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  1. Liver spots

    MedlinePlus

    Sun-induced skin changes - liver spots; Senile or solar lentigines; Skin spots - aging; Age spots ... Liver spots are changes in skin color that occur in older skin. The coloring may be due to aging, exposure to the sun ...

  2. Liver spots

    MedlinePlus

    Sun-induced skin changes - liver spots; Senile or solar lentigines; Skin spots - aging; Age spots ... Liver spots are changes in skin color that occur in older skin. The coloring may be due to aging, exposure to the sun or other sources of ...

  3. Spotted inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuda, Tomohiro

    2010-11-01

    We describe new scenarios for generating curvature perturbations when inflaton (curvaton) has significant interactions. We consider a ''spot'', which arises from interactions associated with an enhanced symmetric point (ESP) on the trajectory. Our first example uses the spot to induce a gap in the field equation. We observe that the gap in the field equation may cause generation of curvature perturbation if it does not appear simultaneous in space. The mechanism is similar to the scenario of inhomogeneous phase transition. Then we observe that the spot interactions may initiate warm inflation in the cold Universe. Creation of cosmological perturbation is discussed in relation to the inflaton dynamics and the modulation associated with the spot interactions.

  4. Spot Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houben, Howard

    2012-10-01

    What is the Great Red Spot? What are “spots” in general? The presence of many spots and similar features on Jupiter, the other giant planets, and the sun argues for a simple explanation based on conditions common to these bodies (but generally absent in terrestrial atmospheres). Consider two nearly conserved quantities: potential temperature (θ) and potential vorticity (PV). θ is a measure of entropy, which can only be modified by diabatic processes, and therefore atmospheric motions are predominantly along θ-surfaces. PV is the component of the vorticity perpendicular to the θ-surface. It therefore describes most of the motion along these θ-surfaces. It can be rigorously demonstrated that PV cannot be transported across θ-surfaces. In the deep atmospheres of the giant planets and the sun, the tropopause is a level of minimum θ (with convectively unstable negative θ gradients below in the troposphere and stable gradients above in the stratosphere). These fluid bodies also have strong variations of θ with latitude (belts and zones). Baroclinic instability is a process which leads to longitude variations of θ. So it is possible for θ-surfaces to close on themselves around a minimum, with PV confined to these surfaces. The enclosed volume is a spot. The integrated PV over the spot is 0! (Low PV corresponds to anti-cyclonic motion.) The closed θ-surfaces extend above the tropopause and can have deep roots (since θ gradients in the troposphere are generally smaller in magnitude than those in the stratosphere). Details of the flow within the spot depend on boundary conditions (i.e., the surrounding flow and, for sunspots, magnetic fields) and the horizontal/vertical aspect ratio of the spot. Interactions with other spots depend on the θ values of their respective boundaries. In terrestrial atmospheres, the intersection of many low-θ surfaces with the ground inhibits spot formation.

  5. SPOT Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jason T.; Welsh, Sam J.; Farinetti, Antonio L.; Wegner, Tim; Blakeslee, James; Deboeck, Toni F.; Dyer, Daniel; Corley, Bryan M.; Ollivierre, Jarmaine; Kramer, Leonard; Zimmerman, Patrick L.; Khatri, Reshma

    2010-01-01

    A Spacecraft Position Optimal Tracking (SPOT) program was developed to process Global Positioning System (GPS) data, sent via telemetry from a spacecraft, to generate accurate navigation estimates of the vehicle position and velocity (state vector) using a Kalman filter. This program uses the GPS onboard receiver measurements to sequentially calculate the vehicle state vectors and provide this information to ground flight controllers. It is the first real-time ground-based shuttle navigation application using onboard sensors. The program is compact, portable, self-contained, and can run on a variety of UNIX or Linux computers. The program has a modular objec-toriented design that supports application-specific plugins such as data corruption remediation pre-processing and remote graphics display. The Kalman filter is extensible to additional sensor types or force models. The Kalman filter design is also strong against data dropouts because it uses physical models from state and covariance propagation in the absence of data. The design of this program separates the functionalities of SPOT into six different executable processes. This allows for the individual processes to be connected in an a la carte manner, making the feature set and executable complexity of SPOT adaptable to the needs of the user. Also, these processes need not be executed on the same workstation. This allows for communications between SPOT processes executing on the same Local Area Network (LAN). Thus, SPOT can be executed in a distributed sense with the capability for a team of flight controllers to efficiently share the same trajectory information currently being computed by the program. SPOT is used in the Mission Control Center (MCC) for Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and International Space Station Program (ISSP) operations, and can also be used as a post -flight analysis tool. It is primarily used for situational awareness, and for contingency situations.

  6. Mongolian spots.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Divya; Thappa, Devinder Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Mongolian spots (MS) are birthmarks that are present at birth and their most common location is sacrococcygeal or lumbar area. Lesions may be single or multiple and usually involve < 5% total body surface area. They are macular and round, oval or irregular in shape. The color varies from blue to greenish, gray, black or a combination of any of the above. The size varies from few to more than 20 centimetres. Pigmentation is most intense at the age of one year and gradually fades thereafter. It is rarely seen after the age of 6 years. Aberrant MS over occiput, temple, mandibular area, shoulders and limbs may be confused with other dermal melanocytoses and bruises secondary to child abuse, thus necessitating documentation at birth. Although regarded as benign, recent data suggest that MS may be associated with inborn errors of metabolism and neurocristopathies. Mongolian spots usually resolve by early childhood and hence no treatment is generally needed if they are located in the sacral area. However, sometimes it may be required for extrasacral lesions for cosmesis. PMID:23760316

  7. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000654.htm Rocky Mountain spotted fever To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a disease caused by a ...

  8. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    MedlinePlus

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a disease caused by a type of bacteria carried by ticks. ... Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by the bacteria Rickettsia rickettsii (R. Rickettsii) , which is carried by ticks. The ...

  9. Hot Spot Cosmic Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-11-01

    cosmic objects. Notes [1]: The new results are described in a research paper, "Particle Accelerators in the Hot Spots of Radio Galaxy 3C 445, Imaged with the VLT" by M. Almudena Prieto (ESO, Garching, Germany), Gianfranco Brunetti (Istituto de Radioastronomia del CNR, Bologna, Italy) and Karl-Heinz Mack (Istituto de Radioastronomia del CNR, Bologna, Italy; ASTRON/NFRA, Dwingeloo, The Netherlands; Radioastronomisches Institut der Universität Bonn, Germany), that recently appeared in the research journal Science (Vol. 298, pp. 193-195). [2]: When electrons - which are electrically charged - move through a magnetic field, they spiral along the lines of force. Electrons of high energy spiral very rapidly, at speeds near the speed of light. Under such conditions, the electrons emit highly polarized electromagnetic radiation. The intensity of this radiation is related to the strength of the magnetic field and the number and energy distribution of the electrons caught in this field. Many cosmic radio sources have been found to emit synchrotron radiation - one of the best examples is the famous Crab Nebula, depicted in ESO PR Photo 40f/99. ESO PR Photo 26/02 may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and the US National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO).

  10. Poisson's spot with molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Reisinger, Thomas; Holst, Bodil; Patel, Amil A.; Smith, Henry I.; Reingruber, Herbert; Fladischer, Katrin; Ernst, Wolfgang E.; Bracco, Gianangelo

    2009-05-15

    In the Poisson-spot experiment, waves emanating from a source are blocked by a circular obstacle. Due to their positive on-axis interference an image of the source (the Poisson spot) is observed within the geometrical shadow of the obstacle. In this paper we report the observation of Poisson's spot using a beam of neutral deuterium molecules. The wavelength independence and the weak constraints on angular alignment and position of the circular obstacle make Poisson's spot a promising candidate for applications ranging from the study of large molecule diffraction to patterning with molecules.

  11. Poisson's spot with molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisinger, Thomas; Patel, Amil A.; Reingruber, Herbert; Fladischer, Katrin; Ernst, Wolfgang E.; Bracco, Gianangelo; Smith, Henry I.; Holst, Bodil

    2009-05-01

    In the Poisson-spot experiment, waves emanating from a source are blocked by a circular obstacle. Due to their positive on-axis interference an image of the source (the Poisson spot) is observed within the geometrical shadow of the obstacle. In this paper we report the observation of Poisson’s spot using a beam of neutral deuterium molecules. The wavelength independence and the weak constraints on angular alignment and position of the circular obstacle make Poisson’s spot a promising candidate for applications ranging from the study of large molecule diffraction to patterning with molecules.

  12. The Earth's Hot Spots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vink, Gregory E.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Hot spots are isolated areas of geologic activity where volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and upwelling currents occur far from plate boundaries. These mantle plumes are relatively stable and crustal plates drift over them. The nature and location of hot spots (with particular attention to the Hawaiian Islands and Iceland) are discussed. (DH)

  13. Jupiter's Great Red spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This color composite made from Voyager 2 narrow-angle camera frames shows the Great Red Spot during the late Jovian afternoon. North of the Red Spot lies a curious darker section of the South Equatorial Belt (SEB), the belt in which the Red Spot is located. A bright eruption of material passing from the SEB northward into the diffuse equatorial clouds has been observed on all occasions when this feature passes north of the Red Spot. The remnants of one such eruption are apparent in this photograph. To the lower left of the Red Spot lies one of the three long-lived White Ovals. This photograph was taken on June 29, 1979, when Voyager 2 was over 9 million kilometers (nearly 6 million miles) from Jupiter. The smallest features visible are over 170 kilometers (106 miles) across.

  14. Poisson's Spot with Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisinger, Thomas; Patel, Amil; Reingruber, Herbert; Fladischer, Katrin; Ernst, Wolfgang E.; Bracco, Gianangelo; Smith, Henry I.; Holst, Bodil

    2009-03-01

    In the Poisson-Spot experiment, waves emanating from a source are blocked by a circular obstacle. Due to their positive on-axis interference an image of the source (the Poisson spot) is observed within the geometrical shadow of the obstacle. The Poisson spot is the last of the classical optics experiments to be realized with neutral matter waves. In this paper we report the observation of Poisson's Spot using a beam of neutral deuterium molecules. The wavelength-independence and the weak constraints on angular alignment and position of the circular obstacle make Poisson's spot a promising candidate for applications ranging from the study of large-molecule diffraction and coherence in atom-lasers to patterning with large molecules.

  15. Watermarking spot colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alattar, Osama M.; Reed, Alastair M.

    2003-06-01

    Watermarking of printed materials has usually focused on process inks of cyan, magenta, yellow and black (CMYK). In packaging, almost three out of four printed materials include spot colors. Spot colors are special premixed inks, which can be produced in a vibrant range of colors, often outside the CMYK color gamut. In embedding a watermark into printed material, a common approach is to modify the luminance value of each pixel in the image. In the case of process color work pieces, the luminance change can be scaled to the C, M, Y and K channels using a weighting function, to produce the desired change in luminance. In the case of spot color art designs, there is only one channel available and the luminance change is applied to this channel. In this paper we develop a weighting function to embed the watermark signal across the range of different spot colors. This weighting function normalizes visibility effect and signal robustness across a wide range of different spot colors. It normalizes the signal robustness level over the range of an individual spot color"s intensity levels. Further, it takes into account the sensitivity of the capturing device to the different spot colors.

  16. Radiometry spot measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Harry H.; Lawn, Stephen J.

    1994-01-01

    The radiometry spot measurement system (RSMS) has been designed for use in the Diffusive And Radiative Transport in Fires (DARTFire) experiment, currently under development at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The RSMS can measure the radiation emitted from a spot of specific size located on the surface of a distant radiation source within a controlled wavelength range. If the spot is located on a blackbody source, its radiation and temperature can be measured directly or indirectly by the RSMS. This report presents computer simulation results used to verify RSMS performance.

  17. Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This view of Jupiter's Great Red Spot is a mosaic of two images taken by the Galileo spacecraft. The image was created using two filters, violet and near-infrared, at each of two camera positions. The Great Red Spot is a storm in Jupiter's atmosphere and is at least 300 years-old. Winds blow counterclockwise around the Great Red Spot at about 400 kilometers per hour (250 miles per hour). The size of the storm is more than one Earth diameter (13,000 kilometers or 8,000 miles) in the north-south direction and more than two Earth diameters in the east-west direction. In this oblique view, where the Great Red Spot is shown on the planet's limb, it appears longer in the north-south direction. The image was taken on June 26, 1996.

    The Galileo mission is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  18. Mononucleosis spot test

    MedlinePlus

    Monospot test; Heterophile antibody test; Heterophile agglutination test; Paul-Bunnell test; Forssman antibody test ... The mononucleosis spot test is done when symptoms of mononucleosis are ... Fatigue Fever Large spleen (possibly) Sore throat Tender ...

  19. Reactor hot spot analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Vilim, R.B.

    1985-08-01

    The principle methods for performing reactor hot spot analysis are reviewed and examined for potential use in the Applied Physics Division. The semistatistical horizontal method is recommended for future work and is now available as an option in the SE2-ANL core thermal hydraulic code. The semistatistical horizontal method is applied to a small LMR to illustrate the calculation of cladding midwall and fuel centerline hot spot temperatures. The example includes a listing of uncertainties, estimates for their magnitudes, computation of hot spot subfactor values and calculation of two sigma temperatures. A review of the uncertainties that affect liquid metal fast reactors is also presented. It was found that hot spot subfactor magnitudes are strongly dependent on the reactor design and therefore reactor specific details must be carefully studied. 13 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  20. SPOT4 Management Centre

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labrune, Yves; Labbe, X.; Roussel, A.; Vielcanet, P.

    1994-01-01

    In the context of the CNES SPOT4 program CISI is particularly responsible for the development of the SPOT4 Management Centre, part of the SPOT4 ground control system located at CNES Toulouse (France) designed to provide simultaneous control over two satellites. The main operational activities are timed to synchronize with satellite visibilities (ten usable passes per day). The automatic capability of this system is achieved through agenda services (sequence of operations as defined and planned by operator). Therefore, the SPOT4 Management Centre offers limited, efficient and secure human interventions for supervision and decision making. This paper emphasizes the main system characteristics as degree of automation, level of dependability and system parameterization.

  1. Lincoln's Spot Resolutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Jean West; Schamel, Wynell Burroughs

    1988-01-01

    Examines the events leading to and immediately following the declaration of war on Mexico in 1846. Includes the second and third pages of Abraham Lincoln's "Spot Resolutions" and presents teaching suggestions for interpreting the document and assessing public opinion. (GEA)

  2. SPOT4 Management Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labrune, Yves; Labbe, X.; Roussel, A.; Vielcanet, P.

    1994-11-01

    In the context of the CNES SPOT4 program CISI is particularly responsible for the development of the SPOT4 Management Centre, part of the SPOT4 ground control system located at CNES Toulouse (France) designed to provide simultaneous control over two satellites. The main operational activities are timed to synchronize with satellite visibilities (ten usable passes per day). The automatic capability of this system is achieved through agenda services (sequence of operations as defined and planned by operator). Therefore, the SPOT4 Management Centre offers limited, efficient and secure human interventions for supervision and decision making. This paper emphasizes the main system characteristics as degree of automation, level of dependability and system parameterization.

  3. IR Spot Weld Inspect

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jian; Feng, Zhili

    2014-01-01

    In automotive industry, destructive inspection of spot welds is still the mandatory quality assurance method due to the lack of efficient non-destructive evaluation (NDE) tools. However, it is costly and time-consuming. Recently at ORNL, a new NDE prototype system for spot weld inspection using infrared (IR) thermography has been developed to address this problem. This software contains all the key functions that ensure the NDE system to work properly: system input/output control, image acquisition, data analysis, weld quality database generation and weld quality prediction, etc.

  4. IR Spot Weld Inspect

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-01-01

    In automotive industry, destructive inspection of spot welds is still the mandatory quality assurance method due to the lack of efficient non-destructive evaluation (NDE) tools. However, it is costly and time-consuming. Recently at ORNL, a new NDE prototype system for spot weld inspection using infrared (IR) thermography has been developed to address this problem. This software contains all the key functions that ensure the NDE system to work properly: system input/output control, image acquisition, datamore » analysis, weld quality database generation and weld quality prediction, etc.« less

  5. Bacterial leaf spot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial leaf spot has been reported in Australia (Queensland), Egypt, El Salvador, India, Japan, Nicaragua, Sudan, and the United States (Florida, Iowa, Kansas, Maryland, and Wisconsin). It occasionally causes locally severe defoliation and post-emergence damping-off and stunting. The disease is...

  6. Delta spots and great flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zirin, Harold; Liggett, Margaret A.

    1987-01-01

    The development of delta spots and the great flares they produce are reviewed based on 18 years of observations. Delta groups are found to develop in three ways: (1) by the eruption of a single complex active region formed below the surface; (2) by the eruption of large satellite spots near a large older spot; and (3) by the collision of spots of opposite polarity from different dipoles. It is shown that the present sample of 21 delta spots never separate once they lock together, and that the driving force for the shear is spot motion. Indicators for the prediction of the occurrence of great flares are identified.

  7. Arc spot grouping: An entanglement of arc spot cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kajita, Shin; Hwangbo, Dogyun; Ohno, Noriyasu; Tsventoukh, Mikhail M.; Barengolts, Sergey A.

    2014-12-21

    In recent experiments, clear transitions in velocity and trail width of an arc spot initiated on nanostructured tungsten were observed on the boundary of the thick and thin nanostructured layer regions. The velocity of arc spot was significantly decreased on the thick nanostructured region. It was suggested that the grouping decreased the velocity of arc spot. In this study, we try to explain the phenomena using a simple random walk model that has properties of directionality and self-avoidance. And grouping feature was added by installing an attractive force between spot cells with dealing with multi-spots. It was revealed that an entanglement of arc spot cells decreased the spot velocity, and spot cells tend to stamp at the same location many times.

  8. Arc spot grouping: An entanglement of arc spot cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajita, Shin; Hwangbo, Dogyun; Ohno, Noriyasu; Tsventoukh, Mikhail M.; Barengolts, Sergey A.

    2014-12-01

    In recent experiments, clear transitions in velocity and trail width of an arc spot initiated on nanostructured tungsten were observed on the boundary of the thick and thin nanostructured layer regions. The velocity of arc spot was significantly decreased on the thick nanostructured region. It was suggested that the grouping decreased the velocity of arc spot. In this study, we try to explain the phenomena using a simple random walk model that has properties of directionality and self-avoidance. And grouping feature was added by installing an attractive force between spot cells with dealing with multi-spots. It was revealed that an entanglement of arc spot cells decreased the spot velocity, and spot cells tend to stamp at the same location many times.

  9. Poisson spot with magnetic levitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Matthew; Everhart, Michael; D'Arruda, Jose

    2010-02-01

    In this paper we describe a unique method for obtaining the famous Poisson spot without adding obstacles to the light path, which could interfere with the effect. A Poisson spot is the interference effect from parallel rays of light diffracting around a solid spherical object, creating a bright spot in the center of the shadow.

  10. Poisson Spot with Magnetic Levitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Matthew; Everhart, Michael; D'Arruda, Jose

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe a unique method for obtaining the famous Poisson spot without adding obstacles to the light path, which could interfere with the effect. A Poisson spot is the interference effect from parallel rays of light diffracting around a solid spherical object, creating a bright spot in the center of the shadow.

  11. Great Red Spot (GRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A huge permanent anticyclone in Jupiter's southern hemisphere, visible as a reddish oval at just over 20 °S. The earliest unequivocal observation was by Heinrich Schwabe in 1831 (the often-quoted sighting by Robert Hooke in 1664 now seems to have been of a similar but different spot). The GRS became a striking feature around 1880, when it developed a deep red coloration. It was also prominent in ...

  12. The dark spots of Arago.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Pascal; Skelton, Susan E; Leburn, Christopher G; Streuber, Casey T; Wright, Ewan M; Dholakia, Kishan

    2007-09-17

    We explore the diffraction and propagation of Laguerre- Gaussian beams of varying azimuthal index past a circular obstacle both experimentally and numerically. When the beam and obstacle centers are aligned the famous spot of Arago, which arises for zero azimuthal index, is replaced for non-zero azimuthal indices by a dark spot of Arago, a simple consequence of the conserved phase singularity at the beam center. We explore how the dark spot of Arago behaves as the beam and obstacle centers are progressively misaligned, and find that the central dark spot may break into several dark spots of Arago for higher incident azimuthal index beams. PMID:19547549

  13. Red Spot Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This brief movie shows counterclockwise atmospheric motion around Jupiter's Great Red Spot. The clip was made from blue-filter images taken with the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Cassini spacecraft during seven separate rotations of Jupiter between Oct. 1 and Oct. 5, 2000.

    The clip also shows the eastward and westward motion of the zonal jets, seen as the horizontal stripes flowing in opposite directions. The zonal jets circle the planet. As far as can be determined from both Earth-based and spacecraft measurements, the positions and speeds of the jets have not changed for 100 years. Since Jupiter is a fluid planet without a solid boundary, the jet speeds are measured relative to Jupiter's magnetic field, which rotates, wobbling like a top because of its tilt, every 9 hours 55.5 minutes. The movie shows motions in the magnetic reference frame, so winds to the west correspond to features that are rotating a little slower than the magnetic field, and eastward winds correspond to features rotating a little faster.

    Because the Red Spot is in the southern hemisphere, the direction of motion indicates it is a high-pressure center. Small bright clouds appear suddenly to the west of the Great Red Spot. Scientists suspect these small white features are lightning storms. The storms eventually merge with the Red Spot and surrounding jets, and may be the main energy source for the large-scale features.

    The smallest features in the movie are about 500 kilometers (about 300 miles) across. The spacing of the movie frames in time is not uniform; some consecutive images are separated by two Jupiter rotations, and some by one. The images have been re-projected using a simple cylindrical map projection. They show an area from 50 degrees north of Jupiter's equator to 50 degrees south, extending 100 degrees east-west, about one quarter of Jupiter's circumference.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet

  14. Exserohilum Leaf Spot on Tigergrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tigergrass (Thysanolaena maxima (Roxb.) Kuntze ) is a popular ornamental grass grown throughout landscapes in South Florida. In the summer of 2006, a leaf spot was observed on tigergrass in the landscape and a commercial nursery in Homestead, FL. The causal agent of the leaf spot was isolated, cha...

  15. Empathy's blind spot.

    PubMed

    Slaby, Jan

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to mount a philosophical challenge to the currently highly visible research and discourse on empathy. The notion of empathetic perspective-shifting-a conceptually demanding, high-level construal of empathy in humans that arguably captures the core meaning of the term-is criticized from the standpoint of a philosophy of normatively accountable agency. Empathy in this demanding sense fails to achieve a true understanding of the other and instead risks to impose the empathizer's self-constitutive agency upon the person empathized with. Attempts to 'simulate' human agency, or attempts to emulate its cognitive or emotional basis, will likely distort their target phenomena in profound ways. Thus, agency turns out to be empathy's blind spot. Elements of an alternative understanding of interpersonal relatedness are also discussed, focusing on aspects of 'interaction theory'. These might do some of the work that high-level constructs of empathy had been supposed to do without running into similar conceptual difficulties. PMID:24420745

  16. Saturn's Hot Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This is the sharpest image of Saturn's temperature emissions taken from the ground; it is a mosaic of 35 individual exposures made at the W.M. Keck I Observatory, Mauna Kea, Hawaii on Feb. 4, 2004.

    The images to create this mosaic were taken with infrared radiation. The mosaic was taken at a wavelength near 17.65 microns and is sensitive to temperatures in Saturn's upper troposphere. The prominent hot spot at the bottom of the image is right at Saturn's south pole. The warming of the southern hemisphere was expected, as Saturn was just past southern summer solstice, but the abrupt changes in temperature with latitude were not expected. The tropospheric temperature increases toward the pole abruptly near 70 degrees latitude from 88 to 89 Kelvin (-301 to -299 degrees Fahrenheit) and then to 91 Kelvin (-296 degrees Fahrenheit) right at the pole.

    Ring particles are not at a uniform temperature everywhere in their orbit around Saturn. The ring particles are orbiting clockwise in this image. Particles are coldest just after having cooled down in Saturn's shadow (lower left). As they orbit Saturn, the particles increase in temperature up to a maximum (lower right) just before passing behind Saturn again in shadow.

    A small section of the ring image is missing because of incomplete mosaic coverage during the observing sequence.

