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Sample records for del herpes simple

  1. Herpes Keratitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ophthalmologist Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Herpes Keratitis Sections What is Herpes Keratitis? Herpes Keratitis ... Herpes Keratitis Symptoms Herpes Keratitis Treatment What is Herpes Keratitis? Jul. 03, 2012 Herpes keratitis is a ...

  2. Herpes Simplex

    MedlinePLUS

    ... care Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Herpes simplex Overview Herpes simplex: After clearing, herpes simplex ... tends to be milder than the first outbreak. Herpes simplex: Overview Herpes simplex is a common viral ...

  3. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Genital Herpes Home For Patients Search FAQs Genital Herpes Page ... Genital Herpes FAQ054, May 2011 PDF Format Genital Herpes Gynecologic Problems What is genital herpes? How does ...

  4. Herpes Simples Virus Type 2 Shedding From Male Circumcision Wounds in Rakai, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Mary K; Kigozi, Godfrey; Gray, Ronald H; Armour, Benjamin; Manucci, Jordyn; Serwadda, David; Redd, Andrew D; Nalugoda, Fred; Patel, Eshan U; Wawer, Maria J; Quinn, Thomas C; Tobian, Aaron A R

    2015-11-15

    A prospective observational study of 176 men coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was conducted to assess whether their sexual partners may be at an increased risk of HSV-2 from male circumcision (MC) wounds. Preoperative and weekly penile lavage samples were tested for penile HSV-2 shedding. Prevalence risk ratios (PRRs) were estimated using Poisson regression. Detectable penile HSV-2 shedding was present in 9.7% of men (17 of 176) before MC, compared with 12.9% (22 of 170) at 1 week (PRR, 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], .74-2.38) and 14.8% (23 of 155) at 2 weeks (PRR, 1.50; 95% CI, .86-2.62) after MC. HSV-2 shedding was lower among men with healed MC wounds (adjusted PRR, 0.62; 95% CI, .35-1.08). Men undergoing MC should be counseled on sexual abstinence and condom use. PMID:25943201

  5. Herpes - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... The following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/pregnancy/complications-herpes National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease -- ...

  6. Sacral Herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Sacral Herpes Information for adults A A A This image displays grouped lesions typical of sacral herpes simplex. Overview Herpes simplex infection of the lower ...

  7. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... News & Events Volunteer NIAID > Health & Research Topics > Genital Herpes Genital Herpes Research Skip Website Tools Website Tools Print this ... Studies Help people who are suffering from genital herpes by volunteering for NIAID clinical studies on ClinicalTrials. ...

  8. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a herpes simplex virus (HSV). It can cause sores on ... also infect their babies during childbirth. Symptoms of herpes are called outbreaks. You usually get sores near ...

  9. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Genital Herpes Information for adults A A A This image ... blisters on the buttocks in a patient with herpes simplex. Overview Genital herpes is a recurrent, lifelong ...

  10. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Genital Herpes KidsHealth > For Teens > Genital Herpes Print A A A Text Size What's in ... How Is It Treated? What Is It? Genital herpes is caused by a virus called herpes simplex ( ...

  11. Herpes Simplex (Cold Sores and Genital Herpes)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 19, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 508 Herpes Simplex (Cold Sores and Genital Herpes) WHAT IS HERPES? HSV AND HIV HOW IS HSV TRANSMITTED? HOW IS HERPES TREATED? CAN HERPES BE PREVENTED? THE BOTTOM LINE ...

  12. Pregnancy and herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    HSV; Congenital herpes; Herpes - congenital; Birth-acquired herpes; Herpes during pregnancy ... Newborn infants can become infected with herpes virus: In the uterus (this is ... herpes, the most common method of infection) Right ...

  13. Herpes Simplex

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is an infection that is caused by a herpes simplex virus (HSV). Oral herpes causes cold sores around the mouth or face. ... affects the genitals, buttocks or anal area. Other herpes infections can affect the eyes, skin, or other parts of the body. The virus can be dangerous in newborn babies or in ...

  14. Pregnancy Complications: Genital Herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Loss > Pregnancy complications > Genital herpes and pregnancy Genital herpes and pregnancy Now playing: E-mail to a ... the United States has genital herpes. Can genital herpes cause complications during pregnancy? Yes. Genital herpes can ...

  15. Herpes - oral

    MedlinePLUS

    Oral herpes most often goes away by itself in 1 to 2 weeks. However, it may come back. Herpes infection may be severe and dangerous if: It occurs in or near the eye You have a weakened immune system due to certain diseases and medications

  16. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... can get herpes by having oral, vaginal, or anal sex with someone who has the disease. Fluids found ... to avoid STDs is to not have vaginal, anal, or oral sex. If you are sexually active, you can do ...

  17. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from Nemours for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & ... surefire way to prevent genital herpes is abstinence. Teens who do have sex must properly use a latex condom every time ...

  18. Genital Herpes

    PubMed Central

    Scappatura, F. Philip

    1987-01-01

    The author reviews the prevalence of genital herpes, outlines the typical clinical courses of the disease in its primary and recurrent forms. He discusses the physical, psychological and social effects of this sexually transmitted disease and provides three protocols for the use of oral acyclovir in its treatment. PMID:21263803

  19. Cold Sores (Orofacial Herpes)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Cold Sores (Orofacial Herpes) Information for adults A A A Grouped, crusted ... on the lips and chin are typical of herpes simplex infection. Overview Herpes simplex infection of the ...

  20. Herpes Zoster Oticus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Herpes Zoster Oticus Information Page Synonym(s): Ramsay Hunt Syndrome ... is being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Herpes Zoster Oticus? Herpes zoster oticus, also called Ramsay ...

  1. Meet the Herps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Describes some of the characteristics of "herps" (amphibians and reptiles). Contains teaching activities dealing with ancient herps, learning stations that encourage sensory experiences with herps, and games, puzzles, and a dramatic play about herps. Includes reproducible handouts designed to be used with the activities, as well as a quiz. (TW)

  2. Herpes Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, A.; St Leger, A.; Jeon, S.; Dhaliwal, D.K.; Knickelbein, J.E.; Hendricks, R.L.

    2012-01-01

    Herpes Simplex Virus-1 (HSV-1) infects the majority of the worlds population. These infections are often asymptomatic, but ocular HSV-1 infections cause multiple pathologies with perhaps the most destructive being Herpes Stromal Keratitis (HSK). HSK lesions, which are immunoinflammatory in nature, can recur throughout life and often cause progressive corneal scaring resulting in visual impairment. Current treatment involves broad local immunosuppression with topical steroids along with antiviral coverage. Unfortunately, the immunopathologic mechanisms defined in animal models of HSK have not yet translated into improved therapy. Herein, we review the clinical epidemiology and pathology of the disease and summarize the large amount of basic research regarding the immunopathology of HSK. We examine the role of the innate and adaptive immune system in the clearance of virus and the destruction of the normal corneal architecture that is typical of HSK. Our goal is to define current knowledge of the pathogenic mechanisms and recurrent nature of HSK and identify areas that require further study. PMID:22944008

  3. Serum herpes simplex antibodies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... when it detects harmful substances such as the herpes virus. This test does not detect the virus itself. ... Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2014:chap 308. Whitley RJ. Herpes simplex virus infections. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's ...

  4. Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) A parent's guide to condition ... lips, grouped blisters (vesicles) can occur anywhere in herpes infections. Overview The first eruption of skin or ...

  5. Shingles (Herpes Zoster)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... foot: How to prevent Genital warts Head lice Herpes simplex Molluscum contagiosum Scabies Shingles Warts Cosmetic treatments ... a painful, blistering rash. Shingles: Overview Also called herpes zoster Anyone who has had chickenpox can get ...

  6. Shingles (Herpes Zoster)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Shingles (Herpes Zoster) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... will develop shingles, also known as zoster or herpes zoster, in their lifetime. There are an estimated ...

  7. Herpes Zoster (Shingles)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 30, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 509 Herpes Zoster (Shingles) WHAT IS SHINGLES? SHINGLES AND HIV ... a very painful disease caused by the same herpes virus that causes chickenpox (varicella zoster virus). Like ...

  8. Genital Herpes (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Emergency Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child Genital Herpes KidsHealth > For Parents > Genital Herpes Print A A A Text Size What's in ... article? Symptoms Contagiousness Treatment Prevention Getting Help Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that's usually ...

  9. Genital Herpes (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Your Child All About Food Allergies Genital Herpes KidsHealth > For Parents > Genital Herpes Print A A A Text Size What's in ... article? Symptoms Contagiousness Treatment Prevention Getting Help Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that's usually ...

  10. Genital herpes - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    Herpes - genital -self-care; Herpes simplex - genital - self-care; Herpesvirus 2 - self-care; HSV-2 - self-care ... worried after finding out that you have genital herpes . But know that you are not alone. Millions ...

  11. Genital Herpes (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Use ©2016 UpToDate, Inc. Patient information: Genital herpes (Beyond the Basics) Author Mary A Albrecht, MD ... last updated: Jul 22, 2015. WHAT IS GENITAL HERPES? — Genital herpes is a common sexually transmitted disease ...

  12. Herpes biopsy (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... if a person has been infected with the herpes simplex virus (I or II). This test does not detect the virus itself. If antibodies to the virus are present, the person has been infected with herpes simplex at some point in his or her ...

  13. Genital herpes simplex.

    PubMed Central

    Tummon, I. S.; Dudley, D. K.; Walters, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the herpes simplex virus. Following the initial infection the virus becomes latent in the sacral ganglia. Approximately 80% of patients are then subject to milder but unpredictable recurrences and may shed the virus even when they are asymptomatic. The disorder causes concern because genital herpes in the mother can result in rare but catastrophic neonatal infection and because of a possible association between genital herpes and cancer of the cervix. No effective treatment is as yet available. Weekly monitoring for virus by cervical culture from 32 weeks' gestation is recommended for women with a history of genital herpes and for those whose sexual partner has such a history. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 PMID:7020907

  14. Herpes Simplex Virus (Cold Sores)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Herpes Simplex Virus (Cold Sores) Page Content Article Body Herpes simplex ... 2 (HSV-2). However, both strains of the virus can cause sores in any part of the ...

  15. Herpes zoster (shingles), disseminated (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Herpes zoster (shingles) normally occurs in a limited area that follows a dermatome (see the "dermatome" picture). In individuals with damaged immune systems, herpes zoster may be widespread (disseminated), causing serious illness. ...

  16. Vaccination for herpes simplex genitalis.

    PubMed Central

    Nasemann, T; Wassilew, S W

    1979-01-01

    Type-specific vaccines containing heat-inactivated herpes simplex hominis virus type 1 or 2 have been developed for the treatment of herpes simplex genitalis. When patients with recurrent herpes genitalis were treated with the type 2 vaccine the clinical course of the disease improved and the eruption-free interval was extended. In severe cases, especially in permanent genital herpes, the concurrent administration of vaccine and immunoglobulin concentrates improved the clinical course of the disease. Antibody titres and the in-vitro stimulation of lymphocytes with phytohaemagglutinin or herpes simplex hominis virus antigens remained constant during administration of the vaccine. PMID:445121

  17. Hands-on Herps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Presents a hands-on activity to help primary, intermediate, and advanced students learn about and compare the general characteristics of reptiles and amphibians. Suggests "herp stations" to provide experiences. Details materials, background and procedures necessary for using this activity. (CW)

  18. Ocular herpes simplex

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Ocular infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV) is usually acquired early in life, with 50% of people from higher and 80% from lower socioeconomic groups in the USA having antibodies by the age of 30 years. Attacks usually resolve spontaneously within 1?2 weeks, but 50% of people will experience a recurrence within 10 years. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments in people with epithelial keratitis? What are the effects of treatments in people with stomal keratitis? What are the effects of interventions to prevent recurrence of ocular herpes simplex? What are the effects of interventions to prevent recurrence of ocular herpes simplex in people with corneal grafts? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to July 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found seven systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: adding oral aciclovir to topical corticosteroids plus topical antiviral treatment; adding topical corticosteroids to topical antiviral treatment; antiviral agents (topical); debridement; interferons (topical); and oral aciclovir. PMID:19445742

  19. Genital herpes: a review.

    PubMed

    Beauman, John G

    2005-10-15

    Genital herpes simplex virus infection is a recurrent, lifelong disease with no cure. The strongest predictor for infection is a person's number of lifetime sex partners. The natural history includes first-episode mucocutaneous infection, establishment of latency in the dorsal root ganglion, and subsequent reactivation. Most infections are transmitted via asymptomatic viral shedding. Classic outbreaks consist of a skin prodrome and possible constitutional symptoms such as headache, fever, and inguinal lymphadenopathy. As the infection progresses, papules, vesicles on an erythematous base, and erosions appear over hours to days. These lesions usually crust, re-epithelialize, and heal without scarring. First-episode infections are more extensive: primary lesions last two to six weeks versus approximately one week for lesions in recurrent disease. Atypical manifestations are common. Infected persons experience a median of four recurrences per year after their first episode, but rates vary greatly. Genital herpes simplex virus type 2 recurs six times more frequently than type 1. Viral culture is preferred over polymerase chain reaction testing for diagnosis. Serologic testing can be useful in persons with a questionable history. Effective oral antiviral medications are available for initial, episodic, and suppressive therapy but are not a cure. There is some evidence that alternative therapies such as L-lysine, zinc, and some herbal preparations may offer some benefit. Counseling patients about the risk of transmission is crucial and helps prevent the spread of disease and neonatal complications. PMID:16273819

  20. [Management of herpes zoster infection].

    PubMed

    Lauhio, Anneli; Anttila, Veli-Jukka

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 10 to 30% of the population will suffer from herpes zoster (HZ) during their lifetime. Prompt treatment of acute HZ with acyclovir, valacyclovir or famciclovir is recommend, if patients are over 50 years old or have severe or moderate pain or severe or moderate rash or they are immonocompromised or suffer from herpes zoster ophtalmicus. Zoster lesions contain high concentrations of Varicella zoster virus that can spread, and cause chicken pox. There is no universal recommendations for varicella vaccination. It has been shown that zoster vaccine markedly reduced morbidity from herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia among older adults. PMID:19769176

  1. Reading Recovery Following Herpes Encephalitis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, C. D.; Peters, Phyllis

    1979-01-01

    The article presents the medical, psychological, and reading diagnoses of a 24-year-old man with herpes encephalitis, an acute neurological disease. Test results are reported and the client's response to learning disability remedial techniques are reviewed. (SBH)

  2. The Significance of Herpes Simplex for School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensor, Deirdre

    2005-01-01

    Herpes simplex is a common recurrent viral infection caused by the herpes simplex virus. The two closely related but distinct viruses that cause herpes simplex infections are herpes simplex 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex 2 (HSV-2). HSV-1 is commonly associated with infections around the oral mucosa and is the cause of herpes labialis, often referred

  3. The Significance of Herpes Simplex for School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensor, Deirdre

    2005-01-01

    Herpes simplex is a common recurrent viral infection caused by the herpes simplex virus. The two closely related but distinct viruses that cause herpes simplex infections are herpes simplex 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex 2 (HSV-2). HSV-1 is commonly associated with infections around the oral mucosa and is the cause of herpes labialis, often referred…

  4. Herpes simplex type 2 pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Calore, Edenilson Eduardo

    2002-12-01

    Extensive reviews of pulmonary infections in AIDS have reported few herpetic infections. Generally these infections are due to Herpes simplex type 1. Pneumonia due to herpes type 2 is extremely rare. We describe a 40 year-old HIV positive woman who complained of fever, cough and dyspnea for seven years. She had signs of heart failure and the appearance of her genital vesicles was highly suggestive of genital herpes. Echocardiography showed marked pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy and tricuspid insufficiency. After a few days of hospitalization she was treated with Aciclovir and later with Ganciclovir. An open pulmonary biopsy revealed an interstitial inflammation, localized in the alveolar walls. Some pulmonary arteries had widened walls and focal hyaline degeneration. Immunohistochemistry indicated that the nuclei had herpes simplex virus type 2 in many endothelial cells (including vessels with widened walls), macrophages in the alveolar septa and pneumocytes. There was clinical improvement after treatment for herpes. We concluded that as a consequence of herpes infection, endothelial involvement and interstitial inflammation supervene, with thickening of vascular walls and partial obliteration of the vessel lumen. A direct consequence of these changes in pulmonary vasculature was pulmonary hypertension followed by heart failure. PMID:12585974

  5. Psychosocial Treatment for Recurrent Genital Herpes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, David J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Assigned 21 individuals with recurrent genital herpes to psychosocial intervention, social support, or waiting-list control conditions. Those receiving psychosocial intervention (herpes simplex virus information, relaxation training, stress management instructions, and an imagery technique) reported significantly greater reductions in herpes

  6. Treatment of herpes zoster

    PubMed Central

    Opstelten, Wim; Eekhof, Just; Neven, Arie Knuistingh; Verheij, Theo

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the evidence regarding treatment of herpes zoster (HZ) in the short-term, focusing on the prevention of postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). QUALITY OF EVIDENCE The evidence relating to treatment of HZ is derived mainly from randomized controlled trials (level I evidence). MAIN MESSAGE Antiviral drugs might have some effect on the severity of acute pain and on the duration of skin lesions. Corticosteroids also alleviate acute pain. Oral antiviral medication reduces the risk of eye complications in patients with ophthalmic HZ. There is no convincing evidence that antiviral medication reduces the risk of PHN. Some studies, however, have shown that famciclovir and valacyclovir shorten the duration of PHN. The effectiveness of amitriptyline or cutaneous and percutaneous interventions in preventing PHN has not been proven. CONCLUSION Oral antiviral drugs should be prescribed to elderly HZ patients with high risk of PHN. Moreover, these drugs should be prescribed to all patients at the first signs of ophthalmic HZ, irrespective of age or severity of symptoms. PMID:18337531

  7. [Herpes gestationis. A case report].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Diaz, Jorge Arturo; Paredes-Solis, Vanessa; Martínez-Chagolla, Blanca de Jesús; Sereno-Coló, José Antonio

    2014-10-01

    Case report. 21 years old woman with 30 week pregnancy, complicated by a 3 month multitreated skin condition, who was referred to General Hospital Morelia, with probable diagnosis of Kapossi sarcoma and sus- pected HIV. She presented with exulcerations involving the palate, lips, chest, abdomen, back and extremities. The lesions were, itchy and painful, with thick yellowish secretion, accompanied by dysphagia to solid foods. Laboratory results showed normochromic normocytic anemia, elevation of ESR, hypocalcaemia, increased PCR, results in alterations in various TORCH listing, HIV negative. The biopsy of a lesion of the forearm reported histological changes consistent with herpes, subsequently confirmed by direct immunofluorescence. Liquid aspiration secretion of one of the lesions reported coagulase negative staphylococcus sp and Enterobacter cloacae. The final diagnosis was 30 weeks pregnant women with gestational herpes complicated by pyogenic infection of the lesions, discarding infection with HIV and found positive for IgG to toxoplasma, rubella, cytomegalovirus and herpes virus. PMID:25510061

  8. [Recurrent herpes zoster with neuralgia].

    PubMed

    Schwickert, Myriam; Saha, Joyonto

    2006-06-01

    We present the case of a 40-year-old female patient suffering from recurrent herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia. Herpes zoster has recurred several times per year for more than 15 years. At admission, rash localised on the right sacral region and accompanied by neuralgia had lasted for 3 months. Standard out-patient treatment remained unsuccessful. A multimodal integrative therapy regimen including fasting, hydrotherapy, leech application and treatment with autologous blood led to rapid healing of herpetic lesions and persistent pain relief. The case is discussed. PMID:16868364

  9. Let's Hear It for Herps!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Let's Hear It for the Herps!" Contents are organized into the following…

  10. Let's Hear It for Herps!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Let's Hear It for the Herps!" Contents are organized into the following

  11. Herpes: Removing Fact from Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Elbert D.

    1984-01-01

    Factual information dealing with the virus herpes is provided in hopes of allaying the public fears that have recently appeared because of misinformation presented by the media. Symptoms, types, and new developments in treatment are explored. Recommendations for obtaining additional information are offered. (DF)

  12. Epidemiology and therapy of chronic herpes virus infection with genital herpes manifestations.

    PubMed

    Mokeeva, M V

    2009-08-01

    Anaferon-supplemented complex therapy of chronic recurrent genital herpes reduced clinical symptoms of the disease and normalized the content of immunocompetent cells. Changes in the level of immunocompetent cells depended on the severity of genital herpes. PMID:20027353

  13. Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) in Infants and Babies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) A parent's guide for infants ... within an inflamed area of skin typical of herpes simplex. Overview Herpes infections are caused by both ...

  14. [Cycloferon and management of herpes virus infection].

    PubMed

    Alimbarova, L M

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of patients with various forms of herpes requires a complex approach with using chemo- and immunotropic drugs. The use of Cycloferon, an interferon inductor (12.5% injection solution, 150 mg tablets or 5% liniment) was shown efficient. It had antiviral and immunotropic action in the mono- and combination therapy of herpes simplex of the skin and mucosa, genital herpes, ophthalmoherpes, herpes zoster, infectious mononucleosis. Cycloferon lowered the level and period of the disease clinical signs, prolonged the remission, corrected the immunity shifts, prevented the complications. The results of the study presented a conclusive proof for recommending such a use of Cycloferon in wide medical practice. PMID:25300118

  15. Natural remedies for Herpes simplex.

    PubMed

    Gaby, Alan R

    2006-06-01

    Herpes simplex is a common viral infection of the skin or mucous membranes. The lesions caused by this infection are often painful, burning, or pruritic, and tend to recur in most patients. Short-term treatment with acyclovir can accelerate the healing of an acute outbreak, and continuous acyclovir therapy is often prescribed for people with frequent recurrences. While this drug can reduce the recurrence rate by 60-90 percent, it can also cause a wide array of side effects, including renal failure, hepatitis, and anaphylaxis. Safe and effective alternatives are therefore needed. There is evidence that certain dietary modifications and natural substances may be useful for treating active Herpes simplex lesions or preventing recurrences. Treatments discussed include lysine, vitamin C, zinc, vitamin E, adenosine monophosphate, and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis). PMID:16813459

  16. Polyneuritis cranialis following herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishna, H; Malakondaiah, T; Reddy, I C; Saheb, D M

    2000-01-01

    Herpes zoster is a common clinical condition involving cranial nerves. We encountered 3 cases in which multiple cranial nerves were involved besides the commoner ones. All the three cases were treated with acyclovir and oral steroids. Recovery of motor function was only partial in all three cases when reviewed 2 months after discharge. The clinical details and a brief review of literature are presented. PMID:20877098

  17. Herpes in Dyadic Relationships: Patterns and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drob, Sanford; Bernard, Harold S.

    1985-01-01

    Explores how dyadic relationships can be affected when one partner suffers from genital herpes. Six patterns are described: When One Partner Does Not Know, The Compromise Relationship, The Enraged Partner, The Mark of Guilt, Problems in Risk Management, and Herpes Used as Weapon. Treatment strategies for dealing with patterns are offered.

  18. Psychosocial Treatment for Recurrent Genital Herpes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, David J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Assigned 21 individuals with recurrent genital herpes to psychosocial intervention, social support, or waiting-list control conditions. Those receiving psychosocial intervention (herpes simplex virus information, relaxation training, stress management instructions, and an imagery technique) reported significantly greater reductions in herpes…

  19. Herpes in Dyadic Relationships: Patterns and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drob, Sanford; Bernard, Harold S.

    1985-01-01

    Explores how dyadic relationships can be affected when one partner suffers from genital herpes. Six patterns are described: When One Partner Does Not Know, The Compromise Relationship, The Enraged Partner, The Mark of Guilt, Problems in Risk Management, and Herpes Used as Weapon. Treatment strategies for dealing with patterns are offered.…

  20. Autism and Herpes Simplex Encephalitis. Brief Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaziuddin, Mohammad; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents two case studies of children who developed herpes virus infection in the intrauterine or early postnatal period and presented with features of autism around two years of age. Other research suggesting a link between herpes and autism is reviewed. (DB)

  1. Experiential Interventions for Clients with Genital Herpes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Anne L.

    1999-01-01

    Explores potential benefits of incorporating concepts and interventions from experimental therapy to help clients with psychosocial difficulties in learning to live with genital herpes. Recommends experimental counseling of two-chair dialog, empty chair, and metaphor for helping clients with emotional sequelae of genital herpes. Presents case…

  2. Epidemiology of genital herpes - recent advances.

    PubMed

    Halioua, B; Malkin, J E

    1999-01-01

    Genital herpes is a common, distressing infection which, due to increasing incidence world-wide, has become a prominent public health issue over recent years, even throughout the decade of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Since the late 1970's, the prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection has increased by approximately 30 percent in the US. The number of sufferers world-wide is currently estimated at approximately 86 million people. New serological methods based on the detection of type-specific antibodies to herpes simplex virus (HSV) glycoproteins have clarified issues concerning the true incidence of genital herpes, the modifying effect of prior HSV-1 infections, the changing proportions of HSV-1 genital herpes, and the importance of asymptomatic shedding. Patients' ignorance of their diagnosis along with the occurrence of atypical symptomatology and asymptomatic viral shedding of HSV all contribute to the transmission of genital herpes. Genital ulcer disease, of which genital herpes is the most common cause in developed countries, is an important risk factor in the acquisition and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and has contributed to the spread of this disorder. Risk factors for genital herpes HSV-2 are strongly related to lifetime number of sexual partners, number of years of sexual activity, male homosexuality, black race, female gender and a history of previous sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Understanding the epidemiology of genital herpes is of great importance in limiting the spread of this STD. In this review, we summarise current knowledge related to the epidemiology of genital herpes. PMID:10210781

  3. Severe complications of herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Volpi, Antonio

    2007-09-01

    The usual presentation of herpes zoster is as a self-limiting vesicular rash, often accompanied by post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN), its most common complication. However, herpes zoster can give rise to other complications, many of which have unusual presentations and serious sequelae. The incidence and burden of many of these less common complications are poorly understood. Ocular complications of ophthalmic zoster are relatively frequent but, with early antiviral therapy, need not be sight-threatening. Delayed contralateral hemiparesis is a rare complication of ophthalmic zoster that may present as stroke, temporally remote from the zoster episode. Ramsay Hunt syndrome is caused by reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV) involving the facial nerve; facial paralysis, ear pain and vesicles in the ear are diagnostic. Facial paralysis in the absence of vesicles may indicate zoster sine herpete, which can be mistaken for Bell's palsy. Herpetic facial palsies may respond to combination therapy with an antiviral plus steroid, but further research is needed to determine the benefit of such treatments. PMID:17939894

  4. Update on herpes zoster vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Marla; Kvern, Brent; Watson, Peter; Guenther, Lyn; McElhaney, Janet; McGeer, Allison

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To answer frequently asked questions surrounding the use of the new herpes zoster (HZ) vaccine. Sources of information Published results of clinical trials and other studies, recommendations from the Canadian National Advisory Committee on Immunization, and the US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices; data were also obtained from the vaccines Health Canadaapproved product monograph. Main message Herpes zoster results from reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus; postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is its most common and serious complication. The incidence of PHN after HZ is directly related to age, with 50% of affected individuals older than 60 years experiencing persistent and unrelieved pain. The live virus HZ vaccine reduces the incidence of HZ by about 50% and the occurrence of PHN by two-thirds, with vaccinated individuals experiencing attenuated or shortened symptoms. The vaccine is contraindicated in many immunocompromised patients and might not be effective in patients taking antiviral medications active against the HZ virus. Physicians should be aware of the different recommendations for these groups. Conclusion The HZ vaccine is a safe and effective preventive measure for reducing the overall burden and severity of HZ in older adults. The vaccine appears to be cost-effective when administered to adults aged 60 years and older. PMID:21998225

  5. [Update on Herpes Simplex Encephalitis].

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), which is caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV), is a severe neuro-infectious disease characterized by high mortality and morbidity. We reviewed the pathomechanism, diagnosis, and treatment of HSE based on recent progress in the field. The highlighted mechanism of HSE in this review is immune-mediated tissue damage caused by host immunity. Major symptoms of HSE include psychiatric alteration, Klver-Bucy syndrome, and amnesia, caused by frequent involvement of the limbic system. An important differential diagnosis of HSE is autoimmune limbic encephalitis, including anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis, and anti-voltage-gated K+ channel encephalitis. HSE is definitely diagnosed based on the detection of HSV-DNA by polymerase chain reaction and/or the detection of HSV-IgG antibody in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Repeated CSF examinations are required for the accurate diagnosis of HSE. Acyclovir (ACV) plays a central role in the treatment of HSE, and its early initiation is essential for good outcome in patients with HSE. Acute administration of corticosteroids for HSE is controversial; a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of add-on corticosteroids to ACV is ongoing. PMID:26160820

  6. Vibrio vulnificus necrotizing fasciitis preceding herpes zoster

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Kelli Y.; Tyring, Stephen K.

    2013-01-01

    A 74-year-old white man presented with unilateral radicular pain extending across the left side of his chest and back. A diagnosis of postherpetic neuralgia, a sequela of herpes zoster, was made. Herpes zoster represents a reactivation of the varicella zoster virus that lies dormant in patients with past chickenpox. Risk factors for the disease include advanced age, stress, immunodeficiency, and immunosuppression. Treatment of herpes zoster entails traditional antiviral medications, while prevention may be achieved with a new prophylactic vaccine. PMID:23382617

  7. Herpes zoster overview: natural history and incidence.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Bethany A

    2009-06-01

    The varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes two diseases. The primary VZV infection, known as chickenpox, typically occurs during childhood. Herpes zoster infection results later in life from reactivation of VZV in the dorsal root ganglia. Herpes zoster characteristically results in a rash with a unilateral dermatomal distribution, which usually resolves within 2 to 4 weeks. If the infection does not resolve after its acute phase, long-term complications, such as postherpetic neuralgia, may develop. The author discusses the natural history and incidence of primary VZV infection and herpes zoster and details the epidemiology, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, and complications of this disease. PMID:19553632

  8. Herpes Simplex Virus: Partner for Life

    PubMed Central

    Blondeau, Joseph M.; Embil, Juan A.

    1988-01-01

    The authors provide a careful review of the characteristics of the herpes simplex virus and its various manifestations. They offer suggestions for its diagnosis and treatment, in various forms, and outline an approach to physician counselling of infected persons.

  9. Herpes zoster (shingles) on the arm (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a picture of herpes zoster (shingles) on the arm. Shingles are caused by the same virus that ... skin. This distribution pattern, seen here on the arm, follows a dermatome (see the "dermatomes" picture).

  10. Herpes Simplex: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Outcome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... treatment of both types of herpes simplex include: Acyclovir Famciclovir Valacyclovir Taken daily, these medicines can lessen ... illness or weak immune system. If you have cancer or HIV/AIDS, or you had an organ ...

  11. Recent advances in management of genital herpes.

    PubMed Central

    Ttrault, I.; Boivin, G.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an update on new diagnostic tests and antiviral strategies for managing genital herpes. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Treatment guidelines are based on randomized clinical trials and recommendations from the Expert Working Group on Canadian Guidelines for Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Recommendations concerning other aspects of managing genital herpes (e.g., indications for using type-specific serologic tests) are mainly based on expert opinion. MAIN MESSAGE: Genital herpes is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases, affecting about 20% of sexually active people; up to 80% of cases are undiagnosed. Because of frequent atypical presentation and the emotional burden associated with genital herpes, clinical diagnosis should be confirmed by viral culture. Type-specific serologic assays are now available, but their use is often restricted to special situations and requires adequate counseling. New antivirals (valacyclovir and famciclovir) with improved pharmacokinetic profiles have now been approved for episodic treatment of recurrences and suppressive therapy. CONCLUSION: Wise use of new diagnostic assays for herpes simplex coupled with more convenient treatment regimens should provide better management of patients with genital herpes. Images Figure 1 PMID:10955181

  12. Herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... last modified on December 29, 2014. The review date indicates when the article was last reviewed from beginning to end to ensure that it reflects the most current science. A review may not require any modifications to ...

  13. Simple Machines Made Simple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Andre, Ralph E.

    Simple machines have become a lost point of study in elementary schools as teachers continue to have more material to cover. This manual provides hands-on, cooperative learning activities for grades three through eight concerning the six simple machines: wheel and axle, inclined plane, screw, pulley, wedge, and lever. Most activities can be

  14. Latent Herpes Viral Reactivation in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, D. L.; Mehta, S. K.; Stowe, R.

    2008-01-01

    Latent viruses are ubiquitous and reactivate during stressful periods with and without symptoms. Latent herpes virus reactivation is used as a tool to predict changes in the immune status in astronauts and to evaluate associated health risks. Methods: Viral DNA was detected by real time polymerase chain reaction in saliva and urine from astronauts before, during and after short and long-duration space flights. Results and Discussion: EpsteinBarr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivated, and viral DNA was shed in saliva (EBV and VZV) or urine (CMV). EBV levels in saliva during flight were 10fold higher than baseline levels. Elevations in EBV specific CD8+ T-cells, viral antibody titers, and specific cytokines were consistent with viral reactivation. Intracellular levels of cytokines were reduced in EBVspecific Tcells. CMV, rarely present in urine of healthy individuals, was shed in urine of 27% of astronauts during all phases of spaceflight. VZV, not found in saliva of asymptomatic individuals, was found in saliva of 50% of astronauts during spaceflight and 35 days after flight. VZV recovered from astronaut saliva was found to be live, infectious virus. DNA sequencing demonstrated that the VZV recovered from astronauts was from the common European strain of VZV. Elevation of stress hormones accompanied viral reactivation indicating involvement of the hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal and sympathetic adrenal-medullary axes in the mechanism of viral reactivation in astronauts. A study of 53 shingles patients found that all shingles patients shed VZV DNA in their saliva and the VZV levels correlated with the severity of the disease. Lower VZV levels in shingles patients were similar to those observed in astronauts. We proposed a rapid, simple, and cost-effective assay to detect VZV in saliva of patients with suspected shingles. Early detection of VZV infection allows early medical intervention.

  15. Can You Get Genital Herpes from a Cold Sore?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a Friend Who Cuts? Can You Get Genital Herpes From a Cold Sore? KidsHealth > For Teens > Can You Get Genital Herpes From a Cold Sore? Print A A A Text Size Can you get genital herpes from a cold sore? Lucy* Yes it is ...

  16. Can You Get Genital Herpes from a Cold Sore?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a Friend Who Cuts? Can You Get Genital Herpes From a Cold Sore? KidsHealth > For Teens > Can You Get Genital Herpes From a Cold Sore? Print A A A Text Size Can you get genital herpes from a cold sore? – Lucy* Yes — it is ...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305 Herpes simplex virus serological assays. (a) Identification. Herpes simplex virus serological assays are...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305 Herpes simplex virus serological assays. (a) Identification. Herpes simplex virus serological assays are...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305 Herpes simplex virus serological assays. (a) Identification. Herpes simplex virus serological assays are...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305 Herpes simplex virus serological assays. (a) Identification. Herpes simplex virus serological assays are...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305 Herpes simplex virus serological assays. (a) Identification. Herpes simplex virus serological assays are...

  2. Treatment and prevention of herpes labialis

    PubMed Central

    Opstelten, Wim; Neven, Arie Knuistingh; Eekhof, Just

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To review the evidence regarding the treatment and prevention of herpes labialis. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE The evidence relating to treatment and prevention of herpes labialis is derived from randomized controlled trials (level I evidence). MAIN MESSAGE Treatment with an indifferent cream (zinc oxide or zinc sulfate), an anesthetic cream, or an antiviral cream has a small favourable effect on the duration of symptoms, if applied promptly. This is also the case with oral antiviral medication. If antiviral medicine (cream or oral) is started before exposure to the triggering factor (sunlight), it will provide some protection. Research on sunscreens has shown mixed results: some protection has been reported under experimental conditions that could not be replicated under natural conditions. In the long term, the number of relapses of herpes labialis can be limited with oral antiviral medication. CONCLUSION Only prompt topical or oral therapy will alleviate symptoms of herpes labialis. Both topical and oral treatment can contribute to the prevention of herpes labialis. PMID:19074705

  3. [Severe form of herpes gestationis].

    PubMed

    Orsini, G; Loizzi, P; Morelli, L; Chiechi, L M; Sabatini, R; Distante, G

    2003-06-01

    We report a very severe form of herpers gestationis that arose at the 26(th) week of pregnancy and reached us for observation at the 30(th) week. Herpes gestationis in an autoimmune vesicobullous dermatosis characterised by skin eruptions, intense itching and consequent increase in fetal morbility, with delayed intrauterine growth and prematurity. Owing to its particular severity (involvement of the entire body surface including the face), between the 30th and the 32(nd) weeks we had to address a severe clinical condition characterised by anaemia, marked hypoproteinaemia, hypoalbuminaemia, hupertension and hyperglycaemia which led us to resort to the maximum dose of oral corticotherapy in association with topical therapy using clobetasol propionate. In our opinion the results obtained were highly statisfactory with the result that at the end of the 37(th) week, in consideration of the patient's obstetric history, podalic presentation and parity, we performed a Caesarean delivering a newborn of 3000 g in excellent condition. The patient was discharged symptom-free on the 6(th) day and the newborn was in full healt. PMID:14581874

  4. Herpes Zoster-Induced Ogilvie's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Masood, Irfan; Majid, Zain; Rind, Waqas; Zia, Aisha; Riaz, Haris; Raza, Sajjad

    2015-01-01

    Ogilvie's syndrome due to herpes zoster infection is a rare manifestation of VZV reactivation. The onset of rash of herpes zoster and the symptoms of intestinal obstruction can occur at different time intervals posing a significant diagnostic challenge resulting in avoidable surgical interventions. Herein, we describe a case of 35-year-old male who presented with 6-day history of constipation and colicky abdominal pain along with an exquisitely tender and vesicular skin eruption involving the T8–T11 dermatome. Abdominal X-ray and ultrasound revealed generalized gaseous distention of the large intestine with air up to the rectum consistent with paralytic ileus. Colonoscopy did not show any obstructing lesion. A diagnosis of Ogilvie's syndrome associated with herpes zoster was made. He was conservatively managed with nasogastric decompression, IV fluids, and acyclovir. The patient had an uneventful recovery and was later discharged. PMID:26664758

  5. The Uncommon Localization of Herpes Zoster

    PubMed Central

    Cukic, Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Herpes zoster is an acute, cutaneous viral infection caused by the reactivation of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) that is the cause of varicella. It is an acute neurological disease which can often lead to serious postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). Different nerves can be included with the skin rash in the area of its enervation especially cranial nerves (CV) and intercostal nerves. Case report: In this report we present a patient with herpes zoster which involved ulnar nerve with skin rash in the region of ulnar innervations in women with no disease previously diagnosed. The failure of her immune system may be explained by great emotional stress and overwork she had been exposed to with neglecting proper nutrition in that period. Conclusion: Herpes zoster may involve any nerve with characteristic skin rash in the area of its innervations, and failure in immune system which leads reactivation of VZV may be caused by other factors besides the underlying illness. PMID:26980938

  6. Preventing herpes simplex virus in the newborn.

    PubMed

    Pinninti, Swetha G; Kimberlin, David W

    2014-12-01

    Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are very common worldwide. Approximately 22% of pregnant women are infected genitally with HSV, and most of them are unaware of this. The most devastating consequence of maternal genital herpes is HSV disease in the newborn. Although neonatal HSV infections remain uncommon, due to the significant morbidity and mortality associated with the infection, HSV infection in the newborn is often considered in the differential diagnosis of ill neonates. This review summarizes the epidemiology and management of neonatal HSV infections and discusses strategies to prevent HSV infection in the newborn. PMID:25459782

  7. Herpes genitalis and the philosopher's stance.

    PubMed

    Dunphy, Kilian

    2014-12-01

    For many people, living with genital herpes generates not just episodic physical discomfort but recurrent emotional distress, centred on concerns about how to live and love safely without passing infection to others. This article considers the evidence on herpes transmission, levels of sexual risk, when the law has intervened and to what extent health professionals should advise with respect to these issues. It proposes a mechanism by which moral philosophy might provide a rational basis on which to counsel concerning sexual behaviour. PMID:24429670

  8. Orbital apex syndrome in herpes zoster ophthalmicus.

    PubMed

    Arda, Hatice; Mirza, Ertugrul; Gumus, Koray; Oner, Ayse; Karakucuk, Sarper; S?rakaya, Ender

    2012-01-01

    Orbital apex syndrome is a rare manifestation of Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus. Herein we report on a case of orbital apex syndrome secondary to Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus. A 75 year-old male complained of vision loss, conjunctival hyperemia and proptosis on the left eye, was referred to our clinic. Visual acuity was 5/10 Snellen lines and he had conjunctival hyperemia, chemosis, minimal nuclear cataract and proptosis on the left eye. A diagnosis of orbital pseudotumor was demonstrated firstly. The patient received oral and topical corticosteroids, antiinflammatory and antibiotic agents. On day 2, vesiculopustular lesions were observed, Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus was diagnosed and corticosteroid treatment stopped, oral acyclovir treatment initiated. Two days later, total ophthalmoplegia, ptosis and significant visual loss were observed on the left. The diagnosis of orbital apex syndrome was considered and the patient commenced on an intravenous acyclovir treatment. After the improvement of acute symptoms, a tapering dose of oral cortisone treatment initiated to accelarate the recovery of ophthalmoplegia. At 5-month follow-up, ptosis and ocular motility showed improvement. VA did not significantly improve because of cataract and choroidal detachment on the left. We conclude that ophthalmoplegia secondary to Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus responds favourably to intravenous acyclovir and steroids. PMID:22830066

  9. Orbital Apex Syndrome in Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus

    PubMed Central

    Arda, Hatice; Mirza, Ertugrul; Gumus, Koray; Oner, Ayse; Karakucuk, Sarper; S?rakaya, Ender

    2012-01-01

    Orbital apex syndrome is a rare manifestation of Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus. Herein we report on a case of orbital apex syndrome secondary to Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus. A 75 year-old male complained of vision loss, conjunctival hyperemia and proptosis on the left eye, was referred to our clinic. Visual acuity was 5/10 Snellen lines and he had conjunctival hyperemia, chemosis, minimal nuclear cataract and proptosis on the left eye. A diagnosis of orbital pseudotumor was demonstrated firstly. The patient received oral and topical corticosteroids, antiinflammatory and antibiotic agents. On day 2, vesiculopustular lesions were observed, Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus was diagnosed and corticosteroid treatment stopped, oral acyclovir treatment initiated. Two days later, total ophthalmoplegia, ptosis and significant visual loss were observed on the left. The diagnosis of orbital apex syndrome was considered and the patient commenced on an intravenous acyclovir treatment. After the improvement of acute symptoms, a tapering dose of oral cortisone treatment initiated to accelarate the recovery of ophthalmoplegia. At 5-month follow-up, ptosis and ocular motility showed improvement. VA did not significantly improve because of cataract and choroidal detachment on the left. We conclude that ophthalmoplegia secondary to Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus responds favourably to intravenous acyclovir and steroids. PMID:22830066

  10. Disseminated Herpes Simplex Virus with Fulminant Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Rimawi, Bassam H.; Meserve, Joseph; Rimawi, Ramzy H.; Min, Zaw; Gnann, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Disseminated herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a rare cause of acute fulminant liver failure. We hereby present a case series of three patients with acute disseminated HSV with necrotizing hepatitis successfully treated with a week course of acyclovir. Early empiric administration of acyclovir therapy while awaiting confirmatory tests is critical in this potentially lethal disease. PMID:26290760

  11. Herpes Simplex Virus DNAemia Preceding Neonatal Disease.

    PubMed

    Cantey, Joseph B; Klein, Alan M; Snchez, Pablo J

    2015-05-01

    Polymerase chain reaction testing of blood for herpes simplex virus (HSV) is recommended for newborns delivered to mothers with active genital HSV lesions at delivery. We report an infant who had a positive blood HSV polymerase chain reaction test before the onset of clinical signs of HSV disease. PMID:25720363

  12. Recurrent lumbosacral herpes simplex virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Vassantachart, Janna M.

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 54-year-old white woman with episodic lumbosacral lesions that she had been treating as psoriasis. Evaluation revealed classic herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. The discussion reviews the significance and potential complications of recurrent lumbosacral HSV infection. PMID:26722168

  13. Can Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis Cause Aphasia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naude, H.; Pretorius, E.

    2003-01-01

    Aphasia implies the loss or impairment of language caused by brain damage. The key to understanding the nature of aphasic symptoms is the neuro-anatomical site of brain damage, and not the causative agent. However, because "Herpes simplex" virus (HSV) encephalitis infection usually affects the frontal and temporal lobes, subcortical structures and

  14. Can Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis Cause Aphasia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naude, H.; Pretorius, E.

    2003-01-01

    Aphasia implies the loss or impairment of language caused by brain damage. The key to understanding the nature of aphasic symptoms is the neuro-anatomical site of brain damage, and not the causative agent. However, because "Herpes simplex" virus (HSV) encephalitis infection usually affects the frontal and temporal lobes, subcortical structures and…

  15. Herpes zoster pathogenesis and cell-mediated immunity and immunosenescence.

    PubMed

    Oxman, Michael N

    2009-06-01

    Herpes zoster, or shingles, is a localized disease characterized by unilateral radicular pain and a vesicular rash limited to the area of skin innervated by a single dorsal root or cranial sensory ganglion. Whereas varicella, or chickenpox, results from primary exogenous varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection, herpes zoster is caused by reactivation of endogenous VZV that has persisted in latent form within sensory ganglia following an earlier episode of chickenpox. In contrast to recurrent herpes simplex, herpes zoster is commonly associated with severe pain: prodromal pain often precedes the rash by several days; pain usually accompanies the dermatomal rash of herpes zoster; and clinically significant pain and allodynia may persist for weeks, months, or even years after the herpes zoster rash has healed, a debilitating complication known as postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). The incidence and severity of herpes zoster and PHN increase with age in association with an age-related decline in cell-mediated immunity to VZV. The Shingles Prevention Study-a randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled trial-sought to evaluate the capacity of a live attenuated VZV vaccine to protect older adults from herpes zoster and PHN by boosting their waning cell-mediated immunity to VZV. The study demonstrated that the zoster vaccine produced significant reductions in the incidence of herpes zoster, in the burden of illness caused by herpes zoster, and in the incidence of PHN. PMID:19553630

  16. Herpes Zoster Vaccination: Controversies and Common Clinical Questions.

    PubMed

    Van Epps, Puja; Schmader, Kenneth E; Canaday, David H

    2016-01-01

    Herpes zoster, clinically referred to as shingles, is an acute, cutaneous viral infection caused by reactivation of the varicella zoster virus, the same virus that causes chickenpox. The incidence of herpes zoster and its complications increase with decline in cell-mediated immunity, including age-associated decline. The most effective management strategy for herpes zoster is prevention of the disease through vaccination in those who are most vulnerable. Despite the demonstrated efficacy in reducing the incidence and severity of herpes zoster, the uptake of vaccine remains low. Here, we will discuss the controversies that surround the live herpes zoster vaccine and address the common clinical questions that arise. We will also discuss the new adjuvanted herpes zoster vaccine currently under investigation. PMID:26184711

  17. Mucosal Herpes Immunity and Immunopathology to Ocular and Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Chentoufi, Aziz Alami; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2012-01-01

    Herpes simplex viruses type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are amongst the most common human infectious viral pathogens capable of causing serious clinical diseases at every stage of life, from fatal disseminated disease in newborns to cold sores genital ulcerations and blinding eye disease. Primary mucocutaneous infection with HSV-1 & HSV-2 is followed by a lifelong viral latency in the sensory ganglia. In the majority of cases, herpes infections are clinically asymptomatic. However, in symptomatic individuals, the latent HSV can spontaneously and frequently reactivate, reinfecting the muco-cutaneous surfaces and causing painful recurrent diseases. The innate and adaptive mucosal immunities to herpes infections and disease remain to be fully characterized. The understanding of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms operating at muco-cutaneous surfaces is fundamental to the design of next-generation herpes vaccines. In this paper, the phenotypic and functional properties of innate and adaptive mucosal immune cells, their role in antiherpes immunity, and immunopathology are reviewed. The progress and limitations in developing a safe and efficient mucosal herpes vaccine are discussed. PMID:23320014

  18. 2014 UK national guideline for the management of anogenital herpes.

    PubMed

    Patel, Raj; Green, John; Clarke, Emily; Seneviratne, Kanchana; Abbt, Naomi; Evans, Ceri; Bickford, Jane; Nicholson, Marian; O'Farrell, Nigel; Barton, Simon; FitzGerald, Mark; Foley, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    These guidelines concern the management of anogenital herpes simplex virus infections in adults and give advice on diagnosis, management, and counselling of patients. This guideline replaces the 2007 BASHH herpes guidelines and includes new sections on herpes proctitis, key points to cover with patients regarding transmission and removal of advice on the management of HSV in pregnancy which now has a separate joint BASHH/RCOG guideline. PMID:25861804

  19. Pharmacologic management of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia.

    PubMed Central

    Mamdani, F. S.

    1994-01-01

    Herpes zoster is an infection caused by reactivation of dormant varicella-zoster virus. The acute course of herpes zoster is generally benign; however, some patients will experience postherpetic neuralgia characterized by severe, relentless, and at times disabling pain that is often refractory to treatment. While herpes zoster responds to acyclovir, cost-benefit considerations limit the drug's usefulness to only a select group. Postherpetic neuralgia requires a holistic approach, including pharmacologic therapy using several different classes of drugs. PMID:7907508

  20. Herpes zoster duplex bilateralis in an immunocompetent host.

    PubMed

    Gahalaut, Pratik; Chauhan, Sandhya

    2012-01-01

    Varicella zoster virus causes both chicken pox and herpes zoster. The phenomenon of herpes zoster occurring concurrently in two non-contiguous dermatomes involving different halves of the body is termed herpes zoster duplex bilateralis (HZDB). Few cases, reported in the literature, were seen in either an immunosuppressed host or in the older age group. Here we present a case of HZDB in an immunocompetent host, probably the first in India. PMID:23130258

  1. Atypical herpes type 2 encephalitis associated with normal MRI imaging.

    PubMed

    Harrison, N A; MacDonald, B K; Scott, G; Kapoor, R

    2003-07-01

    We describe a case of chronic atypical herpes simplex type 2 encephalitis in an immunocompromised 68 year old man presenting with headache and cognitive changes without focal neurological or MRI findings. To our knowledge this is the first described case of herpes simplex encephalitis associated with normal MRI brain imaging and non-focal neurological examination. This further expands the range of clinical presentations that may be associated with herpes simplex encephalitis and emphasises the value of PCR for herpes simplex virus in the investigation of encephalitis regardless of imaging findings. PMID:12810797

  2. Herpes simplex keratitis in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed Central

    Howcroft, M J; Breslin, C W

    1981-01-01

    Herpes simplex epithelial keratitis developed in four renal transplant recipients while they were receiving high-dose systemic corticosteroid and immunosuppressive therapy. In all cases the presentation was atypical, and in two cases the course was protracted, leading to some visual loss from corneal scarring and opacification. With the immunocompromised patient it is important to seek early ophthalmologic consultation when even minor ocular symptoms develop. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:7006787

  3. Herpes zoster oticus: A rare clinical entity

    PubMed Central

    Gondivkar, Shailesh; Parikh, Viren; Parikh, Rima

    2010-01-01

    Herpes zoster oticus also known as Ramsay Hunt syndrome is a rare complication of herpes zoster in which reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus infection in the geniculate ganglion causes otalgia, auricular vesicles, and peripheral facial paralysis. Ramsay Hunt syndrome is rare in children and affects both sexes equally. Incidence and clinical severity increases when host immunity is compromised. Because these symptoms do not always present at the onset, this syndrome can be misdiagnosed. Although secondary to Bell's palsy in terms of the cause of acute atraumatic peripheral facial paralysis, Ramsay Hunt syndrome, with incidence ranged from 0.3 to 18%, has a worse prognosis. Herpes zoster oticus accounts for about 12% cases of facial palsy, which is usually unilateral and complete and full recovery occurs in only about 20% of untreated patients. The most advisable method to treat Ramsay Hunt syndrome is the combination therapy with acyclovir and prednisone but still not promising, and several prerequisites are required for better results. We present a case of 32-year-old man suffering from Ramsay Hunt syndrome with grade V facial palsy treated effectively with rehabilitation program, after the termination of the combination therapy of acyclovir and prednisone. PMID:22114399

  4. Herpes Viral Origin of the Parsonage-Turner Syndrome: Highlighting of Serological Immune Anti-Herpes Deficiency Cured by Anti-Herpes Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Goaster, Jacqueline Le; Bourée, Patrice; Ifergan, Charles; Tangy, Frederic; Olivier, René; Haenni, Anne-Lise

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, a 50 year-old athletic male presented with weakness, pain and unilateral phrenic paralysis, followed by bilateral phrenic paralysis with deep dyspnea. In 2013, the Parsonage-Turner syndrome was diagnosed. When the patient was seen in September 2014 for the first time, he was facing phrenic neuromuscular failure, which led to the hypothesis of neurotropic herpes viruses. A control of the global serological anti-Herpes immunity to analyze his antibody (Ab) levels confirmed herpes immune genetic deficiency. An appropriate herpes chemotherapy treatment was proposed. Immediately, a spectacular recovery of the patient was observed, and after a few weeks, the respiratory function tests showed normal values. The hypothesis of the inductive role of viruses of the herpes family in the Parsonage-Turner syndrome was thus substantiated. The patient's immune deficiency covers the HSV2, HHV3, HHV4, HHV5 and HHV6 Ab levels. This led to the control of herpes in the family lineage: indeed, his daughter presented alterations of her serological herpes Ab levels. PMID:26078744

  5. Genetic analysis and molecular characterization of Chinese sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) cultivars using Insertion-Deletion (InDel) and Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sesame is an important and ancient oil crop in tropical and subtropical areas. China is one of the most important sesame producing countries with many germplasm accessions and excellent cultivars. Domestication and modern plant breeding have presumably narrowed the genetic basis of cultivated sesame. Several modern sesame cultivars were bred with a limited number of landrace cultivars in their pedigree. The genetic variation was subsequently reduced by genetic drift and selection. Characterization of genetic diversity of these cultivars by molecular markers is of great value to assist parental line selection and breeding strategy design. Results Three hundred and forty nine simple sequence repeat (SSR) and 79 insertion-deletion (InDel) markers were developed from cDNA library and reduced-representation sequencing of a sesame cultivar Zhongzhi 14, respectively. Combined with previously published SSR markers, 88 polymorphic markers were used to assess the genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationships, population structure, and allele distribution among 130 Chinese sesame accessions including 82 cultivars, 44 landraces and 4 wild germplasm accessions. A total of 325 alleles were detected, with the average gene diversity of 0.432. Model-based structure analysis revealed the presence of five subgroups belonging to two main groups, which were consistent with the results from principal coordinate analysis (PCA), phylogenetic clustering and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA). Several missing or unique alleles were identified from particular types, subgroups or families, even though they share one or both parental/progenitor lines. Conclusions This report presented a by far most comprehensive characterization of the molecular and genetic diversity of sesame cultivars in China. InDels are more polymorphic than SSRs, but their ability for deciphering genetic diversity compared to the later. Improved sesame cultivars have narrower genetic basis than landraces, reflecting the effect of genetic drift or selection during breeding processes. Comparative analysis of allele distribution revealed genetic divergence between improved cultivars and landraces, as well as between cultivars released in different years. These results will be useful for assessing cultivars and for marker-assisted breeding in sesame. PMID:24641723

  6. Herpes labialis among dental healthcare providers in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Azodo, C. C.; Umoh, A. O.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The epidemiology of herpes labialis has been relatively neglected. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of self-reported herpes labialis among Nigerian dental health providers. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study of final year dental students and dentists undergoing postgraduate training at University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria was conducted in June, 2014. The demographic information, lifetime and period (previous year) experience of the herpes labialis, perceived triggers and action taken during the last episode were obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. Results: The annual prevalence of herpes labialis was 7.4% while the lifetime prevalence was 22.1%. The lifetime prevalence was significantly associated with marital status, professional status and family history of herpes labialis. However, in binary regression, it was only marital status and family history of herpes labialis that emerged as the determinants of this lifetime prevalence. The most common trigger factors reported by the participants for the last episode of herpes labialis were fever, malaria, fatigue and stress. The actions taken by participants for the last episode of herpes labialis were using drugs without prescription (14.3%), application of lubricant (23.8%), nothing (57.1%) and could not remember (4.8%). Conclusion: Data from this study revealed that one out of fourteen and one out of five every studied dental healthcare providers had experienced herpes labialis in the last 12 months and their lifetime respectively. The reduction of fever inducing infections, stress and fatigue which were major triggers will help decrease herpes labialis among this studied group. PMID:26392726

  7. [Herpes zoster oticus with cranial nerve affection].

    PubMed

    Lauridsen, Anita Guldager; Mirz, Frank

    2010-10-11

    Herpes zoster oticus (HZO) with cranial polyneuropathy is also known as Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS). After primary varicella infection, the varicella zoster virus (VZV) remains dormant in the nervous system and can reactivate later in life causing RHS. This case describes a 56-year-old man with HZO and palsy of N. V, VII, VIII, IX, X and XII. Anti-viral agents might be effective in patients with RHS, although the only randomized controlled clinical trial on this subject found no significant benefit. There are no randomized controlled trials to support the use of corticosteroid therapy. PMID:20961509

  8. [Update on the treatment of genital herpes].

