A 66-year-old immunocompetent man suffering from a 6-month refractory posterior uveitis developed a 1-month history of impaired short-term memory and orientation. Brain MRI demonstrated hyperintense lesions in the right parietal lobe in diffusion and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination showed mild pleocytosis and increased protein concentration. Quantitative PCR for HSV-2 DNA was positive in CSF. Treated with acyclovir, his cognitive functions gradually improved and the posterior uveitis was cured. Clinicians must be aware that HSV-2 should be considered in the aetiological investigation of chronic encephalitis in an immunocompetent patient. HSV-2 is well known for its ability to cause unilateral chronic or recurrent posterior uveitis. Therefore, posterior uveitis should be considered as an associated feature of HSV-2 encephalitis. PMID:24695656

  18. Ultrastructural and immunofluorescent detection of herpes simplex virus after embalming and burial.

    PubMed

    Sperry, K; Sweeney, E S

    1987-09-01

    The practice of embalming preserves body tissues, and embalmed bodies may resist decay processes for many decades with relatively little change. As the chemicals used for embalming are poisonous to microorganisms, bacterial and viral cultures are futile after such funerary procedures are performed. However, embalming may act as a virtual tissue fixative, especially with arterial perfusion, and identification methods other than culture may be used to detect and identify pathogenic organisms. In the case presented here, a death from a fulminating, but unidentified, illness in a young girl was successfully diagnosed as herpes hepatitis by immunofluorescent and electron-microscopic studies of tissue obtained 3 weeks after she was embalmed and interred. Routine embalming and burial should not eliminate these diagnostic procedures from consideration in specific situations where potentially useful information may be realized. PMID:3314481

  19. DNA synthesis and DNA polymerase activity of herpes simplex virus type 1 temperature-sensitive mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Aron, G M; Purifoy, D J; Schaffer, P A

    1975-01-01

    Fifteen temperature-sensitive mutants of herpes simplex virus type 1 were studied with regard to the relationship between their ability to synthesize viral DNA and to induce viral DNA polymerase (DP) activity at permissive (34 C) and nonpermissive (39 C) temperatures. At 34 C, all mutants synthesized viral DNA, while at 39 C four mutants demonstrated a DNA+ phenotype, three were DNA+/-, and eight were DNA-. DNA+ mutants induced levels of DP activity similar to thhose of the wild-type virus at both temperatures, and DNA+/- mutants induced reduced levels of DP activity at 39 C but not at 34 C. Among the DNA- mutants three were DP+, two were DP+/-, and three showed reduced DP activity at 34 C with no DP activity at 39 C. DNA-, DP- mutants induced the synthesis of a temperature-sensitive DP as determined by in vivo studies. PMID:169388

  20. Electron microscope studies of temperature-sensitive mutants of herpes simplex virus type 2.

    PubMed Central

    Cabral, G A; Schaffer, P A

    1976-01-01

    Nine temperature-sensitive mutants of herpes simplex virus type 2 representing eight complementation groups were assigned to two classes as a consequence of the virion forms and virus-specific cellular alterations observed in thin sections of mutant-infected human embryonic lung cells grown at the nonpermissive temperature. Mutants in class A, one DNA- and one DNA +, failed to synthesize detectable virus particles. Mutants in class B, 4DNA- and 3DNA+, produced moderate to large numbers of empty nucleocapsids. Dense-cored nucleocapsids were not observed in thin sections of cells infected with any of the nine mutants at this temperature. Virus-specific cellular alterations consisted primarily of margination of chromating and nulcear membrane thickening and duplication. Images PMID:178905