  17. Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Comer, K M

    1991-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is an endemic tickborne disease found throughout the United States and other regions of the world. Exposure may result in a spectrum of disease from subclinical infection to severe or fatal multiorgan collapse. The disease is maintained in nature in Ixodid tick vectors and their hosts. The most important ticks in the United States are Dermacentor variabilis and Dermacentor andersoni. Small mammals are the natural reservoirs in the wild. Dogs become infected when a tick harboring Rickettsia rickettsii feeds on the dog. Dogs do not develop sufficient rickettsemia to act as a reservoir in the transmission of Rickettsia rickettsii. Thus, although dogs act as sentinels to the presence of the disease, they cannot directly transmit infection. Signs in early stages of disease often are nonspecific. The most characteristic laboratory abnormality is thrombocytopenia, but serologic testing is necessary for confirmation of infection. Tetracycline and chloramphenicol are effective antibiotics to treat infection. Treatment should continue for 14 to 21 days to allow host immune defenses to develop and eradicate the organism. Prevention requires avoidance of tick-infested areas and rapid removal of ticks should exposure occur. PMID:2014623

  18. Jupiter Great Red Spot Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This photo of Jupiter's Great Red Spot was taken by Voyager 1 in early March 1979. Distance from top to bottom of the picture is 15,000 miles (24,000 kilometers). Smallest features visible are about 20 miles (30 kilometers) across. The white feature below the Great Red Spot is one of several white ovals that were observed to form about 40 years ago; they move around Jupiter at a different velocity from the Red Spot. During the Voyager 1 encounter period, material was observed to revolve around the center of the spot with a period of six days. The Voyager project is managed for NASA's Office of Space Science by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  19. Jupiter's Great Red Spot Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This mosaic of the Great Red Spot shows that the region has changed significantly since the Voyager 1 encounter three months ago. Around the northern boundary a white cloud is seen, which extends to east of the region. The presence of this cloud prevents small cloud vertices from circling the spot in the manner seen in the Voyager 1 encounter. Another white oval cloud (different from the one present in this position three months ago) is seen south of the Great Red Spot. The internal structure of these spots is identical. Since they both rotate in an anticyclonic manner these observations indicate that they are meteorologically similar. This image was taken on July 6 from a range of 2,633,003 kilometers.

  20. Weird Warm Spot on Exoplanet

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation illustrates an unexpected warm spot on the surface of a gaseous exoplanet. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope discovered that the hottest part of the planet, shown here as bright, orange...

  1. Retinal spot size with wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rockwell, Benjamin A.; Hammer, Daniel X.; Kennedy, Paul K.; Amnotte, Rodney E.; Eilert, Brent; Druessel, Jeffrey J.; Payne, Dale J.; Phillips, Shana L.; Stolarski, David J.; Noojin, Gary D.; Thomas, Robert J.; Cain, Clarence P.

    1997-06-01

    We have made an indirect in-vivo determination of spot size focusing in the rhesus monkey model. Measurement of the laser induced breakdown threshold both in-vitro and in-vivo allow correlation and assignment of a spot size after focusing through the living eye. We discuss and analyze the results and show how trends in minimum visible lesion data should be assessed in light of chromatic aberration. National laser safety standards are based on minimal visual lesion (MVL) threshold studies in different animal models. The energy required for a retinal lesion depends upon may parameters including wavelength and retinal spot size. We attempt to explain trends in reported MVL threshold studies using a model of the eye which allows calculation of changes in retinal spot size due to chromatic aberration.

  2. Evaluation of SPOT imagery data

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Z.; Brovey, R.L.; Merembeck, B.F.; Hopkins, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    SPOT, the French satellite imaging system that became operational in April 1986, provides two major advances in satellite imagery technology: (1) a significant increase in spatial resolution of the data to 20 m multispectral and 10 m panchromatic, and (2) stereoscopic capabilities. The structural and stratigraphic mapping capabilities of SPOT data and compare favorably with those of other available space and airborne remote sensing data. In the Rhine graben and Jura Mountains, strike and dip of folded strata can be determined using SPOT stereoscopic imagery, greatly improving the ability to analyze structures in complex areas. The increased spatial resolution also allows many features to be mapped that are not visible on thematic mapper (TM) imagery. In the San Rafael swell, Utah, TM spectral data were combined with SPOT spatial data to map lithostratigraphic units of the exposed Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks. SPOT imagery provides information on attitude, geometry, and geomorphic expressions of key marker beds that is not available on TM imagery. Over the Central Basin platform, west Texas, SPOT imagery, compared to TM imagery, provided more precise information on the configuration of outcropping beds and drainage patterns that reflect the subtle surface expression of buried structures.

  3. Spots on T Tauri stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouvier, J.; Bertout, C.

    1989-02-01

    Periodic light curves were recorded for the following 15 T Tauri stars (for nine of which this was the first detection of periodic variability): V 410 Tau, DF Tau, UX Tau A, FK 1, FK 2, WK 2, DN Tau, GW Ori, SY Cha, LH(alpha) 332-20, LH(alpha) 332-21, CoD-33-deg 10685, RY Lup, SR 12, and SR 9. The previously reported periodic variability of the SY Cha and RY Lup stars was confirmed. These periodic variations are thought to result from rotational modulation by a group of spots at the stellar surface. The properties of spots on 11 stars were deduced from extensive light-curve synthesis. In most cases, they were found to be comparable to the properties of spots found on RS CVn stars.

  4. Impact Modeling of Spot Welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yancey, Robert N.

    2004-06-01

    Resistance spot welds in most current finite element crash models are characterized as a rigid link at the location of the weld which transfers the load but is not designed to fail. Newer weld elements in the popular finite element analysis codes include the option of incorporating a failure criteria for the weld element. As many automotive companies move towards the use of high-strength steels, the dynamic behavior of the spot welds will become increasingly important and the failure of any welds should be incorporated during the simulation. The failure criteria will be influenced by mesh size, weld element properties, weld element type, surrounding material properties, strain rate, and weld placement. The influence of some of these parameters using current spot weld modeling techniques will be discussed along with recommendations for future work in this area.

  5. Cold Spots in Protein Binding.

    PubMed

    Shirian, Jason; Sharabi, Oz; Shifman, Julia M

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the energetics and architecture of protein-binding interfaces is important for basic research and could potentially facilitate the design of novel binding domains for biotechnological applications. It is well accepted that a few key residues at binding interfaces (binding hot spots) are responsible for contributing most to the free energy of binding. In this opinion article, we introduce a new concept of 'binding cold spots', or interface positions occupied by suboptimal amino acids. Such positions exhibit a potential for affinity enhancement through various mutations. We give several examples of cold spots from different protein-engineering studies and argue that identification of such positions is crucial for studies of protein evolution and protein design. PMID:27477052

  6. Laser based spot weld characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonietz, Florian; Myrach, Philipp; Rethmeier, Michael; Suwala, Hubert; Ziegler, Mathias

    2016-02-01

    Spot welding is one of the most important joining technologies, especially in the automotive industry. Hitherto, the quality of spot welded joints is tested mainly by random destructive tests. A nondestructive testing technique offers the benefit of cost reduction of the testing procedure and optimization of the fabrication process, because every joint could be examined. This would lead to a reduced number of spot welded joints, as redundancies could be avoided. In the procedure described here, the spot welded joint between two zinc-coated steel sheets (HX340LAD+Z100MB or HC340LA+ZE 50/50) is heated optically on one side. Laser radiation and flash light are used as heat sources. The melted zone, the so called "weld nugget" provides the mechanical stability of the connection, but also constitutes a thermal bridge between the sheets. Due to the better thermal contact, the spot welded joint reveals a thermal behavior different from the surrounding material, where the heat transfer between the two sheets is much lower. The difference in the transient thermal behavior is measured with time resolved thermography. Hence, the size of the thermal contact between the two sheets is determined, which is directly correlated to the size of the weld nugget, indicating the quality of the spot weld. The method performs well in transmission with laser radiation and flash light. With laser radiation, it works even in reflection geometry, thus offering the possibility of testing with just one-sided accessibility. By using heating with collimated laser radiation, not only contact-free, but also remote testing is feasible. A further convenience compared to similar thermographic approaches is the applicability on bare steel sheets without any optical coating for emissivity correction. For this purpose, a proper way of emissivity correction was established.

  7. Color tunable LED spot lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoelen, C.; Ansems, J.; Deurenberg, P.; van Duijneveldt, W.; Peeters, M.; Steenbruggen, G.; Treurniet, T.; Valster, A.; ter Weeme, J. W.

    2006-08-01

    A new trend in illumination is to use dynamic light to set or dynamically vary the ambience of a room or office. For this we need color tunable spots that can reliably vary over at least a wide range of color temperatures, and preferably also more saturated colors. LEDs are in principle ideally suited for this application thanks to their nature of emitting light in a relatively narrow band. For color tunable spot lighting based on the concept of mixing RGB LED colors, the key results have been presented before. Limitations of these 3-intrinsic-color mixing systems with high color rendering properties are found in a limited operating temperature range due to wavelength shifts, a limited color temperature range, and a low maximum operating temperature due to a strong flux decrease with increasing temperature. To overcome these limitations, a 3-color R pcGB system with phosphor-converted red (R pc) and a 4-color RAGB system have been investigated. With both systems, a CRI of at least 80 can be maintained over the relevant color temperature range of approximately 2700 K to 6500 K. In this paper we compare these concepts on overall system aspects and report on the performance of prototype spot lamps. The main features of the RAGB and R pcGB spot lamp concepts can be summarized as: 1) The RAGB spot overcomes CRI and gamut shortcomings of RGB light sources and gives much freedom in wavelength selection, but suffers from temperature sensitivity and complex controls; 2) The R pcGB spot overcomes shortcomings concerning CRI and thermal dependence of RGB sources and enables relatively simple controls, but needs an improved overall red efficacy. With both color concepts, prototype spot lamps have been built. The amber to red emitting nitridosilicate-based phosphors can be wavelength-tuned for optimal performance, which is found at a peak emission around 610 nm for high color quality systems. This results in a simple and very robust system with good color consistency. For the

  8. Stabilized dried blood spot collection.

    PubMed

    McMorran, Darren; Chung, Dwayne Chung Kim; Toth, Monika; Liew, Oi Wah; Muradoglu, Murat; Ng, Tuck Wah

    2016-08-01

    During the collection phase of the dried blood spot method, practitioners need to ensure that there is no smearing of the blood sample on the filter paper or else readings from it will be invalid. This can be difficult to accomplish in the field if there is relative motion between the site of blood discharge on the finger and the filter paper. In this article, a gyroscope stabilization method is introduced and demonstrated to provide consistent and improved dried blood spot collection within a circular guide region notwithstanding the presence of rocking. PMID:27156813

  9. Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the past five or so years blueberry growers in south Mississippi have discovered the disease Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot on some of their blueberry plants. In the past this disease was considered to be of minor importance occurring infrequently on isolated farms. But in recent years it ...

  10. Laser Pyrometer For Spot Temperature Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elleman, D. D.; Allen, J. L.; Lee, M. C.

    1988-01-01

    Laser pyrometer makes temperature map by scanning measuring spot across target. Scanning laser pyrometer passively measures radiation emitted by scanned spot on target and calibrated by similar passive measurement on blackbody of known temperature. Laser beam turned on for active measurements of reflectances of target spot and reflectance standard. From measurements, temperature of target spot inferred. Pyrometer useful for non-contact measurement of temperature distributions in processing of materials.

  11. Numerical simulations of hot spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, Michael L.

    Numerical simulations of hot spots and their associated jets are examined with emphasis on their dynamical variability. Attention is given to two-dimensional simulations, which incorporate dynamically passive and important magnetic fields in the ideal MHD limit. Distributions of total and polarized radio brightness have been derived for comparison with observations. The move toward three-dimensional simulations is documented, and hydrodynamical models for multiple hot spots are discussed. It is suggested that useful insights can be obtained from two-dimensional slab jet simulation, which relax the axisymmetric constraints while allowing high numerical resolution. In particular the dentist-drill model of Scheuer (1982) for working-surface variability is substantiated, and it is shown to result from self-excited jet instabilities near the working surface.

  12. Sweet Spots and Door Stops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Michael; Tsui, Stella; Leung, Chi Fan

    2011-01-01

    A sweet spot is referred to in sport as the perfect place to strike a ball with a racquet or bat. It is the point of contact between bat and ball where maximum results can be produced with minimal effort from the hand of the player. Similar physics can be applied to the less inspiring examples of door stops; the perfect position of a door stop is…

  13. Measurement of laser spot quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milster, T. D.; Treptau, J. P.

    1991-01-01

    Several ways of measuring spot quality are compared. We examine in detail various figures of merit such as full width at half maximum (FWHM), full width at 1/(e exp 2) maximum, Strehl ratio, and encircled energy. Our application is optical data storage, but results can be applied to other areas like space communications and high energy lasers. We found that the optimum figure of merit in many cases is Strehl ratio.

  14. ESA uncovers Geminga's `hot spot'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-07-01

    16 July 2004 Astronomers using ESA’s X-ray observatory XMM-Newton have detected a small, bright ‘hot spot’ on the surface of the neutron star called Geminga, 500 light-years away. The hot spot is the size of a football field and is caused by the same mechanism producing Geminga’s X-ray tails. This discovery identifies the missing link between the X-ray and gamma-ray emission from Geminga. hi-res Size hi-res: 1284 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot This figure shows the effects of charged particles accelerated in the magnetosphere of Geminga. Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of particles kicked out by Geminga’s strong magnetic field, trail the neutron star as it moves about in space. Panel (b) shows how electrically charged particles interact with Geminga’s magnetic field. For example, if electrons (blue) are kicked out by the star, positrons (in red) hit the star’s magnetic poles like in an ‘own goal’. Panel (c) illustrates the size of Geminga’s magnetic field (blue) compared to that of the star itself at the centre (purple). The magnetic field is tilted with respect to Geminga’s rotation axis (red). Panel (d) shows the magnetic poles of Geminga, where charged particles hit the surface of the star, creating a two-million degrees hot spot, a region much hotter than the surroundings. As the star spins on its rotation axis, the hot spot comes into view and then disappears, causing the periodic colour change seen by XMM-Newton. An animated version of the entire sequence can be found at: Click here for animated GIF [low resolution, animated GIF, 5536 KB] Click here for AVI [high resolution, AVI with DIVX compression, 19128 KB] hi-res Size hi-res: 371 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot, panel (a) Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of

  15. Watermarking spot colors in packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Alastair; Filler, TomáÅ.¡; Falkenstern, Kristyn; Bai, Yang

    2015-03-01

    In January 2014, Digimarc announced Digimarc® Barcode for the packaging industry to improve the check-out efficiency and customer experience for retailers. Digimarc Barcode is a machine readable code that carries the same information as a traditional Universal Product Code (UPC) and is introduced by adding a robust digital watermark to the package design. It is imperceptible to the human eye but can be read by a modern barcode scanner at the Point of Sale (POS) station. Compared to a traditional linear barcode, Digimarc Barcode covers the whole package with minimal impact on the graphic design. This significantly improves the Items per Minute (IPM) metric, which retailers use to track the checkout efficiency since it closely relates to their profitability. Increasing IPM by a few percent could lead to potential savings of millions of dollars for retailers, giving them a strong incentive to add the Digimarc Barcode to their packages. Testing performed by Digimarc showed increases in IPM of at least 33% using the Digimarc Barcode, compared to using a traditional barcode. A method of watermarking print ready image data used in the commercial packaging industry is described. A significant proportion of packages are printed using spot colors, therefore spot colors needs to be supported by an embedder for Digimarc Barcode. Digimarc Barcode supports the PANTONE spot color system, which is commonly used in the packaging industry. The Digimarc Barcode embedder allows a user to insert the UPC code in an image while minimizing perceptibility to the Human Visual System (HVS). The Digimarc Barcode is inserted in the printing ink domain, using an Adobe Photoshop plug-in as the last step before printing. Since Photoshop is an industry standard widely used by pre-press shops in the packaging industry, a Digimarc Barcode can be easily inserted and proofed.

  16. Visceral leishmaniasis with Roth spots

    PubMed Central

    Meena, Jagdish; Juneja, Monica; Mishra, Devendra; Vats, Pallavi; Pawaria, Arti

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani and transmitted by the bite of infected sandfly Phlebotomus argentipes. The protozoa is obliged intracellularly and causes a wide spectrum of clinical syndromes: VL (‘kala azar’), cutaneous leishmaniasis and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (espundia). Kala azar is the most aggressive form and if untreated causes high mortality. Here, we describe a case of VL that presented to us with high-grade fever and found to have Roth spots that were resolved after 15 days of therapy. PMID:25988048

  17. Instructor Debrief Training in SPOT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Lynne; Orasanu, Judith; Villeda, Eric; Conners, Mary M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    One way to enhance the effectiveness of Special Purpose Operational Training' (SPOT) debriefing sessions may be for instructors to make explicit connections between the Crew Resource Management (CRM) concepts a carrier advocates and the behaviors displayed by the crew in question. A tool listing key behaviors from the scenario was devised, accompanied by an instructors' training session in which links were made between the behaviors and the underlying CRM processes they reflect. The aim of the tool is to assist instructors to focus the debriefing on the key SPOT/ CRM issues, in this case on planning. A second tool suggested ways to facilitate the discussion. Fourteen instructors at a major U.S. carrier took part in the training session and used the toolkit in their subsequent debriefs. Pre- and post-training debriefing samples from each instructor were compared to assess whether there were any changes in instructors' approaches to discussions in terms of the topics they covered and how they raised the points.

  18. Still from Red Spot Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image is one of seven from the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Cassini spacecraft assembled as a brief movie of cloud movements on Jupiter. It was taken with a blue filter. The smallest features visible are about 500 kilometers (about 300 miles) across.

    Small bright clouds appear suddenly to the west of the Great Red Spot. Based on data from NASA's Galileo spacecraft, scientists suspect that these small white features are lightning storms, where falling raindrops create an electrical charge. The lightning storms eventually merge with the Red Spot and surrounding jets, and may be the main energy source for these large-scale features. Imaging observations of the darkside of the planet in the weeks following Cassini's closest approach to Jupiter on Dec. 30, 2000 will search for lightning storms like these.

    This image was re-projected by cylindrical-map projection of an image taken in the first week of October 2000. It shows an area from 50 degrees north of Jupiter's equator to 50 degrees south, extending 100 degrees east west, about one quarter of Jupiter's circumference.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  19. Nonbright spot AVO: Two examples

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, C.P.; Kinman, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    Utilization of amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) attribute sections such as the product of the normal incidence trace and gradient trace have been used extensively in bright spot (Class 3) AVO analysis and interpretation. However, while these sections have often worked well with Class 3 responses they are not reliable indicators of non-bright spot (Class 2) seismic anomalies. Analyzing Class 2 seismic data with AVO products will: (1) not detect the gas-charged reservoir because of near-zero acoustic impedance contrast between the sands and encasing shales, or (2) yield an incorrect (negative) AVO product if the normal incidence and gradient values are opposite in sign. Class 2 offset responses are divided into two sub-categories: those with phase reversals (Class 2p) and those without phase reversals (Class 2). An AVO procedure for these types of Class 2 anomalies is presented through two examples. The technique better exploits the nature of the prestack response, yielding a more definitive AVO attribute section, and the technique is adaptive to both Class 2 and Class 2p responses. When compared to a conventionally processed relative amplitude seismic section with characteristically low amplitude responses for near-zero acoustic impedance sands, this procedure clearly denotes the presence of gas-charged pore fluids within the reservoir.

  20. Spot and Runway Departure Advisor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, Yoon Chul

    2013-01-01

    The Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) is a research prototype of a decision support tool for ATC tower controllers to assist in manging and controlling traffic on the surface of an airport. SARDA employs a scheduler to generate an optimal runway schedule and gate push-back - spot release sequence and schedule that improves efficiency of surface operations. The advisories for ATC tower controllers are displayed on an Electronic Flight Strip (EFS) system. The human-in-the-loop simulation of the SARDA tool was conducted for east operations of Dallas-Ft. Worth International Airport (DFW) to evaluate performance of the SARDA tool and human factors, such as situational awareness and workload. The results indicates noticeable taxi delay reduction and fuel savings by using the SARDA tool. Reduction in controller workload were also observed throughout the scenario runs. The future plan includes modeling and simulation of the ramp operations of the Charlotte International Airport, and develop a decision support tool for the ramp controllers.

  1. Space Object Tracking (SPOT) facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivitz, Robert; Kendrick, Richard; Mason, James; Bold, Matthew; Kubo, Tracy; Bock, Kevin; Tyler, David

    2014-07-01

    Lockheed Martin has built a Space Object Tracking (SPOT) facility at our Santa Cruz test site in Northern California. SPOT consists of three 1 meter optical telescopes controlled by a common site management system to individually or cooperatively task each system to observe orbital debris and earth orbiting satellites. The telescopes are mounted in Az/El fork mounts capable of rapid repointing and arc-sec class open loop tracking. Each telescope is installed in a separate clam shell dome and has aft mounted benches to facilitate installing various instrument suites. The telescope domes are mounted on movable rail carts that can be positioned arbitrarily along tracks to provide variable baselines for sparse aperture imaging. The individual telescopes achieved first light in June 2012 and have been used since to observe satellites and orbital debris. Typical observations consist of direct photometric imaging at visible and near infrared wavelengths, and also include spectroscopic and hypertemporal measurements. Rayleigh beacon adaptive optical systems for atmospheric aberration correction and high rate J-Band trackers for each telescope will be added in 2015. Coherent combinations of the three telescopes as an interferometric imaging array using actively stabilized free space variable delay optical paths and fringe tracking sensors is also planned. The first narrow band (I band) interferometric fringes will be formed in the summer of 2014, with wide band (R, I, H) interferometric imaging occurring by early 2015.

  2. Integrating Sustainable Hunting in Biodiversity Protection in Central Africa: Hot Spots, Weak Spots, and Strong Spots

    PubMed Central

    Fa, John E.; Olivero, Jesús; Farfán, Miguel Ángel; Márquez, Ana Luz; Vargas, Juan Mario; Real, Raimundo; Nasi, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Wild animals are a primary source of protein (bushmeat) for people living in or near tropical forests. Ideally, the effect of bushmeat harvests should be monitored closely by making regular estimates of offtake rate and size of stock available for exploitation. However, in practice, this is possible in very few situations because it requires both of these aspects to be readily measurable, and even in the best case, entails very considerable time and effort. As alternative, in this study, we use high-resolution, environmental favorability models for terrestrial mammals (N = 165) in Central Africa to map areas of high species richness (hot spots) and hunting susceptibility. Favorability models distinguish localities with environmental conditions that favor the species' existence from those with detrimental characteristics for its presence. We develop an index for assessing Potential Hunting Sustainability (PHS) of each species based on their ecological characteristics (population density, habitat breadth, rarity and vulnerability), weighted according to restrictive and permissive assumptions of how species' characteristics are combined. Species are classified into five main hunting sustainability classes using fuzzy logic. Using the accumulated favorability values of all species, and their PHS values, we finally identify weak spots, defined as high diversity regions of especial hunting vulnerability for wildlife, as well as strong spots, defined as high diversity areas of high hunting sustainability potential. Our study uses relatively simple models that employ easily obtainable data of a species' ecological characteristics to assess the impacts of hunting in tropical regions. It provides information for management by charting the geography of where species are more or less likely to be at risk of extinction from hunting. PMID:25372705

  3. Integrating sustainable hunting in biodiversity protection in Central Africa: hot spots, weak spots, and strong spots.

    PubMed

    Fa, John E; Olivero, Jesús; Farfán, Miguel Ángel; Márquez, Ana Luz; Vargas, Juan Mario; Real, Raimundo; Nasi, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Wild animals are a primary source of protein (bushmeat) for people living in or near tropical forests. Ideally, the effect of bushmeat harvests should be monitored closely by making regular estimates of offtake rate and size of stock available for exploitation. However, in practice, this is possible in very few situations because it requires both of these aspects to be readily measurable, and even in the best case, entails very considerable time and effort. As alternative, in this study, we use high-resolution, environmental favorability models for terrestrial mammals (N = 165) in Central Africa to map areas of high species richness (hot spots) and hunting susceptibility. Favorability models distinguish localities with environmental conditions that favor the species' existence from those with detrimental characteristics for its presence. We develop an index for assessing Potential Hunting Sustainability (PHS) of each species based on their ecological characteristics (population density, habitat breadth, rarity and vulnerability), weighted according to restrictive and permissive assumptions of how species' characteristics are combined. Species are classified into five main hunting sustainability classes using fuzzy logic. Using the accumulated favorability values of all species, and their PHS values, we finally identify weak spots, defined as high diversity regions of especial hunting vulnerability for wildlife, as well as strong spots, defined as high diversity areas of high hunting sustainability potential. Our study uses relatively simple models that employ easily obtainable data of a species' ecological characteristics to assess the impacts of hunting in tropical regions. It provides information for management by charting the geography of where species are more or less likely to be at risk of extinction from hunting. PMID:25372705

  4. Characterizing flash-radiography source spots.

    PubMed

    Ekdahl, Carl

    2011-12-01

    Flash radiography of large hydrodynamic experiments driven by high explosives is a venerable diagnostic technique in use at many laboratories. The size of the radiographic source spot is often quoted as an indication of the resolving power of a particular flash-radiography machine. A variety of techniques for measuring spot size have evolved at the different laboratories, as well as different definitions of spot size. Some definitions are highly dependent on the source spot intensity distributions, and not necessarily well correlated with resolution. The concept of limiting resolution based on bar target measurements is introduced, and shown to be equivalent to the spatial wavenumber at a modulation transfer function value of 5%. This resolution is shown to be better correlated with the full width at half-maximum of the spot intensity distribution than it is with other definitions of spot size. PMID:22193263

  5. Variable-spot ion beam figuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lixiang; Qiu, Keqiang; Fu, Shaojun

    2016-03-01

    This paper introduces a new scheme of ion beam figuring (IBF), or rather variable-spot IBF, which is conducted at a constant scanning velocity with variable-spot ion beam collimated by a variable diaphragm. It aims at improving the reachability and adaptation of the figuring process within the limits of machine dynamics by varying the ion beam spot size instead of the scanning velocity. In contrast to the dwell time algorithm in the conventional IBF, the variable-spot IBF adopts a new algorithm, which consists of the scan path programming and the trajectory optimization using pattern search. In this algorithm, instead of the dwell time, a new concept, integral etching time, is proposed to interpret the process of variable-spot IBF. We conducted simulations to verify its feasibility and practicality. The simulation results indicate the variable-spot IBF is a promising alternative to the conventional approach.