    PubMed

    Martn, J M; Villaln, G; Jord, E

    2009-01-01

    Genital herpes is a chronic infection characterized by periodic reactivation. It can produce symptomatic disease in the host although asymptomatic viral excretion can also occur. It is currently the main cause of genital ulceration and an important public health problem that has substantial clinical, psychological, and economic repercussions. This review analyzes the currently available therapeutic options and regimens, which are based mainly on systemic use of antiviral agents such as aciclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir. In addition, special emphasis is placed on the prevention and management of this infection in specific situations, such as pregnant, pediatric, and immunocompromised patients. PMID:19268108

  9. Herpes Zoster (Shingles) and Postherpetic Neuralgia

    PubMed Central

    Sampathkumar, Priya; Drage, Lisa A.; Martin, David P.

    2009-01-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ), commonly called shingles, is a distinctive syndrome caused by reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV). This reactivation occurs when immunity to VZV declines because of aging or immunosuppression. Herpes zoster can occur at any age but most commonly affects the elderly population. Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), defined as pain persisting more than 3 months after the rash has healed, is a debilitating and difficult to manage consequence of HZ. The diagnosis of HZ is usually made clinically on the basis of the characteristic appearance of the rash. Early recognition and treatment can reduce acute symptoms and may also reduce PHN. A live, attenuated vaccine aimed at boosting immunity to VZV and reducing the risk of HZ is now available and is recommended for adults older than 60 years. The vaccine has been shown to reduce significantly the incidence of both HZ and PHN. The vaccine is well tolerated, with minor local injection site reactions being the most common adverse event. This review focuses on the clinical manifestations and treatment of HZ and PHN, as well as the appropriate use of the HZ vaccine. PMID:19252116

  10. Herpes zoster (shingles) and postherpetic neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Sampathkumar, Priya; Drage, Lisa A; Martin, David P

    2009-03-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ), commonly called shingles, is a distinctive syndrome caused by reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV). This reactivation occurs when immunity to VZV declines because of aging or immunosuppression. Herpes zoster can occur at any age but most commonly affects the elderly population. Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), defined as pain persisting more than 3 months after the rash has healed, is a debilitating and difficult to manage consequence of HZ. The diagnosis of HZ is usually made clinically on the basis of the characteristic appearance of the rash. Early recognition and treatment can reduce acute symptoms and may also reduce PHN. A live, attenuated vaccine aimed at boosting immunity to VZV and reducing the risk of HZ is now available and is recommended for adults older than 60 years. The vaccine has been shown to reduce significantly the incidence of both HZ and PHN. The vaccine is well tolerated, with minor local injection site reactions being the most common adverse event. This review focuses on the clinical manifestations and treatment of HZ and PHN, as well as the appropriate use of the HZ vaccine. PMID:19252116

  11. Hiccups, eructation, and other uncommon prodromal manifestations of herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Alexander L; Muhn, Channy Y; Billick, Robin C

    2003-12-01

    Although the most frequent presentation of herpes zoster involves sensory neurons, motor and autonomic symptomatology is also known to occur in this disease. An unusual symptom of hiccups is described here. Other infrequent manifestations of this common illness, including the Ramsay Hunt syndrome, herpes zoster ophthalmicus, urinary and fecal retention, sexual dysfunction, and zoster sine herpete, are reviewed. Greater awareness of unusual presentations of herpes zoster is necessary for proper diagnosis and timely management of complications that may otherwise lead to disability and serious long-term sequelae. PMID:14639397

  12. Recurrent herpes and post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Brousse, Georges; Geneste, Julie; Schmitt, Audrey; Llorca, Pierre Michel; Schmidt, Jeannot

    2007-12-01

    A 33-year-old male presented with recurrent outbreaks of perioral herpes of disfiguring nature that remained unresolved following therapy. The first perioral outbreak occurred following a road accident. The psychiatric interview conducted with the patient suggested post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) secondary to the accident. Venlafaxine 50 mg/day was initiated and led to resolution of the PTSD symptoms within 8 weeks. The patient did not experience any further herpes outbreaks for about 10 months. Control of stress disorders in recurrent herpes is discussed from a therapeutic perspective. PMID:18371290

  13. Vaccinia Virus Recombinant Expressing Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Glycoprotein D Prevents Latent Herpes in Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremer, Kenneth J.; Mackett, Michael; Wohlenberg, Charles; Notkins, Abner Louis; Moss, Bernard

    1985-05-01

    In humans, herpes simplex virus causes a primary infection and then often a latent ganglionic infection that persists for life. Because these latent infections can recur periodically, vaccines are needed that can protect against both primary and latent herpes simplex infections. Infectious vaccinia virus recombinants that contain the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein D gene under control of defined early or late vaccinia virus promoters were constructed. Tissue culture cells infected with these recombinant viruses synthesized a glycosylated protein that had the same mass (60,000 daltons) as the glycoprotein D produced by HSV-1. Immunization of mice with one of these recombinant viruses by intradermal, subcutaneous, or intraperitoneal routes resulted in the production of antibodies that neutralized HSV-1 and protected the mice against subsequent lethal challenge with HSV-1 or HSV-2. Immunization with the recombinant virus also protected the majority of the mice against the development of a latent HSV-1 infection of the trigeminal ganglia. This is the first demonstration that a genetically engineered vaccine can prevent the development of latency.

  14. Herpes zoster vaccine for the elderly: boosting immunity

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Joel V; Chen, Wilbur H

    2010-01-01

    Herpes zoster, also known as shingles, is a disease that results from the reactivation of a latent infection of the varicella zoster virus, which is usually encountered during early childhood. Aging is associated with an increased risk for herpes zoster and its complications. Boosting immunological memory is the key strategy for keeping the latent varicella zoster virus infection under control. A live attenuated virus vaccine is safe, effective and approved for use among healthy elderly adults aged 60 years or older. However, significant problems remain in the prevention of herpes zoster with the current vaccine. Future studies for improved vaccines and studies into the epidemiology of herpes zoster are required in order to address this significant public health burden. PMID:20607105

  15. Identification and typing of herpes simplex viruses with monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Balachandran, N; Frame, B; Chernesky, M; Kraiselburd, E; Kouri, Y; Garcia, D; Lavery, C; Rawls, W E

    1982-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies which reacted with type-specific antigens of herpes simplex virus type 2 or with antigens shared by herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 were used in an indirect immunofluorescence assay to type virus isolates and to detect viral antigens in cells obtained from herpetic lesions. Complete concordance was obtained for 42 isolates typed by endonuclease restriction analysis of viral DNA and by indirect immunofluorescence with monoclonal antibodies. Examination of a limited number of ulcerative lesions revealed that indirect immunofluorescence and virus isolation were comparable in detecting herpes simplex virus. The results indicate that monoclonal antibodies can be used to accurately identify and type isolates of herpes simplex virus. PMID:6286719

  16. Fatal Neonatal Herpes Simplex Infection Likely from Unrecognized Breast Lesions.

    PubMed

    Field, Scott S

    2016-02-01

    Type 1 herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) is very prevalent yet in rare circumstances can lead to fatal neonatal disease. Genital acquisition of type 2 HSV is the usual mode for neonatal herpes, but HSV-1 transmission by genital or extragenital means may result in greater mortality rates. A very rare scenario is presented in which the mode of transmission was likely through breast lesions. The lesions were seen by nurses as well as the lactation consultant and obstetrician in the hospital after delivery of the affected baby but not recognized as possibly being caused by herpes. The baby died 9 days after birth with hepatic failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Peripartum health care workers need to be aware of potential nongenital (including from the breast[s]) neonatal herpes acquisition, which can be lethal. PMID:26185119

  17. Herpes zoster on the face in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Nair, Preeti; Gharote, Harshkant; Singh, Pooja; Jain-Choudhary, Palak

    2014-01-01

    Herpes zoster is a localised disease caused by reactivation of the varicella zoster virus that enters the cutaneous nerve endings during an earlier episode of chicken pox, travels to the dorsal root ganglia, and remains in latent form. The condition is characterised by occurrence of multiple, painful, unilateral vesicles and ulceration, and shows a typical single dermatome innervated by single dorsal root or cranial sensory ganglion. Involvement of three or more dermatomes is known as disseminated zoster and seen in immunocompromised individuals. Complications of herpes zoster include ocular sequelae, bacterial superinfection of the lesions, meningoencephalitis and postherpetic neuralgia. The incidence of herpes zoster increases with age and immunosuppression, therefore prompt management is necessary to avoid morbidity and mortality in these individuals. We present two case reports of herpes zoster, one involving the maxillary and mandibular branches of the trigeminal nerve while the other involves all branches of the trigeminal nerve. PMID:25331144

  18. AIDS and Herpes Carry Weighty Policy Implications for Your Board.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Kathleen

    1985-01-01

    Few schools have policies to deal specifically with herpes and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Discusses some schools and states that have developed such policies and includes a source list for more information. (MD)

  19. Effect of type 1 herpes simplex infection of phenotypic peculiarities of human vascular endothelial cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Scheglovitova, O N; Skliankina, N N; Boldyreva, N V; Babayants, A A; Frolova, I S

    2013-05-01

    We studied the effect of type 1 herpes simplex infection on the production of innate immunity mediators in human vascular endothelial cells in culture. It was found that production of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-1?, IL.6, and TNF-? in infected cultures depended on the level of their spontaneous production, while IL-8 production was suppressed irrespective of its spontaneous level. Shedding of cell adhesion molecules of early (P-selectin and E-selectin) and late (PECAM-1 and VE-cadherin) phases of leukocyte recruitment depended on individual capacity of human vascular endothelial cell cultures to maintain reproduction of type 1 herpes simples virus. The production of vasodilator NO and vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 by infected cultures also depended on spontaneous synthesis of this transmitter by non-infected cultures. PMID:23667894

  20. Disseminated Herpes Zoster in an Immunocompetent Elderly Patient

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Hwa; Lee, Eun Ha; Choi, Ji Hye

    2013-01-01

    Herpes zoster is a cutaneous infection that is characterized by an acute vesicobullous rash with ipsilateral one or two dermatomal distribution and painful allodynia, while predominantly being found in the elderly. Extensive cutaneous dissemination has been reported in immune-compromised patients, such as those who suffer from HIV infections, cancer, chemotherapy, and corticosteroid therapy patients. However, we report a case of disseminated herpes zoster infection in an immuno-competent elderly individual. PMID:23614086

  1. Suppression of frequently recurring genital herpes: acyclovir v inosine pranobex.

    PubMed

    Mindel, A; Carney, O; Sonnex, C; Freris, M; Patou, G; Williams, P

    1989-04-01

    The suppressive action of acyclovir and inosine pranobex was compared in a randomised double blind controlled trial in patients with frequently recurring genital herpes. Fourteen patients received acyclovir and 17 inosine pranobex. Treatment continued for 12 weeks. The time to the first recurrence was significantly longer and the frequency of recurrences significantly less in the recipients of acyclovir. No important side effects were noted. It is concluded that acyclovir is the treatment of choice to suppress often recurring genital herpes. PMID:2473952

  2. Suppression of frequently recurring genital herpes: acyclovir v inosine pranobex.

    PubMed Central

    Mindel, A; Carney, O; Sonnex, C; Freris, M; Patou, G; Williams, P

    1989-01-01

    The suppressive action of acyclovir and inosine pranobex was compared in a randomised double blind controlled trial in patients with frequently recurring genital herpes. Fourteen patients received acyclovir and 17 inosine pranobex. Treatment continued for 12 weeks. The time to the first recurrence was significantly longer and the frequency of recurrences significantly less in the recipients of acyclovir. No important side effects were noted. It is concluded that acyclovir is the treatment of choice to suppress often recurring genital herpes. PMID:2473952

  3. Management of herpes zoster (shingles) and postherpetic neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Stankus, S J; Dlugopolski, M; Packer, D

    2000-04-15

    Herpes zoster (commonly referred to as "shingles") and postherpetic neuralgia result from reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus acquired during the primary varicella infection, or chickenpox. Whereas varicella is generally a disease of childhood, herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia become more common with increasing age. Factors that decrease immune function, such as human immunodeficiency virus infection, chemotherapy, malignancies and chronic corticosteroid use, may also increase the risk of developing herpes zoster. Reactivation of latent varicella-zoster virus from dorsal root ganglia is responsible for the classic dermatomal rash and pain that occur with herpes zoster. Burning pain typically precedes the rash by several days and can persist for several months after the rash resolves. With postherpetic neuralgia, a complication of herpes zoster, pain may persist well after resolution of the rash and can be highly debilitating. Herpes zoster is usually treated with orally administered acyclovir. Other antiviral medications include famciclovir and valacyclovir. The antiviral medications are most effective when started within 72 hours after the onset of the rash. The addition of an orally administered corticosteroid can provide modest benefits in reducing the pain of herpes zoster and the incidence of postherpetic neuralgia. Ocular involvement in herpes zoster can lead to rare but serious complications and generally merits referral to an ophthalmologist. Patients with postherpetic neuralgia may require narcotics for adequate pain control. Tricyclic antidepressants or anticonvulsants, often given in low dosages, may help to control neuropathic pain. Capsaicin, lidocaine patches and nerve blocks can also be used in selected patients. PMID:10794584

  4. Disseminated Cutaneous Herpes Zoster in an Immunocompetent Elderly Patient

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Eric; Chernev, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Herpes zoster is a clinical syndrome which usually presents with a localized, vesicular rash in a dermatomal distribution. Cutaneous dissemination rarely occurs in immunocompetent patients, therefore little is known about the baseline demographic, clinical characteristics, management and outcome of these patients. Herein, we report a case of disseminated cutaneous herpes zoster in an immunocompetent patient along with a review and analysis of 28 cases previously reported in the literature. PMID:25276332

  5. Auditory agnosia in children after herpes encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Kaga, Kimitaka; Kaga, Makiko; Tamai, Fumi; Shindo, Mitsuko

    2003-01-01

    Four pediatric patients whose bilateral auditory cortices were damaged by herpes encephalitis at an early age were studied. Their brain CT and MRI scans demonstrated common bilateral lesions of the auditory cortices. Their auditory perception was investigated by means of behavioral and objective hearing tests and auditory perception tests. All four patients showed mild or moderate hearing loss in the behavioral hearing test and normal auditory brainstem responses but did not manifest total deafness. Moreover, perception tests involving speech, environmental sounds and music demonstrated that most auditory perception ability had been lost in all patients. On reaching school age, the patients were enrolled in schools for the deaf or special schools for handicapped children. PMID:12701747

  6. Persistence in herpes simplex virus infections.

    PubMed Central

    Longson, M.

    1978-01-01

    Diseases of man caused by the virus of herpes simplex fall into two broad categories. The primary disease occurs only once in any individual's life and is caused by transmission of virus from an already infected human. Thereafter, the individual may be subject to recurrent herpetic disease, the manifestations of which are different from the primary disease. Recurrent disease varies in severity from trivial, to incapacitating and frankly lethal (as in diseases resulting from the virus's neurotropic and oncogenic properties). The source of the virus in recurrent herpetic disease has never been conclusively resolved, but is almost certainly endogenous to the patient. Theories, case reports and experiments exist to show that endogenous virus may, in periods of clinical quiescence, be latent (or persistent) at the site of the recurrent lesions itself, or more remotely in nerve tissues related to the site of recurrence. Images Fig. 1 PMID:214773

  7. [Immunopathological findings in herpes gestationis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Scherer, R; Wolff, H H; Braun-Falco, O

    1977-08-12

    Herpes gestationis occurred in a 26-year-old woman during the last weeks of her second pregnancy. Within 8 days of the delivery the disease had progressed to such an extent that systemic treatment became necessary. Whereas pre-delivery treatment had consisted exclusively of local desinfection, and steroid and antibiotic ointments, treatment after delivery also included systemic use of prednisolone. After treatment for 3 weeks the skin changes had disappeared except for minimal pigmentation. Using immunofluorescent microscopy a complement activation in the dermo-epidermal junction and in adjacent clinically healthy skin could be demonstrated: There were massive linear depositions of C3, C1q and C4. In the basal membrane of the epidermis IgM could be demonstrated as an unusual finding. Further immunopathological features were found in the form of an immune complex vasculitis which could be shown during the active phase of the disease. PMID:330132

  8. [The clinical and epidemic characteristics of shingles (herpes zoster) and its prevention with vaccines].

    PubMed

    Afonina, N M; Mikheeva, I V

    2013-01-01

    The review gives data on the clinical manifestations, complications, and epidemiological characteristics of herpes zoster. It discusses prospects for and foreign experience with vaccination against chickenpox and exacerbations of herpes zoster. PMID:24432613

  9. Genital Herpes - Initial Visits to Physicians' Offices, United States, 1966-2012

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Data & Statistics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Figure 48. Genital Herpes — Initial Visits to Physicians’ Offices, United States, 1966 – ... page . NOTE : The relative standard errors for genital herpes estimates of more than 100,000 range from ...

  10. TLR3 deficiency in herpes simplex encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hye Kyung; Seppnen, Mikko; Hautala, Timo; Ciancanelli, Michael J.; Itan, Yuval; Lafaille, Fabien G.; Dell, William; Lorenzo, Lazaro; Byun, Minji; Pauwels, Elodie; Rnnelid, Ylva; Cai, Xin; Boucherit, Soraya; Jouanguy, Emmanuelle; Paetau, Anders; Lebon, Pierre; Rozenberg, Flore; Tardieu, Marc; Abel, Laurent; Yildiran, Alisan; Vergison, Anne; Roivainen, Reina; Etzioni, Amos; Tienari, Pentti J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the proportion of children with herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) displaying TLR3 deficiency, the extent of TLR3 allelic heterogeneity, and the specific clinical features of TLR3 deficiency. Methods: We determined the sequence of all exons of TLR3 in 110 of the 120 patients with HSE enrolled in our study who do not carry any of the previously described HSE-predisposing mutations of TLR3 pathway genes (TLR3, UNC93B1, TRIF, TRAF3, and TBK1). All the new mutant TLR3 alleles detected were characterized experimentally in-depth to establish the causal relationship between the genotype and phenotype. Results: In addition to the 3 previously reported TLR3-deficient patients from the same cohort, 6 other children or young adults with HSE carry 1 of 5 unique or extremely rare (minor allele frequency <0.001) missense TLR3 alleles. Two alleles (M374T, D592N) heterozygous in 3 patients are not deleterious in vitro. The other 3 are deleterious via different mechanisms: G743D+R811I and L360P heterozygous in 2 patients are loss-of-function due to low levels of expression and lack of cleavage, respectively, and R867Q homozygous in 1 patient is hypomorphic. The 3 patients' fibroblasts display impaired TLR3 responses and enhanced herpes simplex virus 1 susceptibility. Overall, TLR3 deficiency is therefore found in 6 (5%) of the 120 patients studied. There is high allelic heterogeneity, with 3 forms of autosomal dominant partial defect by negative dominance or haploinsufficiency, and 2 forms of autosomal recessive defect with complete or partial deficiency. Finally, 4 (66%) of the 6 TLR3-deficient patients had at least 1 late relapse of HSE, whereas relapse occurred in only 12 (10%) of the total cohort of 120 patients. Conclusions: Childhood-onset HSE is due to TLR3 deficiency in a traceable fraction of patients, in particular the ones with HSE recurrence. Mutations in TLR3 and TLR3 pathway genes should be searched and experimentally studied in children with HSE, and patients with proven TLR3 deficiency should be followed carefully. PMID:25339207

  11. Latent Herpes Viruses Reactivation in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2008-01-01

    Space flight has many adverse effects on human physiology. Changes in multiple systems, including the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, neurovestibular, endocrine, and immune systems have occurred (12, 32, 38, 39). Alterations in drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (12), nutritional needs (31), renal stone formation (40), and microbial flora (2) have also been reported. Evidence suggests that the magnitude of some changes may increase with time in space. A variety of changes in immunity have been reported during both short (.16 days) and long (>30 days) space missions. However, it is difficult to determine the medical significance of these immunological changes in astronauts. Astronauts are in excellent health and in superb physical condition. Illnesses in astronauts during space flight are not common, are generally mild, and rarely affect mission objectives. In an attempt to clarify this issue, we identified the latent herpes viruses as medically important indicators of the effects of space flight on immunity. This chapter demonstrates that space flight leads to asymptomatic reactivation of latent herpes viruses, and proposes that this results from marked changes in neuroendocrine function and immunity caused by the inherent stressfullness of human space flight. Astronauts experience uniquely stressful environments during space flight. Potential stressors include confinement in an unfamiliar, crowded environment, isolation, separation from family, anxiety, fear, sleep deprivation, psychosocial issues, physical exertion, noise, variable acceleration forces, increased radiation, and others. Many of these are intermittent and variable in duration and intensity, but variable gravity forces (including transitions from launch acceleration to microgravity and from microgravity to planetary gravity) and variable radiation levels are part of each mission and contribute to a stressful environment that cannot be duplicated on Earth. Radiation outside the Earth's magnetosphere is particularly worrisome because it includes ionizing radiation from cosmic galactic radiation. Increased stress levels appear even before flight, presumably from the rigors of preflight training and the anticipation of the mission (12, 32, 38, 39). Space flight causes significant changes in human immune function (32), but the means by which these changes come about have been difficult to discern. Consistent indicators of stress associated with space flight include increased production of stress hormones, and changes in cells of the immune system. These changes include elevated white blood cell (WBC) and neutrophil counts at landing (15, 16, 35, 37). Activation of generalized stress responses before, during, and after space flight probably affects the function of the immune system. Space flight has been shown to decrease many aspects of immune function, including natural killer (NK) cell activity, interferon production, the blastogenic response of leukocytes to mitogens, cell-mediated immunity, neutrophil function and monocyte function (5, 16, 18, 21, 35-37).

  12. Prevalence of antibodies to herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in pregnant women, and estimated rates of infection.

    PubMed Central

    Ades, A E; Peckham, C S; Dale, G E; Best, J M; Jeansson, S

    1989-01-01

    There has been a recent increase in notifications of genital herpes but it is not known whether this has been reflected in the pregnant population. We have therefore carried out a study to determine the prevalence of herpes simplex antibodies in pregnant women and to estimate the incidence of primary infection. Sera were collected from 3533 women at antenatal clinics and tested for total antibodies to herpes simples virus (HSV), and if positive, for specific antibodies to HSV-2. Estimates of HSV-1 seroprevalence were derived from the HSV-2 seronegative population. HSV-1 seroprevalence was nearly 100% in black women born in Africa or the Caribbean and 60-80% in white, Asian and UK born black women. It was lower in women in non-manual employment. HSV-2 seroprevalence was related to age, rising from 0 at age 16 to 40% at age 35 in black women, and to about 10% in Asian and white women. The estimated incidence of primary HSV-2 infection during pregnancy, per 1000 pregnancies, was about 2.4 in Asian women, 5 in white women, and 20 in black women. Estimates of the incidence of neonatal infection were derived from these figures and compared to the nationally reported rates. PMID:2556492

  13. [The development of diagnostics of herpes viral infections].

    PubMed

    Vasil'ev, A N; Fedorova, N E; Klimova, R R; Adieva, A A

    2012-06-01

    The representatives of herpesviruses family (Herpesviridae--virus of herpes simplex and human cytomegalovirus) are largely widespread in human population. These herpesviruses bring on severe disorders of embryonic development up to fetal death, newborn diseases, neurologic disturbances, deafness, and blindness and in transplantation patients the severe internal organs affections and transplanted organs rejection. Both herpesviruses are able to affect the central nervous system and result in encephalitis with lethal outcome. The particular attention deserve the asymptomatic forms in case of which virus is excretee and can be transmitted both by horizontal line (sexual way included) and by vertical line (in the process of itrauterine development offtetus). The lacking of clear djfefrentiating clinical symtoms frequentyv observed under manifestations of herpesviruses infections brings another danger The comparison is made of fouur methods of detection of herpes simplex in urethra scrapes: the immunocytochemical method of detection of herpes simplex antigen in smears: the rapid cultural method; the immune-enzyme method of detection of herpes simplex antigen; the polymerase chain reaction. The results demonstrated that the rapid cultural method detected herpes simplex in infected samples on all stages of disease and in even more quantity at the stage of exacerbtion as compared with the polymerase chain reaction. The presented data testify the actuality of development of of laboratory diagnostics of herpesviruses injection to relevant diagnosis, determination of form and stage of disease, timely initiation of treatment and monitoring of therapy. PMID:22946228

  14. Recent Progress in Herpes Simplex Virus Immunobiology and Vaccine Research

    PubMed Central

    Koelle, David M.; Corey, Lawrence

    2003-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) cause prevalent, chronic infections that have serious outcomes in some individuals. Neonatal herpes may occur when the infant traverses the cervix during maternal genital herpes. Genital herpes is a major risk factor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission. Considerable efforts have been made to design and test vaccines for HSV, focusing on genital infection with HSV-2. Several protein subunit vaccines based on HSV-2 envelope glycoproteins have reached advanced-phase clinical trials. These antigens were chosen because they are the targets of neutralizing-antibody responses and because they elicit cellular immunity. Encouraging results have been reported in studies of treatment of HSV-seronegative women with a vaccine consisting of truncated glycoprotein D of HSV-2 and a novel adjuvant. Because most sexual HSV transmission occurs during asymptomatic shedding, it is important to evaluate the impact of vaccination on HSV-2 infection, clinically apparent genital herpes, and HSV shedding among vaccine recipients who acquire infection. There are several other attractive formats, including subunit vaccines that target cellular immune responses, live attenuated virus strains, and mutant strains that undergo incomplete lytic replication. HSV vaccines have also been evaluated for the immunotherapy of established HSV infection. PMID:12525427

  15. Tzanck smear in diagnosing genital herpes.

    PubMed Central

    Folkers, E; Oranje, A P; Duivenvoorden, J N; van der Veen, J P; Rijlaarsdam, J U; Emsbroek, J A

    1988-01-01

    In 126 patients with anogenital lesions, in which herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection was suspected or included in the differential diagnosis, the results of cytodiagnosis of herpetic infection (Tzanck smear) were compared with virus culture. Cervical lesions were excluded from this study. HSV infection was proved by culture in 78 patients and was absent or non-active in 41 patients. Excluded from this study were seven patients who did not yield the virus on culture but had positive Tzanck smear results from three investigators. The characteristic cytopathic effect of herpetic infection was found in 78 patients who yielded HSV on culture. Tzanck smear sensitivity for skin lesions was 79% and for mucous membrane lesions was 81% in men and 52% in women. Tzanck smear specificity for the 41 patients without herpetic infection proved by virus culture was 93%. Differences in sensitivity and specificity between the results found by three investigators (double blind screening) were not significant. The Tzanck smear is reliable, inexpensive, and easy and quick to perform; it is suitable for office diagnosis because it does not require a specialised laboratory. Images PMID:3169755

  16. Experimental investigation of herpes simplex virus latency.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, E K; Bloom, D C

    1997-01-01

    The clinical manifestations of herpes simplex virus infection generally involve a mild and localized primary infection followed by asymptomatic (latent) infection interrupted sporadically by periods of recrudescence (reactivation) where virus replication and associated cytopathologic findings are manifest at the site of initial infection. During the latent phase of infection, viral genomes, but not infectious virus itself, can be detected in sensory and autonomic neurons. The process of latent infection and reactivation has been subject to continuing investigation in animal models and, more recently, in cultured cells. The initiation and maintenance of latent infection in neurons are apparently passive phenomena in that no virus gene products need be expressed or are required. Despite this, a single latency-associated transcript (LAT) encoded by DNA encompassing about 6% of the viral genome is expressed during latent infection in a minority of neurons containing viral DNA. This transcript is spliced, and the intron derived from this splicing is stably maintained in the nucleus of neurons expressing it. Reactivation, which can be induced by stress and assayed in several animal models, is facilitated by the expression of LAT. Although the mechanism of action of LAT-mediated facilitation of reactivation is not clear, all available evidence argues against its involving the expression of a protein. Rather, the most consistent models of action involve LAT expression playing a cis-acting role in a very early stage of the reactivation process. PMID:9227860

  17. HIV prevalence in patients with herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Kar, P K; Ramasastry, C V

    2003-01-01

    To monitor HIV seroprevalence and to determine the sexual risk behaviour of men with herpes zoster (HZ), a study was conducted from Jan 98 to Dec 99 among 115 men of 21 to 55 years of age suffering from HZ. The diagnosis of HZ was clinical and relevant investigations when indicated were carried out to exclude immunodeficiency state. None of the cases were on immunosuppressive drugs. All cases were tested for HIV by immunocomb method and if found positive were confirmed by Western blot assay. Out of 115 cases of HZ 11 (9.5%) were found to be HIV positive. 11 (10.8%) of HIV positive cases were 21-40 years of age. More than one dermatome was involved in 7 (63.6%) HIV positive and in 2 (1.9%) HIV negative cases. 2 HIV positive cases had multiple cranial nerve involvement and one had generalized HZ. None of the cases showed evidence of progression to symptomatic HIV disease. Out of 11 HIV positive cases 9 (81.8%) gave history of multiple unprotected sexual exposures with female commercial sex workers and 2 (18.1%) with amateurs. None of our cases had used condom during sexual intercourse. None gave history of blood transfusion in the past or intravenous drug use. PMID:17642851

  18. Cellular proteins expressed in herpes simplex virus transformed cells also accumulate on herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Macnab, J C; Orr, A; La Thangue, N B

    1985-01-01

    The cell proteins expressed in rat embryo cells transformed by herpes simplex virus (HSV) have been analysed by immunoprecipitation assays to determine those polypeptides which can be identified by immunoprecipitation with the sera of tumour-bearing animals and also with antisera to herpes simplex infected cells. Cell polypeptides commonly recognised by both these sera have been further characterised using a monoclonal antibody directed against a cellular polypeptide which accumulates on HSV-2 lytic infection. This monoclonal antibody recognises in HSV-transformed cells polypeptides of mol. wts. 90 000, 40 000 and 32 000. Further studies show that the accumulation of these polypeptides in HSV-transformed cells is not HSV specific but is a common feature of transformation or of cells which have been immortalised. We suggest that cellular polypeptides accumulating as a result of HSV infection may be of importance in the initiation of transformation by HSV, i.e., at the level of immortalisation of cells. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:3004943

  19. An unusual presentation of herpes simplex in an immunocompromised patient.

    PubMed

    Fernández González, Francisco; Betancourt, José; Malpica, Juan C; Laboy, Iván; Colón, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a host-adapted human pathogen. HSV-I usually infects non-genital sites at a variety of locations. HSV-2 primarily involves genitalia. Both types can cause genital and orofacial infections, which are clinically indistinguishable. Initial HSV infection is usually asymptomatic or mild and self-limited, but instead of disappearing from the body during convalescence, the virus establishes a latent infection that persists for life. Rarely, there is severe visceral dissemination. This is a case report of an unusual presentation of herpes simplex in an immunocompromised adult patient with generalized skin lesions on the entire body. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported in the literature of a disseminated herpes simplex in a patient with history of non-Hodgkin Lymphoma. Generalized HSV infection in immunodeficient adult patients could be fatal in spite of antiviral therapy. Early recognition of this entity is essential to expedite appropriate treatment and avoid future complications. PMID:23767386

  20. Prodromal herpes zoster mimicking odontalgia--a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Patil, Shilpa; Srinivas, K; Reddy, Bh Satheesha; Gupta, Mudit

    2013-03-01

    Herpes zoster (shingles) is caused by reactivation of the latent varicella zoster virus which is present due to an earlier varicella infection (chicken-pox). Herpes Zoster is a less common and endemic disease than varicella, although factors causing reactivation are still not well known, but it occurs in older and/or immunocompromised individuals. Involvement of C3, T5, L1, L2 and first division of trigeminal nerve are the most frequently encountered whereas the involvement of second and third division of trigeminal nerve is rarely seen. During the prodromal stage, the only presenting symptom may be odontalgia, which may prove to be a diagnostic challenge for the dentist, since many diseases can cause orofacial pain, and the diagnosis must be properly established before final treatment. Here we present a case of herpes zoster involving the second division of trigeminal nerve masquerading as odontalgia. The difficulties in diagnosis and management are discussed. PMID:23559842

  1. Radiation enhanced reactivation of herpes simplex virus: effect of caffeine.

    PubMed

    Hellman, K B; Lytle, C D; Bockstahler, L E

    1976-09-01

    Ultaviolet enhanced (Weigle) reactivation of UV-irradiated herpes simplex virus in UV-irradiated CV-1 monkey kidney cell monolayers was decreased by caffeine. X-ray enhanced reactivation of UV-irradiated virus in X-irradiated monolayers (X-ray reactivation) and UV- or X-ray-inactivated capacity of the cells to support unirradiated virus plaque formation were unaffected by caffeine. The results suggest that a caffeine-sensitive process is necessary for the expression of Weigle reactivation for herpes virus. Since cafeine did not significantly affect X-ray reactivation, different mechanisms may be responsible for the expression of Weigle reactivation and X-ray reactivation. PMID:183108

  2. Neonatal herpes simplex virus infection: epidemiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    James, Scott H; Kimberlin, David W

    2015-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) are highly prevalent viruses capable of establishing lifelong infection. Genital herpes in women of childbearing age represents a major risk for mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HSV infection, with primary and first-episode genital HSV infections posing the highest risk. The advent of antiviral therapy with parenteral acyclovir has led to significant improvement in neonatal HSV disease mortality. Further studies are needed to improve the clinician's ability to identify infants at increased risk for HSV infection and prevent MTCT, and to develop novel antiviral agents with increased efficacy in infants with HSV infection. PMID:25677996

  3. Human herpes simplex virus: life cycle and development of inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kukhanova, M K; Korovina, A N; Kochetkov, S N

    2014-12-01

    WHO reports that 90% of human population is infected by different types of herpesviruses, which develop latency or cause oral and genital herpes, conjunctivitis, eczema herpeticum, and other diseases. Herpesvirus almost always accompanies HIV-infection and complicates AIDS treatment. Herpes simplex virus type 1 is one of the most wide spread viruses from the Herpesviridae family. HSV virion, genome structure, replication mechanisms, antiherpes drug development strategies, including design of prodrugs, and mutations causing ACV-resistance in clinical HSV isolates are discussed in this review. PMID:25749169

  4. Herpes simplex virus infections of women and their offspring: implications for a developed society.

    PubMed Central

    Whitley, R J

    1994-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus infections of humans have been known since ancient times. Contemporary society has witnessed a series of devastating manifestations of herpes simplex virus infections--namely, genital herpes simplex virus infection and neonatal herpes simplex virus infection. With the evolution of society, particularly advances in birth control and increasing promiscuity, the seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 infections has increased worldwide, however, more so in developed societies. As a consequence, individuals of child-bearing age are at risk for either reactivation of herpes simplex virus at termination of gestation or acquisition of a new primary infection at that time. The consequences of vertical transmission of herpes simplex virus from mother to child, resulting in neonatal herpes simplex virus infection, can be devastating. Current efforts, which are directed toward the treatment of neonatal herpes, have established the value of drugs such as vidarabine and acyclovir. However, the real emphasis for future programs is the prevention of herpes simplex virus infections to avoid person-to-person transmission either horizontally or vertically. The development of vaccines directed against herpes simplex virus may be of value toward this end. PMID:8146137

  5. Herp depletion inhibits zearalenone-induced cell death in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fenglei; Lin, Pengfei; Wang, Nan; Yang, Diqi; Wen, Xin; Zhou, Dong; Wang, Aihua; Jin, Yaping

    2016-04-01

    Herp is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein and strongly induced by the ER stress that not only participates in the unfolded protein response (UPR) under the ER stress, but also in cell autophagy under glucose starvation (GS). However, we do not know whether Herp plays any roles in other responses, such as zearalenone (ZEA). In this study, we constructed recombinant lentiviral vectors for Herp shRNA expression and generated stable Herp knockdown RAW 264.7 macrophages. Flow cytometry analysis showed Herp depletion could inhibit cell death induced by ZEA. Western blot analysis revealed that Herp depletion could up-regulate autophagy-related protein LC3-I conversion into LC3-II and the expression of ER stress-related protein CHOP. These results suggest that Herp depletion inhibits cell death by up-regulating autophagy. PMID:26723276

  6. Herpes simplex virus virion host shutoff function.

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, A D; Kruper, J A; Frenkel, N

    1988-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) virions contain one or more functions which mediate the shutoff of host protein synthesis and the degradation of host mRNA. HSV type 1 (HSV-1) mutants deficient in the virion shutoff of host protein synthesis (vhs mutants) were isolated and were found to be defective in their ability to degrade host mRNA. Furthermore, it was found that viral mRNAs in cells infected with the vhs 1 mutant have a significantly longer functional half-life than viral mRNAs in wild-type virus-infected cells. In the present study we have mapped the vhs1 mutation affecting the virion shutoff of host protein synthesis to a 265-base-pair NruI-XmaIII fragment spanning map coordinates 0.604 to 0.606 of the HSV-1 genome. The mutation(s) affecting the functional half-lives of host mRNA as well as the alpha (immediate-early), beta (early), and gamma (late) viral mRNAs were also mapped within this 265-base-pair fragment. Thus, the shutoff of host protein synthesis is most likely mediated by the same function which decreases the half-life of viral mRNA. The shorter half-life of infected-cell mRNAs may allow a more rapid modulation of viral gene expression in response to changes in the transcription of viral genes. Interestingly, the vhs1 mutation of HSV-1 maps within a region which overlaps the Bg/II-N sequences of HSV-2 DNA shown previously to transform cells in culture. The possible relationship between the transformation and host shutoff functions are discussed. Images PMID:2828686

  7. Increasing Trends of Herpes Zoster in Australia

    PubMed Central

    MacIntyre, Raina; Stein, Alicia; Harrison, Christopher; Britt, Helena; Mahimbo, Abela; Cunningham, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Background Increasing trends in incidence of herpes zoster (HZ) have been reported in Australia and internationally. This may reflect the impact of childhood VZV vaccination programs introduced universally in Australia in late 2005. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in incidence of HZ and PHN in Australia over time, and associated healthcare resource utilisation. Methods Australian data on general practice (GP) encounters for HZ, specific antiviral prescribing data from the pharmaceutical benefits scheme, emergency department presentations from the states of NSW and Victoria and national hospitalisation data for HZ were analysed for time trends using regression models. Two time periods (2000-2006 and 2006-2013) were compared which correspond broadly with the pre- and post- universal VZV vaccination period. Results All data sources showed increasing rates of HZ with age and over time. The GP database showed a significant annual increase in encounters for HZ of 2.5 per 100,000 between 1998 and 2013, and the rates of prescriptions for HZ increased by 4.2% per year between 2002 and 2012. In the 60+ population HZ incidence was estimated to increase from 11.9 to 15.4 per 1,000 persons using GP data or from 12.8 to 14.2 per 1,000 persons using prescription data (p<0.05, between the two periods). Hospitalisation data did not show the same increasing trend over time, except for the age group ?80 years. Most emergency visits for HZ were not admitted, and showed significant increases over time. Discussion The burden of HZ in Australia is substantial, and continues to increase over time. This increase is seen both pre- and post-universal VZV vaccination in 2005, and is most prominent in the older population. The substantial burden of HZ, along with ageing of the Australian population and the importance of healthy ageing, warrants consideration of HZ vaccination for the elderly. PMID:25928713

  8. Retargeting Strategies for Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Viruses.

    PubMed

    Campadelli-Fiume, Gabriella; Petrovic, Biljana; Leoni, Valerio; Gianni, Tatiana; Avitabile, Elisa; Casiraghi, Costanza; Gatta, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Most of the oncolytic herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) exhibit a high safety profile achieved through attenuation. They carry defects in virulence proteins that antagonize host cell response to the virus, including innate response, apoptosis, authophagy, and depend on tumor cell proliferation. They grow robustly in cancer cells, provided that these are deficient in host cell responses, which is often the case. To overcome the attenuation limits, a strategy is to render the virus highly cancer-specific, e.g., by retargeting their tropism to cancer-specific receptors, and detargeting from natural receptors. The target we selected is HER-2, overexpressed in breast, ovarian and other cancers. Entry of wt-HSV requires the essential glycoproteins gD, gH/gL and gB. Here, we reviewed that oncolytic HSV retargeting was achieved through modifications in gD: the addition of a single-chain antibody (scFv) to HER-2 coupled with appropriate deletions to remove part of the natural receptors' binding sites. Recently, we showed that also gH/gL can be a retargeting tool. The insertion of an scFv to HER-2 at the gH N-terminus, coupled with deletions in gD, led to a recombinant capable to use HER-2 as the sole receptor. The retargeted oncolytic HSVs can be administered systemically by means of carrier cells-forcedly-infected mesenchymal stem cells. Altogether, the retargeted oncolytic HSVs are highly cancer-specific and their replication is not dependent on intrinsic defects of the tumor cells. They might be further modified to express immunomodulatory molecules. PMID:26927159

  9. Zebrafish: modeling for herpes simplex virus infections.

    PubMed

    Antoine, Thessicar Evadney; Jones, Kevin S; Dale, Rodney M; Shukla, Deepak; Tiwari, Vaibhav

    2014-02-01

    For many years, zebrafish have been the prototypical model for studies in developmental biology. In recent years, zebrafish has emerged as a powerful model system to study infectious diseases, including viral infections. Experiments conducted with herpes simplex virus type-1 in adult zebrafish or in embryo models are encouraging as they establish proof of concept with viral-host tropism and possible screening of antiviral compounds. In addition, the presence of human homologs of viral entry receptors in zebrafish such as 3-O sulfated heparan sulfate, nectins, and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 14-like receptor bring strong rationale for virologists to test their in vivo significance in viral entry in a zebrafish model and compare the structure-function basis of virus zebrafish receptor interaction for viral entry. On the other end, a zebrafish model is already being used for studying inflammation and angiogenesis, with or without genetic manipulations, and therefore can be exploited to study viral infection-associated pathologies. The major advantage with zebrafish is low cost, easy breeding and maintenance, rapid lifecycle, and a transparent nature, which allows visualizing dissemination of fluorescently labeled virus infection in real time either at a localized region or the whole body. Further, the availability of multiple transgenic lines that express fluorescently tagged immune cells for in vivo imaging of virus infected animals is extremely attractive. In addition, a fully developed immune system and potential for receptor-specific knockouts further advocate the use of zebrafish as a new tool to study viral infections. In this review, we focus on expanding the potential of zebrafish model system in understanding human infectious diseases and future benefits. PMID:24266790

  10. Cytomegalovirus seropositivity is associated with herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Ogunjimi, Benson; Hens, Niel; Pebody, Richard; Jansens, Hilde; Seale, Holly; Quinlivan, Mark; Theeten, Heidi; Goossens, Herman; Breuer, Judy; Beutels, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) is caused by VZV reactivation that is facilitated by a declined immunity against varicella-zoster virus (VZV), but also occurs in immunocompetent individuals. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is associated with immunosenescence meaning that VZV-specific T-cells could be less responsive. This study aimed to determine whether CMV infection could be a risk factor for the development of HZ. CMV IgG serostatus was determined in stored serum samples from previously prospectively recruited ambulatory adult HZ patients in the UK (N = 223) in order to compare the results with those from UK population samples (N = 1545) by means of a logistic regression (controlling for age and gender). Furthermore, we compared the UK population CMV seroprevalence with those from population samples from other countries (from Belgium (N1 = 1741, N2 = 576), USA (N = 5572) and Australia (N = 2080)). Furthermore, CMV IgG titers could be compared between UK HZ patients and Belgium N2 population samples because the same experimental set-up for analysis was used. We found UK ambulatory HZ patients to have a higher CMV seroprevalence than UK population samples (OR 1.56 [1.11 2.19]). CMV IgG seropositivity was a significant risk factor for HZ in the UK (OR 3.06 [1.32 7.04]. Furthermore, high CMV IgG titers (exceeding the upper threshold) were less abundant in CMV-seropositive Belgian N2 population samples than in CMV-seropositive UK HZ patients (OR 0.51 [0.31 0.82]. We found CMV-seroprevalence to increase faster with age in the UK than in other countries (P < 0.05). We conclude that CMV IgG seropositivity is associated with HZ. This finding could add to the growing list of risk factors for HZ. PMID:25905443

  11. Herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in Catalonia (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Salleras, Luis; Salleras, Montse; Salvador, Patricia; Soldevila, Nria; Prat, Andreu; Garrido, Patricio; Domnguez, Angela

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze the descriptive epidemiology and costs of herpes zoster (HZ) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) in people aged ?50 years in Catalonia (Spain). The incidence of HZ in Catalonia was estimated by extrapolating the incidence data from Navarre (Spain) to the population of Catalonia. The incidence of PHN was estimated according to the proportion of cases of HZ in the case series of the Hospital del Sagrado Corazn de Barcelona that evolved to PHN. Drug costs were obtained directly from the prescriptions included in the medical record (according to official prices published by the General Council of the College of Pharmacists). The cost of care was obtained by applying the tariffs of the Catalan Health Institute to the number of outpatient visits and the number and duration of hospital admissions. The estimated annual incidence of HZ was 31?763, of which 21?532 (67.79%) were in patients aged ?50 years. The respective figures for PHN were 3194 and 3085 (96.59) per annum, respectively. The mean cost per patient was markedly higher in cases of PHN (916.66 euros per patient) than in cases of HZ alone (301.52 euros per patient). The cost increased with age in both groups of patients. The estimated total annual cost of HZ and its complications in Catalonia was 9.31 million, of which 6.54 corresponded to HZ and 2.77 to PHN. This is the first Spanish study of the disease burden of HZ in which epidemiological data and costs were collected directly from medical records. The estimated incidence of HZ is probably similar to the real incidence. In contrast, the incidence of PHN may be an underestimate, as around 25% of patients in Catalonia attend private clinics financed by insurance companies. It is also probable that the costs may be an underestimate as the costs derived from the prodromal phase were not included. In Catalonia, HZ and PHN cause an important disease burden (21?532 cases of HZ and 3085 de PHN with an annual cost of 9.31 million) in people aged ?50 years, in whom vaccination is indicated. PMID:25483532

  12. Herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in Catalonia (Spain).

    PubMed

    Salleras, Luis; Salleras, Montse; Salvador, Patricia; Soldevila, Nria; Prat, Andreu; Garrido, Patricio; Domnguez, Angela

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze the descriptive epidemiology and costs of herpes zoster (HZ) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) in people aged ?50 years in Catalonia (Spain). The incidence of HZ in Catalonia was estimated by extrapolating the incidence data from Navarre (Spain) to the population of Catalonia. The incidence of PHN was estimated according to the proportion of cases of HZ in the case series of the Hospital del Sagrado Corazn de Barcelona that evolved to PHN. Drug costs were obtained directly from the prescriptions included in the medical record (according to official prices published by the General Council of the College of Pharmacists). The cost of care was obtained by applying the tariffs of the Catalan Health Institute to the number of outpatient visits and the number and duration of hospital admissions. The estimated annual incidence of HZ was 31?763, of which 21?532 (67.79%) were in patients aged ?50 years. The respective figures for PHN were 3194 and 3085 (96.59) per annum, respectively. The mean cost per patient was markedly higher in cases of PHN (916.66 euros per patient) than in cases of HZ alone (301.52 euros per patient). The cost increased with age in both groups of patients. The estimated total annual cost of HZ and its complications in Catalonia was 9.31 million, of which 6.54 corresponded to HZ and 2.77 to PHN. This is the first Spanish study of the disease burden of HZ in which epidemiological data and costs were collected directly from medical records. The estimated incidence of HZ is probably similar to the real incidence. In contrast, the incidence of PHN may be an underestimate, as around 25% of patients in Catalonia attend private clinics financed by insurance companies. It is also probable that the costs may be an underestimate as the costs derived from the prodromal phase were not included. In Catalonia, HZ and PHN cause an important disease burden (21?532 cases of HZ and 3085 de PHN with an annual cost of 9.31 million) in people aged ?50 years, in whom vaccination is indicated. PMID:25483532

  13. Human Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in Confiscated Gorilla

    PubMed Central

    Oxford, Kristie L.; Gardner-Roberts, David; Kinani, Jean-Felix; Spelman, Lucy; Barry, Peter A.; Cranfield, Michael R.; Lowenstine, Linda J.

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, we detected human herpes simplex virus type 1, which caused stomatitis, in a juvenile confiscated eastern lowland gorilla (Gorilla beringei graueri) that had a high degree of direct contact with human caretakers. Our findings confirm that pathogens can transfer between nonhuman primate hosts and humans. PMID:25341185

  14. Topical Acyclovir for Recurrent Herpes Labialis in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Worrall, Graham

    1991-01-01

    I reviewed the literature on the treatment of recurrent herpes labialis with topical acyclovir ointment to determine the effectiveness of this treatment for family practice patients. This article discusses the generalizability of the results to family practice. I concluded that the evidence supporting this therapy is weak and that it cannot, in the light of current knowledge, be strongly recommended. PMID:21234082

  15. Efficiency of anaferon in complex therapy of genital herpes.

    PubMed

    Zuikova, I N; Vasil'ev, A N; Shul'zhenko, A E

    2009-08-01

    We studied clinical efficiency and IFN-inducing activity of anaferon in chronic recurrent genital herpes with high incidence of relapses. The use of anaferon in complex therapy reduced the duration of intoxication symptoms and local symptoms, shortened the duration of the relapse, activated expression of IFN-gamma mRNA, and improved IFN-gamma-producing capacity of blood leukocytes. PMID:20027352

  16. Neonatal herpes simplex virus presenting with isolated liver failure

    PubMed Central

    Aswad, Marwan Al; Suryadevara, Manika

    2014-01-01

    Disseminated neonatal herpes simplex virus infection usually presents with multi-organ involvement. Untreated, this disease has a mortality rate of approximately 80%. Here, we describe a well-appearing 3-week old infant with isolated compensated hepatic failure caused by HSV-2.

  17. Prevalence of cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus in human semen.

    PubMed

    McGowan, M P; Hayes, K; Kovacs, G T; Leydon, J A

    1983-08-01

    Cytomegalovirus was isolated from semen in 4 of 170 males seeking evaluation at the Reproductive Medicine Clinic at Prince Henry's Hospital, and from 1 of 40 healthy university students. All initial isolates were from specimens with abnormal semen analysis (P less than 0.01). Herpes simplex virus was not isolated from any sample. PMID:6311756

  18. The mortality of neonatal herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Medina, Eduardo; Cantey, Joseph B; Snchez, Pablo J

    2015-06-01

    This retrospective study characterized the clinical course of 13 neonates who died with herpes simplex virus infection from 2001 to 2011, representing a 26% case-fatality rate. Fatal disease developed at ? 48 hours of age in one-third of infants, was mostly disseminated disease, and occurred despite early administration of high-dose acyclovir therapy. PMID:25868428

  19. The "Other" Venereal Diseases: Herpes Simplex, Trichomoniasis and Candidiasis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNab, Warren L.

    1979-01-01

    Although the term venereal disease has been synonymous with gonorrhea and syphilis, the Center for Disease Control now states that the number of new cases of herpes simplex, trichomoniasis, and candidiasis is rapidly approaching the number of cases of syphilis and gonorrhea. (MM)

  20. Prevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Antibodies in Dental Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodu, Brad; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A study of 125 sophomore preclinical dental students found that these young professionals, because of having a low prevalence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) antibodies, are at risk for acquiring a primary HSV infection when treating HSV positive patients and should take precautions to avoid virus transmission. (MSE)

  1. Herpes Simplex Virus 2 ICP0? Mutant Viruses Are Avirulent and Immunogenic: Implications for a Genital Herpes Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Halford, William P.; Pschel, Ringo; Rakowski, Brandon

    2010-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) ICP0? mutants are interferon-sensitive, avirulent, and elicit protective immunity against HSV-1 (Virol J, 2006, 3:44). If an ICP0? mutant of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) exhibited similar properties, such a virus might be used to vaccinate against genital herpes. The current study was initiated to explore this possibility. Several HSV-2 ICP0? mutant viruses were constructed and evaluated in terms of three parameters: i. interferon-sensitivity; ii. virulence in mice; and iii. capacity to elicit protective immunity against HSV-2. One ICP0? mutant virus in particular, HSV-2 0?NLS, achieved an optimal balance between avirulence and immunogenicity. HSV-2 0?NLS was interferon-sensitive in cultured cells. HSV-2 0?NLS replicated to low levels in the eyes of inoculated mice, but was rapidly repressed by an innate, Stat 1-dependent host immune response. HSV-2 0?NLS failed to spread from sites of inoculation, and hence produced only inapparent infections. Mice inoculated with HSV-2 0?NLS consistently mounted an HSV-specific IgG antibody response, and were consistently protected against lethal challenge with wild-type HSV-2. Based on their avirulence and immunogenicity, we propose that HSV-2 ICP0? mutant viruses merit consideration for their potential to prevent the spread of HSV-2 and genital herpes. PMID:20808928

  2. [Battle with herpes for 37 years].