  6. Origin of Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    SciTech Connect

    Luchkov, B.

    1981-09-01

    The Great Red Spot, a giant vortex in the Jovian atmosphere, may owe its origin to the structure of Jupiter's magnetic field and radiation belt. Several Spot parameters resemble those of the Brazil anomaly, a negative anomaly in the terrestrial field. It is shown qualitatively that the Spot has developed at the site of a negative anomaly in the Jovian field and is continually supplied by precipitation of energetic radiation-belt particles into the planet's atmosphere.

  7. Hot spot and trench volcano separations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lingenfelter, R. E.; Schubert, G.

    1974-01-01

    It is suggested that the distribution of separations between trench volcanos located along subduction zones reflects the depth of partial melting, and that the separation distribution for hot spot volcanoes near spreading centers provides a measure of the depth of mantle convection cells. It is further proposed that the lateral dimensions of mantle convection cells are also represented by the hot-spot separations (rather than by ridge-trench distances) and that a break in the distribution of hot spot separations at 3000 km is evidence for both whole mantle convection and a deep thermal plume origin of hot spots.

  8. A comparison of the Great Red Spot with temporary spots on Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browne, G. C.; Meadows, A. J.

    1976-01-01

    The International Planetary Patrol collection of Jupiter photographs is used to examine the development of a temporary spot that was visible in the northern equatorial zone for a total of 211 days. The motion and color of this spot are compared with those of the Great Red Spot. It is shown that the temporary spot was bluer than the Great Red Spot and has a longitudinal oscillation of approximately 4 deg with a period of about 45 days, implying that it may have possessed a significant dynamical property in common with other temporary spots and the Great Red Spot. It is concluded that the present spot is more likely to have been associated with a hole in the cloud deck rather than with an elevated surface feature.

  9. Voyager 1 Red Spot Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This movie shows the portion of Jupiter around the Great Red Spot as it swirls through more than 60 Jupiter days. Notice the difference in speed and direction of the various zones of the atmosphere. The interaction of the atmospheric clouds and storm shows how dynamic the Jovian atmosphere is.

    As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 66 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). This time-lapse movie uses images taken every time Jupiter longitude 68W passed under the spacecraft. These images were acquired in the Blue filter from Jan. 6 to Feb. 3 1979. The spacecraft flew from 58 million kilometers to 31 million kilometers from Jupiter during that time.

    This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  10. Ambystoma maculatum (spotted salamander). Reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glorioso, Brad M.; Waddle, Hardin; Hefner, Jeromi

    2012-01-01

    The Spotted Salamander is a wide-ranging salamander of the eastern United States that typically breeds in winter or early spring in ephemeral pools in lowland forests. Ambystoma maculatum is known to deposit 2-4 egg masses per year, each containing 1-250 eggs. As part of ongoing research into the ecology and reproductive biology of Spotted Salamanders in the Kisatchie District of Kisatchie National Forest in Natchitoches Parish, Louisiana, USA, we have been counting the number of embryos per egg mass. We captured seven female A. maculatum in a small pool, six of which were still gravid. We took standard measurements, including SVL, and then implanted a Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT tag) into each adult female as was the protocol. About an hour after processing these animals we marked new A. maculatum egg masses found in the same small pool using PVC pin flags pushed carefully through the outer jelly. We did not have enough time to process them that evening, and it was not until a few days later that we photographed those masses. We discovered that one of the masses contained a PIT tag in the outer jelly that corresponded to one of the six gravid females that were marked that same evening. To our knowledge, this is the first report of PIT tags being the means, albeit coincidentally, by which a particular egg mass of Ambystoma maculatum has been assigned to a particular female. For our purposes, losing the PIT tag from the adult female is counter to the goals of our study of this population, and we will no longer be implanting PIT tags into gravid females.

  11. Spotted knapweed, Centaurea stoebe, control options

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spotted knapweed is a non native perennial forb that is spreading rapidly in the Western United States. This plant species produces a compound that retards the growth of many native plants, giving it a competitive advantage. Spotted knapweed has been identified in several areas of Alaska. A descript...

  12. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe the first molecular confirmation of Rickettsia rickettsii, the cause of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), from a tick vector, Amblyomma cajennense, and from a cluster of fatal spotted fever cases in Argentina. Questing A. cajennense ticks were collected at or near sites of presumed or...

  13. 7 CFR 1421.11 - Spot checks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Spot checks. 1421.11 Section 1421.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF... ASSISTANCE LOANS AND LOAN DEFICIENCY PAYMENTS FOR 2008 THROUGH 2012 General § 1421.11 Spot checks. (a)...

  14. Differential spot-size focus servo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milster, T. D.; Wang, M. S.; Froehlich, F. F.; Kann, J. L.; Treptau, J. P.; Erwin, K. E.

    1991-01-01

    We describe performance of a differential spot-size (wax-wane) focus servo. Crosstalk from the tracks are analyzed in the single detector and differential focus circuits. Magnitude of the crosstalk is reduced by a factor of three in the differential circuit. A false focus-error signal (FES) is present when the spot crosses sector marks at an angle.

  15. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cases of epidemic typhus have been documented in Argentina since 1919; however, no confirmed reports of spotted fever rickettsiosis were described in this country until 1999. We describe the first molecular confirmation of Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiologic agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (R...

  16. Hot Spot Removal System: System description

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System`s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section.

  17. HotSpot Software Configuration Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, H; Homann, S G

    2009-03-12

    This Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP) describes the software configuration management procedures used to ensure that the HotSpot dispersion model meets the requirements of its user base, which includes: (1) Users of the PC version of HotSpot for consequence assessment, hazard assessment and safety analysis calculations; and (2) Users of the NARAC Web and iClient software tools, which allow users to run HotSpot for consequence assessment modeling These users and sponsors of the HotSpot software and the organizations they represent constitute the intended audience for this document. This plan is intended to meet Critical Recommendations 1 and 3 from the Software Evaluation of HotSpot and DOE Safety Software Toolbox Recommendation for inclusion of HotSpot in the Department of Energy (DOE) Safety Software Toolbox. HotSpot software is maintained for the Department of Energy Office of Emergency Operations by the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). An overview of HotSpot and NARAC are provided.

  18. HotSpot Software Test Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, H; Homann, S G

    2009-03-12

    This Software Test Plan (STP) describes the procedures used to verify and validate that the HotSpot Health Physics Codes meet the requirements of its user base, which includes: (1) Users of the PC version of HotSpot conducting consequence assessment, hazard assessment and safety analysis calculations; and (2) Users of the NARAC Web and iClient software tools, which allow users to run HotSpot for consequence assessment modeling. This plan is intended to meet Critical Recommendation 2 from the Software Evaluation of HotSpot and DOE Safety Software Toolbox Recommendation for inclusion of HotSpot in the Department of Energy (DOE) Safety Software Toolbox. These users and sponsors of the HotSpot software and the organizations they represent constitute the intended audience for this document. HotSpot software is maintained for the Department of Energy Office of Emergency Operations by the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). An overview of HotSpot and NARAC are provided.

  19. Laser Spot Detection Based on Reaction Diffusion.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Otero, Alejandro; Khikhlukha, Danila; Solano-Altamirano, J M; Dormido, Raquel; Duro, Natividad

    2016-01-01

    Center-location of a laser spot is a problem of interest when the laser is used for processing and performing measurements. Measurement quality depends on correctly determining the location of the laser spot. Hence, improving and proposing algorithms for the correct location of the spots are fundamental issues in laser-based measurements. In this paper we introduce a Reaction Diffusion (RD) system as the main computational framework for robustly finding laser spot centers. The method presented is compared with a conventional approach for locating laser spots, and the experimental results indicate that RD-based computation generates reliable and precise solutions. These results confirm the flexibility of the new computational paradigm based on RD systems for addressing problems that can be reduced to a set of geometric operations. PMID:26938537

  20. TEVA-SPOT Toolkit 1.2

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-07-26

    The TEVA-SPOT Toolkit (SPOT) supports the design of contaminant warning systems (CWSs) that use real-time sensors to detect contaminants in municipal water distribution networks. Specifically, SPOT provides the capability to select the locations for installing sensors in order to maximize the utility and effectiveness of the CWS. SPOT models the sensor placement process as an optimization problem, and the user can specify a wide range of performance objectives for contaminant warning system design, including populationmore » health effects, time to detection, extent of contamination, volume consumed and number of failed detections. For example, a SPOT user can integrate expert knowledge during the design process by specigying required sensor placements or designating network locations as forbidden. Further, cost considerations can be integrated by limiting the design with user-specified installation costs at each location.« less

  1. Laser Spot Detection Based on Reaction Diffusion

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Otero, Alejandro; Khikhlukha, Danila; Solano-Altamirano, J. M.; Dormido, Raquel; Duro, Natividad

    2016-01-01

    Center-location of a laser spot is a problem of interest when the laser is used for processing and performing measurements. Measurement quality depends on correctly determining the location of the laser spot. Hence, improving and proposing algorithms for the correct location of the spots are fundamental issues in laser-based measurements. In this paper we introduce a Reaction Diffusion (RD) system as the main computational framework for robustly finding laser spot centers. The method presented is compared with a conventional approach for locating laser spots, and the experimental results indicate that RD-based computation generates reliable and precise solutions. These results confirm the flexibility of the new computational paradigm based on RD systems for addressing problems that can be reduced to a set of geometric operations. PMID:26938537

  2. Improved MRF spot characterization with QIS metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westover, Sandi; Hall, Christopher; DeMarco, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Careful characterization of the removal function of sub-aperture polishing tools is critical for optimum polishing results. Magnetorheological finishing (MRF®) creates a polishing tool, or "spot", that is unique both for its locally high removal rate and high slope content. For a variety of reasons, which will be discussed, longer duration spots are beneficial to improving MRF performance, but longer spots yield higher slopes rendering them difficult to measure with adequate fidelity. QED's Interferometer for Stitching (QIS™) was designed to measure the high slope content inherent to non-null sub-aperture stitching interferometry of aspheres. Based on this unique capability the QIS was recently used to measure various MRF spots in an attempt to see if there was a corresponding improvement in MRF performance as a result of improved knowledge of these longer duration spots. The results of these tests will be presented and compared with those of a standard general purpose interferometer.

  3. Element spots in HgMn stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korhonen, H.

    2014-11-01

    A fraction of late B-type stars, the so-called HgMn stars, exhibit enhanced absorption lines of certain chemical elements, notably Hg and Mn, combined with an underabundance of He. For about a decade it has been known that the elements with anomalously high abundances in HgMn stars are distributed inhomogeneously over the stellar surface. Observation of the temporal evolution of those spots has been reported in a few HgMn stars, first of a secular evolution of the mercury spots in α And, and more recently of a fast evolution of yttrium and strontium spots in HD 11753. The fast evolution of spots in HD 11753 is combined with a slower change in the overall abundance of the elements affected. In this paper I review what is known about these ``elemental spots'' in HgMn stars and their secular and fast temporal evolution.

  4. Neptune's small dark spot (D2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This bulls-eye view of Neptune's small dark spot (D2) was obtained by Voyager 2's narrow-angle camera. Banding surrounding the feature indicates unseen strong winds, while structures within the bright spot suggest both active upwelling of clouds and rotation about the center. A rotation rate has not yet been measured, but the V-shaped structure near the right edge of the bright area indicates that the spot rotates clockwise. Unlike the Great Red Spot on Jupiter, which rotates counterclockwise, if the D2 spot on Neptune rotates clockwise, the material will be descending in the dark oval region. The fact that infrared data will yield temperature information about the region above the clouds makes this observation especially valuable. The Voyager Mission is conducted by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications.

  5. 7 CFR 28.413 - Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.413 Section 28.413... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Light Spotted Cotton § 28.413 Middling Light Spotted Color. Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between...

  6. Geo Spots and Vortex Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straser, Valentino

    2014-05-01

    ), when limited to particular regions, may have created in the past and perhaps still do to this day torsions in localized spots of the Earth's crust (Geo Spots), which over time have conditioned the distribution of tectonic stresses on the surface of the Earth at a regional scale.

  7. HUBBLE FINDS NEW DARK SPOT ON NEPTUNE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has discovered a new great dark spot, located in the northern hemisphere of the planet Neptune. Because the planet's northern hemisphere is now tilted away from Earth, the new feature appears near the limb of the planet. The spot is a near mirror-image to a similar southern hemisphere dark spot that was discovered in 1989 by the Voyager 2 probe. In 1994, Hubble showed that the southern dark spot had disappeared. Like its predecessor, the new spot has high altitude clouds along its edge, caused by gasses that have been pushed to higher altitudes where they cool to form methane ice crystal clouds. The dark spot may be a zone of clear gas that is a window to a cloud deck lower in the atmosphere. Planetary scientists don t know how long lived this new feature might be. Hubble's high resolution will allow astronomers to follow the spot's evolution and other unexpected changes in Neptune's dynamic atmosphere. The image was taken on November 2, 1994 with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, when Neptune was 2.8 billion miles (4.5 billion kilometers) from Earth. Hubble can resolve features as small as 625 miles (1,000 kilometers) across in Neptune's cloud tops. Credit: H. Hammel (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and NASA

  8. Rocky mountain spotted fever on the arm (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever is a disease transmitted to humans by a tick bite. The spots begin as flat (macular) red (erythematous) patches that may bleed into the skin, causing purplish spots (purpura). The disease ...

  9. CMB cold spot from inflationary feature scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi; Ma, Yin-Zhe

    2016-05-01

    We propose a "feature-scattering" mechanism to explain the cosmic microwave background cold spot seen from WMAP and Planck maps. If there are hidden features in the potential of multi-field inflation, the inflationary trajectory can be scattered by such features. The scattering is controlled by the amount of isocurvature fluctuations, and thus can be considered as a mechanism to convert isocurvature fluctuations into curvature fluctuations. This mechanism predicts localized cold spots (instead of hot ones) on the CMB. In addition, it may also bridge a connection between the cold spot and a dip on the CMB power spectrum at ℓ ∼ 20.

  10. Anti-correlation and multifractal features of Spain electricity spot market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norouzzadeh, P.; Dullaert, W.; Rahmani, B.

    2007-07-01

    We use multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) to numerically investigate correlation, persistence, multifractal properties and scaling behavior of the hourly spot prices for the Spain electricity exchange-Compania O Peradora del Mercado de Electricidad (OMEL). Through multifractal analysis, fluctuations behavior, the scaling exponents and generalized Hurst exponents are studied. Moreover, contribution of fat-tailed probability distributions and nonlinear temporal correlations to multifractality is studied.

  11. Finding your innovation sweet spot.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Jacob; Horowitz, Roni; Levav, Amnon; Mazursky, David

    2003-03-01

    Most new product ideas are either uninspired or impractical. So how can developers hit the innovation sweet spot--far enough from existing products to attract real interest but close enough that they are feasible to make and market? They can apply five innovation patterns that manipulate existing components of a product and its immediate environment to come up with something both ingenious and viable, say the authors. The subtraction pattern works by removing product components, particularly those that seem desirable or indispensable. Think of the legless high chair that attaches to the kitchen table. The multiplication pattern makes one or more copies of an existing component, then alters those copies in some important way. For example, the Gillette double-bladed razor features a second blade that cuts whiskers at a slightly different angle. By dividing an existing product into its component parts--the division pattern--you can see something that was an integrated whole in an entirely different light. Think of the modern home stereo--it has modular speakers, tuners, and CD and tape players, which allow users to customize their sound systems. The task unification pattern involves assigning a new task to an existing product element or environmental attribute, thereby unifying two tasks in a single component. An example is the defrosting filament in an automobile windshield that also serves as a radio antenna. Finally, the attribute dependency pattern alters or creates the dependent relationships between a product and its environment. For example, by creating a dependent relationship between lens color and external lighting conditions, eyeglass developers came up with a lens that changes color when exposed to sunlight. PMID:12632810

  12. A Dark Spot on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This view taken by NASA's Galileo spacecraft of Jupiter's icy moon Europa focuses on a dark, smooth region whose center is the lowest area in this image. To the west (left), it is bounded by a cliff and terraces, which might have been formed by normal faulting. The slopes toward the east (right) leading into the dark spot are gentle.

    Near the center of the dark area, it appears the dark materials have covered some of the bright terrain and ridges. This suggests that when the dark material was deposited, it may have been a fluid or an icy slush.

    Only a few impact craters are visible, with some of them covered or flooded by dark material. Some appear in groups, which may indicate that they are secondary craters formed by debris excavated during a larger impact event. A potential source for these is the nearby crater Mannann`an.

    North is to the top of the picture which is centered at 1 degree south latitude and 225 degrees west longitude. The images in this mosaic have been re-projected to 50 meters (55 yards) per picture element. They were obtained by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on March 29, 1998, during Galileo's fourteenth orbit of Jupiter, at ranges as close as 1940 kilometers (1,200 miles) from Europa.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  13. How Many Spots Does a Cheetah Have?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Kristine M.

    2000-01-01

    Describes first grade students' mathematical investigation of the number of spots on a cheetah. The exploration of counting and estimation strategies that grew from the investigation gives evidence that mathematicians come in all ages. (ASK)

  14. The sweet spot of a baseball bat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    1998-09-01

    The sweet spot of a baseball bat, like that of a tennis racket, can be defined either in terms of a vibration node or a centre of percussion. In order to determine how each of the sweet spots influences the "feel" of the bat, measurements were made of the impact forces transmitted to the hands. Measurements of the bat velocity, and results for a freely suspended bat, were also obtained in order to assist in the interpretation of the force waveforms. The results show that both sweet spots contribute to the formation of a sweet spot zone where the impact forces on the hands are minimised. The free bat results are also of interest since they provided particularly elegant examples of wave excitation and propagation, suitable for a student demonstration or experiment.

  15. Ultrasonic hammer produces hot spots in solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Sizhu; Chen, Ming-Wei; Dlott, Dana D.; Suslick, Kenneth S.

    2015-04-01

    Mechanical action can produce dramatic physical and mechanochemical effects when the energy is spatially or temporally concentrated. An important example of such phenomena in solids is the mechanical initiation of explosions, which has long been speculated to result from ‘hot spot’ generation at localized microstructures in the energetic material. Direct experimental evidence of such hot spots, however, is exceptionally limited; mechanisms for their generation are poorly understood and methods to control their locations remain elusive. Here we report the generation of intense, localized microscale hot spots in solid composites during mild ultrasonic irradiation, directly visualized by a thermal imaging microscope. These ultrasonic hot spots, with heating rates reaching ~22,000 K s-1, nucleate exclusively at interfacial delamination sites in composite solids. Introducing specific delamination sites by surface modification of embedded components provides precise and reliable control of hot spot locations and permits microcontrol of the initiation of reactions in energetic materials including fuel/oxidizer explosives.

  16. Measuring microfocus focal spots using digital radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, David A

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of microfocus spot size can be important for several reasons: (1) Quality assurance during manufacture of microfocus tubes; (2) Tracking performance and stability of microfocus tubes; (3) Determining magnification (especially important for digital radiography where the native spatial resolution of the digital system is not adequate for the application); (4) Knowledge of unsharpness from the focal spot alone. The European Standard EN 12543-5 is based on a simple geometrical method of calculating focal spot size from unsharpness of high magnification film radiographs. When determining microfocus focal spot dimensions using unsharpness measurements both signal-to-noise (SNR) and magnification can be important. There is a maximum accuracy that is a function of SNR and therefore an optimal magnification. Greater than optimal magnification can be used but it will not increase accuracy.

  17. Quantitation of proteinuria by spot urine sampling.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Indira; Kirubakaran, Chellam; Markandeyulu; Selvakumar

    2004-07-01

    Few studies have shown that calculation of protein/creatinine ratio in a spot urine sample correlates well with the 24-hour urine collection. A study was conducted to compare the accuracy of a spot urinary protein/creatinine ratio (P/C ratio) and urinary dipstick (albustix) with the 24-hour urine protein (24-HUP). Fifty samples from 26 patients were collected. This included a 24-hour urine sample followed by the next voided spot sample. The protein/creatinine ratio was calculated and dipstick (albustix) was performed on the spot sample. This was compared with the 24-hour urine protein excretion. The correlation between the three samples was statistically highly significant (p=<0.001) for all levels of proteinuria. The normal value of protein/creatinine ratio in Indian children was also estimated on 100 normal children attending the OPD and was calculated to be 0.053 (S.E of mean±0.003). PMID:23105455

  18. Investigations of initiation spot size effects

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, Steven A; Akinci, Adrian A; Leichty, Gary; Schaffer, Timothy; Murphy, Michael J; Munger, Alan; Thomas, Keith A

    2010-01-01

    As explosive components become smaller, a greater understanding of the effect of initiation spot size on detonation becomes increasingly critical. A series of tests of the effect of initiation spot size will be described. A series of DOI (direct optical initiation) detonators with initiation spots sizes from {approx}50 um to 1000um have been tested to determine laser parameters for threshold firing of low density PETN pressings. Results will be compared with theoretical predictions. Outputs of the initiation source (DOI ablation) have been characterized by a suite of diagnostics including PDV and schlieren imaging. Outputs of complete detonators have been characterized using PDV, streak, and/or schlieren imaging. At present, we have not found the expected change in the threshold energy to spot size relationship for DOI type detonators found in similar earlier for projectiles, slappers and EBWs. New detonators designs (Type C) are currently being tested that will allow the determination of the threshold for spot sizes from 250 um to 105um, where we hope to see change in the threshold vs. spot size relationship. Also, one test of an extremely small diameter spot size (50um) has resulted in preliminary NoGo only results even at energy densities as much as 8 times the energy density of the threshold results presented here. This gives preliminary evidence that 50um spot may be beyond the critical initiation diameter. The constant threshold energy to spot size relationship in the data to date does however still give some insight into the initiation mechanism of DOI detonators. If the DOI initiation mechanism were a 1D mechanism similar to a slapper or a flyer impact, the expected inflection point in the graph would have been between 300um and 500um diameter spot size, within the range of the data presented here. The lack of that inflection point indicates that the DOI initiation mechanism is more likely a 2D mechanism similar to a sphere or rod projectile. We expect to

  19. White-spot disease of salmon fry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazuranich, J.J.; Nielson, W.E.

    1959-01-01

     White-spot disease, sometimes referred to as coagulated-yolk disease, has been associated with excessive mortalities occurring among the fry and early fingerling stages of the fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytacha) at the U.S. Fish-Cultural Stations at Carson, Cook, Underwood, and Willard, Washington. This disease of eggs and fry should not be confused with the "white-spot" infection that is caused in fingerlings by members of the protozoan genus Ichthyophthirius.

  20. HotSpot Health Physics Codes

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-04-18

    The HotSpot Health Physics Codes were created to provide emergency response personnel and emergency planners with a fast, field-portable set of software tools for evaluating insidents involving redioactive material. The software is also used for safety-analysis of facilities handling nuclear material. HotSpot provides a fast and usually conservative means for estimation the radiation effects associated with the short-term (less than 24 hours) atmospheric release of radioactive materials.

  1. HotSpot Health Physics Codes

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-03-02

    The HotSpot Health Physics Codes were created to provide emergency response personnel and emergency planners with a fast, field-portable set of software tools for evaluating incidents involving radioactive material. The software is also used for safety-analysis of facilities handling nuclear material. HotSpot provides a fast and usually conservative means for estimation the radiation effects associated with the short-term (less than 24 hours) atmospheric release of radioactive materials.

  2. The hot spot of vegetation canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myneni, Ranga B.; Kanemasu, Edward T.

    1988-01-01

    A conventional radiometer is used to identify the hot spot (the peak in reflected radiation in the retrosolar direction) of vegetation. A multiwavelength-band radiometer collected radiances on fully grown dense wheat and maize canopies on several clear sunny days. It is noted that the hot spot is difficult to detect in the near IR wavelengths because the shadows are much darker. In general, the retrosolar brightness is found to be higher for smaller sun polar angles than for larger angles.

  3. ATS Spotted MSI Analysis with Matlab

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, Benjamin

    2012-02-09

    Samples are placed on a surface using an acoustic transfer system (ATS). This results in one ore more small droplets on a surface. Typically there are hundreds to thousands of these droplets arrayed in a regular coordinate system. The surface is analyzed using mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) and at each position, one or more mass spectra are recorded. The purpose of the software is to help the user assign locations to the spots and build a report for each spot.