    PubMed

    Shimomura, Yoshikazu

    2015-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1(HSV-1) remains latent in the human trigeminal ganglion after primarily infecting the cornea and conjunctiva. Mental stress, heat stimulation, ultraviolet ray and immunosuppression are among the reactivating factors of HSV-1, which can lead to epithelial herpetic keratitis, stromal herpetic keratitis, and other complications. I have been working with HSV-1 for a long time, concentrating especially on its latency and reactivation. I would like to introduce some of the recent research results. 1. Herpetic keratitis cases at the Department of Ophthalmology, Kinki University. There were 129 eyes of 128 patients who visited the Cornea Service in our university hospitals at Osayasayama, Sakai and Nara over 13 years and were diagnosed with herpetic keratitis and followed up for at least one year. They were investigated as to the type of herpetic keratitis at the initial visit and its recurrence. Initial types of herpetic keratitis and number of eyes of each type were: Epithelial type, 65 eyes (50%); Stromal type, 30 eyes (23%); Combined epithelial and stromal types, 18 eyes (14%). Recurrence was seen in 47% of the total 129 eyes. Recurrent cases of the epithelial type were mostly epithelial type. Frequently recurrent cases of the stromal type presented with repeated epithelial, stromal, and combined types. 2. Effects of antiherpetics on mouse epithelial herpetic keratitis. Acyclovir (ACV) eye ointment is usually prescribed for several weeks to treat human epithelial herpetic keratitis. Our question is: Is this long administration really necessary? To find the answer to this question, we investigated time-dependent effects of antiherpetics on mouse epithelial herpetic keratitis. Mouse corneas were infected with HSV-1 and either ACV eye ointment, oral valaciclovir (VACV) or oral famciclovir (FCV) was administered. No virus was detected in the tear fluid examined by viral culture 4 days after start of ACV eye ointment or oral VACV and 6 days after start of oral FCV. Real-time PCR revealed significant decrease of HSV DNA copy number in the eyeball or trigeminal ganglion compared to saline instillation 4 and 6 days after start. These results suggest that antivirals for 5 days could sufficiently decrease the HSV amount in the ocular surface and eyeball. 3. Corneal latency. In order to prove latency of HSV in the human cornea, virological and molecular biological techniques were used to ensure the following 3 prerequisites. 1) Positive HSV DNA in the human cornea. 2) Negative homogenate, positive explant. 3) Only latency-associated transcript (LAT) detected and transcriptional products of other virus genes (?, ?, ?) not detected in the cornea. As a result, all the 3 prerequisites have been satisfied in the 3 corneas that had a past history of herpetic keratitis. This result suggests that HSV could remain latent in the human cornea. 4. Detection of HSV-1, HHV-6, and HHV-7 DNA in the anterior segment and aqueous humor using multiplex real-time PCR. Multiplex real-time PCR was applied for the first time ever in opththalmology to human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6) and 7(HHV-7). Samples taken from tear fluid before and 3 days after phacoemulsification and aspiration (PEA) or penetrating keratoplasty (PKP), and aqueous humor aspirated during PEA were used. The results of multiplex real-time PCR showed HSV-1, HHV-6 and HHV-7 DNA present in tear fluid both before and after PEA or PKP. 5. Gene expression when reactivation is suppressed. Nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) has recently been reported to be involved in reactivation of HSV-1. IkappaB kinase-? (IKK2) inhibitors, which inhibit the activity of NF-?B, were used to examine gene expression during HSV reactivation in a mouse model. Significant decrease of HSV DNA copy number was observed at the trigeminal ganglion with real-time PCR in a group which was given IKK2 inhibitors intraperitoneally. Microarray method demonstrated 2-fold or more increased expression of 1812 probe. By Pathway analysis, eased immunosuppressive effects were observed in the group which was given IKK2 inhibitor intraperitoneally. 6. Immunoresponse involved in herpetic keratitis. Chemokine expression profiles in human corneal herpetic cases and mouse herpetic keratitis were analyzed. The results were similar to previously published reports: Cxcl9, Cxcl10, Ccl5, which are Th1 type chemokines, and Ccl20, a Th17 type chemokine, were observed to increase. On the other hand, Th2 type chemokine did not show an increase. Immunoresponse occurred mainly in the trigeminal ganglion. With these results, we suggest herpetic keratitis could be prevented by actively inducing Th17 type immunoresponse. PMID:25854108

  3. Herpes zoster guideline of the German Dermatology Society (DDG).

    PubMed

    Gross, G; Schfer, H; Wassilew, S; Friese, K; Timm, A; Guthoff, R; Pau, H W; Malin, J P; Wutzler, P; Doerr, H W

    2003-04-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes varicella (chickenpox), remains dormant in dorsal root and cranial nerve ganglia and can be reactivated as a consequence of declining VZV-specific cellular immunity leading to herpes zoster (shingles). Patients older than 50 years of age affected by herpes zoster may suffer a significant decrease of quality of life. These patients and immunocompromised individuals are at increased risks for severe complications, involving the eye, the peripheral and the central nervous system (prolonged pain, postherpetic neuralgia). Such complications occur with and without cutaneous symptoms. The German Dermatology Society (DDG) has released guidelines in order to guarantee updated management to anyone affected by herpes zoster. Diagnosis is primarily clinical. The gold standard of laboratory diagnosis comprises PCR and direct identification of VZV in cell cultures. Detection of IgM- and IgA-anti VZV antibodies may be helpful in immunocompromised patients. Therapy has become very effective in the last years. Systemic antiviral therapy is able to shorten the healing process of acute herpes zoster, to prevent or to alleviate pain and other acute and chronic complications, particularly, when given within 48 h to a maximum of 72 h after onset of the rash. Systemic antiviral therapy is urgently indicated in patients beyond the age of 50 years and in patients at any age with herpes zoster in the head and neck area, especially in patients with zoster ophthalmicus. Further urgent indications are severe herpes zoster on the trunk and on the extremities, herpes zoster in immunosuppressed patients and in patients with severe atopic dermatitis and severe ekzema. Only relative indications for antiviral therapy exist in patients younger than 50 years with zoster on the trunk and on the extremities. In Germany acyclovir, valacyclovir, famciclovir and brivudin are approved for the systemic antiviral treatment of herpes zoster. These compounds are all well tolerated by the patients and do not differ with regard to efficacy and safety. Brivudin has a markedly higher anti-VZV potency than oral acyclovir, valacyclovir and famciclovir and thus offers a simpler dosing regimen. It must be given only once daily during 7 days in comparison to three and five times dosing per day of valacyclovir, famciclovir and acyclovir, respectively. Brivudin is an antiviral agent with no nephrotoxic properties, which is an advantage when compared to acyclovir. The most important aim of therapy of herpes zoster is to achieve painlessness. Appropriately dosed analgesics in combination with a neuroactive agent (i.e. amitriptylin) are very helpful when given together with antiviral therapy. The additive therapy with corticosteroids may shorten the degree and duration of acute zoster pain, but has no essential effect on the development of postherpetic neuralgia, which is a very difficult condition to treat. Thus early presentation to a pain therapist is recommended in specific cases. PMID:12637076

  4. Herpes Virus Infections During Treatment With Etanercept in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Nicolai, R; Cortis, E; Ravà, L; Bracaglia, C; Pardeo, M; Insalaco, A; Buonuomo, P S; Tozzi, A E; De Benedetti, F

    2016-03-01

    Incidence rates for varicella and herpes zoster were similar in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis receiving etanercept/methotrexate (n = 85, 184.9 patient-years [PY]) or methotrexate alone (n = 71, 199.4 PY); no complicated varicella or herpes zoster cases were reported; herpes labialis incidence was higher in patients receiving etanercept/methotrexate versus methotrexate alone (0.38 vs 0.24 PY). PMID:26908493

  5. Isoprinosine does not influence the natural history of herpes zoster or postherpetic neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Payne, C M; Menday, A P; Rogers, T; Staughton, R C

    1989-01-01

    In a double-blind randomised trial, 38 elderly patients with acute herpes zoster received either isoprinosine (IP) or placebo. IP neither shortened the acute phase of herpes zoster nor prevented postherpetic neuralgia. Transient asymptomatic hyperuricaemia affected one third of IP treated patients. Shortcomings in study design and misleading interpretation of results are common in previously published clinical trials of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia. Guidelines for future studies are proposed. PMID:2471260

  6. Disseminated Cutaneous Herpes Zoster in a Patient with Uncontrolled Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Santosh M

    2015-01-01

    Herpes zoster is a clinical manifestation which results from reactivation of latent VZV (Varicella zoster virus) present in the sensory root ganglia. Disseminated herpes zoster has been reported in immune-compromised patients such as patient on cancer chemotherapy, HIV (Human immune deficiency virus) infection, systemic corticosteroid therapy. However, we report a case of disseminated herpes zoster infection in an uncontrolled diabetic patient. A brief review of literature on this topic has been bestowed. PMID:26393187

  7. Herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D mediates interference with herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, R M; Spear, P G

    1989-01-01

    We showed that the expression of a single protein, glycoprotein D (gD-1), specified by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) renders cells resistant to infection by HSV but not to infection by other viruses. Mouse (LMtk-) and human (HEp-2) cell lines containing the gene for gD-1 under control of the human metallothionein promoter II expressed various levels of gD-1 constitutively and could be induced to express higher levels with heavy metal ions. Radiolabeled viruses bound equally well to gD-1-expressing and control cell lines. Adsorbed viruses were unable to penetrate cells expressing sufficient levels of gD-1, based on lack of any cytopathic effects of the challenge virus and on failure to detect either the induction of viral protein synthesis or the shutoff of host protein synthesis normally mediated by a virion-associated factor. The resistance to HSV infection conferred by gD-1 expression was not absolute and depended on several variables, including the amount of gD-1 expressed, the dosage of the challenge virus, the serotype of the challenge virus, and the properties of the cells themselves. The interference activity of gD-1 is discussed in relation to the role of gD-1 in virion infectivity and its possible role in permitting escape of progeny HSV from infected cells. Images PMID:2536105

  8. Rare Occurrence of Herpes Zoster of Trigeminal Nerve following Extraction of Tooth

    PubMed Central

    Christy, A. Winnifred; Raja Deva Thanmbi, T. Jones; Leelavathy, J.; Rhema Louis, Antoinette

    2015-01-01

    Herpes Zoster also known as Shingles is an acute viral infection which is an extremely painful and incapacitating ailment. It results from the reactivation of the varicella zoster virus. The triggering factors for the onset of an attack of Herpes Zoster include some form of immunosuppression. The diagnosis of Herpes Zoster can be made on proper medical history and a thorough clinical examination. Here is the report of a male patient affected by Herpes Zoster infection which followed after extraction of a lower first molar. PMID:26819783

  9. Herpes Zoster Duplex Bilateralis in Immuno-Competent Patients: Report of Two Cases.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Atul; Dalela, Gaurav

    2015-12-01

    Herpes Zoster is a common viral disorder, occurs due to reactivation of latent Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) usually in adults or elderly patients, usually confined to a single dermatome. Herpes zoster duplex is a rare but well established entity which is simultaneous, occurring of herpes zoster at two different non contiguous dermatomes, can be unilateralis or bilateralis. Here we are reporting two cases of herpes zoster duplex bilateralis, in case-1 lesions occurs in two different distant dermatomes while in case-2 it appeared in a single dermatome but both sides were involved. Both the patients were healthy immuno-competent male. PMID:26816979

  10. Herpes Labialis in Patients with Russell's Viper Bite and Acute Kidney Injury: A Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Waikhom, Rajesh; Sapam, Ranjeeta; Patil, Krishna; Jadhav, Jaya Prada; Sircar, Dipankar; Roychowdhury, Arpita; Dasgupta, Sanjay; Pandey, Rajendra

    2011-01-01

    Snake bite is an important health hazard in tropical countries and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Herpes labialis is a common ailment caused by the Herpes simplex virus. There is no published data showing any association between the snake bite and development of Herpes labialis. Here, we present a series of patients who developed Herpes labialis after Russell's viper bite and had acute kidney injury. We attempted to find whether snake bite is an immunosuppressed state and whether it could have pre-disposed the patients to the development of these lesions. PMID:21633044

  11. Herpes Zoster Duplex Bilateralis in Immuno-Competent Patients: Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Dalela, Gaurav

    2015-01-01

    Herpes Zoster is a common viral disorder, occurs due to reactivation of latent Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) usually in adults or elderly patients, usually confined to a single dermatome. Herpes zoster duplex is a rare but well established entity which is simultaneous, occurring of herpes zoster at two different non contiguous dermatomes, can be unilateralis or bilateralis. Here we are reporting two cases of herpes zoster duplex bilateralis, in case-1 lesions occurs in two different distant dermatomes while in case-2 it appeared in a single dermatome but both sides were involved. Both the patients were healthy immuno-competent male. PMID:26816979

  12. Expression of varicella-zoster virus and herpes simplex virus in normal human trigeminal ganglia

    SciTech Connect

    Vafai, A.; Wellish, M.; Devlin, M.; Gilden, D.H. ); Murray, R.S. Veterans Administration Medical Center, Denver, CO )

    1988-04-01

    Lysates of radiolabeled explants from four human trigeminal ganglia were immunoprecipitated with antibodies to varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and to herpes simplex virus. Both herpes simplex virus- and VZV-specific proteins were detected in lysates of all four ganglia. Absence of reactivity in ganglion explants with monoclonal antibodies suggested that herpes simplex virus and VZV were not reactivated during the culture period. In situ hybridization studies demonstrated the presence of RNA transcripts from the VZV immediate early gene 63. This approach to the detection of herpes simplex virus and VZV expression in human ganglia should facilitate analysis of viral RNA and proteins in human sensory ganglia.

  13. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus-induced oculomotor nerve palsy

    PubMed Central

    Harthan, Jennifer S.; Borgman, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) may cause a variety of ocular conditions including: dermatitis, corneal pseudo-dendrites, uveitis, retinitis, and cranial nerve palsies. Cranial nerve palsies caused by herpes zoster (HZ) are relatively uncommon clinical findings. Previous case reports have looked at this relationship, but the overall case studies are few. Other causes of nerve palsies typically need to be ruled out first with neuro-imaging and blood evaluations. However, when HZ is confirmed, treatment with oral antiviral therapy and/or oral corticosteroids along with monitoring the individual usually results in a self-limiting ophthalmoplegia that improves on its own over several months. We report a case of cranial nerve III palsy resulting from HZO.

  14. Management and prevention of herpes zoster: A Canadian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Boivin, Guy; Jovey, Roman; Elliott, Catherine T; Patrick, David M

    2010-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus reactivation leads to herpes zoster the main complication of which is postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). Rapid antiviral therapy initiated within 72 h of rash onset has been shown to accelerate rash healing, reduce the duration of acute pain and, to some extent, attenuate the development and duration of PHN. Other adjunctive therapies such as analgesics, antidepressants and some anticonvulsants are frequently required in the management of severe PHN. A live, attenuated zoster vaccine has been recently shown to significantly decrease herpes zoster incidence, PHN and the overall burden of illness when administered to adults older than 60 years of age. This new prophylactic modality has been reported to be cost-effective in the Canadian context, especially in the 60- to 75-year-old age group. PMID:21358885

  15. A rare cause of dysphagia: herpes simplex esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bee; Caddy, Grant

    2007-05-21

    Herpes simplex esophagitis (HSE) is well documented in immunosuppressed patients. However, it is rare in the immunocompetent host. We present a case of HSE in a 21 year-old healthy lady who was admitted to our unit with dysphagia, odynophagia and chest pain. Clinical examination revealed mild epigastric tenderness and admission bloods including full blood picture, electrolytes and inflammatory markers were normal. She underwent an esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) which revealed severe exudative, well-circumscribed ulcerations in her distal esophagus. Biopsies confirmed severe esophagitis with acute ulceration and subsequent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1. Subsequent assessment failed to identify an immune disorder. HSE should be suspected when faced with characteristic endoscopic findings, even if the patient is immunocompetent. When the diagnosis of HSE is confirmed, an immune deficiency should be sought. PMID:17569149

  16. The floccular syndrome in herpes simplex type 1 encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Aasef G; Termsarasab, Pichet; Riley, David E; Katirji, Bashar

    2013-02-15

    A woman with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) encephalitis had downbeat nystagmus. The nystagmus was robust in primary gaze but attenuated during upgaze, suggestive of the flocculus involvement. FLAIR and T2-sequences of the brain MRI revealed cerebral lesions typical of HSV1, but also patchy hyperintensities in bilateral flocculi. Cerebrospinal fluid polymerase chain reaction confirmed HSV1 infection. Encephalopathy and downbeat nystagmus gradually improved with acyclovir therapy. PMID:23218757

  17. Herpes simplex virus bronchiolitis in a cannabis user

    PubMed Central

    Libraty, Daniel H.; Bocelli, Lisa; Fraire, Armando

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) lower respiratory tract infections in adults are uncommon. We present a case of HSV bronchiolitis and pneumonitis in an immunocompetent individual, likely linked to chronic habitual marijuana use and a herpetic orolabial ulcer. The case serves as a reminder to consider HSV as a potential unusual cause of lower respiratory tract infection/inflammation in individuals with chronic habitual marijuana use.

  18. Burning mouth syndrome due to herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Maria A; Choe, Alexander; Traktinskiy, Igor; Gilden, Don

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is characterised by chronic orofacial burning pain. No dental or medical cause has been found. We present a case of burning mouth syndrome of 6 months duration in a healthy 65-year-old woman, which was associated with high copy numbers of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) DNA in the saliva. Her pain resolved completely after antiviral treatment with a corresponding absence of salivary HSV-1 DNA 4 weeks and 6 months later. PMID:25833911

  19. Management and Prevention of Herpes Zoster Ocular Disease.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Elisabeth J

    2015-10-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) is caused by reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus (VZV) in people who have had chicken pox, usually resulting in a painful, unilateral, dermatomal, vesicular rash. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus occurs when the first division of cranial nerve V is involved. HZ is common, with approximately 1 million new cases per year in the United States, and occurs in 1 in 3 persons. Although the rate of HZ increases with age, over half of all cases occur under the age of 60 years. Complications of herpes zoster ophthalmicus include eye disease, postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), and strokes. VZV has also been found in temporal arteritis biopsies. There is growing evidence that HZ is followed by chronic active VZV infection contributing to these complications. In view of this, and the efficacy of suppressive antiviral treatment in reducing recurrent herpes simplex keratitis, a randomized controlled trial of suppressive valacyclovir to reduce new or worsening anterior segment disease and/or PHN is needed. The zoster vaccine (ZV) is safe and effective in reducing the burden of illness, severity of PHN, and incidence of HZ. It is Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended for persons aged 60 years and above without impaired cellular immunity, and Food and Drug Administration approved for those aged 50 and older. It is most effective in preventing HZ in recipients in their 50s. Because of underusage of the ZV, it has not impacted the epidemiology of the disease. Barriers to its use include cost, variable reimbursement, frozen storage, and lack of a strong recommendation by doctors. PMID:26114827

  20. Fifteen minute consultation: Managing neonatal and childhood herpes encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Le Doare, K; Menson, Esse; Patel, Deepak; Lim, Ming; Lyall, Hermione; Herberg, Jethro

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is the most common single cause of viral encephalitis in infants and children. Treated or untreated, it can be associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, and its presentation is usually insidious and non-specific. Prompt and careful investigation is important in order to establish the diagnosis so that treatment can be optimised. We address some common questions arising when diagnosing and treating presumed HSE throughout childhood. PMID:25112286

  1. Reactivation of herpes simplex virus-1 following epilepsy surgery?

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Srgio Monteiro; Crippa, Ana; Cruz, Cristina; de Paola, Luciano; de Souza, Luciana Paula; Noronha, Lucia; Torres, Luis Fernando Bleggi; Koneski, Julio A.S.; Pessa, Luis Felipe Cavalli; Nogueira, Meri Bordignon; Raboni, Sonia Mara; Silvado, Carlos Eduardo; Vidal, Luine Rosele

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The present study reports a case of encephalitis due to herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), following surgical manipulation of the site of a primary infection. Methods Herpes simplex virus-1 infection was confirmed by CSF PCR and DNA sequencing. Results The patient was an 11-year-old girl who required temporal lobe surgery for epilepsy. She had meningoencephalitis due to HSV at the age of 20months, and she was treated with acyclovir. Three years later, the patient developed uncontrolled seizures that became more frequent and changed in character at 11years of age. On the 12th postoperative day, she developed fever and seizures, and she was diagnosed with HSV-1 by positive CSF PCR. She was treated with acyclovir (30mg/kg/day for 21days). In this report, we describe the patient and review the relevant literature. Conclusion The authors stress the potential risk of reactivation of HSV encephalitis after intracranial surgery. Herpes simplex virus encephalitis must be considered in neurosurgical patients who develop postoperative seizures and fever. PMID:26543809

  2. Evasion of Early Antiviral Responses by Herpes Simplex Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Suazo, Paula A.; Ibaez, Francisco J.; Retamal-Daz, Angello R.; Paz-Fiblas, Marysol V.; Bueno, Susan M.; Kalergis, Alexis M.; Gonzlez, Pablo A.

    2015-01-01

    Besides overcoming physical constraints, such as extreme temperatures, reduced humidity, elevated pressure, and natural predators, human pathogens further need to overcome an arsenal of antimicrobial components evolved by the host to limit infection, replication and optimally, reinfection. Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) infect humans at a high frequency and persist within the host for life by establishing latency in neurons. To gain access to these cells, herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) must replicate and block immediate host antiviral responses elicited by epithelial cells and innate immune components early after infection. During these processes, infected and noninfected neighboring cells, as well as tissue-resident and patrolling immune cells, will sense viral components and cell-associated danger signals and secrete soluble mediators. While type-I interferons aim at limiting virus spread, cytokines and chemokines will modulate resident and incoming immune cells. In this paper, we discuss recent findings relative to the early steps taking place during HSV infection and replication. Further, we discuss how HSVs evade detection by host cells and the molecular mechanisms evolved by these viruses to circumvent early antiviral mechanisms, ultimately leading to neuron infection and the establishment of latency. PMID:25918478

  3. [Neuropathic pain due to herpes zoster infection with atypical localization].

    PubMed

    Sa??r, zlem; zaslan, Sabri; Meri, Ycel; Arslan, ?smail; Kro?lu, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    Acute herpes zoster infection appears in the situation of depression of immune system and reactivation of varicella zoster virus which causes small pox. Pain and maculopapular lesion accompany clinical symptoms. Various pharmacological and invasive methods can be used for treatment. Efficient therapy is important for prevention of postherpetic neuralgia and cure of acute pain and dermatological lesions. A 55 years old, 160 cm height and 65 kg weight female patient with complaints of severe pain, sensation of burning, tingling at the right hand and forearm was admitted to our pain department. The patient who was diagnosed as cervical hernia at an other medical center had a normal physical servical spine examination. Patient history and physical examination findings with acute herpes zoster infection was considered. Right stellate ganglion blockade for diagnosis and treatment was performed because of regressed and atypically located lesions and a visual analog scale score of 10. VAS score decreased 50% at 9th min after block, VAS score at 2nd hour was 2. Antiviral, gabapentin, and tricyclic antidepressant treatment was started after stellat ganglion blockade and patient was discharged. After 3 months complaints dissapeared and drug doses were discreased and stopped. In conclusion we think that stellate ganglion blockade can be useful in diagnosis, acute pain control, improving patient comfort and compatibility to drug therapy in atypically located herpes zoster. PMID:24264553

  4. Possible enhancement of BP180 autoantibody production by herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Koji; Aoyama, Yumi; Suzuki, Takahiro; Niwa, Haruo; Horio, Ai; Nishio, Eiichi; Tokura, Yoshiki

    2016-02-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune blistering disease caused by autoantibodies against type XVII collagen/BP180 (BP180). Although the mechanisms of autoantibody production remain to be elucidated, herpes virus infections have been identified as a possible triggering factor for pemphigus. We report a case of herpes zoster (HZ) having anti-BP180 serum antibodies. The patient developed sudden-onset, tense blisters and edematous erythema on the right anterior chest, shoulder and upper back. Histopathology showed remarkable degeneration of keratinocytes, acantholysis and blister formation with ballooning cells, indicating herpes virus infection. A polymerase chain reaction analysis of varicella zoster virus (VZV) was positive in crusts and effusions from the skin lesions, confirming the definitive diagnosis of HZ. Notably, we found that the patient had anti-BP180 serum antibodies in association with the occurrence of HZ. After successful treatment with valacyclovir hydrochloride for 7days, the serum levels of anti-BP180 antibodies decreased in accordance with the improvement of skin lesions. These findings suggest that the production of anti-BP180 antibodies could be triggered by the reactivation of VZV. PMID:26212492

  5. Shingles (herpes zoster) vaccine (zostavax()): a review of its use in the prevention of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in adults aged ?50 years.

    PubMed

    Keating, Gillian M

    2013-07-01

    The live, attenuated shingles (herpes zoster) vaccine Zostavax() is approved in the EU for use in the prevention of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in adults aged ?50 years. In adults aged ?60 years, zoster vaccine reduced the burden of illness associated with herpes zoster, with reductions in the incidence of postherpetic neuralgia and herpes zoster, according to the results of the Shingles Prevention Study. Results of subsequent Short- and Long-Term Persistence Substudies indicate that the efficacy of zoster vaccine is maintained in the longer term, albeit with a gradual decline over time. In the Zostavax Efficacy and Safety Trial, zoster vaccine reduced the incidence of herpes zoster in adults aged 50-59 years. Findings of these studies are supported by the results of large, retrospective, cohort studies. Zoster vaccine was generally well tolerated, with injection-site adverse events being the most commonly reported adverse events. In conclusion, zoster vaccine provides an important opportunity to reduce the burden of illness associated with herpes zoster by reducing the incidence of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia. PMID:23839657

  6. Herpes simplex virus-cell interactions studied by immunogold cryosection electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Helle Lone; Norrild, Bodil

    2005-01-01

    A technique is presented for high-resolution postembedding immunolocalization of one or two (or several) antigens in the same ultrathin cryosection using primary monoclonal antibodies from the same species. The optimized three-layer indirect immunogold-labeled cryosection electron microscopy described is recommended for studies of virus-cell interactions, because: (1) it is a simple and reproducible method; (2) colloidal gold markers are electron-dense, stable, and easy to recognize; (3) the membraneous ultrastructure and immunolabeling are well preserved; (4) immunolabeling is less in the two-layer method; (5) silver-enhanced gold particles vary in size and shape; (6) it is possible to demonstrate herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoproteins gC-1 and gD-1 in the nuclear membranes and gC-1- and gD-1-labeled viral particles in the perinuclear space and to observe virions in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi area. The use of buffered 3% paraformaldehyde plus 2% glutaraldehyde for 2 h at room temperature effectively destroys free anti-IgG binding sites on the secondary antibodies in double-labeling immunogold cryosection electron microscopy and is recommended because: (1) inactivation is obtained through buffered primary fixative; (2) the method is simple and reproducible; (3) cross-labeling is effectively avoided; (4) silver-intensification, high temperature, and methyl cellulose cover of ultrathin cryosections are avoided between the staining sequences; and (5) ultrastructure and antigenicity are well preserved. PMID:15507706

  7. Nd:YAG laser treatment of herpes and aphthous ulcers: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkins, Frederick M.; O'Toole, Thomas J.; Yancey, John M.

    2000-06-01

    Previously herpes labialis and recurrent aphthous ulcers have not been successfully treated. A preliminary study with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser evaluated the results with a protocol of four minute non-contact exposures for both types of lesions. Most patients experienced relief of symptoms. The progress of herpes lesion was halted and aphthous lesions became desensitized.

  8. Grover's disease secondarily infected with herpes simplex virus and Staphylococcus aureus: case report and review.

    PubMed

    Bunce, Penelope Am; Stanford, Duncan G

    2013-11-01

    The case of a 73-year old man with herpes simplex and staphylococcus aureus infection complicating established Grover's disease is presented. This was treated successfully with valaciclovir. While reports of bacterial and herpetic infections complicating other acantholytic diseases, such as Darier's disease, have been published previously, only one publication to date shows herpes simplex infection in Grover's disease. PMID:23013197

  9. The burden of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in the United States.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Bethany A

    2007-03-01

    Herpes zoster (shingles), a painful and disabling disease, affects an estimated 1 million individuals in the United States annually and results in significant morbidity, lost productivity, and diminished quality of life. Herpes zoster constitutes the reactivation of varicella-zoster virus (VZV), the same virus that causes chickenpox. After resolution of chickenpox, VZV remains dormant in dorsal root ganglia. Varicella-zoster-specific cell-mediated immunity wanes naturally with advancing age or earlier in the setting of an altered immune status, which can result in the reactivation of VZV as herpes zoster. The pain associated with the rash caused by herpes zoster is often described as burning, stabbing, itching, or aching. Postherpetic neuralgia, the most common complication of herpes zoster, occurs after the zoster rash has resolved, affecting up to a third of patients. Herpes zoster is associated with significant morbidity, especially in the elderly. Herpes zoster is both more common and more severe among older adults. In both acute herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia, pain is the primary cause of morbidity. PMID:17488884

  10. Serologic Screening for Herpes Simplex Virus among University Students: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mark, Hayley; Nanda, Joy P.; Joffe, Alain; Roberts, Jessica; Rompalo, Anne; Melendez, Johan; Zenilman, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the feasibility of conducting serologic testing for the herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) among university students and assessed the psychosocial impact of an HSV-2 diagnosis. Methods: The authors recruited a convenience sample of 100 students (aged 18-39 years) without a history of genital herpes from 1 university

  11. Serologic Screening for Herpes Simplex Virus among University Students: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mark, Hayley; Nanda, Joy P.; Joffe, Alain; Roberts, Jessica; Rompalo, Anne; Melendez, Johan; Zenilman, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the feasibility of conducting serologic testing for the herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) among university students and assessed the psychosocial impact of an HSV-2 diagnosis. Methods: The authors recruited a convenience sample of 100 students (aged 18-39 years) without a history of genital herpes from 1 university…

  12. 75 FR 59670 - Immunology and Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of the Herpes Simplex Virus Serological...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Background of the Device In the Federal Register of April 3, 2007 (72 FR 15830), FDA published a final rule...; Reclassification of the Herpes Simplex Virus Serological Assay Device AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... controls for the herpes simplex virus (HSV) serological assay device type, which is classified as class...

  13. Recurrent Transcortical Motor Aphasia—Another CNS Infectious Syndrome Associated with Herpes Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Govindarajan, Raghav; Salgado, Efrain

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis is an acute/subacute illness that causes both general and focal signs of cerebral dysfunction with fever, headache, and confusion as cardinal features. Recurrent herpes simplex meningitis, also known as Mollaret’s meningitis, is another manifestation of central nervous system herpetic infection with recurrent episodes of fever, headache, and nuchal rigidity associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) evidence of active herpes simplex infection. Bell’s palsy is yet another manifestation of a herpes virus infection in at least some reported cases documented by CSF analysis. We report a case of a 70-year-old male who presented with acute transcortical motor aphasia initiating a stroke work-up that was negative. Physical examination revealed genital vesicles, and the CSF was consistent with active herpes simplex infection.

  14. Evolutionary Origins of Human Herpes Simplex Viruses 1 and 2

    PubMed Central

    Wertheim, Joel O.; Smith, Martin D.; Smith, Davey M.; Scheffler, Konrad; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L.

    2014-01-01

    Herpesviruses have been infecting and codiverging with their vertebrate hosts for hundreds of millions of years. The primate simplex viruses exemplify this pattern of virus–host codivergence, at a minimum, as far back as the most recent common ancestor of New World monkeys, Old World monkeys, and apes. Humans are the only primate species known to be infected with two distinct herpes simplex viruses: HSV-1 and HSV-2. Human herpes simplex viruses are ubiquitous, with over two-thirds of the human population infected by at least one virus. Here, we investigated whether the additional human simplex virus is the result of ancient viral lineage duplication or cross-species transmission. We found that standard phylogenetic models of nucleotide substitution are inadequate for distinguishing among these competing hypotheses; the extent of synonymous substitutions causes a substantial underestimation of the lengths of some of the branches in the phylogeny, consistent with observations in other viruses (e.g., avian influenza, Ebola, and coronaviruses). To more accurately estimate ancient viral divergence times, we applied a branch-site random effects likelihood model of molecular evolution that allows the strength of natural selection to vary across both the viral phylogeny and the gene alignment. This selection-informed model favored a scenario in which HSV-1 is the result of ancient codivergence and HSV-2 arose from a cross-species transmission event from the ancestor of modern chimpanzees to an extinct Homo precursor of modern humans, around 1.6 Ma. These results provide a new framework for understanding human herpes simplex virus evolution and demonstrate the importance of using selection-informed models of sequence evolution when investigating viral origin hypotheses. PMID:24916030

  15. Antigenic relatedness of equine herpes virus types 1 and 3.

    PubMed

    Gutekunst, D E; Malmquist, W A; Becvar, C S

    1978-01-01

    Antiserums prepared in specific pathogen free (SPF) ponies were used in direct and indirect immunofluorescence, immunodiffusion, complement fixation and serum neutralization procedures to study the interrelationships of the three types of equine herpes viruses (EHV-1, EHV-2, and EHV-3). Equine cell cultures infected with each type virus fluoresced when stained with homologous conjugated antiserum. In reciprocal tests EHV-1 and EHV-3 cross-fluoresced, but EHV-2 did not cross-fluoresce. Non-infected cell cultures did not fluoresce when stained with the 3 conjugates. EHV-1 and EHV-3 cross-fluoresced in reciprocal indirect fluorescent antibody tests, but no cross-fluorescence was shown with EHV-2. Antigens representing each type of equine herpes virus reacted with their homologous antiserum in the immunodiffusion test. In reciprocal tests, a common line(s) of identity formed with EHV-1 and EHV-3; however, the precipitin line(s) was not common with EHV-2. Antigen prepared from noninfected embryonic mule skin (EMS) cell cultures did not react with any of the antiserums. Specific complement-fixing antibodies were present in antiserums when tested against their homologous antigens. In reciprocal complement fixation tests EHV-1 and EHV-3 crossreacted, but no cross-reactivity was shown with EHV-2. Significant levels of neutralizing antibody were in an antiserum when tested against homologous virus, whereas cross-neutralization was not detectable in reciprocal tests. These studies indicate that each type of equine herpes virus contains specific antigenic components, and EHV-1 and EHV-3 share a common antigen(s) that is not shared with EHV-2. PMID:75724

  16. Herpes Simplex Virus Oncolytic Therapy for Pediatric Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Gregory K; Pressey, Joseph G; Reddy, Alyssa T; Markert, James M; Gillespie, G Yancey

    2009-01-01

    Despite improving survival rates for children with cancer, a subset of patients exist with disease resistant to traditional therapies such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. These patients require newer, targeted treatments used alone or in combination with more traditional approaches. Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (HSV) is one of these newer therapies that offer promise for several difficult to treat pediatric malignancies. The potential benefit of HSV therapy in pediatric solid tumors including brain tumors, neuroblastomas, and sarcomas is reviewed along with the many challenges that need to be addressed prior to moving oncolytic HSV therapy from the laboratory to the beside in the pediatric population. PMID:19367259

  17. Anti-herpes virus activity of aporphine alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Montanha, J A; Amoros, M; Boustie, J; Girre, L

    1995-10-01

    We evaluated, in cell cultures, the action of a series of 19 aporphine alkaloids against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). On the basis of viral titre reduction, six alkaloids were found to be active. The mode of action of the three most potent inhibitors, oliverine HCl, pachystaudine, and oxostephanine, was studied. These compounds did not have any virucidal or prophylactic effect but they were shown to interfere with the viral replicative cycle. Although DNA synthesis was reduced, their exact target remains to be elucidated. In the discussion, some structure-activity relationships are considered. PMID:7480202

  18. Rapid small-scale isolation of herpes simplex virus DNA.

    PubMed

    Kintner, R L; Brandt, C R

    1994-07-01

    A method has been developed for the rapid isolation of herpes simplex virus DNA analogous to miniprep methods for bacterial plasmid isolation. Infected Vero cells are lysed with three freeze-thaw cycles, and the nuclei are removed by centrifugation. DNA is released from the virions in the supernatant by proteinase K digestion. Then the DNA is extracted with phenol/chloroform and precipitated with ethanol. This method requires only small amounts of infected cells as a source of viral DNA, does not use radioactivity, and routinely produces DNA of sufficient purity to be used for restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis on ethidium-stained gels. PMID:7989436

  19. [Combined therapy of patients with recurring anogenital herpes infection].

    PubMed

    Rakhmatulina, M R

    2011-01-01

    Up-to-date conceptions of etiology and epidemiology of anogenital herpetic infection are described. The main mechanisms of immunological shifts in subjects with anogenital Herpes infection are discussed. The efficacy and safety of cycloferon in the combined treatment of patients with recurring anogenital herptic infection were estimated. The clinical efficacy of the combined therapy (acyclovir in a dose of 200 mg 5 times a day for 5 days + cycloferon liniment applied topically on the eruptions twice a day for 5 days) was 85% or 25% higher vs. the control. PMID:22856154

  20. Orbital apex syndrome secondary to herpes zoster virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Merino-Iglesias, Alexia; Montero, Javier Antonio; Calabuig-Goena, Maria; Giraldo-Agudelo, Luisa Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    A male patient with herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) presented with left exophthalmos, external and internal ophthalmoplegia and decreased visual acuity. A CT scan revealed myositis without significant compression of the optic nerve. Intravenous acyclovir and oral steroids were started with improvement of the symptoms and eventual complete recovery.Orbital apex syndrome is a rare complication of HZO. Multiple pathogenic mechanisms are involved, including a direct cytopathic effect of the virus as in the present case. Early diagnosis and therapy may lead to complete recovery of visual function. PMID:24614776

  1. Heat shock and herpes virus: enhanced reactivation without untargeted mutagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Lytle, C.D.; Carney, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    Enhanced reactivation of Ultraviolet-irradiated virus has been reported to occur in heat-shocked host cells. Since enhanced virus reactivation is often accompanied by untargeted mutagenesis, we investigated whether such mutagenesis would occur for herpes simplex virus (HSV) in CV-1 monkey kidney cells subjected to heat shock. In addition to expressing enhanced reactivation, the treated cells were transiently more susceptible to infection by unirradiated HSV. No mutagenesis of unirradiated HSV was found whether infection occurred at the time of increased susceptibility to infection or during expression of enhanced viral reactivation.

  2. Risk of herpes zoster in patients prescribed inhaled corticosteroids: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Little is known concerning risk factors for herpes zoster in the general population. We hypothesised that inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are a risk factor for herpes zoster especially among users of inhibitors of cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in their metabolism. Methods We identified a cohort of adult users of respiratory medications in the General Practice Research Database and carried out a nested case control analysis of inhaled corticosteroid use among 8900 new cases of herpes zoster and 88032 controls matching on age and calendar time. Results The adjusted odds ratio for the relationship between current use of ICS and the occurrence of herpes zoster was 1.00 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.94-1.07). There was no increase in risk of herpes zoster even at higher ICS doses; odds ratio 1.05 (95% CI, 0.96-1.14). Among subjects with concomitant prescriptions for an ICS and an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 3A4, the point estimate for the association between herpes zoster and the use of higher doses of inhaled corticosteroids was 1.23 (95% CI, 0.81-1.88). Conclusions The use of inhaled corticosteroids, even at high doses and in conjunction with inhibitors of their metabolism, was not a significant risk factor for the occurrence of herpes zoster in adults. PMID:22177425

  3. Current management and recommendations for access to antiviral therapy of herpes labialis

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Anthony; Griffiths, Paul; Leone, Peter; Mindel, Adrian; Patel, Rajul; Stanberry, Lawrence; Whitley, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Herpes labialis is a common skin infective condition, worldwide, which is primarily caused by HSV-1. Recurrent episodes of herpes labialis, also known as cold sores, can be frequent, painful, long-lasting and disfiguring for infected patients. At present, there are two types of antivirals for the treatment of herpes labialis, topical and oral, which are available over the counter or as prescription-only. The aim of antiviral therapy is to block viral replication to enable shortening the duration of symptoms and to accelerate healing of the lesions associated with herpes labialis. This review examines the evidence for the effectiveness of current topical and oral antivirals in the management of recurrent episodes of herpes labialis. In most countries, oral antivirals for herpes labialis are available as prescription-only. However, in early 2010, the oral antiviral famciclovir was reclassified from prescription-only medicine to pharmacist-controlled status in New Zealand. The benefits and risks associated with moving an antiviral therapy for herpes labialis from prescription-only to pharmacist-controlled status are reviewed here, and the implications for patients, general physicians and pharmacists are considered. PMID:21889905

  4. Exploiting Herpes Simplex Virus Entry for Novel Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Hadigal, Satvik; Shukla, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Herpes Simplex virus (HSV) is associated with a variety of diseases such as genital herpes and numerous ocular diseases. At the global level, high prevalence of individuals who are seropositive for HSV, combined with its inconspicuous infection, remains a cause for major concern. At the molecular level, HSV entry into a host cell involves multiple steps, primarily the interaction of viral glycoproteins with various cell surface receptors, many of which have alternate substitutes. The molecular complexity of the virus to enter a cell is also enhanced by the existence of different modes of viral entry. The availability of many entry receptors, along with a variety of entry mechanisms, has resulted in a virus that is capable of infecting virtually all cell types. While HSV uses a wide repertoire of viral and host factors in establishing infection, current therapeutics aimed against the virus are not as diversified. In this particular review, we will focus on the initial entry of the virus into the cell, while highlighting potential novel therapeutics that can control this process. Virus entry is a decisive step and effective therapeutics can translate to less virus replication, reduced cell death, and detrimental symptoms. PMID:23752649

  5. Valacyclovir. New indication: for genital herpes, simpler administration.

    PubMed Central

    1999-01-01

    Valacyclovir, the metabolic precursor of acyclovir, is now approved for treatment and prevention of genital infection with herpes simplex viruses. The clinical file is bulky and methodologically sound. For treatment of a first episode of genital herpes, a large comparative trial has shown that valacyclovir (1 g twice a day) is as effective as acyclovir (200 mg five times a day) when given for 10 days. For treating recurrences, two trials show that valacyclovir is as effective as acyclovir (200 mg five times a day) with a treatment period of 5 days. A daily dose of 1 g of valacyclovir is as effective as 2 g daily. Valacyclovir can be administered once a day. For prevention among patients with frequent recurrences, the efficacy of valacyclovir (500 mg/d in a single dose) has been proven in a placebo-controlled trial lasting 4 months. In these trials, valacyclovir and acyclovir were both well tolerated, with no major differences between the two drugs. PMID:10424269

  6. Unusual Initial Presentation of Herpes Simplex Virus as Inguinal Lymphadenopathy

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Sarah A.; Strickler, John G.

    2015-01-01

    Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are a common cause of inguinal lymphadenopathy. However, surgical excision of enlarged inguinal nodes is almost never performed to initially diagnose genital herpes simplex virus, due to the distinct external presentation of genital herpetic vesicles that usually occur with the first symptoms of infection. Therefore, the histologic and immunophenotypic features of HSV-associated inguinal lymphadenopathy are unfamiliar to most pathologists. The current report describes the lymph node pathology of two immunocompetent patients, whose initial HSV diagnosis was established through surgical excision of enlarged inguinal lymph nodes. Histologic examination showed features consistent with viral lymphadenopathy, including florid follicular hyperplasia, monocytoid B-cell hyperplasia, and paracortical hyperplasia without extensive necrosis. Immunohistochemical stains for HSV antigens, using polyclonal anti-HSV I and II antibodies, demonstrate strong immunoreactivity for HSV in a small number of cells in the subcapsular sinuses, especially in areas with monocytoid B-cell hyperplasia. Rare scattered HSV-positive cells also are identified in paracortical areas and germinal centers. We conclude that an initial diagnosis of genital HSV infection may be established by inguinal lymph node biopsy. PMID:25815228

  7. Herpes Virus Fusion and Entry: A Story with Many Characters

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Roselyn J.; Atanasiu, Doina; Cairns, Tina M.; Gallagher, John R.; Krummenacher, Claude; Cohen, Gary H.

    2012-01-01

    Herpesviridae comprise a large family of enveloped DNA viruses all of whom employ orthologs of the same three glycoproteins, gB, gH and gL. Additionally, herpesviruses often employ accessory proteins to bind receptors and/or bind the heterodimer gH/gL or even to determine cell tropism. Sorting out how these proteins function has been resolved to a large extent by structural biology coupled with supporting biochemical and biologic evidence. Together with the G protein of vesicular stomatitis virus, gB is a charter member of the Class III fusion proteins. Unlike VSV G, gB only functions when partnered with gH/gL. However, gH/gL does not resemble any known viral fusion protein and there is evidence that its function is to upregulate the fusogenic activity of gB. In the case of herpes simplex virus, gH/gL itself is upregulated into an active state by the conformational change that occurs when gD, the receptor binding protein, binds one of its receptors. In this review we focus primarily on prototypes of the three subfamilies of herpesviruses. We will present our model for how herpes simplex virus (HSV) regulates fusion in series of highly regulated steps. Our model highlights what is known and also provides a framework to address mechanistic questions about fusion by HSV and herpesviruses in general. PMID:22754650

  8. Rapid Detection of Herpes Viruses for Clinical Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane; Mehta, Satish

    2013-01-01

    There are eight herpes viruses that infect humans, causing a wide range of diseases resulting in considerable morbidity and associated costs. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a human herpes virus that causes chickenpox in children and shingles in adults. Approximately 1,000,000 new cases of shingles occur each year; post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) follows shingles in 100,000 to 200,000 people annually. PHN is characterized by debilitating, nearly unbearable pain for weeks, months, and even years. The onset of shingles is characterized by pain, followed by the zoster rash, leading to blisters and severe pain. The problem is that in the early stages, shingles can be difficult to diagnose; chickenpox in adults can be equally difficult to diagnose. As a result, both diseases can be misdiagnosed (false positive/negative). A molecular assay has been adapted for use in diagnosing VZV diseases. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay is a non-invasive, rapid, sensitive, and highly specific method for VZV DNA detection. It provides unequivocal results and can effectively end misdiagnoses. This is an approximately two-hour assay that allows unequivocal diagnosis and rapid antiviral drug intervention. It has been demonstrated that rapid intervention can prevent full development of the disease, resulting in reduced likelihood of PHN. The technology was extended to shingles patients and demonstrated that VZV is shed in saliva and blood of all shingles patients. The amount of VZV in saliva parallels the medical outcome.

  9. VP22 herpes simplex virus protein can transduce proteins into stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gabanyi, I; Lojudice, F H; Kossugue, P M; Rebelato, E; Demasi, M A; Sogayar, M C

    2013-02-01

    The type I herpes simplex virus VP22 tegument protein is abundant and well known for its ability to translocate proteins from one cell to the other. In spite of some reports questioning its ability to translocate proteins by attributing the results observed to fixation artifacts or simple attachment to the cell membrane, VP22 has been used to deliver several proteins into different cell types, triggering the expected cell response. However, the question of the ability of VP22 to enter stem cells has not been addressed. We investigated whether VP22 could be used as a tool to be applied in stem cell research and differentiation due to its capacity to internalize other proteins without altering the cell genome. We generated a VP22.eGFP construct to evaluate whether VP22 could be internalized and carry another protein with it into two different types of stem cells, namely adult human dental pulp stem cells and mouse embryonic stem cells. We generated a VP22.eGFP fusion protein and demonstrated that, in fact, it enters stem cells. Therefore, this system may be used as a tool to deliver various proteins into stem cells, allowing stem cell research, differentiation and the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells in the absence of genome alterations. PMID:23369972

  10. A 70-year-old woman with shingles: review of herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Whitley, Richard J

    2009-07-01

    Herpes zoster is a common late complication of varicella-zoster virus exposure and can be further complicated by postherpetic neuralgia. Ms A is a 70-year-old woman with shingles and Ramsay-Hunt syndrome who presented to the emergency department with a few days of earache followed by pain in the back of her head. Using her case as a springboard, the diagnosis, natural history, and treatment of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in immunocompetent older adults are reviewed, in addition to the effectiveness of the herpes zoster vaccine. PMID:19491172

  11. Guillain-Barre syndrome presenting with sensory disturbance following a herpes virus infection: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction We present a case of an unusual clinical manifestation of Guillain-Barre syndrome following a pre-existing herpes virus infection. Although there have been several reports describing the co-existence of herpes virus infection and Guillain-Barre syndrome, we undertook a more in-depth study of the cross-reactivity between herpes viruses and recommend a follow-up study based on serology tests. Case presentation A 39-year-old healthy Caucasian man with Guillain-Barre syndrome presented to our facility initially with sensory disturbance, followed by an atypical descending pattern of clinical progression. On physical examination, our patient showed hot and cold temperature sensory disturbance under the T4 vertebrae level, symmetrically diminished muscle power mainly to his lower limbs, blurred vision, a loss of taste and paresis and diminished reflexes of his lower limbs. Serology test results for common viruses on hospital admission were positive for cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin M, cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin G, herpes simplex virus immunoglobulin M, herpes simplex virus immunoglobulin G, Epstein-Barr virus immunoglobulin M, and varicella zoster virus immunoglobulin G, borderline for Epstein-Barr virus immunoglobulin G and negative for varicella zoster virus immunoglobulin M. At one month after hospital admission his test results were positive for cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin M, cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin G, herpes simplex virus immunoglobulin G, Epstein-Barr virus immunoglobulin G, varicella zoster virus immunoglobulin G, borderline for herpes simplex virus immunoglobulin M and negative for Epstein-Barr virus immunoglobulin M and varicella zoster virus immunoglobulin M. At his six month follow-up, tests were positive for cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin G, herpes simplex virus immunoglobulin M, herpes simplex virus immunoglobulin G, Epstein-Barr virus immunoglobulin G and varicella zoster virus immunoglobulin G and negative for cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin M, Epstein-Barr virus immunoglobulin M and varicella zoster virus immunoglobulin M. Conclusions The clinical manifestation of Guillain-Barre syndrome in our patient followed a combined herpes virus infection. The cross-reactivity between these human herpes viruses may have a pathogenic as well as evolutionary significance. Our patient showed seroconversion at an early stage of Epstein-Barr virus immunoglobulin M to immunoglobulin G antibodies, suggesting that Epstein-Barr virus might have been the cause of this syndrome. Even if this case is not the first of its kind to be reported, it may contribute to a better understanding of the disease and the cross-reaction mechanisms of herpes virus infections. This case report may have a broader clinical impact across more than one area of medicine, suggesting that cooperation between different specialties is always in the patient's best interest. PMID:22136568

  12. Clinical and biological differences between recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections

    SciTech Connect

    Straus, S.E. )

    1989-12-01

    The major features that distinguish recurrent herpes simplex virus infections from zoster are illustrated in this article by two case histories. The clinical and epidemiologic features that characterize recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections are reviewed. It is noted that herpesvirus infections are more common and severe in patients with cellular immune deficiency. Each virus evokes both humoral and cellular immune response in the course of primary infection. DNA hybridization studies with RNA probes labelled with sulfur-35 indicate that herpes simplex viruses persist within neurons, and that varicella-zoster virus is found in the satellite cells that encircle the neurons.

  13. Isolation of a protein kinase induced by herpes simplex virus type 1

    SciTech Connect

    Blue, W.T.; Stobbs, D.G.

    1981-04-01

    Researchers have isolated a new cyclic AMP-independent protein kinase activity induced in HeLa cells by infection with herpes simplex virus type 1. Induction of the enzyme does not occur in cells treated with cycloheximide at the time of infection, or in cells infected with UV-inactivated herpes simplex virus type 1. The amount of enzyme induced in infected cells is dependent upon the multiplicity of infection. An enzyme with identical properties to the appearing in infected HeLa cells is also induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 in BHK cells.

  14. Effects of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Glycoprotein Vaccines and CLDC Adjuvant on Genital Herpes Infection in the Guinea Pig

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, David I; Earwood, Julie D.; Bravo, Fernando J.; Cohen, Gary H; Eisenberg, Roselyn J; Clark, Jennifer R.; Fairman, Jeffrey; Cardin, Rhonda D.

    2011-01-01

    Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are common but results from vaccine trials with HSV-2 glycoprotein D (gD) have been disappointing. We therefore compared a similar HSV gD2 vaccine, to a further truncated gD2 vaccine, to a vaccine with gD2 plus gB2 and gH2/gL2 and to a vaccine with only gB2 and gH2/gL2 in a guinea pig model of genital herpes. All vaccines were administered with cationic liposome-DNA complexes (CLDC) as an adjuvant. All vaccines significantly decreased the severity of acute genital disease and vaginal virus replication compared to the placebo group. The majority of animals in all groups developed at least one episode of recurrent disease but the frequency of recurrent disease was significantly reduced by each vaccine compared to placebo. No vaccine was significantly more protective than gD2 alone for any of the parameters described above. No vaccine decreased recurrent virus shedding. When protection against acute infection of dorsal root ganglia and the spinal cord was evaluated all vaccines decreased the per cent of animal with detectable virus and the quantity of virus but again no vaccine was significantly more protective than another. Improvements in HSV-2 vaccines may require inclusion of more T cell targets, more potent adjuvants or live virus vaccines. PMID:21238569

  15. Effects of herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein vaccines and CLDC adjuvant on genital herpes infection in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, David I; Earwood, Julie D; Bravo, Fernando J; Cohen, Gary H; Eisenberg, Roselyn J; Clark, Jennifer R; Fairman, Jeffrey; Cardin, Rhonda D

    2011-03-01

    Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are common but results from vaccine trials with HSV-2 glycoprotein D (gD) have been disappointing. We therefore compared a similar HSV gD2 vaccine, to a further truncated gD2 vaccine, to a vaccine with gD2 plus gB2 and gH2/gL2 and to a vaccine with only gB2 and gH2/gL2 in a guinea pig model of genital herpes. All vaccines were administered with cationic liposome-DNA complexes (CLDC) as an adjuvant. All vaccines significantly decreased the severity of acute genital disease and vaginal virus replication compared to the placebo group. The majority of animals in all groups developed at least one episode of recurrent disease but the frequency of recurrent disease was significantly reduced by each vaccine compared to placebo. No vaccine was significantly more protective than gD2 alone for any of the parameters described above. No vaccine decreased recurrent virus shedding. When protection against acute infection of dorsal root ganglia and the spinal cord was evaluated all vaccines decreased the per cent of animal with detectable virus and the quantity of virus but again no vaccine was significantly more protective than another. Improvements in HSV-2 vaccines may require inclusion of more T cell targets, more potent adjuvants or live virus vaccines. PMID:21238569

  16. Efficacy Results of a Trial of a Herpes Simplex Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Belshe, Robert B.; Leone, Peter A.; Bernstein, David I.; Wald, Anna; Levin, Myron J.; Stapleton, Jack T.; Gorfinkel, Iris; Morrow, Rhoda L. Ashley; Ewell, Marian G.; Stokes-Riner, Abbie; Dubin, Gary; Heineman, Thomas C.; Schulte, Joann M.; Deal, Carolyn D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Two previous studies of a herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) subunit vaccine containing glycoprotein D in HSV-discordant couples revealed 73% and 74% efficacy against genital disease in women who were negative for both HSV type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 antibodies. Efficacy was not observed in men or HSV-1 seropositive women. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind efficacy field trial involving 8323 women 18 to 30 years of age who were negative for antibodies to HSV-1 and HSV-2. At months 0, 1, and 6, some subjects received the investigational vaccine, consisting of 20 μg of glycoprotein D from HSV-2 with alum and 3-O-deacylated monophosphoryl lipid A as an adjuvant; control subjects received the hepatitis A vaccine, at a dose of 720 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) units. The primary end point was occurrence of genital herpes disease due to either HSV-1 or HSV-2 from month 2 (1 month after dose 2) through month 20. Results The HSV vaccine was associated with an increased risk of local reactions as compared with the control vaccine, and it elicited ELISA and neutralizing antibodies to HSV-2. Overall, the vaccine was not efficacious; vaccine efficacy was 20% (95% confidence interval [CI], −29 to 50) against genital herpes disease. However, efficacy against HSV-1 genital disease was 58% (95% CI, 12 to 80). Vaccine efficacy against HSV-1 infection (with or without disease) was 35% (95% CI, 13 to 52), but efficacy against HSV-2 infection was not observed (−8%; 95% CI, −59 to 26). Conclusions In a study population that was representative of the general population of HSV-1– and HSV-2–seronegative women, the investigational vaccine was effective in preventing HSV-1 genital disease and infection but not in preventing HSV-2 disease or infection. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and GlaxoSmithKline; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00057330.) PMID:22216840

  17. Transmission of herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in rugby players.

    PubMed

    White, W B; Grant-Kels, J M

    1984-07-27

    Skin infections, both bacterial and viral, are endemic in contact sports such as wrestling and rugby football. In this report, we describe four cases of extensive cutaneous herpes simplex virus in players on a rugby team. All players had a prodrome of fever, malaise, and anorexia with a weight loss of 3.6 to 9.0 kg. Two players experienced ocular lesions associated with cutaneous vesicular lesions of the face. A third player, who had herpetic lesions on his lower extremity, experienced paresthesias, weakness, and intermittent urinary retention and constipation. All infected players on the team were forwards or members of the "scrum," which suggests a field-acquired infection analogous to the herpetic infections seen in wrestlers (herpes gladiatorum). Considering the serious sequelae of recurrent herpes simplex keratitis, the traumatic skin lesions in rugby football players should be cultured for herpes virus, and infected individuals should be restricted from playing until crusted lesions have disappeared. PMID:6737650

  18. Herpes Simplex Virus Sepsis in a Young Woman with Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    Haag, Lea-Maxie; Hofmann, Jrg; Kredel, Lea Isabell; Holzem, Christina; Khl, Anja A; Taube, Eliane T; Schubert, Stefan; Siegmund, Britta; Epple, Hans-Jrg

    2015-12-01

    We present the case of a herpes simplex virus-1 [HSV-1] sepsis with severe herpes hepatitis in a young female treated with triple immunosuppressive therapy [adalimumab, azathioprine, prednisolone] for refractory Crohn's disease [CD]. The patient presented with high fever, generalised abdominal tenderness, strongly elevated transaminases, coagulopathy, and pancytopenia. Comprehensive diagnostics including blood HSV-1 polymerase chain reaction [PCR], liver biopsy, and immunohistochemistry revealed the diagnosis of fulminant herpes hepatitis. HSV-1 positivity of cutaneous lesions proved the disseminated nature of the infection. Early treatment with intravenous acyclovir led to a rapid improvement of the patient's condition and resulted in a full recovery of her liver function. This is the first reported case of HSV-sepsis in a patient with CD. Physicians treating inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] patients with combined immunosuppressive therapy should be aware of the possibility of herpes hepatitis, and early empirical antiviral therapy should be considered in immunosuppressed patients presenting with fever and severe anicteric hepatitis. PMID:26351382

  19. Immunization against Genital Herpes with a Vaccine Virus That has Defects in Productive and Latent Infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, Xavier J.; Jones, Cheryl A.; Knipe, David M.

    1999-06-01

    An effective vaccine for genital herpes has been difficult to achieve because of the limited efficacy of subunit vaccines and the safety concerns about live viruses. As an alternative approach, mutant herpes simplex virus strains that are replication-defective can induce protective immunity. To increase the level of safety and to prove that replication was not needed for immunization, we constructed a mutant herpes simplex virus 2 strain containing two deletion mutations, each of which eliminated viral replication. The double-mutant virus induces protective immunity that can reduce acute viral shedding and latent infection in a mouse genital model, but importantly, the double-mutant virus shows a phenotypic defect in latent infection. This herpes vaccine strain, which is immunogenic but has defects in both productive and latent infection, provides a paradigm for the design of vaccines and vaccine vectors for other sexually transmitted diseases, such as AIDS.

  20. Reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus infection of the autonomic nervous system by postganglionic neurectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Price, R W; Schmitz, J

    1978-01-01

    Latent herpes simplex virus infection of the superior cervical autonomic ganglion was reactivated in vivo by postganglionic neurectomy. Two methods were used to demonstrate viral reactivation: (i) recovery of infectious herpes simplex virus in ganglion homogenates and (ii) acceleration of virus expression in ganglion explants in culture. Both the percentage of mice exhibiting reactivated ganglion infection and the viral titers detected in ganglia increased when neurectomized mice were treated with cyclophosphamide. Antithymocyte serum treatment prolonged the time course over which neurectomy-induced virus could be detected, but neither antithymocyte serum nor cyclophosphamide reactivated herpes simplex virus in the absence of neurectomy. These results demonstrate that postganlionic neurectomy provides a specific stimulus for herpes simplex virus reactivation and that cell-mediated immune defense are involved in the highly efficient elimination of reactivated virus from the ganglion in vivo. PMID:204579

  1. Disseminated herpes zoster ophthalmicus in an immunocompetent 8-year old boy.

    PubMed

    Oladokun, Regina Eziuka; Olomukoro, Chikodili N; Owa, Adewale B

    2013-08-01

    Varicella results from a primary infection with the varicella virus while herpes zoster is caused by a reactivation of a latent infection. Dissemination of herpes zoster is uncommon in immunocompetent individuals. Reports of disseminated herpes zoster in children are even less common than in adults. An unusual case of disseminated herpes zoster ophthalmicus in an 8-year old immunocompetent black boy is presented. He had a previous primary Varicella zoster virus infection at three years of age. In the current report, he presented during an on-going chicken pox outbreak and survived with no significant complications. A breakthrough varicella virus re-infection or a reactivation is possible, both of which could present as zoster. This case emphasizes the need for prevention of varicella virus infection through universal childhood immunization and effective infection control strategies in health care settings. PMID:24765504

  2. PARAMETERS DISTINGUISHING HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS TYPE 2-TRANSFORMED TUMORIGENIC AND NONTUMORIGENIC RAT CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A newly developed experimental model system was used to determine in vitro transformation-specific parameters which correlate with tumorigenicity. The data suggested that clonal herpes simplex virus type 2-transformed syngeneic rat embryo cells with intermediate, transformed rat ...

  3. Legal and Moral Considerations in Educating Children with Herpes in Public School Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guess, Doug; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The article examines legal and moral implications in providing classroom education to children with herpes. Conclusions suggest the integration of the child into educationally appropriate programs during the disease's inactive stage. (CL)

  4. Reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus infection by ultraviolet light: a human model

    SciTech Connect

    Perna, J.J.; Mannix, M.L.; Rooney, J.F.; Notkins, A.L.; Straus, S.E.

    1987-09-01

    Infection with herpes simplex virus often results in a latent infection of local sensory ganglia and a disease characterized by periodic viral reactivation and mucocutaneous lesions. The factors that trigger reactivation in humans are still poorly defined. In our study, five patients with documented histories of recurrent herpes simplex virus infection on the buttocks or sacrum were exposed to three times their minimal erythema dose of ultraviolet light. Site-specific cutaneous herpes simplex virus infection occurred at 4.4 +/- 0.4 days after exposure to ultraviolet light in 8 of 13 attempts at reactivation. We conclude that ultraviolet light can reactivate herpes simplex virus under experimentally defined conditions. This model in humans should prove useful in evaluating the pathophysiology and prevention of viral reactivation.

  5. Serologic screening for herpes simplex virus type 2 in persons with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Van Wagoner, Nicholas J; Morrow, Rhoda; Lee, Jeannette; Dixon, Paula; Hook, Edward W

    2013-08-01

    Screening for subclinical herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) may be a useful adjunct in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care. However, HSV-2 serological tests have been suggested to perform less well in HIV-infected populations. In this study, HerpeSelect HSV-2 ELISA was compared with the Sure-Vue Rapid HSV-2 Test for HSV-2 screening of sera from 310 HIV-infected persons receiving care at an HIV-dedicated clinic in the Southeastern United States. In the study, assay agreement and whether the performance of both tests, rather than 1 test alone, would improve screening accuracy were determined. Overall percent test agreement was 96%. Negative percent agreement was best at a HerpeSelect index value <0.90 and positive percent agreement was best at a HerpeSelect index value ≥3.0 (97% and 100%, respectively). Using the manufacturer's established cutoffs for a HerpeSelect positive test result versus negative test result, discordant results between assays occurred in 4% of the cases, and the majority of these cases occurred when the HerpeSelect index value was between 0.9 and 2.9. These data suggest a good correlation between the HerpeSelect and the Sure-Vue HSV-2 Rapid Test in a U.S. HIV-infected population and suggest that confirmatory testing may not help in HSV-2 diagnosis except in cases where HerpeSelect index values are between 0.9 and 3.0. PMID:23154653

  6. Atypical oral presentation of herpes simplex virus infection in a patient after orthotopic liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Burke, E M; Karp, D L; Wu, T C; Corio, R L

    1994-01-01

    An atypical oral presentation of herpes simplex virus infection in a 49-year-old woman after orthotopic liver transplantation is reported. Clinically, the differential diagnosis included chronic hyperplastic candidiasis, nodular leukoplakia of undetermined etiology, and malignant neoplasm. An excisional biopsy revealed herpesvirus infection, and immunoperoxidase staining confirmed herpes simplex virus infection. This report describes the clinical and histologic appearance of these lesions and the course and treatment of the patient. PMID:7986503

  7. Epstein-Barr virus encephalitis mimicking clinical and electroencephalographic characteristics of herpes simplex encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Chadaide, Zoltan; Voros, Erika; Horvath, Szatmar

    2008-11-01

    A rare case of EBV encephalitis initially diagnosed as Herpes simplex infection is presented to highlight the importance of EBV specific intrathecal ELISA and liquor PCR based differential diagnosis when Herpes simplex encephalitis specific clinical symptoms, neuroimaging signs and electroencephalographic features are present. The case report also suggests that acyclovir treatment might be beneficial for the long term outcome in adult EBV encephalitis patients. PMID:18814244

  8. New-Onset Refractory Status Epilepticus Mimicking Herpes Virus Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Puoti, Gianfranco; Elefante, Andrea; Saracino, Dario; Capasso, Antonella; Cotrufo, Roberto; Anello, Clara Belluomo

    2013-01-01

    New-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE) is a recently defined clinical entity that describes patients who present with status epilepticus of unclear etiology that is highly refractory to therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of NORSE usually discloses no specific abnormalities except for an occasional mild T2/FLAIR hyperintense signal of the mesial temporal lobe. Here, we report a peculiar case of NORSE in which brain MRI showed massive alteration of both temporal lobes, with features strongly supporting the diagnosis of herpes virus encephalitis, but lacking any laboratory evidence of viral infection in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid. It showed also striking signal alterations in the thalamus, which got worse in the course of the disease. This report emphasizes the possibility that seizure activity alone plays a critical role in both determining the disease and whether it will be self-sustaining. PMID:24163672

  9. New-onset refractory status epilepticus mimicking herpes virus encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Puoti, Gianfranco; Elefante, Andrea; Saracino, Dario; Capasso, Antonella; Cotrufo, Roberto; Anello, Clara Belluomo

    2013-01-01

    New-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE) is a recently defined clinical entity that describes patients who present with status epilepticus of unclear etiology that is highly refractory to therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of NORSE usually discloses no specific abnormalities except for an occasional mild T2/FLAIR hyperintense signal of the mesial temporal lobe. Here, we report a peculiar case of NORSE in which brain MRI showed massive alteration of both temporal lobes, with features strongly supporting the diagnosis of herpes virus encephalitis, but lacking any laboratory evidence of viral infection in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid. It showed also striking signal alterations in the thalamus, which got worse in the course of the disease. This report emphasizes the possibility that seizure activity alone plays a critical role in both determining the disease and whether it will be self-sustaining. PMID:24163672

  10. Herpes Simplex Virus Suppresses Necroptosis in Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hongyan; Omoto, Shinya; Harris, Philip A.; Finger, Joshua N.; Bertin, John; Gough, Peter J.; Kaiser, William J.; Mocarski, Edward S.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Herpes simplex virus (HSV)1 and HSV2 are significant human pathogens causing recurrent disease. During infection, HSV modulates cell death pathways using the large subunit (R1) of ribonucleotide reductase (RR) to suppress apoptosis by binding to and blocking Caspase 8. Here, we demonstrate that HSV1 and HSV2 R1 proteins (ICP6 and ICP10, respectively) also prevent necroptosis in human cells by inhibiting the interaction between receptor interacting protein kinase (RIP)1 and RIP3, a key step in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced necroptosis. We show that suppression of this cell death pathway requires an N-terminal RIP homotypic interaction motif (RHIM) within R1, acting in concert with the caspase 8-binding domain, which unleashes necroptosis independent of RHIM function. Thus, necroptosis is a human host defense pathway against two important viral pathogens that naturally subvert multiple death pathways via a single evolutionarily conserved gene product. PMID:25674983

  11. Disproportionate retrograde amnesia in a patient with herpes simplex encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Fujii, T; Yamadori, A; Endo, K; Suzuki, K; Fukatsu, R

    1999-12-01

    We describe a patient who developed a severe but temporally limited retrograde amnesia coupled with a relatively mild anterograde amnesia following herpes simplex encephalitis. The patient showed a profound retrograde amnesia for autobiographical events extending for about 10 years prior to the disease onset. Her knowledge about public events and famous persons was also impaired for this period. An MRI and SPECT demonstrated bilateral medial temporal pathology. This case represents a further instance of a relatively focal retrograde amnesia following brain damage. We review other reported cases with focal retrograde amnesia and consider theoretical and neuroanatomical accounts for the present case. Two factors may account for her amnesic patterns: a partial disruption of the store for premorbid binding codes (i.e., information that multimodal feature representations occurred synchronously); along with a relative preservation of the encoding process required to develop new synchronous codes. PMID:10656630

  12. Immunological Aspects of Acute and Recurrent Herpes Simplex Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Hus, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) belongs to the major causes of visual morbidity worldwide and available methods of treatment remain unsatisfactory. Primary infection occurs usually early in life and is often asymptomatic. Chronic visual impairment and visual loss are caused by corneal scaring, thinning, and vascularization connected with recurrent HSV infections. The pathogenesis of herpetic keratitis is complex and is still not fully understood. According to the current knowledge, corneal scarring and vascularization are the result of chronic inflammatory reaction against HSV antigens. In this review we discuss the role of innate and adaptive immunities in acute and recurrent HSV ocular infection and present the potential future targets for novel therapeutical options based on immune interventions. PMID:25276842

  13. Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis is a Trigger of Brain Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Armangue, Thas; Leypoldt, Frank; Mlaga, Ignacio; Raspall-Chaure, Miquel; Marti, Itxaso; Nichter, Charles; Pugh, John; Vicente-Rasoamalala, Monica; Lafuente-Hidalgo, Miguel; Macaya, Alfons; Ke, Michael; Titulaer, Maarten J; Hftberger, Romana; Sheriff, Heather; Glaser, Carol; Dalmau, Josep

    2014-01-01

    In five prospectively diagnosed patients with relapsing post-herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), NMDAR-antibodies were identified. Antibody synthesis started 14 weeks post-HSE, preceding the neurological relapse. Three of five patients improved post-immunotherapy, one spontaneously, and one has started to improve. Two additional patients with NMDAR-antibodies, 9 with unknown neuronal surface-antibodies, and one with NMDAR and unknown antibodies were identified during retrospective assessment of 34 HSE-patients; the frequency of autoantibodies increased over time (serum p=0.004, CSF p=0.04). The three retrospectively identified NMDAR-antibody positive patients also had evidence of relapsing post-HSE. Overall, these findings indicate that HSE triggers NMDAR-antibodies and potentially other brain autoimmunity. PMID:24318406

  14. Recombination Promoted by DNA Viruses: Phage ? to Herpes Simplex Virus

    PubMed Central

    Weller, Sandra K.; Sawitzke, James A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to explore recombination strategies in DNA viruses. Homologous recombination is a universal genetic process that plays multiple roles in the biology of all organisms, including viruses. Recombination and DNA replication are interconnected, with recombination being essential for repairing DNA damage and supporting replication of the viral genome. Recombination also creates genetic diversity, and viral recombination mechanisms have important implications for understanding viral origins as well as the dynamic nature of viral-host interactions. Both bacteriophage ? and herpes simplex virus (HSV) display high rates of recombination, both utilizing their own proteins and commandeering cellular proteins to promote recombination reactions. We focus primarily on ? and HSV, as they have proven amenable to both genetic and biochemical analysis and have recently been shown to exhibit some surprising similarities that will guide future studies. PMID:25002096

  15. Acute encephalomyelitis with multiple herpes viral reactivations during abatacept therapy.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Hideto; Takayama, Ayami; Ito, Takumi; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi

    2013-01-01

    To describe the case of a patient who had been receiving abatacept, a T-cell costimulatory molecule blocker for rheumatoid arthritis, and developed an acute encephalomyelitis associated with reactivation of the varicella zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV). A 61-year-old woman receiving abatacept therapy for rheumatoid arthritis developed a disturbance of consciousness. MRI indicated multifocal parenchymal lesions in the brainstem, supratentorial areas and cervical spinal cord. Although steroid therapy significantly improved the neurological symptoms and MRI findings, the patient died of sepsis aggravated by coinfection with a fungal infection. Retrospectively, a PCR assay revealed continued systemic reactivation of VZV, EBV and CMV. Acute encephalomyelitis may be associated with VZV EBV and CMV reactivation during abatacept therapy. Clinicians must be aware of the possibility of acute encephalomyelitis associated with herpes virus reactivation during abatacept therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:23667226

  16. New strategies against drug resistance to herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu-Chen; Feng, Hui; Lin, Yu-Chun; Guo, Xiu-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV), a member of the Herpesviridae family, is a significant human pathogen that results in mucocutaneous lesions in the oral cavity or genital infections. Acyclovir (ACV) and related nucleoside analogues can successfully treat HSV infections, but the emergence of drug resistance to ACV has created a barrier for the treatment of HSV infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. There is an urgent need to explore new and effective tactics to circumvent drug resistance to HSV. This review summarises the current strategies in the development of new targets (the DNA helicase/primase (H/P) complex), new types of molecules (nature products) and new antiviral mechanisms (lethal mutagenesis of Janus-type nucleosides) to fight the drug resistance of HSV. PMID:27025259

  17. Herpes simplex virus 1 induces de novo phospholipid synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Sutter, Esther; Oliveira, Anna Paula de; Tobler, Kurt; Schraner, Elisabeth M.; Sonda, Sabrina; Kaech, Andres; Lucas, Miriam S.; Ackermann, Mathias; Wild, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 capsids bud at nuclear membranes and Golgi membranes acquiring an envelope composed of phospholipids. Hence, we measured incorporation of phospholipid precursors into these membranes, and quantified changes in size of cellular compartments by morphometric analysis. Incorporation of [{sup 3}H]-choline into both nuclear and cytoplasmic membranes was significantly enhanced upon infection. [{sup 3}H]-choline was also part of isolated virions even grown in the presence of brefeldin A. Nuclei expanded early in infection. The Golgi complex and vacuoles increased substantially whereas the endoplasmic reticulum enlarged only temporarily. The data suggest that HSV-1 stimulates phospholipid synthesis, and that de novo synthesized phospholipids are inserted into nuclear and cytoplasmic membranes to i) maintain membrane integrity in the course of nuclear and cellular expansion, ii) to supply membrane constituents for envelopment of capsids by budding at nuclear membranes and Golgi membranes, and iii) to provide membranes for formation of transport vacuoles.

  18. The burden of disease of Herpes Zoster in Tuscany

    PubMed Central

    Levi, Miriam; Bellini, Irene; Capecchi, Leonardo; Pieri, Luca; Bechini, Angela; Boccalini, Sara; Callaioli, Silvia; Gasparini, Roberto; Panatto, Donatella; Tiscione, Emilia; Bonanni, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) is a disease caused by the reactivation of the latent α-herpes virus varicella zoster virus (VZV), for which, in Italy, a specific surveillance system does not exist, but around 200 000 cases are estimated each year. In older patients, who are at increased risk of developing HZ, symptoms are more severe and the chances to develop postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), the most severe complication, are substantially higher. A vaccine against HZ with demonstrated efficacy and an acceptable safety profile is now available and is recommended in Europe for adults >50 years. In anticipation of the possible introduction of an immunization programme for the elderly in Tuscany, the burden of disease caused by HZ and its complications was assessed through a retrospective analysis of the hospital discharge records between 2002 and 2012, using the ICD-9-CM 053 code. In the period 2002–2012, 4475 hospital admissions were registered with annual means of 368 hospitalizations and 39 day-hospital admissions. Most of the hospitalizations (68%) involved subjects > 65 years; the mean length of stay was 9.5 days. Slightly more than half (51.2%) of total hospital admissions were complicated cases. The most frequent were neurological complications (24.2% of total admissions), followed by ophthalmic complications (16.5%). Cases with neurological complications were those with the higher average length of stay and higher average costs for case. This study confirmed the epidemiological impact of HZ and its complications and the positive impact on morbidity that the introduction of the HZ vaccination could have in older age groups. PMID:25483534

  19. Detection of asymptomatic herpes simplex virus infections after vaccination.

    PubMed Central

    Ashley, R; Mertz, G J; Corey, L

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-two volunteers seronegative for antibodies to herpes simplex virus (HSV) were enrolled in a trial to determine tolerance and immunogenicity of an HSV-2 glycoprotein subunit vaccine. Vaccine was administered at days 0, 28, and 140, and sera were obtained on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 49, 56, 140, 147, and 365 for determination of HSV neutralizing antibody activity and antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC). Sera were also tested by immunoprecipitation of radiolabeled HSV-2-infected cell proteins and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to identify the viral proteins which elicited antibody responses in vaccine recipients. After vaccination two male volunteers presented with atypical first-episode genital herpes: patient 1 with a culture-negative genital lesion at day 53 and patient 3 with urethritis at day 68. Seroconversion to wild-type viral proteins not present in the vaccine was detectable by radioimmunoprecipitation-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis within 10 days in both patients. Two additional volunteers, one a sex contact of patient 1, seroconverted asymptomatically to nonvaccine proteins during the trial. All four vaccine breakthrough patients were indistinguishable from the other volunteers in the time required to develop neutralizing and ADCC antibodies, in the titer of these antibodies, and the time to seroconversion to gB and gD vaccine proteins. However, only one of the four breakthrough patients had antibodies to g80 (a complex of gC-2 and gE) after vaccination as compared with 15 of the other 18 volunteers (P = 0.05). Neither neutralizing antibody nor ADCC titers consistently identified acquisition of wild-type viral infection; therefore, protein-specific serologies were required to detect wild-type antibodies in these four patients. These data underscore the importance of using serologic assays which will distinguish naturally acquired infection from the immune response to vaccination. Images PMID:3806788

  20. Herpes Zoster as a Predictor of HIV Infection in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yuan-Ti; Nfor, Oswald Ndi; Tantoh, Disline Manli; Huang, Jing-Yang; Ku, Wen-Yuan; Hsu, Shu-Yi; Ko, Pei-Chieh; Hung, Hung-Chang; Jan, Cheng-Feng; Liaw, Yung-Po

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between herpes zoster (HZ) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Data were retrieved from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Databases (LHID 2005 and 2010), Taiwan. The International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification [ICD-9-CM] codes were used to identify Hz from 2001–2004. Identification of HIV infection was from 2005–2010. The hazard ratios of HIV among herpes zoster infected and non-herpes zoster infected patients were estimated using multiple Cox proportional hazard model. In general, 19685 participants were identified with Hz. The HIV incidence rates (per 104 person-months) in herpes zoster infected and non-infected patients were 0.191(95% CI 0.130–0.280) and 0.079 (95% CI 0.074–0.084), respectively while the hazard ratio (HR) of HIV among infected individuals was 3.518 (95% CI 2.375–5.211). This study concludes that herpes zoster could be considered as a predictor of HIV infection especially among Asian populations, hence it is vital to test herpes zoster infected individuals for HIV antibodies. PMID:26535574

  1. Isolation of a new herpes virus from human CD4 sup + T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Frenkel, N.; Schirmer, E.C.; Wyatt, L.S.; Katsafanas, G.; Roffman, E.; Danovich, R.M. ); June, C.H. )

    1990-01-01

    A new human herpes virus has been isolated from CD4{sup +} T cells purified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a healthy individual (RK), following incubation of the cells under conditions promoting T-cell activation. The virus could not be recovered from nonactivated cells. Cultures of lymphocytes infected with the RK virus exhibited a cytopathic effect, and electron microscopic analyses revealed a characteristic herpes virus structure. RK virus DNA did not hybridize with large probes derived from herpes simplex virus, Epstein-Barr virus, varicella-zoster virus, and human cytomegalovirus. The genetic relatedness of the RK virus to the recently identified T-lymphotropic human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6) was investigated by restriction enzyme analyses using 21 different enzymes and by blot hydridization analyses using 11 probes derived from two strains of HHV-6 (Z29 and U1102). Whereas the two HHV-6 strains exhibited only limited restriction enzyme polymorphism, cleavage of the RK virus DNA yielded distinct patterns. Of the 11 HHV-6 DNA probes tested, only 6 cross-hybridized with DNA fragments derived from the RK virus. Taken together, the maximal homology amounted to 31 kilobases of the 75 kilobases tested. The authors conclude that the RK virus is distinct from previously characterized human herpesviruses. The authors propose to designate it as the prototype of a new herpes virus, the seventh human herpes virus identified to date.

  2. Crossing simple resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, T.

    1985-08-01

    A simple criterion governs the beam distortion and/or loss of protons on a fast resonance crossing. Results from numerical integrations are illustrated for simple sextupole, octupole, and 10-pole resonances.

  3. Disease burden of herpes zoster in Sweden - predominance in the elderly and in women - a register based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The herpes zoster burden of disease in Sweden is not well investigated. There is no Swedish immunization program to prevent varicella zoster virus infections. A vaccine against herpes zoster and its complications is now available. The aim of this study was to estimate the herpes zoster burden of disease and to establish a pre-vaccination baseline of the minimum incidence of herpes zoster. Methods Data were collected from the Swedish National Health Data Registers including the Patient Register, the Pharmacy Register, and the Cause of Death Register. The herpes zoster burden of disease in Sweden was estimated by analyzing the overall, and age and gender differences in the antiviral prescriptions, hospitalizations and complications during 2006-2010 and mortality during 2006-2009. Results Annually, 270 per 100,000 persons received antiviral treatment for herpes zoster, and the prescription rate increased with age. It was approximately 50% higher in females than in males in the age 50+ population (rate ratio 1.39; 95% CI, 1.22 to 1.58). The overall hospitalization rate for herpes zoster was 6.9/100,000 with an approximately three-fold increase for patients over 80 years of age compared to the age 70-79 group. A gender difference in hospitalization rates was observed: 8.1/100,000 in females and 5.6/100,000 in males. Herpes zoster, with a registered complication, was found in about one third of the hospitalized patients and the most common complications involved the peripheral and central nervous systems. Death due to herpes zoster was a rare event. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate the significant burden of herpes zoster disease in the pre-zoster vaccination era. A strong correlation with age in the herpes zoster- related incidence, hospitalization, complications, and mortality rates was found. In addition, the study provides further evidence of the female predominance in herpes zoster disease. PMID:24330510

  4. The Challenges and Opportunities for Development of a T-Cell Epitope-Based Herpes Simplex Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Tiffany; Wang, Christine; Badakhshan, Tina; Chilukuri, Sravya; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2014-01-01

    The infections with herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 & HSV-2) have been prevalent since the ancient Greek times. To this day, they still affect a staggering number of over a half billion individuals worldwide. HSV-2 infections cause painful genital herpes, encephalitis, and death in newborns. HSV-1 infections are more prevalent than HSV-2 infections and cause potentially blinding ocular herpes, oro-facial herpes and encephalitis. While genital herpes in mainly caused by HSV-2 infections, in recent years, there is an increase in the proportion of genital herpes caused by HSV-1 infections in young adults, which reach 50% in some western societies. While prophylactic and therapeutic HSV vaccines remain urgently needed for centuries their development has been notoriously difficult. During the most recent National Institute of Health (NIH) workshop titled "Next Generation Herpes Simplex Virus Vaccines: The Challenges and Opportunities", basic researchers, funding agencies, and pharmaceutical representatives gathered: (i) to assess the status of herpes vaccine research; and (ii) to identify the gaps and propose alternative approaches in developing a safe and efficient herpes vaccine. One common denominator among previously failed clinical herpes vaccine trials is that they either used a whole virus or whole viral proteins, which contain both pathogenic symptomatic and protective asymptomatic antigens/epitopes. In this report, we continue to advocate that using an asymptomatic epitope-based vaccine strategy that selectively incorporates protective epitopes which: (i) are exclusively recognized, in vitro, by effector memory CD4+ and CD8+ TEM cells from naturally protected seropositive asymptomatic individuals; and (ii) protect, in vivo, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) transgenic animal models from ocular and genital herpes infections and diseases, could be the answer to many of the scientific challenges facing HSV vaccine development. We review the role of animal models in herpes vaccine development and discuss its current status, challenges, and prospects. PMID:25446827

  5. SIMPLE: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endres, Frank L.

    Symbolic Interactive Matrix Processing Language (SIMPLE) is a conversational matrix-oriented source language suited to a batch or a time-sharing environment. The two modes of operation of SIMPLE are conversational mode and programing mode. This program uses a TAURUS time-sharing system and cathode ray terminals or teletypes. SIMPLE performs all…

  6. Pan-HSV-2 IgG Antibody in Vaccinated Mice and Guinea Pigs Correlates with Protection against Herpes Simplex Virus 2

    PubMed Central

    Halford, William P.; Geltz, Joshua; Gershburg, Edward

    2013-01-01

    We lack a correlate of immunity to herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) that may be used to differentiate whether a HSV-2 vaccine elicits robust or anemic protection against genital herpes. This gap in knowledge is often attributed to a failure to measure the correct component of the adaptive immune response to HSV-2. However, efforts to identify a correlate of immunity have focused on subunit vaccines that contain less than 3% of HSV-2's 40,000-amino-acid proteome. We were interested to determine if a correlate of immunity might be more readily identified if 1. animals were immunized with a polyvalent immunogen such as a live virus and/or 2. the magnitude of the vaccine-induced immune response was gauged in terms of the IgG antibody response to all of HSV-2's antigens (pan-HSV-2 IgG). Pre-challenge pan-HSV-2 IgG levels and protection against HSV-2 were compared in mice and/or guinea pigs immunized with a gD-2 subunit vaccine, wild-type HSV-2, or one of several attenuated HSV-2 ICP0− viruses (0Δ254, 0Δ810, 0ΔRING, or 0ΔNLS). These six HSV-2 immunogens elicited a wide range of pan-HSV-2 IgG levels spanning an ∼500-fold range. For 5 of the 6 immunogens tested, pre-challenge levels of pan-HSV-2 IgG quantitatively correlated with reductions in HSV-2 challenge virus shedding and increased survival frequency following HSV-2 challenge. Collectively, the results suggest that pan-HSV-2 IgG levels may provide a simple and useful screening tool for evaluating the potential of a HSV-2 vaccine candidate to elicit protection against HSV-2 genital herpes. PMID:23755244

  7. Nelfinavir Inhibits Maturation and Export of Herpes Simplex Virus 1

    PubMed Central

    Kalu, Nene N.; Desai, Prashant J.; Shirley, Courtney M.; Gibson, Wade; Dennis, Phillip A.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nelfinavir (NFV) is an HIV-1 protease inhibitor with demonstrated antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and several other herpesviruses. However, the stages of HSV-1 replication inhibited by NFV have not been explored. In this study, we investigated the effects of NFV on capsid assembly and envelopment. We confirmed the inhibitory effects of NFV on HSV-1 replication by plaque assay and found that treatment with NFV did not affect capsid assembly, activity of the HSV-1 maturational protease, or formation of DNA-containing capsids in the nucleus. Confocal and electron microscopy studies showed that these capsids were transported to the cytoplasm but failed to complete secondary envelopment and subsequent exit from the cell. Consistent with the microscopy results, a light-scattering band corresponding to enveloped virions was not evident following sucrose gradient rate-velocity separation of lysates from drug-treated cells. Evidence of a possibly related effect of NFV on viral glycoprotein maturation was also discovered. NFV also inhibited the replication of an HSV-1 thymidine kinase mutant resistant to nucleoside analogues such as acyclovir. Given that NFV is neither a nucleoside mimic nor a known inhibitor of nucleic acid synthesis, this was expected and suggests its potential as a coinhibitor or alternate antiviral therapeutic agent in cases of resistance. IMPORTANCE Nelfinavir (NFV) is a clinically important antiviral drug that inhibits production of infectious HIV. It was reported to inhibit herpesviruses in cell culture. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infections are common and often associated with several diseases. The studies we describe here confirm and extend earlier findings by investigating how NFV interferes with HSV-1 replication. We show that early steps in virus formation (e.g., assembly of DNA-containing capsids in the nucleus and their movement into the cytoplasm) appear to be unaffected by NFV, whereas later steps (e.g., final envelopment in the cytoplasm and release of infectious virus from the cell) are severely restricted by the drug. Our findings provide the first insight into how NFV inhibits HSV-1 replication and suggest that this drug may have applications for studying the herpesvirus envelopment process. Additionally, NFV may have therapeutic value alone or in combination with other antivirals in treating herpesvirus infections. PMID:24574416

  8. Simple pulmonary eosinophilia

    MedlinePLUS

    Pulmonary infiltrates with eosinophilia; Loffler syndrome; Eosinophilic pneumonia; Pneumonia - eosinophilic ... simple pulmonary eosinophilia is a severe type of pneumonia called acute idiopathic eosinophilic pneumonia.

  9. New helicase-primase inhibitors as drug candidates for the treatment of herpes simplex disease.

    PubMed

    Kleymann, Gerald; Fischer, Rdiger; Betz, Ulrich A K; Hendrix, Martin; Bender, Wolfgang; Schneider, Udo; Handke, Gabriele; Eckenberg, Peter; Hewlett, Guy; Pevzner, Veniamin; Baumeister, Judith; Weber, Olaf; Henninger, Kerstin; Keldenich, Jrg; Jensen, Axel; Kolb, Jrg; Bach, Ute; Popp, Andreas; Mben, Jutta; Frappa, Isabelle; Haebich, Dieter; Lockhoff, Oswald; Rbsamen-Waigmann, Helga

    2002-04-01

    The vast majority of the world population is infected with at least one member of the human herpesvirus family. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are the cause of cold sores and genital herpes as well as life-threatening or sight-impairing disease mainly in immunocompromized patients, pregnant women and newborns. Since the milestone development in the late 1970s of acyclovir (Zovirax), a nucleosidic inhibitor of the herpes DNA polymerase, no new non-nucleosidic anti-herpes drugs have been introduced. Here we report new inhibitors of the HSV helicase-primase with potent in vitro anti-herpes activity, a novel mechanism of action, a low resistance rate and superior efficacy against HSV in animal models. BAY 57-1293 (N-[5-(aminosulfonyl)-4-methyl-1,3-thiazol-2-yl]-N-methyl-2-[4-(2-pyridinyl)phenyl]acetamide), a well-tolerated member of this class of compounds, significantly reduces time to healing, prevents rebound of disease after cessation of treatment and, most importantly, reduces frequency and severity of recurrent disease. Thus, this class of drugs has significant potential for the treatment of HSV disease in humans, including those resistant to current medications. PMID:11927946

  10. Characterization of an ERAD pathway for non-glycosylated BiP substrates which requires Herp

    PubMed Central

    Okuda-Shimizu, Yuki; Hendershot, Linda M.

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY To investigate the disposal of non-glycosylated BiP substrates, we used a non-secreted ? LC, which exists in a partially (ox1) and completely (ox2) oxidized state. The ox2 form is partially reduced in order to be degraded and only the ox1 form is ubiquitinated and associates with both Herp, and Derlin-1. Herp is in a complex with ubiquitinated proteins and with the 26S proteasome, suggesting that it plays a role in linking substrates with the proteasome. Over-expressed Herp also interacts with two other BiP substrates but not with two calnexin substrates. Either expression of p97 or Hrd1 mutants, which are in a complex with Herp and Derlin-1, or reducing Herp levels inhibited the degradation of the BiP substrates, whereas the latter had no effect on the degradation of the calnexin substrates. This suggests that there is some distinction in the pathways used to dispose of these two types of ERAD substrates. PMID:18042451

  11. Functional decline and herpes zoster in older people: an interplay of multiple factors.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    Herpes zoster is a frequent painful infectious disease whose incidence and severity increase with age. In older people, there is a strong bidirectional link between herpes zoster and functional decline, which refers to a decrement in ability to perform activities of daily living due to ageing and disabilities. However, the exact nature of such link remains poorly established. Based on the opinion from a multidisciplinary group of experts, we here propose a new model to account for the interplay between infection, somatic/psychiatric comorbidity, coping skills, polypharmacy, and age, which may account for the functional decline related to herpes zoster in older patients. This model integrates the risk of decompensation of underlying disease; the risk of pain becoming chronic (e.g. postherpetic neuralgia); the risk of herpes zoster non-pain complications; the detrimental impact of herpes zoster on quality of life, functioning, and mood; the therapeutic difficulties due to multimorbidity, polypharmacy, and ageing; and the role of stressful life events in the infection itself and comorbid depression. This model underlines the importance of early treatment, strengthening coping, and vaccine prevention. PMID:26440662

  12. The use of FTIR microscopy for evaluation of herpes viruses infection development kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erukhimovitch, Vitaly; Mukmanov, Igor; Talyshinsky, Marina; Souprun, Yelena; Huleihel, Mahmoud

    2004-08-01

    The kinetics of Herpes simplex infection development was studied using an FTIR microscopy (FTIR-M) method. The family of herpes viruses includes several members like H. simplex types I and II (HSV I, II), Varicella zoster (VZV) viruses which are involved in various human and animal infections of different parts of the body. In our previous study, we found significant spectral differences between normal uninfected cells in cultures and cells infected with herpes viruses at early stages of the infection. In the present study, cells in cultures were infected with either HSV-I or VZV and at various times post-infection they were examined either by optical microscopy or by advanced FTIR-M. Spectroscopic measurements show a consistent decrease in the intensity of the carbohydrate peak in correlation with the viral infection development, observed by optical microscopy. This decrease in cellular carbohydrate level was used as indicator for herpes viruses infection kinetics. This parameter could be used as a basis for applying a spectroscopic method for the evaluation of herpes virus infection development. Our results show also that the development kinetics of viral infection has an exponential character for these viruses.

  13. Acute herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia: effects of acyclovir and outcome of treatment with amitriptyline.

    PubMed Central

    Bowsher, D

    1992-01-01

    This retrospective study was designed to assess the effects of acyclovir treatment of acute herpes zoster on subsequent postherpetic neuralgia, and to examine the effects of amitriptyline in the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia. Eighty seven patients with postherpetic neuralgia of three or more months' duration were studied: 24 of them had had their herpes zoster treated with oral acyclovir. At first presentation, only 25% of the 24 patients who had had their herpes zoster treated with acyclovir selected the word group containing burning on the McGill pain questionnaire compared with 76% of the 63 patients who had not received acyclovir. A higher proportion of patients who had had acyclovir than had not selected the word group which contains the word aching (63% versus 49%). Acyclovir thus appears to change the nature of postherpetic neuralgia. Postherpetic neuralgia was treated with amitriptyline, alone or in combination with distigmine and/or sodium valproate. There was a strong correlation between pain relief and the interval between the occurrence of herpes zoster and the initiation of treatment with amitriptyline--early treatment is almost twice as likely to be successful as late. Since conventional analgesics and sympatholytic drugs are of no benefit in the treatment of established postherpetic neuralgia, the sequelae of herpes zoster must, therefore, be recognized and treated with amitriptyline as soon as possible. PMID:1419247

  14. To Test or Not to Test? Campus Health Officials Grapple with Questions about Screening Students for Genital Herpes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Elizabeth F.

    2005-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control, 17 percent of 20- to 29-year-olds are infected with genital herpes, one of the most common sexually-transmitted diseases in the United States. Because of lack or mildness of symptoms and the tendency to not test for herpes during routine medical exams, the disease can go undiagnosed and can easily be

  15. To Test or Not to Test? Campus Health Officials Grapple with Questions about Screening Students for Genital Herpes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Elizabeth F.

    2005-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control, 17 percent of 20- to 29-year-olds are infected with genital herpes, one of the most common sexually-transmitted diseases in the United States. Because of lack or mildness of symptoms and the tendency to not test for herpes during routine medical exams, the disease can go undiagnosed and can easily be…

  16. A Simple "Tubeless" Telescope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straulino, S.; Bonechi, L.

    2010-01-01

    Two lenses make it possible to create a simple telescope with quite large magnification. The set-up is very simple and can be reproduced in schools, provided the laboratory has a range of lenses with different focal lengths. In this article, the authors adopt the Keplerian configuration, which is composed of two converging lenses. This instrument,…

  17. Simple Machine Junk Cars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herald, Christine

    2010-01-01

    During the month of May, the author's eighth-grade physical science students study the six simple machines through hands-on activities, reading assignments, videos, and notes. At the end of the month, they can easily identify the six types of simple machine: inclined plane, wheel and axle, pulley, screw, wedge, and lever. To conclude this unit,…

  18. Simple Machine Junk Cars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herald, Christine

    2010-01-01

    During the month of May, the author's eighth-grade physical science students study the six simple machines through hands-on activities, reading assignments, videos, and notes. At the end of the month, they can easily identify the six types of simple machine: inclined plane, wheel and axle, pulley, screw, wedge, and lever. To conclude this unit,

  19. A Simple "Tubeless" Telescope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straulino, S.; Bonechi, L.

    2010-01-01

    Two lenses make it possible to create a simple telescope with quite large magnification. The set-up is very simple and can be reproduced in schools, provided the laboratory has a range of lenses with different focal lengths. In this article, the authors adopt the Keplerian configuration, which is composed of two converging lenses. This instrument,

  20. Upstream binding factor inhibits herpes simplex virus replication.

    PubMed

    Ouellet Lavalle, Gabriel; Pearson, Angela

    2015-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection induces changes to the host cell nucleus including relocalization of the cellular protein Upstream Binding Factor (UBF) from the nucleolus to viral replication compartments (VRCs). Herein, we tested the hypothesis that UBF is recruited to VRCs to promote viral DNA replication. Surprisingly, infection of UBF-depleted HeLa cells with HSV-1 or HSV-2 produced higher viral titers compared to controls. Reduced expression of UBF also led to a progressive increase in the relative amount of HSV-1 DNA versus controls, and increased levels of HSV-1 ICP27 and TK mRNA and protein, regardless of whether viral DNA replication was inhibited or not. Our results suggest that UBF can inhibit gene expression from viral DNA prior to its replication. A similar but smaller effect on viral titers was observed in human foreskin fibroblasts. This is the first report of UBF having a restrictive effect on replication of a virus. PMID:25965800

  1. Herpes zoster granulomatous dermatitis: histopathologic findings in a case series.

    PubMed

    Ferenczi, Katalin; Rosenberg, Arlene S; McCalmont, Timothy H; Kwon, Eun Ji; Elenitsas, Rosalie; Somach, Stephen C

    2015-10-01

    Several types of cutaneous reactions have been reported to arise at the site of herpes zoster (HZ) infection weeks to years after the acute disease. Among these, granulomatous reactions are the most frequently reported. In this study, we describe the spectrum of histopathologic findings of HZ granulomatous reactions observed in 26 patients with cutaneous lesions confined to the area of previous HZ eruption and compare them with biopsy specimens taken from 25 patients with acute HZ. All patients with persistent reactions from whom history was available presented within 12?weeks of the onset of the acute eruption. The most frequent findings were interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with lymphocytes, histiocytes and multinucleated giant cells displaying elastophagocytosis and a perineural, perivascular and perieccrine mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate rich in lymphocytes and plasma cells. Less common features included intra-arrector and peri-arrector pili granulomas, follicular dilatation and hyperkeratosis, and vasculitis. Specimens from patients with acute HZ were found to have small numbers of perineural plasma cells and most had subtle granulomatous inflammation, in patterns similar to the group with late granulomatous reactions. Our findings suggest that granulomatous reactions to varicella zoster virus represent a persistent evolving inflammatory reaction after acute infection. PMID:25970643

  2. Oncolytic herpes simplex virus vectors for cancer virotherapy.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Susan; Rabkin, Samuel D

    2002-12-01

    Oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) vectors are emerging as an effective and powerful therapeutic approach for cancer. Replication-competent HSV-1 vectors with mutations in genes that affect viral replication, neuropathogenicity, and immune evasiveness have been developed and tested for their safety and efficacy in a variety of mouse models. Evidence to-date following administration into the brain attests to their safety, an important observation in light of the neuropathogenicity of the virus. Phase I clinical traits of three vectors, G207, 1716, and NV1020, are either ongoing or completed, with no adverse events attributed to the virus. These and other HSV-1 vectors are effective against a myriad of solid tumors in mice, including glioma, melanoma, breast, prostate, colon, ovarian, and pancreatic cancer. Enhancement of activity was observed when HSV-1 vectors were used in combination with traditional therapies such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy, providing an attractive strategy to pursue in the clinic. Oncolytic HSV-1 vectors expressing "suicide" genes (thymidine kinase, cytosine deaminase, rat cytochrome P450) or immunostimulatory genes (IL-12, GM-CSF, etc.) have been constructed to maximize tumor destruction through multimodal therapeutic mechanisms. Further advances in virus delivery and tumor specificity should improve the likelihood for successful translation to the clinic. PMID:12522436

  3. Increased Risk of Herpes Zoster Following Dermatomyositis and Polymyositis

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Shin-Yi; Lin, Cheng-Li; Wong, Ying-Chi; Yang, Tse-Yen; Kuo, Chien-Feng; Cheng, Jiung-Mou; Wang, Jyh-Seng; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study explored the possible association between dermatomyositis or polymyositis (DM or PM) and the subsequent risk of herpes zoster (HZ). We used data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance (NHI) system to address the research topic. The exposure cohort comprised 2023 patients with new diagnoses of DM or PM. Each patient was frequency matched according to age, sex, index year, and comorbidities including diabetes, renal disease, obesity, malignancy, rheumatoid arthritis, immunodeficiency virus infection, autoimmune disease not elsewhere classified, mixed connective tissue disease, or vasculitis with 4 participants from the general population who did not have a history of HZ (control cohort). Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was conducted to estimate the relationship between DM or PM and the risk of subsequent HZ. The incidence of HZ in the exposure and control cohorts was 35.8 and 7.01 per 1000 person-years, respectively. The exposure cohort had a significantly higher overall risk of subsequent HZ than did the control cohort (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]?=?3.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?3.184.77). The risk of HZ in patients with DM or PM in whichever stratification (including sex, age, and comorbidity) was also higher than that of the control cohort. The findings from this population-based retrospective cohort study suggest that DM or PM is associated with an increased risk of subsequent HZ. A synergistic effect was observed between DM or PM and one of the comorbidities. PMID:26181551

  4. [Oncolytic virotherapy using replication-competent herpes simplex viruses].

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Yukihiro; Goshima, Fumi

    2007-06-01

    Oncolytic virotherapy using replication-competent viruses has attracted us as a new modality for cancer treatment. The fundamental concept of oncolytic virotherapy is that the viruses selectively replicate in and lyse tumor cells. Since 1997, numbers of clinical trials have been done in over 500 cancer patients. However, the results of those trials have been disappointing in most cases. We have isolated a spontaneously occurring herpes simplex virus type 1 mutant, designated HF10, which efficiently replicates and induces cell fusion in most transformed cells, but is highly attenuated in mice. HF10 has a number of deletions and insertions in the genome, resulting in the lack of the functional expression of UL43, UL49.5, UL55, UL56 and latency-associated transcripts. We have found that HF10 can be used as an oncolytic virus for treatment of malignant tumors in various animal models. Clinical trials have shown that intratumoral injection of HF10 can induce extensive tumor cell death in patients with recurrent breast cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma without significant adverse effects. HF10 is a promising agent for use in oncolytic virotherapy in non-central nervous system malignancies. PMID:18040155

  5. Higher Throughput Quantification of Neutralizing Antibody to Herpes Simplex Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Blevins, Tamara P.; Mitchell, Michelle C.; Korom, Maria; Wang, Hong; Yu, Yinyi; Morrison, Lynda A.; Belshe, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    We report a rapid, higher throughput method for measuring neutralizing antibody to herpes simplex virus (HSV) in human sera. Clinical isolates and sera from the Herpevac Trial for Women were used in a colorimetric assay in which infection of tissue culture (lack of neutralization) was indicated by substrate metabolism by beta-galactosidase induced in the ELVIS cell line. The neutralization assay was optimized by addition of guinea pig complement, which particularly enhanced neutralizing antibody titers to HSV-2. Higher neutralizing antibody titers were also achieved using virus particles isolated from the supernatant of infected cells rather than lysate of infected cells as the source of virus. The effect of assay incubation time and incubation time with substrate were also optimized. We found that incubating with substrate until a standard optical density of 1.0 was reached permitted a better comparison among virus isolates, and achieved reliable measurement of neutralizing antibody activity. Interestingly, in contrast to results in the absence of complement, addition of complement allowed sera from HSV-2 gD-vaccinated subjects to neutralize HSV-1 and HSV-2 clinical and laboratory isolates with equal potency. PMID:26658766

  6. Treating shingles (herpes zoster) in the older person.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Jean

    2010-09-01

    Shingles is a common problem and will affect a fifth of the population at some time in their lives (Opstelten, 2005). It may occur at any age but the incidence and severity of the condition increases with age (Johnson et al, 2008). It is therefore likely that community nurses, in their day-to-day work with older people, will encounter the problem. If they are able to recognize it and arrange treatment in the earlier stages of its development, they will be in the position of helping to speed the resolution of the rash and reduce the debilitating consequences that may follow, in particular in the form of post-herpetic pain, which may affect the patient for weeks, months or even years after the active stage is over, visual complications following ophthalmic herpes zoster or zoster encephalitis that may be fatal. Apart from pain and future of the patient, the condition may require the disruptive and expensive option of hospital admission. The possibility of the introduction of a new vaccine, that would reduce the incidence of shingles, will also be discussed. PMID:20852521

  7. Impact of human herpes virus 6 in liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Razonable, Raymund R; Lautenschlager, Irmeli

    2010-09-27

    Human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6) infects > 95% of humans. Primary infection which occurs mostly during the first 2 years of life in the form of roseola infantum, non-specific febrile illness, or an asymptomatic illness, results in latency. Reactivation of latent HHV-6 is common after liver transplantation. Since the majority of human beings harbor the latent virus, HHV-6 infections after liver transplantation are most probably caused by endogenous reactivation or superinfection. In a minority of cases, primary HHV-6 infection may occur when an HHV-6-seronegative individual receives a liver allograft from an HHV-6-seropositive donor. The vast majority of HHV-6 infections after liver transplantation are asymptomatic. Only in a minority of cases, when HHV-6 causes a febrile illness associated with rash and myelosuppression, hepatitis, gastroenteritis, pneumonitis, and encephalitis after liver transplantation. In addition, HHV-6 has been implicated in a variety of indirect effects, such as allograft rejection and increased predisposition to and severity of other infections, including cytomegalovirus, hepatitis C virus, and opportunistic fungi. Because of the uncommon nature of the clinical illnesses directly attributed to HHV-6, there is currently no recommended HHV-6-specific approach prevention after liver transplantation. Asymptomatic HHV-6 infection does not require antiviral treatment, while treatment of established HHV-6 disease is treated with intravenous ganciclovir, foscarnet, or cidofovir and this should be complemented by a reduction in immunosuppression. PMID:21161019

  8. Cervical cancer: is herpes simplex virus type II a cofactor?

    PubMed Central

    Jones, C

    1995-01-01

    In many ways, cervical cancer behaves as a sexually transmitted disease. The major risk factors are multiple sexual partners and early onset of sexual activity. Although high-risk types of human papillomaviruses (HPV) play an important role in the development of nearly all cases of cervical cancer, other sexually transmitted infectious agents may be cofactors. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is transmitted primarily by sexual contact and therefore has been implicated as a risk factor. Several independent studies suggest that HSV-2 infections correlate with a higher than normal incidence of cervical cancer. In contrast, other epidemiological studies have concluded that infection with HSV-2 is not a major risk factor. Two separate transforming domains have been identified within the HSV-2 genome, but continued viral gene expression apparently is not necessary for neoplastic transformation. HSV infections lead to unscheduled cellular DNA synthesis, chromosomal amplifications, and mutations. These observations suggest that HSV-2 is not a typical DNA tumor virus. It is hypothesized that persistent or abortive infections induce permanent genetic alterations that interfere with differentiation of cervical epithelium and subsequently induce abnormal proliferation. Thus, HSV-2 may be a cofactor in some but not all cases of cervical cancer. PMID:8665469

  9. An unusual presentation of herpes simplex encephalitis with negative PCR.

    PubMed

    Buerger, Kelly J; Zerr, Kayleigh; Salazar, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A 74-year-old man presented with acute right-sided hemiparesis and epilepsia partialis continua in association with fever and confusion. Initial workup revealed possible cerebritis in the left medial frontal lobe without involvement of the temporal lobes. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealed minimal lymphocytic pleocytosis but negative real-time herpes simplex virus (HSV) PCR. Acyclovir was discontinued on day 5 due to a negative infectious workup and clinical improvement. On day 9 his condition deteriorated and he was transferred to a higher level of acuity for advanced supportive care. Worsening encephalopathy and refractory status epilepticus ensued despite medical care. Repeat CSF analysis showed mild lymphocytic pleocytosis with negative real-time HSV PCR. Brain MRI revealed progression of cortical enhancement. Immunosuppressive therapy and plasma exchange were attempted without clinical response. On day 24, another lumbar puncture showed only mild lymphocytic pleocytosis. Brain MRI showed involvement of the right medial temporal lobe. Subsequently, acyclovir was resumed. The HSV-1 PCR result was positive on day 30. Unfortunately, the patient expired. PMID:26243746

  10. JC polyomavirus reactivation is not associated with herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Jeong, B H; Park, S J; Koo, D W; Kim, Y S

    2006-01-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) is a neurocutaneous disease caused by Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) as a consequence of declined cell-mediated immunity, immune suppression and immunodeficiency. As reactivation of JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) might be linked with immunodeficiency or immunosuppressive therapy, the relationship between HZ and JCPyV reactivation was investigated. The incidence of JCPyV in urine samples from 102 patients with HZ and 100 healthy individuals from South Korea was determined by PCR. The incidence values for HZ patients and control individuals did not differ significantly (24.5% vs. 20.0%, respectively, P = 0.5391). When different age groups were monitored, the positivity values of 21.1%, 20.0%, and 30% were found for 20-39, 40-59 and over 60 year-old patients, respectively. In order to determine the genotype of JCPyV isolates, their VP1-large T antigen (VT)-intergenic region was PCR amplified, sequenced and analyzed. Three distinct types, namely 1, 2A and 7B were found in 8%, 24%, and 68% of were found among 25 isolates from HZ patients. Using phylogenetic analysis, the type 1 isolates were assigned to the 1C subtype. These results indicate that HZ does not play an important role in JCPyV reactivation and is not associated with JCPyV. PMID:16808330

  11. Reducing the burden of Herpes Zoster in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Gabutti, Giovanni; Franco, Elisabetta; Bonanni, Paolo; Conversano, Michele; Ferro, Antonio; Lazzari, Marzia; Maggi, Stefania; Rossi, Alessandro; Scotti, Silvestro; Vitale, Francesco; Volpi, Antonio; Greco, Donato

    2014-01-01

    Herpes Zoster (HZ) is a viral disease with painful neuro-dermatologic manifestations. Incidence increases with age. In Italy, the estimated incidence is 6.3 cases/1000 person/year; hospital admissions are less than 2%, 69% in patients aged over 65 years. The most frequent complication of HZ is Post-Herpetic Neuralgia (PHN) characterized by metameric pain, allodynia, and hyperalgesia. In Italy 20.6% and 9.2% of HZ patients experience PHN after 3 and 6 months, respectively. Available antiviral and analgesic treatments are relatively unsatisfactory in reducing pain and length of the disease. Prevention has recently become possible with the live attenuated vaccine Oka/Merck. Clinical studies show a reduction of 51% in the incidence of the disease, 61% of its burden and 67% of PHN in vaccinees. Protection seems to be long lasting and vaccine safety matches registration requirements. Available evidence suggests that the costs for QALY (less than € 20 000) and avoided cases is favorable. Due to the heavy burden of disease, it is time to offer this vaccination to elderly population. PMID:25483522

  12. [Herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia - prevention by vaccination?].

    PubMed

    Wutzler, P

    2009-04-01

    Herpes zoster is caused by reactivation of latent varicella-zoster virus (VZV), which had remained latent in the dorsal root or cranial nerve ganglia since the primary infection. The risk of developing zoster increases significantly with age, the vast majority of zoster cases occuring in persons over 50 years. The most frequent and debilitating complication of zoster in immunocompetent patients is postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). In the absence of antiviral therapy, clinical studies have found up to 30 - 45 % of persons over 60 years of age to experience pain persisting for more than 6 months. Systemic antiviral therapy is able to shorten the healing process of acute zoster and to prevent or alleviate pain and other complications, when given within 72 hours after appearance of the rash. About 20 % of patients older than 50 years continue to have pain six months after appearance of rash, despite antiviral treatment. A live attenuated VZV vaccine was licensed in Europe in 2006 for the prevention of zoster in individuals from the age of 60 years. Findings of a large clinical trial have shown that the zoster vaccine reduced the burden of illness caused by zoster among people 60 years of age or older by 61 % and the incidence of PHN by 67 %. Compared with controls, subjects who received the vaccine were 51 % less likely to develop zoster. PMID:19353479

  13. Evaluation of the economic burden of Herpes Zoster (HZ) infection

    PubMed Central

    Panatto, Donatella; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Rizzitelli, Emanuela; Bonanni, Paolo; Boccalini, Sara; Icardi, Giancarlo; Gasparini, Roberto; Amicizia, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the economic burden of Herpes Zoster (HZ) infection. The review was conducted in accordance with the standards of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The following databases were accessed: ISI/Web of Knowledge (WoS), MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, the Cochrane Library and EconLit. Specific literature on health economics was also manually inspected. Thirty-three studies were included. The quality of the studies assessed in accordance with the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards checklist was good. All studies evaluated direct costs, apart from one which dealt only with indirect costs. Indirect costs were evaluated by 12 studies. The economic burden of HZ has increased over time. HZ management and drug prescriptions generate the highest direct costs. While increasing age, co-morbidities and drug treatment were found to predict higher direct costs, being employed was correlated with higher indirect costs, and thus with the onset age of the disease. Despite some differences among the selected studies, particularly with regard to indirect costs, all concur that HZ is a widespread disease which has a heavy social and economic burden. PMID:25483704

  14. [How I prevent...herpes zoster by vaccination].

    PubMed

    Nikkels, A F; Pirard, G E

    2007-01-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) results from reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV), which remains latent in the dorsal root ganglia after varicella. HZ predominantly affects people over 50 years of age without gender distinction, and its incidence increases with age. The most feared complication of HZ is the zoster-associated pains (ZAP), which encompasses the prodromal, concomitant and post-zoster persistent pains. The latter neuralgias are particularly invalidating and notoriously difficult, or even impossible to abate with current therapies. Until now, the best ZAP prevention was achieved by antiviral treatment given during the earliest phase of the eruption. This treatment certainly reduces the duration and intensity of ZAP, but exerts little influence on post-zoster persistent pains. A vaccination boosting the specific anti-VZV immunity in order to decrease the HZ incidence and post-zoster pains appears promising. A recent study performed on 38.546 immunocompetent patients aged over 60 years assessed the efficacy of a single injection of an anti-zoster vaccine (Zostavax). The incidence of HZ and post-zoster pain was decreased by 50% and 66%, respectively. Vaccination could be considered as a valuable option to alleviate the feared complications of HZ. PMID:17343129

  15. Herpes-Type Virus of the Frog Renal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Stackpole, Christopher W.

    1969-01-01

    Development of the herpes-type virus of the frog kidney tumor was investigated by electron microscopy and high-resolution autoradiography in eyechamber transplants of tumor maintained at 7.5 C for up to 27 weeks. Virus particles were first detected at 10 weeks in nuclei containing aggregates of dense granular material. The initial incorporation of a pulse of 3H-thymidine into these aggregates indicated that they contained newly synthesized viral deoxyribonucleic acid. Capsids enclosing doubleshelled cores were labeled with 3H-thymidine before capsids with dense cores, and intermediate core forms were observed, suggesting that the double-shelled core transforms into the dense core. Particles with dense cores were observed while being enveloped by budding through the inner membrane of the nuclear envelope, and subsequently while being unenveloped in passing through the outer membrane into the cytoplasm. Virus particles within the cytoplasm acquired fibrillar coats and budded into vesicles, from which they were released, in enveloped form, at the cell surface. Tubular forms and particles considerably smaller than virus particles were regularly encountered in infected nuclei, and the relationship of these forms to virus replication is discussed. Images PMID:5808113

  16. Subassemblies and Asymmetry in Assembly of Herpes Simplex Virus Procapsid

    PubMed Central

    Aksyuk, Anastasia A.; Newcomb, William W.; Cheng, Naiqian; Winkler, Dennis C.; Fontana, Juan; Heymann, J. Bernard

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) capsid is a massive particle (~200MDa; 1,250- diameter) with T=16 icosahedral symmetry. It initially assembles as a procapsid with ~4,000 protein subunits of 11 different kinds. The procapsid undergoes major changes in structure and composition as it matures, a process driven by proteolysis and expulsion of the internal scaffolding protein. Assembly also relies on an external scaffolding protein, the triplex, an ?2? heterotrimer that coordinates neighboring capsomers in the procapsid and becomes a stabilizing clamp in the mature capsid. To investigate the mechanisms that regulate its assembly, we developed a novel isolation procedure for the metastable procapsid and collected a large set of cryo-electron microscopy data. In addition to procapsids, these preparations contain maturation intermediates, which were distinguished by classifying the images and calculating a three-dimensional reconstruction for each class. Appraisal of the procapsid structure led to a new model for assembly; in it, the protomer (assembly unit) consists of one triplex, surrounded by three major capsid protein (MCP) subunits. The model exploits the triplexes departure from 3-fold symmetry to explain the highly skewed MCP hexamers, the triplex orientations at each 3-fold site, and the T=16 architecture. These observations also yielded new insights into maturation. PMID:26443463

  17. Characterization of an oncolytic herpes simplex virus drug candidate.

    PubMed

    Kumru, Ozan S; Joshi, Sangeeta B; Thapa, Prem; Pheasey, Nigel; Bullock, Paul S; Bashiri, Houman; Siska, Christine S; Kerwin, Bruce A; He, Feng; Volkin, David B; Middaugh, C Russell

    2015-02-01

    The structural integrity and conformational stability of a genetically modified live, oncolytic herpes simplex virus (o-HSV) were investigated across a wide pH (5.5-8.0) and temperature (10C-87.5C) range. A combination of circular dichroism, intrinsic and extrinsic fluorescence, and static light scattering results was visualized using an empirical phase diagram approach to provide a global assessment of physical stability. Distinct phases were identified including the native state of the virus, an intermediate phase that could represent gradual swelling and/or shedding of the viral envelope, and a highly disrupted, aggregated phase. The nature of these altered forms of the virus was further evaluated by transmission electron microscopy and viral plaque assays. The effect of freeze-thaw (F/T) stress on o-HSV was also examined. After one F/T cycle, a loss of infectious virus titers was observed. In addition, the monomeric virus particle concentration decreased during F/T stress, whereas there was a concurrent increase in larger particles (2-10 ?m). The comprehensive biophysical characterization of viral stability conducted in this study identified major degradation events leading to loss of infectivity of o-HSV and represents an important step toward stabilization of the virus against thermal and F/T stresses. PMID:25362835

  18. Herpes zoster segmental paresis in an immunocompromised breast cancer woman

    PubMed Central

    Rastegar, Shirvan; Mahdavi, Sadegh Baradaran; Mahmoudi, Farhad; Basiri, Keivan

    2015-01-01

    Herpes zoster is an infectious disease with neurological complications caused by reactivation of varicella zoster virus in dorsal root ganglia of spinal cord which is also known as “Shingles.” Suppression of immune system is the major predisposing factor for reactivation of latent virus. Disease is mainly characterized by rash, vesicles and pain along one or more dermatomes which are innervated from one or more spinal nerve roots. Complications may be present after a while despite of patient treatment. Motor involvement is included. Some previous studies showed segmental zoster paresis as a rare complication, a few weeks after first presentation, among immunocompetent individuals. We present post herpetic motor involvement of C5 and C6 in a 59-year-old woman who underwent chemotherapy and radiotherapy due to breast cancer, manifesting left upper limb weakness and paresis, 6 months after left partial mastectomy. Segmental paresis of zoster virus should be considered as a cause of motor impairment in an immunocompromised person suffering from shingles. PMID:26436084

  19. Evolution and Diversity in Human Herpes Simplex Virus Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Gatherer, Derek; Ochoa, Alejandro; Greenbaum, Benjamin; Dolan, Aidan; Bowden, Rory J.; Enquist, Lynn W.; Legendre, Matthieu; Davison, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) causes a chronic, lifelong infection in >60% of adults. Multiple recent vaccine trials have failed, with viral diversity likely contributing to these failures. To understand HSV-1 diversity better, we comprehensively compared 20 newly sequenced viral genomes from China, Japan, Kenya, and South Korea with six previously sequenced genomes from the United States, Europe, and Japan. In this diverse collection of passaged strains, we found that one-fifth of the newly sequenced members share a gene deletion and one-third exhibit homopolymeric frameshift mutations (HFMs). Individual strains exhibit genotypic and potential phenotypic variation via HFMs, deletions, short sequence repeats, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms, although the protein sequence identity between strains exceeds 90% on average. In the first genome-scale analysis of positive selection in HSV-1, we found signs of selection in specific proteins and residues, including the fusion protein glycoprotein H. We also confirmed previous results suggesting that recombination has occurred with high frequency throughout the HSV-1 genome. Despite this, the HSV-1 strains analyzed clustered by geographic origin during whole-genome distance analysis. These data shed light on likely routes of HSV-1 adaptation to changing environments and will aid in the selection of vaccine antigens that are invariant worldwide. PMID:24227835

  20. Stabilising the Herpes Simplex Virus capsid by DNA packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuite, Gijs; Radtke, Kerstin; Sodeik, Beate; Roos, Wouter

    2009-03-01

    Three different types of Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) nuclear capsids can be distinguished, A, B and C capsids. These capsids types are, respectively, empty, contain scaffold proteins, or hold DNA. We investigate the physical properties of these three capsids by combining biochemical and nanoindentation techniques. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) experiments show that A and C capsids are mechanically indistinguishable whereas B capsids already break at much lower forces. By extracting the pentamers with 2.0 M GuHCl or 6.0 M Urea we demonstrate an increased flexibility of all three capsid types. Remarkably, the breaking force of the B capsids without pentamers does not change, while the modified A and C capsids show a large drop in their breaking force to approximately the value of the B capsids. This result indicates that upon DNA packaging a structural change at or near the pentamers occurs which mechanically reinforces the capsids structure. The reported binding of proteins UL17/UL25 to the pentamers of the A and C capsids seems the most likely candidate for such capsids strengthening. Finally, the data supports the view that initiation of DNA packaging triggers the maturation of HSV-1 capsids.