  4. Interpretation of the Jupiter Red Spot, 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuiper, G. P.

    1973-01-01

    With the aid of 8900 micron CH4 filter photographs it is shown that the Red Spot is normally the highest cloud feature in the Jovian atmosphere, located squarely on the South Tropical Zone at 22 deg. S. The Red Spot is a rising column, obviously having its own energy source; it spreads outward at the top level, in anticyclonic rotation. It is concluded that the large and persistent Jovian cloud masses, of which the Red Spot is the largest, are major organized storm arrays embedded in a near stagnant atmosphere, each probably possessing numerous short-lived rising hot columns driven by released latent heat; and covered by a horizontally-expanding gigantic cirrus cloud system, in anti-cyclonic rotation. The meteorological theory of Organized Cumulus Convection is applied to the Red Spot and the White Ovals. Evidence exists that the array of hot towers under the Red Spot is eccentric. The 90-day and the occassional 5-8 year fluctuations in the motion of the Red Spot may be due to processes analogous to those found in the Earth's Tropical Convergence. The 90-day oscillation has been observed for 8 years.

  5. Rocket engine hot-spot detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collamore, F. N.

    1985-04-01

    On high performance devices such as rocket engines it is desirable to know if local hot spots or areas of reduced cooling margin exist. The objective of this program is to design, fabricate and test an electronic hot spot detector capable of sensing local hot spot on the exterior circumference of a regeneratively cooled combustion chamber in order to avoid hardware damage. The electronic hot spot sensor consists of an array of 120 thermocouple elements which are bonded in a flexible belt of polyimide film. The design temperature range is from +30 F to +400 F continuously with an intermittent temperature of 500 F maximum. The thermocouple belt consists of 120 equally spaced copper-Constantan thermocouple junctions which is wrapped around the OMS liquid rocket engine combustion chamber, to monitor temperatures of individual cooling channels. Each thermocouple is located over a cooling channel near the injector end of the combustion chamber. The thermocouple array sensor is held in place by a spring loaded clamp band. Analyses show that in the event of a blocked cooling channel the surface temperature of the chamber over the blocked channel will rise from a normal operating temperature of approx. 300 F to approx. 600 F. The hot spot detector will respond quickly to this change with a response time constant less than 0.05 seconds. The hot spot sensor assembly is fabricated with a laminated construction of layers of Kapton film and an outer protective layer of fiberglass reinforced silicone rubber.

  6. Nonbright-spot AVO: Two examples

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, C.P.; Kinman, D.L.

    1995-09-01

    The use of amplitude variation with offset (AVO) attribute sections such as the product of the normal incidence trace (A) and the gradient trace (B) have been used extensively in bright spot AVO analysis and interpretation. However, while these sections have often worked well with low acoustic impedance bright spot responses, they are not reliable indicators of nonbright-spot seismic anomalies. Analyzing nonbright-spot seismic data with common AVO attribute sections will: (1) not detect the gas-charged reservoir because of near-zero acoustic impedance contrast between the sands and encasing shales, or (2) yield an incorrect (negative) AVO product if the normal incidence and gradient values are opposite in sign. The authors divide nonbright-spot AVO offset responses into two subcategories: those with phase reversals and those without. An AVO analysis procedure for these anomalies is presented through two examples. The procedure exploits the nature of the prestack response, yielding a more definitive AVO attribute section, and this technique is adaptive to both subcategories of nonbright-spot AVO responses. This technique identifies the presence of gas-charged pore fluids within the reservoir when compared to a conventionally processed, relative amplitude seismic section with characteristically low amplitude responses for near-zero acoustic impedance contrast sands.

  7. Concentrator hot-spot testing, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, C. C.

    1987-01-01

    Results of a study to determine the hot-spot susceptibility of concentrator cells, to provide a hot-spot qualification test for concentrator modules, and to provide guidelines for reducing hot-spot susceptibility are presented. Hot-spot heating occurs in a photovoltaic module when the short-circuit current of a cell is lower than the string operating current forcing the cell into reverse bias with a concurrent power dissipation. Although the basis for the concentrator module hot-spot qualification test is the test developed for flat-plate modules, issues, such as providing cell illumination, introduce additional complexities into the testing procedure. The same general guidelines apply for protecting concentrator modules from hot-spot stressing as apply to flat-plate modules. Therefore, recommendations are made on the number of bypass diodes required per given number of series cells per module or source circuit. In addition, a new method for determining the cell temperature in the laboratory or in the field is discussed.

  8. On the origin of delta spots. [on sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, F.

    1983-01-01

    Mount Wilson sunspot drawings from 1966 through 1980 were used in conjunction with H-alpha filtergrams from Big Bear Solar Observatory to examine the origin of delta spots, spots with bipolar umbrae within one penumbra. Of the six cases studied, five were formed by the union of non-paired spots. They are either shoved into one another by two neighboring growing bipoles or by a new spot borne piggy-back style on an existing spot of opposite polarity. Proper motions of the growing spots take on curvilinear paths around one another to avoid a collision. This is the shear motion observed in delta spots (Tanaka, 1979). In the remaining case, the delta spot was formed by spots that emerged as a pair. The findings indicate no intrinsic differences in the formation or the behavior between delta spots and spots of normal magnetic configuration.

  9. New knowledge about 'white spots' in superalloys

    SciTech Connect

    Jackman, L.A. ); Maurer, G.E. ); Widge, S. )

    1993-05-01

    In April 1991, the first in a series of workshops was held to discuss ways in which the gas turbine industry could better understand defects in nickel-base superalloys. The group's primary objective was to better define, and expand knowledge about, segregation in superalloys such as Alloy 718 and Waspaloy,with emphasis on light-etching areas referred to as solute-lean defects or 'white spots'. This 'White Spots Committee' formed four subcommittees to focus efforts on classification, inspection, mechanisms, and mechanical properties. Completion of the tasks that these subcommittees have undertaken should greatly improve the gas turbine industry's understanding of the physical and mechanical nature of white spots. The primary purpose of this article is to formalize the characterization and classification of white spots in high-strength superalloys so that the metallurgical community can begin to use a common vocabulary when referring to them. An overview of formation mechanisms is presented along with a brief description of detection methods. Also discussed are preliminary test results, which should help shed light on the effects of solute-lean microstructures on tensile and fatigue properties. Although white spots are not limited to any single superalloy or class of superalloy, Alloy 718 is emphasized because it is so widely used, and because its relatively large solidus-liquidus temperature interval ([approximately]75 C, 135 F) and high niobium content ([approximately]5.3% Nb) make it prone to segregation. Three distinct types of white spots have been identified and named by the committee: discrete, dendritic, and solidification white spots.

  10. Hubble Finds New Dark Spot on Neptune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has discovered a new great dark spot, located in the northern hemisphere of the planet Neptune. Because the planet's northern hemisphere is now tilted away from Earth, the new feature appears near the limb of the planet.

    The spot is a near mirror-image to a similar southern hemisphere dark spot that was discovered in 1989 by the Voyager 2 probe. In 1994, Hubble showed that the southern dark spot had disappeared.

    Like its predecessor, the new spot has high altitude clouds along its edge, caused by gasses that have been pushed to higher altitudes where they cool to form methane ice crystal clouds. The dark spot may be a zone of clear gas that is a window to a cloud deck lower in the atmosphere.

    Planetary scientists don t know how long lived this new feature might be. Hubble's high resolution will allow astronomers to follow the spot's evolution and other unexpected changes in Neptune's dynamic atmosphere.

    The image was taken on November 2, 1994 with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, when Neptune was 2.8 billion miles (4.5 billion kilometers) from Earth. Hubble can resolve features as small as 625 miles (1,000 kilometers) across in Neptune's cloud tops.

    The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

    This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

  11. Reaction of sorghum lines to zonate leaf spot and rough leaf spot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abundant, frequent rains, along with humid and cloudy conditions during the early part of the 2015 growing season, provided conducive conditions for an unusually severe outbreak of zonate leaf spot and rough leaf spot in a block of sorghum lines at the Texas A&M AgriLife Research Farm, Burleson Coun...

  12. Auroral bright spots on the dayside oval

    SciTech Connect

    Lui, A.T.Y. ); Venkatesan, D.; Murphree, J.S. )

    1989-05-01

    Global auroral images from the ultraviolet imager on the Viking spacecraft are used to investigate spatially periodic bright spots on the dayside auroral oval that resemble beads on a string. The newly achieved temporal resolution of 1 min. or less in monitoring worldwide auroral distributions by the Viking imager contributes significant to the capability of observing this phenomenon. It is found that these are frequently seen in the 1,400-1,600 MLT sector. The series of bright spots are not, however, limited to this unique local time sector, since they are seen to extend into the prenoon sector on some occasions. They occur often during substorm intervals but are also seen unaccompanied by substorm activities in the nightside. There is neither a consistent north-south nor east-west direction of motion for all the dayside bright spots observed so far. The observation of the time scales for the transient intensifications of bright spots and the lack of consistent directions of their motion are consistent with the characteristics expected from the suggestion that these bright spots are related to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability occurring within the magnetosphere.

  13. Jupiter's Polar UV Great Dark Spot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, R. A.; Griswold, D.; Porco, C.

    2003-05-01

    Jupiter's polar UV Great Dark Spot is an ephemeral but recurring feature first seen in near-UV (240-270 nm) images obtained by the Wide Field camera on the Hubble Space Telescope in October, 1997. A movie made from UV images taken by the Cassini Imaging Subsystem (ISS) in late 2000 (Porco et al., 2003, Science 299, 1541-1547) fortuitously captured the formation of the spot and covered a significant evolutionary phase as the spot took on a size and shape similar to Jupiter's Great Red Spot and then stretched in longitude and developed an angular boundary. Here we analyze images at additional wavelengths from HST and from Cassini ISS. The spot rapidly becomes invisible between 300 and about 440 nm. It is not seen in the 890-nm methane band which is sensitive to stratospheric particles, suggesting that the UV absorption is produced by a gaseous constituent and not an aerosol. As it evolves and drifts in System III longitude it stays centered on the perimeter defining a polar vortex region poleward of about 60 degrees north latitude which is remarkably featureless in the 890-nm methane movie made from ISS images.

  14. On turbulent spots in plane Poiseuille flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henningson, Dan S.; Kim, John

    1992-01-01

    Turbulence characteristics inside a turbulent spot in plume Poiseuille flow are investigated by analyzing a data base obtained from a direct numerical simulation. The spot is found to consist of two distinct regions - a turbulent area and a wave area. The flow inside the turbulent area has a strong resemblance to that found in the fully developed turbulent channel. Suitably defined mean and rms fluctuations as well as the internal shear layer structures are found to be similar to the turbulent counterpart. In the wave area, the inflexional mean spanwise profiles cause a rapid growth of oblique waves, which break down to turbulence. The breakdown process of the oblique waves is reminiscent of the secondary instability observed during transition to turbulence in channel and boundary layer flows. Other detailed characteristics associated with the Poiseuille spot are presented and are compared with experimental results.

  15. Cartographic potential of SPOT image data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, R.

    1985-01-01

    In late 1985, the SPOT (Systeme Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre) satellite is to be launched by the Ariane rocket from French Guiana. This satellite will have two High Resolution Visible (HRV) line array sensor systems which are capable of providing monoscopic and stereoscopic coverage of the earth. Cartographic applications are related to the recording of stereo image data and the acquisition of 20-m data in a multispectral mode. One of the objectives of this study involves a comparison of the suitability of SPOT and TM image data for mapping urban land use/cover. Another objective is concerned with a preliminary assessment of the potential of SPOT image data for map revision when merged with conventional map sheets converted to raster formats.

  16. Ocular hazards of industrial spot welding.

    PubMed

    Chou, B R; Cullen, A P

    1996-06-01

    Any welding process is perceived to be a radiation hazard to the eye. Site visits were made to an automotive assembly plant to assess the levels of optical radiation and other hazards on the production line. Measurements were taken with a scanning spectro-radiometer and optical power and energy meters at operating working distances at spot welding stations where nonrobotic procedures were performed. Ultraviolet (UV) irradiance levels produced while spot welding with electrodes operating at 10 to 15 kA and 10 to 20 V were several orders of magnitude below recommended safety limits for industrial exposure. Flashes were rich in visible light and infrared (IR) radiation, but not at hazardous levels. The principal hazards in manual spot welding with high-current electrodes are high-speed droplets of molten metal produced by the process. These are easily defended against by wraparound polycarbonate eye shields. PMID:8807655

  17. Statistical Hot Spot Model for Explosive Detonation

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols III, A L

    2004-05-10

    The Non-local Thermodynamic Equilibrium Statistical Hot Spot Model (NLTE SHS), a new model for explosive detonation, is described. In this model, the formation, ignition, propagation, and extinction of hot spots is explicitly modeled. The equation of state of the explosive mixture is treated with a nonlocal equilibrium thermodynamic assumption. A methodology for developing the parameters for the model is discussed, and applied to the detonation velocity diameter effect. Examination of these results indicates where future improvements to the model can be made.

  18. Lissencephaly and mongolian spots in Hurler syndrome.

    PubMed

    Panteliadis, Christos P; Karatza, Eliza D; Tzitiridou, Maria K; Koliouskas, Dimitrios E; Spiroglou, Kleomenis S

    2003-07-01

    Hurler disease or syndrome is a disorder of mucopolysaccharide metabolism, inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. We describe a case of a 15-month-old female exhibiting with clinical and laboratory characteristics of the syndrome, central nervous system lesions (lissencephaly, excessive ventricular enlargement and Dandy Walker malformation with vermis atrophy, cerebellar cyst) and mongolian spots in the trunk and extremities. The combination of mongolian spots and severe central nervous system lesions in Hurler syndrome is considered a rare clinical occurrence, while the association with lissencephaly has never been reported. PMID:13679124

  19. Statistical Hot Spot Model for Explosive Detonation

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, III, A L

    2005-07-14

    The Non-local Thermodynamic Equilibrium Statistical Hot Spot Model (NLTE SHS), a new model for explosive detonation, is described. In this model, the formation, ignition, propagation, and extinction of hot spots is explicitly modeled. The equation of state of the explosive mixture is treated with a non-local equilibrium thermodynamic assumption. A methodology for developing the parameters for the model is discussed, and applied to the detonation velocity diameter effect. Examination of these results indicates where future improvements to the model can be made.

  20. ATS Spotted MSI Analysis with Matlab

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-02-09

    Samples are placed on a surface using an acoustic transfer system (ATS). This results in one ore more small droplets on a surface. Typically there are hundreds to thousands of these droplets arrayed in a regular coordinate system. The surface is analyzed using mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) and at each position, one or more mass spectra are recorded. The purpose of the software is to help the user assign locations to the spots and buildmore » a report for each spot.« less

  1. Variation in T-SPOT.TB spot interpretation between independent observers from different laboratories.

    PubMed

    Franken, Willeke P J; Thijsen, Steven; Wolterbeek, Ron; Bouwman, John J M; el Bannoudi, Hanane; Kik, Sandra V; van Dissel, Jaap T; Arend, Sandra M

    2009-10-01

    T-SPOT.TB is a specific assay for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. The assay needs to be performed with freshly isolated cells, and interpretation requires training. T-SPOT.TB has been used in various clinical-epidemiological settings, but so far no studies have evaluated the effect of interobserver variation in test reading. Our aim was to evaluate variation between different observers in reading T-SPOT.TB results. The study was nested within an ongoing cohort study, in which part of the T-SPOT.TB had been performed with frozen material. Culture plates were read visually by four different observers from two laboratories and by two automated readers. Of 313 T-SPOT.TB assays, 235 were performed with fresh cells and 78 were performed with frozen cells. No significant difference was found between results obtained with fresh cells and those obtained with frozen cells. The percentage of positive results varied between readers by maximally 15%; five/six raters were within a 6% difference in positive results. Analysis of the observed interrater differences showed that some individuals systematically counted more spots than others did. Because test interpretation includes subtraction of background values, this systematic variance had little influence on interindividual differences. The test result as positive or negative varied between independent raters, mainly due to samples with values around the cutoff. This warrants further study regarding determinants affecting the reading of T-SPOT.TB. PMID:19710293

  2. 21 CFR 886.1435 - Maxwell spot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Maxwell spot. 886.1435 Section 886.1435 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES...-powered device that is a light source with a red and blue filter intended to test macular function....

  3. Jupiter's Convection and Its Red Spot.

    PubMed

    Smoluchowski, R

    1970-06-12

    Physical properties of the liquid hydrogen-helium layer of Jupiter are calculated and used in evaluating convection and in interpreting the approximately constant rate of longitudinal motion of the Red Spot on the basis of the Hide-Streett model. PMID:17731041

  4. Dramatic Change in Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, A. A.; Wong, M. H.; Rogers, J. H.; Orton, G. S.; de Pater, I.; Asay-Davis, X.; Carlson, R. W.; Marcus, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is one of its most distinct and enduring features, having been continuously observed since the 1800's. It currently spans the smallest latitude and longitude size ever recorded. Here we show analyses of 2014 Hubble spectral imaging data to study the color, structure and internal dynamics of this long-live storm.

  5. Severe spotted fever group rickettsiosis, Australia.

    PubMed

    McBride, William J H; Hanson, Joshua P; Miller, Robert; Wenck, Drew

    2007-11-01

    We report 3 cases of spotted fever group rickettsial infection (presumed Queensland tick typhus) in residents of northern Queensland, Australia, who had unusually severe clinical manifestations. Complications included renal failure, purpura fulminans, and severe pneumonia. Clinical illness caused by Rickettsia australis may not be as benign as previously described. PMID:18217560

  6. 9 CFR 149.4 - Spot audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spot audit. 149.4 Section 149.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... the site is found not to be adhering to one or more of the required good production practices,...

  7. 9 CFR 149.4 - Spot audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Spot audit. 149.4 Section 149.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... the site is found not to be adhering to one or more of the required good production practices,...

  8. Genetics of tan spot resistance in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tan spot is a devastating foliar disease of wheat caused by the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Pyrenophora tritici-repentis. Much has been learned during the past two decades regarding the genetics of wheat-P. tritici-repentis interactions. Research has shown that the fungus produces at least three ho...

  9. Easy Demonstration of the Poisson Spot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluck, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Many physics teachers have a set of slides of single, double and multiple slits to show their students the phenomena of interference and diffraction. Thomas Young's historic experiments with double slits were indeed a milestone in proving the wave nature of light. But another experiment, namely the Poisson spot, was also important historically and…

  10. Lupus a Tough Disease to Spot, Treat

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español You Are Here: Home → Latest Health News → Article URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159098.html Lupus a Tough Disease to Spot, Treat But experts say scientists are working to unearth genetic causes of autoimmune ...

  11. 9 CFR 149.4 - Spot audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Spot audit. 149.4 Section 149.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... results as a result of testing of certified swine from that site at the slaughter facility. (b) All...

  12. 9 CFR 149.4 - Spot audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Spot audit. 149.4 Section 149.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... results as a result of testing of certified swine from that site at the slaughter facility. (b) All...

  13. 9 CFR 149.4 - Spot audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Spot audit. 149.4 Section 149.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... results as a result of testing of certified swine from that site at the slaughter facility. (b) All...

  14. Hot-spot tectonics on Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcewen, A. S.

    1985-01-01

    The thesis is that extensional tectonics and low-angle detachment faults probably occur on Io in association with the hot spots. These processes may occur on a much shorter timescale on Ion than on Earth, so that Io could be a natural laboratory for the study of thermotectonics. Furthermore, studies of heat and detachment in crustal extension on Earth and the other terresrial planets (especially Venus and Mars) may provide analogs to processes on Io. The geology of Io is dominated by volcanism and hot spots, most likely the result of tidal heating. Hot spots cover 1 to 2% of Io's surface, radiating at temperatures typically from 200 to 400 K, and occasionally up to 700K. Heat loss from the largest hot spots on Io, such as Loki Patera, is about 300 times the heat loss from Yellowstone, so a tremendous quantity of energy is available for volcanic and tectonic work. Active volcanism on Io results in a resurfacing rate as high as 10 cm per year, yet many structural features are apparent on the surface. Therefore, the tectonics must be highly active.

  15. THE SPACE PUBLIC OUTREACH TEAM (SPOT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Kathryn; National Radio Astronomy Observatory; Montana Space Grant Consortium; West Virginia Space Grant Consortium; NASA Independent Verification and Validation Center

    2014-01-01

    The Space Public Outreach Team (SPOT) has shown over 17 years of success in bringing astronomy and space science-themed presentations to approximately 10,000 students per year in Montana, and the program is now being piloted in West Virginia through a joint partnership between the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), the West Virginia Space Grant Consortium, and NASA Independent Verification and Validation Center. SPOT recruits and trains undergraduate presenters from all over the state to learn interactive slide shows that highlight the state’s on-going and world-class space science research. Presenters then travel to K-12 schools to deliver these presentations and provide teachers additional supplemental information for when the SPOT team leaves. As a large-scale, low-cost, and sustainable program being implemented in both Montana and West Virginia, SPOT has the potential to become a nation-wide effort that institutions in other states can model to increase their education and public outreach presence.

  16. Two New Hot Spots on Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) on Galileo obtained this image of half of Io's disk in darkness on September 19, 1997. This image, at 5 microns, shows several hot spots on Io, which are volcanic regions of enhanced thermal emission. The area shown is part of the leading hemisphere of Io.

    Two new hot spots are shown and indicated in the image (New, and Shamshu). Neither of these hot spots were seen by NIMS or the Solid State Imaging Experiment, (SSI) prior to this observation, becoming only recently active. Several other previously known hot spots are labelled in the image. Galileo was at a distance of 342,000 km from Io when this observation was made.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  17. Digital Sun Sensor Multi-Spot Operation

    PubMed Central

    Rufino, Giancarlo; Grassi, Michele

    2012-01-01

    The operation and test of a multi-spot digital sun sensor for precise sun-line determination is described. The image forming system consists of an opaque mask with multiple pinhole apertures producing multiple, simultaneous, spot-like images of the sun on the focal plane. The sun-line precision can be improved by averaging multiple simultaneous measures. Nevertheless, the sensor operation on a wide field of view requires acquiring and processing images in which the number of sun spots and the related intensity level are largely variable. To this end, a reliable and robust image acquisition procedure based on a variable shutter time has been considered as well as a calibration function exploiting also the knowledge of the sun-spot array size. Main focus of the present paper is the experimental validation of the wide field of view operation of the sensor by using a sensor prototype and a laboratory test facility. Results demonstrate that it is possible to keep high measurement precision also for large off-boresight angles. PMID:23443388

  18. The Content of Political Spot Ads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joslyn, Richard A.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of 156 television political spot advertisements revealed that the most prevalent type of content was issue-related (although very few advertisements revealed a specific candidate issue position), followed by content focusing on candidate qualities, then by references to certain demographic groups, and finally by the transmission of…

  19. The sweet spots in human communication.

    PubMed

    Salem, Philip

    2011-07-01

    In baseball, the sweet spot is a special place on a bat where the batter can hit the ball with the most power. It is the place where the performances of the batter and pitcher collide with maximum effect. It is the place where the dynamic tension between opponents leads to transformation. The dynamic tension in all living systems is between similarity and difference. Chaos and complexity scholars recognized this tension as amounts of information. When the amounts of information were high, but not too high, the system moved to the edge of chaos, to the complexity regime, to strange attractors, or to chaos, depending on the model. The sweet spot is that range of relative variety, just the proper mix of similarity and difference, leading to transformation. This essay contains a model of human communication as an emergent social process with its own sweet spots. The essay also includes a description of current literature highlighting tensions between similarity and difference, and there is an exploration of the potential to move from one basin of attraction to another. The primary constraints on finding communication sweet spots are paradigmatic - adopting a process orientation, discovering the proper parameters, bracketing sequences to define initial conditions, and understanding the strengths and weaknesses of various modeling techniques. PMID:21645437

  20. PPR Great Red Spot Temperature Map

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This map shows temperature for the region around Jupiter's Great Red Spot and an area to the northwest. It corresponds to a level in Jupiter's atmosphere where the pressure is 1/2 of the of the Earth's at sea level (500 millibars), the same as it is near 6000 meters (20,000 feet) above sea level on Earth. The center of Great Red Spot appears colder than the surrounding areas, where air from below is being brought up. The 'panhandle' to the northwest is warmer and drier, and the gases there are descending, so it is much clearer of clouds. Compare this map to one released earlier at a higher place in the atmosphere (250 millibars or 12000 meters). The center of the Great Red Spot is warmer lower in the atmosphere, and a white 'hot spot' appears in this image that is not present at the higher place. This map was made from data taken by the Photopolarimeter/Radiometer (PPR) instrument on June 26, 1996.

    Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment.

    JPL manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  1. The Little Red Spot: Closest View Yet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This is a mosaic of three New Horizons images of Jupiter's Little Red Spot, taken with the spacecraft's Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) camera at 17:41 Universal Time on February 26 from a range of 3.5 million kilometers (2.1 million miles). The image scale is 17 kilometers (11 miles) per pixel, and the area covered measures 33,000 kilometers (20,000 miles) from top to bottom, two and one-half times the diameter of Earth.

    The Little Red Spot, a smaller cousin of the famous Great Red Spot, formed in the past decade from the merger of three smaller Jovian storms, and is now the second-largest storm on Jupiter. About a year ago its color, formerly white, changed to a reddish shade similar to the Great Red Spot, perhaps because it is now powerful enough to dredge up reddish material from deeper inside Jupiter. These are the most detailed images ever taken of the Little Red Spot since its formation, and will be combined with even sharper images taken by New Horizons 10 hours later to map circulation patterns around and within the storm.

    LORRI took the images as the Sun was about to set on the Little Red Spot. The LORRI camera was designed to look at Pluto, where sunlight is much fainter than it is at Jupiter, so the images would have been overexposed if LORRI had looked at the storm when it was illuminated by the noonday Sun. The dim evening illumination helped the LORRI camera obtain well-exposed images. The New Horizons team used predictions made by amateur astronomers in 2006, based on their observations of the motion of the Little Red Spot with backyard telescopes, to help them accurately point LORRI at the storm.

    These are among a handful of Jupiter system images already returned by New Horizons during its close approach to Jupiter. Most of the data being gathered by the spacecraft are stored onboard and will be downlinked to Earth during March and April 2007.

  2. Measuring microfocal spots using digital radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, David A; Ewert, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of microfocus spot size can be important for several reasons: (1) Quality assurance during manufacture of microfocus tubes; (2) Tracking performance and stability of microfocus tubes; (3) Determining magnification is especially important for digital radiography where the native spatial resolution of the digital system is not adequate for the application; and (4) Knowledge of unsharpness from the focal spot alone. The European Standard EN 12543-5 is based on a simple geometrical method of calculating focal spot size from unsharpness of high magnification film radiographs. The following equations are used for the focal spot size measurement: By similar triangles the following equations are presupposed: f/a = U/b and M = (a+b)/a. These equations can be combined to yield the well known expression: U = f(M - 1). Solving for f, f = U/(M-1). Therefore, the focal spot size, f, can be calculated by measuring the radiographic unsharpness and magnification of a known object. This is the basis for these tests. The European standard actually uses one-half of the unsharpness (which are then added together) from both sides of the object to avoid additional unsharpness contributions due to edge transmission unsharpness of the round test object (the outside of the object is measured). So the equation becomes f = (1/2 U{sub 1} + 1/2 U{sub 2})/(M-1). In practice 1/2 U is measured from the 50% to the 90% signal points on the transition profile from ''black'' to ''white,'' (positive image) or attenuated to unattenuated portion of the image. The 50% to 90% points are chosen as a best fit to an assumed Gaussian radiation distribution from the focal spot and to avoid edge transmission effects. 1/2 U{sub 1} + 1/2 U{sub 2} corresponds about to the full width at half height of a Gaussian focal spot. A highly absorbing material (Tungsten, Tungsten Alloy, or Platinum) is used for the object. Either wires or a sphere are used as the object to eliminate alignment issues. One

  3. Revised Thorium Abundances for Lunar Red Spots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagerty, J. J.; Lawrence, D. J.; Elphic, R. C.; Feldman, W. C.; Vaniman, D. T.; Hawke, B. R.

    2005-01-01

    Lunar red spots are features on the nearside of the Moon that are characterized by high albedo and by a strong absorption in the ultraviolet. These red spots include the Gruithuisen domes, the Mairan domes, Hansteen Alpha, the southern portion of Montes Riphaeus, Darney Chi and Tau, Helmet, and an area near the Lassell crater. It has been suggested that many of the red spots are extrusive, nonmare, volcanic features that could be composed of an evolved lithlogy enriched in thorium. In fact, Hawke et al. used morphological characteristics to show that Hansteen Alpha is a nonmare volcanic construct. However, because the apparent Th abundances (6 - 7 ppm) were lower than that expected for evolved rock types, Hawke et al. concluded that Hansteen Alpha was composed of an unknown rock type. Subsequent studies by Lawrence et al. used improved knowledge of the Th spatial distribution for small area features on the lunar surface to revisit the interpretation of Th abundances at the Hansteen Alpha red spot. As part of their study, Lawrence et al. used a forward modeling technique to show that the Th abundance at Hansteen Alpha is not 6 ppm, but is more likely closer to 25 ppm, a value consistent with evolved lithologies. This positive correlation between the morphology and composition of Hansteen Alpha provides support for the presence of evolved lithologies on the lunar surface. It is possible, however, that Hansteen Alpha represents an isolated occurrence of non-mare volcanism. That is why we have chosen to use the forward modeling technique of Lawrence et al. to investigate the Th abundances at other lunar red spots, starting with the Gruithuisen domes. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  4. Hyperspectral analysis of columbia spotted frog habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shive, J.P.; Pilliod, D.S.; Peterson, C.R.

    2010-01-01

    Wildlife managers increasingly are using remotely sensed imagery to improve habitat delineations and sampling strategies. Advances in remote sensing technology, such as hyperspectral imagery, provide more information than previously was available with multispectral sensors. We evaluated accuracy of high-resolution hyperspectral image classifications to identify wetlands and wetland habitat features important for Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) and compared the results to multispectral image classification and United States Geological Survey topographic maps. The study area spanned 3 lake basins in the Salmon River Mountains, Idaho, USA. Hyperspectral data were collected with an airborne sensor on 30 June 2002 and on 8 July 2006. A 12-year comprehensive ground survey of the study area for Columbia spotted frog reproduction served as validation for image classifications. Hyperspectral image classification accuracy of wetlands was high, with a producer's accuracy of 96 (44 wetlands) correctly classified with the 2002 data and 89 (41 wetlands) correctly classified with the 2006 data. We applied habitat-based rules to delineate breeding habitat from other wetlands, and successfully predicted 74 (14 wetlands) of known breeding wetlands for the Columbia spotted frog. Emergent sedge microhabitat classification showed promise for directly predicting Columbia spotted frog egg mass locations within a wetland by correctly identifying 72 (23 of 32) of known locations. Our study indicates hyperspectral imagery can be an effective tool for mapping spotted frog breeding habitat in the selected mountain basins. We conclude that this technique has potential for improving site selection for inventory and monitoring programs conducted across similar wetland habitat and can be a useful tool for delineating wildlife habitats. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  5. Wearable Monitor Helps Spot 'Masked' High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Wearable Monitor Helps Spot 'Masked' High Blood Pressure Black people with undetected problem twice as likely ... MONDAY, May 16, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Constant blood pressure monitoring could help doctors spot black people with " ...

  6. Wearable Monitor Helps Spot 'Masked' High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_158860.html Wearable Monitor Helps Spot 'Masked' High Blood Pressure Black people with undetected problem twice as likely ... doctors spot black people with "masked," or undetected, high blood pressure, a new study suggests. "Masked" high blood pressure ...

  7. Turbulent Region Near Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    True and false color mosaics of the turbulent region west of Jupiter's Great Red Spot. The Great Red Spot is on the planetary limb on the right hand side of each mosaic. The region west (left) of the Great Red Spot is characterized by large, turbulent structures that rapidly change in appearance. The turbulence results from the collision of a westward jet that is deflected northward by the Great Red Spot into a higher latitude eastward jet. The large eddies nearest to the Great Red Spot are bright, suggesting that convection and cloud formation are active there.

    The top mosaic combines the violet (410 nanometers) and near infrared continuum (756 nanometers) filter images to create a mosaic similar to how Jupiter would appear to human eyes. Differences in coloration are due to the composition and abundance of trace chemicals in Jupiter's atmosphere. The lower mosaic uses the Galileo imaging camera's three near-infrared (invisible) wavelengths (756 nanometers, 727 nanometers, and 889 nanometers displayed in red, green, and blue) to show variations in cloud height and thickness. Light blue clouds are high and thin, reddish clouds are deep, and white clouds are high and thick. Purple most likely represents a high haze overlying a clear deep atmosphere. Galileo is the first spacecraft to distinguish cloud layers on Jupiter.

    The mosaic is centered at 16.5 degrees south planetocentric latitude and 85 degrees west longitude. The north-south dimension of the Great Red Spot is approximately 11,000 kilometers. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. North is at the top of the picture. The images used were taken on June 26, 1997 at a range of 1.2 million kilometers (1.05 million miles) by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology

  8. Dynamically variable spot size laser system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradl, Paul R. (Inventor); Hurst, John F. (Inventor); Middleton, James R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A Dynamically Variable Spot Size (DVSS) laser system for bonding metal components includes an elongated housing containing a light entry aperture coupled to a laser beam transmission cable and a light exit aperture. A plurality of lenses contained within the housing focus a laser beam from the light entry aperture through the light exit aperture. The lenses may be dynamically adjusted to vary the spot size of the laser. A plurality of interoperable safety devices, including a manually depressible interlock switch, an internal proximity sensor, a remotely operated potentiometer, a remotely activated toggle and a power supply interlock, prevent activation of the laser and DVSS laser system if each safety device does not provide a closed circuit. The remotely operated potentiometer also provides continuous variability in laser energy output.

  9. Spot foreign exchange market and time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroni, F.; Serva, M.

    2003-08-01

    We investigate high frequency price dynamics in foreign exchange market using data from Reuters information system (the dataset has been provided to us by Olsen and Associates). In our analysis we show that a naïve approach to the definition of price (for example using the spot mid price) may lead to wrong conclusions on price behavior as for example the presence of short term correlations for returns. For this purpose we introduce an algorithm which only uses the non arbitrage principle to estimate real prices from the spot ones. The new definition leads to returns which are not affected by spurious correlations. Furthermore, any apparent information (defined by using Shannon entropy) contained in the data disappears.

  10. Jupiter's Great Red Spot and White Ovals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This photo of Jupiter was taken by Voyager 1 on the evening of March 1, 1979, from a distance of 2.7 million miles (4.3 million kilometers). The photo shows Jupiter's Great Red Spot (top) and one of the white ovals than can be seen in Jupiter's atmosphere from Earth. The white ovals were seen to form in 1939, and 1940, and have remained more or less constant ever since. None of the structure and detail evident in these features have ever been seen from Earth. The Great Red Spot is three times as large as Earth. Also evident in the picture is a great deal of atmospheric detail that will require further study for interpretation. The smallest details that can be seen in this picture are about 45 miles (80 kilometers across. JPL manages and controls the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  11. Wetlands mapping with spot multispectral scanner data

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr. ); Jensen, J.R. . Dept. of Geography)

    1989-01-01

    Government facilities such as the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant (SRP) near Aiken, South Carolina, often use remote sensing data to assist in environmental management. Airborne multispectral scanner (MSS) data have been acquired at SRP since 1981. Various types of remote sensing data have been used to map and characterize wetlands. Regional Landsat MSS and TM satellite data have been used for wetlands mapping by various government agencies and private organizations. Furthermore, SPOT MSS data are becoming available and provide opportunities for increased spacial resolution and temporal coverage for wetlands mapping. This paper summarizes the initial results from using five dates of SPOT MSS data from April through October, 1987, as a means to monitor seasonal wetland changes in freshwater wetlands of the SRP. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Jupiter's Great Red Spot - A free atmospheric vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingersoll, A. P.

    1973-01-01

    A simple hydrodynamic model yields steady-state solutions with many of the properties of the Great Red Spot and the neighboring belts and zones of Jupiter. No special forcing mechanism is necessary to maintain the circulation of the Spot. This is consistent with observations which indicate that the Great Red Spot and the zones have similar dynamic properties.

  13. Jupiters great red spot: a free atmospheric vortex?

    PubMed

    Ingersoll, A P

    1973-12-28

    A simple hydrodynamic model yields steady-state solutions with many of the properties of the Great Red Spot and the neighboring belts and zones of Jupiter. No special forcing mechanism is necessary to maintain the circulation of the Spot. This is consistent with observations which indicate that the Great Red Spot and the zones have similar dynamic properties. PMID:17733115

  14. 21 CFR 892.1670 - Spot-film device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Spot-film device. 892.1670 Section 892.1670 Food... DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1670 Spot-film device. (a) Identification. A spot-film... medical purposes to position a radiographic film cassette to obtain radiographs during fluoroscopy....

  15. 50 CFR 223.212 - Southern DPS of spotted seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Southern DPS of spotted seal. 223.212... Applicable to Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.212 Southern DPS of spotted seal. The... the Southern Distinct Population Segment of spotted seal listed in § 223.102....

  16. 50 CFR 223.211 - Southern DPS of spotted seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Southern DPS of spotted seal. 223.211... Applicable to Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.211 Southern DPS of spotted seal. The... species shall apply to the Southern Distinct Population Segment of the spotted seal listed in §...

  17. 50 CFR 223.211 - Southern DPS of spotted seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Southern DPS of spotted seal. 223.211... Applicable to Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.211 Southern DPS of spotted seal. The... species shall apply to the Southern Distinct Population Segment of the spotted seal listed in §...

  18. Spot-Welding Gun Is Easy To Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E.; Nguyen, Francis H.

    1991-01-01

    Electrical-resistance spot-welding gun designed to produce more welds per unit time by decreasing technician's effort and fatigue. Vacuum cups on frame secure welding gun to workpiece while compressed air drives welding tip against workpiece to make spot resistance weld. When weld completed, vacuum in frame cups released so frame and gun moved to position of next spot weld.

  19. Spot-Welding Gun With Pivoting Twin-Collet Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Francis; Simpson, Gareth; Hoult, William S.

    1996-01-01

    Modified spot-welding gun includes pivoting twin-collet assembly that holds two spot-welding electrodes. Designed to weld highly conductive (30 percent gold) brazing-alloy foils to thin nickel alloy workpieces; also suitable for other spot-welding applications compatible with two-electrode configuration.

  20. Determination of the Nature of Spotting in Blanched Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The peanut spotting is a big problem responsible for significant loss by the peanut industry. The cause of the spotting has been identified in the lab as being due to infection by fungi. Secondary fungal metabolites and peanut stilbene phytoalexins were not involved in the spot formation. The nature...

  1. Pips and spots in the microwave sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Sanz, J. L.

    1989-04-01

    Some local statistical properties in the microwave sky are analyzed such as mean number of hotspots over the celestial sphere, mean size of a hotspot, mean number of pips at fixed declination, and the 95 percent confidence interval for the threshold of the hottest spot or pip. It is concluded that the best strategy to detect the maximum number of hotspots would be to perform a double beam-switching experiment with a beam resolution and angular beam separation of about 2 deg.

  2. Modified Spot Welder Solders Flat Cables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haehner, Carl L.

    1992-01-01

    Soldering device, essentially modified spot welder, melts high-melting-temperature solders without damaging plastic insulation on flat electrical cables. Solder preform rests on exposed conductor of cable, under connector pin. Electrodes press pin/preform/conductor sandwich together and supply pulse of current to melt preform, bonding pin to conductor. Anvil acts as support and heat sink. Device used to solder flexible ribbon cables to subminiature pin connectors.

  3. Johann Schroeter's 'Extremely Dark Spots Of Jupiter'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbins, T.; Sheehan, W.

    1997-06-01

    Physical observations of Jupiter from the 18th century are rare. The most diligent observer of the planet of that era was Johann Schroeter, who in 1785-86 recorded multiple short-term, transient dark spots. Schroeter's observations are discussed in detail. Though somewhat reminiscent of the recent Shoemaker-Levy 9 impact events, the authors conclude that Schroeter's observations furnish a unique record of SEBn activity in the 18th century.

  4. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Spotted Owl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laymon, Stephen A.; Salwasser, Hal; Barrett, Reginald H.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the spotted owl (Strix occidentalis). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  5. DNA-nanostructure-assembly by sequential spotting

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The ability to create nanostructures with biomolecules is one of the key elements in nanobiotechnology. One of the problems is the expensive and mostly custom made equipment which is needed for their development. We intended to reduce material costs and aimed at miniaturization of the necessary tools that are essential for nanofabrication. Thus we combined the capabilities of molecular ink lithography with DNA-self-assembling capabilities to arrange DNA in an independent array which allows addressing molecules in nanoscale dimensions. Results For the construction of DNA based nanostructures a method is presented that allows an arrangement of DNA strands in such a way that they can form a grid that only depends on the spotted pattern of the anchor molecules. An atomic force microscope (AFM) has been used for molecular ink lithography to generate small spots. The sequential spotting process allows the immobilization of several different functional biomolecules with a single AFM-tip. This grid which delivers specific addresses for the prepared DNA-strand serves as a two-dimensional anchor to arrange the sequence according to the pattern. Once the DNA-nanoarray has been formed, it can be functionalized by PNA (peptide nucleic acid) to incorporate advanced structures. Conclusions The production of DNA-nanoarrays is a promising task for nanobiotechnology. The described method allows convenient and low cost preparation of nanoarrays. PNA can be used for complex functionalization purposes as well as a structural element. PMID:22099392

  6. First- and second-order Poisson spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, William R.; Shirley, Eric L.; Migdall, Alan L.; Polyakov, Sergey V.; Hendrix, Kurt

    2009-08-01

    Although Thomas Young is generally given credit for being the first to provide evidence against Newton's corpuscular theory of light, it was Augustin Fresnel who first stated the modern theory of diffraction. We review the history surrounding Fresnel's 1818 paper and the role of the Poisson spot in the associated controversy. We next discuss the boundary-diffraction-wave approach to calculating diffraction effects and show how it can reduce the complexity of calculating diffraction patterns. We briefly discuss a generalization of this approach that reduces the dimensionality of integrals needed to calculate the complete diffraction pattern of any order diffraction effect. We repeat earlier demonstrations of the conventional Poisson spot and discuss an experimental setup for demonstrating an analogous phenomenon that we call a "second-order Poisson spot." Several features of the diffraction pattern can be explained simply by considering the path lengths of singly and doubly bent paths and distinguishing between first- and second-order diffraction effects related to such paths, respectively.

  7. Word Spotting and Recognition with Embedded Attributes.

    PubMed

    Almazán, Jon; Gordo, Albert; Fornés, Alicia; Valveny, Ernest

    2014-12-01

    This paper addresses the problems of word spotting and word recognition on images. In word spotting, the goal is to find all instances of a query word in a dataset of images. In recognition, the goal is to recognize the content of the word image, usually aided by a dictionary or lexicon. We describe an approach in which both word images and text strings are embedded in a common vectorial subspace. This is achieved by a combination of label embedding and attributes learning, and a common subspace regression. In this subspace, images and strings that represent the same word are close together, allowing one to cast recognition and retrieval tasks as a nearest neighbor problem. Contrary to most other existing methods, our representation has a fixed length, is low dimensional, and is very fast to compute and, especially, to compare. We test our approach on four public datasets of both handwritten documents and natural images showing results comparable or better than the state-of-the-art on spotting and recognition tasks. PMID:26353157

  8. Meniscal mineralisation in little spotted cats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the stifle joints of little spotted cats in captivity using radiographic and CT studies. The hypothesis was that these animals would have meniscal mineralisation that could be detectable by imaging studies. Twelve intact little spotted cats (Leopardus tigrinus), 2 females and 10 males, aged from 1.5 to 11.11 years old and weighing 1.9–3.05 kg were studied. These animals, which were living in the Quinzinho de Barros Municipal Zoo, had no symptoms or known disease processes at the time of the study. The plain radiographs and computed tomography (CT) scans of both stifle joints were performed under general anaesthesia. Sequential transverse images were acquired on a spiral scanner. Results No signs of articular disease were observed in any of the animals. Radiographically, the meniscal mineralisation was detected as an oval radiopacity in the cranial compartment on the mediolateral projection, located within the area of the medial meniscus. On craniocaudal projection, the mineralisation was more difficult to visualise. In one of the animals, it was not possible to identify the meniscal mineralisation in either of the stifle joints. Using CT, meniscal mineralisation was best identified in the transverse plane images. Conclusions Meniscal mineralisation appears to be a normal anatomic feature in little spotted cats. PMID:23506083

  9. Superluminal Spot Pair Events in Astronomical Settings: Sweeping Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemiroff, Robert J.

    2015-02-01

    Sweeping beams of light can cast spots moving with superluminal speeds across scattering surfaces. Such faster-than-light speeds are well-known phenomena that do not violate special relativity. It is shown here that under certain circumstances, superluminal spot pair creation and annihilation events can occur that provide unique information to observers. These spot pair events are not particle pair events-they are the sudden creation or annihilation of a pair of relatively illuminated spots on a scattering surface. Real spot pair illumination events occur unambiguously on the scattering surface when spot speeds diverge, while virtual spot pair events are observer dependent and perceived only when real spot radial speeds cross the speed of light. Specifically, a virtual spot pair creation event will be observed when a real spot's speed toward the observer drops below c, while a virtual spot pair annihilation event will be observed when a real spot's radial speed away from the observer rises above c. Superluminal spot pair events might be found angularly, photometrically, or polarimetrically, and might carry useful geometry or distance information. Two example scenarios are briefly considered. The first is a beam swept across a scattering spherical object, exemplified by spots of light moving across Earth's Moon and pulsar companions. The second is a beam swept across a scattering planar wall or linear filament, exemplified by spots of light moving across variable nebulae including Hubble's Variable Nebula. In local cases where the sweeping beam can be controlled and repeated, a three-dimensional map of a target object can be constructed. Used tomographically, this imaging technique is fundamentally different from lens photography, radar, and conventional lidar.

  10. Tomato spotted wilt and early leaf spot reactions in peanut genotypes from the U.S. and China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato spotted wilt, caused by Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), and early leaf spot caused by Cercospora arachidicola are important diseases of peanut (Arachis hypogaea). As part of a study examining genotypic and phenotypic variation, disease reactions to these two diseases were evaluated in twe...

  11. Tomato spotted wilt and early leaf spot reaction in peanut genotypes from the U.S. and China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato spotted wilt, caused by Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), and early leaf spot caused by Cercospora arachidicola are important diseases of peanut (Arachis hypogaea). As part of a study examining genotypic and phenotypic variation, disease reactions to these two diseases were evaluated in twe...

  12. Spot 1 end of life disposition manoeuvres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alby, F.

    The Earth observation satellites of the SPOT family are on a Sun-synchronous orbit at 822 km altitude. The on-orbit lifetime of objects at this altitude is about two centuries, which represents an important risk to the other satellites. The space debris issue has caused the main Agencies to adopt mitigation guidelines with the objective to reduce the population of objects orbiting the Earth. In 1999, CNES published its own standard presenting the management, design and operation rules. This document is fully compliant with the Inter Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC) mitigation guidelines approved in 2002 by 11 Space Agencies and submitted to United Nations Committee on Peaceful Uses of Outer Space in February 2003. The space debris mitigation requirements expressed in the CNES standard and in the IADC mitigation guidelines limit the orbital lifetime in LEO to less than 25 years. Although not applicable to Spot 1, launched earlier in 1986, this rule was voluntarily applied and the decision to deorbit Spot 1 was taken. The corresponding operations, performed in November 2003, were complex due to a large number of constraints such as the unusual flight domain, the on-board sensors, the short ground station visibilities or the uncertainties in the estimation of the remaining fuel in the tanks. In the preliminary phase, the orbit was lowered 15 km below the operational orbit to avoid any collision risk with the other Spot satellites. Then, in a second phase, a series of eight apogee boosts lowered progressively the perigee altitude to 619 km. Finally, a large last manoeuvre was performed to empty the tanks and to reduce the perigee altitude the maximum amount. A succession of four ground stations visibilities allowed a real time monitoring of this manoeuvre. In particular the effect of gas bubbles in the propulsion system was observed through telemetry confirming the fuel depletion. The batteries were then disconnected and the telemetry emitter was

  13. Spot1 end of life disposition manoeuvres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alby, F.

    The Earth observation satellites of the SPOT family are on a Sun synchronous orbit at 822 km altitude. The on-orbit lifetime of objects at this altitude is about 2 centuries, which represents an important risk to the other satellites. The space debris issue has conducted the main Agencies to adopt mitigation guidelines with the objective to reduce the population of objects orbiting the Earth In 1999 CNES published its own standard presenting the management, design and operation rules. This document is fully compliant with the IADC mitigation guidelines approved in 2002 by 11 space Agencies or countries and submitted to UNCOPUOS in February 2003 The space debris mitigation requirements expressed in the CNES standard and in the IADC mitigation guidelines require to limit the orbital lifetime in LEO to less than 25 years. Although not applicable to Spot 1, launched earlier in 1986, this rule was voluntarily applied and the decision to de-orbit Spot 1 was taken. The corresponding operations, performed in November 2003, were complex due to a large number of constraints such as the unusual flight domain, the on-board sensors, the short ground station visibilities or the incertitudes relative to the estimation of the remaining fuel in the tanks. In the preliminary phase, the orbit was lowered 15 km below the operational orbit to avoid any collision risk with the other Spot satellites. Then, in a second phase, a series of 8 apogee boosts lowered progressively the perigee altitude to 619 km. Finally, a large last manoeuvre was performed to empty the tanks and to reduce at maximum the perigee altitude. A succession of 4 ground stations visibilities allowed a real time monitoring of this manoeuvre. In particular the effect of gas bubbles in the propulsion system was observed through telemetry confirming the fuel exhausting. The batteries were then disconnected and the telemetry emitter was switched off. According to the obtained perigee altitude, the on-orbit lifetime of Spot

  14. Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Hovanski, Yuri; Grant, Glenn J.; Santella, M. L.