  1. Epidemic of herpes zoster following HIV epidemic in Manipur, India.

    PubMed

    Panda, S; Sarkar, S; Mandal, B K; Singh, T B; Singh, K L; Mitra, D K; Sarkar, K; Tripathy, S P; Deb, B C

    1994-03-01

    Since 1989, injecting drug use (IDU) related HIV infection has affected thousands of young adults in Manipur, a north eastern state of India bordering Myanmar following a similar kind of epidemic in adjoining countries like Thailand and Myanmar. During a clinical surveillance of a group of HIV positive IDUs for a natural history study at Manipur, herpes zoster (HZ) emerged as the most specific early HIV related illness (positive predictive value of 100%) in patients belonging to the age group of 12-45 years. Data collected from the dermatology departments of the two main hospitals of the state revealed that there had been an epidemic of HZ since 1990 (rate of 1990 being 11.3/1000 compared to 6.5/1000 in 1989, P value < 0.0001) among males of 12-45 years. The epidemic of HZ has been attributed to the preceding epidemic of IDU related HIV in the same age and gender group occurring 1 year earlier. HZ should be recognised as a marker condition similar to tuberculosis indicating the necessity of screening for HIV in regions where the dual problem of IDU and HIV exist in young adults. PMID:8034996

  2. Radioimmunoassay for herpes simplex virus (HSV) thymidine kinase

    SciTech Connect

    McGuirt, P.V.; Keller, P.M.; Elion, G.B.

    1982-01-30

    A sensitive RIA for HSV-1 thymidine kinase (TK) has been developed. This assay is based on competition for the binding site of a rabbit antibody against purified HSV-1 TK, between a purified /sup 3/H-labeled HSV-1 TK and a sample containing an unknown amount of viral TK. The assay is capable of detecting 8 ng or more of the HSV enzyme. Purified HSV-1 TK denatured to <1% of its original kinase activity is as effective in binding to the antibody as is native HSV-1 TK. Viral TK is detectable at ranges of 150-460 ng/mg protein of cell extract from infected cells or cells transformed by HSV or HSV genetic material. HSV-2 TK appears highly cross-reactive, VZV TK is slightly less so, and the vaccinia TK shows little or no cross-reactivity. This RIA may serve as a tool for monitoring the expression of the HSV TK during an active herpes virus infection, a latent ganglionic infection, or in neoplastic cells which may have arisen by viral transformation.

  3. Herpes simplex virus induces the replication of foreign DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Danovich, R.M.; Frenkel, N.

    1988-08-01

    Plasmids containing the simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA replication origin and the large T gene are replicated in Vero monkey cells but not in rabbit skin cells. Efficient replication of the plasmids was observed in rabbit cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2. The HSV-induced replication required the large T antigen and the SV40 replication origin. However, it produced concatemeric molecules resembling replicative intermediates of HSV DNA and was sensitive to phosphonoacetate at concentrations known to inhibit the HSV DNA polymerase. Therefore, it involved the HSV DNA polymerase itself or a viral gene product(s) which was expressed following the replication of HSV DNA. Analyses of test plasmids lacking SV40 or HSV DNA sequences showed that, under some conditions. HSV also induced low-level replication of test plasmids containing no known eucaryotic replication origins. Together, these results show that HSV induces a DNA replicative activity which amplifies foreign DNA. The relevance of these findings to the putative transforming potential of HSV is discussed.

  4. Acyclovir Prophylaxis Reduces the Incidence of Herpes Zoster Among HIV-Infected Individuals: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Barnabas, Ruanne V; Baeten, Jared M; Lingappa, Jairam R; Thomas, Katherine K; Hughes, James P; Mugo, Nelly R; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Gray, Glenda; Rees, Helen; Mujugira, Andrew; Ronald, Allan; Stevens, Wendy; Kapiga, Saidi; Wald, Anna; Celum, Connie

    2016-02-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons have higher rates of herpes zoster than HIV-uninfected individuals. We assessed whether twice daily treatment with 400 mg of oral acyclovir reduces the incidence of herpes zoster in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial among 3408 persons coinfected with HIV and herpes simplex virus type 2. During 5175 person-years of follow-up, 26 cases of herpes zoster occurred among those assigned acyclovir, compared with 69 cases among those assigned placebo (rates, 1.00 and 2.68/100 person-years, respectively), a relative decrease of 62% (hazard ratio, 0.38; 95% confidence interval, .24-.67; P < .001). Daily acyclovir prophylaxis significantly reduced herpes zoster incidence among HIV-infected persons. PMID:26142452

  5. Varicella-Zoster Virus Vasculopathy: The Growing Association Between Herpes Zoster and Strokes.

    PubMed

    Powell, David R; Patel, Shiddhi; Franco-Paredes, Carlos

    2015-09-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is herpes virus that after its reactivation from nerve ganglia to cause herpes zoster may lead to a variety of neurologic complications, including encephalitis, meningitis, retinal necrosis or myelitis. In addition, VZV can spread to arteries in the central nervous system and cause hemorrhagic or ischemic complications due to an inflammatory vasculopathy. In fact, there is a growing epidemiological and clinical recognition that there is an association between VZV reactivation and subsequent strokes. Herein, we present a case of an immune compromised individual with reactivation of VZV causing dermatomal herpes zoster followed by multifocal vasculopathy. We also review the literature to highlight key aspects of VZV-associated vasculopathy. PMID:25211583

  6. Age-dependent resistance of human alveolar macrophages to herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed Central

    Mintz, L; Drew, W L; Hoo, R; Finley, T N

    1980-01-01

    Studies in mice demonstrate an age-dependent susceptibility to disseminated herpesvirus infection which is mediated. at least in part, by a defect in macrophage antiviral function. We examined the growth of herpes simplex virus within human alveolar macrophages obtained by bronchopulmonary lavage from neonates, adults with a variety of immunosuppressive disorders, and healthy adult volunteers. At 24 h postinfection, mean viral titers in neonatal macrophages increased 19-fold over adsorbed virus levels, a highly significant increase when compared to either immunosuppressed or normal adult macrophages (P less than 0.0005). These findings indicate that human macrophages, like those of mice, exhibit age-dependent permissiveness for the replication of herpes simplex virus. This permissiveness may at least partially account for the clinical observation that human newborns are highly susceptible to disseminated herpes simplex virus infections, whereas adults are not. PMID:6249741

  7. Valaciclovir versus aciclovir for the treatment of primary genital herpes simplex: a cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Pinder, Melissa; Wright, Alison

    2015-11-01

    The current guidelines for the treatment of primary herpes simplex in the Genito-urinary department in Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, recommend valaciclovir as a first-line medication. This is a prodrug of aciclovir, which has been used for many years as a treatment for primary herpes simplex virus. The basis of the recommendation largely relates to valaciclovir being more bioavailable than aciclovir. However, there is no evidence to suggest this has an effect on overall outcome with regard to symptom control and viral shedding. The purpose of the service evaluation was to discover if significant cost savings could be made by changing the prescribing policy to make aciclovir the drug of choice for primary herpes simplex virus. Based on 160 patients receiving valaciclovir (500?mg BD) during April 2013 and March 2014, if they had been treated with aciclovir (400?mg TDS) instead, a saving of 828.80 (66% reduction) could have been made. PMID:25505043

  8. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus followed by contralateral hemiparesis: report of two cases and review of literature.

    PubMed Central

    Reshef, E; Greenberg, S B; Jankovic, J

    1985-01-01

    Two patients with herpes zoster ophthalmicus and contralateral hemiparesis are described, and their findings compared with 49 patients previously reported. These patients presented with delayed contralateral hemiparesis approximately seven weeks after the onset of herpes zoster ophthalmicus. Most patients had evidence of infarction of the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery by angiography or by CT scan. Cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis and elevated protein commonly were found. Twenty per cent of the reported patients died, but they were older than the patients who survived and predisposed to have diffuse CNS lesions. The pathogenesis of this syndrome is thought to be due to direct viral invasion of the blood vessel wall with resulting angiitis. Further studies need to be performed to clarify the role of specific antiviral therapy or anti-inflammatory agents in treating this complication of herpes zoster. PMID:3884741

  9. Latency of Herpes Simplex Virus in Absence of Neutralizing Antibody: Model for Reactivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekizawa, Tsuyoshi; Openshaw, Harry; Wohlenberg, Charles; Notkins, Abner Louis

    1980-11-01

    Mice inoculated with herpes simplex virus (type 1) by the lip or corneal route and then passively immunized with rabbit antibody to herpes simplex virus developed a latent infection in the trigeminal ganglia within 96 hours. Neutralizing antibody to herpes simplex virus was cleared from the circulation and could not be detected in most of these mice after 2 months. Examination of ganglia from the antibody-negative mice revealed latent virus in over 90 percent of the animals, indicating that serum neutralizing antibody is not necessary to maintain the latent state. When the lips or corneas of these mice were traumatized, viral reactivation occurred in up to 90 percent of the mice, as demonstrated by the appearance of neutralizing antibody. This study provides a model for identifying factors that trigger viral reactivation.

  10. Electrochemical direct immobilization of DNA sequences for label-free herpes virus detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, Phuong Dinh; Trung, Tran; Tuan, Mai Anh; Chien, Nguyen Duc

    2009-09-01

    DNA sequences/bio-macromolecules of herpes virus (5'-AT CAC CGA CCC GGA GAG GGA C-3') were directly immobilized into polypyrrole matrix by using the cyclic voltammetry method, and grafted onto arrays of interdigitated platinum microelectrodes. The morphology surface of the obtained PPy/DNA of herpes virus composite films was investigated by a FESEM Hitachi-S 4800. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to characterize the PPy/DNA film and to study the specific interactions that may exist between DNA biomacromolecules and PPy chains. Attempts are made to use these PPy/DNA composite films for label-free herpes virus detection revealed a response time of 60 s in solutions containing as low as 2 nM DNA concentration, and self life of six months when immerged in double distilled water and kept refrigerated.

  11. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus presenting as orbital abscess along with superior orbital fissure syndrome: A case report.

    PubMed

    Lavaju, Poonam; Badhu, Badri Prasad; Shah, Sangeeta

    2015-09-01

    Orbital abscess and superior orbital fissure syndrome (SOFS) are rare manifestations of herpes zoster ophthalmicus. Herein, we report a case of orbital abscess along with SOFS in a 2.5-year-old-male child secondary to herpes zoster infection. He presented with a 5-day history of proptosis and ptosis of the right eye that had been preceded by vesicular eruptions on the right forehead and scalp. Computed tomography scan of the head and orbit showed orbital abscess and right cavernous sinus thrombosis. A diagnosis of orbital abscess with SOFS secondary to herpes infection was made. The condition subsequently improved following antiviral therapy, intravenous vancomycin and amikacin, and oral corticosteroids. PMID:26632131

  12. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus presenting as orbital abscess along with superior orbital fissure syndrome: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Lavaju, Poonam; Badhu, Badri Prasad; Shah, Sangeeta

    2015-01-01

    Orbital abscess and superior orbital fissure syndrome (SOFS) are rare manifestations of herpes zoster ophthalmicus. Herein, we report a case of orbital abscess along with SOFS in a 2.5-year-old-male child secondary to herpes zoster infection. He presented with a 5-day history of proptosis and ptosis of the right eye that had been preceded by vesicular eruptions on the right forehead and scalp. Computed tomography scan of the head and orbit showed orbital abscess and right cavernous sinus thrombosis. A diagnosis of orbital abscess with SOFS secondary to herpes infection was made. The condition subsequently improved following antiviral therapy, intravenous vancomycin and amikacin, and oral corticosteroids. PMID:26632131

  13. Simple Bond Cleavage

    SciTech Connect

    Gary S. Groenewold

    2005-08-01

    Simple bond cleavage is a class of fragmentation reactions in which a single bond is broken, without formation of new bonds between previously unconnected atoms. Because no bond making is involved, simple bond cleavages are endothermic, and activation energies are generally higher than for rearrangement eliminations. The rate of simple bond cleavage reactions is a strong function of the internal energy of the molecular ion, which reflects a loose transition state that resembles reaction products, and has a high density of accessible states. For this reason, simple bond cleavages tend to dominate fragmentation reactions for highly energized molecular ions. Simple bond cleavages have negligible reverse activation energy, and hence they are used as valuable probes of ion thermochemistry, since the energy dependence of the reactions can be related to the bond energy. In organic mass spectrometry, simple bond cleavages of odd electron ions can be either homolytic or heterolytic, depending on whether the fragmentation is driven by the radical site or the charge site. Simple bond cleavages of even electron ions tend to be heterolytic, producing even electron product ions and neutrals.

  14. How simple are simple renal cysts?

    PubMed Central

    Simms, Roslyn J.; Ong, Albert C. M.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing use of medical imaging as an investigative tool is leading to the incidental and frequent finding of renal cysts in the general population. The presence of a solitary or multiple renal cysts has been generally considered benign in the absence of a family history of renal cystic disease or evidence of chronic kidney disease. Nonetheless, a number of recent studies have questioned this consensus by reported associations with the development of hypertension or malignant change. For these reasons, some clinicians consider the presence of renal cysts to be a contraindication to kidney donation. The situation is complicated by the different usage of the term simple by some radiologists (to indicate non-complex lesions) or nephrologists (to indicate age-related non-hereditary lesions). We propose that the term simple be replaced with the morphological description, Stage I renal cyst (Bosniak Classification). The presence of a Stage I renal cyst should not preclude kidney donation. However, occult renal disease should be excluded and appropriate donor assessment performed. PMID:25165175

  15. Providers' lack of knowledge about herpes zoster in HIV-infected patients is among barriers to herpes zoster vaccination.

    PubMed

    Aziz, M; Kessler, H; Huhn, G

    2013-06-01

    Identification of perceptions about herpes zoster (HZ) disease, vaccine effectiveness and safety, and vaccine recommendations may impact immunization practices of physicians for HIV-infected patients. A survey was used to quantify knowledge of HZ as well as determine physician immunization perceptions and practices. There were 272/1700 respondents (16%). Correct answers for the incidence of varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection in adults and incidence of HZ in HIV-infected patients were recorded by 14% and 10% of providers, respectively. Providers reported poor knowledge of the incidence of disease recurrence in HIV-infected patients (41% correct), potency of HZ vaccine (47.5% correct) and mechanism of protection against reactivation of VZV (66% correct). Most (88%) agreed that HZ was a serious disease, and 73% believed that the burden of disease made vaccination important. A majority (75%) did not vaccinate HIV patients with HZ vaccine regardless of antiretroviral therapy status. Barriers to administration included safety concerns, concern that vaccine would not prevent HZ, risk of HZ dissemination, reimbursement issues and lack of Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) guidelines. Only 38% of providers agreed that CDC guidelines were clear and 50% believed that clinical trials were needed prior to use of HZ vaccine in HIV-infected patients. Education about HZ is needed among HIV providers. Providers perceived vaccination as important, but data on vaccine safety and clear guidance from the CDC on this issue are lacking. PMID:23970744

  16. Non-healing genital herpes mimicking donovanosis in an immunocompetent man.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vishal; Khute, Prakash; Patel, Anjali; Gupta, Somesh

    2016-01-01

    Although atypical presentations of herpetic infection in immunocompetent individuals are common, they very rarely have the extensive, chronic and verrucous appearances seen in the immunocompromised host. We report a case of genital herpes manifesting as painless chronic non-healing genital ulcers with exuberant granulation tissue in an immunocompetent man. Owing to this morphology, the ulcers were initially mistaken for donovanosis. To the best of our knowledge, such a presentation of genital herpes in an immunocompetent individual has not been described previously. PMID:25614521

  17. Treatment of first-attack genital herpes--acyclovir versus inosine pranobex.

    PubMed

    Mindel, A; Kinghorn, G; Allason-Jones, E; Woolley, P; Barton, I; Faherty, A; Jeavons, M; Williams, P; Patou, G

    1987-05-23

    77 patients with a first attack of genital herpes were entered into a double-blind trial to compare the efficacy of acyclovir with that of inosine pranobex. 24 patients received acyclovir with that of inosine pranobex, and 28 both drugs. Patients treated with acyclovir or both drugs healed more quickly and had a shorter duration of viral shedding than those treated with inosine pranobex. The time to first recurrence and frequency of subsequent recurrences were similar in the three treatment groups. Acyclovir is the treatment of choice for patients with a first attack of genital herpes. PMID:2437417

  18. Herpes Genitalis in Patients Attending a Clinic for Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lawee, David; Gutman, Mory; Hrytzay, Millie; McLachlin, Jeanette

    1983-01-01

    In a prospective study of 210 patients attending a hospital-based sexually transmitted disease clinic, we documented the prevalence of genital herpes infection (GHI) and its association with gonococcal infection (GI). Herpes simplex virus type 2 was cultured from 58% of symptomatic patients and 0.5% of asymptomatic patients. The ratio of GI to GHI was 41:31 by clinical criteria. The laboratory-confirmed ratio was 41:18. These ratios are much higher than those normally used to estimate the caseload of GHI. PMID:21283317

  19. Preparation and immunogenicity of vaccine Ac NFU1 (S-) MRC towards the prevention of herpes genitalis.

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, G R; Woodman, C B; Hartley, C E; Buchan, A; Fuller, A; Durham, J; Synnott, M; Clay, J C; Melling, J; Wiblin, C; Wilkins, J

    1982-01-01

    A subunit antigenoid vaccine, Ac NFU1 (S-) MRC, was used to prevent primary herpes genitalis in 60 subjects considered to be at risk of this infection. There was no evidence of serious local or general side effects. Neutralising antibody responses were detected in 59% and 90% of subjects receiving the low and high doses of vaccine respectively; immunoprecipitating antibody was detected at a lower frequency, namely in 23% and 43% of subjects receiving the low and high doses respectively. After a mean follow-up period of 18 months none of the vaccinated subjects contracted herpes genitalis after completing the vaccination course. Images PMID:6293640

  20. Herpes simplex dissemination following glucocorticoids for upper airway obstruction in an adolescent girl.

    PubMed

    Shane, S A; Wollman, M; Claassen, D

    1994-06-01

    A previously healthy adolescent female suddenly developed a severe febrile pharyngitis and impending upper airway obstruction. Her Monospot test was positive, and her throat culture grew group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus. After treatment with antibiotics and glucocorticoids, she developed a fulminant course dominated by disseminated intravascular coagulation and hepatic necrosis. At autopsy, herpes simplex virus type-1 was cultured from lung, liver, and spleen tissue. We believe this is the first report of disseminated herpes simplex infection after steroid use for upper airway obstruction. PMID:8058559

  1. Herpes esophagitis in the setting of immunosuppression from pemphigus vulgaris therapy.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Noah H; Friedmann, Daniel P; Phillips, Charles M

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of herpes esophagitis in a 35-year-old man with pemphigus vulgaris (PV) who was undergoing treatment with corticosteroids and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). Pemphigus vulgaris is an autoimmune intraepithelial bullous disease resulting from pathogenic IgG antibodies toward desmoglein antigens that often requires long-term immunosuppressive therapy for control of disease symptoms. Herpes esophagitis is an ulcerative eruption caused by viral reactivation in the setting of immunosuppression. Acute odynophagia in patients undergoing systemic treatment of active PV has a broad differential and warrants prompt endoscopic evaluation. PMID:25671444

  2. Simple Machines Simply Put.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood, James J.

    1994-01-01

    Students explore the workings of the lever, wheel and axle, and the inclined plane as they build simple toys--a bulldozer and a road grader. The project takes four weeks. Diagrams and procedures are included. (PR)

  3. A Simple Raman Spectrometer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blond, J. P.; Boggett, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses some basic physical ideas about light scattering and describes a simple Raman spectrometer, a single prism monochromator and a multiplier detector. This discussion is intended for British undergraduate physics students. (HM)

  4. Early Childhood: Simple Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Clare B.; Shafer, Kathryn E.

    1987-01-01

    Encourages teachers to take advantage of the natural curiosity of young children in enhancing their interest in science. Describes four simple activities involving water, living and non-living things, air pollution, and food. (TW)

  5. A Simple Water Channel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, A. S.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a simple water channel, for use with an overhead projector. It is run from a water tap and may be used for flow visualization experiments, including the effect of streamlining and elementary building aerodynamics. (MLH)

  6. Fractional Simple Harmonic Oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narahari Achar, B. N.; Hanneken, John W.; Clarke, Ted J.; Skaggs, Jeremy M.

    2000-03-01

    Applications of fractional calculus to physics have received considerable attention recently, including generalization of the simple harmonic oscillator problem. This paper presents a survey of several approaches that have been proposed and discusses the advantages and disadvantages thereof. An approach to be preferred is based on the generalization of the integral equation of the simple harmonic oscillator that involves physically meaningful initial conditions. A complete formal solution to the equation of motion together with graphical display will be presented.

  7. Silencing effect of lentiviral vectors encod-ing shRNA of Herp on endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Chen, F L; Li, Q; Zhang, J Y; Lei, L J; Zhang, Z; Mahmoud, T N; Wang, X G; Lin, P F; Jin, Y P; Wang, A H

    2015-01-01

    Herp, a mammalian protein with a ubiquitin-like domain, can be strongly upregulated by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress during ER-associated protein degradation. However, the other cellular functions of Herp remain unclear. We explored the effect of Herp on ER stress and inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 macrophages that had been exposed to tunicamycin or thapsigargin. We successfully constructed recombinant lentiviral vectors for Herp short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression to better understand the contribution made by Herp to other signaling pathways. Western blotting revealed that the recombinant Herp lentiviral shRNA vector significantly inhibited the expression of the Herp protein in the thapsigargin-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction results showed that knockdown Herp inhibited the expression of ER stress-related genes during exposure to tunicamycin or thapsigargin. In RAW 264.7 macrophages, knockdown Herp markedly attenuated the expression of inflammatory cytokines when exposed to tunicamycin; however, it strongly enhanced the expression of inflammatory cytokines when exposed to thapsigargin. We concluded that Herp lentiviral shRNA vectors had been successfully constructed; knockdown Herp inhibited ER stress and had a different effect on inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 macrophages depending on whether they were exposed to tunicamycin or thapsigargin. PMID:26782403

  8. Structural basis for the antibody neutralization of Herpes simplex virus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cheng-Chung; Lin, Li-Ling; Chan, Woan-Eng; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Lai, Jiann-Shiun; Wang, Andrew H.-J.

    2013-01-01

    Glycoprotein D (gD) of Herpes simplex virus (HSV) binds to a host cell surface receptor, which is required to trigger membrane fusion for virion entry into the host cell. gD has become a validated anti-HSV target for therapeutic antibody development. The highly inhibitory human monoclonal antibody E317 (mAb E317) was previously raised against HSV gD for viral neutralization. To understand the structural basis of antibody neutralization, crystals of the gD ectodomain bound to the E317 Fab domain were obtained. The structure of the complex reveals that E317 interacts with gD mainly through the heavy chain, which covers a large area for epitope recognition on gD, with a flexible N-terminal and C-terminal conformation. The epitope core structure maps to the external surface of gD, corresponding to the binding sites of two receptors, herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) and nectin-1, which mediate HSV infection. E317 directly recognizes the gD–nectin-1 interface and occludes the HVEM contact site of gD to block its binding to either receptor. The binding of E317 to gD also prohibits the formation of the N-terminal hairpin of gD for HVEM recognition. The major E317-binding site on gD overlaps with either the nectin-1-binding residues or the neutralizing antigenic sites identified thus far (Tyr38, Asp215, Arg222 and Phe223). The epitopes of gD for E317 binding are highly conserved between two types of human herpesvirus (HSV-1 and HSV-2). This study enables the virus-neutralizing epitopes to be correlated with the receptor-binding regions. The results further strengthen the previously demonstrated therapeutic and diagnostic potential of the E317 antibody. PMID:24100313

  9. Inhibition of multiplication of herpes simplex virus by caffeic acid.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Keiko; Tsujimoto, Kazuko; Uozaki, Misao; Nishide, Mitsunori; Suzuki, Yukiko; Koyama, A Hajime; Yamasaki, Hisashi

    2011-10-01

    Hot water extracts of coffee grinds and commercial instant coffee solutions have been shown to exhibit marked antiviral and virucidal activities against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Specifically, it has been shown that caffeine and N-methyl-pyridinium formate inhibit the multiplication of HSV-1 in HEp-2 cells. The present study examined the virological properties and the antiviral activity of caffeic acid against HSV-1. Caffeic acid inhibited the multiplication of HSV-1 in vitro, while chlorogenic acid, a caffeic acid ester with quinic acid, did not. These reagents did not have a direct virucidal effect. The one-step growth curve of HSV-1 showed that the addition of caffeic acid at 8 h post infection (h p.i.) did not significantly affect the formation of progeny viruses. An analysis of the influence of the time of caffeic acid addition, revealed that addition at an early time post infection remarkably inhibited the formation of progeny infectious virus in the infected cells, but its addition after 6 h p.i. (i.e., the time of the completion of viral genome replication) did not efficiently inhibit this process. These results indicate that caffeic acid inhibits HSV-1 multiplication mainly before the completion of viral DNA replication, but not thereafter. Although caffeic acid showed some cytotoxicity by prolonged incubation, the observed antiviral activity is likely not the secondary result of the cytotoxic effect of the reagent, because the inhibition of the virus multiplication was observed before appearance of the notable cytotoxicity. PMID:21725588

  10. Concurrent chemotherapy inhibits Herpes simplex virus 1 replication and oncolysis

    PubMed Central

    Kulu, Yakup; Kawasaki, Hiroshi; Donahue, James M.; Kasuya, Hideki; Cusack, James C.; Choi, Enid W.; Kuruppu, Darshini K.; Fuchs, Bryan C.; Tanabe, Kenneth K.

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) replication in cancer cells leads to their destruction (viral oncolysis) and has been under investigation as an experimental cancer therapy in clinical trials as single agents, and as combinations with chemotherapy. Cellular responses to chemotherapy modulate viral replication, but these interactions are poorly understood. To investigate the effect of chemotherapy on HSV-1 oncolysis, viral replication in cells exposed to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), irinotecan (CPT-11), methotrexate (MTX) or a cytokine (TNF-?) was examined. Exposure of colon and pancreatic cancer cells to 5-FU, CPT-11, or MTX in vitro significantly antagonizes both HSV-1 replication and lytic oncolysis. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) activation is required for efficient viral replication, and experimental inhibition of this response with an I?B? dominant-negative repressor significantly antagonizes HSV-1 replication. Nonetheless cells exposed to 5-FU, CPT-11, TNF-? or HSV-1 activate NF-?B. Cells exposed to MTX do not activate NF-?B, suggesting a possible role for NF-?B inhibition in the decreased viral replication observed following exposure to MTX. The role of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF-2?) dephosphorylation was examined; HSV-1 mediated eIF-2? dephosphorylation proceeds normally in HT29 cells exposed to 5-FU-, CPT-11-, or MTX. This report demonstrates that cellular responses to chemotherapeutic agents provide an unfavorable environment for HSV-1-mediated oncolysis, and these observations are relevant to the design of both preclinical and clinical studies of HSV-1 oncolysis. PMID:23348635

  11. Herpes and polyoma family viruses in thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    STAMATIOU, DIMITRIS P.; DERDAS, STAVROS P.; ZORAS, ODYSSEAS L.; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is considered the most common malignancy that affects the endocrine system. Generally, thyroid cancer derives from follicular epithelial cells, and thyroid cancer is divided into well-differentiated papillary (80% of cases) and follicular (15% of cases) carcinoma. Follicular thyroid cancer is further divided into the conventional and oncocytic (Hürthle cell) type, poorly differentiated carcinoma and anaplastic carcinoma. Both poorly differentiated and anaplastic carcinoma can arise either de novo, or secondarily from papillary and follicular thyroid cancer. The incidence of thyroid cancer has significantly increased for both males and females of all ages, particularly for females between 55–64 years of age, from 1999 through 2008. The increased rates refer to tumors of all stages, though they were mostly noted in localized disease. Recently, viruses have been implicated in the direct regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the development of metastases. More specifically, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) proteins may potentially lead to the development of metastasis through the regulation of the metastasis suppressor, Nm23, and the control of Twist expression. The significant enhancement of the metastatic potential, through the induction of angiogenesis and changes to the tumor microenvironment, subsequent to viral infection, has been documented, while EMT also contributes to cancer cell permissiveness to viruses. A number of viruses have been identified to be associated with carcinogenesis, and these include lymphotropic herpesviruses, namely EBV and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus [KSHV, also known as human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV8)]; two hepatitis viruses, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV); human papillomaviruses (HPVs); human T cell lymphoma virus (HTLV); and a new polyomavirus, Merkel cell polyomavirus identified in 2008. In this review, we examined the association between thyroid cancer and two oncogenic virus families, the herpes and polyoma family viruses, and we discuss their potential role as causative agents in thyroid carcinogenesis. PMID:26998055

  12. Dynasore Disrupts Trafficking of Herpes Simplex Virus Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Mues, Mascha B.; Cheshenko, Natalia; Wilson, Duncan W.; Gunther-Cummins, Leslie

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dynasore, a small-molecule inhibitor of the GTPase activity of dynamin, inhibits the entry of several viruses, including herpes simplex virus (HSV), but its impact on other steps in the viral life cycle has not been delineated. The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that dynamin is required for viral protein trafficking and thus has pleiotropic inhibitory effects on HSV infection. Dynasore inhibited HSV-1 and HSV-2 infection of human epithelial and neuronal cells, including primary genital tract cells and human fetal neurons and astrocytes. Similar results were obtained when cells were transfected with a plasmid expressing dominant negative dynamin. Kinetic studies demonstrated that dynasore reduced the number of viral capsids reaching the nuclear pore if added at the time of viral entry and that, when added as late as 8 h postentry, dynasore blocked the transport of newly synthesized viral proteins from the nucleus to the cytosol. Proximity ligation assays demonstrated that treatment with dynasore prevented the colocalization of VP5 and dynamin. This resulted in a reduction in the number of viral capsids isolated from sucrose gradients. Fewer capsids were observed by electron microscopy in dynasore-treated cells than in control-treated cells. There were also reductions in infectious progeny released into culture supernatants and in cell-to-cell spread. Together, these findings suggest that targeting dynamin-HSV interactions may provide a new strategy for HSV treatment and prevention. IMPORTANCE HSV infections remain a global health problem associated with significant morbidity, particularly in neonates and immunocompromised hosts, highlighting the need for novel approaches to treatment and prevention. The current studies indicate that dynamin plays a role in multiple steps in the viral life cycle and provides a new target for antiviral therapy. Dynasore, a small-molecule inhibitor of dynamin, has pleiotropic effects on HSV-1 and HSV-2 infection and impedes viral entry, trafficking of viral proteins, and capsid formation. PMID:25878109

  13. Herpes Zoster--Eye Complications: Rates and Trends

    PubMed Central

    Yawn, Barbara P.; Wollan, Peter M.; St Sauver, Jennifer L.; Butterfield, Linda C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To provide population based data on the risk, types and outcomes of eye involvement in herpes zoster (HZ). Methods A cohort study based on medical record review of patients diagnosed with HZ between January 1, 1980 and December 31, 2007. HZ was confirmed by typical rash and symptoms or laboratory testing and eye involvement was confirmed by ophthalmologists evaluation. Information was collected on all eye diagnoses, all HZ eye related visits, treatments, procedures and outcomes. Results Of the 2035 individuals with HZ in any dermatome, 184 patients (9.0%) had eye involvement. Mean age of the 184 was 62.6 with 5 cases in patients <21. Overall, 6.5% were immune suppressed at the time of the eye complications. The rate of increase of HZ eye involvement was 23% by decade from 1980 to 2007. Common eye complications were keratitis (76.2%), uveitis/iritis (46.6%) and conjunctivitis (35.4%). Recurrent keratitis and recurrent iritis/uveitis occurred in 6.9% and 7.4% respectively. Outcomes included six (3.3%) patients with new vision decrements to 20/200 or worse. Two individuals had successful corneal transplants. Another six (3.3%) individuals had lid ptosis that affected vision including one elderly woman with a permanent unilateral tarsorrhaphy. Severe HZ eye pain was reported to be directly responsible for one unsuccessful suicide attempt. No one developed ARN. A mean of 10.8 HZ eye visits per HZ patient with eye involvement were reported over a mean of 308 days. Conclusion Eye complications are common, result in significant health care utilization and in permanent vision decrement in about 6.6% of individuals with HZ eye involvement. Most health care utilization and long term adverse outcomes were in patients in whom administration of HZ prevention with the zoster vaccine would be possible. PMID:23664666

  14. Human cytomegalovirus function inhibits replication of herpes simplex virus

    SciTech Connect

    Cockley, K.D.; Shiraki, K.; Rapp, F.

    1988-01-01

    Human embryonic lung (HEL) cells infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) restricted the replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). A delay in HSV replication of 15 h as well as a consistent, almost 3 log inhibition of HSV replication in HCMV-infected cell cultures harvested 24 to 72 h after superinfection were observed compared with controls infected with HSV alone. Treatment of HCMV-infected HEL cells with cycloheximide (100 ..mu..g/ml) for 3 or 24 h was demonstrated effective in blocking HCMV protein synthesis, as shown by immunoprecipitation with HCMV antibody-positive polyvalent serum. Cycloheximide treatment of HCMV-infected HEL cells and removal of the cycloheximide block before superinfection inhibited HSV-1 replication more efficiently than non-drug-treated superinfected controls. HCMV DNA-negative temperature-sensitive mutants restricted HSV as efficiently as wild-type HCMV suggesting that immediate-early and/or early events which occur before viral DNA synthesis are sufficient for inhibition of HSV. Inhibition of HSV-1 in HCMV-infected HEL cells was unaffected by elevated temperature (40.5/sup 0/C). However, prior UV irradiation of HCMV removed the block to HSV replication, demonstrating the requirement for an active HCMV genome. HSV-2 replication was similarly inhibited in HCMV-infected HEL cells. Superinfection of HCMV-infected HEL cells with HSV-1 labeled with (/sup 3/H)thymidine provided evidence that the labeled virus could penetrate to the nucleus of cells after superinfection. Evidence for penetration of superinfecting HSV into HCMV-infected cells was also provided by blot hybridization of HSV DNA synthesized in cells infected with HSV alone versus superinfected cell cultures at 0 and 48 h after superinfection.

  15. [Double meningoencephalitis with herpes simplex virus and rubella virus].

    PubMed

    Hattori, S; Isogai, Y; Morimoto, Y

    1993-06-01

    A 47-year-old man suffered from a headache, fever and memory disturbance. He was admitted to Morimoto Hospital. Neurological examination revealed disturbance of memory of recent events. Cranial nerves were normal. Muscle strength of the extremities was normal, except for Barr's sign of the right upper extremity. Deep tendon reflexes were exaggerated bilaterally, and extensor plantar response of the left side was elicited. Sensory examination showed no abnormality. Cerebellar sign was not recognized. Meningeal sign was slightly but clearly showed. CT scan demonstrated brain swelling at the right insular cortex region followed by severe hydrocephalus with dilatation of the lateral and the third ventricles. Cerebrospinal fluid showed high CSF pressure (250 mmH2O), pleocytosis (C.C. 359/mm3) and elevated protein level (213 mg/dl). Virological examination revealed herpes simplex virus (HSV) (CF) 32x, HSV-1 IgG (EIA) 4,050X, rubella virus IgE (EIA) 6,060X, cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgG (EIA) 1,130X in serum and HSV (CF) 1X, HSV-1 IGg (EIA) 1,430X, rubella virus IgG (EIA) 1,480X, CMV IgG (EIA) 587X in CSF. The ratio of serum/CSF of HSV and rubella virus titers by EIA methods were 2.83 and 4.10, respectively. He was treated by acyclovir 1,000 mg/day and gamma globulin, but his condition get worse acutely and died at 15th hospital days. This case was considered as a meningoencephalitis caused by simultaneous HSV and rubella virus infection. PMID:8403685

  16. Purification and structural characterization of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein C

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuchi, G.E.; Baker, S.A.; Merajver, S.D.; Coligan, J.E.; Levine, M.; Glorioso, J.C.; Nairn, R.

    1987-01-27

    Purification of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein C (gC) in microgram amounts yielded sufficient material for an analysis of its secondary structure. Purification was facilitated by using the mutant virus gC-3, which bears a point mutation that interrupts the putative hydrophobic membrane anchor sequence, causing the secretion of gC-3 protein into the cell culture medium. gC-3 protein was purified by size fractionation of concentrated culture medium from infected cells on a gel filtration column of Sephacryl S-200, followed by immunoaffinity chromatography on a column constructed of gC-specific monoclonal antibodies cross-linked to a protein A-Sepharose CL-4B matrix. Purified gC-3 had a molecular weight of 130,000 as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the size expected for gC, was reactive with gC-specific monoclonal antibodies in protein immunoblots, and contained amino acid sequences characteristic of gC as determined by radiochemical amino acid microsequence analyses. Polyclonal antisera obtained from a rabbit immunized with gC-3 reacted with wild-type gC in immunoprecipitation, enzyme immunoassay, and immunoelectroblot (western blot) assays. Deglycosylation by treatment with trifluoromethanesulfonic acid reduced the molecular weight of gC-3 by approximately 35%. Analyses of both native and deglycosylated gC-3 by Raman spectroscopy showed that the native molecule consists of about 17%..cap alpha..-helix, 24% ..beta..-sheet, and 60% disordered secondary structures, whereas deglycosylated gC-3 consists of about 8% ..cap alpha..-helix, 10% ..beta..-sheet, 81% disordered structures. These data were in good agreement with the 11% ..cap alpha..-helix, 18% ..beta..-sheet, 61% ..beta..-turn, and 9% disordered structures calculated from Chou-Fasman analysis of the primary sequence of gC-3.

  17. Correlation between detection of herpes simplex virus in oral secretions by PCR and susceptibility to experimental UV radiation-induced herpes labialis.

    PubMed Central

    Kriesel, J D; Pisani, P L; McKeough, M B; Baringer, J R; Spruance, S L

    1994-01-01

    We examined the oral secretions of 25 patients for herpes simplex virus (HSV) at the time of and following experimental UV radiation (UVR). HSV was detected in one or more oral secretion specimens in 5 of 12 (42%) cases by cell culture and in 8 of 12 (67%) cases by PCR. On the day of UVR, HSV was detected in 1 of 12 (8%) patients who developed a lip lesion and 2 of 16 (13%) patients who did not (the difference is not significant). We conclude that PCR is more sensitive than culture in the detection of HSV and that HSV is not shed with increased frequency from the oral cavity before the development of UVR-induced herpes labialis. PMID:7883911

  18. Phenotypic and Functional Characterization of Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoprotein B Epitope-Specific Effector and Memory CD8+ T Cells from Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Individuals with Ocular Herpes

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Arif A.; Srivastava, Ruchi; Spencer, Doran; Garg, Sumit; Fremgen, Daniel; Vahed, Hawa; Lopes, Patricia P.; Pham, Thanh T.; Hewett, Charlie; Kuang, Jasmine; Ong, Nicolas; Huang, Lei; Scarfone, Vanessa M.; Nesburn, Anthony B.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein B (gB)-specific CD8+ T cells protect mice from herpes infection and disease. However, whether and which HSV-1 gB-specific CD8+ T cells play a key role in the “natural” protection seen in HSV-1-seropositive healthy asymptomatic (ASYMP) individuals (who have never had clinical herpes disease) remain to be determined. In this study, we have dissected the phenotypes and the functions of HSV-1 gB-specific CD8+ T cells from HLA-A*02:01 positive, HSV-1 seropositive ASYMP and symptomatic (SYMP) individuals (with a history of numerous episodes of recurrent ocular herpes disease). We found the following. (i) Healthy ASYMP individuals maintained a significantly higher proportion of differentiated HSV-1 gB-specific effector memory CD8+ T cells (TEM cells) (CD45RAlow CCR7low CD44high CD62Llow). In contrast, SYMP patients had frequent less-differentiated central memory CD8+ T cells (TCM cells) (CD45RAlow CCR7high CD44low CD62Lhigh). (ii) ASYMP individuals had significantly higher proportions of multifunctional effector CD8+ T cells which responded mainly to gB342–350 and gB561–569 “ASYMP” epitopes, and simultaneously produced IFN-γ, CD107a/b, granzyme B, and perforin. In contrast, effector CD8+ T cells from SYMP individuals were mostly monofunctional and were directed mainly against nonoverlapping gB17–25 and gB183–191 “SYMP” epitopes. (iii) Immunization of an HLA-A*02:01 transgenic mouse model of ocular herpes with “ASYMP” CD8+ TEM cell epitopes, but not with “SYMP” CD8+ TCM cell epitopes, induced a strong CD8+ T cell-dependent protective immunity against ocular herpes infection and disease. Our findings provide insights into the role of HSV-specific CD8+ TEM cells in protection against herpes and should be considered in the development of an effective vaccine. IMPORTANCE A significantly higher proportion of differentiated and multifunctional HSV-1 gB-specific effector memory CD8+ T cells (TEM cells) (CD45RAlow CCR7low CD44high CD62Llow) were found in healthy ASYMP individuals who are seropositive for HSV-1 but never had any recurrent herpetic disease, while there were frequent less-differentiated and monofunctional central memory CD8+ T cells (TCM cells) (CD45RAlow CCR7high CD44low CD62Lhigh) in SYMP patients. Immunization with “ASYMP” CD8+ TEM cell epitopes, but not with “SYMP” CD8+ TCM cell epitopes, induced a strong protective HSV-specific CD8+ T cell response in HLA-A*02:01 transgenic mice. These findings are important for the development of a safe and effective T cell-based herpes vaccine. PMID:25609800

  19. Mimicking herpes simplex virus 1 and herpes simplex virus 2 mucosal behavior in a well-characterized human genital organ culture.

    PubMed

    Steukers, Lennert; Weyers, Steven; Yang, Xiaoyun; Vandekerckhove, Annelies P; Glorieux, Sarah; Cornelissen, Maria; Van den Broeck, Wim; Temmerman, Marleen; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2014-07-15

    We developed and morphologically characterized a human genital mucosa explant model (endocervix and ectocervix/vagina) to mimic genital herpes infections caused by herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2). Subsequent analysis of HSV entry receptor expression throughout the menstrual cycle in genital tissues was performed, and the evolution of HSV-1/-2 mucosal spread over time was assessed. Nectin-1 and -2 were expressed in all tissues during the entire menstrual cycle. Herpesvirus entry mediator expression was limited mainly to some connective tissue cells. Both HSV-1 and HSV-2 exhibited a plaque-wise mucosal spread across the basement membrane and induced prominent epithelial syncytia. PMID:24436451

  20. Demonstration of either endogenous recurrence or exogenous reinfection by restriction endonuclease cleavage analysis of herpes simplex virus from patients with recrudescent genital herpes.

    PubMed

    Sakaoka, H; Aomori, T; Gouro, T; Kumamoto, Y

    1995-08-01

    By using restriction endonuclease (RE) cleavage analysis, either endogenous recurrence or exogenous reinfection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) was clarified in 45 male and 20 female subjects with recrudescent genital herpes. All of the plural (two to ten) isolates from 63 (205 isolates) out of 65 subjects (97%) were HSV-2. Two isolates from only one of 65 subjects (1.5%) were HSV-1, and they showed the same RE profile. In addition, an HSV-1 and five HSV-2 isolates were obtained from the remaining one female patient (1.5%), indicating that an exogenous HSV-1 strain has been reinfected during HSV-2 recrudescences. HSV-2 isolates were furthermore classified into genotypes of HSV-2 using 16 different RE markers with five REs. Two hundred and ten HSV-2 isolates from 64 subjects were classified into 27 distinct genotypes, in which some predominant genotypes and seven new genotypes were found. Plural HSV-2 isolates obtained from 63 out of 64 subjects, including one subject from whom an HSV-1 and five HSV-2 strains were isolated, were classified into the same genotypes, indicating that they may be regarded as recrudescent genital herpes by the reactivation of the same endogenous strain. However, the RE profiles of two HSV-2 strains from the remaining one subject were different. Thus, it was finally found that only two out of 65 subjects (3%) were reinfected with exogenous strains. These results lead to the conclusion that almost all recrudescent genital herpes are due to the reactivation of an initially infected HSV-2 strain, and are occasionally due to reinfection with distinct HSV strains of either the same or a different type. PMID:7595418

  1. Epidermal multinucleated giant cells are not always a histopathologic clue to a herpes virus infection: multinucleated epithelial giant cells in the epidermis of lesional skin biopsies from patients with acantholytic dermatoses can histologically mimic a herpes virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Philip R.; Paravar, Taraneh; Lee, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis can either be epithelial or histiocytic. Epithelial multinucleated giant cells are most often associated with herpes virus infections. Purpose: To review the histologic differential diagnosis of conditions with epithelial and histiocytic multinucleated giant cells—since multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis are not always pathognomonic of a cutaneous herpes virus infection—and to summarize dermatoses in which herpes virus infection has been observed to coexist. Methods: Two individuals with acantholytic dermatoses whose initial lesional skin biopsies showed multinucleated epithelial giant cells suggestive of a herpes virus infection are reported. Using the PubMed database, an extensive literature search was performed on multinucleated giant cell (and epidermis, epithelial, and histiocytic) and herpes virus infection. Relevant papers were reviewed to discover the skin conditions with either multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis or coincident cutaneous herpes virus infection. Results: Initial skin biopsies from patients with either pemphigus vulgaris or transient acantholytic dermatosis mimicked herpes virus infection; however, laboratory studies and repeat biopsies established the correct diagnosis of their acantholytic dermatosis. Hence, epidermal multinucleated giant cells are not always a histopathologic clue to a herpes virus infection. Indeed, epithelial multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis can be observed not only in the presence of infection (herpes virus), but also acantholytic dermatoses and tumors (trichoepithelioma and pleomorphic basal cell carcinoma). Histiocytic multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis can be observed in patients with either giant cell lichenoid dermatitis or lichen nitidus of the palms. Conclusions: Epithelial and histiocytic multinucleated giant cell can occur in the epidermis. Keratinocyte-derived multinucleated giant cells are most commonly associated with herpes virus infection; yet, they can also be observed in patients with skin tumors or acantholytic dermatoses. Cutaneous herpes simplex virus infection can coexist in association with other conditions such as acantholytic dermatoses, benign skin tumors, bullous disorders, hematologic malignancies, inflammatory dermatoses, and physical therapies. However, when a herpes virus infection is suspected based upon the discovery of epithelial multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis, but either the clinic presentation or lack of response to viral therapy or absence of confirmatory laboratory studies does not support the diagnosis of a viral infection, the possibility of a primary acantholytic dermatosis should be considered and additional lesional skin biopsies performed. Also, because hematoxylin and eosin staining is not the golden standard for confirmation of autoimmune bullous dermatoses, skin biopsies for direct immunofluorescence should be performed when a primary bullous dermatosis is suspected since the histopathology observed on hematoxylin and eosin stained sections can be misleading. PMID:25396080

  2. Immunization with a highly attenuated replication-competent herpes simplex virus type 1 mutant, HF10, protects mice from genital disease caused by herpes simplex virus type 2

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Chenhong; Goshima, Fumi; Kamakura, Maki; Mutoh, Yoshifumi; Iwata, Seiko; Kimura, Hiroshi; Nishiyama, Yukihiro

    2012-01-01

    Genital herpes is an intractable disease caused mainly by herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 (HSV-2), and is a major concern in public health. A previous infection with HSV type 1 (HSV-1) enhances protection against primary HSV-2 infection to some extent. In this study, we evaluated the ability of HF10, a naturally occurring replication-competent HSV-1 mutant, to protect against genital infection in mice caused by HSV-2. Subcutaneous inoculation of HF10-immunized mice against lethal infection by HSV-2, and attenuated the development of genital ulcer diseases. Immunization with HF10 inhibited HSV-2 replication in the mouse vagina, reduced local inflammation, controlled emergence of neurological dysfunctions of HSV-2 infection, and increased survival. In HF10-immunized mice, we observed rapid and increased production of interferon-? in the vagina in response to HSV-2 infection, and numerous CD4+ and a few CD8+ T cells localized to the infective focus. CD4+ T cells invaded the mucosal subepithelial lamina propria. Thus, the protective effect of HF10 was related to induction of cellular immunity, mediated primarily by Th1 CD4+ cells. These data indicate that the live attenuated HSV-1 mutant strain HF10 is a promising candidate antigen for a vaccine against genital herpes caused by HSV-2. PMID:22557998

  3. Different presence of Chlamydia pneumoniae, herpes simplex virus type 1, human herpes virus 6, and Toxoplasma gondii in schizophrenia: meta-analysis and analytical study

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Fernández, José; Luna del Castillo, Juan de Dios; Mañanes-González, Sara; Carrillo-Ávila, José Antonio; Gutiérrez, Blanca; Cervilla, Jorge A; Sorlózano-Puerto, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we have performed both a meta-analysis and an analytical study exploring the presence of Chlamydia pneumoniae, herpes simplex virus type 1, human herpes virus 6, and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in a sample of 143 schizophrenic patients and 143 control subjects. The meta-analysis was performed on papers published up to April 2014. The presence of serum immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin A was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test. The detection of microbial DNA in total peripheral blood was performed by nested polymerase chain reaction. The meta-analysis showed that: 1) C. pneumoniae DNA in blood and brain are more common in schizophrenic patients; 2) there is association with parasitism by T. gondii, despite the existence of publication bias; and 3) herpes viruses were not more common in schizophrenic patients. In our sample only anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulin G was more prevalent and may be a risk factor related to schizophrenia, with potential value for prevention. PMID:25848282

  4. Herpes zoster-associated encephalitis: clinicopathologic report of 12 cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Jemsek, J; Greenberg, S B; Taber, L; Harvey, D; Gershon, A; Couch, R B

    1983-03-01

    Herpes-zoster associated encephalitis (HZAE) is an uncommon complication of herpes zoster. Over 8 years, we evaluated 12 patients with this clinical diagnosis. The majority of our patients were elderly, immunosuppressed, and found to have disseminated skin lesions prior to the onset of CNS symptoms. All patients had abnormal EEGs, and CSF pleocytosis was found in most. In the seven patients who were tested, specific antibody to the varicella-zoster membrane antigen (FAMA) was detected in spinal fluid during the course of the illness. Although three patients died during the period of active infection, the virus could not be definitively implicated as the cause of death. These HZAE patients could not be distinguished from our other herpes zoster patients on the basis of age, initially involved dermatome, or mortality rate. However, among herpes zoster patients who survived, duration of hospitalization was significantly longer in those with a diagnosis of HZAE. All surviving HZAE patients had a slow but eventual return to their prior cognitive status. PMID:6298562

  5. Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in a University Health Population: Clinical Manifestations, Epidemiology, and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Robert; Aierstuck, Sara; Williams, Elizabeth A.; Melby, Bernette

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors described clinical presentations of oral and genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in a university health population and implications of these findings. Participants and Methods: Using a standardized data collection tool, 215 records of patients with symptomatic culture-positive HSV infections were reviewed. Results:

  6. [Analysis on clinical features and treatment of herpes zoster patients hospitalized in real world].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ling-Lian; Wang, Lian-Xin; Xie, Yan-Ming; Yang, Wei; Yang, Zhi-Xin; Zhuang, Yan; Zhang, Yun-Bi

    2014-09-01

    From the hospital information system (HIS) of 20 national grade III-A general hospitals, 2 960 cases of herpes zoster as the research object, analyzes the relations between the general information, syndrome of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), western medicine combined diseases, the relationship between the solar term and the incidence of herpes zoster, and the combined use of Chinese and western medicine. Among the patients with 46-65 year old has the highest percentage of diseased; admission to general outpatient clinic is the most; the most common medical payment is medicare; combined disease such as hypertension, diabetes and coronary heart disease is more common; early treatment effect of herpes zoster is better than the sequelae; summer and autumn solar term patients is hospitalized more, TCM syndrome is damp heat of liver fire; about drugs, western medicine is the most commonly used vitamin B1 and mecobalamin, traditional Chinese medicine is the most frequently used Danhong injection, combination therapy with promoting blood circulation drugs and neurotrophic drugs. Thus, herpes zoster, more common in elderly patients, with no obvious relationship between solar term, should be early diagnosis and early treatment, often with combination of Chinese traditional and western medicine treatment. PMID:25532379

  7. Molecular requirement for sterols in herpes simplex virus entry and infectivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) required cholesterol for virion-induced membrane fusion. HSV successfully entered DHCR24-/-cells, which lack a desmosterol-to-cholesterol conversion enzyme, indicating entry can occur independently of cholesterol. Depletion of desmosterol from these cells resulted in d...

  8. [Fatal fulminating hepatitis due to Herpes simplex virus type 2 in a young immunocompetent female].