    2009-11-13

    Friction stir spot welding techniques were developed to successfully join several advanced high strength steels. Two distinct tool materials were evaluated to determine the effect of tool materials on the process parameters and joint properties. Welds were characterized primarily via lap shear, microhardness, and optical microscopy. Friction stir spot welds were compared to the resistance spot welds in similar strength alloys by using the AWS standard for resistance spot welding high strength steels. As further comparison, a primitive cost comparison between the two joining processes was developed, which included an evaluation of the future cost prospects of friction stir spot welding in advanced high strength steels.

  15. Superluminal Sweeping Spot Pair Events in Astronomical Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemiroff, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Sweeping beams of light can cast spots that move superluminally across scattering surfaces. Such faster-than-light speeds are well-known phenomena that do not violate special relativity. It is shown that under certain circumstances, superluminal spot pair creation and annihilation events can occur that provide unique information to observers. These spot pair events are not particle pair events -- they are the sudden creation or annihilation of a pair of relatively illuminated spots on a scattering surface. Astronomical settings where superluminal spot pairs might be found include Earth's Moon, passing asteroids, pulsars, and variable nebula. Potentially recoverable information includes three dimensional imaging, relative geometric size factors, and distances.

  16. SPOT HRVIR: A significant improvement of high resolution visible SPOT camera to i.r. wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouan, J.; Reulet, J. F.; Costes, G.

    Since March 1986, the SPOT-HRV cameras are imaging the Earth in a 10 m resolution panchromatic mode and three 20 m resolution spectral modes all in the visible and near infra-red wavelengths. The interest of medium i.r. imaging for observing vegetation has raised in the past and the implementation of a 1.6 μm band was decided by CNES for SPOT 4. New 3000 elements detector matrix had to be developed. This work is nearly completed now through a contract placed at Thomson by CNES. In parallel, the focal plane of the previous HRV cameras has been completely redesigned and the video electronics has also been significantly improved taking into account both some problems identified on SPOT 1 in orbit and the implementation of the MIR band. A significant change in integration and test is introduced by the operating temperature of the MIR detectors to be accurately controlled at 5°C and a calibration of the whole instrument in vacuum is foreseen. Following a presentation of HRV-SPOT 1 main flight results, technical and programmatical points of the SPOT 4 HRVIR situation is presented in the paper.

  17. Amorphous-silicon module hot-spot testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, C. C.

    1985-01-01

    Hot spot heating occurs when cell short-circuit current is lower than string operating current. Amorphous cell hot spot are tested to develop the techniques required for performing reverse bias testing of amorphous cells. Also, to quantify the response of amorphous cells to reverse biasing. Guidelines are developed from testing for reducing hot spot susceptibility of amorphous modules and to develop a qualification test for hot spot testing of amorphous modules. It is concluded that amorphous cells undergo hot spot heating similarly to crystalline cells. Comparison of results obtained with submodules versus actual modules indicate heating levels lower in actual modules. Module design must address hot spot testing and hot spot qualification test conducted on modules showed no instabilities and minor cell erosion.

  18. Star spot location estimation using Kalman filter for star tracker.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-bo; Yang, Jian-kun; Wang, Jiong-qi; Tan, Ji-chun; Li, Xiu-jian

    2011-04-20

    Star pattern recognition and attitude determination accuracy is highly dependent on star spot location accuracy for the star tracker. A star spot location estimation approach with the Kalman filter for a star tracker has been proposed, which consists of three steps. In the proposed approach, the approximate locations of the star spots in successive frames are predicted first; then the measurement star spot locations are achieved by defining a series of small windows around each predictive star spot location. Finally, the star spot locations are updated by the designed Kalman filter. To confirm the proposed star spot location estimation approach, the simulations based on the orbit data of the CHAMP satellite and the real guide star catalog are performed. The simulation results indicate that the proposed approach can filter out noises from the measurements remarkably if the sampling frequency is sufficient. PMID:21509065

  19. Dynamic focal spots registration algorithm for freeform surface measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wenjiang; Zhao, Liping; Chen, I.-Ming

    2013-06-01

    In a wavefront sensing system, the raw data for surface reconstruction, either the slope matrix or curvature matrix, is obtained through centroiding on the focal spot images. Centroiding is to calculate the first moment within a certain area of interest, which encloses the focal spot. As the distribution of focal spots is correlated to the surface sampling condition, while a uniform rectangular grid is good enough to register all the focal spots of a uniformly sampled near flat surface, the focal spots of aspherical or freeform surfaces have varying shapes and sizes depending on the surface geometry. In this case, the normal registration method is not applicable. This paper proposed a dynamic focal spots registration algorithm to automatically analyze the image, identify and register every focal spot for centroiding at one go. Through experiment on a freeform surface with polynomial coefficients up to 10th order, the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is proved.

  20. Neptune - Changes in Great Dark Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    These images show changes in the clouds around Neptune's Great Dark Spot (GDS) over a four and one-half-day period. From top to bottom the images show successive rotations of the planet an interval of about 18 hours. The GDS is at a mean latitude of 20 degrees south, and covers about 30 degrees of longitude. The violet filter of the Voyager narrow angle camera was used to produce these images at distances ranging from 17 million kilometers (10.5 million miles) at the top, to 10 million kilometers (6.2 million miles) at bottom. The images have been mapped on to a rectangular latitude longitude grid to remove the effects of changing viewing geometry and the changing distance to Neptune. The sequence shows a large change in the western end (left side) of the GDS, where a dark extension apparent in the earlier images converges into an extended string of small dark spots over the next five rotations. This 'string of beads' extends from the GDS at a surprisingly large angle relative to horizontal lines of constant latitude. The large bright cloud at the southern (bottom) border of the GDS is a more or less permanent companion of the GDS. The apparent motion of smaller clouds at the periphery of the GDS suggests a counterclockwise rotation of the GDS reminiscent of flow around the Great Red Spot in Jupiter's atmosphere. This activity of the GDS is surprising because the total energy flux from the sun and from Neptune's interior is only 5 percent as large as the total energy flux on Jupiter.

  1. Jupiter's Great Red Spot in Cassini image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This true color image of Jupiter, taken by NASA's Cassini spacecraft, is composed of three images taken in the blue, green and red regions of the spectrum. All images were taken from a distance of 77.6 million kilometers (48.2 million miles) on Oct. 8, 2000.

    Different chemical compositions of the cloud particles lead to different colors. The cloud patterns reflect different physical conditions -- updrafts and downdrafts -- in which the clouds form. The bluish areas are believed to be regions devoid of clouds and covered by high haze.

    The Great Red Spot (below and to the right of center) is a giant atmospheric storm as wide as two Earths and over 300 years old, with peripheral winds of 483 kilometers per hour (300 miles per hour). This image shows that it is trailed to the north by a turbulent region, caused by atmospheric flow around the spot.

    The bright white spots in this region are lightning storms, which were seen by NASA's Galileo spacecraft when it photographed the night side of Jupiter. Cassini will track these lightning storms and measure their lifetimes and motions when it passes Jupiter in late December and looks back on the darkside of the planet. Cassini is currently en route to its ultimate destination, Saturn.

    The resolution is 466 kilometers (290 miles) per picture element.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, Calif., manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  2. Genetics of tan spot resistance in wheat.

    PubMed

    Faris, Justin D; Liu, Zhaohui; Xu, Steven S

    2013-09-01

    Tan spot is a devastating foliar disease of wheat caused by the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Pyrenophora tritici-repentis. Much has been learned during the past two decades about the genetics of wheat-P. tritici-repentis interactions. Research has shown that the fungus produces at least three host-selective toxins (HSTs), known as Ptr ToxA, Ptr ToxB, and Ptr ToxC, that interact directly or indirectly with the products of the dominant host genes Tsn1, Tsc2, and Tsc1, respectively. The recent cloning and characterization of Tsn1 provided strong evidence that the pathogen utilizes HSTs to subvert host resistance mechanisms to cause disease. However, in addition to host-HST interactions, broad-spectrum, race non-specific resistance QTLs and recessively inherited qualitative 'resistance' genes have been identified. Molecular markers suitable for marker-assisted selection against HST sensitivity genes and for race non-specific resistance QTLs have been developed and used to generate adapted germplasm with good levels of tan spot resistance. Future research is needed to identify novel HSTs and corresponding host sensitivity genes, determine if the recessively inherited resistance genes are HST insensitivities, extend the current race classification system to account for new HSTs, and determine the molecular basis of race non-specific resistance QTLs and their relationships with host-HST interactions at the molecular level. Necrotrophic pathogens such as P. tritici-repentis are likely to become increasingly significant under a changing global climate making it imperative to further characterize the wheat-P. tritici-repentis pathosystem and develop tan spot resistant wheat varieties. PMID:23884599

  3. False Color Mosaic Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    False color representation of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) taken through three different near-infrared filters of the Galileo imaging system and processed to reveal cloud top height. Images taken through Galileo's near-infrared filters record sunlight beyond the visible range that penetrates to different depths in Jupiter's atmosphere before being reflected by clouds. The Great Red Spot appears pink and the surrounding region blue because of the particular color coding used in this representation. Light reflected by Jupiter at a wavelength (886 nm) where methane strongly absorbs is shown in red. Due to this absorption, only high clouds can reflect sunlight in this wavelength. Reflected light at a wavelength (732 nm) where methane absorbs less strongly is shown in green. Lower clouds can reflect sunlight in this wavelength. Reflected light at a wavelength (757 nm) where there are essentially no absorbers in the Jovian atmosphere is shown in blue: This light is reflected from the deepest clouds. Thus, the color of a cloud in this image indicates its height. Blue or black areas are deep clouds; pink areas are high, thin hazes; white areas are high, thick clouds. This image shows the Great Red Spot to be relatively high, as are some smaller clouds to the northeast and northwest that are surprisingly like towering thunderstorms found on Earth. The deepest clouds are in the collar surrounding the Great Red Spot, and also just to the northwest of the high (bright) cloud in the northwest corner of the image. Preliminary modeling shows these cloud heights vary over 30 km in altitude. This mosaic, of eighteen images (6 in each filter) taken over a 6 minute interval during the second GRS observing sequence on June 26, 1996, has been map-projected to a uniform grid of latitude and longitude. North is at the top.

    Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet

  4. Spot addressing for microarray images structured in hexagonal grids.

    PubMed

    Giannakeas, Nikolaos; Kalatzis, Fanis; Tsipouras, Markos G; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I

    2012-04-01

    In this work, an efficient method for spot addressing in images, which are generated by the scanning of hexagonal structured microarrays, is proposed. Initially, the blocks of the image are separated using the projections of the image. Next, all the blocks of the image are processed separately for the detection of each spot. The spot addressing procedure begins with the detection of the high intensity objects, which are probably the spots of the image. Next, the Growing Concentric Hexagon algorithm, which uses the properties of the hexagonal grid, is introduced for the detection of the non-hybridized spots. Finally, the Voronoi diagram is applied to the centers of the detected spots for the gridding of the image. The method is evaluated using spots generated from the scanning of the Beadchip of Illumina, which is used for the detection of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the human genome, and uses hexagonal structure for the location of the spots. For the evaluation, the detected centers for each of the spot in the image are compared to the centers of the annotation, obtaining up to 98% accuracy for the spot addressing procedure. PMID:21924515

  5. A 'turbulent spot' in an axisymmetric free shear layer. II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, A. K. M. F.; Kleis, S. J.; Sokolov, M.

    1980-05-01

    The paper considers a turbulent spot in an axisymmetric free shear layer induced by a spark triggered in the boundary layer. The spot was educed by the method of iterative alignment of individual realizations through maximization of cross-relation between individual realizations and ensemble average. The dynamics of the turbulent mixing-layer spot, whose signature is buried in the large-amplitude random fluctuations, is much more complicated than that of the boundary layer spot. The spacing between sparks was so chosen that at a measurement station the passage time of a spot was less than 4% of the interval between the spots; thus, there was no interaction between two induced spots, and on the front or the back of the spot, the phase-average properties approach the constant time-mean values. It is shown that the spot structure plays a dominant role in entrainment and vorticity transport, and that the coherent (spot) structure vorticity is not significantly larger than the mixing-layer mean vorticity.

  6. The fractal nature of vacuum arc cathode spots

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre

    2005-05-27

    Cathode spot phenomena show many features of fractals, for example self-similar patterns in the emitted light and arc erosion traces. Although there have been hints on the fractal nature of cathode spots in the literature, the fractal approach to spot interpretation is underutilized. In this work, a brief review of spot properties is given, touching the differences between spot type 1 (on cathodes surfaces with dielectric layers) and spot type 2 (on metallic, clean surfaces) as well as the known spot fragment or cell structure. The basic properties of self-similarity, power laws, random colored noise, and fractals are introduced. Several points of evidence for the fractal nature of spots are provided. Specifically power laws are identified as signature of fractal properties, such as spectral power of noisy arc parameters (ion current, arc voltage, etc) obtained by fast Fourier transform. It is shown that fractal properties can be observed down to the cutoff by measurement resolution or occurrence of elementary steps in physical processes. Random walk models of cathode spot motion are well established: they go asymptotically to Brownian motion for infinitesimal step width. The power spectrum of the arc voltage noise falls as 1/f {sup 2}, where f is frequency, supporting a fractal spot model associated with Brownian motion.

  7. Effects of spot size and spot spacing on lateral penumbra reduction when using a dynamic collimation system for spot scanning proton therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyer, Daniel E.; Hill, Patrick M.; Wang, Dongxu; Smith, Blake R.; Flynn, Ryan T.

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the reduction in lateral dose penumbra that can be achieved when using a dynamic collimation system (DCS) for spot scanning proton therapy as a function of two beam parameters: spot size and spot spacing. This is an important investigation as both values impact the achievable dose distribution and a wide range of values currently exist depending on delivery hardware. Treatment plans were created both with and without the DCS for in-air spot sizes (σair) of 3, 5, 7, and 9 mm as well as spot spacing intervals of 2, 4, 6 and 8 mm. Compared to un-collimated treatment plans, the plans created with the DCS yielded a reduction in the mean dose to normal tissue surrounding the target of 26.2-40.6% for spot sizes of 3-9 mm, respectively. Increasing the spot spacing resulted in a decrease in the time penalty associated with using the DCS that was approximately proportional to the reduction in the number of rows in the raster delivery pattern. We conclude that dose distributions achievable when using the DCS are comparable to those only attainable with much smaller initial spot sizes, suggesting that the goal of improving high dose conformity may be achieved by either utilizing a DCS or by improving beam line optics.

  8. Effects of spot size and spot spacing on lateral penumbra reduction when using a dynamic collimation system for spot scanning proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Hyer, Daniel E; Hill, Patrick M; Wang, Dongxu; Smith, Blake R; Flynn, Ryan T

    2014-11-21

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the reduction in lateral dose penumbra that can be achieved when using a dynamic collimation system (DCS) for spot scanning proton therapy as a function of two beam parameters: spot size and spot spacing. This is an important investigation as both values impact the achievable dose distribution and a wide range of values currently exist depending on delivery hardware. Treatment plans were created both with and without the DCS for in-air spot sizes (σair) of 3, 5, 7, and 9 mm as well as spot spacing intervals of 2, 4, 6 and 8 mm. Compared to un-collimated treatment plans, the plans created with the DCS yielded a reduction in the mean dose to normal tissue surrounding the target of 26.2-40.6% for spot sizes of 3-9 mm, respectively. Increasing the spot spacing resulted in a decrease in the time penalty associated with using the DCS that was approximately proportional to the reduction in the number of rows in the raster delivery pattern. We conclude that dose distributions achievable when using the DCS are comparable to those only attainable with much smaller initial spot sizes, suggesting that the goal of improving high dose conformity may be achieved by either utilizing a DCS or by improving beam line optics. PMID:25330783

  9. Spotting words in handwritten Arabic documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srihari, Sargur; Srinivasan, Harish; Babu, Pavithra; Bhole, Chetan

    2006-01-01

    The design and performance of a system for spotting handwritten Arabic words in scanned document images is presented. Three main components of the system are a word segmenter, a shape based matcher for words and a search interface. The user types in a query in English within a search window, the system finds the equivalent Arabic word, e.g., by dictionary look-up, locates word images in an indexed (segmented) set of documents. A two-step approach is employed in performing the search: (1) prototype selection: the query is used to obtain a set of handwritten samples of that word from a known set of writers (these are the prototypes), and (2) word matching: the prototypes are used to spot each occurrence of those words in the indexed document database. A ranking is performed on the entire set of test word images-- where the ranking criterion is a similarity score between each prototype word and the candidate words based on global word shape features. A database of 20,000 word images contained in 100 scanned handwritten Arabic documents written by 10 different writers was used to study retrieval performance. Using five writers for providing prototypes and the other five for testing, using manually segmented documents, 55% precision is obtained at 50% recall. Performance increases as more writers are used for training.

  10. Ammonium Hydrosulfide and Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeffler, M. J.; Hudson, R.; Chanover, N.; Simon, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    The color and composition of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) has been debated for more than a century. While there are numerous hypotheses for the origin of Jupiter's GRS, recent work suggests that the GRS's color could originate from multiple components (Carlson et al., 2012; Simon et al., submitted). In light of this, we have recently begun conducting in situ laboratory experiments that test whether ammonium hydrosulfide, NH4SH, or its radiation decomposition products contribute to the GRS spectrum. In this presentation, we will discuss some of our most recent results, where we have studied the stability of NH4SH samples as a function of temperature using infrared and mass spectrometry. Funding for this work has been provided by NASA's Planetary Atmospheres and Outer Planets Research programs. ReferencesCarlson, R. W., K. H. Baines, M. S. Anderson, G. Filacchione. Chromophores from photolyzed ammonia reacting with acetylene: Application to Jupiter's Great Red Spot, DPS, 44, 2012. Simon, A. A., J. Legarreta, F. Sanz-Requena, S. Perez-Hoyos, E. Garcia-Melendo, R. W. Carlson. Spectral Comparison and Stability of Red Regions on Jupiter. J. Geophys. Res. - Planets, submitted.

  11. Spinning-Spot Shadowless TIRF Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ellefsen, Kyle L; Dynes, Joseph L; Parker, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy is a powerful tool for visualizing near-membrane cellular structures and processes, including imaging of local Ca2+ transients with single-channel resolution. TIRF is most commonly implemented in epi-fluorescence mode, whereby laser excitation light is introduced at a spot near the periphery of the back focal plane of a high numerical aperture objective lens. However, this approach results in an irregular illumination field, owing to interference fringes and scattering and shadowing by cellular structures. We describe a simple system to circumvent these limitations, utilizing a pair of galvanometer-driven mirrors to rapidly spin the laser spot in a circle at the back focal plane of the objective lens, so that irregularities average out during each camera exposure to produce an effectively uniform field. Computer control of the mirrors enables precise scanning at 200 Hz (5ms camera exposure times) or faster, and the scan radius can be altered on a frame-by-frame basis to achieve near-simultaneous imaging in TIRF, widefield and 'skimming plane' imaging modes. We demonstrate the utility of the system for dynamic recording of local inositol trisphosphate-mediated Ca2+ signals and for imaging the redistribution of STIM and Orai proteins during store-operated Ca2+ entry. We further anticipate that it will be readily applicable for numerous other near-membrane studies, especially those involving fast dynamic processes. PMID:26308212

  12. Spinning-Spot Shadowless TIRF Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ellefsen, Kyle L.; Dynes, Joseph L.; Parker, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy is a powerful tool for visualizing near-membrane cellular structures and processes, including imaging of local Ca2+ transients with single-channel resolution. TIRF is most commonly implemented in epi-fluorescence mode, whereby laser excitation light is introduced at a spot near the periphery of the back focal plane of a high numerical aperture objective lens. However, this approach results in an irregular illumination field, owing to interference fringes and scattering and shadowing by cellular structures. We describe a simple system to circumvent these limitations, utilizing a pair of galvanometer-driven mirrors to rapidly spin the laser spot in a circle at the back focal plane of the objective lens, so that irregularities average out during each camera exposure to produce an effectively uniform field. Computer control of the mirrors enables precise scanning at 200 Hz (5ms camera exposure times) or faster, and the scan radius can be altered on a frame-by-frame basis to achieve near-simultaneous imaging in TIRF, widefield and ‘skimming plane’ imaging modes. We demonstrate the utility of the system for dynamic recording of local inositol trisphosphate-mediated Ca2+ signals and for imaging the redistribution of STIM and Orai proteins during store-operated Ca2+ entry. We further anticipate that it will be readily applicable for numerous other near-membrane studies, especially those involving fast dynamic processes. PMID:26308212

  13. SPOT4 Operational Control Center (CMP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaouche, G.

    1993-01-01

    CNES(F) is responsible for the development of a new generation of Operational Control Center (CMP) which will operate the new heliosynchronous remote sensing satellite (SPOT4). This Operational Control Center takes large benefit from the experience of the first generation of control center and from the recent advances in computer technology and standards. The CMP is designed for operating two satellites all the same time with a reduced pool of controllers. The architecture of this CMP is simple, robust, and flexible, since it is based on powerful distributed workstations interconnected through an Ethernet LAN. The application software uses modern and formal software engineering methods, in order to improve quality and reliability, and facilitate maintenance. This software is table driven so it can be easily adapted to other operational needs. Operation tasks are automated to the maximum extent, so that it could be possible to operate the CMP automatically with very limited human interference for supervision and decision making. This paper provides an overview of the SPOTS mission and associated ground segment. It also details the CMP, its functions, and its software and hardware architecture.

  14. Medical students’ attitudes and perspectives regarding novel computer-based practical spot tests compared to traditional practical spot tests

    PubMed Central

    Wijerathne, Buddhika; Rathnayake, Geetha

    2013-01-01

    Background Most universities currently practice traditional practical spot tests to evaluate students. However, traditional methods have several disadvantages. Computer-based examination techniques are becoming more popular among medical educators worldwide. Therefore incorporating the computer interface in practical spot testing is a novel concept that may minimize the shortcomings of traditional methods. Assessing students’ attitudes and perspectives is vital in understanding how students perceive the novel method. Methods One hundred and sixty medical students were randomly allocated to either a computer-based spot test (n=80) or a traditional spot test (n=80). The students rated their attitudes and perspectives regarding the spot test method soon after the test. The results were described comparatively. Results Students had higher positive attitudes towards the computer-based practical spot test compared to the traditional spot test. Their recommendations to introduce the novel practical spot test method for future exams and to other universities were statistically significantly higher. Conclusions The computer-based practical spot test is viewed as more acceptable to students than the traditional spot test. PMID:26451213

  15. Spot: A Programming Language for Verified Flight Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bocchino, Robert L., Jr.; Gamble, Edward; Gostelow, Kim P.; Some, Raphael R.

    2014-01-01

    The C programming language is widely used for programming space flight software and other safety-critical real time systems. C, however, is far from ideal for this purpose: as is well known, it is both low-level and unsafe. This paper describes Spot, a language derived from C for programming space flight systems. Spot aims to maintain compatibility with existing C code while improving the language and supporting verification with the SPIN model checker. The major features of Spot include actor-based concurrency, distributed state with message passing and transactional updates, and annotations for testing and verification. Spot also supports domain-specific annotations for managing spacecraft state, e.g., communicating telemetry information to the ground. We describe the motivation and design rationale for Spot, give an overview of the design, provide examples of Spot's capabilities, and discuss the current status of the implementation.

  16. The genetics of brown coat color and white spotting in domestic yaks (Bos grunniens).

    PubMed

    Zhang, M-Q; Xu, X; Luo, S-J

    2014-10-01

    Domestic yaks (Bos grunniens) exhibit two major coat color variations: a brown vs. wild-type black pigmentation and a white spotting vs. wild-type solid color pattern. The genetic basis for these variations in color and distribution remains largely unknown and may be complicated by a breeding history involving hybridization between yaks and cattle. Here, we investigated 92 domestic yaks from China using a candidate gene approach. Sequence variations in MC1R, PMEL and TYRP1 were surveyed in brown yaks; TYRP1 was unassociated with the coloration and excluded. Recessive mutations from MC1R, or p.Gln34*, p.Met73Leu and possibly p.Arg142Pro, are reported in bovids for the first time and accounted for approximately 40% of the brown yaks in this study. The remaining 60% of brown individuals correlated with a cattle-derived deletion mutation from PMEL (p.Leu18del) in a dominant manner. Degrees of white spotting found in yaks vary from color sidedness and white face, to completely white. After examining the candidate gene KIT, we suggest that color-sided and all-white yaks are caused by the serial translations of KIT (Cs6 or Cs29 ) as reported for cattle. The white-faced phenotype in yaks is associated with the KIT haplotype S(wf) . All KIT mutations underlying the serial phenotypes of white spotting in yaks are identical to those in cattle, indicating that cattle are the likely source of white spotting in yaks. Our results reveal the complex genetic origins of domestic yak coat color as either native in yaks through evolution and domestication or as introduced from cattle through interspecific hybridization. PMID:24989079

  17. Nondestructive spot test method for magnesium and magnesium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, M. L. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A method for spot test identification of magnesium and various magnesium alloys commonly used in aerospace applications is described. The spot test identification involves color codes obtained when several drops of 3 M hydrochloric acid are placed on the surface to be tested. After approximately thirty seconds, two drops of this reacted acid is transferred to each of two depressions in a spot plate for additions of other chemicals with subsequent color changes indicating magnesium or its alloy.