    PubMed

    Chauveau, E; Martin, J; Saliba, F; Nicolas, X; Richecoeur, M; Klotz, F

    1999-01-01

    Fulminant herpes simplex viral hepatitis is uncommon in immunocompetent subjects. A 24-year-old woman presenting hepatomegaly with fever was hospitalized after returning from a trip to southern Africa. The patient was neither pregnant nor immunocompromised. Because of recent tropical travel, differential diagnosis included alphabetic hepatotropic virus infection, yellow fever, African hemorrhagic fever, and arbovirus infection. After ruling out other common viral etiologies, a definitive diagnosis of herpes simplex viral infection was made on the basis of clinical and laboratory findings showing high fever, leukopenia, and thrombopenia; of histological examination of the native liver after transplantation showing non-inflammatory confluent focal hemorrhagic necrosis; and on serologic tests demonstrating seroconversion for herpes simplex virus type 2. Outcome after transplantation was rapidly fatal but the death was not directly related to infection. The most likely etiology of fulminant hepatitis in a young woman returning from travel in a tropical area is hepatitis virus B or hepatitis virus E in cases involving pregnancy. However herpes simplex virus should be included in differential diagnosis even in immunocompetent subjects. PMID:10472585

  9. Herpes zoster-associated trigeminal trophic syndrome: a case report and review.

    PubMed

    Litschel, R; Winkler, H; Dazert, S; Sudhoff, H

    2003-02-01

    The case of a 75-year-old Caucasian woman with a trigeminal trophic syndrome (TTS) is presented and discussed. TTS of the ala nasi subsequent to a herpes zoster infection has not been described previously. We provide a review of the literature with insights into the pathogenesis and current therapeutic strategies. PMID:12582785

  10. Disseminated Primary Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Infection in a 22-Year-Old male

    PubMed Central

    Erdmann, Nathan; Hewitt, Benjamin A.; Atkinson, Thomas Prescott; Van Wagoner, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of primary disseminated herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) cutaneous disease in a 22-year-old male. We discuss the immune response to HSV-2 infection as well as the extragenital manifestations of HSV-2 observed in immune-competent and immune-suppressed persons. PMID:26180838

  11. Computational Studies of Benzoxazinone Derivatives as Antiviral Agents against Herpes Virus Type 1 Protease.

    PubMed

    Mello, Juliana F R; Botelho, Nathália C; Souza, Alessandra M T; Oliveira, Riethe; Brito, Monique A; Abrahim-Vieira, Bárbara de A; Sodero, Ana Carolina R; Castro, Helena C; Cabral, Lucio M; Miceli, Leonardo A; Rodrigues, Carlos R

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus infections have been described in the medical literature for centuries, yet the the drugs available nowadays for therapy are largely ineffective and low oral bioavailability plays an important role on the inefficacy of the treatments. Additionally, the details of the inhibition of Herpes Virus type 1 are still not fully understood. Studies have shown that several viruses encode one or more proteases required for the production new infectious virions. This study presents an analysis of the interactions between HSV-1 protease and benzoxazinone derivatives through a combination of structure-activity relationships, comparative modeling and molecular docking studies. The structure activity relationship results showed an important contribution of hydrophobic and polarizable groups and limitations for bulky groups in specific positions. Two Herpes Virus type 1 protease models were constructed and compared to achieve the best model which was obtained by MODELLER. Molecular docking results pointed to an important interaction between the most potent benzoxazinone derivative and Ser129, consistent with previous mechanistic data. Moreover, we also observed hydrophobic interactions that may play an important role in the stabilization of inhibitors in the active site. Finally, we performed druglikeness and drugscore studies of the most potent derivatives and the drugs currently used against Herpes virus. PMID:26065834

  12. Herpes Zoster Induced Osteomyelitis in the Immunocompromised Patients: A 10-year Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Tabrizi, Reza; Dehghani Nazhvani, Ali; Vahedi, Amir; Gholami, Mehdi; Zare, Raziyeh; Etemadi Parsa, Raha

    2014-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Alveolar bone necrosis induced by Herpes zoster infection is considered as a rare manifestation of osteomyelitis and few case reports are presented in the literature. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate mandibular osteomyelitis caused by herpes zoster in the immunocompromised patients with histopathologically documented osteomyelitis in the mandible and herpes zoster infection. Materials and Method: 30 patients were recruited in this cross-sectional study. 19 patients were completely edentulous, 4 patients were partially edentulous and 7 with complete dentition. In all cases, specimens were analyzed using a conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for varicella zoster virus. Results: 16 patients underwent dialysis, 9 patients received chemotherapy treatments and 5 patients had transplantation (four kidneys and one liver). Histopathological assessment demonstrated a nonspecific bone necrosis exhibiting an eosinophilic, homogeneous non-vital bone tissue with peripheral resorption surrounded by reactive connective tissue. PCR test was positive in 21 cases. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the frequency of osteomyelitis induced by herpes zoster could be more than the records provided by previous studies. Histopathological findings might be nonspecific in such patients. PCR test was not positive for all HZ induced osteomyelitis patients. PMID:25191659

  13. Herpes zoster--predicting and minimizing the impact of post-herpetic neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R

    2001-02-01

    Herpes zoster results from reactivation of latent varicella-zoster virus in the dorsal root ganglia and is frequently associated with severe pain. Most patients suffer acute pain during the rash phase, and in many, prodromal pain or discomfort also precedes the rash. The pain of herpes zoster gradually resolves with time, but may persist after the acute disease as post-herpetic neuralgia for weeks, months or even years. Post-herpetic neuralgia, the most common complication of herpes zoster, often results in significant morbidity and healthcare resource usage. Early treatment with oral antivirals has been shown to accelerate the resolution of postherpetic neuralgia, with therapeutic effects particularly evident in the over-50 age group, where pain generally persists for longer. Progressively increasing life expectancy of the population translates to increasing numbers of cases of herpes zoster. The socio-economic gains associated with active management, including use of oral antivirals where indicated, to speed resolution of pain and post-herpetic neuralgia, readily justify additional cost. PMID:11160029

  14. Herpes simplex virus causing superficial wound infection in total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Pradeep; Wismer, David

    2003-06-01

    We present a case of herpes simplex virus causing a superficial wound infection. The patient suffered a recurrent prodromal burning sensation followed by small grouped vesicles on a erythematous base. We suggest that viral cultures be done in these cases to aid in this unusual diagnosis. PMID:12820099

  15. Disseminated herpes zoster with increased CD4 counts in 3 HIV-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Lidhoo, Pooja; Unemori, Patrick; Leslie, Kieron S.; Maurer, Toby

    2014-01-01

    It has been reported that the diagnosis of multidermatomal herpes zoster in HIV-infected patients occurs at a lower CD4 level than zoster involving a single dermatome. Herein, we describe 3 cases of HIV-infected patients presenting with disseminated zoster at high CD4 counts and low HIV viral loads. PMID:19615545

  16. Herpes simplex virus 2 infection: molecular association with HIV and novel microbicides to prevent disease.

    PubMed

    Suazo, Paula A; Tognarelli, Eduardo I; Kalergis, Alexis M; González, Pablo A

    2015-04-01

    Infection with herpes simplex viruses is one of the most ancient diseases described to affect humans. Infection with these viruses produces vexing effects to the host, which frequently recur. Infection with herpes simplex viruses is lifelong, and currently there is no vaccine or drug to prevent or cure infection. Prevalence of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infection varies significantly depending on the geographical region and nears 20% worldwide. Importantly, HSV-2 is the first cause of genital ulcers in the planet. HSV-2 affects approximately 500 million people around the globe and significantly increases the likelihood of acquiring the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), as well as its shedding. Thus, controlling HSV-2 infection and spread is of public health concern. Here, we review the diseases produced by herpes simplex viruses, the factors that modulate HSV-2 infection, the relationship between HSV-2 and HIV and novel therapeutic and prophylactic microbicides/antivirals under development to prevent infection and pathological outcomes produced by this virus. We also review mutations associated with HSV-2 resistance to common antivirals. PMID:25209142

  17. HIV-1 replication activates CD4+ T cells with specificities for persistent herpes viruses

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Anna; Rehr, Manuela; Graw, Frederik; Rusert, Peter; Bossart, Walter; Kuster, Herbert; Trkola, Alexandra; Gnthard, Huldrych F; Oxenius, Annette

    2010-01-01

    Hyperactivation of CD4+ T cells is a hallmark of untreated HIV-1 infection. The antigenic specificities of activated CD4+ T cells and the underlying mechanisms leading to their activation remain thus far elusive. We report here that during HIV rebound the dynamics of HIV-specific CD4+ T cells is highly correlated with the dynamics of CD4+ T cells specific for persistent antigens derived from various members of the herpes virus family, whereas CD4 responses towards non-persistent antigens were unaffected by HIV replication. Notably, the dynamics of HIV and herpes viral antigen-specific CD4+ T cells responses correlated with the expression level of activation markers on dendritic cells (DCs) and activated DCs were more potent in restimulating memory T cells. These data strongly suggest that HIV replication costimulates activation of CD4+ T cells specific for persistent herpes viral antigens via activation of DCs. We propose that a large proportion of activated T cells during untreated HIV infection may be specific for herpes viral antigens and identify a novel mechanism contributing to chronic immune activation in untreated HIV-1 infection. PMID:20533427

  18. Guidance on Management of Asymptomatic Neonates Born to Women With Active Genital Herpes Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Kimberlin, David W.; Baley, Jill; Brady, Michael T.; Byington, Carrie L.; Davies, H. Dele; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Glode, Mary P.; Jackson, Mary Anne; Keyserling, Harry L.; Maldonado, Yvonne A.; Murray, Dennis L.; Orenstein, Walter A.; Schutze, Gordon E.; Willoughby, Rodney E.; Zaoutis, Theoklis E.; Papile, Lu-Ann; Bhutani, Vinod K.; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Cummings, James; Kumar, Praveen; Polin, Richard A.; Tan, Rosemarie C.; Wang, Kasper S.; Watterberg, Kristi L.

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection of the neonate is uncommon, but genital herpes infections in adults are very common. Thus, although treating an infant with neonatal herpes is a relatively rare occurrence, managing infants potentially exposed to HSV at the time of delivery occurs more frequently. The risk of transmitting HSV to an infant during delivery is determined in part by the mothers previous immunity to HSV. Women with primary genital HSV infections who are shedding HSV at delivery are 10 to 30 times more likely to transmit the virus to their newborn infants than are women with recurrent HSV infection who are shedding virus at delivery. With the availability of commercial serological tests that reliably can distinguish type-specific HSV antibodies, it is now possible to determine the type of maternal infection and, thus, further refine management of infants delivered to women who have active genital HSV lesions. The management algorithm presented herein uses both serological and virological studies to determine the risk of HSV transmission to the neonate who is delivered to a mother with active herpetic genital lesions and tailors management accordingly. The algorithm does not address the approach to asymptomatic neonates delivered to women with a history of genital herpes but no active lesions at delivery. PMID:23359576

  19. Characteristics Associated with Genital Herpes Testing among Young Adults: Assessing Factors from Two National Data Sets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Lisa K.; Levandowski, Brooke A.; Roberts, Craig M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives and Participants: In the United States, genital herpes (GH) prevalence is 10.6% among 20- to 29-year-olds and about 90% of seropositive persons do not know their status. This study investigated individual characteristics associated with GH screening and diagnosis in sexually active young adults aged 18 to 24. Methods: Two data sets were

  20. Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in a University Health Population: Clinical Manifestations, Epidemiology, and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Robert; Aierstuck, Sara; Williams, Elizabeth A.; Melby, Bernette

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors described clinical presentations of oral and genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in a university health population and implications of these findings. Participants and Methods: Using a standardized data collection tool, 215 records of patients with symptomatic culture-positive HSV infections were reviewed. Results:…

  1. THE PERSISTENCE OF CHICKEN HERPES AND RETRO VIRAL CHIMERIC MOLECULES UPON IN VIVO PASSAGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek's disease virus, a herpes virus, and avian leucosis virus subgroup J, a retrovirus were used for experimental co-infection of chicks. Two consecutive trials were performed in attempt to evaluate the formation and persistence of chimeric molecules that would indicate retro-viral integration int...

  2. Amino-terminal sequence of glycoprotein D of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, R.J.; Long, D.; Hogue-Angeletti, R.; Cohen, G.H.

    1984-01-01

    Glycoprotein D (gD) of herpes simplex virus is a structural component of the virion envelope which stimulates production of high titers of herpes simplex virus type-common neutralizing antibody. The authors caried out automated N-terminal amino acid sequencing studies on radiolabeled preparations of gD-1 (gD of herpes simplex virus type 1) and gD-2 (gD of herpes simplex virus type 2). Although some differences were noted, particularly in the methionine and alanine profiles for gD-1 and gD-2, the amino acid sequence of a number of the first 30 residues of the amino terminus of gD-1 and gD-2 appears to be quite similar. For both proteins, the first residue is a lysine. When we compared out sequence data for gD-1 with those predicted by nucleic acid sequencing, the two sequences could be aligned (with one exception) starting at residue 26 (lysine) of the predicted sequence. Thus, the first 25 amino acids of the predicted sequence are absent from the polypeptides isolated from infected cells.

  3. Influence of herpes simplex virus infection on benzo(a)pyrene metabolism in monkey kidney cells

    SciTech Connect

    Degenhardt, J.H.; Whitcomb, B.; Hall, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    Current research in our laboratory is designed to investigate the intracellular interactions of BP with oncogenic DNA viruses of animals and humans. In this study, our purpose was to determine whether BP is metabolized in herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infected cells and whether HSV-2 infection affects intracellular levels of the aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase system necessary for BP metabolism.

  4. Characteristics Associated with Genital Herpes Testing among Young Adults: Assessing Factors from Two National Data Sets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Lisa K.; Levandowski, Brooke A.; Roberts, Craig M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives and Participants: In the United States, genital herpes (GH) prevalence is 10.6% among 20- to 29-year-olds and about 90% of seropositive persons do not know their status. This study investigated individual characteristics associated with GH screening and diagnosis in sexually active young adults aged 18 to 24. Methods: Two data sets were…

  5. 75 FR 59611 - Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 Serological Assays...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... final rule that appeared in the Federal Register of August 25, 2009 (74 FR 42773). The direct final rule... INFORMATION: In the Federal Register of August 25, 2009 (74 FR 42773), FDA solicited comments concerning the... Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 Serological Assays; Confirmation of Effective Date AGENCY: Food...

  6. Quantitative autoradiographic mapping of focal herpes simplex virus encephalitis using a radiolabeled antiviral drug

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R.

    1984-12-18

    A method of mapping herpes simplex viral infection comprising administering a radiolabeled antiviral active 5-substituted 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-substituted-D-arabinofuranosyl) pyrimidine nucleoside to the infected subject, and scanning the area in which the infection is to be mapped for the radiolabel.

  7. Double encephalitis with herpes simplex virus type II and cytomegalovirus in an elder Chinese: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Chaobiao; Chen, Shaoxian; Lin, Qi; Zhou, Houshi; Huang, Chuming; Lin, Jiyuan; Xie, Weihang; Chen, Kai; Zhou, Dongming; Ma, Wan; Ma, Feiyu; Xu, Haiyun

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis is a rare disease. In adults, most of the reported cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections are seen in immunocompromised patients. We present a case of 67-year-old Chinese male with the coinfection of CMV and herpes simplex virus type II (HSV-II). He had no history of being treated with immunosuppressants, showed symptoms of psychosis and was scored 109 on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. This patient presented with a rare case of coinfection of CMV and herpes simplex virus type II with psychotic symptoms. PMID:26586947

  8. Recurrence of herpes simplex encephalitis associated with temozolomide chemoradiation for malignant glioma: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Christman, Mitalee P; Turbett, Sarah E; Sengupta, Soma; Bakhadirov, Khamidulla U; Williamson, Craig A; Nayak, Lakshmi; Milligan, Tracey; Katz, Joel T

    2014-04-01

    Although herpes simplex encephalitis is not classically considered an opportunistic infection, reactivation of herpes simplex is being seen increasingly in patients with cancer or immunosuppression. The authors present a patient with malignant glioma and HSV-1 encephalitis whose PCR-proven encephalitis recurred after temozolomide (TMZ) chemoradiation despite acyclovir therapy, and summarize details of four other cases of HSV-1 encephalitis associated with TMZ. The similarity among these cases raises the likely need for longer treatment courses and/or oral suppressive therapy in patients at risk for herpes simplex infections who are receiving TMZ. PMID:25988006

  9. Risk of herpes zoster in children with asthma

    PubMed Central

    Wi, Chung-Il; Kim, Bong-Seong; Mehra, Sonia; Yawn, Barbara P.; Park, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is literature that indicates the association of asthma with an increased risk of common and serious microbial infections. We recently reported an increased risk of vaccine-preventable diseases, e.g., herpes zoster (HZ) among children with asthma, defined by predetermined asthma criteria. Little is known about whether this association is persistent if the asthma status is defined by different asthma criteria, e.g., the Asthma Predictive Index, given the heterogeneity of asthma. Objective: To assess the consistency of the association between asthma and the risk of HZ in children. Methods: This is a population-based case-control study based on all pediatric patients with HZ between 1996 and 2001 in Olmsted County, Minnesota, and 1:1 age- and sex-matched controls without a history of HZ who were enrolled in our previous study. The original Asthma Predictive Index criteria was operationalized by two or more wheezing episodes in a year for the first 3 years of life plus one of the major (physician-diagnosed asthma for a parent or physician-diagnosed eczema for a patient) or two of the minor criteria (physician-diagnosed allergic rhinitis for a patient, wheezing apart from cold, or eosinophilia [≥4%]). Data were fit to traditional logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios and 95% confident intervals. Results: Of the original cohort (n = 554), 95 (17%) did not meet the enrollment criteria for this study, which left 459. Of the 221 patients, 53% were female, with a mean (standard deviation) age of 9.7 ± 4.2 years. The risk of HZ was increased in children with asthma defined by the API controlling for a varicella vaccine history and atopic status (adjusted odds ratio 2.56 [95% confidence interval, 1.08–6.56]). Conclusions: The association between asthma and increased risk of HZ in children and adolescents is consistent, independent of asthma definitions. Asthma might be an important clinical condition to be considered in HZ vaccine studies. PMID:26314818

  10. [Herpes simplex virus vaccine studies: from past to present].

    PubMed

    Us, Drdal

    2006-10-01

    The dramatical increase in the prevalence of Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections and the significant physical and psychosocial morbidity of HSV type 2 infections, generate the need for an efficacious HSV vaccine. The most important properties of HSVs that should be targeted for a successful vaccine are neuronal invasion, latency and reactivation in spite of specific host immune responses. The major expectation for an ideal HSV vaccine candidate is to induce sterilizing immunity, which must be effective at all portals of HSV entry; to prevent or reduce the symptomatic disease and to eliminate or at least to limit the asymptomatic viral shedding. The first vaccine studies have began in the 1920s and in the intervening eight decades there have been many attempts to develop an effective one. Although encouraging findings came from experiments in various animal models, human studies have been disappointing, unfortunately. The vaccine strategies that have undergone clinical evaluation until today included autoinoculation of live HSV, whole inactivated vaccines, attenuated live virus vaccines, modified live virus subunit vaccines, cell culture-derived subunit vaccines, recombinant subunit (glycoprotein) vaccines, DISC (Disabled Infectious Single Cycle) virus vaccines, viral vectors and naked DNA vaccines. In most of the clinical studies the failure of HSV vaccines in spite of inducing very high levels of specific neutralizing antibodies have emphasized that cell-mediated immune response, especially Thl type immunity is important in preventing both primary disease and recurrences with HSV, rather than humoral response. The most hopeful result was obtained with HSV-2 gD and alum/MPL vaccine in clinical studies. This vaccine was found 74% effective in preventing genital disease in HSV seronegative women but was not effective in men or seropositive women. In recent years it is possible to genetically engineer HSV to produce a vaccine strain that is protective without causing human disease. An example for this strategy was the development of a live attenuated vaccine from which neurovirulence gene (gamma1 34.5) has been removed. Another promising one was the replication-defective DISC virus HSV vaccine which is derived from a virus with an essential gene (e.g. gH gene) deleted, so the replication has been limited only to a single cycle. As a result, intensive HSV vaccine trials are currently underway, although all the previous attempts to produce an effective vaccine for the prophylaxis and immunotherapy against HSV have been largely unsuccessful. In this review the history of HSV vaccine development together with the preclinical and clinical studies from past to present has been summarized and recent progress for an effective HSV vaccine together with the further improvements required for an immunogenic vaccine have been discussed. PMID:17205702

  11. Ligand epitope antigen presentation system vaccines against herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Goel, Neena; Zimmerman, Daniel H; Rosenthal, Kenneth S

    2005-01-01

    The Ligand Epitope Antigen Presentation System (L.E.A.P.S.) approach to vaccine development allowed construction of immunogens from defined T cell epitopes from herpes simplex virus (HSV) proteins that conferred protection against lethal challenge by the virus. This technology utilizes specific peptides which bind to CD4, CD8 or other proteins on the surface of T cells (T cell binding ligand (TCBL)), macrophage and dendritic cells (immune cell binding ligand (ICBL)) to promote the immunogenicity of an epitope, activate T cell and other protective responses, and direct the immune response to either a Th1 or a Th2 type of response. The J TCBL/ICBL is a peptide from beta-2-microglobulin which binds to the CD8 protein and promotes Th1 responses and the G TCBL/ICBL is a peptide from the beta chain of MHC II molecules that binds to the CD4 protein and promotes Th2 responses. Epitopes from the ICP27 (H1, H2), glycoprotein B (gB) and glycoprotein D (gD) proteins of HSV-1 were attached to either the J TCBL/ICBL or the G TCBL/ICBL. The JH1, JH2, JgB and JgD vaccines elicited DTH responses without antibody but conferred protection upon lethal challenge. Th1 related antibody was produced after challenge of the JgB and JgD immunized mice. Immunization with the GH1, GgB or GgD vaccines did not yield protection. The GgB and GgD produced Th2 related antibodies upon virus challenge. Initiation of the immune response by the JgD vaccine was dependent on functional CD4, CD8 expressing cells and interferon gamma and delivery of protection was dependent upon CD4 and interferon gamma. The L.E.A.P.S. HSV vaccines appear to elicit the appropriate immune responses for protection and further work is being performed to develop the JgD vaccine for human use. PMID:15569635

  12. Structural basis for the antibody neutralization of Herpes simplex virus

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Cheng-Chung; Lin, Li-Ling; Chan, Woan-Eng; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Lai, Jiann-Shiun; Wang, Andrew H.-J.

    2013-10-01

    The gD–E317-Fab complex crystal revealed the conformational epitope of human mAb E317 on HSV gD, providing a molecular basis for understanding the viral neutralization mechanism. Glycoprotein D (gD) of Herpes simplex virus (HSV) binds to a host cell surface receptor, which is required to trigger membrane fusion for virion entry into the host cell. gD has become a validated anti-HSV target for therapeutic antibody development. The highly inhibitory human monoclonal antibody E317 (mAb E317) was previously raised against HSV gD for viral neutralization. To understand the structural basis of antibody neutralization, crystals of the gD ectodomain bound to the E317 Fab domain were obtained. The structure of the complex reveals that E317 interacts with gD mainly through the heavy chain, which covers a large area for epitope recognition on gD, with a flexible N-terminal and C-terminal conformation. The epitope core structure maps to the external surface of gD, corresponding to the binding sites of two receptors, herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) and nectin-1, which mediate HSV infection. E317 directly recognizes the gD–nectin-1 interface and occludes the HVEM contact site of gD to block its binding to either receptor. The binding of E317 to gD also prohibits the formation of the N-terminal hairpin of gD for HVEM recognition. The major E317-binding site on gD overlaps with either the nectin-1-binding residues or the neutralizing antigenic sites identified thus far (Tyr38, Asp215, Arg222 and Phe223). The epitopes of gD for E317 binding are highly conserved between two types of human herpesvirus (HSV-1 and HSV-2). This study enables the virus-neutralizing epitopes to be correlated with the receptor-binding regions. The results further strengthen the previously demonstrated therapeutic and diagnostic potential of the E317 antibody.

  13. A Primary Neuron Culture System for the Study of Herpes Simplex Virus Latency and Reactivation

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Mariko; Kim, Ju-Youn; Camarena, Vladimir; Roehm, Pamela C.; Chao, Moses V.; Wilson, Angus C.; Mohr, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) establishes a life-long latent infection in peripheral neurons. This latent reservoir is the source of recurrent reactivation events that ensure transmission and contribute to clinical disease. Current antivirals do not impact the latent reservoir and there are no vaccines. While the molecular details of lytic replication are well-characterized, mechanisms controlling latency in neurons remain elusive. Our present understanding of latency is derived from in vivo studies using small animal models, which have been indispensable for defining viral gene requirements and the role of immune responses. However, it is impossible to distinguish specific effects on the virus-neuron relationship from more general consequences of infection mediated by immune or non-neuronal support cells in live animals. In addition, animal experimentation is costly, time-consuming, and limited in terms of available options for manipulating host processes. To overcome these limitations, a neuron-only system is desperately needed that reproduces the in vivo characteristics of latency and reactivation but offers the benefits of tissue culture in terms of homogeneity and accessibility. Here we present an in vitro model utilizing cultured primary sympathetic neurons from rat superior cervical ganglia (SCG) (Figure 1) to study HSV-1 latency and reactivation that fits most if not all of the desired criteria. After eliminating non-neuronal cells, near-homogeneous TrkA+ neuron cultures are infected with HSV-1 in the presence of acyclovir (ACV) to suppress lytic replication. Following ACV removal, non-productive HSV-1 infections that faithfully exhibit accepted hallmarks of latency are efficiently established. Notably, lytic mRNAs, proteins, and infectious virus become undetectable, even in the absence of selection, but latency-associated transcript (LAT) expression persists in neuronal nuclei. Viral genomes are maintained at an average copy number of 25 per neuron and can be induced to productively replicate by interfering with PI3-Kinase / Akt signaling or the simple withdrawal of nerve growth factor1. A recombinant HSV-1 encoding EGFP fused to the viral lytic protein Us11 provides a functional, real-time marker for replication resulting from reactivation that is readily quantified. In addition to chemical treatments, genetic methodologies such as RNA-interference or gene delivery via lentiviral vectors can be successfully applied to the system permitting mechanistic studies that are very difficult, if not impossible, in animals. In summary, the SCG-based HSV-1 latency / reactivation system provides a powerful, necessary tool to unravel the molecular mechanisms controlling HSV1 latency and reactivation in neurons, a long standing puzzle in virology whose solution may offer fresh insights into developing new therapies that target the latent herpesvirus reservoir. PMID:22491318

  14. Simple Machine Science Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chessin, Debby

    2007-01-01

    Science centers can engage students; accommodate different learning styles and individual interests; help students become independent and confident learners; and encourage social skills among students. In this article, the author worked with third-grade students as they completed activities at learning centers during a week-long unit on simple

  15. Simple Magnetometer for Autopilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garner, H. D.

    1982-01-01

    Simple, low-cost magnetometer is suitable for heading-reference applications in autopilots and other directional control systems. Sensing element utilizes commercially available transformer core; and supporting electronics consist of one transistor, two readily-available integrated-circuit chips, and associated resistors and capacitors.

  16. Climate Change Made Simple

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shallcross, Dudley E.; Harrison, Tim G.

    2007-01-01

    The newly revised specifications for GCSE science involve greater consideration of climate change. This topic appears in either the chemistry or biology section, depending on the examination board, and is a good example of "How Science Works." It is therefore timely that students are given an opportunity to conduct some simple climate modelling.…

  17. On Simple Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, K.C.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses San Francisco's Exploratorium, a science teaching center with 500 exhibits focusing on human perception, but extending to everything from the mechanics of voice to the art of illusion, from holograms to harmonics. The Exploratorium emphasizes "simple science" (refractions/resonances, sounds/shadows) to tune in the senses and turn on the

  18. A Simple Hydrogen Electrode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggen, Per-Odd

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the construction of an inexpensive, robust, and simple hydrogen electrode, as well as the use of this electrode to measure "standard" potentials. In the experiment described here the students can measure the reduction potentials of metal-metal ion pairs directly, without using a secondary reference electrode. Measurements

  19. Not So "Simple Justice"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban, Wayne

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author provides his analyses on Richard Kluger's "Simple Justice," a book that portrays the major players involved in the landmark "Brown" decision. He comments generally on Kluger and highlights a few interesting aspects of his analysis, including his interpretation of the actions of then clerk and later justice and still

  20. A Simple Wave Driver

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temiz, Burak Kagan; Yavuz, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    This study was done to develop a simple and inexpensive wave driver that can be used in experiments on string waves. The wave driver was made using a battery-operated toy car, and the apparatus can be used to produce string waves at a fixed frequency. The working principle of the apparatus is as follows: shortly after the car is turned on, the…

  1. Simple Lookup Service

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-05-01

    Simple Lookup Service (sLS) is a REST/JSON based lookup service that allows users to publish information in the form of key-value pairs and search for the published information. The lookup service supports both pull and push model. This software can be used to create a distributed architecture/cloud.

  2. A Simple Hydrogen Electrode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggen, Per-Odd

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the construction of an inexpensive, robust, and simple hydrogen electrode, as well as the use of this electrode to measure "standard" potentials. In the experiment described here the students can measure the reduction potentials of metal-metal ion pairs directly, without using a secondary reference electrode. Measurements…

  3. Climate Change Made Simple

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shallcross, Dudley E.; Harrison, Tim G.

    2007-01-01

    The newly revised specifications for GCSE science involve greater consideration of climate change. This topic appears in either the chemistry or biology section, depending on the examination board, and is a good example of "How Science Works." It is therefore timely that students are given an opportunity to conduct some simple climate modelling.

  4. Simple Kidney Cysts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Information American Kidney Fund National Kidney Foundation MedlinePlus Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... Organizations​​ . (PDF, 345 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Simple Kidney Cysts Page Content On this page: What are ...

  5. Working with Simple Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, John W.

    2006-01-01

    A set of examples is provided that illustrate the use of work as applied to simple machines. The ramp, pulley, lever and hydraulic press are common experiences in the life of a student, and their theoretical analysis therefore makes the abstract concept of work more real. The mechanical advantage of each of these systems is also discussed so that…

  6. A Simple Wave Driver

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temiz, Burak Kagan; Yavuz, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    This study was done to develop a simple and inexpensive wave driver that can be used in experiments on string waves. The wave driver was made using a battery-operated toy car, and the apparatus can be used to produce string waves at a fixed frequency. The working principle of the apparatus is as follows: shortly after the car is turned on, the

  7. Entropy Is Simple, Qualitatively.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Frank L.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that qualitatively, entropy is simple. Entropy increase from a macro viewpoint is a measure of the dispersal of energy from localized to spread out at a temperature T. Fundamentally based on statistical and quantum mechanics, this approach is superior to the non-fundamental "disorder" as a descriptor of entropy change. (MM)

  8. Working with Simple Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, John W.

    2006-01-01

    A set of examples is provided that illustrate the use of work as applied to simple machines. The ramp, pulley, lever and hydraulic press are common experiences in the life of a student, and their theoretical analysis therefore makes the abstract concept of work more real. The mechanical advantage of each of these systems is also discussed so that

  9. Simple Library Bookkeeping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Herbert H.

    A simple and cheap manual double entry continuous transaction posting system with running balances is developed for bookkeeping by small libraries. A very small library may operate without any system of fiscal control but when a library's budget approaches three figures, some kind of bookkeeping must be introduced. To maintain control over his

  10. Genome Sequencing and Analysis of Geographically Diverse Clinical Isolates of Herpes Simplex Virus 2

    PubMed Central

    Lamers, Susanna L.; Weiner, Brian; Ray, Stuart C.; Colgrove, Robert C.; Diaz, Fernando; Jing, Lichen; Wang, Kening; Saif, Sakina; Young, Sarah; Henn, Matthew; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Tobian, Aaron A. R.; Cohen, Jeffrey I.; Koelle, David M.; Quinn, Thomas C.; Knipe, David M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), the principal causative agent of recurrent genital herpes, is a highly prevalent viral infection worldwide. Limited information is available on the amount of genomic DNA variation between HSV-2 strains because only two genomes have been determined, the HG52 laboratory strain and the newly sequenced SD90e low-passage-number clinical isolate strain, each from a different geographical area. In this study, we report the nearly complete genome sequences of 34 HSV-2 low-passage-number and laboratory strains, 14 of which were collected in Uganda, 1 in South Africa, 11 in the United States, and 8 in Japan. Our analyses of these genomes demonstrated remarkable sequence conservation, regardless of geographic origin, with the maximum nucleotide divergence between strains being 0.4% across the genome. In contrast, prior studies indicated that HSV-1 genomes exhibit more sequence diversity, as well as geographical clustering. Additionally, unlike HSV-1, little viral recombination between HSV-2 strains could be substantiated. These results are interpreted in light of HSV-2 evolution, epidemiology, and pathogenesis. Finally, the newly generated sequences more closely resemble the low-passage-number SD90e than HG52, supporting the use of the former as the new reference genome of HSV-2. IMPORTANCE Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a causative agent of genital and neonatal herpes. Therefore, knowledge of its DNA genome and genetic variability is central to preventing and treating genital herpes. However, only two full-length HSV-2 genomes have been reported. In this study, we sequenced 34 additional HSV-2 low-passage-number and laboratory viral genomes and initiated analysis of the genetic diversity of HSV-2 strains from around the world. The analysis of these genomes will facilitate research aimed at vaccine development, diagnosis, and the evaluation of clinical manifestations and transmission of HSV-2. This information will also contribute to our understanding of HSV evolution. PMID:26018166

  11. Association of Herpes Viruses with Mild, Moderate and Severe Chronic Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Bharadwaj, Renu; Bhat, Kishore; Happy, Daisy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Periodontal disease is an inflammatory condition of the supporting tissues of the teeth. It is a multi-factorial and multi-etiological infectious disease process. Recent evidences shows that human herpes viruses could be putative pathogens. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of Herpes viruses especially Herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1 and 2), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods A total of 75 patients with periodontitis were included in the study (25 each with mild, moderate and severe periodontitis) with ethical approval and informed consent. Sub gingival plaque sample was collected and subjected to extraction of DNA and further analysis with multiplex Polymerase chain reaction for the presence of herpes viral DNA. The collected data was entered in the excel sheet format. It was subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS software. The Chi-Square statistical tests was applied and p-value<0.05 was taken as significant. Results The overall association of HSV-1, HSV-2, EBV and CMV was 28%, 32%, 30.66% and 37.33% respectively in the present study from the cases of chronic periodontitis. Conclusion Epstein Barr viruses were detected from all types of cases of chronic periodontitis in the present study. Though, EBV was not significantly associated with periodontitis; they were significantly increased in severe periodontitis. Herpes viruses were significantly associated with periodontal disease, more so with severe periodontal disease. They could thus be playing a role in increasing the severity of the disease. Therapeutic and prophylactic intervention planned against these viruses could decrease the tooth loss associated with this disease. PMID:26393126

  12. An update on short-course intermittent and prevention therapies for herpes labialis.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Stanley; Corey, Lawrence; Cunningham, Anthony; Malkin, Jean-Elie; Stanberry, Lawrence; Whitley, Richard; Spruance, Spotswood

    2007-06-01

    Infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV) has increased in prevalence worldwide over the past two decades, making it a major public health concern. Approximately 90% of recurrent HSV type 1 (HSV-1) infections manifest as non-genital disease, primarily as orofacial lesions known as herpes labialis. Improvements in our understanding of the natural history of herpes labialis support the rationale for early treatment (during the prodrome or erythema stages) with high doses of antiviral agents in order to maximize drug benefit. When evaluating the efficacy of different antiviral and anti-inflammatory agents in clinical trials, episode duration, lesion healing time, reduction in maximum lesion size and the proportion of aborted lesions should be used as the most reliable measures of therapeutic efficacy. There has also been considerable research into the most beneficial treatment for recurrent episodes of herpes labialis in immunocompetent individuals. Data from clinical studies confirm that short-course, high-dose oral antiviral therapy should be offered to patients with recurrent herpes labialis to accelerate healing, reduce pain and most likely increase treatment adherence. Optimal benefits may be obtained when these oral antiviral agents are combined with topical corticosteroids, but more research is needed with this combination. Patients undergoing facial cosmetic procedures (i.e.facial resurfacing) are at risk of HSV reactivation, but further data are required on the actual risk according to the specific procedure. Aciclovir, valaciclovir and famciclovir all provide effective prophylaxis against HSV-1 reactivation following ablative facial resurfacing. However, no definitive recommendations can be made regarding prophylactic therapy for minimally invasive procedures at present. PMID:17877887

  13. Evaluation of Chosen Cytokine Levels among Patients with Herpes Zoster as Ability to Provide Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Zajkowska, Agata; Garkowski, Adam; Świerzbińska, Renata; Kułakowska, Alina; Król, Monika Emilia; Ptaszyńska-Sarosiek, Iwona; Nowicka-Ciełuszecka, Anna; Pancewicz, Sławomir; Czupryna, Piotr; Moniuszko, Anna; Zajkowska, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Aim and Background Herpes zoster is a viral disease caused by the reactivation of varicella–zoster virus (VZV) which remained latent in the cranial nerve or dorsal root ganglia. Cell-mediated immunity is known to decline with age as part of immunosenescence and can lead to the reactivation of VZV. Whereas herpes zoster is usually mild in healthy young persons, older patients are at increased risk for complications. In the present study we investigated the serum cytokine profile (IL-17, IL-23, IL-21, IL-4, IL-12), representing cellular and humoral immunity and assessed the level of VZV IgG antibodies in patients with herpes zoster. Methods We investigated the serum concentrations of IL-17, IL-23, IL-21, IL-4, IL-12 and the level of VZV IgG antibodies in 23 patients with herpes zoster who did not develop superinfection. The control group was represented by 21 individuals in similar age with no inflammatory and infectious diseases. Cytokine and antibodies levels were measured by ELISA method. Statistical analysis was performed using the ROC curve (receiver operating characteristic), t-test, Welch’s t-test, and nonparametric tests with STATISTICA 10 software. Results In patients with herpes zoster, the serum level of IL-17, IL-23, IL-21, IL-4 and IL-12 as well as VZV IgG antibodies titer were statistically significantly increased compared to control group. Conclusion Our results confirm the broad activation of the immune system involving humoral and cell-mediated immunity. PMID:26934574

  14. Simple Finite Jordan Pseudoalgebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnikov, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    We consider the structure of Jordan H-pseudoalgebras which are linearly finitely generated over a Hopf algebra H. There are two cases under consideration: H = U(h) and H = U(h) # C[?], where h is a finite-dimensional Lie algebra over C, ? is an arbitrary group acting on U(h) by automorphisms. We construct an analogue of the Tits-Kantor-Koecher construction for finite Jordan pseudoalgebras and describe all simple ones.

  15. Probabilistic simple splicing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvarajoo, Mathuri; Heng, Fong Wan; Sarmin, Nor Haniza; Turaev, Sherzod

    2014-06-01

    A splicing system, one of the early theoretical models for DNA computing was introduced by Head in 1987. Splicing systems are based on the splicing operation which, informally, cuts two strings of DNA molecules at the specific recognition sites and attaches the prefix of the first string to the suffix of the second string, and the prefix of the second string to the suffix of the first string, thus yielding the new strings. For a specific type of splicing systems, namely the simple splicing systems, the recognition sites are the same for both strings of DNA molecules. It is known that splicing systems with finite sets of axioms and splicing rules only generate regular languages. Hence, different types of restrictions have been considered for splicing systems in order to increase their computational power. Recently, probabilistic splicing systems have been introduced where the probabilities are initially associated with the axioms, and the probabilities of the generated strings are computed from the probabilities of the initial strings. In this paper, some properties of probabilistic simple splicing systems are investigated. We prove that probabilistic simple splicing systems can also increase the computational power of the splicing languages generated.

  16. Results From a Hypothesis Generating Case-Control Study: Herpes Family Viruses and Schizophrenia Among Military Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Niebuhr, David W.; Millikan, Amy M.; Yolken, Robert; Li, Yuanzhang; Weber, Natalya S.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Herpes family viruses can cause central nervous system inflammatory changes that can present with symptoms indistinguishable from schizophrenia and therefore are of interest in schizophrenia research. Most existing studies of herpes viruses have used small populations and postdiagnosis specimens. As part of a larger research program, we conducted a hypothesis-generating case-control study of selected herpes virus antibodies among individuals discharged from the US military with schizophrenia and pre- and postdiagnosis sera. Methods: Cases (n?=?180) were servicemembers hospitalized and discharged from military service with schizophrenia. Controls, 3:1 matched on several factors, were members not discharged. The military routinely collects and stores members' serum specimens. We used microplate enzyme immunoassay to measure immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels to 6 herpes viruses in pre- and postdiagnosis specimens. Conditional logistic regression was used, and the measure of association was the hazard ratio (HR). Results: Overall, we found a significant association between human herpes virus type 6 and schizophrenia, with an HR of 1.17 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04, 1.32). Women and blacks had significant negative associations with herpes simplex virus type 2 and cytomegalovirus; among blacks, there was a significant positive association with herpes simplex virus type 1. Among men, there was a HHV-6 temporal effect with an HR of 1.41 (95% CI = 1.02, 1.96) for sera drawn 612 months before diagnosis. Discussion: Findings from previous studies of herpes family viruses and schizophrenia have been inconsistent. Our study is based on a larger population than most previous studies and used serum specimens collected before onset of illness. This study adds to the body of knowledge and provides testable hypotheses for follow-on studies. PMID:18156638

  17. Regulation of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase in cells treated with a synergistic antiviral combination of alpha interferon and acyclovir.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, J L; Tom, P; Guy, J; Selvarajan, R M; O'Brien, W J

    1994-01-01

    Alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) and acyclovir (ACV) are synergistic in their anti-herpes simplex virus activities. IFN-alpha treatment reduced the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (TK) activity present in cells 6 h postinfection, while steady-state levels of TK mRNA remained at or above the amount in infected, untreated cells. The inhibition of TK production by IFN-alpha treatment appeared to be transient and translational, not transcriptional. Images PMID:8031058

  18. Effect of Prior Immunization on Induction of Cervical Cancer in Mice by Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budd Wentz, W.; Heggie, Alfred D.; Anthony, Donald D.; Reagan, James W.

    1983-12-01

    Previous studies at this laboratory showed that repeated application of inactivated herpes simplex virus type 2 to the mouse cervix produces premalignant and malignant lesions. In the present study mice were inoculated with inactivated herpes simplex virus type 2 or control solution and Freund's adjuvant by intraperitoneal and subcutaneous routes before exposure of the cervix to inactivated virus. It appears that immunization with inactivated virus conferred a protection against the induction of cervical carcinoma.

  19. Towards a Rational Design of an Asymptomatic Clinical Herpes Vaccine: The Old, the New, and the Unknown

    PubMed Central

    Alami Chentoufi, Aziz; Kritzer, Elizabeth; Yu, David M.; Nesburn, Anthony B.; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2012-01-01

    The best hope of controlling the herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) pandemic is the development of an effective vaccine. However, in spite of several clinical trials, starting as early as 1920s, no vaccine has been proven sufficiently safe and efficient to warrant commercial development. In recent years, great strides in cellular and molecular immunology have stimulated creative efforts in controlling herpes infection and disease. However, before moving towards new vaccine strategy, it is necessary to answer two fundamental questions: (i) why past herpes vaccines have failed? (ii) Why the majority of HSV seropositive individuals (i.e., asymptomatic individuals) are naturally protected exhibiting few or no recurrent clinical disease, while other HSV seropositive individuals (i.e., symptomatic individuals) have frequent ocular, orofacial, and/or genital herpes clinical episodes? We recently discovered several discrete sets of HSV-1 symptomatic and asymptomatic epitopes recognized by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from seropositive symptomatic versus asymptomatic individuals. These asymptomatic epitopes will provide a solid foundation for the development of novel herpes epitope-based vaccine strategy. Here we provide a brief overview of past clinical vaccine trials, outline current progress towards developing a new generation asymptomatic clinical herpes vaccines, and discuss future mucosal asymptomatic prime-boost vaccines that could optimize local protective immunity. PMID:22548113

  20. Multicenter randomized study of inosine pranobex versus acyclovir in the treatment of recurrent herpes labialis and recurrent herpes genitalis in Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    You, Yi; Wang, Li; Li, Yafei; Wang, Qianqiu; Cao, Shuanglin; Tu, Yating; Li, Shenqiu; Bai, Li; Lu, Jianyun; Wei, Zhiping; Chen, Wenchieh; Hao, Fei

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral inosine pranobex as compared with acyclovir in the treatment of recurrent herpes labialis (RHL) and recurrent herpes genitalis (RHG). A multicenter double-blind, double-dummy, randomized, controlled, parallel group trial was conducted in 144 patients with RHL and 144 RHG. Patients were assigned to treatment in one of two groups: (i) inosine pranobex group (active inosine pranobex, 1 g four times daily, and acyclovir placebo); or (ii) acyclovir group (active acyclovir, 200 mg five times daily, and inosine pranobex placebo). The total symptom score (TSS) of patients with RHL did not differ in the inosine pranobex and acyclovir group on the 3rd or 7th day of treatment. There was also no difference in the efficacy rates between the two groups. No difference of TSS was observed between patients with RHG taking inosine pranobex and acyclovir on days 3 or 5 of the treatment, respectively. The short-term clinical recurrence rate of RHG at 3-month follow-up was much lower in the inosine pranobex group than acyclovir group. The incidence of hyperuricemia was higher in the inosine pranobex group than acyclovir group. In conclusion, inosine pranobex was as effective as acyclovir in treating RHL and RHG with significantly greater reduction of the short-term recurrence rate of herpes genitalis at 3-month follow up. Long-term recurrence rates at 6 months or longer remain to be determined. Hyperuricemia should be monitored during the treatment. PMID:25819042

  1. Shotput kinematics made simple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faella, O.; De Luca, R.

    2013-11-01

    We show that some results in the kinematics of a point particle can be easily recalled by introducing simple definitions. In particular, in the parabolic motion of a particle thrown from a height h above the origin O at an angle ? from the horizontal direction, the optimum angle ?* for reaching the maximum distance Rmax on the ground, measured from the origin, can be found by calculating the inverse tangent of the ratio between the initial velocity V0 and the final velocity Vf. The value of Rmax is itself found to be easily expressed as V0Vf/g, g being the acceleration due to gravity.

  2. Dimensional analysis made simple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lira, Ignacio

    2013-11-01

    An inductive strategy is proposed for teaching dimensional analysis to second- or third-year students of physics, chemistry, or engineering. In this strategy, Buckingham's theorem is seen as a consequence and not as the starting point. In order to concentrate on the basics, the mathematics is kept as elementary as possible. Simple examples are suggested for classroom demonstrations of the power of the technique and others are put forward for homework or experimentation, but instructors are encouraged to produce examples of their own.

  3. Expression of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Glycoprotein B by a Recombinant Vaccinia Virus and Protection of Mice against Lethal Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantin, Edouard M.; Eberle, Richard; Baldick, Joseph L.; Moss, Bernard; Willey, Dru E.; Notkins, Abner L.; Openshaw, Harry

    1987-08-01

    The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) strain F gene encoding glycoprotein gB was isolated and modified at the 5' end by in vitro oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis. The modified gB gene was inserted into the vaccinia virus genome and expressed under the control of a vaccinia virus promoter. The mature gB glycoprotein produced by the vaccinia virus recombinant was glycosylated, was expressed at the cell surface, and was indistinguishable from authentic HSV-1 gB in terms of electrophoretic mobility. Mice immunized intradermally with the recombinant vaccinia virus produced gB-specific neutralizing antibodies and were resistant to a lethal HSV-1 challenge.

  4. Herpes virus-like DNA (HHV-8) in immunosuppressive therapy-related, HIV-related and classical Kaposi's sarcoma in Norwegian patients.

    PubMed

    Jensen, P; Huang, Y Q; Li, J J; Clausen, O P; Friedman-Kien, A E

    1998-05-01

    The recently discovered human herpes virus 8 (Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma. Using polymerase chain reaction we detected DNA sequences of this herpes virus in 11 of 14 biopsy specimens from Kaposi's sarcoma in Norwegian patients, including the immunosuppressive therapy-related type (3 of 3), the HIV-related type (4 of 5), and the classical type (4 of 6). The results support the hypothesis of a role for human herpes virus 8 in all types of Kaposi's sarcoma independent of geographical area. PMID:9602228

  5. Autosomal dominant simple microphthalmos.

    PubMed Central

    Vingolo, E M; Steindl, K; Forte, R; Zompatori, L; Iannaccone, A; Sciarra, A; Del Porto, G; Pannarale, M R

    1994-01-01

    Congenital bilateral microphthalmos is a rare malformation of the eye, which ranges from extreme to mild reduction of total axial length. Microphthalmos may occur as an isolated ocular abnormality or as part of a systemic disorder, and different classifications of the condition have been attempted. We describe a large pedigree with 14 persons in four generations affected with bilateral microphthalmos without other ocular or systemic signs. An autosomal dominant trait with complete penetrance is proposed. Five subjects underwent a complete ophthalmological evaluation. The total axial length was measured by A scan ultrasonography in all persons. Ultrasonography showed a reduction of the total axial length (range 18.4-19.7 mm) and a reduced vitreous cavity length (range 11.4-13.5 mm) in all investigated patients. All the patients had microcornea (range 8-9.7 mm). No other ocular anomalies or associated systemic malformations were found. A review of published reports also suggests that simple, partial, posterior, pure microphthalmos and nanophthalmos are similar clinical entities sharing total axial length and vitreous cavity length reduction. Therefore, the term simple microphthalmos is proposed to identify these clinical conditions. Images PMID:7815444

  6. Application of low-intensity laser in the treatment of Herpes simplex recidivans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzunov, Tzonko T.; Uzunov, T.; Grozdanova, R.

    2004-06-01

    We made our aim to investigate the effect of the low intensive laser with ?=630 nm in the visible red spectrum of light at Herpes simplex treatment. For this purpose we carried out a clinical research upon 62 persons with Herpes simplex lesions which have been divided into two groups of 31 persons. At the first group the effect of laser with power density 100 mW/cm2 +/- 5 mW/cm2 and time of exposure 3 min. on field was traced out. At the second group the low intensive laser with the same characteristics has been used but in combination with the patent medicine Granofurin H as a photosensibilizer. The clinical approbations of this method showed high therapeutical effectiveness. The obtained results showed that at both groups there is an expressed anaesthetic, anti-inflammatory and regeneration stimulating effect and at the second group with the use of Granofurin H the reconvalescent period is shorter.

  7. Spectroscopic investigation of herpes simplex viruses infected cells and their response to antiviral therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erukhimovitch, Vitaly; Talyshinsky, Marina; Souprun, Yelena; Huleihel, Mahmoud

    2006-07-01

    In the present study, we used microscopic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to evaluate the antiviral activity of known antiviral agents against herpes viruses. The antiviral activity of Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) (which is an active compound of propolis) against herpes simplex type 1 and 2 was examined in cell culture. The advantage of microscopic FTIR spectroscopy over conventional FTIR spectroscopy is that it facilitates inspection of restricted regions of cell culture or tissue. Our results showed significant spectral differences at early stages of infection between infected and non-infected cells, and between infected cells treated with the used antiviral agent and those not treated. In infected cells, there was a considerable increase in phosphate levels. Our results show that treatment with used antiviral agent considerably abolish the spectral changes induced by the viral infection. In addition, it is possible to track by FTIR microscopy method the deferential effect of various doses of the drug.

  8. Gene expression of herpes simplex virus. II. Uv radiological analysis of viral transcription units

    SciTech Connect

    Millette, R. L.; Klaiber, R.

    1980-06-01

    The transcriptional organization of the genome of herpes simplex virus type 1 was analyzed by measuring the sensitivity of viral polypeptide synthesis to uv irradiation of the infecting virus. Herpes simplex virus type 1 was irradiated with various doses of uv light and used to infect xeroderma pigmentosum fibroblasts. Immediate early transcription units were analyzed by having cycloheximide present throughout the period of infection, removing the drug at 8 h postinfection, and pulse-labeling proteins with (355)methionine. Delayed early transcription units were analyzed in similar studies by having 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosyladenine present during the experiment to block replication of the input irradiated genome. The results indicate that none of the immediate early genes analyzed can be cotranscribed, whereas some of the delayed early genes might be cotranscribed. No evidence was found for the existence of large, multigene transcription units.

  9. [Effect of isoprinosine and acyclovir on the clinical course of chickenpox and herpes zoster].

    PubMed

    Janeczko, J; Baranowska, M; Romanowska, B

    1991-01-01

    The therapeutic effect of isoprinosine and acyclovir have been studied in 352 and 284 patients with chicken-pox and herpes zoster respectively. The patients were divided into 4 groups: the first one was given palliative treatment only, the second--both palliative and isoprinosine ones, the third--palliative and acyclovir treatment, and the fourth group was given all these. The best therapeutic effect was achieved when acyclovir and isoprinosine was applied jointly, the one of acyclovir alone was less pronounced and that of isoprinosine only was the smallest. According to the authors acyclovir should be the treatment of choice in the very severe and severe cases of chicken-pox and herpes zoster; in the early stage of disease it should be supplemented with isoprinosine and passive immunotherapy. PMID:1726758

  10. Which plant for which skin disease? Part 1: Atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, acne, condyloma and herpes simplex.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Juliane; Wlfle, Ute; Weckesser, Steffi; Schempp, Christoph

    2010-10-01

    Plant extracts and isolated compounds are increasingly used in cosmetics and food supplements to improve skin conditions. We first introduce the positive plant monographs with dermatological relevance of the former German Commission E. Subsequently clinical studies with botanicals for atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, acne, condylomata acuminata and herpes simplex are discussed. The best studies have been conducted with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis patients. Mahonia aquifolium, Hypericum perforatum, Glycyrrhiza glabra and certain traditional Chinese therapies have been shown to be effective in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Mahonia aquifolium, Indigo naturalis and Capsicum frutescens are effective treatments for psoriasis. Green tea extract and tea tree oil have been investigated in the treatment of acne. Podophyllin and green tea extract are effective treatments for condylomata acuminata. Balm mint and a combination of sage and rhubarb have been shown to be effective in the treatment of herpes simplex in proof of concept studies. PMID:20707875

  11. D-(+)-iso-Methanocarbathymidine: a high affinity substrate for herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase

    PubMed Central

    Comin, Maria J.; Vu, B. Christie; Boyer, Paul L.; Liao, Chenzhong; Hughes, Stephen H.; Marquez, Victor E.

    2009-01-01

    The stereoselective syntheses of the (+)-D and (?)-L enantiomers of racemic iso-methanocarbathymidine (iso-MCT) was achieved through two independent linear approaches that converged on two antipodal enantiomers, common to a key precursor utilized in the synthesis of racemic iso-MCT. In this study we identified (+)-3 [D-iso-(+)-MCT] as the active enantiomer that was exclusively recognized by the herpes 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) as was predicted by molecular modeling. For this purpose, a human osteosarcoma (HOS) cell line modified to contain, and express, HSV1-tk from herpes simplex virus (HSV1) was utilized to determine the cytotoxicity of the compounds via an assay that measures the level of ATP in the cells. The work demonstrates that changes in the substitution pattern of rigid bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane nucleosides, which relative to normal nucleosides appear unconventional, can lead to the spatial optimization of pharmacophores and a vastly improved substrate recognition. PMID:18399509

  12. Midtrimester fetal herpes simplex-2 diagnosis by serology, culture and quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Curtin, William M; Menegus, Marilyn A; Patru, Maria-Magdalena; Peterson, C Jeanne; Metlay, Leon A; Mooney, Robert A; Stanwood, Nancy L; Scheible, Amy L; Dorgan, Angela

    2013-01-01

    The acquisition of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in utero comprises a minority of neonatal herpes infections. Prenatal diagnosis is rare. We describe a midtrimester diagnosis of fetal HSV-2 infection. Ultrasound at 20 weeks for elevated maternal serum α-fetoprotein (MSAFP) showed lagging fetal growth, echogenic bowel, echogenic myocardium, and liver with a mottled pattern of echogenicity. Amniocentesis demonstrated normal karyotype, elevated AFP and positive acetylcholinesterase. Culture isolated HSV-2 with an aberrant growth pattern. Maternal serology was positive for HSV-2. Quantitative DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed 59 million copies/ml. Fetal autopsy demonstrated widespread tissue necrosis but only sparse HSV-2 inclusions. Fetal HSV-2 infection can be suspected when an elevated MSAFP accompanies ultrasound findings suggesting perinatal infection. Maternal HSV serology, amniotic fluid culture and quantitative PCR are recommended for diagnostic certainty and counseling. PMID:23075531

  13. Prevalence of recurrent herpes labialis and aphthous ulcers among young adults on six continents.

    PubMed Central

    Embil, J. A.; Stephens, R. G.; Manuel, F. R.

    1975-01-01

    The prevalence of recurrent herpes labialis (RHL) and recurrent aphthous ulcers (RAU) in young adults - - 635 armed-forces recruits and 9897 health-profession students - - in 48 institutions in 21 countries was determined by a questionnaire survey. Two or more occurrences (lifetime prevalence) of RHL were reported by 33.2% of men and 28.0% of women; the corresponding figures for RAU were 38.7% and 49.7%. North American respondents, mainly from Canada, had a significantly higher prevalence of both lesions. There were some differences in relation to profession. Approximately 15% of all the people surveyed had had herpes labialis and 25% had had aphthous ulcers at least once during the previous year. Persons with a history of recurrence of one lesion were more likely to have a history of recurrence of the other. PMID:1181018

  14. [Clinical aspects of treatment of genital herpes with plaferon LB and phenowine].

    PubMed

    Nozadze, T G; Korsantiia, N B; Kupradze, S A

    2005-01-01

    Exacerbation of genital herpes simplex is followed by suppression of immunocompetence of patients. This proves necessity of adjuvant immunocorrective therapy. In our previous investigations it was shown that plaferon LB possessed immunotropic effect, and phenowine (as an antioxidant remedy) was intensifying the action of plaferon. These data allow us to examine protective action of plaferon and phenowine in complex treatment of genital herpes. High-performance scheme of herpetic relapse was suggested, which was established on aetiotropic effect of acyclovir and immunomodulating action of plaferon and phenowine: satisfactory outcome in 92,1 percent (monotherapy with acyclovir--70,7%). Results of complex therapy appeared in reduction of period of acute infection (on average 2,3 days) and in prolongation of remission (on average 157,3 days, vs 88,5 days in control group). Therapeutic action was achieved by antiviral properties of acyclovir and plaferon, immunostimulating action of plaferon and antioxidant effect of phenowine. PMID:15821333

  15. An outbreak of herpes rugbiorum managed by vaccination of players and sociosexual contacts.

    PubMed

    Skinner, G R; Davies, J; Ahmad, A; McLeish, P; Buchan, A

    1996-11-01

    An outbreak of herpes rugbiorum involved nine players including the scrum half and the full back. The infection was characterized by significant constitutional upset with decreased levels of general fitness and match performance for 1-4 months following the outbreak; one player had herpetic lesions on his right eyelid and corneum. Every infected player, 15 non-infected players and five sociosexual contacts received two vaccinations with intracellular subunit vaccine NFU. Ac. HSV-1 (S-MRC5). None of the players or contacts developed cutaneous herpetic recurrence during a follow-up period of 3 years; the player with ocular disease had one recurrence at 30 months following the original episode. These findings encourage consideration of prophylactic or post-exposure vaccination of participants in rugby or other contact sports with this or other appropriate herpes simplex vaccine. PMID:8945704

  16. Herpes virus-mediated preproenkephalin gene transfer to the amygdala is antinociceptive.

    PubMed

    Kang, W; Wilson, M A; Bender, M A; Glorioso, J C; Wilson, S P

    1998-05-01

    To evaluate the role of the amygdala in pain modulation and opioid-mediated antinociception, a recombinant, replication-defective herpes virus carrying the human preproenkephalin cDNA was injected bilaterally into the rat amygdala. Four days after gene delivery nociceptive behavior was assessed by the formalin test. Rats infected with the virus expressing preproenkephalin showed a selective, naloxone-reversible abolition of phase 2 flinching behavior compared to rats infected with a control virus. The results implicate the amygdala in the control of pain and in opioid analgesia and demonstrate the use of recombinant herpes viruses as tools for studying gene function in specific neural pathways of the central nervous system. PMID:9593860

  17. Chronic granulomatous herpes encephalitis: a rare entity posing a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Adamo, Matthew A; Abraham, Lisa; Pollack, Ian F

    2011-10-01

    Herpesviruses can cause an acute, subacute, or chronic disease state in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis is most often an acute monophasic disease process. Rarely, however, it may progress to a chronic state, and more rarely still to a granulomatous encephalitis. Prior studies have suggested that antiviral immunity with Toll-like receptors determines susceptibility to herpesviruses. The authors report the case of a 14-year-old girl with a remote history of treated HSV encephalitis, who had intractable seizures and worsening MR imaging changes that were concerning for either a neoplastic or an inflammatory process. She was found to have granulomatous herpes simplex encephalitis and had a low cytokine response to Toll-like receptor 3 stimulation. PMID:21961549

  18. Brivudine: a herpes virostatic with rapid antiviral activity and once-daily dosing.

    PubMed

    Rabasseda, Xavier

    2003-05-01

    Brivudine is an analog of thymidine, and is incorporated into the viral DNA. It blocks the action of DNA polymerases, thus inhibiting viral replication. It has a stronger antiviral effect against the varicella-zoster virus compared with reference compounds such as aciclovir or penciclovir. The efficacy of brivudine has been documented in a number of clinical trials in patients with herpesvirus-related infections, particularly in patients with herpes-zoster. At a dose of 125 mg once daily, brivudine has proved to be superior to aciclovir with respect to reducing the period of new blister production in patients with herpes-zoster, and has shortened the duration of post-herpetic neuralgia. Tolerability was equivalent to that of aciclovir or placebo, with occasional gastrointestinal disorders leading to treatment withdrawal in a minority of patients. PMID:12861349

  19. Herpes Zoster Vaccine in the Long-Term Care Setting: A Clinical and Logistical Conundrum.

    PubMed

    Schafer, Katherine Montag; Reidt, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Advancing age is associated with an increased risk of herpes zoster (shingles) infection and latent effects such as postherpetic neuralgia. The herpes zoster vaccine is recommended in those 60 years of age and older and has been shown to prevent both the primary disease and associated complications. While this recommendation applies to those living in long-term care facilities, there is little clinical evidence to support use in this population. Additionally, there are logistical barriers that may complicate the use of the vaccine. The article examines the evidence for vaccinating residents in long-term care facilities and discusses logistical barriers to vaccination. Pharmacists and providers may consider life expectancy and other factors when evaluating which patients should receive the vaccination. PMID:26803085

  20. Detection of aerosolized varicella-zoster virus DNA in patients with localized herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kayoko; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Tomitaka, Akiko; Matsunaga, Kayoko; Asano, Yoshizo

    2004-03-15

    We examined the excretion of varicella zoster virus (VZV) in hospitalized patients with herpes zoster localized to the thoracic region whose skin lesions were covered with either hydrocolloid dressing agents (hydrocolloid group) or conventional gauze bandages (gauze group). The presence of VZV DNA in swab samples from lesion coverings, the throat, and filters of air purifiers was examined by use of a sensitive polymerase chain reaction assay. For the hydrocolloid group, VZV was detected in none of the samples from lesion coverings or air purifier filters; for the gauze group, VZV DNA was detected in samples from gauze coverings and air purifier filters for all 6 patients. VZV DNA was detected less frequently in throat samples from patients in the hydrocolloid group than in those from patients in the gauze group. The results of the present study suggest that hydrocolloid dressing agents prevent excretion of aerosolized VZV DNA from skin lesions of patients with localized herpes zoster. PMID:14999603

  1. A rapid and sensitive culture test for the laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes in women.

    PubMed Central

    Darougar, S; Walpita, P; Thaker, U; Goh, B T; Dunlop, E M

    1986-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive cell culture test has been developed to detect herpes simplex virus (HSV) in women with genital herpes. The virus is cultured by inoculation and centrifugation of cell monolayers, and the virus inclusions are detected using an indirect immunofluorescence test. The test takes only 48 hours to complete compared with the conventional cell culture test, which may take up to eight days. Of a total of 2100 cervical specimens collected from unselected women attending a sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic and inoculated in parallel, HSV was isolated from 55 specimens by either or both tests. Of these 55 positive specimens, 54(98%) were positive by the rapid test but only 24(44%) by the conventional test (McNemars test; p less than 0.001). Images PMID:3013758

  2. Recurrent Labial Herpes Simplex in Pediatric Dentistry: Low-level Laser Therapy as a Treatment Option

    PubMed Central

    Stona, Priscila; da Silva Viana, Elizabete; dos Santos Pires, Leandro; Blessmann Weber, Joo Batista

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recurrent labial herpes simplex is a pathology of viral origin that is frequently observed in children. The signs and symptoms are uncomfortable and, in many cases, the efficacy of treatment is unproven. However, several studies have demonstrated good results from the use of low-level laser therapy (LLLT), primarily due to acceleration of the healing process and pain relief, which make it a promising resource for use with this pathology. This paper describes a clinical case of a 7-year-old patient affected by this pathology and the therapeutic resolution proposed. How to cite this article: Stona P, da Silva Viana E, dos Santos Pires L, Weber JBB, Kramer PF. Recurrent Labial Herpes Simplex in Pediatric Dentistry: Low-level Laser Therapy as a Treatment Option. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):140-143. PMID:25356015

  3. Intravenous Foscarnet With Topical Cidofovir for Chronic Refractory Genital Herpes in a Patient With AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Usoro, Agnes; Batts, Alfreda; Sarria, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    Few case reports have documented the use of topical cidofovir for refractory genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) ulcers in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients. This drug formulation lacks a standardized concentration or even a procedural outline as to how it should be compounded. We aim to discuss the utilization of topical cidofovir in addition to presenting a procedural means of compounding it for treatment of refractory genital HSV ulcers. Our patient completed 21 days of intravenous foscarnet and 13 days of topical cidofovir with clinical improvement in the penile and scrotal ulcers. Genital herpes is a concern in patients with HIV because it generally manifests as a persistent infection. Physicians should be aware that when patients fail to respond to the conventional treatment regimens for genital HSV in a timely manner, other options are available, such as topical cidofovir as an adjuvant to systemic antivirals. PMID:26788527

  4. Social Stress and the Reactivation of Latent Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padgett, David A.; Sheridan, John F.; Dorne, Julianne; Berntson, Gary G.; Candelora, Jessica; Glaser, Ronald

    1998-06-01

    Psychological stress is thought to contribute to reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus (HSV). Although several animal models have been developed in an effort to reproduce different pathogenic aspects of HSV keratitis or labialis, until now, no good animal model existed in which application of a psychological laboratory stressor results in reliable reactivation of the virus. Reported herein, disruption of the social hierarchy within colonies of mice increased aggression among cohorts, activated the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and caused reactivation of latent HSV type 1 in greater than 40% of latently infected animals. However, activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis using restraint stress did not activate the latent virus. Thus, the use of social stress in mice provides a good model in which to investigate the neuroendocrine mechanisms that underlie behaviorally mediated reactivation of latent herpes-viruses.

  5. Herpes simplex virus-mediated human hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase gene transfer into neuronal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Palella, T.D.; Silverman, L.J.; Schroll, C.T.; Homa, F.L.; Levine, M.; Kelley, W.N.

    1988-01-01

    The virtually complete deficiency of the purine salvage enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) results in a devastating neurological disease, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. Transfer of the HPRT gene into fibroblasts and lymphoblasts in vitro and into hematopoietic cells in vivo has been accomplished by other groups with retroviral-derived vectors. It appears to be necessary, however, to transfer the HPRT gene into neuronal cells to correct the neurological dysfunction of this disorder. The neurotropic virus herpes simplex virus type 1 has features that make it suitable for use as a vector to transfer the HPRT gene into neuronal tissue. This report describes the isolation of an HPRT-deficient rat neuroma cell line, designated B103-4C, and the construction of a recombinant herpes simplex virus type 1 that contained human HPRT cDNA. These recombinant viruses were used to infect B103-4C cells. Infected cells expressed HPRT activity which was human in origin.

  6. Psoralen inactivation of influenza and herpes simplex viruses and of virus-infected cells

    SciTech Connect

    Redfield, D.C.; Richman, D.D.; Oxman, M.N.; Kronenberg, L.H.

    1981-06-01

    Psoralen compounds covalently bind to nucleic acids when irradiated with long-wavelength ultraviolet light. This treatment can destroy the infectivity of deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid viruses. Two psoralen compounds, 4'-hydroxymethyltrioxsalen and 4'-aminomethyltrioxsalen, were used with long-wavelength ultraviolet light to inactivate cell-free herpes simplex and influenza viruses and to render virus-infected cells noninfectious. This method of inactivation was compared with germicidal (short-wavelength) ultraviolet light irradiation. The antigenicity of the treated, virus-infected, antigen-bearing cells was examined by immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassay and by measuring the capacity of the herpes simplex virus-infected cells to stimulate virus-specific lymphocyte proliferation. The infectivity of the virus-infected cells could be totally eliminated without altering their viral antigenicity. The use of psoralen plus long-wavelength ultraviolet light is well suited to the preparation of noninfectious virus antigens and virus antigen-bearing cells for immunological assays.

  7. Early events in herpes simplex virus type 1 infection: photosensitivity of fluorescein isothiocyanate-treated virions

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuca, N.; Bzik, D.; Person, S.; Snipes, W.

    1981-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 is photosensitized by treatment with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). The inactivation of FITC-treated virions upon subsequent exposure to light is inhibited by the presence of sodium azide, suggesting the involvement of singlet oxygen in the process. Sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that treatment with FITC plus light induces crosslinks in viral envelope glycoproteins. Treatment of virions with high concentrations of FITC (50 ..mu..g/ml) plus light causes a reduction in the adsorption of the virus to monolayers of human embryonic lung cells. For lower concentrations of FITC (10 ..mu..g/ml) plus light, treated virions adsorb to the host cells, but remain sensitive to light until entry occurs. The loss of light sensitivity coincides with the development of resistance to antibodies. These results are most consistent with a mechanism of entry for herpes simplex virus involving fusion of the viral membrane with the plasma membrane of the host cell.

  8. Exposure to Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Cognitive Impairments in Individuals With Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Konasale M.; Watson, Annie M. M.; Dickerson, Faith B.; Yolken, Robert H.; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L.

    2012-01-01

    Latent infection with neurotropic herpes viruses, such as herpes simplex virus, type 1 (HSV1), has been generally considered benign in most immunocompetent individuals except for rare cases of encephalitis. However, several recent studies have shown impaired cognitive functions among individuals with schizophrenia exposed to HSV1 compared with schizophrenia patients not exposed to HSV1. Such impairments are robust and are prominently observed in working memory, verbal memory, and executive functions. Brain regions that play a key role in the regulation of these domains have shown smaller volumes, along with correlation between these morphometric changes and cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. One study noted temporal decline in executive function and gray matter loss among HSV1-exposed first-episode antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients. Furthermore, a proof-of-concept double-blind placebo-controlled trial indicated improvement in cognitive performance following supplemental anti-herpes–specific medication among HSV1 seropositive schizophrenia patients. Cross-sectional studies have also identified an association between HSV1 exposure and lesser degrees of cognitive impairment among healthy control individuals and patients with bipolar disorder. These studies fulfill several Bradford-Hill criteria, suggesting etiological links between HSV1 exposure and cognitive impairment. Exposure to other human herpes viruses such as cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2) may also be associated with cognitive impairment, but the data are less consistent. These studies are reviewed critically and further lines of enquiry recommended. The results are important from a public health perspective, as HSV1 exposure is highly prevalent in many populations. PMID:22490995

  9. Herpes simplex virus and varicella zoster virus, the house guests who never leave

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Human alphaherpesviruses including herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1, HSV-2) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) establish persistent latent infection in sensory neurons for the life of the host. All three viruses have the potential to reactivate causing recurrent disease. Regardless of the homology between the different virus strains, the three viruses are characterized by varying pathologies. This review will highlight the differences in infection pattern, immune response, and pathogenesis associated with HSV-1 and VZV. PMID:22691604

  10. Acute retinal necrosis as a late sequela of herpes simplex type 1 encephalitis in a child.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Theodore H; Mandava, Naresh

    2007-10-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a common infection that occasionally presents with destructive lesions. Two of the most feared presentations of HSV are encephalitis and acute retinal necrosis. Although there are numerous reports of acute retinal necrosis presenting after HSV-2 infection in children, it has been rarely reported in children after HSV-1 infection. Herein we report a child who developed acute retinal necrosis 17 months after HSV-1 encephalitis. PMID:17512230

  11. Contributions of herpes simplex virus type 1 envelope proteins to entry by endocytosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) proteins specifically required for endocytic entry but not direct penetration have not been identified. HSVs deleted of gE, gG, gI, gJ, gM, UL45, or Us9 entered cells via either pH-dependent or pH-independent endocytosis and were inactivated by mildly acidic pH. Thus, the ...

  12. Perinatal Herpes Virus Infection: Report of a Case Indicating the Paternal Role

    PubMed Central

    Dini, Morteza; Alrenga, Dharam P.; Freese, Uwe

    1980-01-01

    A case of perinatal Herpes simplex hominis infection with fatal neonatal outcome is reported. The significance of the paternal role is emphasized. It is important to educate sexual partners and stress the serious nature of herpetic infections, especially during the perinatal period. In the presence of active infection, sexual contact should either be totally avoided or a condom should be used. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:6273598

  13. Rapid typing of herpes simplex virus isolates by deoxyribonucleic acid:deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization.

    PubMed Central

    Brautigam, A R; Richman, D D; Oxman, M N

    1980-01-01

    A method for typing clinical isolates of herpes simplex virus was developed. It utilizes hybridization between unlabeled deoxyribonucleic acid from infected cultures and tritium-labeled virus deoxyribonucleic acid, and it can be completed within a day using a single roller-tube culture of the clinical isolated. The data obtained are inherently quantitative, and the method yields unequivocal identification and typing. Thirty-nine coded clinical isolates were all correctly typed by this method. PMID:6262368

  14. The potential epidemiological impact of a genital herpes vaccine for women

    PubMed Central

    Garnett, G; Dubin, G; Slaoui, M; Darcis, T

    2004-01-01

    Background: In two phase III vaccine trials immunisation of women previously uninfected by herpes simplex virus provided protection against genital herpes disease. In deciding policy, an evaluation of the epidemiological impact of the partial protection provided by the vaccine should be considered. Methods: A sex and sexual activity stratified deterministic differential and partial differential equation model of the natural history of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and the impact of vaccination is developed and analysed. To explore the role of vaccination, the pattern of viral shedding and the transmission of infection during sexual acts within sexual partnerships are described. Results: Using literature derived estimates of parameter values and assuming efficacy in only 40% of women the impact of the vaccine depends on assumptions made about its action. The vaccine has a limited impact if it only prevents disease but a more substantial impact if it reduces asymptomatic viral shedding, which it could do indirectly by preventing infection or directly by modifying the biology of the infection. Concern over the implications of a vaccine that prevents disease but has no impact on viral shedding was addressed in a worst case scenario. Here there is a modest increase in the incidence of infection in both men and women but an increase in disease prevalence in men alone, since the virus directly protects some women from disease. Conclusions: Results suggest that a herpes vaccine should be used universally and that a vaccine that only protects HSV-1-/2- women can paradoxically have a significant epidemiological impact, the scale of which depends upon changes in patterns of viral shedding. PMID:14755031

  15. Characterization of the Growth of Herpes Simplex Virus in Human Lymphoid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mizrahi, A.; Mitchen, J. R.; Von Heyden, H. W.; Minowada, J.; Moore, G. E.

    1972-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus was grown in a 6-liter suspended culture of an atypical permanent human lymphoid cell line, Roswell Park Memorial Institute no. 8226. The kinetics of virus replication were determined by counting viruses by electron microscopy, plaque formation, and tissue culture infectivity. Deoxyribonucleic acid-dependent deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase activity was determined during the course of infection. Electron microscopy studies substantiated the kinetics of the virus infection in lymphoid cells. Images PMID:4110423

  16. Case report: epithelial intracytoplasmic herpes viral inclusions associated with an outbreak of duck virus enteritis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, B.C.; Jessup, David A.; Docherty, Douglas E.; Lownestine, L.J.

    1992-01-01

    Several muscovy ducks from a free-roaming flock of 65 muscovy and mallard ducks died over a 3-week period. Three muscovy ducks were necropsied. Gross and microscopic changes were compatible with duck virus enteritis, and the virus was isolated. In addition to intranuclear viral inclusion bodies in several tissues, intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were present in esophageal and cloacal epithelium, By electron microscopy, the membrane-bound intracytoplasmic inclusions were found to contain enveloped herpesvirus, and nuclei contained herpes viral nucleocapsids.

  17. Multiple strokes associated with herpes simplex virus type-2 infection: case report.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Prajwol

    2016-04-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type-2 is known to cause meningitis and usually runs a benign course. Association of such infection with vasculitis of the central nervous system is not well known. Presented here is a case initially diagnosed as aseptic meningitis that subsequently evolved as stroke and exhibited angiographic evidence of widespread vasculitis of the intracranial vessels in association with a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for HSV-2 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). PMID:26443565

  18. Proton MR spectroscopy in herpes simplex encephalitis: Assessment of neuronal loss

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, D.K.; Sargentoni, J.; Peden, C.J.; Bell, J.D.; Cox, I.J.; Coutts, G.A.; Baudouin, C.; Newman, C.G. )

    1990-05-01

    We present here the case of an 11-year-old boy with herpes simplex encephalitis diagnosed on the basis of clinical features, serology, and response to acyclovir, who relapsed after 3 weeks of therapy. In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) of the brain, at 8 and 16 weeks after the onset of symptoms, showed abnormalities, most prominently a reduction in the N-acetylaspartate/choline ratio. The role of 1H MRS in assessing disease activity is discussed.

  19. Inhibitory activity of Melissa officinalis L. extract on Herpes simplex virus type 2 replication.

    PubMed

    Mazzanti, G; Battinelli, L; Pompeo, C; Serrilli, A M; Rossi, R; Sauzullo, I; Mengoni, F; Vullo, V

    2008-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (lemon balm) is used in folk medicine for nervous complaints, lower abdominal disorders and, more recently, for treating Herpes simplex lesions. In this work the antiviral activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of lemon balm leaves against the Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was assessed by the cytopathic effect inhibition assay on Vero cells (ATCC CCL-81), in comparison with acyclovir. The cytotoxicity of the extract on Vero cells was previously tested by evaluating the cellular death and was confirmed by the Trypan blue test. Lemon balm showed to reduce the cytopathic effect of HSV-2 on Vero cells, in the range of non-toxic concentrations of 0.025-1 mg mL(-1) (with reference to the starting crude herbal material). The maximum inhibiting effect (60%) was obtained with 0.5 mg mL(-1). The viral binding assay showed that the extract does not prevent the entry of HSV-2 in the cells, thus suggesting a mechanism of action subsequent to the penetration of the virus in the cell. The extract was also chemically characterised by NMR and HPLC analysis; it showed to contain cinnamic acid-like compounds, mainly rosmarinic acid (4.1% w/w). Our experiments support the use of lemon balm for treating Herpes simplex lesions and encourage clinical trials on this medicinal plant. PMID:19023806

  20. Inhibitory effect of essential oils against herpes simplex virus type 2.

    PubMed

    Koch, C; Reichling, J; Schneele, J; Schnitzler, P

    2008-01-01

    Essential oils from anise, hyssop, thyme, ginger, camomile and sandalwood were screened for their inhibitory effect against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in vitro on RC-37 cells using a plaque reduction assay. Genital herpes is a chronic, persistent infection spreading efficiently and silently as sexually transmitted disease through the population. Antiviral agents currently applied for the treatment of herpesvirus infections include acyclovir and its derivatives. The inhibitory concentrations (IC50) were determined at 0.016%, 0.0075%, 0.007%, 0.004%, 0.003% and 0.0015% for anise oil, hyssop oil, thyme oil, ginger oil, camomile oil and sandalwood oil, respectively. A clearly dose-dependent virucidal activity against HSV-2 could be demonstrated for all essential oils tested. In order to determine the mode of the inhibitory effect, essential oils were added at different stages during the viral infection cycle. At maximum noncytotoxic concentrations of the essential oils, plaque formation was significantly reduced by more than 90% when HSV-2 was preincubated with hyssop oil, thyme oil or ginger oil. However, no inhibitory effect could be observed when the essential oils were added to the cells prior to infection with HSV-2 or after the adsorption period. These results indicate that essential oils affected HSV-2 mainly before adsorption probably by interacting with the viral envelope. Camomile oil exhibited a high selectivity index and seems to be a promising candidate for topical therapeutic application as virucidal agents for treatment of herpes genitalis. PMID:17976968

  1. Predictors of the Sexual Well-being of Individuals Diagnosed with Herpes and Human Papillomavirus.

    PubMed

    Foster, Lyndsay R; Byers, E Sandra

    2016-02-01

    Research suggests that having a sexually transmitted infection (STI) such as genital herpes and human papillomavirus (HPV) can negatively affect sexual well-being. However, there is little research examining factors associated with poorer sexual well-being among individuals with a STI. This study investigated the extent to which stigma experiences, individual characteristics, and STI characteristics were associated with multiple aspects of sexual well-being among individuals diagnosed with herpes and/or HPV. Participants were an average of 36 years old (SD = 11.58) and included 188 individuals with herpes and/or HPV who completed measures of sexual activity, sexual problems, and sexual cognitive-affective factors. The results showed that experiences of stigmatization were the most important predictors of sexual well-being. Participants who perceived were stigmatized by others as well as those who internalized negative social attitudes to a greater extent reported poorer sexual well-being across all dimensions, over and above individual and STI characteristics. The implications of these findings for sexual health professionals are discussed. PMID:25408498

  2. Future of an Asymptomatic T-cell Epitope-Based Therapeutic Herpes Simplex Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Dervillez, Xavier; Gottimukkala, Chetan; Kabbara, Khaled W.; Nguyen, Chelsea; Badakhshan, Tina; Kim, Sarah M.; Nesburn, Anthony B.; Wechsler, Steven L.; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2012-01-01

    Summary Considering the limited success of the recent herpes clinical vaccine trial [1], new vaccine strategies are needed. Infections with herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 & HSV-2) in the majority of men and women are usually asymptomatic and results in lifelong viral latency in neurons of sensory ganglia (SG). However, in a minority of men and women HSV spontaneous reactivation can cause recurrent disease (i.e., symptomatic individuals). Our recent findings show that T cells from symptomatic and asymptomatic men and women (i.e. those with and without recurrences, respectively) recognize different herpes epitopes. This finding breaks new ground and opens new doors to assess a new vaccine strategy: mucosal immunization with HSV-1 & HSV-2 epitopes that induce strong in vitro CD4 and CD8 T cell responses from PBMC derived from asymptomatic men and women (designated here as asymptomatic protective epitopes) could boost local and systemic natural protective immunity, induced by wild-type infection. Here we highlight the rationale and the future of our emerging asymptomatic T cell epitope-based mucosal vaccine strategy to decrease recurrent herpetic disease. PMID:22701511

  3. Therapeutic low-intensity red laser for herpes labialis on plasmid survival and bacterial transformation.

    PubMed

    Sergio, Luiz Philippe da Silva; Marciano, Roberta da Silva; Teixeira, Gleica Rocha; Canuto, Keila da Silva; Polignano, Giovanni Augusto Castanheira; Guimares, Oscar Roberto; Geller, Mauro; de Paoli, Flavia; da Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza

    2013-05-01

    A low-intensity laser is used in treating herpes labialis based on the biostimulative effect, albeit the photobiological basis is not well understood. In this work experimental models based on Escherichia coli cultures and plasmids were used to evaluate effects of low-intensity red laser on DNA at fluences for treatment of herpes labialis. To this end, survival and transformation efficiency of plasmids in E. coli AB1157 (wild type), BH20 (fpg/mutM(-)) and BW9091 (xthA(-)), content of the supercoiled form of plasmid DNA, as well as nucleic acids and protein content from bacterial cultures exposed to the laser, were evaluated. The data indicate low-intensity red laser: (i) alters the survival of plasmids in wild type, fpg/mutM(-) and xthA(-)E. coli cultures depending of growth phase, (ii) alters the content of the supercoiled form of plasmids in the wild type and fpg/mutM(-)E. coli cells, (iii) alters the content of nucleic acids and proteins in wild type E. coli cells, (iv) alters the transformation efficiency of plasmids in wild type and fpg/mutM(-)E. coli competent cells. These data could be used to understand positive effects of low-intensity lasers on herpes labialis treatment. PMID:23483124

  4. The role of oral acyclovir in the management of genital herpes simplex.

    PubMed Central

    Sacks, S L

    1987-01-01

    Oral acyclovir is an antiviral nucleoside analogue that has recently been released in Canada for use in selected patients with genital infections by the herpes simplex virus. First episodes of genital herpes should be treated with oral acyclovir as soon as the diagnosis is considered. Most people with recurrent genital herpes do not require systemic drug therapy. Selected patients with severe or long-lasting recurrences, recurrences associated with long prodromal periods (greater than 12 to 24 hours) or systemic complications such as erythema multiforme and eczema herpeticum may receive measurable benefit from treatment at the onset of symptoms. In most patients frequently recurrent disease can be suppressed with long-term therapy. Since long-term safety beyond 1 year has not been established, suppressive therapy should be stopped at least once per year to reassess the recurrence pattern. Acyclovir has not been adequately tested for safety in pregnancy and should not be prescribed for pregnant women unless the potential benefits outweigh the risks. Careful attention to disease severity, accurate diagnosis and exclusion of other causes of genital lesions will ensure that the drug is used only when beneficial. PMID:3548933

  5. Update On Emerging Antivirals For The Management Of Herpes Simplex Virus Infections: A Patenting Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Vadlapudi, Aswani D.; Vadlapatla, Ramya K.; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections can be treated efficiently by the application of antiviral drugs. The herpes family of viruses is responsible for causing a wide variety of diseases in humans. The standard therapy for the management of such infections includes acyclovir (ACV) and penciclovir (PCV) with their respective prodrugs valaciclovir and famciclovir. Though effective, long term prophylaxis with the current drugs leads to development of drug-resistant viral isolates, particularly in immunocompromised patients. Moreover, some drugs are associated with dose-limiting toxicities which limit their further utility. Therefore, there is a need to develop new antiherpetic compounds with different mechanisms of action which will be safe and effective against emerging drug resistant viral isolates. Significant advances have been made towards the design and development of novel antiviral therapeutics during the last decade. As evident by their excellent antiviral activities, pharmaceutical companies are moving forward with several new compounds into various phases of clinical trials. This review provides an overview of structure and life cycle of HSV, progress in the development of new therapies, update on the advances in emerging therapeutics under clinical development and related recent patents for the treatment of Herpes simplex virus infections. PMID:23331181

  6. Varicella and herpes zoster vaccines: WHO position paper, June 2014 - Recommendations.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommendations for the use of varicella and herpes zoster vaccination from the WHO position paper on varicella and herpes zoster vaccines - June 2014, published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record [1]. This position paper summarizes the WHO position on the use of varicella and herpes zoster vaccines. The current document replaces the position paper on the use of varicella vaccines published in 1998 [2]. Footnotes to this paper provide a number of core references. In accordance with its mandate to provide guidance to Member States on health policy matters, WHO issues a series of regularly updated position papers on vaccines and combinations of vaccines against diseases that have an international public health impact. These papers are concerned primarily with the use of vaccines in large-scale immunization programmes; they summarize essential background information on diseases and vaccines, and conclude with WHO's current position on the use of vaccines in the global context. This paper reflects the recommendations of WHO's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on immunization. These recommendations were discussed by SAGE at its April 2014 meeting. Evidence presented at the meeting can be accessed at http://www.who.int/immunization/sage/previous/en/index.html. PMID:26723191

  7. A Simple Harmonic Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Peter W.; Horn, Bart; Kachru, Shamit; Rajendran, Surjeet; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC

    2011-12-14

    We explore simple but novel bouncing solutions of general relativity that avoid singularities. These solutions require curvature k = +1, and are supported by a negative cosmological term and matter with -1 < w < -1 = 3. In the case of moderate bounces (where the ratio of the maximal scale factor a{sub +} to the minimal scale factor a{sub -} is {Omicron}(1)), the solutions are shown to be classically stable and cycle through an infinite set of bounces. For more extreme cases with large a{sub +} = a{sub -}, the solutions can still oscillate many times before classical instabilities take them out of the regime of validity of our approximations. In this regime, quantum particle production also leads eventually to a departure from the realm of validity of semiclassical general relativity, likely yielding a singular crunch. We briefly discuss possible applications of these models to realistic cosmology.

  8. Simple nuclear mass formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhagwat, A.

    2014-12-01

    A simple formula for ground state nuclear masses based on the microscopic-macroscopic approach is proposed. Considering a set of 2353 nuclei with Z ?8 and N ?8 , the formula yields an rms deviation of just 266 keV. A few applications, including the loosely bound proton rich nuclei, superheavy nuclei, and cluster emitters, are presented and discussed, establishing the reliability of the proposed formula. The present investigation has a major advantage: it allows one to reliably parametrize the fluctuating part of the ground state energy. This result is very interesting and important, since the fluctuating part of the energy is related directly to the trace formula, which in turn encodes the interaction itself.

  9. The treatment of herpes simplex virus epithelial keratitis.

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelmus, K R

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: Epithelial keratitis is the most common presentation of ocular infection by herpes simplex virus (HSV). Quantitative assessment of available therapy is needed to guide evidence-based ophthalmology. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of various treatments for dendritic or geographic HSV epithelial keratitis and to evaluate the role of various clinical characteristics on epithelial healing. METHODS: Following a systematic review of the literature, information from clinical trials of HSV dendritic or geographic epithelial keratitis was extracted, and the methodological quality of each study was scored. Methods of epithelial cauterization and curettage were grouped as relatively equivalent physicochemical therapy, and solution and ointment formulations of a given topical antiviral agent were combined. The proportion healed with 1 week of therapy, a scheduled follow-up day that approximated the average time of resolution with antiviral therapy, was selected as the primary outcome based on a masked evaluation of maximum treatment differences in published healing curves. The proportion healed at 14 days was recorded as supplemental information. Fixed-effects and random-effects meta-analysis models were used to obtain summary estimates by pooling results from comparative treatment trials. Hypotheses about which prognostic factors might affect epithelial healing during antiviral therapy were developed by multivariate analysis of the Herpetic Eye Disease Study dataset. RESULTS: After excluding 48 duplicate reports, 14 nonrandomized studies, 15 studies with outdated or similar treatments, and 29 trials lacking sufficient data on healing or accessibility, 76 primary reports were identified. These reports involved 4,251 patients allocated to 93 treatment comparisons of dendritic epithelial keratitis in 28 categories and 9 comparisons of geographic epithelial keratitis in 6 categories. For dendritic keratitis, idoxuridine was better than placebo at 7 days (combined odds ratio [OR], 3.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.92-6.70), and at 14 days (OR, 4.17; 95% CI, 1.33-13.04), but pooling was limited by lack of homogeneity and low study quality. Direct comparisons at 1 week of treatment showed that trifluridine or acyclovir was significantly better than idoxuridine (OR, 3.12 and 4.56; 95% CI, 1.55-6.29 and 2.76-7.52, respectively), and indirect comparisons were also consistent with a clinically significant benefit. Vidarabine was not significantly better than idoxuridine in pooled treatment comparisons at 1 week (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 0.72-2.00) but was better in 2 indirect comparisons (OR, 4.22 and 4.78; 95% CI, 1.69-10.54 and 2.15-10.65, respectively). At 14 days, trifluridine (OR, 6.05; 95% CI, 2.50-14.66), acyclovir (OR, 2.88; 95% CI, 1.39-4.78), and vidarabine (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.65-2.37) were each better than idoxuridine. Trials of geographic epithelial keratitis also suggested that trifluridine, acyclovir, and vidarabine were more effective that idoxuridine. Other topical antiviral agents, such as bromovinyldeoxuridine, ganciclovir, and foscarnet, appeared equivalent to trifluridine or acyclovir. Oral acyclovir was equivalent to topical antiviral therapy and did not hasten healing when used in combination with topical treatment. Antiviral agents did not increase the speed of healing when compared to debridement but reduced the risk of recrudescent epithelial keratitis. The combination of physicochemical treatment with an antiviral agent seemed to be better than either physicochemical or antiviral treatment alone, but the heterogeneous cauterization and curettage techniques and the various treatment combinations limited valid quantitative summary effect measures. The combination of topical interferon with an antiviral agent was significantly better than antiviral therapy at 7 days (OR, 13.49; 95% CI, 7.39-24.61) but not at 14 days (OR, 2.36; 95% CI, 0.82-6.79). Finding apparent heterogeneity for some pooled estimates suggested that dissimilarities in patients, interventions, outcomes, or other logistical aspects of clinical trials occur across studies. CONCLUSIONS: The available evidence on the acute treatment of presumed HSV epithelial keratitis demonstrates the effectiveness of antiviral treatment and shows the log-logistic healing curve of treated dendritic epithelial keratitis. Topical trifluridine, acyclovir, and vidarabine were significantly more effective than idoxuridine but similar in relative effectiveness for dendritic epithelial keratitis. Physicochemical methods of removing infected corneal epithelium are effective, but adjunctive virucidal agents are needed to avert recrudescent epithelial keratitis. Whether debridement in combination with antiviral therapy is more beneficial than antiviral chemotherapy alone appears likely but remains inconclusive. The combination of topical interferon with an antiviral agent significantly speeds epithelial healing. Future trials of the acute treatment of HSV epithelial keratitis must aim to achieve adequate statistical power for assessing the primary outcome and should consider the effect of lesion size and other characteristics on treatment response. PMID:11190039

  10. Virucidal effect of peppermint oil on the enveloped viruses herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Schuhmacher, A; Reichling, J; Schnitzler, P

    2003-01-01

    The virucidal effect of peppermint oil, the essential oil of Mentha piperita, against herpes simplex virus was examined. The inhibitory activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was tested in vitro on RC-37 cells using a plaque reduction assay. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of peppermint oil for herpes simplex virus plaque formation was determined at 0.002% and 0.0008% for HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively. Peppermint oil exhibited high levels of virucidal activity against HSV-1 and HSV-2 in viral suspension tests. At noncytotoxic concentrations of the oil, plaque formation was significantly reduced by 82% and 92% for HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively. Higher concentrations of peppermint oil reduced viral titers of both herpesviruses by more than 90%. A clearly time-dependent activity could be demonstrated, after 3 h of incubation of herpes simplex virus with peppermint oil an antiviral activity of about 99% could be demonstrated. In order to determine the mode of antiviral action of the essential oil, peppermint oil was added at different times to the cells or viruses during infection. Both herpesviruses were significantly inhibited when herpes simplex virus was pretreated with the essential oil prior to adsorption. These results indicate that peppermint oil affected the virus before adsorption, but not after penetration into the host cell. Thus this essential oil is capable to exert a direct virucidal effect on HSV. Peppermint oil is also active against an acyclovir resistant strain of HSV-1 (HSV-1-ACV(res)), plaque formation was significantly reduced by 99%. Considering the lipophilic nature of the oil which enables it to penetrate the skin, peppermint oil might be suitable for topical therapeutic use as virucidal agent in recurrent herpes infection. PMID:13678235

  11. The Short- and Long-Term Risk of Stroke after Herpes Zoster - A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Sreenivasan, Nandini; Basit, Saima; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Pasternak, Bjrn; Munch, Tina N.; Nielsen, Lars P.; Melbye, Mads

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is known to cause VZV vasculopathy, which may be associated with stroke. A recent study found an increased risk of stroke within one year of herpes zoster. We aimed to investigate the short and long-term effects of herpes zoster on the risk of stroke. Methods Using Danish national registers, we constructed a cohort consisting of all Danish adults ?18 years old between 1995 and 2008 (n?=?4.6 million; person-years of follow-up?=?52.9 million). Individual-level information on prescriptions for herpes zoster antiviral treatment and diagnoses of stroke was obtained from national registers. We compared the risk of stroke in persons who had received the specific dosage of acyclovir for herpes zoster with persons who had never received antiviral treatment by Poisson regression. Results During follow-up, 2.5% received treatment for herpes zoster and 5.0% were diagnosed with stroke. Individuals who had received medication had a 127% (95% CI 83182%) increased risk the first two weeks, 17% (CI 924%) between two weeks and one year, and 5% (29%) after the first year. The increased risk was greatest in the youngest age group (<40). To control for healthcare-seeking behaviour, we conducted parallel analyses investigating the risk of selected fractures after herpes zoster and found no similar increased risks. Conclusions This large nationwide cohort study found an increased risk of stroke after treatment for herpes zoster. Although the short-term risk was particularly high, we cannot rule out the possibility of a small but important long-term risk. PMID:23874897

  12. Acupuncture in acute herpes zoster pain therapy (ACUZoster) design and protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Fleckenstein, Johannes; Kramer, Sybille; Hoffrogge, Philipp; Thoma, Sarah; Lang, Philip M; Lehmeyer, Lukas; Schober, Gabriel M; Pfab, Florian; Ring, Johannes; Weisenseel, Peter; Schotten, Klaus J; Mansmann, Ulrich; Irnich, Dominik

    2009-01-01

    Background Acute herpes zoster is a prevalent condition. One of its major symptoms is pain, which can highly influence patient's quality of life. Pain therapy is limited. Acupuncture is supposed to soften neuropathic pain conditions and might therefore act as a therapeutic alternative. Objective of the present study is to investigate whether a 4 week semi-standardised acupuncture is non-inferior to sham laser acupuncture and the anticonvulsive drug gabapentine in the treatment of pain associated with herpes zoster. Methods/Design Three-armed, randomised, placebo-controlled trial with a total follow-up time of 6 months. Up to estimated 336 patients (interim analyses) with acute herpes zoster pain (VAS > 30 mm) will be randomised to one of three groups (a) semi-standardised acupuncture (168 patients); (b) gabapentine with individualised dosage between 9003600 mg/d (84 patients); (c) sham laser acupuncture. Intervention takes place over 4 weeks, all patients will receive analgesic therapy (non-opioid analgesics: metamizol or paracetamol and opioids: tramadol or morphine). Therapy phase includes 4 weeks in which group (a) and (c) consist of 12 sessions per patient, (b) visits depend on patients needs. Main outcome measure is to assess the alteration of pain intensity before and 1 week after treatment sessions (visual analogue scale VAS 0100 mm). Secondary outcome measure are: alteration of pain intensity and frequency of pain attacks; alteration of different aspects of pain evaluated by standardised pain questionnaires (NPI, PDI, SES); effects on quality of life (SF 36); analgesic demand; alteration of sensoric perception by systematic quantitative sensory testing (QST); incidence of postherpetic neuralgia; side effects and cost effectiveness. Credibility of treatments will be assessed. Discussion This study is the first large-scale randomised placebo controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture compared to gabapentine and sham treatment and will provide valuable new information about the clinical and physiological effects of acupuncture and gabapentine in the treatment of acute herpes zoster pain. The study has been pragmatically designed to ensure that the study findings can be implemented into clinical practice if acupuncture can be shown to be an effective treatment strategy in acute herpes zoster pain. Trial registration NCT00885586 PMID:19674449

  13. A simple wave driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kağan Temiz, Burak; Yavuz, Ahmet

    2015-08-01

    This study was done to develop a simple and inexpensive wave driver that can be used in experiments on string waves. The wave driver was made using a battery-operated toy car, and the apparatus can be used to produce string waves at a fixed frequency. The working principle of the apparatus is as follows: shortly after the car is turned on, the wheel starts to turn at a constant angular speed. A rod that is fixed on the wheel turns at the same constant angular speed, too. A tight string that the wave will be created on is placed at a distance where the rod can touch the string. During each rotation of the wheel, the rod vibrates the string up and down. The vibration frequency of this rod equals the wheel’s rotation frequency, and this frequency value can be measured easily with a small magnet and a bicycle speedometer. In this way, the frequency of the waves formed in the rope can also be measured.

  14. Simple Epithelial Keratins.

    PubMed

    Strnad, Pavel; Guldiken, Nurdan; Helenius, Terhi O; Misiorek, Julia O; Nystrm, Joel H; Lhdeniemi, Iris A K; Silvander, Jonas S G; Kuscuoglu, Deniz; Toivola, Diana M

    2016-01-01

    Simple epithelial keratins (SEKs) are the cytoplasmic intermediate filament proteins of single-layered and glandular epithelial cells as found in the liver, pancreas, intestine, and lung. SEKs have broad cytoprotective functions, which are facilitated by dynamic posttranslational modifications and interaction with associated proteins. SEK filaments are composed of obligate heteropolymers of type II (K7, K8) and type I (K18-K20, K23) keratins. The multifaceted roles of SEKs are increasingly appreciated due to findings obtained from transgenic mouse models and human studies that identified SEK variants in several digestive diseases. Reorganization of the SEK network into aggregates called Mallory-Denk bodies (MDBs) is characteristic for specific liver disorders such as alcoholic and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. To spur further research on SEKs, we here review the methods and potential caveats of their isolation as well as possibilities to study them in cell culture. The existing transgenic SEK mouse models, their advantages and potential drawbacks are discussed. The tools to induce MDBs, ways of their visualization and quantification, as well as the possibilities to detect SEK variants in humans are summarized. PMID:26795477

  15. Entropy Is Simple, Qualitatively

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Frank L.

    2002-10-01

    Qualitatively, entropy is simple. What it is, why it is useful in understanding the behavior of macro systems or of molecular systems is easy to state: Entropy increase from a macro viewpoint is a measure of the dispersal of energy from localized to spread out at a temperature T. The conventional q in qrev/T is the energy dispersed to or from a substance or a system. On a molecular basis, entropy increase means that a system changes from having fewer accessible microstates to having a larger number of accessible microstates. Fundamentally based on statistical and quantum mechanics, this approach is superior to the non-fundamental "disorder" as a descriptor of entropy change. The foregoing in no way denies the subtlety or the difficulty presented by entropy in thermodynamicsto first-year students or to professionals. However, as an aid to beginners in their quantitative study of thermodynamics, the qualitative conclusions in this article give students the advantage of a clear birds-eye view of why entropy increases in a wide variety of basic cases: a substance going from 0 K to T, phase change, gas expansion, mixing of ideal gases or liquids, colligative effects, and the Gibbs equation.

    See Letter re: this article.

  16. Endoscopic simple prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Borkowski, Tomasz; Ch?osta, Piotr; Dobruch, Jakub; Fiutowski, Marek; Jaskulski, Jaros?aw; S?ojewski, Marcin; Szyde?ko, Tomasz; Szyma?ski, Micha?; Demkow, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Many options exist for the surgical treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), including transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), laser surgery, and open adenomectomy. Recently, endoscopic techniques have been used in the treatment of BPH. Material and methods We reviewed clinical studies in PubMed describing minimally invasive endoscopic procedures for the treatment of BPH. Results Laparoscopic adenomectomy (LA) and roboticassisted simple prostatectomy (RASP) were introduced in the early 2000s. These operative techniques have been standardized and reproducible, with some individual modifications. Studies analyzing the outcomes of LA and RASP have reported significant improvements in urinary flow and decreases in patient International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). These minimally invasive approaches have resulted in a lower rate of complications, shorter hospital stays, smaller scars, faster recoveries, and an earlier return to work. Conclusions Minimally invasive techniques such as LA and RASP for the treatment BPH are safe, efficacious, and allow faster recovery. These procedures have a short learning curve and offer new options for the surgeon treating BPH. PMID:25667758

  17. Human herpes virus-8-associated multicentric Castleman's disease in an HIV-positive patient presenting with relapsing and remitting hyponatraemia.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hiroaki; Maeda, Takuya; Hara, Yu; Osa, Morichika; Imai, Kazuo; Moriguchi, Kota; Mikita, Kei; Fujikura, Yuji; Kaida, Kenichi; Kawana, Akihiko

    2015-10-01

    We report a case of human herpes virus-8-associated multicentric Castleman's disease in an HIV-positive patient with hyponatraemia. A 65-year-old man was admitted with relapsing and remitting fever, scattered skin eruptions and hepatosplenomegaly following combination antiretroviral therapy for his HIV infection. Based on histopathological findings, he was diagnosed as having human herpes virus-8-associated multicentric Castleman's disease and was treated with four-weekly infusions of rituximab. Prior to receiving chemotherapy, we observed several suspected biomarkers of disease activity, positive correlations between plasma human herpes virus-8 viral load and the levels of plasma interleukin-6, C-reactive protein and soluble interleukin-2 receptor, and negative correlations between platelet count, albumin levels and especially serum sodium levels. We hypothesize that non-osmotic release of plasma antidiuretic hormone is a cause of hyponatraemia in human herpes virus-8-associated multicentric Castleman's disease and that relapsing and remitting hyponatraemia could be correlated with plasma human herpes virus-8 viral load. PMID:25504830

  18. High Risk of Herpes Zoster among Patients with Advance Acute Kidney Injury A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei-Shun; Hu, Fu-Chang; Chen, Meng-Kan; Ko, Wen-Je; Chen, Likwang; Wu, Kwan-Dun; Wu, Vin-Cent

    2015-01-01

    The risk for herpes zoster (HZ) in acute kidney injury (AKI) survivors was never explored. We identified 2,387 adults in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database who recovered from dialysis-requiring AKI and matched them with non-recovery and non-AKI patients by propensity score. During a mean follow-up of 2.7 years, the incidences of HZ were 6.9, 8.2 and 4.8 episodes per 1,000 person-years in AKI-non-recovery, AKI-recovery and non-AKI group, respectively. The recovery group was more likely to develop herpes zoster than those without acute kidney injury [incidence-rate ratios 1.71, 95% confidence interval 1.162.52; p?=?0.007]. Patients without acute kidney injury were less likely to develop herpes zoster than those AKI, recovered from dialysis or not (hazard ratio HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.460.95). Dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury poses a long-term risk of herpes zoster after hospital discharge. Even patients who have recovered from dialysis still carry a significantly higher risk of developing herpes zoster. PMID:26333822

  19. Effect of a Zoster Vaccine on Herpes Zoster-Related Interference with Functional Status and Health-Related Quality of Life Measures in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Schmader, Kenneth E.; Johnson, Gary R.; Saddier, Patricia; Ciarleglio, Maria; Wang, William W.B.; Zhang, Jane H.; Chan, Ivan S.F.; Yeh, Shing-Shing; Levin, Myron J.; Harbecke, Ruth M.; Oxman, Michael N.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the efficacy of a zoster vaccine on herpes zoster related interference with activities of daily living (ADL) and health-related quality of life (HRQL). Design Randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial. Setting 22 US sites. Patients 38,546 women and men ≥60 years of age. Intervention Zoster vaccine or placebo. Measurements Herpes zoster Burden of Interference with ADL and HRQL using ratings from the Zoster Brief Pain Inventory and SF-12 Mental and Physical Component Scores. Vaccine efficacy was calculated for the modified-intention-to-treat trial population and solely among those subjects who developed herpes zoster. Results For the modified-intention-to-treat population, the overall zoster vaccine efficacy was 66% (95% CI: 55, 74) for Zoster Brief Pain Inventory ADL Burden of Interference Score and 55% (95% CI: 48, 61) for both the SF-12 Mental and Physical Component Scores. Among subjects who developed herpes zoster, zoster vaccine reduced the Zoster Brief Pain Inventory ADL Burden of Interference Score by 31% (95% CI: 12, 51) respectively, and did not significantly reduce the impact on HRQL. Conclusions Zoster vaccine reduced the burden of herpes zoster related interference with ADL in the population of vaccinees and among vaccinees who developed herpes zoster. Zoster vaccine reduced the impact of herpes zoster on HRQL in the population of vaccinees but not among vaccinees who developed herpes zoster. PMID:20863322

  20. Development and evaluation of the quantitative real-time PCR assay in detection and typing of herpes simplex virus in swab specimens from patients with genital herpes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Junlian; Yi, Yong; Chen, Wei; Si, Shaoyan; Yin, Mengmeng; Jin, Hua; Liu, Jianjun; Zhou, Jinlian; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2015-01-01

    Genital herpes (GH), which is caused mainly by herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 and HSV-1, remains a worldwide problem. Laboratory confirmation of GH is important, particularly as there are other conditions which present similarly to GH, while atypical presentations of GH also occur. Currently, virus culture is the classical method for diagnosis of GH, but it is time consuming and with low sensitivity. A major advance for diagnosis of GH is to use Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In this study, to evaluate the significance of the real-time PCR method in diagnosis and typing of genital HSV, the primers and probes targeted at HSV-1 DNA polymerase gene and HSV-2 glycoprotein D gene fraction were designed and applied to amplify DNA from HSV-1 or HSV-2 by employing the real-time PCR technique. Then the PCR reaction system was optimized and evaluated. HSV in swab specimens from patients with genital herpes was detected by real-time PCR. The real-time PCR assay showed good specificity for detection and typing of HSV, with good linear range (5×102~5×108 copies/ml, r=0.997), a sensitivity of 5×102 copies/ml, and good reproducibility (intra-assay coefficients of variation 2.29% and inter-assay coefficients of variation 4.76%). 186 swab specimens were tested for HSV by real-time PCR, and the positive rate was 23.7% (44/186). Among the 44 positive specimens, 8 (18.2%) were positive for HSV-1 with a viral load of 8.5546×106 copies/ml and 36 (81.2%) were positive for HSV-2 with a viral load of 1.9861×106 copies/ml. It is concluded that the real-time PCR is a specific, sensitive and rapid method for the detection and typing of HSV, which can be widely used in clinical diagnosis of GH. PMID:26770492

  1. A Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Human Asymptomatic CD8+ T-Cell Epitopes-Based Vaccine Protects Against Ocular Herpes in a “Humanized” HLA Transgenic Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Ruchi; Khan, Arif A.; Huang, Jiawei; Nesburn, Anthony B.; Wechsler, Steven L.; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. A clinical vaccine that protects from ocular herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection and disease still is lacking. In the present study, preclinical vaccine trials of nine asymptomatic (ASYMP) peptides, selected from HSV-1 glycoproteins B (gB), and tegument proteins VP11/12 and VP13/14, were performed in the “humanized” HLA–transgenic rabbit (HLA-Tg rabbit) model of ocular herpes. We recently reported that these peptides are highly recognized by CD8+ T cells from “naturally” protected HSV-1–seropositive healthy ASYMP individuals (who have never had clinical herpes disease). Methods. Mixtures of three ASYMP CD8+ T-cell peptides derived from either HSV-1 gB, VP11/12, or VP13/14 were delivered subcutaneously to different groups of HLA-Tg rabbits (n = 10) in incomplete Freund's adjuvant, twice at 15-day intervals. The frequency and function of HSV-1 epitope-specific CD8+ T cells induced by these peptides and their protective efficacy, in terms of survival, virus replication in the eye, and ocular herpetic disease were assessed after an ocular challenge with HSV-1 (strain McKrae). Results. All mixtures elicited strong and polyfunctional IFN-γ– and TNF-α–producing CD107+CD8+ cytotoxic T cells, associated with a significant reduction in death, ocular herpes infection, and disease (P < 0.015). Conclusions. The results of this preclinical trial support the screening strategy used to select the HSV-1 ASYMP CD8+ T-cell epitopes, emphasize their valuable immunogenic and protective efficacy against ocular herpes, and provide a prototype vaccine formulation that may be highly efficacious for preventing ocular herpes in humans. PMID:26098469

  2. N-methanocarbathymidine is more effective than acyclovir for treating neonatal herpes simplex virus infection in guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, David I.; Bravo, Fernando J.; Clark, Jennifer R.; Earwood, Julie D.; Rahman, Aquilur; Glazer, Robert; Cardin, Rhonda D.

    2011-01-01

    The outcome of neonatal herpes simplex (HSV) infection, even after therapy with high dose acyclovir (ACV), is not optimum. We therefore evaluated N-methanocarbathymidine ((N)-MCT) using the guinea pig model of neonatal herpes. Treatment with ACV (60 mg/kg/day) was compared to doses of 1, 5, and 25 mg/kg/day of (N)-MCT initiated 1, 2 or 3 days post inoculation (dpi). Both ACV and (N)-MCT significantly improved survival, but only (N)-MCT significantly reduced the number of animals with symptoms when begun at 1 dpi. When therapy was begun at 2 dpi, only (N)-MCT (1, 5, or 25 mg/kg/day) significantly increased survival. In fact, (N)-MCT improved survival up to 3 dpi, the last time point evaluated. (N)-MCT was highly effective and superior to high dose ACV therapy for the treatment of neonatal herpes in the guinea pig model. PMID:21924293

  3. N-Methanocarbathymidine is more effective than acyclovir for treating neonatal herpes simplex virus infection in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, David I; Bravo, Fernando J; Clark, Jennifer R; Earwood, Julie D; Rahman, Aquilur; Glazer, Robert; Cardin, Rhonda D

    2011-11-01

    The outcome of neonatal herpes simplex (HSV) infection, even after therapy with high dose acyclovir (ACV), is not optimum. We therefore evaluated N-Methanocarbathymidine ((N)-MCT) using the guinea pig model of neonatal herpes. Treatment with ACV (60 mg/kg/day) was compared to doses of 1, 5, and 25 mg/kg/day of (N)-MCT initiated 1, 2, or 3 days postinoculation (dpi). Both ACV and (N)-MCT significantly improved survival, but only (N)-MCT significantly reduced the number of animals with symptoms when begun at 1 dpi. When therapy was begun at 2 dpi, only (N)-MCT (1, 5, or 25 mg/kg/day) significantly increased survival. In fact, (N)-MCT improved survival up to 3 dpi, the last time point evaluated. (N)-MCT was highly effective and superior to high dose ACV therapy for the treatment of neonatal herpes in the guinea pig model. PMID:21924293

  4. Immunity to herpes simplex virus type 2. Suppression of virus-induced immune responses in ultraviolet B-irradiated mice

    SciTech Connect

    Yasumoto, S.; Hayashi, Y.; Aurelian, L.

    1987-10-15

    Ultraviolet B irradiation (280 to 320 nm) of mice at the site of intradermal infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 increased the severity of the herpes simplex virus type 2 disease and decreased delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses to viral antigen. Decrease in DTH resulted from the induction of suppressor T cells, as evidenced by the ability of spleen cells from UV-irradiated mice to inhibit DTH and proliferative responses after adoptive transfer. Lymph node cells from UV-irradiated animals did not transfer suppression. DTH was suppressed at the induction but not the expression phase. Suppressor T cells were Lyt-1+, L3T4+, and their activity was antigen-specific. However, after in vitro culture of spleen cells from UV-irradiated mice with herpes simplex virus type 2 antigen, suppressor activity was mediated by Lyt-2+ cells. Culture supernatants contained soluble nonantigen-specific suppressive factors.