  18. Eye-spots in Lepidoptera attract attention in humans

    PubMed Central

    Yorzinski, Jessica L.; Platt, Michael L.; Adams, Geoffrey K.

    2015-01-01

    Many prey species exhibit defensive traits to decrease their chances of predation. Conspicuous eye-spots, concentric rings of contrasting colours, are one type of defensive trait that some species exhibit to deter predators. We examined the function of eye-spots in Lepidoptera to determine whether they are effective at deterring predators because they resemble eyes (‘eye mimicry hypothesis’) or are highly salient (‘conspicuous signal hypothesis’). We recorded the gaze behaviour of men and women as they viewed natural images of butterflies and moths as well as images in which the eye-spots of these insects were modified. The eye-spots were modified by removing them, scrambling their colours, or replacing them with elliptical or triangular shapes that had either dark or light centres. Participants were generally more likely to look at, spend more time looking at and be faster to first fixate the eye-spots of butterflies and moths that were natural compared with ones that were modified, including the elliptical eye-spots with dark centres that most resembled eyes as well as the scrambled eye-spots that had the same contrast as the natural eye-spots. Participants were most likely to look at eye-spots that were numerous, had a large surface area and were located close to the insects' heads. Participants' pupils were larger when viewing eye-spots compared with the rest of the insects' body, suggesting a greater arousal when viewing eye-spots. Our results provide some support for the conspicuous signal hypothesis (and minimal support for the eye mimicry hypothesis) and suggest that eye-spots may be effective at deterring predators because they are highly conspicuous signals that draw attention. PMID:26543589

  19. Dominant inheritance of overo spotting in paint horses.

    PubMed

    Bowling, A T

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of selected studbook records of the American Paint Horse Association, consisting of 687 foals sired by 13 overo stallions from non-overo mares, supports the inheritance of overo spotting as an autosomal dominant gene. More than one gene may control patterns registered as overo. Additional studies are necessary to explain the sporadic occurrence of overo spotting from nonspotted quarter horse parents and to confirm the inheritance of overo spotting in other breeds. PMID:8014463

  20. Photovoltaic module hot spot durability design and test methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnett, J. C.; Gonzalez, C. C.

    1981-01-01

    As part of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Low-Cost Solar Array Project, the susceptibility of fat-plate modules to hot-spot problems is investigated. Hot-spot problems arise in modules when the cells become back-biased and operate in the negative-voltage quadrant, as a result of short-circuit current mismatch, cell cracking or shadowing. The details of a qualification test for determining the capability of modules of surviving field hot-spot problems and typical results of this test are presented. In addition, recommended circuit-design techniques for improving the module and array reliability with respect to hot-spot problems are presented.

  1. Measurement of nugget size of spot weld by digital shearography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lianxiang; Samala, Praveen R.; Liu, Sheng; Long, Kah Wah; Lee, Yung-Li

    2005-08-01

    Resistance spot welding is now widely used in the fabrication of sheet metals, mainly due to the cost and time considerations. Friction stir spot welding is getting more and more acceptance in the automotive industries. Such spot welds are found in nearly all products where sheet metal is joined. Obviously the quality of the spot weld has a direct impact on the quality of the product. The most important quality target of spot welds is the size of the weld nuggets. If the weld nuggets are improperly or incompletely formed, or the area surrounding the nugget is smaller than required, the structural integrity of the entire part may be uncertain. Furthermore these inconsistencies are usually internal and are seldom visible to optical inspection. This study is focused on the quality analysis of the spot welds by using "Digital Shearography". The paper mainly focuses on developing a novel, whole field technique for non-destructive inspecting the size of spot-welds, both for the resistance spot weld and the friction stir spot weld.

  2. Long-term market brisk, spot remains sluggish

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    Spot market activity totaled almost 54,000 lbs of U3O8 equivalent. The restricted uranium spot market price range had a slight increase from a high last month of $15.60/lb U3O8 to a hgih this month of $16.00/lb U3O8. The unrestricted uranium spot market price range remained at last month`s prices for the first time in recent weeks. Spot prices for conversion and SWU also held steady at their March levels.

  3. Insulating behavior of magnetic spots in proton-bombarded graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, K.; García, N.; Esquinazi, P.; Ohldag, H.

    2008-07-01

    Kelvin probe force microscopy measurements on micrometer small magnetic spots produced by proton bombardment on bulk graphite reveal a charge transfer from the center of the spot to an external ring with potential variation on the order of 50 mV. The total charge in the spot is neutral. The results can be well understood in terms of practically unscreened potentials, an insulating property, although the nonbombarded, surrounding graphite region exhibits good conductance. Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy measurements on magnetic spots prepared on graphitic films reveal similar charge distribution. The insulating behavior is fundamental to understand the magnetism in graphite.

  4. Radiometric terrain correction of SPOT5 image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiuli; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Ke

    2007-06-01

    Remote sensing SPOT5 images have been widely applied to the surveying of agriculture and forest resources and to the monitoring of ecology environment of mountain areas. However, the accuracy of land-cover classification of mountain areas is often influenced by the topographical shadow effect. Radiometric terrain correction is important for this kind of application. In this study, a radiometric terrain correction model which based on the rationale of moment matching was made in ERDAS IMAGINE by using the Spatial Modeler Language. Lanxi city in China as the study area, a SPOT5 multispectral image with the spatial resolution of 10 m of that mountain area was corrected by the model. Furthermore, in order to present the advantage of this new model in radiometric terrain correction of remote sensing SPOT5 image, the traditional C correction approach was also applied to the same area to see its difference with the result of the radiometric terrain correction model. The results show that the C correction approach keeps the overall statistical characteristics of spectral bands. The mean and the standard deviation value of the corrected image are the same as original ones. However, the standard deviation value became smaller by using the radiometric terrain correction model and the mean value changed accordingly. The reason of these changes is that before the correction, the histogram of the original image is represented as the 'plus-skewness distribution' due to the relief-caused shade effect, after the correction of the model, the histogram of the image is represented as the normal distribution and the shade effect of the relief has been removed. But as for the result of the traditional C approach, the skewness of the histogram remains the same after the correction. Besides, some portions of the mountain area have been over-corrected. So in my study area, the C correction approach can't remove the shade effect of the relief ideally. The results show that the radiometric

  5. Jupiter's Great Red Spot and other vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcus, Philip S.

    1993-01-01

    A theoretical explanation of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) as the self-organization of vorticity in turbulence is presented. A number of properties of the GRS and other Jovian vortices that are unambiguous from the data are listed. The simplest possible model that explains these properties one at a time rather than in a difficult all-encompassing planetary global circulation model is presented. It is shown that Jovian vortices reflect the behavior of quasi-geostrophic (QG) vortices embedded in an east-west wind with bands of uniform potential vorticity. It is argued that most of the properties of the Jovian vortices can be easily explained and understood with QG theory. Many of the signatures of QG vortices are apparent on Voyager images. In numerical and laboratory experiments, QG vortices relax to approximately steady states like the Jovian vortices, rather than oscillating or rotating Kida ellipses.

  6. Interpretation of the Jupiter red spot. I.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuiper, G. P.

    1973-01-01

    The LPL research programs on Jupiter include continuing photographic coverage of the planet in color and in several wavelength bands; IR image scans especially around 5 microns; medium and high-resolution spectral studies in the photographic and the lead-sulfide regions, with laboratory comparisons; photometric and polarimetric studies; far-IR measurements at high altitudes; chemical studies designed to match formation of Jovian cloud particles; and participation in the NASA Pioneer missions. Some preliminary interpretative remarks are given which are in part suggested by the remarkable IR spectra and IR images of the earth and Mars obtained at NASA-Goddard. This leads to a discussion of the Red Spot and the White Ovals.

  7. Laboratory simulation of Jupiter's Great Red SPOT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommeria, J.; Meyers, S. D.; Swinney, H. L.

    1988-02-01

    The existence of isolated large stable vortices like the Great Red Spot in the turbulent atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn is a challenging problem in fluid mechanics. To test the numerical simulation finding of Marcus (1988) that a single stable vortex develops for a wide variety of conditions in a turbulent shear flow in a rotating annulus, an experiment was conducted using a rotating annulus filled with fluid pumped in the radial direction. The annulus rotates rigidly, but the action of the Coriolis force on the radially pumped fluid produces a counterrotating jet. Coherent vortices spontaneously form in this turbulent jet, and for a wide range of rotation and pumping rates the flow evolves until only one large vortex remains.

  8. Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) is a decision support tool to assist airline ramp controllers and ATC tower controllers to manage traffic on the airport surface to significantly improve efficiency and predictability in surface operations. The core function of the tool is the runway scheduler which generates an optimal solution for runway sequence and schedule of departure aircraft, which would minimize system delay and maximize runway throughput. The presentation also discusses the latest status of NASA's current surface research through a collaboration with an airline partner, where a tool is developed for airline ramp operators to assist departure pushback operations. The presentation describes the concept of the SARDA tool and results from human-in-the-loop simulations conducted in 2012 for Dallas-Ft. Worth International Airport and 2014 for Charlotte airport ramp tower.

  9. Spot Spraying Reduces Herbicide Concentrations in Runoff.

    PubMed

    Melland, Alice R; Silburn, D Mark; McHugh, Allen D; Fillols, Emilie; Rojas-Ponce, Samuel; Baillie, Craig; Lewis, Stephen

    2016-05-25

    Rainfall simulator trials were conducted on sugar cane paddocks across dry-tropical and subtropical Queensland, Australia, to examine the potential for spot spraying to reduce herbicide losses in runoff. Recommended rates of the herbicides glyphosate, 2,4-D, fluoroxypyr, atrazine, and diuron were sprayed onto 0, 20, 40, 50, 70, or 100% of the area of runoff plots. Simulated rainfall was applied 2 days after spraying to induce runoff at one plant cane and three ratoon crop sites. Over 50% of all herbicides were transported in the dissolved phase of runoff, regardless of the herbicide's sediment-water partition coefficient. For most sites and herbicides, runoff herbicide concentrations decreased with decreasing spray coverage and with decreasing herbicide load in the soil and cane residues. Importantly, sites with higher infiltration prior to runoff and lower total runoff had lower runoff herbicide concentrations. PMID:26479195

  10. Where Are the Hottest Spots on Earth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mildrexler, David J.; Zhao, Maosheng; Running, Steven W.

    2006-10-01

    The location of the hottest spot on the Earth's surface has long been a source of interest and curiosity. With images of blazing desert landscapes, several places have proudly claimed the title of `hottest place on Earth.' Death Valley, California, the hottest place in North America, held the world record air temperature of 56.7°C from 1913 to 1922, until the current world record air temperature of 58.0°C was recorded in 1922 in El Azizia, Libya. Until recently, only point-based air temperature measurements in scattered locations were available to researchers trying to understand maximum temperatures. This incomplete picture, based largely on the locations of weather stations, clearly suggested that hotter air temperatures were occurring, but measurements on the scale needed to locate the hottest place simply were not practical.

  11. Fundamentals of friction stir spot welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badarinarayan, Harsha

    The recent spike in energy costs has been a major contributor to propel the use of light weight alloys in the transportation industry. In particular, the automotive industry sees benefit in using light weight alloys to increase fuel efficiency and enhance performance. In this context, light weight design by replacing steel with Al and/or Mg alloys have been considered as promising initiatives. The joining of structures made of light weight alloys is therefore very important and calls for more attention. Friction Stir Spot Welding (FSSW) is an evolving technique that offers several advantages over conventional joining processes. The fundamentals aspects of FSSW are systematically studied in this dissertation. The effects and influence of process inputs (weld parameters and tool geometry) on the process output (weld geometry and static strength) is studied. A Design of Experiments (DoE) is carried out to identify the effect of each process parameter on weld strength. It is found that the tool geometry, and in particular the pin profile has a significant role in determining the weld geometry (hook, stir zone size etc.) which in turn influences the failure mode and weld strength. A novel triangular pin tool geometry is proposed that suppresses the hook formation and produces welds with twice the static strength as those produced with conventional cylindrical pin tools. An experimental and numerical approach is undertaken to understand the effect of pin geometry on the material flow and failure mechanism of spot welds. In addition, key practical issues have been addressed such as quantification of tool life and a methodology to control tool plunge depth during welding. Finally, by implementing the findings of this dissertation, FSSW is successfully performed on a closure panel assembly for an automotive application.

  12. CORTICAL REPRESENTATION OF SPACE AROUND THE BLIND SPOT

    PubMed Central

    Awater, Holger; Kerlin, Jess R.; Evans, Karla K.; Tong, Frank

    2006-01-01

    The neural mechanism that mediates perceptual filling-in of the blind spot is still under discussion. One hypothesis proposes that the cortical representation of the blind spot is activated only under conditions that elicit perceptual filling-in, and requires congruent stimulation on both sides of the blind spot. Alternatively, the passive remapping hypothesis proposes that inputs from regions surrounding the blind spot infiltrate the representation of the blind spot in cortex. This theory predicts that independent stimuli presented to the left and right of the blind spot should lead to neighboring/overlapping activations in visual cortex when the blind-spot eye is stimulated, but separated activations when the fellow eye is stimulated. Using functional MRI, we directly tested the remapping hypothesis by presenting flickering checkerboard wedges to the left or right of the spatial location of the blind spot, either to the blind-spot eye or to the fellow eye. Irrespective of which eye was stimulated, we found separate activations corresponding to the left and right wedges. We identified the centroid of the activations on a cortical flat map and measured the distance between activations. Distance measures of the cortical gap across the blind spot were accurate and reliable (mean distance 6-8 mm across subjects, SD ~1 mm within subjects). Contrary to the predictions of the remapping hypothesis, cortical distances between activations to the two wedges were equally large for the blind-spot eye and fellow eye in areas V1 and V2/V3. Remapping therefore appears unlikely to account for perceptual filling-in at an early cortical level. PMID:16033933

  13. 21 CFR 892.1670 - Spot-film device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spot-film device. 892.1670 Section 892.1670 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1670 Spot-film device. (a) Identification. A...

  14. 21 CFR 892.1670 - Spot-film device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Spot-film device. 892.1670 Section 892.1670 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1670 Spot-film device. (a) Identification. A...

  15. 21 CFR 892.1670 - Spot-film device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Spot-film device. 892.1670 Section 892.1670 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1670 Spot-film device. (a) Identification. A...

  16. 21 CFR 892.1670 - Spot-film device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Spot-film device. 892.1670 Section 892.1670 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1670 Spot-film device. (a) Identification. A...

  17. The Blind Spot: Re-Educating Ourselves about Visual Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farkas, N.; Donnelly, K. M.; Henriksen, P. N.; Ramsier, R. D.

    2004-01-01

    A simple blind spot activity has been devised to help students discard misconceptions about image formation by lenses. Our hands-on experiment, in which students determine the location and size of their blind spots, is suitable for various age groups at different educational levels. The activity provides an opportunity to teach students how to…

  18. Evaluating SPOT 5 Multispectral Imagery for Crop Yield Estimation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High resolution satellite imagery has the potential for mapping within-field variability in crop growth and yield. This study examined SPOT 5 multispectral imagery for estimating grain sorghum yield. A SPOT 5 image with 10-m spatial resolution and four spectral bands (green, red, near-infrared and m...

  19. Turbulence characteristics inside a turbulent spot in plane Poiseuille flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henningson, D. S.; Kim, John; Alfredsson, P. Henrik

    1988-01-01

    In wall-bounded shear flows the transition to turbulence through localized disturbances goes through a pattern starting with a development of shear layers. The localized normal velocity fluctuations induce normal vorticity through the lift-up effect. These shear layers become unstable to secondary disturbances, and if the amplitudes of the disturbances are large enough, a turbulent spot develops. Investigations of the spot in boundary layers has shown that the turbulent part of the spot is very similar to a fully developed boundary layer. Wygnanski et al. (1976) showed that the mean profile at the center-symmetry plane has a logarithmic region and Johansson et al. (1987) showed that both the higher-order statistics and flow structures in the spot were the same as in the corresponding fully developed flow. In what respects the turbulence inside the Poiseuille spot is similar to fully developed turbulent channel flow is studied. The numerically simulated spot is used, where the characteristics inside the spot are compared to those of the wave packet in the wingtip area. A recent experimental investigation of the velocity field associated with the Poiseuille spot by Klingmann et al. is used for comparison.

  20. Omental milky spots in screening gastric cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Cao, L; Hu, X; Zhang, Y; Sun, X T

    2011-01-01

    The existence of cancer stem and progenitor cells in solid tumors has been widely postulated. However, neither the cancer stem cells nor the cancer progenitor cells have been definitively identified and functionally characterized. Here we propose a new strategy to identify and isolate gastric cancer stem cells -using omental milky spots to screen gastric cancer stem cells in peritoneal metastasis mouse models of gastric cancer. In this study, we used the property that the macrophages in omental milky spots are cytotoxic against tumor cells and so able to screen and collect cancer stem cells. Our findings suggest that macrophages in omental milky spots have not only cytotoxic properties against tumor cells but also provide a microenvironment within milky spots in which cancer stem cells are capable to survive and grow into micrometastasis. Omental milky spot become a cancer stem cell niche in this situation. Further we studied the omental milky spots for screening gastric cancer cells (OMSS-GCCs) and found that omental milky spot enriched the volume of gastric cancer stem cells. Tumors were consistently generated after an injection of 1×103 OMSS-GCCs. OMSS-GCCs high express CD133 and low express CD324. Omental milky spots are a highly efficient "natural filter" for screening gastric cancer stem cells. PMID:21067262

  1. KFC Server: interactive forecasting of protein interaction hot spots.

    PubMed

    Darnell, Steven J; LeGault, Laura; Mitchell, Julie C

    2008-07-01

    The KFC Server is a web-based implementation of the KFC (Knowledge-based FADE and Contacts) model-a machine learning approach for the prediction of binding hot spots, or the subset of residues that account for most of a protein interface's; binding free energy. The server facilitates the automated analysis of a user submitted protein-protein or protein-DNA interface and the visualization of its hot spot predictions. For each residue in the interface, the KFC Server characterizes its local structural environment, compares that environment to the environments of experimentally determined hot spots and predicts if the interface residue is a hot spot. After the computational analysis, the user can visualize the results using an interactive job viewer able to quickly highlight predicted hot spots and surrounding structural features within the protein structure. The KFC Server is accessible at http://kfc.mitchell-lab.org. PMID:18539611

  2. Extensive Mongolian spots: a clinical sign merits special attention.

    PubMed

    Ashrafi, Mahmood Reza; Shabanian, Reza; Mohammadi, Mahmood; Kavusi, Susan

    2006-02-01

    Although typical and limited Mongolian spots are benign skin markings at birth which fade and disappear as the child grows, extensive Mongolian spots deserve special attention as possible indications of associated inborn error of metabolism. A few cases of extensive Mongolian spots in association with inheritable storage diseases have been reported. Some hypotheses have been put forward, but further investigation is necessary to elucidate the causative factors. This report describes three infants with generalized Mongolian spots, two infants with GM1 gangliosidosis type 1, and one in association with Hurler syndrome. Findings of generalized Mongolian spots in newborns may lead to an early detection and early treatment before irreversible organ damage occurs. PMID:16458829

  3. Friction Stir Spot Welding of DP780 Carbon Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Santella, M. L.; Hovanski, Yuri; Frederick, Alan; Grant, Glenn J.; Dahl, Michael E.

    2009-09-15

    Friction stir spot welds were made in uncoated and galvannneled DP780 sheets using polycrystalline boron nitride stir tools. The tools were plunged at either a single continuous rate or in two segments consisting of a relatively high rate followed by a slower rate of shorter depth. Welding times ranged from 1-10 s. Increasing tool rotation speed from 800 to 1600 rpm increased strength values. The 2-segment welding procedures also produced higher strength joints. Average lap-shear strengths exceeding 10.3 kN were consistently obtained in 4 s on both the uncoated and the galvannealed DP780. The likelihood of diffusion and mechanical interlocking contributing to bond formation was supported by metallographic examinations. A cost analysis based on spot welding in automobile assembly showed that for friction stir spot welding to be economically competitive with resistance spot welding the cost of stir tools must approach that of resistance spot welding electrode tips.

  4. Intraday price dynamics in spot and derivatives markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jun Sik; Ryu, Doojin

    2014-01-01

    This study examines intraday relationships among the spot index, index futures, and the implied volatility index based on the VAR(1)-asymmetric BEKK-MGARCH model. Analysis of a high-frequency dataset from the Korean financial market confirms that there is a strong intraday market linkage between the spot index, KOSPI200 futures, and VKOSPI and that asymmetric volatility behaviour is clearly present in the Korean market. The empirical results indicate that the futures return shock affects the spot market more severely than the spot return shock affects the futures market, though there is a bi-directional causal relationship between the spot and futures markets. Our results, based on a high-quality intraday dataset, satisfy both the positive risk-return relationship and asymmetric volatility effect, which are not reconciled in the frameworks of previous studies.

  5. Ultrasonic assessment of tension shear strength in resistance spot welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghanizadeh, Abbas

    2015-05-01

    Resistance spot welding is extensively used to join sheet steel in the automotive industry. Ultrasonic non-destructive techniques for evaluation of the mechanical properties of resistance spot welding are presented. The aim of this study is to develop the capability of the ultrasonic techniques as an efficient tool in the assessment of the welding characterization. Previous researches have indicated that the measurements of ultrasonic attenuation are sensitive to grain- size variations in an extensive range of metallic alloys. Other researchers have frequently described grain sizes which are able to have significant effects on the physical characteristics of the material. This research provides a novel method to estimate the tension-shear strengths of the resistance spot welding directly from the ultrasonic attenuation measurements. The effects of spot welding parameters on the ultrasonic waves are further investigated. The results confirm that it is possible to determine the spot welding parameters for individual quality by using ultrasonic test.

  6. Algorithm of semicircular laser spot detection based on circle fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhengzhou; Xu, Ruihua; Hu, Bingliang

    2013-07-01

    In order to obtain the exact center of an asymmetrical and semicircular aperture laser spot, a method for laser spot detection method based on circle fitting was proposed in this paper, threshold of laser spot image was segmented by the method of gray morphology algorithm, rough edge of laser spot was detected in both vertical and horizontal direction, short arcs and isolated edge points were deleted by contour growing, the best circle contour was obtained by iterative fitting and the final standard round was fitted in the end. The experimental results show that the precision of the method is obviously better than the gravity model method being used in the traditional large laser automatic alignment system. The accuracy of the method to achieve asymmetrical and semicircular laser spot center meets the requirements of the system.

  7. Multifocal array with controllable polarization in each focal spot.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Linwei; Sun, Meiyu; Zhang, Dawei; Yu, Junjie; Wen, Jing; Chen, Jiannong

    2015-09-21

    We propose a method for producing multifocal spot arrays (MSAs) capable of controlling the position and polarization orientation of each focal spot with radially polarized Bessel-Gaussian beam. Based on a simple analytical equation that can be used to manipulate the position of the focal spot, we design a type of multi-zone plate (MZP) composed of many fan-shaped subareas which accordingly generate lateral position-controllable multifocal spots. By adding a π-phase difference between a division line passing through the center of the back aperture with different orientations to corresponding subareas of the MZP, we realize MSAs in which orientations of the linear polarization in each focal spot can be arbitrarily manipulated. Such position and polarization controllable MSAs may potentially have applications in many fields. PMID:26406670

  8. A procedure to determine the planar integral spot dose values of proton pencil beam spots

    SciTech Connect

    Anand, Aman; Sahoo, Narayan; Zhu, X. Ronald; Sawakuchi, Gabriel O.; Poenisch, Falk; Amos, Richard A.; Ciangaru, George; Titt, Uwe; Suzuki, Kazumichi; Mohan, Radhe; Gillin, Michael T.