  5. Acyclovir vs isoprinosine (immunovir) for suppression of recurrent genital herpes simplex infection.

    PubMed Central

    Kinghorn, G R; Woolley, P D; Thin, R N; De Maubeuge, J; Foidart, J M; Engst, R

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare the efficacy and safety of oral acyclovir (400 mg twice daily) with oral isoprinosine (500 mg twice daily) in the suppression of recurrent genital herpes. DESIGN--Double-blind, double-dummy, randomised, controlled, parallel group trial. SETTING--13 centres in UK, Belgium and Germany. SUBJECTS--127 immunocompetent patients with frequently recurring genital herpes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Proportions of patients reporting recurrences, recurrence frequency, and mean duration of lesions during breakthrough recurrences in each treatment group during a 6 month treatment period; time to first recurrence during treatment and follow-up after treatment cessation. RESULTS--During treatment, acyclovir recipients showed significant differences (p < 0.05) when compared with isoprinosine recipients in terms of a lower proportion reporting recurrences (31% vs 96%), a reduced mean number of reported recurrences per patient (0.6 vs 3.6), a shorter mean duration of breakthrough lesions (6.4 days vs 8.2 days), and a longer mean time (standard error) to first recurrence (143.7 (9.1) days vs 40.5 (5.4) days. The mean time to first recurrence after treatment cessation did not differ between the two groups. As compared with placebo recipients, isoprinosine treated patients had an increased recurrence frequency (3.6 vs 2.5) during treatment, and a shorter time to first recurrence after treatment cessation. All treatments were well tolerated without serious adverse events or toxicity. CONCLUSIONS--Acyclovir is very effective in suppressing recurrent genital herpes and is clearly superior to isoprinosine which is not clinically useful in the dosage studied. PMID:1385295

  6. Epidemiological impact of a genital herpes type 2 vaccine for young females.

    PubMed

    Lou, Yijun; Qesmi, Redouane; Wang, Qian; Steben, Marc; Wu, Jianhong; Heffernan, Jane M

    2012-01-01

    Genital Herpes, which is caused by Herpes Simplex Virus-1 or -2 (HSV-1, -2, predominantly HSV-2) is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) that causes a chronic latent infection with outbreak episodes linked to transmission. Antiviral therapies are effective in reducing viral shedding during these episodes, but are ineffective as a whole since many outbreaks are asymptomatic or have mild symptoms. Thus, the development of a vaccine for genital herpes is needed to control this disease. The question of how to implement such a vaccine program is an important one, and may be similar to the vaccination program for Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) for young females. We have developed a mathematical model to describe the epidemiology of vaccination targeting young females against HSV-2. The model population is delineated with respect to age group, sexual activity and infection status including oral infection of HSV-1, which may affect vaccine efficacy. A threshold parameter R(C), which determines the level of vaccine uptake needed to eradicate HSV-2, is found. Computer simulation shows that an adolescent-only vaccination program may be effective in eliminating HSV-2 disease, however, the success of extinction greatly depends on the level of vaccine uptake, the vaccine efficacy, the age of sexual maturity and safe sex practices. However, the time course of eradication would take many years. We also investigate the prevalence of infection in the total population and in women between 16-30 years of age before and after vaccination has been introduced, and show that the adolescent-only vaccination program can be effective in reducing disease prevalence in these populations depending on the level of vaccine uptake and vaccine efficacy. This will also result in a decrease of maternal-fetal transmission of HSV-2 infection. Another important, if commonsense, conclusion is that vaccination of some females reduces infection in men, which then reduces infection in women. PMID:23071536

  7. Apolipoprotein E genotype and hepatitis C, HIV and herpes simplex disease risk: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E is a polymorphic and multifunctional protein with numerous roles in lipoprotein metabolism. The three common isoforms apoE2, apoE3 and apoE4 show isoform-specific functional properties including different susceptibilities to diseases. ApoE4 is an accepted risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and cardiovascular disorders. Recently, associations between apoE4 and infectious diseases have been demonstrated. This review summarises how apoE4 may be involved in the infection incidence and associated pathologies of specific infectious diseases, namely hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency virus disease and herpes simplex. ApoE4 seems to be protective against chronic hepatitis C virus infection and retards fibrosis progression. In contrast apoE4 enhances the fusion rate of human immunodeficiency virus with target cell membranes, resulting in accelerated cell entry and faster disease progression. Its association with human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia remains controversial. Regarding herpes simplex virus infection, apoE4 intensifies virus latency and is associated with increased oxidative damage of the central nervous system, and there is some evidence that herpes simplex virus infection in combination with the apoE4 genotype may be associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease. In addition to reviewing available data from human trials, evidence derived from a variety of cell culture and animal models are considered in this review in order to provide mechanistic insights into observed association between apoE4 genotype and viral disease infection and pathology. PMID:20109174

  8. National Lupus Hospitalization Trends Reveal Rising Rates of Herpes Zoster and Declines in Pneumocystis Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Sara G.; Schmajuk, Gabriela; Trupin, Laura; Gensler, Lianne; Katz, Patricia P.; Yelin, Edward H.; Gansky, Stuart A.; Yazdany, Jinoos

    2016-01-01

    Objective Infection is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Therapeutic practices have evolved over the past 15 years, but effects on infectious complications of SLE are unknown. We evaluated trends in hospitalizations for severe and opportunistic infections in a population-based SLE study. Methods Data derive from the 2000 to 2011 United States National Inpatient Sample, including individuals who met a validated administrative definition of SLE. Primary outcomes were diagnoses of bacteremia, pneumonia, opportunistic fungal infection, herpes zoster, cytomegalovirus, or pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). We used Poisson regression to determine whether infection rates were changing in SLE hospitalizations and used predictive marginals to generate annual adjusted rates of specific infections. Results We identified 361,337 SLE hospitalizations from 2000 to 2011 meeting study inclusion criteria. Compared to non-SLE hospitalizations, SLE patients were younger (51 vs. 62 years), predominantly female (89% vs. 54%), and more likely to be racial/ethnic minorities. SLE diagnosis was significantly associated with all measured severe and opportunistic infections. From 2000 to 2011, adjusted SLE hospitalization rates for herpes zoster increased more than non-SLE rates: 54 to 79 per 10,000 SLE hospitalizations compared with 24 to 29 per 10,000 non-SLE hospitalizations. Conversely, SLE hospitalizations for PCP disproportionately decreased: 5.1 to 2.5 per 10,000 SLE hospitalizations compared with 0.9 to 1.3 per 10,000 non-SLE hospitalizations. Conclusions Among patients with SLE, herpes zoster hospitalizations are rising while PCP hospitalizations are declining. These trends likely reflect evolving SLE treatment strategies. Further research is needed to identify patients at greatest risk for infectious complications. PMID:26731012

  9. [Isolation of an avirulent strain of the chicken herpes virus type B].

    PubMed

    Kasabov, R; Nam, L V

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to isolate type 'B' of the chicken Herpes virus on a farm for stock layers with a low level of losses due to Marek's disease. Seven virus isolates were obtained from 3-4-month-old White Leghorn poults via direct kidney cell cultures. One of them, named strain C-80, was studied in chick embryo fibroblast cultures, and egg cultures (Bllow's test) as well as biochemically, serologically, and through the electron microscope. Results made it reasonable to identify it as a chicken Herpes virus type 'B'. In vivo experiments with strain C-80 inoculated in day-old chicks at the rate of 15 x 10(3) PFU showed that it did not cause gross and microlesions in the nervous system and the parenchymal organs in the course of 18 weeks of observation. The immunogenic properties of strain C-80 were studied in 2250 day-old White Plymouth Rock chicks inoculated at the rate of 1360 PFU, kept in an infected environment together with as many as 4500 control birds immunized three times with a vaccine (obtained from a turkey Herpes virus) at 1500 PFU. Twenty-four weeks later the losses due to Marek's disease were 3.4 per cent in the test group, and 7.2 per cent in the control one. It is believed that strain C-80 is appropriate for the production of a vaccine against Marek's diseases--Rispens type. Further studies are being performed on the antigenic composition and the immunogenic properties as well as series of in vivo passages with regard to reversibility. PMID:7157664

  10. Mandibular osteonecrosis following herpes zoster infection in the mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Herpes zoster virus (HZV) infections are caused by reactivation of the varicella zoster virus. Reactivation symptoms commonly affect the thoracolumbar trunk, and rarely affect the mandibular branches of the trigeminal nerve. When the mandibular branches are involved, lesions appear proximal to the innervation area. This condition may be associated with exfoliation of the teeth and osteonecrosis of the jawbone. We report a case of mandibular osteomyelitis after herpes zoster infection and we present a review of the literature on mandibular-branch involvement of HZV-related osteonecrosis. PMID:26733193

  11. Analysis of Antiviral Properties of Hexoral In Vitro against Some Viruses that Cause Acute Respiratory Infections and Herpes.

    PubMed

    Deryabin, P G; Galegov, G A; Andronova, V A; Botikov, A G

    2016-01-01

    Antiviral properties of Hexoral (0.1% solution and 0.2% aerosol for local application) and its constituent hexetidine against viruses causing human respiratory tract infections and herpes virus were studied in vitro. It was found that non-cytotoxic concentrations of hexetidine (alone and as a component of Hexoral) attenuated infectious properties of highly virulent influenza virus A/H5N1, pandemic influenza virus A/H1N1pdm, respiratory syncytial virus, and herpes simplex virus type 1 after a short-term exposure (30 sec) by 100 or more times. It was found that hexidine mostly contributes to the virucidal effect of Hexoral. PMID:26750930

  12. Mandibular osteonecrosis following herpes zoster infection in the mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Song, Jae-Min; Seo, Jeong-Seok; Lee, Jae-Yeol

    2015-12-01

    Herpes zoster virus (HZV) infections are caused by reactivation of the varicella zoster virus. Reactivation symptoms commonly affect the thoracolumbar trunk, and rarely affect the mandibular branches of the trigeminal nerve. When the mandibular branches are involved, lesions appear proximal to the innervation area. This condition may be associated with exfoliation of the teeth and osteonecrosis of the jawbone. We report a case of mandibular osteomyelitis after herpes zoster infection and we present a review of the literature on mandibular-branch involvement of HZV-related osteonecrosis. PMID:26733193

  13. Homology Between Burkitt Herpes Viral DNA and DNA in Continuous Lymphoblastoid Cells from Patients with Infectious Mononucleosis

    PubMed Central

    Kieff, Elliott; Levine, Judith

    1974-01-01

    At least 90% of the sequences of purified, in vitro labeled, DNA from Epstein-Barr virus (prepared from HR-1, Burkitt's lymphoblastoid cells) are homologous to the DNA of the herpes virus contained in cell lines derived from patients with infectious mononucleosis. The thermal stability of the homologous and heterologous hybrid DNA molecules could not be differentiated, indicating at least 97% matching of base pairs between DNA of Epstein-Barr virus and the herpes viral DNA contained in the lymphoblasts from patients with infectious mononucleosis. PMID:4360941

  14. Use of Adeno-Associated and Herpes Simplex Viral Vectors for In Vivo Neuronal Expression in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Penrod, Rachel D.; Wells, Audrey M.; Carlezon, William A.; Cowan, Christopher W.

    2015-01-01

    Adeno-associated viruses and the herpes simplex virus are the two most widely used vectors for the in vivo expression of exogenous genes. Advances in the development of these vectors have enabled remarkable temporal and spatial control of gene expression. This unit provides methods for storing, delivering, and verifying expression of adeno-associated and herpes simplex viruses in the adult mouse brain. It also describes important considerations for experiments using in vivo expression of these viral vectors, including serotype and promoter selection, as well as timing of expression. Additional protocols are provided that describe methods for preliminary experiments to determine the appropriate conditions for in vivo delivery. PMID:26426386

  15. An unusual presentation of herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in a child.

    PubMed

    Sakalli, Hale; Erinanc, Hilal; Dursun, Recep; Baskin, Esra

    2013-01-01

    We describe an 11-year-old girl presenting with lichen simplex chronicus (LSC) and acute bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) following herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection as evidenced by serological data and by detection of HSV-1 DNA in the blood with the use of PCR. Based on the literature search, this case represents the first childhood case of LSC and acute bilateral CTS following HSV-1 infection. The experience with this patient emphasizes the importance of serological tests and PCR as well as the other laboratory techniques for the accurate diagnosis and management of the disease. PMID:23526061

  16. Prospects and Perspectives for Development of a Vaccine Against Herpes Simplex Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    McAllister, Shane C.; Schleiss, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex viruses 1 and -2 are human pathogens that lead to significant morbidity and mortality in certain clinical settings. The development of effective antiviral medications, however, has had little discernible impact on the epidemiology of these pathogens, largely because the majority of infections are clinically silent. Decades of work have gone into various candidate HSV vaccines, but to date none has demonstrated sufficient efficacy to warrant licensure. This review examines developments in HSV immunology and vaccine development published since 2010, and assesses the prospects for improved immunization strategies that may result in an effective, licensed vaccine in the near future. PMID:25077372

  17. The Unusual Fold of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 UL21, a Multifunctional Tegument Protein

    PubMed Central

    Metrick, Claire M.; Chadha, Pooja

    2014-01-01

    UL21 is a conserved protein in the tegument of alphaherpesviruses and has multiple important albeit poorly understood functions in viral replication and pathogenesis. To provide a roadmap for exploration of the multiple roles of UL21, we determined the crystal structure of its conserved N-terminal domain from herpes simplex virus 1 to 2.0-? resolution, which revealed a novel sail-like protein fold. Evolutionarily conserved surface patches highlight residues of potential importance for future targeting by mutagenesis. PMID:25540382

  18. Cutaneous cytomegalovirus infection on multi dermatomal herpes zoster scars: an isotopic immune response.

    PubMed

    Katibi, O S; Dlova, N C; Mosam, A

    2015-01-01

    As more patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are surviving, despite severe immune suppression, clinicians are faced with atypical manifestations of both common and uncommon dermatoses. A 30-year-old black South African woman presented with a 10-month history of multiple chronic ulcers appearing on a multidermatomal herpes zoster (HZ) scar. The woman was infected with HIV, and her CD4 count was 45cells/?L. Histology and PCR revealed cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. This case highlights an unusual presentation of cutaneous CMV occurring as an isotopic immune response on a pre-existing multidermatomal HZ scar. PMID:25266481

  19. Herpes Gestationis after Ovodonation: Is Placenta the only Target of the Immune Reaction?

    PubMed

    Piva, Isabella; Lo Monte, Giuseppe; Graziano, Angela; Marci, Roberto

    2014-11-01

    Herpes Gestationis (HG) is an autoimmune disorder that rarely complicates pregnancy. Its pathogenesis has not been clarified yet, as it derives from a complex interplay between immunologic, genetic, and hormonal factors. We present a case of HG occurring in a surrogate mother whose pregnancy was achieved via egg donation and in vitro fertilisation (IVF). The disease appeared at 26 weeks and 6 days of gestation and subsequently worsened despite the administration of oral and topic corticosteroids. A healthy baby was delivered at 35 weeks and 2 days of gestation by elective cesarean section and the clinical manifestations resolved in the postpartum period. PMID:25584273

  20. An Unusual Presentation of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Sakalli, Hale; Erinanc, Hilal; Dursun, Recep; Baskin, Esra

    2013-01-01

    We describe an 11-year-old girl presenting with lichen simplex chronicus (LSC) and acute bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) following herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection as evidenced by serological data and by detection of HSV-1 DNA in the blood with the use of PCR. Based on the literature search, this case represents the first childhood case of LSC and acute bilateral CTS following HSV-1 infection. The experience with this patient emphasizes the importance of serological tests and PCR as well as the other laboratory techniques for the accurate diagnosis and management of the disease. PMID:23526061

  1. The inhibitory effect of essential oils on herpes simplex virus type-1 replication in vitro.

    PubMed

    Minami, Masato; Kita, Masakazu; Nakaya, Takaaki; Yamamoto, Toshiro; Kuriyama, Hiroko; Imanishi, Jiro

    2003-01-01

    The antiviral effect of 12 essential oils on herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) replication was examined in vitro. The replication ability of HSV-1 was suppressed by incubation of HSV-1 with 1% essential oils at 4 C for 24 hr. Especially, lemongrass completely inhibited the viral replication even at a concentration of 0.1%, and its antiviral activity was dependent on the concentrations of the essential oil. When Vero cells were treated with the essential oil before or after viral adsorption, no antiviral activity was found, which suggests that the antiviral activity of essential oils including lemongrass may be due to the direct interaction with virions. PMID:14584615

  2. Therapeutic Approaches Using Host Defence Peptides to Tackle Herpes Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Jenssen, Håvard

    2009-01-01

    One of the most common viral infections in humans is caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV). It can easily be treated with nucleoside analogues (e.g., acyclovir), but resistant strains are on the rise. Naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides have been demonstrated to possess antiviral activity against HSV. New evidence has also indicated that these host defence peptides are able to selectively stimulate the innate immune system to fight of infections. This review will focus on the anti-HSV activity of such peptides (both natural and synthetic), describe their mode of action and their clinical potential. PMID:21994576

  3. Incident herpes simplex virus type 2 infection increases the risk of subsequent episodes of bacterial vaginosis.

    PubMed

    Masese, Linnet; Baeten, Jared M; Richardson, Barbra A; Bukusi, Elizabeth; John-Stewart, Grace; Jaoko, Walter; Shafi, Juma; Kiarie, James; McClelland, R Scott

    2014-04-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infected women have a higher prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) compared to HSV-2-seronegative women. To explore the temporal association between these conditions, we evaluated the frequency of BV episodes before and after HSV-2 acquisition in a prospective study of 406 HSV-2/HIV-1-seronegative Kenyan women, of whom 164 acquired HSV-2. Incident HSV-2 was associated with increased likelihood of BV (adjusted OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.05-1.56; P = .01). Our findings strengthen the evidence for a causal link between genital HSV-2 infection and disruption of the vaginal microbiota. PMID:24273042

  4. Conjunctival geographic ulcer: an overlooked sign of herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed

    Hung, Jia-Horung; Chu, Chang-Yao; Lee, Chaw-Ning; Hsu, Chao-Kai; Lee, Julia Yu-Yun; Wang, Jen-Ren; Chang, Kung-Chao; Huang, Fu-Chin

    2015-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) ocular infection causes significant visual burden worldwide. Despite the fact that dendritic or geographic corneal ulcers are typical findings in HSV epithelial keratitis, conjunctival ulcer as a sign of HSV infection has rarely been reported. Although easily overlooked, this important sign could be enhanced by fluorescein staining. We report two cases of conjunctival geographic ulcers proven to be HSV infection by viral isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). One patient had bilateral disease and blepharitis, and the other had unilateral involvement without skin lesions. With timely diagnosis and proper management, excellent visual outcome can be expected. PMID:25728077

  5. Cell-mediated immunity to varicella-zoster antigen in acute herpes zoster (shingles)

    PubMed Central

    Russell, A. S.; Maini, R. A.; Bailey, Margaret; Dumonde, D. C.

    1973-01-01

    Cell-mediated immunity to varicella-zoster antigen was assessed by lymphocyte transformation in fourteen patients with acute herpes zoster and in a group of twelve healthy controls. There was a significant dimunition in cell-mediated immunity to this antigen in the patient group when compared to the controls but no definite difference was observed in the responses to phytohaemagglutinin and PPD measured at the same time. It was suggested that this lack of cell-mediated immunity contributes to the evolution of the disease. PMID:4352254

  6. Latent Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection Does Not Induce Apoptosis in Human Trigeminal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Lindemann, Anja; Sinicina, Inga; Strupp, Michael; Brandt, Thomas; Hfner, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) can establish lifelong latency in human trigeminal ganglia. Latently infected ganglia contain CD8+ T cells, which secrete granzyme B and are thus capable of inducing neuronal apoptosis. Using immunohistochemistry and single-cell reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), higher frequency and transcript levels of caspase-3 were found in HSV-1-negative compared to HSV-1-positive ganglia and neurons, respectively. No terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay-positive neurons were detected. The infiltrating T cells do not induce apoptosis in latently infected neurons. PMID:25762734

  7. Herpes simplex virus 2 hepatitis in a lung transplant recipient: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Hirschi, S; Biondini, D; Ohana, M; Solis, M; D'Urso, A; Rosner, V; Kessler, R

    2015-12-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) hepatitis is a rare and serious complication in immunocompromised patients. We report the case of an HSV hepatitis occurring 4 years after lung transplantation in a cystic fibrosis patient. The presentation was nonspecific, mimicking acute cholecystitis; orogenital signs were absent. The diagnosis was made based on viral cultures performed during cholecystectomy and confirmed by blood quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Although the diagnosis and treatment were delayed, the patient fully recovered with acyclovir, reduced immunosuppression, and intravenous immunoglobulins. The diagnostic difficulties, prognostic factors, and treatments of this infection are discussed. PMID:26370068

  8. Acute retinal necrosis secondary to herpes simplex virus type 2 in neonates.

    PubMed

    Venincasa, Vincent D; Emanuelli, Andres; Leng, Theodore; Perlini, Erin; Villegas, Victor; Diaz-Barbosa, Magaly; Gutierrez, Maria; Miller, Darlene; Berrocal, Audina M

    2015-04-01

    Acute retinal necrosis (ARN) should be in the differential diagnosis of a neonate who presents with vitritis. This report includes three cases of neonatal ARN at the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute from 2004 to 2009. Medical treatment with acyclovir helped reduce sequelae of herpes simplex virus (HSV) 2 infection. Patients with ARN are at risk for retinal detachment and blindness. Although mothers are screened during pregnancy, they are at risk of reactivation or primary contraction of HSV. A neonate presenting with vitritis should raise suspicion of ARN. PMID:25932732

  9. Vaccine-associated herpes zoster ophthalmicus [correction of opthalmicus] and encephalitis in an immunocompetent child.

    PubMed

    Chouliaras, Giorgos; Spoulou, Vana; Quinlivan, Mark; Breuer, Judith; Theodoridou, Maria

    2010-04-01

    Varicella-zoster virus vaccine has diminished the consequences of chicken pox in terms of health and economical burden. The increasing number of doses administered worldwide has revealed rare but important adverse effects that had not occurred during clinical trials. We report here the case of an immunocompetent 3(1/2)-year-old girl who developed encephalitis and herpes zoster opthalmicus 20 months after her immunization with varicella-zoster virus vaccine. Molecular analysis confirmed the vaccine strain as the causative agent. After an intravenous course with acyclovir, the child made a full recovery with no neurologic sequelae. PMID:20194287

  10. Preclinical Mouse Models for Analysis of the Therapeutic Potential of Engineered Oncolytic Herpes Viruses.

    PubMed

    Speranza, Maria-Carmela; Kasai, Kazue; Lawler, Sean E

    2016-03-31

    After more than two decades of research and development, oncolytic herpes viruses (oHSVs) are moving into the spotlight due to recent encouraging clinical trial data. oHSV and other oncolytic viruses function through direct oncolytic cancer cell-killing mechanisms and by stimulating antitumor immunity. As further viruses are developed and optimized for the treatment of various types of cancer, appropriate predictive preclinical models will be of great utility. This review will discuss existing data in this area, focusing on the mouse tumor models that are commonly used. PMID:27034396

  11. Study Guide: Seven Simple Secrets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satterfield, Nancy; Breaux, Annette; Whitaker, Todd

    2007-01-01

    This study guide has been developed to accompany the "Seven Simple Secrets" book written by Dr. Todd Whitaker and Annette Breaux. "Seven Simple Secrets" focuses on those attributes that have been found to help teachers be their absolute best in their daily challenges of teaching and improving student learning. The study guide is divided into the

  12. Simple current symmetries in RCFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bantay, P.

    2005-01-01

    The question ``Which abelian permutation groups arise as group of simple currents in Rational Conformal Field Theory?'' is investigated using the formalism of weighted permutation actions. After a review of the relevant properties of simple current symmetries, the general theory of WPA-s and admissibility conditions are described, and classification results are illustrated by a couple of examples.

  13. Study Guide: Seven Simple Secrets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satterfield, Nancy; Breaux, Annette; Whitaker, Todd

    2007-01-01

    This study guide has been developed to accompany the "Seven Simple Secrets" book written by Dr. Todd Whitaker and Annette Breaux. "Seven Simple Secrets" focuses on those attributes that have been found to help teachers be their absolute best in their daily challenges of teaching and improving student learning. The study guide is divided into the…

  14. Activities of 1-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-iodocytosine and its metabolites against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in cell culture and in mice infected intracerebrally with herpes simplex virus type 2.

    PubMed Central

    Schinazi, R F; Fox, J J; Watanabe, K A; Nahmias, A J

    1986-01-01

    As measured by plaque and yield reduction assays, several metabolites of 1-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-iodocytosine (FIAC) were highly active against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2. These metabolites included the 2'-deoxy-2'-fluoroarabinosyl derivatives of 5-iodouracil (FIAU), cytosine (FAC), uracil (FAU), and thymine (FMAU). In mice inoculated intracerebrally with herpes simplex virus type 2, the relative order of potency of these compounds and licensed antiviral drugs was as follows: FMAU much greater than FIAC approximately equal to FIAU greater than acyclovir approximately equal to vidarabine much greater than FAC approximately equal to FAU. One of the main metabolites of FMAU, 2'-fluoro-5-hydroxymethyl-arabinosyluracil, was essentially inactive in vivo. FIAC-, FIAU-, FMAU-, FAC-, and FAU-resistant herpes simplex virus variants prepared in cell culture were found to be (i) devoid of viral thymidine kinase, (ii) cross-resistant to one another and resistant to drugs requiring viral thymidine kinase for activation, and (iii) sensitive to vidarabine or phosphonoformate. These results indicate that FIAC, FIAU, and FMAU require the virally encoded thymidine kinase for activation and suggest that the antiviral activity of FAU and FAC in cell cultures is also mediated by this enzyme. The interaction of the fluoroarabinosyl pyrimidine nucleosides with herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase in a cell-free system is also described. PMID:3015003

  15. Disparities in herpes simplex virus type 2 infection between black and white men who have sex with men in Atlanta, GA.

    PubMed

    Okafor, Netochukwu; Rosenberg, Eli S; Luisi, Nicole; Sanchez, Travis; del Rio, Carlos; Sullivan, Patrick S; Kelley, Colleen F

    2015-09-01

    HIV disproportionately affects black men who have sex with men, and herpes simplex virus type 2 is known to increase acquisition of HIV. However, data on racial disparities in herpes simplex virus type 2 prevalence and risk factors are limited among men who have sex with men in the United States. InvolveMENt was a cohort study of black and white HIV-negative men who have sex with men in Atlanta, GA. Univariate and multivariate cross-sectional associations with herpes simplex virus type 2 seroprevalence were assessed among 455 HIV-negative men who have sex with men for demographic, behavioural and social determinant risk factors using logistic regression. Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 was 23% (48/211) for black and 16% (38/244) for white men who have sex with men (p?=?0.05). Education, poverty, drug/alcohol use, incarceration, circumcision, unprotected anal intercourse, and condom use were not associated with herpes simplex virus type 2. In multivariate analyses, black race for those ?25 years, but not >25 years, and number of sexual partners were significantly associated. Young black men who have sex with men are disproportionately affected by herpes simplex virus type 2, which may contribute to disparities in HIV acquisition. An extensive assessment of risk factors did not explain this disparity in herpes simplex virus type 2 infection suggesting differences in susceptibility or partner characteristics. PMID:25246424

  16. Latent Herpes Simplex Virus Infections in Sensory Ganglia of Hairless Mice Prevented by Acycloguanosine

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Richard J.; Friedman-Kien, Alvin E.; DeStefano, Eugene

    1979-01-01

    Acycloguanosine (ACG) was able to prevent the fatal outcome of herpes simplex virus-induced skin infections of the lumbosacral or orofacila area in hairless mice. Topical ACG treatment was more effective than systemic treatment in preventing the evolution of skin lesions. Acute ganglionic infections in the trigeminal ganglia were prevented by ACG, and latent ganglionic infections did not become established when the ACG treatment was initiated 3 h after infection. Serum antibody titers were, on the average, eight times higher in mice which developed latent ganglionic infections after ACG treatment than in mice without evidence of herpes simplex virus latency in ganglia. Reinoculation of ACG-treated mice at a site different from that of the primary inoculation did not lead to the establishment of a second latent infection with the homologous virus type when a latent infection was already present. In mice without evidence of latent infection after the primary inoculation, a latent infection at the site of reinoculation became established in 25% of the animals. PMID:230784

  17. Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in Neonates and Young Infants with Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Amel Jamehdar, Saeid; Mammouri, Gholamali; Sharifi Hoseini, Mohammad Reza; Nomani, Hosein; Afzalaghaee, Monavvar; Boskabadi, Hassan; Aelami, Mohammad Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Neonatal herpes infection is the most serious complication of Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) infection during pregnancy and perinatal period. Few studies have reported neonatal HSV infection in developing countries. Objectives: The aim of this study was to detect the HSV infection among neonates and infants with sepsis. Materials and Methods: In a cross sectional study all infants aged less than 3 months, admitted to neonatal intensive care unit and pediatric emergency ward of Ghaem Hospital (a university hospital with 900 beds) in Mashhad (Northeast of Iran) with clinical diagnosis of sepsis and at least one inclusion criteria during one year from November 2009 to October 2010, were enrolled in the study. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was done on clinical samples obtained from patients. Results: Among 150 neonates and infants younger than 3 months old with sepsis, the PCR results for detecting the HSV DNA, were positive in 6 samples of 5 patients (3.3 %). None of the mothers had symptomatic HSV infection during delivery. The mean age of the patients was 18 days. Two of them died due to shock and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Conclusions: In neonates and infants with primary diagnosis of sepsis, HSV infection should be considered especially if the clinical condition does not improve after 48 hours of antibiotic therapy, and sepsis still exists with elevated liver enzymes. PMID:24719742

  18. Surface enhanced Raman scattering of herpes simplex virus in tear film.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Goddard, Janelle Maria; Barr, Hugh; Stone, Nicholas

    2008-03-01

    Conjunctivitis is currently diagnosed using white light microscopy of corneal or conjunctival cells in culture. This takes time and is subjective. An ideal test would be sensitive, specific, near-patient and quick. Raman spectroscopy is the measurement of inelastic light scatter that produces unique molecular spectra. Infected human tear film can be analysed for viral and bacterial particles. However, the concentration of these and the constituents of the tear are very low. Surface enhanced Raman scattering can be used to amplify the Raman signal. For this experiment two different SERS substrates were used: silver mirror reaction glass and gold thin film. Heat denatured herpes simplex virus in transport medium culture and transport medium only were added to different ratios of a synthetic tear. The synthetic tear was modelled on the aqueous layer of the human tear film. Linear discriminant analysis was performed on each spectral dataset for each ratio of mixture on both substrates. From the classification tables, the sensitivity and specificity for silver mirror reaction glass were 75.5+/-13.8%, 77.3+/-8.3%, and for gold thin film 75.5+/-5.9% and 78.3+/-6.2% respectively. The results show proof of principle that SERS could potentially be used to detect the presence of herpes simplex viral particles in an aqueous solution such as the tear film. PMID:19356636

  19. Persistent Herpes Simplex Virus Infection In Vitro with Cycles of Cell Destruction and Regrowth

    PubMed Central

    Hampar, Berge; Copeland, Mary Lou

    1965-01-01

    Hampar, Berge (National Institute of Dental Research, Bethesda, Md.), and Mary Lou Copeland. Persistent herpes simplex virus infection in vitro with cycles of cell destruction and regrowth. J. Bacteriol. 90:205212. 1965.The susceptibility of two Chinese hamster cell lines to herpes simplex virus (HSV) was studied from the time of their initiation through successive subcultures. The cells' susceptibility to the cytocidal effects of HSV decreased as the number of cell passages increased. During the early cell passages, the decrease in cell susceptibility to HSV was characterized by an increased time after infection for complete cell destruction to occur, with a concomitant increase in the period when virus could be recovered from supernatant fluids. This was followed by a number of cell passages during which persistent HSV infections were established. The persistent infections were characterized by (i) cycles of virus synthesis and cell destruction followed by regrowth of the cells, (ii) initiation and maintenance under conditions optimal for cell growth in the absence of antibody, (iii) the cells' ability to be passaged while still maintaining their cycling patterns, (iv) a relationship between virus synthesis and cell proliferation, and (v) inability of long-term treatment with antibody to cure the persistent infections. The unique characteristics of this HSV infection were compared with other persistent in vitro viral infections. Images PMID:16562018

  20. Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid-1 in Epidermal Keratinocytes May Contribute to Acute Pain in Herpes Zoster.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang Bum; Kim, Hyeree; Cho, Sang Hyun; Lee, Jeong Deuk; Chung, Jin Ho; Kim, Hei Sung

    2016-03-01

    The role of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) in the initiation of neurogenic inflammation and transduction of pain is well established. In this study 33 patients with herpes zoster (HZ) were recruited from a single centre and underwent a questionnaire interview at their first visit. Punch biopsies from the HZ lesions and the contralateral unaffected skin were performed to localize and quantify the expression of TRPV1. Immunofluorescent staining for TRPV1 was most prominent in the epidermal keratinocytes. Both TRPV1 mRNA and protein levels were significantly higher in the HZ epidermis than in control epidermis (relative ratio 1.62 ± 0.27, p = 0.033 and 2.55 ± 0.51, p = 0.005, respectively). Protein TRPV1 ratio (HZ lesion/control) correlated with the degree of pain (measured on a visual analogue scale; VAS) (p = 0.017) and was significantly lower in patients who had taken either HZ medication or painkillers prior to their visit. These results suggest that non-neuronal TRPV1 may contribute to acute pain in herpes zoster. PMID:26390894

  1. Efficacy and safety of foscarnet for recurrent orolabial herpes: a multicentre randomized double-blind study.

    PubMed Central

    Lawee, D; Rosenthal, D; Aoki, F Y; Portnoy, J

    1988-01-01

    Foscarnet sodium (trisodium phosphonoformate hexahydrate) has been shown to inhibit herpes simplex virus (HSV) in vitro and to be efficacious for topical treatment of experimental HSV infection in animals. To assess its clinical efficacy in the treatment of recurrent orolabial herpes a multicentre collaborative, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted. The study patients were randomly assigned to receive either 3% foscarnet cream (78 patients) or placebo (cream vehicle) (75 patients) and were asked to start treatment at the earliest indication of a recurrence. Efficacy was evaluated in 143 patients (74 in the foscarnet group and 69 in the placebo group). There was no significant difference in time to healing or duration of virus shedding between the two groups. However, in the subgroup of patients who started treatment before vesicles appeared, the duration of virus shedding was shorter in the foscarnet group than in the placebo group (p = 0.04), and the proportion of lesions that evolved to the vesicular stage was smaller (p = 0.03). No significant difference in the incidence of local or systemic adverse effects was noted between the two groups. We conclude that the beneficial effect of foscarnet was limited to a subgroup of patients who started treatment in the prevesicular stage. PMID:2962712

  2. Ganciclovir ophthalmic gel, 0.15%: a valuable tool for treating ocular herpes

    PubMed Central

    Colin, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Ocular herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection remains a major cause of corneal blindness. Several topical and oral antiviral medications have been used to treat herpetic keratitis. Advances in topical ophthalmic antivirals have been made over the past several decades. The first antivirals that were discovered were cytotoxic, while the antivirals developed more recently, such as acyclovir and ganciclovir, have exceeded these drugs in both efficacy and tolerability. Commercially available outside of the US since 1996, ganciclovir ophthalmic gel, 0.15% (GCV 0.15%, European tradename: Virgan) is sold in more than 30 countries and has become the standard of care in treating acute herpetic keratitis. GCV 0.15% has been studied in animal models of ocular herpes, in healthy volunteers, and in several clinical studies. It has been found to be safe and effective at treating acute superficial herpetic keratitis. Previous preclinical studies of ganciclovir have shown activity against several common adenovirus strains and one recent clinical study demonstrated clinical effect against adenoviral conjunctivitis. This review is intended to provide a comprehensive overview of the GCV 0.15%, including a brief summary of the etiology and available treatments for ocular HSV, an explanation of GCV 0.15% mechanism of action, a compendium of preclinical and clinical GCV 0.15% studies, and an introduction into new areas of interest involving this drug. PMID:19668521

  3. Herpes Simplex Virus: The Interplay Between HSV, Host, and HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Desai, Dipen Vijay; Kulkarni, Smita Shrikant

    2015-12-01

    Herpes simplex virus proteins interact with host (human) proteins and create an environment conducive for its replication. Genital ulceration due to herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections is an important clinical manifestation reported to increase the risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) acquisition and replication in HIV-1/HSV-2 coinfection. Dampening the innate and adaptive immune responses of the skin-resident dendritic cells, HSV-2 not only helps itself, but creates a "yellow brick road" for one of the most dreaded viruses HIV, which is transmitted mainly through the sexual route. Although, data from clinical trials show that HSV-2 suppression reduces HIV-1 viral load, there are hardly any reports presenting conclusive evidence on the impact of HSV-2 coinfection on HIV-1 disease progression. Be that as it may, understanding the interplay between these three characters (HSV, host, and HIV-1) is imperative. This review endeavors to collate studies on the influence of HSV-derived proteins on the host response and HIV-1 replication. Studying such complex interactions may help in designing and developing common strategies for the two viruses to keep these "partners in crime" at bay. PMID:26331265

  4. Herpes simplex virus infection: problems and prospects as perceived by a peripatetic pediatrician.

    PubMed Central

    Nahmias, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    The multivaried aspects of the herpes simplex viruses (HSV) types 1 and 2 and the infections they produce are discussed. Points emphasized are: (1) the need for considering these (and other viruses) from an evolutionary perspective; (2) the necessity of disseminating current methods for virus identification; (3) the great progress in molecular-virological aspects and in the genetics of the virus which provide new tools for epidemiological and immunological studies and define more convincingly the possible causal role of HSV-2 in cervical carcinogenesis; (4) the problems with vaccines and the therapeutic advances and failures; (5) the great psychosocial aspect of some herpetic infections and the need to be sympathetic and supportive to afflicted patients and their families; (6) the overreaction regarding HSV that currently exists among physicians, nurses, the public, and the press resulting in increased misery for those afflicted or misdiagnosed, or in poor advice or management given by some physicians pressured in part by the fear of malpractice suits. The problems then are many but the prospects for their solution are in sight as more research at all levels is being conducted today in all corners of the world on the complex herpes simplex viruses. PMID:6246686

  5. Relay of herpes simplex virus between Langerhans cells and dermal dendritic cells in human skin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min; Truong, Naomi R; James, Virginia; Bosnjak, Lidija; Sandgren, Kerrie J; Harman, Andrew N; Nasr, Najla; Bertram, Kirstie M; Olbourne, Norman; Sawleshwarkar, Shailandra; McKinnon, Kaylene; Cohen, Ralph C; Cunningham, Anthony L

    2015-04-01

    The mechanism by which immunity to Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is initiated is not completely defined. HSV initially infects mucosal epidermis prior to entering nerve endings. In mice, epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) are the first dendritic cells (DCs) to encounter HSV, but it is CD103(+) dermal DCs that carry viral antigen to lymph nodes for antigen presentation, suggesting DC cross-talk in skin. In this study, we compared topically HSV-1 infected human foreskin explants with biopsies of initial human genital herpes lesions to show LCs are initially infected then emigrate into the dermis. Here, LCs bearing markers of maturation and apoptosis formed large cell clusters with BDCA3(+) dermal DCs (thought to be equivalent to murine CD103(+) dermal DCs) and DC-SIGN(+) DCs/macrophages. HSV-expressing LC fragments were observed inside the dermal DCs/macrophages and the BDCA3(+) dermal DCs had up-regulated a damaged cell uptake receptor CLEC9A. No other infected epidermal cells interacted with dermal DCs. Correspondingly, LCs isolated from human skin and infected with HSV-1 in vitro also underwent apoptosis and were taken up by similarly isolated BDCA3(+) dermal DCs and DC-SIGN(+) cells. Thus, we conclude a viral antigen relay takes place where HSV infected LCs undergo apoptosis and are taken up by dermal DCs for subsequent antigen presentation. This provides a rationale for targeting these cells with mucosal or perhaps intradermal HSV immunization. PMID:25875649

  6. Virus-specific antibodies in sera from patients with genital herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Zweerink, H J; Corey, L

    1982-01-01

    Virus-specific antibodies against a number of herpes simplex virus type 2 antigens were determined by radioimmunoprecipitation assays in sequential serum samples obtained from 12 patients with initial genital herpes simplex virus infection. The progressive appearance of antibodies to virus-specific antigens was observed; antibodies against a 130,000-molecular-weight glycoprotein complex appeared first, followed by antibodies against the major nucleocapsid polypeptide and then antibodies against a number of other viral antigens, including a polypeptide with a molecular weight of 62,000. Patients who developed a wide variety of antibodies to viral polypeptides shortly after resolution of their initial episode seemed to experience more severe initial infections and more recurrences than did those who reacted poorly with these virus-specific antigens. This was most apparent with respect to antibodies to virus-specific polypeptides with molecular weights between 30,000 and 43,000. Antibody specificity did not change during the course of follow-up regardless of whether serum samples were taken shortly before, during, or after recurrent episodes. Glycoprotein-specific antibodies were quantitated with the purified 130,000-molecular-weight glycoprotein material. No significant fluctuations in these antibody titers were observed before or after recurrences of the disease. Images PMID:7118244

  7. [Herpes simplex virus type 2 fulminant hepatitis after umbilical cord blood transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia].

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Mitsuhiro; Ishiwata, Kazuya; Sugio, Takeshi; Kaji, Daisuke; Ota, Hikari; Tsuji, Masanori; Yamamoto, Hisashi; Yamamoto, Go; Asano-Mori, Yuki; Uchida, Naoyuki; Izutsu, Koji; Taniguchi, Shuichi

    2014-06-01

    This report describes a 41-year-old patient, who developed herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2)-hepatitis after umbilical cord blood transplantation (CBT). The patient had received allogeneic bone marrow transplantation from an unrelated donor for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) not in remission. AML relapsed 18 months after the first transplantation, and CBT was performed. AML relapsed again 5 months later and the patient was given chemotherapy. Although there was no active chronic graft-versus-host disease, liver dysfunction appeared, and one week later, progressed to acute liver failure. Viral screening of blood by PCR including hepatitis B and C viruses, human immunodeficiency virus, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus type 1 and HSV-2 revealed elevation of HSV-2 (2.34 10? copies/ml). We diagnosed the patient as having HSV-2 acute hepatitis, and initiated treatment with antiviral drugs (acyclovir, foscarnet) and plasma exchange. However, liver functions deteriorated rapidly, and the patient died on day 6 after the onset of acute liver failure. Although HSV hepatitis is very rare after allogeneic stem cell transplantation, it is rapidly progressive and associated with a high mortality rate. Thus, early diagnosis with prompt antiviral intervention is recommended. PMID:24975337

  8. Phenotypic switching in cells transformed with the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrander, M.; Vogel, S.; Silverstein, S.

    1982-06-01

    Biochemical transformation of Ltk/sup -/ cells with the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (tk) gene resulted in numerous TK/sup +/ colonies that survived selection in hypoxanthine-aminopterin-thymidine medium. Many of these TK/sup +/ cell lines switched phenotypes and reverted to the TK/sup -/ state. In this report, the authors describe the biological and biochemical characteristics of three TK/sup -/ revertant lines. One (K/sub 1/B/sub 5/) transiently expressed TK in the presence of bromodeoxyuridine, which selects for the TK/sup -/ phenotype. Another TK/sup -/ sibling (K/sub 1/B/sub 6//sup n/) expressed TK only after removal from bromodeoxyuridine-containing medium. The last variant (K/sub 1/B/sub 6//sup me/) lost the ability to switch to the TK/sup +/ phenotype, although it maintained the herpes simplex virus sequences coding for TK. Loss of the ability of K/sub 1/B/sub 6//sup me/ cells to express TK was correlated with extensive methylation of the sequence recognized by the restriction endonuclease HpaII (pCpCpGpG). After these cells were treated with 5-azacytidine, they regained the ability to clone in hypoxanthine-aminopterin-thymidine medium and reexpressed virus tk mRNA and enzyme. In addition, the HpaII sites that were previously shown to be refractile to enzyme digestion were converted to a sensitive state, demonstrating that they were no longer methylated.

  9. Spectroscopic evaluation of the effect of a red microalgal polysaccharide on herpes-infected Vero cells.

    PubMed

    Huleihel, Mahmoud; Talyshinsky, Marina; Souprun, Yelena; Erukhimovitch, Vitaly

    2003-04-01

    The sulfated polysaccharide obtained from a species of red microalga has proved to be a potent antiviral agent against various members of the herpes family. In the present study, we used microscopic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) to investigate differences between normal cells, those infected with herpes viruses, and infected cells treated with red microalgal polysaccharide. FT-IR enables the characterization of cell or tissue pathology based on characteristic molecular vibrational spectra of the cells. The advantage of microscopic FT-IR spectroscopy over conventional FT-IR spectroscopy is that it facilitates inspection of restricted regions of cell cultures or tissue. Our results showed significant spectral differences at early stages of infection between infected and noninfected cells, and between infected cells treated with the polysaccharide and those not treated. In infected cells, there was an impressive decrease in sugar content and a considerable increase in phosphate levels in conjunction with the infection progress. Our results also proved that sugars penetrated and accumulated inside cells treated with the red microalgal polysaccharide. These could have been sugar fragments of low molecular weight present in the polysaccharide solution, despite purification by dialysis. Such sugar accumulation might be responsible for a breakdown in the internal steps of the viral replication cycle. PMID:14658634

  10. Herpes simplex encephalitis initially presented with parietal cortex lesions mimicking acute ischemic stroke: A case report.

    PubMed

    Hara, Yoshine; Ishii, Nobuyuki; Sakai, Katsuya; Mochizuki, Hitoshi; Shiomi, Kazutaka; Nakazato, Masamitsu

    2016-03-01

    A 73-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital due to a decreased conscious level and a high fever. Six days before her admission, she felt transient numbness in her right lower limb. Brain MRI taken by her local doctor revealed only right parietal cortex lesions. She was diagnosed with transient ischemic attack and started on anti-platelet therapy. One day before her admission, she became drowsy, and left-side weakness developed. She was admitted to a community hospital for treating stroke. On the next day, she was referred to our hospital because of a high fever. Our brain MRI showed new lesions in her right temporal lobe. She had no stroke risk factors, and embolic sources were not detected. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis detected herpes simplex virus DNA. She was diagnosed with herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). HSE is common encephalitis which develops fever, headache and alteration in mental status. It often involves temporal lobe, but extratemporal lesions alone are not uncommon. Diffusion-weighted images (DWI) of brain are of importance to differentiate HSE from stroke. When it is questionable to diagnose with stroke for patients with cerebral cortex lesions, they must be monitored with close observation. There is the possibility of initial presentation of HSE in that situation even if patients have no typical symptoms. PMID:26797480

  11. Immune responses to labial infection of BALB/c mice with herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Morahan, P S; Thomson, T A; Kohl, S; Murray, B K

    1981-01-01

    The kinetics of appearance of five humoral antibody responses (micro-neutralization assay [NT], complement fixation [CF], enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA], radioimmunoassay [RIA], antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity [ADCC]), were compared during labial infection of BALB/c mice with herpes simplex virus type 1 strain Patton. The ELISA/RIA antibody responses were present in most mice by day 5 after infection, at the beginning of the herpetic lip lesions; antibody effective in ADCC showed identical early kinetics. In contrast, NT/CF antibodies were not detected in most mice until day 10, at the time of resolution of the herpetic lip lesions. The humoral immune responses persisted for at least 6 months after infection. The NT and CF responses were closely correlated in time of appearance and titers (r = 0.9), as were the ELISA and RIA responses (r = 0.99). However, there was little correlation between NT/CF and ELISA/RIA responses (r = 0.02). The kinetics of the delayed type hypersensitivity response showed similar kinetics of appearance to the ELISA/RIA/ADCC humoral responses, and peaked similarly, but waned gradually over 2 months. The importance of antibody in protection against labial herpes simplex virus type 1 infection was demonstrated by the ability of passively transferred convalescent serum (that produced a minimum NT titer of 10 in recipient mice) to protect against development of herpetic lesions and death. PMID:7216485

  12. Relay of Herpes Simplex Virus between Langerhans Cells and Dermal Dendritic Cells in Human Skin

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min; Truong, Naomi R.; James, Virginia; Bosnjak, Lidija; Sandgren, Kerrie J.; Harman, Andrew N.; Nasr, Najla; Bertram, Kirstie M.; Olbourne, Norman; Sawleshwarkar, Shailandra; McKinnon, Kaylene; Cohen, Ralph C.; Cunningham, Anthony L.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism by which immunity to Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is initiated is not completely defined. HSV initially infects mucosal epidermis prior to entering nerve endings. In mice, epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) are the first dendritic cells (DCs) to encounter HSV, but it is CD103+ dermal DCs that carry viral antigen to lymph nodes for antigen presentation, suggesting DC cross-talk in skin. In this study, we compared topically HSV-1 infected human foreskin explants with biopsies of initial human genital herpes lesions to show LCs are initially infected then emigrate into the dermis. Here, LCs bearing markers of maturation and apoptosis formed large cell clusters with BDCA3+ dermal DCs (thought to be equivalent to murine CD103+ dermal DCs) and DC-SIGN+ DCs/macrophages. HSV-expressing LC fragments were observed inside the dermal DCs/macrophages and the BDCA3+ dermal DCs had up-regulated a damaged cell uptake receptor CLEC9A. No other infected epidermal cells interacted with dermal DCs. Correspondingly, LCs isolated from human skin and infected with HSV-1 in vitro also underwent apoptosis and were taken up by similarly isolated BDCA3+ dermal DCs and DC-SIGN+ cells. Thus, we conclude a viral antigen relay takes place where HSV infected LCs undergo apoptosis and are taken up by dermal DCs for subsequent antigen presentation. This provides a rationale for targeting these cells with mucosal or perhaps intradermal HSV immunization. PMID:25875649

  13. Herpes Simplex Virus-1 DNA Primase: A Remarkably Inaccurate Yet Selective Polymerase†

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Milan; Joubert, Nicolas; Hocek, Michal; Alexander, Richard E.; Kuchta, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus-1 primase misincorporates the natural NTPs at frequencies around 1 error per 30 NTPs polymerized, making it one of the least accurate polymerases known. We used a series of nucleotide analogues to further test the hypothesis that primase requires Watson-Crick hydrogen bond formation in order to efficiently polymerize a NTP. Primase could not generate base pairs containing a complete set hydrogen bonds in an altered arrangement (iso-guanine:iso-cytosine), and did not efficiently polymerize dNTPs completely incapable of forming Watson-Crick hydrogen bonds opposite templating bases incapable of forming Watson-Crick hydrogen bonds. Similarly, primase did not incorporate most NTPs containing hydrophobic bases incapable of Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding opposite natural template bases. However, 2-pyridone NTP and 4-methyl-2-pyridone NTP provided striking exceptions to this rule. The effects of removing single Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding groups from either the NTP or templating bases varied from almost no effect to completely blocking polymerization depending both on the parental base pair (G:C vs. A:T/U) and which base pair of the growing primer (second, third or fourth) was examined. Thus, primase does not absolutely need to form Watson-Crick hydrogen bonds in order to efficiently polymerize a NTP. Additionally, we found that herpes primase can misincorporate nucleotides both by misreading the template and by a primer-template slippage mechanism. The mechanistic and biological implications of these results are discussed. PMID:19835416

  14. Detection of herpes simplex virus using the polymerase chain reaction followed by endonuclease cleavage.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, B. B.; Josephson, S. L.; Mak, S. K.

    1991-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify herpes simplex virus DNA using a single set of primers that amplify both herpes simplex virus I (HSVI) and II (HSVII). The viruses can be differentiated by a single restriction enzyme cleavage. Virus from dilutions of HSV-infected A549 cell suspensions were amplified and the infectivity endpoints of cell culture were compared with the PCR, and with another direct detection method, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The PCR was capable of detecting virus at a 10(-4) dilution for both HSVI and HSVII, when the corresponding TCID50 endpoints were 10(-5.9) and 10(-5.7), respectively. The ELISA detected virus only down to the 10(-1) dilution. The amplification procedure showed the greatest sensitivity when an initial protease digestion was followed by filtration. The PCR may have use in detection of HSV in clinical situations in which a rapid result is desirable. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1649552

  15. A Cationic TAT Peptide Inhibits Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection of Human Corneal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Inna V.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Purpose To determine if a peptide, TAT-Cd0, inhibits Herpes simplex virus type 1 infection of human corneal epithelial cells. Methods TAT-Cd0 and a control peptide, E50,51TAT-Cd0, were added at various times throughout infection with the lacz-expressing hrR3 virus, and viral replication was measured by ?-galactosidase activity. Toxicity was assessed using a dye reduction assay. Results The CC50 value for TAT-Cd0 was ?100??M. In assays with peptide present at all times, TAT-Cd0 was 150-fold more active than E50,51TAT-Cd0 (EC50 0.2 vs. 30.0??M). The EC50 values of TAT-Cd0 for entry inhibition, cell protection, virus inactivation, and inhibition of attachment were 0.1, 0.4, 9.5, and 3.0??M, respectively. TAT-Cd0 was less effective when added 1?h postinfection (EC50?=?30.0??M). Conclusions TAT-Cd0 is an effective inhibitor of Herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in human corneal epithelial cells and affects multiple steps before, or very early, in infection. The peptide has potential as an antiviral and further studies are warranted. PMID:21029018

  16. Neuroendocrine hormones suppress macrophage-mediated lysis of herpes simplex virus-infected cells.

    PubMed

    Koff, W C; Dunegan, M A

    1986-01-01

    Herpes simplex viruses (HSV) remain latent in sensory and peripheral ganglia and can be reactivated to cause recurrent HSV infections. Recent evidence has suggested that stress can induce an immunosuppressive state and increase the frequency and severity of recurrent herpes infections. Because macrophages play a central role in the host defense against HSV, the effects of stress-related neuroendocrine hormones on macrophage-HSV interactions were examined. Norepinephrine and epinephrine blocked the capacity of recombinant interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) to activate murine macrophages to a cytotoxic state capable of selectively killing HSV-infected cells. In contrast, ACTH, dopamine, serotonin, and beta-endorphin had no effect. The suppression of IFN-gamma-induced, macrophage-mediated lysis of HSV-infected cells occurred concomitantly with a marked increase in macrophage intracellular cyclic AMP levels. Moreover, exogenous administration of dibutyryl cyclic AMP blocked induction of macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity, suggesting that the neurohormones were modulating macrophage function via an adrenergic receptor-mediated system. These findings demonstrate that selective stress-related neurohormones modify the cytolytic activity of macrophages against virus-infected cells and suggest a possible neuroendocrine-immunologic basis for the recurrence of HSV infection. PMID:3001183

  17. Polysome-associated proteins in herpes simplex virus-infected cells.

    PubMed Central

    Bartkoski, M J

    1982-01-01

    In the cytoplasm of eucaryotic cells, mRNA is associated with proteins. These mRNA-protein complexes, termed messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) particles, are divided into two functional classes. The first class contains free (non-ribosome-associated) mRNPs which have been termed informosomes by others. The second class of mRNPs, those associated with polysomes, are actively engaged in protein synthesis and are termed polysomal mRNPs. The experiments described in this paper examined the proteins associated with polyribosomes in uninfected and herpes simplex virus type 1-infected cells. The data indicate that after infection with herpes simplex virus type 1, specific changes occur in the proteins which normally are found associated with these polysomal mRNPs. These changes include both the appearance of new and possibly virus-specific proteins and the loss of normal host-specific proteins. The relationship of these changes to the patterns of protein synthesis in these cells is also discussed. Images PMID:6287012

  18. Oligonucleotides Designed to Inhibit TLR9 Block Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 Infection at Multiple Steps

    PubMed Central

    Sauter, Monica M.; Gauger, Joshua J. L.; Brandt, Curtis R.

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is an important human pathogen which requires activation of nuclear factor–kappa B (NFκB) during its replication cycle. The persistent nature of HSV-1 infection, and the emergence of drug-resistant strains, highlights the importance of research to develop new antiviral agents. Toll-like receptors (TLR) play a prominent role during the early antiviral response by recognizing viral nucleic acid and gene products, activating NFκB, and stimulating the production of inflammatory cytokines. We demonstrate a significant effect on HSV-1 replication in ARPE-19 and Vero cells when oligonucleotides designed to inhibit TLR9 are added 2 hours prior to infection. A greater than 90% reduction in the yield of infectious virus was achieved at oligonucleotide concentrations of 10 to 20 micromolar. TLR9 inhibitory oligonucleotides prevented expression of essential immediate early herpes gene products as determined by immunofluorescence microscopy and Western blotting. TLR9 oligonucleotides also interfered with viral attachment and entry. A TLR9 inhibitory oligonucleotide containing five adjacent guanosine residues (G-ODN) exhibited virucidal activity and inhibited HSV-1 replication when added post-infection. The antiviral effect of the TLR9 inhibitory oligonucleotides did not depend on the presence of TLR9 protein, suggesting a mechanism of inhibition that is not TLR9 specific. TLR9 inhibitory oligonucleotides also reduced NFκB activity in nuclear extracts. Studies using these TLR inhibitors in the context of viral infection should be interpreted with caution. PMID:24995383

  19. Mandibular osteonecrosis and Ramsay Hunt syndrome following a case of herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Rudd, Travis; Chai, Bryan Y; Gurunluoglu, Raffi; Glasgow, Mark

    2014-10-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is the agent that causes chicken pox, a common childhood infection that characteristically presents as vesicular rashes affecting the trunk and head. After the primary infection has resolved, VZV lies dormant in the spinal dorsal root ganglia or extramedullary cranial nerve ganglia until reactivation results in herpes zoster (shingles). The sensory nerves of the trunk, as in classic shingles, and the fifth cranial nerve, as in trigeminal zoster, are the most frequently affected. Shingles is an acute viral infection characterized by the appearance of painful unilateral vesicular rash usually restricted to a dermatomal distribution of a sensory nerve. The rash of shingles is usually preceded by pain and paresthesia. Arare, severe complication of the reactivation of VZV in the geniculate ganglion of the facial nerve is RamsayHunt syndrome (RHS). RHS is characterized by otalgia, vesicles in the auditory canal, and ipsilateral facial paralysis. An even rarer complication of VZV infection includes post-zoster osteonecrosis. This report documents a case of severe mandibular osteonecrosis and RHS after an outbreak of herpes zoster and treatment strategies. PMID:25234535

  20. Long-term valacyclovir treatment and immune modulation for Herpes-associated erythema multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Staikuniene, Jurate

    2015-01-01

    Objective Erythema multiforme (EM) is an immune-mediated condition characterized by the appearance of target-like lesions on the skin and often accompanied by erosions or bullae involving the oral, genital, and/or ocular mucosae. 70% of recurrent EM cases are associated with HSV reactivation and it is labelled as herpes-associated erythema multiforme (HAE M). Recurrences are seen in approximately 20-25% of EM cases and managing these conditions are challenging for both the patient and the doctor. The effectiveness of antiviral drugs is proven for Herpes simplex infection, however most patients use a multiplicity of alternative and complementary therapies. Clinical presentation We present clinical data of 3 patients with recurrent HAE M managed by long-term valacyclovir therapy and immunostimulation with Echinacea or replacement immunoglobulin therapy in the case of IgG1 subclass deficiency. The presented cases have demonstrated that immune mechanisms are relevant for HAEM recurrences. Conclusions The immune abnormalities, such as antibody deficiency, in the patients with HSV-associated EM can lead to frequent relapses of disease and should be evaluated. Long-term antiviral therapy with immunomodulation can control the relapses of HAEM. PMID:26648786