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: Planar integral spot dose (PISD) of proton pencil beam spots (PPBSs) is a required input parameter for beam modeling in some treatment planning systems used in proton therapy clinics. The measurement of PISD by using commercially available large area ionization chambers, like the PTW Bragg peak chamber (BPC), can have large uncertainties due to the size limitation of these chambers. This paper reports the results of our study of a novel method to determine PISD values from the measured lateral dose profiles and peak dose of the PPBS. Methods: The PISDs of 72.5, 89.6, 146.9, 181.1, and 221.8 MeV energy PPBSs were determined by area integration of their planar dose distributions at different depths in water. The lateral relative dose profiles of the PPBSs at selected depths were measured by using small volume ion chambers and were investigated for their angular anisotropies using Kodak XV films. The peak spot dose along the beam's central axis (D{sub 0}) was determined by placing a small volume ion chamber at the center of a broad field created by the superposition of spots at different locations. This method allows eliminating positioning uncertainties and the detector size effect that could occur when measuring it in single PPBS. The PISD was then calculated by integrating the measured lateral relative dose profiles for two different upper limits of integration and then multiplying it with corresponding D{sub 0}. The first limit of integration was set to radius of the BPC, namely 4.08 cm, giving PISD{sub RBPC}. The second limit was set to a value of the radial distance where the profile dose falls below 0.1% of the peak giving the PISD{sub full}. The calculated values of PISD{sub RBPC} obtained from area integration method were compared with the BPC measured values. Long tail dose correction factors (LTDCFs) were determined from the ratio of PISD{sub full}/PISD{sub RBPC} at different depths for PPBSs of different energies. Results: The spot profiles were

  9. An approach for addressing hard-to-detect hot spots.

    PubMed

    Abelquist, Eric W; King, David A; Miller, Laurence F; Viars, James A

    2013-05-01

    The Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM) survey approach is comprised of systematic random sampling coupled with radiation scanning to assess acceptability of potential hot spots. Hot spot identification for some radionuclides may not be possible due to the very weak gamma or x-ray radiation they emit-these hard-to-detect nuclides are unlikely to be identified by field scans. Similarly, scanning technology is not yet available for chemical contamination. For both hard-to-detect nuclides and chemical contamination, hot spots are only identified via volumetric sampling. The remedial investigation and cleanup of sites under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act typically includes the collection of samples over relatively large exposure units, and concentration limits are applied assuming the contamination is more or less uniformly distributed. However, data collected from contaminated sites demonstrate contamination is often highly localized. These highly localized areas, or hot spots, will only be identified if sample densities are high or if the environmental characterization program happens to sample directly from the hot spot footprint. This paper describes a Bayesian approach for addressing hard-to-detect nuclides and chemical hot spots. The approach begins using available data (e.g., as collected using the standard approach) to predict the probability that an unacceptable hot spot is present somewhere in the exposure unit. This Bayesian approach may even be coupled with the graded sampling approach to optimize hot spot characterization. Once the investigator concludes that the presence of hot spots is likely, then the surveyor should use the data quality objectives process to generate an appropriate sample campaign that optimizes the identification of risk-relevant hot spots. PMID:23528274

  10. Meteorology of Jupiter's Equatorial Hot Spots and Plumes from Cassini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, David Sanghun; Showman, Adam P.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.

    2013-01-01

    We present an updated analysis of Jupiter's equatorial meteorology from Cassini observations. For two months preceding the spacecraft's closest approach, the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) onboard regularly imaged the atmosphere. We created time-lapse movies from this period in order to analyze the dynamics of equatorial hot spots and their interactions with adjacent latitudes. Hot spots are relatively cloud-free regions that emit strongly at 5 lm; improved knowledge of these features is crucial for fully understanding Galileo probe measurements taken during its descent through one. Hot spots are quasistable, rectangular dark areas on visible-wavelength images, with defined eastern edges that sharply contrast with surrounding clouds, but diffuse western edges serving as nebulous boundaries with adjacent equatorial plumes. Hot spots exhibit significant variations in size and shape over timescales of days and weeks. Some of these changes correspond with passing vortex systems from adjacent latitudes interacting with hot spots. Strong anticyclonic gyres present to the south and southeast of the dark areas appear to circulate into hot spots. Impressive, bright white plumes occupy spaces in between hot spots. Compact cirrus-like 'scooter' clouds flow rapidly through the plumes before disappearing within the dark areas. These clouds travel at 150-200 m/s, much faster than the 100 m/s hot spot and plume drift speed. This raises the possibility that the scooter clouds may be more illustrative of the actual jet stream speed at these latitudes. Most previously published zonal wind profiles represent the drift speed of the hot spots at their latitude from pattern matching of the entire longitudinal image strip. If a downward branch of an equatorially-trapped Rossby wave controls the overall appearance of hot spots, however, the westward phase velocity of the wave leads to underestimates of the true jet stream speed.

  11. Dynamic array spot shaping for laser micro machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bich, A.; Weible, K. J.; Voelkel, R.; Zimmermann, M.; Harder, I.; Lindlein, N.; Masson, J.; Bitterli, R.; Noell, W.; Scharf, T.

    2009-08-01

    Laser manufacturing of microstructures using a single focus is a well known technology. Multi-spot optics are applied for process parallelizing if the demand on throughput in mass production rises or large areas of material have to be processed. Diffractive optical elements (DOEs) are used for parallel laser processing of a repetitive structure. These elements split the beam into a periodic spot pattern, where each spot shows the same shape and energy. This allows simultaneous manufacturing of several equal shaped structures at the same time. For patterning a surface this is state of the art and the appropriate technique to reduce processing time while maintaining a high lateral resolution as well as a good relative positioning of the structure due to the DOE. We investigate the usage of microlens arrays as multifunctional elements for forming an arbitrary shaped laser beam into a spot-, a ring-spot- or a line-array pattern. It can be shown that the intensity distribution of each spot is equal to the intensity distribution of all other spots in the whole pattern. The shape of the spots is defined by the angular distribution of the incident beam. We demonstrate that besides other optical properties the output beam profile strongly depends on the Fresnel-Number and is influenced by diffraction and interference effects. We present important design rules which consider geometrical and physical optics. The properties of the spot arrays, like spot diameter, Rayleigh length and beam divergence in dependency of beam and system properties are investigated. Finally we will show some laser micro structuring and micro drilling results in different materials.

  12. Features of Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This montage features activity in the turbulent region of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS). Four sets of images of the GRS were taken through various filters of the Galileo imaging system over an 11.5 hour period on 26 June, 1996 Universal Time. The sequence was designed to reveal cloud motions. The top and bottom frames on the left are of the same area, northeast of the GRS, viewed through the methane (732 nm) filter but about 70 minutes apart. The top left and top middle frames are of the same area and at the same time, but the top middle frame is taken at a wavelength (886 nm) where methane absorbs more strongly. (Only high clouds can reflect sunlight in this wavelength.) Brightness differences are caused by the different depths of features in the two images. The bottom middle frame shows reflected light at a wavelength (757 nm) where there are essentially no absorbers in the Jovian atmosphere. The white spot is to the northwest of the GRS; its appearance at different wavelengths suggests that the brightest elements are 30 km higher than the surrounding clouds. The top and bottom frames on the right, taken nine hours apart and in the violet (415 nm) filter, show the time evolution of an atmospheric wave northeast of the GRS. Visible crests in the top right frame are much less apparent 9 hours later in the bottom right frame. The misalignment of the north-south wave crests with the observed northwestward local wind may indicate a shift in wind direction (wind shear) with height. The areas within the dark lines are 'truth windows' or sections of the images which were transmitted to Earth using less data compression. Each of the six squares covers 4.8 degrees of latitude and longitude (about 6000 square kilometers). North is at the top of each frame.

    Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment

  13. Variability in field response of peanut genotypes from the U.S. and China to tomato spotted wilt virus and leaf spots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato spotted wilt, caused by tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and transmitted by thrips, and early leaf spot (Cercospora arachidicola) and late leaf spot (Cercosporidium personatum) are among the most important diseases of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) in the southeastern United States. The objective ...

  14. Dynamical Change in Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon-Miller, Amy

    2013-10-01

    Although it has been known for some time that Jupiter's Great Red Spot {GRS} is shrinking in longitudinal extent {becoming more 'round'}, it has recently undergone an unprecedented acceleration of that shrinkage. At the same time, there is significant convective activity along the South Temperate Belt's {STB} northern edge. Using amateur data, there now appears to be a correlation between this nearby activity and interactions with the GRS, driving vorticity changes. We hypothesize that this activity is responsible for the change in GRS aspect, and with corresponding changes in the GRS's internal flow field and vorticity, but this is only measureable from Hubble because of the required spatial resolution. These observations cannot wait until Cycle 22, as the STB activity is expected to cease around May 2014, based on historical accounts of longevity of this type of activity; in addition, Jupiter enters solar exclusion in May. Capturing the interaction would be a major achievement in understanding the energetic feeding of the GRS and constraining the mechanism that governs its long life.

  15. True Color of Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Roughly true color image of the Great Red Spot of Jupiter as taken by the Galileo imaging system on June 26, 1996. Because the Galileo imaging system's wavelength sensitivities go beyond those of the human eye, this is only an approximation of what a human observer would have seen in place of the Galileo spacecraft. To simulate red as our eyes see it, the near-infrared filter (756 nm) image was used. To simulate blue as our eyes see it, the violet filter (410 nm) image was used. Finally, to simulate green as our eyes see it, a combination of 2/3 violet and 1/3 near-infrared was used. The result is an image that is similar in color to that seen when looking through a telescope at Jupiter with your eye, but allowing detail about 100 times finer to be visible! The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  16. Laser spot welding of electronic micro parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostendorf, Andreas; Temme, Thorsten; Zeadan, Jeihad

    2004-10-01

    This paper deals with parameter optimization and online monitoring of laser spot welding (LSW). Using Nd:YAG laser, a wide range of experiments regarding the welding process have been carried out for both successful and failed welds. The typical failures appearing during packaging of surface mounted devices (SMDs) on flexible printed circuits (FPC) include gaps, a loss of connection between the welded components, and damage of the printed circuit boards. A flip-flop device called SO16 and lead frames as two components of widely used SMDs were packaged on FPCs in the experiments. The reproducibility of the weld quality for SO16 (FeNi) is greater than for lead frames (CuFe2P); this points out the difficulties appearing during copper or copper alloy welding. However, a correlation between the weld quality and the detected emission signals recorded during the weld process has been found for both components. The detected signals of the optical process emission for successful welds depict identical characterisics which are divided into three relevant signal phases. Changes in the signal characteristics, especially in these phases, imply information about the weld quality. While monitoring the welding processes for both components are possible, the detected signals for SO16 are less sensitive to process variations compared to those for lead frames. Based on spectral analysis, the intensity of the detected emission due to SO16 welding is slightly higher than the intensity due to lead frames welding.

  17. Multifield of view see-spot optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilley, Scott; Vizgaitis, Jay; Everett, Jonathan; Spinazzola, Robert

    2013-06-01

    The increasing availability of sensors that can image in the 1 to 5 μm region has allowed for systems to be developed that utilize the full spectrum. Current mid-wave infrared (MWIR) systems have typically only imaged in the 3 to 5 μm region, but the new detectors allow imaging in the short-wave infrared (SWIR) and MWIR bands on the same image plane. Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) had a requirement to design and build a multiple field of view (FOV) optical system that could image the 1 to 5 μm spectral band utilizing a single, cooled infrared detector. The primary challenge of designing this particular optical system was to get the 1 to 2 (SWIR) μm band to focus at the same image plane as the 3 to 5 (MWIR) μm band in all FOVs. A three-FOV broadband optical system that can image the 1 to 5 μm band on the same image plane was designed and built. Several optical concepts were looked at, and it was decided that a combination of a reflective afocal and refractive imager was the best way to meet the system requirements. The use of a catadioptric system with a single focal plane that images in the 1 to 5 μm spectrum reduces the size of the system and provides the user with see-spot capability.

  18. Dark Dune Spots: possible biomarkers on Mars?

    PubMed

    Gánti, Tibor; Horváth, András; Bérczi, Szaniszló; Gesztesi, Albert; Szathmáry, Eörs

    2003-10-01

    Dark Dune Spots (DDSs) are transitional geomorphologic formations in the frost-covered polar regions of Mars. Our analysis of the transformations and arrangements of subsequent stages of DDSs into time sequence revealed their: (i) hole-like characteristics, (ii) development and formation from the bottom of the frosted layer till the disapperance of the latter, (iii) repeated (seasonal and annual) appearance in a pattern of multiple DDSs on the surface, and (iv) probable origin. We focused our studies on a model in which DDSs were interpreted as objects triggered by biological activity involved in the frosting and melting processes. We discuss two competing interpretations of DDSs: development by defrosting alone, and by defrosting and melting enhanced by the activity of Martian Surface Organisms (MSOs). MSOs are hypothetical Martian photosynthetic surface organisms thought to absorb sunlight. As a result they warm up by late winter and melt the ice around them, whereby their growth and reproduction become possible. The ice cover above the liquid water lens harbouring the MSOs provides excellent heat and UV insulation, prevents fast evaporation, and sustains basic living conditions until the ice cover exists. When the frost cover disappears MSOs go to a dormant, desiccated state. We propose further studies to be carried out by orbiters and landers travelling to Mars and by analysis of partial analogues on earth. PMID:14604189

  19. 21st-Century talent spotting.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Aráoz, Claudio

    2014-06-01

    How can a person who seems so qualified for a position fail miserably in it? How can someone who clearly lacks relevant skills and experience succeed? The answer is potential, the ability to adapt and grow into increasingly complex roles and environments. For the past several decades, organizations have based their hiring decisions on competencies. But we have entered a new era of talent spotting. Geopolitics, business, industries, and jobs are changing so rapidly that it's impossible to predict the capabilities employees and leaders will need even a few years out. The question now is not whether people have the right skills; it's whether they have the potential to learn new ones. Research points to five markers of potential: a strong motivation to excel in the pursuit of challenging goals combined with the humility to put the group ahead of individual needs; an insatiable curiosity to explore new ideas and avenues; keen insight into connections that others don't see; a strong engagement with work and people; and the determination to overcome obstacles. Once organizations have hired true high potentials--a challenge, given the increasing scarcity of senior talent-and identified the ones they already have, it's crucial to focus on retaining them and on helping them live up to their potential by offering development opportunities that push them out of their comfort zones. PMID:25051855

  20. SPOT 4 space magnetic recorder mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borrien, A.; Vialatoux, E.; Lhermet, J. L.; Didier, A.

    1990-01-01

    The design of the SPOT 4 satellite will be quite different from the previous ones. The design of the new magnetic tape recorder, which was derived from industrial knowledge and mission requirements; the main technical characteristics of the recorder; and the mechanical subsystems of the recorder and their locations and contributions to the final performance are all discussed. The philosophy of the development program, required to achieve the desired performance and reliability for each flight model, is described, and information on the schedule and current development is presented. The components of the tape plate system, (the transmission belts, tape rollers of the recorders, and reel hub ball bearings) which are subjected to heavy mechanical operation, fatigue, and wear in the thermal environment of the mission, are discussed. For each of the components, a description of its function in the recorder is given, as well as the mechanical stress imposed during the various operational phases. The quality testing program, which was used to verify the design safety margins, is described. Finally, the first test results of a functioning model of the flight system are presented.

  1. Innovative problem solving by wild spotted hyenas

    PubMed Central

    Benson-Amram, Sarah; Holekamp, Kay E.

    2012-01-01

    Innovative animals are those able to solve novel problems or invent novel solutions to existing problems. Despite the important ecological and evolutionary consequences of innovation, we still know very little about the traits that vary among individuals within a species to make them more or less innovative. Here we examine innovative problem solving by spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in their natural habitat, and demonstrate for the first time in a non-human animal that those individuals exhibiting a greater diversity of initial exploratory behaviours are more successful problem solvers. Additionally, as in earlier work, we found that neophobia was a critical inhibitor of problem-solving success. Interestingly, although juveniles and adults were equally successful in solving the problem, juveniles were significantly more diverse in their initial exploratory behaviours, more persistent and less neophobic than were adults. We found no significant effects of social rank or sex on success, the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, behavioural persistence or neophobia. Our results suggest that the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, akin to some measures of human creativity, is an important, but largely overlooked, determinant of problem-solving success in non-human animals. PMID:22874748

  2. Innovative problem solving by wild spotted hyenas.

    PubMed

    Benson-Amram, Sarah; Holekamp, Kay E

    2012-10-01

    Innovative animals are those able to solve novel problems or invent novel solutions to existing problems. Despite the important ecological and evolutionary consequences of innovation, we still know very little about the traits that vary among individuals within a species to make them more or less innovative. Here we examine innovative problem solving by spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in their natural habitat, and demonstrate for the first time in a non-human animal that those individuals exhibiting a greater diversity of initial exploratory behaviours are more successful problem solvers. Additionally, as in earlier work, we found that neophobia was a critical inhibitor of problem-solving success. Interestingly, although juveniles and adults were equally successful in solving the problem, juveniles were significantly more diverse in their initial exploratory behaviours, more persistent and less neophobic than were adults. We found no significant effects of social rank or sex on success, the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, behavioural persistence or neophobia. Our results suggest that the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, akin to some measures of human creativity, is an important, but largely overlooked, determinant of problem-solving success in non-human animals. PMID:22874748

  3. LED downlights with non-circular spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkyn, William A.; Pelka, David G.

    2005-09-01

    The ubiquitous downlight inhabits our ceilings by the millions. Hot, inefficient, and electrically wasteful, it is next in line for replacement by the latest high-brightness, high-efficacy white LEDs. The conventional downlight configuration of a large incandescent spotlight in a low-cost, ceiling-recessed metal can, represents the culmination of old technology, fated never to improve significantly. Incandescent downlights add greatly both to direct and indirect electrical consumption, with the lamps requiring relatively frequent replacement. The small size of LED emitters means small optical elements can produce much higher-quality beams than incandescent spotlight-lamps can produce. Herein we introduce compact high-luminosity LED downlights with lenses that deliver uniform illumination to delimited targets such as tables. One version utilizes circular lenses and micro-diffuser films to deliver square outputs. The other uses lenses cut to the target shape. In particular, one of these lenses is the first to offer a semicircular spot suitable for gambling tables.

  4. Finite Cosmology and a CMB Cold Spot

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, R.J.; Bjorken, J.D.; Overduin, J.M.; /Stanford U., HEPL

    2006-03-20

    The standard cosmological model posits a spatially flat universe of infinite extent. However, no observation, even in principle, could verify that the matter extends to infinity. In this work we model the universe as a finite spherical ball of dust and dark energy, and obtain a lower limit estimate of its mass and present size: the mass is at least 5 x 10{sup 23}M{sub {circle_dot}} and the present radius is at least 50 Gly. If we are not too far from the dust-ball edge we might expect to see a cold spot in the cosmic microwave background, and there might be suppression of the low multipoles in the angular power spectrum. Thus the model may be testable, at least in principle. We also obtain and discuss the geometry exterior to the dust ball; it is Schwarzschild-de Sitter with a naked singularity, and provides an interesting picture of cosmogenesis. Finally we briefly sketch how radiation and inflation eras may be incorporated into the model.

  5. ''Hot spots'': Subnanometer femtosecond energy localization

    SciTech Connect

    Karo, A.M.; Hardy, J.R.

    1986-12-01

    In a condensed energetic material an understanding of the dynamics and microscopic mechanisms underlying energy transfer between a shock front and various defects is of prime importance for a realistic description of ''hot spot'' formation and explosives initiation. A wide variety of simulations using the well-established technique of computer molecular dynamics has enabled us to obtain a general and very useful microscopic description of the processes beneath the macroscopic behavior of shocked systems. The calculation of the influence of heterogeneities such as point and line defects, voids, and grain boundaries is made possible by computer codes that can handle totally heterogeneous dynamical systems and track the dynamics of energy concentration and partitioning among the molecular bonds in the defect and the nearby region. One and two-dimensional calculations will be discussed in which the spatial and temporal dependence of the energy flux in a general lattice-defect system is calculated quantitatively as a function of shock strength, initial temperature, and initial parameters defining the lattice and defect.

  6. Verification of National Weather Service spot forecasts using surface observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammers, Matthew Robert

    Software has been developed to evaluate National Weather Service spot forecasts issued to support prescribed burns and early-stage wildfires. Fire management officials request spot forecasts from National Weather Service Weather Forecast Offices to provide detailed guidance as to atmospheric conditions in the vicinity of planned prescribed burns as well as wildfires that do not have incident meteorologists on site. This open source software with online display capabilities is used to examine an extensive set of spot forecasts of maximum temperature, minimum relative humidity, and maximum wind speed from April 2009 through November 2013 nationwide. The forecast values are compared to the closest available surface observations at stations installed primarily for fire weather and aviation applications. The accuracy of the spot forecasts is compared to those available from the National Digital Forecast Database (NDFD). Spot forecasts for selected prescribed burns and wildfires are used to illustrate issues associated with the verification procedures. Cumulative statistics for National Weather Service County Warning Areas and for the nation are presented. Basic error and accuracy metrics for all available spot forecasts and the entire nation indicate that the skill of the spot forecasts is higher than that available from the NDFD, with the greatest improvement for maximum temperature and the least improvement for maximum wind speed.

  7. A 'turbulent spot' in an axisymmetric free shear layer. I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, M.; Hussain, A. K. M. F.; Kleis, S. J.; Husain, Z. D.

    1980-05-01

    The paper discusses the evolution of the three-dimensionality in an axisymmetric mixing layer by studying a spark-induced spot in the layer. Even though the spot signature is buried in the large-amplitude random turbulent signal, it was possible to educe the spot signature at three streamwise stations through signal enhancement techniques; these involved relative alignment of individual realizations through a cross-correlation of low-pass filtered signals, rejection of realizations requiring excessive shifts, and phase averaging the aligned realizations. There is no evidence as to whether the spark induces a spot in the boundary layer preceding the nozzle lip which subsequently develops in the shear layer or produces a large pressure pulse which directly induces a disturbance in the shear layer. Finally, it is shown that the spot signature involves the entire mixing layer and that the spot produced turbulence, and it appears that the spot is an elongated vortical structure spanning the shear-layer width.

  8. The rotating spot method of timing subjective events.

    PubMed

    Pockett, Susan; Miller, Arden

    2007-06-01

    The rotating spot method of timing subjective events involves the subject's watching a rotating spot on a computer and reporting the position of the spot at the instant when the subjective event of interest occurs. We conducted an experiment to investigate factors that may impact on the results produced by this method, using the subject's perception of when they made a simple finger movement as the subjective event to be timed. Seven aspects of the rotating spot method were investigated, using a factorial experiment. Four of these aspects altered the physical characteristics of the computer generated spot or clock face and the remaining three altered the instructions given to the participant. We found compelling evidence that one factor, whether the subject was instructed to report the instant when the finger movement was initiated or the instant when it was completed, resulted in a systematic shift in the response. Evidence that three other factors affect the observed variability in the response was also found. In addition, we observed that there are substantial systematic differences in the responses made by different subjects. We discuss the implications of our findings and make recommendations about the optimal way of conducting future experiments using the rotating spot method. Our overall conclusion is that our results strongly validate the rotating spot method of timing at least the studied variety of subjective event. PMID:17049882

  9. Geographic variation and genetic structure in Spotted Owls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haig, Susan M.; Wagner, R.S.; Forsman, E.D.; Mullins, Thomas D.

    2001-01-01

    We examined genetic variation, population structure, and definition of conservation units in Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis). Spotted Owls are mostly non-migratory, long-lived, socially monogamous birds that have decreased population viability due to their occupation of highly-fragmented late successional forests in western North America. To investigate potential effects of habitat fragmentation on population structure, we used random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) to examine genetic variation hierarchically among local breeding areas, subregional groups, regional groups, and subspecies via sampling of 21 breeding areas (276 individuals) among the three subspecies of Spotted Owls. Data from 11 variable bands suggest a significant relationship between geographic distance among local breeding groups and genetic distance (Mantel r = 0.53, P < 0.02) although multi-dimensional scaling of three significant axes did not identify significant grouping at any hierarchical level. Similarly, neighbor-joining clustering of Manhattan distances indicated geographic structure at all levels and identified Mexican Spotted Owls as a distinct clade. RAPD analyses did not clearly differentiate Northern Spotted Owls from California Spotted Owls. Among Northern Spotted Owls, estimates of population differentiation (FST) ranged from 0.27 among breeding areas to 0.11 among regions. Concordantly, within-group agreement values estimated via multi-response permutation procedures of Jaccarda??s distances ranged from 0.22 among local sites to 0.11 among regions. Pairwise comparisons of FST and geographic distance within regions suggested only the Klamath region was in equilibrium with respect to gene flow and genetic drift. Merging nuclear data with recent mitochondrial data provides support for designation of an Evolutionary Significant Unit for Mexican Spotted Owls and two overlapping Management Units for Northern and California Spotted Owls.

  10. Focal spot measurements using a digital flat panel detector

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Amit; Panse, A.; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Rudin, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Focal spot size is one of the crucial factors that affect the image quality of any x-ray imaging system. It is, therefore, important to measure the focal spot size accurately. In the past, pinhole and slit measurements of x-ray focal spots were obtained using direct exposure film. At present, digital detectors are replacing film in medical imaging so that, although focal spot measurements can be made quickly with such detectors, one must be careful to account for the generally poorer spatial resolution of the detector and the limited usable magnification. For this study, the focal spots of a diagnostic x-ray tube were measured with a 10-μm pinhole using a 194-μm pixel flat panel detector (FPD). The two-dimensional MTF, measured with the Noise Response (NR) Method was used for the correction for the detector blurring. The resulting focal spot sizes based on the FWTM (Full Width at Tenth Maxima) were compared with those obtained with a very high resolution detector with 8-μm pixels. This study demonstrates the possible effect of detector blurring on the focal spot size measurements with digital detectors with poor resolution and the improvement obtained by deconvolution. Additionally, using the NR method for measuring the two-dimensional MTF, any non-isotropies in detector resolution can be accurately corrected for, enabling routine measurement of non-isotropic x-ray focal spots. This work presents a simple, accurate and quick quality assurance procedure for measurements of both digital detector properties and x-ray focal spot size and distribution in modern x-ray imaging systems. PMID:25302004